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{
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066\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#221"}}{\fldrslt {M
emboikot}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
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24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#233"}}{\fldrslt {Suap /
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slt {
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4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#233"}}{\fldrslt {233}}}}\
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d{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#238"}}{\fldrslt {
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426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
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426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3426\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li3426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3426\ri0\sl-600\slmult0 \fs40\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {5}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-426\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\b {Pengantar}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\mar
glsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri

0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Segala puji bagi Allah, Tuhan Yang


Maha Agung. Shalawat}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {serta salam tercurah kepada baginda Nabi Muham
mad SAW,}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {juga kepada para shahabat, pengikut dan orang-orang y
ang}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {berada di jalannya hingga akhir zaman.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Buku FIQIH MUAMALAT ini hanyalah sebuah catatan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{ }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kecil dari
ilmu fiqih yang sedemikian luas. Para ulama}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pendahulu
kita telah menuliskan ilmu ini dalam ribuan jilid}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kitab yang menja
di pusaka dan pustaka khazanah peradaban}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard
\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sec
td\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn17
3\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i
0 \par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-453\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Islam. Sebuah kekayaan yang tidak pernah dimiliki o
leh agama}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {manapun yang pernah muncul di muka bumi. }\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {Sayangnya, kebanyakan umat Islam malah tidak dapat}\fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {menikmati warisan itu, salah satunya karena kendala bahasa.}\fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Padahal tak satu pun ayat Al-Quran yang turun dari langit}\fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kecual
i dalam bahasa Arab, tak secuil pun huruf keluar dari}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{ }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lidah nabi ki
ta SAW, kecuali dalam bahasa Arab. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maka upaya
menuliskan kitab fiqih dalam bahasa}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Indonesia ini menja
di upaya seadanya untuk mendekatkan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {umat ini dengan warisan
agamanya. Tentu saja buku ini juga}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diupayakan agar masih dil
engkapi dengan teks berbahasa}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Arab, agar masih tersisa mana y
ang merupakan nash asli dari}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {agama ini.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Buku ini merupakan buku kedelapan dari rangkaian}\fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sils
ilah pembahasan fiqih. Selain buku ini juga ada buku lain}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
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dengan masalah fiqih seperti fiqih thaharah, shalat,}\fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {p
uasa, zakat, haji, ekonomi atau muamalah, nikah, waris,}\fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {hudud dan bab lainnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
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umnya kitab fiqih, manhaj yang}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0
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pendapat saja, tapi berupaya}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li6

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at bila memang ada khilaf di}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\l
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ang hukum-hukum tertentu, dengan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {usaha untuk menampilkan
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i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pilihan biasanya kami serahk
an kepada para pembaca. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Semoga buku ini bisa membe
rikan manfaat berlipat karena}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bukan sekedar dimengerti isinya, teta
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s karena Allah SWT.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
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l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
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pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\

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\u1575X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u

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{, yang artinya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {pertukaran harta dengan harta dengan kepemilikan dan}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\b { }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
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ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sehingga bisa disimpulkan bahwa y
ang dimaksud dengan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jual-beli adalah : "}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {menukar barang dengan barang atau }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {menukar barang dengan uang, ya
itu dengan jalan}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {melepaskan hak kepemilikan d
ari yang satu kepada}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { }\b0 \par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {yang lain atas dasar saling
merelakan}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {".}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {B. Das
ar Masyru'iyah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000
\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Jual-beli adalah aktifitas ekono
mi yang hukumnya boleh}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berdasarkan kitabullah dan sunnah rasul-Nya
serta ijma' dari}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seluruh umat Islam. Firman Allah SWT :}\par\pard\l
i4146\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4146\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 { \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X(\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1
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1\u1581X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-293\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1}\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Lihat
al-Fqihul Islami wa Adil atuhu oleh Dr. Wahbah Az-zuhaili jilid 4 halaman 344}\
fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {2}{ }\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Mughni Al-Muhtaj jilid 2 halaman 2}
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {3}{ }\fs18\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {ibid}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {8}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\p
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i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0
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mengharamkan }\i0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {riba. (QS. Al-Baqarah : 275)}\i0 \par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan dari sunnah nabawiyah, Rasulullah SAW}
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {bersabda :}\par\pard\li893\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
893\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1
575X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1578X \uc1\u1575X}\par\pard\li1093\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1608X}\par\pard\li920\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1583X}\par\pard\li720\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {\uc1\u1583X}\par\pard\li4413\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dari Ibnu Umar r.a.
bahwa Rasulul h saw bersabda: \uc1\u8220XApabila dua}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {o
rang melakukan jual-beli, maka masing-masing orang mempunyai hak}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\i {khiyar (memilih antara membatalkan atau meneruskan jual-be
li) }\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0

\fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {selama mereka belum berpisah dan masih bersama; at


au selama salah}\i0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {seorang di antara keduanya tidak menemu
kan khiyar kepada yang}\i0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {lainnya. Jika salah seorang mene
ntukan khiyar pada yang lain, lalu}\i0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mereka berjual-beli
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arscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
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t0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Pekerjaan apakah yang paling baik?. B
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00\i {Fiqh Muamalat}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {seseorang dengan tangannya
dan setiap jual-beli yang bersih\uc1\u8221X. (HR Al-}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Bazzar.{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#
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INK "#10"}}{\fldrslt {4}}}}\i0 \par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
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8X \uc1\u1576X-\uc1\u1604X}\par\pard\li4186\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 { \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X}\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dari Abu Mas\uc1
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alex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{mengambil uang penjualan anjing, uang pelacuran dan upah}\i0 \fs
18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
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13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10


0\b {C. Hukum Jual Beli}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Secara asalnya, jua-bel
i itu merupakan hal yang hukumnya}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mubah atau dibolehkan. Seba
gaimana ungkapan Al-Imam}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asy-Syafi'i rahimahullah : dasar
nya hukum jual-beli itu}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seluruhnya adalah mubah, yaitu apabil
a dengan keridhaan dari}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kedua-belah pihak. Kecuali apabila jual-bel
i itu dilarang oleh}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rasulullah SAW. Atau yang maknanya termasuk yan
g dilarang}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {beliau SAW.{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#10"}}{\fldrslt
{ }}}}\fs14\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#10"}}{\fldrslt
{5}}}}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {D. Rukun Jual-beli}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {Sebuah transaksi jual-beli membutuhkan adanya rukun}\fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {sebagai penegaknya. Dimana tanpa adanya rukun, maka jual-}\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {beli itu menjadi tidak sah
hukumnya. Rukunnya ada tiga}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perkara, yaitu : }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \*\tx1000\fs22\
cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Adanya pelak
u yaitu penjual dan pembeli yang memenuhi }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syarat}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \*\tx1000\f
s24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Adanya a
kad / transaksi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
4}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Hadits shohih menurut Hakim}\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-240\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {5}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Lih
at al-Fqihul Islami wa Adil atuhu oleh Dr. Wahbah Az-zuhaili jilid 4 halaman 364
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {10}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn118
93\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0
\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-493\slmult0 \*\tx1000\fs24\cf0\f2\charscale
x100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Adanya barang / jasa yang di
perjual-belikan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kita bahas satu persatu masing-masin
g rukun jual-beli untuk}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lebih dapat mendapatkan gambaran yang jelas
.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1. Adanya Penjual dan Pembeli}\b0 \par\pard\li100
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1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{yang telah memenuhi ahliyah untuk boleh melakukan}\fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tra
nsaksi muamalah. Dan ahliyah itu berupa keadan pelaku}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang har
us berakal dan baligh.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dengan rukun ini maka
jual-beli tidak memenuhi}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {rukunnya bila dilakukan oleh penjual
atau pembeli yang gila}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau tidak waras. Demikian juga bila salah
satu dari mereka}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult

0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {termasuk orang yang kurang akalnya (idiot).}\par\p


ard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikian juga jual-beli yang dilakukan oleh a
nak kecil}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang belum baligh tidak sah, kecuali bila
yang diperjual-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{belikan hanyalah benda-benda yang nilainya sangat kecil.}\fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Namun bila seizin atau sepengetahuan orang tuanya atau}\fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {orang dewasa, jual-beli yang dilakukan oleh anak kecil}\fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {hukumnya sah. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sebagaimana dibolehkan j
ual-beli dengan bantuan anak}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kecil sebagai utusan, tapi
bukan sebagai penentu jual-beli.}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Misalnya, seorang ayah me
minta anaknya untuk membelikan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {suatu benda di sebuah toko,
jual-beli itu sah karena pada}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dasarnya yang menjadi
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i1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Penjual dan pembeli melakuk
an akad kesepakatan untuk}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bertukar dalam jual-beli. Akad itu sepert
i : Aku jual barang ini}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
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ex100 {Sebagian ulama mengatakan bahwa akad itu harus dengan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charsc


alex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lafadz
yang diucapkan. Kecuali bila barang yang diperjual-}\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {belikan termasuk barang yang r
endah nilainya. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun ulama lain membolehkan
akad jual-beli dengan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sistem }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {
mu'athaah}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {, (}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u
1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1605X}\fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {) yaitu kesepakatan antara penjual dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembeli untuk bertransaksi tanpa mengucapkan laf
adz.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3. Adanya Barang / Jasa Yang Diperjual-belikan
}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rukun yang ketiga adalah adanya barang atau ja
sa yang}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {diperjual-belikan. Para ulama menetapkan bahwa barang yang}
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {diperjual-belikan itu harus memenuhi syarat tertentu ag
ar}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {boleh dilakukan akad. Agar jual-beli menjadi sah s
ecara}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {syariah, maka barang yang diperjual-belikan harus memenuhi}\f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {beberapa syarat, yaitu :}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {a. Suci}\b0 \pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Benda yang diperjualbelikan harus benda yang suci dana
}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {arti bukan benda najis atau mengandung najis. Di a
ntara}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {benda najis yang disepakati para ulama antara lain bangkai,}\
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
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0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {hewa{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#12"}}{\fldrslt {n}}}}\fs14\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#12"}}{\fldrslt {6}}}}{\sub \fs24\cf0\f1\
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}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dasarnya adalah sabda Rasulullah SAW :}\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {6}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Mazhab Hanbali menetapkan bahwa
kotoran hewan yang dagingnya boleh dimakan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hukumnya tidak najis.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {12
}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\mar
gtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li800\
ri0\sl-666\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {J\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608XJ\uc1\u160
2X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1607X0\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604X}\par\pard\li1320\ri0\sl-480\slm
ult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1605X-\u
c1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1582X-\uc1\u1604X}\p
ar\pard\li4933\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1
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f0\charscalex100\i {Dari Jabir Ibnu Abdul ah r.a. bahwa ia mendengar Rasulul ah
saw.}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {bersabda di Mekkah pada tahun penaklukan kota itu:

\uc1\u8221XSesungguhnya}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640


\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Al ah melarang jual-beli minum
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\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {(HR.
Muttafaq Alaih)}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Bank Darah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Darah yang dibutuhkan oleh pasien di rumah sakit tidak}\fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{boleh didapat dari jual-beli. Karena itu Palang Merah}\fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Indonesia (PMI) telah menegaskan bahwa bank darah yang}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka mil
iki bukan didapat dari membeli. Lembaga itu pun}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak melakukan pen
jualan darah untuk pasien. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kalau ada pembayara
n, bukan termasuk kategori}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memperjual-belikan darah, melainka
n biaya untuk memproses}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
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arah,}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
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33\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikian juga dengan kotoran tern
ak yang oleh}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
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\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {Fiqh Muamalat}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
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0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hanya diberikan saja bukan dengan a
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0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pihak petani hanya menanggung
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tannya. Biaya}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk semua itu bukan harga kotoran hewan, sehingga t
idak}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {termasuk jual-beli.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {b. Punya Manf
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\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mereka juga mengharamkan benda-benda yang
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cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {alatul-lahwi}\i0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (perangkat yang melalaikan) yang }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memalingkan orang dari zikrul
lah, seperti alat musik. Dengan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syarat bila setelah dirusak
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40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {apapun, maka jual-beli alat mu
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i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu termasuk kategori benda
yang tidak bermanfaat dalam}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pandangan mereka. Dan tid
ak ada yang memanfatkan alat}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li6
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l-240\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {7}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Kifay
atul Akhyar jilid 1 halaman 236}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
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0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Tidak sah berjual-beli dengan selain pem

ilik langsung}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0


\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {suatu benda, kecuali orang tersebut menjadi }\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {wali}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (}\fs20\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\i {al-wilayah}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {) }\par\pard\li626\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{wakil}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {. }\par\pard\li986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li986\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Yang dimaks
ud menjadi wali (}\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {al-wilayah}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {) adalah bila benda }\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {itu dimiliki oleh seorang anak kecil, baik yatim atau bukan,}\fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {maka walinya berhak untuk melakukan transaksi atas benda}\fs24\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 { }\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {m
ilik anak itu.}\par\pard\li986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li986\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan yang dimaksud dengan }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {wakil}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { adalah seseorang
}\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang mendapat
mandat dari pemilik barang untuk}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pa
rd\li626\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjualkannya kepada pih
ak lain. }\par\pard\li986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li986\ri0\sl-333
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam prakteknya, makelar bisa termasuk kel
ompok ini.}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikian juga pemilik toko yang menjual bara
ng secara}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {konsinyasi, dimana barang yang ada di tokon
ya bukan}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {miliknya, maka posisinya adalah sebagai wakil
dari pemilik}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang.}\par\pard\li986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li986\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Adapun transak
si dengan penjual yang bukan wali atau}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\p
ard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {wakil, maka transak
si itu batil, karena pada hakikatnya dia}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{ }\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bukan pemilik
barang yang berhak untuk menjual barang itu.}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\
pard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalilnya adalah sebaga
i berikut :}\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-3
33\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Tidak sah sebuah talak itu kecuali dila
kukan oleh yang memiliki hak }\i0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\
li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {untuk mentalak. Tidak s
ah sebuah pembebasan budak itu kecuali }\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i
0 \par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {dilakukan ole
h yang memiliki hak untuk membebaskan. Tidak sah}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
i { }\i0 \par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {sebuah
penjualan itu kecuali dilakukan oleh yang memiliki hak untuk }\i0 \fs18\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\i {menjual. Tidak sah sebuah penunaian nadzar itu kecuali dilakukan}\i0 \fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i {oleh yang memiliki hak berkewajiban atasnya. (HR. Tirmizi - Ha
dits}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {hasan)}\i0 \par\pard\li986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li986\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Walau pun ba
nyak yang mengkritik bahwa periwayaytan}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\
li626\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hadits ini lemah, nam
un Imam An-Nawawi mengatakan}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li618
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {15}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666
\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i {Fiqh Muamalat}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa hadits

ini diriwayatkan lewat banyak jalur sehingga}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10


0 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {derajatnya n
aik dari hasan menjadi hadits shahih.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam penda
pat qadimnya, Al-Imam Asy-syafi'i}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membolehkan jual-beli yang
dilakukan oleh bukan pemiliknya,}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tetapi hukumnya mauquf. Karena aka
n dikembalikan kepada}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {persetujuan pemilik aslinya. Misalnya,
sebuah akad jual-beli}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dilakukan oleh bukan pemilik as
li, seperti wali atau wakil,}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kemudian pemilik asli barang i
tu ternyata tidak setuju, maka}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jual-beli itu menjadi batal dengan s
endirinya. Tapi bila setuju,}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka jual-beli itu sudah dianggap sah.
}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalilnya adalah hadits berikut ini :}\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\i {'Urwah ra berkata,"Rasulul ah SAW memberi aku uan
g 1}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dinar untuk membeli untuk beliau seekor
kambing. Namun aku}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {belikan untuknya 2 ekor
kambing. Lalu salah satunya aku jual }\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {deng
an harga 1 Dinar. Lalu aku menghadap Rasulul ah SAW dengan}\i0 \fs18\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\i {seekor kambing dan uang 1 Dinar sambil aku ceritakan kisahku. }\i0 \fs20\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\i {Beliau pun bersabda,"Semoga Al ah memberkatimu dalam}\i0 \
fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\i {perjanjianmu".}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (HR. Tirmizi
dengan sanad yang shahih).}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {d. Bisa Diserahkan}\b0
\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Menjual unta yang hilang termasuk akad yang tidak s
ah,}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {karena tidak jelas apakah unta masih bisa ditemuk
an atau}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikian juga ti
dak sah menjual burung-burung yang}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terbang di alam bebas ya
ng tidak bisa diserahkan, baik secara}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pisik maupun secara hukum. }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-413\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {16}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn
8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Demikian juga ikan-ikan yang berenang bebas di laut,}
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {tidak sah diperjual-belikan, kecuali setelah ditangkap atau bisa}\f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {dipastikan penyerahannya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c

f0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Para ahli fiqi


h di masa lalu mengatakan bahwa tidak sah}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjual setengah bagi
an dari pedang, karena tidak bisa}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diserahkan kecuali deng
an jalan merusak pedang itu.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {e. Harus Diketahui Ke
adaannya}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Barang yang tidak diketahui keadaanya,
tidak sah untuk}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diperjual-belikan, kecuali setelah kedua b
elah pihak}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengetahuinya. Baik dari segi kuantitasnya maupun dari
segi}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {kualitasnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dari segi kualitasn
ya, barang itu harus dilihat -meski hanya}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sample- oleh penjual
dan pembeli sebelum akad jual-beli}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dilakukan. Agar tidak
membeli kucing dalam karung. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dari segi kuantit
as, barang itu harus bisa dtetapkan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ukurannya. Baik berat
nya, atau panjangnya, atau volumenya}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau pun ukuran-ukuran lainnya
yang dikenal di masanya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam jual-beli rumah, di
syaratkan agar pembeli melihat}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dulu kondisi rumah itu baik
dari dalam maupun dari luar.}\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikian pula dengan k
endaraan bermotor, disyaratkan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk dilakukan peninjauan,
baik berupa pengujian atau}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jaminan kesamaan dengan spesifik
asi yang diberikan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Di masa modern dan duni
a industri, umumnya barang}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang dijual sudah dikemas
dan disegel sejak dari pabrik.}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Tujuannya antara lain agar t
erjamin barang itu tidak rusak dan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dijamin keasliannya. Cara ini ti
dak menghalangi terpenuhinya}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syarat-syarat jual-beli. Sehingga
untuk mengetahui keadaan}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li6186\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {17}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\mar
grsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\i {Fiqh Muamalat}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {suatu produk yang sep
erti ini bisa dipenuhi dengan beberapa}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tehnik, misalnya :}\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \*\tx1000\
fs22\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dengan
membuat daftar spesifikasi barang secara lengkap. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Misalnya tertera di brosur atau kemasan tenta
ng data-data}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {produk secara rinci. Seperti ukuran, berat, fasilitas

, daya,}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\


cf0\f1\charscalex100 {konsumsi listrik dan lainnya.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-306\s
lmult0 \*\tx1000\fs22\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {Dengan membuka bungkus contoh barang yang bisa }\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dilakukan demo atasnya, se
perti umumnya sample barang.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \*\tx1000\fs22\c
f0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Garansi yan
g memastikan pembeli terpuaskan bila }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengalami masalah.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-426\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {18}\par\
pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn6
66\margbsxn453\cols2\colno1\colw4720\colsr-0\colno2\colw2880\pard\li626\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {A. Pengertian Riba}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Kedua}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs30\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Riba}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn1

1893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
986\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Secara bahasa riba bera
rti tambahan (ziyadah). Dan}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {secara istilah berarti tambahan p
ada harta yang disyaratkan}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dalam transaksi dari dua pelaku akad dal
am tukar menukar}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {antara harta dengan harta.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {Sebagian ulama ada yang menyandarkan definisi\uc1\u8217X riba\uc1\u8217X}\
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {pada hadits yang diriwayatkan al-Harits bin Usamah}\par\pard\sect\se
ctd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpa
ge\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\l
i5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqh Muamalat}\i0 \par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dari Ali bin Abi Thalib, yaitu bahwa Rasulullah SAW}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {bersabda:\uc1\u8221X Setiap hutang yang menimbulkan manfaat}\fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {adalah riba\uc1\u8221X.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pendapat ini
tidak tepat, karena, hadits itu sendiri}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sanadnya lemah, s
ehingga tidak bisa dijadikan dalil. Jumhur}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ulama tidak menjadik
an hadits ini sebagai definisi riba\uc1\u8217X,}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {karena ti
dak menyeluruh dan lengkap, disamping itu ada}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {manfaat yang bukan
riba\uc1\u8217X yaitu jika pemberian tambahan}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {atas hutang tersebut
tidak disyaratkan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {B. Sejarah Riba}\b0 \par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {Riba memiliki sejarah yang sangat panjang dan}\fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {prakteknya sudah dimulai semenjak bangsa Yahudi sampai}\fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {masa
Jahiliyah sebelum Islam dan awal-awal masa ke-}\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Islaman. Padahal semua agama
Samawi mengharamkan}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {riba karena tidak ada kemaslahatan
sedikitpun dalam}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kehidupan bermasyarakat. Allah SWT berfirman:}
\par\pard\li773\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li773\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \
fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X(\uc1\u1
583X\uc1\u1589X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X}\par\pard\li1160\ri
0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1575X*\uc1\u1606X\
uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X }\par\pard\li3000\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {\uc1\u1575Xl\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{Maka disebabkan kezaliman orang-orang Yahudi, Kami haramkan}\i0 \fs20\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\i {atas mereka (memakan makanan) yang baik-baik (yang dahulunya) }\i0 \fs20\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\i {dihalalkan bagi mereka, dan karena mereka banyak me
nghalangi}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {(manusia) dari jalan Al ah, dan disebabkan me
reka memakan riba,}\i0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\s

l-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {padahal sesungguhnya mereka telah di


larang daripadanya, dan karena}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mereka memakan harta ora
ng dengan jalan yang batil. Kami telah }\i0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-400\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {20}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pg
hsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\
slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {menyediakan untuk orang-orang yang kafir di antara mereka itu siksa }\i0 \
fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\i {yang pedih. (QS an-Nisaa\uc1\u8217X 160-161)}\i0 \par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X J\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1575X}\par\pard\li693\r
i0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X(\uc1\u1585
X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1605X*\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1593
X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X-\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X/\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604
X\uc1\u1575X 0\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1581X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Orang-orang
yang makan (mengambil) riba tidak dapat berdiri}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\i {melainkan seperti berdirinya orang yang kemasukan syaitan lantaran}\i0 \fs1
8\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\i {(tekanan) penyakit gila. Keadaan mereka yang demikian itu, adal
ah }\i0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {disebabkan mereka berkata (berpendapat), sesungguhn
ya jual-beli itu }\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {sama dengan riba, padahal Al ah telah
menghalalkan jual-beli dan}\i0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mengharamkan riba. (QS. AlBaqarah : 275)}\i0 \par\pard\li893\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li893\r
i0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X\
uc1\u1572XZ\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1606XJ\uc1\u1603X \uc1\u1606X
\uc1\u1573X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X(\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X
\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X -\uc1\u1575
X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1585X}\par\pard\li973\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1572X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1605XJ\uc1\u1603X}\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Hai orang-orang yang beriman, bertakwal
ah kepada Al ah dan}\i0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {tinggalkan sisa riba (yang be
lum dipungut) jika kamu orang-orang yang}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {beriman. Mak
a jika kamu tidak mengerjakan (meninggalkan sisa}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {riba), maka ketahuilah, bahwa Al ah dan Rasul-Nya akan}\i0 \
fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\i {memerangimu. Dan jika kamu bertaubat (dari penga
mbilan riba),}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {maka bagimu pokok hartamu; kamu tid
ak menganiaya dan tidak}\i0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {(pula) dianiaya. (QS al-Baqa
rah 276, 278, 279)}\i0 \par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li8
13\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1607X}\par\pard\li2480\r
i0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {S\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X
\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1585X - \{\uc1\u1569X\uc1\u15
75X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1587X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X :}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\r

i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char


scalex100 {21}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\ma
rgrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\i {Fiqh Muamalat}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dari Ibnu Mas'ud r
a bahwa Rasulul ah SAW melaknat pemakan}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {riba\uc1\u8217X
, yang memberi makan, kedua orang saksinya dan pencatatnya.}\i0 \par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {(HR Muslim)}\i0 \par\pard\li866
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li866\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {|\uc1\u1577X}\par\pard\li2746\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {\uc1\u1607X*\uc1\u1605XJ\uc1\u1571X J\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1580X*\uc1\u1585X
\uc1\u1604X}\par\pard\li680\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li680\ri0\sl-3
33\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dari Abdul ah bin Masud RA dari Nabi SA
W bersabda,"Riba itu}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {terdiri dari 73 pintu. Pintu yang
paling ringan seperti seorang laki-laki}\i0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {menikahi ibunya
sendiri. (HR. Ibnu Majah dan Al-hakim)}\i0 \par\pard\li800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li800\ri0\sl-560\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u160
4X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1589X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u160
4X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1602X : \uc1\u16
04X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1602X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1574X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604
X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1594X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1604X
\uc1\u1592X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1581X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X
\uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X}\par\pard\li800\ri0\sl480\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1579X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1
579X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1587X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1
588X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1608X\uc1\u16
07X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u160
7X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1585X
\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1583X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587
X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X}\par\pard\li5013\ri0\s
l-480\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1571X \uc1
\u1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1585X - \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1606X\uc1
\u1586X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dari Abdul ah bin Hanzhalah ghasilul mal
aikah berkata bahwa }\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Rasulul ah SAW bersabda,"Satu dirh
am uang riba yang dimakan oleh}\i0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {seseorang dalam kead
aan sadar, jauh lebih dahsyah dari pada 36 }\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\i { }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
i {wanita pezina. (HR. Ahmad)}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {C. Pembagian Riba
}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Al-Hanafi mengatakan bahwa riba itu terbagi me
njadi}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {dua, yaitu riba Al-Fadhl dan riba An-Nasa'. Sed
angkan}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {Imam As-Syafi'i membaginya menjadi tiga, yaitu riba Al-}\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Fadhl, riba An-Nasa'
dan riba Al-Yadd. Dan Al-Mutawally}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menambahkan jenis keempat, yai
tu riba AlQardh. Semua}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {jenis riba ini diharamkan secara ijma' berd
asarkan nash Al}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Qur'an dan hadits Nabi" (Az Zawqir Ala Iqliraaf al
Kabaair}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {vol. 2 him. 205).}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\

cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {22}\par\pard\s


ect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\mar
gbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaha
rah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Secara garis besar bisa dikelompokk
an menjadi dua}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {besar, yaitu riba hutang-piutang dan r
iba jual-beli.}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Kelompok pertama terbagi lagi menjadi riba qardh d
an riba}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {jahiliyah. Sedangkan kelompok kedua, riba jual-be
li,}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {terbagi menjadi riba fadhl dan riba nasi\uc1\u8217Xah.}\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {1. Riba Qardh}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Suatu manf
aat atau tingkat kelebihan tertentu yang}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disyaratkan terh
adap yang berhutang (muqtaridh).}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {2. Riba Jahiliyyah
}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Hutang dibayar lebih dari pokoknya,
karena si}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {peminjam tidak mampu membayar hutangnya pada waktu}\fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {yang ditetapkan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3. Riba Fadhl}\b0 \par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Riba fadhl adalah riba yang terjadi dalam masalah barter}\
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {atau tukar menukar benda. Namun bukan dua jenis benda}\fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y
ang berbeda, melainkan satu jenis barang namun dengan}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kadar atau t
akaran yang berbeda. Dan jenis barang yang}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dipertukarkan itu te
rmasuk hanya tertentu saja, tidak semua}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {jenis barang. Barang
jenis tertentu itu kemudian sering}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disebut dengan "barang r
ibawi".}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Harta yang dapat mengandung riba
sebagaimana}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disebutkan dalam hadits nabawi, hanya terbatas pada ema
s,}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {perak, gandung, terigu, kurma dan garam saja.}\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {Dari Ubadah bin Shamait berkata bahwa Rasulullah}\fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {SAW bersabda:\uc1\u8221X Emas dengan emas, perak dengan perak,}\fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {23}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\m
argrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\i {Fiqh Muamalat}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {gandum dengan g
andum, terigu dengan terigu, korma}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dengan korma, garam deng
an garam harus sama beratnya}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dan tunai. Jika jenisnya berbe

da maka juallah}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm


ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sekehendakmu tetapi harus tunai (HR Muslim).}\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Di luar keenam jenis barang itu tentu b
oleh terjadi}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {penukaran barang sejenis dengan kadar dan kualitas y
ang}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {berbeda. Apalagi bila barang itu berlainan jenisnya. Tentu}\fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {lebih boleh lagi.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
* Emas : Barter emas
dengan emas hukumnya haram,}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bila kadar dan ukurannya berbeda. Misa
lnya, emas 10 gram}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {24 karat tidak boleh ditukar langsung dengan ema
s 20 gram}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {23 karat. Kecuali setelah dikonversikan terlebi
h dahulu}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {masing-masing benda itu.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
* Perak : Barter perak dengan perak hukumnya}\fs22\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ha
ram, bila kadar dan ukurannya berbeda. Misalnya, perak}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {100 gram
dengan kadar yang tinggi tidak boleh ditukar}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {langsung
dengan perak200 yang kadarnya lebih rendah.}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Kecuali s
etelah dikonversikan terlebih dahulu masing-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {masing benda itu}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{
* Gandum : Barter gandum dengan gandum}\fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hukumn
ya haram, bila kadar dan ukurannya berbeda.}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 { }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Misalnya, 1
00 Kg gandum kualitas nomor satu tidak boleh}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ditukar langsung d
engan 150 kg gandum kuliatas nomor}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dua. Kecuali setelah d
ikonversikan terlebih dahulu masing-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {masing benda itu}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
* Te
rigu : Demikian juga barter terigu dengan}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {teriguhukumny
a haram, bila kadar dan ukurannya berbeda.}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Misalnya, 100 Kg terigu
kualitas nomor satu tidak boleh}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {24}\par\pard\sect\sectd\s
bkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ditukar langsung dengan 150 kg terigu kuliatas nomor dua
. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Kecuali sete
lah dikonversikan terlebih dahulu masing-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {masing benda itu.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
* Kurma : Barter kurma dengan kurma hukumnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {haram, bila kadar dan ukurannya berbeda. Mis
alnya, 1 Kg }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kurm

a ajwa (kurma nabi) tidak boleh ditukar langsung }\par\pard\li640\


ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dengan 10 kg kurma Mesir. Kecuali
setelah dikonversikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {terlebih dahulu masing-masing benda itu}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
* Garam}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4. Riba Nasi\uc1\u8217Xah}\b0 \par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {Riba Nasi\uc1\u8217Xah disebut juga riba Jahiliyah. Nasi'ah bers
al }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dari kata nas
a' yang artinya penangguhan. Sebab riba ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terjadi karena adanya penangguhan pembayaran. Inil
ah riba }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {yang um
umnya kita kenal di masa sekarang ini. Dimana }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {seseorang memberi hutang berupa uang kepada pi
hak lain, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dengan
ketentuan bahwa hutang uang itu harus diganti }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bukan hanya pokoknya, tetapi
juga dengan tambahan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {prosentase bunganya. Riba dalam nasi'ah muncul karena }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adanya perbedaan,
perubahan, atau tambahan antara yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {diserahkan saat ini dengan yang diserahkan kemudian.}\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Contoh : Ahmad ingin membangun rumah. Untuk itu }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dia pinjam uang kep
ada bank sebesar 144 juta dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bunga 13 % pertahun. Sistem peminjaman seperti ini, y
aitu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {harus den
gan syarat harus dikembalikan plus bunganya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {maka transaksi ini adalah transaksi ribaw
i yang diharamkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{dalam syariat Islam.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {D. Hukum riba}\b0 \par\pard\
li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {25}\par\pard\sec
t\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margb
sxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thahar
ah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1. Riba adalah bagian dari 7 dos
a besar yang telah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {ditetapkan oleh Rasulullah SAW. Sebagaimana hadits }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {berikut ini :}\par\pard\li
986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li986\ri0\sl-533\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1576X*\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u15
75X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1575X : }\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1581X(
\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1607X0\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604X
}\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1605X\uc1
\u1610X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1610X-\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\
u1605X J\uc1\u1604X-\uc1\u1603X}\par\pard\li746\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {S\uc1\u1602X}\par\pard\li6026\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 { \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dari Abi Hu
rairah ra berkata bahwa Rasulul ah SAW }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {bersabda,"Jauhilah oleh kalian tujuh hal
yang mencelakakan". Para }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\i {shahabat bertanya,"Apa saja ya Rasulal ah?". "Syirik kepada Al a
h, }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {sihir,
membunuh nyawa yang diharamkan Al ah kecuali dengan hak, }\i0 \par\pard\li640\r

i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {makan riba, makan harta


anak yatim, lari dari peperangan dan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {menuduh zina. (HR. Muttafaq alaihi).}\i0 \
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {2. Tidak ada dosa yang lebih sadis diperingatkan All
ah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {SWT di dalam
Al-Quran, kecuali dosa memakan harta riba. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Bahkan sampai Allah SWT mengumumkan perang kepada }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pelakunya. Hal ini
menunjukkan bahwa dosa riba itu sangat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {besar dan berat.}\par\pard\li973\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li973\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1610X\u
c1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1572X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1606XJ\uc
1\u1603X -\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1573X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X(\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1604X\u
c1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1575X\u
c1\u1605X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1585X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \
fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1608Xy\uc1\u1569X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1
605XJ\uc1\u1603X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {26}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\m
arglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs
16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Hai
orang-orang yang beriman, bertakwalah kepada Al ah dan }\i0 \par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {tinggalkan sisa riba
jika kamu orang-orang yang beriman.Maka jika }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {kamu tidak mengerjakan , maka ketahuilah, ba
hwa Al ah dan Rasul-}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\i {Nya akan memerangimu. Dan jika kamu bertaubat , maka bagimu }\i0 \par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {pokok hartamu; kamu
tidak menganiaya dan tidak dianiaya. (QS. }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Al-Baqarah : 278-279)}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {3. As-Sarakhsy berkata bahwa seorang yang makan riba }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {akan mendapatkan lima dosa atau
hukuman sekaligus. Yaitu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {At-Takhabbut, Al-Mahqu, Al-Harbu, Al-Kufru dan Al-}\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Khuludu fin-Naar.}\par\pard
\li813\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \*\tx1173\
fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {At-Takh
abbut : Kesurupan seperti kesurupannya }\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {syetan.}\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \*\tx
1173\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Al
-Mahqu : Dimusnahkan oleh Allah keberkahan }\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hartanya}\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-306\slmult
0 \*\tx1173\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {Al-Harbu : Diperangi oleh Allah SWT}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Al-Kufru
: dianggap kufur dari perintah Allah SWT. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dan dianggap keluar dari agama
Islam apabila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
menghalalkannya. Tapi bila hanya memakannya tanpa }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mengatakan bahwa riba itu halal, dia
berdosa besar.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Al-Khuludu fin-Naar : yaitu
kekal di dalam neraka, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {sekali masuk tidak akan pernah keluar lagi dari dalamnya. }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Nauzu bilah}\par\pard\

li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0


\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li618
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {27}\par\par
d\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\
margbsxn386\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4
706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li4706\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Ketiga}\par\pa
rd\li4360\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Gadai (Rahn)}\b0 \par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {Kelebihan pegadaian dibanding bank, secara umum, }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adalah dalam
hal kemudahan dan kecepatan prosedur. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pegadai (nasabah) tinggal membawa barang
yang cukup }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {be
rharga, kemudian ditaksir nilainya, dan duit pun cair. }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Praktis, sehingga sangat me
nguntungkan buat mereka yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {butuh dana cepat.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Sedangkan perbedaa
n gadai syariah dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {konvensional adalah dalam hal pengenaan bunga. }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pegadaian syariah mene
rapkan beberapa sistem }\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\
marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \f
s16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pembia
yaan, antara lain qardhul hasan (pinjaman }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kebajikan), dan mudharabah (bagi hasil) Buka
n tanpa alasan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {m
ereka tertarik untuk menggarap gadai ini. Di samping }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {alasan rasional, bahwa gadai
ini memilki potensi pasar yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {besar, sistem pembiayaan ini memang memiliki landasan }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {syariah. Apalagi t
erbukti, di negara\uc1\u8211Xnegara dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mayoritas penduduk muslim, seperti di Timur Ten
gah dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Malaysia
, pegadaian syariah telah berkembang pesat.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1. Peng
ertian}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Secara bahasa, rahn atau gadai bera
sal dari kata}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { ats-}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl

-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {tsubutu}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10


0 { yang berarti tetap dan }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {ad-dawamu}\i0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 { yang berarti terus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menerus. Sehingga air yang diam tidak mengalir dikatakan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sebagai }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {maun rahin}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Pengertian
secara bahasa tentang }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {rahn }\i0 \par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ini juga terdapat dalam firman All
ah SWT :}\par\pard\li4213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4213\ri0\sl-54
6\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u160
7X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1603X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576
X \uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1606X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1603X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\i {Tiap-tiap diri bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\i { diperbuatnya}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(QS. Al-Muddatstsr : 38)}\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {Adapun pengertian gadai atau ar-Rahn dalam ilmu fiqih }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adalah :}\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {
Menyimpan sementara harta milik si peminjam }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sebagai jaminan
atas pinjaman yang diberikan oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {berpiutang (yang meminjamkan). }\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {Berarti, barang yang dititipkan pada si piutang dapat }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {diambil kembali dal
am jangka waktu tertentu.}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {29}\par\pard\se
ct\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\marg
bsxn173\cols2\colno1\colw5400\colsr-0\colno2\colw2200\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {2. Dasar Masyru'iyah}\b0 \par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {Dalam Al-Quran Al-Kariem disebutkan:}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl
-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\sect\sec
td\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
\uc1\u1605XJ\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X}
\par\pard\li720\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u
1605X\uc1\u1608X }\par\pard\li2906\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{S\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Ji
ka kamu dalam perjalanan (dan bermuamalah tidak secara tunai) }\i0 \par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {sedang kamu tidak memperole
h seorang penulis, hendaklah ada barang }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {tanggungan yang dipegang (oleh yang berpiutang). \
uc1\u8221X.(QS Al-Baqarah }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\i {ayat 283)}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Ayat ini secara
eksplisit menyebutkan barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {tanggungan yang dipegang oleh yang berpiutang. Dal
am }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dunia finans
ial, barang tanggungan biasa dikenal sebagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {objek gadai atau jaminan (kolateral
) dalam dunia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{perbankan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Selain itu, istilah ar-Rahnu j
uga disebut dalam salah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c

harscalex100 {satu hadis nabawi.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p


ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dari Aisyah ra
berkata bahwa Rasulullah SAW }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {membeli makanan dari seorang yahudi dengan car
a }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menggadaikan b
aju besinya.(HR. Bukhari dan Muslim)}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Apabila ada
ternak digadaikan, punggungnya boleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dinaiki (oleh orang yang menerima gadai) karena ia
telah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mengeluark
an biaya (menjaga)nya\uc1\u8230X Kepada orang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {naik ia harus mengeluarkan
biaya perawatannya\uc1\u8221X, (HR }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {30}\p
ar\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\s
ect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\mar
gbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaha
rah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Jamaah kecuali Muslim dan Nasa\uc1\u8217Xi, B
ukhari no. 2329, kitab }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {ar-Rahn).}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3. Hukum Rahn / Gadai}\b0 \par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {Para fuqaha sepakat membolehkan praktek rahn / gadai }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ini, asalkan tidak
terdapat praktek yang dilarang, seperti }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {riba atau penipuan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {Di masa Rasulullah praktek rahn pernah dilakukan. }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dahulu ada orang menggad
aikan kambingnya. Rasul }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {ditanya bolehkah kambingnya diperah. Nabi mengizinkan, }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sekadar untuk menutup b
iaya pemeliharaan. Artinya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {Rasullulah mengizinkan kita boleh mengambil keuntungan }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dari barang yang di
gadaikan untuk menutup biaya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {pemeliharaan. Nah, biaya pemeliharaan inilah yang }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kemudian dijadika
n ladang ijtihad para pengkaji keuangan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {syariah, sehingga gadai atau rahn ini menjad
i produk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {keuan
gan syariah yang cukup menjanjikan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Secara teknis g
adai syariah dapat dilakukan oleh suatu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lembaga tersendiri seperi Perum Pegadaian, per
usahaan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {swasta
maupun pemerintah, atau merupakan bagian dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {produk-produk finansial yang ditawarkan
bank.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Praktik gadai syariah ini sangat strategis m
engingat citra }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {p
egadaian memang telah berubah sejak enam-tujuh tahun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terakhir ini. Pegadaian, kini bukan
lagi dipandang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {tempatnya masyarakat kalangan bawah mencari dana di }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kala anaknya sakit atau butu
h biaya sekolah. Pegadaian kini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {juga tempat para pengusaha mencari dana segar untu

k }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kelancaran bis


nisnya.}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\
ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {31}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\p
gwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li540
0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {Misalnya seorang produse film butuh biaya untuk }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {memproduksi fil
mnya, maka bisa saja ia menggadaikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mobil untuk memperoleh dana segar beberapa pulu
h juta }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rupiah. S
etelah hasil panenenya terjual dan bayaran telah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ditangan, selekas itu pula ia mene
bus mobil yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {digadaikannya. Bisnis tetap jalan, likuiditas lancar, dan }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {yang penting produksi b
isa tetap berjalan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4. Unsur dan Rukun Rahn}\b0 \pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dalam praktek rahn, ada terdapat beberapa unsur :}\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1. Ar-Rahin}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Yaitu orang yang menggadaikan barang atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {meminjam uang dengan jaminan barang
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {2. Al-Murtahin}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Yaitu orang yang menerima barang yang digadaikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {atau yang meminjamkan uangnya.}\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { 3. Al-Marhun / Ar-Rahn}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{
Yaitu barang yang digadaikan atau dipinjamkan}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\b { 4. Al-Marhun bihi}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {3
2}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\ma
rgtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
yaitu uang dipinjam
kan lantaran ada barang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {digadaikan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {5. Al-'Aqdu ya
itu akad atau kesepaktan untuk }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {melakukan transaksi rahn}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {Sedangkan yang termasuk rukun rahn adalah hal-hal }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {berikut :}\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b { 1. Adanya Lafaz}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
yaitu
pernyataan adanya perjanjian gadai. Lafaz }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dapat saja dilakukan secara tertulis maupun

lisan, yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100


{penting di dalamnya terkandung maksud adanya perjanjian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {gadai diantara para pihak.}\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b { 2. Adanya pemberi dan penerima gadai.}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {
Pemberi dan penerima gadai haruslah orang yang }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {berakal dan balig sehin
gga dapat dianggap cakap untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {melakukan suatu perbuatan hukum sesuai dengan ketentuan }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {syari\uc1\u8217Xa
t Islam.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { 3. Adanya barang yang digadaikan.}\b0 \
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Barang yang digadaikan harus ada
pada saat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {d
ilakukan perjanjian gadai dan barang itu adalah milik si }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pemberi gadai, barang gadaian i
tu kemudian berada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {dibawah pengasaan penerima gadai.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { 4. Adan
ya utang/ hutang.}\b0 \par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {33}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn6
66\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
H
utang yang terjadi haruslah bersifat tetap, tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {berubah dengan tambahan bunga atau mengandung
unsur }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {riba.}\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Mengenai barang (marhum) apa saja yang boleh
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {digadaikan, d
ijelaskan dalam Kifayatul Akhyar 5 bahwa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {semua barang yang boleh dijual \uc1\u8211X be
likan menurut syariah, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {boleh digadaikan sebagai tanggungan hutang.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Dalam keadaan normal hak dari rahin setelah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {melaksanakan kewajibannya adalah m
enerima uang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {p
injaman dalam jumlah yang sesuai dengan yang disepakati }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dalam batas nilai jaminannya, se
dang kewajiban rahin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {adalah menyerahkan barang jaminan yang nilainya cukup }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {untuk jumlah hutang yang dikehen
daki. Sebaliknya hak dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {murtahin adalah menerima barang jaminan dengan nilai }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {yang aman untuk uang
yang akan dipinjamkannya., sedang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {kewajibannya adalah menyerahkan uang pinjaman sesuai
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dengan yang dis
epakati bersama.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Setelah jatuh tempo, rahin
berhak menerima barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {yang menjadi tanggungan hutangnya dan berkewajiban }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {membayar kembali hutang
nya dengan sejumlah uang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {diterima pada awal perjanjian hutang. Sebaliknya murtahin }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {berhak menerima pembayar

an hutang sejumlah uang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\ch


arscalex100 {diberikan pada awal perjanjian hutang, sedang }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kewajibannya adalah men
yerahkan barang yang menjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {tanggungan hutang rahin secara utuh tanpa cacat.}\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {Diatas hak dan kewajiban tersebut diatas, kewajiban
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {murtahin adal
ah memelihara barang jaminan yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dipercayakan kepadanya sebagai barang amanah,
sedang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {haknya
dalah menerima biaya pemeliharaan dari rahin. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {34}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpag
e\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {Sebaliknya rahin berkewajiban membayar biaya }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pemeliharaan yang di
keluarkan murtahin, sedang haknya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adalah menerima barang yang menjadi tanggungan hutang }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dalam keadaan utuh
. Dasar hukum siapa yang menanggung }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {biaya pemeliharaan dapat dirujuk dari pendapat y
ang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {didasarkan k
epada Hadist Nabi riwayat Al \uc1\u8211X Syafi\uc1\u8217XI, Al \uc1\u8211X }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Ataram, dan Al \uc1\u
8211X Darulquthni dari Muswiyah bin Abdullah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Bin Ja\uc1\u8217Xfar :}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Ia (pemilik barang gadai) berhak menikmati hasilnya }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dan wajib memikul bebannya (beb
an pemeliharaannya).}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Ditempat lain terdapat penjela
san bahwa apabila barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {jaminan itu diizinkan untuk diambil manfaatnya selama }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {digadaikan, maka
pihak yang memanfaatkan itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {berkewajiban membiayainya. Hal ini sesuai dengan Hadits }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Rasullullah SAW :
Dari Abu Hurairah , barkata, sabda }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Rasullulah SAW :}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pun
ggung (binatang) apabila digadaikan, boleh dinaiki }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {asal dibiayai. Dan susu yang deras
apabila digadaikan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {boleh juga diminum asal dibiayai. Dan orang yang menaiki }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dan meminum itulah yang
wajib membiayai. (HR. Al-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {Bukhari).}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dalam keadaan tidak
normal dimana barang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {dijadikan jaminan hilang, rusak, sakit atau mati yang berada }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {diluar kekuasaan m
urtahin tidak menghapuskan kewajiban }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {rahin melunasi hutangnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Namu
n dalam praktek pihak murtahim telah mengambil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {langkah \uc1\u8211X langkah pencegahan de
ngan menutup asuransi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars

calex100 {kerugian sehingga dapat dilakukan penyelesaian yang adil.}\par\pard\li


6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {35}\par\pard\sect\
sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsx
n173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah
}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Mengenai pemilikan barang gadaian, berdasarkan
berita }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dari A
bu Hurairah perjanjian gadai tidak merubah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pemilikan walaupun orang yang berhu
tang dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menye
rahkan barang jaminan itu tidak mampu melunasi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hutangnya. Berita dari Abu Hu
rairah, sabda Rasullulah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {SAW., :}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Barang jaminan tidak bisa tert
utup dari pemiliknya yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {telah menggadaikannya. Dia tetap menjadi pemiliknya dan }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dia tetap berhutang.}\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {Pada waktu jatuh tempo apabila rahin tidak mam
pu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {membayar hu
tangnya dan tidak mengizinkan murtahin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menjual barang gadaiannya, maka hakim/pengadilan
dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {memaksa p
emilik barang membayar hutang atau menjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {barangnya. Hasil penjualan apabila cukup
dapat dipakai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{untuk menutup hutangnya, apabila lebih dikembalikan }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kepada pemilik barang tetapi apab
ila kurang pemilik barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {tetap harus menutup kekurangannya}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dalam
hal orang yang menggadaikan meninggal dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {masih menanggung hutang, maka pener
ima gadai boleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {menjual barang gadai tersebut dengan harga umum. Hasil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {penjualan apabila cukup dapat
dipakai untuk menutup }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {hutangnya, apabila lebih dikembalikan kepada ahli waris }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tetapi apabila
kurang ahli waris tetap harus menutup }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kekurangannya atau barang gadai dikembalikan k
epada ahli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {waris
setelah melunasi hutang almarhum pemilik barang}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Da
ri ketentuan-ketentuan yang tersedia dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disimpulkan bahwa barang gadai sesuai
syariah adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {merupakan pelengkap belaka dari konsep hutang piutang }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {antara individu atau
perorangan. Konsep hutang piutang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {36}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghs
xn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\sl
mult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{sesuai dengan syariat menurut Muhammad Akram Khan }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adalah merupakan salah satu kons
ep ekonomi Islam dimana }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsca

lex100 {bentuknya yang lebih tepat adalah al-qardhul hassan. }\par\p


ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Hutang piutang dala
m bentuk al- qardhul hassan dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dukungan gadai (rahn), dapat dipergunakan untuk kep
erluan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sosial
maupun komersial. Peminjam mempunyai dua }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pilihan, yaitu : dapat memilih qardhu
l hassan atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{menerima pemberi pinjaman atau penyandang dana (rabb }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {al-mal) sebagai mitra usaha dalam perjan
jian mudharabah}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Didalam bentuk al-qardhul has
san ini hutang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {terjadi wajib dilunasi pada waktu jatuh tempo tanpa ada
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tambahan apap
un yang disyaratkan (kembali pokok). }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Peminjam menanggung biaya yang secara nya
ta terjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sep
erti biata penyimpanan dll., dan dibayarkan dalam }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bentuk uang (bukan prosentas
e). Peminjam pada waktu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {jatuh tempo tanpa ikatan syarat apapun boleh }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menambahkan secara sukare
la pengembalian hutangnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Apabila peminjam memilih
qardhul hassan, rabb al-mal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {tentu saja akan mempertimbangkannya apabila peminjam }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adalah pengusaha pemu
la dan apabila peminjam memilih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {perjanjian mudharabah maka terlebih dahulu harus }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disepakati porsi
bagihasil masing-masing pihak dimana }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {posisi peminjam dana adalah sebagai mudharib. }\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {===}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {37}\par\pard\sect\s
ectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn
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3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
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ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Keempat}\par\pard\li54
80\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Ijarah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
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l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal


ex100 {Secara bahasa, ijarah berarti upah, sewa, jasa atau }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {imbalan. Ijarah adalah
transaksi yang memperjual-belikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {manfaat suatu harta benda, sedangkan kepemilikian pokok }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {benda itu tetap pada p
emiliknya. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Transaksi ijarah merupakan salah satu b
entuk kegiatan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {m
uamalah yang banyak dilakukan manusia untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya.}\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
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i1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Ada beberapa definisi
ijarah menurut para ulama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
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0 \*\tx1173\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {Al-Hanafiyah, ijarah adalah : }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {akad
atau transaksi }\b0 \par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\b {manfaat dengan imbalan}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li813
\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \*\tx1173\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Ay-syafi'iyah, ijarah adalah : }\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b {transaksi terhadap }\b0 \par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {manfaat yang dikehendaki secara jelas harta yang }\b0 \p
ar\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {bersifat mubah d
an dapat dipertukarkan dengan }\b0 \par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {imbalan tertentu}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\par\par
d\li813\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \*\tx1173\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\ta
b \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Al-Malikiyah dan Al-Hanabilah, ijarah adal
ah : }\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {pemili
kan manfaat suatu harta benda yang }\b0 \par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {bersifat mubah selama periode waktu
tertentu }\b0 \par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{dengan suatu imbalan}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {2. Masyru'iyah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\

li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Para fuqaha telah bersepak


at tentang kebolehan hukum }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {ijarah ini dengan beberapa dalil dari Al-Quran Al-Kariem }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dan juga dari sunnah nabawiy
ah. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Namun sebagian kecil ulama ada juga
yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mengharam
kannya dengan beberapa alasan. Di antara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mereka misalnya Hasan Al-Basri, Abu B
akar Al-Asham, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Ismail bin Aliyah, Ibnu Kisan dan lainnya.{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#39"}}{
\fldrslt { }}}}\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#39"}}{
\fldrslt {9}}}}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {8}{ }\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {Dr. Wahbah Az-Zuhaili dalam kitab Al-Fiqhul Islami wa Adil atuhu jilid Iv hal
aman 731-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {733}\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \*\tx1146\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {9}\tab \fs
16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Menurut mereka hukum ijarah adalah haram, sebab ijarah
itu menghilangkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{manfaat suatu barang dan manfaat itu sendiri bukan suatu ben
da yang anda. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Sedangkan akad atas sesuatu yang tidak ada termasuk transaksi gharar. Lihat D
r. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Wahbah Az-Zuh
aili dalam kitab Al-Fiqhul Islami wa Adillatuhu jilid Iv halaman 730}\par\pard\l
i6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-466\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {39}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn118
93\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult
0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Namun hajat semua orang yang sangat membutuhkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {manfaat suatu benda, membuat akad ij
arah ini menjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {boleh. Sebab tidak semua orang bisa memiliki suatu benda, }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {namun sudah pasti tiap orang butu
h manfaat benda itu }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Maka ijarah dibolehkan,
selain memang Allah SWT }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {telah memastikan kebolehan transaksi ijarah, sebagaimana }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sejumlah keterangan dari
Al-Quran dan As-Sunnah berikut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {ini :}\par\pard\li1053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
53\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1570X*\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u
1605X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1605X0\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X \uc1\u1575X}\par\pard\li1480\
ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {S\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1589X\uc1\u1576
X }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dan jika kamu ingin anakmu disusukan oleh orang
lain, Maka tidak }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\i {ada dosa bagimu apabila kamu memberikan pembayaran menurut yang }\i0 \p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {patut. Bertakwala
h kamu kepada Al ah dan Ketahuilah bahwa Al ah }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Maha melihat apa yang kamu kerjakan. (QS.
Al-Baqarah : 233)}\i0 \par\pard\li666\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
66\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u16
06XZ\uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u158
1X-\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u157
8X\uc1\u1588X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1593X*\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1606
X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1587X}\par\pard\l
i1293\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\

u1585X\uc1\u1582X\uc1\u1587X \uc1\u1575Xl\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\


u1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1576X }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\i {Apakah mereka yang membagi-bagi rahmat Tuhanmu? kami Telah }\i0 \par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {menentukan antara
mereka penghidupan mereka dalam kehidupan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {dunia, dan kami Telah meninggikan sebah
agian mereka atas sebagian }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i {yang lain beberapa derajat, agar sebagian mereka
dapat }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {me
mpergunakan sebagian yang lain. dan rahmat Tuhanmu lebih baik }\i0 \par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {dari apa yang mereka kumpulk
an. (QS. Az-Zukhruf : 32)}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {40}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11
893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult
0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li920\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li920\ri0\sl-666\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\u
c1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1609X\uc
1\u1604X\uc1\u1589X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1587X\uc1
\u1585X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1573X : \uc1\u1604X\uc
1\u1575X\uc1\u1602X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc
1\u1610X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1593X \uc1
\u1606X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X}\par\pard\li2320\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \f
s30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1582X\uc1\u1576
X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1585X - \uc1\u160
7X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1581X
\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1593X\
uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1608X}\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\i {Dari Ibn Abbas ra berkata bahwa Rasulul ah SAW m
elakukan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {h
ijamah (berbekam) dan memberikan orang yang melakukannya upah }\i0 \par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {atas kerjanya. (HR. Bukhari
)}\i0 \par\pard\li1266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1266\ri0\sl-546\s
lmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X
\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1589X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X
\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1602X :
\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1602X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1604X
\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1593X
\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X}\par\pard\li1213\ri0\sl
-480\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u
1605X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1
585X - \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\
u1606X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1602X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u
1580X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1
608X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1575X : \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1
608X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dari Umar ra bahwa Rasulul ah SAW bersabda,"Be
rikan pekerja itu }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\i {upahnya sebelum kering keringatnya". (HR. Ibnu Majah)}\i0 \par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\b {3. Rukun Ijarah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Jumhur ulama me
netapkan bahwa sebuah akad ijarah itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {setidaknya harus mengandung 4 unsur yang menjadi rukun. }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dimana bila sa
lah satu rukun itu kurang atau tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm

ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terpenuhi, maka akad itu menjadi cacat atau tid
ak sah.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3.1. Al-'Aqidani (dua belah pihak)}\b0 \par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Yang dimaksud adalah pihak yang menyewakan a
tau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {musta'jir (\
uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1578XRR\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X) dan pihak y
ang menyewa atau muajjir (}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1605X).}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {Keduanya adalah inti dari akad ini yang bila salah }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {satunya tidak ada, misa
lnya tidak ada yang menyewa atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {tidak ada yang menyewakan, tentu tidak bisa dikat
akan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {akad sewa m
enyewa. }\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {41}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\cols2\colno1\colw5400\colsr-0\colno2\colw2200\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3.2. Shighat }\b0 \p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3.3. Pembayaran}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b {3.4. Manfaat}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4. Objek Ijarah}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\r
i0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\sec
t\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {Dari beberapa definisi di atas telah disebutkan bahwa }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ijarah itu merupakan sebuah transak
si atas suatu manfaat. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dalam hal ini, manfaat men
jadi objek transaksi. Dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {segi ini, ijarah dapat dibedakan menjadi dua macam. }\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {Pertama, ijarah yang mentransaksikan manfaat harta }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {benda yang lazim
disebut dengan persewaan. Misalnya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sewa-menyewa rumah, kendaraan, toko dan lainnya. }\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Kedua, ijarah yang mentransaksikan manfaat SDM yang }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lazim disebut den
gan perburuhan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4.1. Manfaat Harta Benda}\b0 \par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Tidak semua harta benda boleh diijarahkan, kecuali bila }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bila memenuhi sya
rat-syarat berikut ini :}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {42}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn6
66\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrs
xn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\cols2\colno1\colw2440\colsr-0\colno2\colw5160\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs2

4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a.}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par


\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Manfaat objek a
kad harus diketahui }\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\mar
glsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
secara jelas. Hal ini dilakukan misalnya dengan }\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {memeriksanya secara langsung
atau pemilik }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
memberikan informasi secara transparan tentang }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kualitas manfaat barang.}\par\pard\sect\
sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\cols2\colno1\colw24
40\colsr-0\colno2\colw5160\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {b.}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Obj
ek ijarah dapat diserah-terimakan dan }\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\p
ghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {dimanfaatkan secara langsung dan tidak mengandung }\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cacat yang mengha
langi fungsinya. Tidak dibenarkan }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {transaksi ijarah atas harta benda yang masi
h dalam }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pengu
asaan pihak ketiga.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn
666\margrsxn133\cols2\colno1\colw2440\colsr-0\colno2\colw5160\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {c.}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Objek ijarah dan pemanfataannya harus }\par\par
d\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tidak bertentang dengan sya
riah. Misal yang }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {bertentangan adalah menyewakan vcc porno, }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menyewakan rumah bordil, atau m
enyewakan toko }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{untuk menjual khamar.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marg
lsxn666\margrsxn133\cols2\colno1\colw2440\colsr-0\colno2\colw5160\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {d.}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Yang disewakan adalah manfaat }\par\pa
rd\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {langsung dari sebuah benda. Misa
lnya, sewa menyewa }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {rumah untuk ditempati, mobil untuk dikendarai, tanah }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sawah untuk ditanami atau buku untuk d
ibaca. Tetapi }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s
ebaliknya, menyewa suatu benda untuk diambil hasil }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {turunan dari benda itu tidak dibenarkan seca
ra syariah. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Mis
alnya, menyewa pohon untuk diambil buahnya, atau }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menyewa kambing untuk diambil anaknya,
atau }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menyewa
ayam untuk diambil telurnya atau menyewa }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sapi untuk diambil susunya. Sebab telur, anak kambing
, }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {susu sapi
dan lainnya adalah manfaat turunan }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {berikutnya, dimana benda itu melahirkan b
enda baru }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lai
nnya.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\cols2\colno1\colw2440\colsr-0\colno2\colw5160\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e.}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {Harta benda yang mejadi objek ijarah }\par\pard\sect
\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {haruslah harta benda yang bersifat isti
'mali, yakni harta }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {benda yang dapat dimanfaatkan berulang kali tanpa }\par\pard\li1

000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mengakibatkan kerusakan d


an pengurangan sifatnya. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {Seperti tanah, kebun, mobil dan lainnya. Sedangkan }\p
ar\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {43}\par\
pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect
\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbs
xn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thahara
h}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {benda yang bersifat istihlaki atau benda yang
rusak atau }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ber
kurang sifatnya karena pemakaian seperti makanan, }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {minuman atau buku tulis, tidak boleh disewaka
n. Dalam }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hal in
i ada sebuah kaidah :}\par\pard\li2320\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2
320\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u
1604X\uc1\u1573X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u15
80X\uc1\u1573X \uc1\u1586X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1578X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u161
0X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1569X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1605
X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1610X
\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1603X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Sega
la sesuatu yang bisa dimanfaatkan sedangkan zatnya tidak }\i0 \par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mengalami perubahan
, boleh disewwakan. Jika tidak demikian, maka }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {tidak boleh disewakan.}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {Kelima persyaratan di atas harus dipenuhi dalam setiap }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ijarah yang mentransaksikan m
anfaat harta benda.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4.2. Pekerja}\b0 \par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {Adapun ijarah yang mentransaksikan suatu pekerjaan }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {atas seorang pekerja
atau buruh, harus memenuhi beberapa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {persyaratan berikut ini :}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1. Per
buatan tersebut harus jelas batas waktu }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pekerjaannya, misalnya bekerja menjaga
rumah satu }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
malam atau satu bulan. Dan harus jelas jenis }\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pekerjaannya, misalnya pekerjaan
menjahit baju, }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {memasak, mencuci dan lain sebagainya. Dalam hal yang }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disebutkan terakhir ini tidak disyara
tkan adanya batas }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {waktu pengerjaannya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {2. Pekerjaan yang menjadi objek ijarah tidak berupa }\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pekerjaan yang telah m
enjadi kewajiban pihak pekerja }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {sebelum berlangsungnya akad ijarah. Seperti kewajiban }\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {membayar hutang, mengemba
likan pinjaman, menyusui }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {anak dan lain-lain.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {44}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marg
lsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dari s
egi uang atau ongkos sewa, ijarah harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\

slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {memenuhi syarat berikut :}\par\pard\li586\ri


0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li586\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {1. Upah harus berupa }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mal mutaqawim}\i0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, yaitu harta yang }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {halal untuk dimanfaatkan. Dan besarnya
harus }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disepa
kati secara jelas oleh kedua belah pihak. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Sedangkan mempekerjakan buruh dengan upah
makan }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {merupaka
n contoh upah yang tidak jelas, karena }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mengandung unsur jahalah (ketidak-past
ian). Ijarah }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
seperti menurut jumhur ulama selain Al-Malikiyah, }\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adalah tidak sah. Sedangkan
fuqaha Al-Malikiyah }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {menetapkan keabsahan ijarah tersebut sepanjang ukuran }\par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {upah yang dimaksud dapat
diketahui berdasarkan }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {kebiasaan.}\par\pard\li586\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {2. Upah itu harus berbeda dengan objek pekerjaannya. }\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Menyewa rumah dengan ruma
h lainnya, atau mengupah }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {suatu pekerjaan dengan pekerjaan serupa, merupakan }\par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ijarah yang tidak memenu
hi syarat. Karena hukumnya }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {tidak sah, karena dapat mengantarkan kepada riba.}\par\pard\li6186\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {45}\par\pard\s
ect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\mar
gbsxn666\cols2\colno1\colw4480\colsr-0\colno2\colw3120\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-400\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1. Definisi}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\

ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\


li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pertemuan
Keempat}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Salam
}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Istilah salam sering juga disebut dengan sa
laf. Di }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kebany
akan hadits nabawi, istilah yang nampaknya lebih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {banyak digunakan }\fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {adalah}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { salaf. }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {Namun dalam kitab fiqih, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {lebih sering digunakan salam.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.1
. Bahasa}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\mar
grsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
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0\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Secara bahasa, salam (\uc1\
u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X) adalah }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {al-i'tha'}\
i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (\uc1\u1569X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1593X\u
c1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X) dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\i {at-taslif}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1610X\
uc1\u1604XRRRRRR\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X). Keduanya berm
akna pemberia{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#47"}}{\fldrslt {n.}}}}\fs14\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#47"}}{\fldrslt {10 }}}}\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Ungkapan }\fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\i {aslama ats-tsauba lil al-khayyath}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
bermakna : dia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {t
elah menyerahkan baju kepada penjahit. }{ }\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {{\field{\
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fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.2. Is
tilah Syariah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Sedangkan secara istilah sy
ariah, akad salam sering }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {didefinisikan oleh para fuqaha secara umumnya menjadi : }\par\p

ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1580X


\uc1\u1575XRR\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1609XRR\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u16
04X\uc1\u1583XRR\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1577XRR\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u
1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1610XRR\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1608XRR\uc1\u1589X\uc
1\u1608X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1593XRR\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X). Jual-beli barang yang
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disebutkan sif
atnya dalam tanggungan dengan imbalan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(pembayaran) yang dilakukan saat itu juga.}\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dengan bahasa yang mudah, akad salam itu pad
a }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hakikatnya ad
alah jual-beli dengan hutang. Tapi bedanya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {yang dihutang bukan uang pembayarannya, me
lainkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {barangny
a. Sedangkan uang pembayarannya justru }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {diserahkan tunai.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Ja
di akad salam ini kebalikan dari kredit. Kalau jual-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {beli kredit, barangnya diserahkan terlebih
dahulu dan uang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{pembayarannya jadi hutang. Sedangkan akad salaf, uangnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {diserahkan terlebih dahulu sedan
gkan barangnya belum }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {diserahkan dan menjadi hutang.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.2. Defini
si Para Fuqaha'}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs12\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {10}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Salam yang dimaksud dalam p
embahasan ini terdiri dari tiga huruf : sin-lam-mim (}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X}\fs16\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {), artinya adalah penyerahan dan bukan berarti perdamaian. Da
ri kata salam inilah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {istilah Islam punya akar yang salah satu maknanya adalah berserah-diri. Sed
angkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kata sala
m yang bermakna perdamaian terdiri dari 4 huruf, sin-lam-alif-mim (}\fs18\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X}\fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {).
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {11}{ }\fs16\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {Lisanul Arab, madah 'Gharar' halaman 217}\par\pard\li6186\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {47}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
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\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Ada beberapa definisi
salam menurut para ulama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {mazhab sesuai dengan syarat yang mereka ajukan. }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Setidaknya ada tiga
pendapat dalam hal ini.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Pendapat pertama}\b0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { adalah pendapat yang menetapkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bahwa salam itu merupakan jua
l beli yang uangnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {dibayarkan sekarang sedangkan barangnya diserahkan }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kemudian. }\fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b {Pendapat kedua}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, hanya mens
yaratkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {penyera
han uangnya yang harus saat akad, adapun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {barangnya boleh langsung diserahkan
ataupun bisa juga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx3493\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {diserahkan kemudian.}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Pendap
at ketiga}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mensyaratkan uangnya diserahkan sekarang,
demikian juga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de
ngan barangnya juga tidak diserahkan sekarang.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.1.
Pendapat Pertama}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Sudah disebutkan bahwa
menurut pendapat pertama, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {akad salam merupakan jual beli yang uangnya dibayarkan }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sekarang sedangkan barangny
a diserahkan kemudian.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Mazhab Hanafi dan Hambali ya
ng diwakili oleh }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Ibnu }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {'Abidin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 { menyebutkan bahwa salam adalah (\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1570X\uc1\u1593
X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1570X \uc1\u1569X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1585X
\uc1\u1588X), }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {me
mbeli sesuatu yang diberikan kemudian dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pembayaran sekarang. }\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {Maksudnya, salaf adalah membeli sesuatu yang }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {diserahkannya bukan saat
akad dilangsungkan tetapi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {diserahkan kemudian. Ini menjadi syarat dari akad salam. }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Namun mereka menetapkan
bahwa pembayarannya harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {dilakukan saat itu juga, yakni saat akad dilangsungka{\field{\*\fld
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dinst{HYPERLINK "#48"}}{\fldrslt {12}}}}{\sub \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {{\fiel
d{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#48"}}{\fldrslt { }}}}}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{12}{ }\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Lihat Ad-Dur Al-Mukhtar jilid 4 halaman 203}
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \
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\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Hal senada dituliskan dalam
kitab }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Kasysyaf Al-Qina' }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(\uc1\u1583XRR\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1593
X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1610X
\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1606X\
uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1579X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1572X\uc1\u1605X \u
c1\u1577X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1601X \uc
1\u1601X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1589X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\
u1593X), maknanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{adalah akad atas pembelian sesuatu yang hanya disebutkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sifatnya dan menjadi tanggungan di ke
mudian hari dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {pembayaran yang maqbudh, yakni dilakukan saat itu juga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dalam majelis aka{\field{\*\fldinst{HY
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\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#49"}}{\fldrslt {13}}}}}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.2.
Pendapat Kedua}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000
\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Adapun mazhab Asy-Syafi'i,
tidak mensyaratkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {penyerahan sesuatu yang diperjual-belikan itu di kemudian }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hari atau saat itu juga. Yang le
bih penting adalah -menurut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {mereka, penyerahan uang pembayarannya dilakukan saat }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {akad. Pendapat kedua
ini hanya mensyaratkan penyerahan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {uangnya yang harus saat akad, adapun barangnya b
oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {langsung
diserahkan ataupun bisa juga diserahkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kemudian.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Di dala
m kitab Raudhatut-Thalibin, Al-Imam An-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Nawawi }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {rahimahulla
h}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { menyebutkan bahwa akad salam itu }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adalah : (\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1
580X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u16
04X\uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1604
X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1589X\uc1\u1608X
\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1593X)
. Maksudnya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sal
am adalah sebuah akad atas suatu benda yang disebutkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sifatnya dalam tanggungan dengan imbalan
yang dilakukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s

aat itu juga{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#49"}}{\fldrslt {.}}}}{\super \fs14\up


4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#49"}}{\fldrslt {14}}}}}\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dalam definisi ini tidak ada ketentuan bahwa barang i
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g ketiga ini mensyaratkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
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k disyaratkan harus diserahkan saat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
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uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1604X\u
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dengan pembayaran yang hadir (saat itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
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bayaran yang berada dalam }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
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\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0
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}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
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kalimat :
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {hingga waktu yang }\b0 \p
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pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs12\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {15}{ }\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Idhahul Masalik Ila Al-Q
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cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {50}\par\pard\s
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rah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Akad salam ditetapkan kebolehannya
di dalam Al-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
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ila kamu bermu`amalah tidak }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f
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menuliskannya }\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(QS. Al-Baqarah : 282)}\par\pard\
li826\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li826\ri0\sl-560\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1602X \uc1\u
1609X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1
604X\uc1\u1573X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u157
5X \uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1571
X \uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1588X\uc1\u1571X : \uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u157
6X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1602
X}\par\pard\li946\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(\uc1\u1607X\uc
1\u1583X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1593X\uc1
\u1601X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1588X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u
1585X\uc1\u1582X\uc1\u1571X) \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u
1607X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1607X \uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1602X \uc1\u1579X \uc1\u

1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1


607X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1603X \uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u15
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t0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Ibnu Al-Abbas berkata, Aku bersaksi bahwa akad
salaf (salam) yang }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charsca
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slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {salam ini disebutkan dalam hadits riwayat Ib
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00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Ibnu Abbas RA berkata bahw
a ketika Nabi SAW baru tiba di }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\i {Madinah, orang-orang madinah biasa meminjamkan buah kurma s
atu }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {tahun
dan dua tahun. Maka Nabi SAW bersabda,"Siapa yang }\i0 \par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {meminjamkan buah ku
rma maka harus meminjamkan dengan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-293\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {timbangan yang tertentu dan sampai pada masa ya
ng tertentu\uc1\u8221X. }\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (}\fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
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3\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X*\uc1\u15

86X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1593X*\uc1\u1588X\uc1\u160
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0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X :\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X}\par\pard\li3
293\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Z\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u
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\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Abdurrahman
bin Abza dan Abdul ah bin Auf RA keduanya }\i0 \par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mengatakan,"Kami biasa men
dapat ghanimah bersama Rasulul ah }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {SAW. Datang orang-orang dari negeri syam. Lalu ka
mi pinjamkan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
i {kepada mereka untuk dibayar gandum atau sya\uc1\u8217Xir atau kismis dan }\i
0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {minyak sampai
kepada masa yang telah tertentu. Ketika ditanyakan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {kepada kami,"Apakah mereka itu
mempunyai tanaman?\uc1\u8221X. Jawab }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {kedua sahabat ini,"Tidak kami tanyakan kepada me
reka tentang itu\uc1\u8221X. }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {(HR Bukhari dan Muslim)}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {2.3. Dali
l Ijma'}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ibnu Al-Munzir menyebutkan bahwa semua
orang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kami
kenal sebagai ahli ilmu telah bersepakat bahwa akad }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {salam itu merupakan akad yan
g dibolehkan{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#52"}}{\fldrslt {.}}}}\fs14\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#52"}}{\fldrslt {16}}}}\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\b {3. Keuntungan dan Manfaat Akad Salam}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-37
3\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {16}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Al-Mughn
i oleh Ibnu Qudamah jilid 4 halaman 304}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {52}\par\pard\
sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\ma
rgbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thah
arah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-45
3\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Akad salam ini dibolehkan dalam
syariah Islam karena }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {punya hikmah dan manfaat yang besar, dimana kebutuhan }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {manusia dalam bermu
amalat seringkali tidak bisa dipisahkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari kebutuhan atas akad ini. Kedua belah pihak, yaitu p
enjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan pembe
li bisa sama-sama mendapatkan keuntungan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {manfaat dengan menggunakan akad salam.}\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {Pembeli (biasanya) mendapatkan keuntungan berupa:}\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f2\
charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}{ }\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Jaminan untuk mendapa
tkan barang sesuai dengan yang ia }\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {butuhkan dan pada waktu yang ia inginkan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}{ }\fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Sebagaimana ia juga mendapatkan barang dengan harga }\par\par
d\li813\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang lebih murah bila dib
andingkan dengan pembelian pada }\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {saat ia membutuhkan kepada barang tersebut.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {Sedangkan penjual juga mendapatkan keuntungan yang }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak kalah besar dibandin
g pembeli, diantaranya:}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}{ }\fs24\cf0\f1\

charscalex100 {Penjual mendapatkan modal untuk menjalankan usahanya }\par\par


d\li813\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan cara-cara yang hal
al, sehingga ia dapat menjalankan }\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {dan mengembangkan usahanya tanpa harus membayar }\pa
r\pard\li813\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bunga. Dengan demiki
an selama belum jatuh tempo, penjual }\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {dapat menggunakan uang pembayaran tersebut untuk
}\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjalankan usah
anya dan mencari keuntungan sebanyak-}\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {banyaknya tanpa ada kewajiban apapun.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}{ }\fs24\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Penjual memiliki keleluasaan dalam memenuhi permintaan }\par\pard\li813\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembeli, karena biasanya tenggang
waktu antara transaksi }\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {dan penyerahan barang pesanan berjarak cukup lama.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {4. Contoh Akad Salam}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Secara ilustrasi, a
kad salam ini bisa digambarkan semisal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seorang }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {pedagang }\b0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau broker yang tidak punya modal uang }\par\pard\li618
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li6186\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {53}\par\pard\sect\sec
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00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {segar. Untuk dapat men
jual barang, dia tidak punya uang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagai modal untuk membeli barang itu d
ari sumbernya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
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0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Di sisi lain pedagang i
ni pandai mendapatkan order }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {permintaan dari calon pembelinya. Maka dia bisa melakukan }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akad salam yang hala
l dengan calon pembelinya itu. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam hal ini,
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ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pedagang dengan spesifikasi yang telah disepaka
ti, juga dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {

harga yang
disepakati pula, namun uangnya langsung }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibayarkan. Dengan uang pembaya
ran yang sudah diserahkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {itulah di pedagang bisa membeli barang yang diinginkan,
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tentunya dia men
dapatkan dengan harga di bawah dari harga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jual.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Cara ini halal
dan berbeda dengan keharaman menjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang yang belum menjadi milik dengan
beberapa alasan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Antara lain misalnya :}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \*\tx1000\fs22\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\ta
b \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Menjual barang yang bukan miliknya itu
haram karena }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{boleh jadi barang yang bukan miliknya itu sudah }\par\pard\li1000
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diserahkan kepada pembeli. Berbe
da dengan salam yang }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {barangnya memang belum diserahkan dan menjadi hutang }\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bagi si penjual.}\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \*\tx1000\fs22\cf0\f
2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Menjual barang
yang belum menjadi milik itu haram }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lantaran tidak ada jaminan bagi si p
enjual untuk bisa }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {mendapatkan barang itu untuk diserahkan kepada }\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembelinya.{\field{\*\fldinst{H
YPERLINK "#54"}}{\fldrslt { }}}}\fs14\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{H
YPERLINK "#54"}}{\fldrslt {17}}}}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {17}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {Misalnya, A penjual dan B pembeli. A menjual mobil yang masih mili
k C kepada B }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {den
gan harga tertentu. Padahal A sama sekali tidak bisa memastikan apakah C mau }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menjual mobilnya ke
A untuk dijual lagi ke C. Maka akad ini adalah akad haram. Namun }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bila A sudah padat kepastian b
ahwa C rela menjual mobilnya kepada A asalkan dibayar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-20
0\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tunai dengan harga yang disepakati, maka A
pada dasarnya sudah boleh menjual mobil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {54}\par\par
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\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-493\slmult0 \*\tx1000\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam akad salam, barang yang dijual tidak harus baran
g }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tertentu yang
dimaksud. Misalnya, yang dijual tidak harus }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berupa seekor sapi tertentu milik C yang namanya s
i Paijo. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Tetapi
bisa saja sapi lain bukan bernama Paijo, asalkan }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang memenuhi spesifikasi yang disepakati{
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slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Contoh lain misalnya seorang }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {petani }\b0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {yang membutuhkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {modal untuk menanam. Dia butuh bibit, pupuk, obat hama }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan biaya lainnya.
Dengan akad salam ini, dia bisa menjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hasil panennya sebelum dia menanam. }\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {Namun yang membedakannya dengan sistem ijon yang }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {haram itu adalah dalam ak
ad salam ini, hasil panen yang dijual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harus ditetapkan spesifikasinya sejak akad disep
akati secara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {t
epat. Baik jenisnya kualitas, kuantitas dan lainnya. Tidak }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {boleh digantungkan pada
semata-mata hasil panen. Sehingga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {apabila hasil panennya tidak sesuai dengan spesi
fikasi yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {su
dah disepakati, hutangnya dianggap tetap belum terbayar. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Petani itu wajib membayar dengan hasil
panen yang sesuai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {dengan spesifikasi yang sudah disepakati, bagaimana pun }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {caranya termasuk dengan
membeli dari petani lain.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan sistem ijon
itu haram, karena barang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dijual semata-mata apa adanya dari hasil pa
nen. Bila hasil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {panennya jelek atau tidak sesuai harapan, maka yang membeli }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hasil panen itu rugi. Se
baliknya, bila hasilnya bagus, maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {itu kepada C, meski secara status mobil itu belum me
njadi miliknya sepenuhnya. Dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {syarat barang yang diperjual-belikan akan nampak lebih jelas la
gi nanti.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {18}{ }\
fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Misalnya, A menjual secara salam berupa seekor sapi k
epada B. A dan B sepakat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {bahwa spesifikasi sapi itu misalnya sapi jenis tertentu, betina, usia 3
tahun, berat badan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {sekian dan seterusnya. Akad itu menjadi haram kalau sapi yang dimaksud adala
h harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sapi mil
ik C yang tertentu yaitu yang bernama Paijo, padahal C belum tentu menjualnya }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {kepada A. Tapi aka
d itu menjadi halal dalam salam, karena sapinya tidak harus si Paijo }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {milik C, bisa sapi yang ber
nama siapa saja asalkan kriterianya tepat sesuai dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {yang disepakati. Dan tentunya sapi seper

ti itu tersedia dimana-mana asalkan ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs1


