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Stra

Stra
june 2009
translated september 2011

Service d'tudes
sur les transports,
les routes et leurs
amnagements

Road noise prediction


1 - Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

The previous guide to predicting noise emissions from road traffic dates back to 1980. The
numbers of cars, the road surfaces and the methods of assessing sound emissions have all
changed. It was therefore essential to produce a new guide to calculating emissions. This is
the purpose of this document.

The sound level calculation thus obtained is necessary for the subsequent prediction of far
away sound levels by taking account of the effects of the ground and of meteorology on the
propagation. This is the purpose of another guide entitled Road noise prediction - NMPB 2008
- Noise propagation computation method including meteorological effects.

1 - Calcul des missions sonores dues au trafic routier


The tools thus obtained are ideal for road project impact studies, checking compliance with
regulations or an acoustic objective set by the road authority and road design of acoustic
protections.

Following a summary of a few definitions specific to acoustics (definition of physical magnitudes,


characteristic traffic magnitudes, presentation of work hypotheses, etc.), the guide studies the
two components of emitted noise. The emission is in fact broken down into two components:
one component due to the so-called driving noise caused by the contact between tyre and
roadway, and an engine component.

The guide breaks new ground by taking into account the surfacing category and its age when
calculating the driving noise.

The first part of the guide describes the method (approach and formulae). The second part
presents the related issues, the bases for formulae or values used and their limitations and
compares the two guides (the 1980 guide and the 2008 guide).

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Methodologic guide

Road noise prediction


1 - Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

ditions Stra
This document has been designed and written by an editorial team, including:

Francis Besnard (SETRA, group leader);


Jean-Franois Hamet (INRETS);
Jol Lelong (INRETS);
Emmanuel Le Duc (SETRA);
Vincent Guizard (SETRA);
Nathalie Frst (CERTU);
Sonia Doisy (CETE Est - LRPC Strasbourg) ;
Guillaume Dutilleux (CETE Est LRPC Strasbourg) for the english version.

The authors would also like to thank everyone whose observations have helped
improve this guide.
==

=
= =
=
Contents

1 Introduction 5

2 Factual method 8
2.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 General definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3 General approach to calculating the emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.4 Vehicle flow rate hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.5 Speed and traffic flow type hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.6 Recommendations on breaking down the source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.7 Emission power per metre of line-source for a unit flow rate Lw/m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.8 Spectral distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3 Comments and analyses 29


3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.2 Flow rate hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.3 Speed and traffic flow type hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4 General approach to producing values Lw/m/veh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.5 Approach to producing rolling noise components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.6 Approach to producing LV rolling noise components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.7 Approach to producing HGV engine components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.8 Comments on the new unit emission values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.9 Comparing unit emission values with those in the French "Guide du Bruit" (1980) . . . . . . 68
3.10 Spectral distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

4 Bibliography 83
4.1 Bibliographic references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.2 Stra bibliographical documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

A Notations and symbols 87

B Form 89
B.1 Sound pressure level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
B.2 Equivalent sound pressure level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
B.3 FAST sound pressure level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
B.4 Sound pressure level of a vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
B.5 Sound power level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
B.6 Relationship between reference magnitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
B.7 Pass-by sound pressure level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Contents 3
B.8 Equivalent sound pressure level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
B.9 Noise created by a section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
B.10 Sound pressure level created by a section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
B.11 Noise very far away . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

C Daily traffic profiles on intercity roads and motorways 95


C.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
C.2 Use context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
C.3 Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
C.4 Approach to be adopted to determine flow rates per period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
C.5 Flow rate estimation formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
C.6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
C.7 Appendix: Examples of sections classified per function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

D Vehicle sound emission values 104


D.1 Formulae in LAmax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
D.2 Formulae in Lw/m (1 veh/h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
D.3 Transcription of formulae from the French "Guide du Bruit" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
D.4 Sources of formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

E Graphic results 112


E.1 Key to graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
E.2 LAmax graphs - LV (Figures A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
E.3 LAmax graphs - HGV, steady speed (Figures B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
E.4 LAmax graphs - HGV, acceleration (Figures C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
E.5 LAmax graphs - HGV, deceleration (Figures D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
E.6 Lw/m/veh graphs - LV (Figures A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
E.7 Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, steady speed (Figures B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
E.8 Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, acceleration (Figures C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
E.9 Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, deceleration (Figures D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

4 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


1 - Introduction

The road noise prediction method is used to calculate the equivalent long-term sound level LAeq,T caused
by road trac at a receiving point located in the vicinity of the infrastructure. The long-term sound
level corresponds to average trac conditions and average meteorological conditions representative of a
long period1 , which in particular form the basis for current regulations on noise from road infrastructures
[Decree95], [Order95].
The calculation can cover both an existing and a future conguration (projected road, existing road to
be modied). The level of detail of the method makes it ideal for road project impact studies, checking
compliance with regulations or an acoustic objective set by the road authority and road design of acoustic
protections.
This method includes schematically six distinct stages in succession (see Figure 1.1):

1. breaking down the road platform into acoustically-homogeneous sections of line-source;

2. determining the level of sound power per metre for each homogeneous section, representative of the
sound emission of the stream of vehicles;

3. discretizing each homogeneous section into sound point sources;

4. determining the level of sound power per metre for each point source, representative of the sound
emission of the stream of vehicles;

5. determining the attenuation in propagation between each point source and the receiving point studied
and the source contribution of this point source to the receiving point;

6. summing sound contributions of dierent point sources to obtain the overall sound level LAeq,T at the
receiving point.

The Road Noise Prediction Method is broken down into two documents:

the rst document entitled "Calculating the sound emissions from road traffic" deals with stages 1 and
2 presented above and is this work;

the second document entitled "NMPB 2008 - Noise propagation method including meteorological ef-
fects". It deals with stages 3 to 6.

Other documents relating to peripheral topics, like the consideration of special areas (cobblestones, stopping
point, bend, roundabout, sleeping policemen, etc.) may be published later if necessary.
The authors wished to enlarge on the elements of the method with numerous comments, without leading
the user astray with inappropriate digressions. This guide is therefore split into two parts:

the rst part describes the method (approach and formulae); its only comments are essential to un-
derstand it fully;

the second part describes the issues relating to each element, the bases for formulae or values used,
their limitations, changes made to previous practice and any information deemed useful for the reader.

1
Typically: one year for trac conditions and several years for meteorological conditions.

Chapter 1. Introduction 5
Decomposition of the road platform in
acoustically homogeneous sections of
source-line

Addressed in volume 1
For each homogeneous Repeat for each
section section

Computation of the power


level per unit length

Discretization of each homogeneous


section in point sources

Repeat for each


For each point source
source-line

Addressed in volume 2
Computation of the sound
power level

Determination of the attenuation due to


propagation between a source point and a
receiver
Determination of the sound contribution of the
source point at the receiver

Computation of the overall sound level at the


receiver as the sum of the contributions of all
source points

Figure 1.1: Simplied ow chart of the method.

Previous practice in calculating the sound emission of a stream of vehicles was founded on the French `Guide
du Bruit' [GdB1980]. This guide provide unit emission values based on current vehicle numbers, with the
following new features:

breakdown of the emission into two components: the "rolling noise" component, assumed to be emitted
by the contact between the tyre and the road platform, and the "power unit noise" component, assumed
to be emitted by all vehicle mechanical sources:

 taking into account the inuence of the road platform surface on the noise emitted;
 a method for estimating the distribution of average daily trac in the periods 06:00-22:00, 06:00-
18:00, 18:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00, as targeted by the regulations [Order95] or by the transposition

6 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


of the European directive relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise
[END]. [Ruling2004]. [Law2005];

recommendations relating to the hypothesis of vehicle speed and trac ow type of vehicles.

Chapter 1. Introduction 7
2 - Factual method

2.1 - Scope

This part describes the approach in breaking down the road platform into acoustically-homogeneous sections
of line-source and determining the level of sound power per metre for each section, representative of the sound
emission of the stream of vehicles.
The method only considers two categories of vehicle: light vehicles (LV - in French VL) and heavy goods
vehicles (HGV - in French PL). The sound emission formulae used are taken from measurements between
1995 and 2005 and described in detail in part 3 of this guide. These formulae are average estimations
representative of vehicle numbers in France for each category.
The method can therefore be applied to the current situations encountered in the road infrastructures, with
the following reservations:

the calculations can model a current or future situation (the method does not anticipate any technical
changes in vehicles). The sound emission values in the French `Guide du Bruit' could prove more
suitable for the application to a former situation (see Chapter 3);

using this method is only relevant for roads in another country with similar vehicle eet and road
surfacing techniques to France;

vehicles other than LV and HGV are included in one or other of these categories: motorized two-wheel
vehicles in LV, buses in HGV, etc. These approximations are acceptable for the LAeq,T calculation as
long as the proportion of these specic vehicles in the total trac in the period remains modest;

similarly, if the case of modelled infrastructure dealing with highly atypical trac, like a high proportion
of heavy goods vehicles of a specic type with a sound emission clearly dierent from the average, the
results of the modelling will be less relevant.

In addition, the various parameters used by the method are subject to the following limitations:

the average speed of each category of vehicle is less than 130 km/h for LV and 100 km/h for HGV;

the road gradient, upwards or downwards, is less than 6%;

the denition of road platform surface categories only includes the most common surfacing techniques
(for further detail, see Section 2.7;

the emission formulae correspond to a road platform surface "in state of use" and without surface
defects.

Any use of the method that does not comply with these limitations must be stated explicitly and justied
in the study report.

2.2 - General definitions

2.2.1 - Acoustic magnitudes

Two types of indexes are used in transportation noise: the maximum level used, for example, to characterize
the pass-by noise of a vehicle and the equivalent level used to characterise the noise from the trac, for
example. Both are expressed in decibels. A sound level L in decibels is dened by:

p2m
L = 10 log10 (2.1)
p20

8 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


where pm is an average of the quadratic pressure and p0 the reference pressure:

p0 = 2 105 P a (2.2)

The sound pressure is systematically taken with the frequential weighting A. This is therefore known as
A-weighted level.

2.2.1.1 - Equivalent sound pressure level

The equivalent sound pressure level characterises a noise over a given time T . It uses the average of the
quadratic pressure. It can depend on the moment considered. It is written LAeq,T (t) and is given by the
relationship:

t
p2A ( )
 Z 
1
LAeq,T (t) = 10 log10 d (2.3)
T tT p20

Changes in trac can be characterised by changes in the equivalent level taken over one hour LAeq,1h .

2.2.1.2 - FAST sound pressure level

Changes in the pass-by pressure level of a vehicle are used to characterise its noise. A weighted average
known as F AST is considered for the quadratic pressure. The sound pressure level is called F AST sound
pressure level:

 Z t 2 
1 t p ( )
LA,F AST (t) = 10 log10 e 0.125 A 2 d (2.4)
p0

t
where t and are expressed in seconds. The exponential weighting e 0.125 reduces the contribution of p2A ( )
all the more as its occurrence is far from the moment considered (as t is large).

2.2.1.3 - Maximum pass-by level

The pass-by noise vehicle is most frequently characterised by the maximum value of its FAST pressure level:

LAmax = max {LA,F AST (t)} (2.5)

2.2.1.4 - Statistical indicators, fractile sound levels

It is the F AST sound pressure level that is exceeded during N % of the considered time interval considered,
with symbol LAN,T . For example, LA95,1h is the LA,F AST (t) exceeded for 95% of one hour.

2.2.1.5 - Sound power level

A sound power W is characterised by its sound power level Lw , given in decibels by the relationship:

W
Lw = 10 log10 (2.6)
W0

where
W0 = 1012 W (2.7)

is the reference sound power.

Chapter 2. Factual method 9


2.2.1.6 - Octave and third-octave bands

1
Interval between two frequencies where the ratio is equal to 2 (resp. 2 3 ). These frequencies dene the
bandwidths. The band is normally designated by its median frequency, which is the geometric average of
two limit frequencies.

2.2.2 - Categories of vehicle

2.2.2.1 - Light vehicles (LV)

This term designates the vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of less than 3.5 tonnes.

2.2.2.2 - Heavy goods vehicles (HGV)

This term designates the vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) larger than or equal to 3.5
tonnes.

2.2.3 - Vehicle kinematics

2.2.3.1 - Speed

This term designates the average speed of a vehicle category (LV or HGV). The speed is expressed in km/h.

2.2.3.2 - Traffic flow type

This term characterises the variation over time of the speed of a vehicle or a category of vehicles. This guide
distinguishes three types of trac ow type:

steady speed, where the speed of the vehicle or stream of vehicles is signicantly constant,

acceleration,

deceleration.

2.2.4 - Characteristic traffic magnitudes

2.2.4.1 - Flow rate

The ow rate Q represents the number of vehicles N passing at a point x of the network during an observation
period T :

Nx,T
Qx,T = (2.8)
T

The ow rate is normally expressed in vehicles per hour (veh/h).

2.2.4.2 - Concentration

The concentration K (expressed in vehicles per metre (veh/m) represents the number of vehicles between
network positions x and x + x at moment t:

Nx,x+x,t
Kt,x+x = (2.9)
x

2.2.5 - Road gradients

The guide distinguishes between two types of longitudinal prole:

10 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


horizontal roads (slopes less than or equal to 2%);
gradients (slopes more than 2%). Depending on the direction in which the vehicle is travelling, the
gradient is called upwards or downwards.

2.3 - General approach to calculating the emission

For the needs of sound calculations, the road is modelled by a succession of acoustically-homogeneous sections
of line-sources distributed over the road platform. A sound emission power per metre of line-source is
associated with each acoustically-homogeneous section. The overall calculation approach is represented in
Figure 2.1. It is described summarily below, with each stage referring back to the relevant chapters.

2.3.1 - Breaking down the road into line-sources

In the general case, the road is broken down into as many line-sources as there are trac lanes. Section 2.3.1
states the situations where it can be permitted to use fewer line-sources.

2.3.2 - Necessary data

Breaking down the road into acoustically-homogeneous sections requires prior availability of magnitudes
with an inuence on the sound emission of the stream of vehicles:

the average hourly ow rate in the period for each category of vehicle (LV or HGV) (see Section 2.4);
the speed and trac ow type of each category of vehicle (LV or HGV) (see Section 2.5);
the road platform surface category (see Section 2.7.2);
the road gradient.

These elements must be known or estimated continuously the length of the infrastructure to be modelled
and in the general case independently for each trac lane.

2.3.3 - Breaking down each line-source into acoustically-homogeneous sections

An acoustically-homogeneous section of line-source is a portion of the road with small variation in the sound
emission from the stream of vehicles and for which the emission is considered uniform in the modelling. When
the sound emission varies substantially along a line-source, it can be broken down into several homogeneous
sections. Section 2.3.3 explains the rules governing this breakdown, depending on longitudinal variations in
parameters with an inuence on the sound emission (ow rates, speeds, trac ow types, surface category,
road gradient).

2.3.4 - Calculating the sound power per metre of source-line for a unit flow rate

For each acoustically-homogeneous section, the sound power level per metre of line-source for a ow rate of
lveh/h (called "unit ow rate"), noted Lw/m/veh , is calculated for the LV and HGV from the speed, trac
ow type, surface category and road gradient. This calculation is detailed in Section 2.7.

2.3.5 - Calculating the sound power per metre of line-source

The sound emission power level per metre of line-source Lw/m is obtained, for each third-octave band, by:

(2.10)
  
Lw/m (j) = Lw/m/LV + 10 log10 QLV Lw/m/HGV + 10 log10 QHGV + R(j)

where:

j index of the third-octave band

Chapter 2. Factual method 11


Lw/m/veh emission power per metre of lane of the vehicle category for a unit ow rate (1 veh/h)
Qveh average hourly ow rate for the vehicle category
represents the added energy:
h i
L1 L2 = 10 log10 100.1L1 + 100.1L2 (2.11)

R(j) spectral distribution of the emission power (see Section 2.8).

Decomposition of the road


in source-lines

For each Repeat for each


source-line source-line

Determination of the necessary data:


- average hourly traffic flow LV and HGV
- speeds and paces LV and HGV
- pavement category
- road gradient

Decomposition of each source-line in


acoustically homogeneous sections

For each homogeneous Repeat for each


section section

Computation of the power


level per unit length

Figure 2.1: Flow chart of the approach to calculating the emission.

2.4 - Vehicle flow rate hypotheses

2.4.1 - General

Calculating a long-term equivalent sound level LAeq,T requires knowledge of the average hourly ow rates
representative of each vehicle category (LV and HGV) over the studied period T studied. The periods
normally targeted for standard needs (project design, strategic mapping, etc.) are 06:00-22:00 (which can
be split into 06:00-18:00 and 18:00-22:00) and 22:00-06:00.
The average hourly ow rates for each vehicle category in each of these periods are rarely available in a
noise study. They normally have to be estimated from AADT (annual average daily trac - in French

12 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


TMJA) adopted as hypotheses. This approach is described in the second part of this guide, Section 3.2.2.
Depending on circumstances, it can either involve analysing counts made on the site studied or a related
site, or applying estimation formulae to the AADT based on the road function and vehicle category. These
formulae, accompanied by their eld of application, are presented below, dierentiating between intercity
routes (see Section 2.4.2) and urban routes (see Section 2.4.3).
In all circumstances, including the situation for which the hourly ow rate hypotheses are available initially,
the values used in the acoustic study must not exceed the equivalent hourly ow rate of the maximum sound
emission of the stream (see Section 2.4.4).

2.4.2 - Intercity roads and motorways

For intercity roads and motorways (located outside large urban areas), estimation formulae for the distribu-
tion of LV and HGV trac over the four periods 06:00-22:00, 06:00-18:00, 18:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 have
been published in the information note in Stra series EEC no. 77 [Note77].
These formulae depend rstly on the type of route (road, motorway) and secondly on its function (long-
distance or regional). The information note also states the eld of application for formulae and the related
condence interval.
The reader can consult this information note in Appendix 3.

2.4.3 - Urban roads

2.4.3.1 - Parameters used

The vehicle ow rate hypotheses required for the acoustic studies are the average hourly ow rates for
each type of vehicle and for each period targeted (see Section 2.4.1). For urban roads, these ow rates are
determined or estimated by inputting the AADT or the all-vehicle ow rate during the evening rush hour
(in French - HPS). The average hourly ow rates for each type of vehicle are thus obtained from these input
data and for a given period according to the following formulae:

1 100 %HGVday
QLV,day = AADT %AVday (2.12)
16 100

1 %HGVday
QHGV,day = AADT %AVday (2.13)
16 100

1 100 %HGVnight
QLV,night = AADT %AVnight (2.14)
8 100

1 %HGVnight
QHGV,night = AADT %AVnight (2.15)
8 100

QERH
AADT = (2.16)
%ERH

where:

AADT is the all-vehicle annual daily ow rate;

QLV,day , QHGV,day , QLV,night , QHGV,night are the average hourly ow rates respectively for the LV
and HGV and in the day (jour) and night (nuit) periods;

%HGVday and %HGVnight are the heavy goods vehicle percentages in the day and night periods;

%AVday and %AVnight are the all-vehicle (in French - TV) ow rate percentages for the day and night
periods;

Chapter 2. Factual method 13


QERH is the all-vehicle ow rate during the evening rush hour;
%ERH is the percentage of all-vehicle ow rate during the evening rush hour compared with the
AADT.

2.4.3.2 - Definition of types of urban road

The coecients of the AADT passage or evening rush hour ow rate at hourly ow rates dier according to
the type of urban road network studied. There are three types of urban road network:

Structuring urban road networks: Urban motorways or urban expressways with interchanges, higher-
speed roads (90 km/h or 70 km/h) with at junctions and few changes in level, main roads or streets
(50 km/h), considerable night-time HGV trac.
Intersecting urban road networks: main roads and traditional streets restricted to 50 km/h with at
junctions with no changes in level, little HGV trac during the day and hardly any at night.
Sector urban road networks: slow trac lanes (30 km/h), very little daytime HGV trac

2.4.3.3 - Hypotheses relating to hourly flow rates

For urban expressways (VRU) and for a one day period, trac conditions corresponding to the maximum
sound emission can be adopted as a precaution (see Section 2.4.4). This will especially be the case when
trac forecasts anticipate capacity use of the road network in the short or medium term. However, a specic
estimation of ow rates will always be necessary for the night period. Night-time ow rates cannot be
deduced from daytime ow rates at the risk producing major errors in the estimation.
For the other urban road networks, the trac data produced in the Urban Area Road Network File (DVA)
and the Urban Movement Plan (PDU) can provide hypotheses on the evening rush hour. However, this
information only normally covers light vehicles and hypotheses must be produced for the heavy goods
vehicles.
Failing local data, the values of trac parameters could be adopted within the limits indicated in Table 2.1:

AADT in veh/d %HGV %ERH %AVday %AVnight


Structuring 5 to 20%
17,000 to
urban road day 5 to 35 7.5 to 9.5 _
217,000
networks % night
Intersecting
urban road 2,500 to 25,000 85 to
(50,000 in 0 to 5 % 6.5 to 9.5% 15 to 5 %
networks 95%
Sector urban Ile-de-France)
road networks

Table 2.1: Trac parameter limits.

2.4.4 - Equivalent hourly flow rate of the maximum sound emission of the stream

The hourly ow rate (all vehicles) corresponding to the maximum sound emission of the stream depends on
the type of road, the number of lanes per road platform and the proportion of HGV (noted %HGV below).
The general considerations on this notion and the origin of the formulae that follow are presented in the
second part of this guide, Section 3.2

2.4.4.1 - Intercity motorway

for a two-lane road platform:


QAV,equiv = 2000 10 %HGV (2.17)

14 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


for a three-lane road platform:

QAV,equiv = 3300 22 %HGV (2.18)

The speeds associated with these formulae are specied in Section 2.5.2.

2.4.4.2 - Intercity road

No specic formula is available. It is allowed that the formula relating to the intercity motorways also apply
to the intercity roads.

2.4.4.3 - Type A urban expressways

The formulae to be taken into account for the type A urban expressways are as follows:

for a two-lane road platform:


QAV,equiv = 3050 24.8 %HGV (2.19)

for a three-lane road platform:

QAV,equiv = 4633 37.6 %HGV (2.20)

for a four-lane road platform:

QAV,equiv = 4771 37.6 %HGV (2.21)

2.4.4.4 - Ring roads

The all-vehicle hourly ow rate QAV corresponding to the maximum sound emission is taken as equal to
1800 veh/h/lane as long as the lights are green. This ow rate has to be weighted for the percentage of time
the lights are green when the road in question is regulated by trac lights.

2.5 - Speed and traffic flow type hypotheses

2.5.1 - General

The speed hypotheses to be used correspond to the arithmetic average speed for each category of vehicle.
The trac ow type characterises the entire stream and not each vehicle category independently. There are
three distinct cases: steady speed, acceleration or deceleration, without taking into account the value of the
acceleration numerically.
Unless supported otherwise by observations on the site studied, identical speed and trac ow type hy-
potheses will be adopted for all periods (day, evening, night, etc.).

2.5.2 - Hypotheses in link section

In a link section, apart from special areas where the geometry induces speed constraints (high ramps, low
radius bends, etc.), the maximum speed limit is adopted as the speed hypothesis for the LV. The pre-dened
values indicated in Table 2.2 are adopted for the HGV, or the speed limit if lower:
The speed of the stream is steady.

2.5.3 - Hypotheses for the special areas

Specic hypotheses must be adopted in sections where the geometry is restrictive and on the edges of special
layouts: upward and downward gradients, bend, approach and exit from a stopping point (crossroads, toll
barrier, etc.), roundabout, expressway entry and exit ramp, edges of sleeping policemen, etc. The current

Chapter 2. Factual method 15


Type of infrastructure HGV speed (km/h)
Link motorway 90
Urban expressway 90
Dual carriageway 85
Single carriageway road 80
In urban area speed limit

Table 2.2: Values taken for the speed of HGV.

methods denes a special procedure for the last twenty metres before and the rst twenty metres after a
stopping point. This involves using a uniform sound emission power (see Section 2.6.2.2). There is therefore
no need to dene vehicle speed and trac ow type hypotheses in these sections. Vehicle speed (LV and
HGV) entering the stopping section and leaving the starting section is 25 km/h.
The speed and trac ow type hypotheses associated with other layouts are not addressed in this guide.
In terms of the speeds, useful information can be found in the guides on the geometric design of road
infrastructures. A list is provided for information in the second part of this guide, Section 3.3.

2.6 - Recommendations on breaking down the source

2.6.1 - Breaking down the road into line-sources

In the general case, the road is broken down into as many line-sources as there are trac lanes. Each
line-source is placed in the centre of the lane. Fewer line-sources are permitted in the following cases:

For two-lane roads, the road can be represented by a single line-source placed in the middle of the road
platform if the following conditions are combined:

 the sound emission power (in other words all the inuence factors - ow rates, speeds, trac ow
types, road platform surface, gradient) is similar in both trac directions,
 the acoustic calculation only covers receiving points located more than 11 m from the road axis.

For roads with more than two lanes, where the acoustic calculation only covers receiving points with
direct line of sight to the road:
The road can be represented by a single line-source per trac direction, placed in the middle of each
road platform, if all the receiving points in question are located at a distance from the road axis of at
least 2.4 times the width of the road platform.
In addition, where the sound emission power (ow rates, speeds, trac ow types, road platform
surface, gradient) is similar in both trac directions, the road can be represented by a single line-
source placed in the middle of the road platform.

