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BO GIAO DUC VA AO TAO

AI HOC QUOC GIA TP. HO CH MINH


TRNG AI HOC S PHAM KY THUAT
KHOA IEN IEN T
BO MON IEN T
--------------




LUAN VAN TOT NGHIEP




E TAI:

KHAO SAT HE THONG THONG TIN VE TINH
VA THIET KE HE THONG THU CATV
CHO MOT KHACH SAN







Sinh vien thc hien : NGUYEN C TI
Lp : 95K
Giao vien hng dan : ThS TRAN VNH AN








TP. HO CH MINH Thang 3 2000






1O9 Cc Oc


7e hcoo thooh ace e tol ooq thi teace tleo em alo ehoo
thooh eom co 7oo qlom hlea Oeacoq 7c9 7OC 37 (7c
7[ O77cO, eoe thoq ec tecoq 7oo eha ohlem 77Oc 79/
oo eoe thoq ec lc mco o toc lea kleo ehc em ace hce top oo o
teaqeo tha ohlea kleo thae ehc em lom oeo tooq hce ooo teeo eco
acoq ecoq dooh sa oqhlep eao mioh.
3oa c lo em oc eaoq eom co thoq Oeoo 7toh co lo oqacl thoq
o teae tlep [oh hacoq oo hacoq doo em oqhleo eaa oe mct ltoh oae
kho lo mcl me sc ocl ohaoq kleo thae mo em o hce ace c teacoq,
qlap em mc ecoq tom hlea llet oe mct ltoh oae ooq phot teleo ocl
tce c eot lo ohooh ehcoq oo oc eaoq haa teh tecoq eace scoq.


3loh oleo thae hleo.


qaqeo 7ae Ocl



7c 7c(
,, ., -/., -., .., .., . / , - /., . .
- , , -. ., -. ., .,, -., . .. /. /.
/. / /. ./ -- / /., .,. . - -., ./ / /.,
/., . ,. /, / /., /., . / ,. - / /., .,
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. - -. -- . .., .., /. . -., - -
BAN NHAN XET LUAN AN TOT NGHIEP
CUA GIAO VIEN PHAN BIEN


Ho va ten sinh vien : NGUYEN C TI
Lp : 95K
Giao vien phan bien : ..... ........................
Ten e tai : KHAO SAT HE THONG THONG TIN VE TINH
VA THIET KE HE THONG THU CATV
CHO MOT KHACH SAN

Nhan xet cua giao vien phan bien :
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Giao vien phan bien

MUC LUC

Phan 1: KHAO SAT HE THONG THONG TIN VE TINH

Chng 1: TM HIEU VE HE THONG THONG TIN VE TINH------------- trang1
1.1 GII THIEU TONG QUAT VE THONG TIN VE TINH------------- trang1
1.1.1 Thong Tin Ve Tinh------------------------------------------------------- trang 1
1.1.1.1 Nguyen ly thong tin ve tinh --------------------------------------- trang 1
1.1.1.2 Cac ac iem cua thong tin ve tinh ------------------------------ trang 2
1.1.1.3 Cau hnh cua cac ve tinh thong tin ------------------------------- trang 4
1.1.1.4 Quy ao cua ve tinh------------------------------------------------ trang 5
1.1.1.5 Qua trnh phong ve tinh-------------------------------------------- trang 5
1.1.2 Cac He Thong Thong Tin Ve Tinh ------------------------------------ trang 6
1.1.2.1 Cac he thong thong tin ve tinh quoc te -------------------------- trang 6
1.1.2.2 Cac he thong thong tin ve tinh khu vc ------------------------- trang 6
1.2 CAC AC TNH TAN SO TRONG THONG TIN VE TINH--------- trang6
1.2.1 Song Vo Tuyen ien Va Tan So -------------------------------------- trang 6
1.2.2 Phan nh Tan So -------------------------------------------------------- trang 6
1.2.3 Cac Tan So S Dung Trong Thong Tin Ve Tinh Co nh---------- trang 7
1.2.4 Phan Cc Song Trong Thong Tin Ve Tinh --------------------------- trang 9
1.2.4.1 Khai niem------------------------------------------------------------ trang 9
1.2.4.2 Phan cc thang------------------------------------------------------ trang 9
1.2.4.3 Phan cc tron-------------------------------------------------------- trang 9
1.2.5 S Truyen Lan Song Vo Tuyen Trong Thong Tin Ve Tinh -------- trang 11
1.2.5.1 Khai niem------------------------------------------------------------ trang 11
1.2.5.2 S tieu hao trong khong gian t do------------------------------- trang 11
1.2.5.3 Ca so vo tuyen----------------------------------------------------- trang 12
1.2.5.4 Tap am trong truyen lan song vo tuyen ------------------------- trang 12
1.2.5.5 S giam kha nang tach biet phan cc cheo do ma ----------- trang 13
1.2.5.6 S nhieu loan do cac song can nhieu ---------------------------- trang 14
1.3 HE THONG IEU CHE VA TRUYEN DAN---------------------------- trang16
1.3.1 He Thong ieu Che ----------------------------------------------------- trang 16
1.3.1.1 Khai niem------------------------------------------------------------ trang 16
1.3.1.2 Cac loai ieu che --------------------------------------------------- trang 16
1.3.2 He Thong Kenh Truyen------------------------------------------------- trang 17
1.3.2.1 a truy nhap--------------------------------------------------------- trang 17
1.3.2.2 a truy nhap phan chia theo tan so: FDMA -------------------- trang 17
1.3.2.3 a truy nhap phan chia theo thi gian: TDMA----------------- trang 18
1.3.2.4 a truy nhap trai pho: CDMA ------------------------------------ trang 19
1.3.3 Ky Thuat Trong Truyen Dan ------------------------------------------- trang 20
1.3.3.1 Ky thuat ong bo --------------------------------------------------- trang 20
1.3.3.2 Ky thuat ong bo TDMA------------------------------------------ trang 21
1.3.3.3 Sa loi ma ----------------------------------------------------------- trang 22
1.3.3.4 Ky thuat ieu khien loi -------------------------------------------- trang 23
1.3.3.5 Cac ch tieu trong truyen dan ------------------------------------- trang 23
1.3.4 Van e Nhieu Trong ng Truyen ---------------------------------- trang 24
1.3.4.1 Nhieu khac tuyen--------------------------------------------------- trang 24
1.3.4.2 Nhieu cung tuyen--------------------------------------------------- trang 26
1.3.4.3 Suy hao do tap am-------------------------------------------------- trang 26
1.4 TRAM MAT AT -------------------------------------------------------------- trang29
1.4.1 Cau Hnh Cua Mot Tram Mat at ------------------------------------- trang 29
1.4.1.1 Cau hnh va nguyen ly hoat ong -------------------------------- trang 29
1.4.1.2 Cac cong nghe quan trong oi vi tram mat at --------------- trang 30
1.4.2 Cong Nghe May Phat---------------------------------------------------- trang 31
1.4.2.1 May phat cong suat cao-------------------------------------------- trang 31
1.4.2.2 Phan loai cac bo khuech ai cong suat cao --------------------- trang 31
1.4.2.3 Cau hnh cua mot may phat --------------------------------------- trang 32
1.4.2.4 ac trng kha nang phat: EIRP----------------------------------- trang 33
1.4.3 Cong nghe May Thu ----------------------------------------------------- trang 33
1.4.3.1 Khuech ai tap am thap ------------------------------------------- trang 33
1.4.3.2 Nhiet tap am -------------------------------------------------------- trang 33
1.4.3.3 Cac loai khuech ai tap am thap --------------------------------- trang 34
1.4.3.4 acn trng kha nang thu: G/T ------------------------------------ trang 37
1.4.4 Cong Nghe Anten Trong Thong Tin Ve Tinh ------------------------ trang 38
1.4.4.1 Yeu cau oi vi anten trong thong tin ve tinh ------------------ trang 38
1.4.4.2 Phan loai anten ----------------------------------------------------- trang 39
1.4.4.3 He thong quay bam ve tinh --------------------------------------- trang 40
1.4.4.4 Cac tnh chat ve ien cua mot anten----------------------------- trang 40
Chng 2: TRUYEN HNH VE TINH --------------------------------------- trang43
2.1 Cac Phng Thc Truyen Hnh Ve Tinh ----------------------------------- trang 43
2.1.1 Truyen hnh trc tiep:DBS---------------------------------------------- trang 43
2.1.2 Truyen hnh qua TVRO ------------------------------------------------- trang 43
2.2 Cac He Truyen Hnh ---------------------------------------------------------- trang 43
2.2.1 He NTSC ----------------------------------------------------------------- trang 43
2.2.2 He SECAM --------------------------------------------------------------- trang 43
2.2.3 He PAL -------------------------------------------------------------------- trang 44
2.2.4 Ho truyen hnh Component MAC-------------------------------------- trang 45
2.3 Bien oi So Tn Hieu Video ------------------------------------------------- trang 51
2.4 ng Dung ADC-DAC Trong Truyen Hnh -------------------------------- trang 52
2.4.1 Bien oi tng t qua so ADC------------------------------------------ trang 52
2.4.2 Bien oi so qua tng t DAC------------------------------------------ trang 52
2.5 Giam Toc o Bit Cua Tn Hieu Veo So ------------------------------------ trang 53
2.5.1 Phng phap DPCM----------------------------------------------------- trang 55
2.5.2 Ma chuyen v ------------------------------------------------------------- trang 56
2.6 Truyen Tn Hieu Truyen Hnh Qua Ve Tinh------------------------------- trang 57
2.7 Cong Suat May Phat Hnh Tren Ve Tinh----------------------------------- trang 59
2.8 Ve Tinh Va Cac Thiet B ----------------------------------------------------- trang 62
Chng 3: MAY THU HNH VE TINH TVRO-------------------------------- trang63
3.1 Mot So Khai Niem Co Lien Quan Gia Trai at Va Ve Tinh ------ trang 63
3.1.1 Kinh tuyen va v tuyen -------------------------------------------------- trang 63
3.1.2 a cc va a t --------------------------------------------------------- trang 63
3.1.3 Goc ngang, goc phng v va goc phan cc -------------------------- trang 64
3.1.3.1 Goc ngang ----------------------------------------------------------- trang 64
3.1.3.2 Goc phng v------------------------------------------------------- trang 66
3.1.3.3 Goc phan cc-------------------------------------------------------- trang 67
3.2 Tram Thu Hnh Ve Tinh TVRO --------------------------------------------- trang 67
3.2.1 S o khoi ----------------------------------------------------------------- trang 67
3.2.2 Aten va pheu thu song--------------------------------------------------- trang 71
3.2.2.1 Chao parabol -------------------------------------------------------- trang 71
3.2.2.2 Pheu thu song- Feedhord ------------------------------------------ trang 76
3.2.2.3 Tru va gia anten ------------------------------------------------ trang 79
3.2.3 Bo khuech ai dch tan va may thu TVRO--------------------------- trang 81
3.2.3.1 Bo khuech ai dch tan -------------------------------------------- trang 81
3.2.3.2 Khoi thu ve tinh----------------------------------------------------- trang 83
3.2.3.3 Tuner ve tinh (May thu TVRO) ---------------------------------- trang 85
3.2.4 Lap at, can chnh va do tm ve tinh ---------------------------------- trang 88


Phan 2: THIET KE HE THONG
THU CATV CHO 1 KHACH SAN

1. Yeu Cau Cua He Thong ----------------------------------------------------------- trang 91
1.1 Khao sat cac iem can e thiet lap ni thu -------------------------------- trang 91
1.2 Yeu cau cu the ----------------------------------------------------------------- trang 92
2. Mo Hnh Thiet Ke ------------------------------------------------------------------ trang 92
3. La Chon Thiet B Va Tnh Toan Chi Tiet ------------------------------------- trang 99
3.1 Chon anten---------------------------------------------------------------------- trang 99
3.2 Chon bo LNA va LNB -------------------------------------------------------- trang 99
3.3 Chon may thu TVRO---------------------------------------------------------- trang 99
3.4 Chon bo Booter ---------------------------------------------------------------- trang 99
3.5 Chon Cable --------------------------------------------------------------------- trang 99
3.6 Chon cac bo phan chia ng------------------------------------------------ trang 99
3.7 Tnh toan suy hao -------------------------------------------------------------- trang 100
3.8 Chon may khuech ai cong suat --------------------------------------------- trang 103
4. Lap at Va Trien Khai He Thong ----------------------------------------------- trang 103
4.1 ieu tra va nghien cu v tr e thiet lap ni thu-------------------------- trang 103
4.2 Ke hoach lap at --------------------------------------------------------------- trang 103
4.3 Cho cac thiet b khi ong---------------------------------------------------- trang 106
4.4 Bang thong ke thiet b--------------------------------------------------------- trang 108

Phan 3: KET LUAN
Phan: PHU LUC
Phu luc A: Mo So Ky Thuat ieu Che Trong Thong Tin Ve Tinh
Phu luc B: Bang Tra Cu Cac ac Tnh Ky Thuat Cua Cac Thiet B S Dung Trong
Thiet Ke He Thong CATV
Phu luc C: Cac Thong So Bo Sung Cho Phan Ly Thuyet Khao Sat He Thong TTVT
Phu luc D: Cac Ch Viet Tat Va Tai Lieu Tham Khao.












Phan 1




KHAO SAT HE THONG
THONG TIN VE TINH

Chng 1

TM HIEU VE HE THONGTHONG TIN VE
TINH

1.1 GII THIEU TONG QUAT VE HE THONG THONG TIN VE TINH
1.1.1 Thong Tin Ve Tinh.
1.1.1.1 Nguyen ly thong tin ve tinh.
-Mot ve tinh, co kha nang thu phat song vo tuyen ien. Sau khi c phong vao
vu tru dung cho thong tin ve tinh: khi o ve tinh se khuyech ai song vo tuyen ien nhan
c t cac tram mat at va phat lai song vo tuyen ien en cac tram mat at khac. Loai
ve tinh nhan tao s dung cho thong tin ve tinh nh the goi la ve tinh thong tin.
-Khi quan sat t mat at, s di chuyen cua ve tinh theo quy ao bay ngi ta
thng phan ve tinh lam hai loai:
+Ve tinh quy ao thap : la ve tinh chuyen ong lien tuc so vi mat at, thi
gian can thiet cho ve tinh e chuyen ong xung quanh quy ao cua no khac vi chu ky
quay cua qua at. ( Loai nay dung vao viec nghien cu khoa hoc, quan s ta khong e
cap ti trong cac phan sau).





120
0








Trai at


Ve tinh quy ao thap. Ve tinh a tnh.

+Ve tinh a tnh: la ve tinh c phong len quy ao tron o cao khoang
36.000 km so vi ng knh xch ao. Ve tinh nay bay xung quanh trai at 1 vong mat 24
gi . Do T bay cua ve tinh bang T quay cua Trai at va cung hng (hng ong ), bi
vay ve tinh dng nh ng yen khi quan sat t mat at; goi la ve tinh a tnh.
Quy
ao
Elip
Quy
ao
a
tnh
36.000 Km

-Neu dung 3 ve tinh a tnh c at cach eu nhau tren xch ao th co the thiet
lap c thong tin hau het cac vung tren qua at, bang cach chuyen tiep qua 1 hoac 2 ve
tinh.
ieu nay cho phep xay dng mot mang thong tin tren toan The gii.
-Cau hnh khai quat cua mot he thong ve tinh gom:
Mot ve tinh a tnh (tren quy ao)
Cac tram mat at (cac tram nay co the truy cap en ve tinh)
ng hng t tram mat at phat en ve tinh c goi la ng len.
ng ve tinh en tram mat at goi la ng xuong.
Satellite

ng len ng xuong
6.GHz: . : 4.GHz -> Bang C
14.GHz: . : 11. GHz ->Bang Ku
30.GHz .. : 20.GHz -> Bang Ka






Tram mat at. Tram mat at.
1.1.1.2 Cac ac iem cua thong tin ve tinh.
-Ve ai the cac hnh thc thong tin co the c phan ra cac loai nh:
Thong tin hu tuyen ien nh: cap ong truc, cap quang
Thong tin vo tuyen ien s dung song vo tuyen ien noi lien nhieu ni the
g vt qua thi gian va khong gian thong tin song ngan, viba , ve tinh
-Thong tin ve tinh co cac u iem sau:
+Co kha nang a truy nhap
+Vung phu song rong
+On nh cao, chat lng va kha nang ve thong tin bang rong
+Co the ng dung tot cho thong tin di ong
+Hieu qua kinh te cao cho thong tin ng dai, xuyen luc a.
-Song vo tuyen ien phat i t mot ve tinh tren quy ao a tnh co the bao phu
1/3 toan bo be mat qua at. Bi vay cac tram mat at thuoc vung o co the lien lac vi
bat ky mot tram mat at nao thuoc vung phu song thong qua ve tinh thong tin.
-Ky thuat s dung mot ve tinh chung cho nhieu tram mat at va viec tang
hieu qua s dung cua no ti cc ai goi la a truy nhap. (a truy nhap la phng phap
dung mot bo phat ap tren ve tinh , chung cho nhieu tram mat at).
-Yeu cau oi vi a truy nhap: khong e nhieu gia cac tram mat at. V vay
phai phan chia tan so , thi gian (hoac khong gian ) cua song vo tuyen ien e truyen tin
tc , phai phan phoi tan so, cac khe thi gian mot cach thch hp cho tng tram mat at.
-a truy cap co the phan ra 3 dang nh sau: (theo quan iem ghep song mang)
FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access
TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
- FDMA: la loai a truy nhap c dung pho bien nhat trong thong tin ve tinh;
Cac tram mat at phat i cac song mang vi cac tan so khac vi cac bang tan bao ve thch
hp sao cho cac bang tan khong chong lan len nhau.
-TDMA: mot khung TDMA c chia ra theo thi gian, sao cho moi tram mat at
phat i tan so song mang nh nhau trong mot khe thi gian a c phan trong mot chu ky
thi gian nhat nh.
Bo phat ap
| Bo phat ap








f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f f
0
f

FDMA TDMA

-Yeu cau TDMA song mang phat i t moi tram mat at can phai c ieu
khien chnh xac sao cho song mang cua chung nam trong khoang thi gian c phan phoi
bang cach:
+Truyen tn hieu mot cach gian oan
+D phong mot khoang thi gian bao ve gia cac ai phat gian oan sao
cho chung khong b chong lan len nhau.
V vay phai co mot tram chuan e phat i tn hieu chuan.
-CDMA: la mot phng phap a truy nhap, trong o moi tram mat at phat i mot
tan so song mang nh nhau, nhng song mang nay trc o a c ieu che bang mot
mau bit ac biet quy nh cho moi tram mat at trc khi phat tn hieu a ieu che.
loai nay, ngay ca khi co nhieu tn hieu ieu che c a vao mot bo phat ap,
tai tram thu co the tach tn hieu can thu bang mot mau bit ac biet e giai ieu che.
-Neu xet a truy nhap theo quan iem phan phoi kenh th co the c chia ra lam
hai loai la a truy nhap phan phoi trc va a truy nhap phan phoi theo yeu cau.
+a truy nhap phan phoi trc: la phng phap truy nhap trong o cac kenh ve
tinh c phan bo co nh cho cac tram mat at khac, bat chap co hay khong cac cuoc goi
phat i.
+a truy nhap phan phoi theo nhu cau: la phng phap truy nhap trong o cac
kenh ve tinh c sap xep lai moi khi co yeu cau thiet lap kenh c a ra t cac tram
mat at co lien quan.

Nhc iem cua thong tin ve tinh:
- Vi tong chieu dai ng len va ng xuong la tren 70.000Km th thi gian
truyen tre la ang ke giay mac du toc o truyen song rat cao 300.000Km/s.
-Song vo tuyen ien b suy hao va hap thu tang ien ly va kh quyen ac biet
trong ma .
A
B
C
D
A
t
1

K
h
u
n
g

T
D
M
A

-> e khac phuc ngi ta thng chon khoang tan so b suy hao nho nhat t (110) GHz
goi la khoang ca so tan so : Bang C
(d.B/Km)

20

10

3

2

1
0.3
o.2
0.1
0.2 0.3 1 2 3 10 20 30 40 (GHz)
1.1.1.3 Cau hnh cua cac Ve tinh thong tin.
Nh sau :








Bao gom :
+Tai nhiem vu (Pay load): thc hien nhiem vu cua ve tinh
+Than ve tinh (Back) : e mang tai nhiem vu
-Tai nhiem vu bao gom: Anten thu phat va bo phat ap
Tren la cau hnh cua bo phat ap. No thc hien chc nang chnh cua ve tinh
thong tin la : thu song vo tuyen ien t cac tram mat at, sau o khuech ai va bien oi
tan so cua chung roi phat tr lai cac tram thu mat at. No la mot bo phat ap tch cc
nhng yeu cau o tin cay cao, nho gon, tieu thu t cong suat va t cung cap cong suat can
thiet.
-Than ve tinh gom chu yeu cac loai thiet b nh sau:
+Thiet b ieu khien o lng t xa
+Thiet b ieu khien ve tinh
+Bo phan ay
+Thiet b ieu khien nhiet
+Cau truc con tau vu tru
1.1.1.4 Quy ao cua ve tinh a tnh:
-Quy ao cua ve tinh a tnh la mot ng tron 360
0
duy nhat xung quanh qua
at va co o cao khoang 36.000 km tren ng xch ao nen no la mot nguon tai nguyen
Thang giang
ien ly
Suy hao
do ma
Thang
giang
tang oi
lu
Chat kh trong
kh quyen




DEM




MUX
Ca so vo
tuyen
co han. Vi a phat trien hien nay cua thong tin ve tinh, no khong ch gii han bi cac ve
tinh thong tin quoc te, ma con bao gom mot so ve tinh noi a va khu vc. Cho nen van e
un tac tren quy ao a tnh la mot van e ln.
-V vay ngi ta thc hien cac bien phap sau:
+Gii han mot so ve tinh phong
+S dung lai tan so bang cach dung phan cc vuong goc
+S dung ieu che so nhieu mc, nhieu pha e tang so bit truyen.
1.1.1.5 Qua trnh phong ve tinh.
-Moi ve tinh c a len quy ao theo mot trong hai cach sau:
+Dung ten la ay nhieu tang
+Dung phng tien phong s dung nhieu lan: tau con thoi.
-Ta xet 1 v du ve viec phong ve tinh dung ten la ay 3 tang:
au tien ve tinh c phong len quy ao ch, nh s dung tang th nhat va
th hai. o la quy ao tron co o cao ( 200 300 km) so vi mat at.
Sau o c a len quy ao chuyen tiep bang sc ay cua tang th 3. La quy
ao Elip co can iem la quy ao ch, vien iem la tren quy ao a tnh.
Ve tinh tren quy ao chuyen tiep c da vao quy ao a tnh tai vien iem
bang 1 ten la goi la ong c ay vien iem (AKM) at trong ve tinh.
Tuy nhien ve tinh en ay khong lap tc tr thanh ve tinh a tnh, thc chat
no c at tren quy ao trt, gan quy ao a tnh, sau o c a en v tr a nh
trc va cuoi cung at ti iem cua quy ao a tnh cho hoat ong cua bo phan ay nho.






R=36.000Km



1.1.2 Cac He Thong Thong Tin:
1.1.2.1 Cac he thong thong tin quoc te:
- INTELSAT: (International Telecommunications Satellite Organization)
+ La mot to chc quoc te (to chc ve tinh thong tin quoc te) cung cap cac
dch vu thong tin ve tinh tren toan cau, da tren c s thng mai; La mot he thong toan
cau m ca cho moi quoc gia, khong phan biet he thong chnh tr va trnh o phat trien
kinh te.
Quy ao chuyen
tiep
Quy ao
ch
Quy ao trt
Quy ao a
tnh
Can
iem
Vien
iem
+ Intelsat chia toan bo the gii lam 3 vung (khu vc) va phu song ti tat ca
cac vung nay e cung cap tat ca cac dch vu en moi ni tren trai at. Bao gom vung: ai
Tay Dng, Thai Bnh Dng va An o Dng.
+ac iem cua to chc Intelsat
T cach hoi vien cua moi nc gom co: Chnh phu va To chc khai thac
thong tin.
To chc a ra quyet nh cao nhat gom co: Hoi ngh cua cac nc ky
hiep c va Hoi ngh toan the cua cac ben tham gia.
Bang cach quan ly o Intelsat cung cap khong ch cac dch vu cong
cong en cac tram mat at tieu chuan, ma con cung cap cac mach ien ve tinh mem
deo, linh hoat ap ng cac oi hoi rieng biet cua ngi s dung.
- INMARSAT: (International Marine Satellite Organization)
La mot to chc thong tin ve tinh quoc te mi c thanh lap nam 1979 e khai
thac quan ly tot cac dch vu thong tin hang hai tren the gii.
1.1.2.2 Cac he thong ve tinh khu vc.
-Do nhu cau cua cac nc va khu vc ve thong tin ngay cang tang, v vay Chau
A, cung nh cac nc xung quanh Viet nam co cac ve tinh thong tin a tnh nh sau
(ngoai cac ve tinh quoc te nh: Intelsat I, V-F7, VA, VI):
+Chinasat 1,2 : Trung quoc
+Asiasat 1 : To chc ve tinh Chau A
+Pataga B1, B2 : Indonesia
+Statstrosat 6, 14, 13 : Nga
+Thaicom 1 : Thai lan
Coi chi tiet cac thong so phan phu luc.

1.2 AC TNH TAN SO TRONGTHONG TIN VE TINH
1.2.1 Song vo tuyen ien va tan so :
-Song vo tuyen ien la mot bo phan cua song ien t, no giong nh song anh sang,
tia hong ngoai, tia X s khac nhau ch la tan so.
1.2.2 Phan nh tan so :
-Viec phan nh tan so c thc hien theo ieu le vo tuyen moi khu vc cua ITU.
ITU chia lam 3 khu vc:
+Khu vc 1 gom: Chau Au, Chau Phi, Lien bang Xo viet cu va cac nc ong
Au
+Khu vc 2: Cac nc Nam va Bac My
+Khu vc 3: Chau A va Chau ai Dng
-Tuy nhien van co mot vai ngoai le, bang sau ch ro:
Bang ten va phan loai song:

TT Dai tan so Bang tan Phan loai theo
bc song.
ng dumg trong
1 30 -> 300 Hz ULF: Tan so cc
ky thap .
S dung trong
vat ly , Y hoc .
Sieu am , am thanh.
300 -> 3000 Hz ELF: Tan so cc
thap.
nt nt
3 3 -> 30 KHz VLF: Tan so rat
thap.
Song Mm
(Chuc nghn
met).
Vo tuyen hang hai ,thong
tin di ong hang hai.
4 30 -> 300 KHz LF:Tan so thap Song Km Vo tuyen hang hai ,di
ong hang khong.
5 300 -> 3000 KHz MF:Tan so trung
bnh.
Song Hectomet
(Tram met).
Thong tin hang hai ,phat
thanh , Thong tin quoc te.
6 3 -> 30MHz HF:Tan so cao Song Decamet
(Chuc met).
Thong tin quoc te,phat
thanh song ngan ,TT di
ong.
7 30 -> 300 MHz VHF:Tan so rat
cao.
Song met Phat thanh FM,Truyen
hnh,TT di ong.
8 300 -> 3000 MHz UHF: Tan so rat
rat cao.
Song dm Truyen hnh ,TT di ong
,TT co nh.
9 3 -> 30 GHz SHF: Tan so sieu
cao.
Song Cm TT ve tinh ,Ra a ,TT vien
thong. vo tuyen thien van.
10 30 ->300 GHz EHF:Tan so vo
cung cao.
Song mm Ra a song mm,vo tuyen
thien van.

1.2.3 Cac tan so s dung cho thong tin ve tinh co nh:
Viec phan nh tan so cho cac dch vu thong tin ve tinh co nh, ngha la thong tin ve
tinh gia cac iem co nh c trnh bay nh bang sau:

Dch vu thong tin ve tinh co nh
ng len ng xuong

Khoang tan so (GHz)
R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3

Dch vu gia cac ve tinh
chung cho 3 khu vc.
2,5 ->2,535
2,535 ->2,655
2,655 ->2,690
3,4 ->4,2
4,5 ->4,8
5,725 ->5,85
5,85 ->7,075
7,25 ->7,75
7,9 ->8,4
10,7 ->11,7
11,7 ->12,2
12,2 ->12,3
12,3 ->12,5
12,5 ->12,7
12,7 ->12,75
12,75 ->13,25
14 ->14,5
14,5 ->14,8
17,3 ->17,7
17,7 ->18,1
18,1 ->21,2
22,55 ->23,55
27 ->27,5
27,5 ->31
32 ->33
37,5 ->40,5
42,5 ->43,5
50,4 ->51,4

*Ghi chu:
-R1, R2, R3 tng ng vi 3 khu vc do ITU phan nh
-Bang C (6/4 GHz; cho ng len 6 GHz, ng xuong 4 GHz):
Nam khoang gia ca so tan so, bang tan nay t b suy hao do ma, bang nay
trung vi he thong Viba di mat at. No c s dung cac he thong Intelsat, thong tin
khu vc va noi a.
-Bang Ku [ cac bang (14/12 va 14/11) GHz]:
Bang nay c s dung tiep sau Bang C cho vien thong cong cong. c dung
nhieu cho thong tin noi a va gia cac cong ty. Do tan so cao cho phep s dung cac Anten
kch thc nho.
-Bang Ka (30/20 GHz)
V tan so cao bang tan nay cho phep s dung cac tram mat at nho, s dung trong
thong tin noi a. Nhng suy hao ln do ma nen gia thanh thiet b tng oi cao, nhng
no t gay nhieu cho he thong Viba so.
-Bang s dung cac bang tan cho thong tin ve tinh:

Bang tan Ten thong dung ac tnh va ng dung
6/4 GHz Bang C Phu hp cho thong tin ve tinh,
Dung cho TT quoc te& noi a.
14/12 GHz Bang Ku Dung cho TT quoc te& noi a.
(B suy hao do ma)
30/20 GHz Bang Ka S dung cho TT noi a
(B suy hao nhieu do ma)

1.2.4 Phan cc song trong thong tin ve tinh
1.2.4.1 Khai niem
-Trng ien t cua song vo tuyen ien i trong moi trng truyen song se dao
ong theo mot hng nhat nh. Phan cc song chnh la hng dao ong cua ien trng.
-Co hai loai song phan cc c s dung trong thong tin ve tinh la song phan cc
thang va phan cc tron.
1.2.4.2 Song phan cc thang
-Mot song phan cc thang co the c tao ra bang cach dan cac tn hieu t mot
ong dan song ch nhat en mot anten loa. Nh o song phan cc theo kieu thang ng
song song vi canh ng cua anten loa.
-e thu c song nay anten thu cung can phai bo tr giong t the cua anten phat,
nh hnh ve:














+Song phan cc tron
-Song phan cc tron la song khi truyen lan phan cc cua no quay tron.
-Co the tao ra loai song nay bang cach ket hp hai song phan cc thang co phan
cc vuong goc vi nhau va co goc lech pha la 90
0
-Song phan cc tron la phan cc phai hay trai phu thuoc vao s khac pha gia cac
song phan cc thang la sm pha hay cham pha.
-Phan cc quay theo chieu kim ong ho hay ngc kim ong ho vi tan so bang
tan so song mang.
-oi vi song phan cc tron: tai ni thu khong can chnh hng cua loa thu.
-Phan minh hoa c the hien nh sau:

















Cap ong truc
Tn hieu Loa thap thu Loa thap
Co kha nang thu
Khong co kha nang
Song phan cc
Thang ng
Song phan cc ngang Song phan cc ng
Song phan cc tron
Hng i cua song
t=0

t=T/8

t=T/4

t=3T/8

T t=T/2

t=5T/8

t=3T/4

t=7T/8

t=T

t=9T/8






t = T/4







t=T/2 t=0.T








t=3T/4
Song phan cc
ngang
Song phan cc
ng
Song phan cc
tron
Song phan cc
tron pha tay phai
1.2.5 S truyen lan song trong thong tin ve tinh:
1.2.5.1 Khai niem
-Ta biet hien khong co mot moi trng truyen song nao la ly tng, ma khoang
cach t tram mat at ti ve tinh lai rat xa, v the s suy hao la ang ke. Ngoai ra song vo
tuyen ien trong thong tin ve tinh chu anh hng cua cac tac ong nh tieu hao do song b
hap thu tang ien ly, kh quyen va ma. ong thi se b can nhieu bi tang ien ly, kh
quyen, ma va tren mat at.(Bang quan he gia tan so va suy hao trang sau)
1.2.5.2 Tieu hao trong khong gian t do
-Trong thong tin ve tinh song vo tuyen ien i qua khoang khong vu tru , gan nh
chan khong.
-Trong mot moi trng nh vay co rat t chat co the suy hao song hoac lam lech
hng truyen lan cua no. S suy hao song gay ra ch do s khuyech tan t nhien cua no.
Moi trng nh vay goi la khong gian t do.
-Khi song vo tuyen ien truyen trong khong gian t do th ty so cong suat phat
tren cong suat thu tai iem cach ni phat mot khoang R(m) se la:

= (4R/ )
2

Vi la bc song cua song vo tuyen ien.
-Ty so nay goi la tieu hao trong khong gian t do.Ty so nay ch ung khi anten
thu va phat la vo hng ( co he so bang tang ch = 0 dB).
Noi chung tren ng truyen th ca anten phat va thu eu co mot tr so tang ch
khac [O] nen ty so thc cua cong suat phat tren cong suat thu nho hn tieu hao trong
khong gian t do () mot lng bang he so tang ch .
De thay: ~ R
2

-Trong thong tin ve tinh th hau het s truyen lan song i trong khong gian la chan
khong nen s suy hao ng truyen co the coi nh la bang (). Tuy vay R ln ( 36.000
km) nen suy hao ln. Do vay can s dung cac may phat cong suat ln va may thu o nhay
cao, cung nh anten thu, phat phai co he so tang ch cao.
1.2.5.3 Ca so vo tuyen:
-Song vo tuyen ien trong thong tin ve tinh ngoai suy hao ng truyen do c ly
xa con chu anh hng cua tang ien ly va kh quyen.
+Ta biet tang ien ly cach mat at 50 400km la mot lp khong kh loang b ion
hoa bi cac tia vu tru va no co tnh chat hap thu va phan xa song. Tuy nhien no ch anh
hng nhieu vi bang song ngan, tan so cang cao th cang t b anh hng. Cac tan so
bang song viba khong b anh hng bi tang ien ly nen chung c s dung cho thong tin
ve tinh.
+Trong kh quyen can phai tnh en anh hng cua khong kh , hi nc va ma,
nhng vi cac tan so 30 GHz co the bo qua, v the chung c tan dung triet e trong
thong tin ve tinh.
He so tang
ch Anten
100

50
30
20

10

5

1

0.1 1 10 50 100
f(GHz)
-T o th ta thay song truyen trong khoang tan so gia 110 GHz th suy hao ket
hp do tang ien ly va ma la khong ang ke. Hay con goi la Ca so tan so vo tuyen.
Neu song trong ca so vo tuyen s dung cho thong tin ve tinh th tieu hao truyen lan gan
bang tieu hao trong khong gian t do, do o cho phep thiet lap cac ng thong tin ve tinh
on nh.
-Tuy nhien dai tan nay lai c s dung ca cho cac ng thong tin viba tren mat
at Muon cac tram mat at ( khong b can nhieu vi cac tram viba) ta phai xac nh v tr
cung nh tan so hoat ong mot cach khoa hoc.
1.2.5.4 Tap am trong trong truyen lan song vo tuyen ien:
-Cac chat kh (cua kh quyen) va ma khong ch hap thu song vo tuyen ien ma
con la cac nguon bc xa tap am nhiet. Tap am do cac chat kh trong kh quyen anh hng
khong nhieu en s lan truyen song vo tuyen thong tin ve tnh so vi suy hao ln do tap
am gay ra do ma. V vay trong khi thiet ke ng thong tin ngoai viec tnh s suy hao
cua song con phai tnh them tap am do ma.
-Hnh sau cho thay s tang tap am do ma:
-Cung co tap am mat at phat sinh trong khi truyen lan song. ay la tap am nhiet
gay ra bi qua at, gan nh nhiet be mat cua mat at. pha tram mat at, bc xa anten
hung len bau tri do o tap am t mat at se khong anh hng nhieu en tram. Tuy
nhien pha ve tinh, bc xa hng ti mat at nen co anh hng nhiet tap am cua mat at
oi vi ve tinh la 250
0
k 300
0
k.
Nhiet tap am (
0
K)
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Suy hao
do ma
Suy hao do
tang ien ly
Ca so
vo tuyen
0 5 10 15 Suy hao do ma
1.2.5.5 S giam kha nang tach biet phan cc cheo do ma:
ien trng cua hai song vuong goc vi nhau oi khi ket hp vi nhau thanh mot
va tao ra mot song phan cc cheo. Mot song nh vay co the dung mot anten e tach ra
cac song rieng biet. Tuy nhien khi song i qua ma, cac hat ma co hnh det se lam
nghieng phan cc cheo, do o sinh ra cac thanh phan vuong goc hon hp tren thanh phan
mong muon c goi la s tach biet phan cc cheo. e han che tac ong giam tach biet
phan cc cheo, ngi ta dung cach sap xep xen ke tan so nh hnh ve cho e thong FM
e truyen dan tn hieu tivi. V oi vi tn hieu ieu tan, cong suat cua no tap trung xung
quanh trung tam bang tan s dung, do o vi cach sap xep tan so nh hnh ve se giam s
hon hp thanh phan vuong goc bang bo loc.