8\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {uangnya.}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
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00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {boleh jadi petaninya yang ru
gi, karena harga jualnya jauh lebih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {rendah dari harga pasar yang berlaku saat itu.}\par\pard\li6
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harscalex100\b {5. Rukun Akad Salam}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {5. 1. Shigh
at}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Shighat itu adalah ijab dan qabul,
dimana penjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {mengicpakan lafadz ijab kepada pembeli, seperti }\fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\i {aslamtuka }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {(aku jual secara salam) atau }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {aslaftu
ka}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (aku jual secara salaf), }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau dengan kata-kata lain
yang menjadi musytaq dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {keduanya{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#56"}}{\fldrslt {.}}}}\fs
14\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#56"}}{\fldrslt {19}}}}{\
sub \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#56"}}{\fldrslt {
}}}}}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan qabul adalah jawaban dari pihak yang
membeli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {secara
salam, seperti ucapan : }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {qabiltu}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 { (saya terima), atau }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {radhitu }\i0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(saya rela), atau
sejenisnya yang punya makna persetujuan{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#56"}}{\fl
drslt {.}}}}\fs14\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#56"}}{\fl
drslt {20}}}}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {5.2. Kedua-belah Pihak}\b0 \par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {Yang dimaksud dengan kedua-belah pihak adalah }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keberadan penjual dan
pembeli yang melakukan akad salam. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Penjual sering disebut dengan }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\i {musal im}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (}\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {

\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604XRRR\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {),
sedangkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembe
li sering disebut }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {musal am ilaihi}\i0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (}\fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1607XRRRR\uc1\u161
0X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1573X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604XRRRR\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X}\fs24\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {). Tanpa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {keberadaan keduanya, maka salah satu rukun salam
tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terpenuhi,
sehingga akad itu menjadi tidak sah.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pada masing
-masing harus terdapat syarat, yaitu syarat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {ahliyah}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
atau syarat }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {wilayah}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {19}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {Misalnya lafadz : }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {A'thaituka salaman}\i0 \fs1
6\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (aku serahkan kepadamu secara salam)}\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {20}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {L
ihat kitab Al-Badai' jilid 5 halaman 201dan Kitab Al-Muhadzdzab jilid 3 halaman
104}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {56}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft1293\shptop9893\shpright2746\shpbottom9893\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2041\shpz0\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 1453}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Syarat ahliyah}\b0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { maksudnya mereka masing-masing itu }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adalah pemilik orang ya
ng beragama Islam, aqil, baligh, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {rasyi{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#57"}}{\fldrslt {d}}
}}\fs14\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#57"}}{\fldrslt {21}
}}}{\sub \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#57"}}{\fldrs
lt {.}}} }}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{syarat wilayah}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {, maksudnya masing-masing
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjadi wali
yang mewakili pemilik aslinya dari uang atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang, dengan penujukan yang sah dan
berkekuatan hukum }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {sama.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\

slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {5.3. Uang dan Barang}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\


ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Uang sering disebut juga dengan }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {ra'
sul maal}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (}\fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u
1604X\uc1\u1575XRR\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u
1585X}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {), }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {sedangkan barang disebut dengan }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\i {musal am fiihi}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X
}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {).}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Akad salam memastik
an adanya harta yang dipertukarkan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {yaitu uang sebagai alat pembayaran dan barang sebagai benda
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang diperjual-b
elikan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6. Syarat Akad Salam}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Sebuah akad salam membutuhkan terpenuhinya syarat }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {padatiap rukunnya, baik
yang terdapat pada uangnya atau pun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {pada barangnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.1. Syarat Pa
da Uang}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Uang yang dijadikan alat pembayaran dal
am akad salam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {di
haruskan memenuhi kriteria sebagai berikut : }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.1.1
. Jelas Nilainya}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {21}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Rasyid sering diartikan sebagai or
ang yang tidak tidak gila, bodoh, budak, idiot, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mabuk, ayan, dipaksa dan seterusnya. Lihat Dr.
Wahbah Az-Zuhaili dalam kitab Al-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {Fiqhul Islami wa Adil atuhu jilid 7 halaman 160-166}\par\pard\l
i6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {57}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft1293\shptop10093\shpright2746\shpbottom10106\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2042\shpz0\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 13}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
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{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133
\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Uangnya harus disebutk
an dengan jelas nilainya atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\

cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kursnya. Kalau di zaman dahulu, harus dijelask


an apakah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berb
entuk coin emas atau perak. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.1.2. Diserahkan Tuna
i}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pembayaran uang pada akad salam harus dilakuk
an secara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tunai
atau kontan pada majelis akad salam itu juga, tanpa ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sedikitpun yang terhutang atau ditunda.}
\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bila pembayarannya ditunda (dihutang) misalnya seta
hun, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kemudian
ketika pembayaran, pemesan membayar dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menggunakan cek atau bank garansi y
ang hanya dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {dicairkan setelah beberapa bulan yang akan datang, maka akad }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seperti ini terlarang dan haram
hukumnya. Hal ini berdasarkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {hadits berikut:}\par\pard\li666\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li666\ri0\sl-560\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-\uc1\u1574X\uc1\u1604
X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1574X\uc1\u1604X\
uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X \u
c1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1606X \uc1\u1589X \uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1606X\u
c1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc
1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1590X \uc1\u1585X\uc
1\u1605X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X}\pa
r\pard\li3733\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u16
02X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1605
X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1591X\
uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X\uc
1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1585X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dari Ibnu Umar RA ba
hwa Nabi SAW melarang jual-beli piutang }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {dengan piutang." }\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {(HR Ad-Daraquthny, Al Hakim dan Al }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Baihaqy){\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#58"}}{\
fldrslt {.}}}}\fs14\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#58"}}{\
fldrslt {22}}}}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ibnul Qayyim berkata: "Allah
mensyaratkan pada akad }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {salam agar pembayaran dilakukan dengan kontan; karena bila }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ditunda, niscaya kedu
a belah pihak sama-sama berhutang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tanpa ada faedah yang didapat. Oleh karena
itu, akad ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {dinamakan dengan salam, karena adanya pembayaran di muka. }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {22}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {Hadits ini dilemahkan oleh banyak ulama' diantaranya Imam As Syafi'i, A
hmad, dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disetu
jui oleh Al Albany}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {58}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pg
wsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {Sehingga bila pembayaran ditunda, maka termasuk ke
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam penjuala
n piutang dengan piutang yang haram }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hukumnya.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.2. Syarat

Pada Barang}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0


\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.2.1. Bukan Ain-nya Tapi Spesifik
asinya}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam akad salam, penjual tidak menjual
ain suatu barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{tertentu yang sudah ditetapkan, melainkan yang dijual adalah }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang dengan spesifikasi tertentu
. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sebagai contoh, seorang pedagang materia
l bangunan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {men
jual secara salam 10 kantung semen dengan merek }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tertentu dan berat tertentu
kepada seorang pelanggan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {Kesepakatannya pembayaran dilakukuan saat ini juga, namun }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penyerahan semennya ba
ru 2 bulan kemudian, terhitung sejak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {akad itu disepakati. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Walaupun
saat itu mungkin saja si pedagang punya 10 }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kantung semen yang dimaksud di gudan
gnya, namun dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{akad salam, bukan berarti yang harus diserahkan adalah 10 }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kantung itu. Pedagang itu bo
leh saja dia menjual ke-10 }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {kantung itu saat ini ke pembeli lain, asalkan nanti pada saat
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jatuh tempo 2 b
ulan kemudian, dia sanggup menyerahkan 10 }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kantung semen sesuai kesepakatan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {Sebab yang dijual bukan ke-10 kantung yang tersedia di }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {gudang, tapi yang dijual adalah
10 kantung yang lain, yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {mana saja, asalkan sesuai spesifikasi.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{6.2.2. Barang Jelas Spesifikasinya}\b0 \par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0
\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {59}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgws
xn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\r
i0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {Barang yang dipesan harus dijelaskan spesifikasinya, baik }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kualitas mau pun
juga kuantitas. Termasuk misalnya jenis, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {macam, warna, ukuran, dan spesifikasi lain. Pe
ndeknya, setiap }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
kriteria yang diinginkan harus ditetapkan dan dipahami oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kedua-belah pihak, seakan-akan baran
g yang dimaksud ada di }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {hadapan mereka berdua. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dengan demikian, ket
ika penyerahan barang itu dijamin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {100% tidak terjadi komplain dari kedua belah pihak.}\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan barang yang tidak ditentukan kriterianya, tidak }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {boleh diperjual-b
elikan dengan cara salam, karena akad itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {termasuk akad gharar (untung-untunga
n) yang nyata-nyata }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {dilarang dalam hadits berikut:}\par\pard\li2866\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18

\cf0\par\pard\li2866\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1605X\


uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1585X -\
uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1594X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X\uc
1\u1576X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1606X \uc1\u1589X \uc1\u1576X\u
c1\u1606X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X 0\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1571X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\i {Nabi SAW jual-beli untung-untungan."}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (HR
Muslim)}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.2.3. Barang Tidak Diserahkan Saat Akad}\
b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Apabila barang itu diserahkan tunai, maka tujuan
utama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari sa
lam malah tidak tercapai, yaitu untuk memberikan }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keleluasan kepada penjual untuk bek
erja mendapatkan barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {itu dalam tempo waktu tertentu.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalilnya ad
alah sabda Rasulullah SAW :}\par\pard\li1040\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1040\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {G\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1580X
}\par\pard\li4786\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1607X\uc1
\u1610X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {60}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft1293\shptop10306\shpright2746\shpbottom10320\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2043\shpz0\shpbxpage\shpbypage
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\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Siapa yang meminjamkan bua
h kurma maka harus meminjamkan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {dengan timbangan yang tertentu dan sampai pada masa yang
tertentu\uc1\u8221X. }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {(}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {HR. Bukhari dan Muslim)}\par\pard\li1000
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Al-Qadhi Ibnu Abdil Wahhab mengatakan bahwa salam }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu adalah salaf, dimana
akad itu memang sejak awal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {ditetapkan untuk pembayaran di awal dengan penyer
ahan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang bela
kangan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Batas Minimal Penyerahan Baran{\field{\*\f
ldinst{HYPERLINK "#61"}}{\fldrslt {g}}}}\b0 \fs14\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {{\field{
\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#61"}}{\fldrslt {23}}}}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0

\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \*\tx1000\fs22\cf0\f2\charscalex100
{\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Al-Karkhi dari Al-Hanafiyah menye
butkan minimal jatuh }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {tempo yang disepakati adalah setengah hari dan tidak }\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {boleh kurang dari itu.
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \*\tx1000\fs22\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u
61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ibnu Abil Hakam mengatakan tidak mengapa
bila jaraknya }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
1 hari. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \*\tx1000\fs22\cf0\f2\charscalex100
{\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ibnu Wahab meriwayatkan dar
i Malik bahwa
minimal }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {jarak penyerahan barang adalah 2 atau 3 hari sejak akad }\par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dilakukan. }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \*\tx1000\fs22\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ulama lain menyebutkan minimal batasnya adalah 3 hari,
}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagai qiyas
dari hukum khiyar syarat. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.2.4. Jelas Waktu Penye
rahannya}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Harus ditetapkan di saat akad
dilakukan tentang waktu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {(jatuh tempo) penyerahan barang. Hal ini berdasarkan sabda }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rasulullah SAW :}\par\p
ard\li4146\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4146\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1602X\
uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1605X . G\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1608XJ\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593
X\uc1\u1605X G\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1580X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {23}{ }\f
s14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Lihat Al-Mausu'ah Al-Fiqhiyah Al-Kuwaitiyah jilid 25 h
alaman 213-214}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0
\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {61}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgws
xn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\r
i0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\i {Hingga waktu (jatuh tempo) yang telah diketahui (oleh kedua bela
h }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {pihak) p
ula." }\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(Muttafaqun 'alaih)}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {Para fuqaha sepakat bila dalam suatu akad salam tidak }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ditetapkan waktu j
atuh temponya, maka akad itu batal dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak sah. Dan ketidak-jelasan kapan jatuh tempo penyerah
an }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang itu
akan membawa kedua-belah pihak ke dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pertengkaran dan penzaliman atas sesama.}\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Jatuh tempo bisa ditetapkan dengan tanggal, bulan, ata
u }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tahun tertentu
, atau dengan jumlah hari atau minggu atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bulan terhitung sejak disepakatinya akad salam itu.
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.2.5. Dimungkinkan Untuk Diserahkan Pada Saatnya}
\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pada saat menjalankan akad salam, ked
ua belah pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {diwajibkan untuk memperhitungkan ketersedian barang pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {saat jatuh tempo. Persyaratan ini de
mi menghindarkan akad }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {salam dari praktek tipu-menipu dan untung-untungan, yang }\par\pard\li640\

ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keduanya nyata-nayata diharamkan


dalam syari'at Islam.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Misalnya seseorang memesa
n buah musiman seperti }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {durian atau mangga dengan perjanjian: "Barang harus }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diadakan pada selai
n waktu musim buah durian dan mangga", }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka pemesanan seperti ini tidak dibenarkan.
Selain }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengandun
g unsur gharar (untung-untungan), akad semacam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ini juga akan menyusahkan salah satu pihak. Padah
al diantara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {prin
sip dasar perniagaan dalam islam ialah "memudahkan", }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagaimana disebutkan pada had
its berikut:}\par\pard\li1666\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1666\ri0\s
l-546\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X\uc1
\u1604X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u
1608X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1
575X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u16
08X\uc1\u1585X .\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1590X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u16
08X \uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1590X \uc1\u1604X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {62}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\i {Tidak ada kemadharatan atau pembalasan kemadhorotan dengan y
ang }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {lebih
besar dari perbuatan. (Riwayat Ahmad, Ibhnu Majah dan }\i0 \pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {dihasankan oleh Al
Albany)}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ditambah lagi pengabaian syarat
tersedianya barang di }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {pasaran pada saat jatuh tempo akan memancing terjadiny
a }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {percekcokan
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percekcokan antara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {penjual dan pembeli pasti dilarang. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
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r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Yang dimaksud d
engan barang yang terjamin adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang yang dipesan tidak ditentukan selain
kriterianya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {A
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6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pengusaha, sehingga ia memiliki kebebasan
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00 {Pengusaha berhak untuk mendatangkan barang dari ladang }\par\par
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pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Persyaratan ini b
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c1\u1606X\uc1\u1589X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1575X) adalah }\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\i {bentuk ism mashdar}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { dari kata }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dasar }\fs22\cf0\f0
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ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {meminta orang lain untuk membuatk
an sesuatu untuknya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Dikatakan : }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {istashna'a fulan baitan}\i0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {, meminta seseorang untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membuatkan rumah untuknya{\field{\*\fldinst{H
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0\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Artinya, }\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b {sebuah akad untuk sesuatu yang tertanggung }\b0 \par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {dengan syarat mengerjaka
annya}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {. Sehingga bila seseorang }\par\pard\li640
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f1\charscalex100 {membuat sesuatu,"Buatkan untuk aku sesuatu dengan harga }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sekian dirham", da
n orang itu menerimanya, maka akad }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {istishna' telah terjadi dalam pandangan mazhab ini{
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\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#65"}}{\fldrslt {25}}}}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\


slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
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R\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1594X \uc1\u1607XRR\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1609XRR\uc1\u1
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\u1587X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1604XRR\uc1\u1587X \uc
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\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maknanya adalah }\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {jual-beli barang yang tidak (belum) }\b0 \par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {dimilikinya yang tidak terma
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sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ini akad istishna' mereka sam
akan dengan jual-beli dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
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X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1589X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X\
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l-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun kalangan Al-Malikiyah dan
Asy-Syafi'iyah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{mengaitkan akad istishna' ini dengan akad salam. Sehingga }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {definisinya juga terkai
t, yaitu (}\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u15
75X\uc1\u1606XRR\uc1\u1589X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1606XRR\uc1\u1605X \uc1\
u1585XRR\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1594X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604XRR\uc
1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1569X\uc1\u1610XRR\uc1\u1588X\uc
1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {), }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yaitu }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {suatu
barang yang diserahkan kepada orang lain }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {dengan cara membuatnya}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {.{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#65"}}{\fldrslt { }}}}\fs14\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#65"}}{\fldrslt {27}}}}\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Jadi secara sederhana, istishna' boleh disebut sebagai akad }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang terjalin antara
pemesan sebagai pihak 1 dengan seorang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {produsen suatu barang atau yang serupa sebagai pihak ke2, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {agar pihak
ke-2 membuatkan suatu barang sesuai yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diinginkan oleh pihak 1 dengan harga yang d
isepakati antara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{keduanya.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-33
3\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {2. Masyru'iyah}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {25}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Badai'i As shanaai'i oleh Al Kas
aani jilid 5 halaman 2}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscale
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par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {27}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0
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as petunjuk Al-Quran, As-Sunnah dan Al-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24


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2.1. Al-Quran}\b0 \par\pard\li4226\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4226\
ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X(\uc1\u1585
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calex100 {Berdasarkan ayat ini dan lainnya para ulama' menyatakan }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa hukum asal setiap pernia
gaan adalah halal, kecuali yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {nyata-nyata diharamkan dalam dalil yang kuat dan shahih.}\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf
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hendak menuliskan surat kepada }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs18\c
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ab tidak sudi menerima surat yang tidak distempel. Maka beliau }\i0 \par\pard\li
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\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Islam secara
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r\pard\li680\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Hukum asal dalam s
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mult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {menunjukkan akan keharamannya.}\i0 \par\pard
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. Dan barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {d
engan ketentuan demikian itu tidak di dapatkan di pasar, }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sehingga ia merasa
perlu untuk memesannya dari para }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
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r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {jilid 7 halaman 115}
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arscalex100 {masyarakat akan mengalamai banyak kesusahan. Dan sudah }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang tentu kesusahan semac
am ini sepantasnya disingkap }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {dan dicegah agar tidak mengganggu kelangsungan hidup
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masyarakat{\fiel
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b {3. Rukun}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Akad istishna' memiliki 3 rukun yan
g harus terpenuhi agar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
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}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang yang dia
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l-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { Kedua-belah pihak maksudnya ad
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mintakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepadan
ya pengadaaan atau pembuatan barang yang dipesan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-293\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang diistilahkan dengan sebutan }\fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i {shani'}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
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n }\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Barang yang diakadkan atau disebut
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lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjadi objek dari akad ini semata-mata adalah b
enda atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang
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0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akadnya bukan atas suatu barang, na
mun akadnya adalah akad }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {yang mewajibkan pihak kedua untuk }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {meng
erjakan}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { sesuatu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {30
}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Badai'i As-Shanaai'i oleh Al Kasaani jilid 5 hal
aman 3}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {31}{ }\fs1
6\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Al-Mabsuth jilid 12 halaman 159}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
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yang kedua ini, yang disepakati }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
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\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ijab qabul adalah akadnya itu sendiri. Ijab adalah
lafadz }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari piha
k pemesan yang meminta kepada seseorang untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm
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entu. Dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {qabul
adalah jawaban dari pihak yang dipesan untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menyatakan persetujuannya atas kewaji
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ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4. Syarat}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Dengan memahami hakekat akad istishna', kita dapat }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pahami bahwa akad
istishna' yang dibolehkan oleh Ulama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mazhab Hanafi memiliki beberapa persyaratan, seb
agaimana }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang be
rlaku pada akad salam diantaranya:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {4. 1. Penyebutan

& penyepakatan kriteria barang pada saat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f


s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akad dilangsungkan, persyaratan ini guna mencegah terj
adinya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {persengke
taan antara kedua belah pihak pada saat jatuh tempo }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penyerahan barang yang dipesan.}\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {4. 2. Tidak dibatasi waktu penyerahan barang. Bil
a }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ditentukan w
aktu penyerahan barang, maka akadnya secara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {otomastis berubah menjadi akad sal
am, sehingga berlaku }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {padanya seluruh hukum-hukum akad salam, demikianlah }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pendapat Imam Abu Hanifah
. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Akan tetapi kedua muridnya yaitu Abu
Yusuf, dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mu
hammad bin Al Hasan menyelisihinya, mereka berdua }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berpendapat bahwa tidak meng
apa menentukan waktu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {32}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscal
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8\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {69}\par\par
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par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {langsung dari


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hkan berdasarkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
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f0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan skema akad istishna'. Adapun selainnya,
maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dikembalika
n kepada hukum asal }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Akan tetapi, dengan meru
juk dalil-dalil dibolehkannya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {akad istishna', maka dengan sendirinya persyaratan ini tidak }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kuat. }\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Betapa tidak, karena akad istishna' bukan hanya }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berdasarkan tradi
si umat islam, akan tetapi juga berdasarkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalil dari Al Qur'an dan As Sunnah. Bila demikian ad
anya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka tidak
ada alasan untuk membatasi akad istishna' pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang-barang yang oleh masyarakat biasa
dipesan dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {skema istishna' saja.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {5. Hakikat Akad Istishna'
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r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6. Apakah Istishna
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3\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {36}\tab \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Fathul Qadir ol
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\margtsxn666\margbsxn386\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li448
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li448
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li4480\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pertemuan K
eempat}\par\pard\li5160\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs28\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Syirkah
}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-360\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirka{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#73"}}{\fldrsl
t {h}}}}\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#73"}}{\fldrsl
t {37}}}}{\sub \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#73"}}{
\fldrslt { }}}}}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam fiqih Islam ada bebera
pa macam: di }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{antaranya yang kembali kepada perjanjiannya, dan ada juga }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang kembali kepada kepem
ilikan. Dari sisi hukumnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {menurut syariat, ada yang disepakati boleh, ada j
uga yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masih
diperselisihkan hukumnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1. Definisi }\b0 \par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {37}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Ada beberapa pela
falan dari kata ini, boleh dibaca syirkah, syarikah atau syarkah. }\par\pard\sec
t\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margb
sxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thahar
ah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah dalam bahasa Arabnya berarti pencamp
uran atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {intera
ksi. Bisa juga artinya membagikan sesuatu antara dua }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {orang atau lebih menurut huku
m kebiasaan yang ada.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sementara dalam terminologi i
lmu fiqih, arti syirkah yaitu: }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Persekutuan usaha untuk mengambil hak atau beroperasi
. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Aliansi meng
ambil hak, mengisyaratkan apa yang disebut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkatul Amlak. Sementara aliansi
dalam beroperasi, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1

00 {mengisyaratkan Syirkatul Uqud (Syirkah Transaksional).}\par\pard\li640\ri0\s


l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\b {2. Masyru'iyah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah disyariatkan
berdasarkan Al-Quran Al-Kariem, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {As-Sunnah dan Al-Ijma'. }\par\pard\li2560\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2560\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\
u1579XJ\uc1\u1604XI\uc1\u1579X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1601X \uc1
\u1569X\uc1\u1575X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {tetapi jika saudara-saudara seib
u itu lebih dari seorang, maka mereka }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {bersekutu dalam yang sepertiga itu\uc1\u8230X" (QS.
An-Nisa: 12).}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Saudara-saudara seibu itu berseku
tu atau beraliansi dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {memiliki sepertiga warisan sebelum dibagi-bagikan kepada }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang lain.}\par\pard
\li2706\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2706\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs32\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 { \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1582X \uc1\u1607X/\u
c1\u1604X 0\uc1\u1606X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Ketahuilah, sesungguhnya apa
saja yang dapat kamu peroleh sebagai }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {rampasan perang, maka sesungguhnya seperlima untuk A
l ah. (QS. }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{Al-Anfal: 41).}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-293\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {74}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn118
93\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0
\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {H
arta rampasan perang adalah milik Rasulullah dan kaum }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {muslimin secara kolektif sebelum d
ibagi-bagikan. Mereka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {semua-nya beraliansi dalam kepemilikan harta tersebut.}\par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Riwayat yang shahih bahwa al-Barra bin Azib dan Zaid }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bin Arqam keduanya bersyari
kat dalam perniagaan. Mereka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {membeli barang-barang secara kontan dan nasi\uc1\u8217Xah. Beri
ta itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sampai ke
pada Rasulullah a. Maka beliau memerintahkan agar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menerima barang-barang yang mereka beli dengan
kontan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {meno
lak barang-barang yang mereka beli dengan nasi'ah.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {
3. Jenis-jenis Syirkah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah itu ada du
a macam, yaitu Syirkatul Amlak dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkatul Uqud.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3.1. S
yirkah Amlak (Kepemilikkan).}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maksudnya adalah
persekutuan antara dua orang atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lebih dalam kepemilikan satu barang denga
n sebab }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepemi
likan. Misalnya dengan proses jual beli, hibah atau }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {warisan, dimana barang i
tu dimiliki secara bersama oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2

4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {beberapa orang.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18


\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3.2. Syirka
h Uqud (Transaksi)}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maksudnya adalah akad kerjas
ama antara dua orang atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {lebih yang bersekutu dalam usaha, biak modal maupun }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan. Dalam
implementasinya, Syirkah Transaksi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terdiri dari beberapa jenis lagi :}\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {3.2.1. Syirkatul Inan.}\b0 \par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {75}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn84
00\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\s
l-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Syirkah ini adalah persekutuan dalam modal, usaha dan }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan. Yaitu kerjasam
a antara dua orang atau lebih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan modal yang mereka miliki bersama untuk membuka }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {usaha yang mereka
lakukan sendiri, lalu berbagi keuntungan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bersama. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Jadi modal b
erasal dari mereka semua, usaha juga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dilakukan mereka bersama, untuk kemudian keuntung
an juga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibagi p
ula bersama. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah semacam ini berdasarkan ijma'
dibolehkan, namun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {secara rincinya masih ada yang diperselisihkan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {
3.2.2. Syirkatul Abdan (syirkah usaha).}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah
ini adalah kerja sama antara dua pihak atau lebih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam usaha yang dilakukan oleh tub
uh mereka, seperti }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {kerjasama sesama dokter di klinik, atau sesama tukang jahit }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau tukang cukur dalam
salah satu pekerjaan. Semuanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibolehkan. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun Al-Ima
m Asy-Syafi'i melarangnya. Disebut juga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Syirkah Sh
anai wat Taqabbul}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{3.2.3. Syirkatul Wujuh}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah ini adalah kerj
asama dua pihak atau lebih dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {keuntungan dari apa yang mereka beli dengan nama
baik }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka.
Tak seorangpun yang memiliki modal. Namun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masing-masing memilik nama baik di
tengah masyarakat. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Mereka membeli sesuatu (untuk dijual kembali) secara hutang, }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lalu keuntungan yang didapat
dibagi bersama. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f

0\charscalex100 {76}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn
666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah sem
acam ini juga dibolehkan menurut kalangan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hanafiyah dan Hanabilah, namun tidak sah menurut ka
langan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Malikiyah
dan Syafi'iyah.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3.2.4. Syirkatul Mufawadhah}\b0 \p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah ini adalah kerjasama dimana masing-masing pih
ak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang berali
ansi memiliki modal, usaha dan hutang piutang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang sama, dari mulai berjalannya kerj
a sama hingga akhir. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Kerja sama ini mengandung unsur penjaminan dan hak-hak }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang sama dalam modal, usaha dan hut
ang. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kerja sama ini juga dibolehkan menurut mayori
tas ulama, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {namun
dilarang oleh Asy-Syafi'i. Kemungkinan yang ditolak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {oleh beliau adalah bentuk aplikasi
lain dari Syirkatul }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {Mufawadhah, yakni ketika dua orang melakukan perjanjian }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk bersekutu
dalam memiliki segala keuntungan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kerugian, baik karena harta atau karena sebab lai
nnya.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4. Syirkatu Inan}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Syirkatu Inan adalah kerja sama dua pihak atau lebih }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan modal mereka be
rsama, untuk berusaha bersama dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {membagi keun-tungan bersama. Jadi merupakan persukutan }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam modal, usaha dan
keuntungan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah semacam ini dibolehkan
berdasarkan ijma'. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Kalaupun ada perbedaan, hanya dalam beberapa bentuk }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {rincian dan satuannya.}\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4.1. Rukun Syirkatu Inan}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {Rukun syirkatu inan adalah [1] adanya dua pihak, [2] }\b0 \par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {adanya objek transaksi, dan [3]
adanya pelafalan akad.}\b0 \par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6186\ri0\sl-426\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {77}\par\pard\sect\sectd\
sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\c
ols2\colno1\colw5400\colsr-0\colno2\colw2200\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4.1.1. Dua Pihak}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\s
l-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\sect\se
ctd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Dua pihak yang menjadi transaktor. Keduanya harus }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memiliki kompetensi, yakni akil
baligh dan mampu membuat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {pilihan. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Boleh saja seorang muslim beral
iansi dengan non-muslim }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca

lex100 {dengan catatan pihak non-muslim itu tidak boleh mengurus }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {modal sendirian, karena d
ikhawatirkan akan memasuki }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {lubang-lubang bisnis yang diharamkan. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Kalau segala aktivitas non-muslim itu selalu dipantau oleh }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pihak muslim, tidak menjadi masala
h. Dan persoalannya akan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {lebih bebas dan terbuka bila beraliansi dengan sesama muslim.}\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\b {4.1.2. Objek Transaksi. }\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ob
jek transaksi ini meliputi [1] modal, [2] usaha dan [3] }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{4.1.2.1. Modal}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Disyaratkan dalam modal t
ersebut }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {harus diketahui}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kala
u tidak diketahui jumlahnya, hanya spekulatif, tentu }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hukumnya tidaklah sah. Ka
rena modal itu akan menjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {rujukan ketika aliansi dibubarkan. Dan hal tidak
mungkin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dilak
ukan tanpa mengetahui jumlah modal.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Selain itu moda
l }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {harus real}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {, ya
itu modal itu memang ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {pada saat transaksi pembelian. Karena dengan itulah aliansi ini }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bisa terlaksana, sehing
ga eksistensinya dibutuhkan. Kalau saat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {transaksi tidak ada, maka transaksi dianggap batal.}\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {78}\p
ar\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\s
ect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\mar
gbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaha
rah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dan tentu saja modal itu }\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\b {bukan berupa hutang}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { pada }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {orang yang kesulit
an, demi menghindari terjadinya riba. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Karena dalam hal ini orang yang berhut
ang bisa tertuduh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {menangguhkan pembayaran hutangnya agar bertambah }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {nilainya. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Pencampuran modal dan kesamaan jumlahnya bukan }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {merupakan syarat sahnya be
ntuk syirkah ini. Akan tetapi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {garansi terhadap modal yang hangus hanya bisa
dilakukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dala
m aliansi ini dengan adanya pencampuran harta secara }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hakiki atau secara just
ifikatif. Caranya, masing-masing }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {melepaskan modal dari pengelola dan tanggungjawab
nya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {secara pri
badi untuk dimasukkan dalam pengelolaan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tanggung jawab bersama.}\par\pard\li640\ri

0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc


alex100\b {4.1.2.2. Usaha}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Masing-masing pihak
bebas mengoperasikan modalnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagaimana layaknya para pedagang dan menurut kebiasaan }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang berlaku di an
tara mereka. Kalau orang yang mengelola }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {modal orang saja bebas mengoperasikan hartanya
, apalagi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bisn
is patner dalam syirkah ini. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Karena mengelola
modal orang lain hanya merupakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkah praktis, bukan syirkah substansial. Sementara
dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kasus i
ni yang terjadi adalah syirkah praktis dan sekaligus }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {substansial secara bersamaan.
}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Masing-masing pihak yang beraliansi bisa
menyerahkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {usa
ha itu kepada yang lain, namun itu dijadikan syarat pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {awal transaksi menurut pendapat
ulama yang paling benar. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {Karena hak untuk mengoperasikan harta dimiliki oleh mereka }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berdua. }\par\pard\li
6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {79}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn1189
3\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0
\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {N
amun masing-masing pihak juga bisa mengundurkan diri }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari haknya tersebut untuk diberikan kepada
pihak lain, lalu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{menyerahkan operasionalnya kepada orang tersebut, sesuai }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan kepentingan yang ada
.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4.1.2.3. Keuntungan}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Disyaratkan keuntungan itu harus }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {diketahui ju
mlahnya}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kalau jumlahnya tidak diketahui, syirkah ter
sebut dianggap }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{rusak, kecuali kalau terdapat kebiasaan setempat yang sudah }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {merata yang membolehkan pem-bagi
an keuntungan dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {cara tertentu, hal itu boleh dilakukan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ke
untungan itu juga harus merupakan sejumlah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {
dengan prosentasi }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tertentu. Kalau berupa nilai
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {uang tertentu
saja, maka syirkah itu tidak sah. Karena ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kemungkinan bahwa aliansi ters
ebut hanya menghasilkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {keuntungan kadar itu saja, sehingga tidak bisa dibukti
kan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkah dala
m keuntungannya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Boleh saja terdapat perbedaan keun
tungan antara sesama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {mitra usaha. Tidak disyaratkan bahwa keuntungan harus sesuai }\par\pard\li6

40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan jumlah modal. Kar


ena keuntungan selain juga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {ditentukan oleh modal, juga ditentukan oleh usaha. Terkadang }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {salah seorang di a
ntara mereka memiliki keahlian yang lebih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari yang lain, sehingga tidak rela bila
disamaratakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {k
euntungan mereka. Itu adalah pen-dapat yang dipilih oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hanafiyah dan Hambaliyah.}\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {4.1.3. Pelafalan Akad}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Perjanji
an dapat terlaksana dengan adanya indikasi ke arah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu menurut kebiasaan, melalui ucapan
dan tindakan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {berdasarkan kaidah yang ada bahwa yang dijadikan ukuran }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {80}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marg
lsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adalah p
engertian dan hakikat sebenarnya, bukan sekedar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ucapan dan bentuk lahiriyahnya saja.}\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Berakhirnya Syirkah ini}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Asal daripada syirkah ini adalah bentuk kerja sama usaha }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang dibolehkan (bukan lazim). Masingmasing daripada pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {yang bersekutu boleh membatalkan perjanjian kapan saja dia }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kehendaki. Namun kalangan
Malikiyah berbeda pendapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {dalam hal itu. Mereka menyatakan bahwa kerja sama
itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terlaksana
dengan semata-mata adanya perjanjian. Kalau salah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seorang ingin memberhentikan kerja sa
ma tersebut, tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {begitu saja dapat dipenuhi. Dan bila ia ingin mengambil }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kembali hartanya
maka hal itu harus diputuskan oleh hakim. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kalau hakim melihat sudah selayaknya dijual sahamnya,
segera }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dijual.
Bila tidak, maka ditunggu saat yang tepat untuk }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjualnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {Pendapat yang benar menurut kami adalah syirkah itu }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terlaksana dengan berj
alannya usaha, dan itu terus berlangsung }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hingga modalnya selesai diputar. Yakni setelah modal te
rsebut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diputar
dan kembali menjadi uang kontan. Agar dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mencegah bahaya terhadap pihak
lain atas terjadinya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {keputusan mendadak setelah usaha baru dimulai.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Dan satu hal yang tidak diragukan lagi, bahwa dasar dari }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkah ini menurut para ulama fiq
ih adalah penjaminan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {amanah. Masing-masing dari pihak yang beraliansi menjadi }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pen-jamin atau wak

il, sekaligus yang mewakilkan kepada yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f


s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lain. Ia dapat beroperasi dalam apa yang
menjadi haknya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{menurut hukum asal, dan juga dalam apa yang menjadi hak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pihak lain dengan status sebag
ai wakil. Sementara sudah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {dimaklumi bahwa wikalah atau penjaminan adalah perjanjian }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang juga dibolehkan b
er-dasarkan kesepakatan ulama. Oleh }\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {81}\par\pard\s
ect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\mar
gbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thah
arah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebab itu, seseorang tidak boleh memaksa pih
ak lain untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {me
nuruti apa yang menjadi kei-nginannya di bawah intimidasi. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikian juga hukum asal dari
sistem syirkah ini, karena }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkah ini juga harus menggunakan penjaminan ag
ar bisa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berjal
an, dan juga membutuhkan spon-sorship agar bisa }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bertahan. Wikalah atau penjami
nan menjadi syarat dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {sistem perniagaan ini, untuk memulainya dan agar te
tap }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bertahan. Ka
lau penjaminan itu terputus dengan pemba-talan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari salah satu pihak, maka hak-hak kepemilikan b
agi masing-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masin
g pihak untuk mengoperasikan modal pihak lain juga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hilang.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ini
lah hukum asalnya. Dan itulah yang menjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {konsekuensi dari berbagai kaidah
umum yang kalangan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Malikiyah sendiri juga tidak membantahnya, sehingga }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pendapat mereka yang
menya-takan bahwa syirkah itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {berlangsung hanya dengan sekedar adanya transaksi
saja }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjadi p
erlu dicermati dan dipertanyakan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hanya saja terkad
ang kita mendapatkan di hadapan kita }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {berbagai pelajaran praktis yang mendorong kita untuk kembal
i }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {meneliti per
soalan ini, dan memberikan pertimbangan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sudut pandang terhadap pendapat Ma
likiyah. Dimisalkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {syirkah itu telah dimulai. Masing-masing anggotanya telah }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mulai mempersiap-k
an dan mengatur segala sesuatunya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Modal telah mulai dilun-curkan untuk membel
i berbagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bah
an dan kebutuhan dagang. Dan pada umumnya, untuk }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memulai usaha itu membutuhk
an kerja keras, banyak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {tanggungan dan biaya yang besar sekali. Tiba-tiba sal
ah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seorang pih
ak yang bekerja sama secara mengejutkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menganggap bahwa pasangannya itu dengan mengha
nguskan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {modal

dalam sekejap dan menuntut untuk berhenti dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0