For roads with more than two lanes, where the acoustic calculation only covers receiving points without
direct line of sight to the road:
The road can be represented by a single line-source per trac direction, placed in the middle of each
road platform, if all the receiving points in question are sited at a distance from the road axis of at
least six times the width of the road platform.

It is not acceptable to represent the road by a single line-source.

2.6.2 - Breaking down each line-source into acoustically-homogeneous sections

2.6.2.1 - General case: link section

An acoustically-homogeneous section of line-source is a portion of the road with little variation in the sound
emission from the stream of vehicles and for which the emission is considered uniform in the modelling. In

16 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


Factor Variation
Average hourly ow rate in the period for each category of
Maximum variation 5%
vehicle (LV or HGV)
Representative speed for each vehicle category Maximum variation 10 km/h
Representative trac ow type for each vehicle category no change in trac ow type
Roadway surface category no change in road platform surface category
Road gradient (if more than 2%) Maximum variation 1 %

Table 2.3: Maximum variations in an acoustically-homogenous section.

practice, the variation of factors inuencing the sound emission must respect in an acoustically-homogeneous
section the maximum values given in Table 2.3.
If one or other of these requirements is not met, the section in question must be sub-divided into several
acoustically-homogeneous sections.

2.6.2.2 - Special case: section preceding or following a stopping point

At very low speeds, when vehicles are accelerating or decelerating, the maximum permitted speed variation
in an acoustically-homogeneous section should be in the order of 5 km/h to ensure little variation in the
emission. When starting o or immediately prior to stopping, such a speed variation occurs in very short
distances, with the results that the line-source is sub-divided into very short homogeneous sections. There
is no need for such a ne breakdown to maintain assessment accuracy at the receiving point. These areas
can be modelled by a uniform sound emission section without causing a signicant error.
In practice, if the road has a stopping point (crossroads with trac lights, stop sign, loss of priority, etc.), the
last twenty metres before the stopping point will be taken to be a single section, called a "stopping section".
Similarly, the rst twenty metres after a stopping point will be taken to be a single section, called "starting
section". The sound emission used for the calculations in both these sections is uniform. Vehicle speed (LV
and HGV) entering the stopping section and leaving the starting section is 25 km/h. The justication for
this principle is explained in Section 2.7.4 of this guide.

2.7 - Emission power per metre of line-source for a unit flow rate Lw/m

2.7.1 - Principles

2.7.1.1 - General case: engine and rolling noise components

For each vehicle category, the sound emission power per metre of line-source for a ow rate of 1 veh/h
(so-called "unit ow rate"), noted Lw/m/veh , is calculated by:

Lw/m/veh = Lr,w/m Lm,w/m (2.22)

Where

Lr,w/m is the component of Lw/m/veh assumed to be emitted by the contact between tyre and road
platform, also known as the "rolling noise component";

Lm,w/m is the component of Lw/m/veh assumed to be emitted by all vehicle mechanical sources also
known as the "engine component";

represents the addition of noise levels:


h i
L1 L2 = 10 log10 100.1L1 + 100.1L2 (2.23)

The calculation method for both components is described below.

Chapter 2. Factual method 17


Note
the expressions "engine component" and "rolling component" are loose terms. The authors make no claim
to the relevance of either of these two terms taken in isolation in terms of speeds, but only to their energy
sum Lw/m/veh . For further detail, see Section 3.4 in this guide.

2.7.1.2 - Special case: "starting" and "stopping" sections

Section 2.6 denes an acoustically-homogenous section called "starting" over the rst twenty metres after a
stopping point and an acoustically-homogeneous section called "stopping" over the last twenty metres before
a stopping point. These sections correspond to the areas where vehicle speed (LV and HGV) is less than 25
km/h. The emission power used in both these sections is uniform. The values of Lw/m/veh to be used are
provided in Appendix D.

2.7.2 - "Driving" component

2.7.2.1 - Defining surfacing categories

The inuence of the road platform surface on the noise emitted by vehicles has been measured frequently
in France (procedures described in [S31119], [NFS31119p2]), with the results compiled into a database.
Figure 2.2 summarises the results obtained over some 380 sites with the SPB procedure (isolated vehicles)
for light vehicles. The results are compiled by technique. Each point represents the LAmax at 90 km/h of a
road section; it is the result of a statistical analysis of pass-by measurements from at least eighty vehicles in
the trac ow[CFTR4]. The gure also shows to the right of these points the average value of the surfacing
category and its standard deviation (in green).
Note a considerable scattering of measurement results within a same technique. Three surfacing categories
noted R1 to R3 can however be dened, with each category grouping several surfacing techniques.
LAmax (dB(A))

Figure 2.2: Dening surfacing categories - overview on the database of LV / SPB measurements of pavements.
Temperature 20C, speed 90 km/h.

In Figure 2.2 the meaning of the acronyms is as follows:

BBTM: Very Thin Asphalt Concrete BBSG: Dense Asphalt Concrete


BBUM: Ultra Thin Asphalt Concrete ECF: Cold-applied Slurry Surfacing

18 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


BBDr: Porous Asphalt BC: Cement Concrete
ES: Surface Dressing

Figure 2.2 only gives surface techniques with sucient data available to allow them to be exploited statisti-
cally (see Section 3.5).
If a user wishes to model a site with a surfacing technique not included in this gure, he will use the
granulometry, surface characteristics and potential porosity to determine the category most likely to represent
the desired technique. Cobblestones are a case in point, inasmuch as the related sound emission is higher
than the one set for category R3. Results of cobblestone measurements are provided as a rough guide in the
third part of this work, Section 3.5.
Given the diculties in implementing road platform surfaces, it must be said that Figure 2.2 in no way
implies that a same type of surface used on two dierent sites will be in the same category in both cases.
Thus for example, BBUM 0/6 could in some circumstances have the characteristics of an R1 surface but
those of an R2 surface in others. The classication comes simply from statistical observation after acoustic
measurements, illustrated by the gure above, where three categories of surface stand out clearly.
Figure 2.2 cannot therefore be considered as a reference by the project manager when choosing a surface.

2.7.2.2 - Emission power per metre of line-source Lr,w/m for an aged surface

Table 2.4 presents for each category of surface the Lr,w/m formulae for the LV and HGV and their eld of
application for speed.

Vehicle category LV HGV


Speed domain 20 km/h V 130 km/h 20 km/h V 100 km/h
R1 53.4 + 21 log10 (V /90) 61.5 + 20 log10 (V /80)
Surfacing category R2 55.4 + 20.1 log10 (V /90) 63.3 + 20 log10 (V /80)
R3 57.5 + 21.4 log10 (V /90) 64.1 + 20 log10 (V /80)

Table 2.4: Formulae for the "rolling noise component" for an aged surface.

These formulae are representative of the average emission for an aged surface less than ten years old, therefore
"in state of use" and without surface defects. They should be employed in the general case, especially when
modelling is employed to check compliance with regulatory sound levels on a far horizon or over a long
period.
Scattering of actual values - 95% condence interval of 95% The "rolling" component formulae stated above
correspond to the average of a large number of road sections for each surfacing category. The distribution
of values relating to each road section show an approximate Gaussian form around average values for each
technique. Table 2.5 presents the values for the 95% condence interval related to the "rolling" component".

Vehicle category LV HGV


R1 3.4 dB(A) 3.1 dB(A)
Surfacing category R2 2.5 dB(A) 3.2 dB(A)
R3 2.9 dB(A) 2.5 dB(A)

Table 2.5: Condence interval at 95% related to the "rolling noise component".

The dispersion of actual values of road sections within each surfacing category is not insignicant. Estimating
the rolling noise component of a given road section from the value of the surfacing category can cause a
signicant error in the sound levels calculated at the receiving points compared with the actual value.
Ideally, the 95% condence interval relating to the "rolling" component should be used in a noise prediction
calculation to assess the uncertainty over sound levels calculated at the receiving points. This appraisal could
prove especially useful when the aim of the prediction calculation is to check compliance with a regulatory
objective.

Chapter 2. Factual method 19


However, this appraisal necessitates combining the inaccuracies from other calculation elements (other input
data, propagation calculations, etc.), where knowledge is to date only very sketchy given the huge number
of parameters in play and the complexity of phenomena intervening in the propagation. The approach to
appraising uncertainties related to the calculation results will not be addressed in this guide.
A simpler approach, explained in the second part of Section 3.5 can consist of increasing the "rolling"
component by a safety coecient adapted to the probability of overtaking that the road authority deems
acceptable.
In any event, the decision about any overtaking of this type is the remit of the road authority for the modelled
infrastructure, as it will have to deal with the consequences of any under-estimations (creating a failure to
comply with regulatory requirements) and of any over-estimations (which could cause overdimensioning of
acoustic protections on the site).

2.7.2.3 - Emission power per metre of line-source Lr,w/m depending on the age of the surface

When the study is aiming to model a site with a surface less than ten years old, the emission power per
metre of line-source Lr,w/m is corrected by the term Lr,w/m dened in Table 2.6.

Vehicle category LV HGV


Age of surface 2 years 2 to 10 years 2 years 2 to 10 years
R1 -4 0.5(a 10) -2,4 0.3(a 10)
Surfacing category R2 -2 0.25(a 10) -1,2 0.15(a 10)
R3 -1,6 0.2(a 10) -1 0.12(a 10)

Table 2.6: Correction Lr,w/m , in dB(A), depending on the age of the surface, noted a, in years.

Scattering of actual values - 95% condence interval The values quoted in the previous chapter are valid
whatever the age of the surface.

2.7.2.4 - Possibility of using other values of the "rolling" component

Ignorance of actual acoustic characteristics of the road section to be modelled can cause a signicant error
in the sound levels calculated at the receiving points. To reduce this risk, under certain conditions it is
acceptable to use a value of the "rolling" component dierent from previously-dened formulae. These
conditions are:

the modelling must cover an existing situation: the road section exists and no projection over time is
carried out (this corresponds typically to assessing an initial state);
measurement results for vehicle pass-by noise, taken in the same road section under the standards in
force, are available for LV and HGV or failing that, for LV only. The "road trains" (heavy goods
vehicles with at least four axles) dened by standard S 31-119 will be considered here as representative
of all heavy goods vehicles;
the modelling is representative of the date on which the pass-by measurements were taken.

When these conditions are respected, the "rolling" component for LV and HGV on the site studied can
be assessed under the approach described in the third part of this work, in Section 3.5. These values are
produced under the sole responsibility of the operator and should be justied in the study report, particularly
by referring to the test report for measurements exploited.

2.7.3 - "Engine" component

The "engine" component Lm,w/m is based on the trac ow type and speed of vehicles and, for the HGV,
the road gradient.

There are three potential trac ow types: steady speed, acceleration and deceleration. Acceleration
is only taken into account through this qualitative approach, not in quantied fashion. The steady

20 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


speed condition applies only to a minimum speed of 20 km/h. Remember also that when accelerating
or decelerating, the engine and rolling noise components are only broken down for speeds faster than
25 km/h.

There are three potential gradients: horizontal road (gradient less than 2%), upwards (gradient of
2% to 6%) and downwards (gradient of 2% to 6%). The upwards and downwards gradient makes a
quantitative contribution to the calculation of the HGV "engine" component. Gradients of more than
6% are not dealt with by this method. In the method domain, the gradient has no inuence on the LV
"engine" component.

Note
The gradient of the road inuences the noise emitted in two ways: rstly, by modifying the speed of
vehicles and secondly by modifying the "engine" component at a given speed. The rst eect is addressed
in Section 3.6. Only the second eect is addressed here.

Formulae used to calculate the "engine" component Lm,w/m depending on the speed are presented for each
conguration below. A graph illustrating the value of Lw/m resulting from the combination with the three
surfacing categories for an aged road section is also presented for information.

Chapter 2. Factual method 21


2.7.3.1 - LV at steady speed (all gradients, V 20 km/h)

V - km/h Lm,w/m
20 to 30 36.7 10 log10 (V /90)
30 to 110 42.4 + 2.0 log10 (V /90)
110 to 130 40.7 + 21.3 log10 (V /90)

Table 2.7: "Engine" component formulae for LV at steady speed.

LV
steady speed
all gradients
aged pavement

Figure 2.3: Lw/m for LV at steady speed on an aged surface.

22 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


2.7.3.2 - LV accelerating (all gradients, V 25 km/h)

V - km/h Lm,w/m
25 to 100 46.1 10 log10 (V /90)
100 to 130 44.3 + 28.6 log10 (V /90)

Table 2.8: "Engine" component formulae for LV accelerating.

Starting
section

LV
acceleration
all gradients
aged pavement

Figure 2.4: Lw/m for LV accelerating on an aged surface.

Chapter 2. Factual method 23


2.7.3.3 - LV decelerating (all gradients, V 25 km/h)

V - km/h Lm,w/m
25 to 80 42.1 4.5 log10 (V /90)
80 to 110 42.4 + 2 log10 (V /90)
110 to 130 40.7 + 21.3 log10 (V /90)

Table 2.9: "Engine" component formulae for LV decelerating.

Stopping
section

LV
deceleration
all gradients
aged pavement

Figure 2.5: Lw/m for LV decelerating on an aged surface.

24 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


2.7.3.4 - HGV, all traffic flow types and gradients

The formulae used to calculate Lm,w/m for the HGV are simpler than for the LV (Table 2.10). They are
obtained for the various trac ow type and gradient conditions from formulae relating to the steady speed
on a horizontal road by simply adding an independent speed correction Lm,w/m (Table 2.11). Lm,w/m

V - km/h Lm,w/m
20 to 701 49.6 10 log10 (V /80) + Lm,w/m
70 to 100 50.4 + 3 log10 (V /80) + Lm,w/m

Table 2.10: Engine" component formulae for HGV.

is detailed in Table 2.11.

gradient
0% p 2% upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%
steady speed 0 dB(A) 2(p 2) 1(p 2)
acceleration 5 dB(A) 5 + max (2(p 4.5); 0) 5 dB(A)
deceleration 0 dB(A) 0 dB(A) 1(p 2)

Table 2.11: Values of correction Lm,w/m . p is in % (absolute value).

Figure 2.6 to Figure 2.10 illustrate for the simple congurations the value of Lw/m resulting from the
combination with the three surfacing categories for an aged road section.

HGV
steady speed
horizontal road
aged pavement

Figure 2.6: Lw/m for HGV at steady speed on a horizontal road, on an aged surface.

1
Reminder: the accelerating and decelerating trac ow types only apply to a speed faster than or equal to 25 km/h.

Chapter 2. Factual method 25


Starting
section

HGV
acceleration
horizontal road
aged pavement

Figure 2.7: Lw/m for HGV accelerating on a horizontal road, on an aged surface.

Stopping
section

HGV
deceleration
horizontal road
aged pavement

Figure 2.8: Lw/m for HGV decelerating on a horizontal road, on an aged surface.

26 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


HGV
steady speed
6% upwards gradient
aged pavement

Figure 2.9: Lw/m for HGV at steady speed on an upwards gradient of 6%, on an aged surface.

HGV
steady speed
6% downwards gradient
aged pavement

Figure 2.10: Lw/m for HGV at steady speed on a downwards gradient of 6%, on an aged surface.

Chapter 2. Factual method 27


2.7.4 - `Starting' and `stopping' sections

The emission powers Lw/m/veh to be used for the LV and the HGV on the "starting" and "stopping" sections
are dened in Table 2.12. They are independent from the resurfacing category (its inuence is considered
negligible at these low speeds). For the HGV, they depend on the gradient of the road.

LV all HGV
gradients horizontal road downwards 2%
upwards 2% < p 6%
0% p 2% < p 6%
starting section 51.1 62.4 62.4 + max (2(p 4.5); 0) 62.4
stopping section 44.5 58.0 58.0 + (p 2)

Table 2.12: Emission powers Lw/m/veh in dB(A), for "starting" and "stopping" sections. p is in % (absolute
value).

Note
Comment: these values represent the average sound emission of the section. There is therefore no conti-
nuity with the values corresponding to the same conguration for 25 km/h.

The values of Table 2.12 have been established without taking the eect of ageing into account. Taking
ageing into account gives the values in Table 2.13:

LV all HGV
gradients horizontal road downwards 2%
upwards 2% p 6%
0% p 2% p 6%
starting section 51.3 62.5 62.5 + max (2(p 4.5); 0) 62.5
stopping section 45.1 58.3 58.3 + (p 2)

Table 2.13: Emission powers Lw/m/veh in dB(A), for "starting" and "stopping" sections taking account of
ageing. p is in % (absolute value).

2.8 - Spectral distribution

Two series of values according to the road platform surfacing technique are considered for the spectral
distribution R(j) per third-octave band of the sound emission power of an elementary point source (see
Table 2.14):

the porous surfaces (BBDr: Porous Asphalt Concretes), rstly and


all the other surfacing techniques, secondly.

central frequency of
100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630
third-octave band (Hz)
porous surfaces -22 -22 -20 -17 -15 -12 -10 -8 -9
non-porous surfaces -27 -26 -24 -21 -19 -16 -14 -11 -11
central frequency of
800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 5000
third-octave band (Hz)
porous surfaces -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -16 -18 -20 -23
non-porous surfaces -8 -7 -8 -10 -13 -16 -18 -21 -23

Table 2.14: Spectral distribution R(j) per third-octave band of the sound emission power of an elementary
point source, in dB(A).

The energy sum of values corresponding to the eighteen third-octave bands is equal to 0 dB(A).

28 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3 - Comments and analyses

3.1 - Introduction

The second part of this guide assembles all the elements and comments that the authors have deemed useful
to support the calculation method itself. For example:

the origin and justication of formulae and values adopted and their potential limitations;

acoustic issues relating to the various parameters;

amendments made to previous practice (French "Guide du Bruit" [GdB1980] and other documents);

more general thoughts on the state of knowledge of the various factors and on the work required for a
potential future version of the road noise forecasting method.

This part is organised wherever possible using a similar structure to the rst part. The following will be
addressed in succession:

the vehicle ow rate hypotheses Section 3.2;

the speed and trac ow type hypotheses Section 3.3;

the unit emission values Lw/m Section 3.4 to Section 3.9;

the spectral distribution Section 3.10.


% AADT

LV HGV

Time slot

Figure 3.1: Average daily proles of LV and HGV trac on national roads per hourly time slot.

The unit emission values are dealt with in several sections describing rst and foremost the general approach
to producing unit emission values Section 3.4), then more specically the approaches to producing rolling
noise components Section 3.5 and engine components for LV Section 3.6 and HGV Section 3.7. Lastly,
Section 3.8 and Section 3.9 comment on the issues relating to these values and compare them with those
published in the Guide to Noise.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 29


3.2 - Flow rate hypotheses

3.2.1 - Related issues

The daily trac prole varies tremendously according to the category of vehicles and the category of infras-
tructure. Figure 3.1 represents for illustrative purposes the average share of trac in each hourly time slot
in the daily trac for LV and HGV separately, based on a sample of 249 site on national roads (RN).
Only LV peak in the late afternoon, ending at 7 p.m. The HGV trac is more regular throughout the day
and decreases from 6 p.m. onwards. However, proportionally more HGV travel at night than LV.
The trac survey thus carried out on the national intercity network in 1996-97 [Setra1999] showed that on
average:

on the national roads, 7% of LV and 14% of HGV travel at night (between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.). The
HGV share in the total trac is twice as high at night (22%) than from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. (11%);
this trend is even more pronounced on the motorways: 9% of LV and 18% of HGV travel at night.
The proportion of HGV in the total trac, equal to 14% from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m., increases to 25% at
night.

In addition, there are major disparities around these averages between the routes of the same administrative
category. The proportion of HGV in the motorway network at night varies from 8% to more than 40%
according to the sites. On national roads, for around the same AADT, the nocturnal HGV ow rate on one
site can be trebled on another.
Knowledge of LV and HGV daily trac (24 hours) and the road category alone is therefore not enough to
estimate the nocturnal sound levels correctly. This variability can be reduced by analysing the road function.
It seems that, for the intercity routes, nocturnal trac is linked to the amount of trac in transit: a road
mainly fullling a long-distance transit function (inter-regional and even international journeys) can expect
proportionally more night trac than a road used for short journeys (commuting, neighbourhood deliveries,
etc.).
Thus, an acoustic study misreading the particular operation of an infrastructure during the night risks
under-estimating substantially the noise levels and thus committing a very prejudicial error.

3.2.2 - General approach to estimating average hourly flow rates from AADT

Vehicle ow rates for each period can be determined by counting or estimated by applying formulae.
Counting operations to assess the daily distribution of LV and HGV trac are only physically possible when
studying an existing infrastructure. This approach can also be very cumbersome in some situations and
disproportionately costly in relation to the study issues, especially when studying an extensive network.
Counting is not therefore a systematic solution.
For this reason trac estimations for the dierent periods have been established from statistical analyses;
they are presented in part 2 of this guide in Section 2.4.2 and Section 2.4.3. These estimations are based on
average values obtained for each sub-sample in sites exploited.
The approach to be applied to assess the LV and HGV trac in the dierent periods will therefore be
chosen based on the context of the study. Regardless of the approach adopted, it is recommended to seek
systematically the advice of a trac survey specialist for its implementation.
Counting per period, and the subsequent use of the results, is generally only recommended when required by
a detailed study, i.e. focusing on a set route or localised area. Remember that these counts must distinguish
between LV and HGV. Attention is also drawn to the fact that the trac proles (especially evening and
night) tend to vary depending on the days of the week. It is therefore essential to involve a road survey
specialist in the denition of counting methods, to ensure sucient representativeness in relation to the
annual average.
These counts can then be used not just to assess the current situation, but also to assess a future situation,
if the study concerns an on-the-spot (widening, acoustic protection project, etc.) or a short deviation,

30 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


provided that the provisional trac survey has not revealed any change in the road function. To assess a
future situation, the daily distribution noted for each vehicle category is then applied to the AADT of the
prediction horizon.
When the study involves predicting the noise of a new road, or an existing road with changed function, the
analysis must distinguish between and deals separately with:

rstly, the trac linked to local establishments (large industrial estate, major shopping centre, etc.)
likely to generate a substantial share of the trac (especially heavy goods vehicles) predicted for the
itinerary. The provisional trac survey must include an analysis of the operation of these generators
according to the various periods;
secondly, the trac with "diuse" or distant origins and destinations linked to the general operation
of an urban area or itinerary: its breakdown between the dierent periods can be estimated as stated
in Section 2.4.2 and Section 2.4.3.

It is also recommended to use formulae for the macroscopic studies covering an extended network, where the
issue at stake does not normally justify specic counts except on a few clearly-identied routes.

3.2.3 - Origin of formulae for intercity routes

The formulae dened to estimate the distribution of LV and HGV trac over the four periods 06:00-22:00,
06:00-18:00, 18:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 are those published in the information note in Stra series EEC no.
77 [Note77] (see Appendix C).
This note also states the eld of application for formulae, the related condence interval and describes the
sample of sites which has been used to reach these formulae. The reader is referred to this document to
familiarise himself with these elements.

3.2.4 - Origin of formulae for urban routes

For urban routes, the values presented in Section 2.4.3 come from a CERTU1 trac database. This database
was compiled between 2000 and 2005 and fed with data from counting in urban environments for other
purposes. Measuring campaigns on two hundred sites spread over 34 municipalities in France, mainly in
large urban areas, are thus available.
These data were rst used in 2005 to analyse the data compiled and produce the data described.
The values proposed show considerable variation in the percentage of heavy goods vehicles on urban ex-
pressways both during the time and at night and a very signicant relative variation in the percentage of
all-vehicle nocturnal trac compared with the total trac.
And it is precisely these magnitudes for which the issue is the most important. These elements cannot to
date be used to suggest passing trac formulae. The parameters aecting these percentages need to be
rened to explain these major variations.

3.2.5 - Equivalent hourly flow rate of the maximum sound emission of the stream

3.2.5.1 - Notions of equivalent flow rate of the maximum sound emission of the stream

Calculating the sound power level emitted per metre of road platform Lw/m requires knowledge of ow rates
and speeds for each category of vehicle. These two types of data are interdependent: a high ow rate induces
constraints on the ow of the stream, which results in a drop of speeds practiced. The increase in the ow
rate and the resulting reduction in speeds have opposite eects on the sound emission, so that it achieves a
maximum value for a ow rate below the capacity of the road platform. This situation is commonly called
"acoustic saturation".
To make things simple, the noise prediction calculations are based, for each vehicle category, on a hypothesis
of speed equal to the "free speed" or "no-load speed" (i.e. the speed when the ow rate is very low and
1
Centre d'Etude des Rseaux, de Transports de l'Urbanisme et des Constructions Publiques

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 31


which does not restrict the ow in any way) and not on the actual speeds which are dependent on the ow
rate. This principle inevitably over-estimates the sound emission power of the stream apart from introducing
directly the ow rate-speed laws into the forecast model.
Ceilings are set for the ow rate hypotheses to prevent the sound emission power produced by provisional
calculations exceeding that noted in an acoustic saturation situation.
For a given proportion of heavy goods vehicles, noted %HGV , the equivalent ow rate of the maximum
sound emission of the stream QAV,eq is called the value of the all-vehicle ow rate, which gives, for the
same value of %HGV and for LV and HGV free speeds, the maximum sound emission power relating to the
acoustic saturation situation.

