Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

# Novi Kenn C.

## I. Statement of the Problem

Equations of state are applied in many industries including separation, oil and gas industry,
supercritical extraction, etc. As such, scientists including van der Waals; Soave and Peng–
Robinson; Hyene, Patel and Teja; Trebble and Bishnoi; and Aznar et al. developed equations of
state for these purposes, however, none of these equations could predict liquid density and
phase behavior of heavy hydrocarbons with an acceptable accuracy. In this work, the authors
presented a new two-parameter cubic equation of state based on perturbation theory for
predicting phase behavior of pure compounds and of hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbons. The
authors extended their calculations to some thermodynamic properties of pure compounds
including enthalpy and entropy of vaporization, heat capacity at constant pressure and volume,
sound velocity in gases and second virial coefficient, bubble pressure and vapor mole fraction of
binary mixtures.

## III. Materials and Methods

Cubic equations of state are commonly used for calculating phase behavior of pure and mixture
fluids. These equations have a repulsive term and an attractive term and according to statistical
thermodynamics [10]:

𝑍 = 𝑍 ℎ𝑠 + 𝑍 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑡 (1)

where the first term is the repulsive forces and the second term is the attractive forces. In
general, cubic equations of state have the following form

1+𝑚ƞ 4Ɵƞ
𝑍= − 𝑇 𝜉 (1+4𝑏 (2)
1−𝑛ƞ 1 ƞ )(1+4𝑏2 ƞ)

𝑎
Ɵ = 𝑏𝑅𝑇 (3)

𝑏
ƞ = 4𝑣 . (4)
The authors define the values for m and n to be 4, 𝝃=0, b1=0 and b2=4. Substitution of these
values to Eq.(2) yields the equation

𝑣+𝑏 𝑎
𝑍 = 𝑣−𝑏 − 𝑅𝑇(𝑣+𝑏) . (5)

The cubic form of the compressibility factor and molar volume of the above equation of state,
upon the substitution of Eq.(5) to the gas equation
𝑅𝑇
𝑣=𝑧 (6)
𝑃

is

## 𝑣+𝑏 𝑎 𝑅𝑇 (𝑣+𝑏)2 𝑅𝑇−𝑎(𝑣−𝑏) 𝑅𝑇

𝑣 = (𝑣−𝑏 − 𝑅𝑇(𝑣+𝑏)) =( (𝑣 2 −𝑏 2 )𝑅𝑇
)𝑃 ;
𝑃

## 𝑃𝑣(𝑣 2 − 𝑏 2 ) = (𝑣 2 + 2𝑣𝑏 + 𝑏 2 )𝑅𝑇 − 𝑎𝑣 + 𝑎𝑏 ;

𝑅𝑇 𝑅𝑇 𝑅𝑇 𝑎𝑣 𝑎𝑏
𝑣 3 − 𝑣𝑏 2 − 𝑣 2 − 2𝑣𝑏 − 𝑏2 + − =0 ;
𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃

𝑅𝑇 𝑎 2𝑅𝑇𝑏 𝑅𝑇𝑏 2 𝑎𝑏
𝑣3 − 𝑣 2 + (𝑃 − 𝑏 2 − )𝑣 − ( + )=0 . (7)
𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃

## 𝑍𝑅𝑇 3 𝑅𝑇 𝑍𝑅𝑇 2 𝑎 2𝑅𝑇𝑏 𝑍𝑅𝑇 𝑅𝑇𝑏 2 𝑎𝑏

( ) − ( ) + (𝑃 − 𝑏 2 − )( )−( + )=0 ;
𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃

𝑅𝑇 3 𝑎 2𝑅𝑇𝑏 𝑃 2 𝑅𝑇𝑏 2 𝑎𝑏 𝑃 3
( 𝑃 ) [𝑍 3 − 𝑍 2 + (𝑃 − 𝑏 2 − ) (𝑅𝑇) 𝑍 − ( + ) (𝑅𝑇) ] = 0 ;
𝑃 𝑃 𝑃