\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {usaha tersebut dan meminta g
anti rugi serta menerima }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {kembali mo-dalnya dan mengundurkan diri dari syirkah. Dan }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {82}\par\pard\se
ct\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\marg
bsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thahar
ah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perbuatannya itu bagi pasangannya bisnisnya ad
alah tindakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ya
ng melumpuhkan bahkan menghancurkannya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bagaimana s
ikap fiqih Islam terhadap kondisi semacam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ini? Di sini fiqih Malikiyah menunjukkan satu sin
yal terang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang
dapat menerangi jalan, namun tetap korektif dan lentur.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Kalangan Malikiyah berpendapat bahwa kerja sama itu }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harus berlangsung dengan
sekedar adanya perjanjian. Ganti }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {rugi modal itu persoalannya dikembalikan kepada h
akim, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dikiyaskan
dengan hutang. Namun mereka tidak menyatakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa hutang bisa berlaku hanya dengan adanya perj
anjian, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {namun de
ngan mulainya usaha yang merupakan sebab yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diperkirakan akan berbahaya bagi perjanjia
n. Hal itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {s
eharusnya diberlakukan juga pada [I>syirkah. Wallahu a"lam.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {Syirkah berakhir dengan kematian salah satu pihak yang }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {beraliansi, atau karena gila, ka
rena idiot dan sejenisnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Apakah Syirkah itu Batal
dengan Habisnya Modal Salah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Satu Pihak?}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Apabila modal salah
satu pihak yang beraliansi dagang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {habis sebelum dicampurkan, secara hukum atau nyata, sy
irkah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan sen
dirinya batal. Namun kalau modal itu habis setelah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu, itu sebagai akibat yang harus
diterima oleh syirkah, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {sehingga tidak langsung terhenti karena sebab itu. Sy
irkah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka tet
ap berjalan sebagaimana adanya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bagaimana Cara
Memfungsikan Syirkah Agar Dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Meng-gantikan Posisi Pengembangan Modal Berbasis Riba?}\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dunia syirkah adalah dunia yang luas merambati seluruh
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penjuru ufuk, s
eluruh penjuru dunia. Bentuk dan formatnya }\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {83}\par
\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn
666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiq
ih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bisa bermacam-macam. Sektor dan
pola yang tersentuh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char

scalex100 {bentuk usaha ini juga bercorak-ragam. Kalau metode }\par\


pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pengelolaan dana i
ni dilirik oleh pengelola dana muslim, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berarti ia telah menggerakkan diri-nya menuju l
embah yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {subur
, sumber air yang kaya yang tidak habis airnya, tidak }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pernah berhenti member
ikan karunianya. Ia bisa menciduk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan darinya sesuka hati dalam naungan me
todologi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {rabbani
, dalam bingkai ajaran syariat dan memulainya dari niat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang suci, untuk meraih tujuan dan targe
t yang mulia.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kita akan mengulas berbagai format ke
rja sama ini sebagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {contoh saja, bukan secara menyeluruh. Dan kesempatan }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masih terbuka bagi y
ang ingin menciptakan format-format }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lain, selama berada dalam rambu-rambu ajaran
syariat dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{kaidah-kaidahnya yang menyeluruh.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah Simultan
}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Yakni dengan melayangkan modal para pengelola moda
l }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {muslim ke dala
m sebuah musyarakah yang simultan pada ber-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bagai proyek yang sudah berdiri atau proy
ek-proyek yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{sedang dalam perencanaan. Kerja sama mereka tersebut }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terlaksana de-ngan bersama
-sama menanggung untung }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {ruginya acara sama.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Musyarakah dengan K
riteria Khusus}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Yakni dengan mengarahkan para invest
or untuk bekerja }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{sama dalam mendanai satu proyek tertentu, seperti }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengimpor sejumlah komoditi
tertentu, atau untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {menyelesaikan proyek pemborongan, kemudian hasilnya }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibagi-bagikan, untung ata
u pun rugi.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Musyarakah Non Permanen}\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {84}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\m
argrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Yakni semacam
syirkah di mana salah seorang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terlibat di dalamnya memberikan hak kepada pihak l
ain untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menempati posisinya dalam kepemilikan secara langsung atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {secara bertahap sesuai dengan persyarakata
n yang disepekati }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{dan sesuai dengan karakter usahanya. Yakni dengan cara }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penyusunan kon-sep yang m
enyisihkan sebagian devisa yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {dihasilkan menjadi semacam cicilan untuk menutupi ni
lai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {konstribusi
pihak yang menyerahkan haknya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par

\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bentuk syirkah semac


am ini diminati oleh kalangan penge-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {lola yang tidak menginginkan berkesinambungannya p
eran }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {serta pem
beri modal terhadap mereka. Mereka berharap }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa pada akhirnya kepemilikan pr
oyek-proyek itu pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {akhirnya kembali kepada mereka yang biasanya proyek-proyek }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu memang tidak memiliki
potensi untuk dicampurtangani, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {seperti mobil, atau sebagian sub produksi dalam
berbagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pabri
k, perum dan lain sebagainya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sebagian perusahan mi
salnya, ingin menambahkan pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {salah satu usahanya sebuah produksi lengkap satu komoditi }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ko-mersial tertentu.
Maka seorang investor bisa saja }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengadakan negoisasi untuk bekerjasama dalam
mendanai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sub
produksi ba-rang tersebut, mengatur produksi dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berbagai biaya khusus pada s
ub produksi barang tersebut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {secara terpisah. Kemudian baru mengadakan negoisasi
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembagian keun
tungan, dengan menyisih-kan sebagian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemasukan sebagai cadangan menutupi biaya proyek ters
ebut. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dengan d
emikian, syirkah itu dapat memiliki sub produksi }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut pada akhirnya.}\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {Dalam sebuah Muktamar Ekonomi Islam di Dubai tahun }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {1399 H./ 1976 M., para pese
rta muktamar membahas bentuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {jual beli semacam ini. Akhirnya mereka memutuskan bahwa }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bentuk perjanjian usaha
yang berakhir dengan penetapan }\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {85}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pg
hsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226
\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {kepemilikan ini terbentuk menjadi salah satu dari gambaran }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berikut:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Gambaran pertama:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pihak investor dengan
pengelola bersepakat untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {menetapkan jumlah jatah masing-masing ber-kaitan denga
n }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {saham dan syar
at-syaratnya. Lalu saham-saham investor dijual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada pengelola setelah syirkah berakhir dengan
perjanijian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {baru
, dimana si investor berhak menjual sahamnya kepada si }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pengelola sebagai patner usahanya,
atau kepada orang lain. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {Demikian juga yang berlaku bagi seorang penanam sa
ham }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terhadap ban
k yang mengelola modalnya. Ia berhak menjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sa-hamnya itu kepada bank sebagai patner

usahanya atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100


{kepada pihak lain.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Gambaran kedua:}\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Hendaknya investor dengan pengelo-lanya bersepakat }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam syirkah itu
untuk pendanaan penuh atau sebagian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagai biaya pelaksanaan proyek yang me
miliki pros-pek }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{keuntungan. Yakni berdasarkan kesepakatan bank dengan }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penanam saham lain, di
mana pihak bank memperoleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {prosentase keuntungan bersih yang berbukti secara
riil, di }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sampi
ng haknya untuk tetap menyimpan sisa dana dari yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {telah dikeluarkan, yakni jumlah khusus yang
telah disepakati }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{untuk disisihkan (dana tertahan) untuk menutupi kekurangan }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pendanaan bank yang dilakukan oleh p
ihak bank.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Gambaran ketiga:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Ditentukan bagian bagi pihak investor dan pengelola serta }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penanam saham lain dalam satu ca
ra pem-bagian saham yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {dapat menggambarkan total harga barang penjualan sebagai }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {86}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666
\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {objek syirkah
Masing-masing pihak mendapat-kan jatah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan dari keuntungan yang pasti. P
ihak penanam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {m
odal bisa membeli sejumlah saham yang masih dikuasai }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bank tersebut setiap tahunn
ya, sehingga saham-saham yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {masih di tangan bank itu berkurang sedikit demi sedikit, dan }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pada akhir-nya
pihak penanam modal itu dapat memiliki }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seluruh saham yang ada dan menjadi
pemilik tunggal dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {syirkah tersebut.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Gambaran pertama jelas
dibolehkan berdasarkan kesepa-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {katan para ulama. Karena perjanjian usaha ini mengandung }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dua akar yang terpisa
h yang masing-masing secara terpisah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hukum-nya dibolehkan. Sedangkan keduanya adalah perj
anjian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkah d
an perjanjian jual beli, sehingga tidak diharamkan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak ada hal yang diragukan. Demikian ju
ga dengan gambaran }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {ketiga yang tidak berbeda dengan gambaran pertama, hanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penjualannya saja yang dilakukan sec
ara bertahap, sementara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {dalam gambaran pertama dilakukan secara langsung satu kali }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {saja. Namun kedua-nya tidak d
iragukan kehalalannya, selama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {penjualan itu dila-kukan setelah selesainya syirkah de

ngan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perjanjian


terpisah.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-3
33\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Adapun gambaran kedua, masih dise
limuti beberapa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{keran-cuan. Karena pihak bank telah bekerja sama semenjak }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pertama dengan persyaratan mod
al itu akan kembali }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {kepadanya dengan prosentase tertentu dari keuntungan }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {proyek.}\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {Yang menyebabkan terjadinya kerancuan tergabungnya }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dua halsyirkah dan jual
beli dalam satu perjanjian. Kita tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menga-takan secara pasti bahwa itu termasuk
riba. Karena }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {k
alau modal itu hangus, berarti menjadi kerugian bersama, }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bukan menjadi tanggun
g jawab pengelola saja. Inilah yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membedakan secara signifikan antara perjan
jian usaha ini }\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li618
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {87}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666
\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan peminjama
n yang menjadi tanggung jawab peminjam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {saja. Demikian pula halnya ketika terjadi kerugian, kerug
ian itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ditanggu
ng secara bersama.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000
\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Di antara hal yang membedakan pe
rjanjian usaha dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {riba secara signifkan pula adalah bahwa permintaan investor }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk meminta kembali mo
dal yang telah diberikannya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {tergantung pada keberhasilan proyek dan keuntungan
yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {didapatka
n. Kalau ke-untungan itu tidak terbukti, si investor }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak bisa mengambil ke-untungan sedikitpun
. Hal itu tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
berpengaruh pada perjanjian usaha syirkah yang dilaksanakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {di antara kedua belah pihak.
Jatah bank tetap ada dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bentuk saham. Dan pemasukannya juga tetap dalam bentuk }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jumlah tertentu dar
i keuntungan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hanya saja kerancuan tersebut tetap t
erlihat kental melalui }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {pencampuradukkan antara dua perjanjian tersebut, demikian }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {juga keikutsertaan bank d
ari semenjak awal dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {persyaratan akan mengambil kembali modalnya secara utuh }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ditambah prosentase
keuntungan. Oleh sebab itu demi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjaga kehormatan dasar dan menghindari syubh
at agar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kedua
bentuk usaha itu dipisahkan saja, yakni bahwa persoalan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jual beli itu diserahkan kepada hak pili
h kedua belah pihak.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hukum-hukum Syirkatul Abdan (U
saha)}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\s

lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Yakni kerjasama dua pihak atau lebih dalam


hasil kerja }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {t
angan mereka.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Seperti kesepakatan para pemili
k usaha dan kerajinan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {untuk menerima pekerjaan dan berserikat dalam hasilnya. Di }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {antara contohnya misalnya
kesepakatan beberapa orang tenaga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {medis untuk mendirikan poliklinik dan menerima perawatan }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {orang-orang sakit.
Masing-masing bekerja sesuai dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {88}\par
\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn
666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqi
h Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {spesialisasinya. Kemudian akhirnya
mereka membagi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {keuntungan bersama. Atau kesepakatan sekelompok mekanik }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk mengerjakan satu pro-yek
perbaikan mobil, masing-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {masing bekerja sesuai dengan ketrampilannya, baru kemudian }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka membagi keuntun
gan bersama.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah ini dinamakan juga syi
rkah shana\uc1\u8217Xi, syirkah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {taqabbul dan syirkah \uc1\u8216Xamal.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Disyariatkannya Syirkatul Abdan}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Para Ahli Fi
qih berbeda pendapat tentang disyariatkannya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkah semacam ini: "Mayoritas ulama mem
bolehkannya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yak
ni dari kalangan Hanafiyah, Malikiyah, dan Hambaliyah, }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Se-dangkan Imam Syafi\uc1\u8217X
i melarangnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Alasan pendapat mayoritas ulama adal
ah sebagai berikut: }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Riwayat Abu Ubaidah Ibnu Abdillah, dari ayahnya Abdullah }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bin Mas"ud diriwayatkan bahwa ia me
nceritakan, "Saya dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Sa\uc1\u8217Xad serta Ammar melakukan kerja sama pada hari Badar. }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun saya dan Amm
ar tidak memperoleh apa-apa, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {sementara Sa\uc1\u8217Xad mem-peroleh dua orang tawanan."}\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Nabi membenarkan apa yang mereka lakukan.
Imam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ahmad berka
ta, "Nabi sendiri yang mengesahkan kerja sama/ }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkah yang mereka lakukan. "}\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {Alasan yang diambil oleh Imam Syafi"i adalah bahwa }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkah itu dilakuka
n tanpa modal harta sehingga tidak akan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mencapai tujuannya, yakni keuntungan. Karena syirkah dal
am }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan
itu dibangun di atas syirkah dalam modal. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sementara modal di sini tidak ada, maka sy
irkah ini tidak sah.}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li61
86\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs

24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {89}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\
marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \
fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Nam
un alasan Syafi"i di sini dibantah dengan alasan lain, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa tujuan dari syirkah adalah
memperoleh keuntungan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {dengan syirkah tersebut. Tidak hanya didasari dengan modal }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harta, namun juga dibolehka
n dengan modal kerja saja, seperti }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {dalam sistem penanaman saham. Bisa juga dilakukan dengan }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sistem penja-minan.
Yakni masing-masing menjadi penjamin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {bagi yang lain untuk menerima usaha pasangan
bisnisnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sepert
i menerima usa-hanya sendiri. Masing-masing menjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penjamin dalam setengah usaha dari penjamina
n pihak lain, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {da
n setengah usaha lain dari hak asli yang dimiliki. Sehingga }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terealisasilah syirkah dari ke
un-tungan yang dihasilkan dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {usaha tersebut.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rukun-rukun Sy
irkah Usaha}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ada tiga rukun yang dimiliki
oleh Syirkah Abdan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {sebagaimana syirkah jenis lain: Dua transaktor, masing-masing }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harus memiliki kompetensi
beraktivitas. Objek transaksi, yakni }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {usaha dan keuntungan. Pelafalan akad/perjanjian.
Yakni }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {indika-tor
terhadap adanya keridhaan masing-masing pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terhadap perjanjian, dengan serah terim
a.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikianlah, telah dijelaskan banyak hukum-hukum
ten-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tang rukunrukun ini ketika kita membahas Syirkatul "Inan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Karena kesemuanya adalah hukum-hukum umum,
sehingga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak
perlu dibahas ulang dalam kesempatan ini. Kita akan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengulas kembali objek transaksi, karena
ada sebagian hukum }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {khusus berkaitan dengan syirkah ini.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pertama: U
saha.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Para ulama berbeda pendapat tentang ditetapka
nnya kesa-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tuan
usaha sebagai syarat sahnya kerja sama ini. Kalangan }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hana-fiyah dan Hambaliya
h dalam salah satu riwayat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {90}\par\pard\sect
\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbs
xn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah
}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pendapat mereka berpendapat bahwa kesatuan usaha
itu tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {disya
riatkan. Karena tujuan dari syirkah tersebut adalah }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memperoleh keuntungan. Tak ada b
edanya antara keuntungan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {dari satu jenis usaha atau dari beberapa jenis usaha. Tidak ada }\par\p

ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {alasan sama sekali untu


k mene-tapkan kesatuan usaha sebagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {syarat sahnya syirkahini.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Berb
eda halnya dengan kalangan Malikiyah dan juga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kalangan Hambaliyah dalam riwayat lain
. Mereka menyatakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {disyariatkannya kesatuan usaha sebagai syarat sahnya }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkahini. Karena konsekuens
i syirkah ini adalah bahwa usaha }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {yang diterima oleh masing-masing pihak juga ditekan
kan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada yang
lain. Kalau usaha yang dilakukan berbeda, hal itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak mungkin terjadi. Karena bagaimana mungki
n seseorang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akan
melakukan usaha yang dia sendiri tidak mampu }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melakukannya atau tidak terampil men
gerjakannya?}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dan dalil terakhir ini dibantah bahwa
komitmen seseorang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {atas suatu usaha tertentu tidak mesti dia melakukannya }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {langsung, bisa saja dia
mengupah orang, atau ada orang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {membantunya tanpa upah. Dan di antara hal yang
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memperjelas lem
ahnya pen-syaratan ini adalah bila seandainya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {salah satu dari keduanya ber-kata, "Saya menerima
saja dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {engkau
yang bekerja," maka syirkah ini sah padahal kerja }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masing-masing itu berbeda.}\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kedua: Keuntungan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Keuntu
ngan dalam syirkah ini adalah berdasarkan kesepa-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {katan semua pihak yang beraliansi, dengan cara
disamaratakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {at
au ada pihak yang dilebihkan. Karena usahalah yang berhak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mendapatkan keuntungan. Sementara perb
edaan usaha dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{syirkah ini dibolehkan. Maka juga dibolehkan juga adanya per-}\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bedaan jumlah keuntungan.}\par\pa
rd\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {91}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\mar
glsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs1
6\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Berdas
arkan hal ini, kalau mereka pempersyaratkan usaha }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibagi dua (1-1) dan keuntungannya 1
-2, boleh-boleh saja. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {Karena modal itu adalah usaha dan keuntungan adalah modal. }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Usaha bisa dihargai deng
an penilaian kualias, sehingga bisa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diperkirakan harganya dengan prediksi kualitasny
a, dan itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {t
idak diharamkan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dasar Kerja Sama dalam Keuntungan
Pada Syirkah Ini}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asas kerja sama antar sesama mitra
usaha dalam syirkah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {ini adalah jaminan atau garansi. Karena setiap usaha yang }

\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diterima masing-m


asing pihak berada dalam jaminan semua }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pihak. Ma-sing-masing bisa menuntut dan dituntu
t oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {usahany
a sendiri. Karena syirkah ini terlaksana hanya dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adanya jaminan ini. Tidak ada ha
l yang berarti yang dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {dijadikan dasar tegaknya perjanjian kerja sama ini
selain }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jamina
n. Seolah-olah syirkah ini berisi jaminan masing-masing }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pihak terhadap yang lain dalam
komitmen dan hak yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {dimiliki. Kalau mereka bersekutu dalam jaminan, berarti
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka juga
harus berserikat dalam keuntungan. Mereka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berhak mendapatkan keuntungan sebagaima
na mereka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memu
kul jaminan secara bersama.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Oleh sebab itu, kalau s
alah seorang di antara mereka beru-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {saha sendirian, maka usaha itu menjadi milik ke
duanya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dengan
catatan, pihak yang tidak berusaha bukan karena }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menolak mela-kukan usaha. Kalau ia
menolak berusaha, maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {mitra usahanya berhak membatalkan perjanjian/kerja }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {samanya. Bahkan sebagian kalan
gan Hambaliyah berpendapat, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {bahwa ketika salah seorang di antara dua pihak yang bermitra }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {usaha itu tidak m
elakukan usaha tanpa alasan, maka mitra }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {usahanya berhak untuk mengambil sen-diri keunt
ungan dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {usaha
nya tersebut. Karena mereka menja-lankan syirkah usaha }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan catatan keduanya melakukan usaha b
ersamaan. Kalau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {92}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margr
sxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {salah di antara mereka
tidak melakukan usaha tanpa alasan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {maka berarti dia tidak menunaikan syarat kerja sama antara }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka berdua,
sehingga ia tidak berhak menda-patkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan sebagai imbalannya.}\par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Jaminan dalam Syirkah Usaha}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Para anggo
ta syirkah ini memiliki satu tanggung jawab. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Setiap usaha yang dilakukan masin
g-masing, mendapatkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {jaminan dari pihak lain. Masing-masing dituntut untuk }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melakukan usaha. Dan m
asing-masing juga berhak menuntut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {mitra usahanya untuk mendapatkan keuntungan. Orang yang }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membayar upah misa
lnya, cukup menyerahkan pembayaran }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada salah satu dari kedua pihak tersebut
. Kalau uang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100

{pembayaran tersebut hangus di tangan salah seorang di antara }\par\pard\li640\r


i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka bukan karena faktor
keteledoran, maka menjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {tanggungjawab mereka berdua sehingga menjadi keuntungan }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka yang hilang. Karen
a masing-masing di antara mereka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {menjadi wakil atau penjamin bagi pihak lain dalam memegang }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuangan atau da
lam menuntut keuntungan. Semen-tara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sudah jelas bahwa tangan seorang penjamin
adalah tangan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
amanah yang hanya bertanggung jawab bila melakukan ketele-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {doran atau melampaui batas.}\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Berakhirnya Syirkah Ini}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah
usaha ini berakhir dengan berakhirnya kerjasama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan berdasarkan kriterianya secara um
um, misalnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {d
engan pembatalan oleh salah satu transaktor, atau kematian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {salah satu dari pihak yang
bekerja sama, atau karena gila, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {karena sudah ter-cekal akibat bangkrut terlilit hutang,
karena }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {idiot dan
sejenisnya.}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {93}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn
666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dengan ke
nyataan itu, maka tidaklah logis apa yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dinyatakan oleh kalangan Malikiyah untuk d
iterapkan di sini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{yaitu bahwa dalam usaha dengan sistem penanaman modal, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ben-tuk usaha ini berlangsung dengan mu
lainya usaha. Karena }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {syirkah usaha ini berkaitan erat dengan pribadi para pelaku, }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sehingga tanpa kehadiranny
a, tidak bisa dibayangkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {bagaimana kerja sama ini bisa berjalan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Syirkatul Wujuh}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah wujuh adalah akad yang
dilakukan dua pihak atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {lebih untuk membeli sesuatu dengan mempergunakan nama }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {baik mereka secara berhutang. Bi
la menghasilkan keuntungan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {mereka bagi berdua.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkah jenis i
ni mengikat dua orang pelaku atau lebih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang tidak memiliki modal uang. Na
mun mereka memiliki }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {prestige atau nama baik di tengah masyarakat sehingga }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membuka kesempatan b
uat mereka untuk bisa membeli secara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {berhutang. Mereka ber-sepakat untuk membeli barang secara }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berhutang dengan
tujuan untuk dijual, lalu keuntungannya jual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {beli itu mereka bagi ber-sama.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0

\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc


alex100 {Sebab Disebut Sebagai Syirkatul Wujuh}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syir
kah ini disebut dengan syirkah wujuh karena para ang-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {gotanya tidak bisa membeli barang dengan hu
tang bila tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
memiliki prestige (nama baik) di tengah masyarakat. Para }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {anggota kerja sama ini sa
ma sekali tidak memiliki modal uang. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun mereka memiliki koneksi dan prestige yang
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menyebabkan m
ereka berkesempatan baik membeli dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hutang. Jah(kehormatan) dan wajh(prestige atau n
ama baik) }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {artiny
a sama. Dikatakan misalnya, si Fulan memiliki nama }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {94}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marg
lsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {baik. Ar
tinya, memiliki kehormatan. Oleh sebab itu Allah }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berfirman:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {"Dan adalah dia seorang yang mempunyai kedudukan }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terhormat disisi Allah." (Al-A
hzab: 69).}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Disyariatkannya Syirkah Ini}\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {Para ulama berbeda pendapat tentang disyariatkannya atau }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidaknya kerja sama in
i. Kalangan Hanafiyah dan Hambaliyah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {membolehkannya secara mutlak. Kalangan Syafi"iyah
dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mali-kiyah
melarang sebagian bentuk aplikatifnya, namun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membo-lehkan sebagian bentuk lainnya.}\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mereka membolehkan kalau kedua pihak tersebut berse-}\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pakat membeli sa
tu komoditi yang sama. Mereka melarang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {apabila masing-masing berhak terhadap apa yang dibe
li oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mitra bi
snis kerja sama mereka dengan nama baiknya sendiri }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {secara mutlak.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {A
lasan mereka yang membolehkanya secara mutlak adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagai berikut: Karena syirkah itu
mengandung unsur }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {membeli dengan pembayaran tertunda, serta untuk }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memberikan penjaminan kepada pih
ak lain untuk berjual beli, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {dan keduanya dibolehkan. Ka-rena umumnya manusia telah }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terbiasa melakukan perjan
jian kerja sama usaha tersebut di }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berbagai tempat tanpa pernah dibantah oleh ulama man
apun.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam Badai"ush Shanai" disebutkan, "Dalil ka
mi adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa
umumnya kaum muslimin telah terbiasa melakukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kedua jenis usaha tersebut di berbaga

i masa tanpa ada ulama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal


ex100 {yang me-nyalahkannya."}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-346\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {95}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pgh
sxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\
slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Kalangan Hanafiyah dan Hambaliyah telah membantah }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pendapat mereka yang mel
arang syirkah ini dengan alasan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak adanya modal yang bisa dikembangkan, dengan ucapan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka: "Kalau
syirkah dengan modal uang dibolehkan untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengembang-kan modal tersebut, maka syirkah dengan us
aha }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan nama bai
k juga disyariatkan dengan tujuan menghasilkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {modal uang. Kebutuhan terhadap modal uang itu leb
ih besar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari
kebutuhan terhadap pengembangan modal uang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sudah ada."}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Ini pembahasan yang berkaitan dengan definisi syirkah ini, }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {asal muasal penamaannya sebagai sy
irkah wujuh dan disyariat-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {kannya syirkah ini.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Adapun hukum-hukum la
in yang berkaitan dengan kerja }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {sama ini sama dengan bentuk-bentuk syirkah lainnya, silahkan }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {me-rujuk kepada pemb
ahasan-pembahasan sebelumnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkatul Mufawadhah}
\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Definisi Syirkatul Mufawadhah}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {Al-Mufawadhah secara bahasa artinya adalah syirkah }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam segala hal.}\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {Secara terminologis artinya yaitu: Setiap syirkah di mana }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {para anggotanya
memiliki kesamaan dalam modal, aktivitas }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan hutang piutang, dari mulai berdirinya syi
rkah hingga akhir. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Maka masing-masing menyerahkan kepada mitranya untuk }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {secara bebas mengoperasika
n modalnya, baik ketika ia ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau tidak. Sehingga ia dengan bebas pula
dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengopera
sikan berbagai aktivitas finansial dan aktivitas kerja }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang menjadi tuntutan se-mua bent
uk kerja sama, namun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {96}\par\pard\sect
\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbs
xn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah
}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan syarat, tidak termasuk di dalamnya usahausaha yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {fenom
enal atau berbagai macam denda.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Definisi Aplikatif}

\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syirkatul Mufawadhah adalah sebuah syirkah
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {komprehensif yan
g dalam syirkah itu semua anggoga sepakat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melakukan aliansi dalam semua jenis kerja sama, sepert
i "inan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {abdan
dan wujuh. Di mana masing-masing menyerahkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada pihak lain hak untuk mengoperasik
an segala aktivitas }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {yang menjadi komitmen kerja sama tersebut, seperti jual beli, }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penjaminan, penggadaian, s
ewa menyewa, menerima tenaga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {kerja, dan sejenisnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun ti
dak termasuk dalam syirkah ini berbagai hasil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sampingan yang didapatkannya, seperti
barang temuan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{warisan dan sejenisnya. Dan juga masing-masing tidak }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menanggung ber-bagai bentu
k denda, seperti mengganti }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {barang yang dirampas, ganti rugi syirkah , mengganti barang-}\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang yang dirusak
dan sejenisnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Alasan Penamaan Itu}\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Para Ahli Fiqih berbeda pendapat tentang alasan mengapa }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dinamakan syirkah ini den
gan Syirkah Mufawadah.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ada pendapat bahwa itu diamb
il dari kata tafwied yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {artinya penyerahan. Karena masing-masing menyerahkan }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada mitranya untuk mel
akukan operasional seluruh modal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {dagang-nya. Ada juga yang berpendapat bahwa itu d
iambil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari kata
istifadhah yang artinya menyebar. Karena syirkah ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ditegakkan di atas dasar penyebara
n dan ekspos seluruh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {aktivitas.}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {97}\par\pard\sect\s
ectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn
173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}
\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sementara kalangan Hanafiyah menyatakan
bahwa arti }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mu
fawadhah adalah penyamaan. Oleh sebab itu syarat sahnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ker-ja sama ini adalah adanya kesamaan m
odal, aktivitas dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {hutang piutang. Namun pendapat ini lemah. Yang tepat }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adalah yang pertama.}\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Disyariatkannya Syirkah Ini}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Para ulama kembali berbeda pendapat tentang hukum }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkah ini: Kalangan Hanafiyah,
Malikiyah dan Hamba-liyah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {membolehkannya. Sedangkan Imam Syafi\uc1\u8217Xi 5 mela-rangnya.}\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Alasan pendapat mayoritas ulama adalah sebagai berikut:

}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {* Karena syirkah ini menggabungkan beber
apa macam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bent
uk syirkah yang masing-masing dari syirkah itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibolehkan secara terpisah, mak
a demikian pula hukumnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {bila dikombi-nasikan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {* Karena masya
rakat di berbagai tempat dan masa telah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terbiasa melakukan bentuk syirkah semacam ini tanpa ada
pula }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ulama yang
menyalahkannya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sementara alasan Imam Sya
fi\uc1\u8217Xi melarangnya adalah sebagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berikut: Karena syirkah ini sebentuk perjanj
ian usaha yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {me-ngandung penjaminan terhadap jenis hal yang tidak }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diketahui, dan juga ja
minan terhadap sesuatu yang tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diketahui. Keduanya sama-sama rusak secara terpisah, a
palagi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bila diga
bungkan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-33
3\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalil yang dikemukakan Imam Syafi"i ini di
bantah bahwa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hal
yang tidak diketahui itu dimaafkan karena timbul sebagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-426\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {98}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsx
n133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {konsekuensi. Sebuah aktiv
itas terkadang sah bila merupakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {konsekuensi, tetapi tidak sah bila merupakan tujuan, seperti }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hal-nya syirkah
"inan dan penanam modal. Masing-masing }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syirkah itu juga mengandung unsur pe
njaminan terhadap }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {dalam pembelian sesuatu yang tidak diketahui, namun }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keduanya dibolehkan ber-dasa
rkan kesepakatan para ulama.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syarat-syarat Syirkah
Mufawadhah}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kalangan Hambaliyah menetapkan syarat sa
hnya syirkah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ini
bahwa tidak boleh dimasukkan ke dalamnya berbagai hasil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sam-pingan dan denda-denda. Kalau
keduanya dimasukkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {dalam perjanjian, syirkah itu batal, karena ada unsur }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {manipulasi. Karen
a masing-masing akan menanggung }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kewajiban yang lain. Bisa jadi ia akan menanggung sesua
tu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang tidak
mampu ia lakukan, apa-lagi itu merupakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perjanjian yang tidak ada contoh yang menye
-rupainya dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
ajaran syariat.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sementara kalangan Hanafiyah
memberikan syarat bagi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {sahnya syirkah ini sebagai berikut:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {1. K

esamaan modal, aktivitas dan keuntungan. Maka harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\


slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibuktikan dahulu kesamaan dai awal
sampai akhir dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {beberapa hal tersebut. Karena menurut mereka al-}\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mufawadhah itu sendiri
artinya adalah penyamaan. Kalau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kesamaan itu tidak di-miliki salah satu pihak, maka syir
kah itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {batal.}\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {2. Keumuman dalam syirkah Yakni diberlakukan dala
m }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {semua jenis
jual beli. Jangan sampai salah satu di antara }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka melakukan jual beli yang ti
dak dilakukan pihak lain.}\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6186\ri0\sl-360\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {99}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn1
1893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmu
lt0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{3. Agar salah satu pihak yang terlibat tidak memiliki saham }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam syirkah lain, dan tidak juga
ikut dalam perjanjian syirkah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {lain, karena hal itu menyebabkan ketidaksamaan.}\par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {4. Hendaknya dengan pelafalan mufawadhah. Karena }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mufa-wadhah mengandung
banyak persyaratan yang hanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bisa diga-bungkan dalam pelafalan itu, atau de
ngan cara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {peng
ungkapan lain yang bisa mewakilinya. Namun jarang }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sekali masyarakat awam yang memaha
mi hal itu.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikianlah. Berkurangnya salah satu da
ri persyaratan ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {menyebabkan syirkah ini berubah menjadi syirkah "inan }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menurut kalangan Hanafi
yah. Karena syirkah ini memang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sudah mengan-dung unsur syirkah "inan bahkan lebih dari i
tu. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Batalnya syi
rkah mufawadhah, tidak berarti syirkah itu batal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagai syirkah "inan, karena syirkah "inan tid
ak memerlukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sy
arat-syarat tersebut.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Satu hal yang perlu diingat,
bahwa kalangan Malikiyah dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Hambaliyah tidak menganggap kesamaan dalam modal dan }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan sebagai syar
at syirkah ini. Mereka membolehkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {adanya perbedaan dalam kedua hal itu, sebagaimana halnya }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syir-katul "Inan.}\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Untung Rugi Dalam Syirkatul Mufawadhah}\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Para ulama Ahli Fiqih telah bersepakat bahwa kerugian }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam Syirkah Mufawadhah
dan dalam seluruh jenis syirkah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {lainnya harus diukur dengan jumlah modal. Artinya, kerugian }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu dibagi-bagikan u
ntuk ditanggung bersama sesuai dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\

cf0\f1\charscalex100 {prosentasi modal yang tergabung dalam syirkah.