3.2.5.2 - Origin of formulae for intercity motorways

The formulae for intercity motorways are taken from a previous study [Setra2007] and based on relationships
between ow rates and journey times published previously [Setra2004].
This study followed the outline below:

1. For numerous all-vehicle ow rate (600 to 4500 veh/h for a three-lane road platform and 40 to 3000
veh/h for a two-lane road platform) and HGV proportion (0 to 35%) hypotheses:

calculation of related journey times, then corresponding average speeds, by applying ow rate-
journey time relationships;
calculation of the sound emission power for a unit ow rate of each vehicle category, using formulae
presented in the second part of this guide, for the three categories of road platform surface;
calculation of the sound emission power per metre of road platform for the xed trac hypotheses
for the three categories of road platform surface.

2. For each surfacing category and each value of %HGV :

the maximum value of the sound emission power encountered in the range of ow rates QAV
studied is taken;
the equivalent ow rate of the maximum emission of the stream QAV,eq is then calculated, which
gives, for the same value of %HGV and for the LV and HGV free speeds, this maximum sound
emission power.

3. Lastly, a general formula is sought to express QAV,eq depending on the %HGV . Figure 3.2 (two-lane
motorway) and Figure 3.3 (three-lane motorway) below present the variation in QAV,eq depending on
the %HGV for each surfacing category. The graphic representation of results obtained shows that the
curves relating to the R1 and R2 surfacing categories are almost amalgamated. For category R3, the
equivalent ow rate of the maximum sound emission of the stream is slightly less, in the order of 100
veh/h, with high HGV proportions.

Considering that the R3 category surfaces are rarely found on motorways with dense trac, the relationship
sought was established from categories R1 and R2.

32 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


2100
2 voies
R1
motorway

2000
R2
autoroute

1900 y = -9,8223x + 2006,8 R3


QAV_equiv - 2-lane

Linear (R2)
Linaire
1800
QTV_equiv

1700

1600
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
% %PL
HGV

Figure 3.2: Variation in QAV,eq depending on the %HGV for each surfacing category - two-lane motorway.

3400
3300
3 voies

R1
motorway

3200
3100 R2
autoroute

y = -22,454x + 3294,1
3000 R3
QAV_equiv -3-lane

2900
Linaire
Linear (R2)
2800
QTV_equiv

2700
2600
2500
2400
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
%%PL
HGV

Figure 3.3: Variation in QAV,eq depending on the %HGV for each surfacing category - three-lane motorway.

3.2.5.3 - Origin of formulae for urban expressways

The formulae for urban expressways are established from trac datasets on seventeen actual sites varying
from 2x2 to 2x5 lanes and statistical formulae from the Certu report to be published "Trac service levels
for type A urban expressways".
The methodology adopted is as follows. It is detailed in the Certu report to be published "Approach to the
maximum sound emission in type A expressways".

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 33


Choosing a ow rate/speed curve

For each route considered, a ow rate/speed curve is calibrated from parameters a, b and given in
the reference report.

In addition, attention focuses in these curves on the freely-moving trac part, as the trac ow types
of vehicles beyond this capacity are unknown.

All the sites are used, except Paris A1 as the measurements were taken at capacity, i.e. in conditions
where trac was not moving freely.

The calculations are based on theoretical formulae, by taking a trac equivalence LV/HGV Cvp equal
to 2 and the %HGV provided by document mentioned above.

Calculating of speeds depending on the concentration and rate of heavy goods vehicles

The speed of the stream of vehicles is calculated from the rate of heavy goods vehicles and the vehicle
concentration according to the following formula:


a ebK
V = (3.1)
1 + (Cvp 1) %HGV

with a heavy goods vehicle rate %HGV of between 0% and 20%, which takes into account the ma-
jority of cases encountered in urban expressways and a concentration K varying from 0 to the critical
concentration of the route.

The total ow rate is thus obtained by


QAV = K V (3.2)

Calculating acoustic contributions

Lacking information to dierentiate between the speeds of both vehicle categories, it is assumed that
the speed of LV is equal to the speed of HGV and equal to the speed of the vehicle stream.

Thus is determined for the three categories of road platform surface:

 the sound emission power for a unit ow rate of each vehicle category;

 the sound emission power per metre of road platform.

Calculating the equivalent ow rate

The maximum value of the sound emission power per metre of road platform is identied for each
surfacing category and for each value of %HGV . The equivalent ow rate of the maximum emission
of the stream QAV,eq is then calculated, which gives, for the same value, for each surfacing category
and the free speed of the stream, this maximum sound emission power.

Seeking formulae binding the equivalent ow rate and the HGV rate A function is sought for each site
studied for use in estimating the equivalent ow rate QAV,eq depending on the %HGV .

Figure 3.4 below represents the variation in the equivalent ow rate depending on the %HGV for each
surfacing category for a particular site. It is then clear that the values for each R3 surfacing category are
far lower than for categories R1 and R2. As the surfaces in category R3 are also barely represented and are
being replaced on the urban expressways, only the values of surfacing categories R1 and R2 are used as a
basis for seeking the function binding equivalent ow rate and %HGV .

34 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


QAV (veh/h)

Linear regression

%HGV

Figure 3.4: Variation in equivalent ow rate depending on the %HGV for the Paris N104 site.

Figure 3.5 shows the regression lines obtained.


Droites de rgression pour les diffrents sites tests

VRU de type A

5500

5250

5000 Lyon 2x2


Paris A86 2x2
Paris N104 2x2
4750 Toulouse 2x2
Lille 2x3
Lyon 1 2x3
4500 Lyon 2 2x3
Paris A3-1 2x3
Paris A3_2 2x3
4250 Paris A6_1 2x3
Paris A6_2 2x3
Toulouse 2x3
QAV (veh/h)

4000 Lille 2x4


Paris A4-1 2x4
Paris A4-2 2x4
Paris A4 2x5
3750

3500

3250

3000

2750

2500

2250

2000
0,00% 5,00% 10,00% 15,00% 20,00%
!
%HGV

Figure 3.5: Regression lines QAV depending on the %HGV for the various sites tested.

Major deviations in the hourly ow rates are clear, between the classes of sites with the same number of trac
lanes as well as between the sites with the same number of lanes. However, the corresponding maximum
sound level power values are fairly close together within a same class and vary in order of 1 dB(A) between

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 35


the classes. The choice has therefore been made to adopt a formula by lane type, specically the one giving
the maximum ow rate values. The formula for the ve-lane road platforms is not given as no site of this
type is available.

3.2.5.4 - Origin of formulae for urban routes

Nowadays on urban routes, the speeds noted for light vehicles and heavy goods vehicles are to all intents
and purposes identical and equal to the speed limit. In these conditions, the maximum sound emission is
obtained for the maximum ow rate in vehicles for the route considered, i.e. 1800 veh/h/lane for a route
without trac lights.
For a route with trac lights, this ow rate can be weighted by the time the lights are green. For example,
for a route where the lights are green for 50% of the time, the all-vehicle ow rate to be considered is 900
veh/h/lane.

3.3 - Speed and traffic flow type hypotheses

3.3.1 - Using the average arithmetical speed

Take a group of vehicles i {1, ..., n} each travelling at speed Vi . If, in the speed range covered by these
vehicles, the sound emission can be assimilated with a law such as Lw/m/veh = a + b log10 (V /Vref ), then
it can be demonstrated that the sound emission of this group of vehicles is equal to that of a group of N
vehicles all travelling at the same "equivalent" speed Veq , so that:

b/10 1 X b/10
Veq = Vi (3.3)
N
i

If the arithmetical average V is taken as the representative speed of the vehicle category instead of Veq , the
error committed in the emission level is

V
Lw/m = Lw/m (V , N ) Lw/m (Veq , N ) = b log10 (3.4)
Veq

It depends on the average speed of the stream, the distribution of speeds and the slope b of the emission law.
In a link section, the histogram of speeds which can be noted for a given category of vehicle shows a Gaussian
form [FD2005]. The standard deviation for the distribution of speeds outside urban areas is in the order of
15 km/h for LV and does not exceed 10 km/h for HGV.
The sound level is slightly under-estimated when the arithmetical average V is taken as the representative
speed of the vehicle category instead of Veq . The curves plotted in Figure 3.6 are simulated 2 : they represent
Lw/m depending on the slope b of the emission law with the average speed of the stream as a parameter.
The error committed is negligible.

2
A random run of one thousand speed values is considered with uniform distribution (which triggers, for the same standard
deviation, a greater error than for normal distribution) in a range of speeds from 20 km/h to 30 km/h according to the average
speeds.

36 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


Figure 3.6: Error in dB(A) committed in estimating the sound level by taking the arithmetical average as
the representative speed of the vehicle category instead of Veq .

It has been decided in this method to adopt the arithmetical average speed as the representative speed of
the vehicle category.

3.3.2 - Identical values in each period

According to the data published by the National Inter-ministerial Road Safety Observatory [FD2005], the
average speeds at night are in a range of 5 km/h compared with the average daytime speeds. It has not
therefore been deemed useful, in this method, to dene dierent values according to the period in the day.

3.3.3 - Pre-defined speeds in link section

The speed hypotheses dened in link section are based on the data published by the National Inter-ministerial
Road Safety Observatory [FD2005]. These elements show especially that the average LV speeds are fairly
close to maximum speed limits in a "freely-moving current" situation (non-saturated).

3.3.4 - Hypotheses for the special areas: useful references

For the special areas on intercity roads and motorways (upwards and downwards gradients, bends, approach
and exit from a crossroads, roundabouts, slip roads), useful speed hypotheses can be found in the following
references, or their updated version:

Understanding the main parameters for geometric road design. Information sheet and note, Stra,
January 2006, 28 p.

ICTAAL - Instruction on the Technical Development Conditions for Link Motorways

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 37


Circular of 12 December 2000. Technical Guide, Stra, December 2000, 58 p.
Development of intercity crossroads on main roads. Crossroad drawings - Technical Guide, Stra,
December 1998, 133 p.
Development of Main Roads (ARP) Technical Guide, Stra, August 1994, 145 p.
Establishment of additional lanes as slip roads in 2 x 2 lane infrastructures. Information note, Eco-
nomics, Environment and Design Series no. 21, Stra, October 1989, 4 p.

For urban expressways:

Instruction on the Technical Development Conditions for Urban Expressways (ICTAVRU). Technical
Guide, Cetur, January 1990, 365 p.

For other urban road networks:

Dimensioning urban road platform structures - Design methodology for a catalogue suitable for the
local context. Certu, April 2000, 58 pages
Study of complex links between urban forms and deterioration in road safety. Certu, December 2004,
120 pages
General guide to the urban road network. Cetur, May 1988, 197 pages
Sections 80 in an urban area environment - Guide to design and recommendations. Certu, June 1996,
47 pages

For urban developments:

Urban crossroads. Certu guide, January 1999, 239 pages.


Structural design of a roundabout in an urban environment. Certu, December 1999, 41 pages
Guide to the 30 zone. Cetur, May 1992, 64 pages
Mini-roundabouts - texts and recommendations. Certu guide, December 1997, 19 pages.
Minor safety arrangements - 30 zone sheets, urban area crossing, urban area entrance, crossroads
layout, pedestrian crossing, public transport stop and access to a school. Certu 1994, 4 pages each
sheet Most of these documents can be downloaded from the French Road Techniques Documentation
Internet site (http://dtrf.setra.equipement.gouv.fr/).

3.4 - General approach to producing values Lw/m/veh

3.4.1 - Issues

The models forecasting road noise in France estimate the noise from a stream of vehicles at the edge of
a lane. They are based on a set of unit sound emission values, with each unit value relating to a vehicle
category. The unit sound emission values of vehicles are supplied for all common usage conditions. They are
not the sound emissions from one or other vehicle model in a specic situation, but emissions representative
of each category which are used, for a given ow rate and composition, to obtain a correct estimate of the
noise at the edge of the road.
The experimental observations show that trac noise normally increases with the speed of the stream, but
that changes do not take place regularly over the entire speed spectrum. This is due to the fact that the
noise of a vehicle is produced by dierent sources, for which the emission laws do not change in the same
way depending on the speed. In the 1980 version of the French "Guide du Bruit" [GdB1980], the sound
emissions E(V ) plotted in semi-logarithmic coordinates (in V ) are segments of line and not a single line.
As indicated in Figure 3.7, it is agreed that the pass-by noise of a road vehicle normally comes from two
sources: one linked to the power unit and the other to the tyre/road contact.

38 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


the source linked to the engine depends mainly on the engine speed. It depends on the gear selected,
the trac ow type (stabilised, accelerated, etc.) and the load (horizontal road, gradient, etc.);
the rolling noise source depends on the speed and the road surface. It dominates at high speeds3 .

Figure 3.7: Principle of changes in overall noise level LAmax depending on the speed, with an engine
contribution independent from the speed.

This distinction between engine noise and rolling noise has guided the denition here of situations to be
considered and is conveyed in terms of trac ow type, gradients and surfacing category4 . The breakdown
has been widely used in formulating Lw/m and proves justied in the light of comparisons between model
and measurements.
Note
The distinction between engine and rolling is taken into account explicitly in certain models: the American
model, for example [DOT1995], stipulates a constant engine noise and a rolling noise changing with the
speed in A log10 V + B . The overall emission of a road vehicle is today formulated systematically at
INRETS in terms of "engine noise" and "rolling noise" [14, 15].

3.4.2 - General approach

The entire approach, with some very rare exceptions, is based on using the results from vehicle pass-by
measurements. The measurements provide sound levels LAmax at 7.5 m from the lane axis and 1.2 m from
the ground.

3.4.2.1 - Principle adopted

The sound emission LAmax (overall level in dB(A)) is broken down into two independent terms assimilated
with the sound contributions from two sources:

LAmax = Lrolling Lengine (3.5)

indicates added energy: h i


L1 L2 = 10 log10 100.1L1 + 100.1L2 (3.6)
3
In the 1970s, rolling noise was acknowledged predominant from 70 km/h for LV and 90 km/h for HGV [IRT1979].
4
The inuence of the surface is not taken into account in the French `Guide du Bruit'[GdB1980].

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 39


Lrolling is called "rolling component" and is assumed to be emitted by the contact between the tyre
and the road platform. It depends on the speed and the type of surface. It dominates at high speeds.
Lengine is called "engine component" or "mechanical component" and is assumed to be emitted by all
the vehicle's mechanical sources. It depends on the engine speed and the load. This results here in
a mechanical component dependent on the speed, the gradient and the acceleration. It dominates at
low speeds.

3.4.2.2 - Vehicle categories

The values are produced for two categories of vehicle:

light vehicles (LV): vehicles less than 3.5 t,


heavy goods vehicles (HGV): vehicles of 3.5 t or more5 .

Two-wheelers are not taken specically into account for a number of reasons. Firstly, the trac hypotheses
used in the noise prediction calculations and the counts that can be used to model an existing situation do not
identify two-wheelers as a special category of vehicle but count them as light vehicles. In addition, motorised
two-wheelers are an extremely heterogeneous and still poorly-understood category in terms of sound emission;
producing specic emission hypotheses under actual usage conditions would involve cumbersome studies,
probably including vehicle segmentation into several categories, an approach which was not envisaged in the
work described in this guide. Lastly, as they normally account for a fairly low proportion of total trac in
French networks, it is estimated that, with possible exceptions, the sound contribution of motorised two-
wheelers to the overall LAeq triggered by the stream of trac is modest and that their assimilation with
light vehicles does not result in a signicant error in calculating this indicator. In any event, although there
is no disputing the inconvenience caused specically by the noise from motorised two-wheelers, evidence of
a more relevant acoustic indicator than the equivalent sound level LAeq is required to characterise this.
Emission values for the HGV vehicle category are founded on the results of measuring heavy goods vehicles
with at least four axles (known as "road trains" or TR).
Sensitivity tests have shown that for intercity trac (motorway or national road), the error committed in
trac noise (LV + HGV) by assimilating all the HGV with the road trains remains extremely low (less than
one dB [Lelong1997a]).
Dierentiating the heavy goods trac into several classes has been justied for the urban trac [Lelong1997b].
However, taking small HGV (two or three axles) into account specically would have required major data
compilation which was not deemed appropriate. It was therefore decided to assimilate all the HGV with
road trains for the noise trac calculations.

3.4.2.3 - Measurements

The vehicles measured are, as far as possible, trac vehicles (principle of the isolated vehicle in the statistical
pass-by method [ISO11819p1]) and the surveys are carried out on dierent sites to take into account the
dierent surfaces, trac conditions and vehicle numbers. When this proves impossible, i.e. when there is
no suitable site for either the trac conditions to be observed or the acoustic measurement requirements
("clear" site, suciently "isolated" trac vehicles"), test vehicles are used and the measurements are taken
on a track under controlled conditions.
The rolling noise component depends on the type of surface. It has been determined from measurements in
trac, on a sample suciently representative of surfaces.
The engine noise contribution is considered here not to depend on the type of surface (the acoustic absorption
of a porous surface is not suciently proven in the long term to take its eect on the engine noise into
account). The HGV category engine noise contribution has been determined from measurements in trac
(upwards and downwards gradients, acceleration, deceleration) or measurements in controlled conditions
(horizontal road at steady speed). The LV category engine noise contribution has been determined from
measurements in controlled conditions.
5
Administrative denition in force in France.

40 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.4.2.4 - Results

The results are expressed globally. The expression adopted to construct formulae is:

LAmax (V, R, p, a) = Lrolling (V, R) Lengine (V, p, a) (3.7)

LAmax maximum6 pass-by level of the vehicle7 ,


R road platform surface category,
p road gradient,
a vehicle trac ow type (steady speed, acceleration, deceleration).

The vehicle is assimilated with an omnidirectional compact (point) source .


The form Lrolling Lengine results therefore here from a construction: the contributions are only valid
insofar as their combination restores correctly the global emission values.

3.4.2.5 - Transcribing LAmax into Lw/m

The Lw/m is obtained from the LAmax by using the relationship :

Lw/m = LAmax 10 log10 V 30 + 10 log 2(7.52 + 1.22 ) (3.8)




i.e. at 0.01 dB tolerance:

Lw/m = LAmax 10 log10 V 4.4 (3.9)

where V is expressed in km/h.

3.5 - Approach to producing rolling noise components

The rolling noise components are taken from values contained in the "rolling noise" database generated
by the Laboratoire Rgional des Ponts et Chausses in Strasbourg on behalf of the LPC, SETRA and
CERTU. This lists the data from measurements taken under the pass-by noise measuring standard S 31-119,
close to standard ISO 11 819, under the Isolated Vehicles (SPB) and Controlled Vehicles (CPB) procedures
[ISO11819p1], [S31119]. [NFS31119p2].
This base is fed by all the regional highways laboratories measuring rolling noise. It contains in particular
information on the sound levels measured for each vehicle category (LV and HGV) and on the surfaces. It
provides for each surfacing technique levels LAmax measured on dierent road sections. These values are
expressed in dB(A) and correspond to a temperature of 20C.

3.5.1 - Origin of R1, R2 and R3 surfacing categories

Within techniques where sampling plays a signicant role, major dispersion of measurement results has
been noted. Producing separate sound emission hypotheses for each of the normal road techniques would
have produce deviations in the order of one decibel between two neighbouring techniques, a deviation far
lower than the internal dispersion in each technique. The normal road surfacing techniques have therefore
been grouped into three categories noted R1 to R3 (see Section 3.5.5 for cobblestones, excluded from this
classication).
The classication of techniques has not in principle been dened but is the result of a statistical analysis of
the database.
Global level in dB(A).
6

Unless stated otherwise, "vehicle" will henceforth be taken to mean the vehicle representative of the category in question.
7

LV or HGV will also be used to designate the representative LV or the representative HGV

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 41


The base used to classify the surfaces is taken from LV measurements under the Isolated Vehicle (VI)
procedure. About a hundred road sections, with a reference speed of 90 km/h, have been used.

Note
A similar study in the Controlled Vehicles (VM) part of the base produced the same classication. Sim-
ilarly, the consistency with the SPB/LV at 120 km/h and the SPB/HGV measurements was veried.

3.5.2 - Global emission according to the surfacing category

3.5.2.1 - Approach

A representative emission formula has been produced for each vehicle category and each surfacing category.
The approach has been split into two stages to give identical weight to each road technique regardless of
the number of sites measured: the rst stage is a study per technique (as each road section is sampled at
10 km/h intervals, an arithmetical average is calculated for each speed segment of 10 km/h) and the second
aggregates the results of all techniques in a same category (by using the values per 10 km/h segments for
each technique).
The emission values have been calculated from the SPB base with added CPB values (a study has already
shown their equivalence), which represents about 450 LV road sections and about a hundred HGV road
sections (four axles or more).
For the HGV, techniques without sucient information were not incorporated into the calculations, but the
consistency of results was veried.
The specic measurement campaigns in upwards and downwards gradients were used to check that these
values matched these situations (LV measurements on horizontal roads, downwards and upwards, for speeds
between 70 and 130 km/h).

3.5.2.2 - Speed validity

The formulae thus obtained (giving the LAmax depending on the speed logarithm) cover the speeds between
70 and 130 km/h for the LV and between 70 and 90 km/h for the HGV.

3.5.2.3 - Dispersion of sites around average values

The dispersion of LAmax of each site around these averages values has also been studied. Within each
category of surface, the range between the sites is 5 to 6 dB(A). Their dispersion compared with the average
value of the category presents a Gaussian aspect, with a standard-deviation in the around 1 to 1.5 dB(A)
according to the type of vehicle, the speed and the surfacing category considered.

3.5.3 - Determining Lrolling for surfacing categories R1 to R3

3.5.3.1 - Approach

Knowing:

rstly, the overall emission LAmax determined previously for the three surfacing categories R1 to R3
in the speed elds 70-130 km/h for the LV and 70-90 km/h for the HGV,
secondly, the value of Lengine for the LV and HGV stabilised, on a horizontal road (see further on),

the value of Lrolling (depending on the speed) for the three surfacing categories R1 to R3 has been deduced
by "energy subtraction" of these two levels, then adjustment by a linear formula in log10 V (Speed).
For the HGV, the slope was set pre-dened at 20 regardless of the surfacing category, to avoid problems of
consistency appearing subsequently. Having checked that the issue in the overall noise was low, the value
of 20 was adopted, rstly because of its consistency with the LV-related slope and secondly, because it is

42 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


approximately the value found for the contribution by the trailer area by measuring with an aerial in the
trac HGV.

3.5.3.2 - Speed validity of results

The formulae thus obtained have been extrapolated to the entire speed eld targeted by the method: 5-130
km/h for the LV and 5-100 km/h for the HGV. At low speeds, their representativeness in terms of rolling
noise is not proven, but as their corresponding values are low compared with the engine component, this
does not raise doubts over the representativeness of the overall noise obtained by summing.

3.5.4 - Effect of ageing

The database supplying the measurements relies for the most part on road sections less than three years old.
The sound emission values calculated from this base are therefore characteristic of fairly young surfaces and
are considered as representative of the average age of road sections, i.e. two years.
To assess the eect of ageing of two to ten years for the LV, the LAmax(VL, 90 km/h) of each road section
in the database have been represented depending on their age for each surfacing category, with:

regression in this scatterplot;

a rst hypothesis considering the LAmax stable with age and equal to the rolling noise component of
the category;

a second hypothesis considering that the LAmax increases by 1 dB(A) every two years, with the rolling
noise component in the category corresponding to the age of two years.

The standard deviation between the scatterplot and each of these straight lines has been calculated.
The standard deviation relating to the regression is the lowest value that can be obtained if the scatterplot
is approximated by a straight line. The relevance of the hypothesis can be assessed by comparing this with
each one's standard deviation. This approach has been applied both to all the road sections and to those
road sections aged at least three years, to check that the conclusions are not too inuenced by the young
road sections, which make up the majority of the sample. For the road trains, the increase has been xed at
0.6 times the LV increase, for consistency with the relationships between LAmax LV and road trains obtained
elsewhere (see Section 3.5.7.3).

3.5.5 - How to address cobblestones

The surfacing classication does not include cobblestones. Given the diversity of possible characteristics for
this type of surface and the paucity of available measurements, providing average emission values is not an
option. However, as a rough guide, the values of Lrolling LV obtained from two sites with a similar type of
cobblestone (140/160 mm stones connected by cement mortar and more than 6 cm thick) are given here.
About 80 to 100 vehicles were measured per site, at speeds of 35 to 60 km/h (urban area).
As the measurements obtained on the two sites were viewed as close, a linear regression over all the mea-
surements from the two sites together was calculated. The rolling noise component was then obtained
by subtracting the LV engine component dened for a steady speed on a horizontal road (see Section 3.6
"Approach to producing LV engine components") and performing a linear regression.
The result obtained for this type of cobblestone is:

Lr,w/m = 61.2 + 23.7 log10 (V /90) (3.10)

This formula is valid up to 60 km/h.


However, no measurement is available for the HGV. Given that an increase of 4 dB is noted for the LV
rolling noise component with this type of cobblestone compared with the R3 surface, and that HGV tyres
are in principle less sensitive to the state of the surface, the HGV R3 nomogram can be increased by 4 dB(A)

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 43


in the knowledge that this value is probably over-estimated. Note nevertheless that HGV can have other
sources of noise in addition to the rolling noise - noise from crates, for example.

