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BY WAYNE .

J, NAUS
B
E
y
0
N
D
BY WAYNE ..J. NAUS
F H
U A
N R
C M
T 0
I N
0 y
N.
A
L
Dedicated to my wife, Mary
1998 AovANCE Musrc
All Rights Reserved.
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Layout and music typesetting: T. M. Zentawer
Production: Hans Gruber
Order No. 11225
Table of Contents
CD INDEX ... . ................................... 7
PREFACE ............................. ' ..... ' ........ 9
INTRODUCTION ................................ 10
FUNCTIONAL VS. NON-FUNCTIONAL 11
ELEMENTS OF PREDICTABILITY 13
FUNCTIONAL FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISrtCS 14
Harmonic ,. 14
Harmonic patterns
Cadences
Deceptive resolution
Line cliches
Harmonic progression
Key areas 20
Harmonic phrase . 21
Harmonic rhythm 22
Rhythmic style 23
Melody 24
Solos 25
NoN-FUNCTIONAL FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS 27
Key areas 27
Established
Implied
Ambiguous
Tonality/Modality
Root Motion 32
Form 36
Bass function 41
Rhythm 42
Poly-rhythm
Odd time meters
Back beat displacement
Melody 43
Harmonic progression 44
.Ainbigi.lous chord types 44
Hybrids
- Conditions
- Voicings
-Anticipation/Sustain
Incomplete chords
Instrumentation 49
5
NoN-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS AND PATTERNS 51
Constant structure 52
Chords
Voicings
Melodic intervals
Sliding
Methods
-Symmetric
-Cycle 4-5
- Sequential
-Random
Pedal point 60
Tonic
Dominant
Double
Rhythmisized
Contiguous harmonic patterns 62
II-V
Constant structure
Interlude
Endings
Modulation
-Direct
-Interlude/Contiguous
Multi-tonic systems : 67
Reharmonization of multi-tonic systems : 69
Chord substitution
Blues
PART4
NoN-FUNCTIONAL TECHNIQUES AND CRITERIA 72
Tone row construction (8-note series) 73
Chord quality criteria 74
Melodic criteria . : : : 76
Chord scale criteria .' 78
Development . . 79
lNTRo/0UTRO PATTERNS ." " 84
NoN-FUNCTIONAL MELODIC APPROACH 92
MELODY-BASS LINE TECHNIQUE . ' 94
NoN-FUNCTIONAL MUSIC EXAMPLES 97
CD Track number 12- "The D.C. Gig" 97
CD Track number 13 - "The Soap Braker 101
CD Track number 14 - "Pas de Deux" 105
DISCOGRAPHY ............................................................. 110
ABouT THE AUTHOR 111
1 Implied key (composer: Wayne Naus)
2 Ambiguous key (composer: Wayne Naus)
3 Back beat displacement (composer: Wayne Naus)
4 Anticipation-sustain (composer: Wayne Naus)
CD Index
5 8-note series example (composer: Wayne Naus; piano: Andrew Sherman)
6 8-note series example/samba (sequence/piano: Russ Hoffman)
7 Intro/Outro pattern 7 I 4 (composer: Wayne Naus)
8 Intro/Outro pattern [hybrid mix] (composer: Wayne Naus)
9 Intro/Outro ambiguous phrase, 3-chord repeated pattern (composer: Wayne Naus)
10 Intro/Outro pattern [melodic function] (composer: Wayne Naus)
11 Melody-bass line technique (composer: Wayne Naus)
12 "The D.C. Gig" (composer/sequence/piano: Ido Waksman; soprano sax: Norikiko
Hibino)
13 "The Soap Braker" (composer/sequence/guitar: Yasuo Nakajima)
14 "Pas de Deux" (composer/piano: AndreJ. Spang -live performance)
1iacks 1-5 and 7-11 are sequenced by Andrew Sherman. Equipment used includes STUDIO
VIsioN PRo., MAciNTOSH 9500, NoRD LEAD, SAMPLE CELL, KuRZWEIL 2500 and K25ooS.
7
NCIIONAL HARMONY
Special Thanks
T
he information in this text was primarily inspired by the contemporary
jazz and fusion group The Yellowjackets. The techniques developed here,
particularly in the Non-functional chapters, are in large part a direct
result of listening to, analyzing and teaching the music of the Yellowjackets at
Berklee College of Music. I would sincerely like to thank Russ Ferrante, William
Kennedy, Jimmy Haslip and Bob Mintzer for their support and encouragement
in helping to bring about the elective course on their music now being taught at
Berklee. Their writing and playing has been an inspiration to me and to the many
students that have taken and will take the "Music of the Yellowjackets" course in
the future.
Also a special thanks to Ido Waksman, Yasuo Nakajima, and Andre J. Spang,
who have allowed me to use their class projects as examples on the CD
accompaning this text; to Andrew Sherman for your creativity and many talents
that went into and made your sequencing so musical; to Harry Maskell for your
photographic artistry; to Matthew and Susan Nicholl for your special comments1
time and encouragement. To Fred Lipsius for hooking me up and Scott
McCormick for your generosity, time and computer wizardry. Special thanks to
Berklee College of Music for providing me with the opportunity to develop and
teach my own course. As always, Berklee continues to provide opportunities for
continued personal growth and development. This text is a result of those oppor-
tunities.
Last, but not least, special thanks to my wife, Mary. This text could not have
been completed without her creative talents, support, patience, hard work and
love.
Preface
I
n 1993 I began developing a harmonic analysis course at Berklee College of
Music focussing mainly on the unique melodic, rhythmic and harmonic
characteristics of the contemporary jazz and fusion group, the Yellowjackets.
In the course, a comparative analysis was also made with other composers such
as Chick Corea, Wayne Shorter, Pat Metheny, Scott Henderson (of Tribal Tech),
Bill Evans, Mike Brecker, and Eddie Gomez. It became apparent that the music
written by these composers shared similar harmonic and melodic characteristics
which made their style unique but much different from traditional standard
tune-style composition. Having come from a more traditional background my-
sel I quickly discovered that the criteria which I used to identify and analyze the
characteristics unique to standard tune composition was inadequate to justify
and analyze the characteristics in tunes written by the aforementioned compos-
ers. Through the process of teaching the Yellowjackets course, a new set of crite-
ria began to emerge which more accurately reflected the characteristics unique to
the music of these composers.
I was happy to observe that when students applied the new set of criteria and
characteristics, their compositions began to sound much like the composer's
music that we were studying. The challenge for students was not so much decid-
ing which techniques to use to create the sound we were after, but rather decid-
ing which techniques to avoid. The techniques and characteristics we needed to
avoid were the ones that were unique to standard tune composition styles. Inher-
ent to these techniques were elements of predictability and expectation - the
same two elements lacking in the contemporary jazz and fusion music that we
were studying in the classroom. By first identifying the elements of predictabili-
ty and expectation inherent to standard and pop tune-style composition, I felt it
would then become obvious that these would be the elements to avoid when
writing in a more contemporary jazz and fusion style. Ideally, the strongest com-
positions were those combining the techniques and characteristics unique to
both standard and contemporary tune styles. For the purpose of the course and
this text, I have adopted the term functional harmony to describe standard and
pop-style tune progression and non-functional harmony to describe contempo-
rary jazz and fusion style harmonic progression. This text will identify the char-
acteristics unique to both functional and non-functional harmonic styles.
Through a complete understanding of both styles, the composer will have the
necessary tools to compose in the style of today's leading composers.
PARTt
9
Introduction
T
his book presents a system that creates melody and harmony and allows
them to function outside of the normal dependencies governing the prin-
ciples of diatonic harmony, melody and form. When correctly applied,
this system should give the composer a departure point from the harmonic and
melodic characteristics grounded in the principles of tonal, key related or func-
tional harmony.
There is nothing new or revolutionary about this text. Everything here has
already been said and used in one way or another by the great composers of the
past and present. However, the principles outlined here are specifically designed
to help examine, analyze and compose music written in the style of many of
today's leading composers of jazz and fusion music. Because this non-functional
system is a somewhat mathematical approach toward musical composition, the
challenge will be to go beyond the system and create a balance between thought
and feeling.
All great art is multi-dimensional, communicating to the senses on many
levels simultaneously. All great art also has one commonality - it touchs the
observer on a level that exists beyond words. Therefore the expression, "There
are no words to describe it," is used many times to describe the indescribable.
Beyond Functional Harmony is a set of techniques that should only serve as a
departure point. The composer's success at transcending the system and touching
the area of art lying beyond the Written symbol depends on the talent and ability
lying within.
This text should be undertaken in the same spirit in which it was written- an
excitement of discovery, an enthusiasm for new ideas, and an ongoing pursuit for
personal growth and development.
Functional vs. Non-Functional
T
he term functional describes chords in a harmonic progression that derive
their function from their relationship to a key center. Harmonic progres-
sion used in the styles of standard and pop tune writing is most often that
of functional harmony. Chords found in a functional harmonic context are
usually diatonic (of or belonging to the key) and key-related (non-diatonic);
these are chords borrowed from other parallel modes. Key-related chords are
often referred to as Modal Interchange chords (M.I.). These two categories, dia-
tonic and key-related chords, certainly do not include every possible chord, but
are the most common types found in a functional harmonic context.
Chords lacking a perceived tonal center or key fall into the category of non-
functional harmony. Harmonic progression used in contemporary jazz and fusi-
on is most often that of non-functional harmony. Chords in a non-functional
context derive their function from established patterns, adjacent chordal rela-
tionships, root motion and from a relationship to the melody. For the purpose of
composing music in a contemporary jazz and fusion style- which is predomi-
nantly non-functional but often a mix of both functional and non-functional
styles - this text will identify and examine the characteristics associated with
first functional, then non-functional harmonic styles.
f.
11
D fuNCTIONAL HARMONY
Elements of Predictability
Functional Fundamental Characteristics
S le
Elements of Predictability
T
here are a number of similar characteristics associated with both standard
and pop composition and performance. A number of expectations are
associated with these characteristics. For example, it is expected that the
dominant chord will resolve down a perfect fifth and that the melodic phrase will
be in two or four bar lengths that will be some variation of ABA. When these
characteristics and their expectations are repeated, not only in one tune but from
one tune to another, an element of predictability is created. Predictability is in
fact a characteristic of standard and pop style music. It is advantagous - but not
essential - that the contemporary composer be aware of the various character-
istics responsible for predictability, since this major quality is inherent to stan-
dard and pop music. Once aware of the characteristics that produce predictability,
the composer will have an easier time writing in a more contemporary style,
whose main characteristic is in fact a lack of predictability and expectation.
FuNCTIONAL FuNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS presents seven concepts that I
feel are most responsible for producing the characteristics and predictabilities
associated with music written in a functional harmonic style.
i.
13
Harmonic

Vl-7
1
c A-7

z
2
7
7
7 7
z 7
~
111-7 V7/ll-
2
E-7 A7
~
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
#IV0 V7/lll- 111-7
3
F#l21 B 7 ~ 9 ) E-7
~
7 7 7 7 7 7
7 2 7 7 7 2
11-7 111-7
4
c D-7 E-7
~
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
7
Functional
Fundamental Characteristics
Chord Patterns
As we have the ability to recognize individual chord types, it is also possible to
recognize chord patterns. Chord patterns are usually a group of three to five
chords that, when grouped together with other patterns, form a chord progres-
sion. Because of the strength of these harmonic groupings, due mainly to root
motion and harmonic rhythm, they are easily recognized as patterns. Composers
have and still do rely on these patterns, which occur in most styles of music
today. Some of the more common patterns are:
11-7 V7jl
D-7 G7 c
7 7 7
/
7 7
z
7
II
7 2 7 2 7 2 7
11-7 V7jl
D-7 G7 c
/
7
7
7
2
/
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
II
V7jll- 11-7 V7
A7 D-7 G7 c
7 7 7
7 7 7
7
7
z
2
7
7
7
2
/
7
7
7
2
II
(V7 /11-) IVA V7
A7 FA G7 c
7
7
:z
2
7
7
7
7
:z
2
7
7
:z
2 /
7
2
7
2
II
IV V7susfl V7fl
s
c F G7sus G7 c