Namun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka be
rbeda pendapat dalam soal keuntun-gan:}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-36
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {100}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn840
0\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {* Kalangan Hambaliyah membolehkan keuntungan itu }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibagikan sesuai dengan
persyaratan. Mereka tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {membedakan antara syirkah komprehensif dengan yang }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lainnya.}\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {* Kalangan Malikiyah mempersyaratkan agar keuntungan }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {disesuaikan dengan juml
ah modal.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-3
33\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {* Sementara kalangan Hanafiyah me
ngharuskan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keunt
ungan dalam Syirkatul Mufawadhah untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {disamaratakan, berdasarkan alasan yang te
lah dijelaskan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{sebelumnya bahwa modal, keun-tungan dan yang lainnya }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adalah rambu-rambu paling mend
asar, dalam syirkah ini dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {juga dalam syirkah-syirkah lain, menurut mereka.}\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {Telah pula dijelaskan sebelumnya bahwa pendapat yang }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terpilih adalah bahwa keunt
ungan itu bisa saja berdasarkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {persyaratan. Karena usaha itu adalah salah satu
sebab }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memper-o
leh keuntungan. Ukurannya bisa berbeda-beda, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sehingga harus diukur.}\par\pard\li6066\ri0
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li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
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ex100\i {Dia mengetahui bahwa akan ada di antara kamu orang-orang yang }\i0 \pa
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\uc1\u1610X }\par\pard\li720\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1
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A }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {bila
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an hewan yang punya hati }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\i {kering. Dia rekannya menyetujui syarat itu maka dia menjaminnya.
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\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kebolehan akad mudharabat ini dikuatkan dengan ijma', }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dimana diriwaya
tkan bahwa banyak diantara para shahabat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Nabi SAW menyerahkan harta anak yat
im dalam bentuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {mudharabah. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Di antara mereka adalah Umar bin A
l-Khattab, Utsman }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{bin Al-Affan, Ali bin Abi Thalib, Abdullah bin Mas'ud, }\par\p
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\fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {ridhwanul ahi alaihim}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscale
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a }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sama semacam
itu hingga zaman ini di berbagai masa dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tempat tanpa ada ulama yang menyalahkannya. Ini m
erupakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {konsens
us yang diyakini umat, karena cara ini sudah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
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uan untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengel
ola dan mengembangkannya. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maka Syariat membolehkan
kerja sama ini agar mereka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {bisa saling mengambil manfaat diantara mereka. Shahibulmal }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(investor) memanfaatk
an keahlian mudharib (pengelola), }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dimana dia memanfaatkan harta dan dengan dem
ikian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terwujudla
h kerja sama harta dan amal. Allah Ta\uc1\u8217Xala tidak }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mensyariatkan satu
akad kecuali untuk mewujudkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {kemaslahatan dan menolak kerusakan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {5. Jenis Mudharabah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Para ulama membagi Mu
dharabah menjadi dua jenis:}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {5.1. Muthlaqah}\b0 \par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { Pengertiannya adalah sistem mudharabah dimana pemilik
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {modal (investor/
Shohib Al Mal) menyerahkan modal kepada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pengelola tanpa pembatasan jenis usaha, tempat dan waktu
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan dengan siap
a pengelola bertransaksi. Jenis ini memberikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kebebasan kepada Mudhorib (pengelola moda
l) melakukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {a
pa saja yang dipandang dapat mewujudkan kemaslahatan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
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par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pengertiannya p
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i640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sekedar ijtihad dan di
lakukan dengan kesepakatan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {keridhaan kedua belah pihak sehingga wajib ditunaikan.}\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Perbedaan antara keduanya terletak pada pemba
tasan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penggunaan
modal sesuai permintaan investor.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6. Rukun Mudhara
bah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346
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}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Pelaku,}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { baik
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {investor (pemili
k modal) dan pengelola (mudharib), [2] }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Objek }\b0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {transaksi}\b0
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\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Pelafalan perja
njian}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan
imam Al Syarbini dalam Syarh Al Minhaaj }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjelaskan bahwa rukun mudharabah ada lima
, yaitu Modal, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {j
enis usaha, keuntungan, pelafalan transaksi dan dua pelaku }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
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i kepada tiga rukun diatas.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.1. Pelaku}\b0 \par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kedua pelaku kerja sama ini adalah pemilik modal dan }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pengelola modal.
Disyaratkan pada rukun pertama ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
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}\fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {jaizut-tasharruf}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
) }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam pengerti
an mereka berdua baligh, berakal, rasyid dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
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rd\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sebagian ulama mensyaratkan bahwa keduanya harus
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {muslim atau pen
gelola harus muslim, sebab seorang muslim }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak ditakutkan melakukan perbuatan riba at
au perkara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {har
am.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {40}\fs20\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 { Lihat Takmilah AL Majmu\uc1\u8217X Syarhu Al Muhadzab imam na
wawi oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Muhamm
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\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Syatrhul Muhadzab }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs
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i1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun sebagian lainnya tida
k mensyaratkan hal tersebut, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {sehingga diperbolehkan bekerja sama dengan orang kafir yang }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dapat dipercaya den
gan syarat harus terbukti adanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemantauan terhadap aktivitas pengelolaan modal dari pi
hak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {muslim sehin
gga terlepas dari praktek riba dan haram{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#107"}}{\f
ldrslt {.}}}}\fs14\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {{\field{\*\fldinst{HYPERLINK "#107"}}{\
fldrslt {41}}}}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.2. Objek Transaksi}\b0 \par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {Objek transaksi dalam mudharabah mencakup modal, }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jenis usaha dan keu
ntungan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.2.1. Modal}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Dalam sistem Mudharabah ada empat syarat modal yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harus dipenuhi:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {a. Modal harus berupa alat tukar/satuan mata uang (Al }\par\pard\li1360\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Naqd) dasarnya adalah ijma\uc1
\u8217X21 atau barang yang }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {ditetapkan nilainya ketika akad menurut pendapat }\p
ar\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang rojih. 22}\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {b. Modal yang diser
ahkan harus jelas diketahui23}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {c. Modal yang diserahkan harus tertentu}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {d. Modal diserahkan kepada pihak pengelola
modal dan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {peng
elola menerimanya langsung dan dapat }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {beraktivitas dengannya.24}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Jadi dalam mudharabah disyaratkan modal yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diserahkan harus diketahui dan
penyerahan jumlah modal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {kepada mudharib (pengelola modal) harus berupa alat tukar }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seperti emas, perak dan
satuan mata uang secara umum. Tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {diperbolehkan berupa barang kecuali bila ditentuk

an nilai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {baran


g tersebut dengan nilai mata uang ketika akad transaksi, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-386\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {41}\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Lihat k
itab Maa La Yasa\uc1\u8217Xu Al Taajir Jahlulu, karya prof. DR }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Abdullah Al Mushlih dan prof. DR.
Shalah Al Showi}\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\r
i0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {107}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\p
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0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {sehingga nilai barang tersebut yang menjadi modal }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mudharabah. }\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Contohnya seorang memiliki sebuah mobil toyota kijang }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lalu diserahkan
kepada mudharib (pengelola modal), maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ketika akad kerja sama tersebut disepakati w
ajib ditentukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{harga mobil tersebut dengan mata uang, misalnya Rp 80 juta; }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka modmudharabah tersebut adalah
Rp 80 juta.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kejelasan jumlah modal ini menj
adi syarat karena }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {menentukan pembagian keuntungan. Apabila modal tersebut }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berupa barang dan tidak diketahui
nilainya ketika akad, bisa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {jadi barang tersebut berubah harga dan nilainya seiring
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berjalannya w
aktu, sehingga memiliki konsekuensi ketidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jelasan dalam pembagian keuntungan.}\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {6.2.2. Jenis Usaha}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Jenis u
saha disini disyaratkan beberapa syarat:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {a. Jenis u
saha tersebut di bidang perniagaan}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {b. Tidak menyusahkan pengelola modal dengan }\par\par
d\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembatasan yang menyulit
kannya, seperti ditentukan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {jenis yang sukar sekali didapatkan, contohnya harus }\par\pard\
li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berdagang permata merah de
lima atau mutiara yang }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {sangat jarang sekali adanya. 25}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asal dari
usaha dalam mudharabah adalah di bidang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perniagaan dan bidang yang terkait
dengannya yang tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {dilarang syariat. Pengelola modal dilarang mengadakan }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {transaksi perdagang
an barang-barang haram seperti daging }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {babi, minuman keras dan sebagainya.26}\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {6.2.3. Pembatasan Waktu Penanaman Modal}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
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rsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Diperbolehkan memb
atasi waktu usaha dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {penanaman modal menurut pendapat madzhab }\par\pard\li640

\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hambaliyyah.27 dengan dasar


dikiyaskan (dianalogikan) }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {dengan sistem sponsorship pada satu sisi, dan dengan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berbagai krit
eria lain yang dibolehkan, pada sisi yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lainnya.28}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6.
2.4. Keuntungan}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Setiap usaha dilakukan untuk me
ndapatkan keuntungan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {demikian juga Mudharabah. Namun dalam mudharabah }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {disyaratkan pada keuntungan ter
sebut empat syarat:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a.}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {Keuntungan khusus untuk kedua pihak yang bekerja }\par\pard\li1360
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sama yaitu pemilik modal
(investor) dan pengelola }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {modal. Seandainya disyaratkan sebagian keuntungan }\par\p
ard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk pihak ketiga
, misalnya dengan menyatakan: }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8216XMudharabah dengan pembagian 1/3 keuntung
an }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untukmu, 1/3
untukku dan 1/3 lagi untuk istriku atau }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {orang lain, maka tidak sah kecuali disyaratkan pihak }
\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ketiga ikut
mengelola modal tersebut, sehingga }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjadi qiraadh bersama dua orang.29 Seandai
nya }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dikatakan:
\uc1\u8217Xseparuh keuntungan untukku dan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {separuhnya untukmu, namun separuh dar
i bagianku }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {un
tuk istriku\uc1\u8217X, maka ini sah karena ini akad janji }\par
\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hadiyah kepada istri
.30}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {b. Pembagian
keuntungan untuk berdua tidak boleh }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hanya untuk satu pihak saja. Seandainy
a dikatakan: }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
\uc1\u8216XSaya bekerja sama mudharabah denganmu dengan }\par\pard\li1
360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan sepenuhnya unt
ukmu\uc1\u8217X maka ini dalam }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {madzhab Syafi\uc1\u8217Xi tidak sah.31}\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {c. Keuntungan harus diketahui secar
a jelas.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{d.}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam transaksi tersebut ditegaskan
prosentase }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {te
rtentu bagi pemilik modal (investor) dan pengelola. }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{109}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1360\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sehingga keuntungannya
dibagi dengan persentase }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {bersifat merata seperti setengah, sepertiga atau }\par
\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seperempat.32 Apa bi
la ditentuan nilainya, contohnya }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {dikatakan kita bekerja sama mudharabah dengan }\par\
pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembagian keuntungan
untukmu satu juta dan sisanya }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {untukku\uc1\u8217X maka akadnya tidak sah. Demikian juga bila }\p
ar\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak jelas pe

rsentase-nya seperti sebagian untukmu }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0


\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan sebagian lainnya untukku.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\b {6.3. Pelafalan Perjanjian}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Shighah adala
h ungkapan yang berasal dari kedua belah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pihak pelaku transaksi yang menunjukkan keing
inan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melakukanny
a. Shighah ini terdiri dari ijab qabul. Transaksi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mudharabah atau syarikat dianggap sah dengan
perkataan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pe
rbuatan yang menunjukkan maksudnya.41}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {7. Syarat Dal
am Mudharabah42}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pengertian syarat dalam Mudhara
bah adalah syarat-syarat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {yang ditetapkan salah satu pihak yang mengadakan kerjasama }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berkaitan dengan mudharabah.
Syarat dalam Mudharabah ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {ada dua:}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {7. 1. Syarat Sah }\b0 \par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syarat yang ini menyelisihi tuntutan akad dan tidak pula }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maksudnya serta m
emiliki maslahat untuk akad tersebut. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Contohnya pe
milik modal mensyaratkan kepada pengelola }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak membawa pergi harta tersebut keluar
negeri atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {me
mbawanya keluar negeri atau melakukan perniagaannya }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {khusus dinegeri tertentu ata
u jenis tertentu yang gampang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {didapatkan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {110}\par\pard\sect
\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbs
xn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah
}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maka syarat-syarat ini dibenarkan menu
rut kesepakatan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{para ulama dan wajib dipenuhi, karena ada kemaslahatannya }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan tidak menyelisihi tuntutan dan
maksud akad perjanjian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {mudharabah.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {7. 2. Syarat fasad (tidak benar)
. }\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syarat ini terbagi tiga:}\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {7.2.1. Syarat meniadakan tuntutan konsekuensi akad}\b0 \par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {Seperti mensyaratkan tidak membeli sesuatu atau tidak
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjual sesuat
u atau tidak menjual kecuali dengan harga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {modal atau dibawah modalnya. Syarat ini di
sepakati ketidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{benarannya, karena menyelisihi tuntutan dan maksud akad }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kerja sama yaitu mencari ke
untungan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {7.2.2. Syarat yang bukan dari kemaslahata
n }\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Juga bukan tuntutan akad, seperti mensyaratk

an kepada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pengel


ola untuk memberikan mudharabah kepadanya dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harta yang lainnya.}\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {7.2.3. Syarat yang berakibat tidak jelasnya keuntungan }\b0 \par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Misalnya mensyaratkan kepada pengelola bagian }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan yang tidak
jelas atau mensyaratkan keuntungan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {satu dari dua usaha yang dikelola, keuntungan usaha ini
untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemilik
modal dan yang satunya untuk pengelola atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menentukan nilai satuan uang tertentu s
ebagai keuntungan. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syarat ini disepakati kerusakan
nya karena mengakibatkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {keuntungan yang tidak jelas dari salah satu pihak atau malah }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak dapat keuntungan sam
a sekali. Sehingga akadnya batal.}\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-426\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {111}\par\pard\sec
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0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
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Mudharabah}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marg
lsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mudharabah bisa berakhir dengan pemb
atalan dari salah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
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pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menerus dalam transaks
i usaha semacam ini. Masing-masing }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
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\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menghendaki.}\par
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dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {meningga
lnya salah satu pihak transaktor, atau karena ia gila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
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mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {I

mam Ibnu Qudamah menyatakan: \uc1\u8220XMudharabah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\


sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {termasuk jenis akad yang diperbolehka
n. Ia berakhir dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {pembatalan salah seorang dari kedua belah pihak -siapa saja-, }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan kematian, gila atau d
ibatasi karena ediot; hal itu karena }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {ia beraktivitas pada harta orang lain dengan sezinnya, maka
ia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seperti wa
kiel dan tidak ada bedanya antara sebelum }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {beraktivitas dan sesudahnya.}\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {Imam Al Nawawi menyatakan: Penghentian qiraadh }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {boleh, karena ia di awa
lnya adalah perwakilan dan setelah itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjadi syarikat. Apabila terdapat keuntungan m
aka setiap }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dar
i kedua belah pihak boleh memberhentikannya kapan suka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan tidak butuh kehadiran dan k
eridoan mitranya. Apabila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {meninggal atau gila atau hilang akal maka berakhir
usaha }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut\
uc1\u8221X. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Imam Syafi\uc1\u8217Xi menyatakan:
\uc1\u8220XKapan penilik modal ingin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengambil modalnya sebelum diusahakan dan
sesudahnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan
kapan pengelola ingin keluar dari qiraadh maka ia keluar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {darinya\uc1\u8221X{\field{\*\fldinst{H
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par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {42}\fs20\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 { Majmu\uc1\u8217X Syarhu Almuhadzab jilid 15 halaman 191}\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
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0\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Apabila telah dihentikan da
n harta (modal) utuh, namun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {tidak memiliki keuntungan maka harta tersebut diambil }\

par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemilik modal. Apa


bila terdapat keuntungan maka keduanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membagi keuntungan tersebut sesuai dengan kesepakatan. }\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Apabila berhenti dan harta berbentuk baran
g, lalu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keduan
ya sepakat menjualnya atau membaginya maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diperbolehkan, karena hak milik kedua belah
pihak. Apabila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
pengelola minta menjualnya sedang pemilik modal menolak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan tampak dalam usaha tersebut
ada keuntungan, maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {penilik modal dipaksa menjualnya; karena hak pengelola ada }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pada keuntungan dan
tidak tampak decuali dengan dijual. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun bila tidak tampak keuntungannya maka pemilik m
odal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak dipak
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\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
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r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {43}\fs20\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 { Al Mughni jilid 7 halaman 172}\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {113}\par\pard
\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\m
argbsxn480\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li46
93\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4693\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {Pertemuan Kelima}\par\pard\li2813\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {Muzara'ah dan Mukhabarah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Apabila seoran
g muslim memiliki tanah pertanian, maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dia harus memanfaatkan tanah tersebut dengan }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bercocoktanam. Is
lam tidak menyukai dikosongkannya tanah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pertanian itu, sebab hal tersebut berarti menghilangkan

nikmat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan me


mbuang-buang harta, sedang Rasulullah s.a.w. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melarang keras disia-siakannya harta. Pemil
ik tanah ini dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {memanfaatkannya dengan berbagai cara. Baik dengan }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ditanami sendiri atau pun dengan
bekerjasama dengan pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {lain.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\m
argrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kemungkiann per
tama adalah dengan diurus sendiri. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pemilik lahan dengan tenaganya sendiri atau membayar
upah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {karyawan
menanami lahannya tumbuh-tumbuhan atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ditaburi benih kemudian disiram dan dipel
ihara. Begitulah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {sampai keluar hasilnya. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Cara semacam ini
adalah cara yang terpuji, di mana }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemiliknya akan mendapat pahala dari Allah
karena }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tanama
nnya itu bisa dimanfaatkan oleh manusia, burung dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {binatang ternak. Kebanyakan sahabat
Anshar adalah hidup }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {bercocok-tanam. Mereka urus sendiri tanah-tanah mereka itu. }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam hal ini dia be
kerja sendiri atau hanya satu pihak. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan pembantunya adalah karyawan ata
u buruh yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{dibayar tenaganya saja.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan cara lainnya
agar sebuah lahan itu tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibiarkan saja menganggur adalah meminjamkan tanahnya itu
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada orang la
in yang mampu mengurusnya dengan bantuan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {alat, bibit ataupun binatang untuk mengolah tanah, seda
ng dia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {samasekal
i tidak mengambil hasilnya. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kecuali berharap p
ahala dari Allah SWT. Dengan cara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {demikian, dia telah memberikan jalan kepada orang la
in untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mendapa
t rizki. Dan cara seperti ini adalah salah satu bentuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {shadaqah jariah. Cara semacam ini
sangat dianurkan
oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Islam.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Abu Hurairah meriwayatkan
, bahwa Rasulullah s.a.w. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {bersabda sebagai berikut:"Barangsiapa memiliki tanah, maka }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tanamilah atau berika
n kepada kawannya." (Riwayat Bukhari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {dan Muslim)}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {"Dari Jabir ia ber
kata,"Kami biasa menyewa tanah dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mendapatkan sebagai dari hasil (mukhabarah), kemudian kami
}\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-466\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {115}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsx
n11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\sl
mult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21

3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100


{mendapat hasil tanah itu begini dan begini. Maka sabda Nabi: }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barangsiapa memiliki tanah,
maka tanamilah sendiri atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {suruhlah saudaranya untuk menanaminya, kalau tidak,
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tinggalkanlah."
(Riwayat Ahmad dan Muslim)}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {"Sungguh salah seorang
di antara kamu akan memberikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {tanahnya kepada kawannya, lebih baik daripada dia mengambil }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atas tanahnya itu has
il yang ditentukan." (Riwayat Bukhari)}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Cara ketig
a ialah dengan cara muzara'ah, yaitu pemilik }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tanah menyerahkan alat, benih d
an hewan kepada yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {hendak menanaminya dengan suatu ketentuan dia akan }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mendapat hasil yang te
lah ditentukan, misalnya: 1/2, 1/3 atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kurang atau lebih menurut persetujuan bersama. Boleh jug
a si }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemilik tan
ah itu membantu kepada yang hendak menaminya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berupa bibit, alat atau hewan. Cara sep
erti ini disebut: }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {muzara'ah, musagaat atau mukhabarah.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam ha
dis yang diriwayatkan oleh Imam Bukhari dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Muslim diterangkan, bahwa Rasulullah s.a.w.
menyewakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tan
ah kepada penduduk Khaibar dengan perjanjian separuh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hasilnya untuk pemilik tanah.Hadis
ini diriwayatkan oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {beberapa orang sahabat, di antaranya: Ibnu Umar, Ibnu Abbas }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan Jabir bin Abdullah.}\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hadis ini dijadikan alasan oleh orang yang membolehka
n }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {muzara'ah; d
an mereka berkata: "Muzara'ah adalah perkara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang baik dan sudah biasa berlaku, yang j
uga dikerjakan oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Rasulullah s,a.w. sampai beliau meninggal dunia, kemudian }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dilanjutkan oleh Khula
faur Rasyidin sampai mereka meninggal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dunia. Dan kemudian diikuti oleh orang-orang s
esudahnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sehin
gga tidak seorang pun ahli bait Nabi di Madinah yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak mengerjakan hal ini. Dan begitu juga
isteri-isteri Nabi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {s.a.w. sepeninggal beliau."}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {116}\par\pard\sect\sec
td\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn17
3\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {A. Pengertian muzara'ah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Secara bahasa, muzaraah berarti muamalah atas
tanah }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan sebagian yan
g keluar sebagian darinya. Dan secara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {istilah muzara'ah berarti memberikan
t
anah kepada petani }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal

ex100 {agar dia mendapatkan bagian dari hasil tanamannya. Misalnya }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sepertiga, seperdua atau lebi
h banyak atau lebiih sedikit dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {itu.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {B. Dasar Pensyari'atan}\b0 \
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Muzara'ah adalah salah satu bentuk ta'awun(kerja sam
a) }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {antar petani
( buruh tani) dan pemilik sawah. Serigkali kali ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {orang yang ahli dalam masalah pertanian teta
pi dia tidak punya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {lahan, dan sebaliknya banyak orang yang punya lahan tetapi }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak mampu menanaminya. Mak
a Islam mensyari'atkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {muzara'ah sebagai jalan tengah bagi keduanya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Itulah yang telah dicontohkan oleh Rasulullah dan }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mentradisi di tengah p
ara sahabat dan kaum muslimin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {setelahnya. Ibnu 'abbas mencerikana bahwa Rasululah saw
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bekerja sama
(muzaraah) dengan penduduk Khaibar untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berbagi hasil atas panenan, makanan
dan buah-buahan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Bahkan Muhammad Albakir bin Ali bin Al-Husain }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengatakan bahwa tidak ada
seorang muhajirin yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {berpindah ke Madinah kecuali mereka bersepakat untuk }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membagi hasil pertan
ian sepertiga atau seperempat.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Para sahabat yan
g tercatat melakukan muzara'ah antara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lain adalah Ali bin Abi Thalib, Sa'ad bin Malik, A
bdullah bin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mas'
ud dan yang lainnya. Bahkan Umar bin Abdul Aziz pun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang hidup di masa berikutnya memiliki pema
sukan dari bagi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
hasil.}\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\r
i0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {117}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\p
gwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\cols2\coln
o1\colw5400\colsr-0\colno2\colw2200\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {C. Pendapat Yang Melarang}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\s
l-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\sect\se
ctd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Dan telah datang satu masalah dalam hal ini, yaitu }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {munculnya hadis tentan
g muzara'ah dari Rafi' bin Khudaij }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang mengatakan bahwa Rasulullah SAW tela
h melarang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dil
akukannya muzara'ah setelah sebelumnya ia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memperbolehkannya, dengan dalil hadis
yang menceritakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {bahwa telah datang kepada Rasulullah dua orang yang }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berselisih tentang muz
ara'ah yang mereka lakukan hingga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjadikan mereka berusaha untuk saling membunuh, maka
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk permasa

lahan mereka ini Rasulullah berkata bahwa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\


slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kalau demikaian halnya yang terjadi maka seb
aiknya mereka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ti
dak melakukannya(muzara'ah).}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Zaid bin Tsabit meriwa
yatkan, bahwa ada dua orang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {sedang bertengkar tentang masalah tanah, kemudian }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengadukannya kep
ada Nabi, maka jawab Nabi,"Kalau ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {persoalanmu, maka janganlah kamu menyewak
an tanah." }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(Ri
wayatAbu Daud)}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Jadi masing-masing dari pemilik tana
h dan penyewa, harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {ada sikap toleransi (tasamuh) yang tinggi. Misalnya si pemilik }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tanah jangan minta terlalu t
inggi dari hasil tanahnya itu. Begitu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {juga sebaliknya si penyewa jangan merugikan pihak pemilik
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tanah.}\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {Dan pendapat yang mengatakan bahwa hukum muzara'ah }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ini termasuk akad yang te
rlarang telah dibantah oleh Zaid bin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {Tsabit dengan mengatakan bahwa ia lebih mengetahui tentang
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hadits Rasululla
h dari pada Rafi' bin Khudaij. Lebih lanjutnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dia menjelaskan bahwa banyak sahabat Nabi yang me
lakukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {muzara'a
h. Dengan adanya bantahan dari Zaid ini, maka telah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jelas bahwa tidak ter jadi nasakh
dalam hukum }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
diperbolehkannya muzara'ah.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {118}\par\pard\sect\sectd\
sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\p
gwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {Ibnu Abbas ra meriwayatkan bahwa larangan Rasulullah }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {SAW tentang muzara'ah
dalam hal ini bersifat kasuistik, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dimana beliau memandang bahwa orang tersebut kurang
tepat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam mel
akukan akad muzara'ah, sehingga larangan itu bukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berarti melarang hukum muzara'ah secara hukum
, melainkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {arah
an beliau kepada orang seseorang tertentu untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menggunakan sistem lain yang lebih t
epat.}\par\pard\li733\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li733\ri0\sl-546\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1571X \u
c1\u1603X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1576X\uc1
\u1571X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1573X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1582X\uc1\
u1571X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1
576X \uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u15
86X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u160
7X\uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1603X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605
X}\par\pard\li4453\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1605X\uc
1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\
u1582X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1
585X -}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Siapa yang punya lahan, hendaklah di

tanaminya atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100


{diberikannya kepada saudaranya. Namun bila dia menolak, }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hendaklah dia mengambil tan
ahnya.(HR. Bukhari dan Muslim)}\par\pard\li853\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li853\ri0\sl-560\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1573X
: \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1583
X\uc1\u1582X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1585X
\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1587X \uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1581X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1587X
\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1586X\u
c1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1606X \uc1\u1575X\u
c1\u1606X\uc1\u1603X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X }\par\pard\li813\ri0\sl-480\slmult0
\fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1589X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1610X) \uc1\u
1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1
604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1602X : \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u
1587X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u16
03X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1548X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593
X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1606X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1587
X\uc1\u1585X}\par\pard\li960\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1
\u1605X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u
1610X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1604X : \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1602X \uc1\u1606X\uc1
\u1603X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\
u1607X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\
u1608X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1573X (\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\
u1576X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1575X}\par\pard\li1506\ri0\sl-480\
slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X
\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1585X - \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605
X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1575X\
uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1582X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1593X \u
c1\u1584X\uc1\u1582X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1606X\uc
1\u1605X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1582X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1571X}\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kami tidak memandang bahwa di dalam muzara'ah itu ada }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {larangan, hingga
aku mendengar Rafi' bin Khudaij berkata }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa Rasulullah SAW melarangnya. M
aka aku bertanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {kepada Thawus dan beliau berkata,"Orang yang paling }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengerti dalam masalah
ini telah memberitahukan ku }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {(maksudnya Ibnu Abbas ra),"Sesunguhnya Rasulullah
SAW }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak melara
ng muzara'ah, beliau hanya berkata,"Memberikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tanah kepada seseorang lebih baik dari pada memin
ta pajak }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li606
6\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {119}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpag
e\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li
5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {tertentu". (HR. Bukhari, Ahmad, Abu Daud, Nasai dan Ibnu }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Majah)}\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {D. Bentuk Muzara'ah Yang Terlarang}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Muzara'ah dibenarkan apabila disepakati pembagian hasil }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {antara pemilik lahan dengan tenaga
petani. Misalnya, petani }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {mendapat 60 % dari nilai total hasil panen, sedangkan pemilik }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lahan mendapat 40%
sisanya. Bentuk seperti ini dihalalkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul

t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan telah dicontohkan oleh Nabi Muhammad SAW dan


para }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {shahabat hi
ngga generasi berikutnya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Adapun bentuk muzara'ah
yang diharamkan adalah bila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {bentuk kesepakatannya tidak adil. Misalnya, dari luas 1000 m }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {persegi yang disepaka
ti, pemilik lahan menetapkan bahwa dia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berhak atas tanaman yang tumbuh di area 400 m tertentu. }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan tenag
a buruh tani berhak atas hasil yang akan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {didapat pada 600 m tertentu.}\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {Perbedaannya dengan bentuk muzara'ah yang halal di atas }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adalah pada cara pembag
ian hasil. Bentuk yang boleh adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {semua hasil panen dikumpulkan terlebih dahulu, baru dibagi }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hasil sesuai
prosentase. Sedangkan bentuk yang kedua dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terlarang itu, sejak awal lahan sudah diba
gi dua bagian menjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {400 m dan 600 m. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Buruh tani berkewajiban
untuk menanami kedua lahan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {tetapi haknya terbatas pada hasil di 600 m itu saja. Sedangkan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {apapun yang akan
dihasilkan di lahan satunya lagi yang 400 m, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjadi hak pemilik lahan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Cara seperti ini adalah cara muzaraah yang diharamkan. }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Inti larangannya ada pada masalah g
harar. Sebab boleh jadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {salah satu pihak akan dirugikan. Misalnya, bila panen da
ri }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {120}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsx
n11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slm
ult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{lahan yang 400 m itu gagal, maka pemilik lahan akan }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dirugikan. Sebaliknya,
bila panen di lahan yang 600 m itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {gagal, maka buruh tani akan dirugik
an. Maka yang benar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {adalah bahwa hasil panen keduanya harus disatukan terlebih }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dahulu, setelah itu baru di
bagi hasil sesuai dengan perjanjian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {prosentase.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bentuk muzara'ah
yang terlarang ini adalah seseorang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memberikan persyaratan kepada orang yang
mengerjakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tan
ahnya; yaitu dengan ditentukan tanah dan sewanya dari }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hasil tanah baik berupa taka
ran ataupun timbangan. Sedang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {sisa daripada hasil itu untuk yang mengerjakannya atau masih }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibagi dua lagi misal
nya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rasulullah SAW menetapkan keadilan dalam masal
ah ini, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yaitu
kedua belah pihak bersekutu dalam hasil tanah itu, }\par\pard\li64

0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sedikit ataupun banyak. T


idak layak kalau di satu pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mendapat bagian tertentu yang kadang-kadang s
uatu tanah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tid
ak menghasilkan lebih dari yang ditentukan itu. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Da
lam keadaan demikian, maka pemilik tanah berarti akan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengambil semua hasil, sedang di
lain pihak menderita }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {kerugian besar. Dan kadang-kadang pula, suatu tanah yang }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ditentukan itu tidak m
enghasilkan apa-apa, sehingga dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {demikian dia samasekali tidak mendapat apa-apa, sedang di
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lain pihak (peny
ewa) memonopoli hasil.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Oleh karena itu seharu
snya masing-masing pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {mengambil bagiannya itu dari hasil tanah dengan suatu
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perbandingan ya
ng disetujui bersama. Jika hasilnya itu banyak, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka kedua belah pihak akan ikut mer
asakannya, dan jika }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {hasilnya sedikit, kedua-duanya pun akan mendapat sedikit }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pula. Dan kalau sam
asekali tidak menghasilkan apa-apa, maka }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{121}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133
\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kedua-duanya akan mender
ita kerugian. Cara ini lebih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {menyenangkan jiwa kedua belah pihak.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Diriwayatkan dari jalan Rafi' bin Khadij, ia berkata: "Kami }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kebanyakan pemilik tanah di
Madinah melakukan muzara'ah, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {kami menyewakan tanah, satu bagian daripadanya ditentukan }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk pemilik tanah . . m
aka kadang-kadang si pemilik tanah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {itu ditimpa suatu musibah sedang tanah yang lain selamat, dan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kadang-kadang
tanah yang lain itu ditimpa suatu musibah, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sedang dia selamat, oleh karenan
ya kami dilarang. (HR }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Bukhari).}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Di zaman Nabi orang-ora
ng biasa menyewakan tanah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {yang dekat sumber dan yang berhadapan dengan parit-parit }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan beberapa macam tana
man, maka yang ini rusak dan yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {itu selamat; yang ini selamat dan yang itu rusak, sedang orang
-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {orang tidak
melakukan penyewaan tanah kecuali demikian, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {oleh karena itu kemudian dilarangnya." (HR
Muslim)}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rasulullah s.a.w. bertanya kepada par
a sahabat,"Apa yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {kamu perbuat terhadap tanam-tanamanmu itu?" Mereka }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjawab: "Kami sewakan

dia dengan 1/4 dan beberapa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22


\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {wasag dari korma dan gandum." Maka jawab Nabi, "Jangan }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kamu berbuat demik
ian." (Riwayat Bukhari)}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maksud hadis ini, yai
tu mereka menetapkan ukuran }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {tertentu yang mereka ambilnya dari hasil tanah itu, kemudian }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membagi sisanya
bersama orang-orang yang menanaminya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk ini 1/4 dan untuk itu 3/4 misalnya.}\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dari sini pula kita dapat mengetahui, bahwa Nabi sangat }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berkeinginan untuk
mewujudkan keadilan secara merata dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masyarakatnya, serta menjauhkan semua hal yan
g }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-30
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {122}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn840
0\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {menyebabkan pertentangan dan perkelahian di kalangan }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masyarakat Islam.}\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {E. Penyewaan Lahan}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Semua
yang kita bicarakan di atas adalah akad kerja sama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau bagi hasil atas suatu lahan pertanian. H
ukumnya boleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {as
alkan tidak ada gharar.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Adapun bentuk lain da
ri pemanfaatan lahan adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {penyewaan lahan untuk jangka waktu tertentu. Akadnya bukan }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bagi hasil melainka
n sewa tanah untuk digarap selama jangka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {waktu tertentu.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Misalnya s
eorang pemilik sawah yang punya lahan banyak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bersepakat dengan pengusaha agrobisnis untuk mengad
akan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perjanjian
sewa lahan. Cara ini bisa jadi lebih memudahkan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {karena seberapapun hasil panen, tidak perlu dib
agi dua. Yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pe
nting, pengusaha agro bisnis itu sudah mengontrak lahan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk jangka waktu tertentu. Misalnya un
tuk masa 10 tahun. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Maka semua hasil pertanian di lahan tersebut selama masa 10 }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tahun menjadi hak penguasa
tersebut. Namun sejak awal, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {penguasaha itu harus sudah menyepakati harga sewa menyewa }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lahan sesuai denga
n permintaan pemiliknya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Cara seperti ini di s
atu sisi bisa menguntungkan kedua }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {belah pihak. Si pengusaha yang ahli sejak a
wal bisa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mempe
rhitungkan keuntungan besar dan tidak harus dibagi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan pihak lain. Selain itu cara seperti in
i juga memudahkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{penghitungan. Di sisi lain, pemilik lahan pun akan }\par\pard\li

640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diuntungkan, karena sejak awa


l sudah ada pemasukan uang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {yang pasti dan biasanya sewa menyewa itu dibayarkan di awal.}\par\par
d\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {123}
\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\marg
tsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bentuk penyewaan lahan ini kala
u dikembangkan, bisa saja }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {tidak terbatas pada lahan pertanian, tetapi lahan usaha,
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perkantoran, ru
mah tinggal dan seterusnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {124}\par\pard\sect\sectd
\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn533\
cols2\colno1\colw4546\colsr-0\colno2\colw3053\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {A. Mak
na Luqathah}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa

rd\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa


r\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {Pertemuan Keenam}\par\pard\li400\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\b {Luqathah}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Luqathah secara bahasa bisa disebutkan
dengan 4 sebutan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{menurut Ibnu Malik, seorang ahli ilmu nahwu (grammar }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahasa arab).}\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Pertama : (}\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1577XRR\uc1\u1591X\
uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1604X}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {) }\fs22\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\i {Luqaathah}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {, yaitu dengan memanjan
gkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {huruf qaaf.
}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\par
d\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\
margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih T
haharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-480\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kedua, (}\fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
\uc1\u1577XRRR\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1604X}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {) }
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Luqthah}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {, yaitu
dengan mendhammahkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {huruf laam dan mensukunkan huruf qaaf.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ket
iga, (}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1604X}
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {) }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Luqathah}\i0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {, sebagaimana yang akan kita pakai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam kuliah ini.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {Keempat, [}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1604X
}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {] Laqath.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Secara bah
asa adalah sesuatu yang ditemukan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sebagaimana disebutkan di dalam Al-Quran :}\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\
u1604X\uc1\u1570X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1
575X\uc1\u1601X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Maka dipungutlah ia oleh ke
luarga Fir'aun yang akibatnya dia }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {menjadi musuh dan kesedihan bagi mereka. Sesungg
uhnya Fir'aun dan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\i {Haman beserta tentaranya adalah orang-orang yang bersalah. (QS. Al-}\i0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Qashash : 8)}\i
0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan secara syar'i di dalam kitab Mughni AlMuhtaj }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {disebutka
n adalah : segala benda yang ditemukan di tempat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang tidak dikuasai seseorang, baik berbentuk h
arta mapun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {baran
g, yang hilang dari pemiliknya, karena lengah atau }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terjatuh, dimana barang itu buk
an milik kafir harbi, sedangkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1

\charscalex100 {orang yang menemukannya tidak mengenal siapa pemiliknya".}\par\p


ard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dengan definisi di atas, maka bila suatu benda ditemukan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {di dalam are
a dimiliki oleh seseorang, bukan termasuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {luqathah.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bisa
dikatakan bahwa Luqathah adalah harta yang hilang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari pemiliknya dan ditemukan oleh orang lain.
Bila seseorang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
menemukan harta yang hilang dari pemiliknya, para ulama }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {126}\par\p
ard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn66
6\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih
Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berbeda pendapat tentang tindakan
/ sikap yang harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {dilakukan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bila Menemukan Barang H
ilang. Apa Yang Harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Dilakukan?}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {a. Al-Hanafiyah mengatak
an disunnahkan untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {menyimpannya barang itu bilang barang itu diyakini akan }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {aman bila ditanga
n anda untuk nantinya diserahkan kepada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemiliknya. Tapi bila tidak akan aman, maka sebaiknya ti
dak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diambil. S
edangkan bila mengambilnya dengan niat untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dimiliki sendiri, maka hukumnya haram.}\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {b. Al-Malikiyah mengatakan bila seseorang t
ahu bahwa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diri
nya suka berkhianat atas hata oang yang ada padanya, }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka haram baginya untuk me
nyimpannya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {c. Asy-Syafi`iyyah berkata bahwa bila d
irinya adalah orang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {yang amanah, maka disunnahkan untuk menyimpannya untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dikembalikan kepada pemiliknya.
Karena dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{menyimpannya berarti ikut menjaganya dari kehilangan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {d. Sedangkan Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal ra. mengatakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa yang utama adalah meninggalkan harta
itu dan tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {m
enyimpannya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kewajiban Buat Orang Yang Menemukan Ba
rang Hilang}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Islam mewajibkan bagi orang yan
g menemukan barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {hilang untuk mengumumkannya kepada khalayak ramai. Dan }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masa penngumuman itu berlaku selam
a satu tahun. Hal itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {berdasarkan perintah Rasulullah SAW ,\uc1\u8221XUmumkanlah selama }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masa waktu setahun\uc1\u
8221X.}\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\r

i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {127}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\p


gwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li540
0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Pengumuman itu di masa Rasulullah SAW dilakukan di }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pintu-pintu masjid dan tem
pat-tempat berkumpulnya orang-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {orang seperti pasar, tempat resepsi dan sebagainya.}\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b {Bila Tidak Ada Yang Mengakui}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bil
a telah lewat masa waktu setahun tapi tidak ada yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {datang mengakuinya, maka para ulama
berbeda pendapat. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Sebagian mengatakan bolehlah bagi penemu untuk memiliki }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harta itu bila memang telah berus
aha mengumumkan barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {temua itu selama setahun lamanya dan tidak ada seorangpun }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang mengakuinya. Hal ini berla
ku umum, baik penemu itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {miskin ataupun kaya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pendapat ini didukung
oleh Imam Malik ra., Imam Asy-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Syafi`i ra. dan Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal ra. Sedangkan Imam }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Abu Hanifah ra. me
ngatakan hanya boleh dilakukan bila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penemunya orang miskin dan sangat membutuhkan saja.}
\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Tapi bila suatu saat pemiliknya datang dan telah
cocok }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bukti-bukt
i kepemilikannya, maka barang itu harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dikembalikan kepada pemilik aslinya. Bi
la harta temuan itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {telah habis, maka dia wajib menggantinya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Namun para ulama juga mengatakan bila barang tersebut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adala barang yang tidak bernilai, maka
tidak ada kewajiban }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {untuk mengembalikannya, apalagi bila untuk mengembalikan }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau mengumumkannya membutuhkan bi
aya yang jauh lebih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {mahal.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Misalnya yang hilang adalah peniti, jaru
m atau sikat gigi. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Barang-barang itu secara umum termasuk kategori haqir, yaitu }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sesuatu yang tidak ada nilainya,
asal tidak terbuat dari emas }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {murni 24 karat dan beratnya mencapai 1/2 Kg.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {128}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrs
xn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn600\cols2\colno1\colw4600\colsr-0\colno2\colw3000\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21