3.5.6 - Safety coefficient

For the variability of acoustic characteristics of road platform surfaces specically, the rolling noise component
can be increased by a safety coecient adapted to the probability of overtaking that the road authority deems
acceptable. Table 3.1 presents, for a Gaussian distribution, the increase to be applied to the average values
given in Section 2.7.2.3 depending on the accepted probability of overtaking.

Accepted Example for


probability of Increase hCI95% = 3
overtaking dB(A)
40 % 0.13 hCI95% 0.4 dB(A)
30 % 0.27 hCI95% 0.8 dB(A)
20 % 0.43 hCI95% 1.3 dB(A)
10 % 0.65 hCI95% 2.0 dB(A)
5% 0.84 hCI95% 2.5 dB(A)

Table 3.1: Increase to be applied to the average value depending on the accepted probability of overtaking
(hCI95% is the half-width of the condence interval at 95 %).

3.5.7 - Possibility of using other values of the rolling noise component

3.5.7.1 - Conditions

The "rolling" component formulae stated above correspond to the average of a large number of road sections
for each surfacing category. The dispersion of actual values for each road section within each surfacing
category is not insignicant (see Section 3.5.1). The deviation between the road section of the site to be
modelled and the hypothesis corresponding to the surfacing category can therefore cause a signicant error
in the sound levels calculated at the receiving points.
For this reason, using a value other than those given in the previous formulae for the "rolling" component
is permitted under certain conditions, which are:

the modelling must cover an existing situation: the road section exists and no projection over time is
carried out (this corresponds typically to assessing an initial state);
measurement results for vehicle pass-by noise, taken in the same road section under the standards in
force, are available for LV and HGV (or failing that, for LV only). The "road trains" (heavy goods
vehicles with at least four axles) dened by standard S 31-119 will be considered here as representative
of all heavy goods vehicles;
the model is representative of the date on which the pass-by measurements were taken.

These values are produced under the sole responsibility of the operator and should be justied in the study
report, particularly by referring to the test report for measurements exploited.

3.5.7.2 - Approach

For each category of vehicle, the test report for pass-by measurements provides the relationship between
the LAmax at 7.50 m (for the reference temperature of 20C) and the speed, for a speed range centred on
the mean speed V of vehicle pass-bys used. The approach involves calculating the rolling noise component
corresponding to the V speed. The general formula for the rolling noise component is then produced by
applying a pre-dened variation in log10 V to this value. The detail of these stages is as follows:

1. The value LAmax for this average speed V is extracted from the measurements report or recalculated
from the relationship supplied in the report.

44 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


2. The sound emission power level per metre of line-source for a unit ow rate Lw/m (V ) is calculated by:

Lw/m (V ) = LAmax (V ) 10 log10 V 4.4 (3.11)

where V is expressed in km/h.


This level must be at least 5 dB(A) higher than the engine component Lm,w/m (V ) in the vehicle
category at the speed V , dened in Section 2.7. This condition can limit the error committed at
the following stage in estimating the rolling noise component by subtraction. If this condition is not
veried, the approach cannot be continued and the model must be based on the formulae published in
this guide.

3. The rolling noise component at V is deduced by:


 
Lr,w/m (V ) = 10 log10 100.1Lw/m (V ) 100.1Lm,w/m (V ) (3.12)

where Lm,w/m (V ) is the engine component of the vehicle category at speed V under steady speed on
horizontal road conditions.

4. The general formula of the rolling noise component for the site studied is then obtained by:

V
Lr,w/m (V ) = a + b log10 (3.13)
Vref

where:
(
a = Lr,w/m (V ) 20 log10 VV
ref (3.14)
b = 20

3.5.7.3 - Alternative approach if there are no HGV measurements available

Where the pass-by measurements are only available for the LV (or where the number of HGV measured is
less than the minimum required by the standard), the rolling noise component for the HGV can be estimated
from the LV rolling noise component using the following approach.

1. The LV rolling noise component is determined in accordance with the approach described above.

2. The power level Lw/m for the HGV at the reference speed of 80 km/h is estimated from the level Lw/m
for the LV at 90 km/h by: Lw/m (HGV, 80) = 0.6Lw/m (LV, 90) + 29.1 This formula is the result of a
statistical analysis of more than two hundred road sections8 [Doisy2005].
This level must be at least 5 dB(A) higher than the HGV engine component Lm,w/m at the speed 80
km/h, dened in Section 2.7. This condition can limit the error committed at the following stage in
estimating the rolling noise component by subtraction.

3. The HGV rolling noise component at 80 km/h is deduced by:


 
Lr,w/m (HGV, 80) = 10 log10 100.1Lw/m (HGV,80) 100.1Lm,w/m (HGV,80) (3.15)

where Lm,w/m (HGV, 80) is the HGV rolling noise component at 80 km/h under steady speed on
horizontal road conditions.

4. The general formula of the rolling noise component for the site studied is then obtained by:

Lr,w/m (HGV, V ) = a + b log10 (V /80) (3.16)


8
The analysis was performed in LAmax and is transcribed here into Lw/m .

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 45


where:

a = Lr,w/m (HGV, 80)
(3.17)
b = 20

3.5.7.4 - Checking the relevance of using values other than the rolling noise component

A study has been performed on a sample of about two hundred sites to compare the trac noise obtained:

1. by summing the engine and rolling noise components dened in the emission nomograms;
2. based on the site's actual LAmax (LV, 90) and LAmax (HGV, 80) pass-by measurements;
3. based on the site's actual LAmax (LV, 90) and the LAmax (HGV, 80) estimated from the LV value under
the approach used in the previous chapter.

On each site, the sound emission power per metre of line-source for a unit ow rate (i.e. one vehicle per
hour) Lw/m has been calculated, for dierent HGV percentage hypotheses (0 to 50%) according to each of
three approaches.
The results conrm that, regardless of the surfacing category, the nomograms can deviate fairly strongly
from the measurements (standard deviation of 1 to 2.5 dB(A)) and that it is therefore preferable to use
pass-by measurement values if the conditions stated above are met.
In terms of assessing the HGV levels from LV levels, note the low sound emission power deviations compared
with the actual value (the majority are less than 1 dB), above all for the rather low HGV percentages
(remember that such an approximation will be made, in most cases, when few HGV are travelling in the
lane as it is dicult to measure them). Wherever possible, it would seem wise to use such an estimation,
therefore, in preference to the nomograms.

3.6 - Approach to producing LV rolling noise components

The LV engine component proposed, noted Lengine , is assumed to be emitted by all the mechanical sources
in an "average" vehicle representative of trac LV. It depends on the engine speed and torque. This results
here in a Lengine dependent on the speed, the gradient and the acceleration.
The assessments are rstly made in pass-by LAmax . They are then converted into Lw/m/LV . Here, The
formulae are expressed here in LAmax . They are given as line segments of the a + b log10 V type. They have
been "adjusted" to the margin to ensure their consistency.

3.6.1 - Horizontal road

Assessing the engine component of light vehicles is based on measurements on a track in controlled conditions.
The use of "in trac" surveys is virtually impossible: they must be made at very low speeds so that the
engine noise makes a signicant contribution to the total noise. This condition is more commonly found in
an urban environment where the sites are frequently not "clear" enough for acoustic measurements.
As the measurements are not taken in trac, a representative driving behaviour (using the gears depending
on the speed) has to be determined to assess the engine component.
All the LV noise measurements on a track are taken on the same site [21, 22, 23]. They will be designated
subsequently as "Track DB".

3.6.1.1 - Horizontal road, steady speed

The assessment is based on two sets of experimental data9 :

1. pass-by noise levels in the track DB,


9
It is detailed in Section 3.6.4 as a rough guide.

46 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


2. information on an experimental study into the actual uses of vehicles (EUREV DB [Andre1987]).

Pass-by noise levels


The pass-by noise levels involve fourteen vehicles covering dierent engines (diesel, petrol) and a wide
range of engine capacities [21, 22]. About ten pass-bys were made for each engages gear ratio, spread
over the range of speeds covered by the gear selected10 . All the measurements were made on the
same test track. The engine noise (depending on the engine speed) and rolling noise (depending on
the driving speed) were assessed for each vehicle. Several methods were tried and tested to assess
the engine noise: direct measurement with the vehicle stopped [Lelong1999], "direct" measurement
in actual conditions through pass-bys under driving speeds/engine speeds where the engine noise was
dominant [Lelong1999], identication method using pass-by conditions where the engine noise and
rolling noise exist together [Hamet2004].
Driving behaviour
The Eurev database [Andre1987] contains recordings (speed, engine speed, gear selected, etc.) made
on vehicles driven by their owners over a period of a few weeks (actual usage). The journeys and the
type of route travelled are not identied.
The recordings are used to determine the use percentage of the gear selected based on the speed when
travelling at a steady speed11 .
Assessing the LV engine component at steady speed
The sound level of the engine component is determined based on the speed by taking the usage per-
centage of the gear selected into account:
 for each vehicle and at each speed, the engine noise representative of the behaviour in trac is
assessed by combining (energy average) the sound levels at dierent gearbox ratios proportionally
to the use at the speed considered12 ;
 the representative LV engine component13 is then calculated for each speed by taking the energy
average (average of all vehicles) of engine noises from each vehicle.
Formulation adopted
The formulation adopted after harmonising with the other formulae is given in Table 3.2.

V [km/h] 20 to 30 30 to 110 110 to 130


Lengine [dB(A)] 60.6 66.3 + 12.0 log10 (V /90) 64.6 + 31.3 log10 (V /90)

Table 3.2: LV engine component, steady speed, horizontal road. The values correspond to the expressions
in LAmax .

3.6.1.2 - Horizontal road, acceleration

The assessment is based on two elements:

1. pass-by noise levels in the track DB database,


2. a driving behaviour hypothesis

Pass-by noise levels


The pass-by noise measurements involve ten vehicles. Ten passes were made for each gear, spread over
the entire speed range covered by the gear selected (i.e. up to very high engine speeds). The instruction
to the driver was to accelerate to adopt "real" driving behaviour; for two passes, the instruction was
10
Without exceeding 110 km/h.
11
The steady speed ranges adopted are those during which the speed remains constant for at least four seconds
12
The levels are those given by the engine component law based on the engine speed
13
Average LV in trac

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 47


to "put your foot down", but without sliding, however. The acceleration was measured at each pass.
Only the rst three gearbox ratios were used14 . The engine noise was assessed depending on the speed
for the acceleration classes of 0.5 m.s-2 of range15 .
Driving behaviour
The hypothesis adopted for the driving behaviour is that at the speed V in question the driver selects
the optimum gear16 and the maximum acceleration measured on the track in this gear.
Assessing the LV engine component when accelerating
An engine component when accelerating is therefore obtained for each vehicle (if the vehicle has not
been measured in these conditions, its engine component is assessed by extrapolation). The engine
component of a LV in trac is the energy average of engine components for ten vehicles.
Formulation adopted
The formulation adopted after harmonising with the other formulae is given in Table 3.3.

V [km/h] 10 to 20 20 to 100 100 to 130


Lengine [dB(A)] 85.7 + 24.1 log10 (V /90) 70 68.2 + 38.6 log10 (V /90)

Table 3.3: LV engine component, acceleration, horizontal road. The values correspond to the expressions in
LAmax .

3.6.1.3 - Horizontal road, deceleration

The assessment is based on two elements

1. pass-by noise levels in the track DB,


2. two driving behaviour hypotheses.

Pass-by noise levels


The measurements made on three vehicles whilst decelerating have shown that in a given speed/gear
conguration, the noise emitted is identical to the noise emitted at steady speed [Lelong2000]. It has
therefore been decided to use the steady speed noise as an experimental basis for the decelerating
noise17 .
Driving behaviour
Two driving behaviours are considered: decelerating by engine braking and using the foot brake.
 When decelerating by engine braking, the gear used at the speed in question is the optimum gear
for the vehicle. Using rst gear is however excluded: the vehicle is kept in second gear at low
speeds except when the speed drops below the lowest pass-by speed measured in second gear with
this vehicle, at which point the vehicle is taken out of gear and the engine noise is therefore the
same as when idling.
 When decelerating using the foot brake, an approach similar to steady speed is considered, exclud-
ing here also, however, the use of rst gear: where at the speed considered the driving behaviour
histogram leads to the selection of rst gear, the vehicle is kept in second gear, except when the
speed drops below the lowest pass-by speed measured in second gear with this vehicle, at which
point the vehicle is taken out of gear and the engine noise is therefore the same as when idling.
14
For the last gearbox ratios, the rolling noise dominates the engine noise (high speeds) and there is little acceleration
available.
15
[0, 0.5], ]0.5, 1.0], ..
16
The optimum gear is dened here as the gear which, at the speed in question, produces the closest engine speed to the
one relating to the maximum torque. The corresponding engine speed is not the maximum engine speed.
17
Reminder: where the decelerating engine noise is, under the same speed/gear conguration, equal to the engine speed at
steady speed, it does not necessarily follow that at the same trac speed the decelerating noise is the same as at steady speed:
the driving behaviour can in fact be dierent.

48 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


The individual engine components are assessed for each behaviour (engine component, decelerating,
for each of fourteen vehicles) and the energy average of individual engine components is adopted for
the average vehicle representative of the stream.
Using the optimum gear for the engine braking behaviour tends to consider fairly high engine speeds
and therefore give a larger engine component level than the foot brake behaviour. The dierence
ultimately proves negligible for speeds under 10 km/h, large at around 15 km/h and low from 40 km/h
upwards.

Assessing the LV engine component when decelerating


Given the lack of knowledge of actual behaviours, it has been decided to adopt for the engine compo-
nent:

 Below 80 km/h, the energy average of components obtained with both hypotheses
 Above 80 km/h, the component obtained with the "foot brake" hypothesis (i.e. the same compo-
nent as in steady speed).

Formulation adopted
The formulation adopted after harmonising with the other formulae is given in Table 3.4.

V [km/h] 10 to 25 25 to 80 80 to 110 110 to 130


Lengine [dB(A)] 73.3 + 18.7Lv 66 + 5.5Lv 66.3 + 12Lv 64.6 + 31.3Lv

Table 3.4: LV engine component, deceleration, horizontal road. The values correspond to the expressions in
LAmax . Convention: Lv = log10 (V /90).

3.6.1.4 - Horizontal road. Comparing Lengine,LV with the different traffic flow types

The engine components corresponding to the dierent trac ow types are plotted in Figure 3.8. The steady
speed condition is considered to be produced from 20 km/h only. At lower speeds, the vehicles are considered
accelerating or decelerating.

Acceleration. This is the noisiest condition at all speeds. The increase in level between 10 km/h and
20 km/h corresponds to travelling in rst gear. The constant level range corresponds to gear changes.
The increase from 100 km/h corresponds to travelling in fth (top) gear.

Deceleration. Given the two driving behaviours (engine braking, foot brake) adopted below 80 km/h,
the engine component when decelerating is higher than that obtained at steady speed.

Steady speed. This is the least noisy condition. At high speeds, the increase in noise is found to
correspond to travelling in fth (top) gear.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 49


3.6.2 - Upwards gradient

It was decided to adopt an identical engine contribution for the LV on a sliproad as on a horizontal road at
the same trac ow type.

Figure 3.8: LV - Horizontal road - Engine noise component.

3.6.2.1 - Upwards gradient, steady speed

The eect of an upwards sliproad on a vehicle travelling at steady speed is to increase the resistance to the
forward progress of the vehicle, and therefore the torque required to maintain the speed, and thus to increase
the noise radiated by the engine [Hamet2005]. At high speeds where the engine noise is masked by the rolling
noise, the expected eect on the overall noise is low. Experimental campaigns took place on test tracks in
controlled conditions [Lefevre2004], [Lefevre2004b], [Hamet2004b] and in actual trac [Hamet2006]. The
problem with the experimental approach is comparing pass-by levels observed in an upwards gradient with
those observed on a horizontal road, with everything else equal, especially the rolling noise. The rolling
noise components are, in addition, determined with a certain margin of uncertainty. Analysing results has
not produced a conclusion on an eect or a lack of eect of the upwards gradient on the engine noise. In all
hypotheses, the resulting eect on the overall noise is negligible.

3.6.2.2 - Upwards gradient, acceleration

The acceleration and the upwards gradient both increase engine load. Without knowing the cumulative
eect, it has been agreed to adopt an engine contribution identical to on a horizontal road at the same trac
ow type.

3.6.2.3 - Upwards gradient, deceleration

The upwards gradient favours deceleration and should therefore, compared with the horizontal road, reduce
the engine load at identical deceleration. Without knowing to what extent the engine load would be reduced,
it was agreed to adopt the same formula as when decelerating on a horizontal road.

50 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.6.3 - Downwards gradient

It was decided to adopt an identical engine contribution for the LV on a downwards gradient as on a horizontal
road at the same trac ow type.

3.6.3.1 - Downwards gradient, steady speed

For LV on a downwards gradient, experimental observations and theoretical reections also conclude that
there is no visible eect when in the same gear. A downwards behaviour using engine braking could indirectly
induce an eect of the downwards gradient on the engine contribution, basically at low speed. Nevertheless,
without more precise elements and given the results for an upwards gradient, it has been decided not to
retain a downwards slope eect: an identical engine contribution as on a horizontal road at the same trac
ow type is adopted for the LV on a downwards gradient at steady speed.

3.6.3.2 - Downwards gradient, acceleration

The downwards gradient favours acceleration and should therefore, at identical acceleration, reduce the
engine load. But for the normal gradients, it is assumed, as on a horizontal road, that the driver accelerates
as fast as his vehicle allows and that the engine load is therefore identical to the acceleration on a horizontal
road. The same formula is used, therefore.

3.6.3.3 - Downwards gradient, deceleration

Downwards gradient and deceleration (potentially) reduce the engine noise. As for steady speed, decelerating
using engine braking could induce an eect on the engine contribution. It has however been decided not to
retain the eect of the downwards slope. The formula for downwards decelerating is identical to that of a
horizontal road at the same trac ow type.

3.6.4 - Example: development of a LV engine component nomogram for the steady speed

3.6.4.1 - Measuring protocol

The aim of the measuring protocol is to assess the noise emitted by light vehicles travelling under various
congurations [speed/gear]. The parameters measured are:
Kinematic data The speed is measured using ve infrared cells at 10 m intervals on the edge of the track.
Reective panels are arranged on the sides of the vehicle tested. When the vehicle passes in front of the
cells, a cueing signal is recorded by the central acquisition unit. When the measurements are being sorted,
this cueing signal is used to assess the speed and incidentally locate the vehicle as it passes in front of the
microphones.
Mechanical parameters Tyre characteristics (make and size) have been included in the measuring report.
The gear ratio is noted every time the vehicle passes by. The technical sheet for each vehicle studied is also
available. This technical sheet indicates, among other things, the mechanical characteristics of the gearbox
(reduction ratios) and the axle ratio.
Acoustic data The acoustic pressure levels (A-weighted global levels) are measured using a microphone
located at the edge of the track, 7.5 m from the vehicle passage axis and 1.2 m high. This geometry responds
to the stipulations of standards NF EN ISO 11819-1 [ISO11819p1] and S 31-119 [S31119]. The level adopted
for every time the vehicle passes is Lmax .

3.6.4.2 - Determining the engine speed from the speed measurement

The engine speed can be estimated from measuring the pass-by speed of the vehicle and the gear selected
by using as information:

the mechanical characteristics of the gearbox,

the tyre characteristics.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 51


Vehicle speed and engine speed

A gearbox is characterised by its gears Rb (k) and its axle ratio Rp . The engine speed n (in rpm) is linked
to the engine speed nwheels by the relationship:

Rp
n = nwheels = nwheels i(k) (3.18)
Rb (k)

i.e., by using the relationship nwheels = 60/(2) v/r where v is the travelling speed (in m/s) and r the tyre
radius (in m):

60 v
n= i(k) (3.19)
2 r

Tyre radius

A tyre is characterized by three values L, S and D:

L: width of the tyre (mm)

S : 100 x height/width of the tyre

D: diameter of the rim (inches)

The value in metres of its radius is therefore18 :

 
D S L
r = 25.4 + 103 (3.20)
2 100

3.6.4.3 - Vehicles measured

As the aim is to create a sample representative of the number of French cars, the vehicles chosen cover the
range of engine capacities currently available on the market as far as possible and have either "petrol" or
"diesel" engines. The main characteristics of these vehicles are given in Table 3.5.

Engine
Make and Model Engine Mileage Tyres
capacity
Citron ZX Diesel 47 700 1.9 Michelin MXT 175/65/14
Opel Corsa Petrol 6 700 1.7 Michelin Energy 165/70/13
Renault Mgane Diesel 44 700 1.9 Michelin Classic 175/70/13
Citron XM Diesel 100 2.1 Michelin Energy 195/65/15
Opel Vectra Petrol 5 900 2.0 Michelin Energy 185/70/14
Ford Focus Petrol 1 400 2.0 Continental Contact 165/65/13
Opel Astra Petrol 23 200 2.0 Bridgestone 195/55/15
Citron Saxo Petrol 32 400 1.2 Michelin MXT 155/70/13
Citron Xantia Diesel 16 800 2.1 Michelin Energy 185/65/15
Ford Fiesta Petrol 41 000 1.4 Continental Contact 165/65/13
Renault Clio 1 Petrol 81 300 1.6 Michelin MXT 155/70/13
Renault Clio 2 Petrol 38 000 1.2 Dunlop SP 9 155/70/13
Ford Galaxy Diesel 21 400 1.9 Continental Contact 205/60/15
Ford Mondeo Diesel 1 400 1.8 Michelin Pilot HX 205/55/15

Table 3.5: Main characteristics of vehicles studied.

18
It is assumed to simplify things that "free" value and dynamic value are identical

52 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.6.4.4 - Passes made for each vehicle

For each gear, ten passes in the entire speed range covered by the gear selected.

Ten passes out of gear, engine idling (determining the driving speed). The pass-by speeds faster than
50 km/h are sucient to "mask" the engine noise.

The laws of evolution in the noise level depending on the speed, constructed for each vehicle and for each
gear, can prove linear (Eq. 3.21, C = 0) or quadratic (Eq. 3.21, C 6= 0). The quadratic laws basically involved
the noise levels measured in the diesel vehicles in the low gears (dominant engine noise).

LAmax (v) = A + B log10 (v/vref ) + C log210 (v/vref ) (3.21)

3.6.4.5 - Mechanical noise/rolling noise breakdown

The maximum pass-by level LAmax (global level expressed in dB(A) for each vehicle is expressed as being
the energy sum of two levels: one, Lm , corresponding to the contribution by a combination of engine sources
and mechanical components and the other, Lr , corresponding to the contribution of the tyre-road platform
contact source [Lelong1999], [Hamet2000]:

LAmax = Lm (n) Lr (v) (3.22)

where indicates an energy addition of noise levels:

h i
L1 L2 = 10 log10 100.1L1 + 100.1L2 (3.23)

Lm is supposed to depend on the engine speed and is formulated:

Lm = Am + Bm log10 (n/nref + Cm log210 (n/nref (3.24)

with nref = 1000 rpm.

Lr is supposed to depend on the speed and the surface of the test track. It is formulated:

V
Lr = Ar + Br log10 (3.25)
Vref

with Vref =90 km/h.

The coecients Am , Bm , Cm Ar Br are determined by minimisation procedure (Eq. 3.26) of the average
quadratic deviation between the levels measured and the levels calculated (Eq. 3.22, 3.24 and 3.25).

N
[LAmax (Vi ) Lm (ni , Am , Bm , Cm ) Lr (Vi , Ar , Br )]2 /N
X
{Am , Bm , Cm , Ar , Br } = arg min (3.26)
i=1

The procedure is applied to all LAmax for each vehicle, i.e. all gears together. Figure 3.9 illustrates the
result.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 53


Figure 3.9: Example of determining engine and rolling noise components for a diesel vehicle. The points
represent the noise levels measured. The total reconstituted levels (Eq. 3.21) appear as unbroken lines. The
table underneath the gure indicates, for a few characteristic speeds, the gear used, the engine speed, the
engine and rolling noise components and the total level determined from these components.

3.6.4.6 - Taking the driving behaviour into account

The experimental observations stated above have been established for vehicles travelling on the test track.
The conditions of use of these vehicles are dierent from those normally encountered in everyday trac (no
trac, road network layout, etc.). Taking into account the real use of a vehicle integrated in a stream of trac
would involve recourse to additional cumbersome experimentation using on-board instruments to compile
the useful information (cinematic and mechanical parameters such as the speed, trac ow type, engine
speed, gear selected, etc.). With no chance of this type of experimentation to update the nomograms, we
relied on an experimental study performed in the context of establishing driving cycles to measure pollutants
emitted by vehicles [Andre1987].
A database was compiled from this study containing recordings of cinematic and mechanical parameters
performed on vehicles driven by their owners over a period of a few weeks. These parameters are therefore
representative of the real use of vehicles. Note however that the information on the environment in which
the vehicles evolve (journey, type of route travelled, etc.) is not given. Three measuring campaigns took
place at European scale (1985, 1991 and 1995).
From a total of 52 vehicles (French cars), only those vehicles with ve-speed gearboxes were retained for the
assessment (37 vehicles). The recordings are used to determine the use percentage of the gear selected based
on the speed when travelling at a steady speed. The speed stability criterion corresponds to the "stabilised"

54 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


ranges during which the trac ow type does not vary more than 0.5 ms-2 for at least four seconds19 . It
has thus been possible to establish a histogram of use of gears depending on the speed (see Figure 3.10).

gear ratio and speed


100
R1
90

80 R5

70 R2
R3 R4
60
%

50

40

30

20

histogramme
10

0
20 40 60 80 100 120 140
km/h

Figure 3.10: Histogram of use of gears depending on the speed.