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
II
2 7 I I 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
11-7 V7/l
6
c D-7 G7 c

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
II
I 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 2 2 I 2
11-7 111-7 IVA V7susfl V7/l
7
c D-7 E-7 FA G7sus G7 c

7
7
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
I
;z
2
7
2
;z
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
;z
2
!I
0J7 /IV) Vl-7 subV7 fV7 V7susfl V7fl
8
c A-7 G7sus G7 c

7 7 ;z 7 7 ;z 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
II
2 2 2 2 z 2 2 2 7 2 I 2 2 7 2 2
IV 11-7 V7/l
9
c F D-7 G7 c

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
II
r 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 2
1117 IV IV-7
10
c E7 F F-7 c

7 7 7 7 7
L;
;z 7 7 7 7 7
II
2 2 2 2 2 2 7 I 2 2 2
V7 /Ill A
11
c E7 c

7
2
7
2
7
7
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
,
II
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
v I
1
c G c

7
'Z.
7 7 7 7
2
,
2 2 2 2
IV V7 I
2
F G7 c

7 7 7
,
2 2
'Z. ,
7
7
7
2
11-7 V7/l
3
D-7 G7 c

'Z. , :z ,
7
2
7 7 7
2 I 2
I IV
4
c F c

7
2
7
2
7
2
7
7
7
2
7
2
@)
11-7 subV7 /1 I
5
D-7 c

7
2
7
7
:z ,
7
2
7
2
7
7
@)
N IV-
6
F F- c

,-'
7
2
7
z
7
2
7
2
7
2
@)
16
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
Cadence
Cadential patterns usually consist of two or three chords which have the tenden-
cy to imply a resolution to a tonic I chord or point of harmonic rest. As with har-
monic patterns, cadential patterns also derive their strength from root motion
and harmonic rhythm. Usually occuring at the end of a harmonic phrase, caden-
tial patterns create an expectation of finality. They may either resolve to their
expected target chord or they may resolve deceptively, thereby extending the
progression rather than ending it with a resolution to a tonic chord. The follow-
ing examples are typical cadences to the I chord.
I
7
c
7
I
II

7
2
7
2
7
7
7
2
7
7
7
2
7
7
7
2
II
A
8
c
7
II

7 7 7 7 7 7 7
'Z.
II
2 2 2 I 2 2 2 2
,
IV-7 I
9
F-7 c
7
2
II

7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
:z ,
7
2
II
#IV0 (V7 /111-)
10
F#0 B7 c
7
2
II

7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
7
7
2
7
7
II
A
11
c
7
7
II

7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
II
V7sus V7fl
12
G7sus G7 c
'Z. ,
7
2
II

7
2
7
2
7
z
7 7 7
2 2 2
7
2
:z ,
II
PMtt
Deceptive Resolution
The primary dominant V7 /I has an expected resolution to the I chord. When
V7 /I resolves to any chord other than I, it becomes a deceptive resolution. The
following are typical deceptive resolutions of V7 /1.
11-7 (V7/1) _ Ill
V7/ll- 11-7 V7/l
D-7 G7 E-7 A7 D-7 G7 c

7
I
7
2
7
I
7
2
7
2
;z
L
7
2
7
2
7 7 7 7 ;z 7 7 7
II
,
2 7 2 L 2 2 2
11-7 (V7 /1) Vl-7 V7JII- 11-7 V7/l I
2
D-7 G7 A-7 07 D-7 G7 c

;z 7 7 7 ;z 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
II
L z 2 2 L 2 2 z 2 2 2 7 2 z 2 2
11-7 (V7 /1) A
3
D-7 G7 c

7 7 ;z 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
II
2 2 L 2 2 2 2 2 z 7 z 7
11-7
(V7 /1)

4
D-7 G7 c

7 7 7 ;z 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
II
2 z 7 L 2 2 2 2 2 z 2 2
11-7 (V7 /1) I
s
D-7 G7 c

;z 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 ;z 7
II
L 2 2 2 z 2 7 2 2 2 L 2
11-7 (V7 /1) A
6
D-7 G7 c

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 ;z 7 7 7
II
I 2 2 2 2 z 2 2 L 2 7 2
11-7 (V7 /1)
#IV"' V7 /Ill- 111-7 V7/ll- 11-7
V7/l I
7
D-7 G7 F#fll E-7 A7 D-7 G7 c

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
II
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
17
BEYOND FUNCfiDNAL HARMONY
1- 1-A
1
C- C-A
~
0
1- 1-#5
2
C- C-#5
#o 0
~
I+
3
c c+
~
0
#o
17sus 17
4
C7sus C7
~
...
0
Line Cliches
A line cliche is a single note line that moves by step (up or d o ~ ) through a
series of four or five chords. The distinct sounds of these patterns are easily rec-
ognized. They have been used so often that even the untrained listener quickly
associates specific line cliches With familiar standard tunes. The single moving
line usually begins on the fifthth - or the root - of the first chord in the' cliche.
Tunes most often identified with the use of a line cliche are "My Funny
Valentine," "Angel Eyes," "Israel," "Nice and Easy/' "For Once in My Life,"
"Charade" and "In a Sentimental Mood."
In example 4 below, Wayne Shorter creates a non-typicalline cliche beginning
on the dominant 7sus 4 note. The example can be found in Shorter's tune "When
It Was Now" recorded by Weather Report on the album WEATHER REPORT.
1-7 1-6
C-7 C-6
~ 0

II
1-6 1-#5
C-6 C-#5

#o II
16 I+
C6
(+

#o II
1-7 17
C-7 C7
~ 0 ~ ) o
II
PAKr"t
Harmonic Progression
Harmonic progression may be defined as the forward movement of chords
through time and space. This perception of forward movement is governed by
harmonic rhythm, harmonic phrase, chord patterns and cadential patterns. Melo-
dy and rhythmic pulse are also factors. Harmonic progression is generally longer
in length than harmonic patterns. The typical length of a standard tune progres-
sion is 32 bars with a form of AABA, each harmonic section being eight bars
long. Probably the most common 32-bar progression in standard tune repetoires
is "I've Got Rhythm." Since this progression is constructed entirely of harmonic
patterns and cadential patterns, it is not only considered a strong progression but
a predictable one as well.
In the case of "I've Got Rhythm," the progression is predictable because of the
presence of harmonic patterns, cadential patterns, harmonic phrase and form.
This and other similar types of progression also become predictable through .
repetition. Standard tune progression relies heavily on repetition to reinforce the
melodic line and to create an extended harmonic forum for the soloist. This repe-
tition of the harmonic progression is characteristic of standard tune composition
but used much less in contemporary styles of music.
Chord Pattern Chord Pattern
r------------------------------------,
r------------------------------------,
c A-7 D-7 G7 c A-7 D-7 G7
7 7 7
I
7 7 7 7
2' I 7 I I I 2
7 7 7
I
7 7 7 7
2 2 2 I 2 2 2
L---- -------- ----- -1 L-----------------J
Cadential Pattern Cadential Pattern
Chord Pattern
.-----------------------------,
1.
c C7 F F- D-7 G7 c G7
L--------------1 L-------------J
2 2
'
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 I I 2 2 2 2 2
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Cadential Pattern Cadential Pattern
Extended Dominant Pattern
r--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E7 A7
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 z 2 2 2 2 7 2 2 2 2 2 7 2 2
,
- - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - ,
07 G7
'
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
,
7
2
7
2
7
7
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
7
7
2
7
2
7
2
II
~
Same as first ~ n
c A-7 D-7 G7 c A-7 D-7 G7
'
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 2 2 2 2 7 2 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
c C7 F F- D-7 G7 c
'
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 2 2 2 7 r 2 I
7 7 7 7
2 2 2 2
7
2
:z ,
7
2
7
2
II
8E'IOND FuNCTIONAL HARMONY
Key Areas

Vl-7 11-7
c A-7 D-7


r
r
IF"
11-7 V7/l
D-7 G7

D
r F
E
20
0
--!*
j
In the non-functional section of this text, I break key areas into four categories:
established, implied, ambiguous and poly-tonal modal. However in this section,
we will consider the type of key area most often characteristic of standard and
pop tune composition which is the established key area. A key area is established
through the use of cadential patterns, diatonic .chord pattern, resolution, har-
monic rhythm, melody and repetition. Within an established key area, there is
no question as to what the key center is. Diatonic melody and chords are usually
the two strongest elements which establish a key. The melody alone and the
chords alone should be enough to clearly establish any one given pitch as the key
center or tonic center. When the melody and chords are played together, they
should firmly establish the key center.
Established key area:
(V7 /1) 111-7 V7/ll-
G7 E-7
IT 1r
r
r
F
c
II
II
In a tune with an established key area, there is a sense of predictability and
expectation that the harmony will not modulate or deviate far from the estab-
lished key center.
(
The harmonic phrase results from - and coincides with - the melodic phrase.
Whether the human voice or an instrumentalist produces the melody, they both
share the same fundamental limitation: having to breathe. The necessity to take a
breath naturally produces the melodic phrase and simultaneously the harmonic
phrase. In standard tune writing, the harmonic phrase is most commonly
measured in even numbered bar lengths, 2, 4, 8, 12. The harmonic phrase is also
governed by harmonic rhythm and rhyme. In standard tune and pop style music
the harmonic phrase is something we feel; we derive a sense of predictability
from it.
Harmonic phrase:
c A-7
'(l
7
2
7
2
7
7
7
2
D-7 G7
7 7 7
D-7
7
I
7
'
2 2 7 7
Harmonic phrase supports
and coincides with the melodic phrase:
Phrase 1
c A-7 D-7
7
2
Harmonic Phrase

'

G7 E-7 A7
7
2
7
2
7
7
7 7
I 2
7
2
c
7 7 7 7
II
2 7 2 2
Breath Phrase2
G7 E-7 A7
r
F
IFf F; r 1 r r r r
D-7 G7 c
'

r
r F
E

II
II
j
2:1
BEYOND fuNCTIONAL HARMONY
Harmonic Rhythm

22
Harmonic rhythm is felt; it results from a number of beats a: chord is given with-
in a measure and from the chord's placement in a measure relative to the beat .
Standard tune writing expects a chord to be placed relative to each beat- depend-
ing on the chord's function in the key. Chords within a measur{receive either a
strong or weak stress depending on their placement. The relative strength of
stress often determines or changes the chord's original function in the key.
Stress pattern:
S The first pulse is the strongest
W The second pulse is not as weak as the last
s The third pulse is not as strong as the first
w The last pulse is the weakest
Diatonic functioning chords have one of three functions within a major
key:
T Tonic
SD Subdominant
D Dominant
Tonic chords (1, III, VI) are the most stable due to the. presence of either the root,
third and/ or fifth of the key.
Dominant chords are the most unstable due to the presence of the tritone, which
consists of the fourth and seventh degree of the key.
Subdominant chords have a level of stability in between tonic and dominant
chords due to the presence of the fourth degree of the key but not the seventh.
In standard tune writing, it is stylistically expected that T & SD chord func-
tions be placed on strong stress points while dominant functioning chord types
be placed on weak stress points. Of course there are exceptions to this rule. In the
case of extended dominant, the first dominant chord is placed on a strong stress
(see the bridge of "I've Got Rhythm," Part 1, HARMONIC PROGRESSION p.l9).
Much of the harmonic ambiguity of contemporary tune style stems from a
disregard of the basic harmonic rhythm characteristics of standard tune writing.
Expected placement of chords relative to stress points:
Vl-7 11-7
c A-7 D-7
Correct
'
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
I
s w s
11-7
c D-7
Incorrect
'
7
7
7
7
7
2
7
2
s w
V7/lll- 111-7 V7/ll-
c B7 E-7 A7
Correct
'
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
:z
2
7
2
s w s w
V7/lll- 111-7 V7/ll-
B7 E-7 A7
Incorrect
'
7
2
7
2
7
I
7
2
7
2
s w s
Rhythmic style is usually clearly defined at the outset and remains constant
throughout the tune. The most common rhythmic styles associated with stan-
dard tune writing are swing, bossa-nova, 12/8, ballad and jazz waltz. It is stylisti-
cally common for many standard jazz tunes to change rhythmic style in the
bridge and then return back to the original style to finish the tune form. Poly-
rhythmic combinations are not usually used in standa:rd tunes but are very often
implied for short duration by the rhythm section. Because new rhythms are
being adapted from world music to contemporay music, rhythmic style has
become much more ambiguous, and as a result, harder to define and categorize.
Today, when the drummer asks, "What is the rhythmic style you're l o o k n ~
for?," the composer might reply, "Well sort of a swing, funk, Latin, rock, jazz
shuffle feel."
7
2
V7/l
G7 c
7 7 7 7 7 7
II
2 2 I 2 I 7
w s
V7/l I
G7 c
7 7 7 7
II
2 2 2 2
s w
11-7 V7/l
D-7 G7 c
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
2
7
2
:z
2
7
2
II
s w s
11-7 V7/l I
D-7 G7 c
7 7 7 7 7 7
II
2 2 2 I 2 2
w s w
Rhythmic Style