3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r


i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1. Pengertian Waqaf}\b0 \par
\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Ketujuh}\par\pard\li1026\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs30\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Waqaf}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn
11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Waqaf itu sejenis ib
adah maliyah yang speksifik. Asal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {katanya dari kata wa-qa-fa (}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1608X}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {) yang artinya
tetap atau diam. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Maksudnya adalah bahwa seseorang menyerahkan harta yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tetap ada terus wujudnya namun selalu m
emberikan manfaat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{dari waktu ke waktu tanpa kehilangan benda aslinya.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
b {2. Masyru'iyah Waqaf}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\
marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn6
66\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li906\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li906\ri0\sl-666\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1609X\uc
1\u1578X}\par\pard\li773\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u15
85X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1582X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1575Xl\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u158
5X}\par\pard\li1133\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1578X\u
c1\u1587X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1581X \uc1\u1578X-\uc1\u1574X\uc1\u1588X -\uc1\u1606X\
uc1\u1573X : }\par\pard\li893\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc
1\u1575X\uc1\u1607XJ\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1589X}\par\pard\li706\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \f
s32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1575X}\par\pard\li1266\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1266\ri0\
sl-520\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X}\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i {Dari Abdul ah bin Umar ra berkata bahwa Umar bin al-Khattab }
\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mendapat se
bidang tanah di khaibar. Beliau mendatangi Rasulul ah }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {SAW meminta pendapat beliau,"Ya Rasu
lal ah, aku mendapatkan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\i {sebidang tanah di Khaibar yang belum pernah aku dapat harta lebih
}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {berharga
dari itu sebelumnya. Lalu apa yang anda perintahkan }\i0 \par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {untukku dalam masal
ah harta ini?". Maka Rasulul ah SAW }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {berkata,"Bila kamu mau, bisa kamu
tahan pokoknya dan kamu }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\i {bersedekah dengan hasil panennya. Namun dengan syarat janga
n dijual }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {

pokoknya (tanahnya), jangan dihibahkan, jangan diwariskan". Maka }\i0 \par\pard


\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Umar ra bersedekah denga
n hasilnya kepada fuqara, dzawil qurba, }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {para budak, ibnu sabil juga para tetamu. Tidak men
gapa bila orang }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {yang mengurusnya untuk memakan hasilnya atau memberi kepada
}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {temannya
secara makruf, namun tidak boleh dibisniskan atau (HR. }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Muttafaq 'alaihi)}\i0 \par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {Misalnya adalah pohon kurma. Pohon itu bersifat tetap, }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yakni ada terus.
Yang dimanfaatkan adalah hasil atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {manfaatnya. Misal yang lain adalah sumur, yaitu airn
ya bebas }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diambil
orang namun sumur itu selalu tetap ada.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {130}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8
400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Harta yang sudah diwakafkan sebenarnya statsunya sama }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan semua pemberian lainnya
, yaitu si pemberi sudah tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {lagi punya hak atas apapun atas harta itu. Namun
hal itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terg
antung akadnya. Bisa saja akad sebuah waqaf itu hanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pada manfaatnya, sedangkan kepemilik
an benda itu tetap }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {masih ada dimiliki oelh si empunya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Contoh
nya adalah seekor kambing yang diwakafkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {susunya. Kambing itu tetap miliknya
namun bila ada susu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {yang diperas, maka misalnya menjadi hak fakir miskin. Akad }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seperti itu pun bisa dibe
narkan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Begitu juga tentang penerima wakaf itu, bis
a dikhususkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ke
pada orang tertentu saja tetapi bisa saja umum. Misalnya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tanah yang diwakafkan untuk ku
buran keluarga dan ahli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {warisnya. Sedangkan untuk masjid biasanya manfatnya untuk }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seluruh umat Islam, tida
k hanya khusus kelurga. Jadi wakaf itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memang bisa juga hanya diperuntukkan kepada k
alangan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tertentu
saja sebagaimana amanat yang memberi wakaf.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Satu h
al lagi yang penting adalah bahwa harta yang sudah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diwaqafkan itu tidak boleh diwariskan. Karena
bila sejak awal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{kepemilikannya memang sudah dilepas, para ahli waris tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berhak mengaku-ngaku sebagai p
emilik. Para ahli waris ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {sama sekali tidak punya hak apalagi kewajiban
untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengelola
sebuah harta wakaf bila memang tidak diserahkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {oleh si pemberi wakaf.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-2

13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1


00 {Yang berhak dan berkewajiban adalah nazir wakaf itu. }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dan dalam hukum di negeri
ini, penunjukan nazir wakaf itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {dikuatkan dengan sebuah akte wakaf. Namun nazir bukanlah }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemilik, sehingga tid
ak berhak menjualnya, menyewakannya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {atau pun memanfaatkannya bila tidak sesuai dengan amanah }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang diberikan.}\p
ar\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {131}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn118
93\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult
0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Kewajiban keluarga dan juga semua lapisan masyarakat }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adalah mengingatkan nazir
agar menjalankan amanat sesuai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {apa yang diminta oleh pemberi wakaf. Sebab bila dia khianat,
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka dia pasti
berdosa dan diancam oleh Allah SWT.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3. Pemindahan W
aqaf}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-34
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sebagian dari ulama membolehkan me
njual harta wkaf }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {yang memang sudah tidak bermanfaat lagi untuk dibelikan }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang yang sama di t
empat lain. Misalnya bila sebuah masjid }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terkena gusur proyek pemerintah, tanahnya bole
h dijual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {namun
wajib dibangunkan masjid lagi di tempat lain. }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan merubah manfaat harta wak
af bukanlah hal yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {disepakati oleh kebanyakan ulama.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {132}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\ma
rgrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn413\cols2\colno1\colw4373\colsr-0\colno2\colw3226\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6

40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\


pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1. Pengertian Hawalah}\b
0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Kedelapan}\par\pard\li920\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Hawalah}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn84
00\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Secara bahasa haw
alah atau hiwalah bermakna berpindah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {atau berubah. Dalam hal ini terjadi perpindahan tanggungan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau hak dari sa
tu orang kepada orang lain. Dalam istilah para }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {fukoha hawalah adalah pemindahan atau p
engalihan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penagi
han hutang dari orang yang berhutang kepada orang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang menanggung hutang tersebut. Bat
asan ini dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {digambarkan sebagai berikut. Misalnya A meminjamkan }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sejumlah uang kepada B
dan B sebelumnya telah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {meminjamkan sejumlah uang kepada C. Untuk lebih }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menyederhanakan persoal
an, kita asumsikan bahwa hutang C }\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsx
n11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\ma
rglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs
16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pada B
sama jumlahnya dengan hutang B pada A. Ketika A }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menagih hutang kepada B, ia mengatakan kepada A
bahwa ia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memilik
i piutang yang sama pada C. Karena itu B }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memberitahukan kepada A dan ia dapat me
nagihnya kepada C }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{dengan catatan ketiga-tiga orang itu menyepakati perjanjian }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hawalah dahulu.}\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {2. Landasan Syariah Akad Hawalah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Pengalihan penagihan hutang ini dibenarkan oleh syariah }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan telah dipraktekkan oleh kaum Mus
limin dari zaman Nabi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Muhammad ZAW sampai sekarang. Dalam al-Qur'an kaum }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Muslimin diperintahkan untuk saling
tolong menolong satu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {sama lain, lihat al-Qur'an : 5: 2. Akad hawalah merupakan }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {suatu bentuk saling t
olong menolong yang merupakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf

0\f1\charscalex100 {manifestasi dari semangat ayat tersebut.}\par\pard\li640\ri0


\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {a. As-Sunnah.}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rasulullah SAW bers
abda : " Menunda-nunda }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {pembayaran hutang dari orang yang mampu membayarnya }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adalah perbuatan za
lim. Dan apabila salah seorang dari kamu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dipindahkan penagihannya kepada orang lain yang
mampu, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hendaklah
ia menerima." H. R. Ahmad dan Abi Syaibah. }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Semangat yang dikandung oleh
hadis ini menunjukkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {perintah yang wajib diterima oleh orang yang dipindahka
n }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penagihannya k
epada orang lain. Karena itu menurut Imam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ahmad dan Dawud adh-Dhohiri orang yang dipindahkan hak
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penagihannya
wajib menerima akad hawalah. Hanya saja }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jumhur ulama tidak mewajibkan hal itu dan mena
kwilkan kata }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {per
intah dalam hadis ini mempunyai kedudukan hukum }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sunnah atau dianjurkan saja, bukan s
ebagai suatu kewajiban }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {yang harus diikuti.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {134}\par\pard\sect
\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbs
xn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah
}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {b. Ijma'}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pada
prinsipnya para ulama telah sepakat dibolehkannya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akad hawalah ini. Hawalah yang mere
ka sepakati adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {hawalah dalam hutang piutang bukan pada barang konkrit.}\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b {3. Rukun Hawalah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Menurut madzhab Ha
nafi rukun hawalah ada dua yaitu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {ijab yang diucapkan oleh Muhil dan qobul yang diucapkan }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {oleh Muhal dan
Muhal alaih. Sedangkan menurut jumhur }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ulama rukun hawalah ada enam macam yaitu:}\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {a. Muhil ( orang yang memindahkan penagihan yaitu orang }\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang berhutang).}\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {b. Muhal ( orang y
ang dipindahkan hak penagihannya kepada }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {orang lain yaitu orang yang mempunyai piutang).}\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {c. Muhal alaih ( orang y
ang dipindahkan kepadanya objek }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {penagihan).}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {d. Muhal bih (hak yang dipindahkan yaitu hutang).}\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {e. Piutang Muhil pada Muhal alaih.}
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {f. Shighot. }\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam contoh di atas Muhil adalah B, Muhal adalah A dan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Muhal alaih
adalah C. Dalam akad hawalah Ijab yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\

slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diucapkan oleh Muhil mengandung peng


ertian pemindahan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {hak penagihan, umpamanya ia berkata kepada A : Aku }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pindahkan (hawalahkan)
hak penagihanmu terhadap hutang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {saya kepada C. Sementara itu A dan C menyetujui dengan }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengucapkan " Kami se
tuju". Dengan demikian akad hawalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut dapat dilaksanakan dengan masing-masing pihak puas
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan rela.}\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\b {4. Syarat-Syarat Hawalah}\b0 \par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{135}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133
\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Persyaratan hawalah ini be
rkaitan dengan Muhil, Muhal, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Muhal Alaih dan Muhal Bih. Berkaitan dengan Muhil,
ia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {disyaratkan h
arus, pertama, berkemampuan untuk melakukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akad (kontrak). Hal ini hanya dapat dimiliki jika ia
berakal dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bal
igh. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hawalah tidak sah dilakukan oleh or
ang gila dan anak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {kecil karena tidak bisa atau belum dapat dipandang sebagai }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {orang yang bertanggung
secara hukum. Kedua, kerelaan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {Muhil. Ini disebabkan karena hawalah mengandung }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pengertian kepemil
ikan sehingga tidak sah jika ia dipaksakan. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Di s
amping itu persyaratan ini diwajibkan para fukoha }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terutama terutama untuk mere
dam rasa kekecewaan atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {ketersinggungan yang mungkin dirasakan oleh Muhil ketika }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diadakan akad hawalah
.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Persyaratan yang berkaitan dengan Muhal.
Pertama, Ia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
harus memiliki kemampuan untuk melaksanakan kontrak. Ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sama dengan syarat yang harus dipenuhi
oleh Muhil. Kedua, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {kerelaan dari Muhal karena tidak sah jika hal itu dipaksakan. }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ketiga, ia bersedia menerima ak
ad hawalah.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Persyaratan yang berkaitan dengan Muhal
Alaih. Pertama, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{sama dengan syarat pertama bagi Muhil dan Muhal yaitu }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berakal dan balig. Kedua,
kerelaan dari hatinya karena tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {boleh dipaksakan. Ketiga, ia menerima akad hawalah dalam }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {majlis atau di luar
majlis.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000
\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Persyaratan yang berkaitan denga
n Muhal Bih. Pertama, ia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {harus berupa hutang dan hutang itu merupakan tanggungan }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari Muhil kepada Muhal.

Kedua, hutang tersebut harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c


f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {136}\par\pard\s
ect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\mar
gbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaha
rah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berbentuk hutang lazim artinya bahwa hutang t
ersebut hanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bi
sa dihapuskan dengan pelunasan atau penghapusan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {5.
Jenis-jenis Hawalah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ada dua jenis hawala
h yaitu hawalah muthlaqoh dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hawalah Muqoyyadah.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Hawalah M
uthlaqoh}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Hawalah Muthlaqoh terjadi jika o
rang yang berhutang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {(oarang pertama) kepada orang lain ( orang kedua) }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengalihkan hak penagiha
nnya kepada pihak ketiga tanpa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {didasari pihak ketiga ini berhutang kepada orang pertama.
Jika }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {A berhutan
g kepada B dan A mengalihkan hak penagihan B }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada C, sementara C tidak punya hubungan hutang p
ituang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada B
, maka hawalah ini disebut Muthlaqoh. Ini hanya }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam madzhab Hanafi dan Syi'ah se
dangkan jumhur ulama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {mengklasifikasikan jenis hawalah ini sebagai kafalah.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {
Hawalah Muqoyyadah terjadi jika Muhil mengalihkan }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hak penagihan Muhal kepada
Muhal Alaih karena yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {terakhir punya hutang kepada Muhal.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{Hawalah Haq}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Hawalah ini adalah pem
indahan piutang dari satu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {piutang kepada piutang yang lain dalam bentuk uang bukan }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam bentuk barang. Dalam ha
l ini yang bertindak sebagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Muhil adalah pemberi utang dan ia mengalihkan haknya
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada pemberi
hutang yang lain sedangkan orang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berhutang tidak berubah atau berganti, yang b
erganti adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {p
iutang. Ini terjadi jika piutang A mempunyai hutang kepada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {piutang B.}\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {137}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn1
33\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\cols2\colno1\colw5400\colsr-0\colno2\colw2200\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Hawalah Dayn}\b0 \p
ar\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thahar
ah}\i0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn1
33\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Hawalah ini adalah pemindahan hutang kepada ora
ng }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lain yang
mempunyai hutang kepadanya. Ini berbeda dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hawalah Haq. Pada hakekatnya haw

alah dayn sama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10


0 {pengertiannya dengan hawalah yang telah diterangkan di }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {depan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {6. Kedudukan Hukum Hawalah}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Pert
ama, jika hawalah telah disetujui oleh semua pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka tanggungan Muhil menjadi gugur dan ia ki
ni bebas dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pe
nagihan utang. Demikian menurut jumhur ulama. Kedua, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan ditandatanganinya akad hawalah, maka
hak penagihan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {M
uhal ini telah dipindahkan kepada Muhal alaih. Dengan }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {demikian ia memiliki wilayah
penagihan kepadanya.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {7. Berakhirnya Akad Hawalah}\
b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Akad hawalah akan berakhir oleh hal-hal be
rikut ini.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-33
3\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {a. Karena dibatalkan atau fasakh.
Ini terjadi jika akad }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {hawalah belum dilaksanakan sampai tahapan akhir lalu }\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {difasakh. Dalam
keadaan ini hak penagihan dari Muhal }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akan kembali lagi kepada Muhil.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {b. Hilangnya hak Muhal Alaih karena m
eninggal dunia atau }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {bangkrut atau ia mengingkari adanya akad hawalah }\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sementara Muhal tidak d
apat menghadirkan bukti atau }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {saksi.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {c. Jika Muhal alaih telah melaksanakan kewajibannya kepada }\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Muhal. Ini berarti a
kad hawalah benar-benar telah }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {dipenuhi oleh semua pihak.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {d. Meninggalnya Muhal sementara Muhal ala
ih mewarisi }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {h
arta hawalah karena pewarisan merupakah salah satu }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {138}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\m
argrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebab kepemilikan. Jik
a akad ini hawalah muqoyyadah, }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka berakhirlah sudah akad hawalah itu menu
rut }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {madzhab Han
afi.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {e. Jika Muha
l menghibahkan harta hawalah kepada Muhal }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Alaih dan ia menerima hibah tersebut.}\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {f. Jika Muhal menyedekahkan ha
rta hawalah kepada Muhal }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {alaih. Ini sama dengan sebab yang ke 5 di atas.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {g. Jika Muhal menghapusbukukan ke
wajiban membayar }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {hutang kepada Muhal Alaih. }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par

d\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c


f0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {139}\par\pard\sect\
sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsx
n386\cols2\colno1\colw4266\colsr-0\colno2\colw3333\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1. Definisi}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Kes
embilan}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs28\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Uang Mu
ka}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn1
33\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Uang muka dalam istilah fiqih dikenal dengan al-Urbu
un (}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\
uc1\u1608XRRR\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X}\fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {). Kata ini memiliki padanan kata (sinonim) dalam
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahasa Arabnya
yaitu, Urbaan (}\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1575XR\uc1\u1576X\u
c1\u1585X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {), \uc1\u8216XUrbaan
(}\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1575XR\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1585X\uc1
\u1593X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X}\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {) dan }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Urbuun }\fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1608XRRR\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X}\fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {)) Secara bahasa artinya yang jadi transaksi
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam jual beli.

}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Berkata penulis kitab Al Mishbah Al Munier (hal.
401),}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8220XAl Arabun dengan difathahkan huruf
\uc1\u8216XAin dan Ra\uc1\u8217Xnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sebagian ulama menyatakan, yaitu seorang membeli sesuatu }
\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard
\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\m
argbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Tha
harah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau menyewa sesuatu dan memberikan
sebagian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemb
ayarannya atau uang sewanya kemudian menyatakan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8216XApabila transaksi semp
urna maka kita hitung ini sebagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembayaran dan bila tidak maka itu untukmu dan aku t
idak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {meminta k
embali darimu.\uc1\u8217X
Dikatakan Al \uc1\u8216XUrbun dengan }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {wazan \uc1\u8216XUshf
ur dan Al \uc1\u8216XUrbaan dengan huruf nun asli.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Al Ashma\uc1\u8217Xi menyatkan, Al-\uc1\u8217XUrbun adalah kata ajam (non }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {arab) yang diarabkan.[
3]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bentuk jual beli ini dapat diberi gambaran sebag
ai berikut:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sejumlah uang yang dibayarkan d
imuka oleh seseorang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {pembeli barang kepada si penjual. Bila transaksi itu mereka }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lanjutkan, maka uang muka i
tu dimasukkan ke dalam harga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {pembayaran. Kalau tidak jadi, maka menjadi milik si penjual.}\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Atau seorang pembeli menyerahkan sejumlah uang
dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menyatakan,
\uc1\u8220XApabila saya ambil barang tersebut maka ini }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adalah bagian dari ni
lai harga dan bila saya tidak jadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengambil (barang itu), maka uang (DP)
tersebut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk
mu.\uc1\u8221X[4]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Atau seorang membeli barang dan m
enyerahkan kepada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{penjualnya satu dirham atau lebih dengan ketentuan apabila si }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembeli mengambil barang t
ersebut, maka uang panjar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {tersebut dihitung pembayaran dan bila gagal maka itu milik }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penjual.[5]}\par\pard
\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {Jelas disini bahwa sistem jual beli ini dikena
l dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {masyar
akat kita dengan pembayaran DP atau uang jadi. }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Wallahu A\uc1\u8217Xlam.}\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Hukum Jual Beli Ini}\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {141}\par\par
d\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\
margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih T
haharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam permasalahan ini para ula

ma berbeda pendapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca


lex100 {menjadi dua pendapat:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {1. Jual beli dengan u
ang muka (panjar) ini tidak sah.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Inilah pendapat
mayoritas ulama dari kalangan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hanafiyyah, Malikiyyah dan Syafi\uc1\u8217Xiyyah.
Al Khothobi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {me
nyatakan, \uc1\u8220XPara ulama berselisih pendapat tentang }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kebolehan jual beli
ini. Malik, Syafi\uc1\u8217Xi menyatakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ketidaksahannya, karena adanya hadits[6] dan kar
ena terdapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sya
rat fasad dan Al Ghoror[7]. Juga hal ini masuk dalam }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kategori memakan harta or
ang lain dengan bathil. Demikian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {juga Ash-habul Ra\uc1\u8217Xyi (madzhab Abu Hanifah -pen) menil
ainya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak sah.
\uc1\u8221X[8]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ibnu Qudamah menyatakan, \uc1\u8220X
Ini pendapat Imam Malik, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {Al Syafi\uc1\u8217Xi dan Ash-hab Al Ra\uc1\u8217Xyi dan diriwayatkan j
uga dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ibnu Ab
bas dan Al Hasan Al Bashri.\uc1\u8221X[9]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dasar arg
umentasi mereka di antaranya:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {a. Hadits Amru bin Sy
uaib, dari ayahnya, dari kakeknya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {bahwa ia berkata,}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1
\u1575X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u
1610X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u
1608X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1607X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u
1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1609X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1589X \uc1\u1607X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\
u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u
1607X\uc1\u1606X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575XR
R\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1583XRR\uc1\u157
6X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1604XRR\uc1\u1580X \uc1\u1585X\uc1\u16
04X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1578XRR\uc1\u1588X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1
606X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1605XRR\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1607XRR \uc
1\u1604X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1585XRR\uc1\u1606X \u
c1\u1575XRR\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1603XRR\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1584X
\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1603XRR\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X
\uc1\u1602X }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1
\u1603XRR\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1575XRR\u
c1\u1605X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1569X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1585XRR\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1604X\u
c1\u1575X \uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1604XRR \uc1\u1587X
\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1578XRR\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1578X \uc1\u1606
X\uc1\u1573X \uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593
X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1583X \uc1\u1603X\
uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1602X\uc
1\u1610X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1579X \uc1\u1577X \uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1583X\
uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1604X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rasulullah shollallohu
\uc1\u8216Xalaihi wa sallam melarang jual beli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan sistem uang muka. Imam Malik menyatak
an, \uc1\u8220XDan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {menurut yang kita lihat \uc1\u8211Xwallahu A\uc1\u8217Xlam- (jual beli) ini

adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seorang


membeli budak atau menyewa hewan kendaraan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{142}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kemudian menyatakan, \uc
1\u8216XSaya berikan kepadamu satu dinar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan ketentuan apabila saya gagal b
eli atau gagal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {menyewanya maka uang yang telah saya berikan itu menjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {milikmu.\uc1\u8217X\uc1\u8221X[10]}\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {b. Jenis jual beli semacam itu termasuk memakan hart
a }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {orang lain den
gan cara batil, karena disyaratkan bagi si penjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tanpa ada kompensasinya.[11] Sedangkan
memakan harta }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{orang lain hukumnya haram sebagaimana firman Allah,}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {\uc1\u1606XRR\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575XRR\uc1\u1580X\uc1\u1
578X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1608XRR\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1578X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\
u1604X\uc1\u1573X \uc1\u1604XRR\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\
u1575X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1605XRR\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X \uc1
\u1605X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608XRR\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1571X \uc1
\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1578X \uc1\u1604X \uc1\
u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1570X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1
584X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1607X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u
1575X\uc1\u1610X }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1603X\u
c1\u1576X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1603X \uc1\u1607X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604X\u
c1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1573X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1601X\u
c1\u1606X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1602X\uc1
\u1578X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\
u1590X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1578X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8220X
Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu saling }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memakan harta sesamamu den
gan jalan yang batil, kecuali }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan jalan perniagaan yang berlaku dengan suka sama suka
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diantara kamu
. Dan janganlah kamu membunuh dirimu; }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sesungguhnya Allah adalah Maha Penyayang kepadam
u.\uc1\u8221X (Qs. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {An Nisaa\uc1\u8217X 4: 29)}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Imam Al Qurthubi dala
m Tafsirnya (5/150) menyatakan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8220XDiantara bentuk memakan harta orang lain
dengan bathil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
adalah jual beli dengan panjar (uang muka). Jual beli ini tidak }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {benar dan tidak boleh menurut se
jumlah ahli fiqih dari ahli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Hijaz dan Iraq, karena termasuk jual beli perjudian, ghoror, }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {spekulatif, dan memakan
harta orang lain dengan batil tanpa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {pengganti dan hadiah pemberian dan itu jelas batil menurut
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ijma\uc1\u8217X.
\uc1\u8221X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {c. Karena dalam jual beli itu ada dua s
yarat batil: syarat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1

00 {memberikan uang panjar dan syarat mengembalikan barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\


sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {transaksi dengan perkiraan salah satu
pihak tidak ridha.[12] }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {Padahal Rasululloh shollallohu \uc1\u8216Xalaihi wa sallam bersabda,}\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-293\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {143}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\
pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\cols2\colno1\colw540
0\colsr-0\colno2\colw2200\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1577X\uc1\u158
7X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1582X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X
\uc1\u1585X . \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u160
6X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1591X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1588X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1548
X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X
\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1604X}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\s
lmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbk
none\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1
\u8220XTidak boleh ada hutang dan jual beli dan dua syarat }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam satu jual bel
i.\uc1\u8221X (HR Al Khomsah).}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hukumnya sama dengan
hak pilih terhadap hal yang tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {diketahui (Khiyaar Al Majhul). Kalau disyaratkan harus ada }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pengembalian bara
ng tanpa disebutkan waktunya, jelas tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sah. Demikian juga apabila dikatakan, \uc1\u8220XSaya
punya hak pilih. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Kapan mau, akan saya kembalikan dengan tanpa dikembalikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {uang bayarannya.[13]
Ibnu Qud
amah menyatakan, \uc1\u8220XInilah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {qiyas (analogi).\uc1\u8221X[14]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {\uc1\u8221X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pendapat ini dirojihkan Al
Syaukani dalam pernyataan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {beliau, \uc1\u8220XYang rojih (kuat) adalah pendapat mayoritas ula
ma, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {karena hadit
s \uc1\u8216XAmru bin Syu\uc1\u8217Xaib telah ada dari beberapa jalan }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {periwayatan yang salin
g menguatkan. Juga karena hal ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengandung larangan dan hadits yang terkandung laran
gan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lebih roji
h dari yang menunjukkan kebolehan sebagaimana }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {telah jelas dalam ushul Fiqih\uc1\u8230X
\uc1\u8221X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8216XIllat (sebab hukum) dari lar
angan ini adalah jual beli ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {mengandung dua syarat yang fasid; salah satunya adalah syarat }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menyerahkan kepada
penjual harta (uang muka) secara gratis }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {apabila pembeli gagal membelinya. Yang kedua adalah syar
at }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengembalikan
barang kepada penjual apabila tidak terjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keridhoan untuk membelinya.[15]}\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {2. Jual beli ini diperbolehkan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\

li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f


0\charscalex100 {144}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\marg
rsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Inilah pendapat madz
hab Hambaliyyah dan diriwayatkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {kebolehan jual beli ini dari Umar, Ibnu Umar, Sa\uc1\u8217Xid b
in Al }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Musayyib d
an Muhammad bin Sirin.[16]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Al Khothobi menyatakan,
\uc1\u8220XTelah diriwayatkan dari Ibnu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Umar bahwa beliau memperbolehkan jual beli ini dan ju
ga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diriwayatkan
dari Umar. Ahmad cenderung mengambil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pendapat yang membolehkannya dan menyatakan, \uc1
\u8216XAku tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{akan mampu menyatakan sesuatu sedangkan ini adalah }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pendapat Umar, yaitu tenta
ng kebolehannya.\uc1\u8217X Ahmad pun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melemahkan (mendhoifkan) hadits larangan jua
l beli ini, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Karena terputus.[17]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dasar argumentasi mereka adala
h:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {a. Atsar yang berbunyi,}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {,\uc1\u1577XR \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1606XRR\uc1\u1576X \u
c1\u1606X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1601XR\uc1\u1589X \uc1\u1606XR\uc1\u1605X \
uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1580XR \uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575X
\uc1\u1583X \uc1\u1585XR\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1585X
\uc1\u1578XR\uc1\u1588X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1571X ,\uc1\u157
9X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1576X
\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1606X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\
u1603X \uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1603X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\
u1601X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1573X \uc1\u1608X , \uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1593X \
uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1573X\uc1\u1601X}\par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {Diriwayatkan dari Nafi bin Al-Harits, ia pernah }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membelikan sebuah
bangunan penjara untuk Umar dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Shafwan bin Umayyah, (dengan ketentuan) apa
bila Umar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {suka
. Bila tidak, maka Shafwan berhak mendapatkan uang }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sekian dan sekian.}\par\pard\li
1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {Atsar ini dikeluarkan Ibnu Abi Syaibah dalam }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mushannafnya (5/392) d
an Al Bukhori secara mu\uc1\u8217Xallaq (lihat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Fathul Bari 5/91) dan Al Atsram meriw
ayatkannya dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {kitab Sunnahnya dari jalan periwayatan Ibnu \uc1\u8216XUyainah
dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Amru bin
Dinaar dari Abdurrahman bin Farukh dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lafadz,}\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li60
66\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {145}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpa
ge\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\l

i5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\p


ard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs16
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1577XRR\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1571X
\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1577XRR\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1606XRR\uc1\u15
76X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1601XRR\uc1\u1589X \uc1\u1606XRR\uc1\
u1605X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1580XRR\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\
u1585X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1583X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1578XRR\uc1\u1588X\uc1\
u1575X \uc1\u1579X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u
1583X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1
575X\uc1\u1606X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1571X }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1589X\u
c1\u1604X \uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1574X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1576X\uc1
\u1585X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1610X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\
u1604X \uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1573X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\
u1548X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1
575X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u15
85X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1573X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1548X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u158
5X\uc1\u1583X \uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1570X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dem
ikian juga Abdurrazaaq dalam Mushonnafnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(5/148-149), Al Baihaqi dalam sunannya
6/34, Al Azraaqi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {dalam Akhbaar Makkah 2/165 dan Al Fakihi dalam Akhbaar }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Makkah 3/254 seluruhnya dari jala
n Sufyan bin \uc1\u8216XUyainah.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dalam sanad ini ad
a Abdurrahman bin Farukh Maula Al }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8216XAdawi, Al Haafidz ibnu Hajar dalam Al
Taqrieb hal 254 }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {menyatakan, \uc1\u8220XMaqbul dari tabaqat ketiga dan imam al
-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bukhori tidak s
ecara gamblang menyebutnya.\uc1\u8221X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ibnu Hibaan
menyebutnya dalam kitab Al Tsiqaat 7/87 }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan Al Dzahabi tidak berkomentar dalam Al Mizaan 2/582 }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {serta Muslim meny
ebutkannya dalam kitab Al Wihdaan hal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {117 termasuk orang yang Amru bin Dinar berse
ndirian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {meriwaya
tkan hadits darinya dan Al Bukhori tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memberikan keterangan tambahan dalam
tarikhnya 5/337 }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {selain menyatakan Abdurrahman bin Farukh maula Umar bin }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Al Khothob dari bapaknya.}\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Syeikh Al Albani menyatakan dalam Mukhtashor Al }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bukhori 2/137, \u
c1\u8220XSungguh Abdurrahman ini telah diisyaratkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Al Dzahabi sebagai perawi majhul, tidak meri
wayatkan darinya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{kecuali Amru bin Dinaar.\uc1\u8221X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Al Haafidz dal
am Fathul Bari 5/91-92 menyatakan bahwa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Umar bin Syubah meriwayatkannya dalam Akhbar
Makkah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari jal
an Ibnu Juraij dengan menghapus Abdurrahman dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang benar bahwa Ibnu Juraij meriwayat
kannya dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ab
durahman ini juga, sebagaimana disampaikan Abdurrazaq }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam Mushonnafnya 5/147-148.}\par\pard\li

640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par


\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {146}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\m
arglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs
16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Riway
at ini dapat dijadikan hujjah, sebagaimana dilakukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {imam Ahmad bin Hambal.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {Al-Atsram berkata, \uc1\u8220XSaya bertanya kepada Ahmad, }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8216XApakah A
nda berpendapat demikian?\uc1\u8217X Beliau menjawab, \uc1\u8216XApa }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang harus kukatakan?
Ini Umar rodhiyallohu \uc1\u8216Xanhu (telah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berpendapat demikian).\uc1\u8217X\uc1\u822
1X[18]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikian juga Ibnul Qayyim menukilkannya dar
i beliau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pada Ba
da\uc1\u8217Xi Al Fawa\uc1\u8217Xid 4/84.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ditambah
kisah ini telah masyhur dikalangan para ulama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan penulis sejarah Makkah seperti Al Azraaqi, Al
Fakihi dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Umar
bin Syubah hingga diriwayatkan penjara ini masih ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sampai zaman Al Fakihie. Wallahu A\uc1\u821
7Xlam.[19]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {b. Hadits Amru bin Syuaib adalah lemah s
ehingga tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {da
pat dijadikan sandaran dalam melarang jual beli ini.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Kelemahannya karena semua jalan periwayatannya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kembali kepada orang tsiqah yan
g mubham (tidak disebut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {namanya). Ini karena imam Malik menyatakan, Telah }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menceritakan kepad
aku seorang tsiqah sebagaimana dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {riwayat Ahmad dan Malik di Muwatha\uc1\u8217X.\uc
1\u8221X Sedangkan dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {riwayat Abu Daud dan ibnu Majah diriwayatkan imam Malik }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menyatakan, \uc1\u8220XTelah
sampai kepada kami bahwa Amru bin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Syu\uc1\u8217Xaib \uc1\u8230X\uc1\u8221X Ini tentu
saja menunjukkan adanya perawi yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {dihapus antara Malik dengan Amru bin Syu\uc1\u8217Xaib. Ada
pun ibnu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Majah
meriwayatkan dari jalan lain, namun ada perawi }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bernama Abu Muhammad Habieb
bin Abi Habieb Katib }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {Malik yang matruk (lemah sekali) dan Abdullah bin Amir Al }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Aslami yang juga lemah.}\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{147}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133
\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hadits ini dinilai l
emah oleh Imam Ahmad [20], Al }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Baihaqi [21], Al Nawawi [22], Al Mundziri [23], Ibnu Haj
ar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {[24] dan Al A

lbani [25].}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl


-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {c. Panjar ini adalah kompensasi
dari penjual yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {menunggu dan menyimpan barang transaksi selama beberapa }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {waktu. Ia tentu saja ak
an kehilangan sebagian kesempatan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berjualan. Tidak sah ucapan orang yang mengatakan bahwa
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {panjar itu t
elah dijadikan syarat bagi penjual tanpa ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {imbalannya.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{d. Tidak sahnya qiyas atau analogi jual beli ini dengan Al }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Khiyar Al Majhul (hak pilih terhada
p hal yang tidak diketahui), }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {karena syarat dibolehkannya panjar ini adalah dibatasin
ya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {waktu menun
ggu. Dengan dibatasinya waktu pembayaran, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka batallah analogi tersebut, dan hilanglah
sisi yang dilarang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {dari jual beli tersebut.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {e. Jual beli ini tidak
dapat dikatakan jual beli mengandung }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {perjudian sebab tidak terkandung spekulasi antara untung da
n }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {buntung. Sya
ikh Ibnu \uc1\u8216XUtsaimin dalam Syarah Bulugh Al }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maram hal. 100 menyatakan, \uc1\
u8220XKetidakjelasan dalam jual beli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {al-Urbun tidak sama dengan ketidak jelasan dalam perjudian,
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {karena ketida
kjelasan dalam perjudian menjadikan dua }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {transaktor tersebut berada antara untung dan bun
tung, adapun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ini
tidak, karena penjual tidak merugi bahkan untung dan }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {paling tidak barangnya
dapat kembali. Sudah dimaklumi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seorang penjual memiliki syarat hak pilih untuk dirinya
selama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {satu hari
atau dua hari, dan itu diperbolehkan. Dan jual beli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan uang muka ini menyerupai syarat hak
pilih tersebut. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Hanya saja penjual diberi sebagian dari pembayaran apabila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang dikembalikan, karena nil
ainya telah berkurang bila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {orang mengetahui hal itu walaupun hal ini didahulukan namun }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ada maslahat di
sana. Juga ada maslahat lain bagi penjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {148}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\p
gwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {karena pembeli bila telah menyerahkan uang muka ak
an }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {termotivasi
untuk menyempurnakan transaksi jual belinya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikian juga ada maslahat bagi pembeli
, karena ia masih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {dapat memilih mengembalikan barang tersebut bila }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menyerahkan uang muka. Padahal bil
a tidak tentu diharuskan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {terjadinya jual beli tersebut.\uc1\u8221X[26]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-2

13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1


00 {Pendapat Para Ulama Zaman Ini}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
* Syeikh
Abdulaziz bin Baaz mantan Mufti Agung }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Saudi Arabia Rohimahullah pernah ditanya,\uc1\u8
221XApa hukum }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
melaksanakan jual beli sistem panjar (Al Urabun) apabila }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {belum sempurna jual
belinya. Bentuknya adalah dua orang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melakukan transaksi jual beli, apabila jual beli se
mpurna maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemb
eli menyempurnakan nilai pembayarannya dan bila tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jadi maka penjual mengambil DP (panjar) te
rsebut dan tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{mengembalikannya kepada pembeli?\uc1\u8221XBeliau menjawab,\uc1\u8221XTidak }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengapa mengambil
DP (uang panjar) tersebut dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pendapat yang rojih dari dua pendapat ulama, apabila
penjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan pem
beli telah sepakat untuk itu dan jual belinya tidak }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dilanjutkan (tidak disempurnakan).
\uc1\u8221X[27]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri
0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
* Fatwa Lajnah Daimah Lil Buhu
ts Al Ilmiyah Wa Al }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Ifta (komite tetap untuk penelitian ilmiyah dan fatwa kerajaan }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Saudi Arabia)}\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {
1. Fatwa no. 9388 yang berbunyi:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {
Pertanyaan:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Bolehkah s
eorang penjual mengambil uang muka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {(\uc1\u8217XUrbuun) dari pembeli dan dalam keadaan
pembeli gagal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{membeli atau mengembalikannya apakah penjual berhak }\par\pard\li606
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {149}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\
marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \
fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {secar
a hukum syari\uc1\u8217Xat mengambil uang muka tersebut untuk }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dirinya tanpa mengembalikannya kep
ada pembeli?}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Jawaban:}\par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {
Apabila realitanya demikian maka dibolehkan }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {baginya (penjual)
untuk memiliki uang muka tersebut untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dirinya dan tidak mengembalikannya kepada pem
beli \uc1\u8211X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{menurut pendapat yang rojih- apabila keduanya telah sepakat }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk itu.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {
Ditanda tangani oleh Syeikh Abdulaziz bin Baaz, }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Abdurrazaq \uc1\u8216XAfifi da
n Abdullah bin Ghadayaan.[28]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
2. Fatwa no.
19637 menjawab pertanyaan:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
\uc1\u8220

XAl \uc1\u8216XUrbuun sudah dikenal dengan uang muka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266


