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CHAPTER V BESSARABIA The Moldavian Republic: Military Support by Rumania—Announcement by the Soviet Government of a State of War with Rumania: Expulsion of the Rumanian Minister and Sequestration of Rumanian Gold—Agreement between Rumania and the Soviet Government, March 9, 1918—Union of Bessarabia with Rumania, April 9, 1918 File No. 861,00/886 The Minister in Rumania (Vopicka) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Sassy, December 28, 1917, 6 p. m [Received December 31, 1.35 a. m.] 202. Yesterday V. Cristi, director of internal affairs, I. Pelivan, director of external affairs, of the new republic of Bessarabia named Moldavia called upon me, being introduced by Rumanian Minister Interior. Inkulets is president of Parliament and Erhan president of the Council. This new republic expects to be federal state like Ukraine if Russia forms federal government. It is opposed to Bolshevik régime and friendly to the Allies. Voricka Bile No. 763.72/8677 The Rumanian Minister (Angelesco) to the Secretary of State [Translation] Wasurnaton, January 25, 1918. [Received January 28.] Mr. Secrerary: My government directs me to inform your ex- cellency that upon an agreement reached with the government of the Moldavian republic of Bessarabia and General Shcherbachey, commander in chief of the Russian army at the Rumanian front, it has placed Rumanian troops at the disposal of the aforesaid government. The measure was taken in consequence of the progress lately made by anarchy in Bessarabia which severely threatened the re- victualing and lines of communication of the armies at the Rumanian front. But a few days ago armed bands arrested in the station at Kishinev Rumanian officers sent on parleys and going to Odessa 0T 708 FOREIGN RELATIONS, 1918, RUSSIA, VOLUME II on leave, insulted and robbed them and after detaining them a few hours sent them back to Jassy by force. Another act of extreme gravity is the capturing by the revolu- tionists of trains carrying supplies for the Russian army at the Rumanian front. In order to prevent a recurrence of such acts, which are likely to starve the army and drive it into disorderliness and plundering, the Rumanian Government in accord with the government of the Moldavian republic of Bessarabia and General Shcherbachev has placed its troops at the disposal of that government. Be pleased to accept [ete.] Dr. ANGrLEsco File No, 763.72119/1209 The Ambassador in Russia (Francis) to the Secretary of State [Telegram—lIxtract 7] Prrroerap, January 27, 1918, 10 p.m. . [Received January 30, 10.31 a. m.] 2293. Trotsky, speaking last night to Soviet over two hours stated war existed between Rumania and Russia and Rumanian Minister would be given passports immediately. Saw Rumanian Minister 6 o’clock when had received no com- munication from Soviet, but was packing preparatory leaving. Said not heard from Government for fifteen days and knew nothing of occurrences there; that Bessarabia had declared independence and Rumania irresponsible for occurrences in Moldavian republic, which name assumed by Bessarabia. Franors Wile No, 701.7161/T The Ambassador in Russia (Francis) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Perroerad, January 29, 1918, 5 p.m. [Received February 4, 10.27 a. m.] 2300. Rumanian Minister received notice 3 o’clock yesterday to leave within ten hours. He sent his secretary to the Foreign Office requesting twelve hours’ extension because Legation numbered about, hundred and because of difficulty in packing and procuring trans- portation to station, Secretary was told must observe order or * Printed in vol. 1, p. 859. BESSARABIA 709 abide consequences whereupon Rumanian Minister asked my inter- cession. I telephoned Assistant Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minis- ter being absent, and was asked to come to Foreign Office by Zalkind, assistant secretary of Minister. Called Robins who cheerfully went and reported after 11 that Zalkind demanded compliance with order. Having learned Legation had gone station, I went there myself and found that Minister had special train which left 1 o’clock for Torne& without guard other than fifteen Rumanian soldiers. Minister told me communication with Jassy severed and was un- acquainted with conditions in Rumania. What is the situation there? Franers File No, 768.72/8728 The Ambassador in. France (Sharp) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Pants, February 1, 1918, 6 p.m [Received February 2, 1.21 p. mJ 3122. Joint telegram from Ministers of United States, England, France, and Italy dated Jassy, January 30: The president of the Council has to-day communicated the tele- gram which he addressed to the representatives of our governments in Rumania informing them of the rupture of diplomatic relations with the Maximalist government and the seizure of the Rumanian state funds deposited at Moscow. At the same time he