23
llroND fuNCTIONAL HARMONY
Melody

C6 F-7

F
c:r I
r
T c c
p
T
C6j9

r
bfJ
0
@.)
T T c T
r
r
IF
J
@.) I
A strongiJinelody must have three qualities: it must be singable, be memorable,
and have repetition. We could add a fourth- predictability. Both in pop and stan-
dard tune styles, melody has clearly definable characteristics. The first character-
istic of melody is that it is normally sung or played in standard phrase length of
two, four or eight measures. Second, the phrase or motif is usually repeated. This
repetition can happen on the exact pitch level or on a different pitch level. The
most famous example of this, of course, is Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.
Also characteristic of standard and pop tune melody is its continuous duration
throughout the tune form. However, this is not the case in all contemporary tune
construction. Regardless of style, individual melody notes fall into three catego-
ries:
Chord Tone (C)- Any note that represents part of the chord, 1, 3, 5, 7, etc.
Tension (T) -A note that creates tension with the basic chord sound. Tensions
usually occur a whole or half step above a chord tone. A chord's color can be con-
trolled through a specific tension, i.e., #11 implies a Lydian color. Tensions on
dominant chords can effect the chord's resolution, i.e., minor 13 implies a minor
chord resolution, implies a major chord resolution.
Passing Tone (P) - A note or notes usually found on the "and" of the beat and
connect chord tones and tensions.
Melodic function:
Bb7 C6
r
r
I
r r r

r
T c c
p
c c
p
T c
p

C6/9
I

T T T c
Most standard tune melodies are heard in relation to a key. Playing the melody
without chordal accompaniment almost always suggests a particular key center.
Melody defines key center:
r

II
This is not usually the case in contemporary tune style. Obviously, much more
could be said concerning melody, however, my intention here is to simply iden-
tify the characteristics of predictability associated with standard and pop tune
melodies.
The two most predictable aspects of standard tune soloing are soloing form and
soloing order. The soloist improvises over the same harmonic progression used
for the melody and/ or tune form. This does not usually vary from one soloist to
the other. Each soloist takes his/her turn soloing on the same set of changes.
There is also a tendency for every band member to solo on every tune, often in
the exact order of a previous tune. This type of soloing format does not c:reate
much of a "surprise factor" for the listener and puts most of today's young audi-
ences to sleep.
Solos

Summary
Elements of Predictability
The following summarizes the harmonic, melodic and rhythmic areas covered in
Part I that are responsible for creating the predictabilities and expectations asso-
ciated with music composed in a functional harmonic style.
Harmonic Patterns
Cadences
Deceptive Resolution
Line Cliche
Harmonic Progression
Key Areas
Harmonic Phrase
Harmonic Rhythm
Rhythmic Style
Melody
Soloing
n>ND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Non-Functional
Fundamental Characteristics
I
Non-Functional
Fundamental Characteristics
A
s with standard and pop tunes, contemporary jazz and fusion music have
their own unique characteristics. This chapter will identify and examine
these characteristics that account for a lack of predictability and expecta-
tion synonymous with standard and pop music. These characteristics also pro-
duce non-functional harmonic progression. Since the characteristics of non-
functional progression depend on - and at the same time create a lack of feeling
of- key area, it is important at the outset that the composer be aware of, and for
the most part avoid, the compositional techniques synonymous with functional
progression (i.e., the use of II-V or cycle 5 style root motion). These techniques
demand a shift in compositional approach from writing in a traditional standard
and pop style. Since these non-functional techniques are primarily "sounds"
available to the composer, it might take some time listening to music in this style
before these sounds can be easily accessed by the ear. Composers grounded in a
more traditional style might find their writing gravitates back to traditional,
familiar techniques and characteristics, both on an intellectual and audio level.
The main difference between functional and non-functional music is that the
latter is not about II-V or cycle 5 style This is a difficult style to
break from, especially if a composer has years perfecting it.
The key areas can be divided into four categories:
Established
An established key area is one in which there is no question about the key. A key
area can be established through cadential patterns, diatonic patterns, harmonic
rhythm, melody, chord resolutions and repetition. Standard and pop tunes most
often have an established key area (see KEY AREAS in Part 1, p.20).
Key Areas


...
I

l
J.
&F
J.

r

)
J) I .o

J
>
I
1.
I .o

I
J.
Implied
In implied key areas, chords and melody suggest a key but there is no resolution
to a tonic I chord. This type of area can still feel established but slightly ambig-
uous when compared to the established key area. In the following example, there
is no resolution to the I chord. The entire tune is an example of an implied key
area. What key do you hear implied?
11.2.
A-7
IJ J1 l.o
W. Naus
I

I _o_ I_
J.
J
II
F-7
J

A-7
I
J J.
)
I.
J.
J

)
J
'
I _o> leo II
>-
PAKT2
[ID
F-7 D-7(9)

I<
J
&J

r
I
J. l
j
l
JJ,],o
0

Half-time feel-
A-7 F7 A-7(9) A7Ci)
I .J
J
>- >-
>-,.....--...._ --
rr J
F
r
I
r
p
'F I "
II
0
D.S. alCoda
I
open
G7sus A-7
J.
)
I ,0 I
J J.
J)
l,o
Gpedal ------------------------------------------------------------------------
J
Suggested listening:
"Sightseeing," The Yellowjackets on FouR CoRNERS;
MCA,5994.
"Postcards," The Yellowjackets on FouR CoRNERs;
MCA,5994.
;'Ana Maria," Wayne Shorter on NATIVE DANcER;
Columbia, 33418.
"Toy Tune," Wayne Shorter on ETCETERA;
Blue Note.
"Prayer for El Salvador," The Yellowjackets on THE SPIN;
MCA.
II
Fine
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
41
lA]

&J
m

I
j
F#-7 F7(#11)

,J.
J
I
r

&
e
.J




I r
.J
12.
<q)F
r
--
I r
*
.J

1.
F-A

J.
e
.J
30
Ambiguous
In an ambiguous key area, no particular key area is established. A few chords or
patterns hint of a particular key area but most often resolve deceptively, creating
a constant change in harmonic direction. In the following example, letter A
would be considered an ambiguous key area. Letters B and C can be heard in the
key of C minor. The end of the C section becomes transitional, leading the tune
back to letter A
W. Naus
0-7(9)
w

[J J
A-7
F
e
1-r
r
(#11)
07 9
j
e

,J
I
1.
I

br
I
(q)<
rr #j

-$-
[ID C-6 C-A
J mkr

I
br


2.
0-7(9)
J
I<
J. J
II
e
[Q

I


1.
G-7C9
1
)
II -
tr J

I

Jt]J_
cJ.
J1]


Jt;rJ
=
I rJ rJ
(.'
B7

#o
u.
,Jg,J


(q)J
*
J IJ
iJ
...........
-
Suggested listening:
"The Necessary Blond," Tribal. Tech on PRIMAL TRACKs;
Blue Moon R279156.
"Galileo," The Yellowjackets on Pourrcs;
MCA6236.
"Indigo," The Yellowjackets on FouR CoRNERs;
MCA5994.
"The Hornet/' The Yellowjackets on YELLOWJACKETS;
W.B. 3573-2.
"Infant Eye," Wayne Shorter on SPEAK No EVIL;
Blue Note 46509.
"Pinocchio," Wayne Shorter on MR. GoNE;
Columbia 35358.
"Toy Tune," Wayne Shorter on ETCETERA; Blue Note.
People," The Yellowjackets on GREENHousE; GRP.
PAKT2


I


I



I
I (q)J. p
,...-----...
-
tr

r r

I u>r
,)g,J,
I<
J ,J
J


I J.
*

#J

u.
*


(.\.
II D.C. al Coda
II

Fine
31
YOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Root Motion

Tonality /Modality
Although more of a hypothetical possibility, tonality/modality occurs when the
melody implies one key, or mode, and the chords imply another key or mode. The
following melodic/harmonic combinations are possible:
D Ionian & C Ionian= polytonal-unimodal
D Phrygian & C Ionian =
C Phrygian & C Dorian= polymodal-unitonal
C Ionian & C Ionian= unitonal-unimodal
In standard tune writing, chord progression and, therefore root motion, is most
often down a fifth or in a cycle 5 movement. This movement creates progression
. with strong forward motion that at the same tiine feels extremely grounded into
a key area. This type of progression and root motion also has a high degree of
predictability due to the implied resolution of the II-V and other standard caden-
tial patterns. One of the main differences in contemporary versus standard tune
writing is that the contemporary style most often does not contain cycle 5 root
motion. As the root motion gets smaller, the progression takes on a lighter feel.
The grounded feeling established in cycle 5 root motion is replaced with a float-
ing feel, especially when the key area is ambiguous. This technique is especially
common in contemporary style writing. Root motion can be seen in the follow-
ing ways:
Down perfect fourth
Up or down a major third (symmetric)
Up or down a minor third (symmetric)
Augmented fourth
Descending by step (inversion)
Ascending by step (inversion)
Root motion which ascends or descends by stepwise motion (half or whole) is
most frequently created through the use of inversions and disminished chord
The following examples demonstrate root motion ascending and
descending by step.
Recommended listening:
WALTZ FOR DAVE, Chick Corea
THE LooP, Chick Corea
THE ONE STEP, Chick Corea
ETERNAL CmLD, Chick Corea
ELEGANT PEOPLE, Wayne Shorter
THE THREE MARIAs, Wayne Shorter
A REMARK You MADE, josef Zawinul
LIKE A RIVER, The Yellowjackets
Listen to # II
Ascending and descending root motion by step:
IVA #1Vo7 1/Sth #V07 Vl-7 If 5th #1Vo7
Bo7
F/C C#07 D-7
F/C
Bo7

7 7 7 7 7 7
:z
7
:z
7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 2 2 2 7 2
,
7
,
7 2 2 2 I 2 2
IVA IV-7 Ill- V7/ll- 11-7 V7 j3rd
A- D/F# G-7/F C7/E F

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
:z
7 7
ll
2 2 2 2 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
,
2 2
lj3rd IV
V7/V If 5th
#V07 VI- V7jVI-
3
C/E D7/F# CJG G#07 F A- E7/B

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I 2 2 2
Vl-7 /3rd V7/V ,,, 11-7 V7 /3rd
A-7/C D7 D-7 G7/B c

:z :z
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
!I
, ,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 z
V7 #V07 Vl-7
Vll-7
#IV !II IV- 1Aj3rd 07 11-7 subV7/V
4
C7 C#
0
7 D-7 D-7/C
B!ll FA/A
G-7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
/
7
:z
7 7 7
:z
7 7 7 7 7

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
,
2 2 2
,
2 2 2 2 2
11-7 V7/lll- Ill- IV #1Vo7
5
G A-7 F#/A#
B- c C#07

:z
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I
1/Sth #V07 Vl-7 V7/V 11-7
V7/l
GJD D#07 E-7 A7 A-7 D7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
33
BEYOND FUNCfiONAL HARMONY
V7jVI- Vl-7 If 5th IV lj3rd
s
E7/B A-7 C/G F C/E c

7 7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 2
,
2 I 2 2 2 2 2 2 7
V7/V
11-7 V7 /5th
07 D-7 G/D c

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

7 7
II
2 2 2 2 2 I 2 2 2
,
I 7
IA/9th V7/VI
IVA Vl-7 Vl-7 Vl-7
6
G7 Ao7 C-7 Bo7 C-7 C-7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 2 2 2 2
7
2 2 7
subV7 /Ill- 111-7 111-7
Contiguous
I
.-----------------------------,
A"
G-7 G-7/F E"
F-7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
II
7 2 2 2 2 2 7 z 2 7 7 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7
Non-functional . .
.------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7
A7 A7/G 0-/F A7/E F/C E7/B

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 2 z 2 2 2
-------------------------------. 1Aj3rd IV- V7sus V7/l
A7 G-7 FA/A C7sus C7 F

10
r r
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

II
2 2 z 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 2 2 2 2
,. ,
8
Non-functional
r------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0-/F A7 /E G/0 G-/0 A7 /C#

,
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
2 2 2 2 2 2 7 2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------.
7 7
A7 0-
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

2 2 2 2
,
2 7 2
G/B
2
34
Root motion by step is often used as an effective reharmonization technique. The
following four examples demonstrate root motion by step as a reharmonization
redmique.
Original Fd A7 D-7
Reharm. Fd
D-7 I F/C
Original F-7
I I l"""'l
@) I
Reharm.
G7/D I C-7 C-7 F/A
I I
@)
Original Fd
Reharm.
F C/E :
Original F6
'
@)

..,_
..