Assessing the engine component taking driving behaviour into account


The engine component has been assessed as follows:

1. The laws of evolution of the engine noise depending on the engine speed established for each vehicle
studied are considered:

n(Ri , V ) n(Ri , V )
Lmj (Ri , V ) = Amj + Bmj log10 + Cmj log210 (3.27)
nref nref
2. The weighted "engine noise" level is calculated for each vehicle and at each speed (real use of the
vehicle: possible use of dierent gears) using the EUREV histogram (see Figure 3.10). The assessment
takes place between 20 km/h and 130 km/h at 2 km/h intervals:

X Lmj (Ri ,V )
Lmj (V ) = 10 log10 i 10 10 (3.28)
Ri

where i is the percentage of use of gear i at speed v .


3. The "average" engine noise Lm (V ) emitted at a given speed v is determined by the energy average
Lmj (V ) in the N (N = 14) individual vehicles:

N Lmj
1 X
Lm (V ) = 10 log10 10 10 (3.29)
N
j=1

The values obtained are plotted in Figure 3.11.


19
The eect of the acceleration on the noise emitted by a vehicle is signicant when it is greater than 0.5 ms-2 [Lelong1999b]

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 55


Engine component nomogram
The approximate law is formulated approximately as segments of type a + b log10 V in three speed ranges
(Table 3.6). It is plotted in Figure 3.11.

Figure 3.11: Engine component determined from fourteen vehicles measured on the test track and the
EUREV weighting histogram (Figure 3.10) and linearisation. Dotted line: assessment per 2 km/h intervals.
Straight line: approximate law.

V (km/h) 20 to 30 30 to 110 110 to 130


Lm (dB(A)) 60.6 66.3 + 12 log10 (V /90) 64.6 + 31.3 log10 (V /90)

Table 3.6: Updating the nomogram for LV travelling at steady speed: formulation adopted for the engine
component.The values correspond to the expressions in LAmax .

56 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.7 - Approach to producing HGV engine components

This approach considers two elds:

low and average speeds, where given changes in gear, the engine component can be considered as
independent of the speed;

high speeds where, with top gear reached, the engine component increases with the speed.

3.7.1 - Speed range 20-70 km/h

3.7.1.1 - HGV at steady speed on horizontal road

Seven tractor vehicles of dierent makes and generations were measured on the test track. Each one was
hitched to two dierent trailers (one empty and one loaded) for speeds from 20 km/h to more than 80 km/h
at 10 km/h intervals. For each pass-by speed, the driver selected the gear he thought appropriate. Seeking
representative driving behaviour of a real use was therefore incorporated directly into the test conditions.
A regression of order 2 was calculated rstly in measurements where the speed was less than 60 km/h. This
curve was then broken down as a sum of a linear function rolling noise component of the speed logarithm
and a constant engine component. The latter was adopted as engine component.
The hypothesis of an engine component in LAmax independent of the speed between 20 and 70 km/h is
justied by the appearance of results of measurements obtained and by the fact that drivers of heavy goods
vehicles, with a huge number of gears, use their engine in a low variation range of the engine speed.
The validity of these results has been veried by comparison with the results of measurements performed
subsequently on a further seven vehicles.

3.7.1.2 - HGV accelerating on horizontal road

Pass-by measurements of HGV in trac have been performed at the edges of two roundabout crossroads.
About eight hundred heavy goods vehicles were measured, at points at the roundabout exit and at 100 m,
200 m and 400 m for the roundabout exit. The speeds surveyed were between 25 and 80 km/h.
The engine component is initially taken as equal to the value of the polynomial regression of measurements
at a speed of 80 km/h, to which is added a variation in 31 log(V) (variation of the Lrolling for a category 2
surface, to which the surfaces measured belong).
An engine component independent of the speed is added to this rolling noise component, which is adjusted
to minimise the sum of squares of deviations in this construction with the regression of measurements, for
low speeds, i.e. between 20 and 40 km/h. The rolling noise component is then readjusted by subtracting
the engine component found from it. Checks are made for the intermediate speeds (40 to 80 km/h) that the
construction agrees with the measurements.
This methodology is applied separately on the two sites. A third site, providing incomplete data, could not
be exploited but the consistency of measurements with the other sites was veried.
For each site, measurement deviations in relation to the construction obtained are low (in each 10 km/h
segment, the average of deviations between the pass-by measurement of each vehicle and the construction is
largely lower than one dB).
The constructions obtained in overall noise for the two sites are close as their values dier by about 1 dB(A)
at low and high speeds. The dierence in engine component is about 1.5 dB(A). The value of the engine
component adopted is the average of engine components from both sites. It has been rounded up to the next
dB to bring it closer to measurement results from the third site. Note that it is 5 dB higher than the value
obtained for a steady speed.
Example on a site Figure 3.12 presents the heavy goods vehicles measured on the rst site. The polynomial
regression (in black) in all the measurements gives a noise level of 87.1 dB(A) at 80 km/h.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 57


LAmax (dB(A)

Measurements
Construction
Polynomial regression

V (km/h)
!

Figure 3.12: Detail of the method on a site (HGV accelerating on horizontal road).

The construction (in red) is obtained by sum of a rolling noise component equal to

87.1 + 31 log10 (V /80) (3.30)

and a constant engine component which is determined so as to minimise the sum of squares of deviations in
this construction with the regression of measurements, for low speeds, i.e. between 20 and 40 km/h. The
engine component found here is 76.5 dB(A). The rolling noise component is therefore equal to the dierence
between the noise level of the regression at 80 km/h (87.1 dB(A)) and this engine component of 76.5 dB(A),
i.e. 86.7 dB(A). Attempts are therefore made to adjust the engine component by repeating the approach
with this rolling noise component value. In this case, no adjustment is necessary.

3.7.1.3 - HGV decelerating on horizontal road

Measurements were taken at the edges of a roundabout crossroads (at 25 m, 50 m and 100 m from the entry
to the roundabout), counting about three hundred HGV in trac. The speeds surveyed were between 20
and 80 km/h.
As the regression made on the measurements taken at 100 m from entry to the roundabout is 3 dB(A) less
that the closest measuring points, it has only been taken into account when calculating the rolling noise
component (they are not considered to correspond to the deceleration).
The value of the rolling noise component has been obtained by taking into account the twenty or so vehicles
with a speed between 65 and 80 km/h. This is the average of these measurements brought back to 80 km/h
by applying a pre-dened slope of 31 (slope of the Lrolling for a category 2 surface, to which the measured
surface belongs).
As for the acceleration, an engine component is added to this rolling noise component, which is adjusted to
minimise the sum of squares of deviations in this construction with the regression of measurements, for low
speeds, i.e. between 20 and 40 km/h. The rolling noise component is then readjusted by subtracting the
engine component found from it.
Measurement deviations in relation to the construction obtained are low (in each 10 km/h segment, the
average of deviations between the pass-by measurement of each vehicle and the construction is largely lower
than one dB).
Note that the value of the engine component found is the same as obtained for a steady speed.

58 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.7.1.4 - HGV at steady speed on upwards gradient

HGV in trac were measured on ve sites with gradients of between 3% and 6%. Each site normally had
at least three measuring points in the upwards direction (up to eight points on one site) and a measuring
point in a horizontal section. At least eighty HGV were measured at each point.
The speed domain observed was suciently wide (30 to 90 km/h) to assess the engine component. The
approach was applied in two stages:

knowing the engine component on a horizontal route at stabilised place (see above), the Lrolling
component associated with the surface of the site's road platform has been assessed at the measuring
point in horizontal section, by assuming that the rolling noise component is the same in the horizontal
section and on the upwards gradient;
the engine component associated with each measuring point in the upwards gradient has been sought
to adjust the measurements in the best way possible (using the same method as for the acceleration);
the Lengine values assessed for the various gradients have been deemed suciently dierent to justify
taking the "gradient" parameter into account in this component quantitatively and continuously rather
than qualitatively.

Measurement deviations in relation to the construction obtained are low (in each 10 km/h segment, the
average of deviations between the pass-by measurement of each vehicle and the construction is largely lower
than one dB).

3.7.1.5 - HGV at steady speed on downwards gradient

HGV in trac have been measured on a site with a downwards gradient of 6%. They cover about 250
vehicles travelling at between 30 and 70 km/h.
As it was impossible to take measurements in a horizontal section on the same surface, the rolling noise
component had to be pre-dened at the average value for the technique (taken from the database).
The engine component was then sought to adjust the measurements in the best way possible (same approach
as for the acceleration).
Note however that the value of the engine component obtained is very sensitive to the value of the rolling
noise component adopted as hypothesis (a 2.5 dB variation in the rolling noise component causes a 5 dB
variation in the engine component).
Measurement deviations in relation to the construction obtained are low (in each 10 km/h segment, the
average of deviations between the pass-by measurement of each vehicle and the construction is largely lower
than one dB).
Lacking information for the intermediate gradient values, the same rule of variation has been adopted as for
the upwards gradient, i.e. considering a linear variation of between 2% and 6%.

3.7.2 - High speeds: speed range 70-100 km/h

When the seven heavy goods vehicles were being measured on the test track (see Section 3.7.1.5), the
engine speeds were recorded at each pass by direct meter reading. A subsequent study [Hamet2004] applied
the approach of a breakdown into two components - engine (depending on the engine speed) and rolling
(depending on the speed) - applied previously to the LV (see Approach to producing LV engine components).
The engine component was then expressed depending on the speed, given the mechanical characteristics of
vehicles and the gears selected by the drivers. For the 20-70 km/h speed range, the average of the engine
components of the seven HGV proves to be very close to the value obtained by the initial approach.
For the 70-100 km/h speed segment, the engine component of each HGV has been extrapolated by assuming
the same driving behaviour (gear selection producing as far as possible the same engine speed). The average
of the engine components of the seven HGV thus obtained has been adopted for the new sound emission
values. This engine component is no longer independent of the speed: above 70 km/h, most HGV are in top
gear and the engine speed increases with the speed.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 59


Beyond 70 km/h, the engine component expressed in LAmax therefore increases in 13 log10 V on a horizontal
road at steady speed. This variation in 13 log10 V is also applied to the other cases by assuming that the
driver does not change gear in this speed range in any of the congurations. It follows that the engine
components in the dierent cases only dier from a constant independent of the speed.

3.7.3 - Low speeds: speed range 5-20 km/h

The approach used provides an engine component for speeds faster than 20 km/h and it has therefore been
decided to consider that this value is also constant between 5 and 20 km/h. At 20 km/h, the heavy goods
vehicles are already in a high gear and it is considered that they therefore have sucient gears from 5 km/h
onwards to drive at a constant engine speed.

3.7.4 - Traffic flow type * gradient combinations

The engine components corresponding to the acceleration and deceleration in upwards and downwards gra-
dient are deduced using the same principle as for the LV (see Section 3.6). This principle is summarised in
Table 3.7, Table 3.8 and Table 3.9.

upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%
max.(acceleration*horizontal road;
acceleration = acceleration*horizontal road
steady speed*upwards gradient)
max.(deceleration*horizontal road;
deceleration = deceleration*horizontal road
steady speed*downwards gradient)

Table 3.7: Principle of trac ow type/gradient combination.

Which applied to the HGV gives:

V - km/h 5 to 70 70 to 100
Lengine 73 + L 73.8 + 13 log10 (V /80) + L

Table 3.8: Formulation adopted for the HGV engine component for all trac ow types and all gradients
(expressions in LAmax ).

L is a correction independent of the speed, depending on the trac ow type and the gradient.

gradient
L
upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%
acceleration max (2(p 2); 5) 5 dB(A)
deceleration 0 dB(A) 1(p 2)

Table 3.9: Values of the correction L. p in % (absolute value).

60 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.8 - Comments on the new unit emission values

3.8.1 - Engine and rolling noise components

The engine and rolling noise components are the result of a construction. They are only valid insofar as their
combination restores correctly the global emission values. The new emission values have been developed by
considering that:

the rolling noise component depends on the type of vehicles (LV or HGV), the surfacing category (R1,
R2 or R3) and the speed. It does not depend on either the trac ow type (stabilised, accelerated,
decelerated) or the gradient,

the engine component depends on the type of vehicle, the speed, the trac ow type and, for the
HGV, the gradient. It does not depend on the surfacing category.

The components are given as gures for ve scenarios: the three trac ow types on horizontal road, the
upwards gradient (6%) and the downwards gradient (6%) for the steady speed. Two gures relate to each
scenario: one for the LV and the other for the HGV. On each gure are plotted, depending on the speed of
the stream (semi-logarithmical scale):

the engine component,

the rolling noise component of each of three surfacing categories,

the resulting emission levels (identied R1, R2 and R3).

A table relates to each graph in which are indicated the trac speeds20 from which the expected reduction
in trac noise by using an R1 category surface rather than an R3 category surface (see Section 3.8.2) reaches
2 dB(A)21 .

20
Approximate values at 5 km/h
21
value of the acoustic criterion used to dene the "signicant change" in an infrastructure.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 61


3.8.1.1 - Steady speed

LV

Figure 3.13: New emission values. Steady speed. Top gures: horizontal road. Middle gures: upwards
gradient (6%). Bottom gures: downwards gradient (6%). Left-hand: LV trac. Right-hand: HGV trac.

62 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


Steady speed LV HGV
Horizontal road 25 km/h 40 km/h
Upwards gradient (6%) 25 km/h 80 km/h
Downwards gradient (6%) 25 km/h 55 km/h

Table 3.10: Steady speed - speeds from which Lt (R3) Lt (R1) 2 dB(A).

3.8.1.2 - Acceleration - Horizontal road

Figure 3.14: New emission values. Acceleration, horizontal road. Left-hand: LV trac. Right-hand: HGV
trac.

Acceleration LV HGV
Horizontal road 45 km/h 60 km/h

Table 3.11: Acceleration - horizontal road - speeds from which Lt (R3) Lt (R1) 2 dB(A).

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 63


3.8.1.3 - Deceleration - Horizontal road

Figure 3.15: New emission values. Deceleration, horizontal road. Left-hand: LV trac. Right-hand: HGV
trac.

Deceleration LV HGV
Horizontal road 30 km/h 40 km/h

Table 3.12: Deceleration - horizontal road - speeds from which Lt (R3) Lt (R1) 2 dB(A).

64 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.8.2 - Surfacing effect

The surface eect is the expected dierence in trac noise through using an R1 category surface rather than
an R3 category surface.

3.8.2.1 - Steady speed

4.5
horizontal road
4 steady speed
Lt (R3) Lt (R1) (dB(A))

3.5

2.5

1.5

1
LV
0.5 HGV
0
20 30 50 70 90 130
V (km/h)

Figure 3.16: Surfacing eect on horizontal road for the steady speed.

The eect in steady speed on a horizontal road is plotted in Figure 3.16. It is virtually higher than 2 dB(A)
from 25 km/h for LV trac and 40 km/h for HGV trac.

5 5

4.5 6% upwards 4.5 6% downwards


4 steady speed 4 steady speed
Lt (R3) Lt (R1) (dB(A))

Lt (R3) Lt (R1) (dB(A))

3.5 3.5

3 3

2.5 2.5

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1
LV LV
0.5 HGV 0.5 HGV
0 0
20 30 50 70 90 130 20 30 50 70 90 130
V (km/h) V (km/h)

Figure 3.17: Surfacing eect on a sliproad with 6% upwards (left-hand) and downwards (right-hand) gradient.
Steady speed.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 65


A gradient does not aect the LV emission level22 . The surfacing eect for this category is therefore the same
as on a horizontal road. The surfacing eect is negligible for the HGV trac on a 6% upwards gradient: it
only exceeds 2 dB(A) from 80 km/h onwards (Figure 3.17, left-hand graph). However, on a 6% downwards
gradient, the surfacing eect exceeds 2 dB(A) from 55 km/h onwards (Figure 3.17, right-hand graph).

3.8.2.2 - Acceleration and deceleration

5 5

4.5 horizontal road 4.5 horizontal road


4 acceleration 4 deceleration
Lt (R3) Lt (R1) (dB(A))

Lt (R3) Lt (R1) (dB(A))


3.5 3.5

3 3

2.5 2.5

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1
LV LV
0.5 HGV 0.5 HGV
0 0
20 30 50 70 90 130 20 30 50 70 90 130
V (km/h) V (km/h)

Figure 3.18: Surfacing eect on a horizontal road for accelerated (left-hand) and decelerated (right-hand)
trac ow types.

In acceleration on a horizontal road, the surfacing eect exceeds 2 dB(A) from 45 km/h onwards for LV
trac and 50 km/h onwards for HGV trac. In deceleration, the critical speed drops to 25 km/h for the
LV trac and 45 km/h for the HGV trac.

3.8.3 - Traffic flow type effect

3.8.3.1 - Acceleration/steady speed

Figure 3.19: LV trac. Dierence in emission between acceleration and steady speed. Left-hand: LV.
Right-hand: HGV.
22
The new values are established for gradients of less than 6%.

66 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


On a horizontal road, the emission values are greater in acceleration and in steady speed (Figure 3.19). They
depend on the surface. For the LV (left-hand graph), the dierence exceeds 2 dB(A) up to 45 km/h for
category R2 and up to 55 km/h for category R1. For the HGV (right-hand graph), the dierence remains
greater than 2 dB(A) below 35 km/h for category R2 and below 45 km/h for category R1.

3.8.3.2 - Deceleration/steady speed

On a horizontal road, the LV emission values in deceleration dier little from those in steady speed (Fig-
ure 3.20). The HGV emission values in deceleration are the same as in steady speed.

Figure 3.20: LV trac. Dierence in emission between deceleration and steady speed.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 67


3.9 - Comparing unit emission values with those in the French "Guide du Bruit" (1980) [GdB1980]

For convenience, we shall use the term `GdB80' to refer to the Guide to Land Transport Noise [GdB1980]
which dates from 1980.

3.9.1 - Data in French "Guide du Bruit" (GdB80)

The unit emission values in GdB80 are sound emissions E of the detailed method [GdB1980], supplied as
nomograms in the volume "Sound level forecast" and reproduced in Figure 3.21.

Figure 3.21: Unit emissions of vehicles [according to [GdB1980]].

The sound emission E of a vehicle is dened conventionally by the relationship:

E = Lw 10 log10 V 50 (3.31)

It is equal numerically to the Leq,1h triggered by a vehicle with sound power Lw , travelling at speed V km/h
on a straight lane 50 m from the measuring point23 .
The sound emission E is given, depending on the speed, for two categories of vehicle (LV: less than 3.5 t and
HGV: 3.5 t or more) and twelve congurations characterised by the type of ow and the type of longitudinal
prole.
Some congurations are considered to be equivalent, i.e. producing the same noise. The equivalences are
not the same for the LV and the HGV. They are summarised in Table 3.13. All the congurations identied
23
In a clear site (no nearby screen or buildings) and with reecting ground.

68 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


by the same symbol have the same emission level. The noise of LV is thus dened by seven sound emission
nomograms, with four for the HGV.

LV HGV
GdB80 E
horizontal upwards downwards horizontal upwards downwards
prole gradient gradient prole gradient gradient
continuous
0 0
freely-moving x
A B
pulsed no A
+ +
dierentiation
pulsed
a b +
accelerated
pulsed
c + d C D
decelerated

Table 3.13: GdB80, unit emissions equivalence grid: congurations with the same symbol have the same
sound emission level E .

3.9.2 - New unit values

The option adopted for the new values is to characterise the sound emission by the sound power of a "line-
source", quantity best suited to trac noise forecasting software. It is given per unit of length. Its level, for
a ow rate of one vehicle/hour is:

Lw/m/veh = Lw 10 log10 V 30 (3.32)

The sound emission is, here also, given as a function of the speed for both vehicle categories, but with only
nine trac ow type/longitudinal prole congurations considered (Table 3.14).

LV HGV
Lw/m
horizontal upwards downwards horizontal upwards downwards
steady speed s S B C
acceleration a A E A
deceleration d S C

Table 3.14: New guide, unit emissions equivalence grid: congurations with the same symbol have the same
sound emission level Lw/m .

The emission values obtained for the LV are proving to depend on the trac ow type only, not the gradient.
Those obtained for the HGV depend normally on trac ow type and gradient24 .

3.9.3 - Comparison

The cross-reference of Lw/m with E is:

Lw/m/veh = E + 20 (3.33)

3.9.3.1 - Traffic flow types

The GdB80 considers continuous freely-moving, pulsed accelerated and pulsed decelerated ows. The new
guide considers steady speed, acceleration and deceleration. The comparisons will be made between contin-
uous freely-moving/steady speed, pulsed accelerated/acceleration and pulsed decelerated/deceleration.
24
The new values are only established for gradients of no more than 6%

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 69


The pulsed, no dierentiation ow considered in the GdB80 contrasts with the freely-moving ow. It is
neither stable nor over time (abrupt variation of ow rates in short time periods) nor in trac ow types
(irregular concentration of vehicles in the section studied, at a given moment). The new procedure sub-divides
a line-source into acoustically-homogeneous sections (ow rate, speed, trac ow type) and therefore does
not provide an emission value for this type of ow.

3.9.3.2 - Gradient

In both the GdB80 and the new guide, gradients less than 2% are considered not to have an inuence on
the sound emission of a vehicle.
The GdB80 considers that the sound emissions are independent of the gradient, both upwards and down-
wards25 . The new guide reaches the same conclusion for the LV26 ; however, for some congurations, the HGV
emission values depend on the gradient. The new guide only gives assessments for gradients not exceeding
6% and the comparisons with the GdB80 are made for a gradient of 6%.

3.9.3.3 - Surfaces

The inuence of the surface (category, age) was not considered in the GdB80. The comparisons are made
here with the new emission values corresponding to recent surfaces (two years or less) and not those over
ten years old.

3.9.3.4 - Organisation

The comparisons are organised by trac ow type (stabilised, accelerated, decelerated) and, for each trac
ow type, by type of longitudinal prole (horizontal road, 6% upwards gradient, 6% downwards gradient).

3.9.3.5 - Graphic presentation

The comparisons are given in each category/conguration in the form of two graphs, with the speed as a
variable: one (top graph) with the emission values from the GdB80 and the new guide plotted (for the R1,
R2 and R3 categories) and the other (bottom graph) where the dierence between the emission values given
by the new guide (category R3) and by the GdB80 are plotted. A negative means that the trac noise (on
a category R3 surface) is today lower than in the 1970s. To recall that the ageing eect is not included here,
the categories are identied R1 J, R2 J and R3 J.

25
More than 2%.
26
It is even concluded that at a given trac ow type, the LV emission values, on a horizontal road, an upwards gradient
or a downwards gradient, are the same.

70 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.9.4 - Steady speed (Figure 3.22)

3.9.4.1 - Steady speed - horizontal road (Figure 3.22 top graphs)

From about 40 km/h, the new LV emission values for category R3 J are the same as in the GdB80: at
medium and high speeds, the LV trac noise on category R3 surfaces is the same today as 25 years ago27 .
Beyond 40 km/h the new emission values are lower. This can be interpreted today as resulting from a
reduced engine noise component in light vehicles on the road between the 1980s and today. The reduction
in the trac noise is about 3 dB(A) at 25 km/h.
The new HGV emission values in R3 J are only identical to the GdB80 values beyond 70 km/h. At 25 km/h,
the HGV trac noise given by the new guide (R3 J) is 9 dB(A) lower than the GdB80.

3.9.4.2 - Steady speed - upwards gradient (Figure 3.22 middle graphs)

Old and new emission values (R3 J) for an upwards gradient come together from 80 km/h onwards for the
LV and 60 km/h onwards for the HGV (6% gradient). The deviations at 25 km/h between new and GdB80
values are greater for the LV (L = 10 dB(A)) and less so for the HGV (L = 4 dB(A)) than noted in
the horizontal road.

3.9.4.3 - Steady speed - downwards gradient (Figure 3.22 bottom graphs)

For the LV, same results and comments as for steady speed/horizontal road.
According to the GdB80, the HGV travelling at steady speed make the same noise on a downwards gradient
as on a horizontal road. The new estimations suggest that a gradient above -2% increases the sound emission
of HGV.
The HGV emission given by the new guide in R3 J is less than given by the GdB80 below 70 km/h. The
deviation reaches -6 dB(A) at 25 km/h. Beyond 70 km/h the levels are practically the same.

27
See Section 3.9.3

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 71


Figure 3.22: Steady speed. GdB80 emissions and new values (without ageing eect). Left-hand: LV. Right-
hand: HGV. Top: horizontal road. Middle: Upwards gradient (6% for the new guide). Bottom: downwards
gradient (6% for the new guide).

72 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.9.5 - Acceleration (Figure 3.23)

3.9.5.1 - Acceleration - horizontal road (Figure 3.23 top graphs)

At acceleration, the LV emissions in category R3 J are practically equal to the GdB80 emissions beyond 55
km/h. The deviation at very low speeds is in the order as noted for the steady speed.
For the HGV, the dierences at low speeds are lower than noted at steady speed (at 25 km/h, L = 6
dB(A) at acceleration against L = 9 dB(A) at steady speed). New values in R3 J and GdB80 values
come together from 70 km/h onwards.

