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Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 124

Stra

june 2009

translated september 2011

Service d'tudes

sur les transports,

les routes et leurs

amnagements

1 - Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

The previous guide to predicting noise emissions from road traffic dates back to 1980. The

numbers of cars, the road surfaces and the methods of assessing sound emissions have all

changed. It was therefore essential to produce a new guide to calculating emissions. This is

the purpose of this document.

The sound level calculation thus obtained is necessary for the subsequent prediction of far

away sound levels by taking account of the effects of the ground and of meteorology on the

propagation. This is the purpose of another guide entitled Road noise prediction - NMPB 2008

- Noise propagation computation method including meteorological effects.

The tools thus obtained are ideal for road project impact studies, checking compliance with

regulations or an acoustic objective set by the road authority and road design of acoustic

protections.

characteristic traffic magnitudes, presentation of work hypotheses, etc.), the guide studies the

two components of emitted noise. The emission is in fact broken down into two components:

one component due to the so-called driving noise caused by the contact between tyre and

roadway, and an engine component.

The guide breaks new ground by taking into account the surfacing category and its age when

calculating the driving noise.

The first part of the guide describes the method (approach and formulae). The second part

presents the related issues, the bases for formulae or values used and their limitations and

compares the two guides (the 1980 guide and the 2008 guide).

Service d'tudes

sur les transports,

Prvision du bruit routier

les routes et leurs

amnagements

46 avenue Aristide Briand

BP 100 - 92225 Bagneux

Cedex - France

tl : 33 (0)1 46 11 31 31

fax : 33 (0)1 46 11 31 69

Document disponible au bureau de vente du Stra

46 avenue Aristide Briand - BP 100 - 92225 Bagneux Cedex - France Le Stra appartient

tlphone : 33 (0)1 46 11 31 53 - tlcopie : 33 (0)1 46 11 33 55 au Rseau Scientifique

Rfrence : 0924-1- Prix de vente : 19 et Technique du Meeddat

Conception graphique de la couverture : Philippe Masingarbe (Stra)

Impression : Caractre - 2, rue Monge - BP 224 - 15002 Aurillac Cedex

Lautorisation du Stra est indispensable pour la reproduction, mme partielle, de ce document

2009 Stra - Dpt lgal : 2me trimestre 2009 - ISBN : 978-2-11-095825-9

Il est imprim avec des encres base vgtale sur du papier colablis PEFC.

CTBA/06-00743

PEFC/10-31-945

www.setra.developpement-durable.gouv.fr

Page laisse blanche intentionnellement

Methodologic guide

1 - Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

ditions Stra

This document has been designed and written by an editorial team, including:

Jean-Franois Hamet (INRETS);

Jol Lelong (INRETS);

Emmanuel Le Duc (SETRA);

Vincent Guizard (SETRA);

Nathalie Frst (CERTU);

Sonia Doisy (CETE Est - LRPC Strasbourg) ;

Guillaume Dutilleux (CETE Est LRPC Strasbourg) for the english version.

The authors would also like to thank everyone whose observations have helped

improve this guide.

==

=

= =

=

Contents

1 Introduction 5

2 Factual method 8

2.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.2 General definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.3 General approach to calculating the emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.4 Vehicle flow rate hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.5 Speed and traffic flow type hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.6 Recommendations on breaking down the source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.7 Emission power per metre of line-source for a unit flow rate Lw/m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.8 Spectral distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3.2 Flow rate hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.3 Speed and traffic flow type hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

3.4 General approach to producing values Lw/m/veh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.5 Approach to producing rolling noise components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

3.6 Approach to producing LV rolling noise components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

3.7 Approach to producing HGV engine components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

3.8 Comments on the new unit emission values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

3.9 Comparing unit emission values with those in the French "Guide du Bruit" (1980) . . . . . . 68

3.10 Spectral distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

4 Bibliography 83

4.1 Bibliographic references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

4.2 Stra bibliographical documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

B Form 89

B.1 Sound pressure level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

B.2 Equivalent sound pressure level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

B.3 FAST sound pressure level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

B.4 Sound pressure level of a vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

B.5 Sound power level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

B.6 Relationship between reference magnitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

B.7 Pass-by sound pressure level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Contents 3

B.8 Equivalent sound pressure level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

B.9 Noise created by a section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

B.10 Sound pressure level created by a section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

B.11 Noise very far away . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

C.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

C.2 Use context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

C.3 Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

C.4 Approach to be adopted to determine flow rates per period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

C.5 Flow rate estimation formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

C.6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

C.7 Appendix: Examples of sections classified per function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

D.1 Formulae in LAmax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

D.2 Formulae in Lw/m (1 veh/h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

D.3 Transcription of formulae from the French "Guide du Bruit" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

D.4 Sources of formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

E.1 Key to graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

E.2 LAmax graphs - LV (Figures A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

E.3 LAmax graphs - HGV, steady speed (Figures B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

E.4 LAmax graphs - HGV, acceleration (Figures C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

E.5 LAmax graphs - HGV, deceleration (Figures D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

E.6 Lw/m/veh graphs - LV (Figures A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

E.7 Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, steady speed (Figures B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

E.8 Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, acceleration (Figures C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

E.9 Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, deceleration (Figures D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

1 - Introduction

The road noise prediction method is used to calculate the equivalent long-term sound level LAeq,T caused

by road trac at a receiving point located in the vicinity of the infrastructure. The long-term sound

level corresponds to average trac conditions and average meteorological conditions representative of a

long period1 , which in particular form the basis for current regulations on noise from road infrastructures

[Decree95], [Order95].