Reharm.
F6 C/E D-7 C7
F/A G-7 F7
'
@)
PAKT2

etc.
I G/B etc.
G-7 C7 F-
etc.
G-7 I F- etc.
etc.
etc.

etc.
1'-.J'

etc.
35
Form

Examplel
Intro 1
'
Solo 1 Interlude
'
Example2
Intro
'
Solo [9
'
In contemporary and fusion style writing, the objective of form is not repeating
something the listener has heard, but taking the listener into an area which is
new, creating an ever-changing harmonic, melodic and rhythmic landscape. This
approach to form is different and much more challenging than the standard
AABA tune form concept. It requires that the composer link areas of the compo-
sition together with interludes, new harmonic material and various melodic ideas
rather than rely on repetition to hold the form intact. Repetition is used in con-
temporary and fusion music, however, it is not a primary technique of the stan-
dard AABA tune format. In contemporary tune form, the introduction is used
many times in the form as an interlude or outro section. It is also common to use
the chord changes from the introduction for the solo changes. An interlude com-
monly separates the soloist. This interlude can be material from a previous sec-
tion of the form, on cue, or new material specifically written as an interlude to
end the first soloist and begin the next. When the solos have ended, a new section
of the form should be written to serve as a final statement before returning to
the melody or proceeding to the outro. Occurring approximately 3/4 of the way
into the form, this section is most often the peak or climatic point of the entire
composition.
The following are 20 typical form layouts characteristic of contemporary jazz
and fusion music. Sections designated Al, A2, A3, etc. are repeated sections with
slight variations in length, melody/harmony relationships and melodic content.
Intro2 [A] Interlude
Solo 2 [ID Outro
II
1M]

[ID
1M]

Outro
II
PARr:
Example3
Intro [M]

Interlude

Solo 00]

Outro

II
Example4
Intro [A] 00]

..>
Solo [Q Outro

!I
ExampleS
Intro 1 Intro 2 [M]

Interlude

00] Solo Interlude

Outro

!I
Example6
Intro [M]

Interlude
00]

00]
Solo 00]
Outro

II
37
BEYOND FUNCflONAL HARMONY
Example?
Intro [M]

[ill Solo 1

Solo2 Interlude [M]

[ill

II
ExampleS
[A] Solo [ill [Q

Solo
lm
Outro

II
Example9
lntro [M]

[ill
1M
[Q


Solo Interlude
M
[A] Outro

II
ExamplelO
Intro [M]

[ill Solo

[ill [Q Solo Outro
II

Example 11
Intro [A] [A]
[ID
liD

[Q [Q]
Solo
[Q
Outro

ll
Example 12
Intro [A] [A]
[ID

Solo 1 Solo 2
[Q [ID (Outro)

11
Example 13
Intro 1 Intro 2
Solo
Interlude Solo Outro
!I
Example 14
Intro

[;g
[ID [Q [Q

Solo 1 Solo 2 Interlude [Q] Outro

il
39
BE'I'OND FuNcnONAL HARMONY
Example 15
Intro

[;g
00]

@)
1M
Solo Interlude Outro
*
II
Example 16
Intro 1 Intro 2
Intro 3
[A]
* Interlude Solo [A] Outro
*
II
Example 17
Intro

[;g
00]
* Solo Interlude Solo
1M
*
II
Example 18
Intro [A] 00]
[A]
* Solo [A] Solo Outro
'
II
Example 19
[A]
[ID [Q

rnJ
[!] Solo

Example20
Intro
1M
[ID

[Q] Solo
[Q (Interlude)

For many years, the bass' function was primarily to keep time. As the technique
of bass players evolved, the function expanded to include soloing. In contempo-
rary fusion and jazz, the instrument is also a melodic voice. It is common to see
the bass in harmony or unison with guitar, sax or synth, playing melody or a
counter-melodic line. Contemporary use of the bass as a time keeper relies more
on the use of space rather than on a constant and even note pulse that is charac-
teristic of standard jazz styles. With the advent of sound-enhancement equip-
ment, bass players have the ability to fine-tune their sound, making it more per-
sonalized and recognizable to that particular player.
I would like to add a personal note here concerning a trend associated with
many young up-and-coming bass players. Because of "monster" technique and
bass players such as Jaco, there is a tendency to approach the bass as if it was a
guitar. If these young players could eliminate the bottom two strings they would
because they rarely use them. Always remember there is a reason why they call
it the bass. A little more bottom please!
PART2
Solo [Q]
[Q] (Outro)
ll
[Q

Solo Outro
il
nction

BEYOND fuNCTIONAL HARMONY
Rhythm

E-7/A
,!l. /
7
2
7
z
7
2
7
z
Poly-rhythm
Contemporary fusion andjazz often utilizes many poly-rhythma, the technique
that allows the listener to perceive the time on more than one level. It is not
uncommon to have two or more time levels simultaneously, thereby creating an
ambiguous time feel. Most often this poly-rhythmic time feel is attained
through a 12/8 or 6/8 time signature.
Recommended listening:
"Sightseeing," The Yellowjackets on FouR CoRNERS;
MCA5994.
"Avance," The Yellowjackets on PoLrrrcs;
MCA6236.
Odd Time Meters
It is common in contemporary writing to see tunes written with odd time signa-
tures. "Odd" means time signatures other than 4/4. In the 1960s, one of the first
American composers to extensively explore the possibilities of odd time meters
was Don Ellis. A good example is the tune "33-222-1-222" on LIVE AT MoNTEREY,
Pacific Jazz ST20112. In the 1990s, the English pop vocalist Sting, with drummer
Vinnie Colaiuta, uses odd time signatures very effectively in many of his tunes.
Recommended listening:
Cuts 2 and 4 from MERCURY FALLING, by Sting, A&M; and
Cuts 2, 5, 6, 7 and 10 from TEN SuMMONER'S TALES, by Sting, A&M.
Back Beat Displacement
The idea is to make beat #1 of the measure ambiguous to the listener. This is
achieved by anticipating or delaying the back beat accents of two and four. The
metric duration of the anticipation or delay is usually that of a 16th note.
W. ivaus
G-7/C
7
2
7
2
7
7
7 7 7 7 7
2
7 7 7
2
In fusion and contemporary jazz, melody is less singable and therefore less
memorable than in standard jazz and pop styles. This is mainly due to the fact
that fusion music is primarily instrumental (as opposed to vocal). Since instru-
mentalists are not confined to the same range and intervalic limitations of most
vocalists, melodies have expanded in range and intervalic flexibilities to accom-
modate their technical abilities. In addition, in contemporary jazz and fusion, the
melodic phrase does not always coincide with the beginning and end of the har-
monic phrase, although it usually does in pop and standard jazz styles. The
melodic phrase often begins one or two measures after the beginning of the har-
monic phrase. This type of melodic treatment creates melodic holes and spaces in
contemporary tune writing which are usually filled by rhythm section groove or
by a melodic counter-line.
Unlike bebop melodies, which are characteristically eight-note oriented, con-
temporary jazz and fusion melodies are more often long, sustained notes which
are held throughtout a changing harmonic area. This produces a change in
melodic function which can be felt each time the chord changes.
In the following example the melody note "G" changes function with each
new chord change.
A-7
j..
J)
I ,o
I
j ..
7 13
D7sus

j..
)!
I ,o
I
J. l
11 4 3
Text examples:
(Part 4, NoN-FUNCTIONAL TECHNIQUES AND CRITERIA, Ex. T16 p.80).
In this example the melody note "BV in bar 12 changes from a tension 13 func-
tion on the chord to a chord tone function on the G- chord. In measure 15,
the melody note "C" changes function from a tension 11 on the G- to a tension 9
on the
(Part 4, INTRo/0UTRO PATTERNS p.84).
Recommended listening:
"One Voice," The Yellowjackets, Pouncs; MCA 6236
"Sightseeing," The Yellowjackets, FouR CoRNERS; MCA 5994
"Geraldine," The Yellowjackets, FINE WINE; CRP 9667
"Man Facing North," The Yellowjackets, LIKE A RIVER; GRP 9689
"Greenhouse," The Yellowjackets, GREENHOUSE; GRP 9630
"Invisible People," The Yellowjackets, GREENHOUSE; GRP 9630
Melody

Cil
)!
I ,0
5
E-7
J
I ,0
J
'

43
~ O FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Harmonic Progression

Ambiguous Chord Types

The main difference between contemporary jazz and standard tune
harmonic progression is that the former lacks the expectations,
predictabilities and forward motion characteristic of standard tune
harmonic progression. The sensation of forward motion is lessened
because of the smaller intervalic distance between one chord to
another. This produces a "floaty" feeling rather than a strong for-
ward movement characteristic of standard tune harmonic progres-
sion. With lack of sustained key areas, expectations and predictabil-
Itles are drastically decreased. Contemporary harmonic
progression moves freely in and out of different key areas. These
key areas can be either established, implied or ambiguous, most
often the latter. Another important characteristic in contemporary
harmonic progression is the frequent disregard for the traditional
principles of harmonic rhythm and form mentioned in FUNCTION-
AL FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS. When these characteristics are
combined with ambiguous chord qualities, harmonic progression
takes on more of the non-functional characteristics synonymous
with contemporary and fusion music.
A chord becomes ambiguous when its quality (major, minor, domi-
nant, etc.) becomes disguised or difficult to determine. Hybrids and
incomplete chords create this ambiguity.
Hybrids
A hybrid does not contain a major or minor third above its root. In
a way, they are similar to ?sus chords. There are a few conditions
needed to create hybrid chords;
Conditions:
No major or minor third above the root of the chord.
The melody note should function as 1, 3, 5 or 7 of the upper
structure.
The root of the chord should not appear in the upper structure.
The upper structure's notes should come from the chord scale,
which is determined by the function of the chord.
The chords in the following five-bar example are analyzed to
determine their function and resulting chord scale. Once the chord
scale is determined, the chords can then be converted into hybrids
by applying the above conditions 1-4. Once the specific hybrids
have been chosen, the progression can be voice-led.
PART2
Ballad
A7alt. D-7 C-7
4P
B
r
J
I
r
J
I
j j
I
j
&J

!I
ILl
(Lydian)
Analysis chord scale:

&o
h
0
!I
&-u-
0
0
()
-o-
V7 /Ill-
A7alt. (Altered)

II
&o
0
-o-
&-u-
-o-
#-o-
111-7
D-7 (Dorian)

0
II
0
II

0
0
0
subV7 /11-
(Lydian

&
&o
lz t
&o
II
&o
&o
0
11-7
C-7 (Dorian)

&o
II
II
&o
0
-o-
0
V7/l
(Mixolydian

&o
0
bn
0
II
&o

()
I
(Ionian)

&o
II
&o
0
&-u-
-o-
0
45
BEYOND fUNCTIONAL HARMONY

II I I I
(
.
.

