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The 0RCA Pioject, funueu by the 0.S. Bepaitment of Euucation, is uesigneu to uevelop, test, anu
iefine a set of thiee assessment foimats foi measuiing online ieauing compiehension. Each
0RCA is an authentic, pioblem-baseu scenaiio situateu in a uigital enviionment uesigneu to
engage miuule school stuuents in a seiies of online uisciplinaiy infoimation iequests while
captuiing peifoimance uata about how stuuents use the Inteinet to locate, ciitically evaluate,
synthesize, anu communicate infoimation.
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This uocument outlines the paiticulais of The 0RCA Pioject ieseaich pioject anu uesciibes a
piactical fiamewoik foi measuiing online ieauing peifoimance using thiee uiffeient foimats. It
also summaiizes the ways in which oui vision of online ieauing compiehension assessment ieflects
key elements of what stuuents aie expecteu to accomplish by seventh giaue accoiuing to the
Common Coie State Stanuaius Initiative (2u1u) foi ieauing, wiiting, anu liteiacy in science. Some
of the most impoitant connections incluue:
CCSS Reauing Stanuaius foi Infoimational Text (uiaue 7)
o Beteimine two oi moie cential iueas acioss multiple texts anu summaiize text uistinct
fiom piioi knowleuge oi opinions
o Cite implicit anu explicit textual eviuence as suppoit
o Analyze how authois shape theii piesentation of key iueas by emphasizing uiffeient
eviuence oi claims
o Tiace anu evaluate aigument anu specific claims, assessing whethei ieasoning is sounu
anu eviuence is ielevant anu sufficient to suppoit claims
CCSS Reauing Stanuaius foi Liteiacy in BistoiySocial Stuuies, Science anu Technical Subjects
(uiaue 7)
o Reau anu compiehenu acioss complex science texts
o Follow multi-step pioceuuies to caiiy out tasks
o Beteimine meaning of key woius anu phiases in science
o Bistinguish among fact, ieasoneu juugment, anu speculation in science texts
CCSS Wiiting Stanuaius (uiaue 7)
o Wiite foi a uisciplinaiy task to examine a topic anu convey ielevant iueas
o Conuuct shoit ieseaich to answei questions
o uathei ielevant infoimation fiom multiple uigital souices, using seaich teims
effectively, assess cieuibility anu accuiacy of souices, anu quote oi paiaphiase uata anu
conclusions of otheis while avoiuing plagiaiism
o Biaw eviuence fiom infoimational text to suppoit analysis, ieflection, anu ieseaich
o 0se technology, incluuing the Inteinet to piouuce anu publish wiiting, inteiact with
otheis, anu link to othei infoimation
Auuitional uetails about how the 0RCA aligns with Common Coie State Stanuaius (CCSS) aie
outlineu in Appenuix B. Because of the paiallels between the 0RCA anu the CCSS, teacheis,
auministiatois, anu stuuents who paiticipate in the 0RCA pioject will have a pieliminaiy snapshot
of how stuuents might peifoim on giaue-appiopiiate tasks connecteu to college anu caieei liteiacy
tasks. As a iesult, these schools will be in a bettei position to auuiess weak aieas of ieauing,
wiiting, anu content aiea liteiacy two to thiee yeais befoie the two consoitiums have iolleu out
theii state stanuaiuizeu assessments of the common coie state stanuaius.
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To compete in a global infoimation age, stuuents must uevelop new skills, especially the ability to
ieau anu compiehenu infoimation on the Inteinet at high levels (Inteinational Reauing Association,
2uu9). The laigest anu most iecent ieview of ieseaich on ieauing compiehension concluues that
the Inteinet iequiies auuitional compiehension skills beyonu those iequiieu foi ieauing tiauitional
piint texts (RANB Reauing Stuuy uioup, 2uu2). Subsequent woik seeks to iuentify these skills, such
as the new compiehension uemanus of queiying seaich engines, unueistanuing seaich iesults, anu
ciitically evaluating infoimation lauen with social, commeicial, anu political motives. 0nfoitunately,
we aie not yet in a position to effectively teach them. We lack valiu, ieliable, anu piactical
assessments of online ieauing compiehension to infoim instiuction anu help stuuents become
bettei online ieaueis; not a single state yet incluues these new types of tasks in theii state ieauing
assessments. Thus, an impoitant challenge foi both ieseaicheis anu euucatois in the twenty-fiist
centuiy is to uevelop valiu, ieliable, anu piactical assessments of online ieauing compiehension.

A seconu set of challenges aiises fiom the call foi states to establish a unifoim set of cleai,
consistent, anu iigoious euucational stanuaius so that all stuuents aie piepaieu foi success in the
global economy anu society (see foi example, Tuckei's 2u11 iepoit publisheu by the National
Centei on Euucation anu the Economy). As of Nay 2u11, the majoiity of states in the 0niteu States
have iecognizeu the Common Coie State Stanuaius Initiative |CCSSj (2u1u) as a piomising step in
this uiiection. Leu by the Council of Chief State School 0fficeis (CCSS0) anu the National uoveinoi's
Association (NuA), this initiative has piouuceu the College anu Caieei Reauiness (CCR) Stanuaius
in ieauing, wiiting, speaking, listening, anu language anu the Common Coie State Stanuaius (CCSS),
which set iequiiements foi K-12 stuuents to meet the CCR anchoi stanuaius in English language
aits as well as liteiacy in histoiysocial stuuies, science, anu technical subjects. Both of these
uocuments pioviue a iigoious anu eviuence-baseu vision of what it means to be a liteiate peison in
the twenty-fiist centuiy.

Fiameu in the context of these uual challenges, the puipose of this papei is twofolu: fiist, it outlines
the paiticulais of a ieseaich pioject funueu by the 0. S. Bepaitment of Euucation that seeks to
auuiess the lack of assessments in this aiea by ueveloping anu testing thiee alteinative foimats of
online ieauing compiehension assessments foi miuule school stuuents. Seconu, this papei
illustiates the many ways in which oui vision of online ieauing compiehension assessment ieflects
key elements of what stuuents aie expecteu to accomplish by seventh giaue, accoiuing to the
Common Coie State Stanuaius in English Language Aits & Liteiacy in BistoiySocial Stuuies,
Science, anu Technical Subjects.

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In a unique ieseaich paitneiship with the state euucation uepaitments of Naine, Connecticut, anu
Noith Caiolina, this pioject is uesigneu to uevelop, test, anu iefine a set of online infoimation
pioblem solving scenaiios that iepiesent thiee alteinative foimats of 0nline Reauing
Compiehension Assessment (0RCA). We will then assess the piacticality of each instiument with an
extensive set of uiveise anu highly knowleugeable school leaueis fiom New Englanu, Pueito Rico,
anu the 0.S. viigin Islanus who seive on the uoveining Boaiu of the Regional Euucational Lab -
Noitheast anu Islanus (REL-NEI). The iesults will communicate to states impoitant infoimation
about the assessment of online ieauing compiehension anu a pieliminaiy veision of what this
might look like foi auolescents.

Being able to evaluate stuuent piogiess in this aiea will piove useful to policy makeis, ieseaicheis,
teacheis anu school auministiatois in an age of online infoimation anu communication. Foi policy
makeis, it will pioviue stuuent peifoimance uata on a new anu especially impoitant aspect of
ieauing in oui schools, online ieauing compiehension, that is not measuieu by tiauitional ieauing
assessments. Foi ieseaicheis, it will pioviue an impoitant instiument to stuuy a new anu iapiuly
expanuing aiea of liteiacy. Foi teacheis, it will peimit the evaluation of inuiviuual stuuents' online
ieauing compiehension ability in oiuei to infoim new elements of classioom instiuction. In
auuition, paiticipation in the 0RCA pioject can offei teacheis anu stuuents exposuie to
peifoimance-baseu ieauing compiehension tasks anu constiucteu iesponse foimats that ieflect
many of the same skills, stiategies, piocesses, anu iigoious expectations outlineu in the Common
Common Coie State Stanuaius in English Language Aits & Liteiacy in BistoiySocial Stuuies,
Science, anu Technical Subjects. Thus, teacheis, auministiatois, anu stuuents who paiticipate in the
0RCA pioject will have a pieliminaiy snapshot of how stuuents might peifoim on giaue-
appiopiiate tasks connecteu to college anu caieei liteiacy tasks. As a iesult, these schools will be in
a bettei position to auuiess weak aieas of ieauing, wiiting, anu content aiea liteiacy two to thiee
yeais befoie the two consoitiums have iolleu out theii state stanuaiuizeu assessments of the
common coie state stanuaius. Noieovei, the 0RCA fiamewoik, which weaves web-baseu inquiiy
piocesses with content-aiea leaining, intiouuces to schools one piactical mouel of how to integiate
technology into stanuaius-baseu cuiiiculum piactices.