made known to us the request of the Ukrainian government to send Rumanian troops to Kiev, Poltava, and Odessa. Regarding the first point Mr, Bratianu asks how the Allied powers intend showing their solidarity with Rumania. He recalls that the measures, moreover indispen- sable, taken against the Maximalists were adopted in agreement with the Allied powers. He opprehends the consequence of the rupture with the government of ‘etrograd on the Russian troops of this front as this rupture will only confirm an accomplished fact. As regards the state funds, he considers them as ‘uaranteed by the Allied powers. Regarding the situation in the kraine, considers that_it implied [appears very threatening for Rumania whether the Kiev government signs spontaneously a separate peace or not, as in the latter case an Austro-German invasion is to be feared. Thus, as we have often stated, the only means of coming to the aid of Rumania and of seriously improving the situation in. Russia whilst protecting the Allies against fresh attacks, would be the sending of inter-Allied troops. The request for assistance of the Ukrainian government to Rumania, who is the most unpopular of the Allied powers in Russia, confirms that an international expedi- tion will be welcomed with the greatest satisfaction by all the elements of order, Suare 710 FOREIGN RELATIONS, 1918, RUSSIA, VOLUME IL File No. 861.00/1050 The Minister in Rumania (Vopicha) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Jassy, February 1, 1918, 6 p.m. [Received February 3, 10.87 p. m.] 25. Replying to the Departments circular January 29, 4 p. m.,* I beg to report that I have no means of communication with Petro- grad and the other Russian towns except Kiev and Odessa through military wireless. Last American courier left here January 12 and since then there have been no couriers. General [Mackensen?] notified Rumanian Consul to send repre- sentative to Focsani to discuss armistice as they claim that new situ- ation is created by the severing of diplomatic relations with Rumania by the Bolsheviki. No time limit was stipulated but it was intimated that negotiations should begin as soon as possible. Prime Minister will call military and ministerial meeting to-morrow to decide on future action. He does not appear to be downcast but Rumania is and feels with us [used up?]. My opinion is that if Germany will return occupied territory with the exception of Silistria and permit Rumanians to occupy Bessarabia Rumania will make separate peace. Nothing else left for Rumania to do and if Bolsheviki obtain upper hand in Ukrainia and south Russia they would be worse enemies than Germany. The Allied Ministers will endeavor to have armi- stice prolonged and have no action taken. I believe nothing will be done unless Germany threatens attack Rumania. Rumanians have about 50,000 soldiers in Bessarabia. Rumanians have occupied Kishinev and [entering] Bendery to-day. It is im- possible ship food from Bessarabia to Rumania unless Rumanians jn the control of railroad between Kishinev and Jassy and there- fore Rumanian intervention was necessary. Believing that the Department has no report from Russia, report that fight took place yesterday in Odessa between the Bolsheviki and other factions. A great many killed and about 5,000 wounded, Shall endeavor to obtain information regarding Russia from French and communicate the same to the Department. In Ukrainia fight is going on between the Bolsheviki and Ukrainians. Latest informa- tion is that Bolsheviki possess [omission?] arsenal. Bolsheviki do not wish Ukrainians make separate peace unless the whole of Russia does. VoricKa * Not printed, BESSARABIA veel File No, 768.72/9269 The Rumanian Minister (Angelesco) to the Secretary of State [Translation] Wasurneton, February 2, 1918. Mr. Szcrerary: According to the most recent information from my Government, the Bolsheviki, considering themselves at war with Rumania, have in advance of a declaration of war, given an order for their troops to attack ours. The latter have been attacked in a most cowardly way at Pascani, Galatz, and Dorohoi. Our troops resisted heroically and disarmed part of the Maximalists while the rest took refuge within the German lines. The city of Falticeni, which up to that time had sheltered the Russian troops, was then bombarded by them. At Kishinev, Odessa, and Bolgrad members of the Rumanian Parliament, as well as officers and officials of the Rumanian Government who formed the Inter-Allied Supply Com- mission, were arrested. Our treasure and our deposits which have been sent to Russia, an Allied country, after an understanding with the representatives of our other allies, have been sequestrated and are now in the greatest danger. The Government representatives pro- + vided to guard these deposits have been arrested. The Rumanian Legation at Petrograd has been closed arbitrarily and the Rumanian Minister and his staff have been ordered to leave