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cu ln Hm

tnh ton bn lin tc


di tc dng ca hot tI
KS. Minh Dng
Vn phng D n Tng Cng ty T vn thit k GTVT
i vit a ra mt s vn c bn lin quan n tnh ton bn lin tc (link
slab) ni gia cc nhp dm gin n di tc dng ca hot ti, ng thi
gii thiu vic s dng vt liu hn hp xi mng ct si cng cao (high
performance fiber reinforced cementitious composite - HPFRCC) cho bn lin tc
nhm ci thin s lm vic ca bn ( bn chng nt v do) di tc dng ca
cc ti trng, c bit l cc tc ng t bin, co ngt v nhit .
B
1 - t vn
Hin nay, vic thit k cc kt cu nhp
dm lin tc khu ln tr nn ph
bin trn th gii v trong nc. Xu th lin
tc ho cng c p dng i vi cc
cu s dng cc nhp dm gin n. Khe
co dn thng l gii php c la chn
ti v tr u dm ca cc nhp dm gin
n cho php chuyn v thng v xoay ca
u dm do bin dng vng, co ngt, t
bin v s thay i nhit ca dm. Tuy
nhin, vic lp t cc khe co dn cng
ng ngha vi vic tng chi ph xy lp,
gim m thun xe chy cng nh cc
chi ph tn km cho vic duy tu bo dng.
Trong sut thi gian khai thc, s lm vic
khng tt ca khe co dn do nhiu nguyn
nhn c th dn n s h hi nghim
trng i vi c kt cu phn trn v phn
di ca cu. Do , lin tc ho c coi
l mt gii php nhm gii quyt cc yu
im ni trn ca khe co dn.
i vi nhiu d n cu c s dng
cc nhp dm gin n, hai tung lin tc
ho thng c p dng l: lin tc
ho (girder continuity) v lin tc ho bn
(jointless bridge deck) tc l dng bn mt
cu ni hai nhp dm gin n k tip
nhau. Phn bn ni mt cu c gi l
bn lin tc (link slab). Trong phm vi bi
vit ny ch a ra cc vn lin quan
n gii php lin tc ho bn mt cu.
2 - Mt s kt qu nghin cu
Ti M, Alampalli and Yannotti (1998)
tin hnh cc nghin cu so snh v rt
ra mt nhn nh tng quan rng vic s
dng bn lin tc c hiu qu hn so vi
cc cu thi cng p dng phng php lin
tc ho dm (intergral bridge deck). Trn
c s kho st 105 cu s dng kt cu
bn lin tc trong 72 cu dm b tng
v 33 cu dm thp cho thy cc cu
u m bo cc iu kin khai thc theo
cc yu cu thit k tr mt s nt nh trn
bn mt cu. Mc d Alampalli v Yannotti
xut vic nghin cu k hn nhm hon
thin vic tnh ton thit k v thi cng bn
lin tc, nhng cng kt lun rng xt
mt cch tng th nhm cc cu s dng
bn lin tc c tnh trng lm vic tt hn
nhm cc cu dng khe co dn.
Caner and Zia (1998) tin hnh cc
nghin cu, phn tch thc nghim i vi
s lm vic ca bn mt cu lin tc v
xut phng php tnh ton cho loi kt
cu bn lin tc ny. Cc kt qu nghin
cu cho thy bn lin tc ny chu bin
dng un di tc ng ca ti trng nhiu
KSTK * s 2 - 2005
35


cu ln Hm


hn l bin dng dc. Cc vt nt c
pht hin pha trn ca bn di tc dng
ca m men m trong iu kin khai thc.
i vi cc nhp dm thp m rng vt
nt ln nht o c l 0.305mm (0.012)
tng ng vi 40% ti trng cc hn v
0.762mm (0.030) ng vi 67% ti trng
ny. iu cho thy trn kt cu xut
hin cc ng sut ko ph thm do tc
ng ca co ngt, t bin v nhit . V
vy, b rng vt nt ca bn lin tc phi
c tnh ton khng ch ht sc cn thn.
Cc nghin cu cng a ra
khuyn ngh s dng cc thanh thp sn
ph epoxy (epoxy coated reinforcing bars)
cho bn lin tc nhm trnh kh nng g
ct thp. gim cng vi mc ch
gim ng lc xut hin trong kt cu ca
bn lin tc cc bin php chng dnh bm
gia phn b tng ca bn v dm pha
di trn on 5% chiu di dm ti mi
pha cng c khuyn ngh.
3 - Tnh ton bn lin tc di
tc dng ca hot ti
Phng php tnh ton n gin bn
lin tc di tc dng ca hot ti ch yu
da vo cc kt qu nghin cu ca Caner
v Zia (1998). Trnh t tnh ton c
nghin cu ti phng thi nghim ca S
giao thng, bang Michigan (Michigan
Department of Transport MDOT) cng
nh cc c p dng ti hin trng.
Ngoi ra, phng php tnh ton khuyn
ngh bi mt bo co nghin cu ca Hip
hi ng b M (Federal Highway
Administration FHWA) (Oesterle et al.,
1999) cng c nghin cu xem xt.
Di y l trnh t tnh ton bn lin
tc ni hai nhp c chiu di bng nhau vi
ti trng thit k minh ho l HS20-44
(Tiu chun thit k cu trn ng t
ca M, 1996)
3.1 M hnh tnh ton