𝑎𝑃 𝑏𝑃 2 2𝑏𝑃 𝑏𝑃 2 𝑎𝑃.𝑏𝑃
[𝑍 3 − 𝑍 2 + ((𝑅𝑇)2 − (𝑅𝑇) − 𝑅𝑇
) 𝑍 − ((𝑅𝑇) + (𝑅𝑇)2 .𝑅𝑇)] = 0 ;

yielding,

## where A, B and C has a value

𝑎𝑃 𝑏𝑃 𝑃𝑣
𝐴 = (𝑅𝑇)2; 𝐵 = 𝑅𝑇 ; 𝑍 = 𝑅𝑇 . (9)
The parameters a and b are functions of critical properties and were determined by imposing the
critical constraints, i.e., at critical point,

(𝑣 − 𝑣𝑐 )3 = 0

## 𝑣 3 − 3𝑣𝑐 𝑣 + 3𝑣𝑐2 𝑣 − 𝑣𝑐3 = 0 . (10)

Eq.(7) written for T=Tc, P=Pc and comparing to Eq.(10) generates the following comparisons
𝑅𝑇𝑐
3𝑣𝑐 = ; (11)
𝑃𝑐
𝑎𝑐 2𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑏𝑐
3𝑣𝑐2 = − 𝑏𝑐2 − ; (12)
𝑃𝑐 𝑃𝑐
𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑏𝑐2 𝑎𝑐 𝑏𝑐
𝑣𝑐3 = + . (13)
𝑃𝑐 𝑃𝑐

These comparisons were evaluated and equations for 𝑎𝑐 , 𝑏𝑐 and Zc were obtained. 𝑎𝑐 and 𝑏𝑐
are simultaneously solved from Eq.(12) and Eq.(13) in which by rearranging these equations,
𝑅𝑇
forms a quadratic equation. Substitution of 𝑣𝑐 = 3𝑃𝑐 from Eq.(11) gives
𝑐

2𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑎
𝑏𝑐2 − 𝑏𝑐 + 𝑃𝑐 − 3𝑣𝑐2 = 0 ;
𝑃𝑐 𝑐
2𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑎 𝑅𝑇 2
𝑏𝑐2 − 𝑏𝑐 + 𝑃𝑐 − 3 (3𝑃𝑐) = 0 ; (12.1)
𝑃 𝑐 𝑐 𝑐

𝑎 𝑃
𝑏𝑐2 + 𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑏𝑐 − 𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑣𝑐3 = 0 ;
𝑐 𝑐
𝑎 𝑃 𝑅𝑇 3
𝑏𝑐2 + 𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑏𝑐 − 𝑅𝑇𝑐 (3𝑃𝑐) = 0 . (13.1)
𝑐 𝑐 𝑐

𝑅 2 𝑇𝑐2
The root of Eq.(12.1) and Eq.(13.1) is calculated using the quadratic formula and 𝑎𝑐 = 𝑘 is
𝑃𝑐
introduced into each of these equation. Equating these equations

2𝑅𝑇𝑐 2𝑅𝑇𝑐 2 𝑎 𝑅𝑇 2 𝑎 𝑎 2 𝑃 𝑅𝑇 3
+√(− ) −4(1)( 𝑐 −3( 𝑐 ) ) − 𝑐 +√( 𝑐 ) −4(1)(− 𝑐 ( 𝑐 ) )
𝑃𝑐 𝑃𝑐 𝑃𝑐 3𝑃𝑐 𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑅𝑇𝑐 3𝑃𝑐
𝑏𝑐 = =
2(1) 2(1)

2
𝑅2 𝑇2
𝑐 𝑅2 𝑇2𝑐 𝑅2 𝑇2 𝑐
2𝑅𝑇𝑐 2 𝑘 𝑅𝑇 2 𝑘 𝑘
2𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑃𝑐 𝑃 𝑅𝑇 3
+√(− ) −4( −3( 𝑐 ) ) −
𝑃𝑐
+√ (
𝑃 𝑐 ) −4(− 𝑐 ( 𝑐 ) )
𝑃𝑐 𝑃𝑐 𝑃𝑐 3𝑃𝑐 𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑅𝑇𝑐 𝑅𝑇𝑐 3𝑃𝑐

=
2 2

## yields a constant k=0.47448. Thus,

𝑅 2 𝑇𝑐2
𝑎𝑐 = 0.47448 ; (14)
𝑃𝑐

## and consequently, by the quadratic equation

𝑅𝑇𝑐
𝑏𝑐 = 0.06824 . (15)
𝑃𝑐

## Imposing critical constraints to Eq.(6) and by comparison to Eq.(11),

𝑍𝑐 = 0.333 . (16)

The authors proposed parameters a and b as a function of reduced temperature and acentric
factor.