W Hng truc nho Y Z
Hat ma




0 X

Hng truc ln
Hat ma.




OZ: Thanh phan ong phan cc sau khi i qua hat ma.
Ow: Thanh phan phan cc cheo sau khi i qua hat ma.
*)-S kh phan cc gay ra do hat ma det:
Cong suat









*)-Pho tan so sap xep xen ke.
1.2.5.6 S nhieu loan do cac song can nhieu
a)-S can nhieu vi cac ve tinh ben canh
-Xay ra hai ve tinh gan nhau va khi o:
Song i qua hat ma
(Phan cc Elip)
Hng song ti hat ma
(Phan cc thang)
Hat
ma
Song phan cc ngang H
Song phan cc ng V
ng xuong can nhieu xay ra do anten phat cua ve tinh 2 chieu vao tram
thu 1 va anen thu cua tram 1 cung thu c hng cua ve tinh 2.














Tram mat at:1 Tram mat at:2
+Tng t cho ng len can nhieu (nh hnh ve)
-Cong suat cua song can nhieu giam khi:
+Tang goc bc xa (giam cng o bc xa)
+He so tang ch cua anten tram mat at giam.
b)-Can nhieu vi ng thong tin viba tren mat at
-Co hai trng hp vi ng thong tin viba can nhieu vi mot he thong thong
tin ve tinh la:
+ng thong tin viba mat at cung tan so lam viec vi ng len cua he
thong thong tin ve tinh.
+ng thong tin viba mat at cung tan so lam viec vi ng xuong cua he
thong thong tin ve tinh.
-Trong trng hp 1 anten cua thong tin viba c ieu khien sao cho khong
hng vao quy ao ve tinh a tnh, nh vay can nhieu c giam nho.
-Trong trng hp 2 viec chon v tr at tram mat at thch hp se giam c s
can nhieu cua tn hieu viba.
-Tng t ta cung can quan tam en s can nhieu cua he thong thong tin ve tinh
ti he thong viba.
Cach khac phuc tot nhat neu co the la ta tranh s trung lap ve tan so lam viec
(hoac ket hp ca hai).
* S can nhieu c mo phong nh sau:
Tn hieu can
nhieu
Tn hieu
can nhieu
o th bc xa
Ve tinh 2 Ve tinh 1 Quy ao a tnh
































1.3 HE THONG IEU CHE VA TRUYEN DAN TRONG THONG TIN VE
TINH
1.3.1 He Thong ieu Che :
1.3.1.1 ieu che.
La chuyen tn hieu goc thanh tn hieu khac phu hp vi moi trng va phng
thc truyen tin sao cho noi dung ve tin tc khong thay oi.
+ Muc ch cua ieu che
-Nh ieu che tn hieu phu hp vi moi trng thong tin e tang kha nang chong
nhieu va giam suy hao tren ng tryen.
-Co kha nang ghep c nhieu kenh thong tin tren mot moi trng truyen (tang
hieu suat kenh truyen).
+ Giai ieu che la qua trnh ngc cua ieu che tn hieu.
+ S o tom tat he thong nh sau:
Tram vi ba gay
nhieu vi tram
thu ve tinh
Tram vi ba
hng len quy
ao ve tinh
Tram thu
ve tinh
Ve tinh
thong tin
S CAN NHIEU T HE THONG VI BA LEN HE THONG THONG TIN VE TINH

Ben phat Ben thu











-Bo bien oi ben phat goi la bo ieu che.
-Bo bien oi ben thu goi la bogiai ieu che.

1.3.1.2 Cac loai ieu che
Ta co bang sau:

LOAI TIN TC DANG SONG MANG
+Tng t -> - sin
-xung
- AM ,DSB ,SSB ,FM ,PM.
- PAM , PFM ,PPM ,PWM .
+So -> Sin
( Song mang tng t nen so).
-ASK ,OOK ,FSK ,PSK .

+ Tng t -> So -PCM , DPCM ,DM .
FM: Frequency Modulation ( ieu che tan so )
PM: Phare Modulation ( ieu che pha )
AM: Amplitude Modulation ( ieu che bien o )
DSB: Double Side Band ( ieu che song bien )
SSB: Single Side Band ( ieu che n bien )
PAM: Pulse Amplitude Modulation ( ieu che bien o cua xung )
PFM: Pulse Frequency Modulation ( ieu che tan so cua xung )
PPM: Pulse Phare Modulation ( ieu che pha cua xung )
PWM: Pulse Width Modulation ( ieu che o rong cua xung )
ASK: Amplication Shift Key ( Khoa dch chuyen ve bien o )
FSK: Frequency Shift Key ( Khoa dch chuyen ve tan so )
PSK: Phare Shift Key ( Khoa dch chuyen ve pha )
PCM: Pulse Code Moduation ( ieu che xung ma c s dung thong dung trong
ieu che va ghep kenh )
DPCM: Differential PCM ( ieu che xung ma visai )
DM: Delta Modulation ( Dung nhieu trong truyen so lieu )
+ ac iem:
-Cac loai ieu che PAM, PFM, PPM, PWM ch dung trong cac thiet b chuyen
dung, ngay nay t dung ta khong e cap trong phan trnh bay.
Nguon
thong tin
ng
truyen
dan
MAY
PHAT
Nguon
tap am
Bo bien
oi
Nguon
tin tc
Bo bien
oi
MAY
THU
-Cac tn hieu ieu che so khong c s dung trc tiep e phat i ma no c
ieu che tiep dang: ASK, FSK hoac PSK) roi mi phat i.
Xem chi tiet trong phan phu luc A
1.3.2 He Thong Kenh Truyen
1.3.2.1 a truy nhap.
-La mot phng phap e cho nhieu tram mat at s dung chung mot bo phat ap.
Bao gom:
+a truy nhap phan chia theo tan so (Frequency Division Multiple Access
FDMA)
+a truy nhap phan chia theo thi gian (Time Division Multiple Access TDMA)
+a truy nhap trai pho (CDMA, SSMA)
( Ngoai ra con phan loai theo kieu khac la phan phoi theo yeu cau va phan phoi trc).
1.3.2.2 a truy nhap phan chia theo tan so (FDMA)
ay la phng phap c s dung rong rai nhat. Trong he thong nay moi tram
mat at co dung rieng mot tan so phat khong trung vi cac tram khac sao cho khoang
cach tan so gia cac tram khong b chong lan len nhau. FDMA co the s dung cho tat ca
cac he thong ieu che (ieu che so cung tng t).
Cac tram thu mat at muon thu c tin tc phai dung cac bo loc dai tng ng
vi tan so can thu.
Phng phap nay cho phep cac tram truyen dan lien tuc ma khong can ieu khien
nh thi ong bo, thiet b s dung kha n gian. Hieu qua cong suat cua ve tinh khong
qua toi.
Nhan xet: Phng phap nay thieu linh hoat trong viec thay oi cach phan phoi kenh
do: cac kenh truyen dan c phan chia theo tan so quy nh, khi muon tang so kenh bat
buoc phai giam nho bang thong ngha la thay oi cac bo loc dai oi vi tram thu. ong
thi phng phap nay ton kem kenh truyen.
Mo hnh ve nh sau:



















Phat : f1 ,f2 ,f3
Thu : f4 ,f5 ,f6.
Phat f4
thu f1
Ve tinh
thong tin
Phat f5
thu f2
Phat f6
thu f3










f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6

A -> B A-> C A->D B ->A C -> A D -> A.

1.3.2.3 a truy nhap phan chia theo thi gian (TDMA)
La mot he thong cac tram thu mat at dung chung mot bo phat ap tren c s
phan chia thi gian. Trc het phai s dung mot song mang ieu che so. He thong nay
thng nh ra mot khung thi gian goi la khung TDMA. Khung thi gian nay se chia ra
lam nhieu khoang tng ng vi moi tram mat at.
Moi tram se phat song theo theo khe thi gian cua khung quy nh. ong thi
gia cac khe thi gian can mot khoang thi gian trong e tn hieu cac tram khong chong
nhau ve thi gian tai tram phat ap.
Tng t tai cac tram thu mat at, e lay c tin tc can c xac nh ung khe
thi gian e lay song mang cua chnh no.
ay la phng phap co the s dung tot nhat cong suat cua ve tinh. No co the thay
oi so khe cung nh o rong cua khe thi gian trong khung ma khong anh hng g ti cac
thiet b phan cng.
Hnh anh khung TDMA nh sau:









1.3.2.4 a truy nhap trai pho (CDMA) (Code Division Multiple Access - a truy
nhap phan chia theo ma)
-Khi can gi i d lieu dang nh phan (hnh a), e thc hien ieu che PSK cho tn
hieu nay trc het ngi ta ma hoa cac bit 0, 1 thanh ma toc o cao hn, sau o a vao
ieu che PSK nh hnh ve, nh the se trai pho cua tn hieu ra ca bang tan.
-Hnh (d) cho thay viec s dung SSMA trong mot bo phat ap.
Mot khe
D C A B D A
T tram chuan
Thi gian bao ve
Mot khung
V
C


a) Data.
- V
C



V
m

b) Ma hoa
- V
m
ieu che lan au









SSMA

T tram:D
T tram:C
T tram:B
T tram:A

( a truy nhap phan chia theo ma)
Cac tn hieu t tat ca cac tram eu co cung mot v tr trong bo phat ap ca ve thi
gian va tan so. Pha thu thc hien qua trnh trai ngc lai, s dung ma giong nh a dung
trai pho pha phat e thu lai tn hieu ban au. ieu nay cho phep ch thu cac tn hieu
mong muon, ngay ca khi cac song mang trai pho vi cac ma khac en cung thi gian.
Nhan xet:
-He thong nay co hieu qua ln chong lai can nhieu t cac he thong khac, no cung
tao ra t nhieu ti cac he thong khac. Tuy hien he thong nay can o rong bang tan ln va
gay ra tap am nhieu lan nhau khi nhieu tram dung chung mot bo phat ap, v the dan ti
dung lng truyen dan tren bo phat ap rat nho.
-Ban tnh nang cua cac he thong a truy nhap cho ta s la chon thch hp nh
sau:

He thong u iem Nhc iem Nhan xet
FDMA - Thu tuc truy nhap n
gian.
- Cau hnh tram mat at
n gian.
- Thieu linh hoat trong
thay oi thiet lap tuyen.
- Hieu qua thap khi so
kenh tang.
- De ng dung trong
phan phoi theo yeu
cau va kch hoat bang
tieng noi trong SCPC
dung lng nho.
TDMA - Hieu qua s dung tuyen
cao.
- Yeu cau ong bo cum.
- Cong suat tram phat
- Co the ng dung:
SS-TDMA
c) Song /c : PSK
- Linh hoat trong viec thay
oi thiet lap tuyen.
mat at cao.
CDMA - Chu c nhieu va meo.
- Chu c s thay oi cac
thong so khac nhau cua
ng truyen dan.
- Bao mat tieng noi cao.
- Hieu qua s dung bang
tan kem.
- o rong bang tan
truyen dan yeu cau ln.
- Phu hp vi cac he
thong co tram thu
dung lng nho.

1.3.3 Ky Thuat Trong Truyen Dan.
1.3.3.1 Ky thuat ong bo:
ong bo co ngha la tao tan so ong ho e xac nh v tr bat au va ket thuc cua
tin tc bao gom:
+ ong bo bit:
Phat i cac bit ong bo, ben thu se tai tao lai tn hieu ong ho t cac tn hieu thu
c e tao ra cac v tr bit giong nhau ca pha phat va thu.
+ ong bo khung:
he thong TDMA se co nhieu kenh thong tin s dung mot ng , nen phai xac
nh ro rang th t cac thong tin cho viec ghep kenh va phan kenh. Cac xung ong bo co
chc nang ch ra iem au cua mot khng c phat i , ong thi ch ro thi iem ong
m cac cong phan kenh.
Th t phan kenh, ghep kenh nh thi cac thong tin c thiep lap giong nhau
ca hng thu va phat. Qua trnh nay c goi la ong bo khung.
+ ong bo mang
e tao c tan so ong ho nh nhau tren toan bo mang truyen dan.
1.3.3.2 Ky thuat ong bo TDMA
Mot khung (125 s )

CH
1
CH
2
CH
24

. . . . . . . 1bit 8bits 8bits . . . . . . . 8bits 1bit 8bits

Bt khung

Vi he thong TDMA, tat ca cac tram mat at s dung cung tan so song mang co
dang ngat quang, theo thi gian c phan chia sao cho tn hieu gia cac tram phat khong
b trung nhau tai moi thi iem.
ong bo trong he thong TDMA bao gom ong bo song mang va ong bo cum.
a -ong bo ong ho song mang:
au tn hieu xung trong he thong TDMA co mot phan goi la Phan mao
au cha ma khoi phuc song mang va ma khoi phuc ong ho.
Cac ma nay cho phep ong ho va song mang c khoi phuc trong mot thi
gian ngan tai mot mach khoi phuc song mang va mach khoi phuc ong ho.
b)-ong bo cum:
-Bo giai ieu che bat au lam viec bnh thng khi a thiet lap ong bo ong
ho song mang, no se tach ra cac t ong bo UW (Unique Word) la mot chuoi cac bit co
mau xac nh trc.
-Moi mot tram phat c phan phoi mot mau khac. Moi tram thu nhan c
cac UW t tram chuan tai cac khoang thi gian cach eu nhau, th cac nh thi chuan
trong cac khung c thiet lap va ta co the thu c cac tn hieu can thiet (ong bo thu).
-Khi ong bo thu a c thiet lap th can phai xac nh thi iem phat. Do
khoang cach t cac tram phat ti ve tinh khac nhau , thi gian truyen dan tn hieu khac
nen can xac nh thi iem phat ngay sau khi thiet lap ong bo thu: goi la s thu nhan. S
thu nhan c chia lam: thu nhan vong h va vong khep kn.
+ Thu nhan vong h : nh thi phat cum c xac nh gan ung thong qua
tnh toan da tren c s o lng hoac anh gia v tr ve tinh. Mot cum ngan ch cha phan
mao au c phat tai gan gia khe thi gian c phan phoi. Ta se co ong bo vong
khep kn khi cum phat nay c phat vong tr lai t ve tinh va thu c.
+ Thu nhan vong kn: Mot tn hieu ac biet khi PN (tap am gia) c phat tai
mot mc thap en noi khong gay ra nhieu ln, tham ch neu nh no chong lan vao cac
cum khac. Thi iem phat c xac nh bang viec so sanh tn hieu thu phat tr lai t ve
tinh ti v tr cum chuan.
-Moi tram mat at chuyen ti trang thai thong tin bnh thng sau khi thu nhan.
Tuy nhien phai ieu khien lien tuc e cac cum khong chong len nhau. S ieu khien nay
c goi la ong bo phat e phan biet vi s thu nhan (oi khi khong phan biet ro rang
c). ong bo phat cung c chia lam 2 loai:
+ ong bo vong h:
ay la mot phng thc e xac nh thi iem phat cum, bang cach tnh toan
khoang cach t ve tinh xuong moi tram mat at da tren c s o lng hoac anh gia v
tr ve tinh. Phng phap nay yeu cau thi gian bao ve dai v thieu kha nang e at c
ong bo chnh xac cao nen hieu qua s dung khung thap.
+ ong bo vong khep kn:
moi tram thu cum ma chnh no phat ra cum nay a c phat tr lai t ve
tinh. No oi chieu phat cum bang cach so sanh cum a vong tr lai vi cum chuan, v the
se xac nh khe thi gian cua no chnh xac. Co hai trng hp o loi nh thi gian cua
cum vong tr lai:
Trng hp 1: Tram o cum ma no a phat
Trng hp 2: Tram chuan o cum o va thong bao ket qua thong qua ve tinh vi
tram a phat cum.

CH
N
CH
1
CH
2
. . . . . . CH
N-1
CH
N
CH
1
. . . . . .





1 2 . . . . 16
16 Khung PCM(2ms) = 1 khung TDMA




1 Khung PCM
2 1
Thi gian bao ve
DATA DATA DATA
Song ieu che
pha che o cum
Phan
m
au

1.3.3.3 Sa loi ma:
- Do tn hieu ni thu cc ky be nen loi ma do tap am gay ra la khong the tranh
khoi.
- Co hai cach sa loi ma:
+ FEC (Forward Error Correction) dung e sa loi tai ben thu, trong o ch co
ben thu kiem tra va xac nh v tr loi va sa so lieu b loi.
+ ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) la loai yeu cau phat lai t ong, trong o
pha thu ch phat hien cac loi va yeu cau pha phat lai so lieu.
- ien thoai va TV s dung FEC v no oi hoi thi gian thc, con ARQ s dung
trong truyen so lieu v no khong can thiet truyen dan theo thi gian thc.
1.3.3.4 Ky thuat ieu khien loi:
- Khi truyen d lieu khong oi hoi thi gian thc hien mot cach khat khe nh la
thoai truyen hnh. Tuy nhien no lai oi hoi o chnh xac cao do o ngi ta s dung sa loi
tai ben thu (FEC) khi can thiet va yeu cau ARQ,, thu tuc ieu khien so hieu mc cao
(HDLC) cung c s dung.
- Khi s dung cac ky thuat nay, pha phat phat i mot so goi nhat nh ti pha
thu, pha thu se gi lai thong bao ket qua phat hien loi. Thong tin theo kieu nay mat 0,5s
tren mach ve tinh, trong thi gian nay khong the phat c d lieu nen hieu qua truyen
dan giam.
- Khi co loi pha thu se yeu cau phat lai nhng thong tin b loi bang 2 phng
phap:
+ Phng phap REJ
Khi phat hien c loi na chng, th mot khung REJ se quay tr lai. Va tat ca
cac khung ke tiep khung b loi eu c phat lai (hieu qua thap).
+ Phng phap SREJ
Giong REJ ch khac la pha phat phat lai khung nao c bao loi (hieu qua hn
REJ).
Pha phat Pha thu Pha phat Pha thu
11 11
12 12
13 13
14 14
15 15
16 16
17 REJ2 17 SREJ2
18 18
19 19
110 110
12 12
Phat lai 13 Phat lai 111


a) Phng phap REJ
b) Phng phap SREJ

1.3.3.5 Cac ch tieu trong truyen dan.
a. Ch tieu chat lng
CCI R t hi t l p cc ch t i u cht l - ng cn t ha m n cho
nhi u l o i hnh dch v v cc qu t r nh i u ch t hc hi n.
Nhn chung, n - a r a ba ng- ng cht l - ng khng - c php
v- t qu t r ong mt phn t r mt hi gi an cho t r - c.
i v i t r uyn hnh, ch t i u cht l - ng i v i t t c
cc t r uyn dn t r uyn hnh khong cch xa ( mt t hay v
t i nh) - c nu t r ong cc khuyn ngh 567- 1 v 568. Tc l , t
s t n hi u t r n t p m ( S/ N) phi bng hoc l n hn 53dB
t r ong 99% t hi gi an v 45dB t r ong 99, 9% t hi gi an. Thc t cc
ch t i u ny khng t h l un - c t ha m n t r ong cc t uyn
t hng t i n. Tuy nhi n, cc ch t i u cht l - ng ny ni chung l
dnh cho cc m ng h t hng t r ong cc t uyn qung b v khng
phn nh t hc t i n t hi t k hi n t hi i v i cc h t hng v
t i nh d ng phn phi chung hn, c bi t l i v i cc t r m
mt t nh.
Khi c t hng k suy hao do cc i u ki n kh quyn, t h
c t h t nh - c t s t n hi u t r n t p m mong mun nhn
- c t i u vo my t hu t r m mt t cho cc phn t r m khc
nhau xc nh t r ong ch t i u cht l - ng ca CCI R. T , suy
r a t s t n hi u t r n t p m S/ N hoc BER t - ng ng v ki m
t r a xemh t hng c t ha m n cht l - ng r a khng.
Tuy nhi n, khi t hc hi n t nh t on t s ny phi r a
mt d t r nht nh do c s sai khc gi a cht lng, t hi t
b t hc t v t heo l t huyt phng bt k s gi m t n
hi u hoc t ng t p m ( nhi u do cc m ng khc, nhi u - ng
t r uyn hoc t r uyn dn cc knh l n cn.
b. Cac ch tieu san sang
Mt t uyn t hng t i n v t i nh c nh t hi t l p gi a cc
u cui ca mt t uyn chun gi nh hoc - ng s chun gi
nh phi - c xeml khng sn sng t heo khuyn ngh 352. 1 v
521- 1, nu nh- hoc nhi u i u ki n sau t n t i mt t r ong s
cc u cui t hu ca t uyn l u hn 10 gi y l i n t i p.
- Tr uyn dn t - ng t , t n hi u mong mun - a vo
t uyn - c t hu t i mt u cui khc mt mc nh nht l
10dB d- i mc mong mun.
- Tr uyn dn s, t n hi u s b ngt ( c ngha l
mt ng b khung hoc nh t hi khung
- Tr uyn dn t - ng t knh t ho i , cng sut t p m
khng t r ng s t i mc 0 t - ng i , v i t hi gi an t hch h p l
5ms, v- t qu 10
- 6
pwo.
- Tr ong t r uyn dn s, BER v- t qu 10
- 3
.
Khuyn ngh 579 quy nh t m t hi r ng sn sng ca
- ng t r uyn - c nh ngha l ( 1- t hi gi an gi n o n/ t hi
gi an yu cu ) phi l n hn 99, 8% t r ong mt nm, khi ch xt
n gi n o n do t hi t b.
1.3.4 Van e Suy Hao va Nhieu Trong ng Truyen
1.3.4.1 Nhieu khac tuyen.
C bn cch t r ong cc t uyn t hng t i n v t i nh c t h
nhi u v i nhau.
V t i nh t hng t i n khc n t r mmt t .
Tr mmt t khc n v t i nh t hng t i n.
Tuyn vi ba mt t n v t i nh t hng t i n.
Tuyn vi ba mt t n t r mmt t .
Tr ong s ny nhi u l n nht l xy r a gi a t uyn vi ba mt
t v t r m mt t . Nhi u t t uyn vi ba mt t l n n h
t hng v t i nh l khng ng k. Tuy nhi n, v cng sut t hu
ca h t hng t hng t i n v t i nh l kh t hp, nn nhi u t - ng
i t t uyn vi ba mt t l kh cao. V vy, t a phi xem xt
y khi t hi t k t uyn.


























Cac tuyen nhieu .



Tr ong t hi t k t uyn t hc t , t a phi t t r m mt t
sao cho nhi u xy r a t nht , v i nhi u C/ N nh nht bng cch
s dng cc ant enna c c t nh bp ph t t .
Mt cch khc t r nh nhi u l cc i , cc t a nh . . .
nh- mt t mchn chng l i nhi u cc sng v t uyn. Mc d mc
t i u c bn t hi t k t uyn i v i v t i nh t hng t i n l
l o i b nhi u, nu i u ny khng t h t hc hi n - c, t h
t r ong t hi t k t uyn phi bao hm c l - ng nhi u cho php gp
phi .
Nhi u t cc t n hi u khc c t h - c xem nh- l t - ng
- ng v i t p m nu nh- mc cng sut ca t n hi u l
t hp. Sau , vi c t nh t on C/ N c t h l m i v i t p m
nhi u ( I ) , nh- mi u t d- i y:
Tr - c t i n xc nh C/ I bng ph- ng t r nh sau:
Tram vi ba gay
nhieu vi tram
thu ve tinh
Tram vi ba
hng len quy
ao ve tinh
Tram TT
ve tinh
Ve tinh
thong tin

C/ I = P
R
- I

Ta nhn t hy r ng, t p m nhi u l - c t nh gi ng nh-
cch t nh EI RP. Nu nh- t a bi t cc c t nh bp ph ant enna
v cc t hng s nh- khong cch - ng t r uyn i v i t r m gy
nhi u. Nhi u c t h - c xc nh bng php o t hc t t heo
nhi u cch. V d, t r ong t hnh ph ni c nhi u vt cn phn
x , nh- cc t a nh gn t r m, t h- ng nhi u khng t h nh gi
- c bng cch t nh t on, v t h ph- ng php o t hc t l
khng t h t hi u - c. Khi , t hc hi n kt h p C/ I v C/ N
t mr a C/ N+I bng ph- ng t r nh sau:
( C/ N+I ) = - 10l og
10
( 10
- 1/ 10. C/ N
+ 10
- 1/ 10. C/ I
)





Nhieu phan cc .





Nhieu kenh lan can .

n v ca C/ N, C/ I v C/ N + I l dB, v t h t ng ca t p
m v nhi u cn bi n i t hnh mt s t hc. xc nh cht
l - ng t uyn t C/ N + I , t h t hay t h C/ N t r ong c t uyn C/ N-
BER hoc c t uyn C/ N- S/ N bng C/ N + I .
1.3.4.2 Nhi u c ng t uyn.
Ta xt nhi u t cc t uyn t hng t i n khc, nh- ng nhi u
cng c t h - c t o r a ngay t r ong t uyn. Lo i u - c gi l
nhi u khc t uyn v l o i sau - c gi l nhi u c ng t uyn.
Nhi u c ng t uyn c t h l do c : T p m nhi u kh phn cc
v T p mnhi u knh l n cn.
Nhi u kh phn cc xy r a t r ong h t hng t hng t i n phn
cc kp. Lo i ny b chi phi bi cc c t nh ca ant enna.
Mc khc, i v i nhi u knh l n cn t h t hnh phn knh l n
cn c c ng phn cc v i t uyn v t i nh t hng t i n b i u h- ng
bi cc c t nh b l c my t hu.
C t h t r i t nhi u knh l n cn bng mt b l c c c
t nh ct nhn, mt khc c mt gi i h n c t h t hay i bao
nhi u XPD ( kh nng phn bi t phn cc cho) ca ant enna
t r i t t p m nhi u kh phn cc. Ngha l , XPD ca ant enna
khong 30dB, khong 50dB v i mt h t hng i u ch FM d ng
cch xen dng cng phi ch gi m XPD do m- a t i t n s
khong 10GHz.
1.3.4.3 Suy hao do tap am.
T p mnhi t - c t o r a t r ong my pht v n kt h p v i t p
m bn ngoi i vo ant enna t hu v t p m bn t r ong t o r a t
t r ong my t hu, ant enna v h t hng f i . Mc d s l - ng t p
m - c t o r a my pht l ng k, nh- ng n gi m dc t heo
Sng phn cc
ng


Tn
Tn
- ng t r uyn l an, v t h khng cn xt n l o i t p m ny.
Tuy nhi n, t a cn xt n l o i t p mbn t r ong v bn ngoi .











a. T p mbn ngoi .
T p m bn ngoi bao gm t p m khng gi an, t p m b
mt mt t , t p m kh quyn v t p m m- a. T p m hi u dng
t i t r m mt t ch yu l t p m m- a, v phi coi l nguyn
nhn chnh gy suy hao t n hi u. Khi t r i quang t p m gy r a
l do kh quyn v khng gi an. Tuy nhi n, t a t hy r ng t p m
gy r a bi kh quyn c nhi t o - c nh hn 10
0
K, v t h
t a c t h b qua n t r ong qu t r nh t hi t k t uyn s b. T p
mt b mt ca t r i t khng nh h- ng n t r mmt t bi
v t a s dng ant enna c h- ng, nh- ng n nh h- ng n v t i nh
t hng t i n v ant enna ca n c h- ng v pha t r i t . Nhi t
t p m ca t p m b mt t r i t t hu bng v t i nh t hng
t i n gn gi ng nh- ca b mt t r i t .
b. T p mbn t r ong.
T p mbn t r ong xy r a t r ong cc ant enna, cc h t hng
f i v cc my t hu, t ng t p m l t on b cng sut t p
m bn t r ong. Tuy nhi n, t p m xy r a t i cc i m khc nhau
c nh h- ng khc nhau, v t h cng sut t p mt ch h p khng
t h nh gi n gi n bng vi c xc nh t r s cng sut t p
m. V C/ N l t r s u vo t i my t hu, nn t a phi bi n
i t p mxy r a t i ant enna v t r ong h t hng f i t hnh mt
t r s t i i mu vo my t hu.