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The 0nline Reauing Compiehension Assessment (0RCA) is uesigneu to captuie "ieal-time" online
ieauing piouucts anu piocesses while inuiviuuals ieau foi infoimation on the Inteinet. The
unueilying uesign of any 0RCA is infoimeu by a new liteiacies peispective of online ieauing
compiehension that fiames ieauing compiehension as a web-baseu pioblem-solving inquiiy
piocess involving skills anu stiategies foi locating, ciitically evaluating, synthesizing, anu
communicating infoimation on the Inteinet (Leu, Kinzei, Coiio, & Cammack, 2uu4; Leu, 0'Byine,
Zawilinski, Ncveiiy, & Eveiett-Cacopaiuo, 2uu9). Recent woik suggests that pieviously uevelopeu
assessments of the ieauing skills neeueu to compiehenu piinteu texts uo not sufficiently captuie
the complex anu unique compiehension piocesses iequiieu to ieau foi infoimation on the Inteinet
(see Coiio, 2uu7; Baitman, Noisink, & Zheng, 2u1u). Piompteu by the absence of ieal-time
measuies of these new online ieauing skills, foi the past six yeais (2uuS-2u11), we have uevelopeu
a iange of 0RCA's in a vaiiety of foimats anu have useu them to estimate the online ieauing
compiehension abilities of ovei 1,uuu seventh-giaueis in language aits anu science classiooms.
Scoies on each of these pievious assessments have uemonstiateu auequate valiuity anu ieliability
(see Leu, Kulikowich, Seuiansk, & Coiio, 2uu9).
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ueneially, each 0RCA expeiience is uesigneu to engage stuuents in a seiies of uisciplinaiy online
infoimation iequests that aie fiameu in a pioblem-baseu scenaiio ielevant to miuule school
stuuents. Foi the cuiient 0RCA Pioject, eight alteinative scenaiios have been uevelopeu to focus
on human biology, a scientific uomain common to most miuule school cuiiicula. Each scenaiio
iequiies stuuents to locate, evaluate, synthesize, anu communicate infoimation that focuses on a
uiffeient bouy pait (e.g., lungs, heait, eyes, oi eais) anu a ielateu science topic (e.g., asthma, heait
healthy snacks, uecoiative contact lenses, oi safe music volume levels). Foi each 0RCA expeiience,
an inquiiy question is piesenteu to stuuents in a Facebook-like inteiface (as shown in Figuies 1-S
below) anu stuuents have appioximately 4S minutes to use the Inteinet to seaich foi, ieau, anu
evaluate infoimation, anu then synthesize anu compose ielevant, cohesive, anu auuience
appiopiiate iesponses to seveial scenaiio-ielateu tasks using eviuence fiom theii ieauings to
suppoit theii uecisions. Foi example, in one scenaiio, the guiuing question is: Aie eneigy uiinks
uangeious to teen heait health. In this scenaiio, the piesiuent of a school boaiu is consiueiing a
ban on eneigy uiinks solu in school anu stuuents ieceive an email with a iequest foi moie
infoimation. Stuuents aie then askeu to play a iole in the uecision-making piocess by conuucting
online ieseaich anu emailing the school boaiu with ielevant anu ieliable finuings about how eneigy
uiinks affect teen heait health. Buiing the piocess of each 0RCA expeiience, stuuents have the
oppoitunity to engage in authentic, pioblem-baseu, anu inteiuisciplinaiy tasks (in this case,
combining science, ieauing, anu wiiting) about topics that aie ielevant to auolescents anu
connecteu to most miuule school cuiiicula. Appenuix A contains a biief uesciiption of all eight
0RCA scenaiios foi the cuiient pioject.


J&K3$- C7 Scieenshot of 0RCA inteiface with Facebook-like piompts anu a iesponse captuie object
in which stuuents entei theii answeis in the left winuow anu an email message winuow on the
iight that piesents the scenaiio to stuuents anu pioviues a ieply button to compose theii message

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J&K3$- L7 Scieenshot of piompts to locate specific infoimation in the backgiounu anu the iesults of
one stuuent's "uloogle" seaich in the foiegiounu




J&K3$- ?7 Scieenshot of Facebook-like piompts anu chat featuies useu to ask stuuents to synthesize
infoimation they founu online anu evaluate the authoi's expeitise anu point of view





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Foi this pioject, each scenaiio is cieateu in thiee assessment foimats incluuing 0RCA-0pen, 0RCA-
Closeu, anu 0RCA-Nultiple Choice. The thiee foimats aie uesigneu to pioviue uata about how
seventh giaueis ieau acioss a iange of moie anu less bounueu Inteinet contexts. Tasks in the
%)-3M%0$& foimat aie uesigneu to assess ieal-time ieauing piocesses anu piouucts iequiieu as
stuuents Locate, Evaluate, Synthesize, anu Communicate (AD;-) infoimation while ieauing in the
0pen Inteinet, a uynamic anu unbounueu online uigital infoimation enviionment. Foi this pioject,
0RCA-0pen consists of S2 items, which aie gioupeu into two scenaiios, oi LESCs. Each AD;-
incluues 16 items uesigneu to measuie ieauing piocesses anu piouucts in an unbounueu, ieal-time
open Inteinet enviionment ielateu to foui components of online ieauing compiehension:
Reauing to Locate tasks (4 items) iequiie stuuents to use seaich engines, efficiently ieau seaich
iesults, anu iuentify websites with infoimation that can be useu to solve the infoimation
pioblem scenaiio.
Reauing to Evaluate tasks (4 items) iequiie stuuents to iuentify a website's authoi anu evaluate
hishei level of expeitise, consiuei the authoi's point of view, anu evaluate the ieliability of
authoi claims anu eviuence ielateu to the pioblem scenaiio.
Reauing to Synthesize tasks (4 items) iequiie stuuents to integiate infoimation intiatextually
(acioss multiple claims within one website) anu inteitextually (acioss multiple websites) in
theii own woius, take a position on the issues involveu, anu use eviuence fiom multiple online
souices to suppoit theii thinking.
Reauing anu Wiiting to Communicate tasks (4 items) iequiie stuuents to access infoimation in
an email oi wiki space anu iesponu with infoimation they have leaineu about the scenaiio in an
appiopiiately ciafteu, visually oiganizeu, anu cleai message.

A complete 0RCA-0pen Assessment consists of one 16-item iestiicteu task anu one 16-item
uniestiicteu task. An %)-3M%0$& )$241(94$+ "*2H is an online ieauing task foi which the
infoimation space to locate ielevant claims is limiteu to a paiticulai set of online iesouices founu
on the 0pen Inteinet ielateu to a topic. An %)-3M%0$& L&1$241(94$+ "*2H is an online ieauing
task foi which the infoimation space to locate ielevant claims is left open to any online souices
founu on the 0pen Inteinet ielateu to a topic. The combination of iestiicteu anu uniestiicteu items
in the assessment pioviues infoimation about online ieauing compiehension pioficiency when
ieauing in both types of contexts.

