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Les étapes de démarrage de Windows 7

Quand l’ordinateur démarre le Bios se charge puis :

1) Exécution du programme POST


2) Le Bios accède au premier Disque dur principal ( Le master ) puis charge le contenu du MBR
dans la RAM. ( Le MBR se sont 512 octets qui contiennent la table de partitions principales
et le chargeur de boot )

Le Boot loader montre comment charger les systèmes d’exploitations

3) Le Boot loader démarre le boot manager ( bootmgr ) qui lit la table de partitions pour
identifier la partition principale active
4) Le bootmgr charge le Boot Configuration Data ( BCD ) store ( Stockage de données de
configuration de chargement qui se trouve dans la partition système Boot\bcd ) et démarre
Windows boot manager (win-load.exe).
5) Win-load.exe charge windows 7

L utilitaire bcdedit permet de gérer la configuration de démarrage

On exécute cmd en tant qu administrateur puis on tape : bcdedit /enum

Bcdedit /v affiche les GUID un identifiant unique global d une partition

Bcdedit /export maconfig.bcd dans le repertoire system32. A faire avant toute modification

Bcdedit /import maconfig.bcd depuis le repertoire system32 pour restorer les parametres
sauvegardés

For example, to configure the Windows Boot Manager to start the previous installation of Windows
XP by default (which is identified as {ntldr}), run the following command:
bcdedit /default {ntldr}

To configure the currently running instance of Windows 7 as the default, run the following
command:
bcdedit /default {current}

To change the timeout on showing boot menu:


bcdedit /timeout 5
To change the title of the boot menu entry, you would use the /set option.

For example, to change the title to Windows XP from Earlier Windows Version, you would type in the
following:
bcdedit /set {ntldr} description “Windows XP”
Les outils de migration d une machine à l autre

Il y a 2 outils :

Le premier est WET ( Windows Easy Transfert ) en mode graphique avec la commande Migwiz.exe,
ou accessoires – outils systèmes.

Le deuxième outil est User State Migration Tool (USMT) ; c est un outil en mode invite de
commande qui permet de créer des scripts paramétrables pour les grands déploiements de
Windows7.

Qu’est-ce qu’USMT ? C’est un outil en ligne de commande qui permet la migration des profils
utilisateurs et des documents personnels. Il fait partie intégrante du package WAIK (Windows
Automated Installation Kits). Cependant, il est possible de télécharger uniquement USMT 4.0.

Voici quelques liens utiles :

 Pack WAIK => http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/fr-


fr/details.aspx?FamilyID=c7d4bc6d-15f3-4284-9123-679830d629f2

 USMT 4.0 => http://www.wintools.com.au/download_usmt4.php

Pour le pack WAIK, USMT 4.0 se trouve dans le répertoire d’installation. Par défaut C:\Program
Files\Windows AIK\Tools. Il vous suffira de copier les outils nécessaires dans le Windows PE pour une
migration à grande échelle.

USMT includes two components, ScanState and LoadState, and a set of modifiable .xml files:

.MigApp.xml: Used to migrate application settings to computers running Windows 7

.MigUser.xml: Used to migrate user folders, files, and file types to computers running
Windows 7

.MigDocs.xml: Used to migrate all user folders and files that are found by the
MigXmlHelper.GenerateDocPatterns helper function

In addition, you can use the config.xml file to exclude components from the migration with
the ScanState.exe /genconfig option.

The ScanState command is used to scan the source computer, collect files and settings, and
create a store. For example:
scanstate \\fileserver\share\mystore /x:migsys.xml /x:migapp.xml /x:miguser.xml /v:13

The /v:13 option enables verbose, status, and debugger output.

You can also add the following options to the preceding command:

./efs:copyraw: Used to migrate the EFS-encrypted files and EFS certificates.

./encrypt /key:keystring: Encrypts the store with the specified key.


./l: Specifies the location and name of the ScanState log.

./nocompress: Disables compression of data and saves the files to a hidden folder called
“File.” Compression is enabled by default.

./p: Without any additional parameters gives you storage space estimation if used with the
/nocompress option.

./targetvista: Use this option if you are migrating from a Windows Vista computer.

./targetxp: Use this option if you are migrating from a Windows XP.