-e-
.
.
Voicing - to increase the ambiguity of hybrid chords voicings, the intervals of a
fourth and fifth are preferable. The interval of the fourth does not suggest a
major or minor quality and creates a more open - and therefore ambiguous -
harmonic space and structure. Voice leading should be as smooth as possible
between voices. Spacing between each voice should be balanced.
Hybrid voicings:
A-/D
I
-
.. - 'U' 'U'
0 n ell
I 'J
Anticipation/sustain- this technique is primariliused to end an introduction,
melody or solo section of a tune. The idea is to melodically and harmonically
anticipate beat #1 by placement on beat #3 or #4 of the previous measure, fol-
lowed by a rhythmic suspension of the time. During the time suspension, the
form is many times extended by one or two bars, creating an odd form length of
usually 9, 10 or 11 measures. The time then resumes at the beginning of the next
phrase or tune section.
Recommended listening:
"Pass It On," The Yellowjackets, MIRAGE A TROis;
Warner Brothers 923813-2.
PA!rr2
Anticipation/Sustain
W. Naus
D-7 E-7 D-7 E-7
II
-
t)

.,'-"u.
,u

,.--..._

.
.
.
I
r I
I
r I
D-7 E-7 D-7 E-7 F-7
l'l
(
I
I
t)
Jli
-----=.
v

<
,.-.....

--- ....... '
-
.......
(
. I
. .
I
I
I
r
I
r
I
Fme
[ill G-7
J I J J J J J I r
E-7 C-7(9)
J J
3
1 r
F-7(9)
l'f' &f]J I


I

r
F-7(9) /F
II
-
I
t) I
v-

,... pv

-
)
I
-
- :o :o
.
.
.__u.
,u
D.C. al Fine
47
BEYOND FuNCTIONAL HARMONY
CA (no 3rd)
CA(#11) (no 3rd)
C7 (no 3rd)
CA(no 5th)
II;
Incomplete Chords
In incomplete chords, either the third or the fifth of the chord is ommitted. Since
the third ofa chord defines the chord quality (major or minor), the chord quality
will become ambiguous when the third is ommitted, creating a sound similar to
the hybrid chord technique. When the third of a chord is omitted, the chord- and
therefore chord symbol - should no longer reflect a major or minor quality.
Chord symbols that represent chords with the third omitted should only indicate
the specific intervals occurring above the chord's root; therefore, use parentheses
around specific tensions and sevenths. The chord's fifth is implied to be natural
unless indicated as altered (sharp or flat). Incomplete chords create a specific
chord color and may be used along with any other chord quality within the con-
text of a progression.
Incomplete major chords:
CA(9) (no 3rd) CA(9) (no 5th)
II u
II
CA(#11)(no 5th)
(
#11)
CA 9 (no 3rd)
(
#11)
CA 9 (no 5th)
II
Incomplete minor chords:
C-7 (no 5th) C-7(9) (no 5th)
I I ~ ~ II ~ i n
When tensions are added to incomplete chords, the resulting chord sound might
lrmore accurately represented by a totally different symbol.
(no 3rd) or
II
C-7(11) (no 3rd) =voicing in 4ths
6 -Croot
g
II
C7(11 )(no 3rd) =C7sus
II
C7(9)(no3rd) = G-11 orG-/C
II
Obviously, instrumentation will vary from group to group. Whatever the instru-
mentation happens to be, it is essential that each instrument be given an equal
voice both in a melodic and solo context. It is no longer necessary to limit an
instrumentalist to a function characteristic of traditional instrumental style. I am
speaking specifically of the role of the bass in a contemporary jazz or fusion set-
ting. With the use of synthesized and processed sound equipment found in
fusion music, special attention must be given to instrumental balance and tex-
ture. Transparency, one of the most common textural sounds between guitar,
bass, synth and horns, is usually achieved through the use of unison or octave
unison writing. Obviously, to create the effect of transparency, intonation must
be flawless. Personal sound processing and development must first be worked out
individually before it can be balanced into what will eventually emerge as an
identifiable group sound or voice.
PAKr2
Instrumentation

49
BEYoND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Non-Functional
Systems and Patterns
Constant Structure
Pedal Point
Contiguous Patterns
Multi-Tonic Systems
Reharmonisation of
Multi-Tonic Systems
Non-Functional
Systems and Patterns
A
s stated in the Introduction, non-functional harmony is harmonic pro-
gression that does not relate to or derive its function from a key area. As
in functional harmony, it is also possible to identify specific groupings
or harmonic patterns in non-functional harmony. Because these patterns are
easily identifiable, they have specific labels. Three non-functional harmonic pat-
terns will be considered in this section: constant structure, contiguous and tonic
systems. Since pedal point is a technique which often accompanies constant
structure, it will be included in this chapter.
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Constant Structure

CA DA
'
Major7ths
7 7 7
I 2 I
C7sus
'
7sus
7 7 7
I 2 2
C-7
Minor 7ths
'
7
2
7
2
7
7
c F
'
Triads
7 7 7
I 2 2
C7(#9) D7(#9)
Dominant
'
7
I
7
2
7
2
C-A
Minor-Major
'
7
7
:z
2
:z
2
52
Constant structure refers to three or more of the same chord types, voicings, or
:melodic intervals used consecutively .
Chords
When referring to constant structure chord types, absolutely any chord type
could be considered for consecutive use. The more commonly used chord types
are major and minor triads, sixth and seventh chords. Other common possibil-
ities include augmented major and 7sus chord types. Pedal point may be used
with all constant structure examples.
FA
etc.
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
II

etc.
7 7 7 7 7
II
2
7
2
7
2
7
,
7
,
2 7 7 2
D-7 F-7
etc.
7
2
:z
2
7
, :z
2
II
D A
etc.
7 7 7 7
II
I 2 2 7
B7(#9)
etc.
7 7 7 7
II
I I I 2
C-A
etc.
7 7 7 7
II
2 2 2 I
Recommended listening:
"Eye of the Beholder," Chick Corea and the Electric Band; GRP 1053.
"The Hornet," The Yellowjackets, YELLOWJACKETs; W.B. 3573-2.
Voicings
The same applies with constant structure voicings: any type of voicing could be
considered for consecutive use. The most commonly used voicings in contempo-
rary compositions are voicings in fourths or inversions of voicings in fourths.
Three-note voicing:
C7sus 1st inversion
Four-note voicing:
C7sus 1st inversion 2nd inversion
Root position
Recommended listening:
"Peresina," McCoy Tyner, ExPANSIONs; Liberty APBL2310.
"The Hornet," The Yellowjackets, YELLOWJACKETS; Warner Brothers 3573-2
2nd inversion
II
3rd inversion
!I
53
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
4ths
6ths
3rds

ue-
54
Melodic Intervals
When working with two horns or voices, it is common to harmonize the two
voices in constant structure intervals, in addition to creating constant structure
chords and voicings. Any interval could be considered as a constant structure
interval between two voices, seconds, thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths or sevenths.
The interval of the fourth is most commonly used in contemporary jazz writing.
Melodic intervals:
II
II
II
Voicings in fourths work well in modal context (D Dorian):
II
Melody voiced with constant structure voicings in fourths (D Dorian):
II
Sliding
Sliding occurs when voicings, usually in fourths, move up or down by step (half
or whole) over a pedal or open voicings in fourths or fifths. The following exam-
ple is in a D minor area. The voicings begin to slide and non-diatonic pitchs are
created, forcing the tonality in and out of D-. The D minor area is reestablished
each time the root, fifth, root voicing is played in the bass clef with the left hand.
It is in the relationship of the left hand voicing that the right hand voicings in
fourths are actually sliding against. This style of playing was extensively devel-
oped by pianist McCoy Tyner.
I >- >-
(
>-
t.J -j .. II
>- L
I
.
.
>-
..
/
I. 1,.
-u- -u-
PAIITJ

I
----------------------------------- -----------
Recommended listening:
"Passion Dance" by McCoy Tyner, THE REAL McCoY;
Blue Note BLP 4264.
55




-a-

&o
0


-a-
0
0
#n
Methods
There are four systematic methods for constructing constant structure chord
patterns:
Symmetric constant structureis derived by dividing the octave into equal inter-
vallic divisions. This concept will be explored further in Part 3, ToNic SYSTEMS.
There are five possible equal divisions of the octave: augmented fourth, major
third, minor third, whole step and half step. By assigning a constant structure
chord type to each intervallic division, the following examples are possible.
The octave divided in minor thirds:


II
II
The octave divided in major thirds:


II
The octave divided in whole steps:
GilA
lo
#n
II
II
PART3
These chords can be used in any order.
AI!.
Minor3rds


II
EA API!.
3rds

0

II
DA F#A A #A EA G#A
Whole tone

#
II
o
II #n
0
0
Pedal point can also be added to any pattern.
AI!.
.fo..
Minor3rds
Tonic pedal
EA CA
II
Major3rds
Dominant pedal
DA F#A A#!!. CA
'
Whole tone
Tonic pedal
57
CA FA



@.) -0-
Dominant pedal

bll
Cycle 4-5 - moving through the cycle of fifths will produce all twelve key pos-
sibilities. Howeve:r; for constant structure purposes, it is only necessary to move
halfway through the cycle. Beginning on C, which will be designated as a I chord,
and assigning major seventh chord qualities to each chord, this method will pro-
duce five chords which can be heard and function in relation to C. In a functional
context, these would be considered modal interchange chords and function as
key-related (non-diatonic). However, in a constant structure context, the estab-
lished pattern predominates and therefore chords are heard in a non-functional
context.



II
By changing the order and adding pedal point, a variety of combinations are
possible.
Sequential - moving by specific intervallic combinations from a given starting
point and repeating those intervallic combinations produces sequential patterns.
It is possible with this process to either move simply through the octave or
through the entire cycle of fifths.
~
&o
Assign chord qualities - add pedal:
.
.
t ~ 3
CA
Dominant pedal
Random - Because the ear perceives order out of constant structure patterns,
even a random relation of chords can be perceived as being derived from a
methodological process. This method works best but with pedal point.
CA
"
Dominant pedal
Suggested listening:
"I'll Be Around," Chaka Khan, C. K.; Warner Brothers W1-25707
"Perisena," McCoy Tyner, ExPANSIONs; Applause 2310
"The One Step," Chick Corea, FRIENDs; Polydor 2391366
"Eye of the Beholder," Chick Corea, EYE OF THE BEHOLDER; GRP 1053
AA
etc..