the city promptly. Our consuls, subjected to threats and maltreatment, have been ex- posed to all kinds of risks. The Commissaires of the People have even decreed the arrest of His Majesty the King. This extremely grave state of affairs is one of the consequences of the military measures which the Rumanian Government took in favor of the Ukrainians and which had been requested in writing in a very pressing way by the representatives of all our Allies, including the American Minister. My Government directs me to call the attention of the Government of the United States to the situation which has been created for us. Rumania once more suffers the consequences of undertaking re- sponsibilities which are not ours alone. Accept [etc.] -Dr. ANGELESCO Pile No, 871.51/110 — The Ambassador in Russia (Francis) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Purnocrap, February 2, 1918, 11 p. m. : [Received February 7, 10.10 p.m.] 2823. Also for Secretary of the Treasury: Allied Ambassadors conclude present status unalterable until result of peace negotiations determined, consequently no meeting of the Diplomatic Corps or Allied chiefs at present. 712 FOREIGN RELATIONS, 1918, RUSSIA, VOLUME IT French Ambassador submitted cable from Paris suggesting joint protest by French, British, American Consuls, Moscow, against interference with 600, 000,000 gold lei stored in the Kremlin by Rumania for safety and of which the Soviet government taken possession saying same held for Rumanian people but not for present Rumanian Government. French Foreign Office asks such action because says this gold pledged to Allies to secure advances to Rumania. Having no official advice on the subject I opportunely requested joint action. Furthermore gold was deposited in the Kremlin when Jassy threatened and before we made advances to Rumania. All finally concurred in submitting question to respec- tive Governments and awaiting instructions. How much advance to Rumania? Francis File No, 763.72/9209 The Acting Sceretary of State to the Rumanian Minister (Angelesco) Wasuineron, February 6, 1918. Sim: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of February 2, 1918, and to assure you that this Government does not fail to appreciate the difficult situation created by Rumania’s resistance to the Bolshevik authorities and the consequent declara- tion of hostility by the Bolshevik government. Accept [etc.] Frank L. Pork File No, 871.51/111 The Ambassador in Russia (Francis) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Perroaran, February 7, 1918, 7 p.m. [Received February 9, 4.33 a. m.] 9345. British, French colleagues asking whether received reply to my inquiry in my 2323, Shall I direct Consul, Moscow, to join protest ? . Francis File No. 768.72/8677 The Secretary of State to the Rumanian Minister (Angelesco) Wasuineton, February 12, 1918. Sm: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of January 25, 1918, in which you inform me that in consequence of * Ante, p, 707. BESSARABIA 713 the progress lately made by anarchy in Bessarabia, your Government, upon an agreement reached with the government of the Moldavian republic of Bessarabia and General Shcherbachev, commander in chief of the Russian Army at the Rumanian front, has placed Ru- manian troops at the disposal of the Government of that Republic. Thanking you for this information, I beg to renew [etc.] Rozerr Lansrne File No. 871.51/110 The Seoretary of State to the Ambassador in Russia (Francis) [elegram] Wasuineton, February 13, 1918, 6 pm. 2060. Your 2393 and 2345, Inasmuch as the United States had not entered the war at the time the original arrangement for the deposit of the Rumanian funds was made, the Department is disposed to feel that this Government should not take part in the joint protest. You may, however, instruct the Consul General at Moscow to take an occasion to bring to the attention of the Soviet authorities the injus- tice which they are reported to be contemplating. The funds in ques- tion belong to a friendly Government which has been recognized and supported by the people of Rumania throughout their struggle against military imperialism of Central powers and any action to sequestrate these funds is an act of injustice incompatible with principles to which this Government is dedicated. Lanstne File No, 768.72/8936 The Ambassador in France (Sharp) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Panis, February 20, 1918, 11 p.m. [Received February 21, 6.11 a. m.] 8220. Joint telegram from the Allied Ministers dated Jassy, February 19: The news of the rupture of the armistice between Russia and the Central Empires makes the situation here appear more inextricable. It is in fact foreseen that as Russia is incapable of the least resist- ance, the enemy troops will invade her without fighting, thereupon completely surround Rumania. On the other hand the Maximalist Committee of Odessa, presided over by well-known