## IV. Results and Discussions

V. Conclusions

VI. Critique

𝑏 𝑎 𝑏
1 + 4 (4𝑣 ) 4( ) (4𝑣 )
𝑍= − 𝑏𝑅𝑇
𝑏
1 − 4 (4𝑣 ) 𝑇 0 (1 + 4(0) ( 𝑏 ) ) (1 + 4(4) ( 𝑏 ))
4𝑣 4𝑣

Abstract

A new two-parameter cubic equation of state is presented based on perturbation theory for
predicting phase behavior of pure compounds and of hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbons. The
parameters of the new cubic equation of state are obtained as functions of reduced temperature and
acentric factor. The average deviations of the predicted vapor pressure, liquid density and vapor volume
for 40 pure compounds are 1.116, 5.696 and 3.083%, respectively. Also, the enthalpy and entropy of
vaporization have average deviations of the predicted values of 2.393 and 2.358%, respectively. The
capability of the proposed equation of state for predicting some other thermodynamic properties such as
compressibility, second virial coefficient, sound velocity in gases and heat capacity of gases are given,
too. The comparisons between the experimental data and the results of the new equation of state show
the accuracy of the proposed equation with respect to commonly used equations of state, i.e. PR and
SRK. The zeno line has been calculated using the new equation of state and the obtained result
compared with quantities in the literatures. Bubble pressure and mole fraction of vapor for 16 binary
mixtures are calculated. Averages deviations for bubble pressure and mole fraction of vapor are 9.380
and 2.735%, respectively

Introduction

Van der Waals [1] developed the first cubic equation of state that is a two-parameter equation in
which the effect of intermolecular forces and size of molecules are considered. Redlich and Kwong [2]
modified the attractive term of van der Waals equation of state. Soave [3] and Peng–Robinson [4]
proposed an equation of state that the parameters were defined as functions of reduced temperature and
acentric factor. These equations however could not predict liquid density and phase behavior of heavy
hydrocarbons with acceptable accuracy. Hyene [5], Patel and Teja [6], Trebble and Bishnoi [7] and
Aznar et al. [8] proposed cubic equations of state based on repulsive term of van der Waals EOS that it
had more than two parameters. Considering the most of references, we can find that the parameter b is
only a function of critical properties. Therefore, these EOS’s are poor in prediction of liquid density.
Considering temperature dependent parameter b in the proposed EOS has solved this problem. In this
work, a new two-parameter cubic equation of state based on perturbation theory is proposed. Using this
equation of state, some property such as thermodynamic properties of pure compounds including
enthalpy and entropy of vaporization, heat capacity at constant pressure and volume, sound velocity in
gases and second virial coefficient, bubble pressure and vapor mole fraction of binary mixtures are
calculated. The deviation between theoretical and experimental data show the new equation of state has
an acceptable accuracy for calculating the predicted properties.

## New equation of state

Cubic equations of state have two terms, a repulsive and an attractive term. According to statistical
thermodynamics, the compressibility factor, Z, is [10]:

𝑍 = 𝑍ℎ𝑍 + 𝑍𝑍𝑍𝑍𝑍
(1)

where the first term is the repulsive forces and the second term is the attractive forces. In general, cubic
equations of state have the following form:
1+𝑍ƞ 4Ɵƞ
𝑍 = 1−𝑍ƞ − 𝑍𝑍 (1+4𝑍 (2)
1 ƞ )(1+4𝑍2 ƞ)

𝑍
Ɵ = 𝑍𝑍𝑍 (3)

𝑍
ƞ = 4𝑍 . (4)

In the above equations, parameters a and b are functions of critical properties. In Eq.(2), the first
term indicates the repulsive term and the second term indicates the attractive term. Choosing m = 0 and
n = 4 in Eq. (2) the van der Waals repulsive term is obtained. By changing of the parameters in Eq. (2),
the common equations of state are obtained. In this work, we choose m = n = 4 and the resulted
repulsive term is used of Scott equation as follows [11]:
𝑍+𝑍
𝑍ℎ𝑍
𝑍𝑍𝑍𝑍𝑍 = 𝑍−𝑍
(5)

## Eq. (2) by choosing 𝝃=0, b1=0, b2=4, is changed to below equation:

𝑍 𝑍 𝑍
1+4( ) 4( )( )
4𝑍 𝑍𝑍𝑍 4𝑍
𝑍= 𝑍 − 𝑍 𝑍
1−4( )
4𝑍 𝑍0 (1+4(0)( ) )(1+4(4)( ))
4𝑍 4𝑍
𝑍+𝑍 𝑍
𝑍 = 𝑍−𝑍 − 𝑍𝑍(𝑍+𝑍) (6)

Article Title

Author

## I. Statement of the Problem

In your own words, describe the problem tackled in the article. What did the
journal set out to achieve?