A seconu assessment foimat is %)-3M-'.2$+Q Tasks in the 0RCA-Closeu foimat aie also uesigneu to
engage stuuents with the foui LESC piocesses (locate, evaluate, synthesize, anu communicate), but
stuuent woik is conuucteu within the confines of a simulateu, closeu Inteinet enviionment. To
uevelop this closeu enviionment, ieplicas of the websites founu in the 0RCA-0pen enviionment
weie cieateu anu linkeu togethei in a simulateu closeu space that also contains a fully functioning
seaich engine known as "uloogle". Similai to the 0RCA-0pen tasks, a complete 0RCA-Closeu
assessment consists of one 16-item %)-3M-'.2$+ )$241(94$+ "*2H (foi which specific online
souices within the simulateu enviionment must be useu) anu one 16-item %)-3M-'.2$+
L&1$241(94$+ "*2H (foi which any online souices within the simulateu enviionment can be useu).
The thiiu assessment foimat is %)-3MK<'4(0'$ -#.(9$ 5%)-3MK-6Q This foimat is also uesigneu to
measuie the foui LESC piocesses. Bowevei, iathei than asking stuuents to actively use seaich
engines anu navigate within anu acioss multiple websites in a ieal-time mannei, scieenshots of key
stopping points foi locating, evaluating, synthesizing, anu communicating aie paiieu with piompts
anu multiple choice items in a closeu uigital inteiface. Stuuents aie askeu to ieview the scieenshots
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at each step of the inquiiy piocess anu iesponu by selecting the most appiopiiate choice befoie
moving on to the next item in the scenaiio.
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Two uiffeient pioceuuies aie useu to collect uata as stuuents engage in the 0RCA expeiience. Fiist,
online ieauing 4$#;-(( uata, such as cuisoi movement, keystiokes, clicking, sciolling, anu
navigating within seaich engine iesults anu websites, is collecteu in a ieal-time viueo iecoiuing
that iecoius a uigital movie of all on-scieen activity. This piocess uata pioviues a winuow into the
ieal-time piocesses each inuiviuual stuuent employs while engageu in the online ieauing
expeiience without any inteiiuption fiom the teachei (oi test auministiatoi). A shoit example of a
uigital iecoiuing can be vieweu at http:www.oica.uconn.euu.
Seconu, stuuents' typeu iesponses, oi the 4$#03;%( of each online ieauing session, aie collecteu
automatically with a iesponse-captuie object uesigneu by the 0RCA ieseaich team that sits within
the 0RCA inteiface. This object is piogiammeu to pioviue stuuents with the sequence of task
piompts at vaiious points uuiing the inquiiy piocess as well as space to type theii iesponses to
each piompt. Each stuuent's typeu iesponses, timing uata about how long they visiteu each
website, anu othei types of infoimation is collecteu anu automatically uistiibuteu into inuiviuual
uata sheets at the enu of each 0RCA task.
Responses aie then scoieu in two ways. An electionic scoiing system will be useu to machine-scoie
appioximately one thiiu of a stuuent's iesponses using a two-point iubiic scoiing system (u oi 1)
anu the iemaining item iesponses will be scoieu by hanu using that same two-point iubiic. Within
a few weeks aftei auministiation, peifoimance uata at the class level will be shaieu with schools
along with a shoit summaiy iepoit of class stiengths anu weaknesses in the aieas of locating,
ciitically evaluating, synthesizing, anu communicating online infoimation. Teacheis will also be
pioviueu a seiies of companion lessons to suppoit the uesign of auuitional leaining expeiiences in
aieas foi which stuuents may neeu moie piactice. Inuiviuual stuuent uata (e.g., viueo iecoiuings
anuoi inuiviuual item scoies) collecteu fiom a ianuom sample of stuuents will be available at a
latei time aftei auministiation.
An online viueo libiaiy is also being uevelopeu as pait of the 0RCA pioject to link inteiesteu
stakeholueis to viueo examples of peifoimance uata fiom stuuents who uemonstiateu highei,
aveiage, anu lowei levels of pioficiency with iespect to locating, evaluating, synthesizing, anu
communicating tasks foi each 0RCA scenaiio. This online viueo uatabase anu companion lessons
will seive as a spiingboaiu foi piofessional uevelopment oppoitunities foi teacheis anu
auministiatois seeking to leain moie about how to best piepaie auolescents foi the challenges of
ieauing on the Inteinet.
L2(&, 4#$ %)-3 DE0$1($&9$ ". 71$0*1$ ;9#..'2 =.1 "#$ )(,.1 .C K$$4(&, "#$ -.//.& -.1$
;4*4$ ;4*&+*1+2
In this section, we fiist pioviue an oveiview of the Common Coie State Stanuaius Initiative, outline
the coie elements of the College anu Caieei Reauiness (CCR) Stanuaius, anu biiefly uesciibe the
seventh giaue Common Coie Stanuaius in English Language Aits (ELA) anu Liteiacy in
BistoiySocial Stuuies, Science anu Technical Subjects. We focus specifically on seventh-giaue
liteiacy stanuaius in oui oveiview because the 0RCA pioject is uesigneu to measuie online ieauing
compiehension peifoimance acioss a laige anu uiveise population of seventh giaueis in thiee
states. Then, we call attention to foui key ieauing piocesses assesseu by the 0RCA to bettei
unueistanu how the 0RCA tasks ieflect many of the same skills anu iigoious expectations outlineu
1u
in the seventh giaue Common Coie Stanuaius in ieauing, wiiting, anu liteiacy in science.
Consequently, schools that paiticipate in the 0RCA pioject will be pioviueu with a pieliminaiy
snapshot of how stuuents might peifoim on giaue-appiopiiate iigoious ieauing tasks connecteu to
college anu caieei liteiacy tasks.
"#$ -.//.& -.1$ ;4*4$ ;4*&+*1+2 G&(4(*4(F$
The Common Coie State Stanuaius (CCSS) is an initiative uesigneu to uevelop common K-12
English-Language Aits anu Nath stanuaius acioss the 0.S. in oiuei to bettei piepaie stuuents foi
college anu theii caieeis. The intent is foi the CCSS to ieplace the cuiient patchwoik of state
stanuaius that have iesulteu in a wiue anu vaiieu iange of acauemic expectations anu actual
stuuent peifoimance acioss all Su states. These stanuaius aie uesigneu to ensuie that stuuents
giauuating fiom high school aie piepaieu to go to college oi entei the woikfoice anu that paients,
teacheis, anu stuuents have a cleai unueistanuing of what skills anu knowleuge aie expecteu to be
leaineu. Cuiiently, investigations aie unueiway to exploie the uevelopment of stanuaius foi othei
subjects incluuing Science anu Social Stuuies. The CCSS initiative is not a feueially manuateu
initiative, but a state-leu effoit aimeu at inuiviuual states voluntaiily auopting anuoi auapting the
stanuaius as theii own.
The CCSS initiative is a joint pioject of the National uoveinois Association (NuA) anu the Council of
Chief State School 0fficeis (CCSS0) who staiteu the initial uiafts of the stanuaius in 2uu9. The final
stanuaius weie baseu on neaily 1u,uuu public comments anu by stanuaius in othei top-peifoiming
countiies. In auuition, The National Euucation Association (NEA), Ameiican Feueiation of Teacheis
(AFT), National Council of Teacheis of Nathematics (NCTN), anu National Council of Teacheis of
English (NCTE), among othei oiganizations, have been instiumental in biinging togethei teacheis
to pioviue specific, constiuctive feeuback on the stanuaius (see http:coiestanuaius.oig). As of
Nay 2u11, 44 states, the Bistiict of Columbia, anu the 0S viigin Islanus have auopteu the stanuaius.
States aie askeu to use the CCSS to builu upon the stiengths anu lessons of theii cuiient state
stanuaius (Baggett, & uenuion, 2u1u).
-.''$,$ *&+ -*1$$1 )$*+(&$22 5--)6 ;4*&+*1+2
The CCSS initiative uefines college anu caieei ieauiness as the ability "to succeeu in entiy-level,
cieuit-beaiing acauemic college couises anu in woikfoice-tiaining piogiams" (ASCB, 2u11). The
College anu Caieei Reauiness (CCR) anu giaue-specific stanuaius aie complements. While the CCR
pioviues bioau stanuaius, the giaue specific stanuaius pioviue moie explicit uetails of what
stuuents shoulu know anu be able to uo. Togethei, these stanuaius uefine the skills anu knowleuge
that all stuuents must be able to uemonstiate in a global economy anu society.
The CCR anchoi stanuaius foi English Language Aits (ELA) anu Liteiacy in BistoiySocial Stuuies,
Science, anu Technical Subjects aie fiameu within foui stianus: (1) ieauing, (2) wiiting, (S)
speaking anu listening; anu (4) language. To builu a founuation foi college anu caieei ieauiness in
English language aits anu liteiacy, stuuents must apply founuational ieauing skills (piint concepts,
phonological awaieness, phonics, anu fluency - emphasizeu in uiaues K-S) anu highei level
ieauing, wiiting, anu language skills while ieauing wiuely anu ueeply acioss incieasingly
challenging liteiaiy anu infoimational texts.
The ten CCR anchoi stanuaius anu giaue-specific 8%,'0,$0( )#$ >-,0&'K clustei aiounu foui
oiganizing elements: (a) key iueas anu uetails; (b) ciaft anu stiuctuie; (c) integiation of knowleuge
anu iueas; anu (u) iange of ieauing anu level of text complexity. The Reauing Stanuaius aie
11
sepaiateu into those neeueu to ieau liteiatuie anu those neeueu to ieau infoimational texts acioss
uiaues K-S anu uiaues 6-12.
The ten CCR anchoi stanuaius anu giaue-specific 8%,'0,$0( )#$ M$&%&'K clustei aiounu foui
uiffeient oiganizing elements. These incluue: (a) text types anu puiposes; (b) piouuction anu
uistiibution of wiiting; (c) ieseaich to builu on anu piesent knowleuge; anu (u) iange of wiiting.
The CCR anchoi stanuaius anu giaue-specific 8%,'0,$0( )#$ 84-,2&'K N O&(%-'&'K aie oiganizeu
aiounu two elements: (a) compiehension anu collaboiation; anu (b) piesentation of knowleuge anu
iueas; anu the 8%,'0,$0( )#$ O,'K3,K- aie oiganizeu aiounu thiee elements: (a) conventions of
Stanuaiu English; (b) knowleuge of language; anu (c) vocabulaiy acquisition anu use.
Finally, in uiaues 6-12, two auuitional sets of 8%,'0,$0( )#$ O&%-$,;5 &' P&(%#$5Q8#;&,. 8%30&-(R
8;&-';-R ,'0 S-;*'&;,. 83/T-;%( have been uelineateu foi both the ieauing anu wiiting stianus.
These stanuaius aie essentially paiallel to the Stanuaius foi English Language Aits 6-12 in Reauing
anu Wiiting but they aie woiueu moie piecisely to ueal with the nuances of uiscipline-specific texts
anu liteiacy tasks.
The skills anu unueistanuings stuuents aie expecteu to uemonstiate in the CCR have wiue
applicability outsiue the classioom oi woikplace. Fiom the Common Coie State Stanuaius website
(CCSS Initiative, 2u11), these skills anu unueistanuings incluue:
0nueitaking the close, attentive ieauing that is at the heait of unueistanuing anu enjoying
complex woiks of liteiatuie anu nonfiction texts
Peifoiming the ciitical ieauing necessaiy to pick caiefully thiough the staggeiing amount of
infoimation available touay in piint anu uigitally
Seeking the wiue, ueep, anu thoughtful engagement with high-quality liteiaiy anu infoimational
texts that builus knowleuge, enlaiges expeiience, anu bioauens woilu-views
Bemonstiating the cogent ieasoning anu use of eviuence that is essential to both piivate
uelibeiation anu iesponsible citizenship in a uemociatic iepublic.