agitator, the Rumanian-Bulgarian Rakovski, has just sent an ultimatum to the Rumanian Government summoning it to evacuate Bessarabia and formulating other inacceptable demands. This attitude of the Max- imalists, in spite of the efforts of the Allies to disarm them, confirms the impression among the Rumanians that in case of a German offen- 714 FOREIGN RELATIONS, 1918, RUSSIA, VOLUME IT sive, all retreat on the Russian side js cut off for them. Resulting immediately after the rupture of the German-Russian armistice, the new provocation against Rumania, which disposes of the sole army of all the oriental front which could be used a; ainst the Germans, proves to what extent the troops of the Central ‘Empires are assured of meeting with no obstacles in Russia. We repeat that under these conditions no new effort on our part can delay the conelusion of peace unless the Germans formulate absolutely inacceptable demands. ven in this event the resistance could only be of short duration, the Allied powers not having been up to now in a position to constitute jn Russia a base of retreat for the Russian Army. Swarr File No. 763.72/8980 The Ambassador in France (Sharp) to the Secretary of State { Telegram] Paris, February 23, 1918, 11 a.m. [Received February 24, 3.06 a. m.) 3241. Joint telegram from the Allied Ministers at Jassy dated February 22: ‘Without even waiting for the reply of the Rumanian Government to their ultimatum and without taking ‘into account the negotiations which they themselves had initiated, the Maximalists of Odessa have arrested Rumanians among whom are numerous members of Parlia- ment who are retained in a hold of the war vessel Sozho where they are undergoing the most barbarous troatment. We have telegraphed to our consuls to protest energetically in our name. At the request of the president oF the Council and of the president of the Chambers, we urge our Governments that all steps may be taken for the imme- diate hiberation and repatriation of the Rumanians of Odessa. These rave incidents, which emphasize the difficulty of the retreat into ussia, exercise the most unfortunate reaction recorded on peace negotiations. Smarr File No. 861.00/1276 The French Ambassador (Jusserand) to the Secretary of State [translation] Wasurneron, March 6, 1918. [Received March 8] Mr. Sucrerary or Grate: My Government informs me that it has received, with a request that it be transmitted to several govern- ments, among these that of the United States, a telegram dated at Kishinev by which the “ Moldavian Republic” gives notice of its having been constituted. BESSARABIA 715 I have the honor to transmit herewith to, your excellency, in com- pliance with the instructions I have received, the text of the telegram which the Government of the Republic forwarded to me in this connection. Be pleased to accept [etc.] , JUSSERAND [Enclosure—Translation] The French Minister of Foreign Affairs (Pichon) to the Ambassador at Washington (Jusserand) Panis, March 5, 1918. [Recetwed March 6.] No. 590. Please transmit to the Federal Government the following telegram which has been sent to me with a request that I communicate it to it. Kisurnev, 11/24 February, 1918. 'To the Government of the French Republic, at Paris, with a request that the same text be also transmitted to the governments of the following countries: ‘To the Government of the Republic of the United States. ‘The Government of the Moldavian Republic constituted in the territory lying between the Dniester and the Prut has the honor to inform the Royal Govern- ment (sic) that by a vote of the Moldavian Parliament named Sfatul Tarei on January 24 (old style) the Moldavian Republic, which until January 24, 1918, formed part of the federation of the other republics constituted in the territory of the former Russian Empire, proclaimed its independence. The Government of the Moldavian Republic earnestly prays the Royal Gov- ernment (sic) to take note of the said declaration and to recognize the existence of the Moldavian Republic as an independent state possessing absolute national sovereignty. We beg the Royal Government (sic) to reply to the Government of the Moldavian Republic at Kishinev and to recognize the Moldavian Republic as being sovereign independent (state). CrocuRzANo, President of the Coundil of Ministers Penivan, Minister of Foreign Affairs PrcHon File No. 861.00/1276 The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador (Jusserand) No. 2101 Wasuineton, March 19, 1918. Exceriency: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of March 6, 1918, advising me that your Government has re- ceived, with the request that its contents be made known to the several governments, including that of the United States, a tele- gram, dated at Kishinev., announcing the constitution of the “ Mol- davian Republic.” In reply I have the honor to say that the question seems to be one the consideration of which should be deferred owing to the