II
t ~ 3
EA DA FA
GA
59
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Pedal Point

Intro
B ~ A-7
'
.)
\
t.l
I ~
>-
l_
.
.
"'\ >-
Intro
A-7
II
.)
. .
.
t.l
I ~
(
.
. .
.
"' ;:_
~
6o
I
..
Pedal point refers to the sustaining effect produced by the pedals on an organ.
Because of the organ, pedal point traditionally occurred on the bottom of the
harmonic structure. However, pedal point can also occur on the middle or top. It
is also possible to have double pedal point- two pedals occurring simultaneously.
Double pedal point most often involves a soprano note sustained by a single
stringed instrument (i.e., violin) over the harmonic and melodic structure while
a bass pedal is sustained simultaneously below the harmonic and melodic struc-
ture. Theoretically, any note could be used as a possible pedal. However; the most
common are tonic and dominant. Tonic pedal is the one of the key, dominant
pedal is the five of the key. Pedal point usually creates a feeling of suspension or
instability. Therefore, it is exceptionally effective when used in introductions,
interludes and endings.
Tonic Pedal
[AJC
"
. .
I ~
>- I >-
.. .
>- (
Recommended listening:
"Evening Dance," The Yellowjackets, Pouncs; MCA 6236.
Dominant Pedal
\
.
.
I ~
;;.:
~
(
Recommended listening:
"One Family;" The Yellowjackets, SHADES; MCA 5752.
Double Pedal
Fil
Intro n,
II
.) -
(
.
@)
I
(
.
. .
.
',
. Recommended listening:
"Pass It On," The Yellowjackets, MIRAGE A TROIS;
Warner Brothers 9-23813-2.
Rhythmized Pedal
-
I I

Traditional pedal point employs a single sustained note. Rhythmized pedal point
is a single note occurring in a specific rhythmic pattern usually over one or two
measures. The rhythmized pedal results from a single rhythmic pattern in
octaves. Otherwise, too many notes in the rhythmic pattern will result in an osti-
natq pattern rather than a rhythmized pedal.
Intro Fil
II
)
'
.. ..
@)
I I
,...-ot
I
.
. . .
. . .
',
Recommended listening:
"Moon Rays," Horace Silver, FuRTHER ExPLORATIONS; Blue Note 724385658327.
c
[A]
\.
.
I
I
I
.
I
.
I
r
[AJ Fil
\.
.
.
. .
. .
r
'-JI
6:r.
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Contig

D-7 G7
Half step
I
D-7 G7
Whole step
*
J
j
I
D-7 G7
Minor 3rds
*
J
j
I
62
The term contiguous, which means "next to," is applied to harmonic pat-
terns which create ascending harmonic resolution. In functional harmonic
progression, the feeling of resolution is primarily one of a downward move-
ment. This is due to the resolution of the dominant chord down a perfect
fifth preceded by its related II-7 chord which in turn produces II-V or cycle
(5) style progression. A number of ascending II-V patterns constitute con-
tiguous harmony. These patterns involve a deceptive resolution of the domi-
nant chord, which results in an ambiguous harmonic area. This ambiguity
creates a feeling of transition from one point to another, therefore making
the contiguous technique especially effective in interludes, endings and
modulation.
Contiguous 1/-V Patterns
E-7 A7
etc.
J

I #J
J
II
E-7 A7 B7
etc.
#j
J
I
,J
#j II
F-7
etc.
J
J I
&J
II
Contiguous Constant Structure
These intervallic relationships may also apply to any single or constant structure
ascending chord types.
C7 D7

etc.
Half steps:

I
J
j
"
A
j H
Cil Dil

etc.
B
j

I
J
j !I
II
C-7 C#-7 D-7 D#-7
etc.
c

j
#j
IJ
j
!I
C7 D7 E7 F#7

etc.
Whole steps: A
j
J
I #J
,J
II
Cil Dil ELl F#il

etc.
B
j
J
I #j
,J
II
C-7 D-7 E-7 F#-7
etc.
c

j
J
I #j
,J
II
C7 A7

etc.
Minor 3rds:
A
j
j I bj
r
II
Cil Ail

etc.
B
j
j
I
&J
r
II
C-7 A-7

etc.
c
j
j
I
bj
r
II
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Any tune in D major:
r
Interlude
r---3---,
E-7
&J J 1
------------------,
A7
[A] Dd
II ..
t
Contiguous Interlude
The interlude is usually four to eight measures long and connects or bridges two
sections of the form. While the introduction of a tune is also effective as an inter-
lude, new material can also be introduced to create the interlude. It is common
for composers to use motivic material from the tune in the interlude. This helps
to provide melodic direction and cohesiveness through the duration of the inter-
lude. In the following example, the interlude is preceded by the last three meas-
ures of the tune form which serves as a send off or an extension of the form
before beginning the solo section.
D-7 G7 D-7 G7
j
qJ
0 0
II
r---3--.._,
F-7
,----3----,
E-7
J J J I J
J qJ I (#)J.
To solos
Contiguous Endings
Created through deceptive resolutions, contiguous patterns are especially effec-
tive in endings where the need to create the feel of "ending" is imminent. In the
following example, the end of the tune form is extended and an ending is created
with II-V patterns. The patterns can resolve up a half or whole step and then back
down, thereby delaying the expected resolution to the I chord.
Any tune in D minor:
D- D7
e
J
J
J
J
I
J. J


-
G-7 C7
I
@) I I

I I
I I
I I
A-7 D7
I
G-7 C7
I

I I
fl
I I
@)
I
I
I.....
-
Modulation-Direct
There are a variety of different techniques available for modulation. One of
them, direct modulation, is used when the harmonic shift to the new key needs
to be dramatic. This is most effectively achieved by simply preceeding the new
key with its dominant chord or dominant and related Il-7 chord.
Any tune in C major:
11-7
D-7
Any tune in major

.. ....---
J
I
(V7 /1)
G7
J
&J
tr
m:V7/I

gJ
r


,----3---,
r
r
F

G-7 C7
I
r
J
F6
I
I
I
I
F6
'I
I
tr
r
II

(tJJo
II
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Any tune in G major:
A-7
..



-
r
Interlude - Contiguous Modulation
Unlike direct modulation, using contiguous harmonic patterns to modulate
create an ambiguous area first, prior to the key change. Also unlike direct mod-
ulation, there is no expectation of the new key, easy to manipulate the contigu-
ous pattern into any desired key. This modulation involves eliminating the last
two bars of the tune that you are coming from, thereby actually shortening the
original form length by two or four measures. In this example, the dominant
chord D7 resolves deceptively and an interlude composed of ascending 11-V pat-
terns eventually makes its way to the new key of m. A two-bar melodic motif
helps to give the interlude forward direction and cohesiveness.
Interlude - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
D7 A-7 D7

II
r
D
r
>
It
r
r
B-7 E7
pu (j)o -
I
r
I r

r
Any tune in C major
---------------------------------------------------,
D-7 G7 CA

r-

-
r rr r
r

0
Suggested listening:
"Arietas," Freddie Hubbard, READY FOR FREDDIE; Blue Note
66
Although the multi-tonic system is basically a functional harmonic technique,
its unique construction sets it apart from traditional functional harmonic pro-
gression. When the multi-tonic system becomes reharmonized, it begins to take
on more of the characteristics synonymous with non-functional progression.
Most often associated with the music of John Coltrane, this system divides the
octave into equal or symmetric divisions.
The growth of multi-tonic systems most likely had its beginning in the 19th
Century when Liszt, Wagner and Rimskij-Korsakow used chromaticism to
expand the concept of tonality. Twentieth century composers, such as Bela
Bartok, played with the idea of a two tonic system. Eventually the idea of multi-
tonic systems were published in the works of Joseph Schillinger entitled, "Joseph
Schillinger System of Musical Composition," and Nicolas Slonimsky's, "Thesau-
rus of Scales and Melodic Patterns."
There are five symmetric divisions of the octave:. augmented 4th, minor 3rd,
major third, whole step and chromatic. The two most commonly used divisions
are the minor third and the major third. With the minor third division, the
octave is divided into four equal divisions, referred to as a four-tonic system.
Dividing the octave key by major thirds creates three equal parts referred to as
a Three Tonic System. By assigning each note of the symmetric division a chord
quality, usually major seven, each chord can be considered a new key area, there-
fore it is termed a multi-tonic system. By preceding each major chord with its
dominant or dominant and related II-7 chord, an unlimited number of variations
become possible. It is not usually necessary to arrange the chords in their origi-
nal order in relation to the octave. The classic example of multi-tonic system
writing is foundin John Coltrane's tune, "Giant Steps." The following tunes con-
tain examples of tonic system techniques:
"Like Sonny" by John Coltrane
"Central Park West" by John Coltrane
"26-2" by John Coltrane
"Countdown" by John Coltrane
"FifthHouse" by John Coltrane
"Have You Met Miss Jones" by Rodgers and Hart
"Bess, You Is My Woman" by George Gershwin
"If Ever I Would Leave You" by Lerner and Lowe
"Baubles, Bangles, and Beads" by Rodgers and Hart
"Desert Air" by Chick Corea
"A Family Joy" by Michael Gibbs
Multitonic Systems

BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Three-Tonic System:
o ,
0 / ...... z
-e-, / """7'
'-.../ 3 3
3
II
Four-Tonic System:
II
Assign Chord Quality
Four-Tonic:
c ~ E ~ ~ G ~ ~ A ~
*
~
II
~

-e-
Three-Tonic:
c ~ E ~
f,
II
0
68
Through the use of basic reharmonization
techniques, such as chord substitution and
dominant approach, it becomes possible to
reharmonize tonic system patterns. In the
following graph; it should be theoretically
possible to exchange or substitute any chord
from any column to create additional pos-
sibilities. This technique will work on the
four-tonic system as well.
Chord Substitution - I Chord
Dominant and 11-V substitution:
lA
"
A ~ A
~
I
C-7
il
I
F-7
~
1
A ~ A
~
"
A ~ A
-
~
I
A ~ A
il
~
A ~ A
~
"
A ~ A
il
V7/l
B7
B7
B7
subV7 /1
F7
F#-7
F#-7
C-7
C-7
F7
B7
B7
F7
Reharmonization of Tonic Systems

.)
Ill
Ell
I
I
I
I
I
G#-7
I
I
I
I
I
I
C#-7
I
I
I
I
I
I
Ell
I
I
I
I
I
I
EA
I
I
I
I
I
I
EA
I
I
I
I
I
I
EA
I
I
I
I
I
I
EA
I
V7/l
G7
G7
G7
subV7 /1
0 ~ 7
0-7
0-7
A ~ 7
A ~ 7
lA
CA
I
I
I
I
I
CA
I
I
I
I
I
I
CA
I
I
I
I
I
I
CA
I
I
I
I
I
0 ~ 7
I
CA
I
I
I
r
I
G7
I
CA
I
I
I
I
I
G7
I
CA
I
I
I
I
I
0 ~ 7
I
CA
I
I

I
@)

I
@)

fl
@)

e
I


7
I
I

C-7
7
I
7
7
IV-7
A-7 D7 ELl

G.ll F.ll ELl

C.ll D.ll ELl

I


7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2

A7 D
F7
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
Modal interchange substitutions:
A7
/
7
I
IV-7 I
F-7 C.ll

C.ll

I CLl
Blues
Since the first four bars of blues are basically a I or tonic blues area, it becomes
possible to substitute a three-tonic system in place of the original blues changes.

I

D F7

7
7
7
2
7
2
7
7
7
2
;z
I
7

7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
II
This technique also works in the last four bars of blues in an approach to the I
chord.
7
2
7
7
7
2

G7
7
2
7
2
(',

C7 F7
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
II
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Non-Functional
Techniques and Criteria
Tone Row Construction
(8-note series)
Chord Quality Criteria
Melodic Criteria
Chord Scale Criteria
Development
lntro/Outro Patterns
Non-Functional Melodic Approach
Melody-Bass Line Technique
71.
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Non-Functional
Techniques and Criteria
A
s stated at the outset, non-functional harmonic progression results from
the lack of an established key center. Chords derive their function from
established patterns, adjacent chordal relationships, root motion and a
melody/harmony relationship. The following chapters outline a set of techniques
that serve as a departure point into the non-functional area. These non-functio-
nal techniques are specifically designed to avoid the expectations and predictabi-
lities characteristic of standard tune style. In order to internalize the sound and
style of progression which these techniques set out to create, I highly recom-
mend that much time be spent listening to music written in this style. Since this
is a somewhat mathematical approach to harmonic progression and tune writing,
the challenge will be to go beyond the system and create a balance between
thought and feeling. This balance is the hallmark of many great works of the past
that have passed the test of time. The following non-functional technique is
similar to the 12-tone row composition developed by Arnold Schonberg. I have
found that using an eight-note row is a little more manageable for students not
familiar with Schonberg's 12-tone row and its many possible permutations.
Once the student is comfortable with the eight-note series, it then becomes
easier to expand or reduce the row to any size desired.
Recommended listening:
"T.T.T.," Bill Evans, THE BILL EvANs ALBUM; Columbia 30855
The following non-functional techniques will first be approached from a har-
monic then melodic viewpoint.
Choose a series of eight-notes. To avoid cycle five style harmonic
progression, there should be no intervalic movement up a perfect
fourth or down a perfect fifth between any two adjacent notes.
At no time should there be any feeling of a key center.
In the process of repeating the eight-note row, there should not
be a sense of beginning or end to the eight-note series.
Do not repeat any note in the series.
Experiment with a different starting or beginning point in the
series.
Tl
PMT4
Tone Row Construction