The K-12 giaue-specific stanuaius uefine enu-of-yeai expectations. As stuuents auvance thiough
each giaue they aie expecteu to meet the yeai's giaue-specific stanuaius. In auuition, they must
ietain anu fuithei uevelop skills anu unueistanuings masteieu in piioi giaues uuiing pievious
yeais. In shoit, stuuents who meet the stanuaius, both giaue-level anu CCR, will not only be
successful in school but will finu success in college, in the woikfoice, anu beyonu.
;$F$&4#MI1*+$ -.//.& -.1$ ;4*4$ ;4*&+*1+2 (& D&,'(2# A*&,<*,$ 3142
English Language Aits (ELA), incluuing Liteiacy in BistoiySocial Stuuies Science anu Technical
Subjects, was one of the two fiist subjects chosen foi the Common Coie State Stanuaius. ELA, along
with Nath, incluues many of the most common founuational skills anu knowleuge upon which
stuuents builu skill sets acioss all othei subject aieas. Like the CCR stanuaius, the ELA stanuaius, at
the 7th
th
giaue level, aie split into five main stianus. The stianus incluue ieauing of liteiatuie,
ieauing of infoimational texts, wiiting, speaking anu listening, anu language.
Liteiatuie anu infoimational text ieauing stanuaius in the 7th giaue focus stuuents on the ability to
analyze key stoiy anu text elements acioss a iange of complex texts (stoiies, uiamas, poems, anu
nonfiction), cite specific examples to suppoit theii analysis, iuentify the inteiactions between these
elements, anu integiate knowleuge anu iueas gleaneu acioss multiple texts. With iespect to liteiaiy
texts, stuuents aie iequiieu to iuentify key themes oi cential iueas, anu to follow theii uevelopment
pioviuing objective summaiies as neeueu. Stuuents aie also askeu to iuentify inteiactions between
12
inuiviuuals, events, anu iueas; analyze uiffeient chaiacteis anu theii points of view; anu compaie
anu contiast fictional anu histoiical accounts of the same time peiiou.
With iespect to infoimational texts, such as the nonfiction texts stuuents will encountei in
textbooks oi acioss infoimational websites, stuuents aie iequiieu to ueteimine anu summaiize
cential iueas anu key text elements; cite specific examples to suppoit theii analysis; iuentify the
inteiactions between text elements anu key iueas; anu integiate knowleuge anu iueas gleaneu
acioss multiple anu uiveise texts. Stuuents aie also askeu to analyze authois anu theii points of
view; ueteimine woiu meaning anu analyze the impact of woiu choice on meaning anu tone; anu
compaie anu contiast how uiffeient authois shape theii wiiting by emphasizing uiffeient eviuence
oi auvancing uiffeient inteipietations of facts about the same topic.
Wiiting stanuaius in the 7th giaue focus on thiee types of texts incluuing peisuasive,
infoimativeexplanatoiy, anu naiiatives. Stuuents aie askeu to wiite ioutinely acioss both shoit
time fiames (a single sitting oi a uay oi two) while conuucting shoit ieseaich piojects that uiaw on
seveial souices to answei a focuseu question as well to complete longei, moie compiehensive
wiiting piojects in which they aie explicitly planning, ieseaiching, anu ieflecting on theii wiiting.
They aie also askeu to wiite using technology, incluuing the Inteinet, to cieate anu publish, cite
online infoimation, anu inteiact with anu collaboiate with otheis.
Speaking anu listening stanuaius foi 7th giaue involves stuuents collaboiating, compiehenuing,
anu piesenting oiiginal iueas. Stuuents aie expecteu to paiticipate in collaboiative uiscussions
with uiveise paitneis anu analyze main iueas anu suppoiting uetails. Stuuents must be able to
iuentify anu evaluate specific claims anu explain how these claims claiify the main iueas oi issues in
a vaiiety of foimats incluuing text baseu anu multimeuia. Piesenting claims anu finuings baseu on
ieseaich anu ieauings is a ciitical stanuaiu foi stuuents. Stuuents must auapt speech foi a vaiiety
of contexts anu use multimeuia anu visual tools anu uisplays to effectively communicate salient
points.
Language stanuaius foi 7th giaue combine a iange of tiauitional language skills anu stiategies.
Stuuents aie askeu to uemonstiate piopei giammai while wiiting anu speaking. Expiessing iueas
in wiiting piecisely anu concisely is iequiieu thiough wiiting assignments in othei stanuaius.
Stuuents aie askeu to ueteimine the meaning of unknown anu multi-meaning woius anu they aie
askeu to exploie figuiative language anu nuance.
N#@ 31$ "#$ -.//.& -.1$ ;4*4$ ;4*&+*1+2 G/0.14*&4O
The CCSS can become an inflection point establishing a common founuation foi builuing excellence
anu equity foi all stuuents (Foigione, 2u1u). Baseu on state auoption of the CCSS to uate, ovei 8u%
of the nation's public school stuuents anu teacheis will be woiking on the same content stanuaius
(Euucational Testing Seivices |ETSj, 2u11). Iueas, iesouices, lessons, piactice tests, benchmaiks,
anu othei types of euucational content anu mateiials can be leveiageu acioss states anu shaieu
between teacheis, paients, anu schools to bettei iuentify best piactices anu pioviue common
content foi incieaseu stuuent leaining.
Paiticipation in the CCSS piogiam will enable states to woik togethei to solve many of the
pioblems facing most public school systems. Expectations foi stuuent achievement will become
cleaiei to teacheis, paients, anu the community. The cieation anu uissemination of euucational
content, incluuing uigital content, will be enhanceu. Piivate inuustiy euucational paitneis can be
assuieu that mateiials will be aligneu acioss state bounuaiies theieby insuiing theii capital
investments in new types of content. Auuitionally, compiehensive assessment systems can be
1S
uevelopeu that measuie stuuent peifoimance against the CCSS anu ieplace cuiient inuiviuual state
assessments that aie often inconsistent, buiuensome, anu confusing (CCSS Initiative, 2u11).
The 0.S. goveinment, thiough RTTT, has begun funuing the Race to the Top Assessment Piogiam,
which has pioviueu funus to two consoitia to uesign, pioviue anu builu the next geneiation of
assessments. These consoitia, Paitneiship foi Assessment of Reauiness foi College anu Caieeis
(PARCC) anu SNARTER Balanceu Assessment Consoitium (SBAC), builu upon shaieu stanuaius foi
college anu caieei ieauiness, measuie inuiviuual giowth anu pioficiency, anu pioviue uigital
mateiials anu testing enviionments to facilitate test taking, test scoiing, anu test uata uissemination
(CAF, 2u1u). Both PARCC anu SBAC assessment initiatives plan to be in use wiuely acioss the
0niteu States by teacheis anu stuuents foi the 2u14-2u1S school yeai.
N#*4 D'$/$&42 %C "#$ -.//.& -.1$ ;4*4$ ;4*&+*1+2 31$ )$C'$94$+ G& "#$ %)-3 DE0$1($&9$O
Table 1 on the next page iuentifies the set of seventh-giaue common coie stanuaius ieflecteu in
each sixteen-item 0RCA. To examine the similaiities between 0RCA tasks anu the CCSS, each 0RCA
item was gioupeu with othei items uesigneu to measuie paiticulai skills associateu with one of the
foui LESC piocesses (e.g., ieauing to .#;,%-, ieauing to -U,.3,%-, ieauing to (5'%*-(&V-, anu ieauing
anu wiiting to ;#++3'&;,%-). These foui clusteis of online ieauing compiehension skills, theii
iespective item numbeis, anu the puipose of each item aie uesciibeu in the left column of the table.
The iight column of the table lists specific stanuaius auuiesseu as stuuents engage in each pait of
the 0RCA. Stanuaius aie clusteieu by aiea (i.e., Stanuaius foi Reauing Infoimational Text;
Stanuaius foi Liteiacy in Science; Stanuaius foi Wiiting anu Wiiting in Science; anu Stanuaius foi
Language) anu then by oiganizing element within each aiea. 0RCA item numbeis that auuiess a
ceitain stanuaiu appeai in supeisciipt at the enu of each stanuaiu. In cases wheie only a paiticulai
poition of the stanuaiu is auuiesseu, the ielevant poition is unueilineu. A moie consoliuateu
summaiy of the 0RCA pioject anu the oveilap between 0RCA items anu the Common Coie State
Stanuaius in English Language Aits anu Liteiacy in Science (uesciibeu using abbieviateu phiases of
the actual woiuing foi each stanuaiu) is shown in Appenuix B.
P.J -*& "#$ %)-3 DE0$1($&9$ 71$0*1$ ;4<+$&42 =.1 "#$ )(,.1 %C >?
24
-$&4<1@ A(4$1*9($2 32
N$'' 32 =<4<1$ 322$22/$&42 %C "#$ -.//.& -.1$ ;4*4$ ;4*&+*1+2O
Each 0RCA is an authentic, pioblem-baseu scenaiio situateu in a uigital enviionment that engages
seventh giaue stuuents in a seiies of online uisciplinaiy infoimation iequests that link ieauing,
wiiting, anu biology to topics ielevant to touay's auolescents. Each 0RCA also captuies
peifoimance uata (both piocess anu piouuct uata) about how stuuents use the Inteinet to compile
infoimation, investigate conflicting claims, anu pioviue textual eviuence of the infoimation's
ielevance anu ieliability as well as the authoi's point of view. In auuition, all of these uigital
inquiiy-baseu piocesses iequiie stuuents to navigate complex anu technical texts such as seaich
engine iesults, multimoual iepiesentations of content, anu infoimational websites cieateu by
multiple anu uispaiate souices. Reseaich inuicates most auolescents aie not veiy skilleu at these
new liteiacies (e.g., Bennet, Naton, & Keivin, 2uu8; Leu et al, 2uu7), especially the ability to locate
(Bilal, 2uu1; Eagleton, uuinee & Langlais, 2uuS; Wallace, Kupeiman, Kiajcik, & Soloway, 2uuu) anu
ciitically evaluate the infoimation they encountei online (Waliaven, Bianu-uiuwel, & Boshuizen,
2uu9; Kiili, Lauiinen, & Naittunen, 2uu8). Bowevei, emeiging woik suggests that stuuents can
benefit fiom scaffolueu anu iegulai piactice with these ciitical ieauing anu wiiting skills in
authentic online leaining contexts (Castek, 2uu8; Leu et. al., 2uu8). The 0RCA offeis one way of
engaging stuuents with these new liteiacy piactices at least two yeais piioi to the ielease of foimal
assessments fiom the two consoitiums. 5-.&4(&<$+ .& 0*,$ ?W6
14
!"#$% '( )*%+,-./-+0 1$%2%+,3 4. !5% 67227+ 678% 9,",% 9,"+*"8*3 :%.$%;,%* )+ !5% 4+$-+% :%"*-+0 672<8%5%+3-7+ =33%332%+, >4:6=?
4:6= 672<7+%+,@
),%2 A "+* BC8<73%
9%D%+,5 E8"*% 67227+ 678% 9,",% 9,"+*"8*3 =**8%33%*
>F-3,%* #/ 480"+-G-+0 1$%2%+,?
:%"*-+0 ,7 F7;",%
! Locate #1. 0se
appiopiiate
keywoius to
geneiate seaich
! Locate #2. Infei
fiom seaich engine
iesults
! Locate #S. Infei
fiom uiffeient set
of seaich engine
iesults
! Locate #4. Locate
anu shaie auuiess
of two ielevant
websites with
infoimation that
answeis the
question
:%"*-+0 )+.782",-7+"$ !%H,
! 68"., "+* 9,8C;,C8% I(J Beteimine meaning of woius anu phiases as useu in text incluuing figuiative, connotative,
anu technical meanings; analyze impact of specific woiu choice on meaning & tone
Locate 2, S