3.9.5.2 - Acceleration - upwards gradient (Figure 3.23 middle graphs)

The LV emission values in upwards gradient/acceleration are only given in the GdB80 for speeds lower than
60 km/h. They are 3 dB(A) to 4 dB(A) higher than the new values (R3 J).
The HGV emission in upwards gradient is the same for both the GdB80 and the new values (sliproad
6%) at acceleration and at steady speed. Old and new values come together from 60 km/h onwards. The
deviation between values at 25 km/h is L = 4 dB(A).

3.9.5.3 - Acceleration - downwards gradient (Figure 3.23 bottom graphs)

The acceleration/downwards gradient conguration is the only one where the new LV emission values are
proving to be very close to the GdB80 values over the entire speed range28 .
According to the GdB80 and the new guide, an HGV driving at acceleration on a downwards gradient
makes the same noise as at accelerated rate on a horizontal road29 . For the observations see therefore
acceleration/horizontal road above.
The HGV emission given by the new guide in R3 is less than given by the GdB80 below about 70 km/h.
The deviation is about -5 dB(A) at 25 km/h. Beyond 70 km/h the levels are practically the same.

28
The LV emission values are considered to be independent of the gradient for both the GdB80 and the new guide. The
values in the new guide are only established for gradients of no more than 6%
29
The HGV emission values are at acceleration/downwards gradient are independent of the gradient for both the GdB80
and the new guide. The values in the new guide are only established for gradients of no more than 6%.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 73


Figure 3.23: Acceleration. GdB80 emissions and new values (without ageing eect). Left-hand: LV. Right-
hand: HGV. Top: horizontal road. Middle: Upwards gradient (6% for the new guide). Bottom: downwards
gradient (6% for the new guide).

74 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.9.6 - Deceleration (Figure 3.25)

3.9.6.1 - Deceleration - horizontal road (Figure 3.25 top graphs)

Unlike what is seen in most other cases, the new emission values in R3 J are proving in some speed ranges
to be higher than given in the GdB80 (between 40 km/h and 100 km/h for the LV, below 95 km/h for the
HGV).
The approach used to construct the new values considers that the deceleration is obtained by some drivers
using the foot brake and by others applying engine braking. The engine component and the overall emission
are therefore greater at deceleration than at steady speed.
The GdB80 emission values at steady speed and at deceleration are plotted on the same graph, Figure 3.24.
According to the GdB80, a decelerating LV emits somewhat less noise than at steady speed (left-hand graph)
and a decelerating HGV emits far less noise than at steady speed (right-hand graph).

Figure 3.24: GdB80 Horizontal road. Steady speed and deceleration. Left-hand: LV. Right-hand: HGV.

3.9.6.2 - Deceleration - upwards gradient (Figure 3.25 middle graphs)

GdB80 and the new guide give the same emission values from 50 km/h onwards as for the LV in upwards
gradient/deceleration. At 25 km/h the deviation between values reaches -6 dB(A).
According to the GdB80, the HGV at deceleration makes more noise on an upwards gradient on than a
horizontal road. According to the new estimations, the HGV at deceleration makes the same noise on an
upwards gradient as on a horizontal road. The new values (R3 J) are proving practically equal to the GdB80
values above 60 km/h. The deviation at 25 km/h is in the order of -4 dB(A).

3.9.6.3 - Deceleration - downwards gradient (Figure 3.25 bottom graphs)

The LV emission values given by the GdB80 for the downwards gradient/deceleration conguration are the
lowest of all. Apart from at very low speeds, they are proving to be lower than the new values (R3 J).
For both the GdB80 and the new guide, the HGV emission values in a 6% downwards gradient at deceleration
are the same as at steady speed.
The HGV emission given by the new guide in R3 J is less than given by the GdB80 below 70 km/h. The
deviation reaches -6 dB(A) at 25 km/h. Beyond 70 km/h the levels are practically the same.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 75


Figure 3.25: Steady speed. GdB80 emissions and new values (without ageing eect). Left-hand: LV. Right-
hand: HGV. Top: horizontal road. Middle: Upwards gradient (6% for the new guide). Bottom: downwards
gradient (6% for the new guide).

76 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.9.6.4 - Conclusion

Apart from the three trac ow type/conguration scenarios, the emission values in the new guide in the
R3 category (without ageing eect) virtually match the GdB80 values at high speeds, an area where rolling
noise dominates. It seems therefore that the driving speed on category R3 surfaces corresponds to the driving
speed on the 1970s' surfaces for both LV and HGV. This is not too surprising inasmuch as the surfacing
techniques used in the 1970s were in the main classied in category R3. This implies however that the
acoustic characteristics of tyres have changed little since the 1970s (this acoustic tyre stability was noted by
Sandberg for the period 1920-1980 [Sandberg1984]).
At low speeds, the new emission values are normally lower than the GdB80 values. This can be interpreted
as resulting from a reduced engine component in light vehicles on the road between the 1980s and today.
The noise reductions noted at 25 km/h are in the order of 3 dB(A) for LV and 5 dB(A) for HGV.

3.9.7 - A few characteristic values

3.9.7.1 - Critical speeds

The speed over which the emission values in the new guide in R3 remain practically equal to the GdB80
values depends on the vehicle category and the conguration Table 3.15.

horizontal upwards downwards horizontal upwards downwards


LV HGV
prole gradient gradient prole gradient gradient
steady steady
40 80 40
speed speed 70
60 70
acceleration 80 x 80 acceleration
deceleration x 50 x deceleration x

Table 3.15: Speeds (in km/h) over which the emission values in the GdB80 and the new guide (R3) remain
practically equal.

3.9.7.2 - Differences at 25 km/h

At low speeds, the new emission values are normally lower than the GdB80 values. The dierences at a
speed of 25 km/h are given in Table 3.16.

horizontal upwards downwards horizontal upwards downwards


LV HGV
prole gradient gradient prole gradient gradient
steady steady
-10 -9 -6
speed -3 -3 speed
-4
acceleration -4 acceleration -6 -5
deceleration x -6 x deceleration x -6

Table 3.16: Dierences in dB(A) between the new guide values (R3) and the GdB80 values at 25 km/h.

3.9.8 - Heavy Goods Vehicle equivalent

The heavy goods vehicle equivalent is a notion introduced in the simplied GdB80 method to simplify the
calculations. It is used to assess the trac noise from a single equation where a single speed - that of LV -
gures. The expression takes the form30 :

Leq = 10 log10 (QLV + EqHGV QHGV ) + 20 log10 V + ... (3.34)

30
The acoustic equivalence factor and the sound emission level are designated by the same symbol E in the GdB80. We
propose using EqHGV here to avoid any confusion.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 77


QLV : representative LV ow rate,

QHGV : representative HGV ow rate,

EqHGV : acoustic equivalence factor between HGV and LV

V trac speed.

The equivalence is also expressed by the relationship HGV = EqHGV LV EqHGV takes into account the
fact that the HGV trac speed can be dierent from the LV speed. The values proposed in the GdB80 are
repeated in Table 3.17:

2% 3% 4% 5% 6%
Motorway 4 5 6
Urban expressway 7 9 10 11 12
Urban road 10 13 16 18 20

Table 3.17: Acoustic equivalence factor EqHGV between HGV and LV: HGV = EqHGV LV (simplied
GdB80 method).

3.9.8.1 - New values

Unless speed cross-references can be found between HGV and LV used in the GdB80 for various types of lane,
it is impossible to give an HGV equivalence for the new values which can be compared with the simplied
method.
An equivalence factor EqHGV is proposed, with as speed hypothesis

V 100 km/h: LV and HGV travel at the same speed,

V > 100 km/h: the HGV travel at 100 km/h.

The emission levels taken here for the new guide correspond to an aged surface.
The values EqHGV corresponding to the new emission values are plotted in Figure 3.26 (steady speed, hor-
izontal road), 3.44 (steady speed, 6% upwards gradient and 6% downwards gradient) and 3.45 (acceleration
and deceleration on horizontal road) for the three surfacing categories. The GdB80 values are re-assessed
using nomograms in Figure 1 of the GdB80.
The equivalence factor generally depends on the speed. For the new values and at speeds faster than 100
km/h, it diminishes when the speed increases: the noise of the LV increases with the speed whilst the HGV
continue to travel at a speed of 100 km/h. The equivalence factors in R1 and R2 are close and higher than
the equivalence factor in R3.

78 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


3.9.8.2 - Stabilised speed, horizontal road

Figure 3.26: Equivalence factor EqHGV . Stabilised speed - horizontal road.

The equivalence factors in R1 and R2 are in the order of eight between 60 km/h and 100 km/h. The R3
equivalence factor is in the order of six in the same speed range. The equivalence factor increases signicantly
at low speeds for all three categories.
Beyond 65 km/h, the GdB80 equivalence factor is rather close to that of R1 and R2.

3.9.8.3 - Upwards or downwards gradient at steady speed

! !

Figure 3.27: Equivalence factor EqHGV . Stabilised speed - LEFT-HAND: upwards gradient. RIGHT-
HAND: downwards gradient.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 79


Between 60 km/h and 100 km/h at steady speed, the equivalence factor in R1 and R2 is in the order of ten
to fteen in an upwards gradient and in the order of nine in a downwards gradient. In R3 where there is
more rolling noise, the equivalence factor is lower (about six to eight). The equivalences given by the GdB80
are comparable orders of magnitude.

3.9.8.4 - Acceleration or deceleration on horizontal road

Figure 3.28: Equivalence factor EqHGV . Stabilised speed. LEFT-HAND: accelerating. RIGHT-HAND:
decelerating.

When accelerating or decelerating on a horizontal road, the HGV are considered to make about seven times
more noise than the LV, except at very high speeds for both cases and very low speeds for deceleration.
The GdB80 gives comparable equivalences, except at low speeds.

3.9.9 - Special elements

The data relating to trenches, tunnels and coverings have not been deal with and updated in this guide. The
formula given in the GdB80 remain unchanged therefore [GdB1980].

3.10 - Spectral distribution

3.10.1 - Origin of values

The spectre values provided are taken from measurements listed in the "rolling noise" database and obtained
by the pass-by method. A spectrum is association with each database road section, obtained form vehicles
measured31 (at least eighty).
Average LV and HGV spectra in third-octave band have been calculated as follows:

all the spectra in the database have been brought to an overall value of 0 dB(A);

per surfacing technique and per type of vehicle (LV and HGV), the arithmetical average per third
octave of all the spectra has been calculated. This average has then been brought to an overall value
of 0 dB(A);
31
This spectrum is obtained by calculating, in each third-octave band, the linear regression of LAmax levels of vehicles
according to the speed logarithm. It is given for a certain value of the speed, called reference speed [see standard 31 119].

80 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


these average spectra per technique have been classied into four families distinguishing between the
LV and HGV and between porous and non-porous surfaces.

When examining these average spectra obtained per surfacing technique, it is clear that in the non-porous
surfacing family, the standard deviation of spectra is 1 to 2 dB according to the frequencies for the LV and
0.5 to 1.5 dB according to the frequencies for the HGV. For the porous surfaces, the data used basically
cover the BBDr 0/10 surface and the notion of standard deviation is therefore not appropriate.
An examination of graphic representations has shown that, inside each of the four families, the spectra are of
similar form. They have therefore all be included in the calculation of spectra representative of each family,
i.e.:

150 LV spectra and eighty HGV spectra for the non-porous surfaces,

30 LV spectra and twenty HGV spectra for the porous surfaces.

The representative spectra for each family have been calculated by creating the arithmetical average per
third octave of spectra in each technique. This average has then been brought to an overall value of 0
dB(A).

Note
The type 2 BBTM (Very Thin Asphalt Concrete) surfaces cannot be classied in the same surfacing family
as the porous surfaces as the forms dier: their spectra show a peak towards 1000 Hz, which is not present
in the porous surface spectra.

3.10.2 - Influence of speed

This approach to determining vehicle sound emission spectra does not take account any potential inuence of
speed on the form of the spectrum (the hypothesis adopted is that the speed alters the level of the spectrum,
not its form).

Note
The spectra dened here are taken from pass-by values measured at high speeds. It was considered
that they could also be used in the speed domain where the engine noise dominates. Observations have
shown that the frequency ranges brought into play are similar for both the engine and the rolling noise
components.

3.10.3 - Representativeness of spectra and advantage of separating LV from HGV

The "trac" spectra with a pre-dened percentage of 85% LV and 15% HGV were compared with fteen
spectra (including four porous) also measured in LAeq (at 7.5 m from the lane and 1.2 m high for 45 minutes).
This comparison shows that the pre-dened spectra (porous/non-porous surfaces) are well within the zones
of values measured under medium and high frequencies, but that they are systematically under frequencies
lower than 500 Hz. However, these deviations have little inuence on the overall level.
To assess the advantage of presenting two dierentiated LV and HGV spectra, the inuence of the HGV
percentage has been studied by comparing the constructed noise spectra with extreme HGV proportions
(0% and 40%). Note that the "trac" spectra reformed with a variable proportion of HGV are very similar,
except in the 400-630 Hz range (i.e. the 500 Hz bandwidth), where the width of the envelope reaches 5 to 6
dB for the non-porous surfaces and 2 to 3 dB for the porous surfaces.
Given these results, the representation by a single emission spectrum combining both types of vehicle has
been adopted to predict the noise not far from the road, as the two disadvantages mentioned (weaknesses in
the aggregates and variability according to the HGV percentage around 500 Hz) do not seem unacceptable
given the relatively low weight of the frequencies in question.

Chapter 3. Comments and analyses 81


3.10.4 - Propagation from afar

To ensure that the contribution by these frequencies to the overall noise remains limited even far from the
road, spectra with various LV compositions have been propagated 100 m and 200 m away using a theoretical
model, with a simple site conguration (road at natural level of the land, at ground) for both times of
favourable and homogeneous meteorological conditions. The results show a low scattering of attenuations
compared with 7.50 m, regardless of the scenarios envisaged. However, the results obtained with 15% HGV
are closer to the results obtained for trac with 40% HGV than with 0%. Trac including 10% HGV has
therefore been adopted as an intermediate value (the corresponding spectra, per third octave, are given in
Section 2.8).

3.10.5 - Changes over previous values

The spectrum in the NMPB 96 [NMPB96] is dened in bandwidths and it is therefore dicult to compare
it directly with the spectra in the current method (given in third-octave bands).
As a rough guide, Figure 3.29 compares both spectra in the current method (porous and non-porous surfaces)
with the spectrum provided by standard EN 1793-3 [EN1793p3] (the spectrum in the NMPB 96 is taken
directly from this standard, by summing third-octave bands).

70
NMPB 2008 Non drainage
65 NMPB 2008 Drainage
EN 1793-3
60
LAw (dB)

55

50

45

40

35
125 250 500 1000 2000 4000
Frequency (Hz)

Figure 3.29: Comparison between dened spectra and the spectrum in standard EN 1793-3.

In the high and low frequencies, the spectra proposed are lower than the spectrum in standard EN 1793-3,
whereas this is found more between the porous and non-porous spectra in the medium frequencies (dominant
frequencies).

82 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


4 - Bibliography

4.1 - Bibliographic references

[Andre1987] M. Andr, J.P. Roumegoux, J. Delsey, J.P. Guitton, and J.P., Experimental study on the
actual uses of vehicles (EUREV) - Technical Report No. 48, Copyright 1987 INRETS.

[CFTR4] Inuence of the road platform surface course Note Cftr 4, Copyright June 2001. CFTR.

[DOT1995] G. Fleming, A. Rapoza, and C. Lee, Development of national reference energy mean emission
levels for the FHWA Trac Noise Model - Final report, Copyright 1995 US Department
of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration.

[Decree95] Decree 95-22 of 9 January 1995 on the limitation of the noise from land transport develop-
ments and infrastructures (FROJ of 10/01/95).

[Doisy2005] S. Doisy, Exploitation of the "Driving noise" database:LAmax HGV / LAmax LV relation-
ship, Copyright May 2005 LRPC Strasbourg.

[EN1793p3] NF EN 1793-3 (classication index: S 31-303), Road trac noise reducing devices - Test
method for determining the acoustic performance - Part 3: normalised trac noise spec-
trum., Copyright November 1997 AFNOR.

[END] European Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and Council of 25 June 2002
relative to the assessment and management of environmental noise, ECOJ of 18 July 2002.

[FD2005] Road safety in France: 2005 assessment. Extracts can be consulted online at
http://www2.securiteroutiere.gouv.fr/infos-ref/observatoire/l-observatoire/l-observatoire-
national-interministeriel-de-securi.html, Copyright 2005 French documentation.

[GdB1980] Guide du bruit des transports terrestres - Prvision des niveaux sonores, Copyright 1980
CERTU (in french), 317p, 2-11-083290-8.

[Hamet2000] J.F. Hamet and V. Steimer, Noise from road trains - Simplied modelling from measure-
ments on test tracks - Technical Report LTE 2025, Copyright 2000 INRETS.

[Hamet2004] J.F. Hamet, Road train noise - Estimated engine noise when driving in suitable gear -
Technical Report LTE 0413, Copyright 2004 INRETS.

[Hamet2004b] J.F. Hamet and J. Lelong, Light vehicle noise on sliproad - Analysis of results obtained on
the Charade site - Technical Report LTE 0437, Copyright 2004 INRETS.

[Hamet2005] J.F. Hamet and J. Lelong, Acoustic emission of a passenger car - Eect of road gradient -
Technical Report SILVIA-INRETS-015-WP5, Copyright 2005 INRETS.

[Hamet2006] J.F. Hamet and J. Lelong, Light vehicle noise on sliproad - Analysis of results obtained on
the Orcines la Baraque site - Technical Report LTE 0617, Copyright 2006 INRETS.

[Hamet2007] JF. Hamet, F. Besnard, and J. Lelong, New sound emission values for road vehicles. The
acoustically-homogeneous section. Report INRETS/LTE 0721, Copyright November
2007 INRETS.

[IRT1979] G. Pachiaudi and B. Favre, Noise caused by means of transport - Information note no. 15,
Copyright 1979 IRT.

[ISO11819p1] ISO 11819-1 - Acoustics - Measurement of the inuence of road platform surfaces on trac
noise - Part 1: Statistical pass-by method, Copyright September 1997 ISO.

[Law2005] Law 2005-1319 of 26 October 2005 covering various provisions for adapting community
environmental law, (FROJ of 27 October 2005)..

Bibliography 83
[Lefevre2004] H. Lefevre, Pass-by noise measurement - Controlled Vehicle method on national roads and
track - acoustic eect of a sliproad and acceleration on the sound emission of an HGV -
Technical Report, Copyright 2004 LR Clermont-Ferrand.

[Lefevre2004b] H. Lefevre, HVG noise measurement on sliproad at low speed - Charade Track - Technical
Report, Copyright 2004 LR Clermont-Ferrand.

[Lelong1997a] J. Lelong, Inuence of vehicles on intercity trac noise - HGV/road train sensitivity tests
Technical Report MMA 9701, Copyright 1997 INRETS.

[Lelong1997b] J. Lelong, Inuence of vehicles on urba trac noise - HGV/road train sensitivity tests
Technical Report MMA 9703, Copyright 1997 INRETS.

[Lelong1999] J. Lelong, "Vehicle noise emission of tyre/road and motor noise contribution".
Internoise, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, 1999.

[Lelong1999b] J. Lelong and R. Michelet, "Eect of acceleration on vehicle noise emission".


Forum Acusticum, Berlin, 1999.

[Lelong2000] J. Lelong, Light vehicles - Acoustic emission at dierent urban and intercity trac ow
types - Technical Report LTE 2024, Copyright 2000 INRETS.

[Michelet1998] R. Michelet and J. Lelong, Acoustic emissions from road vehicles - Measuring campaigns
1997 - Technical Report MMA 9802b,, Copyright 1998 INRETS.

[Michelet1999] R. Michelet and J. Lelong, Acoustic emissions from road vehicles - Measuring campaigns
1998 - Technical Report LTE 9922, Copyright 1999 INRETS.

[NFS31119p2] NF S 31-119-2 - Acoustics: In situ characterisation of acoustic qualities of road platform


surfaces - Pass-by acoustic measurements - "Controlled Vehicles" procedure, Copyright
December 2000 AFNOR.

[NMPB96] Bruit des infrastructures routires, Copyright 1997 CERTU,CSTB,LCPC,SETRA (in


french), Mthode de calcul incluant les eets mtorologiques - version exprimentale -
NMPB Routes 96, 98p, 2-11-089201-3 (in french).

[Note77] Road noise prediction calculation - Daily trac proles on intercity roads and motorways.
Economics, Environment and Design Information Note no. 77, Copyright February 2007
Stra, 10 p.

[Order95] Order of 5 May 1995 on the noise from road infrastructures., FROJ of 10/05/95.

[Ruling2004] Ruling 2004-119 of 12 November 2004, FROJ of 14 November 2004.

[S31119] S 31-119 - Acoustics: In situ characterisation of acoustic qualities of road platform surfaces
- Pass-by acoustic measurements, Copyright october 1993 AFNOR.

[Sandberg1984] U. Sandberg, Six decades of vehicle noise abatement - but what happened to the tires ? -
Technical Report 100, Copyright 1984 VTI.

[Setra1999] Trac structure in the national road network - Analysis and changes, Copyright 1999
Stra, 30 p.

[Setra2004] Time-ow rate functions on intercity motorways - Renewing relationships between journey
time and ow rate to simulate trac - Technical report, Copyright November 2001
(re-issued July 2004) Stra.

[Setra2007] Acoustic saturation on intercity motorways. Study report, Copyright March 2007 Stra.

84 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


4.2 - Stra bibliographical documents

[GdB1980] Guide du bruit des transports terrestres - Prvision des niveaux sonores, Copyright 1980
CERTU (in french), 317p, 2-11-083290-8.

[NMPB2008] Methodological Guide - Road noise prediction - 2- Noise propagation computation method
including meterological eects (NMPB 2008), Copyright 2009 Stra.

[NMPB96] Bruit des infrastructures routires, Copyright 1997 CERTU,CSTB,LCPC,SETRA (in


french), Mthode de calcul incluant les eets mtorologiques - version exprimentale -
NMPB Routes 96, 98p, 2-11-089201-3 (in french).

[Note78] Road noise prediction calculation - Daily trac proles on intercity roads and motorways.
Economics, Environment and Design Information Note no. 78, Copyright February 2007
Stra, 10.

[Setra2001] Road noise and studies - Project Manager Manual, Copyright October 2001 Stra,
CERTU.

Bibliography 85
Appendices

86 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


A - Notations and symbols

the decibel (A), unit used to express the sound level, or pressure level,
representative of the transmitted energy. Weighting curves are used to take
dB(A)
account of the eective sensation of the human ear. The A weighting curve is
used for road noise and indeed for most environmental noise.
light vehicles, vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of less than
LV
3.5 tonnes
HGV heavy goods vehicles, vehicles with a GVWR of more than 3.5 tonnes.
L sound level dened by the following relationship
2
L = 10 log10 pp2
0
p average of the quadratic pressure or gradient of the land
p0 reference pressure, equal to the threshold of absolute audibility: 2.10-5 Pa
equivalent noise level, expressed in A decibels, representing the constant noise
level potentially produced by the same energy as the actually existing noise
during the period T in question. It therefore expresses the average of the
LAeq,T
energy received, with the A weighting taking account of the sensitivity of the
ear based on the frequency from a standardised weighting curve. The LAeq
calculation formula is:R 2 
LAeq,T = 10 log10 T1 T p p(t)
2 dt
0
T period considered
V vehicle speed
Vref reference speed (90 km/h for LV and 80 km/h for HGV)
Vmin minimum speed
Vmax maximum speed
W sound power
W0 reference sound power of value W0 = 1012 W
maximum sound level noted during a given period using "pass-by" measuring
LAmax
procedures
Lw sound power level of formula
W
Lw = 10 log10 W 0
Lw/m emission power per metre of lane
Lw/m (j) sound emission power per metre of line-source and per third-octave band
emission power per metre of lane of the vehicle category for a unit ow rate (1
veh/h). It can also be noted Lw/m . This therefore gives Lw/m/LV (respectively
Lw/m
Lw/m/HGV ) for the LV (respectively HGV). It is broken down into two terms
Lr,w/m and Lm,w/m according to the following formula:
Lw/m/veh = Lr,w/m Lm,w/m
is the component of Lw/m assumed to be emitted by the contact between tyre
Lr,w/m and road platform, also known as the "rolling noise component". It can also be
noted Lrolling
is the component of Lw/m/veh assumed to be emitted by all vehicle mechanical
Lm,w/m sources also known as the "power unit noise component". It can also be noted
Lengine
represents the added
 energy:
L1 L2 = 10 log10 100.1L1 + 100.1L2


Lr,w/m error committed in the emission level of the "rolling" component


Lm,w/m error committed in the emission level of the "engine" component
Ri gear
AADT annual average daily trac
%HGV percentage of heavy goods vehicles. This is the HGV share in the total trac
%HGVday heavy goods vehicle percentages during the day
%HGVnight heavy goods vehicle percentages during the night

Appendix A. Notations and symbols 87


%AVday all-vehicle ow rate percentages during the day
%AVnight all-vehicle ow rate percentages during the night
Qveh average hourly ow rate for the vehicle category
QLV average hourly ow rate for the LV
QHGV average hourly ow rate for the HGV
QAV average hourly ow rate for all LV and HGV vehicles
QLV,day average hourly LV ow rate during the day
QLV,night average hourly LV ow rate during the night
QHGV,day average hourly HGV ow rate during the day
QHGV,night average hourly HGV ow rate during the night
equivalent ow rate of the maximum sound emission of the stream. For a given
proportion of heavy goods vehicles, it is the all-vehicle ow rate which gives, for
QAV,eq
the same value of %HGV and for LV and HGV free speeds, the maximum
sound emission relating to the acoustic saturation situation.
QERH all-vehicle ow rate during the evening rush hour
percentage of all-vehicle ow rate during the evening rush hour compared with
%ERH
the AADT.
Cvp LV/HGV trac equivalence
K vehicle concentration
j index of the third-octave band
R(j) spectral distribution of the emission power

R1 surfacing category, covering the following surfacing techniques:


BBTM 0/6 types 1 and 2
R1 BBUM 0/6
BBDr 0/10
BBTM 0/10 type 2

R2 surfacing category, covering the following surfacing techniques:


BBTM 0/10 type 1
R2 BBSG 0/10
ECF
BBUM 0/10

R3 surfacing category, covering the following surfacing techniques:


BC
R3 BBTM 0/14
BBSG 0/14
ES 6/10
ES 10/14
BBTM Very Thin Asphalt Concrete
BBUM Ultra Thin Asphalt Concrete
BBDr Porous Asphalt
BBSG Dense Asphalt Concrete
ECF Cold-applied Slurry Surfacing
BC Cement Concrete
ES Surface Dressing
a age of the surface in the correction to calculate the rolling noise component
L correction to calculate the HGV engine component

sound emission of a vehicle dened conventionally by the relationship:


E = Lw 10 log10 V 50
E It is equal numerically to the Leq,1h triggered by a vehicle with sound power
Lw , travelling at speed V km/h on a straight lane 50 m from the measuring
point, in a clear site (no nearby screen or building), and with reecting ground
EqHGV acoustic equivalence factor between HGV and LV
GdB80 reference to the French "Guide du Bruit [GdB1980]

88 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


B - Form

Two types of sound pressure are used in transport noise:

the equivalent level adapted to the characterisation of a relatively stable noise or to slow changes like
the noise of freely-moving trac,

the maximum level, adapted to the characterisation of an event like the pass-by noise of a vehicle.