T p m
my pht
T p m
bn
My
M

c

c
o
n
g

s
u
a
t

Mc tn hieu
Tap am anten
Tap am he thong phi
Tap am may thu
Ton hao he
thong phi
May thu
Suy hao he thong phi L
F
Tap am ben ngoai
ng phi
(ong dan song)
Thay i ca mc tp
Phn l o i ngun t p m
- ng xung
Nhi t t p m ant en v t p m h t hng f i - c xem nh-
l suy hao h t hng f i . Ta c t h bi u di n t p m t ng t i
u vo my t hu bng nhi t t p mnh- sau:

T
A
+ T
O
( L
F
1)
T
I N
= - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + T
R

L
F


T
I N
: T p mt ng bn t r ong.
T
A
: Nhi t t p mant enna.
T
R
: Nhi t t p mmy t hu.
T
O
( L
F
- 1) : T p mh t hng f i .
T
O
: Nhi t mi t r - ng.
L
F
: Suy hao h t hng f i ( gi t r t hc) .
Cng t hc cho t a t nh cc t p m xy r a t r ong mi phn
quy v u vo. Ni chung, t p m - c t o r a mi ni t r ong
t hi t b, nh- ng ch d ng cc t r s quy v u vo ca cc t p
mt o r a t i mi u vo t r ong t hi t b.
T p m h t hng f i - c bi u di n bng To( L
F
- 1) . l
cng sut t p m quy v u vo t r ong mt i n t r , cng
sut t n hi u khi chy qua n gi m xung L
F
t i nhi t xung
quanh l To. V vy, To( L
F
- 1) t ng khi L
F
h t hng f i t ng,
c ngha l cng sut t p m bn t r ong gy r a bi h t hng
f i t ng l n. ngn chn i u ny cn t hi t k cc ph- ng
t i n sao cho c h t hng f i nh nht .
Nguyn nhn chnh gy r a t p m ant enna l t p m nhi t
xy r a t i ant enna v n c nhi t khong 30- 100
0
K. Tr ong mt
t r mVSAT, c nhi t t p mmy t hu cao, c t h b qua t p
mant enna, nh- ng t r ong mt t r mmt t l n, ng- i t a s dng
cc my t hu cht l - ng cao, v t h nh h- ng do t p mant enna
l l n t r ong t on b h t hng.
Nhi t t p m i v i mt my t hu bng t ng nhi t t p m
gy r a t r ong mi phn. i v i cc b khuch i ni t i p, c
t h bi u di n t p mmy t hu ( TR) bng ph- ng t r nh :

T
R
= T
1
+ ( T
2
/ G
1
) + ( T
3
/ G
1
. G
2
) + + ( T
K
/ G
1
. G
2
. G
3
. G
K
)

G
1
, G
2
, G
3
. . . G
K
: l h s khuch i .
T
1
, T
2
, T
3
. . . T
K
: l nhi t t p mquy v u vo.
V t n hi u t r nn l n hn khi i qua mi t ng khuch
i , nn t c ng ca t p m t i mi t ng l i nh i . Nu nh-
h s khuch i ca t ng u l l n, t h t p mxy r a t i
t ng t h 2 v cc t ng khuch i t i p t heo c t h b qua. V
vy, khi cn phi gi m t p m t r ong my t hu xung nh hn nh-
l t r ong h t hng t hng t i n v t i nh, t h phi s dng t ng
khuch i u t i n c h s khuch i cao v c t p mt hp.
V vy, cc my t hu t hng t i n v t i nh s dng b khuch i
t p m t hp ( LNA) , v i nhi t t p m u vo t ng u t i n l
70- 300
0
K.
Tap am
nhiet T
1

Tap am
nhiet T
2

Tap am
nhiet T
3

Tap am
nhiet T
K

Tn hieu






c. T p mh t hng.
T p mbn ngoi v t p mbn t r ong u t n t i t r ong
mt h t hng, v t h t p mt ng i v i h t hng bng t ng
cng sut t p m bn ngoi v bn t r ong ca n. i u ny cho
t hy ph- ng t r nh sau:
T
S
+ T
A
+ T
O
( L
F
1)
T
SYS
= - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + T
R

L
F

Tr ong :
- T
SYS
: Nhi t t p mh t hng.
- T
S
: Nhi t t p mbn ngoi .
- T
A
: Nhi t t p mant enna.
- T
R
: Nhi t t p mmy t hu.
- T
O
: Nhi t mi t r - ng.
- L
F
: Suy hao h t hng f i ( s t hc) .
Ph- ng t r nh - c s dng t r - c ht l t m r a nhi t
t p m ca t r m mt t - ng xung t v t i nh t hng t i n.
i v i - ng l n t mt t r m mt t t i v t i nh, cc nguyn
nhn gy t p mchnh l t p mmy t hu v t p mngoi ( t p
m b mt mt t ) . V t h, t a c t h b qua t p m h t hng
f i v ant enna. Nh- vy, khi b qua suy hao h t hng f i ,
t h c t h bi u di n nhi t t p m i v i - ng l n bng
ph- ng t r nh:

T
SYS
= T
S
+ T
R


V t h, c t h s dng nhi t t p m ( T
SYS
) t nh cng
sut t p m ( N
SYS
) cho t on b h t hng - c bi u t h ph- ng
t r nh sau :

N
SYS
= 10l og( k. T
SYS
. B) ( dB)
Tr ong :
- k l hng s Bol zman = 1. 38. 10
- 23
( W/ Hz/
0
K) .
- B l r ng bng t n ( Hz) .
S dng N
SYS
t 2 ph- ng t r nh t r n c t h bi u t h C/ N bng
ph- ng t r nh sau :

C/ N = P
R
- N
SYS
= P
T
- L
T
+G
T
- L
P
+G
R
- L
R
- N
SYS

Tr ong :
P
T
: Cng sut my pht .
L
T
: Suy hao h t hng f i pht .
G
T
: H s t ng ch ant enna pht .
L
P
: Suy hao t r uyn sng.
G
R
: H s ant enna t hu.
L
R
: Suy hao h t hng f i my t hu.
G
R
- L
R
- N
SYS
bi u t h cc c t nh ca my t hu. Tuy nhi n, t hng
s G/ T d ng T
SYS
ch khng d ng N
SYS
t r ong ph- ng t r nh t r n
Bo K 1
G
1

Bo K 3
G
3

Bo K 2
G
2

Bo K K
G
K

bi u t h cht l - ng my t hu, n c t h bi u t h bi ph- ng
t r nh:
G/ T = G
R
- 10l og( Tsys) - L
R

1.4 TRAM MAT AT
1.4.1 Cau Hnh Cua Mot Tram Mat at
1.4.1.1 Cau hnh va nguyen ly hoat ong.
a. Cau hnh.
Noi chung mot tram mat at bao gom: thiet b thong tin thiet b truyen dan mat
at, thiet b cung cap nguon va nha ieu khien.
Thiet b thong tin gom co mot anten, mot may cong suat cao, mot may thu tap
am thap cung nh thiet b a truy nhap, ieu che va giai ieu che. Nh hnh sau :






















b. Nguyen ly hoat ong.
Khi phat : Mot tn hieu c gi i t mot thiet b truyen dan tren mat at (gom
mot bo ghep kenh,) c ieu che thong qua thiet b a truy nhap, ieu che va giai ieu
che; tan so cua tn hieu au ra ( mot tan so trung tan) c bien oi ra song phat bo
oi tan ng len. Cong suat cua tn hieu nay c khuech ai len en mc yeu cau nh
bo khuech ai cong suat cao, tn hieu au ra cua no se c anten bc xa en ve tinh.
Khi thu: Anten t tram mat at thu tn hieu t ve tinh sau o c may thu tap am
thap khuech ai a en bo oi tan ng xuong va c bien oi ra tan so trung tan. Sau
Thiet b
bam
LNA Bo oi tan
xuong
Bo khuech ai
IF
Bo
giai ieu che
He thong
fi
HPA Bo oi tan
len
Bo khuech ai
IF
Bo
ieu che
Thiet b a
truy nhap
Bo dao ong
Bo dao ong
Thiet b anten bam
May thu tap am thap
Thiet b a truy nhap
ieu che va giai ieu che
May phat cong suat ln
o c a en thiet b thong tin tren mat at thong qua thiet b a truy nhap ieu che
va giai ieu che.
1.4.1.2 Cac cong nghe quan trong oi vi tram mat at.
Ta biet khoang cach t mat t mot tram mat at ti mot ve tinh khoang 36.000
Km xa hn khoang 700 lan khoang cach gia cac tram chuyen tiep trong he thong vi ba
tren mat at. Do o can co cac cong nghe thu c cac tn hieu yeu t ve tinh, phat cac tn
hieu cong suat cao en ve tinh va oi pho vi thi gian tre gay ra do c ly truyen song
dai. Nh sau:

Cong nghe anten can co:
He so tang ch cao.
Hieu suat cao.
o th tnh hng hep.
Bup song phu nho.
ac tnh phan cc tot.
ac tnh tap am nho.
Cong nghe may phat cong suat ln oi hoi :
Khuech ai cong suat ln.
Ngan chan xuyen ieu che.
Cong nghe may thu tap am thap can co:
ac tnh tap am thap
He so khuech ai ln.
Cong nghe ieu khien tieng doi can phai co:
Han che tieng doi.
Giam sat tieng doi.
Hieu qua truyen dan.
ieu khien loi.
1.4.2 Cong nghe may phat.
1.4.2.1 May phat cong suat cao.
e bu vao suy hao truyen ln trong thong tin ve tinh, au ra may phat can phai co
cong suat cang ln cang tot, do vay tram mat at phai s dung bo khuech ai cong suat
cao HPA (Hight Power Amplifier).
Trong cac he thong vo tuyen mat at khoang cach gia cac tram chuyen tiep ch
khoang vai chuc km nen cong suat ra cua may phat khoang 10W la u. So vi he thong
thong tin ve tinh co khoang cach ln (36.000 Km) nen mot tram mat at phai phat vi
cong suat cao khoang t vai tram en vai chuc KW.
1.4.2.2 Phan loai cac bo khuech ai cong suat cao.
Cac loai en song chay (TWT), Klytron (KLY), hay transistor hieu ng trng
(FET) hien co tren th trng eu co the dung trong bo khuecjh ai cong suat cao tuy theo
yeu cau cong suat ra cua may phat va bang tan.
Bang sau cho thay s khac biet cua cac loai nay :

Loai HPA
Tham so
Loai Klytron Loai TWT Loai FET
Thiet b s dung e
khuech ai
Klytron TWT FET
Cong suat ra Ln Ln Nho
Kch thc Ln Trung bnh Nho
Bang tan Vai chuc MHz Vai tram MHz Vai tram MHz
Trong lng Ln Trung bnh Nho
Lam lanh Lam lanh bang
khong kh, khi cong
suat ti vai KW
Lam lanh bang nc
khi cong suat ra
khoang 10KW
Lam lanh bang
khong kh, khi cong
suat ti vai KW
Lam lanh bang nc
khi cong suat ra
khoang 10KW
Lam lanh bang
khong kh t nhien
ien ap cung cap Trung bnh Cao Thap

Nhan xet :
V en song chay (TWT) co bang tan rong, co the phu tat ca cac bang tan phan
nh cho truyen dan, ieu o co li cho viec s dung nhieu song mang hn.
Mac du Klytron co o rong bang tan tng oi thap, nhng tan so khuech ai co
the ieu chnh en bat ky gia tr nao trong khoang tan so phan nh cho truyen dan ,
thng co the chon 5 en 10 kenh cho mot bo ieu hng.
Loai FET c s dung tram dung lng thap, khi cong suat ra nho. Con muon
co cong suat ra ln th ta co the mac song song cac FET lai vi nhau.
1.4.2.3 Cau hnh cua mot may phat.












May phat cong suat cao gom co mot bo khuech ai trung tan, mot bo bien oi
tan so phat va mot bo khuech ai cong suat cao.
Bo khuech ai trung tan khuech ai tn hieu t bo ieu che a ti, tan so song
sau o c bien oi thanh tan so song cc ngan nh bo oi tan. Sau o tn hieu c bo
khuech ai cong suat cao khuech ai len en mc yeu cau e phat en ve tinh.
Co hai loai may phat cong suat cao nh sau:
a. May phat khuech ai ong thi nhieu song mang:
Cau hnh nh sau.




Thiet b
bam
HPA Bo oi tan
Len
Bo khuech ai
IF
Bo
ieu che
He thong
fi
Thiet b a
truy nhap
Bo dao
ong
Thiet b anten bam
May phat cong suat ln
Thiet b a truy nhap
ieu che
C
o
m
b
i
n
e
r

HPA
U/C MOD
U/C
U/C
MOD
MOD


Trong trng hp nay can nay can thoa man cac yeu cau sau:
o rong bang thong u rong e khuech ai mot song mang vi bat ky tan so
nao va cong suat ra co o d tr u sao cho meo ieu che phat sinh t s khuech ai ong
thi nhieu tn hieu di mc quy nh Cau hnh nay thng mac khi so song mang nho,
nhng thng thuan li cho khai thac.
b.Moi song mang c khuech ai rieng bang mot bo khuech ai cong suat cao
HPA.

Cau hnh nh sau:










Trong o:
HPA : Bo khuech ai cong suat cao.
U/C : Bo oi tan len.
MOD : Bo ieu che.
Trong trng nay moi bo khuech ai khong yeu cau phai co bang tan rong, chi can
u rong e khuech ai oi vi moi song mang cho troc. Cau hnh nay ch thch hp khi so
song mang t.
1.4.2.4 ac trng kha nang phat EIRP
(Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power- Cong suat phat xa vo hng tng ng)
Tch so gia he so tang ch cua anten va cong suat may phat cung cap cho anten goi la
(EIRP). ay la mot thong so c ban bieu th kha nang cua mot tram phat.
V du: Vi anten co ng knh gng phan xa 30 m, lam viec tan so 6 GHz, co
he so tang ch 63 dB ( 2 trieu lan so vi anten vo hng ), neu cong suat may phat la
100w th EIRP pha trc la 200.000.000w. Noi cach khac bang cong suat cua mot anten
vo hng vi mot may phat co cong suat bang 200.000.000 w bc xa ve pha trc.
1.4.3 Cong nghe may thu.
1.4.3.1 Khuech ai tap am thap.
Song bc xa t ve tinh b hap thu rat ln cho ti khi chung ti c mat at. V du
cac song trong bang Ku b yeu i khoang 1/10
21
so vi tn hieu ban au neu thu bang mot
anten co ng knh 3,3m th bang Ku mc thu tang len khoang 10 trieu lan. Tuy nhien
ieu o cha u ln. Do do can phai khuech ai chung len mot mc co the giai ieu che
c. Ky thuat bo khuech ai tap am thap vi nhiet tap am thap ong vai tro rat
quan trong trong viec bao am chat lng tn hieu.
1.4.3.2 Nhiet tap am.
S dung mot HPA
C
o
m
b
i
n
e
r

HPA U/C MOD
HPA U/C
HPA
MOD
U/C MOD
HPA
S dung nhieu bo HPA
Tap am sinh ra trong mot may thu thng c bieu th bang he so nhiet tap am,
c nh ngha nh sau:








S
1
/N
1
S
0
/N
0


Tuy nhien khi lam viec vi cac tn hieu yeu nh trong trng hp thong tin ve
tinh, th nhiet tap am c s dung thay the cho he so tap am F
Nhiet tap am la nhiet cua mot ien tr gay ra tap am tng ng, sinh ra do bo
khuech ai. Noi cach khac cong suat tap am (Pn) sinh ra do mot ien tr c bieu th
bang cong thc sau:
Pn = kTB
ay : k la hang so Bolzman, bang 1.38 x 10
-23
J/
0
K
T la nhiet o tuyet oi (273 +
0
C)
B la o rong bang tan.
Bieu thc tren bieu th gia tr tap am sinh ra do bo khuech ai. Sau ay ta co cong
suat tap am au ra No la:
No = Gk(To + Te)B
Nen he so tap am uc bieu th nh sau:










Vi: Nhiet o To
He so khuech ai G
Nhiet tap am tng ng Te
Quan he gia he so tap am F va nhiet tap am Te cho trong bang sau:

He so tap am
F (dB)
Nhiet tap am
Te (
o
K)
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
6,8
14,8
21,0
28,0
35,8
44,2
S/N au vao bo khuech ai S
1
/N
1

S/N au ra bo khuech ai S
0
/N
0

F = =

May thu
S.kTo.B
GS.Gk.(To+Te).B
1 + Te/To = F =

May
thu
Nguon
tap
am
Cong suat
tap am
0,8
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
7,0
8,0
9,0
10,0
59,2
75,9
175,8
293
442
633
879
1.172
1.553
2.030
2.673
1.4.3.3 Cac loai khuech ai tap am.
Co ba loai khuech ai tap am nh sau:
a. Khuech ai thong so.
Khuech ai thong so hoat ong nh sau: Khi mot tn hieu kch thch at len mot
diode bien dung th cac thong so mach ien cua no thay oi va tao ra ien tr am, do o
khuech ai tn hieu ngo vao. V vay t mot s bien oi ien dung cua diode bien dung do
tn hieu kch thch c dung cho khuech ai, viec giam ien tr noi cua diode bien dung,
mac noi tiep vi ien dung se tao ra ac tnh tap am thap. May khuech ai thong so so vi
may khuech ai GaAs-FET co cac han che sau:
* Can co mach tao tn hieu kch thch.
* Kho ieu chnh va khong phu hp vi viec san xuat hang loat v mach s
dung ong dan song.
* Bang tan hep.
* Bat li ve o tin cay va bao dng.
Do o loai nay ngay nay t c s dung.
b. Khuech ai GaAs-FET.
( Transistor hieu ng trng dung loai ban dan hon hp gia Gali va Arsenic)
Khuech ai GaAs-FET c s dung rong rai vung tan so cao vi ac tnh
bang tan rong, he so khuech a cao va o tin cay cao. Chung c s dung rong rai cho
cac bo khuech ai tap am thap trong thong tin ve tinh v ac tnh tap am thap a c cai
tien nh hnh sau:

















S cai tien GaAs-FET

5

4

3

2

1

0
1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
H
e

s
o

t
a
p

a
m

d
B

c. HEMT. (Transistor co o linh ong ien t cao)
Gan ay HEMT a c a vao s dung thc te, li dung hieu ng chat kh
ien t hai chieu vi o linh ong cao va phu hp oi vi khuech ai tap am thap tn hieu
tan so cao.
C cau nay s dung tiep giap pha tron gia GaAs va AlGaAs nh hnh sau:

As(AlGa) loai n Khong pha GaAs














(a)






(b)
Cau tao cua HEMT

Gia dai dan cua AlGaAs co mot sai khac nang lng, dai nay kch thch loai
n, con GaAs khong c kch thch. V vay hnh thanh mot lp giau ien t trong AlGaAs ,
gan be mat tiep giap vi GaAs. Khi at mot ien trng song song vi lp tiep giap giau
ien t nay, cac ien t se chuyen ong vi o linh hoat ien t rat cao v chung khong b
bat k s tan xa nao bi cac nguyen t cho, v chung c phan khong gian khoi cac
nguyen t cho cua cac vat lieu sinh ra chung.Cac ac tnh tap am thap tot hn so vi
GaAs-FET, vi chieu dai ien nh nhau cua cc cong nh o linh ong cao. Hieu ng nay
ac biet tot khi c cau c lam lanh.
HEMT co ac tnh noi bat nh bang tan rong, kch thc nho, gia thanh thap,
de bao dng va thuan li cho san xuat hang loat. Bi vay no a bat au c s dung
rong rai.
Co hai phng phap lam lamnh c s dung nh sau:
* Lam lanh nhiet ien (o lanh xuong ti khoang 40
0
C, s dung hieu ng Peltie)
* Lam lanh bang kh Heli ( o lanh giam xuong khoang 250
0
C trong mot cai
bnh o kh Heli hoa long trc khi chay qua).
Phng phap th hai hien nay t dung do gia thanh mac, bao dng phc tap.
Sau ay la bang so sanh cac bo tap am thap:
LNA Khuech ai thong so GaAs-FET HEMT

Phan t
ion hoa
ien t
Nen GaAs ban dan
GaAs
(AlGa)As
Cc nguon

Cc mang
Cc cong
Mang
bao ve
Lp ien t
co o linh
ong cao
Dai dan
Dai hoa tr

Phan t cho
ion hoa (Si)
ieu kien lam viec Lam lanh
bang kh
Heli
Lam lanh
bang
nhiet
ien
Khong
lam lanh
nhiet o
trong
phong
Lam lanh
nhiet
ien
Lam lanh nhiet ien
Bang 4GHz Xap x
15K
Xap x
32K
Xap x
55K
Xap x
45K
Xap x 52K
Bang 10GHz --- 900K
hoac thap
hn
180K
hoac thap
hn
Xap x
120K
Xap x 120K
Bang
tan
Bang 20GHZ --- 220K
hoac thap
hn
300K
hoac thap
hn
200K
hoac thap
hn
Xap x 160K
Bao dng Kho Va De Va De
Tnh nang Tap am thap
Bang tan rong
Chat lng gan bang
khuech ai thong so
Kch thc nho, trong
lng nhe, gia thanh
thap
Tap am thap
Kch thc vo cung
nho
Ga thanh thap

1.4.3.4 ac trng kha nang thu.
a. Nhiet tap am cua may thu.
-Ta biet tap am trong thong tin ve tinh do nhieu nguon sinh ra, nhng cong suat
cua no vo cung nho. Nhiet tap am c dung lam n v e hien th cho cong suat nho nh
the.
-Neu dung nhiet tap am (T) th cong suat tap am (P) la:
P= K.T.B. (W)
Vi : K = hang so Bolzman = 3,38.10
-23
.J/K
B= o rong bang thong (Hz)
T= Nhiet o tuyet oi (
0
K)
-Cac nguon tap am cua he thong thu trong thong tin ve tinh:
Tap am thu c t anten
Tap am t vu tru
Tap am t kh quyen
Tap am do mot bup phu
Tap am do ma
Tap am do tieu hao t he thong fid



Nhiet tap am tang 7K/0,1 dB tieu hao
Nhiet tap am cua
0
K
he thong thu
700


500


300


100



1 2 5 10 20 f(Hz)


Tap am may thu
-Tap am t vu tru hau nh khong ang ke (vai o K)
-Tap am t kh quyen la nguyen nhan chu yeu sinh ra tap am vu tru trong
thi tiet tot.
-Tap am do ma phu thuoc vao cng o ma.
-Tap am t bup phu phu thuoc vao goc ngang va tan so.
-Tap am t fid va lam suy giam tan hieu va sinh ra tap am (
may thu at cang gan anten cang tot).
b. Ty so G/T
Ty so he so tang ch (G) ve pha trc anten tren nhiet tap am tong (T): bieu
th cho chat lng o nhay cua tram mat at.
G/T: c dung nh mot he so chat lng cho toan bo he thong thu bao gom
ca anten cua no.
n v s dung cho G/T la dB/
0
K
G/T: ch phan anh c khi ng vi goc ngang Anten trong thi tiet tot . Ngoai
ra can phai tnh rieng cac tap am khac nh can nhieu vi cac he thong ve tinh khac.

1.4.4 Cong nghe Anten trong thong tin ve tinh
1.4.4.1 Yeu cau oi vi Anten trong thong tin ve tinh.
e thu c nhng song yeu en t ve tinh va e co the phat i cac song co cong
suat u manh len ve tinh th anten can co mot so ac tnh sau:
* He so tang ch cao va hieu suat cao.
* Tnh hng song cao va bup song phu nho.
* ac tnh phan cc tot.
* Tap am thap.
1.4.4.2 Phan loai Anten.
Goc ngang 5
Goc ngang 90
Trong thi
tiet tot
Trong
ma
a. Anten parapol co s cap at tai tieu iem.
Minh hoa nh sau:
Bo cung cap, loa







Gng chnh
ay la Anten co cau truc n gian va gia thanh thap nhat. No c dung chu
yeu cac tram ch thu va cac tram nho ac biet vi dung lng thap . Tuy nhien cac ac
tnh cua no nh he so tang ch, bup song phu khong c tot. Mot nhc iem khac na
la cap noi t loa thu phat en may phat thu thng dai bi vay no khong c s dung
cac tram mat at thong thng.
b. Anten cassegrain.
Minh hoa nh sau:










La loai anten co them mot gng phan xa phu vao gng phan xa chnh, do o
he so tang ch cua anten c nang cao va ac tnh bup phu cung c cai thien chut t.
Anten c s dung cho cac tram bnh thng co quy mo trung bnh. Cai tien quan trong
nhat cua anten Cassegrain so vi anten parapol la khoang cach gia may phat va anten co
the c rut ngan v vay cho phep khai thac de dang.
c. Anten lech .
Anten lech co bo phan fi, gng phan xa phu at lech mot t so vi hng
truc cua gng phan xa chnh e cac bo fi va gng phan xa khong chan ng i cua
song. Do o bup phu c cai thien rat ln so vi anten Cassegrain, dan en he so tang
ch ln hn.
Co hai loai anten khac cung thuoc loai anten lech la: anten Gregorian lech co
gng phan xa phu dang elip va anten Cassegrain lech co gng phu dang hypepbol. Cac
anten nay co hieu qua ac biet khi can thiet giam can nhieu t cac ng thong tin viba
tren mat at hoac cac ve tinh khac v tr ke nhau tren quy ao.

Gng
phu
Gng
chnh

Bo chieu xa










Anten parapol lech Aten Gregorian lech
1.4.4.3 He thong quay bam ve tinh.
Mac du ve tinh c at tren quy ao a tnh, v tr cua chung luon thay oi
khoang 0,1
0
theo cac hng ong, tay, nam, bac. Bi vay can ieu khien Anten tren mat
at bam theo ve tinh. Sau ay la cac loai he thong quay anten bam ve tinh:
* He thong xung n: He thong nay luon xac nh tam bup song anten co hng
ung vao ve tinh hay khong, e ieu khien hng cua anten.
Trong he thong nay e co the biet chac anten co hng chnh xac vao ve tinh
hay khong bang cach s dung 4 bc xa, moi cai bc xa co hng hi khac vi hng bup
song chnh hoac mot song bac cao hn cua ong dan song tron e lay ra cac tn hieu sai loi.
He thong nay yeu cau phai co mot he thong fi phc tap va gia thanh cao hn do s
dung nhieu may thu. Tuy nhien c ap dung trong trng hp anten ng knh ln ma
o rong bup song mc mot na cong suat la 0,1
0
hoac nho hn va phai bat c tn hieu
ve tinh tam bup song.
* He thong bam tng nac: He thong nay dch chuyen nhe v tr anten cac
khoang thi gian nhat nh e ieu chnh hng sao cho mc tn hieu thu la cc ai.
He thong nay c ket cau vi cac thiet b sap xep theo mot cau truc n gian
va c s dung cho cac anten kch thc trung bnh hoac nho khi chat lng thu phat
khong b anh hng nhieu. oi vi cac anten nho ma o rong bup song mc na cong
suat la 0,2
0
e 0,3
0
hoac ln hn, th s dung phng phap co nh hng anten hoac thnh
thoang ieu chnh bang tay cho ung hng khi can thiet.
* He thong ieu khien theo chng chnh: He thong nay ieu khien anten da
tren c s d oan trc ve quy ao ve tinh.
1.4.4.4 Cac tnh chat ve ien cua mot Anten.
a. He so tang ch cua Anten.
He so tang ch cua ten la mot thong so quan trong, quyet nh khong hng chat
lng cua anten ma con ca quy mo cua tram mat at. Quan he gia dien tch hieu dung A,
bc song , hieu suat va he so tang ch cua aten G c bieu th bang cong thc:

G = ---------.A

2

Bieu thc nay cho thay khi nhn t au phat, mc o co the tap trung song vo
tuyen vao mot hng xac nh so vi trng hp song bc xa ong eu vi moi hng;
bieu thc nay cho phep au thu d oan kha nang thu song khuech tan yeu.
bieu th hieu suat, vi cac ten parapol thong thng th khoang t 0,5 en
0,7.
4
Trong trng hp ten gng tron vi ng knh D (m). Khi o:

A = ----------
4
Suy ra :

G = --------- . --------- . = -------- .

2
4
2

Neu ta thay bc song bang tan so f (GHz) theo quan he C = f, ta co:
G = (10fD/3)
2
.
Gia s = 0,6 va tnh theo n v dB, ta co:
G = 20lg(10/3) + 20lgD + 20lgf + 10lg
= 28,18 + 20lgD + 20lgf
V du vi Anten lam viec bang Ku ta co:
F = 14GHz
G = 41,1 + 20lgD
Neu D = 1m th G = 41,1 dB
Neu D = 2m th G = 47,1 dB
Neu D = 4m th G = 53,1 dB
Vay he so tang ch cua Anten t le vi bnh phng ng knh Anten D
va vi bnh phng tan so lam viec f.
b. o th bc xa cua anten.
Co hai cach ve o th bc xa cua anten nh sau:
* o th bc xa vung gan truc:
o th bc xa vung gan truc bieu th ac tnh tang ch xung quanh truc
chnh. o rong cua bup song chnh c bieu th bang goc gia hai iem ma o he so
tang ch giam i 3dB. No con c goi la o rong bup song na cong suat. Xem hnh sau:




10
0
0
0
10
0

o rong bup song na cong suat

oi vi mot anten thong thng , o rong bup song na cong suat
1/2
xac
nh gan ung theo D (m) va f (GHz) nh sau:

1/2
= 70/D = 21/Df
* o th bc xa goc rong cua anten.
o th bc xa goc rong cua anten la ac tnh tang ch cac hng cach truc
chnh bup song 1
0
hoac ln hn, con goi la ac tnh bup song phu.
.D
2
.D
2
4 .D
2
0 dB

3 dB

o

r
o
n
g

b
u
p

s
o
n
g

Cac ten lech co ac tnh bup song phu rat tot v khong co s can tr cua
gng phu va cac thanh , chung c s dung khi co nhu cau nghiem ngat giam can
nhieu trong thiet ke mach.
* Cac ac tnh phan cc.
Cac ac tnh phan cc bieu th mc o tach biet phan cc khi mot tan so
c s dung cho hai song phan cc vuong goc (hoac phan cc phai hay phan cc trai
trinh trng hp song phan cc tron) tai cung thi iem. Mc o tach biet c goi la kha
nang tach biet phan cc cheo.


Chng 2
TRUYEN HNH VE TINH

2.1 CAC PHNG THC TRUYEN HNH VE TINH:
-Tren the gii hien nay co 2 phng an truyen hnh t ve tinh do cac to hp truyen
hnh ve tinh canh tranh e gianh th trng . o la:
2.1.1 Truyen hnh trc tiep DBS (Direct Broadcating Satellite).
Phng phap nay se a thang tn hieu t ve tinh trc tiep en may thu hnh (TV)
cua tng ho gia nh. e at c yeu cau nay th tn hieu hnh phat i t ve tinh phai
c ieu bien vi tan so mang hnh e cho TV co the nhan c. Ngoai ra, e giam can
nhieu cua song viba mat at va giam nho ng knh ten parabol nen phai phat tren
bang Ku. Them na, la bang Ku tuy co tnh nh hng cao nhng lai b ton hao ln tren
ng truyen, con o nhay cac TV lai nho (50 150 v) nen can phai tang cong suat
phat (Downlink). Mat khac lai tuy thuoc vao quy che cua moi quoc gia cho phep dan
chung bat trc tiep hay khong?
Do cac ly do tren ma to hp truyen hnh DBS sm b that bai va nhng cho cho
truyen hnh cap CATV, phat tren bang C.
2.1.2 Truyen hnh qua TVRO (Television Receive only).
Phng phap nay se thu tn hieu cc nho t ve tinh , khuyech ai dch tan nhieu thap
va x ly tn hieu cho phu hp vi T.V.
Cac chng trnh truyen hnh tren the gii hien nay phan nhieu phat tren bang tan C
e phuc vu tng khu vc nh Asiasat, Palapa Cac ve tinh quoc te nh Intelsat, vai khu
vc Au-My thng phat song song hai bang tan C va Ku tren mot ve tinh. Ky thuat truyen
hnh c dung nhieu nhat la he Pal, pho bien cac nc Chau Au va cac nc khac s
dung li ien 50Hz. He NTSC chu yeu dung My va cac nc phu thuoc, dung ien li
60Hz. He SECAM chu yeu dung Lien xo cu, Phap va mot so nc phu thuoc khac.
Hien nay cac nc cong nghiep tien tien ang phat trien chng trnh truyen hnh
co o net cao HDTV (High Difinition Television), o la he CMAC (Combined
Multiplexed Analogue Component) va D2MAC (he MAC ieu che nh phan kep: duo-
binary modulation).