unsettled conditions which now exist. Accept [etc.] Rosurr Lansrne 608063251 716 FOREIGN RELATIONS, 1918, RUSSIA, VOLUME II File No, 763.72119/1591 The Consul General at Moscow (Summers) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Moscow, April 11, 1918. [Received April 16, 4 p. m.] 387. Following is text Russo-Rumanian treaty dated March 9: ‘TREATY BETWEEN RUMANIA AND RUSSIA Agrrote 1 Rumania agrees to evacuate Bessarabia during the course of two months. She will evacuate immediately the strategic point of Zhebriany (the position is situated at the lower end of the bay near the mouth of the Danube). All positions evacuated by the Rumanians will be immediately occupied by Russian troops. By the end of two months there will remain in Bessarabia only one detachment of 10,000 men to guard the depots and railway lines. ARTICLE 2 And [at] the signing of the treaty Bessarabian guard passes into the hands of the local, city and country militia. The Rumanian military commander gives up the right of arrest and all judiciary and administrative functions generally and these will pertain exclusively to the elected local authorities. Anricms 8 Rumanian subjects arrested in Russia will be exchanged for the Russian revolutionary officers and soldiers arrested in Rumania, Anricie 4 Rumania agrees not to take any hostile military or other action against the Russlan Republican Federation of Councils of Workmen and Peasants and will bot attempt to support those made by other states, ARTicLe 5 Russia agrees to put at the disposition of Rumania the excess grain in Bessa- rabla after the needs of the local population and the Russian troops have been satisfied. On the other hand Rumania has the right to purchase from the rest of Russia the products necessary to sustain the Rumanian population now located in Bessarabia (fish, fats, sugar, grain, etc.). ARTICLE 6 Russia returns to Rumania the food distribution points constructed by the Allies and destined for the alimentation of the Rumanian population. ARTICLE 7 In case the Rumanian Army is forced to abandon Rumanian territory it will find refuge and sustenance on Russian soil, Agricir 8 In case of equal sections against enemies states and their allies contact will establish itself between the high Russian command of the Russian armies, the Councils and the Rumanians, BESSARABIA 17 ARTICLE 9 For the solution of eventual conflicts between Rumania and the Russian Fed- eration of Councils of Workmen and Peasants there is formed an international commission at Odessa, Kiev, Moscow, Petrograd, Jassy and Galatz of repre- sentatives of Russia, Rumania, England, France and the United States, Antictz 10 By reason of the aforesaid agreement the Rumanian Consul General at Mos- cow has proposed to the Commissary of Foreign Affairs the revival of official relations and the restitution to Rumania of the distributing depots in Russia. The Commissary has agreed to the first point and has proposed to make the international commission look to the treaty for the realization of all the points of the treaty. The courier with official text not yet arrived but am assured fore- going is correct and that there are a few unimportant additions which will be transmitted as soon as possible. Sumaurs Pile No, 763.72119/1531 The Ambassador in Russia (Francis) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Voxoepa, March 29, 1918, 2 p. m. [Received March 30, 4.44 p. m.] 46. Robins wires following: Minister for Foreign Affairs sends me following: In view of liquidation of the conflict between Russian Soviet Republic and Rumania, the Minister for Foreign Affairs offered to the Rumanian Consul General, Moscow, to begin nego- tiations for settlement of issues involved in accordance with agreement made in Odessa and by the mixed commission. In above-mentioned commission, it was arranged to have repre- sentatives of England, Germany, and the United States. The note was handed me without instructions. I forward to you and await your orders. This was my first information on the subject. Have you any? Kiihlmann has protested to Soviet government against my statement to Russian people that my Government did not recognize separate peace but still considers America ally of the Russian people It was not my intention to please Germany, and I was indifferent con- cerning effect upon the Russian Government, but thought was re- flecting our governmental policy and think no serious complications will eventuate therefrom. Francis *Vol. 1, p. 440, 718 FOREIGN RELATIONS, 1918, RUSSIA, VOLUME II File No, 763.72119/1558 The Ambassador in France (Sharp) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Pants, April 7, 1918, 7 p.m. [Received 9.15 p. m.] 3545. Following joint telegram of Allied Ministers dated Jassy, April 5: The Commissioner of the People for Foreign Affairs has advised the ‘French Consul General at Moscow of proposition to bring to end the conflict between the Maximalists and Rumania. This proposition which comes too late, no longer appears, as regards the representatives of the Allied powers, in harmony with the new situation. First, our intervention on this point would be prompted by the preoccupation [sic] of prolonging the resistance of Rumania and rendering possible by means of a rapprochement between her and the Maximalists the revictualing of the army and its eventual retreat into Russia; secondly, one of the essential points of the matters in dispute, viz., the exchange of interned persons and hostages, has already been settled between the Rumanian Government and the Soviets of Odessa and Sevastopol through the intermediary of Colonel Fuller [Boyle?]