./vsc: Enables the volume’s shadow-copy service to migrate files that are locked or in use.

The LoadState command migrates the files and settings from the store to the destination
computer. The LoadState command has similar options. Of course instead of using the
/encrypt option to encrypt the store, you would use the decrypt option to decrypt the store.

Avant de transférer les paramètres entre 2 ordinateurs il faut :

1.Verify that your system is capable of running of Windows 7 by using the Windows 7 Upgrade
Advisor. You also need to determine which applications have compatibility problems with Windows 7
and resolve those compatibility issues.

2.To protect from data loss, make sure to back up any data and personal settings before you start the
upgrade.

3.Run WET or USMT to copy user profiles to a network drive or removable drive.

4.Install Windows 7 and perform a clean installation.

5.Use the Microsoft update site to update Windows with the newest patches, fixes, and security
packs.

6.Re-install all programs.

7.Use WET or USMT 4.0 to migrate both your program settings and your user-related settings from
the network or removable drive to complete the migration process.
Windows Automated Installation Kit

The Windows Automated Installation Kit (AIK) is a set of tools and documentation that
support the configuration and deployment of Windows operating systems. By using Windows
AIK, you can automate Windows installations, capture Windows images with ImageX,
configure and modify images using Deployment Imaging Servicing and Management (DISM
Déploiement de service et de gestion d'image), create Windows PE images, and migrate user
profiles and data with the User State Migration Tool (USMT). Windows AIK also includes
the Volume Activation Management Tool (VAMT), which enables IT professionals to
automate and centrally manage the volume activation process using a Multiple Activation
Key (MAK).

Disk Cloning and the System Preparation Tool

If you create a cloned copy of Windows and apply the cloned copy to multiple computers,
each copy of Windows cloned to a target computer using the same image has the same
parameters, such as the same computer name and security identifier (SID). Unfortunately, for
these computers to operate properly on a network, these parameters have to be unique.

To overcome this problem, you run the System Preparation Tool (Sysprep), which removes
the security identifiers and all other user-specific or computer-specific information from the
computer before you run the disk cloning software to make the cloned disk image. When you
copy the cloned image to the disk image, a small wizard runs that enables you to specify the
computer name and other computer specific information. The SID and other information is re-
created automatically. The Sysprep utility is located in the

c:\Windows\System32\sysprep or the c:\Windows\SysWOW64\sysprep folder. The disk


structure is explained more in Chapter 9, “Managing Files and Folders.”

The syntax for the sysprep command is as follows:


sysprep.exe [/oobe | /audit] [/generalize] [/reboot | /shutdown | /quit] [/quiet]
[/unattend:answerfile]

./audit: Restarts the computer into audit mode. Audit mode enables you to add additional
drivers or applications to Windows. You can also test an installation of Windows before it is
sent to an end user. If an unattended Windows setup file is specified, the audit mode of
Windows Setup runs the auditSystem and auditUser configuration passes.

./generalize: Prepares the Windows installation to be imaged. If this option is specified, all
unique system information is removed from the Windows installation. The security ID (SID)
resets, any system restore points are cleared, and event logs are deleted. The next time the
computer starts, a specialize configuration pass runs. A new security ID (SID) is created, and
the clock for Windows activation resets, if the clock has not already been reset three times.
./oobe: Restarts the computer into Windows Welcome mode. Windows Welcome enables end
users to customize their Windows operating system, create user accounts, name the computer,
and other tasks. Any settings in the oobe system configuration passed in an answer file are
processed immediately before Windows Welcome starts.

./reboot: Restarts the computer. Use this option to audit the computer and to verify that the
first-run experience operates correctly.

./shutdown: Shuts down the computer after Sysprep completes.

./quiet: Runs Sysprep without displaying onscreen confirmation messages. Use this option if
you automate Sysprep.

./quit: Closes Sysprep after running the specified commands.

./unattend:answerfile: Applies settings in an answer file to Windows during unattended


installation. The answerfile specifies the path and filename of the answer file to use.
The Unattended Installation

An answer file is an XML file that stores the answers for a series of graphical user interface
(GUI) dialog boxes. Because the answer file is an XML file, you can use any text editor, such
as Notepad, to create and modify the answer file. However, you will find it much easier if you
use the Windows System Image Manager.