2.2 CAC HE TRUYEN HNH:
e so sanh cac khiem khuyet cua cac he truyen hnh, chung ta can c vao nhng
ac tnh chu yeu cua cac the he truyen hnh sau ay:
2.2.1. He NTSC (Hoa ky):
Dung phng phap sap xep cac thong tin mau vuong goc vi nhau roi ieu che
vao song mang phu 3,58MHz. Nh vay trong qua trnh truyen se xay ra s dch pha, gay
nen s sai pha so vi tn hieu nguyen thuy, lam sai lech mau. ay la can benh chnh cua
he NTSC, mau t trung thc va t co kha nang khac phuc.
2.2.2 He SECAM (Phap-Nga):
Dung phng phap truyen lan lt cac thong tin mau, co lu gi e tai hien lai
vao ung thi iem. Nh cac lam tre 60s cua song mang phu cha thanh phan DR=R-Y
va DB=B-Y noi tiep nhau sau mot dong tren ng en mach ma tran e cong lai vi
Tn hieu
ong bo
12s 52s
64s
SECAM
6Hz
phan choi Y. Nh vay ma he nay a khong b sai pha mau nh he NTSC, sac mau trung
thc hn.
2.2.3 He PAL (c):
Cai tien tren c s he NTSC va SECAM bang cach luan phien thay oi pha cua
dong quet trc vi dong quet sau cua tn hieu mang mau, vi thi gian tre cua moi dong
la 60s. Bang cach bu pha kieu ao ngc pha cua moi dong quet, vi mau c chon la
DR=R-Y, nen a giam nho o sai pha cua tn hieu mau, lam cho hnh anh sach ep hn.
S phan bo pho cua he PAL va SECAM giong nhau. Bang tan tong hp (hay con
goi la bang tan c ban BB-Baseband) chiem 8MHz:
Trong o, tn hieu mau chiem 6,5MHz, tn hieu choi chiem gan het bang tan, pha
tren la tn hieu tieng. Trong mot dong quet 60s th tn hieu mau va choi chiem 52s, tn
hieu ong bo chiem 12s. Tn hieu tieng c phat rieng, co the bang ieu che AM hay
FM. Cac thong tin c thc hien bang phng phap tng t (analog) nh hnh ve.

















Phan bo tn hieu PAL-SECAM

Bi v tn hieu mau nam trong tn hieu choi va cac thong tin eu dung phng phap
analog nen co nhng khuyet iem sau:
+ o phan giai ngang khong cao, v do song mang phu mau nam ngay trong tn
hieu choi.
+ Do s xuyen nhieu ieu che gia tn hieu mau va choi nen gay ra van giao thoa.
+Am thanh khong the tot bang ieu che so (digital).


2.2.4 Ho truyen hnh component MAC.
a. He truyen hnh MAC.
Cac he truyen hnh NTSC, PAL, SECAM lam viec theo nguyen tac ghep kenh
cac tn hieu thanh phan Y, U,V va tn hieu am thanh theo tan so. Do o cac tn hieu thanh
phan nay c truyen ong thi tai moi thi iem. Ket qua la co s can nhieu qua lai gia
cac tn hieu thanh phan, ac biet la nhieu gia kenh choi va kenh mau (nhieu aliasing)
ng tieng bang FM (hay AM)
o choi tng t
Thong tin mau tng t
goi la nhieu he thong. e giai quyet van e tren he MAC dung phng phap ghep kenh
cac tn hieu thanh phan Y,U,V va am thanh theo thi gian ngha la cac tn hieu thanh
phan c truyen lan lt tren moi dong. Do o ve ly thuyet cho phep triet c nhieu
aliasing.
e co the truyen cac tn hieu c tren moi dong th cac tn hieu phai co toc o
truyen khac nhau ngha la moi tn hieu phai c nen theo nhng t le thch hp. Trong o
tn hieu am thanh va cac tn hieu phu (teletext, tn hieu ieu khien) co the truyen di
dang so. Cac thanh phan tn hieu video Y,U,V c truyen di dang tng t, nen theo
cac t le khac nhau v vay tn hieu MAC la tn hieu hon hp so tng t.
Nhieu he truyen hnh MAC c phan biet vi nhau qua cac ch cai ghep them
au nh C, D, D2 v du : CMAC, DMAC, D2MAC. Cac ch cai nay bieu dien cac t le
nen cac tn hieu thanh phan va cac dang tn hieu khac che o so.
Trong he MAC nay th tn hieu choi c nen vi t le 1,5:1 (chiem 34,4s), tn
hieu so mau c nen theo t so 3:1 (chiem 17,2s) con tn hieu ong bo va am thanh so
c nen con lai 10,3s. Xem hnh sau:

So Tng t




10,3s 17,2s 34,4s

64s

Viec nh khoang thi gian noi tren do tan so nhp cua he thong lay mau xac
nh.
Viec nen thi gian cac tn hieu tng t Y, U, V c thc hien bang cach lay
mau, lu mau vao bo nh phu cac mau nay va oc ra t bo nh bang tan so cao hn vi
he so 1,5 cho tn hieu choi va 3 cho tn hieu hieu so mau.
Viec lay mau c thc hien nh ieu bien xung PAM. Tan so lay mau c
chon ket hp vi tieu chuan am thanh so f
s,y
= 13,5MHz cho tn hieu choi va f
s,CR
= f
sCB
=
6,75MHz cho moi tn hieu hieu so mau vi:
C
B
= 0.73(B-Y)
C
R
= 0,93(R-Y)
Theo cach lay mau tren th tn hieu choi co bang tan en 5,6MHz ieu o cho
phep o phan giai cao hn so vi he thong 5MHz thong thng. Cac tn hieu hieu so mau
co bang tan at cc ai en 2,8MHz.
Viec lay mau c thc hien bang cac xung hep vi o rong T
S,Y
= 74ns cho tn
hieu choi va T
S,CB
= T
S,CR
= 148ns cho cac tn hieu hieu so mau. Theo tieu chuan tai studio
co 720 mau kenh choi c s dung cho phan dong video tch cc (ch cha cac thong tin
hnh anh), con cac tn hieu hieu so mau co 360 mau.
Theo moi dong co tat ca 697 mau oi vi tn hieu choi va 349 mau cho tn hieu
hieu so mau C
B
va C
R
c lu vao bo nh . Bo nh se oc ra tai tan so fs = 20,25MHz
cho tn hieu choi cung nh cac tn hieu hieu so mau theo cac he so nen (1,5 cho tn hieu
choi va 3 cho tn hieu hieu so mau).
A
m

t
h
a
n
h

o
n
g

b
o

Tn hieu mau
C
B
/C
R

Tn hieu choi
Y
Vi chu ky ong ho Ts = 49,38ns, o rong cua tn hieu choi Y c nen thi gian
la
T
Y nen
= 697.49,38ns = 34,4s
Va cac tn hieu C
B
, C
R

T
CBnen
= T
CRnen
= 349.49,38ns = 17,2s

b. He truyen hnh CMAC.
He CMAC la s phat trien cua he MAC nen no co cac tnh chat kha giong vi
he MAC do o khong can nhac lai. Ta xet tn hieu video cua mot dong nh sau:

FM



0,5V 0,5V Y
C
B
:C
R
1V
CC

0,5V 0,5V
a b c T1 T3 k
e T2 h

64s
Trong o:
a la ,khoang thi gian 206 chu ky ong ho, 206 bit, cho ong bo dong va tn
hieu am thanh .
b la khoang thi gian 4 chu ky ong ho ket thuc burst so lieu, cha bien tn hieu
dng.
c la khoang thi gian 15 chu ky e ghim va chuan 0 cho cac tn hieu C
B
,C
R

T1 la khoang thi gian gom 10 chu ky ong ho va 5 chu ky ong ho cho viec
oi tn hieu hieu so mau.
e la khoang thi gian 349 chu ky ong ho cho tn hieu hieu so mau co nen.
T2 la khoang thi gian 5 chu ky ong ho cho viec chuyen oi t tn hieu hieu
so mau en tn hieu choi.
h la khoang thi gian 697 chu ky ong ho cho tn hieu choi co nen.
T3 la khoang thi gian 6 chu ky ong ho cho viec chuyen oi t tn heu choi
en chuan 0.
k la khoang thi gian 4 chu ky ong ho, chuyen dch tai iem bat au burst so
lieu, gom bien am cua tn hieu.
Toan bo co 1296 chu ky ong ho vi 1296.49,38ns = 64s.
He CMAC cho phep truyen toi a 8 tn hieu am thanh chat lng cao vi so lieu
phu (di dang 1 tn hieu 3 Mbit/s hoac 0,0791 Mbit/s).
Mc chuan tn
hieu mau
2-4-PSK
Trong he CMAC nay tn hieu tai tan RF c ieu tan vi tn hieu video co nen va
ieu che burst so lieu bang BPSK hay QPSK. Theo ma vi sai, mc 1 trong tn hieu so lieu
lam dch pha tai tan +90
0
con mc 0 lam dch pha -90
0
.
Sau ay la s o khoi mach ma hoa CMAC:

R Y

G U

B V
Tn hieu MAC
Am thanh

Tai RF

So lieu Am thanh / so lieu cua MAC
ong bo

e nen cac thanh phan chung nhau (tao nhieu aliasing) Trong qua trnh lay mau
tn hieu, hai tn hieu hieu so mau can phai c loc them theo manh. Phan loc nay khong
c trnh bay trong s o.
Tn hieu tam giac 25MHz co the c long vao tn hieu MAC, tn hieu nay tao o
di tan 300KHz trong mach ieu tan FM va bao am nang lng phan bo eu tren pho
FM.
Trong mach ieu che FM mach preemphasis khuech ai tn hieu video phan tan
so , trong khi o mach giai ieu che FM s dung mach deemphasis e giam bien o
phan tan so cao. Ket qua cho phep nang cao t so tn hieu tren nhieu S/N.
Xem s o khoi mach giai ma CMAC di.
Cac thanh phan tn hieu video c giai ieu che oc lap trong mach giai ieu che
FM thong thng, trong luc o tn hieu so lieu phai dung tach song ong bo. Trong phan
tn hieu video se ghim (vi thi gian 8 dong) thanh phan chuan va nen tn hieu co nang
lng tan xa. Sau mach deemphasis tn hieu en mach tach kenh, t ay tn hieu choi va
tn hieu hieu so mau c oc rieng vao cac bo nh em e chuan b dan ti gian. Khi
oc ra tai tan so ong ho (e lay mau) f
S,Y
ta co tn hieu choi vi bang tan ban au t 0
en 5,6MHz. Loc theo manh cac tn hieu hieu so mau se nen c cacd tphan tn hieu
trung nhau 9aliasing) va cung vi mach tach kenh ta se co cac tn hieu C
B
,C
R
. Mach loc
thong thap se han che cac tin hieu nay trong gii han t 0 en 2,8MHz.

M
a

t
r
a
n

Lay mau
Lay mau
Lay mau
Bo
nh
Bo nh Ghep
kenh
tng
t
+
Ghep
kenh
so
ADC
Bo
nh
G
h
e
p

k
e
n
h

s
o

Tien
nhan
ieu
che FM
ieu che
BPSK-QPSK
CMAC
fs,y fs
fs,
Y
f
s,CB
f
s,CR
f
s,CB,CR
fs


PAM
Y


fs fs,
Y
PAM
CB


PAM
CR

fs f
Y,CB,CR







R Y

G C
B


B C
R


S O KHOI MACH GIAI MA CMAC
Nh vay so vi he Pal no u viet hn cho t b xuyen nhieu ieu che va giam
c cong suat phat v.v Nhng khong tien li cho la bang thong kenh tieng qua rong,
truyen d lieu vi nhp 20,25 MHz (1.296 clock/line, 49,38 ns/clock), khong tng thch
vi cac he cap T.V. hien hanh. Bi vay ch dung no cho truyen hnh trc tiep DBS, nh
TDF cua Phap, TV-Sat cua c va ca Anh quoc .
e co the s dung kha nang truyen so lieu cao cua he CMAC th vien nghien cu
cua phap a thanh cong trong viec nghien cu va thc hien bang cach: Tn hieu am
thanh nhieu kenh c chia lam 2 khoi phu cha 82 goi (packet) a ch rieng biet. o
chnh la he D
2
MAC.
c. He D
2
MAC (Duo-binary 2 Multiplexed Analogue Component)
He D
2
MAC tieu chuan ch cai tien them t he CMAC tieu chuan ang dung
cho ve tinh TDF va TV-Sat . Phng phap cai bien la giam nhp clock con 1/2 = 20,25/2 =
10,125 Mhz, vi ieu che nh phan kep tan so phu 5,5 Mhz, nho hn bang thong goc cho
phep 8,5 Mhz (vision bandwidth). Luc nay kenh tieng con 4 kenh am thanh mono, 2
kenh stereo va 8 kenh tin tc
Tach
song FM
Ghim Deem
phasis
Giai ma
BPSK-QPSK
Khoi phuc
tai tan
T
a
c
h

k
e
n
h

s
o

Bo
nh
Tach
kenh
so
ADC
Tach
kenh
tng
t
Bo nh
Bo nh

M
a

t
r
a
n

L
o
c

m
a
n
h

White yellow cyan green purple red blue black
U/V
(compressed)
Digital
Sound/data
D2-MAC
colour
PAL colour
(1 line 64 s)
Moi Packet tng quan vi ieu che so ng tieng (digital sound) va truyen
d lieu (data tranmission) bay gi la t ng 1 623. Trong tong so 82 packet , vi 751
bits cho moi nhom packet. No co the tang them theo yeu cau a dang nh : lam cho cac
tram phat tng thch vi nhau, cac chng trnh TV Sport, Music co the chuyen oi cho
nhau , them ng tin tc & bnh luan, teletex v.v Lu y rang , dong 624 va 625 e
danh cho cac xung phim , cac xung bao ve an toan trong qua trnh chuyen hnh va cac sai
so mc cac dong cuoi manh (frame).
S nen tn hieu cua D
2
MAC so vi PAL c mo ta hnh sau:



Na tren cua hnh (a) la tn hieu mau he PAL ve trong mot dong 64s. (Khong ve
tn hieu tieng tan so song mang phu) . au tien la xung ong bo, en Burts loe mau, en
tn hieu mau va choi, theo he PAL tieu chuan .
Na hnh di la tn hieu packet D
2
MAC cung ve trong mot dong 64s. au tien
la tn hieu tieng c ieu che so, tiep en xung ghim , tiep en tn hieu hieu so mau
(U/V) c nen theo t le 3/1, cuoi cung la tn hieu choi (Y) c nen vi t le 3/2 .
S phan bo 3 thanh phan tn hieu cua bang tan goc (Baseband) nh sau :
- Packet tieng dung ieu che so. Gom 4 bang thong rong 15 KHz chat lng
cao HQ (High Quality channels) , co ngha la 1 kenh stereo va 2 kenh mono. Cung co the
dung 8 kenh bang thong trung bnh 7,5 KHz MQ (Medium Quality channels) cho cac d
lieu tin tc .
Hnh sau ay la tn hieu bang tan c ban cua D
2
MAC
Y sinal
(compressed)
Burst
synchr
64 s
(a)
Nen tn hieu D
2
-MAC so vi PAL






A c T1 e T2 h T3 k

64s

Thi gian truyen d lieu a : gom 209 clock cycles, gan xap x 10,32s.105 bits
cho ong bo, digital tieng, d lieu .
- Packet mau gom : Tn hieu hieu so mau U = B-Y c truyen i cac dong
th 1, th 3, th 5, th 7.
Tn hieu hieu so mau V = R-Y c truyen i cac dong th 2, 4, 6, 8 .
Thi gian truyen d lieu e : gom 349 clock cycles = 17,23s. Tn hieu mau c
nen lai vi t le 3/1 (20,26/3 = 6,75 MHz) .
- Packet choi Y c truyen trong khoang thi gian h = 697 clock cycles = 34,2s.
Tn hieu choi cung c nen lai vi t le 3/2 (20,25 : 2/3 = 13,5 MHz) .
- Khoang ghim c = 15 clock cycles = 0,74s, chu ky ghi nay e cach ly gia tieng
va mau, giam thieu s xuyen nhieu ieu che lan nhau.
- Khoang an toan b = 4 clock cycles = 0,2s, la khoang chuyen tiep au cuoi
cua digital tieng vi oan d lieu .
- Khoang chuyen tiep mau T
1
= 10 clock cycles = 0,49s, cua tn hieu hieu so
mau .
- Khoang chuyen tiep gia hieu so mau va choi T
2
= 5 clock cycles = 0,25s.
- Khoang chuyen tiep oan cuoi tn hieu choi T
3
= 6 clock cycles = 0,30s.
Khoang chuyen tiep en digital tieng/oan d lieu h = 1 clock cycles = 0,05s.
Thi gian truyen tn hieu cua bang tan goc BB mot dong nh sau :
1 dong = 64s = 1.296 clock cycles ,
1.296 clock cycles = 15.625 dong = 20,25 MHz (nhp ong bo)
He D
2
MAC tieu chuan co cac li the sau ay :
Giam cac xuyen nhieu ieu che gia tieng va mau, gia mau va choi .
0,4V
0,4V
0,5V
0,5V 0,5V
0,5V
Ch phat tren 1 tan so mang tieng (trong luc he PAL la 4) nen giam c
cong suat cung cap ve tinh va giam nho kch thc anten parapol tram thu
cuoi.
Nang cao chat lng tieng va hnh .
Tn hieu Video va Sound co the c ma hoa n gian .
Co the dung tng thch vi cac he phat trc tiep ma khong can giai ma rieng.
Co kha nang thay oi kch thc hnh anh bang cach thay oi t le nen .

2.3 BIEN OI SO TN HIEU VIDEO:
-Bien oi tn hieu video tng t thanh tn hieu video so (ADC) la qua trnh bien oi
thuan, con bien oi tn hieu video so thanh tn hieu video tng t (DAC) la bien oi
ngc. Trong he thong truyen hnh so co s dung rat nhieu bo bien oi ADC&DAC.
-Trong trng hp truyen hnh en trang, hnh anh c truyen i c bieu dien
bang mot tn hieu choi. Con oi vi truyen hnh mau th hnh anh c bieu dien bang 3
tn hieu hnh c ban la : o (R) ,Luc (G) va Lam(B). no co the c truyen bang 3 kha
nang sau:
Ba tn hieu video bang rong R, G, B
Mot tn hieu choi bang rong va hai tn hieu mau bang hep.
Mot tn hieu video mau tong hp (trong o cac tn hieu mau c ieu che bang
mot hoac hai tai mau.
-Khi bien oi tn hieu video mau tng t thanh tn hieu video mau so, ta co the
dung 2 phng phap sau ay:
+ Bien oi trc tiep tn hieu video mau tong hp NTSC, PAL, SECAM.
+ Bien oi rieng tng tn hieu video thanh phan (tn hieu choi Y, tn hieu so mau
R-Y&B-Y hoac cac tn hieu mau c ban (RGB ) va truyen ong thi theo thi hoac ghep
kenh thi gian.
-Khi bien oi rieng cac tn hieu thanh phan thanh tn hieu so se lam toc o bt tang
cao hn so vi bien oi trc tiep tn hieu video tong hp. Cach nay co u iem la khong
phu thuoc cac he thong truyen hnh tng t: NTSC, PAL, SECAM. Phng phap ma nh
vay se thuan tien cho viec trao oi chng trnh truyen hnh. Do ma rieng cac thanh phan
tn hieu mau, nen kh c nhieu qua lai. (Nhieu tn hieu lau mau va cac hai cua tai tan
mau)Phng phap nay u viet hn han phng phap bien oi trc tiep tn hieu mau tong
hp ( c cac to chc quoc te khuyen cao nen s dung).

2.4 NG DUNG ADC-DAC TRONG TRUYEN HNH
2.4.1 Bien oi tng t qua so:ADC
Nhiem vu cua bo bien oi ADC la bien oi tn hieu video tng t thanh tn hieu
video so tng ng. Qua trnh nay bao gom khau lay mau, lng t hoa va ma hoa. e
thc hien cac khau noi tren mot cach ung an, can han che bang tan tn hieu vao en tan
so gii han f
gh
(f
gh
<< f
sa
) va ong bo tat ca 3 khau tren. S o khoi cua mach ADC nh
sau:

Vao Ra

Loc thong
thap
Lay mau
co nh
Ma ADC
nhanh






1/ Mach loc thong thap e han che bang tan tng t vao
2/ Mach tao xung ong ho va xung lay mau ( xung hep dung e lay mau va ong
bo tat ca cac khau cua mach ADC.
3/ Mach lay mau
4/ Mach ma hoa nhanh (sap xep thch hp so nh phan cho moi mau va bidedens
tn hieu ri rac thanh tn hieu so lam viec c trong cac mach noi tiep , song song hay
noi tiep-song song.
Nhiem vu cua mach loc thong thap la ngan nga meo cheo (cac tn hieu khac nhau
chong len nhau). ac trng cua no phai c chon sao cho khong lam xuat hien meo tn
hieu tng t can lay mau. Do o mach loc can phai lam suy giam manh tn hieu ngoai
bang tan, co ac trng bien o eu va ac trng tuyen tnh ve pha trong bang tan tn hieu
can lay mau, ong thi can co ac tuyen thch hp cho bang tan tn hieu co ch.
2.4.2 Bien oi so qua tng t: DAC
Nhiem vu cua bo bien oi DAC la bien oi cac tn hieu di dang ma so thanh tn
hieu tng t tng ng. No bao gom cac qua trnh sau: Tao lai cac tn hieu vao, giai ma
va phan chia cac thanh phan c ban t pho cac tn hieu lay mau. Mach c ban cua DAC
nh sau:

Video so
Vid
eo






1/ Mach logic co nhiem vu tao lai tn hieu so vao.
2/ Mach giai ma so-tng t co nhiem vu bien tn hieu so thanh tn hieu ri rac
tng ng di dang cac xung co bien o thay oi.
3/ Mach tao xung lay mau va xung ong ho co nhiem vu tao ra xung lay mau va
ong bo cac qua trnh con lai trong DAC.
4/ Mach lay mau th cap co nhiem vu la kh nhieu (xuat hien do chuyen mach
nhanh au ra cua mach DAC).
5/ Mach loc thong thap e tach bang tan c ban cua tn hieu lay mau.
6/ Khuech ai tn hieu video ra.

2.5 GIAM TOC O BT CUA TN HIEU VIDEO SO
Neu s dung PCM tuyen tnh e bien oi so tn hieu video tng t th toc o bt se
rat cao, do o thiet b video so cung nh thiet b truyen dan so can co dai thong rat ln so
Xung lay mau
va xung nhp
Mach
logic
DAC Lay
mau
Loc thong
thap

Xung
lay mau
Tng t
1 6 5
3
4
2
Toc o chuyen ong
o
tng
phan
o phan giai
25Hz
256
vi bang thong tn hieu video tng t (10 lan). V ly do tren e so hoa toan bo kenh
truyen hnh , can phai giam thieu toc o bit tn hieu video so va giam bang tan cua tn
hieu so.
Ngi ta thay rang cac thong tin c truyen tren 2 dong ke nhau ch khac nhau rat
t. Tng t cung xay ra oi vi 2 manh (na anh) va 2 anh ke nhau. Do o e tao lai anh
mot cach ung an, khong nhat thiet phai truyen tat ca cac thong tin cha trong cac dong,
manh va anh lien tuc. ay la ac iem da tren luan c la trong tn hieu co hang chuoi
thong tin khong can thiet e khoi phuc lai hnh anh mot cac ung an va no c goi la d
tha. Hay noi mot cach khac, mot so thong tin nhat nh trong tn hieu video co the c
khoi phuc lai pha thu ma khong can truyen no pha phat.
Ngoai ra mot so ac iem sinh ly cua mat ngi co anh hng en viec xac lap cac
thong so cua he thong truyen hnh nh:
+ o nhay cua mat
+ Cac ac iem ve pho cua mat
+ Kha nang phan biet cua mat
+ o lu anh cua vong mac
Toan bo lng thong tin hnh anh ma mat ngi co the nhan biet c la co gii
han: trong o gia cac thong so cua hnh anh (nh so lng cc ai cac iem anh va bac
o tng phan), ton tai mot moi lien he chat che.
o phan giai hoan hao ch can thiet oi vi cac hnh anh tnh va no giam dan khi
ta tang toc o chuyen ong cua anh. Quan he gia hai ai lng (o phan giai anh va toc
o chuyen ong anh) tuan theo nh luat ng cong hyperbol. Tng t nh vay, ta co
quan he gia o phan giai anh va bac o tng phan, toc o chuyen ong cua anh va bac
o tng phan (Hnh ve).


Ngi ta thay rang tia thong tin ma mat ngi cam nhan c ch chieu mot phan
khong ln lam cua thong tin c truyen.
Noi chung co nhieu kha nang giam toc o bt tn hieu video so nh bang sau:

PCM
Tuyen tnh
DPCM
Co d bao
Ma chuyen
v
Noi suy
Nngoai suy
Ma thong ke Cac phng
phap khac
Giam tia thong tin
Tia thong tin ma mat ngi cam nhan c.
Bit
P(x
a
a. co nh




b. ieu khien
thch nghi
a. co nh




b. ieu
khien
thch nghi
-D bao
-Co ieu kien
-Ma co tre



a. co nh
-Karhunen
-Loeve
-Hadamar
-Cosinur
b. ieu
khien
thch nghi
-Chuyen v
-Chon cac he
so
a. lay mau
-ieu khien
thch nghi
b. Khong gian
thi gian
a. co nh
-Huffman
-Shannon-
Fano
b. ieu khien
thch nghi
a. ma
ng
bien
b. Ma co
giam o dai
t.
c.Ma dien
(mat).

c chia ra lam 4 nhom:
+ PCM tuyen tnh (ieu xung ma tuyen tnh)
+ DPCM : PCM phi tuyen hay ieu xung ma vi sai
+ Ma chuyen v (chuyen oi)
+ Ma noi suy va ngoai suy
PCM tuyen tnh oi hoi toc o bit cao . Cac loai ma (DPCM, ma chuyen v) s dung
cac ac trng thong ke anh va tn hieu video cung nh ac iem cua mat ngi e giam
toc o bit nhom th 2 da tren nguyen tac ch truyen mot so mau en pha thu va khoi
phuc lai cac mau khac (trc o) nh noi suy hoac ngoai suy.
Sau ay ta se xet mot so phng phap e lam giam toc o bit.


2.5.1 Phng phap DPCM
DPCM khong ma hoa thong tin co bien o moi mau, ma ch ma hoa thong tin co
bien o vai (bien o chenh lech) gia cac mau a cho va t d bao (c tao t cac mau
trc o). Phan tch thong ke ve phan bo bien o cac mau tng ng vi cac iem anh
(pixel) ve nguyen tac la phan bo eu, ngc lai phan bo ve o chenh lech bien o cac
iem anh co o thi hnh chuong xung quanh iem O.Neu da tren cac ac trng thong ke
anh, th s khac nhau nay noi chung la khong ln lam va e ma hoa no ch can giam so
bit la u (so vi viec ma hoa toan bo bien o lay mau).
Phng phap DPCM con s dung ac iem cua mat ngi (kem nhay cam vi mc
lng t co chenh lech ln ve o choi gia cac lng t hoa chenh lech nho) va cho phep
dung ac trng phi tuyen ve lng t hoa.
x
0
b
Xp
Xp
Xp
Xp
ep
ep
Mach bien oi tng t-so vi sai bao gom kenh hoi tiep va tn hieu d bao c tao
bang phng phap tng t hoac so.
Nguyen ly hoat ong nh sau:
Tn hieu video tng t vao la Xa(t) co bang tan (0fgh), c lay mau vi tan so
thch hp fsa; ket qua c chuoi cac mau Xn (n=1,2,). Mau xp c so sanh trong mach
tr vi tr so d bao x
p
(tao t mach d bao tren c s cac mau trc o). Hieu (goi la sai
so d bao). ep= x
p
- x
p
c lng t hoa va ma hoa , ong thi c dan en mach hoi
tiep (Sau khi cong trong mach cong tr d bao xp, ta co tr cua mau x
p
, khac vi mau x
p

ung bang meo lng t). Tr x
p
c dan en mach tao d bao va tong hp vi thong tin
( o) ve cac mau trc o, e tao d bao mau tiep theo.
Pha thu cung co mach tao d bao cung nh phan phat. Sau khi giai ma ep c
cong vao x
p
(nh mach cong); ket qua cho tr xp. Chuoi cac mau x
n
(sau khi loc) se tao
lai tn hieu tng t au vao xa(t).
Trong truyen hnh cac he DPCM c chia lam hai nhom:
+ DPCM trong manh (Intraframe DPCM)
Tn hieu d bao c tao t cac mau nam trong cung mot manh, ma mau c
bien oi nam tren cung mot dong quet (goi la ma gia cac pixel), cung vi cac dong quet
lan can (ma gia cac dong).
+ DPCM gia cac manh (Interframe DPCM)
Tn hieu d bao c tao tren c s cac mau cac manh ke nhau trc o.
Loai th nhat s dung khi x ly anh ong, co chat lng cao hn dung cho phat song
truyen hnh. Loai th 2 thch hp cho anh tnh (video-phone).
Sau ay la s o khoi mach ma hoa va giai ma DPCM:



- Nguyen ly hoat ong
Tn hieu video tng t vao la Xa(t) co bang tan (0fgh), c lay mau vi tan so
thch hp fsa; ket qua c chuoi cac mau Xn (n=1,2,). Mau xp c so sanh trong mach
tr vi tr so d bao x
p
(tao t mach d bao tren c s cac mau trc o). Hieu (goi la sai
so d bao).
ep= x
p
- x
p
c lng t hoa va ma hoa , ong thi c dan en mach hoi tiep
(Sau khi cong trong mach cong tr d bao xp, ta co tr cua mau x
p
, khac vi mau x
p
ung
bang meo lng t). Tr x
p
c dan en mach tao d bao va tong hp vi thong tin (
o) ve cac mau trc o, e tao d bao mau tiep theo.
Cong
Tao d
bao
Lay mau Tr Lng t Ma ADC
Tao d
bao
Loc thong
thap
Ggiai ma
ADC
Cong
Xa(t)
Xp
Xp
Pha thu cung co mach tao d bao cung nh phan phat. Sau khi giai ma ep c
cong vao x
p
(nh mach cong); ket qua cho tr xp. Chuoi cac mau x
n
(sau khi loc) se tao
lai tn hieu tng t au vao Xa(t).