## II. Brief Background

Briefly discuss the necessary background of the journal and the development of
the underlying motivation behind the article.

## III. Materials and Methods

Discuss in your own words the specifics of what the study involved. What
methods were used? What are the important equations involved? If a new
model/computational method is introduced, how was it developed?

## Discuss the major findings and results of the article.

V. Conclusions

In your own words, summarize the author’s conclusions. What are the major
outcomes of the study?

VI. Critique

Provide your analysis of the journal article. Give a comment on everything – from
abstract to conclusion; from organization, structure, grammar to relevance,
scientific soundness etc. Point out any questionable areas and suggest ideas on
how it can be improved upon. If possible recreate/verify results or demonstrate
how the concepts presented can be applied and compare them to prevailing
theories, methods, and conventions.
All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M.
Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release,
July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Thermodynamics
Research Center, “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds,” Thermodynamics
Research Center Hydrocarbon Project, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (extant 1994).
Temperatures are in K; vapor pressures are in Pa. Pa × 9.869233E−06 = atm; Pa × 1.450377E−04 = psia; vapor
pressure = exp [C1 + (C2/T) + C3 × ln (T) + C4 × T C5]. 1 Decomposes violently on heating. Forms explosive
peroxides with air or oxygen. Polymerizes under pressure and heat. 2 Coefficients are hypothetical above the
decomposition temperature. 3 At the bubble point. 4 Exhibits superfluid properties below 2.2 K.

## vapor pressure = exp [C1 + (C2/T) + C3 × ln (T) + C4 × T C5

C2
𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑦𝑠 𝐻𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑏𝑜𝑜𝑘: 𝑉𝑃 = exp [C1 + + C3lnT + C4 + C5(T)]
T

## 111184.304202 0.0006798 0.1412894 -0.8843084

0.520
63168.7863095 0.0006719 0.2600628 -0.0325168
0.546
38147.4362788 0.0006613 0.4486408 0.4942670
0.572
24268.5047823 0.0006480 0.7318419 0.6995137
0.598
16132.0177964 0.0006325 1.1379658 0.6597100
0.624
11177.1993916 0.0006127 1.6983146 0.4551450
0.649
11125.2851207 0.0006156 1.6985088 0.4666332
0.649
7912.4149836 0.0005976 2.4477544 0.1939226
0.675
5774.3191073 0.0005789 3.4224095 -0.1065610
0.701
4305.5690634 0.0005596 4.6614136 -0.3989575
0.727
3268.0303060 0.0005396 6.2059696 -0.6578156
0.753
2516.6893174 0.0005191 8.0998053 -0.8643408
0.779
1960.3609724 0.0004977 10.3896685 -1.0040761
0.805
1540.0284997 0.0004754 13.1260444 -1.0654706
0.831

## 0.0004518 16.3640899 -1.0389795

0.856 1216.4666741

## 0.0004263 20.1647726 -0.9164972

0.882 962.9268856

## 0.980 363.2555670 0.0002849 40.8665684 0.5081969

0.510 34042.200211 0.0009124 0.1557489 0.8829059
0.547 16847.758999 0.0008916 0.3349795 1.2217413
0.584 9222.0940384 0.0008670 0.6461060 1.2888493
0.621 5460.0251505 0.0008397 1.1426975 1.1951276
0.658 3437.0996493 0.0008104 1.8848841 1.0293310
0.695 2270.0701528 0.0007792 2.9379459 0.8496560
0.732 1556.4429937 0.0007461 4.3715668 0.6934900
0.769 1098.1936377 0.0007110 6.2598840 0.5858035
0.806 791.3784407 0.0006732 8.6823237 0.5443636
0.843 578.3116874 0.0006319 11.7251506 0.5828135
0.880 425.3469573 0.0005856 15.4836316 0.7123484
0.917 311.8647660 0.0005312 20.0645900 0.9418930
0.950 232.8829361 0.0004705 24.9416144 1.2330436
N2