The sound levels depend on the acoustic power of sources, their speed and the distance between source and
observation. Simplied expressions are used in transport noise. The purpose of this form is to give the
relationships between the various quantities.

B.1 - Sound pressure level

The sound pressure level is expressed in decibels. It is dened by a relationship of the form

p2m
L = 10 log10 (B.1)
p20

where p2m is an average of the quadratic pressure and p0 a reference pressure. The sound pressure is
systematically taken with the frequential weighting A. This is therefore known as A-weighted level.

B.2 - Equivalent sound pressure level

The equivalent sound pressure level characterises a noise over a given time T . It uses the average of the
quadratic pressure for pm . It can depend on the moment considered. Noted LAeq,T (t) it is given by the
relationship:

p2T
LAeq,T (t) = 10 log10 (B.2)
p20

Z t
1
p2T = p2A ( )d (B.3)
T tT

Changes in trac noise can for example be characterised by changes in the equivalent level taken over one
hour LAeq,1h .

B.3 - FAST sound pressure level

The noise of a moving vehicle is characterised by changes in its pass-by sound pressure level. A weighted
average known as FAST is considered for the quadratic pressure. The sound pressure level is called FAST
sound pressure level. It is given by the relationship

p2F AST (t)


LA,F AST (t) = 10 log10 (B.4)
p20

Z t t
p2F AST = e 0.125 p2A ( )d (B.5)

where t and are expressed in seconds. The contribution of p2A ( ) to the F AST level decreases as is
further away from the instant of observation t.

Appendix B. Form 89
B.4 - Sound pressure level of a vehicle

The sound emission of a vehicle is represented by the emission of a set of point sources, more often than not
omnidirectional. The sound pressure level triggered by all sources is taken as equal to the energy sum of
sound levels triggered each one by a source1 .
The basic relationship used in transport noise to assess the sound pressure levels is the one giving the
quadratic pressure triggered by a point source in free eld2 :

Wm (t)
p2m (t) = 0 c0 (B.6)
4r2 (t)

Wm is the eective sound power of the source3 , r is the distance from the source, 0 is the air density and
c0 the celerity of airwaves through the air.
The time factor is used to take into account the movement of the source and any variation in the radiated
power (slowing down or acceleration of the vehicle, for example). The Doppler eect from the movement of
the source is ignored in this simplied expression.

B.5 - Sound power level

The sound power level Lw is dened by the relationship

W
Lw = 10 log10 (B.7)
W0

where W0 is the reference power.

B.6 - Relationship between reference magnitudes

W0
p20 = 0 c0 (B.8)
r02

quantity value unit


p0 2.10-5 Pa
W0 10-12 Watt
0 c0 400 Ns/m
r0 1 m

1
The sources are said not to be correlated
2
There is no screen between the source and the observation point nor reecting element in the vicinity
3
Average power taken over a short period

90 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


B.7 - Pass-by sound pressure level

pass-by axis

B.7.1 - Notations

p2 (r)
Lp (r) = 10 log10 (B.9)
p20

p2A,max
LA,max = 10 log10 (B.10)
p20

p2A,max is the maximum of the FAST quadratic pressure, taken (in the absence of a screen) at the standardised
distance p
dn = 7.52 + 1.22 (B.11)
(horizontal distance of 7.5 m with respect to the passage axis and 1.2 m above the ground).

B.7.2 - Formulae

r
Lp (r) = Lw 20 log10 10 log10 2 (B.12)
r0

dn
LA,max = Lw 20 log10 10 log10 2 (B.13)
r0

B.7.3 - Approximations at 0.01 dB

r
Lp (r) Lw 20 log10 7.98 (B.14)
r0

LA,max = Lw 25.59 (B.15)

Appendix B. Form 91
B.8 - Equivalent sound pressure level

B.8.1 - Notation

p2T
LeqT (d) = 10 log10 (B.16)
p20

B.8.2 - Formulae


LeqT (d) = Lw 10 log10 V T d + 10 log10 10 log10 2 (B.17)

V Td
LeqT (d) = LA,max 10 log10 + 10 log10 (B.18)
d2n

VT
LeqT (dn ) = LA,max 10 log10 + 10 log10 (B.19)
dn

The angle is introduced to take into account a potential screen eect (see illustration).

B.8.3 - Equivalent levels over one hour, numeric approximations

V indicates a speed expressed in km/h,

d indicates a distance in metres

To simplify the writing, the unit magnitudes are frequently omitted from the formulae (for example,
log10 (V d) is written instead of log10 V d/V0 d0 )

Leq,1h at distance d


Leq,1h (d) = Lw 10 log10 V d + 10 log10 33.01 (B.20)


Leq,1h (d) = LA,max 10 log10 V d + 10 log10 7.41 (B.21)

Leq,1h at distance dn


Leq,1h (dn ) = Lw 10 log10 V + 10 log10 41.81 (B.22)


Leq,1h (dn ) = LA,max 10 log10 V + 10 log10 16.21 (B.23)

92 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


B.9 - Noise created by a section

The new emission values are expressed in sound power per metre of lane. This chapter gives the basic
formulae for the noise created by a lane section and establishes the cross-reference between the unit power
level per metre of lane Lw/m/veh and the maximum pass-by level LAmax .

B.9.1 - Sound power per metre of lane

A ow rate q veh/s of the same type of vehicle, travelling on a lane at speed v m/s corresponds to a lane
density q/v vehicles/metre. If W is the average sound power of vehicles, the power W/m per unit of lane
length is:

q
W/m = W (B.24)
v

For a ow rate Q veh/h and a speed V km/h this gives

Q
W/m = W (B.25)
1000V
The sound power level per unit of lane length, noted Lw/m , is given by the relationship:

W/m Q V
Lw/m = 10 log10 = Lw + 10 log10 10 log10 30 (B.26)
W0 1m 1 veh/h 1km/h

The unit power level4 noted Lw/m/veh is thus5

Lw/m/veh = Lw 10 log10 V 30 (B.27)

The cross-reference between Lw/m/veh and the LAmax of the vehicle is established by using equations B.13
and B.27. This gives:

Lw/m/veh = LAmax 10 log10 V 30 + 10 log10 2d2n (B.28)

i.e. at 0.01 dB tolerance:

Lw/m/veh LAmax 10 log10 V 4.4 (B.29)

4
i.e. corresponding to a ow rate of one vehicle/hour
5
The formulae are simplied here by not introducing unit magnitudes

Appendix B. Form 93
B.10 - Sound pressure level created by a section

Where the sound power is constant over a length of section, the quadratic pressure created by this element
of length is [Hamet2007]:

0 c0 1
p2L = W/m (B.30)
2 d
the related sound pressure level is


LeqL = LW/m + 10 log10 10 log10 d (B.31)
2

B.11 - Noise very far away

Very far away (L/d  1 ) and without the need for a constant acoustic power, the following can be written

0 c0
p2L = W L (B.32)
2r2 /m
and

LeqL = LW/m + 10 log10 L 20 log10 r (B.33)

where W/m is the average of W/m over the length L and r is the distance from the middle of the section to
the observation point.

94 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


C - Daily traffic profiles on intercity roads and motorways

This appendix is a translation of [Note77] written by F. Besnard, SETRA/CSTR.

C.1 - Introduction

Road noise studies must assess sound levels in specic periods of the day (day, night, evening, etc.). To
achieve this, the acoustic design oce needs hypotheses on light vehicle and heavy goods vehicle ow rates
in each of these periods.
This note presents a method and formulae for intercity roads and motorways to estimate these ow rates
from existing or projected daily ow rates in the infrastructure. It cancels and replaces information note no.
70 (September 2002).

C.2 - Use context

Road noise studies can be performed for a variety of purposes:

the impact study for a road project and checking for compliance with regulatory requirements (Decree
95-22 of 9 January 1995 decret9522, Order of 5 May 1995 [2]);
the resorption of an excessive sound exposure situation, such as, for the national road network, the
noise black spots (Circular of 25 May 2004 on the noise from land transport infrastructures [3]);
the assessment of eects of a road project on the pre-existing network, especially the monetisation of
the variation in sound nuisances (DR instruction of 20 October 1998, currently being revised [4]);
the sound classication of an infrastructure (Decree 95-21 of 9 January 1995 [5], Order of 30 May 1996
[6]);
the creation of diagnostics at macroscopic scale, such as strategic noise maps dened by the Euro-
pean directive of 25 June 2002, transposed into French law by articles L. 572-1 to L. 572-11 of the
Environmental Code, the Decree of 24 March 2006 [7] and the Order of 4 April 2006 [8].

These approaches are based on assessing the equivalent sound level LAeq over miscellaneous periods:

06:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 for regulations relating to road projects, the monetisation of sound nui-
sances and the sound classication of infrastructures;
06:00-18:00, 18:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 for the strategic noise maps (these three periods being aggre-
gated in a global indicator LDEN );
the four periods for the approach to resorption noise black spots.

C.3 - Issue

C.3.1 - Reminders about road acoustics

On an intercity road, depending on the driving speeds and trac conditions, a heavy goods vehicle (HGV)
emits as much noise as four to ten light vehicles (LV). The design oce therefore needs separate trac
hypotheses for the LV and HGV and for each interested period to carry out an acoustic study. The acoustician
cannot produce a reliable study from just the trac hypotheses expressed in the annual average daily trac
(AADT) for all vehicles or units of specic vehicles (u.v.p.).
The sound contribution of the stream of vehicles, for a given category, is based on the decimal logarithm
of the ow rate: this is the famous rule whereby twice the trac causes the noise to increase by 3 dB(A).
A relative error in the tracs therefore corresponds to an absolute error in the sound levels. Returning to

Appendix C. Daily traffic profiles on intercity roads and motorways 95


the previous example, an error twice as high in the trac estimations induces an error of 3 dB(A) in the
estimation of sound levels. The risk of error in the sound levels is therefore at its highest for the periods
when the trac is at the lowest absolute value, especially at night.

C.3.2 - Variety of traffic profiles

The daily trac prole varies tremendously according to the category of vehicles and the category of infras-
tructure. Figure C.1 represents the average share of trac in each hourly time slot in the daily trac for
LV and HGV separately, based on the sample of sites on national roads (RN).
% AADT

LV HGV

Time slot

Figure C.1: Average daily proles of LV and HGV trac on national roads per hourly time slot.

Only LV peak in the late afternoon, ending at 7 p.m. The HGV trac is more regular throughout the day
and decreases from 6 p.m. onwards. However, proportionally more HGV travel at night than LV. The trac
survey thus carried out on the national intercity network in 1996-97 [12] showed that on average:

on the national roads, 7% of LV and 14% of HGV travel at night (between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.). The
HGV share in the total trac is twice as high at night (22%) than from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. (11%);

this trend is even more pronounced on the motorways: 9% of LV and 18% of HGV travel at night.
The proportion of HGV in the total trac, equal to 14% from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m., increases to 25% at
night.

In addition, there are major disparities around these averages between the routes of the same administrative
category. The proportion of HGV in the motorway network at night varies from 8% to more than 40%
according to the sites. On national roads, for around the same AADT, the nocturnal HGV ow rate on one
site can be trebled on another.
Knowledge of LV and HGV daily trac (24 hours) and the road category alone is therefore not enough to
estimate the nocturnal sound levels correctly. This variability can be reduced by analysing the road function.
It seems that the nocturnal trac is linked to the amount of trac in transit: a road mainly fullling a long-
distance transit function (inter-regional and even international journeys) can expect proportionally more
night trac than a road used for short journeys (commuting, neighbourhood deliveries, etc.).
Thus, an acoustic study misreading the particular operation of an infrastructure during the night risks
under-estimating substantially the noise levels and thus committing a very prejudicial error.

96 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


C.4 - Approach to be adopted to determine flow rates per period

Vehicle ow rates for each period can be determined by counting or by applying estimation formulae.
Counting operations to assess the daily distribution of LV and HGV trac are only physically possible when
studying an existing infrastructure. This approach can also be very cumbersome in some situations and
disproportionately costly in relation to the study issues, especially when studying an extensive network.
Counting is not therefore a systematic solution.
For this reason trac estimation formulae for the dierent periods have been established from statistical
analyses; they are presented in chapter 4 of this guide. These formulae are based on average values obtained
for each sub-sample in sites exploited.
The approach to be applied to assess the LV and HGV trac in the dierent periods will therefore be
chosen based on the context of the study. Regardless of the approach adopted, it is recommended to seek
systematically the advice of a trac survey specialist for its implementation.
Counting per period, and the subsequent use of the results, is generally only recommended when required by
a detailed study, i.e. focusing on a set route or localised area. Remember that these counts must distinguish
between LV and HGV. Attention is also drawn to the fact that the trac proles (especially evening and
night) tend to vary depending on the days of the week. It is therefore essential to involve a road survey
specialist in the denition of counting methods, to ensure sucient representativeness in relation to the
annual average.
These counts can then be used not just to assess the current situation, but also to assess a future situation,
if the study concerns an on-the-spot development (widening, acoustic protection project, etc.) or a short
deviation, provided that the provisional trac survey has not revealed any change in the road function. To
assess a future situation, the daily distribution noted for each vehicle category is then applied to the AADT
of the prediction horizon.
When the study involves predicting the noise of a new road, or an existing road with changed function, the
analysis must distinguish between and deal separately with:

1. rstly, the trac linked to local establishments (large industrial estate, major shopping centre, etc.)
likely to generate a substantial share of the trac (especially heavy goods vehicles) predicted for the
itinerary. The provisional trac survey must include an analysis of the operation of these generators
according to the various periods;

2. secondly, the trac with "diuse" or distant origins and destinations linked to the general operation of
an urban area or itinerary: its breakdown between the various periods can be estimated using formulae
presented in Section C.5.

It is also recommended to use formulae for the macroscopic studies covering an extended network, where the
issue at stake does not normally justify specic counts except in a few clearly-identied routes.

C.5 - Flow rate estimation formulae

C.5.1 - General principle

The formulae are used to estimate the ow rates in the various periods starting from knowledge of the AADT
for LV and HGV and a general understanding of the trac structure. The procedure involves:

1. determining the category of infrastructure (see Section C.5.2),

2. checking that the AADT for LV and HGV gure in the eld of application of estimation formulae (see
Section C.5.3),

3. calculating the estimated ow rates for each period in the day (see Section C.5.4).

These formulae have been established by a CETE Est study described in Section C.5.6

Appendix C. Daily traffic profiles on intercity roads and motorways 97


C.5.2 - Defining infrastructure categories

A road or motorway is considered as having a dominant long distance function in terms of heavy good vehicles
if it features national or international links and large tonnage vehicles. A high proportion of journeys are
made at night.
The infrastructures forming a link or maintaining the continuity of an international itinerary normally fall
into this category.
A road or motorway is considered as having a dominant regional function in terms of heavy good vehicles if
it features short, repetitive journeys and small and medium tonnage vehicles. A low proportion of journeys
are made at night. Roads parallel to the motorways normally fall into this category (with a few notable
exceptions: the RN9 between Narbonne and Perpignan, the RN6 in the Yonne, Cte d'Or and Sane et
Loire and the RN77 between Troyes and Chlons-en-Champagne).

Warning
The fact that a road endures a high proportion of HGV trac does not systematically imply
that it has a dominant long distance function: there are roads with a regional function with a
considerable share of HGV trac in the AADT and roads with a long-distance function where this
share is lower. It is the type of heavy goods vehicles, not the volume or proportion in the total
trac, which determines the function of the road and the related daily proles.

Determining the most suitable function for the infrastructure studied must involve a trac survey specialist.
Samples of sites forming the sample used in the CETE Est study attached to this note can also be used to
understand better the function of a route studied, through similarities with existing and familiar itineraries.

C.5.3 - Scope of application of formulae

The formulae presented in Section C.5.4 only apply to infrastructures outside urban areas. Table C.1 gives
the bounds of the trac domain for which the formulae are considered valid. The three conditions (all-vehicle
AADT, HGV AADT and HGV share in the AADT) must be met.

All-vehicle AADT HGV AADT %HGV in the


(veh./d) (HGV/d) AADT
Long distance
7000 to 70000 1300 to 13500 16 to 30 %
Link motorways function
Regional
7000 to 93000 500 to 14000 6 to 34 %
function
Long distance
2500 to 22500 300 to 5000 8 to 34 %
Intercity roads function
Regional
2500 to 22000 250 to 2500 5 to 17 %
function

Table C.1: Scope of application of formulae.

C.5.4 - Formulae

The database used for the sound predictions is the average hourly ow rate for the period in question.
Table C.2 and Table C.3 present separately for the LV and HGV the relationship between this hourly ow
rate and the AADT for the category of vehicle in question. These formulae only apply to the scope of
application specied in Section C.5.3.
Comments:

The divider coecients are given to the nearest unit. It would however be an illusion to make them
this accurate for the nocturnal period. The reliability of formulae in the sample of sites in the study
is presented in Section C.5.5.

98 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic


Average hourly LV ow rate in the period in question
06:00-22:00 06:00-18:00 18:00-22:00 22:00-06:00
Long
Link distance AADT LV / 18 AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 19 AADT LV / 82
motorways function
Regional
AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 18 AADT LV / 100
function
Long
Intercity distance AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 19 AADT LV / 110
roads function
Regional
AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 19 AADT LV / 120
function

Table C.2: Formulae for estimating average hourly ow rates for the LV.

Average hourly HGV ow rate in the period in question


06:00-22:00 06:00-18:00 18:00-22:00 22:00-06:00
Long
Link distance AADT HGV / 20 AADT HGV / 20 AADT HGV / 20 AADT HGV / 39
motorways function
Regional
AADT HGV / 19 AADT HGV / 17 AADT HGV / 28 AADT HGV / 50
function
Long
Intercity distance AADT HGV / 19 AADT HGV / 17 AADT HGV / 27 AADT HGV / 51
roads function
Regional
AADT HGV / 18 AADT HGV / 16 AADT HGV / 34 AADT HGV / 73
function

Table C.3: Formulae for estimating average hourly ow rates for the HGV.

Appendix C. Daily traffic profiles on intercity roads and motorways 99


As they are rounded, any reconstitution of the 24-hour trac using hourly values estimated using these
formulae will not match exactly the AADT used initially. Where perfect consistency must be displayed
between the hypotheses of ow rates adopted for each period and the AADT, it is advisable to use
the formulae for the evening and night periods only and to deduce the average hourly ow rates for
the daytime periods (twelve hours or sixteen hours) through complementarity with the AADT. This
alternative procedure has no signicant eect on assessing sound levels.

The study only covered the national road network. It is however accepted that the "Intercity roads -
regional function" formulae are also applicable to district roads and municipality roads and streets when the
anticipated trac is included in the scope of application dened in Section C.5.3.

C.5.5 - Formula reliability

The acoustic error committed in each site of the sample by applying estimation formulae was assessed under
the hypothesis that an HGV "is the equivalent acoustically" to 4.5 LV on a motorway and seven LV on a
road (these values come from work in progress to update sound emission values of vehicles used for the road
noise prediction). These error calculations were carried out for each period and for the LDEN resulting from
combining three periods 06:00-18:00, 18:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00.
For each category of infrastructure and each period, the distribution of errors has a relatively Gaussian
appearance. In these conditions, the 95% condence interval associated with the estimation has for half-
width twice the standard deviation in the distribution of errors. Table C.4 presents this interval for each
infrastructure category and each period.

06:00-22:00 06:00-18:00 18:00-22:00 22:00-06:00 LDEN


Long
Link distance 0.2 0.3 0.4 1.3 0.6
motorways function
Regional
0.3 0.5 0.6 2.1 0.9
function
Long
Intercity distance 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.7 0.9
roads function
Regional
0.1 0.3 0.6 1.4 0.6
function

Table C.4: 95% condence interval associated with the estimation of tracs per period, in dB(A).

The 95% condence interval is very narrow for the 06:00-22:00 period: the estimation is very reliable.
Conversely, the interval associated with the 22:00-06:00 period illustrates the extensive dispersion of trac
proles in the nocturnal period, even when separating out the two functions. For the other periods, the
condence intervals have intermediate widths.

C.5.6 - Origin of formulae and comparison with the previous formulae

A previous note [9] had used the data from the 1996-97 trac survey, culminating in the publication in Stra
information note 70 [10] of formulae relating to the 06:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 periods for "long distance"
and "regional" function infrastructures. The formulae above come from a new study by CETE Est [11]
covering 37 stations on motorways and 249 stations on national roads, based on hourly counts of the same
database to meet two additional objectives:

the production of formulae relating to the periods 06:00-18:00 and 18:00-22:00,

the search for a criterion characterising a "Road near an urban area" category, aiming to account for
the inuence of pendular movements of residents in the fringe of a few dozen kilometres around a major
urban area.

100 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
For this search, the CETE Est studied the advantage of site segmentation based on miscellaneous criteria
assumed characteristic of pendular movements, such as the pre-eminence of rush hours. It concluded that
unlike other expectations, segmentation of this type would not improve signicantly the accuracy of esti-
mation formulae associated with each period. The identical denition of infrastructure categories given in
information note no. 70 has therefore been repeated.
As previously, the statistical analysis deduced:

formulae used to estimate the LV and HGV ow rates for each period, from the knowledge of their
average daily ow rates and the category of road,

the scope of application of these formulae and an indication of their reliability.

Given the stricter criteria applied to the data used, the sample of sites used in this study diers slightly from
the one used in the previous study. This only induces minor dierences for the divider coecients, however.
These coecients are identical for the 06:00-22:00 period. For the night period, they only change for the
LV on a motorway and the HGV on a road; the new divider coecients are slightly higher than previously,
which results for a given AADT in an estimation 4% to 9% lower for the nocturnal trac of the vehicle
category and an estimation 0.2 to 0.4 dB(A) lower for its sound contribution. Given that this variation only
involves one of two vehicle categories for each road function, its eect on the overall noise is very limited.
The overall accuracy of formulae in the 06:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 periods does not change signicantly
compared with the previous formulae.

C.6 - Bibliography

[1] Decree 95-22 of 9 January 1995 on the limitation of the noise from land transport developments and
infrastructures (FROJ of 10/01/95).
[2] Order of 5 May 1995 on the noise from road infrastructures (FROJ of 10/05/95)
[3] Circular DR-DTT-DPPR-DIV of 25 May 2004 on the noise from land transport infrastructures.
[4] Circular DR no. 98-99 of 20 October 1998 and Instruction relating to economic assessment methods of
road investments in open country (Special BO booklet no. 98-7)
[5] Decree 95-21 of 9 January 1995 relating to the classication of land transport infrastructures and modi-
fying the Town Planning Code and the Construction and Housing Code (FROF of 10/01/95)
[6] Order of 30 May 1996 relating to the classication methods for land transport infrastructures and the
soundproong of dwelling buildings in the sectors aected by noise (FROJ of 28/06/96)
[7] Decree 2006-361 of 24 March 2006 on the establishment of noise maps and environmental noise prevention
plans and modifying the Town Planning Code (FROJ of 26/03/06)
[8] Order of 4 April 2006 on establishing noise maps and environmental noise prevention plans (FROJ of
05/04/06)
[9] Trac and acoustic studies on motorways and national roads - Update of the 97 study (use of 90 survey
data) based on 96 census and survey data. Study report. CETE Est, April 2002, 93 p.
[10] Road noise prediction calculation: trac parameters on intercity roads and motorways. Economics,
Environment and Design Information Note no. 77, Stra, September 2002, 8 p.
[11] Trac and acoustic studies on motorways and national roads - Widening of the 2002 study. Study
report. CETE Est, December 2006.
[12] Trac structure in the national road network - Analysis and changes. Themed le. Stra, 1999, 30 p.