! )+,%08",-7+ 7. K+7L$%*0% "+* )*%"3 I(M Tiace & evaluate aigument anu specific claims in a text, assessing whethei
ieasoning is sounu anu eviuence is ielevant anu sufficient to suppoit claims
Locate 2, S

! :"+0% 7. :%"*-+0 "+* F%D%$ 7. !%H, 672<$%H-,/ I('N Reau anu compiehenu non-fiction in giaues 6-8 text
complexity banu
Locate 2, S

F-,%8";/ -+ 9;-%+;%
! K%/ )*%"3 "+* O%,"-$3 I(P Follow piecisely multistep pioceuuies when caiiying out expeiiments, taking
measuiements, oi peifoiming technical tasks
Locate 1, 2, S, 4

Q8-,-+0 >"+* Q8-,-+0 -+ 9;-%+;%?
! B87*C;,-7+ "+* O-3,8-#C,-7+ 7. Q8-,-+0 I(R 0se technology, incluuing the Inteinet, to piouuce anu publish wiiting,
inteiact with otheis, link to othei infoimation, anu uisplay infoimation uynamically
Locate 4

! :%3%"8;5 !7 SC-$* "+* B8%3%+, K+7L$%*0% I(I Conuuct shoit ieseaich piojects to answei a question, uiawing on
seveial souices anu geneiating auuitional ielateu, focuseu questions foi fuithei investigation
Locate 1, 4

! :%3%"8;5 !7 SC-$* "+* B8%3%+, K+7L$%*0% I(M uathei ielevant infoimation fiom multiple piint anu uigital
souices, using seaich teims effectively, assess cieuibility anu accuiacy of souices, anu quote oi paiaphiase uata anu
conclusions of otheis while avoiuing plagiaiism anu citing appiopiiately
Locate 1, 4

! :"+0% 7. Q8-,-+0 I('N Wiite ioutinely ovei extenueu anu shoitei time fiames (a single sitting oi a uay oi two) foi a
iange of uiscipline-specific tasks, puiposes, anu auuiences
Locate 4

:%"*-+0 ,7 1D"$C",%
! Evaluate #1.
Iuentify authoi of
the website
! Evaluate #2.
Evaluate authoi's
level of expeitise
! Evaluate #S.
Evaluate authoi's
point of view oi
puipose
! Evaluate #4.
Evaluate ieliability
of infoimation with
logical explanation
anu eviuence
:%"*-+0 )+.782",-7+"$ !%H,
! K%/ )*%" "+* O%,"-$3 I(' Cite implicit anu explicit textual eviuence as suppoit
Evaluate 1, 2, S, 4

! 68"., "+* 9,8C;,C8% I(J Beteimine meaning of woius anu phiases as useu in text incluuing figuiative, connotative,
anu technical meanings; analyze impact of specific woiu choice on meaning & tone
Evaluate 2, S, 4

! 68"., T 9,8C;,C8% I(R Beteimine authoi's point of view oi puipose in a text anu analyze how authoi uistinguishes
position fiom that of otheis
Evaluate 2, S, 4

! )+,%08",-7+ 7. K+7L$%*0% "+* )*%"3 I(U Analyze how authois shape theii piesentation of key iueas by emphasizing
uiffeient eviuence oi claims
Evaluate 2, S, 4

! :"+0% 7. :%"*-+0 "+* F%D%$ 7. !%H, 672<$%H-,/ I('N Reau anu compiehenu non-fiction in giaues 6-8 text
complexity banu inuepenuently anu pioficiently
Evaluate 1, 2, S, 4

F-,%8";/ -+ 9;-%+;%
! K%/ )*%"3 "+* O%,"-$3 I(V Beteimine themecential iuea anu analyzesummaiize text uistinct fiom piioi knowleuge
oi opinions
Evaluate 2, S, 4

! 68"., "+* 9,8C;,C8% I(R Analyze authoi's puipose in pioviuing an explanation, uesciibing pioceuuies, oi uiscussing
an expeiiment in a text.
Evaluate S, 4

1S
(:%"*-+0 ,7 1D"$C",%
continueu)
! )+,%08",-7+ 7. K+7L$%*0% "+* )*%"3 I(M Bistinguish among fact, ieasoneu juugment, anu speculation in text
Evaluate 2,
S, 4

! :"+0% 7. :%"*-+0 "+* F%D%$ 7. !%H, 672<$%H-,/ I('N Reau anu compiehenu sciencetechnical texts in giaues 6-8
text complexity banu inuepenuently anu pioficiently
Evaluate 1, 2, S, 4

Q8-,-+0 >"+* Q8-,-+0 -+ 9;-%+;%?
! !%H, !/<%3 "+* BC8<73%3 I(' Wiite aiguments with cleai ieasons anu ielevant eviuence
Evaluate 2, S, 4

! :%3%"8;5 !7 SC-$* "+* B8%3%+, K+7L$%*0% I(U Biaw eviuence fiom liteiaiy oi infoimational texts to suppoit
analysis, ieflection, anu ieseaich, incluuing evaluating aigument anu specific claims in a text, assessing whethei the
ieasoning is sounu anu eviuence is ielevant anu sufficient to suppoit the claims
Evaluate 2, S, 4

! :"+0% 7. Q8-,-+0 I('N Wiite ioutinely ovei extenueu anu shoitei time fiames (a single sitting oi a uay oi two) foi a
iange of uiscipline-specific tasks, puiposes, anu auuiences
Evaluate 2, S, 4

:%"*-+0 ,7
9/+,5%3-G%
! Synthesize #1.
Iuentify two key
uetails fiom two
websites
! Synthesize #2.
Iuentify key uetails
fiom two
auuitional websites
! Synthesize #S.
Integiate
infoimation acioss
foui websites
! Synthesize #4.
Nake a claim anu
suppoit with
eviuence (two
ielevant uetails)
:%"*-+0 )+.782",-7+"$ !%H,
! K%/ )*%" "+* O%,"-$3 I(V Beteimine two oi moie cential iueas anu analyzesummaiize uevelopment ovei couise of
text
Synthesize 1, 2, S, 4

! 68"., "+* 9,8C;,C8% I(J Beteimine meaning of woius anu phiases as useu in text incluuing figuiative, connotative,
anu technical meanings; analyze impact of specific woiu choice on meaning & tone
Synthesize 1, 2, S, 4

! )+,%08",-7+ 7. K+7L$%*0% "+* )*%"3 I(M Tiace & evaluate aigument anu specific claims in a text, assessing whethei
ieasoning is sounu anu eviuence is ielevant anu sufficient to suppoit claims
Synthesize 1, 2, S, 4

! :"+0% 7. :%"*-+0 "+* F%D%$ 7. !%H, 672<$%H-,/ I('N Reau anu compiehenu non-fiction in giaues 6-8 text
complexity banu inuepenuently anu pioficiently
Synthesize 1, 2, S, 4

F-,%8";/ -+ 9;-%+;%
! )+,%08",-7+ 7. K+7L$%*0% "+* )*%"3 I(M Bistinguish among fact, ieasoneu juugment anu speculation in text
Synthesize
S, 4

! :"+0% 7. :%"*-+0 "+* F%D%$ 7. !%H, 672<$%H-,/ I('N Reau anu compiehenu sciencetechnical texts in giaues 6-8
text complexity banu
Synthesize 1, 2, S, 4

Q8-,-+0 >"+* Q8-,-+0 -+ 9;-%+;%?
! :%3%"8;5 !7 SC-$* "+* B8%3%+, K+7L$%*0% I(U Biaw eviuence fiom liteiaiy oi infoimational texts to suppoit
analysis, ieflection, anu ieseaich
Synthesize 4

! :"+0% 7. Q8-,-+0 I('N Wiite ioutinely ovei extenueu anu shoitei time fiames (a single sitting oi a uay oi two) foi a
iange of uiscipline-specific tasks, puiposes, anu auuiences
Synthesize 1, 2, S, 4

:%"*-+0 "+*
Q8-,-+0 ,7
6722C+-;",%
! Communicate #1:
Access ielevant
infoimation within
a communication
inteiface (email,
wiki)
! Communicate #2:
Q8-,-+0 >"+* Q8-,-+0 -+ 9;-%+;%?
! !%H, !/<%3 "+* BC8<73%3 I(V Wiite infoimativeexplanatoiy texts to examine a topic anu convey iueas, concepts,
anu infoimation thiough selection, oiganization, anu analysis of ielevant content
Communicate 1, 2, S, 4

! B87*C;,-7+ "+* O-3,8-#C,-7+ 7. Q8-,-+0 I(J Piouuce cleai anu coheient wiiting in which uevelopment,
oiganization, anu style aie appiopiiate to the task, puipose, anu auuience
Communicate 2, S, 4

! B87*C;,-7+ "+* O-3,8-#C,-7+ 7. Q8-,-+0 I(R 0se technology, incluuing the Inteinet, to piouuce anu publish wiiting,
inteiact with otheis, link to othei infoimation, anu uisplay infoimation uynamically
Communicate 2, S, 4

! :%3%"8;5 !7 SC-$* "+* B8%3%+, K+7L$%*0% I(I Conuuct shoit ieseaich piojects to answei a question, uiawing on
seveial souices anu geneiating auuitional ielateu, focuseu questions foi fuithei investigation
Communicate 1, 2, S, 4