. If we ourselves intervene in the negotia- tions relative to the Rumanian treaty at Moscow, we should risk giving Maximalists an opportunity to raise other questions, in par- ticular that of the Rumanian occupation of Bessarabia, which would embarrass our Governments. Under these circumstances it would be preferable to leave to the Rumanian Government the duty of soliciting our intervention if it is thought proper to do so. Swarp File No, 763.72119/1564 The Ambassador in France (Sharp) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Paris, April 10, 1918, 6 p.m. [Received April 11, 3.11 a. m.] 3568. Following joint telegram from Allied Ministers, dated Jassy, April 9: The union of Bessarabia and Rumania appears imminent. The president of the Council left yesterday for Kishinev in order to accel- erate this step. We have held ourselves aloof from the recent nego- tiations on this subject. When the event is an accomplished fact, it would be well to favorably comment thereon in the Allied press, so as to frustrate the efforts which the Austro-Germans will doubtless make to claim the merit for themselves, s HARP BESSARABIA 719 File No. 768.72119/1588 The Minister in Rumania (Vopicka) to the Secretary of State* [Telegram] Jassy, April 10, 1918, 1 p. m. [Received April 12, 10.48 a. m.] 68. It was published in this morning’s Monitor Official, the official organ of the Government, that Doctor Angelesco, the Rumanian Minister to our country, was officially recalled forthwith March 25. This recall is simply on account of the change of government. The following is a proclamation of the Government to the citizens of Jassy: With the greatest happiness we bring to your knowledge that the Sfatul Tarei, council of the country of Bessarabia, voted on the eve- ning of April 9 the union with Rumania. The Prime Minister, Alexander Marghiloman, who is at Kishinev, will take portfolio in the name of the Rumanian people and of His Majesty Ferdinand of [by] the vote of a [the] Sfatul Tarei. Voricka File No. 763,72119/1587 The Ambassador in France (Sharp) to the Secretary of State {Telegram] Panis, April 13, 1918, 3 p. m. [Received April 14, 2 a. m.] 3595. Following joint telegram from Allied Ministers dated Jassy, April 12: The union of Bessarabia and Rumania was proclaimed unani- mously except for five votes yesterday .[sic] at Kishiney by the Bess- arabian assembly with the reservation, however, of a wide autonomy. It appears from a recent speech of Count Czernin that the Central powers have declared that they place no opposition on this union. We confirm that in order to prevent them from making capital of this event, it should be sympathetically welcomed, all the more so as this application of the principle of nationalities sanctioned by the vote of a free assembly seems entirely in agreement with the pro- gram of the Entente. The event appears in conformity with our interests. Being too weak to guarantee her independence by her own means, and cut off from greater Russia, Bessarabia has no other alternative than to unite with Rumania or the Ukraine which has voluntarily become an Austrian-German colony. Suarp *Sent via the Consulate at Saloniki (No. 58). 720 FOREIGN RELATIONS, 1918, RUSSIA, VOLUME IT File No, 768.72119/1606 The Minister in Rumania (Vopicka) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Jassy, April 18, 1918, 9 a. m. [Received April 20,7 a. m.] 79, In addition to the telegram of the Allied Ministers of yes- terday, I beg to ask for instructions regarding the recognition by our Government of the union of Bessarabia [with] Rumania.