2.5.2 Ma chuyen v (Trasfrom coding).







Trong he thong PCM&DPCM ngi ta can c vao thong tin ve bien o tn hieu;
con ma chuyen v th da vao viec chuyen en tn hieu mien thi gian sang mien tan so
nh phep bien oi Fourier, hoac bien oi bang cach khac co cung y ngha toan hoc, ma
khong ly giai ve vat ly mot cach ay u.
Ngi ta nhan thay theo chieu tang cua tan so, bien o cac thanh phan tn hieu
video giam dan tan so cao, v vay ta co the bieu dien cac thanh phan tan so cao bang
cac t ma ngan.
Thc te bien oi Fourier khong thch hp vi ac trng tn hieu so. Do o thng
s dung cac phep bien oi da tren cac ham khac e chuyen thanh chuoi hu han nh
thuat toan n gian. Bang cach nay co the giam toc o bt qua cac phep quay cac iem
anh tao tn hieu thanh anh khoi phuc.
Ngoai ra ngi ta con dung phng phap bien oi tuyen tnh gom cac bc sau ay:
1/ Chia anh thanh cac tieu anh.
2/ Bien oi tuyen tnh cac phan t (mau) cua tn hieu moi tieu anh (hoac bien oi
thanh tn hieu so va bien oi tuyen tnh tn hieu nay).
3/ Ma hoa cac phan t cua tn hieu.
S o mach ma hoa va giai ma nh sau:


P1 Y1 Y1 P1
P2 Y2 Y2 P2


Pn Yn Yn Pn



2.6 TRUYEN TN HIEU TRUYEN HNH QUA VE TINH
Tn hieu truyen hnh co the truyen qua ve tinh bang 2 phng phap:
- Tng t, nh ieu tan (FM)
- So, nh ieu che PSK (phase shift keng dch pha theo khoa).
Neu xet tren quan iem cong suat phat, th he thong so u viet hn he thong tng
t khi toc o bit 50MB/s. Theo quy nh quoc te WARC (Worl Administrative Radio
Conference), th o rong kenh ve tinh e truyen tn hieu truyen hnh bang K
u
(12GHz)
L
a
y

m
a
u

B
i
e
n

o
i

t
u
y
e
n

t

n
h

A
D
C

D
A
C

B
i
e
n

o
i

n
g

c

M
a
c
h

r
a

S(t)
Tn hieu
tng t
S(t)
Tn hieu
tng t
=180
0
=0
0
=90
0
t
t
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 =
0


F()
la 27MHz. o rong bang tan 27MHz cho phep truyen tn hieu so co toc o khoang
36MB/s. e truyen tn hieu truyen hnh so can s dung phng phap ma tiet kiem. Co the
dung hai kenh ong thi e truyen cac thanh phan tn hieu hnh, do o toc o bit toan bo
tia tn hieu co the nang gap 2 lan.
Cac he thong truyen qua ve tinh thng cong tac dai tan centimetre (cm), tan so c
GHz, v du bang K
u
: phat t mat at len ve tinh: 1414,5 GHz, phat t ve tinh xuong mat
at: 11,712,5GHz. Bien oi tn hieu t bang tan c ban len bang tan kenh truyen (cao
tan) thng c thc hien qua mot vai lan ieu che. au tien tn hieu video c ieu
che bang PSK (ma tiet kiem) vi viec s dung ieu che 2, 4 hoac 8 tr.
ieu che pha (phase modulation) da tren nguyen tac bien oi pha tai tan theo tn
hieu so:


e may thu nhan c 2 tn hieu tren (tn hieu phat song hanh tren 2 kenh ve tinh)
can phai tao lai pha ban au cua tai tan. Neu khong tao lai c pha ban au, may thu se
nhan thong tin sai. ieu nay co the xay ra khi ieu che pha trc tiep (s thay oi pha trc
tiep cua tai tan tng ng vi phan t nh phan). e khac phuc hien tng tren (khong xac
nh c pha ban au trong tn hieu thu) ngi ta s dung DPCM (ieu che vi sai), trong
o tn hieu so c anh xa qua pha vi sai:


Pha tai tan khong phu thuoc pha ban au. Phng phap nay oi hoi phai xac nh
thi gian mot phan t tn hieu ieu che (xac nh khoang cach ieu che). V vay no co the
s dung khi truyen ong bo, trong o s thay oi pha co the xuat hien ung trong cac thi
iem nhat nh. S thay oi pha la dch pha, xuat hien trong tn hieu ieu che gia au
cuoi 1 phan t tn hieu va bat au phan t tiep theo(hnh ve).
S thay oi pha trong tn hieu ieu che pha vi sai tai tan.
S thay oi pha co the xuat hien tai nhieu gia tr tc thi khac nhau cua tai tan
(hnh ve di) va do o xuat hien cac khoang nang lng gia sn trc va sn sau ac
tuyen ieu che, cho nen co the lam tang o meo tn hieu. e loai tr meo, can am bao
ong bo gia ac tuyen ieu che va tai tan.

S
1
(t)=A
0
sin (
0
t +
0
)
S
1
(t)=A
0
sin (
0
t +
0
+ )

i
=
n
-
n-1
.o th (b)
--- o th (a)

0
Tan

so
t

S thay oi pha 180
0
tai cac Mat o pho cua bc nhay pha
=180
0

tri tc thi cua tai tan. a. Bc nhay tai tan cc ai.
b. Bc nhay tai thi iem tai tan co gia tr 0.
Gia tr ieu che pha W bieu dien so lng vi sai pha
i
. e xac suat thu giong nhau
cua moi v sai pha
i
. e xac nh xac suat thu giong nhau cua moi
i
, can am bao
khoang cach co nh d gia chung:

d= 2 -----
W
Khi truyen cac tn hieu truyen hnh so qua ve tinh, thng dung ieu che pha 2, 4 va
8 tr (thng dung nhat la ieu che 4 tr).
e thc hien ieu che pha 4 tr, can xac nh kha nang 4 lan thay oi pha vi d=/2.
Moi lan thay oi pha se sap xep 1 oi symbol nh phan. Tn hieu ieu che so c chia
thanh oi bit e thay oi pha tai tan. Trong thc te, co the dung 2 loai sap xep nh vay (2
bien the cua ma ieu che). Trong trng hp sap xep nh tren, neu xuat hien sai pha do
nhieu, th ch b pha bo 1 bit. ieu che pha tai tan c thc hien theo 2 phan t so lieu
vi toc o nho hn toc o bit cua tn hieu. Cac ac tuyen tn hieu ieu che theo ca 2
bien the ma (cho tn hieu so) c cho tren hnh ve sau:




ac tuyen cac tn hieu ieu pha vi sai 4 tr.
a) Tn hieu ieu che so
b) Tn hieu ieu che theo loai A.
c) Tn hieu ieu che theo loai B.

Trng hp dung ma theo bien the B, tn hieu ieu che chiem o rong bang tan ln
hn so vi trng hp A. Ma B co ac tnh ong bo tot hn, v s thay oi pha xuat hien
moi oi bit truyen. Trong trng hp A, s lap lai nhieu lan oi bit 00 co the gay ra mat
ong bo gia may phat va may thu. Sc chu ng nhieu cua ca hai loai A, B la nh nhau,
nhng thap hn trng hp ieu che pha 2 tr, v khi pha vi sai (tai tin) nho i se lam thay
oi pha (do nhieu co tr nho hn).
c)
b)
a)
Bang cach tng t, co the tao ra tn hieu bang cach ieu che pha 2 va 8 tr. oi vi
ieu che pha 2 tr, s thay oi pha (d=) dung e sap xep symbol 0 va 1, con vi ieu che
pha 8 tr se co 8 tr khac nhau ve pha (cach nhau d=/4) va c sap xep cho moi 3 bit
tng ng.
ieu che pha cua tai tan (cao tan) vi tn hieu video c thc hien bang PSK. ieu
che va giai ieu che c thc hien trong mach chung, goi la modem (modem:
modulation-demodulation). Cac bo ieu che co the lam viec trong mach ieu che pha
tng t (co dch pha 90
0
) theo ac tuyen bnh phng va tong cac ac tuyen. No cung co
the lam viec bang chuyen mach co dch pha (ac tuyen tai tan va tong cac ac tuyen).
Co 3 phng phap giai ieu che cac tn hieu bang PSK: (1) t hiep bien
(autocorrelation), (2) hiep bien (correlation) va (3) lien ket (coherent) phng phap t
hiep bien xac nh pha vi sai tn hieu tai tan (gia cac pha sau vi nhau) bang cac phan t
tn hieu ieu che lien tiep. Phng phap hiep bien so sanh pha tn hieu thu vi pha cua 2
tn hieu (vuong goc vi nhau) tai tan chuan (tao t bo dao ong a phng). Phng phap
len ket, con goi la tach song ong bo, so sanh pha tn hieu thu vi pha tn hieu chuan (tao
t may thu). Phng phap nay co sc chu ng nhieu tren ng truyen ln nhat.

2.7 CONG SUAT MAY PHAT HNH TREN VE TINH:
Viec xac nh cong suat may phat tren ve tinhbao gom: Cong suat phat, o tang ch cua
anten, hieu suat cua tang ieu che, tieu hao nang lng cua cac linh kien ca he thong ,o
suy hao trong qua trnh truyen song tat ca cac yeu to tren can co nghien cu e co giai
phap thc hien he thong truyen hnh trong ieu kien toi u (V du e giam cong suat may
phat,phai co o tang ch cua Anten ln).
Trong he thong truyen hnh ve tinh, ieu quan tam au tien la cong suat may phat tren
ve tinh. Cong suat tai au vao may thu ve tinh c bieu dien nh sau:
P
N
. G
N
. G
O
.c
2

P
0 = ----------------------------

(4L)
2
.f
2
.S
Vi: - P
0
Cong suat tn hieu tai au vao may thu tren mat at.
- P
N
Cong suat may phat tren ve tinh.
- G
N
, G
O
:o tang ch cua anten phat va thu.
- L: Khoang cach gia anten phat va thu(km).
- C:Van toc anh sang(km/s).
- f:Tan so.
- S: He so ton hao.
- c
2
(4L)
2
.f
2
:o suy hao cua song trong chan khong.
Tai au vao may thu, ngoai tn hieu co ch con co nhieu (ngoai va noi bom thu), nhieu
c bieu dien bang nhiet o nhieu (T).Cong suat nhieu c tnhnh sau:
P
n
= k.T.B
Trong o: B:o rong bang tan may thu
T: nhiet o nhieu cua may thu
k :hang so Bman : k= 1,38.10
-23
Ws/
o
K

P
N
. G
N
. G
O
.c
2

( P
0
/ P
n
)
= ----------------------------------------

(4L)
2
.f
2
.S. k.T.B
ay la t so tn hieu tren tap amtai au vao may thu. T so tn hieu tren tap amtai au
ra may thu nh sau:
( P/ P
n
)
=
P
N
+ G
N +
G
O
+ G
M
F + 204 10lgB + 20lg(c/4pLf) S.
Vi : - P: Cong suat tn hieu tai au ra may thu.
- G
M :
he so ieu che.
- F
:
he so nhieu cua may thu.
Ta co the so sanh cac thong tnh toan cho nhieu phng an cua he thong truyen hnh ve
tinh( dai tan 12GHz , chat lng thu hnh anh cao, ( P
0
/ P
n
)
=
45dB) nh bang sau:

Stt Thong so Thu ca nhan Thu tap the
1 2 3
1 Dai tan cong tac (GHz) 12 12
2 Loai ieu che AM
(VSB)
FM AM
(VSB)
FM
3 (P/Pn)ra(dB) 45 45 45 45
(4) (P0/Pn)vao(dB) 45 18 45 18
(5) o rong bang tan may thu B (MHz) 6 28 6 28
(6) He so ieu che GM (dB) 0 27 0 27
(7) He so nhieu may thu F(dB) 9 9 6 6
8 Cong suat nhieu tai au vao may thu
Pn=10lgB-204 + F(dBW)
-127,2 -120,5 -130,2 -123,5
9 Cong suat can thiet cua tn hieu
au vao may thu Pvao=(P0/Pn)vao +
Pn(dBW)
-82,2 -102,5 -82,2 -102,5
(10) o tang ch cua anten thu G0 so vi
anten ang hng (dB)
38 38 49 49
11 Mat phang hieu dung cua anten thu
tren 1m2: 10lgA(dB)
-5 -5 + 7 + 7
12 Mat o song can thiet (cong suat)
tren mat at: -10lgA(dBW/m2)
-77m,2 -97,5 -92,2 -112,5
13 Cng o ien trng N(dB) so vi
1V/m
68,8
(2800
V/m)
48,5
V/m)
(260
V/m)
53,8
(490
V/m)
(14) o tang ch cua anten phat GN (so
vi anten ang hng) tai bien cua
vung phu song (goc m chum song
la 10)(dB)
41 41 41 41
(15) o giam suy cua moi trng
C
H=-20lg ______ (dB)
4Lf
L=400000km




206




206




206




206
16 To hao trong mach nguon, mach loc,
do nh hng antan khong hoan
hao: S1 (dB)
2 2 2 2
(17) Suy hao do ma ln (tng luc)
S2(dB)
4 4 4 4
18 Cong suat can thiet cua chum song
(dBW)
91,8 71,5 77,8 57,5
(19) Cong suat ra can thiet cua may phat
tren ve tinh (dB)
PN=Pvao GN G0 + H + S1 +
S2 (kW)
-100 -1 -5 -0,05

Hien nay cong suat ra cua may phat tren ve tinh thng nho hn 1kW (s dung bang
tan FM).
Neu goc ngang cua anten nho nhat la 25
0
, th gia tr mat o song can am bao cho viec
thu ca nhan (-136dBw/ m
2
/4kHz) ln hn 8Db so vi gia tr cc ai cho phep. He thong
truyen hnh giai tan 12GHz co the thoa man nhieu yeu cau va co nhieu u iem hn .

2.8 VE TINH VA CAC THIET B:
Nguyen nhan chnh cua viec han che kha nang at cong suat ln cua may phat va cac
thiet b tren ve tinh la nguon nang lng tren ve tinh.Hien nay chu yeu dung cac tam
quang ien ,vi mot tam co dien tch 0.007 m
2
,trong lng 0,05 - 0.1 kg. Co the cho cong
suat 1W (vi hieu suat la 10%). Ngoai ra khoang 5nam sau th hieu suat cua no giam en
20%.V the e co cong suat la 10kW th can mot dien tch hieu dung cua tam quang ien
la 70m
2
. ay la ieu gay kho khan ln cho cac nha thiet ke , phai lam sao cho tam quang
ien luon quay ve pha mat tri ong thi Anten phai hng ve trai at . ieu o co ngha
la neu tang cong suat nguon ien cung ong ngha vi viec tang gia thanh ve tinh.
Hien nay ngi ta at c ty so cong suat phat xa cua may phat tren cong suat nguon
la :1/4 1/5 .Thi gian song cua ve tinh t 5 en 10 nam . Cac nha chuyen mon thng
dung 2 phng an d phong :
+ Dung cac ve tinh d phong at san trong quy ao a tnh e thay the cac
ve tinh ang hoat ong khi co s co het tuoi tho .
+ Chuan b cac ve tinh thay the mat at e chuyen len quy ao khi can.
Phng an th hai re hn, nhng co the b gian oan. e cong suat phat xa 1W th
trong lng ve tinh t (1-2)kg, neu 1KW th trong lng ti 1tan.
ng knh cua Anten phat phu thuoc vao nhieu yeu to : o ln cua vung phu song,
tan so cong tac cua he thong. Trung bnh ng knh vung phu song la 700km, th goc m
cua Aten la 1
0
. Vi giai tan 12GHz dng knh Anten (parabol) phat co gia tr la 1,5 2 m
(o tang ch 43dB).
Trong nhieu trng hp, Anten phat cung c dung lam Atnen thu tn hieu truyen hnh
t mat at len. Tn hieu au ra cua khoi thu se c a vao mach ieu che cua may
phat hnh trong ve tinh.


Chng 3
MAY THU HNH TVRO

3.1 MOT SO KHAI NIEM CO LIEN QUAN GIA TRAI AT VA VE TINH
3.1.1. Kinh tuyen va V tuyen
Trai at c chia ra thanh cac kinh tuyen va cac v tuyen e xac nh v tr a ly
cua cac quoc gia, lanh tho hay mot v tr a ly cu the nao o
Cac ng kinh tuyen eu quy ve hai cc Bac Nam va c chia thanh 360
0
. Kinh
o goc c chon la ng i qua Greenwich (Anh), ni at ai thien van au tien ln
nhat. T kinh o (0
0
) ve hng ong bao gom 180
0
va ve hng Tay bao gom 180
0
Tay.
Cac ng v tuyen eu cat va ngang qua cac ng kinh tuyen. V o la ng xch
ao chia trai at lam hai phan: ban cau Bac va ban cau Nam. V o 90
0
N lay a cc
Bac (Bac cc) va 90
0
S lay a cc Nam (Nam cc). Cac ng kinh tuyen va v tuyen
c mo ta nh hnh ve sau:
Viet nam nam toa o 8
0
24
0
v Bac va 10
0
110
0
kinh ong.

Ha Noi la 21
0
04 v
Bac va 105
0
84 kinh ong. TP Ho Ch Minh 10
0
58 v Bac va 106
0
62 kinh ong.
3.1.2 a cc va a t
Cac ng kinh tuyen eu tap trung ve 2 a cc nen goi la Bac va Nam a ly. Con
la ban se ch hng Bac t trng cua qua at nen goi la Bac a t.

O
160
0
140
0
120
0
100
0
80
60
40
20 20
40
60
80
100
0
120
0
140
0
160
0
A
20
60
40
O V tuyen
20
0
Kinh tuyen
100
0
Xch ao






Do cac tram thu eu nam tren cac kinh tuyen va v tuyen a ly nen co s khac biet
vi hng a t mot goc , goi la goc lech.
Goc lech thay oi theo v tyen va kinh tuyen, hay cu the hn la no tang ty le vi v
o. V du vi v o 5
0
75
0
th goc lech 0,77
0
8,33
0
. Goc lech cua Ha noi 3
0
17 va TP
HCM 1
0
66.
3.1.3 Goc ngang (Elevation), Goc phng v (Azimith) va Goc phan cc (Angle of
polavisation)
Ba thong so can thiet va quan trong e xac nh ung toa o ve tinh va hng phan
cc cua no la goc ngang, goc phan cc va goc phng v. Thiet b co lien quan ti 3 thong
so nay la anten parabol va phan thu song.
3.1.3.1 Goc ngang (e)
- La goc tao thanh gia tiep tuyen tai iem thu mat at va ng noi
iem thu en ve tinh. c mo ta nh hnh ve:( Trang ben)
- Goc ngang tai xch ao ln nhat bang 90
0
va cang i ve hai cc th no
cang giam.
-Trong pham vi hep ta co the tam coi mat at ni at anten la ng tiep tuyen.
Cach tm hay dng goc ngang rat kho. Bi vay ta co the tm goc nghieng cua no e lap
at de dang hn. Ta tnh c goc ngang nh sau:
e = 90
0
goc nghieng (i)

Goc lech
La ban t tnh
O
0
V tuyen
90
0
Kinh tuyen Xch ao

Quy ao
a tnh

ng ngang song song vi mat
at
Goc ngang e
Mat phang at
i
d
Nord South


Goc nghieng tao bi mat phang mieng chao va mat at, nh hnh ve:










Goc lech (d) la goc thay oi theo v o va do s sai lech gia a cc vi a t nen
oi vi c cau do tm ong bo can phai tnh en goc nay e anten quay theo ung quy ao
ve tinh t ong sang Tay. Luc nay goc ngang c tnh:



Gia tr goc lech va goc nghieng c cho bang sau (theo t lieu cua tap ch Bu
chnh Vien thong 7/82):
Goc

Goc ngang
Xch ao
e = 90
0
[ goc lech (d) + goc nghieng (i)]
ng ngang song song vi mat at

Tiep tuyen ngang
Goc ngang e
( 90- e)

Goc nghieng: ( 90- e)
Mat phang at


V o Goc nghieng (i) Goc lech (d)
10
0
80 - TP.HCM 11,5 1,66
21
0
04 TP.HA NOI 21,48 3,17

Khi biet v o ni thu ta co the tm ra goc ngang.
3.1.3.2 Goc phng v (Azimith) [a]




Cac ve tinh eu treo tren quy ao a tnh nam trong mat phang xch ao. Moi mot
tram thu mat at ch co the nhn thay ve tinh na phan qua at, t kinh tuyen 0
0
180
0
.
Trong cac bieu o c lay chuan kinh tuyen 0
0
, re ve hng Tay va hng ong
90
0
. Thc te do s che khuat cua be mat trai at, ch con 70
0
ve hng Tay-ong.
Goc phng v la goc dan hng cho anten quay tm ve tinh tren quy ao a tnh
theo hng t ong sang Tay. Goc phng v c xac nh bi ng thang hng ti ve
tinh. (Nh hnh ve tren)
Goc c tnh theo chieu kim ong ho, theo cong thc:
a= 180
0
+ kinh o Tay
hoac a= 180
0
- kinh o ong
Goc phng v phu thuoc vao kinh o cua iem thu va kinh o cua ve tinh.
3.1.3.3 Goc phan cc
Goc phng v cua ve tinh 2
la: 180
0
-30
0
=150
0

30
0
45
0
Goc phng v cua ve tinh 1
la: 180
0
+45
0
=225
0

Cc
South
Ve tinh 2
Ve tinh 1


Khi ng truc tam chao parabol thu hng thang en tam bup song chnh cua
anten phat (Dowlink) cua ve tinh th mat chao anten thu se nhan c gan nh toan bo
nang lng cua chum song chnh trong mat phang phan cc. Neu nh anten thu nam lech
tam vi chum song chnh cua tn hieu ve tinh, hieu suat thu nang lng giam va con gay
ra cac tac hai khac nh lam meo dang tn hieu, tang tap nhieu. V vay can phai hieu chnh
lai goc phan cc bang au do phan cc au thu.

Goc phan cc cung thay oi theo v tuyen va kinh tuyen gia tam chum song bc
xa vi iem thu. Thong thng gia tr cua no c tnh san theo v o va kinh o.
Khi dung c cau ong bo e do tm tn hieu cac ve tinh tren quy ao c tn, neu
at cac goc khong ung th anten se khong bam theo ung quy ao a tnh. Trng hp
nay se khong thu c tn hieu cua tat ca ve tinh tren quy ao.

3.2 TRAM THU HNH VE TINH (TVRO-Television Receiver Only)
3.2.1 S o khoi
Tram thu hnh ca nhan TVRO co nhiem vu thu tn hieu t cac ve tinh a tnh, qua
x ly tn hieu giai ieu che va hoan tra lai dang ieu bien (analog) nh tn hieu truyen
hnh mat at e tng hp vi cac tivi gia nh.
Mot tram thu TVRO gom cac bo phan chnh sau ay:
Thiet b ben ngoai (Outdoor) gom:
* Chao anten parabol, ng knh chao t 0,6 6m, tuy thuoc vao bang tan
thu va cng o trng tai iem thu.
* Pheu thu song, ong dan song va que phan cc.
* Bo khuyech ai dch tan nhieu thap, LNA hay LNB.
* C cau ieu khien chao (Positioner) quay theo goc ngang va phng v.
* C cau ieu khien goc quay phan cc (Polarotor)
Thiet b ben trong (Indoor) gom:
* May thu TVRO
* Mach ien ieu khien goc quay cua Polarotor va Positioner
* Bo ieu khien t xa va bo nh.
S o khoi cua tram thu TVRO bieu th dai tan so va chc nang cua tng khoi.
Song c phan
cc phang tren
anten tam
vung c phu
song cua ve tinh
Song c phan
cc phang .
Song c phan
cc phang tren
anten ba
vung phu song
cua ve tinh
Goc phan cc .
Anten phat song
cua ve tinh .
2a





10.95 to 11.7 GHz | 0.95 to 1.7GHz | 134MHz
| AF
(11.7 to 12.1 GHz)
| Outdoor Unit | Indoor
Unit
S o khoi tram thu TVRO
Khoi ben ngoai gom anten parabol va bo dch tan LNB. Trong o:
(2a) la mach oi phan cc trc giao
(2b) la mach chuyen tan so SHF ve UHF
Dai tan lam viec cua khoi nay bang tan C (3,7 4 GHz) va bang tan Ku/SHF
(10,95 12GHz), dch tan xuong trung tan 1, IF
1
=0,95 1,7GHz.
Gia khoi ben ngoai va khoi ben trong la mach khuyech ai cap tuyen tnh (3), lam
viec giai tan so 0,95 1,7GHz.
Khoi trong nha gom bo khuyech ai trung tan (IF
2
distributor) co t 45 au phan
nhanh ngo ra (4), cho tn hieu RF Video va Audio. Khoi (5) la bo khuyech ai trung tan
may thu (IF receiver). No bao gom:
(5a): chuyen tan UHF xuong VHF = 134MHz, goi la trung tan 2 (IF
2
)
(5b): bo giai ieu che FM.
(5c): mach khuyech ai tn hieu ra VF + FM sound

Gain (dB) : 50 | Approx .50 | -20 | 0 |
|
0.95GHz : 15
11.7 GHz : 20
Level(dBm):-80 | -30 | -50 | -50 | 1V
PP
|
-55 to 30 -55 to -30

SHF

UHF
SHF

onverte
Cable
Amplifier
IF
distributo
Receiver
unit
Video+sound
(Basebend)
SHF

UHF
SHF

UHF
2b 3 4 5
AF
Stereo
1
6.6/6.6/6.65
5 MHz

Mc tn hieu cua tram thu TVRO

S o khoi mo ta mc tn hieu cung tai iem thu mat at cho phep vi tram thu ca
nhan TVRO vao khoang 130dBw/m
2
. Sau khi anten khuyech ai 50dB, nang mc tn
hieu en ngo vao LNB la 80dB. o li cua bo khuyech ai dch tan khoang 50dB, nang
mc tn hieu ngo ra la 30dB. ng day cap truyen tn hieu 0,951,7GHz t khoi ben
ngoai en khoi ben trong, suy giam tn hieu den 20dB (mc cho phep). Neu ng cap
truyen dai qua 100ft th can phai co mach khuyech ai cap tuyen tnh. Tuy theo o dai
cap ma bo khuyech ai cap phai bu ton hao, thong thng o li cho phep t 1520dB. Do
vay mc tn hieu sau bo khuyech ai cap co gia tr t -55 -30dB. ay lay mc chuan
50dB. Tn hieu qua mach trung tan phan nhanh (distributor) khong b suy giam, nen mc
a en ngo vao may thu t -55 -30dB, lay chuan 50dB. Mc tn hieu ngo ra c
tieu chuan hoa mc nh 1Vp-p. ay la mc tn hieu tong hp Video + Sound cua bang
tan goc Baseband.
S o khoi mo ta cach x ly tn hieu hnh va tieng sau bang tan goc Baseband.Trang
sau:




S o khoi mach x ly tn hieu Baseband

4
4
7
7
5
5
3
3
7.02
7.02
Left
Right

SHF



2 4
Baseband
10Hz to 8MHz
VF
RF
A
B
3
5 6 4
Khoi A la khoi chnh bao gom tn hieu Video va mono Audio.
Khoi B la khoi phu, ch co tn hieu tieng stereo.
Dai tn hieu t 10Hz8MHz bang tan goc qua bo chia (1) tach ra 2 ng tn hieu
Video va Mono Audio.
Tn hieu Audio c lay ra t mach loc thong thap (2) co tan so t 0 en 5 MHz,
qua mach khuyech ai Video (4), a ra tn hieu VF dung cho TV.
Tn hieu Audio t mach phan nhanh (1), qua mach loc thong dai cho tan so tieng
(3), co 3 tan so mang 6,5MHz, 6,6MH, 6,65MHz (tuy theo he), en mach giai ieu che
FM (5), qua mach giai nhan (Deemphasis) (6), en mach khuyech ai tieng (4), a tn
hieu AF mono Audio ra tang khuyech ai cong suat loa. ng stereo tieng t mach phan
nhanh tach ra 2 ng Left va Right.
ng Left, qua mach loc thong dai (3) e loc tan so mang tieng 7,02MHz, en
mach giai ieu che (5), en mach gai nhan c kiem tra bang mach gian (7), roi en
mach khuyech ai(4) e cho ra tn hieu Left AF.
ng Right, qua mach loc thong dai (3) e loc tan so mang tieng 7,02MHz, roi
c giai ieu che, giai nhan, khuyech ai e cho ra tn hieu Right AF.
3.2.2. Anten va pheu thu song
3.2.2.1 Chao parabol.
Nang lng bc xa t anten parabol tram phat (Dowlink) co bup song rat
hep va cng o trng tai iem thu cc ky nho, khoang 1pw hay nho hn.
e nhan tn hieu cc nho va co bup song rat hep ay can phai dung anten
parabol co o li vao khoang 50dB mi cap u mc tn hieu lam viec cho bo khuyech ai
dch tan LNB (-80dB=10pw).
Vat lieu che tao anten thng dung la nhom la va li kim loai phu nha.
Li kim loai dung cho bang tan C, ng knh cac lo phai nho hn 5mm. Con bang Ku
th phai dung nhom tam, khong uc lo.
Pheu thu song phai at ung vao tieu iem cua chao. Gan lien vi pheu la
ong dan song, que do phan cc va bo LNB.
Anten con co gia chac chan, chu c sc gio en 120 Km/h.
Anten parabol co 3 dang cau truc: oi xng, lech tam va phan xa 2 lan,nh
hnh ve. Anten oi xng c thong dung nhat v de lam va de lap at, can chnh.
d









Cac chum song ti theo phng song song ap vao long chao roi c phan xa
lai, tap trung vao pheu thu song at tai tieu iem chao.
a. Cac thong so cau truc
Kch thc va cau truc anten co quan he chat che vi thong so cua no la o li.
3 thong so ve kch thc anten co tnh chat quyet nh en thong so cua no la:
* ng knh mieng chao parabol (D)
* Be sau cua long chao (d), c tnh t tam ti mieng mat chao.
* Tieu c cua chao (F), c tnh t tam chao en tieu iem cua no.
3 kch thc tren co quan he vi nhau theo cong thc:

D
2

F = ________
16d

Thong so quan trong nhat la ng knh chao anten.
ng knh D phu thuoc vao 3 yeu to:
- Bc song cua bang tan lam viec, ay la bang C va Ku.
- Cng o trng EIRP tai iem thu, c cho cac catalog cua tng ve tinh
hoac co the tnh c theo cac thong so ve cong suat phat (Dowlink) cua ve tinh (P hoac
EIRP), ve khoang cach t ve tinh en iem thu, ve cac ton hao tren ng truyen
- o li cua anten , co the xac nh c theo cng o trng EIRP tai iem
thu va o nhay ngo vao cua tang khuyech ai dch tan LNB.
Phan xa Phan xa Phan xa
Tiep song
Tiep song
Tiep
song
Phan xa phu
F
D
a) c) b)
d)
a) Dang oi xng
b) Dang phan xa 2 lan
c) Dang lech tam
d) Kch thc anten
o li anten cua bang C va Ku bien ong t 32 dB en 60dB. Vi cng o trng
EIRP nh Viet nam (35dBw) th o li anten vao khoang 38dB la co the chap nhan
c.
Sau khi a chon c ng knh D (hay mua chao co san tren th trng) th chon t
so F/D thch hp. T so F/D phu thuoc vao o rong chum song mep ra vanh chao hay
goc m (aperture) cua chum song phat ra t tam pheu hng song (feedhorn). T so F/D
nho, co ngha goc m ln, se lam tang tap nhieu mat chao phan xa. Con F/D ln, goc
m luc nay nho, se lam giam o li anten.
T so nay con cho phep anh gia c hieu suat anten. Thc te cho thay nang
lng phan xa mep ra vanh chao giam hn long chao, mac du a dung 3 en 4 vong
tron ong tam gop song at mieng pheu, co the ieu chnh c. Do hieu ng phan xa
lai cua chum song nen khi chon o li cc ai th mc nang lng thu c ra vanh
chao se nho hn 10dB so vi tam chao, luc nay bup song chnh se co them mui phu. e
khong co mui phu th mc nang lng vanh chao se nho hn tam chao la 20dB, luc nay
o li se giam.
V vay t so F/D thng c chon t 0,30,5.
Sau khi a chon t so F/D va D a biet th se tm c o sau d roi ieu chnh lai
oi chut trong luc th nghiem.
b. Cac thong so ien
* o li G: thong so quan trong cua anten la o li G, no phu thuoc vao
bc song va tiet dien mieng chao (hay ng knh D). Hay noi mot cach khac la no phu
thuoc vao goc m hay o rong cua bup song.
o li anten c tnh theo cong thc gan ung sau ay:

27.000 30.000
G = ______________

, la o rong bup song chnh c tnh mc 3dB cua mat ngang va mat
ng bup song.