CH4

## 0.500 39089.4918051 0.0004501 0.2007687 -1.8871310

0.525 24071.3283647 0.0004451 0.3407050 -1.3183194
0.550 15561.8445223 0.0004391 0.5486573 -0.8891939
0.575 10485.8909580 0.0004322 0.8445047 -0.5945752
0.600 7319.1259542 0.0004244 1.2501136 -0.4148881
0.625 5264.2882172 0.0004160 1.7890222 -0.3239529
0.650 3884.1670575 0.0004068 2.4861738 -0.2955603
0.675 2928.6471937 0.0003972 3.3677157 -0.3069890
0.700 2249.1153230 0.0003870 4.4608758 -0.3400580
0.725 1754.2084759 0.0003763 5.7939278 -0.3808838
0.750 1386.0112973 0.0003650 7.3962458 -0.4191715
0.775 1106.7810929 0.0003532 9.2984447 -0.4474474
0.800 891.2950737 0.0003406 11.5326015 -0.4603840
0.825 722.3021817 0.0003273 14.1325499 -0.4542531
0.850 587.7415040 0.0003130 17.1342440 -0.4264959
0.875 478.9913519 0.0002974 20.5761887 -0.3753915
0.900 389.7272160 0.0002801 24.4999337 -0.2998029
0.925 315.1251748 0.0002606 28.9506333 -0.1989894
0.950 251.1852584 0.0002375 33.9776626 -0.0724997
Formula Mol. wt. C1 C2 C3 C4
CH4 16.043 2.9214 0.28976 190.56 0.28881
C2H6 30.070 1.9122 0.27937 305.32 0.29187
C3H8 44.097 1.3757 0.27453 369.83 0.29359
n-C4H10 58.123 1.0677 0.27188 425.12 0.28688

𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐶1
𝜌( 3 ) =
𝑚 𝑇 𝐶4
[1+(1− ) ]
𝐶3
𝐶2
CH4

## Tr Vapor Saturated %Error Vapor %Deviation

volume, liquid of Pressure, of pressure
m3/mol density, density, bar
kmol/m3
0.500 39224.570 28.581 -2.840 0.200 -2.254
0.526 23671.252 28.081 -2.622 0.347 -1.453
0.552 15067.655 27.563 -2.368 0.568 -0.924
0.578 10029.735 27.026 -2.075 0.887 -0.595
0.604 6932.146 26.468 -1.739 1.327 -0.409
0.630 4945.589 25.887 -1.356 1.915 -0.323
0.656 3624.049 25.282 -0.920 2.680 -0.303
0.682 2716.312 24.649 -0.423 3.651 -0.322
0.708 2075.005 23.985 0.143 4.860 -0.360
0.734 1610.490 23.286 0.789 6.338 -0.403
0.760 1266.460 22.548 1.529 8.119 -0.440
0.786 1006.503 21.764 2.380 10.238 -0.463
0.812 806.447 20.926 3.364 12.732 -0.467
0.838 649.844 20.022 4.513 15.640 -0.448
0.864 525.233 19.039 5.867 19.004 -0.405
0.890 424.422 17.953 7.485 22.869 -0.336
0.916 341.340 16.729 9.456 27.284 -0.240
0.942 271.174 15.302 11.931 32.303 -0.116
0.970 209.269 13.522 15.199 37.984 0.034
C2H6

## Tr Vapor Saturated %Error of Vapor % Deviation

Volume, liquid density, density pressure, bar
m3/mol kmol/m3
0.520 69255.367 19.828 -3.487 0.189 -2.925
0.553 35568.691 19.339 -3.088 0.389 -1.494
0.586 19940.697 18.829 -2.623 0.729 -0.678
0.619 11992.968 18.296 -2.086 1.265 -0.279
0.651 7632.033 17.736 -1.465 2.060 -0.149
0.684 5082.454 17.147 -0.749 3.185 -0.179
0.717 3509.982 16.524 0.082 4.715 -0.290
0.750 2494.962 15.861 1.049 6.730 -0.424
0.783 1813.555 15.150 2.188 9.317 -0.539
0.816 1340.127 14.380 3.543 12.569 -0.607
0.849 1000.910 13.537 5.181 16.588 -0.608
0.881 750.725 12.594 7.204 21.489 -0.527
0.914 560.608 11.511 9.777 27.399 -0.356
0.947 410.513 10.202 13.215 34.468 -0.089
0.980 282.127 8.407 18.280 42.866 0.278
nC4H10