* ‘The present Germanophile government of Rumania makes much of this annexation claiming that Rumania is larger than before, even with the loss of Dobruja, and is taking the credit for it although it has no right to it. The Germans in permitting this union advertise [ob- viously ?] had in view a plan to make the Rumanians fight with them against the Bolsheviks. There are rumors being circulated here that the Germans have already made demands that the Rumanians send a few divisions of their soldiers to Ukrainia to protect the de- pots which the Rumanians have there and to help the Germans make order. However, I believe, together with my colleagues, that the King will never consent to send an army into Ukrainia for the pur- pose, and that Rumania at present will refuse to assist the Germans in their scheme in Ukrainia. Therefore it is very important that [how?] this union of Bessarabia [with] Rumania is treated by our Government and the Allies. Word came from Bucharest that peace will not be signed for thirty days. Russian officers here are dis, pleased with the annexation of Bessarabia by Rumania. VorrcKa File No, 861.00/1623 The Minister in Sweden (Morris) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Srocxnotm, April 20, 1918. [Received 7.54 p. m.] 1920. Swedish press publishes Wolff bureau report from Kiev stating Ukrainian Central Rada has refused to recognize Bessara- bia’s union with Rumania and demanded separation from Bessarabia of portions that wish Ukrainian people’s republic. Ukrainian Cen- tral Rada has requested council to address protest to Rumania and Central powers. While refusing to regard proclamation of April 9 as decisive, Ukrainian Central Rada calls on council of Ministers to Note, dated May 7, in the margin of telegram: “Secretary decided to take no action.” BESSARABIA 721 take every step towards immediate deciding Bessarabia’s fate on basis of approval of Ukrainian people’s republic and in agreement with wishes of whole Bessarabian population. Morris File No. 768.72119/1621 The Consul General at Moscow (Summers) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Moscow, undated. [Received April 27, 1918, 2.98 a. m.] 397. Following is réswmé interview with Rakovski, chief, Ruma- nian department, Russian Commissariat Foreign Affairs, published 19th, Svoboda Rossii, formerly Russkoe Slovo: Exact information Rumanian situation lacking but apparent that owing German influence Rumania is unable conduct affairs inde- pendently or beneficially to herself. Treaty gives Central powers extraordinary right export grain, naphtha, and most probably power to quote own prices. This economic dependence seriously affects interests Rumanian peasants. Rumania aa lost all Dobruja and part Wallachia to Austria, thus establishing direct communication ulgaria, with total loss 35,000 square kilometers. Most important loss economically Black Sea coast although Danube frontiers not yet decided. Possible this territory to Bulgaria but more likely Sulinsk Canal district to Austria, as advices from Jassy indicate Germany considers Bulgaria stronger than intended which ex- plains occupation Sulinsk and Sulina by Austrian troops. Frontier Bessarabia, as ceded to Rumania, running along Dniester cannot be considered final as Rumanian interests identical with those Ukrainian Rada which is chiefly interested [in] annexation pro- vinces Akkerman and Khotin while Austria also desires latter. Kiev Rada now negotiating with Rumania regarding these provinces but whatever agreement reached will not receive sanction international jurisprudence as Bessarabia is part of Russia and sanction People’s Commissars necessary; moreover, population will oppose cession, while for Rumania annexation of millions of revolutionary peasants means spread of civil war to Rumanian soil. Same journal publishes telegram from Chicherin to Prime Min- ister, Rumania, which characterizes annexation Bessarabia as chal- lenge to Russian Republic and complete violation treaty which pro- vides evacuation within two months, also as an act of violence against population which telegram says protested unanimously against Rumanian occupation and insisted upon evacuation Ruma- nian troops at meeting peasants Moldavian republic at Kishinev [in] January. Summers ‘Treaty of Bucharest between Rumania and the Central powers, signed. May 7, 1918; see Foreign Relations, 1918, Supplement 1, vol. 1. . 722 FOREIGN RELATIONS, 1918, RUSSIA, VOLUME IL File No, 763,72119/1633 The Minister in Sweden (Morris) to the Secretary of State [Telegram] Srocxnoim, May 3, 1918. [Received May 4, 10 a. m.] 1999, Swedish press reports People’s Commissariat Foreign Affairs on April 18 sent following telegram Rumanian Premier: Your communiqué to European press, announcing representatives Bessarabia proclaimed union with Rumania and that you regard Bessarabia in future as integral part of Rumania, constitutes chal- lenge to Federative Russian Soviet Republic and flagrant violation of agreement concluded between your predecessor and Russia as to evacuation of Bessarabia within two months. Bessarabia’s union with Rumania, moreover, constitutes violation of opinion of local population which has openly pronounced against Rumanian pentpas tion. Your attempt make what is expression of desire only of landed proprietors stand for desire also of Bessarabian peasants and workers evidences complete lack insight, also demands international law. The enforced incorporation of Bessarabia with Rumania will not extinguish brotherly solidarity uniting labor masses of Russia and Bessarabia. Foreign Commissariat, Chicherin. Morrts