Gia tr , se tang khi:
- ng cong parabol cua chao khong ung
- Vat lieu va ket cau anten, be mat long chao khong tot, gay ra nhieu bup
song phu, giam nh hng bup song chnh
- Truc chao anten chnh cha ung hng ve tinh
- ng knh anten giam, theo gia tr o rong cua bup song chnh a cho bang
sau, c tnh bang tan Ku.
ng knh anten
(m)
o rong bup song chnh mc
3dB (
O
)
0,5
1,0
1,2
1,5
1,8
2,0
2,5
3,43
1,72
1,46
1,14
0,97
0,96
0,69
3,0 0,57

Bi vay khi goc , nho se ong ngha vi tnh nh hng cua anten tot, lam tang
o li va giam c tap nhieu.
o li con co the tnh c theo bc song va kch thc anten theo cong thc:

k
ef
4S k
ef
(D)
2

G = _________ = __________

2

2


Trong o:
D
2

s= ______ :la tiet dien
4
D la ng knh chao
k
ef
la he so hieu dung


la bc song lam viec

He so k
ef
thng lay gia tr 0,65. No bieu th cho nang lng phan xa co ch cua
long chao anten. Thong so nay phu thuoc vao cac yeu to sau:
- o chnh xac cua mat parabol
- He so phan xa cua mat parabol
- Cac ton hao trong ket cau anten nh feedhorn, gia , sn phu day hay hat
bui ln
- iem hoi tu cua cac tia phan xa khong ung tieu c
Gia tr hieu dung theo ng knh chao, c tnh bang Ku theo bang sau:

ng knh Gia tr hieu dung (%)
anten (m) 55% 60% 65% 70% 75%
0,5 33,4 33,8 34,1 34,4 34,7
0,6 35 35,3 35,7 36 36,3
0,8 37,5 37,8 38,2 38,5 38,8
1,0 39,4 39,8 40,1 40,5 40,8
1,2 41,0 41,4 41,7 42,0 42,3
1,4 42,3 42,7 43,1 43,4 43,7
1,5 42,9 43,3 43,7 44,0 44,3

* Tap nhieu nhiet
Tap nhieu nhiet phat sinh anten do cac nguyen nhan sau:
- Do chuyen ong nhiet cua cac phan t moi trng xung quanh anten, gan mat
at
- Do nhieu cua cac tia phan xa vanh chao
- Do goc ngang qua nho
Nhieu nhiet c tnh theo nhiet o tuyet oi T, qua cong thc:

Pn
T(
O
K) = ______
K
B
Ff

Nhiet o nhieu T co anh hng en o li anten, qua t so G/T.
V du, vi ng knh chao D=1,8 3,6m th he so G/T = 15 20,5 dB/K.
Nhiet o nhieu T con anh hng en chat lng hnh qua t so C/T.
V du vi Asiasat ve cac thong so o co gia tr nh sau:
Nhieu vao song mang tram Uplink (C/T)
u
= -126 dBw/K
Nhieu vao song mang tram Downlink (C/T)
d
= -143,2 dBw/K
Nhieu gia thoa vao song mang (C/T)
i
= co gia tr nho.
* He so song ng VSWR
Nguyen nhan phat sinh song ng la do co mot so tia song phan xa cach xa tam
long chao chenh lech ve khoang cach vi chum song chnh tam chao khi tap trung ve
tieu iem. Thi gian chenh lech ay lam cho sai pha gay nen song ng. Ngoai ra con do
long chao go ghe, meo mo va do gia pheu gay nen. T so cho phep khong vt qua 2,0.
Gia tr lam viec trong pham vi cho phep VSWR=1,5/1.
Bi v pheu thu song va thu cac song phan xa t be mat chao ong thi phai phan
biet cac loai song phan c ng hay ngang, quay vong phai hay trai. Co the a thong so
cach ly nay vao ch tieu cua ca chao anten. Gia tr cua o phan biet nay (isolation) khong
nho hn 25dB.
Con mot thong so na la o suy hao phan xa tr ve pheu cua cac tia phan xa phu
khong nho hn 15dB.
ieu khong c quen la tn hieu en be mat chao cc ky nho, nen can phai gi
long chao sach se. Vi lp bui co hat c 0,1mm se lam giam o li en 3%, hat to en
1mm se lam giam o li en 20%.
Vat lieu lam chao tot nhat la nhom, nha deo phu nhom hay li kim loai khong g
phu nha mong. No se cho gia tr ve o li, hieu suat va t so song ng tot nhat.

Chao parapol cua hang Toshiba (Nhat) lam viec bang C
o li (dB) Hieu suat (%) T so VSWR ngo
ra anten
Vat lieu che tao
38,05
37,95
37,50
37,25
75,60
73,90
68,10
68,90
1,20
1,25
1,18
1,18

Nhom
Li kim loai phu chat deo
Li nhom phu chat deo Chat
deo phu nhom

Chao parabol cua hang Spacelab (ai loan) lam bang nhom phu nha

Kieu KSA-
3406
KSA-
3408
KSA-
3410
KSA-
3412
KSA-
3416
KSA-
3420
Thong so
ng knh(ft) 6 8 10 12 16 20
o li gia bang
(dB)
36 38 39,8 41 43 45
T so F/D 0,4 0,395 0,395 0,395 0,4 0,4
Tieu c (inch) 28,8 38,4 48 57,6 76,8 96
Tuyen tnh hay quay vong Phan cc
Nhiet o lam viec -30
0
C en + 55
0
C
3.2.2.2 Pheu thu song Feedhorn











S
Tete SHF Tete SHF
S
Focal
Microware
a) Pheu hnh loa
c) Song ti va phan xa
b) Pheu hnh vanh
khuyen
Cng o trng se quyet nh en o li hay ng knh anten. Theo anten thng
mai cua cac nc, vi mc EIRP=3236dBw (Asiasat 1), co the dung ng knh anten co
o li trung bnh theo bang sau:

Thong so Bang C Bang Ku
D (m) 1,2 1,8 3 0,6 1,5
G (dB) 34 36,7 41 37 43

Thc te cho thay, ng knh anten 1,8m se nhan c hnh anh tot.

Pheu thu song gom co pheu va ong dan song c gan chung vi bo dch
tan LNB nh mo ta hnh ve.
Vanh pheu co dang hnh loa hay dang hnh vanh khuyen. Pheu hnh vanh
khuyen c dung pho bien hn hnh loa. No c uc bang nhom co t 3 en 4 vong,
long vao ong dan song e co the di ong theo ung tieu c cung vi ong dan song.
Cac vanh khuyen ay co nhiem vu thu gom nang lng phan xa t long chao
vi cng o trng rat nho (khoang di mot picrowatt) a vao ong
dan song. Cac tia song ti long chao roi phan xa lai, tap trung vao pheu at tai tieu iem
nh hnh ve.
Ong dan song co dang hnh tru, ben trong c khoet tron va hnh ch nhat
e co the va thu c song ien trng va t trng. No c uc bang hp kim nhom
hay bang gang, mat trong phai c x ly nhan bong e giam ton hao nang lng. Pha
cuoi ong la bien ap module khong ton hao nang lng nham phoi hp gia ong dan song
vi que do at ngay tai bien ap e truyen nang lng en ngo vao LNB.
Que do co the thu nang lng ien t trng, hoac la phan cc ngang (H)
hay phan cc ng (V), hoac la phan cc tron quay phai (R) hay quay trai (L). Loai c
gan co nh vao feedhorn co dang ch thap, nen khi tm phan cc th quay ca feedhorn.
Loai nay phai ieu chnh bang tay dung trong tram thu TVRO ch bat song cua 1 ve tinh.
Neu muon tm song cua mot ve tinh khac lai phai quay tm phan cc lai cung vi
feedhorn.
Loai dau do di ong thng co hnh moc cau, quay tron c trong ong dan
song. No c lam quay bang he thong Palarotor, ieu khien t may thu TVRO. Phng
phap ieu khien bang xung cua mach logic TTL. o rong xung rat hep, t 0,652,2s, chu
a) Ong dan song tron TE11 (Cong phan cc tron)
Polar Axis
45
0
E

H
E

V
E
h
E
V
X

Y
Phng phan cc
45
0
45
Feedhorn
Dish
b) Ong dan song ch nhat
(Cong phan cc ch nhat)
b) at feed horn lech
45
0
so vi truc polar
ky xung vao khoang 18s. Nguon cap cho Palarotor thng dung mc 5VDC, dong tieu
thu t 300500mA.
Khi chum nang lng chay trong ong dan song se tao nen trng ien t
theo tam cua chum song. Cac ng sc cua ien t trng se trc giao nhau. Neu xet
rieng ve ien trng trong ong dan song tron, ta co cac ng sc nh hnh (a). Khi cong 2
song phan cc ng va phan cc ngang lai se cho mot phan cc tong, vi goc lech la 45
0

so vi ca 2 loai kia. oi vi ong dan song hnh ch nhat cung se co dang phan cc tng
t nh hnh (b).
Do vay nen khi tien hanh lap at, at feed horn sao cho truc cua no phai
lech 45
0
so vi truc polar nh hnh (c ). S d at lech 45
0
nh vay la e feedhorn co the
va thu c song phan cc ng va phan cc ngang trong luc mi bat au tm song. Sau
o tuy theo dang phan cc cua song ve tinh ma ieu chnh lai. Mat khac, at lech nh vay
e cho goc quay phan cc at mc toi a 135
0
(trong luc goc quay phng v co the quay
c 140
0
) e quet tron mat phang phan cc ng va ngang.
Loai au do bang thanh ferrite at trong ong dan song c thay oi goc phan cc
bang dong ien t ma khong can lam quay au do. Phng phap nay lam thay oi phan
cc bang cach lam thay oi cng o trng chay trong ong dan song co at thanh ferrite.
No c nhiem t e lam thay oi goc pha cua tam chum song. Nguon ien cung cap
thng dung +5VDC vi dong tieu thu nho, khoang 3050mA.
Trong phan nay thay can phai noi ro them ve phan cc tuyen tnh va phan cc
quay tron.
Nh a biet, cng o trng chay tron anten (thng la dong ien) thay oi se tao
ra ien t trng chay xung quanh no. Neu anten at thang goc vi be mat trai at th cac
ng sc ien trng thang goc vi mat at, goi la phan cc ng. Con cac ng sc
cua t trng nam trong mat phang trc giao vi mat phang cha cac ng sc ien
trng. Khi dong ien oi cc th trng tnh ien gan b triet tieu, con cac ng sc xa
anten lai b mac ket trong khong gian, nen khong b triet tieu va tao thanh trng tnh
ien thay oi theo s tang trng hay b triet tieu cua trng. Trng nay c bc xa
trong khong gian. Khi cac ng sc cua ien t trng bien oi va gi nguyen v tr tng
oi gia chung vi nhau trong qua trnh di chuyen th goi la phan cc tuyen tnh.
Phan cc tron c tao ra bang cach phat i 2 ng phan cc tuyen tnh trc giao
nhau nhng lech pha vi nhau mot goc 90
0
. Tuy theo cc cua goc lech pha e tao ra chieu
quay phai hay trai.
Trong cac tram thu TVRO at tien ngi ta ieu khien goc phan cc bang mot
qua bo polarotor co mach ieu khien at trong may thu TVRO nh hnh ve.

SATELLITE RFCEIVER
SERVO
Bo ieu
khien phan
cc
Polarotor
mot so tram thu TVRO, thc hien ieu khien phan cc va bang polarotor c kh
va dong ien t qua ferrite.
Ngoai ra con co cac loai au do oi, chung c noi vi nhau qua chuyen mach.
Loai nay phai dung 2 ng cap cho 2 cc tnh V-H rieng re. No dung e thu a kenh rat
tien li, co the va thu vai ve tinh cung mot luc vi nhieu chng trnh khac nhau.
Ba phan t gom pheu, ong dan song va bo quay que do phan cc can phai am bao
3 tnh nang trong gii han cho phep sau ay:
- Kha nang tach phan cc : >20dB (typ)
- T so song ng SVWR : < 1,4/1 (1,25 typ)
- o suy hao cac song phan xa lai = -15dB (-20dB typ)
Trong thc te mot so feed horn thng mai at gia tr cao hn oi chut.
- Kha nang tach phan cc (isolation) : >25dB (gia V va H)
- T so song ng VSWR = 1,18 1,25
- o suy hao song phan xa lai (return): >-15dB
- Ton hao do nhieu nghch ao (invertion)= 0,001dB
Toan bo feed horn, LNB va servo motor c treo ben tren long chao (tieu iem)
parabol bang cach gia chac chan theo 2 kieu sau ay:
+ Neu loai ieu chnh phan cc bang tay hay bang dong ien t th thong thng
bang mot ong sat uon cong giong nh dang co co.
+ Neu loai ieu chnh bang mot, can phai co bo gia chac chan gom t 3 en 4
thanh .


Gia va cum feed horn nam ngay tieu iem a lam can tr song truyen va lam
tan xa cac tia song phan xa t be mat long chao gay nen ton hao nang lng chum song
chnh vao khoang 1,2dB.
3.2.2.3 Tru va gia anten
Chao anten phai c nh v thang ng tren be betong chac chan. Can
phai tnh them trong lng tang len khi gap gio manh va bao ln. Vi sc gio 40m/s
(144km/h) se lam tang trong lng chao len 100kg. Tru c lam bang thep ong day
co pha kem khong g. ng knh va chieu cao ong phu thuoc vao ng knh chao theo
bang sau:

Gia kieu
co co
Gia kieu 4
thanh
d
Loai n nang
Loai ong bo
Loai dung mo t
Position
ng knh chao 0,90m 3,00m
ng knh ong 0,50cm 1,40cm
Chieu cao ong 0,60m 1,20m

Tru phai co thiet b chong set va tiep at tot. ien tr tiep dat cho phep khoang 1
() typ.
Co the lam he thong day at rieng bang day ong hay nhom 3mm. Phan chon sau
di at 10cm bang tam v sat day hay cac khoanh day ong co dien tch khoang 1m2, at
ni am t hay co nc. Neu chao at tren nha cao tang th co the han chac vao cot ong
nc bang sat pha kem roi noi vi vai ba tru sat chon xuong at.
Gia chao co 2 loai: loai n nang va loai a nang.
* Loai n nang ch co kha nang do bat tn hieu cua mot ve tinh nam tren quy
ao a tnh. No ch quay tm c goc ngang va goc phng v cua mot toa o a cho.
Loai nay co ky hieu thng mai la A
z
E
i
(Azimuth-Elevation).


























- Loai a nang co c cau quay ong bo. Co the nang len xuong e tm goc ngang,
quay tm goc a cc, va quay goc phng v bam theo mat phang xch ao. Khi thay oi
goc phng v th goc ngang cung thay oi theo mot cach ong bo nh c cau ac biet.
Loai nay co the quay tay roi vt co nh, anh dau e nh v tr.
Trong cac tram ln, anten co ng knh t 1012 feets th phai dung mot qua
bo ieu khien Positioner dung nguon DC 24V hay 36V/3A.
Mach ieu khien t xa at khoi trong nha, no co the ieu khien quay tm ve tinh
mot cach t ong ong bo t 70
0
Kinh ong en +70
0
Kinh Tay. Sau moi lan do tm het
cac ve tinh t ong sang Tay tren quy ao a tnh.


3.2.3 Bo khuyech ai dch tan va may thu TVRO
Bo khuyech ai dch tan nhieu thap LNB va may thu TVRO la 2 thiet b
chu yeu e x ly tn hieu thu t ve tinh .
3.2.3.1 Mach tien khuyech ai va dch tan
Tn hieu ve tinh c quy nh cho thu TVRO (ca nhan) la 130dBw. Sau
khi qua anten khuyech ai 50dB (typ), mc tn hieu en ngo vao LNB: -80dB. o li cua
LNB trong gii han chuan =50dB (typ) va toi thieu =48dB (min). Mc tn hieu ngo ra: -
30dBm/75 1w.
Mc tn hieu ngo vao : -80dB 10 picowatts la cc ky nho, co the b tap
nhieu lan at. Cho nen ch tieu quan trong cua tang nay la he so tap nhieu, c tnh theo
dB hay nhiet o tuyet oi Kenvin. e khuyech ai c tn hieu cc nho nay , tang au
LNB phai dung linh kien co he so tap nhieu rieng F
0
rat nho, khoang t 1,2 2dB. Cac
linh kien thng dung la FET co tap nhieu F
0
nho. FET co diode Shottky, hay diode Tunel
co he so nhiet am. Co the ke ra vai loai FET sau ay:
Hang Mitsubishi: MGF1403 (F
0
=1,8dB, MGF1405, MGF1425 (F
0
=1,4dB)
Hang Siemens: CF18-18 (F
0
=1,8Db, cfy18-20 (F
0
=2dB)
Trong cac bo dch tan LNB thng mai, he so tap nhieu tuyet oi c ghi la Noise
figure, cho phep t 23
0
K 75
0
K. Gia tr
0
K cang nho, tap nhieu cang thap. Cac loai LNB
loai chat lng trung bnh t 45 75
0
K nh cua Nga, ai Loan. Cac loai LNB tot nhat hien
nay nh cua My va Nhat , nhiet o nhieu at en 23
0
K. V vay, moi khi can mua LNB th
phai biet c nhiet o nhieu ghi nhan LNB.
tram thu hnh co 2 loai: dch tan 1 lan (Single down) va dch tan 2 lan (Block
down).
Loai dch tan 1 lan dung bo khuyech ai dch tan LNA (Low noise
amplifier) oi tan t 3,74,2GHz xuong 70MHz. Tn hieu t LNA khuyech ai roi truyen
qua cap RG213/U dai 10ft (3m05), en bo Down converter e cho ra tan so 70MHz a
vao may thu.
Loai dch tan 2 lan dung bo khuyech ai dch tan LNB (Low noise block
down-converter) thc hien oi tan lan th nhat:
T bang C (3,74,2GHz) xuong 0,951,45GHz
T bang Ku (10,9512,75GHz) xuong 0,951,75GHz
Tn hieu 9501450MHz ngo ra LNB truyen qua cap dai 125ft (38m) a b ton hao
17,5dB (vi cap RG59/U, 1GHz, dai 100ft, ton hao 14dB), nen phai c bu ton hao
bang tang khuyech ai tuyen tnh KSL-10 vi o li 10dB, qua bo phan nhanh KSP-2,
chia 2 ng cho 2 may thu. Tai may thu tn hieu se c dch tan lan th 2. Tan so dch
tan lan th 2 theo quy nh cua moi nc va tuy theo bang tan C hay Ku. Tan so trung tan
nay thng c dung nhieu la 140MHz cho rieng bang C, va 479,5MHz cho ca 2 bang C
va Ku. Tan so dch tan thng c goi la trung tan (IF). Trung tan 2 (IF
2
) thng lay sau
bo phan nhanh cua bang tong hp Video-Audio, goi la bo IF Distributor.
Bo dch tan LNB co dang hnh ch nhat c hoan toan boc kn, ch cha 2 au nhan
va a tn hieu ra. au nhan tn hieu c ghep noi vi ong dan song, au lay ra bang
jack cai F (Female).
Mach ien trong LNB c cau tao bang thong so phan bo, ket cau chnh xac, chac
chan va c bao ve hoan hao e tranh ma am, bui va rung ong c. Khong the o ac
bang phng phap thong thng, bi vay khong nen tuy tien thao ra kiem tra. Can tranh
va cham va khong e gan ni co t trng manh, nhiet o cao.
Mach tien khuyech ai va dch tan nhieu thap (LNA va LNB) tuy c thiet ke
chung trong mot khoi , nhng co the phan biet thanh hai phan: mach tien khuyech ai
nhieu thap LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) va mach dch tan so nhieu thap ( LNB (Low
Noise Blockdownconverter), bao gom mach ngoai sai, mach tron tan. Toan bo mach LNA
va LNB c thiet ke chung trong mot khoi va at sat ngay anten (nguon ien c cung
cap rieng). Tn hieu au ra la tn hieu FM vi tan so khoang 1 GHz. Tn hieu nay c
dan bang cap en khoi thu ve tinh (at gan may thu hnh trong nha).S o khoi nh sau:

Mach dch tan so nhieu thap (LNB)la mach vao cua khoi thu sieu cao tan(KTSCT).
Mach LNB va Anten thu quyet nh o nhay cua KTSCT.
Bien ap Module (nam gia ong dan song va day dan dai) , a tn hieu (khong suy
giam) t ong dan song vao day dan dai (day dan sieu cao tan di dang mach in).Nh
hnh sau:

11.7 12,56
Hz
0,9 1,7556
Hz
LNA
Loc
thong
dai
Tron

Khuech ai
trung tan
Ngoai sai
10GHz
Bien ap
Module
Teflo en day dan
Vao ong dan song
Mach khuech ai vao la phan rat quan trong , quyet nh chat lng thu tn hieu .
Mach thng dung trasistor trng nhieu thap . Mach khuech ai vao thng dung 2 ti 3
tranzito co o khuech ai chung 18 25 db va he so nhieu 1,2 2 db.
He so nhieu va o khuech ai cua mach nay quyet nh he so nhieu toan bo mach
dch tan . He so nhieu hieu dung F
ef
cua N mach 4 cc c tnh bang cong thc Friis:


Trong o F
I
va K
I
la he so nhieu va o khuech ai cua mach 4 cc th i.
T cong thc tren ta suy ra : Neu o khuech ai cua mach 4 cc th nhat u ln ,
th nhieu cua no quyet nh bi thanh phan nhieu ( Vi ieu kien he so nhieu tat ca cac
mach 4 cc la nh nhau ) cua tat ca cac mach 4 cc .
3.2.3.2 Khoi thu ve tinh:
Khoi thu ve tinh (Satellite receiver) co chc nang bien oi loai ieu che FM
thanh AM cho thch hp vi may thu hnh thong dung. Khoi thu ve tinh c thiet ke
chung trong mot hop nh may ghi hnh video cassette. Tai ay co the ieu chnh viec chon
kenh ve tinh, ieu chnh goc phng v, ieu chnh phan cc cua anten. S o nh sau:
Trong nhieu thiet ke hien nay, ngi ta dung iot Shottky cho mach tron tan (he
so nhieu 9-11 dB). Mach tron tan co bang tan rong (khong co kha nang tinh chnh), no cho
F
ef
= F
1
+ (F
2
1)/ K
1
+ (F
3
1)/ K
1
. K
2
+.. (F
n
1)/ K
1
. K
2 .
K
n-1
Loc thong
Khuech ai
Tron 12 GHz
Khuech ai
Loc thong
Tach song
Tron tan 2
Khuech ai Tinh chnh
Dao ong
Dao ong
ieu bien
Loc thong
Loc thong
Loc thong
Loc thong
Television
Dao ong
Tinh chnh
Tron 12 GHz
Khuech ai
Tach song
ieu bien
Television
Loai dch tan 1 lan
Loai dch tan 2 lan
Anten
Anten
phep thu tat ca cac kenh phat nam trong toan bo bang tan tren, tien cho viec thu ca nhan.
Mach ngoai sai dung thach anh vi bo nhan tan hoac t dao ong (ieu khien t ong) con
la van e tiep tuc nghien cu cho he thu ca nhan: trong luc o oi vi he thu tap the th
mach ngoai sai dung thach anh co o on nh cao la van e khang nh.
Neu xet phng phap thiet ke cac mach tiep theo cua khoi thu sieu cao tan, th no
phu thuoc vao giai phap mach may thu, cu the la nguyen tac mot hoac hai lan bien oi
(dch) tan so.
Mach KTSCT mot lan dch tan se n gian, nhng kho chon cho gia tr trung tan.
Do suy hao tn hieu gng, tan so trung tan can phai co gia tr ln nhat. Neu e cho n
gian va gia thanh thc hien mach KTSCT re cung nh am bao c cac ieu kien lam
viec cua discriminator, th tan so trung tan phai nho. V ly do nay ma trong thc te mach
hai lan dch tan c s dung pho bien.
Neu tao dao ong khong dung thach anh, ta co the tinh chnh mach dao ong
(ieu chnh tan so dao ong) e chon kenh tn hieu can thu, ngc lai, neu s dung dao
ong thach anh, th toan bo bang tan c chuyen tiep e chon kenh can thu (nh cac bo
loc au ra mach giai ieu che va s dung mach ieu bien). Viec chon kenh c thc
hien nh chuyen mach trong may thu hnh.
Tn hieu t au ra mach tron tan lan th hai sau khi khuyech ai va han che, c
a en tang tach song FM, roi en mach ieu bien AM. Tn hieu nhan c la tn hieu
truyen hnh cao tan (thuoc bang III va IV cua truyen hnh). Do s dung ieu bien am AM,
tn hieu sau khoi thu sieu cao tan c a en au vao may thu hnh thong dung.
Tn hieu hnh phat t ve tinh vi cong suat co nh. Bien o tn hieu hnh thu c
la ket qua cua viec truyen lan trong kh quyen (suy hao do cac nguyen nhan bien ong
trong kh quyen nh ma, tuyet, bao). Chat lng hnh anh thu c phu thuoc rat nhieu
vao ieu kien truyen song trong khong gian vu tru va trong kh quyen cua trai at. Ma co
the lam tang o suy hao tn hieu tren 7dB, co the dan en lam gian oan viec thu (trong
thc te khong xay ra thng xuyen). Thng kh quyen co s bien ong trong khi ma va
lam suy hao trong pham vi 2dB. Hien tng nay thng co lien quan en viec pha v nh
hng truyen song.
Nhieu thc nghiem va o ac thong ke nhieu ni cho thay rang, suy hao tren
2dB thng xay ra khoang 0,06% thi gian thu, con tren 4,5dB la 0,01% thi gian thu
(khoang 50phut/nam).
Mc o nhan thay nhieu tren hnh anh thu phu thuoc vao ty so C/N (xem bang).

Chat lng
hnh anh thu
C/N (dB)
Rat tot >14
Rat t nhieu (xung) >10 va <12
Nhieu tang <10
Nhieu ln <<10

e am bao ty so tn hieu thu tren nhieu (S/N) tai iem thu, can am bao cac
thong so sau ay:
-o tang ch cua anten: 48,5 dB (anten thu 3m)
-nhiet o nhieu cua anten: 23 K
-nhiet o xung quanh: 295 K
-he so nhieu cua mach dch tan so: 3dB
-cng o trng tai iem thu: -120 dBW/m2.


3.2.3.3 Tuner ve tinh.
Tuner ve tinh chon tn hieu can thu, khuyech ai va x ly e co tn hieu truyen
hnh cao tan cho may thu hnh dan dung. Tuner ve tinh c cau tao thanh mot khoi may,
at gan may thu hnh. Tuner ve tinh c noi vi may thu hnh (au vao anten) bang cap
ngan. au vao anten cua khoi tuner ve tinh c noi cap ong truc vi au ra khoi dch
tan (at tai anten thu). Trong tng lai, tuner ve tinh se c thiet ke luon trong may thu
hnh (hien nay

Nhat a xuat hien loai may nay, dung cho viec thu hnh co o phan tch cao
(HDTV).
Cac mach tuner ve tinh cu the rat a dang. Tuy nhien ta co the bieu dien bang s
o khoi nh hnh ve. au vao la mach thong dai cho 0,95-1,75GHz. Nhiem vu cua mach
loc thong dai la suy giam cac tn hieu co tan so gng va cac tn hieu nam pha di
bang tan tren (v du cac ai truyen hnh cong tac di dai tan 0,95-1,75GHz vi cong
suat ln bang UHF) hoac cac tn hieu thong tin khac. Tn hieu trung tan au (sau khi loc)
c khuyech ai dai rong, sau o c a en mach loc thong dai (cung vi ngoai sai
2). Mach loc nay chon kenh can thu , suy giam cac tn hieu cac kenh lan can va tn hieu
co tan so gng, phan chia cho tang tron (t au vao tuner), giam nhieu ien t trng
ben ngoai anh hng vao. Tn hieu kenh can thu se en mach tron tan. Tai ay, tn hieu
ngoai sai se tron vi tn hieu vao. Cac tuner ve tinh co chat lng cao thng tao tn hieu
ngoai sai t mach tong hp tan so.
Tang tron noi vi mach thong dai co tan so trung tan bang trung tan hai. Neu tang
loai cac tan so gng se de dang. Thi gian au ngi ta dung tan so 134 MHz, con hien
Khuech
ai dai
LOC
thong thap
Tron
Tan
Tn hieu TT1
0,95 1,75
Loc dai
800MHz
Khuech ai
AGC
Tach
song
Tong hp
tan so
Loc thong
dai
K TT2 LOC
SAW
Tn hieu
TT2
Chon kenh
nay la 479,5 MHz va con gap trung tan hai vi tan so 612 MHz. Mach loc noi vi mach
tron tan xac nh o chon loc bc au, khong cho nhng tn hieu khac qua mach khuyech
ai trung tan hai. o chon loc can thiet cua trung tan hai co the at c nh mach loc
bang song am SAW.
Mach khuyech ai trung tan hai cha mach t ong ieu khuyech AGC e lam
cho mc tn hieu khong phu thuoc cac ieu kien thu va bao ve mach khuyech ai trong
trng hp khuyech ai qua ln. Ngi ta thng goi phan tuner noi tren la au tuner ve
tinh.
Tn hieu trung tan hai c khuyech ai va han bien se en mach tach song tan
so. Mach tach song tan so chuyen tn hieu co bang tan c ban ve dai tan 25 Hz 8MHz.
Mach tach song tan so chat lng cao phai co mach han bien. Nhiem vu cua
mach han bien a lam cho hoat ong cua mach tach song tan so khong phu thuoc vao s
thay oi bien o tn hieu trung tan.
Kenh hnh cua tuner ve tinh co nhiem vu x ly tn hieu nhan t mach tach song
tan so, nham tao tn hieu can thiet cho may thu hnh he PAL va SECAM. Mc tn hieu
hnh au ra la 1Vpp tren 75. X ly tn hieu bao gom viec sa ac tuyen tan so, hieu
chnh tn hieu va khuyech ai.

Kenh tieng trong tuner ve tinh phai thoa man cac ac trng can thiet. Co nhieu giai
phap cho kenh tieng. Cac mach hnh ve la cac mach thng gap trong thc te. Mach thu
cac tn hieu tieng (phai cac tai tan khac nhau) dung tang phu bien oi tan so va dch tai
tan en 10,7 MHz. Tn hieu nay tiep theo c ieu che va khuyech ai. No cho phep thu
cac tn hieu tieng phat tai tan bat ky trong dai 5,5 8MHz. Tuner ve tinh co the thu hai
kenh tieng.




Tien
khuech
Loc thap
Deemfar
-sis
Loc thap
f
d
= 5MHz
Tach
song
Ngoai sai
Chon TT
tieng
Tron
K/ hnh
kh sai
K/ai
tieng
Tach
song
Loc dai
10,7MHz
Tn hieu
trung tan 2
Ra hnh
1v
pp
,75
Ra tieng
0,7v
pp
,1k











Phng an khac la dung hai kenh tieng ieu chnh tren tan so cac dai tan tieng,
ac biet tot cho viec truyen hai kenh tieng hoac am thanh lap the.
e thu cac tn hieu phat tieu chuan MAC, trong tuner ve tinh phai co them
mach decoder (mach giai ma MAC) thch hp.
Cac thong so cua tuner ve tinh cho may thu hnh tieu chuan

TT Thong so Gia tr
au chuyen kenh UHF
1 Dai tan so (GHz) 0,95-1,75
2 Tr khang vao () 50
3 Mc tn hieu vao (dBm) -60 - -30
4 Trung tan (MHz) 134 (479,5)
5 He so nhieu (dB) 6
6 Trung tan (MHz) 36
7 Tach song (ngng) PLL (7,5-8dB)
Khoi hnh
8 Tr khang ra () 75
9 o di tan (MHz) 18 25 (nh-nh)
10 Bang tan ra (MHz) 0,000030 5
11 Mc tn hieu ra (Vpp) 1
12 Tn hieu cao tan ra UHF (kenh 30-39)
Khoi tieng
13 Tr khang ra (k) 1
14 o di tan (kHz) 50 150 (nh nh)
15 Tai tieng (MHz) 4,5 8,5 (loai 6,5 va 6,65)
16 Mc tn hieu ra (mV) 700
17 Bang tan ra (kHz) 0,000040 15
Cac thong so khac
18 Nguon 220V/50Hz-10VA
19 Kch thc (mm) 75x390x260
20 Trong lng (kg) 3,6
3.2.4 Lap at, can chnh, do tm ve tinh
Trc tien can phai hieu rang, cong viec tnh toan gia tr cac goc nghieng, lech,
ngang va phng v ch can thiet cho luc au va ch co tnh tng oi. L do cua no la:
Tien
khuech ai
Loc thap Deemfar
-sis
Tach
song
K/ hnh
kh sai
K/ai
tieng 1
Tach song
tieng 1
Loc dai
10,7MHz
Tn hieu
trung tan 2
1v
pp
,75
0,7v
pp
K/ai
tieng 2
Tach song
tieng 2
Loc dai
10,7MHz
- Co sai so trong tnh toan va tra o bieu
- Bang so cac he truc quay khong the khac o nho hn 1
0

- Gia tr cac goc thay oi theo v o va kinh o, con v o va kinh o lai thay oi
theo thi gian nam thang cua qua at t quay trong he mat tri. Cho nen cac bieu tnh san
ay ch ung vao thi gian no c xac lap va se co sai so theo thi gian. Ngi ta a
tien hanh o th Phap nam 1989 nh sau:
1989: ao Corse la 1
0
Tay
Paris la 3
0
Tay
Brest la 6
0
Tay
Sau 1 nam, gia tr trung bnh cua kinh o giam:
ao Corse: giam 8
Paris: giam 9
Brest: giam 10
Kinh o cang tang th o giam cang ln.
Bi vay sau khi lap at anten, xac nh s bo cac goc, nhat thiet phai ieu chnh lai
mi thu tn hieu c tot.
3.2.4.1 He thong quay tm ong bo.
Trong khi ieu chnh anten e thu tn hieu ve tinh, tot nhat la at may thu
TVRO va TV ngay tai anten. Neu khong co ieu kien nh vay th lien lac qua vo tuyen e
rut ngan thi gian can chnh, do tm. Cac bc tien hanh nh sau:
* Xac nh trc:
1. Can chnh tru gia thang goc vi mat at bang day roi va thc nc
cua th ne (neu khong co th thay bang ong thuoc hay day tiep nc y te).
2. Xac nh hng Bac-Nam (theo sao Bac au), roi quay mat anten
parapol ve hng Nam (v Viet Nam v o Bac).
3. at goc nghieng (I) theo v o thu va goc lech (d) theo kinh o thu a
tnh san.
4. at goc ngang hng en ve tinh can tm
5. at goc phng v e do tm ve tinh tren quy ao
6. at goc phan cc, sau khi a lap pheu thu theo ung quy cach. Cac bc
tien hanh tren ch ap dung cho mot ve tinh nao o ma cac thong so a c xac nh.
* Do tm ve tinh
1. Xac nh goc hng v co quet het quy ao a tnh t 70 ong en +70
Tay khong. Trc het dung mot dung cu cach ien co kch thc bang ng knh cua lo
CLEAR. An vao lo CLEAR, mat hien th se xuat hien cac so 05, 04, 03, 02, 01 cho biet
ch 5 giay e xoa hay khong cac tn hieu a nh t trc. Sau 5 giay se xuat hien WL
(West limit) gii han Tay. Neu goc phng v anten luc nay ang nam hng Tay la
ung va can an nut nh lu gi lai. Sau o chuyen anten sang ong, mat hien th xuat
hien ch EL (East limit) gii han ong. An phm nh lu gi v tr.
2. Ngat viec do tm t ong qua do tan bang tay bang cac an phm SCAN
tren may thu e quet tm tn hieu ve tinh. Viec do tm bat au t ong sang Tay e tm
cac ve tinh tren quy ao theo th t a cho bang. en khi tren man hnh xuat hien tn
hieu khac vi vet nhieu th can phai ieu chnh cho het nhieu lan trong tn hieu hnh.
3. Tinh chnh An phm TUNE theo chieu tang hoac giam e giam thieu
tap nhieu, tang t so S/N, cho hnh anh at mc kha nhat.
Chng trnh truyen hnh nao cung e phat tn hieu chuan e ieu chnh tn hieu
cac tram thu TVRO. Tn hieu chuan gom co 3 xung, nam gon dai tan goc t 0-5MHz nh
hnh ve. Cac xung o xuat hien sau xung loe mau Burst, lay chuan dong 17 nh sau:

TN HIEU KIEM TRA XUNG VUONG 2T va 20T

- au tien la xung vuong vi thi gian tang cua 200ns dung e anh gia sai lech
dai ac tuyen tan so tn hieu phat t 15KHz en 250KHz. Cu the la e phat hien sai lech
ve sac mau (Tilt) va ng uon cong (rounding) cuoi sn len cua mc trang va cuoi
sn giam xuong mc en.
- Tiep en la xung 2T cua ham sin
2
(sin
2
2T) vi bien o cua 200ns. he so
PAL, f
c
=5MHz, nen T=1/2 f
c
=100ns. Xung nay e phat hien meo dang tn hieu do tre
nhom khoang gia dai tan, tc la kiem tra o choi.
-Sau cung la xung 20T vi bien o cua 2s. Ham so sin
2
20T bieu th xung nay
c ieu che bi tan so phu mang mau 4,43MHz. No kiem tra meo dang mau do tre
nhom gay ra. 3 xung nay xuat hien t ben trai man hnh vi 3 dai vach trang t hep en
rong. Can phai hieu chnh sao cho cac dai trang nay that sach nhieu, sac net, co am thanh
1000Hz trong treo.
4. An phm V/H e ieu chnh tho goc phan cc ngang hoac doc cho hnh
anh tot hn.
5. An tiep phm SKEW e tinh chnh them goc phan cc cho hnh tot them
6. An phm Audio e ieu chnh am thanh cho that trong treo
7. Sau khi a hieu chnh vai ba lan cac bc tren e cho hnh anh va am
thanh hoan hao th an phm nh STORE e lu gi tn hieu ve tinh nay, roi tiep tuc tm
cac ve tinh khac.
Neu nh a xac nh va ieu chnh that ung cac goc ngang va phng v th co the
quay anten do tm c tat ca ve tinh tren quy ao a tnh. Con xac nh cac goc khong
ung th se xay ra tnh trang nh hnh ve. Luc nay se khong nhan c tn hieu cua mot so
ve tinh, mac du no ang treo l lng tren quy ao.