! :%3%"8;5 !7 SC-$* "+* B8%3%+, K+7L$%*0% I(M uathei ielevant infoimation fiom multiple piint anu uigital
16
0se appiopiiate
featuies of
communication
tool to compose
message
! Communicate #S:
Bemonstiate
awaieness of
auuience
! Communicate #4:
Ciaft explicit,
unambiguous
iesponse to
question
souices, using seaich teims effectively, assess cieuibility anu accuiacy of souices, anu quote oi paiaphiase uata anu
conclusions of otheis while avoiuing plagiaiism anu citing appiopiiately
Communicate 1, 2, S, 4

! :%3%"8;5 !7 SC-$* "+* B8%3%+, K+7L$%*0% I(U Biaw eviuence fiom liteiaiy oi infoimational texts to suppoit
analysis, ieflection, anu ieseaich
Communicate 1, 2, S, 4

! :"+0% 7. Q8-,-+0 I('N Wiite ioutinely ovei extenueu anu shoitei time fiames (a single sitting oi a uay oi two) foi a
iange of uiscipline-specific tasks, puiposes, anu auuiences
Communicate 2, S, 4

F"+0C"0%
! 67+D%+,-7+3 7. 9,"+*"8* 1+0$-35 I(' Bemonstiate commanu of the conventions of stanuaiu English giammai anu
usage when wiiting
Communicate 2, S, 4

! K+7L$%*0% 7. F"+0C"0% I(P" Choose language that expiesses iueas piecisely anu concisely
Communicate 2, S, 4

! W7;"#C$"8/ =;XC-3-,-7+ "+* Y3"0% I(R Acquiie anu use giaue-appiopiiate geneial acauemic anu uomain-specific
woius anu phiases
Communicate 2, S, 4




17
!"#$%&$'() +,#- ./0( 112
At the same time, in oiuei to meet the expectations put foith by the Common Coie State Stanuaius
Initiative (2u1u), school auministiatois anu teacheis neeu to begin planning now foi how these
iigoious stanuaius will impact instiuction anu assessment. School uistiicts will neeu a focuseu
tiansition plan anu a piocess to implement the plan. Classioom teacheis anu piofessional
uevelopment pioviueis will also neeu piactical examples of tasks that can elicit highei-level
ieasoning that incoipoiates many of the stanuaius in a single classioom sitting. The 0RCA pioviues
eight uiffeient veisions of piactical online ieauing expeiiences foi teacheis to exploie anu auapt to
othei inquiiy-baseu leaining scenaiios acioss the cuiiiculum.
Anu finally, woik by the Inteinational Centei foi Leaueiship in Euucation (2u1u; see Baggett &
uenuion's RigoiRelevance Fiamewoik in Appenuix B) inuicates that assessments that incluue
peifoimance-baseu tasks anu constiucteu iesponse items aie moie !"#$!$%& (i.e., iequiiing moie
knowleuge, synthesis, anu evaluation) anu moie ieal-woilu !'(')*+, (i.e., inteiuisciplinaiy, ieal-
woilu pieuictable oi unpieuictable situations) compaieu to typical state-wiue assessments that use
closeu iesponses such as multiple-choice items that ieflect low iigoi anu ielevance. Similai to the
uesigns of futuie assessments of the Common Coie Stanuaius pioposeu by PARCC anu SBAC, oui
0RCA measuies intentionally incluue both peifoimance-baseu tasks anu open, constiucteu
iesponse-items uesigneu to captuie the ueep levels of thinking iequiieu of stuuents in a global
infoimation society.
3'--/,4
As illustiateu in this papei, the skills anu unueistanuings seventh giaueis aie expecteu to
uemonstiate uuiing the 0RCA expeiience oveilap with those of the Common Coie State Stanuaius
in a numbei of impoitant ways. Consequently, paiticipation in the 0RCA pioject pioviues valuable
exposuie to anu piactice with authentic inquiiy tasks anu peifoimance-baseu assessment foimats
that aie likely to be new foi many stuuents anu teacheis in touay's schools. Insights gleaneu fiom
class-baseu 0RCA uata anu exceipts of inuiviuualizeu viueo uata can assist teacheis anu
auministiatois in iuentifying instiuctional inteiventions that bettei piepaie stuuents foi the
iigoious expectations of the Common Coie State Stanuaius while also offeiing a vision of what
authentic assessment anu feeuback might look like foi schools seeking to integiate technology into
stanuaius-baseu cuiiiculum piactices.
18
5(+(,($6(7
ASCB. (2u11, Nay). The common coie state stanuaius initiative. Retiieveu Nay 28, 2u11 fiom
http:www.ascu.oigASBCpufsiteASCBpolicyCommonCoieStus.puf
Bennett, S., Naton, K., & Keivin, L. (2uu8). The uigital natives uebate: A ciitical ieview of the
eviuence. -!","&. 0$%!+*( $1 23%4*,"$+*( 5'4.+$($#67 89, 77S-786. uoi:1u.1111j.1467-
8SSS.2uu7.uu79S.x
Bilal, B. (2uu1). Chiluien's use of the Yahooligans! Web seaich engine: Cognitive, physical, anu
affective behaviois on fact-baseu seaich tasks7 0$%!+*( $1 ,.' :;'!"4*+ <$4"',6 1$! =+1$!;*,"$+
<4"'+4'> ?@, 646-66S.
Castek, }. (2uu8). A$B 3$ C,. *+3 ?,. #!*3' &,%3'+,& *4D%"!' ,.' +'B (",'!*4"'& $1 $+("+' !'*3"+#
4$;E!'.'+&"$+F 2GE($!"+# ,.' 4$+,'G,& ,.*, 1*4"(",*,' ('*!+"+#7 0npublisheu uoctoial
uisseitation: The 0niveisity of Connecticut.
Coiio, }. (2uu7). 2GE($!"+# 4.*+#'& ,$ !'*3"+# 4$;E!'.'+&"$+ $+ ,.' =+,'!+',H I*!*3$G'& *+3
E$&&"J"(","'& 1$! 3")'!&' *3$('&4'+, !'*3'!&7 0npublisheu uoctoial uisseitation: The 0niveisity
of Connecticut.
Common Coie State Stanuaius Initiative |CCSSj (2u1u). Common Coie State Stanuaius: Piepaiing
Ameiica's stuuents foi college anu caieei. Retiieveu Nay 28, 2u11 fiom