( 8-note series)
r
r
73
BEYOND FUNCriONAL HARMONY
Chord Quality Criteria

T2
G-

7
2
7
2
7
2
1-
n
G- 07 G-

7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
V-7
T4
G-7
r r
r
a

TS
G-7

7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
IV-7
T6
G-7 C7 D-
e
7 7 7 7
:z
7 I z 2 2
v
11-7
l7
G-7 C7 F
&;e
7
2
7
7
7
2
7
2
7
2
v
74
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
Once a suitable row is in place, assign a chord quality to each note
in the row. The selected notes can then function as roots, inver-
sions, hybrids, compound chords or incomplete chords. Experiment
before settling on your final chord quality choices. Possible criteria
for chord quality choices:
Adjacent Chordal Relationships
What proceeds and follows a chord defines its function/ color. In
the following example, the function and color of G- changes with
each new adjacent chordal relationship.
7
II
I
7
2
7
2
II
G-7
I
*
F F
r
I
r
r
II
7
2
7
,
II
7
2
7
I
II
7
2
7
2
II
Constant Structure
Three or more chords with the same quality (major, minor, ?sus, dominant,
minor etc.). See Part 3, MuLTI-TONIC SYSTEMS.
Modal
Chordal choices can be determined by a modal relationship.
T8
D-7
fe
J
E
F r
F
Random
If it sounds good, use it (adjust accordingly).
Add chord quality:
T9
C:-6 Aba D-7
f -e-

0
Eba
F I
lf
Eil(#S)
0
(Phrygian) D-
J J
I
E
ql!l
#-e-
El!l A7(b9)
E F
I!
r
F
I
r
J

J
G-7 Bb-7
A/B
0


II
75
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Melodic Criteria

no
C.!l
Chord tone
'
0
A-7
Tension
'
0
F.!l
Characteristic
~
modal note
0
D-
Passing tone J.
C-6
Melodic line
' ~
r
(target note)
r
Once the .row and chord qualities are in place, next concentrate on a melodic line.
The melody should be a simple line that moves by step or small intervals
through the row. The criteria for the melody/harmonyrelationship can be one of
the following:
II
II
II
II
A ~ . l
~ 0
II
You should now have a harmonic and melodic outline in place.
Tll
C-6 A ~ A D-7 EA(#S)
q!21
G-7 B ~ 7
A/B
~
a a
II
#u
il a
fa

...
Next, work with the melodic outline and shape it into a real melody.
T12
C-6 A ~ A D-7 EA(#S)
~ e
~
r r
bF
IF
J.
I
~ J
J
J fa
q!21
G-7 B ~ 7 A/B
~
j
J
#J
I
j
J
J
I
r F
~ r
I
#u
II
77
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Chord Criteria

Brightest
Since the chords do not derive their function and resultant chord scale
from the relationship to a key, the chord scale criteria may result from:
Melody
A particular melody/harmony relationship, i.e., #11 on a major chord
quality would imply a Lydian chord scale choice.
Modal (bright vs. dark)
If there is no characteristic modal note present in the melody, a chord
scale choice may be made on a modal bright to dark basis.
Lydian Ionian Mixolydian Dorian Aeolian Phrygian Locrian
Dominant Chord
The dominant chord scale choice will usually be based on one of two
criteria:
Melody note -when the melody is a tension, it should be supported and
function in the dominant chord's scale. For example, if the melody over a
dominant chord is a #11 interval from the root of the dominant chord, the
chord scale will become a Lydian dominant scale. A q11 melody note
would imply some type of a Mixolydian scale choice. An altered tension,
such as a would imply a scale.
Resolution - a dominant chord scale choice may result from a particular
target chord resolution. If the target chord is minor, the preceeding
dominant chord scale should contain a tension creating a Mixolydian
chord scale. If the target chord is major, the dominant scale will be -
Mixolydian q13.
PART4
From this point, work with what you have until a final piece of music is in place.
Development

Reharmc:mize melody (inversions and hybrids):
T13
D7sus Cll(#5)/E

*
r r
br
1r
J.
I
*
J J
J I Jo
AlljC# EP!l/G AbjBb

j
J

iJ
J
J
lr
F

I
II
Explore alternative starting point on series:
T14
0
0

0
bu
II
Repeat entire process on new series:
TlS D-ll E7(b13) C#-ll G7sus
1 1 bD r r r 1 rl1 r r E r r ci 1
Bb-7 C-ll Abll(#5)
r r
II
79
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
@ ... ,
"'

tr
1\ >-
qF

I 'o-
fr
J
14 ..
>- >- >-
B-7/E
*
1\
#F
,.--..._
.--
tu
i
D r
C7
*
1\
'
>
I 'o
r
i
p
r
8o
With the following melodic and harmonic alterations, the eight-note series from
example Tl is finally shaped into a useable piece of music containing the charac-
teristics of non-functional progression.
Expanded harmonic rhythm
Alternate starting point on series
Altered chord quality
Melodic expansion
Inversions and hybrids
W. Naus
00
ENB
I
J. l
i
l Jf].],o>
l
>- >- >- >- >-

1\ >- >- ... >-
I J

i
&Jl
i
p'1'
>-
G-7
I <0>
I
/F
r ..
tu
1\ >-
I #F
,.--..._
.-
tu
i
D r
1\

'
>
I 'o

I
r
i
r
Additional Eight-Note Examples
In the following example, the eight-note series is repeated three times over the
same melody. In section B, the roots of the eight-note series remain the same but
the chord qualities change. In some measures, this changes melodic function.
This can be considered a reharmonization of the eight-note series. In section C,
the melody remains consistent with A and B but the original eight-note series .is
altered for the sake of variation.
PAKT4
81.
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
W. Naus
lAJ A-7 C-7

r

F-6



&J
I
0 I_ J
J
-
@)



I
J
CJ
I

I
J
J
E-11


I=
J J
I
0


II
0
-
@)
liD
Ail
C-Ll


I
0
>

0
>
r
r

F-Ll



&J
I
0 I_ J
j
@) -
(b13)
G7 b9



I
J
CJ
I

I
J
j
@)
Ea
F#7sus
IJ
J
I
0
>
l<o
II
0
--

[Q F#0 C!J.jG
*
lr
I
0 -
1-r
0
-
r
r

*


bj
I
0
I<
J
J
-

*

I
J
j I

I
J
j
F-7
*
I<
J J
I
0
-

II
0
>
BEYONo FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
DA
r r
A
DA
#;j

lntro/Outro Patterns
EA
psQ
EA
@u
This exercise is similar to the eight-note series but shorter. The chapter explores
a variety of techniques which attempt to produce non-functional harmonic chord
patterns that are coupled with an ambiguous feeling at the beginning of the har-
monic phrase. These short three- and four-chord groupings, when repeated,
create a harmonic loop. The effect of this loop is most appropriate for, and charac-
teristic of, introductions and outros.
1
Select three or four chords of any desired quality (see CHORD QuALITY Cru-
TERIA). When these chords repeat, there should be no feeling of a key center.
DA EA
2
Determine a harmoni_c rhythm. Each chord may have as much or as little
duration as desired. .

3
. Add a melodic line. The same melodic criteria used for the eight-note series
is applicable here (see CHORD QuALITY CRITERIA). In example A below, the
melody stays constant while the harmony changes.

Melody is derived out of a tension function relationship on each chord.
B
D.:l
,w
Change starting chord, add inversions.
c
/B

4
For CD 7, extend harmonic rhythm. Change time signature and
,. add ascending line.
After experimenting with chords, harmonic rhythm, inversions, pedal
point or any other desired effects, the three-chord pattern should be almost final-
ized. In the following example, the time signature is determined, the harmonic
rhythm extended, and an ascending line added to help create the feeling of for-
ward momentum in a continually unresolved three-chord harmonic loop.
ELl
r
#p
.....-..

I
a
ENB D.:l/A
#J. 1J?J .a

Bs
8DoHD fuNCTIONAL tiAAMONY
dl
Eb-7
:>-
( I
/ / / /
fl
I
@.)
I
I

*
#n-
J
Ln=
=
=
Eb-7
*

r-
I 'o'

*
-
rn

r

*
jo-
r
po-
86
W. Naus
>-
/ / /
y.
I I
I L
I

J
'
r-
I 'o'
'
r
0
=


r
#o'

rr,
I 'o'
<
r
Eb-7
---
-
r r
0 0

r
jo

-
r
0
II
The following four-chord pattern combines the use of hybrids, inversions
., and root position chords.
B/E A7susjE F-9
Determine harmonic rhythm/ duration, rhythmic groove. The selected
., four-chord pattern repeats while an ascending line works its way up
through the progression.
Funkyswunk
B/E
I
( oJ
l
,,
I
.
.

A7sus/E
1\
I

(
.
.

r
B/E

(q>o?
Bass simile
A7susjE

0

B/E


F-9

b_n_
A7susjE
(q)-6-

r--FI

r
-41


11


I
po
I
_n_
I
-6-
PAIIT 4
W.Naus
I
!
1,.

f:-
.
.
.
.
......
F-9
-
'
. .
.
. l

L.......C:::::j

I


t ..
F-9
..
I
II
A7susjE
0 0
-6- -6-
B/E
b-6- -6-
(q)_n_
_n_
F-9
B/E
_n_ _n_
#_n_
_n_
!I
BEYOND fUNCTIONAL HARMONY
B ~ 7 / A ~
I
_)
(
.
@)
bo
(
.
.
.
'I
C7susjG
7
2
7
B-7/A
7
2
7
2
88
7
When these chords repeat, there should be no feeling for the beginning of
the repetition. One possible solution for an ambiguous beginning point of
the repetition is to choose three chords and place them in a four-bar harmonic
rhythm, repeating sequence. It will take 12 bars for the first chord to coincide
with bar one, beat one, of the four-bar sequence. Maintain the same harmonic
rhythm stresses - S W S W - as if there were four chords instead of three. Try
combining this with the displacement of backbeats two and four as discussed in
Part 2, NoN-FUNCTIONAL FuNDAMENTAL CIIARAcTERISTICS.
Ambiguous phrase beginning (three chord repeat)
- backbeat displacement- voicings in fourths:
W. Naus
C7susjG B-7/A B ~ 7 / A ~
-e-
Continue
same voicings
0
B-7/A C7susjG
7
2
7
2
7
7
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
B ~ 7 / A ~ C7susjG B-7/A
2
7
2
7
2 2
7
2
7
2 2
7
2
7
2
8
In the following example, the same intro/outro process and criteria are
applied to a four-note pattern.
Select four notes. There should be no feeling of key center as the four notes
repeat (see Part 4, ToNE Row CoNSTRUCTION).
Experiment with alternate starting point:
;>:
a
~
qa
~
2= ~
...
qa
~
2=

qa
~
2= qa
PART4

II
II
a
II
a
~
II
a
~
a
II
BEYOND fUNCTIONAL HARMONY
0 ~ 7 ( 1
1
)
9= ~ 0
0 ~ 7
~
~ 0

E-7
0
Determine chord quality, add tensions:
F-7(9)
0
II
Add melodic line:
DL\ F-7
#n
(I
#n
~ 0
0
II
In the following example, the melodic line, rhythmic groove and harmonic
rhythm/duration are developed. To help disguise the beginning of the phrase,
the melody is the same in measures 1-4, 13-16 and 5-12. While the melody
remains the same, the harmony changes, producing a change in melodic func-
tion.



J.
'
"""'"
j
p r .p
J
E-7C;)

J Jt;J
lo.
Jl
j
#J.
J
J
Df1(9)

J
J
F-7(9)

J.