Distort
ed
est line 17
Spuarewaver 2T
20T STAIRCASE










Phan 2




THIET KE HE THONG
THU CATV
CHO 1 KHACH SAN

THIET KE HE THONG THU CATV
(CHO 1 KHACH SAN 7 TANG 50 THUE BAO)

1. YEU CAU CUA HE THONG :
1.1. Khao sat cac ac iem can e thiet lap ni thu .
Trc tien can xac nh ro muc ch. Ngi ta co the phan nh c cac yeu cau
chu yeu nh sau :
- Trng hp thu t mot ve tinh : Anten thu c co nh, va ch can mot au SHF,
co phan cc chnh xac, theo dai tan so cua ve tinh phat song .
- Trng hp thu nhieu ve tinh : Anten thu phai co gia theo xch ao va c
ieu khien t xa. Truc kch co the lam di chuyen ang-ten mot phan, hoac tren toan bo quy
ao tnh thay c, tai ni thu.
Tuy theo ac tnh phat song tren ve tinh can thu, ma au SHF, ong dan song va au
do phan cc cua Anten phc tap nhieu hay t. Chung ta co the co kha nang nh sau :
* Lan song cua cac ve tinh can thu co cung mot bang tan :
Ku 1 : Thap - 10,95 - 11,7 GHz,
Ku 2 : Trung - 11,7 - 12,5 GHz ,
Ku 3 : Cao - 12,5 - 12,7 GHz .
Chung c phat song vi phan cc giong nhau , v vay ch can mot au thu SHF va
mot au do phan cc cho ung la u .
* Lan song cua cac ve tinh can thu co cung bang tan, nhng khac phan cc :
Phan cc ngang, ng hay vong phai, vong trai. Mot au thu SHF la can thiet
nhng phai co them mach ao phan cc (polarotor) e co the ieu chnh phan cc cho tn
hieu, va c ieu khien t xa , at canh may thu .
* Lan song cua cac ve tinh can thu co tren hai bang tan :
Thong thng la tren bang tan thap va cao. That vay, cac ve tinh phat song tren
bang tan nay chu yeu theo he PAL va vi phan cc ngang / ng, lam cho n gian phan
thu .
Ong dan song cung cap cho hai au thu SHF, mot danh cho bang tan thap, con cai
kia la cho bang tan cao. Mot mach ao phan cc se ieu chnh au do tuy theo phan cc.
No c ieu khien t xa, tai ni at may thu .
* Lan song cac ve tinh can thu tren hai bang tan thap va trung gian .
Trong trng hp nay van e tr nen phc tap, v rang cac phan phat song tren
bang tan thap th theo he PAL, vi phan cc ngang hoac ng cua tn hieu. Con phan phat
song tren bang tan trung gian lai theo he D
2
MAC vi phan cc vong phai hoac vong trai .
Ong dan song cung cap tn hieu cho hai au SHF, va moi au c trang b mot
mach ao cc ,e ieu chnh v tr au do tng ng cho phu hp .
Cac thiet b c s dung trong hien tai, th mach ao cc Polarotor c thay
bang Ferotor, khong co cac phu kien di ong.
* Thiet lap ni thu tn hieu truyen hnh cho tap the .
Trong trng hp nay th phai lam sao cho moi thue bao, co the nhan c tn
hieu, cac chng trnh truyen hnh theo yeu cau, trong bat c luc nao. V vay can thiet
phai co :
+ Bao nhieu Anten co nh th co tng ng bay nhieu ve tinh nam cac v tr
khac nhau tren quy ao a tnh can c thu .
+ Bao nhieu au SHF th co tng ng bay nhieu bang tan va phan cc khac
nhau, can thu .
1.2 Yeu cau cu the:
Dung may thu TVRO e bat tn hieu t 2 ve tinh co phu song trong khu vc va ong
thi thu cac ai phat hnh a phng (HTV7,HTV9,TVT1,2,3) tren bang tan UHF va
VHF.
Toan bo tn hieu cac ai thu c cho qua bo Combiner va bo Amplifier ,e phan
phoi cho 50 thue bao cua 1 khach san 7 tang gom 6 tang lau va 1 tang tret. c phan
bo nh sau:
Sau tang lau, moi tang co 8 phong, moi phong co dien tch 4x6m.
Mot tang tret co 2 phong tiep khach, moi phong co dien tch 5x6m.
Chieu cao cua moi tang la 3m8.
Dien tch con lai cua khach san dung lam nha e xe,kho cha o, nha
bep,...do o khong at Tivi.
Phong thu c at tai lau tren cung cua khach san , sau o dung cap phan phoi
ti cac thue bao.
2. MO HNH THIET KE:
Toan bo he thong c chia lam 2 khoi chnh nh sau:
Khoi Head End thng gom cac thiet b sau:
+ Anten thu ( UHF,VHF ,chao Parabol) va cac thiet b phu tr cho Anten (neu co)
nh: Polarotor dung e ieu khien phan cc Anten . Positioner e ieu khien goc ngang ,
goc phng v ( Hoac ch mot trong hai chc nang) .
+ Bo khuyech ai va dch tan nhieu thap (LNAva LNB) cho chao Parabol , bo RF
BOOSTER cho Anten thu UHF / VHF .

Head End
PROVIRDING CABLE SYSTEM
+ May thu dch tan va ieu che AM cho ra tn hieu hnh RF bang tan c ban cap
cho may thu hnh dan dung .
+ Bo Combiner e ghep cac kenh RF t bo Booter va may thu a ti .
+ Bo Amplifier : ay la bo khuech ai dai rong ,co nhiem vu khuech ai tn hieu u
ln e cung tn hieu TV ti cac thue bao.
+ Day dan song cao tan ( cap ong truc 75 om) truyen dan tn hieu t au ra bo dch
tan LNB ti may thu .
+ Ngoai ra e s dung hieu qua cac thiet b ngi ta con dung mot so bo ghep noi
phan ng ( NIF).
Khoi providing cable system bao gom cac thiet b nh :
+ Cap ong truc dai rong loai Indoor : Dung truyen dan va phan phoi tn hieu bang
tan c ban ti cac thue bao.
+ Cac bo NIF,TAP,OUTLET va cac bo amplifier ng truyen (neu co ). Toan bo
cac thiet b khoi nay dung loai Indoor.
Phng an thiet ke :
Can c vao yeu cau cua he thong va thanh phan cac khoi ta co mo hnh tong the nh
sau:
Phan Head end (hnh trang ben) theo nguyen ly nh sau :
Tn hieu truyen hnh thu c t Antenna ve tinh ( parabol) qua bo dch tan nhieu
thap (LNA va LNB) co tan so t 0,95 GHz en 1.75 GHz , sau o c a ti bo chia e
a ti cac au thu ve tinh .
Khoi au tuner ve tinh [ R ] . Tn hieu sau tuner la AV va RF , nhng e tn hieu
hnh chat lng tot ngi ta se lay tn hieu AVe a vao bo ieu che (M).
Bo ieu che tan so [M] se cho ra tn hieu RF ( UHF) theo yeu cau , tn hieu RF lay
ra co the chon t kenh 21 ti kenh 69 . Thng ngi ta chon cac kenh t 31 tr len e
a ti bo Combiner.
ong thi tn hieu truyen hnh trc tiep thu t ai (VTV
1,2,3
va HTV
7,9
) se c
khuech ai loc [F] theo tng kenh . Sau o cung c a ti bo Combiner.
Bo Combiner se ghep cac kenh RF e a ti bo khuech ai cong suat , tuy theo so
thue bao va suy hao ma ta chon cho thch hp . Sau bo khuech ai la bo chia , bo nay co
so au ra tuy chon sao cho phu hp nhat.
Phan minh hoa nh s o nguyen ly sau:

HEARD END
UHF Antenna
VHF Antenna
Parabol Antenna
Satellite 1
Parabol Antenna
Satellite 2
RF
AV
HEAD END
RF
RF RF RF









Thc te e ap ng vi yeu cau thc te cua khach san va cac thiet b hien co tren
th trng, ta co the dung mot he thong HEAD END nh sau:

S
2

CHIA 4
K/ CONG SUAT
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
CHIA x
K/ AU VAO
ch
7
ch
9
ch
21
ch
28
ch
31
ch
33
ch
35
ch
37
ch
39
ch
41
ch
43
ch
45

COMBINER
K/ AU VAO
F
S
2

F F F
CHIA 4
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
S O NGUYEN LY HE THONG HEAD END
RF
UHF Antenna
VHF Antenna
Parabol Antenna
Satellite 1
Parabol Antenna
Satellite 2
HEAD END
HEMR - 870G4 HEMR- 870G4













S O THIET KE KHOI THU TVRO
NIP-4DP
BW_40AS
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
NIF_8D
BW-40AS
NIP-4DP
COMBINER
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
COMBINER
NIF-3D
TV TV
TV TV
TV TV
TV TV
TV
TV
TV
T
TV TV
TV TV
TV TV
4m
8m
OUTLET
8m
Phan cap phan phoi :
Co hai kieu thong dung nh sau:


-oi vi loai cau truc hnh xng ca : Co u iem tiet kiem c day , nhng
se phai dung nhieu bo chia nhanh hn ( Ton hao ng truyen ln) va o an toan se
kem , ch can 1 bo chia nhanh hong se mat toan bo tn hieu cho cac thue bao sau no,
hoac khi day t cung xay ra trng hp tng t ) kho khan cho sa cha thay the .
-oi vi loai cau truc hnh cay : Tuy co ton day hn nhng no khac khuc c
cac nhc iem cua loai cau truc hnh xng ca.
T phan tch tren trong thiet ke nay ta chon cau hnh (b) . S o thiet ke cho moi
tang t tang 1 en tang 6 theo mat cat ngang nh sau :







NIF
TAP
TAP
TAP
NIF
TAP
T
A
P
T
A
P
NIF
a) Cau truc xng ca
b) Cau truc hnh cay
NIF 2D NIF 4D NIF 4D
TV TV TV TV TV TV TV TV
Phong
Hanh lang
C
a
u

t
h
a
n
g

6
m













NIF
3,8m
3,8m
3,8m
3,8m
S O THIET KE HE THONG THEO MAT CAT NG
NIF
NIF
NIF
NIF
NIF
NIF
3,8m
3,8m
3,8m
S


g
i
a

t
a
n
g

s
u
y

h
a
o

q
u
a

c
a
c

t
a
n
g

The ground floor
The fist floor
The second floor
The sixth floor
The fourth floor
The fifth floor
The third floor
6m

PROVIDING CABLE SYSTEM OF THE HOTEL
































NIF 2D NIF 4D NIF 4D
TV TV TV TV TV TV TV TV C
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NIF_8D
NIF 2D NIF 4D NIF 4D
TV TV TV TV TV TV TV TV C
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NIF 2D NIF 4D NIF 4D
TV TV TV TV TV TV TV TV C
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NIF 2D NIF 4D NIF 4D
TV TV TV TV TV TV TV TV C
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NIF 2D NIF 4D NIF 4D
TV TV TV TV TV TV TV TV C
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NIF 2D NIF 4D NIF 4D
TV TV TV TV TV TV TV TV C
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NIF 2D
TV TV
3. LA CHON THIET B VA TNH TOAN CHI TIET:
3.1 Antenna:
La chon ng knh cua Anten parabole cho thiet b thu, tuy thuoc :
- Cong suat thap nht cua ve tinh trong cac ve tinh can thu .
- He so tieng on cua au SHF (LNB).
- Ni lap at tram thu, la cho ca nhan hay cho tap the.
Di ay la bang cho kch thc Anten can la ,tuy thuoc vao cac yeu to nh :
Cong suat cua ve tinh thu tai mat at ( PIRE) tnh bang dBW ,he so tieng on toi a cua
au SHF , oi tng lap at tram thu (cho ca nhan hay cho tap the) .

Cong suat PIRE (dBW) 64 60 56 52 50 46 44 42
Tram thu tap the :
N= 2 dB Anten(cm)

60

85

100

130


180

200

300

450

Can c vao kha nang, yeu cau cua khach hang va ket qua khao sat ni at may cung
nh ve tinh phat ma ta mua loai antena cho phu hp . V du ta chon loai co gia AZ-E 1
co san th trng Viet Nam dung thu bang Ku.
Dung Antenna loai dan e thu ai a phng , ay ta chon 2 dan , 1 cho thu kenh
UHF va 1 cho kenh VHF . Hien co rat nhieu loai co ban tren th trng thanh pho , tuy
nhien khi mua ta mua loai co mac do cac n v co ang ky chat lng cung nh a ch ro
rang.
3.2 Chon bo LNA va LNB:
Ta a biet au thu SHF se quyet rat ln ti chat lng tn hieu hnh thu thu tu ve tinh
. Khi chon can chu y cac ch so sau:
Dai tan cong tac.
He so tieng on [N( dB )] ,phai on nh tren toan bo giai tan ( thng 1,5
2,5 dB cang nho cang tot).
o li pha eu tren dai tan (40 55 dB ).
Ty so song ng [ROS < 1,3].
3.3 Chon may thu TVRO:
Dung loai au co ca tuner ,mod , combiner :HEMR-870G4.
3.4 Chon bo Booter:
V dung 2 Antenna e thu 2 bang tan UHF va VHF. e cho tien li ta co the chon
mot bo Booter dai rong dung cho ca 2 kenh , cu the ta dung loai BW-40AS vi cac thong
so kem theo Catalogue cua hang NIPPON ANTENNA phan phu luc .
3.5 Chon cable :
Ta dung loai cap INDOOR ,thong dung mhat la loai 5C cua Nhat hoac My la tot
nhat e giam ton hao. Trong thiet ke cap c dung la loai 6 RISER SERIER CATVR
cua NEC co cac thong so tren Catalogue phan phu luc. Cung vi cac au noi 5C
Catalogue.
3.6 Chon cac bo phan va chia ng:
Tuy theo chc nang va yeu cau tng v tr ma ta la chon cho phu hp . V du : ta
chon cu the nh trong s o thiet ke tong quat . Ngoai ra tai cac au cuoi moi thue bao
con them mot bo OUTLET CSW-7-7 e cam trc tiep ra TV.
3.7 Tnh toan suy hao:
e n gian cho viec tnh toan ,ta ch can tnh mc suy hao cu the cua thue bao co
mc suy hao ln nhat va nho nhat tai moi tang ti au ra cua bo khuech ai cong suat.
T yeu cau cu the, s o thiet ke he thong thu TVRO, s o cac mat cat cua khach
san va ch so suy hao cua cac thiet b theo Catalogue ta thay la chon linh kien nh vay la
toi u v mc suy hao la nho nhat t o tnh toan c mc suy hao max va min cho moi
tang nh sau:
Tang 6:
Thue bao co mc suy hao ln nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5
dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+8+3.8)m = 4.52
dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 32.82
dB
Thue bao co mc suy hao nho nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+3.8)m = 3.12 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 31.42 dB
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tang 5
Thue bao co mc suy hao ln nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+8+3.8)m = 4.52 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: 3.8m = 0.665 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 33.49 dB
Thue bao co mc suy hao nhonhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+3.8)m = 3.12 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: 3.8m = 0.665 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 32.09 dB

Tang 4:
Thue bao co mc suy hao ln nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+8+3.8)m = 4.52 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: (3.8+3.8)m = 1.33 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 34,15 dB
Thue bao co mc suy hao nho nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+3.8)m = 3.12 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: (3.8+3.8)m = 1.33 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 32.76 dB
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tang 3:
Thue bao co mc suy hao ln nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+8+3.8)m = 4.52 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: (3.8+3.8+3.8)m = 1.99 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 34.82 dB
Thue bao co mc suy hao nho nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+3.8)m = 3.12 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: (3.8+3.8+3.8)m = 1.99 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 33.43 dB
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tang 2:
Thue bao co mc suy hao ln nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+8+3.8)m = 4.52 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: (3.8+3.8+3.8+3.8)m = 2.66 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 35.49 dB
Thue bao co mc suy hao nho nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+3.8)m = 3.12 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: (3.8+3.8+3.8+3.8)m = 2.66 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 34.10 dB
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tang 1:
Thue bao co mc suy hao ln nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+8+3.8)m = 4.52 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: (3.8+3.8+3.8+3.8+3.8)m = 3.33 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 36.16 dB
Thue bao co mc suy hao nho nhat:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_4D = 8.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (6+8+3.8)m = 3.12 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: (3.8+3.8+3.8+3.8+3.8)m = 3.33 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 34.76 dB
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tang tret co 2 phong (coi nh gan cau thang nhat) va coi mc suy hao la nh nhau khi
o ta co mc suy hao cho thue bao di tang tret c tnh nh sau:
Mc suy hao cua OUTLET CSW-7-7 = 3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_2D = 4.3 dB
Mc suy hao cua NIF_8D = 12.5 dB
Mc suy hao cua day noi tang: (5+6+3.8)m = 2.60 dB
Mc suy hao cua day lien tang: (3.8+3.8+3.8+3.8+3.8+3.8)m = 3.99 dB
Mc suy hao tong: = 26.39 dB
Ta co ket qua tong hp nh sau:

Tang Mc suy hao Max(dB) Mc suy hao Min(dB)
Tret 26.39 26.39
1 36.16 34.76
2 35.49 34.10
3 34.82 33.43
4 34.15 32.76
5 33.49 32.09
6 32.82 31.42

3.8 Chon may khuech ai cong suat:
Ta biet e am bao cho TV thu c tn hieu tot nhat , th mc tn hieu au vao cho
phep t (5 -> 15) dB .
Can c vao ket qua tnh toan va mc tn hieu cho phep , ta thay suy hao ti thue bao
co mc suy hao ln nhat tang 1 la ln nhat so vi cac thue bao khac trong toan khach
san va mc suy hao o la: 36.16 dB.
Nh vay ta chon bo khuech ai cong suat BW-40AS la u va co cac thong so c
cho trong Catalogue.
4. LAP AT VA TRIEN KHAI HE THONG
4.1 ieu tra va nghien cu v tr e thiet lap ni thu tn hieu .
V tr tai ni thu, phai trong trai, va nht la hng ve tinh can thu th khong c che
khuat.
Muon nh vay, th phai xac nh hng nam a ly, va goc can chnh ly gia hng
Bac t trng va Bac a ly, bang la ban. Chung ta se co truc Bac - Nam. Sau o tnh cac
goc phng v va goc ngang cua cac ve tinh can thu .
Nhng phng phap tnh toan nay se c nghien cu chi tiet trong phan sau.
Ngi ta co the xem xet tai cho, bang mat, goc ngang (goc nang) co b vat can ngai
hay khong e co the thu ve tinh nay hay ve tinh khac .
Neu co vat can ngai, th phai tm bien phap khac phuc, hoac thay oi v tr hoac
nang cao Anten khoi vat can ngai .
4.2 Ke hoach lap at .
Mot Anten Parabol phai co sc chu ng vi gio, nht la oi vi nhng loai co
ng knh ln. V vay phai tnh toan than trong, va nghiem tuc.
Viec xay dng Anten c luat phap cho phep, ung vi cac quy nh cua luat le.
Neu ngi chu xay dng lai la ngi thue mun nha at, hoac ngi cung hp tac
lien doanh, th nhat thiet phai co s chap thuan cua ngi chu nha at hay ngi cung hp
tac.
Viec thiet lap mot mang cap e phan phoi tn hieu th phai c phep cua c quan
vien thong quoc gia .
a.Lap at Anten Parabol:
Mot angen parabole gom co:Tru , gia , parabole (chao), au SHF, co the co
mot phan mot.
Co nh tru Anten:
Tru phai c co nh thang ng va bat buoc luon luon phai v tr on
nh.
Thong thng ong tru c lam bang sat ma kem bang nhiet. ng knh
trong khoang 50 mm cho cac loai Anten 85/ 90 cm, cho en 140 mm cho cac Anten co 300
cm ng knh. Chieu dai tru co t 60 en 12 0cm.
Neu tru c lap at trong vn hoa, th chieu cao cua tru co the cao hn
e vt qua cac chng ngai vat co the co mong tru c chan bang betong, sau trong
long at. Cung co the at tru tren san thng. Nh vay th phai han chan tru vao ket cau
thep cua tru nha, va c noi at.
Cung co the lap at Anten vao tng hay vao ong khoi cua nha bep tren noc
nha, trong trng nay th phai co cac phu tung at biet cho ket cau cua tru . Cac vach
tng day t 40 en 45 cm co the lap at c Anten t 180 cm ng knh co mot cong
suat manh, cho cac Anten co gia theo xch ao. Bon iem ket noi vao tng phai at
biet cham soc. Loai tru nay cung phai c noi at.
ng bao gi lap at mot Anten co kch thc ln ma tru khong u sc am
bao vng chac. Trong khi lap at phai chu y tru phai that thang ng tren nen.
Trong nhieu trng hp phai chu y en ieu kien thoat nc trong vn hay
tren nen ciment.
Cac ng day ien phai at trong ong nha, bao gom cac day cung cap nguon
ien , day tn hieu, va cac loai day ieu khien Anten.
Hien nay tren th trng co ban loai day nhieu si gom co :hai day cap ong
truc , mot day cap nguon co 5 day dan cho mot va ieu khien ao cc polarotor . Cac
loai nay danh e trang b cho cac tram thu co Anten c c gii hoa .
Thiet b noi at co the dung li c trang kem chon di mat at ,hay noi
vao ng day cua mang li ien hay ng ong nc . Cac tru Anten va cac mach ien
thiet b Anten phai noi vao he thong nay .
Co nh gia va mat phan xa .
Gia AZ- EL :
Trc tien at gia co nh vao tru . Sau o, hay lap at va ieu chnh
phng hung , hng cho phan xa theo hng dan cua nha san xuat trong bang hng
dan kem theo thiet b . Hay lu y xem mat phan xa co b h hong khi chuyen ch hay
khong , va can than trong lap rap . Chung ta a biet rang o li Anten se giam khi mat
phan xa b meo dang .ng knh cua tru , c quy nh theo hng dan cua ngi
san xuat .
Gia theo xch ao :
Viec lap rap gia theo xch ao , phc tap hn . No c co nh tren tru ,
va c ieu chnh trc theo hng truc Bac Nam , nh la ban ieu chnh e nhan c
hng Bac a ly . Ngi ta s dung phng phap th hai e tnh goc lech ngoai va goc
nghieng e tm ra goc nang. Sau o , th mi lap at mat phan xa v tat ca s than trong
can thiet .
Neu la loai Anten co tieu iem lech ( off set) , gia theo xch ao se khac ,
nhng phan ieu chnh trc la giong nhau.
b. Lap at toan bo gia pheu va au SHF:
Trc tien la lap at pheu tren au SHF , nh mot mieng em at gia hai vong
kep cua ong dan song
Thong thng au cua pheu c bao ve bang mot mieng che ay kn bang nha
.
Toan bo c co nh tai tieu iem cua phan xa bang gia co 3 chan hay bang
gia cua loai Anten co tieu iem lech .
Nha san xuat cho khoang cach tieu iem cua Anten . Chung ta co the dung thc
e o khoang cach nay , t ay Anten parabole en au vao pheu . Co nhieu loai Anten
co the tinh chnh c khoang cach nay vi au pheu . Thong thng cac Anten c giao
vi au SHF a c lap at va ieu chnh san , at biet la oi vi Anten tieu iem lech .
au SHF phai c ieu chnh ung , co ngha la truc cua no phai trung vi truc
cua parabole . Tat ca nhng viec lam nay , phai tien hanh than trong va that chnh xac .
Co nhng phu tung at biet e lap at SHF va tieu iem cua mot Anten parabole
e co the at c hai nguon : Mot nguon vao ung tieu iem , con cai th hai co tieu c
lech e co the nhan c ve tinh th hai co khoang cach vi ve tinh th nhat la 3 o tren
quy ao a tnh .
Mot mu bang chat deo loai khong nhay cam vi cac song sieu cao, c lap at
e che ay cac au SHF , mach ao cc , va mach chon au . No phai am bao phu c
kn cac thiet b nay .
Cac ng cap ong truc va cap ieu khien , c lap at dai theo gia cua
parabole va co nh theo chan tru .
c. ieu chnh au do hay ao cc - palarotor .
au chon phan cc co au do di ong ma s di chuyen c khien t xa tai may
thu. au do co the di chuyen tren 90
0
t v tr phu hp vi phan cc ngang en v tr la
phan cc ng. La 1 thiet b tinh chnh c lap at gan may thu. S di chuyen cua au do
phai ln hn 90
0
, sao cho s ieu chnh khong b can ngai tai moi v tr. Nh vay th mi
co the tinh chnh c .
Viec ieu chnh c thc hien theo tng xung mot t 0,8 en 2,2 s vi mot nhp
ieu theo chu ky t 17 en 21 s, nguon ien la 5 von mot chieu .
d. C gii hoa cac anten theo xch ao .
- Mot thc hien di chuyen tuyen tnh hay truc kch .
Hnh ve cho thay chi tiet cua truc kch. Mot keo vt vo tan , c trt trong
ong, co he thong banh rang ng trong hop .





Tren ong co mot vong siet chat phan co nh cua Anten parabole. Khp cau
c noi vao phan di ong .
Mot c ieu khien t may thu co thong bao v tr cua Anten, va co bo nh
ghi nhan vai v tr can thiet a c ieu chnh t trc.
May thu c noi vi mot bang ng day cap co ba day dan co kch thc
u tai dong ien : 3 x 0,3 mm
2
hoac : 3 x 0,5 mm
2
. Mot va truc vt c khp noi sao cho
khi co lai, th hai truc song song vao v tr toi a. Co ngha la goc tao thanh gia truc vt
va phan di ong cua Anten trong khoang 90
0
.
Mot c cung cap ien mot chieu vi 24 hoac 36 Von , vi 2A. Gii han di
chuyen , c thc hien bang mot mach ngat ien rat nho .
Mach cam nhan lam bang mot chiet ap 10 kom, 10 vong va mot may tao xung
bang tiep xuc t .
- Mot quet rong . (horizon-horizon)

Motor
Loai mot nay c co nh trc tiep tren ong , tai phan co nh. Con phan
di ong c noi vao gia xch ao cua mat phan xa parabole .
Loai mot quet rong co kha nang phu song mot vung rong tren quy ao a
tnh . Nh vay viec lap at se de dang hn, va tao c mot s chnh xac trong viec ieu
chnh phng hng khong ong eu .
Mot c cung cap vi 36 von mot chieu, 3 A khi tai ay u. Mach cam nhan
la mot ILS ieu khien bang 5 thoi nam cham. ieu chnh c chnh xac en 0,12
0
. No
c giao vi cac bo phoi hp cho Anten t 90-120-150-180 cm ng knh va vi cac tru
t 50 en 76 mm .
D nhien no cung ieu khien t xa tai may thu cung cap cho mot cac xung
ong lc .
4.3 Cho cac thiet b khi ong .
a. Khi ong thiet b vi anten theo xch ao.
Trong qua trnh lap rap Anten va au SHF, thiet b cung a c ieu chnh theo
cac ch dan a cho. Nen lap lai cac viec ieu chnh nay, e lam cho thiet b hoat ong that
chnh xac sao cho co the nhan c tn hieu toi a cua nhieu ve tinh tren quy ao a tnh .
Khi a lap at xong va a i day hoan chnh, th co the cho may thu hoat ong
theo che o quet mat (SCAN). Mot ngi ng gan Anten e ieu chnh , va co the lien
lac bang vo tuyen ien vi ngi ngoi tai may thu va Tivi e xem ket qua .
Neu trng hp lap at tai vn hoa, hoac tren san thng , th tot nhat la e may
thu va Tivi gan Anten. Nh vay viec ieu chnh se thuan li hn va nhanh hn.
Nhng viec lam e ieu chnh sau cung, c thc hien theo th t nh sau :
ieu chnh Anten theo truc Bac-Nam vi o chnh xac sau nht .
ieu chnh goc o tng ng vi v tuyen tai ni thu. o la goc nghieng.
ieu chnh goc lech ngoai (offset) , tuy thuoc vao v tuyen cua ni thu .
Kiem tra lai v tr au pheu va au SHF bang cach chon la tn hieu sao cho
at toi a, th co the biet c v tr cua no co ung vi truc cua Anten hay
khong.
Kiem tra lai hoat ong cua truc kch, va cua mot quet rong (horizon-horizon)
Hay tm bat mot tn hieu t ve tinh sau ve pha NAM. ieu chnh lai hnh
anh, va phan cc e nhan c toi a tn hieu. Hay tinh chnh lai goc nghieng
va goc lech ngoai va co the tinh chnh lai hng Bac - Nam sao cho nhan c
hnh anh ep nhat .
Hay tm tn hieu cua ve tinh sau ve pha ong. ieu chnh hnh anh va phan
cc . Tinh chnh lai hng Bac - Nam va goc lech ngoai e cho tn hieu toi a.
Sau cung hay quet het quy ao a tnh va kiem tra xem co nhan c ay u
va tot cua tat ca ve tinh t hng ong en Tay. Neu co trng hp nhan xau,
hoac khong nhan c g ca, th o la do ieu chnh cha that chnh xac .
Sau cung cho tat ca thiet b hoat ong, theo cac hng dan tren, vao on nh .
b. Khi ong thiet b vi anten co gia az-e1 .
Viec khi ong loai thiet b nay n gian hn, v rang no ch can thu nhan mot ve
tinh .
Chung ta co the tnh toan goc nang va goc phng v cua Anten, khi biet toa o
cua ni thu, va cua ve tinh can thu .
Chung ta hay hng ve hng Nam, roi sau o xoay theo goc phng v a c
tnh toan nh vao cac vong co nh tren truc cua tru . e lam viec o, chung ta can s
dung thc o goc co cac vach phan o .
Sau o, chung ta hay nghieng Anten theo goc nang a c tnh. e co the de
dang khi thc hien chung ta hay bat at mot cay thc tren parabole va dung nghieng ke
o goc lech cua Anten (90
0
-E1).
Cho may thu hoat ong v tr quet mat (SCAN) , theo bang tan cua ve tinh. Neu
khong nhan c tn hieu th hay tinh chnh lai cac goc phng v, va goc nang cho en
khi nhan c hnh anh .
Co the tinh chnh lai au SHF va mach ao cc polarotor neu co.
Khi nao nhan c tot tn hieu th hay khoa chat cac ni a c ieu chnh .
Viec thu cac ve tinh co cong suat ln vi Anten parabole t 30 en 60cm ng
knh la n gian va nhng ngi chi nghiep d cung co the thc hien de dang, khong can
co trnh o hieu biet g nhieu .