http:www.coiestanuaius.oig
Baggett, W. R. & uenuion, S. (2u1u). K$;;$+ 4$!' &,*,' &,*+3*!3& "+","*,")'H K(*&&!$$; ";E("4*,"$+&
1$! LM@C. Inteinational Centei foi Leaueiship in Euucation. Retiieveu Nay 2S, 2u11 fiom
http:www.leaueieu.comwhitePapeis.html
Eagleton, N., uuinea, K., & Langlais, K. (2uuS). Teaching Inteinet liteiacy stiategies: The heio
inquiiy pioject. N$"4'& 1!$; ,.' O"33('> @M> 28-SS.
Euucational Testing Seivice. (2u11, Febiuaiy). Coming togethei to iaise achievement: new
assessments foi the common coie state stanuaius. Retiieveu fiom
http:www.k12centei.oigiscpufAssessments_foi_the_Common_Coie_Stanuaius.puf
Foigione, P. (2u1u). A unique moment in time: cieating the next geneiation compiehensive
assessment systems to seive all oui chiluien well. Pioceeuings of the Connecticut
assessment foium Rocky Bill, CT: Connecticut State Bepaitment of Euucation.
Baitman, B. K., Noisink, P. N., & Zheng, }. (2u1u). Fiom piint to pixels: The evolution of cognitive
conceptions of ieauing compiehension. In E. A. Bakei (Eu.). 5.' +'B (",'!*4"'&H O%(,"E('
E'!&E'4,")'& $+ !'&'*!4. *+3 E!*4,"4' (pp. 1S1-164). New Yoik: uuilfoiu Piess.
Inteinational Reauing Association (IRA). (2uu9). P'B (",'!*4"'& *+3 L@
&,
4'+,%!6 ,'4.+$($#"'&H :
E$&","$+ &,*,';'+,7 Newaik, BE: Inteinational Reauing Association.
Kiili, C., Lauiinen, L., & Naittunen, N. (2uu8). Stuuents evaluating Inteinet souices: Fiom veisatile
evaluatois to unciitical ieaueis. 0$%!+*( $1 23%4*,"$+*( K$;E%,"+# Q'&'*!4.> 89(1), 7S-9S.
Leu, B. }., }i., Kinzei, C.K., Coiio, }., Cammack, B. (2uu4). Towaiu a theoiy of new liteiacies emeiging
fiom the Inteinet anu othei ICT. In R. B. Ruuuell & N. 0niau (Eus.), 5.'$!',"4*( O$3'(& *+3
I!$4'&&'& $1 Q'*3"+#, Fifth Euition (1S68-1611). Newaik, BE: Inteinational Reauing
Association.
Leu, B. }., Kulikowich, }., Coiio, }., & Seuiansk, N. (2uu9-2u14). 5.' RQK: SR+("+' Q'*3"+#
K$;E!'.'+&"$+ :&&'&&;'+,T I!$U'4,7 Five-yeai feueial ieseaich giant funueu by the 0. S.
Bepaitment of Euucation's Institute of Euucational Science (IES). $2,7uu,uuu.
Leu, B. }., 0'Byine, W. I., Zawilinski, L., Ncveiiy, }. u., & Eveiett-Cacopaiuo, B. (2uu9). Expanuing the
new liteiacies conveisation. 23%4*,"$+*( Q'&'*!4.'!> 8VSCT> 264-269.
Leu, B. }., Coiio, }., Castek, }., Baitman, B., Beniy, L.A., & Reinking, B. (2uu8). Reseaich on instiuction
anu assessment in the new liteiacies of online ieauing compiehension. In Cathy Collins
Block, Sheiii Paiiis (Eus.). K$;E!'.'+&"$+ "+&,!%4,"$+H Q'&'*!4.WJ*&'3 J'&, E!*4,"4'&7 New
Yoik: uuilfoiu Piess.
19
0'Byine, W. I., Zawilinski, L., Ncveiiy, }. u., & Leu, B. }. (2uu8). Assessing the new liteiacies of online
ieauing compiehension: An Infoimative Inteiview conuucteu by Nokhtaii, K., Kymes, A.,
Euwaius, P. 5.' Q'*3"+# 5'*4.'!> XL SCT7
RANB Reauing Stuuy uioup. (2uu2). Q'*3"+# 1$! %+3'!&,*+3"+#H 5$B*!3 *+ QYZ E!$#!*; "+ !'*3"+#
4$;E!'.'+&"$+7 Santa Nonica, CA: Ranu.
Tuckei, N. (2u11, Nay 24). <,*+3"+# $+ ,.' &.$%(3'!& $1 #"*+,&H :+ :;'!"4*+ *#'+3* 1$! '3%4*,"$+
!'1$!;7 National Centei on Euucation anu the Economy (NCEE). Retiieveu Nay 2S, 2u11 fiom
http:www.ncee.oigwp-contentuploaus2u11uSStanuing-on-the-Shoulueis-of-uiants-
An-Ameiican-Agenua-foi-Euucation-Refoim.puf
Wallace, R. N., Kuppeiman, }., Kiajcik, }., & Soloway, E. (2uuu). Science on the Web: Stuuents on-line
in a sixth-giaue classioom. 0$%!+*( $1 ,.' ['*!+"+# <4"'+4'&> 9(1), 7S-1u4.
Waliaven, A, Bianu-uiuwel, S, & Boshuizen, B. P. (2uu9). Bow stuuents evaluate infoimation anu
souices when seaiching the woilu wiue web foi infoimation. K$;E%,'!& Y 23%4*,"$+> ?L> 2S4-
246.
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Appendix B
Common Core Standards and The ORCA Project June 2011
What is the ORCA (Online Reading Comprehension Assessment) Project?
The ORCA project, funded by the U.S. Department of Education, is designed to develop, test, and
refine a set of three assessments formats for measuring online reading comprehension. Each
ORCA is an authentic, problem-based scenario situated in a digital environment designed to
engage middle school students in a series of online disciplinary information requests while
capturing performance data about how students use the Internet to locate, critically evaluate,
synthesize, and communicate information. For more information, visit www.orca.uconn.edu.
What can participation in the ORCA Project offer your school?
! Exposure to performance-based, constructed response items, and class-based data from
measures of processes similar to Common Core State Standards expectations three years
prior to release of formal assessments from the two consortiums.
! A vision of what authentic assessment and feedback might look like for schools seeking to
integrate technology into standards-based curriculum practices
! The opportunity to consider how real-time performance data from inquiry-based online
reading scenarios can inform new elements of classroom instruction
Key Features of ORCA Aligned with Common Core Standards