Hnh 1 S tnh ton bn lin tc di tc dng ca ti trng HS20-44
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cu ln Hm


n gin tnh ton v thin an ton
ti trng xe HS20-44 c quy v ti trng
tp trung nh s trong Hnh 1 (a). Theo
cc tnh ton so snh, vic quy v ti trng
tp trung tng ng nh trn s gy ra
vng gia nhp dm tng khong 14%
so vi s trong Hnh 2 (b).
3.2 Cc k hiu dng trong tnh ton
A
s
- Tng din tch ct thp dc trong
bn
B
ls
- B rng bn tnh ton
E
c
- M un n hi ca b tng
H
ls
- Chiu cao bn
I
ls,cr
- M men qun tnh ca bn (nt)
I
ls,g
- M men qun tnh (cha nt)
I
sp
- M men qun tnh dm lin hp
(dm v bn)
L
dz
- Chiu di khng dnh bm (5%
chiu di nhp) x 2
L
sp
- Chiu di nhp (gi thit chiu di
hai nhp k tip nh nhau)
P - Hot ti

cr
- cng chu ko khi un ca b
tng
d
c
- Chiu dy lp b tng bo v [in],
A - Din tch b tng c hiu [in
2
]
3.3 Cc bc tnh ton
Bc 1: Tnh ton gc xoay
Vi gi thit c hai nhp dm l gin
n, gc xoay c tnh theo cng thc
sau

Bc 2 : Tnh ton m men qun tnh bn
(cracked moment of inertia)



Bin dng un v
hnh thi nt ca bn
Bin dng xoay
ca dm
Vng khng dnh bm
6.7% chiu di nhp

im un (M=0) im un (M=0)
Hnh2. Phn b m men, bin dng un v hnh
thi nt ca bn di tc dng ca lc tp trung


Hnh 3. Mt ct v b tr ct thp bn
khi cha nt


Hnh 4. Bin dng ca bn do gc xoay

KSTK * s 2 - 2005
37


cu ln Hm


Bc 3: Xc nh m men M
a
do gc xoay

Bc 4: Xc nh m men nt M
cr


So snh m men M
a
v M
cr
Bc 5: B tr ct thp theo iu kin
=As/B
ls
H
ls
= 0.01

Hnh 5. Mt ct v b tr ct thp bn khi nt
Bc 6: Xc nh m men qun tnh nt
(cracked moment of inertia)

Trong



Bc 7: Tnh ng sut trong ct thp



tho mn iu kin
s
< 0.40
y

lng thp A
s
hay t l ct thp c th
c iu chnh thch hp.
Bc 8: Kim tra b rng vt nt (w < w
max
)
Ngoi yu cu gii hn trng thi ng
sut nh trn, cc quy trnh hin ti cn
gii hn b rng vt nt ln nht ti nh
bn. B rng vt nt ny ph thuc vo
lng ct thp b tr v kch thc hnh hc
ca bn. B rng vt nt c th tnh theo
cng thc sau (Gergely and Lutz 1968).


4. Mt s nhn xt v phng
php tnh ton
Phng php tnh ton trn l phng
php tnh n gin thin v an ton vi vic
xc nh lng ct thp thin ln vi cc l
do sau:
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38