""""
'
j

p r p
J
W.Naus
2
*
2
*
I
2
*
2
J
*
Bn'oND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
Non-Functional Melodic
Approach
S
o far we have seen melody derived from the harmony. In the following
exercise, the r:sult from the Th.is method of
mony/melody relatwnsh1p will also be non-functional m that chords will
be derived from a melodic function and not from the principles governing func-
tional-diatonic or diatonically related progression.
First construct an original melody or simple motif. When applying this tech-
nique to standard tune melodies, this process would be considered a reharmon-
ization. Melody notes work best when they are longer in duration.
Then consider what function (chord tone or tension) each melody note might
be on any type of chord quality. Choose initial chords from a purely vertical
melody/harmony relationship. Once a set of chords are in place, make chord
quality or root motion adjustments based on an adjacent horizontal harmonic
consideration. Additional options include sequential patterns, hybrids, ascending
or descending root motion using inversions and/ or root position chords, constant
structure and pedal point. The resulting progression, once voice-led properly,
should be surprisingly different from a progression created based on the princi-
ples characteristic of functional harmonic progression. Theoretically, it should be
possible to substitute or exchange any chord in any column to create additional
harmonic variations.
Melodic criteria
Vertical
Sequential
Hybrids
Descending
root inversions
Constant structure
ascending roots
Root position
ascending roots
Constant structure
pedal point
1\

'
@)
I

'
@)
1\
@)
_fl
@)
I

I
@)
fl
@)
I

A-

B-
C-9


C9
C9

CjG
F

A-
.
07(9)



0-9
.
A-7/0
._
.


09
.
A-7

F/G
.
B-
I
I
I
I
Eb7
I
I
I
I
I
F#-7 G-7(11)

F7 A
I
I I
I I
I I
I
87 F7(#5)
I
0-7(9)
I I
I I
I
I I
I I
I I
I
B/E
I

I I
I _I I
I I
I I
I I
I

I
F
I I
''
I I I
I
I I
I I
I I


I
E
f+
I
I I
I I
I
I I
I I
I I
I
C7(b9)
I

I I
I I
I
I I
I I
I I
I

I
c
I I
I I I
93
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
_l
"""""""
(
@)

I
~
L
(
.
.
94
Melody-Bass Line Technique
T
his technique begins with the construction of a melodic line and then a
counter bass line. Together, they form the basis for the accompanying
harmonic progression. This technique is most effective when used in an
introduction whose tempo is rubato to slow.
Begin with a melodic phrase. Construct a descending or ascending counter
bass line that moves by step in quarter- or half-note duration through the melo-
dic phrase. A final bass note can be pre-determined to coincide with the end of
. the melodic phrase. This creates a target or ending point for the bass line. It is
possible to work backwards from the target note to the first note of the bass line.
The forward or horizontal momentum created by and between each line will
dominate the vertical intervalic relationship. The vertical intervalic relationship
created between the melodic line and the bass line will be felt as tension and
release points.
I
_ b ~
..0..
ft-
.,_ .
f - ~
-
I
I I
I
Once these two lines are in place, assign a chord quality to each bass note. The
bass notes can function as roots or inversions of chords. Hybrids are also pos-
sible. Chord qualities should result from the melodic function. The melody
should function as a chord tone, tension or a passing tone over each chord choice.
Experiment with different starting notes in the bass line before selecting a final
bass/melody relationship.
D-7/G B-7/A
I
@.)
"
It
.,
(
.
.
B-/A
fl.
_n_
'
-
@.)
r::r
_LL
I
.
.
Cd
E-7
D.C. al Coda
Recommended listening:
F-7
-
I i I
. _, -1
"
_LIJ:_ _.j,lo_




d
n 1KJ EA(IS)
.
-
!'-
..
r::r
.,p-
I L

t 1tn
D-7

J __ +r
A CA(#5)
Vt7'..
"Geraldine," The Yellowjackets, LIVE WIREs; GRP 9667.
PART4
W. Naus
E-7
I l I I J






1..

Jjo_ ..
!'-
---
-

Tr 1tn
J__ 1
95
BEYoND fuNCTIONAL HARMONY
Non-Functional Music Examples
"The D.C. Cig"
"The Soap Braker"
"Pas de De.ux"
Discography
About the Author
Non-Functional usic Examples
T
he following three compositions were required final stud. ent projects for
the harmonic analysis/ composition course I teach at Berklee College of
Music. The course is entitled "The Music of the Yellowjackets.rt As men-
tioned in the Preface, the course focuses on the harmonic, melodic and rhythmic
characteristics unique to the Yellowjackets arid the non-functional harmonic
techniques used by many of today's leading composers.
The challenge of these final project compositions was to create a piece of music
that blends functional, but mainly non-functional, characteristics and tech-
niques. Of all the fine projects I have received over the years in teaching the
Yellowjackets course, _it was difficult to choose only three for inclusion in this
text. I feel these three successfully demonstrate the characteristics of both func-
tional and non-functional harmony. I sincerely thank Ida Waksman, Yasuo
Nakajima and Andre J. Spang for the creative energies which so clearly come
through in their compositions.
"The D. C. Gig" by Ida Waksman
"The D.C. Gig" was composed and recorded during the Fall of 1996. During the
composition process, my main concern was leading an idea through various
stages and tonal areas without it sounding forced or awkward along the way. The
harmonic concept behind this piece can be analyzed (or approached) as a non-
functional chord-progression, which was "stretched out" to a larger amount of
bars. With the chords being further away from each other, it becomes possible to
hear each chord functioning as its own tonal center. The phrase "tonicization
through duration" may be appropriate here. The chords that are added later to
connect and relate these centers are either establishing their own tonal area or
preparing the pace for the next one.
While arranging and structuring the piece, my main goal was to maintain an
inner balance throughout. That was achieved through variations in dynamics,
instrumentation and timbres, as well as changing the harmonic rhythm.
At all stages of the process, I concentrated on keeping the piece "airy,"
"breathing,", and "flowing."
PARTS
97
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
THE D.C. GIG
/do Waksman
Rubato:
Bass & Piano
Dd(9) Gd F /C
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110
Marimba
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2x Drums enter
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Soprano
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Marimba ills
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D.S. alCoda
99
BEYOND fuNCTIONAL HARMONY
Interlude
-$- DA(9) GA
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100
F#-add9/A D/E Eadd9/D
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Notes:
Piano solos on D.S, (2x choruses of "C")
Soprano solos on D.S.S, (2x choruses of "C")
Then repeat "C" with melody to fade
A-add9/C
1
* II
D.S.S. a1 Fine
(repeat to fade)
"7he Soap Braker" by Yasuo Nakajima
Throughout this tune, I used two main ideas which are poly-rhythm and non-
functional harmony. When I build up each section, I tried to put effective rhyth-
mic patterns and to combine these in a lively way. I composed every section
using non-functional harmony. Sometimes, it makes it too mechanical, so I tried
to make a natural feeling all over the song.
In the "intro" section, I used these ideas as composition tools. First, I made a
four-bar poly-rhythm pattern for keyboard and bass. Then I constructed chords
progression and voicings with G as top notes. The bass line was composed by
ascending step motion. I could say it as" one note samba effect." Finally, I added a
16th note arpeggio pattern with six note loop and back beats by Logic Audio
sequence program.
In the "k' section, I used ambiguous chord progressions. First, I wrote eight
random notes on a piece of paper. Then, I put chords over these notes. After I con-
structed the basic chord progression, I added some rhythmic accents to modulate
the music for effect. Then, I composed the melody with the same anticipations. I
found some jerky motion in the progression, so I reharmonized it which made it
smoother and spritelier.
I don't remember exacdy how I did the guitar solo section. However, it is true
that I put emphasis on making simple chord progression compared to other sec-
tions. As a matter of fact, I made this section by guitar. While I was playing the
guitar unintentionally, I found that four-bar pattern. I can say thatthis section is
pretty emotional.
The main idea of "B" and "C" sections is the same as I previously explained. I
used non-functional harmonies and ascending/descending bass lines. The bass
line of the "B" section is unique because it keeps descending by step all the time.
I tried to avoid dominant seventh chords. Those chords tend to resolve to a cer-
tain chord, so there is a possibility of breaking the flow of smooth non-functional
chord progression. I realized that a minor ninth chord is a great tool to build this
kind of harmony, and I like the sound of it very much.
PARTS
101
BEYOND FuNCTIONAL HARMONY
THE SOAP BRAKER
Yasuo Nakajima
Intro
(Piano & Bass) F13 D#/B G/C
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102
PARTS
Intro F13 G/C
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BEYOND FUNCfiONAL HARMONY
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Repeat and fade
"Pas de Deux"
Form-layout:
Introduction
A
A
B
c
A
A
B
c
Coda
Overall Form:
Layering between bass line and upper structure triads in the
piano.
Part A of melody, rhythmically active bass line.
Repetition of A.
Part of Melody. Melody line more active (8th notes), bass line
more "pedal like."
Interlude - same as introduction. Link between and
piano solo.
D.S. =Piano solo.
Piano solo continued.
End of solo - Melody B played again.
Interlude. Now links between melody and guitar solo.
Guitar solo over bass/piano vamp. Fade out and Fine of song.
Intro, A, A, B, C, A, A, B, C, Coda
Chord-layout:
Intra
C-- E/0
F7sus
A/C
C- E/0
F7sus A/C

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109
BEYOND FUNCTIONAL HARMONY
no
Discography
Corea, Chick, EYE OF THE BEHOLDER; GRP 1053
Corea, Chick, FRIENDs; Polydor 2391-366
Ellis, Don, LIVE AT MoNTEREY; Pacific Jazz ST 20112
Evans, Bill, THE BILL EvANs ALBUM; Columbia 30855
Hubbard, Freddie, READY FOR FREDDIE; Blue Note
Khan, Chaka, C.K.; Warner Brothers W1-25707
Shorter, Wayne, MR. GoNE; Columbia 35358
Shorter, Wayne, NATIVE DANCER; Columbia 33418
Shorter, Wayne, SPEAR No EVIL; Blue Note ST-46509
Shorter, Wayne, JuJu; Blue Note BST-84182
Silver, Horace (Quintet), FuRTHER EXPLORATION;
Blue Note 724385658327
Sting, MERCURY FALLING; A&M 31454 0483 2
Sting, TEN SUMMONER's TALEs; A&M
Tyner, McCoy, EXPANSIONS; Applause 2310
Tyner, McCoy, THE REAL McCoY; Blue Note BLP 4264
Yellowjackets, FouR CoRNERS; MCAD 5994
Yellowjackets, LIKE A RIVER; GRP GRD-9689
Yellowjackets, SHADS; MCAD 5752
Yellowjackets, DREAMLAND; Warner Brothers 9 45944-2
Yellowjackets, PoLITics; MCA 6236
Yellowjackets, GREENHOUSE; GRP 9630
Yellowjackets, THE SPIN; MCA 5304
Yellowjackets, LIVE WIREs; GRP 9667
Yellowjackets, YELLOWJACKETS; Warner Brothers 3573-2
Yellowjackets, MIRAGE A TROis; Warner Brothers 9 23813-2
W
ayne Naus is an Associate
Professor at Berklee Col-
lege of Music in Boston,
Massachusetts. He has been a faculty
member there since 1976.
As an educator and member of the
Jazz Theory Department, he teaches
courses in Functional and Non-Func-
tional Harmonic Concepts, Reharmo-
nization and Advanced Harmonic
Techniques. He has developed his own
analysis/ composition course entitled
"The Music of the Yellowjackets"
which is offered as an elective in the
Jazz Theory Department. He also con-
ducts the Berklee Buddy Rich Big Band
and smaller improvisation ensembles
in styles ranging from bebop and Latin
About the Author
jazz to contemporary fusion. In addition to teaching undergraduate studies, he
developed and teaches a course in the Berklee Masters Program entitled Instru-
mental Rehearsal Techniques. For the past ten years, he has taught jazz theory
and improvisation to high school students that attend the renowned Berklee
Five-Week Summer Program.
As an instrumentalist, he was a touring member of the Buddy Rich, Maynard
Ferguson and Lionel Hampton bands playing lead and jazz trumpet. During this
time, he recorded three albums with Buddy Rich and two albums with Maynard
Ferguson.
Over the past twenty years, he has toured and recorded albums with his own
groups, ranging in size from big bands to small ensembles, performing in both
traditional and contemporary jazz styles.
He is available for clinics, lectures and concerts and can be reached at:
Email: wnaus@berklee.edu
Home phone (617) 298-8616
Work phone: (617) 266-1400, Extension 8293.
111