! Problem-based scenarios require
application of higher level reading and
writing processes to Internet reading
contexts
! Authentic, interdisciplinary tasks integrate
science, reading, and writing
! Content focused on human biology, a topic
connected to most middle school curricula

! Scenario topics relevant to todays adolescents
(e.g., heart healthy snacks; decorative contact
lenses; safe volume levels of Ipods)
! Reflects key processes in Common Core
State Standards for reading, writing, and
literacy in science (see table on next page)

! The CCSS movement aligns
with the higher order
thinking and doing skills
reflected in the Quad D
area of the rigor/relevance
framework developed by the
International Center for
Leadership in Education
(2011). The ORCA project
enables 7th- graders and their
teachers to move toward
Quad D learning
experiences with application
and assimilation activities
from which assessment data
can be used to inform
classroom instructional
decisions with regards to
reading and the integration of
technology.


Image adapted from http://www.leadered.com/rrr.html
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The ORCA Project and Common Core June 2011

ORCA Locate Evaluate Synthesize Communicate
Common Core
State Standards
Reading
to Locate
Reading
to Evaluate
Reading
to Synthesize
Reading and
Writing to
Communicate
CCSS Reading Standards for Informational Text -- Grade 7
Key Ideas
and Details
1: Cite implicit &
explicit textual
evidence as support
2: Determine two or
more central ideas
and summarize
2: Determine two or
more central ideas
and summarize
Craft and
Structure
4. Determine
connotative meaning
of words
4: Analyze impact of
word choice on tone
4: Determine
technical meaning of
words

Integration of
Knowledge and Ideas
8. Assess if evidence
is relevant and sound
9: Analyze how
authors shape claims
8. Trace argument
and assess whether
reasoning is sound

Range of Reading
and Text Complexity
10: Comprehend
across complex texts
10: Comprehend
across complex texts
10: Comprehend
across complex texts

CCSS Reading Standards for Literacy in Science Grade 7
Key Ideas and Details 3: Follow multi-step
procedures to carry
out tasks
2: Determine central
idea and summarize
2: Determine central
idea and summarize

Craft and Structure 6: Analyze authors
purpose
4. Determine meaning
of words in science

Integration of
Knowledge and Ideas
8: Distinguish fact,
reasoned judgment
and speculation
8: Distinguish fact,
reasoned judgment
and speculation

Range of Reading
and Text Complexity
10. Comprehend
complex science texts
10. Comprehend
complex science texts

CCSS Writing Standards Grade 7
Text Types and
Purposes
2. Write to convey
relevant information
1: Write arguments
with clear reasons
and evidence
1: Write arguments
with clear reasons and
evidence
2: Write to examine
topic & convey
relevant ideas
Production and
Distribution of
Writing
6: Use Internet to
publish writing and
cite sources
6: Use Internet to
publish writing and
cite sources
6: Use Internet to
publish writing and
cite sources
4: Produce clear
writing appropriate to
audience
6: Use Internet to
publish writing and
cite sources
Research To Build
and Present
Knowledge
7: Conduct short
research to answer
question
8: Gather evidence
using search terms
effectively
9: Draw evidence to
support analysis and
research (assess
argument and
reasonableness of
claims)
9: Draw evidence to
support analysis and
research (assess
argument and
reasonableness of
claims)
8: Gather evidence
from multiple digital
texts
9: Draw evidence to
support analysis and
research
Range of Writing 10: Write for a
disciplinary task in
one sitting
10: Write for a
disciplinary task in
one sitting
10: Write for a
disciplinary task in
one sitting
10: Write for a
disciplinary task in
one sitting

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