cu ln Hm


- Vic tnh ton ng sut ct thp nh
trn l thin ln do m men M
a
c
xc nh vi gi thit bn lin tc
trng thi khng nt, tc l tng i
cng do vy m men trn bn di tc
dng ca gc xoay l ln hn thc t;
- Bn lin tc c thit k c th chu
c m men M
a
trng thi nt, tuy
nhin lng ct thp A
s
(hay t l ct
thp ) li c la chn theo m men
M
a
trng thi khng nt;
5. Bn lin tc s dng vt liu
HPFRCC
m bo kh nng chng nt, mt
vt liu thch hp dng cho bn lin tc vi
mc tiu tng tnh do (ductility) nhm
gim m men un tc dng trn bn v
tng kh nng chu ng sut ko khi un
c nghin cu, l hn hp xi mng
ct si cng cao HPFRCC (high
performance fibre reinforced cementitious
composite) cn c bit di ci tn ECC
(Engineered Cementitious Composite). y
l loi vt liu c kh nng chu lc ko v
lc ct ln trong khi vn gi c tnh tng
thch vi loi b tng thng dng xt v cc
c tnh c l thng thng khc (Li, 2002).
ng ng sut ko - bin dng ca
HPFRCC s dng si Polyvinyl Alcohol
(PVA) c th hin trn hnh 6. Khi bt
u xut hin nt, HPFRCC trng thi
chy do vi bin dng 3.5% trc khi pht
trin cc vt nt cc nh (macroscopic
crack).
Kh nng chu ng sut ko ca
HPFRCC ln gp khong 350 ln b tng
thng thng (0.01%). HPFRCC t c
kh nng chu ko vi mt lng ct si
va phi (thng nh hn hoc bng 2%
th tch) so vi cc loi b tng ct si
cng cao khc. y l mt im quan
trng v thc t cho thy qu trnh thi cng
loi hn hp ny n gin v tng t nh
i cng tc trn v b tng thng
thng. Cc th nghim vi loi hn hp
HPFRCC t m v phun (self-compacting
and sprayable) khng nh rng linh
ng ca hn hp va trn c th c
iu chnh tu theo theo yu cu c th
bng cch ti u ho cc thnh phn
(Kong et al, 2003). Do vy, HPFRCC c
kin ngh p dng nhm khng ch nt v
to siu do (superior ductility) cho bn
lin tc.

Hnh 6. ng ng sut - bin dng in hnh
ca HPFRCC
Tuy nhin, mt s vn v ang
c tip tc c nghin cu nhm khng
nh cc c tnh vt tri ca HPFRCC,
bao gm:
KSTK * s 2 - 2005
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cu ln Hm


- Ti u ho kt cu vi m ca HPFRCC
nhm to ra cc c tnh c l v
linh ng tt;
- Tnh co ngt, kh nng chng nt do co
ngt, bn chu ng bng v tan
bng;
- S lm vic ca bn lin tc c s dng
HPFRCC ti v tr tip gip vi phn b
tng thng. Ti y, b mt tip xc
gia HPFRCC v b tng thng thng
rt c th s l mt v tr xung yu
(weak link) v cc ct si khng th
xuyn vo b tng. Do vy cn nghin
cu cc bin php x l b mt tip xc
vi b tng, cng nh cc bin php
tng cng khc nh b tr cc kt cu
chu ct (shear studs) v cc mi ni
ct thp ca kt cu b tng c v bn
v.v;
6. Thay cho kt lun
Kt cu bn lin tc c s dng
khng ch cho cc cu xy mi m cn c
th p dng thay th cc khe co dn
b h hng ca cc cu hin hu c yu
cu ci to nng cp. Theo nh Hip hi
ng b M, vo nm 2010 s c ti 42%
s cu trn ng t ca M cn c
nng cp ci to vi chi ph c tnh ln ti
50 t la (Ashley, 1996). Vi cc u im
ni tri nh tng m thun xe chy, chi
ph xy dng thp, khng phi duy tu bo
dng trong qu trnh khai thc, bn lin
tc c th l mt gii php hu hiu ci
thin bn v tui th cc cng trnh cu.

Ti liu tham kho
1. AASHTO, 1996, Standard specifications for highway bridges, 16th edition, American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington D.C.;
2. ACI 318-2002, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, 2002,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan 48333-9094;
3. Alampalli, S. and A.P. Yannotti, 1998, In-Service Performance of Integral Bridges and
Jointless Decks, Transportation Research Record 1624;
4. Ashley, S., 1996, Bridging the cost gap with composites. Mech. Eng.;
5. Gergeley, P., and Lutz, L.A.,1968, Maximum crack width in reinforced concrete flexural
members, Causes, Mechanisms, and Control of Cracking in Concrete, SP-20, ACI,
Farmington Hills, MI;
6. Caner, A. and P. Zia, 1998, Behavior and Design of Link Slab for Jointless Bridge Decks, PCI
J., May-June.
7. Kim, Y.Y., V.C. Li and H.J. Kong, 2003, Development of Sprayable Engineered Cementitious
Composites, HPFRCC4, Univ of Michigan;
8. Li, V.C., and G. Fischer, 2002, Reinforced ECC - An Evolution from Materials to Structures,
Proceedings of the First FIB Congress, Osaka, Japan.

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