\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sedikit yang diserahkan pada waktu membeli
untuk tanda jadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{hingga menjadikan barang dagangan tersebut tergantung. Apa }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hukum jual beli tersebut? Ba
nyak dari para penjual yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {mengambil harta Urbuun (panjar) ketika gagal pel
unasan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembayara
n, bagaimana hukumnya?\uc1\u8221XJawaban:}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Jual beli dengan DP (\uc1\u8217XUrbuun) diperbolehkan.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {
Jual beli ini dengan membayar seorang pembeli }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada penjual atau agennya (w
akilnya) sejumlah uang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {lebih sedikit dari nilai harga barang tersebut setelah sele
sai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {transaksi,
untuk jaminan barang. Ini dilakukan agar selain }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembeli tersebut tidak mengam
bilnya dengan ketentuan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {apabila pembeli tersebut mengambilnya maka uang muka }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut terhitung
dalam bagian pembayaran dan bila tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengambilnya maka penjual berhak mengambil uan
g muka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut
dan memilikinya.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {150}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgw
sxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1
000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {
Jual beli sistem panjar (\uc1\u8217Xurbuun) ini sah,
baik telah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mene
ntukan batas waktu pembayaran sisanya atau belum }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menentukannya dan penjual mem
iliki hak secara syar\uc1\u8217Xi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menagih pembeli untuk melunasi pembayaran sete
lah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sempurna jua
l beli dan terjadi serah terima barang.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Kebolehan jual beli \uc1\u8216Xurbuun ini ditunjukkan oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perbuatan Umar bin Al Khothobrodhi
yallohu \uc1\u8216Xanhu. Imam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Ahmad menyatakan tentang jual beli panjar ini, \uc1\u8220XBoleh.\
uc1\u8221X Dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {d
ari Ibnu Umar rodhiyallohu \uc1\u8216Xanhuma beliapun }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membolehkannya. Sa\uc1\u8217Xid
bin Al Musayyib dan Muhammad bin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {Sirin menyatakan, \uc1\u8220XDiperbolehkan bila ia tidak ingi
n untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengemba
likan barangnya dan mengembalikan bersamanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sejumlah harta.}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{
Sedangkan hadits yang diriwayatkan dari Nabi }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {shollallohu \uc1\u8216Xalaihi w
a sallam yang berbunyi,}\par\pard\li1720\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1720\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\
u1576X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1
576X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u
1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1607X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1
575X \uc1\u1609X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1589X \uc1\u1607X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u

1575X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\u1609X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1


606X}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
\uc1\u8220XRasulullah shollallohu
\uc1\u8216Xalaihi wa sallam melarang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {jual beli dengan sistem uang muka.\uc1\u8221X Adalah hadits
yang lemah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(Dho
if), imam Ahmad dan selainnya telah mendhoifkannya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sehingga tidak bisa dijadikan sandaran.}\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Ditanda tangani oleh Syeikh Abdulaziz bin Ba
az, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Abdurrazaq \
uc1\u8216XAfifi dan Abdullah bin Ghadayaan.[29]}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
* Majlis Fikih Islam pada seminar ke delapan telah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {selesai berkesimpulan dibolehkannya jual
beli panjar. Berikut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {ini ketetapan-ketetapan yang mereka buat:Pertama: Yang }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dimaksud dengan jual
beli sistem panjar adalah menjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang, lalu si pembeli memberi sejumlah
uang kepada si }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {penjual dengan syarat bila ia jadi mengambil barang itu, maka }\par\pard\li60
66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {151}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn6
66\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {uang muka ters
ebut masuk dalam harga yang harus dibayar. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun kalau ia tidak jadi membelinya, maka sejumlah u
ang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu menjadi
milik penjual. Transaksi ini selain berlaku untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jual beli juga berlaku untuk sewa menyewa, kar
ena menyewa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bera
rti membeli fasilitas.Di antara jual beli dikecualikan jual }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {beli yang memiliki syarat harus ada
serah terima pembayaran }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {atau barang transaksi di lokasi akad (jual beli As-Salm) atau }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {serah terima keduanya (bar
ter komoditi riba fadhal dan Money }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Changer). Dan dalam transaksi jual beli murabahah
tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berlaku
bagi orang yang mengharuskan pembayaran pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {waktu yang dijanjikan, namun h
anya pada fase penjualan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {kedua yang dijanjikan.Kedua: Jual beli sistem panjar
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibolehkan bila
dibatasi waktu menunggunya secara pasti, dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {panjar itu dimasukkan sebagai bagian pembayaran, bi
la sudah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibayar
lunas. Dan menjadi milik penjual bila si pembeli tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jadi melakukan transaksi pembelian.[30]}
\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
* Fatwa Al Hai\uc1\u8217Xat Al Syar\uc1\u8217Xi
yah Li Syarikat Al Raajihi Al }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {Mashrafiyah Lil Istitsmaar (Dewan syari\uc1\u8217Xat Ban
k Islam Al }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {R
ajihi KSA), ketetapan no. 99.Dengan demikian yang rojih \uc1\u8211X}\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {insya Allah- adalah pendapat
yang membolehkannya. Namun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {perlu diingat bila penjual mengembalikan uang muka (panjar) }\par\par

d\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut kepada pembeli


ketika gagal menyempurnakan jual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {belinya, itu lebih baik dan lebih besar pahalanya disisi Allah
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagaimana di
sabdakan Rasululloh shollallohu \uc1\u8216Xalaihi wa }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sallam,}\fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{\uc1\u1607XRR\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1579X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1607XRR \uc1\u1
604X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575XRR\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1
571X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604XRR\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1
575XRR\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1606XRR\uc1\u1605X}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Siapa yang berbuat iqaalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {dalam jual belinya kepada seorang muslim maka Allah akan }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bebaskan ia dari kesala
han dan dosanya.Iqalah dalam jual beli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dapat digambarkan dengan seorang membeli sesuat
u dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seorang
penjual, kemudian pembeli ini menyesal membelinya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ada kala karena sangat rugi atau sudah tidak
butuh lagi atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{tidak mampu melunasinya, lalu pembeli itu mengembalikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barangnya kepada penjual dan
penjualnya menerimanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {kembali (tanpa mengambil sesuatu dari pembeli).[31]}\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {152}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbk
page\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demikian seputar permasalahan jual beli dengan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemberian uang
muka, mudah-mudahan bermanfaat.}\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {153}\par\pard\
sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\ma
rgbsxn480\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0

\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li426
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4266\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {P
ertemuan Kesembilan}\par\pard\li3666\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {Bai` Bits-Tsaman Ajil}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bai` atau jual-beli adalah
akad yang dihalalkan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {disyari`atkan Islam. Baik dengan harga tunai atau
dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kredit.
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Allah swt berfirman: }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {A
l ah menghalalkan jual-beli dan mengharamkan riba`}\i0 \fs24\cf1\f1\ch
arscalex100 {(QS. Al-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf1\f1\charscal
ex100 {Baqarah 275). }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Namun ada juga jual-beli atau bisnis yang dilarang dalam }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Islam, diantaranya
sebagaimana disebutkan dalam hadits yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diriwayatkan oleh At-Tirmidzi dan an-Nasa`i: }\par\par
d\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\
margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Th
aharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-45
3\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Rasulullah saw. melarang penjualan
dengan dua }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {transaksi pada satu barang` }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {. }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {Terkait dengan hadits ini para ulama berselisih d
alam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penafsirann
ya, menjadi lima pendapat: }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1. Bentuk Pertama }\b0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Transaksi jual-beli antara harga tunai dan
harga kredit }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{berbeda. Dan harga kredit lebih tinggi. Seperti, saya jual mobil }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ini tunai 100 juta, atau kredi
t 110 juta. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Transaksi jenis pertama biasa disebut }\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Bai` Bits-Tsaman Ajil }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau disingkat menjadi BBA dan ini disepa
kati bolehnya oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {ulama. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-33
3\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {2. Bentuk Kedua}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Sama dengan pendapat pertama, tetapi transaksi itu terjadi
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kemudian berpisa
h tanpa ada kejelasan mana yang diambil. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Seperti, saya jual mobil ini tunai 100 juta, atau kred
it 110 juta. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ked
uanya sepakat tanpa menjelaskan transaksi mana yang }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diambil.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Para ulama melarang jenis kedua ini, kar
ena ada ketidakjelasan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal

ex100 {pada transaksi tersebut. Tetapi jika sebelum berpisah ada }


\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kejelasan akad, y
aitu memilih salah satunya maka boleh, dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu seperti transaksi pada jenis pertama.
Namun demikian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{kedua transaksi itu dilarang jika barangnya berupa harta riba, }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {misalnya emas, atau perak atau
uang. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3. Bentuk Ketiga}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Membeli barang dengan harga tertangguh, dengan syarat }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang itu dijual kembali
kepadanya secara tunai dengan harga }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-426\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {155}\par\pard\
sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\ma
rgbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Tha
harah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang lebih rendah.Transaksi jenis ketiga in
i diharamkan dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Islam karena ada unsur riba. Dan transaksi ini disebut juga }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {ba`iul `inah}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{4. Bentuk Keempat}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Transaksi ini mensyaratka
n penjualan lagi. Seperti menjual }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {suatu barang yang tidak ditentukan barangnya dan harga
nya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Atau dite
ntukan harga dan barangnya. Seperti A membeli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebuah rumah dengan harga 1 Milyar dar
i B dengan syarat B }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {membeli mobilnya dari A seharga 1,5 Milyar. .Transaksi jenis }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keempat ini juga termasuk
yang dilarang dalam Islam dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {disebut juga }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {bai`u wa sy
art}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {5. Bentuk Ke
lima}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mensyaratkan manfaat pada salah seor
ang diantara yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {melakukan transaksi. Misal, saya jual rumah ini dengan syarat }\par\pard\s
ect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\cols5\colno1\co
lw1813\colsr-0\colno2\colw1426\colsr-0\colno3\colw1426\colsr-0\colno4\colw1186\c
olsr-0\colno5\colw1746\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{saya}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tingga
l}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dahulu}\pa
r\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {satu}\par\colum
n\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tahun.}\par\pard\sect\
sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Transaksi jenis kelima diperselisihkan ul
ama. Madzhab Malik }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {dan Hambali membolehkannya, sedangkan madzhab Syafi`i }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melarangnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {Bai` Bits-Tsaman Ajil}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Istilah }\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {Bai` Bits-Tsaman Ajil }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ses
ungguhnya istilah yang baru }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {dalam literatur fiqih Islam. Meskipun prinsipnya memang
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sudah ada sejak

masa lalu. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-3


33\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Secara makna harfiyah, }\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {Bai`}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maknanya adalah jualbeli atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tran
saksi. }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Tsaman }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
maknanya harga dan }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Ajil }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {maknanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {bertempo atau tidak tunai}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {. }\b0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Jenis transaksi ini sesuai dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {namanya adalah jual-beli yang uangnya
diberikan kemudian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {atau ditangguhkan. Tsaman Ajil maknanya adalah harga }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {156}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\marg
rsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {belakangan. Maksudnya
harga barang itu berbeda dengan bila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {dilakukan dengan tunai. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Contohn
ya, sebuah mobil bila dibeli dengan tunai, harganya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {100 juta. Tetapi karena pelunasannya m
emerlukan waktu 5 }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {tahun (ajil), maka harganya menjadi 150 juta. Pelunasan yang }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membutuhkan waktu sampai lima
tahun ini berkonsekuensi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {kepada harga yang ikut naik. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun yang
menjadi batas halal atau haramnya adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kapankah harga itu disepakati. Bila sejak aw
al sebuah harga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
atas suatu barang sudah disepakati, meskipun dimark-up, akad }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu adalah halal. Tetapi bila harga
mark-upnya tidak dipastikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {sejak awal, itu adalah akad yang haram. Maksudnya b
ila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kesepakatan
itu memungkinkan dalam perjalanannya untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dirubahnya harga menjadi naik atau turun. M
isalnya, bila bila }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {masa pelunasan bisa lebih cepat, maka mark-upnya lebih }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sedikit tapi bila masa p
elunasannya lebih lama, maka mark-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {upnya lebih banyak lagi. Ini adalah kesepakatan
yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diharamkan
bila dilakukan dalam masa pelunasan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Jadi yang harus
ditentukan adalah harga yang pasti sejak awal }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan tidak dirubah-rubah lagi selama masa pelunasa
nnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Kebutuhan Pada Jenis Transaksi ini}\b0 \par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Adanya jenis trnasaksi ini di dalam Islam tentu memberikan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {banyak keringan
an dan kemudahan. Sebab tidak semua orang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mampu membeli barang kebutuhan dengan sekali bayar. Pa
da }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang kebu
tuhan itu memang sesuatu yang mutlak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diperlukan. Apalagi para pegawai yang p
enghasilannya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {te

rbatas. Tidak mungkin bisa dapat membeli barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0


\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kebutuhan hidupnya seperti rumah, ke
ndaraan atau perabot }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {157}\par\pard\sect\
sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsx
n173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah
}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {rumah tangga yang harga berkali-kali l
ipat dari gaji }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {bulanannya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sebenarnya seseorang yang penghasilan
nya pas-pasan bisa saja }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {menabung dan bersabar untuk tidak membeli barnag yang }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harganya mahal itu s
ecepatnya. Tetapi kita sekarang ini hidup }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {di zaman yang serba cepat dan kebutuhan akan barang-ba
rang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu sedemik
ian penting. Sehingga kalau pun menabung, maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akan dibutuhkan waktu yang cukup lama
untuk bisa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {me
milikinya. Apalagi tidak semua orang punya bakat untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menabung, sebab ketika uang ada di tangan
, seringkali orang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {tergoda untuk membelanjakannya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Di sisi lain, par
a penjual barang pun berusaha untuk membuat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barangnya segera laku terjual. Sebab bila stok baran
g hanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menumpuk
di toko, maka kerugian sudah pasti terbayang. }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maka lebih baik barnag bisa
segera terjual meskipun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {pembayarannya ditangguhkan. Itu jauh lebih baik ketimbang }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang hanya menghiasi
etalase tanpa ada yang kuat untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {membelinya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Jadi baik pembel
i maupun penjual sama-sama punya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepentingan. Pembeli butuh barang segera tapi
uangnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kuran
g. Sedangkan penjual butuh barangnya segera laku meski }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembayarannya tidak tunai. Dan jalan kelu
ar dari semua itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{adalah }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Bai`}\b0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{Bits-Tsaman Ajil }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ini}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {. }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Aplikasi Bai` Bits-Tsaman Ajil Pada Ba
nk Syariah}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Bai` Bits-Tsaman Ajil }\b0 \fs24\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak hanya terbatas antara pembeli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan penjual di pasar. Tetapi sebuah lemb
aga keuangan seperti }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {bank pun bisa melakukan akad ini. Namun sebenarnya bank }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hanya memiliki uang dan tidak memil
iki barang. Maka bila ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {seseorang yang ingin membeli barang, pihak bank tidak bisa }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {158}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18

\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menyediakan b


arang itu. Pihak bank harus membeli terlebih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dahulu barang yang dibutuhkan pembeli. Idealnya, pi
hak bank }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akan da
tang ke pasar dan membeli barang yang dibutuhkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lalu menjualnya kepada pembeli dengan
mengambil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keunt
ungan harga. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kita harus memahami bahwa bai` adalah a
kad mu`awadloh, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
yaitu tukar menukar barang dengan uang. Maka barang yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dijual harus sudah menjadi milik sepenu
hnya pihak penjual. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Dalam istilah fiqih dikenal dengan sebutan }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {milkiyyah }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {tammah}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {.Bank berposisi sebagai penjual
dan nasabah sebagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {pembeli. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun dalam prakteknya, untuk p
engadaan barang, pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {penjual (bank) akan kerepotan bila harus bolak bali ke pasar }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk membeli barang. Se
hingga untuk mudah dan efisiennya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {pihak bank bisa mewakilkan pembelian barang dari
pasar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada c
alon pembelinya dengan akad }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {wakalah}\b0 \fs24\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 { atau }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ijaroh }\b0 \par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan konsekwensi hukum m
asing-masing. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Akad wakalah}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 { maksudnya adalah pihak bank mewakilkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembeli untuk membeli barang. Atau l
ebih mudahnya bank }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {minta tolong kepada pembli untuk membelikan barang. }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun kepemilikan barang itu
ketika dibeli adalah jelas milik }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {bank. Si pembeli hanya dititipi saja untuk membeli barang. }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dan pihak bank
yang sesungguhnya menjadi penjual harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengecek dan yakin bahwa barang yang akan dijual b
enar-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {benar telah
dibeli. Salah satunya misalnya dengan ditunjukkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {faktur pembelian oleh pembeli yang dititip
untuk membeli. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Hal ini untuk menghindari kemungkinan barang tidak dibeli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan uang tersebut sehingga menjadi
pinjaman uang dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {pengembalian lebih. }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-386\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {159}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsx
n11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\sl
mult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Resiko yang terjadi dalam proses pengadaan barang, }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sepenuhnya menjadi tanggung
jawab penjual, bukan resiko }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {calon pembeli. Sebab mulai berlakunya akad jual-beli adalah
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ketika barang i
tu sudah diterima oleh pihak pembeli dalam }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \

fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keadaan selamat. Sehingga dalam praktek BBA harus ada


dua }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akad yaitu
: }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmu
lt0 \*\tx1360\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1.}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {A
kad Wakalah : }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {antara bank dengan nas
abah. }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dimana
saat itu bank membeli barang dari pihak }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ketiga dan pembeli saat itu bertindak sebag
ai wakil dari }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {p
ihak bank yang melakukan pembelian barang dari }\par\pard\li1360\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pihak ketiga. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-293\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {2.}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {Akad Jual-beli Kredit }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {: setelah bara
ng telah terbeli }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{maka si bank menjual barang tersebut dengan harga }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang disepakati dua pihak. Kemudian
pembayaran }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {n
asabah kepada bank dengan cara kredit atau tidak }\par\pard\li1360\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tunai. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
b {Kelemahan Yang Sering Terjadi}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun praktek ak
ad seperti ini seringkali terlanggar akibat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kurang dipahaminya prinsip syariah, juga karena ba
tas antara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akad
ini dengan akad lainnya sedemikian tipis. Ketika pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bank menitipkan uang untuk membeli barang
kepada pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pe
mbeli yang nantinya akan dibeli lagi oleh pembeli itu }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan harga yang le
bih tinggi, ada celah yang bisa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dimanfaatkan. Antara lain uang titipan itu
tidak dibelikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {barang yang dimaksud. Tetapi digunakan untuk keperluan }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang lain. Lalu bila
jatuh temponya, si pembeli melunasi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembayaran yang sudah dimark-up kepada pihak bank
. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kalau yang terjadi demikian, maka tidak ada bedany
a dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pinjama
n uang berbunga. Dan alasan pembeli butuh barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hanyalah kamuflase belaka. Sebab pada
prakteknya yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-440\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {160}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\
pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {terjadi justru sebuah transaksi pinjam uang dengan kewajiban }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penambahan nilai
pengembaliannya. Dan praktek itu jelas }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebuah transaksi ribawi yang sejak dini telah
diharamkan oleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
kitab dan sunnah. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sehingga bila sebuah bank
syariah sampai terjebak dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {akad model begini, nilai syariahnya menjadi hilang dan syar
iah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu hanya
tinggal assessoris yang tidak ada gunanya serta }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {cenderung menipu ummat. Pada titik
ini, sebuah bank yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal

ex100 {berlabelkan syariah harus hati-hati. Sebab umat Islam }\par\p


ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menganggap apa yang d
ilakukan oleh bank syariah pastilah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sudah seusai dengan syariah. Sehingga kalau
sampai terjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{hal-hal yang diharamkan Allah, tentunya dosa dan azab }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sepenuhnya dibebankan kepa
da pemegang kebijakan bank itu.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Faktor Kelemahan}\b
0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Salah satu faktor utama mengapa sebuah
bank yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berl
abelkan syariah masih seringkali terjebak dengan akad-}\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akad yang justru tidak sesua
i dengan syariah adalah karena }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {umumnya latar belakang pendidikan dan pengalaman
para }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bankir-nya
bukan dari disiplin ilmu syariah. Meski umumnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mereka beragama Islam, tetapi nyaris semua
ilmu ekonomi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {da
n perbankan yang mereka pelajari tidak ada satupun yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bersumber dari Al-Quran dan Sunn
ah atau dari referensi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {ulama Islam. Semua datang dari sistem ekonomi kapital
is }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barat yang
telah menjajajh negeri ini beratur-ratus tahun. }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ekonomi Islam adalah sebuah barang a
sing yang lebih sreing }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {disiasati ketimbang dijalankan dengan sepenuh hati. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Memang benar bahwa setiap bank yang berlabelkan syariah }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memiliki dewan pengawas sya
riah yang sebenarnya paling }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {bertanggung-jawab atas hal-hal yang bertentangan den
gan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hukum Isla
m. Keberadaan dewan pengawas syariah ini }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{161}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133
\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memang mutlak, hanya s
aja dalam prakteknya masih perlu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lebih ditingkatkan lagi. Agar keberadaan dewa
n pengawas }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sya
riah bukan sekedar embel-embel formalitas, sedangkan }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam prakteknya justru jel
as-jelas melanggar ketentuan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {syariah. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maka tidak cukup han
ya diawasi oleh sebuah dewan yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barangkali tidak datang setiap hari, tetap
i para bankir, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {karyawan dan staffnya pun harus mendapatkan pendidikan }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syariah yang cukup,
berkualitas dan berkesinambungan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sehingga aplikasi ajaran Islam bukan sekedar s
ebuah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {formalitas
, melainkan benar-benar berangkat dari bashirah, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {wa`yu dan disiplin ilmu yang bisa dip
ertanggung-jawabkan.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640

\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa


rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-413\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {162}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\
pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn413\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li460
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li460
0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Pertama}\par\pard\li4
840\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs28\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Bai`ul Wafa`}\b0 \par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {Pengertian Bai`ul Wafa`}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bai` Wafa` adalah
: Suatu transaksi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{(akad) jual-beli dimana penjual mengatakan kepada pembeli: }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {saya jual barang ini dengan hutang
darimu yang kau berikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {padaku dengan kesepakatan jika saya telah melunasi hutang }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut maka barang itu kemba
li jadi milikku lagi. ( Al Jurjani }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Ali bin Muhammad bin Ali, Kitab At Ta`rifaat, p. 69 ) }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {Menurut Ibnul `Abidin, Bai` Al Wafa` adalah:
Suatu akad }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dim
ana seorang yang membutuhkan uang menjual barang }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang tidak dapat dipindah-pindah (r
eal estate/property /`aqar) }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {dengan kesepakatan kapan ia dapat mengembalikan harga }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang tersebut ma
ka ia dapat meminta kembali barang itu. }\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400
\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {(lihat; Ibnul `Abidin, Raddul Muhtar, vol.iv/p.257, Majallah }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Al Ahkam Al `Adliyah, mater
i no. 118, 396-403). }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Atau: seorang yang membut
uhkan uang menjual real }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\c

harscalex100 {estate/real property (barang yang tidak dapat dipindah


-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pindahkan seper
ti; rumah) dengan kesepakatan jika ia dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melunasi (mengembalikan) harga tersebut maka
ia dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {me
ngambil (memiliki) kembali barang itu. ( Sayyid Sabiq, Fiqh }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Assunnah, vol.iii / p.166 ) }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {Bai` Wafa` adalah: Suatu akad jual-beli yang mana pembeli }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berkomitmen sete
lah sempurna akad bai` untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {mengembalikan barang yang dibelinya kepada penjua
lnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagai g
anti pengembalian harga barang tersebut. (Yakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Zuhdi, `Aqdul Bai`, p.131) }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\b {SEJARAH BAI` AL WAFA`: }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ketika
kebutuhan untuk meminjam uang telah mulai menjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {suatu desakan ekonomi sementara pemilik modal
(uang) tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pu
as untuk sekedar meminjamkan uangnya tanpa mengambil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan sebagai kompensasi dari kehilang
an kesempatan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {un
tuk memanfaatkan atau mengembangkan modal yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diinjamkannya kepada orang lain.
Pada saat yang sama }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {peminjam uang tidak ingin kehilangan barang yang dia miliki }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {karena meminjam uang
yaitu dengan menggadaikannya, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {sementara pemberi pinjaman dengan mengambil gadai barang }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagai jaminan ti
dak dapat langsung memiliki barang tersebut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jika peminjam uang tidak dapat membayar
atau melunasi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
hutangnya, melainkan harus melalui jalan berliku-liku yaitu }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menguangkan barang terse
but baru dilakukan perhitunagn dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {diambail uang yang dipinjamkannya dari hasil penj
ualan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut.
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {164}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\
pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-22
6\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Oleh karena itu mulailah orang mencari jalan tengah yang }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memberi solusi in
ovatif untuk saling menguntungkan. Yaitu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {cara yang dapat secara otomatis atau langsung memiliki
atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengambil a
lih barang milik orang yang membutuhkan uang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang tidak dapat melunasi atau mengganti
harga barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{tersebut selama jangka waktu tertentu, sementara pemberi }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hutang (baca; harga barang
) dapat mengambil keuntungan dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {uang yang ia berikan dengan melalui pemanfaatn b
arang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut a
tau menyewakanya atau menjualnya dengan selisih }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu

lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harga. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18


\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sebaliknya
orang yang butuh kepada uang pinjaman dapat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tetap menafaatkan barang yang telah ia j
ual (misalnya rumah) }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {tanpa harus berpindah tangan yaitu dengan menyewanya dan }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sekaligus dapat memilikinya kembal
i dengan mengembalikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {harga barang yang telah dijualnya secara cicilan atau kontan }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {setelah selesai masa sewa. }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Inilah sebenarnya tujuan dan latar belakang timbulnya
konsep }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mu`amala
t `Bai` Al Wafa`` yang dikenal di undang-undang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Perancis dengan menghindari ketentuan hukum `A
ntichrese` }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang
melarang pemberi pinjaman uang untuk memiliki barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {rohn/gadai, sementara pemberi pinjama
n uang juga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
menghindar untuk menarik keuntungan dari hutang yang }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dipinjamkan dengan praktek riba
yang keji, yaitu dengancara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {rohn istighlal yang dikenal dengan akad }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menutupi/menghindari riba `Co
ntrat Pignoratif` , maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {mulailah undang-undang perancis selanjutnya undang-undang }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Qonun Milkiyah Libanon
melegalkan konsep Bai` Al Wafa` }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {untuk memberi kesempatan bagi peminjam mengambil }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keuntungan dengan car
a benar dan memberi kesempatan bagi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {peminjam uang untuk dapat memanfatkan barang yan
g }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dijualnya se
rta keinginan untuk memilikinya lagi setelah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {beberapa saat masa sewa. (Yakan Zuhdi, `A
qdul Bai`, p.132) }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066
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arscalex100 {165}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666
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\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {KONSEP DASAR
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f0\f0\charscalex100\b {DALAM SINERGI PRODUK PERBANKAN }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\s
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24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Celah Profitabilitas Bank: }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\s
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pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-3
33\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Pertama}\par\pard\li333\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Multi Level Marketing}\b0 \par\pard\li
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Multi Level
Marketing adalah }\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{sebuah sistem penjualan yang }\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {belum pernah dikenal sebelumnya }\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {di dunia Islam. Leiteratur fiqih }\par\
pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {klasik tentu tidak
memuat hal }\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sepe
rti MLM itu. Sebab MLM ini }\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {memang sebuah fenomena yang }\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {baru dalam dunia marketing. }\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {H
ukum Mengikuiti Bisnis }\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11
893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmul
t0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\s

lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {K


arena MLM itu masuk dalam bab Muamalat, maka pada }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dasarnya hukumnya mubah
atau boleh. Merujuk kepada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {kaidah bahwa Al-Aslu fil Asy-yai Al-Ibahah. Hukum segala }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sesuatu itu pada
asalnya adalah boleh. Dalam hal ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maksudnya adalah dalam masalah muamalat. Sampai n
anti ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {hal-hal
yang ternyata dilarang atau diharamkan dalam syariah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Islam. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Misalny
a bila di dalam sebuah MLM itu ternyata terdapat }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {indikasi riba`, misalnya dalam
memutar dana yang terkumpul. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Atau ada indikasi terjadinya gharar atau penipuan baik kepada }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {down line ataupun kep
ada upline. Atau mungkin juga terjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dharar yaitu hal-hal yang membahayakan, merugika
n atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menzhal
imi pihak lain, entah dengan mencelakakan dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menyusahkan. Dan tidak tertutup kemung
kinan ternyata ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {unsur jahalah atau ketidak-transparanan dalam sistem dan }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {aturan. Atau juga
perdebatan sebagian kalangan tentang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {haramnya samsarah ala samsarah. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Sehingga kita tidak bisa terburu-buru memvonis bahwa bisnis }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MLM itu halal atau haram, seb
elum kita teliti dan bedah dulu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {`isi perut`nya dengan pisau analisa syariah yang `tajam dan }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terpercaya`. }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\b {Teliti Dan Ketahui Dengan Pasti}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Maka jauh sebelum anda memutuskan untuk bergabung }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan sebuah MLM tertentu,
pastikan bahwa di dalamnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {tidak ada ke-4 hal tersebut, yang akan membuat anda jauth ke }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam hal yang diharamka
n Allah SWT. Carilah keterangan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {dan perdalam terlebih dahulu wawasan dan pengetahuan anda }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atas sebuah tawaran ik
ut dalam MLM, jangan terlalu terburu-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {buru tergiur dengan tawaran cepat kaya dan seterusnya. }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {168}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghs
xn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\sl
mult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Sebaiknya anda harus yakin terlebih dahulu bahwa produk }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang ditawarkan jela
s kehalalannya, baik zatnya maupun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {metodenya. Karena anggota bukan hanya konsumen barang
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut teta
pi juga memasarkan kepada yang lainnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sehingga dia harus tahu status baran
g tersebut dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10

0 {bertanggung-jawab kepada konsumen lainnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult


0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Lega
lisasi Syariah}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Alangkah baiknya bila seoran
g muslim menjalankan MLM }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {yang sudah ada legalisasi syariahnya. Yaitu perusahaan MLM }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang tidak sekedar
mencantumkan label dewan syariah, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melainkan yang fungsi dewan syariahnya itu
benar-benar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {be
rjalan. Sehingga syariah bukan berhenti pada label tanpa }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {arti. Artinya, kalau kita
datangi kantornya, maka ustaz yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {mengerti masalah syariahnya itu ada dan siap m
enjelaskan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {letak
halal dan haramnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kepada pengawas syariah itu and
a berhak menanyakan dasar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {pandangan kehalalan produk dan sistem MLM itu. Mintalah }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepadanya dalil atau hasil kaj
ian syariah yang lengkap untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {anda pelajari dan bandingkan dengan para ulama yang juga }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ahli dibidangnya. Itulah
fungsi dewan pengawas syariah pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {sebuah perusahaan MLM. Jadi jangan terlalu mudah
dulu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {untuk
mengatakan bebas masalah sebelum anda yakin dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tahu persis bagaimana dewan
syariah di perusahaan itu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {memastikan kehalalannya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Hindari P
roduk Musuh Islam}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Seorang muslim sebaiknya menghi
ndari diri dari menjalankan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {perusahaan yang memusuhi Islam baik secara langsung atau }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pun tidak langsung. Bukna t
idak mungkin ternyata perusahaan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {induknya malah menjadi donatur musuh Islam dan }\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {169}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn1189
3\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0
\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keu
ntungannya bisinis ini malah digunakan untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MEMBUNUH saudara kita di belahan bumi lai
nnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Meski pada dasarnya kita boleh bermu
malah dengan non }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {muslim, selama mereka mau bekerjasama yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menguntungkan dan juga tidak memerangi
umat Islam. Tetapi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {memasarkan produk musuh Islam di masa kini sama saja }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan berinfaq kepa
da musuh kita untuk membeli peluru }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang merobek jantung umat Islam. }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b {Jangan Sampai Berdusta}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hal yang palin
g rawan dalam pemasaran gaya MLM ini adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dinding yang teramat tipis antara kejujuran dan deng

an dusta. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Biasan


ya, orang-orang yang diprospek itu dijejali dengan }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {beragam mimpi untuk jadi milyuner
dalam waktu singkat, atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {bisa punya rumah real estate, mobil built-up mahal, apartemen }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mewah, kapal pesiar dan
ribuan mimpi lainnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dengan rumus hitung-hitun
gan yang dibuat seperti masuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akal, akhirnya banyak yang terbuai dan meninggalkan profes
i }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sejatinya atau
yang kita kenal dengan istilah `pensiun dini`. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Apalagi bila objeknya itu orang miskin yang hidu
pnya senin }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kamis
, maka semakin menjadilah mimpi di siang bolong itu, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {persis dengan mimpi menjadi tokoh-t
okoh dalam dunia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {sinetron TV yang tidak pernah menjadi kenyataan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Dan simbol-simbol kekayaan seperti memakai jas dan dasi, }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pertemuan di gedung mewah atau kema
na-mana naik mobil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {seringkali menjadi jurus pemasaran. Dan sebagai upaya }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pencitraan diri bahwa seora
ng distributor itu sudah makmur }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {sering terasa dipaksakan. Bahkan istilah yang digunakan pun }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bukan sales, tetapi
manager atau general manager atau istilah-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {istilah keren lain yang punya citra bahwa dirinya adal
ah orang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {170}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400
\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
26\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {penting di dalam perusahaan mewah kelas international. }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Padahal -misalnya- uju
ng-ujungnya hanya jualan obat. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kami tidak mengat
akan bahwa trik ini haram, tetapi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {cenderung terasa mengawang-awang yang bila
masyarakat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {awam
kurang luas wawasannya, bisa tertipu. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Hati-hati D
engan Mengeksploitir Dalil}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Yang harus diperhatika
n pula adalah penggunaan dalil yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak pada tempatnya untuk melegalkan MLM. Seperti sering }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kita dengar ba
nyak orang yang membuat keterangan yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kurang tepat. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Misa
lnya bahwa Rasulullah SAW itu profesinya adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pedagang . Yang benar adalah
beliau memang pernah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {berdagang dan ketika masih kecil memang pernah diajak
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berdagang. Dan
itu terjadi jauh sebelum beliau diangkat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjadi Nabi pada usia 40 tahun.
Namun setelah menjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {nabi, beliau tidak lagi menjadi pedagang. Pemasukan }\p

ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(ma`isyah) beliau


adalah dari harta rampasan perang / }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ghanimah, bukan dari hasil jualan atau menawark
an barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dagang
an, juga bukan dengan sistem MLM. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Lagi pula kalaulah
sebelum jadi nabi beliau pernah berdagang, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jelas-jelas sistemnya bukan MLM. Dan Khadidjah
ra itulah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bukn
alah Up-linenya sebagaimana Maisarah juga bukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {downline-nya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Jadi jangan mentang-mentang yang diprospek itu umat Islam, }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau ustaz yang punya ban
yak jamaah, atau tokoh yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {berpengaruh, lalu dengan enak kita tancap gas
tanpa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memeriksa
kembali dalil yang kita gunakan. }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {171}\pa
r\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsx
n666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fi
qih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Terkait dengan itu, ada juga yang be
rdalih bahwa sistem MLM }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {merupakan sunnah nabi. Mereka mengandaikannya dengan }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dakwah berantai / berjenj
ang yang dilakukan oleh Rasulullah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {SAW di masa itu. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Padahal apa yang
dilakukan beliau itu tidak bisa dijadikan dalil }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa sistem penjualan berjenjang itu
adalah sunnah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Rasulullah SAW. Sebab ketika melakukan dakwah berjenjang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu, Rasulullah SAW tidak sedang berda
gang dengan memberi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {barang /jasa dan mendapatkan imbalan materi. Jadi tidak ada }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {transaksi muamalat perdangan
dalam dakwah berjenjang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {beliau. Kalau pun ada reward, maka itu adalah pahala dari }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Allah SWT yang
punya pahala tak ada habisnya, bukan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berbentuk uang pembelian. }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {Jangan Sampai Kehilangan Kreatifitas Dan Produktifitas}\b0 \par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {MLM itu memang sering menjanjikan orang menjadi ka
ya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mendadak, seh
ingga bisa menyedot keinginan dari sejumlah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {orang dengan sangat besar. Dan karena menggunakan si
stem }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jaringan,
memang dalam waktu singkat bisa terkumpul }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sejumlah orang yang siap menjual rupa-rupa
produk. Harus }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {di
perhatikan bahwa bila semua orang akan dimasukkan ke }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dalam jaringan MLM yang
pada hakikatnya menjadi sales }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjualkan produk sebuah industri, maka jangan sampai jiw
a }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kreatifitas da
n produktifitas ummat menjadi loyo dan mati. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult

0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sebab di belakang sistem MLM itu sebenarnya adalah


industri }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang m
engeluarkan produk secara massal. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Padahal umat ini b
utuh orang-orang yang mampu berkreasi, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mencipta, melakukan aktifitas seni, menemukan hal-hal bar
u, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mendidik, m
emberikan pelayanan kepada ummat dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pekerjaan pekerjaan mulia lainnya. Kalau semua pote
nsi umat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ini t
ersedot ke dalam bisnis pemasaran, maka matilah }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {172}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\marg
rsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kreatifitas umat dan m
ereka hanya sibuk di satu bidang saja }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yaitu : }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {B E R J U A L A N}\
b0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { produk sebuah industri. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {Etika Penawaran}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Salah satu hal yang
paling `mengganggu` dari sistem }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemasaran langsung adalah metode pendekatan penawarannya
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu sendiri.
Karena memang disitulah ujung tombak dari }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sistem penjualan langsung dan sekal
igus juga disitulah titik }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {yang menimbulkan masalah. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Biasanya p
ara distibutor selalu dipompakan semangat untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mencari calon pembeli. Istilah yang sering digun
akan adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pros
pek. Sering hal itu dilakukan dengan tidak pandang bulu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dan suasana. Misalnya seorang teman lama
yang sudah sekian }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {tahun tidak pernah berjumpa, tiba-tiba menghubungi dan }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berusaha mengakrabi sa
mbil memubuka pembicaraan masa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {lalu yang sedemikian mesra. Kemudian melangkah
kepada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {janji b
ertemu. Tapi begitu sudah bertemu, ujung-ujungnya }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menawarkan suatu produk yang pada da
sarnya tidak terlalu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {dibutuhkan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hanya saja karena kawan lam
a, tidak enak juga bila tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membeli. Karena si teman ini menghujaninya dengan sekian
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {banyak argumen
mulai dari kualitas produk yang terkadang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sangat fantastis, termasuk peluang berbisnis di MLM te
rsebut }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang inti
nya mau tidak mau harus beli dan jadi anggota. Pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {saat mewarkan dengan sejuta argumen
inilah seorang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {distributor bisa bermasalah. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Atau suasana yang pe
nting menjadi terganggu karena adanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penawaran MLM. Sehingga pengajian berubah menjadi ajang }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bisnis. Juga rapat

, kelas, perkuliahan, dan banyak suasana dan }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult


0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {173}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsx
n133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kesempatan penting b
erubah jadi `pasar`. Tentu ini akan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terasa mengganggu.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl400\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {174}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8
400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn480\pard\li4600\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i4600\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Pertama}\par\pard
\li4240\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs28\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Future Komoditi }\b0 \p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Di zaman yang maju sekarang ini, jenis-jenis transaksi jual-beli }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {telah merambah
ke wilayah yang sebelumnya tidak pernah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {terbayangkan dalam benak orang dahulu. Ap
alagi ditambah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
dengan kemajuan fasilitas alat komunikasi yang berhasil }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjadi bumi ini hanya sebua
h bulatan kecil saja. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Maka perdagangan dunia s

udah menjadi hal yang lazim, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c


f0\f1\charscalex100 {dimana seorang pembeli dan penjual melakukan transaksi dan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {antara keduanya
dipisahkan jarak siang dan malam. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Sekilas Tentang
Future Komoditi}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kita di z
aman ini mengenal sebuah jenis bisnis baru yaitu }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Future Trading atau Future
Komoditi. Dan sesuai dengan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {istilahnya, bisnis ini memang merupakan sebuah perdagangan }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {di masa depan. Yait
u sebuah komoditas yang dijual namun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {baru akan ada wujud komoditasnya itu nanti di masa yang }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akan datang. }\par\
pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Gambaran sederhananya adalah seorang petani besar menjual
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {padi yang ak
an dipanennya kepada pihak lain meskipun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {padinya saat ini sedang atau malah belum dita
nam. Namun dia }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {m
enjual padi itu dengan harga hasil panen nanti. Sebab }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diperkirakan dalam waktu 3
bulan, padi yang akan dihasilkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {dari sawahnya akan mencapai 1 juta ton. Maka saat ini dia }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sudah menjual pa
di dengan kuantitas 1 juta ton dan telah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menerima uangnya saat ini pula. }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Pihak pembeli secara hukum adalah pemilik 1 juta ton padi }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang dalam waktu 3
bulan lagi akan segera terwujud. Namun }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebenarnya pihak pembeli sama sekali tidak bu
tuh padi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seban
yak 1 juta ton. Surat pembelian / hak atas padi 1 juta ton }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {itu pun ditawarkan kepada pihak lain,
tentu saja dengan harga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {yang lebih tinggi. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pihak lain akan menaksir
kira-kira berapa harga 1 juta ton padi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pada tiga bulan ke depan. Bila menurut ana
lisa konsultan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{bahan pangan, harganya akan melambung naik tiga bulan lagi, }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka dia pun akan membeliny
a dari bursa komoditi itu. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Demikianlah kepemilikan padi 1 juta ton itu akan berpindah-}\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pindah dari satu t
angan ke tangan lain, antara sekian banyak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pialang future komoditi. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{Antara Future Trading Dengan Bai'us Salam}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {176}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\
pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {Sekilas memang ada kemiripan antara Future Trading

ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan a


kad Bai' Salam atau salaf, yaitu jual-beli dengan }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembayaran harga yang dise
pakati secara tunai, sedang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {penyerahan barangnya ditangguhkan kemudian pada wakt
u }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang dijanji
kan oleh penjual dan disetujui pembeli (jatuh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tempo). }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Da
lam akad salam harga sudah tetap, tidak dikenal padanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penambahan, kenaikan atau pun penurunan
harga. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kebolehan transaksi bai'us salam ini
berdarkan hadtis }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Rasulullah SAW Dari Ibnu Abbas berkata: }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Rasul
ul ah SAW datang ke Madinah, sedang masyarakat Madinah }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {melakukan transaksi Salaf (Salam)
setahun, dan dua tahun". Maka }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\i {Rasulul ah SAW bersabda:" barangsiapa yang melaku
kan salaf, }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\i {maka lakukanlah dalam takaran yang jelas, timbangan yang jelas dan }\i0 \par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {waktu yang jelas}\i
0 \fs22\cf2\f0\charscalex100\i {(Muttafaqun 'alaihi)}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Namun bila menilik lebih dalam serta membandingkan secara }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {cermat antara futuer Komodit
i dengan Bai'us Salam, ada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {beberapa titik perbedaan yang amat besar. Misalny
a pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {motivas
i pembeli future komoditi. Bila dalam bai'us Salam }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {motivasinya adalah semata-mata
hubungan antara penjual dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {pembeli, namun dalam futue komoditi lebih dari itu. }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Sebab pembeli bukan semata-mata berniat untuk membeli }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barang, namun ber
niat untuk berdagang atau menjual kembali }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan melihat fluktuasi harga. Dengan hitun
gan tertentu, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
pada saat harga barang rendah, dia akan membeli sebanyak-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {banyaknya. Sambil memperkirakan k
apankah nanti harga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {barang akan naik sesuai dengan usia panen tanaman itu. Bila }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tiba waktunya, pada saat har
ga barang tinggi maka ia melepas }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {surat tanda kepemilikan barang. }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
177}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\
margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Begitulah berpindah-pindah
dari satu orang ke-orang lain }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjual surat berharga tersebut tanpa mengetahui barangn
ya. }\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133
\cols4\colno1\colw1946\colsr-0\colno2\colw2866\colsr-0\colno3\colw1240\colsr-0\c
olno4\colw1546\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Unsur}\
par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penambahan/ke
naikan}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harga
}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau }\par\

pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penurunan/pengurangan harga
setelah transaksi dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {pembayaran dilunasi disebut capital gain. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
b {Letak Keharaman Akad Ini }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {a. Gambling}\b0 \p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Unsur penambahan atau pengurangan inilah sebenarnya yan
g }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengandung kar
akter gambling (maysir). Dalam konteks ini, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {para ulama memandang bahwa bursa komoditi
seperti ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
sangat erat dengan sebuah perjudian yang haram hukumnya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Jelasnya dalam bisnis seperti i
ni, target pembeli adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {melakukan praktek gambling (qimar/maysir) dengan naik
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {turunnya harga
barang yang ditentukan oleh pasar. Sebab }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bukan dengan melihat dan memeriksa terlebi
h dahulu barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
itu. Sehingga baik pembeli maupun penjual sama sekali tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pernah melihat langsung barang yang
mereka perjual-belikan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {Bahkan transaksi itu hanya lewat pembicaraan telepon. }\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b {b. Unsur Jahalah}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hal lain yang mem
buat tidak diterimanya bisnis seperti ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {oleh syariat adalah bahwa pembeli menjual
kembali barang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{yang belum ia terima kepada pembeli kedua atau orang lain. }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Padahal salah satu syarat dari syahn
ya jual-beli adalah adanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {al-Qabdh, yaitu penerimaan barang dari penjual kepada }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembeli. Padahal
baik penjual maupun pembeli, keduanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sama-sama tidak pernah tahu dimanakah
barang itu dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {seperti apa rupanya. Bahkan bisa jadi barangnya memang tidak }\par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ada sama sekali, entah karena di
serang hama dan sebagainya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {178}\par\pard\se
ct\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\
sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Profesi Konsultan Pada Future Trading}\b0 \par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {Adapun memberikan jasa konsultasi untuk keperluan Future }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Trading yang mengandung
unsur praktek haram seperti diatas }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {termasuk memberikan dukungan untuk suatu kema'siatan atau }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {manivestasi ta'a
wun 'alal itsmi. Maka, penghasilan yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diperoleh dari jasa konsultasi ini hukumnya ad
alah haram. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hal yang hampir mirip terjadi
juga pada bursa saham dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0

\f1\charscalex100 {money changher. Kedua model akad ini secara men


dasar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adalah hal
al. Tetapi hukum itu berubah jika sudah mengarah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pada maisir (gambling), yaitu motivasi jual-bel
i saham untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {me
ncari selisih keuntungan, bukan penyertaan modal. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {B
egitu juga pada jual-beli mata uang, motivasinya untuk }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mencari keuntungan dari sel
isih harga tersebut bukan untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {kebutuhan, misalnya keluar negeri dll. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Maka hukum kedua jenis transaksi tersebut berubah dari halal }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjadi haram, karena sud
ah masuk pada judi yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {diharamkan Allah }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-360\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {179}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11
893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn546\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4
600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Pertama}\par\pard\li5320\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Asuransi}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Islam
memiliki sebuah sistem yang mampu memberikan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jaminan atas kecelakaan atau mushibah la
innya melalui sistem }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {zakat. Bahkan sistem ini jauh lebih unggul dari asuransi }\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {konvensional, ka
rena sejak awal didirikan memang untuk }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepentingan sosial dan bantuan kemanusi
aan. Sehingga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
seseorang tidak harus mendaftarkan diri menjadi anggota dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {juga tidak diwajibkan untuk
membayar premi secara rutin. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Bahkan jumah bantuan yang diterimanya tidak berka
itan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan leve
l seseorang dalam daftar peerta tetapi berdasarkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tingkat kerugian yang menimpanya dalam musiba

h tersebut. }\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\mar
grsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dana yang diberik
an kepada setiap orang yang tertimpa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {musibah ini bersumber dari harta orangorang kaya dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {membayarkan kewajiban zakatnya sebagai salah satu rukun }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Islam. Di masyarakat luar
Islam yang tidak mengenal sistem }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {zakat, orang-orang berusaha untuk membuat sistem jaminan }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sosial, tetapi ti
dak pernah berhasil karena tidak mampu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menggerakkan orang kaya membayar sejumlah uang
tertentu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kepada
baitulmal sebagaimana di dalam Islam.}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Yang tercipta
justru sistem asuransi yang sebenarnya tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bernafaskan bantuan sosial tetap
i usaha bisnis skala besar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {dengan tujuan untuk mendapatkan keuntungan yang sebesar-}\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {besarnya. Sisi ba
ntuan sosial lebih menjadi lips service }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(penghias) belaka sementara hakikatnya tidak l
ain merupakan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pe
merasan dan kerja rentenir. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mekanisme asuransi konve
nsional yang mereka buat ini adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {sebuah akad yang mengharuskan perusahaan asuransi untuk }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memberikan kepada pe
sertanya sejumlah harta ketika terjadi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bencana maupun kecelakaan atau terbuktinya sebuah bahaya
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagaimana te
rtera dalam akad (transaksi), sebagai }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {konsekuensi/imbalan uang (premi) yang diba
yarkan secara }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
rutin dari peserta. Jadi asuransi merupakan salah satu cara }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembayaran ganti rug
i kepada pihak yang mengalami musibah, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang dananya diambil dari iuran premi seluruh
peserta }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {asura
nsi. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dari segi bentuk transaksi dan praktek ekonomi
syariat Islam, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {a
suransi konvensional hasil produk non Islam ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengandung sekian banyak cacat syar`
i, antara lain : }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\
ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {1. Akad asuransi ini adalah akad
gharar karena masing-}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {masing dari kedua belah pihak penanggung dan }\par\pard\li1360
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tertanggung pada waktu mel
angsungkan akad tidak }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6066\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {181}\par\pard\sect\sectd
\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\
pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0
\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-453\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengetahui jumlah yang ia berikan dan jumlah yang }
\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dia ambil. }\par
\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {2.}\tab \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Akad asuransi ini adalah akad }\fs24\cf0\f0\ch

arscalex100\i {idz'an }\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(penundukan) }\par\pard\


li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pihak yang kuat adal
ah perusahan asuransi karena }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {dialah yang menentukan syarat-syarat yang tidak }\
par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dimiliki tertangg
ung. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {3. Mengand
ung unsur pemerasan, karena pemegang }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {polis, apabila tidak bisa melanjutkan pe
mbayaran }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {premin
ya, akan hilang premi yang sudah dibayar atau }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {di kurangi. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {4. Pada perusahaan asuransi konvensional, uang masuk
}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari premi
para peserta yang sudah dibayar akan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diputar dalam usaha dan bisnis dengan praktek r
ibawi. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{5.}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi termasuk jual-beli atau tukar menu
kar mata }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {uang t
idak tunai. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Ikhtilaf sebagian ulama yang memboleh
kan asuransi}\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ada beberapa pandangan atau
pendapat mengenai asuransi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {ditinjau dari fiqh Islam. Yang paling mengemuka perbedaan }\par\p
ard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tersebut terbagi tiga,
yaitu: }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {a. Pendapat pertama : Mengharamkan }\b0 \pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi itu haram dalam segala macam bentuknya, temasuk
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {asuransi jiwa
Pendapat ini dikemukakan oleh Sayyid Sabiq, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Abdullah al-Qalqii (mufti Yordania
), Yusuf Qardhawi dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Muhammad Bakhil al-Muth'i (mufti Mesir). Alasan-alasan }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang mereka kemukak
an ialah: }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl346\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs20\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Asuransi sama dengan judi }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*
\tx1360\fs20\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Asuransi mengandung ungur-unsur tidak pasti. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \*\tx1360\fs20\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Asuransi mengandung unsur riba/renten. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{182}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133
\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs20\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi mengandung unsur pemerasan, karena
}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemegang poli
s, apabila tidak bisa melanjutkan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembayaran preminya, akan hilang premi yang sudah }\p
ar\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibayar atau di ku
rangi. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs18\cf0\f2\charscalex100
{\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Premi-premi yang sudah dibayar ak
an diputar dalam }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{praktek-praktek riba. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs18\cf0\
f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi termasu
k jual-beli atau tukar menukar mata }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {uang tidak tunai. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\t

x1360\fs18\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {H


idup dan mati manusia dijadikan objek bisnis, dan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sama halnya dengan mendahului takdir Allah. }
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {b. Pendapat Kedua : Membolehkan}\b0 \par\pard\li640
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {Pendapat kedau ini dikemukakan oleh Abd. Wahab Khalaf, }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mustafa Akhmad Zarqa (g
uru besar Hukum Islam pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {fakultas Syari'ah Universitas Syria), Muhammad Yusuf Musa }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(guru besar Hukum I
salm pada Universitas Cairo Mesir), dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Abd. Rakhman Isa (pengarang kitab al-Muamallha al-Hadits
ah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {wa Ahkamuha).
Mereka beralasan: }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs18\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs
22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Tidak ada nash (al-Qur'an dan Sunnah) yang melarang }\p
ar\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {asuransi. }\par\p
ard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs20\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}
\tab \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ada kesepakatan dan kerelaan kedua belah pihak.
}\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs20\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1
\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Saling menguntungkan kedua belah pihak
. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs18\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc
1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi dapat menanggulangi ke
pentingan umum, }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {sebab premi-premi yang terkumpul dapat di }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {investasikan untuk proyek-proyek yang pr
oduktif dan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pem
bangunan. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs20\cf0\f2\charscalex
100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi termasuk akad mudhra
bah (bagi hasil) }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs20\cf0\f2\cha
rscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi termasuk kope
rasi (Syirkah Ta'awuniyah). }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs18
\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi
di analogikan (qiyaskan) dengan sistem }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pensiun seperti taspen. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {c. Pendapat Ketiga :}\b0 \par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {183}\par\pard\sect\
sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsx
n173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah
}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi sosial boleh dan komersial haram Pendap
at ketiga ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {di
anut antara lain oleh Muhammad Abdu Zahrah (guru besar }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hukum Islam pada Universitas Cair
o). Alasan kelompok }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {ketiga ini sama dengan kelompok pertama dalam asuransi }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang bersifat komer
sial (haram) dan sama pula dengan alasan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kelompok kedua, dalam asuransi yang bersifat sosial (bo
leh). }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Alasan golongan yang mengatakan asura
nsi syubhat adalah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {karena tidak ada dalil yang tegas haram atau tidak haramnya }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {asuransi itu. Asuransi
Syariah a. Prinsip Asuransi Syariah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Suatu asuransi diperbolehkan secara syar'i,
jika tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {m
enyimpang dari prinsip-prinsip dan aturan-aturan syariat }\par\pard\li

640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Islam. Untuk itu dalam muamal


ah tersebut harus memenuhi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {ketentuan-ketentuan sebagai berikut: }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs18\cf0\f2\charsca
lex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi syariah harus
dibangun atas dasar taawun }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {(kerja sama ), tolong menolong, saling menjamin, tidak }\pa
r\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berorentasi bisni
s atau keuntungan materi semata. }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Allah SWT berfirman," }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\b {Dan saling tolong }\b0 \par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {menolonglah dalam kebaikan dan ketaqwaan dan }\b0 \par\pard\li1
360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {jangan saling tolong menolo
ng dalam dosa dan }\b0 \par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {permusuhan."}\b0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs18\cf0
\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Asuransi syar
iat tidak bersifat mu'awadhoh, tetapi }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tabarru' atau mudhorobah. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs18\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {Sumbangan (tabarru') sama dengan hibah (pemberian), }\par\pard
\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {oleh karena itu har
am hukumnya ditarik kembali. }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {Kalau terjadi peristiwa, maka diselesaikan menurut
}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {syariat. }\pa
r\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs18\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u6162
3X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Setiap anggota yang menyetor uangnya
menurut }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {juml
ah yang telah ditentukan, harus disertai dengan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {niat membantu demi menegakan
prinsip ukhuwah. }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Kemudian dari uang yang terkumpul itu diambilah }\par\pard\li13
60\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sejumlah uang guna memba
ntu orang yang sangat }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {memerlukan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {184}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\margls
xn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs20\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\
uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Tidak dibenarkan seseorang me
nyetorkan sejumlah }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {kecil uangnya dengan tujuan supaya ia mendapat }\par\pard\li13
60\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {imbalan yang berlipat bi
la terkena suatu musibah. }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {Akan tetepi ia diberi uang jamaah sebagai ganti atas }\par\pard
\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kerugian itu menurut izin
yang diberikan oleh jamaah. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs1
8\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Apabila
uang itu akan dikembangkan, maka harus }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dijalankan menurut aturan syar'i. }\par\pard\
li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {B. Ciri-ciri Asuransi syari'ah }\b0 \par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {Asuransi syariah memiliki beberapa ciri utama : }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {1. Akad asuransi syari'ah adalah bersifat tabarru', }\par\pard
\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sumbangan yang diberikan
tidak boleh ditarik kembali. }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {Atau jika tidak tabarru', maka andil yang dibayarkan }\par\pard\li

1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akan berupa tabungan yang ak


an diterima jika terjadi }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {peristiwa, atau akan diambil jika akad berhenti sesuai }\par\pard\li13
60\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan kesepakatan, dengan t
idak kurang dan tidak }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {lebih. Atau jika lebih maka kelebihan itu adalah }\par\pa
rd\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kentungan hasil mudhoro
bah bukan riba. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{2. Akad asuransi ini bukan akad mulzim (perjanjian yang }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {wajib dilaksanakan) bagi kedua bel
ah pihak. Karena }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {pihak anggota ketika memberikan sumbangan tidak }\par\pard\li1360\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bertujuan untuk mendapat imb
alan, dan kalau ada }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {imbalan, sesungguhnya imbalan tersebut didapat }\par\pard\li1
360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {melalui izin yang diber
ikan oleh jama'ah (seluruh }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {peserta asuransi atau pengurus yang ditunjuk }\par\p
ard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bersama). }\par\pard\
li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {3. Dalam asuransi syar
i'ah tidak ada pihak yang lebih }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kuat karena semua keputusan dan aturan-atur
an }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diambil menu
rut izin jama'ah seperti dalam asuransi }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {takaful. }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {185}\par\pard\
sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\ma
rgbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Tha
harah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-4
53\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {4. Akad asuransi syari'ah bersih dari gha
rar dan riba. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
5. Asuransi syariah bernuansa kekeluargaan yang kental. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {C. Perbedaan asuransi syariah dan konvensional. }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {Dibandingkan asuransi konvensional, asuransi syariah }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {memiliki perbedaan mendasar
dalam beberapa hal. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li10
00\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {1. Prinsip akad asuransi syari
ah adalah takafuli (tolong-}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {menolong). Dimana nasabah yang satu menolong }\par\pard\li
1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {nasabah yang lain yang tenga
h mengalami kesulitan. }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {Sedangkan akad asuransi konvensional bersifat }\par\pard\li1360\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tadabuli (jual-beli antara nasaba
h dengan perusahaan). }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {2. Dana yang terkumpul dari nasabah perusahaan }\par\pard\li13
60\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {asuransi syariah (premi)
diinvestasikan berdasarkan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {syariah dengan sistem bagi hasil (mudharabah). }\par\pa
rd\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan pada asuransi
konvensional, investasi dana }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {dilakukan pada sembarang sektor dengan sistem }\par\par
d\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bunga. }\par\pard\li100
0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {3. Premi yang terkumpul diperla
kukan tetap sebagai dana }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {milik nasabah. Perusahaan hanya sebagai pemegang }\par\pard\
li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {amanah untuk mengelolanya.
Sedangkan pada asuransi }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {konvensional, premi menjadi milik perusahaan dan }\par\pard\

li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perusahaan-lah yang me


miliki otoritas penuh untuk }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {menetapkan kebijakan pengelolaan dana tersebut. }\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {4. Bila ada peserta y
ang terkena musibah, untuk }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {pembayaran klaim nasabah dana diambilkan dari }\par\
pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {rekening tabarru
(dana sosial) seluruh peserta yang }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sudah diikhlaskan untuk keperluan tolong-menolong. }
\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Sedangkan dala
m asuransi konvensional, dana }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {pembayaran klaim diambil dari rekening milik }\pa
r\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perusahaan. }\par\
pard\li1000\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {5. Keuntungan investa
si dibagi dua antara nasabah selaku }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {pemilik dana dengan perusahaan selaku pengelola,
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {186}\par
\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn
666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqi
h Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0
\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan prinsip bagi hasil. Sedangkan
dalam asuransi }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{konvensional, keuntungan sepenuhnya menjadi milik }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {perusahaan. Jika tak ada klaim, na
sabah tak }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mem
peroleh apa-apa. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {6. Adanya Dewan Pengawas Syariah dalam perusahaan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {asuransi syariah yang merupakan su
atu keharusan. }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Dewan ini berperan dalam mengawasi manajemen, }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {produk serta kebijakan investas
i supaya senantiasa }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {sejalan dengan syariat Islam. Adapun dalam asuransi }\par\pard\li1360\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {konvensional, maka hal itu tidak m
endapat perhatian. }\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li606
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li606
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pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
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639A30E839C1ED59ABE1CFB3DF25D59DC94D8DBD50AE7F0CE7A7F9E6BA71A74AB8C3281F5A912C64
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1DA8A2801927FAB6FA52AFDD1F4A28A85F10FA0EA28A2AC47FFFD9}
}}}}\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn413\pard
\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li46
00\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Perta
ma}\par\pard\li3680\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs28\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Kredit & Ka
rtu Kredit}\b0 \par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2973\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li2973\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-3
73\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kredit dibolehkan dalam hukum }\par
\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {jual-beli secara Isl
ami. Kredit adalah }\par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {membeli barang dengan harga yang }\par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berbeda antara pembayaran dalam }\par\pard\li2973\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bentuk tunai tunai dengan b
ila }\par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan teng
gang waktu. Ini dikenal }\par\pard\li2973\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {dengan istilah : bai` bit taqshid atau }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bai` bits-tsaman `ajil. Gambaran umumnya adalah
penjual dan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pemb
eli sepakat bertransaksi atas suatu barang (x) dengan }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {harga yang sudah dipas
tikan nilainya (y) dengan masa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pembayaran (pelunasan) (z) bulan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun sebagai syarat harus dipenuhi ket
entuan berikut : }\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn66
6\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {1. Harga har
us disepakati di awal transaksi meskipun }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pelunasannya dilakukan kemudian. Misal

nya : harga }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100


{rumah 100 juta bila dibayar tunai dan 150 juta bila }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dibayar dalam tempo 5 tahun. }\par\pard\l
i1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {2. Tidak boleh diterapk
an sistem perhitungan bunga }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {apabila pelunasannya mengalami keterlambatan }\par\pard
\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagaimana yang sering b
erlaku. }\par\pard\li1000\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {3. Pem
bayaran cicilan disepakati kedua belah pihak dan }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tempo pembayaran dibatasi sehingga ter
hindar dari }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {p
raktek bai` gharar (penipuan) Untuk lebih jelasnya }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {agar bisa dibedakan antara sis
tem kredit yang }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {dibolehkan dan yang tidak, kami contohkan dua kasus }\par\pard\li1360\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebagai berikut : }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\b {Contoh 1 : }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ahmad menawarkan sepeda mo
tor pada Budi dengan harga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {rp. 12 juta. Karena Budi tidak punya uang tunai Rp.12 juta, }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {maka dia minta pembayaran
dicicil (kredit). }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Untuk itu Ahmad minta harganya me
njadi Rp. 18 juta yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {harus dilunasi dalam waktu 3 tahun. Harga Rp. 18 juta tidak }\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berdasarkan bunga yang
ditetapkan sekian persen, tetapi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {merupakan kesepakatan harga sejak awal. }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {Transaksi seperti ini dibolehkan dalam Islam. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {Contoh 2 : }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ali menawarkan sepeda motor ke
pada Iwan dengan harga Rp. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {12 juta. Iwan membayar dengan cicilan dengan ketentuan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa setiap bul
an dia terkena bunga 2 % dari Rp. 12 juta }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atau dari sisa uang yang belum dibayarkan. }\par\pard\
li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-293\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {189}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn1
1893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmu
lt0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Transaksi seperti ini adalah riba, karena kedua belah pihak }\par\pard\li64
0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak menyepakati harga d
engan pasti, tetapi harganya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {tergantung dengan besar bunga dan masa cicilan. Yang seperti
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ini jelas haram.
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Al-Qaradawi dalam buku HALAL HARAM mengat
akan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bahwa men
jual kredit dengan menaikkan harga }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diperkenankan. Rasulullah s.a.w. sendiri pern
ah membeli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mak
anan dari orang Yahudi dengan tempo untuk nafkah }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {keluarganya. }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {Ada sementar pendapat yang mengatakan bahwa bila si }\par\

pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {penjual itu menaikkan


harga karena temponya, sebagaimana }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {yang kini biasa dilakukan oleh para pedagang yang menjual }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan kredit, maka
haram hukumnya dengan dasar bahwa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {tambahan harga itu berhubung masalah waktu dan itu sama }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dengan riba. }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {Tetapi jumhur (mayoritas) ulama membolehkan jual-b
eli }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kretdit in
i, karena pada asalnya boleh dan nash yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mengharamkannya tidak ada. Jual-b
eli kredit tidak bisa }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {dipersamakan dengan riba dari segi manapun. Oleh karena itu }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {seorang pedagang bol
eh menaikkan harga menurut yang }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pantas, selama tidak sampai kepada batas pemerkosaan dan
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kezaliman. }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kalau sampai terjadi demikian, maka jelas hukumnya haram
. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Imam Syaukani
berkata: "Ulama Syafi'iyah, Hanafiyah, Zaid }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bin Ali, al-Muayyid billah dan Jumhur be
rpendapat boleh }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{berdasar umumnya dalil yang menetapkan boleh. Dan inilah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {yang kiranya lebih tepat." }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-426\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {190}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pg
hsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li640\ri0\sl-226\
slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {Kartu Kredit }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Di zaman ini berbelanja de
ngan menggunakan kartu kredit }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {memberikan banyak kelebihan, selain urusan gengsi. }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {Pertama, masalah keamanan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Seseorang t
idak perlu membaya uang tunai / cash kemana-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mana. Cukup membawa sebuah kartu kredit
dan biasanya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {k
artu itu bisa diterima dimanapun di belahan dunia ini. }\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Seseorang tidak perlu
merasa khawatir untuk kecopetan, }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kecurian atau kehilangan uang tunainya. Bahk
an bila kartu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{kredit ini hilang, seseorang cukup menghubungi penerbit }\par\pard
\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kartu itu dan dalam
hitungan detik kartu tersebut akan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diblokir. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kedua, masala
h kepraktisan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\
sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Membawa uang tunai apalagi dalam juml
ah yang besar tentu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {sangat tidak praktis. Dengan kartu kredit seseorang bisa }\par
\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membawa uang dala
m jumlah besar hanya dalam sebuah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kartu. Ketiga, masalah akses. Beberapa toko dan peru

sahaan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tertentu


hanya menerima pembayaran melalui kartu kredit. }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Misalnya toko online di internet yan
g sangat mengandalkan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {pembayaran dengan kartu kredit. Kita tidak bisa membeli }\pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {sebuah produk di ama
zon.com dengan mengirim wessel pos. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Namun tidak
berarti kartu kredit itu bisa sukses di setiap }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tempat. Untuk keperluan belanja kec
il dan harian, penggunaan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {kartu kredit tidak banyak berguna. Untuk jajan bakso di ujung }\par\pa
rd\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {gang, masih sangat
dibutuhkan uang tunai. Tukang bakso }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tidak menerima American Visa dan sejenisnya. }\par\
pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6066\ri0\sl-213\sl
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argtsxn666\margbsxn173\pard\li5400\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Selain itu dengan marakn
ya kasus carding atau pemalsuan }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kartu kredit di internet terutama dari Indon
esia, sampai-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {s
ampai transaksi online bila pemesannya dari Indonesia tidak }\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {akan dilayani. Pada dasarnya,
prinsip kartu kredit ini }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {memberikan uang pinjaman kepada pemegang kartu untu
k }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {berbelanja di
tempat-tempat yang menerima kartu tersebut. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Setiap kali seseorang berbelanja, maka pihak pene
rbit kartu }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {membe
ri pinjaman uang untuk membayar harga belanjaan. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Unt
uk itu seseorang akan dikenakan biaya beberapa persen }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dari uang yang dipinjamnya yang menjadi ke
untungan pihak }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {p
enerbit kartu kredit. Biasanya uang pinjaman itu bila segera }\par\pard\li640\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {dilunasi dan belum jatuh te
mpo tidak atau belum lagi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {dikenakan bunga, yaitu selama masa waktu tertentu misalnya }\p
ar\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {satu bulan dari tan
ggal pembelian. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Tapi bila telah lewat satu bulan itu
dan tidak dilunasi, maka }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {akan dikenakan bunga atas pinjaman tersebut yang besarnya }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bervariasi antara masing-mas
ing perusahaan. Jadi bila dilihat }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {secara syariah, kartu kredit itu mengandung dua hal. Pertama,
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pinjaman tanpa b
unga yaitu bila dilunasi sebelum jatuh tempo. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Kedua, pinjaman dengan bunga yaitu bila
dilunasi setelah }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {jatuh tempo. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Bila seseorang bisa menjamin bahwa
tidak akan jatuh pada }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {opsi kedua, maka menggunakan kartu kredit untuk berbelanja }\par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {adalah halal hukumnya. T
api bila sampai jatuh pada opsi }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f

s22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {kedua, maka menjadi haram hukumnya karena menggunakan


}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {praktek riba yan
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1FE74C2E3692BC67E95A080453CF1F9E81738CC87EFF00F9F7AE36936FD4E092D48AC53CFB42D26D
D8ADD07F15715A7EB5716DAD5ECD0BE44D331DAC386C57576D38B3FB53B3B88D6DF7943F75580383
F53C83F415E6708DA8B31721F3BB24F393CE2BB28DB955C52D8F51B1F14D9DE048A72D6B2B701A4F
BADF46E95A8C3C9D43452090645923FD335C0E850BDEAC41D1D218CFCCE7BD759A8DE6E7D13CA203
24B9539E98EC3F0CD54EC91B61F7B1D1A8FDE48011938E3D29FE6600CFD2B3619D96E652CD9CEDE9
56CB6EE0F00D64D8115D0C3020715CE9B19A3D76F2EE4800B691729206E093B47F7B393839E302B7
6EE648216691B6A2F248AA0F710DC59CAD1B1F959432918239F4A7D09664D85CC69146AC4069AF19
5067EF632D8FC81A5D5F0F67700A8C6E621476ACC8227B8B5D3A650008B50695B8EBF2B28FE75A57
A3ED10CD142ACD233B0014649A210E515C34B3B8E9A4756023E3FCFB57AF0FBA3D6B86F0BF866EA3
36B717D1F96B0AEE443D7757755B4558614514558083A52D22FDD14B401C5EA56D2C934A90BA20F3
58E5D3763359274AD496175935432315C2BA5AAA95F9B3B87BE32BF8D76DA8E8565A9CA925C79EAC
8368F2A768F3F5DA466B39FC0FA2C872FF006F38FF00A7F987FECD412D1C81D3754F2DBFD2D4739D
E2D795EDE98CD7123535D0FC61A9B4CF7E31200DF65D8865231C36E07E53ED5EC3FF000AFF00C3DB
833437AC4763A85C11F96FA65B7C3BF0A5ADF25EC7A4A35CAB6F0F2CB249CFA9DCC7358CE9B934D3
3B709888515253574CE234C764D374C21180FB2C2CB8046DFC6B7C4065D4A7DE8C5539DA7AFE15E8
1B1366DDA36E318C715CCDCFC3CF0BDDDCBDC4DA6B19646DEDB6E65504FD0360564B0DBDD9C72D5D
D1CAAD935E5ADCA82C3CD4F298306C601CF415911F83BCA60CF34737CD9C3C4DF2FD31CD77FF00F0
AE3C319CAD95C267FB97D3AE7FF1FA07C39F0E2FDD86F467D351B8E7FF001FAD634DC52571729C70
B0D462428925A2A2AFC8AB13614D335C33DAE936976C801B79537B05C0E5B07F9D7A545E1ED2A1B6
7B64B626361860D23B13F8939AC8B8F875E19B83FBCB4B8DB907CB17B36CCF6F977E29B85F5B974D
F2BB9882E769621367CAA72475CD5A59370043C78C75CD6BC3E04D0EDC7EE56F107A7DB6523F56A7
5E7842196D0C563A8DF58CA5B226597CC207A61F229F2037A9CE6A79B8B4689195DB21946EFBC41C
E2A84292959A5749230CAA8049DFE6CF1F4ADD3E04D4C11B7C533CAC3B4F67130FD00ACBBFD03C5F
A746C96F6FA6EA70B72595CDBBA9F5C1C8A8F67ADC473F6BA0CBE22B6D2B4DFB4DCDA93786692482
4D8C102B66BD6F49D0AC345B6586CE1C6073239DCEDF5635C77C3BF0FEB7621EEF5D112BE310A238
6FA9247B57A256B1F3262145145514145145007FFFD9}
}}}}\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn400\pard
\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li46
00\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li4600\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pertemuan Perta
ma}\par\pard\li4840\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Bunga Bank}
\b0 \par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3520\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i3520\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-373\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Riba secara mutlak telah }\par\pard\li3520\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diharamkan oleh Allah swt dan }\par\
pard\li3520\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rasuluullah saw memal
ui ayat-}\par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ayat
Al-Quran dan Sunnah }\par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {Rasulullah saw. Diantara nash-}\par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {nash itu adalah : }\par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3520\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1. AlQuran }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-34
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Al-Quran mengharamkan riba dalam empat mar
halah / tahap. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {D
oktor Wahbat Az-Zuhaili dalam Tafsir Al-Munir }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {menjelaskan tahapan pengharam riba adala
h sebagai berikut }\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn6
66\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\cols2\colno1\colw5400\colsr-0\colno2\colw
2200\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \

fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Tahap


Pertama }\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\margl
sxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-346\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dan sesuatu riba (tambahan) yang kamu
berikan agar dia bertambah }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i {pada harta manusia, maka riba itu tidak menambah pada sisi Al
ah. }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Dan a
pa yang kamu berikan berupa zakat yang kamu maksudkan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {untuk mencapai keridhaan Al ah
, maka (yang berbuat demikian) }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {itulah orang-orang yang melipat gandakan
(pahalanya).}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(QS. Ar-}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ruum : 39 ) }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Ayat ini turun di Mekkah dan menjadi tamhid diharamkannya }\par\pard\li640\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {riba dan urgensi untuk menjauhi riba.
}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Tahap Kedua}\b0 \par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-546\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1
605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1583X#\uc1\u1589X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u16
04X \uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u157
6X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1591X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X
\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1581X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\
uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1607X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1604X\uc
1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1592X\uc1\u1576X\uc1
\u1601X}\par\pard\li626\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u160
4X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X##\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u160
4X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1575
X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1606X \uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X
\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1582X\u
c1\u1571X\uc1\u1608X .\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1579X\uc1\u1603X \uc1\u1604X\u
c1\u1575X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1587X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1593X}\p
ar\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-480\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u
1605X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u15
84X\uc1\u1593X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u161
0X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1575X
\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1583X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1604X\u
c1\u1591X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1587X\uc1
\u1575X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Maka diseb
abkan kezaliman orang-orang Yahudi, Kami haramkan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {atas mereka (memakan makanan) yang baikbaik (yang dahulunya) }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\i {dihalalkan bagi mereka, dan karena mereka banyak meng
halangi }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {(m
anusia) dari jalan Al ah.}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { (QS. An-Nisa : 160-61
) }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-346\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ayat ini turun di Madinah dan menceritakan tentang
perilaku }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Yahudi
yang memakan riba dan dihukum Allah. Ayat ini }\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {merupakan peringatan bagi pelaku
riba. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Tahap Ketiga }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {194}\par\pard\sec
t\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\s
bkpage\pgwsxn8400\pghsxn11893\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn173\pa

rd\li640\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Fiqih Thaharah}\i0 \pa


r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-666\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1604X
\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X \
uc1\u1577X\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1575X\uc
1\u1601X\uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1590X\uc1\u1571X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\
u1585X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1
571X\uc1\u1578X \uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u15
70X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u160
7X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1570X\uc1\u1610X}\par\pard\li5360\ri0\sl-480\slmul
t0 \fs28\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1581X\uc1\u1604X\uc1
\u1601X\uc1\u1578X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Hai orang-orang yang beriman, ja
nganlah kamu memakan riba dengan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\i {berlipat ganda dan bertakwalah kamu kepada Al ah supaya k
amu }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mendap
at keberuntungan.}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(Ali Imran : 130) }\par\pard\l
i640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {Pada tahap ini Al-Quran mengharamkan jenis riba ya
ng }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bersifat fahi
sy, yaitu riba jahiliyah yang berlipat ganda. }\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Ta
hap Keempat }\b0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0
\sl-560\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X\uc
1\u1572X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1603X \uc1\u1606X\uc1
\u1573X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\
u1605X \uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\
u1608X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u
1608X\uc1\u1602X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u16
05X\uc1\u1570X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u157
5X\uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1610X\uc1\u1571X\uc1\u1570X\uc1\u1610X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl
-480\slmult0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u1587X\uc1\u1572X\uc1\u1585X \uc1\
u1605X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1578X\uc1\u1576X\uc1\u1
578X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1573X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1607X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u15
87X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1575X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1605X \uc1\u15
76X\uc1\u1585X\uc1\u1576X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1584X\uc1\u1571
X\uc1\u1601X \uc1\u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1593X\uc1\u1601X\uc1\u1578X
\uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1573X\uc1\u1601X .}\par\pard\li3360\ri0\sl-480\slmu
lt0 \fs30\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1604X\uc
1\u1592X\uc1\u1578X \uc1\u1604X\uc1\u1608X \uc1\u1606X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1605X\uc1
\u1604X\uc1\u1592X\uc1\u1578X \uc1\u1604X \uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1603X\uc1\u1604X\uc1\
u1575X\uc1\u1608X\uc1\u1605X\uc1\u1571X}\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Hai orang
-orang yang beriman, bertakwalah kepada Al ah dan }\i0 \par\pard\li6
40\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {tinggalkan sisa riba (yang b
elum dipungut) jika kamu orang-orang yang }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {beriman. Maka jika kamu tidak mengerja
kan (meninggalkan sisa }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\i {riba), maka ketahuilah, bahwa Al ah dan Rasul-Nya
akan }\i0 \par\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {meme
rangimu. Dan jika kamu bertaubat (dari pengambilan riba), }\i0 \pa
r\pard\li640\ri0\sl-266\slm