The calculation can cover both an existing and a future conguration (projected road, existing road to

be modied). The level of detail of the method makes it ideal for road project impact studies, checking

compliance with regulations or an acoustic objective set by the road authority and road design of acoustic

protections.

This method includes schematically six distinct stages in succession (see Figure 1.1):

2. determining the level of sound power per metre for each homogeneous section, representative of the

sound emission of the stream of vehicles;

4. determining the level of sound power per metre for each point source, representative of the sound

emission of the stream of vehicles;

5. determining the attenuation in propagation between each point source and the receiving point studied

and the source contribution of this point source to the receiving point;

6. summing sound contributions of dierent point sources to obtain the overall sound level LAeq,T at the

receiving point.

The Road Noise Prediction Method is broken down into two documents:

the rst document entitled "Calculating the sound emissions from road traffic" deals with stages 1 and

2 presented above and is this work;

the second document entitled "NMPB 2008 - Noise propagation method including meteorological ef-

fects". It deals with stages 3 to 6.

Other documents relating to peripheral topics, like the consideration of special areas (cobblestones, stopping

point, bend, roundabout, sleeping policemen, etc.) may be published later if necessary.

The authors wished to enlarge on the elements of the method with numerous comments, without leading

the user astray with inappropriate digressions. This guide is therefore split into two parts:

the rst part describes the method (approach and formulae); its only comments are essential to un-

derstand it fully;

the second part describes the issues relating to each element, the bases for formulae or values used,

their limitations, changes made to previous practice and any information deemed useful for the reader.

1

Typically: one year for trac conditions and several years for meteorological conditions.

Chapter 1. Introduction 5

Decomposition of the road platform in

acoustically homogeneous sections of

source-line

Addressed in volume 1

For each homogeneous Repeat for each

section section

level per unit length

section in point sources

For each point source

source-line

Addressed in volume 2

Computation of the sound

power level

propagation between a source point and a

receiver

Determination of the sound contribution of the

source point at the receiver

receiver as the sum of the contributions of all

source points

Previous practice in calculating the sound emission of a stream of vehicles was founded on the French `Guide

du Bruit' [GdB1980]. This guide provide unit emission values based on current vehicle numbers, with the

following new features:

breakdown of the emission into two components: the "rolling noise" component, assumed to be emitted

by the contact between the tyre and the road platform, and the "power unit noise" component, assumed

to be emitted by all vehicle mechanical sources:

taking into account the inuence of the road platform surface on the noise emitted;

a method for estimating the distribution of average daily trac in the periods 06:00-22:00, 06:00-

18:00, 18:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00, as targeted by the regulations [Order95] or by the transposition

of the European directive relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise

[END]. [Ruling2004]. [Law2005];

recommendations relating to the hypothesis of vehicle speed and trac ow type of vehicles.

Chapter 1. Introduction 7

2 - Factual method

2.1 - Scope

This part describes the approach in breaking down the road platform into acoustically-homogeneous sections

of line-source and determining the level of sound power per metre for each section, representative of the sound

emission of the stream of vehicles.

The method only considers two categories of vehicle: light vehicles (LV - in French VL) and heavy goods

vehicles (HGV - in French PL). The sound emission formulae used are taken from measurements between

1995 and 2005 and described in detail in part 3 of this guide. These formulae are average estimations

representative of vehicle numbers in France for each category.

The method can therefore be applied to the current situations encountered in the road infrastructures, with

the following reservations:

the calculations can model a current or future situation (the method does not anticipate any technical

changes in vehicles). The sound emission values in the French `Guide du Bruit' could prove more

suitable for the application to a former situation (see Chapter 3);

using this method is only relevant for roads in another country with similar vehicle eet and road

surfacing techniques to France;

vehicles other than LV and HGV are included in one or other of these categories: motorized two-wheel

vehicles in LV, buses in HGV, etc. These approximations are acceptable for the LAeq,T calculation as

long as the proportion of these specic vehicles in the total trac in the period remains modest;

similarly, if the case of modelled infrastructure dealing with highly atypical trac, like a high proportion

of heavy goods vehicles of a specic type with a sound emission clearly dierent from the average, the

results of the modelling will be less relevant.

In addition, the various parameters used by the method are subject to the following limitations:

the average speed of each category of vehicle is less than 130 km/h for LV and 100 km/h for HGV;

the denition of road platform surface categories only includes the most common surfacing techniques

(for further detail, see Section 2.7;

the emission formulae correspond to a road platform surface "in state of use" and without surface

defects.

Any use of the method that does not comply with these limitations must be stated explicitly and justied

in the study report.