## Tr Vapor Saturated %Error of Vapor % Deviation

volume, liquid density pressure, bar
m3/mol density,
kmol/m3
0.540 141948.950 11.338 -1.811 0.134 -3.057
0.564 84541.608 11.225 -2.407 0.233 -2.057
0.588 52936.092 11.079 -2.766 0.386 -1.240
0.612 34621.592 10.899 -2.848 0.611 -0.644
0.636 23514.225 10.683 -2.648 0.927 -0.274
0.660 16496.949 10.437 -2.197 1.356 -0.099
0.684 11898.531 10.166 -1.540 1.923 -0.071
0.708 8785.490 9.875 -0.724 2.654 -0.141
0.732 6616.268 9.568 0.216 3.576 -0.266
0.756 5065.426 9.247 1.256 4.719 -0.412
0.780 3930.986 8.911 2.384 6.114 -0.555
0.804 3083.863 8.562 3.600 7.796 -0.672
0.828 2439.325 8.195 4.914 9.801 -0.750
0.852 1940.373 7.809 6.348 12.169 -0.775
0.876 1547.748 7.395 7.941 14.946 -0.738
0.900 1233.745 6.945 9.758 18.180 -0.629
0.924 978.202 6.444 11.904 21.928 -0.442
0.948 765.627 5.860 14.579 26.252 -0.170
0.972 582.317 5.121 18.264 31.224 0.189
0.990 453.540 4.272 23.186 35.424 0.508
C3H6

## Tr Vapor Saturated %Error Vapor %

volume, liquid of pressure, Deviation
m3/mol density, density bar
kmol/m3
0.520 111184.304 16.153 -3.988 0.141 -0.884
0.547 61731.068 15.958 -4.611 0.267 -0.003
0.574 36612.025 15.690 -4.816 0.469 0.524
0.601 22962.055 15.353 -4.614 0.777 0.706
0.628 15089.976 14.964 -4.097 1.223 0.635
0.655 10309.385 14.538 -3.368 1.843 0.412
0.682 7274.270 14.088 -2.505 2.678 0.117
0.709 5272.025 13.619 -1.552 3.768 -0.197
0.736 3906.386 13.135 -0.538 5.159 -0.493
0.763 2947.292 12.635 0.528 6.900 -0.745
0.790 2256.022 12.118 1.646 9.039 -0.934
0.817 1746.071 11.579 2.833 11.633 -1.044
0.844 1361.838 11.010 4.114 14.741 -1.063
0.871 1066.557 10.401 5.540 18.429 -0.982
0.898 835.214 9.734 7.190 22.770 -0.793
0.925 650.188 8.979 9.203 27.846 -0.487
0.952 498.275 8.074 11.868 33.753 -0.059
0.980 367.845 6.832 16.119 40.594 0.486
0.520 69255.367 19.828 -3.487 0.189 -2.925
0.553 35568.691 19.339 -3.088 0.389 -1.494
0.586 19940.697 18.829 -2.623 0.729 -0.678
0.619 11992.968 18.296 -2.086 1.265 -0.279
0.651 7632.033 17.736 -1.465 2.060 -0.149
0.684 5082.454 17.147 -0.749 3.185 -0.179
0.717 3509.982 16.524 0.082 4.715 -0.290
0.750 2494.962 15.861 1.049 6.730 -0.424
0.783 1813.555 15.150 2.188 9.317 -0.539
0.816 1340.127 14.380 3.543 12.569 -0.607
0.849 1000.910 13.537 5.181 16.588 -0.608
0.881 750.725 12.594 7.204 21.489 -0.527
0.914 560.608 11.511 9.777 27.399 -0.356
0.947 410.513 10.202 13.215 34.468 -0.089
0.980 282.127 8.407 18.280 42.866 0.278

## Menu de pied de page

### Obtenez nos applications gratuites

Droits d'auteur © 2021 Scribd Inc.