If you call the answer file autounattend.xml and place in a USB flash drive, you can then
perform an unattended installation just by rebooting the computer and booting from the
Windows 7 installation DVD. Windows 7 setup (setup.exe) automatically searches the root
directory of all removable media for an answer file called autounattend.xml and performs the
installation without you replying to any prompts on the screen.

Installing Windows Using Windows System Image Manager SIM ( Gestionnaire d


images systèmes windows)

Windows System Image Manager (Windows SIM) provides a GUI to create unattended
Windows setup answer files. Using Windows SIM, you can:

.Create or update existing unattended answer files

.Validate the settings of an existing answer file against a WIM file

.View all the configurable component settings in a WIM file

.Create a configuration set

.Add third-party drivers, applications, or other packages to an answer file

To install Windows SIM, you first need to download and install Windows Automated
Installation Kit (AIK) for Windows 7 from the Microsoft website. To start Windows SIM,
you then click the Start button, select Microsoft Windows AIK, and select Windows System
Image Manager.
To deploy Windows 7 by using ImageX, do the following:

1.Install and configure Windows 7 on a source PC.

2.Use sysprep on the PC so that the OS can be deployed by removing some computer-specific
information such as the workstation’s SID, which must be unique.

3.Boot the master with the Windows PE CD.

4.Use ImageX on the master to create the image file.

5.Boot the target with the Windows PE CD.

6.Use Diskpart to format the drive. Diskpart is a PE tool that is used to configure the hard
drive on a PC.

7.Use ImageX to apply the image to the target.


Deployment Image Servicing and Management ( DISM)

Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM) is a command-line tool that is used to
service and manage Windows images. You can use it to install, uninstall, configure, and
update Windows features, packages, drivers, and international settings.

DISM can also be used to service Windows PE images. DISM is installed with Windows 7
and is also distributed in Windows OPK and Windows AIK. It is a consolidated tool that
replaces several tools such as PEimg, Intlcfg, and Package Manager used in Windows, with
added functionalities to improve the experience for offline servicing.

You can use DISM to:

.Add, remove, and enumerate packages and drivers

.Enable or disable Windows features

.Apply changes based on the offlineServicing section of an unattend.xml answer file

.Configure international settings

.Upgrade a Windows image to a different edition

.Prepare a Windows PE image

.Take advantage of better logging

.Service all platforms (32-bit, 64-bit, and Itanium), service a 32-bit image from a 64-bit host,
and service a 64-bit image from a 32-bit host

.Use old Package Manager Scripts

The base syntax for nearly all DISM commands is the same. After you have mounted or
applied your Windows image so that it is available offline as a flat file structure, you can
specify any DISM options, the servicing command that updates your image, and the location
of the offline image. You can use only one servicing command per command line. If you are
servicing a running computer, you can use the /Online option instead of specifying the
location of the offline Windows Image.

The base syntax for DISM is the following:

DISM.exe {/Image:path_to_image | /Online} [dism_options] {servicing_command}


[servicing_argument]
Windows Deployment Services ( WDS)

Another way to install Windows is to use the Windows Deployment Services (WDS). You
can use it to deploy Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows Server 2008. By booting a
computer with Windows PE 2.0 or 3.0, you can connect to the WDS server and install
Windows from a configured image.

If you choose to install the Deployment Server, you need the following prerequisites available
on your network:

.Active Directory Domain Services

.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server

.Dynamic Name Services (DNS) server

Unfortunately, installing and configuring the Windows Deployment Services is beyond the
scope of this exam.

To install Windows 7 using a Windows Deployment Server, you would

1.Turn on your computer and boot from the network card (PXE).

2.By booting using PXE, you connect to the Windows Deployment Service server and
download the customized Windows PE image across the network.

3.The new computer loads Windows PE into memory and launches the configuration script.
The script verifies the computer’s configuration and hardware requirements.

4.If necessary, the script backs up the user’s data to a shared folder on another computer.

5.The script runs the Diskpart tool to partition and format the disk.

The script connects to a shared folder containing the Windows Setup files and runs the
Windows Setup program to install the operating system fully unattended.