Appendix C. Daily traffic profiles on intercity roads and motorways 101


C.7 - Appendix: Examples of sections classified per function

Warning
This appendix is a rough guide to sites covered by the 1996-97 trac survey and used during
the study, classied according to the function of the infrastructure. This classication is therefore
linked to the state of the network at that time. It may have changed since then, given the opening
up of new itineraries, for example.

C.7.1 - Motorways

In the CETE Est study, the criterion used to dene the motorways with a long-distance function was: "the
proportion of heavy goods vehicles with four axles or more in the total average daily heavy goods vehicle
trac is greater than or equal to 75%".
As a rough guide, the following itineraries can be mentioned:

Motorways with long distance function (outside Motorways with regional function (outside urban
urban areas) areas)

A6 in its entirety
A5 between Troyes and Langres
A16 in the Nord
A7 in its entirety
A28 between the A29 and Rouen
A9 in its entirety
A38 in the Cte-d'Or
A10 between Blois and Poitiers
A42 in its entirety
A26 in the Aube
A68 between Toulouse and Albiw
A31 from Nancy to Dijon
A75 in its entirety
A36 in its entirety
A203 in the Ardennes
A63 in its entirety
A71 in the Allier

C.7.2 - National roads

In the CETE Est study, the criterion used to dene the national roads with a long-distance function was:
`the proportion of heavy goods vehicles with four axles or more in the total average daily heavy goods vehicle
trac is greater than or equal to 60 %'.
The following itineraries, given as a rough guide, are grouped per geographical area to make searching easier.
They are identied by their numbering when the survey was performed (1996-97), therefore independently
of recent transfers to the departments.

National roads with long distance


National roads with regional function
function

RN10 from Chartres to Tours


RN10 from Tours to Chtellerault
RN76 from Bourges to the RN7
RN76 from Bourges to Vierzon (A71)
Centre Region (Nivre)
RN152 between Tours and Orlans
RN20 from La Francilienne to Orlans
RN143 between Tours and
RN152 between Tours and Langeais
Chteauroux
RN60 from Orlans to Troyes

102 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
National roads with long distance
National roads with regional function
function

RN13 in the Manche and the Calvados


RN174 in the Calvados (between the
RN31 between Beauvais and Rouen
Normandy and A84 and the Vire)
RN12 between Dreux and Mayenne
West RN166 in the Morbihan (from Vannes
RN138 between Rouen and Alenon
to Plormel)
RN137 between Rennes and Saintes
RN15 from Yvetot to Rouen
RN151 from Poitiers to the A20 (Indre)

RN20 from Brive-la-Gaillarde to


Cahors
RN10 between Poitiers and Bordeaux RN20 to the south of Toulouse
South West RN141 between Limoges and RN113 in the Lot-et-Garonne
Angoulme RN134 in the Landes
RN211 between Limoges and Prigueux RN124 in the Gers
RN21 between Prigueux (RN89) and
Tarbes

RN89 in the Corrze


Massif Central RN145 from Bellac (Creuse) to RN88 from St Etienne to Albi
Auvergne Montluon RN120 from Uzerche (Corrze) to
RN7 in the Allier Aurillac
RN102 in the Haute-Loire

RN7 in the Vaucluse,


Bouches-du-Rhne and Var
Mediterranean RN568 from Fos-sur-Mer to the RN113
RN106 in the Gard
RN9 from Narbonne to Perpignan
RN86 in the Gard
RN112 from Bziers to Albi

RN84 at Nantua
Rhne-Alpes RN504 in the Ain and Savoie
RN71 from Troyes to Dijon
Burgundy RN6 in the Yonne, Cte d'Or and
RN85 from Vizille (Isre) to Gap
Sane-et-Loire
RN102 in the Ardche

RN4 in the Marne, Meuse,


Meurthe-et-Moselle and Moselle RN57 between Vesoul and Pontarlier
North-East RN44 between Reims and RN62 between Sarreguemines and
Franche-Comt Vitry-le-Franois Haguenau
RN77 between Troyes and RN74 in the Haute-Marne
Chlons-en-Champagne RN35 in the Meuse
RN67 between St-Dizier and Chaumont

RN1 between Amiens and the south


boundary of the Oise
RN2 between La Capelle and Laon RN41 in the Nord and the
Nord-Picardie RN29 in the Somme Pas-de-Calais
RN31 between Beauvais and Reims RN43 between Douai and
RN25 in the Somme Charleville-Mzires
RN43 between Calais and Bthune
RN49 from Valenciennes to Maubeuge

Appendix C. Daily traffic profiles on intercity roads and motorways 103


D - Vehicle sound emission values

D.1 - Formulae in LAmax

D.1.1 - General principle

LAmax (7.50m) = Lrolling Lengine (D.1)

Lrolling depends on the speed (V ) and the surfacing category (R1, R2 or R3)

Lengine depends on the gradient (p), the trac ow type (stabilised, acceleration, deceleration) and
the speed (V )

Targeted speed validity domain:

20 km/h at steady speed


Vmin =
5 km/h when accelerating and decelerating
130 km/h LV
Vmax =
100 km/h HGV

Note
the acceleration and deceleration formulae were produced from 5 km/h onwards. However, it was decided
subsequently to produce specic emission powers for the starting and stopping sections and to publish
formulae depending on V for V > 25 km/h only.

D.1.2 - Lrolling formulae

Recent surfaces (0 to 2 years old): see Table D.1;

Surfacing
LV HGV
category
R1 73.3 + 31 log10 (V /90) 82.5 + 30 log10 (V /80)
R2 77.3 + 30.1 log10 (V /90) 85.6 + 30 log10 (V /80)
R3 79.8 + 31.4 log10 (V /90) 86.6 + 30 log10 (V /80)

Table D.1: Lrolling - Recent surfaces (V in km/h). LV sources: [h]; HGV sources: [b, m].

In Table D.1, for the HGV, the values at 80 km/h come from [b], the slope is imposed equal to 30 [m]
as described in Section 3.5 "Approach to producing rolling noise components".
Ageing eect from 2 to 10 years old: see Table D.2.

surfacing
LV HGV
category
R1 + 4 dB(A) + 2.4 dB(A)
R2 + 2 dB(A) + 1.2 dB(A)
R3 + 1.2 dB(A) + 1 dB(A)

Table D.2: Lrolling - Ageing eect. Sources: [k].

D.1.3 - Lengine formulae

LV steady speed, all gradients: see Table D.3.

104 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
V - km/h 20 to 30 30 to 110 110 to 130
Lengine 60,6 66.3 + 12.0 log10 (V /90) 64.6 + 31.3 log10 (V /90)

Table D.3: Lengine - LV steady speed, all gradients. Sources: horizontal road: [a, h]; upwards and downwards
gradients: [i].

LV accelerating, all gradients: see Table D.4

V - km/h 5 to 20 20 to 100 100 to 130


Lengine 85.7 + 24.1 log10 (V /90) 70 68.2 + 38.6 log10 (V /90)

Table D.4: Lengine - LV accelerating, all gradients. Source: [h].

LV decelerating, all gradients: see Table D.5

5 to
V - km/h 10 to 25 25 to 80 80 to 110 110 to 130
10
73.3 + 66 + 66.3 + 64.6 +
Lengine 55.5
18.7 log10 (V /90) 5.5 log10 (V /90) 12 log10 (V /90) 31.3 log10 (V /90)

Table D.5: Lengine - LV decelerating, all gradients. Source: [h].

LV (trac ow type, gradient) combinations


General principle: see Table D.6.
Which gives Table D.7 with the previous formulae:
At the end of the day, the gradient does not therefore have an eect for the LV.

HGV all trac ow types, all gradients


See Table D.8.
In Table D.8, L is a correction independent of the speed, depending on the trac ow type and the
gradient. Its values are given in Table D.9.

Sources of the formulae

 for the "simple combinations" in the 20-70 km/h domain, see Table D.10.
 for the "simple combinations" in the 5-20 and 70-100 km/h domains: [f] for steady speed *
horizontal road in 70-100 km/h, [g] for the others;
 for the trac ow type * gradient combinations: [g] modied by [j] (modication without eect
for the HGV).

Appendix D. Vehicle sound emission values 105


upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%
max.(acceleration*horizontal
= acceleration*horizontal
acceleration road; steady
road
speed*upwards gradient)
max(deceleration*horizontal
= deceleration*horizontal road; steady
deceleration
road speed*downwards
gradient)

Table D.6: Lengine - LV (trac ow type, gradient) combinations - general principle. Source: [g] modied
by [j]

upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%
acceleration = acceleration*horizontal road
deceleration = deceleration*horizontal road

Table D.7: Lengine - LV trac ow type * gradient.

V - km/h 5 to 70 70 to 100
Lengine 73 + L 73.8 + 13 log10 (V /80) + L

Table D.8: Lengine - HGV all trac ow types, all gradients.

gradient
L
0% p 2% upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%
steady speed 0 dB(A) 2(p 2) 1(p 2)
acceleration 5 dB(A) max [2(p 2); 5] 5 dB(A)
deceleration 0 dB(A) 1(p 2)

Table D.9: Lengine - HGV - values of L. p in % (absolute value).

gradient
L
0% p 2% upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%
steady speed [b] [c]
acceleration [d]
---
deceleration [e]

Table D.10: Lengine - HGV - sources of the values of L.

106 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
D.2 - Formulae in Lw/m (1 veh/h)

D.2.1 - Relationship between Lw/m (1 veh/h) and LAmax

Reminder:
LAmax (7.50m) = Lw 25.6 (D.2)

(see INRETS form) where Lw is the power level of a vehicle.


For a unit ow rate of 1 veh/h, the density of vehicles per metre of lane is 1/(1000V ), with V in km/h. The
power per metre of lane for 1 veh/h is therefore

Lw/m (1 veh/h) = Lw 10 log10 V 30 (D.3)

i.e.

Lw/m (1veh/h) = LAmax (7.50m) 10 log10 V 4.4 (D.4)

D.2.2 - Transcription of formulae produced in LAmax

LAmax = a + b log10 (V /Vref ) (D.5)

If the formula of LAmax is in the form LAmax = a + b log10 (V /Vref ), then


A = a 10 log10 (Vref ) 4.4
(D.6)
B = b 10

If the formula of LAmax is in the form LAmax = a + b log10 V , then


A = a + (b 10) log10 (Vref ) 4.4
(D.7)
B = b 10

D.2.3 - Rolling component

Recent surfaces (0 to 2 years old): see Table D.11.

surfacing
LV HGV
category
R1 49.4 + 21 log10 (V /90) 59.1 + 20 log10 (V /80)
R2 53.4 + 20.1 log10 (V /90) 62.1 + 20 log10 (V /80)
R3 55.9 + 21.4 log10 (V /90) 63.1 + 20 log10 (V /80)

Table D.11: Rolling component - recent surfaces. V in km/h.

Old surfaces (10 years old or more)


The ageing eect is added to the previous values, which gives Table D.12.

Correction according to the age to be applied to the value at 10 years are shown in Table D.13.

Appendix D. Vehicle sound emission values 107


surfacing
LV HGV
category
R1 53.4 + 21 log10 (V /90) 61.5 + 20 log10 (V /80)
R2 55.4 + 20.1 log10 (V /90) 63.3 + 20 log10 (V /80)
R3 57.5 + 21.4 log10 (V /90) 64.1 + 20 log10 (V /80)

Table D.12: Rolling component - old surfaces. V in km/h.

LV HGV
Age of surface (a) 2 years 2 to 10 years 2 years 2 to 10 years
R1 -4 0.5(a 10) -2,4 0.3(a 10)
Surfacing
R2 -2 0.25(a 10) -1,2 0.15(a 10)
category
R3 -1.6 0.2(a 10) -1 0.12(a 10)

Table D.13: Rolling component - Correction according to the age to be applied to the value at 10 years.

D.2.4 - Engine component

Note
The acceleration and deceleration formulae are only published for V > 25 km/h. For lower speeds, see the
specic emission powers for the starting and stopping sections.

LV steady speed, all gradients; see Table D.14.

V - km/h 20 to 30 30 to 110 110 to 130


Lengine 36.7 10 log10 (V /90) 42.4 + 2.0 log10 (V /90) 40.7 + 21.3 log10 (V /90)

Table D.14: Engine component - LV steady speed, all gradients.

LV accelerating, all gradients: see Table D.15.


LV decelerating, all gradients: see Table D.16
HGV all trac ow types, all gradients: see Table D.17
In Table D.17, L is a correction independent of the speed, depending on the trac ow type and the
gradient. Its values are provided in Table D.18.

Note
For acceleration on an upwards gradient, writing 5 + max [2(p 4.5); 0] is preferred to max[2.(p-2); 5] to
improve display consistency with the starting section (see further on).

D.2.5 - Starting and stopping sections

The values in Table D.19 apply to the rst twenty metres after or the last twenty metres before a stopping
point. There is no breakdown into engine and rolling noise components, the values below are expressed
directly in Lw/m (1 veh/h) and do not depend on the surface (negligible inuence at low speeds).
F. Besnard proposal: x a speed at extremity of 25 km/h for all cases.

D.2.5.1 - Effect of the gradient

For the LV, no eect of the gradient on the engine component (see above), therefore no eect here either.
For the HGV, the gradient has an eect on the engine component. If the rolling noise component is considered
to be negligible in these sections, the correction L seen above can be applied, which gives:

108 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
V - km/h 5 to 20 20 to 100 100 to 130
Lengine 61.8 + 14.1 log10 (V /90) 46.1 10 log10 (V /90) 44.3 + 28.6 log10 (V /90)

Table D.15: Engine component - LV accelerating, all gradients.

V - km/h 5 to 10 10 to 25 25 to 80 80 to 110 110 to 130


31.6 49.4 + 42.1 42.4 + 40.7 +
Lengine
10 log10 (V /90) 8.7 log10 (V /90) 4.5 log10 (V /90) 2 log10 (V /90) 21.3 log10 (V /90)

Table D.16: Engine component - LV decelerating, all gradients.

V - km/h 5 to 70 70 to 100
Lengine 49.6 10 log10 (V /80) + L 50.4 + 3 log10 (V /80) + L

Table D.17: Engine component - HGV all trac ow types, all gradients.

gradient
L
upwards 2% p downwards 2% p
0% p 2%
6% 6%
steady speed 0 dB(A) 2(p 2) 1(p 2)
acceleration 5 dB(A) max [2(p 2); 5] 5 dB(A)
deceleration 0 dB(A) 1(p 2)

Table D.18: Engine component - HGV - L values. p in % (absolute value).

LV HGV
V at extremity, Lw/m (1 veh/h) V at extremity, Lw/m (1 veh/h)
km/h dB(A) km/h dB(A)
starting 23,5 51,1 25 62,4
stopping 22,5 44,5 25 58,0

Table D.19: Starting and stopping sections valid only on horizontal road. Results from J.F. Hamet [1].

Appendix D. Vehicle sound emission values 109


starting on an upwards gradient:

Lw/m (1 veh/h) = 62.4 + max [2(p 2); 5] 5 = 62.4 + max [2p 9; 0] (D.8)

starting on a downwards gradient: ditto horizontal road;

stopping on an upwards gradient: ditto horizontal road;

stopping on a downwards gradient:

Lw/m (1veh/h) = LAmax (7.50m) 10 log10 V 4.4 (D.9)

D.2.5.2 - Summary:

See Table D.20 for values without ageing.

LV all HGV
gradients horizontal road 0% upwards 2% p downwards 2% p
p 2% 6% 6%
62.4 +
starting 51.1 62.4 62.4
max [2(p 4.5); 0]
stopping 44.5 58.0 58.0 + (p 2)

Table D.20: Starting and stopping sections without ageing. p in % (absolute value).

The values of the table above have been established without taking the eect of ageing into account. Taking
ageing into account gives Table D.21.

LV all HGV
gradients horizontal road 0% upwards 2% p downwards 2% p
p 2% 6% 6%
62.5 +
starting 51.3 62.5 62.5
max [2(p 4.5); 0]
stopping 45.1 58.3 58.3 + (p 2)

Table D.21: Starting and stopping sections with ageing.

110 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
D.3 - Transcription of formulae from the French "Guide du Bruit" [GdB1980]

E = Lw 10 log10 V 50 (D.10)

LAmax (7.50m) = Lw 25.6 (D.11)

therefore

LAmax (7.50m) = E + 10 log10 V + 24.4 (D.12)

Lw/m (1 veh/h) = Lw 10 log10 V 30 (D.13)

therefore

Lw/m (1 veh/h) = E + 20 (D.14)

D.4 - Sources of formulae

[a]: E-mail J. Lelong 19/11/04

[b]; Report V. Steimer - "Sound emission nomograms: Summary of measurements on sliproad and
track", April 2001.

[c]:Report S. Doisy - "Sound emission nomograms - Road train supplement on sliproad and track",
June 2002.

[d]:Decision meeting November 2003 + Report S. Doisy "Road train acceleration/deceleration mea-
surements", September 2004

[e]:Decision meeting September 2004 + Report S. Doisy "Road train acceleration/deceleration mea-
surements", September 2004

[f]:Decision meeting May 2004 (Transcribed into formula by F. Besnard)

[g]:Decision meeting November 2004

[h]:Note "Updating nomograms in the Guide to Noise", J. Lelong, 22 March 2005.

[i]:Decision meeting December 2005.

[j]:Decision meeting January 2006.

[k]:Decision meeting 30 November 2006.

[l]:Report J.F. Hamet - "The acoustically-homogeneous section", chap. 5 (being nalised in January
2007).

[m]:Decision meeting 19 January 2007.

Appendix D. Vehicle sound emission values 111


E - Graphic results

The graphs given in this chapter represent the changes in sound levels depending on the speed in the new
guide to calculating sound emissions from trac noise.
Each graph covers a vehicle category (LV or HGV) and a surfacing age segment (at most two years old or
at least ten years old).
The emission values obtained for the LV only depend on the trac ow type, not the gradient. Changes in
sound levels for all the gradients are represented therefore in each graph for the LV on recent surfaces (at
most two years old) then on surfaces at least ten years old (see Section E.2 and Section E.6).
The emission values obtained for the HGV depend on the trac ow type and the gradient. The following
are represented for the HGV on recent surfaces, at most two years old, then surfaces at least ten years old:

Changes in sound levels for the steady speed and all gradients (see Section E.3 and Section E.7);

Changes in sound levels for the acceleration and all gradients (see Section E.4 and Section E.8);

Changes in sound levels for the deceleration and all gradients (see Section E.5 and Section E.9).

The rst set of graphs covers the levels expressed in LAmax and the second those expressed in Lw/m/veh .

E.1 - Key to graphs

Steady speed Acceleration Deceleration

LV

Engine component Rolling component

0% + 6% - 6% HGV

Additional indications are given in the graphs to make it easier to identify curve families: a, s or d for
acceleration, steady speed or deceleration; +6%, 0% or -6% for 6% upwards gradient, horizontal road or 6%
downwards gradient.

112 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
E.2 - LAmax graphs - LV (Figures A)

90
LV
Steady speed / acceleration / deceleration
85 All gradients below 6% R3
Age 2 years
R2
80 R1
LAmax (dB(A))

75

70 a
Lm_acc

d
65 d Lm_dec
s
s
s Lm_stab
60
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

90
LV
Steady speed / acceleration / deceleration R3
85 All gradients below 6%
Age 10 years R2
R1
80
LAmax (dB(A))

75

a
70 Lm_acc

d d
65 Lm_dec
s
s
s
Lm_stab
60
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

Appendix E. Graphic results 113


E.3 - LAmax graphs - HGV, steady speed (Figures B)

95
HGV
Steady speed
90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R3
Age 2 years R2
R1
85
LAmax (dB(A))

+ 6% Lm, g=+6%
80
- 6% Lm, g=-6%

75
0% Lm, g=0%

70

65
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

95
HGV
Steady speed R3
90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R2
Age 10 years R1

85
LAmax (dB(A))

+ 6% Lm, g=+6%
80
- 6% Lm, g=-6%

75 0%
Lm, g=0%

70

65
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

114 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
E.4 - LAmax graphs - HGV, acceleration (Figures C)

95
HGV
Acceleration
90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R3
Age 2 years R2
R1
85
LAmax (dB(A))

Lm, g=+6%
+ 6%
80
0%
& - 6% Lm, g=0% & g=-6%

75

70

65
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

95
HGV
Acceleration R3
90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R2
Age 10 years R1

85
LAmax (dB(A))

Lm, g=+6%
+ 6%
80
0%
& - 6% Lm, g=0% & g=-6%

75

70

65
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

Appendix E. Graphic results 115


E.5 - LAmax graphs - HGV, deceleration (Figures D)

95
HGV
Deceleration
90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R3
Age 2 years R2
R1
85
LAmax (dB(A))

80
- 6% Lm, g=-6%

75 0%
& + 6%
Lm, g=0% & g=+6%

70

65
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

95
HGV
Deceleration R3
90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R2
Age 10 years
R1
85
LAmax (dB(A))

80
- 6% Lm, g=-6%

0%
75 & + 6%
Lm, g=0% & g=+6%

70

65
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

116 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
E.6 - Lw/m/veh graphs - LV (Figures A)

65
LV
Steady speed / acceleration / deceleration
60 All gradients below 6% R3
Age 2 years
R2
Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

55
R1
a
50
d
s d Lm_acc
45 s
s Lm_dec
Lm_stab
40

35
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

65
LV
Steady speed / acceleration / deceleration
All gradients below 6%
R3
60
Age 10 years R2
R1
Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

55
a

50
d
s d
s Lm_acc
45 s
Lm_dec
Lm_stab
40

35
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

Appendix E. Graphic results 117


E.7 - Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, steady speed (Figures B)

75
HGV
Steady speed
70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%
Age 2 years

R3
Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

65 R2
+ 6%
R1
60 - 6%
Lm, g=+6%
0%
55
Lm, g=-6%

50 Lm, g=0%

45
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

75
HGV
Steady speed
70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%
Age 10 years

R3
Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

65 R2
+ 6%
R1
60 - 6%
Lm, g=+6%
0%
55
Lm, g=-6%

50 Lm, g=0%

45
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

118 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
E.8 - Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, acceleration (Figures C)

75
HGV
Acceleration
70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%
Age 2 years
R3
Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

65 R2
+ 6% R1
0%
60 & - 6%
Lm, g=+6%

55 Lm, g=0% & g=-6%

50

45
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

75
HGV
Acceleration
70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%
Age 10 years
R3
R2
Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

65
R1
+ 6%

0%
60 & - 6%
Lm, g=+6%

55 Lm, g=0% & g=-6%

50

45
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

Appendix E. Graphic results 119


E.9 - Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, deceleration (Figures D)

75
75
HGV
Deceleration
70
70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%
Age 210years
years
R3
R3
(dB(A))

65
65 R2
LAmax (dB(A))

R2
R1
R1
60
60
Lw/m/veh

-- 6%
6%

0%
0%
&& ++ 6%
6%
55
55
Lm, g=-6%
Lm, g=-6%

50
50 Lm,
Lm, g=0%
g=0% && g=+6%
g=+6%

45
45
20
20 30
30 50
50 70
70 90
90 110
110 130
130

V
V (km/h)
(km/h)

75
HGV
Deceleration
70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%
Age 10 years
R3
Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

65 R2
R1

60 - 6%

0%
& + 6%
55
Lm, g=-6%

50 Lm, g=0% & g=+6%

45
20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

120 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic
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Stra

Stra
juin 2009
translate september 2011

Service d'tudes
sur les transports,
les routes et leurs
amnagements

Road noise prediction


1 - Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

The previous guide to predicting noise emissions from road traffic dates back to 1980. The
numbers of cars, the road surfaces and the methods of assessing sound emissions have all
changed. It was therefore essential to produce a new guide to calculating emissions. This is
the purpose of this document.

The sound level calculation thus obtained is necessary for the subsequent prediction of far
away sound levels by taking account of the effects of the ground and of meteorology on the
propagation. This is the purpose of another guide entitled Road noise prediction - NMPB 2008
- Noise propagation computation method including meteorological effects.

1 - Calcul des missions sonores dues au trafic routier


The tools thus obtained are ideal for road project impact studies, checking compliance with
regulations or an acoustic objective set by the road authority and road design of acoustic
protections.

Following a summary of a few definitions specific to acoustics (definition of physical magnitudes,


characteristic traffic magnitudes, presentation of work hypotheses, etc.), the guide studies the
two components of emitted noise. The emission is in fact broken down into two components:
one component due to the so-called driving noise caused by the contact between tyre and
roadway, and an engine component.

The guide breaks new ground by taking into account the surfacing category and its age when
calculating the driving noise.

The first part of the guide describes the method (approach and formulae). The second part
presents the related issues, the bases for formulae or values used and their limitations and
compares the two guides (the 1980 guide and the 2008 guide).

Service d'tudes
sur les transports,
Prvision du bruit routier
les routes et leurs
amnagements
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