4.4 Bang thong ke thiet b:

TT Loai vat t K hieu So lng n v tnh
1 Antenna parabol AZ-E1 2 Bo
2 Antenna xng ca (UHF) VN 1 Bo
3 Antenna xng ca (VHF) VN 1 Bo
4 Booter BW-40AS 1 Bo
5 Bo chia 4 NIF-4DP 2 Bo
6 Bo chia 4 NIF-4D 12 Bo
7 Bo chia 2 NIF-2D 7 Bo
8 Bo chia 8 NIF-8D 1 Bo
9 OUTLET CSW-7-7 50 Bo
10 Cap truyen tn hieu 6 RISER SERIES-CATVR 782 m
11 May thu HEMR-870G4 2 Chiec
12 au noi F-5 118 Cai






7/O 17c

ha ooq lo laoo oo tct oqhlep eao em ocl e tol 7hoc 3ot he Ohcoq Ohcoq
Olo 7e Oloh oo Ohlet 7e 7e Ohcoq Oha CcO7 Chc ct 7hoeh 3oo o
ace hcoo thooh moe da thcl qloo thae hleo kho lo ec hep.
hio ehaoq tecoq eaco laoo oo ooq o e eop ace mct eoeh khol qqaot ohaoq
ooo e qaoo tecoq eao mct he thcoq thcoq tlo oe tloh. Oa c lom ec sc e thlet ke
mct he thcoq tha CcO7 ehc 1 khoeh soo.
Oaq ohleo oha o e eop lo ocl thcl qloo thae hleo kho lo ec hep oo sa qlcl hoo
daoq lacoq eao e tol fkhco qea eoa) oeo eaoq eco ohlea ooo e ehao ace e eop
eo. 7i ooq khoeh qaoo mo ohoo aet thi ocl daoq eao e tol ooq tacoq cl lo oq
a ohaoq ocl daoq ehao thot soa.
(hoo thlet ke he thcoq tha CcO7 thi oq mcl eh/ lo mct he thcoq ocl qaq mc
kho ohc, khl c ooo e ecoq saot oo ohlea teeo acoq teaqeo eo eoe thae loc ehao
thae sa lo mct ooo e eoo phol qaoo tom, ohaoq oea ocl mct he thcoq lco phoo phcl
ehc eo mct kha oae hoq eo mct thooh phc thi ooo e ooq eoo phol ace aem aet kq
lacoq hco.
7c c ocl mct ltoh oae lco oha ooq thi 100 teooq ec le ehao phol lo ohlea. 7o
ohaoq ooo e o oea eo mo ehao qlol qaqet ace c ehtoh lo ohaoq ooo e oooq eoc
ocl daoq eao e tol hoq ocl mct eoeh khoe c ehtoh lo hacoq phot teleo eao e tol.



THE END









Phu luc A

MOT SO KY THUAT IEU CHE
TRONG THONG TIN VE TINH
I. IEU CHE TNG T
ieu che la qua trnh lam thay oi mot trong cac thong so cua song mang theo tn
hieu thong tin can truyen.
* Mot tn hieu hnh sin co bien o A(t) va goc pha (t) bien oi
S(t) = A(t).cos(
C
t + (t))
-Neu ta cho (t) = const va bien o A(t) bien oi ty le vi tn hieu cua tin tc can
ieu che th goi la ieu che bien o (AM).
-Ngc lai khi cho A(t) = const va cho goc pha (t) bien oi ty le vi tn hieu tin
tc th goi la ieu che goc (FM, PM).
1/ ieu che bien o (AM):
ieu bien la phng phap lam thay oi bien o song mang thay oi theo tn hieu
thong tin can truyen.
Dang song nh sau:


U
c


a) Song mang .
- U
c



U
i

b) Song tn hieu .
- U
i


U
i
= m.U
c


c) Song AM .







Pho cua song mang AM:




- m.U
c
/ 2 m.U
c
/ 2
f
(f
c
f
i
) f
c
(f
c
+ f
i
)

Vi m la he so ieu che.
Phan tch tn hieu.
Gia s tn hieu thong tin co dang: u
i
= U
i
cos
i
t
Bien tan thap Bien tan cao
Song mang
va tn hieu song mang co dang nh sau: u
c
= U
c
cos(
c
t +
c
)t.
V la ieu che AM nen coi nh (t) = 0 do o tn hieu AM co dang:
u
AM
= (u
i
+ U
c
)cos
c
t
= U
c
cos
c
t + u
i
cos
c
t
= U
c
cos
c
t + U
i
cos
i
t.cos
c
t
= U
c
cos
c
t + (U
i
/2)cos(
c
+
i
)t + (U
i
/2)cos(
c
-
i
)t
vi m = U
i
/U
c
la he so ieu che do o:
u
AM
= U
c
cos
c
t + (mU
c
/2)cos(
c
+
i
)t + (U
c
/2)cos(
c
-
i
)t

Ta thay neu dai thong cua ban tin la () th dai thong truyen dan can thiet e phat
tn hieu ieu che bien o la 2. V vay ay la mot phng phap khong hieu qua.
-Ta biet song mang khong co thong tin nen ta co the bo i. Vay ieu che AM co triet
song mang goi la ieu che bien o hai dai bien (DSB), khi o tn hieu co dang:
S(t)= (mU
c
/2)cos(
c
+
i
)t + (U
c
/2)cos(
c
-
i
)t
-Nhng dai thong truyen dan van la 2 nen lang ph. e giam c ngi ta s dung
phng phap ieu che n bien (SSB). Thc te ngi ta co the ch triet mot phan cua dai
bien: ieu che dai bien sot (VSB). Bang cach cho tn hieu DSB i qua bo loc dai tren
(USSB) hoac bo loc dai di (LSSB) khi o S(t) co dang:

S(t) = (1/2 ).U
C
[V(t).cos
c
t v (t).sin
c
t]

( Dau () USSB hoac LSSB )
v(t) la phep bien oi Hillbert cua V(t)

Ve cong suat truyen dan : SSB chiem cua DSB, VSB nam gia DSB va SSB.
Pho tan so nh sau :







fo fo
2/ ieu che goc
Khac vi ieu che bien o tuyen tnh trong o goc pha c co nh con bien o
th bien oi, ieu che goc se co nh ve bien o va thay oi goc pha mot cach ty levi tn
hieu cua ban tin.
ieu che goc con c goi la ieu che ham so mu khong tuyen tnh va song ieu
che tr thanh dang ham so mu khi song c ieu che tr thanh kieu nh pha. Co hai
kieu ieu che c ap dung trong ieu che ham so mu la: ieu che tan so (FM) va ieu
che pha (PM).
Hai loai nay co ac tnh chong tap am tot hn (AM) va (FM) giam tap am tot hn
(PM). Neu goc
C
(t) la goc pha cua tn hieu ieu che th tn hieu ieu che goc S(t) co
dang tong quat nh sau:
S(t)=A
C
cos[
c
t + (t)] = Acos
C
(t)
Bien tren Bien di
Tn hieu
VSB
PM co ngha la pha tng oi (t) ty le vi tn hieu ban tin v(t), neu hang so di pha
la kp th song S(t) cua PM la:
S
PM
(t)=A
C
cos[
c
+ kp.v (t)]
FM co ngha la iem dch tan so ty le vi tn hieu tin tc v(t), khi hang so dch tan
so la k
f
th song S(t) cua FM la:
S
FM
(t)=A
C
cos[
c
t + k
f
v (t).dt]


V
C


a) Song mang .
- V
C



V
m

b) Song tn hieu .
- V
m





c) Song FM



Dang pho cua song FM :

Pho cua song FM bao gom vo so cac song
bien tan cao va bien tan thap , vi trung tam la
song mang (fo) . V the no chiem mot bang tan
rong .


(fo)

II. IEU CHE SO
1/ Dch chuyen bien o (ASK)
-Trong truyen dan tn hieu so dch chuyen bien o la thay oi bien o cua song
mang theo day tn hieu c ma hoa (nh phan) can truyen i.
-Neu bien o A1, A2 c thay bang A0, A1 tng ng vi bit , bit 1. Khi A0= th
he thong c goi la dch chuyen ong ngat (OOK).
-Dang song ieu che nh sau:
Vi ham song:
V
ASK
(t) = A
1
.V
1
. cosW
C
t
A
2
.V
2
. cosW
C
t
V
OOK
(t) = 0
A
1
. cosW
C
t


V
C


a) Song mang .
- V
C



V
m

b) Song tn hieu .
- V
m





c) Song ASK




d)- Song OOK





2/ Dch chuyen tan so (FSK)
-La thay oi tan so cua song mang theo day bit c ma hoa nh phan cua tn hieu
can truyen:
-Ham song co dang:

V
FSK
(t) = A
C
.cos [W
C
t + b
K
.w.t]
= A
C
.cos [W
C
+ w]t ; b
K
=1
A
C
.cos [W
C
- w]t ; b
K
=-1

-Dang song nh sau:


V
C



- V
C



V
m


- V
m










3/ Dch chuyen pha (PSK)
-Ta co s o ieu che nh sau:


D lieu (PCM). Tn hieu a ieu che (PSK).



Song mang
( A
C
. cosW
C
t )


Nguyen ly: Tn hieu so lam thay oi goc pha ban au (i) cua song mang.
u iem: ieu che PSK hn han cac loai ieu che so khac. V tn hieu so ch
ieu che ve pha cua song mang, trong khi nhieu cua moi trng ch lam bien oi bien o
cua song mang, ongthi so vi FSK th dai tan cua no hep tiet kiem c so kenh truyen.
Hay noi cach khac la no co the ghep c nhieu kenh tren cung mot ng truyen so vi
FSK.
Nhc iem: ieu che PSK mach ieu che va giai ieu che phc tap hn nhieu so
vi FSK. Xac suat giai ieu che b sai nhieu hn so vi FSK. c s dung trong cac thiet
b chuyen dung.
+) ieu che PSK bao gom:
IEU CHE
(PSK)
a) Song mang .
b) Song tn hieu .
c) Song FSK
1. ieu che BPSK (Binary Phare Shift Key)

DATA GOC PHA AU
0
1
0
0

180
0


V(t) = A
C
. cos [W
C
t + I ]
Dang song ieu che nh sau:


V
C


a) Song mang .
- V
C



V
m

b) Song tn hieu .
- V
m





c) Song BPSK



2. ieu che QPSK:
DATA (cap bt ) GOC PHA AU
0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

+ 45
0

- 45
0

+ 135
0

- 135
0


Nhan xet:
Goc pha au (i) se bien oi theo 4 trang thai cua tng cap bit. V the toc o bit truyen
tang gap oi so vi (BPSK) ma tan so gan nh khong oi, tuy nhien thiet b se phc tap
hn.



-Dang song nh sau:

V
C


a) Song mang .
- V
C



V
m

b) Song tn hieu .
- V
m





c) Song QPSK




V(t) = A
C
[cos(
C
.t).cosi sin(
C
.t)sini]
A
C.
cosi. cos
C
.t A
C.
sin i. sin
C
.t
T phng trnh ta co s o ieu che nh sau:






Data

V(t)








Theo bang sau ta thay mach tao he so cho cac gia tr cosi, sin i tng ng vi cac
cap bit (OK goc).
Ghi
dch
2bit
Mach
tao he
so
Dch
pha
90
0
TR
NHAN
NHAN
A
C
.cos
C
.t . Cos(i)
A
C
.cos
C
.t
A
C
.Sin
C
.
A
C
.Sin
C
.t .
Sin(i)
Cos(i)
sin
C
.t

DATA i Cos(i) Sin(i)
0 0 + 45
0
2 / 2 2 / 2
0 1 - 45
0
2 / 2 - 2 / 2
1 0 + 135
0
- 2 / 2 2 / 2
1 1 - 135
0
- 2 / 2 - 2 / 2

Theo nguyen ly ngc lai:
AC
A
C
.cos(
C
.t + i).cos
C
t = [cos(2
C
.t + i) + cosi]
2
AC
A
C
.cos(
C
.t + i). sin
C
t = [sin(2
C
.t + i) + sini]
2
Neu dung bo loc ha thong gat tn hieu co tan so bang 2W
C
.t ta co cac gia tr thu c
nh sau:

fi fq i Cap bits
A
C
.2 / 2 - A
C
.2 / 2 + 45
0
0 0
A
C
.2 / 2 A
C
.2 / 2 - 45
0
0 1
- A
C
.2 / 2 - A
C
.2 / 2 + 135
0
1 0
- A
C
.2 / 2 A
C
.2 / 2 - 135
0
1 1









V(t)






-Tng t so trang thai: M=2
Vi =so bit, khi tang th toc o truyen tang ang ke hien nay ti 2
6
.
III. ieu che xung (PCM-DPCM-DM)
1/ ieu che PCM (Pulse Code Modulation)
- PCM c ac trng bi 3 qua trnh o la:
+ Lay mau
+ Lng t hoa
+ Va ma hoa
NHAN


MACH
TAO
MA

GHI
DCH
2
Loc ha
thong
NHAN
Dc
h
pha
Loc ha
thong K
2 lan
A
C
.cos(
C
.t +i) .cos
C
.t
A
C
.cos(
C
.t +i) .sin
C
.t
A
C
.cos
C
.t
A
C
.sin
C
.t
cos
C
.t
A
C
.cos(
C
.t+i)
Tn hieu binary
Tn hieu
tng t vao
Tn hieu
tng t
Xung ieu bien tng t

Bo A/D
Bo D/A
Kenh truyen
010110.
010110.
S o khoi cua bo ma hoa va giai ma nguon trong mot he thong PCM nh sau:







Tn hieu Analog lien tuc theo t co pho am tan c a qua he thong lay mau e tao
thanh chuoi tn hieu ri rac PAM nhng v quy luat bien oi cua tin tc thoai co tnh ngau
nhien nen gia tr cac xung PAM la mot con so vo cung ln , e n gian va gan ung th
cac xung PAM c a qua mot bo nen han bien goi la bo lng t hoa (quantizen) . Y
ngha quan trong cua bo lng t hoa la gan ung hoa cac xung PAM co bien o xuat hien
xung quanh mc chuan PAM
0
, vay PAM
0
= PAM x. Trong o x la mot ai lng sai so
lng t, sau o tn hieu c a vao bo ma hoa (encoder) e chuyen o ln bien o cac
xung sang dang so o nh phan gom 2 bit bieu bien la 0 va 1, qua trnh tren c goi la
chuyen oi A/D. Nh vay tn hieu truyen qua kenh truyen la tn hieu so c truyen lan
llt tng cum bit B
1
B
n
ma moi cum bit t B
1
B
n
se bieu dien cho mot so o xung
PAM. Tren ng truyen cac t ma se b nhieu xen vao va khi en au thu tn hieu se b
meo dang xung, do o trc khi giai ma ta phai co mach phuc hoi va sa lai dang xung e
ong bo lai dang xung va phuc hoi lai chuoi xung nhp ong ho. Sau o tn hieu c a
vao mach giai ma e phuc hoi lai tn hieu, c tng cum bit B
1
B
n
noi tiep se c
chuyen thanh song song vao bo giai ma e phuc hoi lai dang xung PAM sau o qua bo loc
ta se c tn hieu ban au.

+). Lay mau :
Qua trnh lay mau la qua trnh ri rac hoa bien o cua tn hieu nguon (analog)
theo thi gian (lay bien o tn hieu cac thi gian cach eu nhau). Trong trng hp ly
tng, o rong cua xung lay mau co the vo cung nho nhng thc te la o rong co gii han
va thng nho hn nhieu chu ky cua tn hieu c lay mau. e am bao o trung thc cua
tn hieu th tan so lay mau phai tuan theo nh ly lay mau.
- nh ly lay mau :
Lay
mau
Bo
loc
Lng
t hoa
Giai
ma
Tai tao
tu ma
Ma
hoa
PAM
4-4,6 7,7 8 8,3 11.4-12f(kHz)
3 4 7 10 11 14
Bien o
lay mau
Bien o
lay mau
Xung lay
mau 8kHz
Xung lay
mau 7kHz
Tu tch ien
Neu tn hieu Xa (t) co tan so max la (fa) th sau khi tn hieu c ri rac hoa, no
co the khoi phuc hoan toan neu tan so lay mau Fs thoa:



Hay Ts (max) Ta
-Ts (max): c goi la khoang Nyquist va la khoang thi gian dai nhat c
dung e lay mau tn hieu.
Meo do Ts ln hn khoang Nyquist goi la meo xep chong nh hnh ve:




+). Lng t hoa:
Fs 2fa
X

=
~
Nguon tng t
Tn hieu PAM
Tao xung
K em co tr khang
Mach ien dung e lay mau thng la lay mau va duy tr nh sau:
Vq
2
0 Ts 2TS 3Ts 4Ts 5Ts 6Ts 7Ts
La qua trnh xap x bien o cua tn hieu a c lay mau theo cac mc nh
san cua bo lng t hoa (Tc la bien oi tn hieu lien tuc theo thi gian thanh tn
hieu bien o ri rac ) nh hnh ve:
Goi:
+ N: la so bc cua bo lng t hoa th se co (N+1) tr them xac nh
+ Y1Yn la tn hieu xuat tng ng vi N mc
Vi lng t hoa tuyen tnh cac bc lng t hoa bang nhau va co cung kch thc.

2 V 2V
Q= ------ = -----
2
n
-1 N-1
(va N=2
n
)

Vi: - (n) la chieu dai t ma cua mot n v thong tin
-V: Tam bien o cc ai
( n cang tang th sai so lng t hoa cang giam)

+ Sai so lng t hoa:
-Xay ra khi lng t hoa ch ton tai mot so hu han mc e xap x cac bien o ri
rac cua tn hieu.
- Sai so tuyet oi khi lng t hoa
Step
Va
Vq
1
Bien o
X
7

m
7
X
5
m
5
X3


m
3
X1


m1
X
0
-m
1
X
1

-m3

X
3

-m5
X
5
-
m7
X
7


Tn
hieu
vao
X(t)
Xq(t)
a
a
Q
eq = Va-Vq Step
Va: la bien o mau cua tn hieu ri rac ang xet.
-Sai so tng oi cc ai khi lng t hoa [q]
Step Vn
Q = ----------- = -------------------
2 Va (W-1). Va
Chieu dai t ma:


+) Ma hoa:
La ma hoa moi mc lng t hoa co nh bang mot day nh phan goi la t
ma.
Ta biet so lng mc lng t hoa : N=2n. Tc 1 t ma co 2n bit.
V du: Neu co 16 mc lng t th (n) =4 gom cac t ma:
0000 = 0
v

0001 =1
v

----------
1111 = 12
v

Theo khuyen ngh cua CCITT cac he thong PCM co 8 bit cho mot t ma ngha la
co 256 t ma (256 mc).
Tn hieu so PCM co the truyen trc tiep c ly ngan hoac phai x ly bang tan c
ban hoac dung e ieu che song mang.
+) o rong bang tan trong PCM {BW}
b
r

BW = ----------
2
b
r
: toc o truyen ky hieu PCM va: b
r
= n.fs
Vi : n la so bit truyen
fs la tan so lay mau (KHz)
2/ ien xung ma vi sai (DPCM):
Mot phng phap lam giam o rong bang tan [BW]con mot na la giam so bit (n)
cua t ma i mot na. Ngi ta a ra phng phap DPCM , trong o ch truyen i o
chenh lech gia cac mau canh nhau a c ma hoa . V o chenh lech gia cac mau
canh nhau thng nho hn tr so bien o cua xung lay mau nen ac trng cho o chenh
lech nay can so bit t hn.
ac biet ieu nay xay ra trong cac tn hieu video , trong o am nen hoac cac tr
so am thay oi khong ro ret gia cac thi iem lay mau. V du:
Tn hieu truyen hnh en trang s dung PCM co 256 mc va t ma 8 bit. Khi s
dung DPCM co cung chat lng nh PCM ch s dung 8 mc lng t va t ma la 3 bit.
Nh vay BW (DPCM) = 3/8 (PCM)
100 .Vm
n = 3.32 log
10
( --------------- + 1)
% q .| Va|
Comparator
Tn hieu ke
Tuy nhien phng phap nay sai so lng t ln do tn hieu analog co s thay oi
rat nhanh t mc nay sang mc khac. Mat khac may thu giai ma o chenh lech cua tn
hieu a gi i, tch phan lai va cong no vi tn hieu a khoi phuc trc o. V the ch can 1
loi la co the cong vao suot trong qua trnh phuc hoi cau truc.

3/ ieu che DELTA:
Trong ky thuat PCM cho phep cac bo A/D tao ra 8 bit song song e bieu dien mot
mc PCM nh vay toc o ma hoa cham, e nang cao kha nang A/D ngi ta dung phng
phap eu che Delta
ieu che Delta la loai ieu xung ma vi sai 1 bt e bieu dien gia tr tng oi
cua mc bien o PAM bang cach lay mc bien o th Mi hoi tiep ve so sanh vi mc
Mi+1, neu ket qua Mi+1 > Mi th e(t) = 1 ngc lai th e(t) = 0. Nh vay au thu neu e(t)
= 1 th tao ra mot mc mi co bien o ln hn mc cu.

S o mach va dang tn hieu ieu che nh sau:





Trong o: S(t) la tn hieu Analog co pho tan f
in
dang xung PAM
S(t) la tn hieu hoi tiep ve e so sanh la xung bien o trc o
e(t) la tn hieu so hai
D Q
Latch
CK
Intearator
e(t)d
t
(OSC)
Intearator
e(t)d
t
(OSC)
fs
e(t)
S(t),f(in)
S'(t)
S'(t)
Kenh truyen
+)-Nhieu lng t:
La do tn hieu vi phan l(t) tang hay giam t o sinh ra tn hieu S(t) dao ong ke
xung quang tn hieu analog (khong the tranh c), e khac phuc ta tang fs(Ts giam) th
Step giam. Tuy nhien BW tang va phc tap khi thiet ke.
+)-Qua tai o doc:
Khi < : Tn hieu ke theo khong kp sinh qua tai o doc nen tn hieu b meo
dang.
Khac phuc: Giam Ts va giam Step (h) va chon:
f
s
. h
f
in
=
2 .Vm

Bang thong toi thieu cho phep
BW = .Vm . f
in/h


Rat ln khong the la ch tieu thiet ke (do fs qua ln)
Nngi ta dung loai ieu che Delta co o doc bien oi (VSDM), va loai ieu che
Delta co o doc bien oi lien tuc (CVSD): Bang cach kiem tra 3 bit (1) hoac 3 bit (0) e
tang hay giam (h) bat kp S(t) , khi S(t) thay oi ot ngot.


Nguyen tac : Tao S(t) co o doc bien oi sao cho no ngay cang ke theo S(t) [ h bien
oi].
+[ h] tang khi tn hieu S(t) bien oi.
+[ h] giam khi tn hieu S(t) t bien oi.

Song cua he thong CVSD







Phu luc B

BANG TRA CU CAC AC TNH KY
THUAT CUA CAC THIET B S DUNG
TRONG THIET KE HE THONG THU CATV

BANG
BANG GOC NGANG, GOC PHNG V VA SAI LENH KINH TUYEN


Sai lech kinh tuyen

E
-
S

Goc ngang e Goc phng v a
Ten ve tinh


Toa o ve
tinh HN SG HN SG HN SG
Asiasat 1
Palapa B2
Chinasat 2
Palapa B1
Stationar 14
Stationar 6
Chinasat 1
Stationar 13
Thaicom 1
Intelsat VI
Intelsat V F7
Intelsat VA
116
0
E
113
0
E
110
0
E
108
0
E
95
0
E
90
0
E
87
0
5E
80
0
E
78
0
5E
63
0
E
60
0
E
57
0
E
-10
0
60
-7
0
16
-4
0
16
-2
0
16
+10
0
84
+15
0
84
+18
0
34
+25
0
84
+27
0
34
+42
0
84
+45
0
84
+48
0
84
-9
0
38
-6
0
38
-3
0
38
-1
0
38
+11
0
62
+16
0
62
+19
0
12
+26
0
62
+28
0
12
+43
0
62
+46
0
62
+49
0
62
63
0

64
0

64
0
90
65
0
20
62
0

59
0
40
57
0
70
51
0

49
0

37
0

34
0

31
0

73
0
29
75
0
33
75
0
56
77
0
23
71
0
40
66
0
82
64
0
35
56
0
61
56
0

38
0
48
36
0

32
0

153
0

164
0

168
0
50
174
0

206
0

217
0

222
0
70
232
0

234
0
62
248
0

251
0

252
0
50
140
0

152
0

160
0
28
172
0
90
227
0
86
238
0

241
0
74
248
0

249
0
60
258
0
92
260
0

261
0



Ghi chu :
0
E la o kinh ong.

BANG
VUNG PHU SONG CUA VE TINH TRUYEN HNH

Nc Thanh pho Goc ngang (
0
) Cong suat phu
song (dBW)
ng knh
anten thu ca
nhan (m)
Han Quoc
Trung Quoc


Nhat

Mong Co
Hong Kong
ai Loan
Philipin
Viet Nam

Lao
Campuchia
Thai Lan
Malaysia
Singapo
Brunei
Inonesia

Mien ien
Banglades
Nepal
An o


Pakistan
Iran

Irac
Oman
Gulf States
Syria
Tho Nh Ky
Saudi Arabia
Seoul
Bac Kinh
Quang Chau
Chengdu
Tokyo
Osaka
Ulan Bator

Taipei
Manila
Ha Noi
TP. HCM
Vieng Chan
Phnom Penh
Bangkok
Kuala Lumper

BSB
Medan
Jakarta
Rangon
Danka
Katmadu
Delhi
Bombay
Madras
Karachi
Islamabad
Teheran
Baghdad


Damacus
Ankara
Riyadh
40
40
60
55
35
40
25
60
55
65
65
75
70
75
75
85
89
80
85
80
70
60
50
45
45
50
40
35
25
15
30
25
10
5
20
35
35
35
36
30
33
31
35,4
34
28
33-35
35
30-36
36,5
37
33
32
29
23
24
26-36
32-33,5
33,4-33,5
32-37
33
25
35
31,5-33,5
33
30
30
30
29
28
28
4,5
4,5
4,5
4,5
8,1
5,5
7,0
4,5
5,0
9,0
4,5
4,5
4,5
3,7
3,7
5,5
,0
8,1
5,5
13,0
4,5
5,0
5,0
3,7
5,5
13,0
4,5
3,7
5,5
7,0
8,1
8,1
8,1
9,0
9,0


BANG
CAC KENH VE TINH ASIASAT 1 (Cho may thu)

Kenh Tan so may thu (GHz) Tan so may phat t mat at len ve tinh (GHZ)
1H
2H
3H
4H
5H
6H
7H
8H
9H
10H
11H
12H
1V
2V
3V
4V
5V
6V
7V
8V
9V
10V
11V
12V
3,720
3,760
3,800
3,840
3,880
3,920
3,960
4,000
4,040
4,080
4,120
4,160
3,740
3,780
3,820
3,860
3,900
3,940
3,980
4,020
4,060
4,100
4,140
4,180
5,965
6,005
6,045
6,085
6,125
6,165
6,205
6,245
6,285
6,325
6,365
6,405
5,945
5,985
6,025
6,065
6,105
6,145
6,185
6,225
6,265
6,305
6,345
6,385


Ghi chu : H la phan cc ngang (Horiziontal).
V la phan cc ng (Vectical).
V du 1H la kenh 1 phan cc ngang.
2V la kenh 2 phan cc ng.

BANG
CAC KENH VE TINH PALAPA-B

Kenh Tan so may thu (GHz) Tan so may phat t mat at len ve tinh (GHZ)
1H
2H
3H
4H
5H
6H
7H
8H
9H
10H
11H
12H
1V
2V
3V
4V
5V
6V
7V
8V
9V
10V
11V
12V
3,720
3,760
3,800
3,840
3,880
3,920
3,960
4,000
4,040
4,080
4,120
4,160
3,740
3,780
3,820
3,860
3,900
3,940
3,980
4,020
4,060
4,100
4,140
4,180
5,965
6,005
6,045
6,085
6,125
6,165
6,205
6,245
6,285
6,325
6,365
6,405
5,945
5,985
6,025
6,065
6,105
6,145
6,185
6,225
6,265
6,305
6,345
6,385

Chu thch : 1V la kenh 1 phan cc ng (Vectical).
1H la kenh 1 phan cc ngang (Horiziontal).









Phu luc C

CAC THONG SO BO SUNG
CHO PHAN LY THUYET KHAO SAT HE THONG
THONG TIN VE TINH

S O KHOI BO IEU CHE QPSK:












Q(t) va I(t) la tn hieu bang goc co dang song nh sau:


I(t)


Q(t)




S O KHOI BO GIAI IEU CHE QPSK:













/2

Q(t)
I(t)
Tn hieu ieu che
QPSK
Bo dao ong
b
1

b
4 b
6
b
5
b
8
b
7 b
3
b
2

LPF
LPF
CLR
D
D
CR
/2
BPF
I(t)
Q(t)









Phu luc D

CAC CH VIET TAT
VA TAI LIEU THAM KHAO
CAC CH VIET TAT

FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
INMARSAT International Marine Satellite Organization
FM: Frequency Modulation ( ieu che tan so )
PM: Phare Modulation ( ieu che pha )
AM: Amplitude Modulation ( ieu che bien o )
DSB: Double Side Band ( ieu che song bien )
SSB: Single Side Band ( ieu che n bien )
PAM: Pulse Amplitude Modulation ( ieu che bien o cua xung )
PFM: Pulse Frequency Modulation ( ieu che tan so cua xung )
PPM: Pulse Phare Modulation ( ieu che pha cua xung )
PWM: Pulse Width Modulation ( ieu che o rong cua xung )
ASK: Amplication Shift Key ( Khoa dch chuyen ve bien o )
FSK: Frequency Shift Key ( Khoa dch chuyen ve tan so )
PSK: Phare Shift Key ( Khoa dch chuyen ve pha )
PCM: Pulse Code Moduation ( ieu che xung ma c s dung thong dung
trong ieu che va ghep kenh )
DPCM: Differential PCM ( ieu che xung ma visai )
DM: Delta Modulation ( Dung nhieu trong truyen so lieu )
C/N Carrier To Noise Ratio
S/N Signal To Noise Ratio
EIRP Equivalent Istropic Radiated Power
DBS Direct Broadcating Satellite
CATV Cable Television
HDTV High Difinition Television
CAMC Combined Multiplexed Analogue Component
VSWR Voltage Standing Waves Ratio
HPA High Power Amplifier
LNA Low Noise Amplifier
LNB Low Noise Blockconverter
FEC Forward Error Correction
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
U/C Up Converter
MOD Modulation
AKM Apogee Kick Motor
BER Bit Error Rate
PN Rseudnoise
SS-TDMA Satellite Swiched TDMA
SCPC Single Chanel Per Carrier
XPD Cross-polarization Discrimination



TAI LIEU THAM KHAO


1. Cong Nghe Thong Tin Ve Tinh.
Bien dch: KS Nguyen nh Lng
NXB. Khoa Hoc Va Ky Thuat
2. Truyen Hnh So Va HDTV.
Gs Ts Nguyen Kim Sach
NXB. Khoa Hoc Va Ky Thuat
3. Satellite Communications.
Timothy Pratt Charles W.Bostian
4. Thu Truyen Hnh Trc Tiep T Ve tinh.
Gs Ts Nguyen Kim nh
5. Truyen Hnh Qua Ve Tinh.
Rene Besson