Two types of indexes are used in transportation noise: the maximum level used, for example, to characterize

the pass-by noise of a vehicle and the equivalent level used to characterise the noise from the trac, for

example. Both are expressed in decibels. A sound level L in decibels is dened by:

p2m

L = 10 log10 (2.1)

p20

where pm is an average of the quadratic pressure and p0 the reference pressure:

p0 = 2 105 P a (2.2)

The sound pressure is systematically taken with the frequential weighting A. This is therefore known as

A-weighted level.

The equivalent sound pressure level characterises a noise over a given time T . It uses the average of the

quadratic pressure. It can depend on the moment considered. It is written LAeq,T (t) and is given by the

relationship:

t

p2A ( )

Z

1

LAeq,T (t) = 10 log10 d (2.3)

T tT p20

Changes in trac can be characterised by changes in the equivalent level taken over one hour LAeq,1h .

Changes in the pass-by pressure level of a vehicle are used to characterise its noise. A weighted average

known as F AST is considered for the quadratic pressure. The sound pressure level is called F AST sound

pressure level:

Z t 2

1 t p ( )

LA,F AST (t) = 10 log10 e 0.125 A 2 d (2.4)

p0

t

where t and are expressed in seconds. The exponential weighting e 0.125 reduces the contribution of p2A ( )

all the more as its occurrence is far from the moment considered (as t is large).

The pass-by noise vehicle is most frequently characterised by the maximum value of its FAST pressure level:

It is the F AST sound pressure level that is exceeded during N % of the considered time interval considered,

with symbol LAN,T . For example, LA95,1h is the LA,F AST (t) exceeded for 95% of one hour.

A sound power W is characterised by its sound power level Lw , given in decibels by the relationship:

W

Lw = 10 log10 (2.6)

W0

where

W0 = 1012 W (2.7)

2.2.1.6 - Octave and third-octave bands

1

Interval between two frequencies where the ratio is equal to 2 (resp. 2 3 ). These frequencies dene the

bandwidths. The band is normally designated by its median frequency, which is the geometric average of

two limit frequencies.

This term designates the vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of less than 3.5 tonnes.

This term designates the vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) larger than or equal to 3.5

tonnes.

2.2.3.1 - Speed

This term designates the average speed of a vehicle category (LV or HGV). The speed is expressed in km/h.

This term characterises the variation over time of the speed of a vehicle or a category of vehicles. This guide

distinguishes three types of trac ow type:

steady speed, where the speed of the vehicle or stream of vehicles is signicantly constant,

acceleration,

deceleration.

The ow rate Q represents the number of vehicles N passing at a point x of the network during an observation

period T :

Nx,T

Qx,T = (2.8)

T

2.2.4.2 - Concentration

The concentration K (expressed in vehicles per metre (veh/m) represents the number of vehicles between

network positions x and x + x at moment t:

Nx,x+x,t

Kt,x+x = (2.9)

x

horizontal roads (slopes less than or equal to 2%);

gradients (slopes more than 2%). Depending on the direction in which the vehicle is travelling, the

gradient is called upwards or downwards.

For the needs of sound calculations, the road is modelled by a succession of acoustically-homogeneous sections

of line-sources distributed over the road platform. A sound emission power per metre of line-source is

associated with each acoustically-homogeneous section. The overall calculation approach is represented in

Figure 2.1. It is described summarily below, with each stage referring back to the relevant chapters.

In the general case, the road is broken down into as many line-sources as there are trac lanes. Section 2.3.1

states the situations where it can be permitted to use fewer line-sources.

Breaking down the road into acoustically-homogeneous sections requires prior availability of magnitudes

with an inuence on the sound emission of the stream of vehicles:

the average hourly ow rate in the period for each category of vehicle (LV or HGV) (see Section 2.4);

the speed and trac ow type of each category of vehicle (LV or HGV) (see Section 2.5);

the road platform surface category (see Section 2.7.2);

the road gradient.

These elements must be known or estimated continuously the length of the infrastructure to be modelled

and in the general case independently for each trac lane.

An acoustically-homogeneous section of line-source is a portion of the road with small variation in the sound

emission from the stream of vehicles and for which the emission is considered uniform in the modelling. When

the sound emission varies substantially along a line-source, it can be broken down into several homogeneous

sections. Section 2.3.3 explains the rules governing this breakdown, depending on longitudinal variations in

parameters with an inuence on the sound emission (ow rates, speeds, trac ow types, surface category,

road gradient).

2.3.4 - Calculating the sound power per metre of source-line for a unit flow rate

For each acoustically-homogeneous section, the sound power level per metre of line-source for a ow rate of

lveh/h (called "unit ow rate"), noted Lw/m/veh , is calculated for the LV and HGV from the speed, trac

ow type, surface category and road gradient. This calculation is detailed in Section 2.7.

The sound emission power level per metre of line-source Lw/m is obtained, for each third-octave band, by:

(2.10)

Lw/m (j) = Lw/m/LV + 10 log10 QLV Lw/m/HGV + 10 log10 QHGV + R(j)

where:

Lw/m/veh emission power per metre of lane of the vehicle category for a unit ow rate (1 veh/h)

Qveh average hourly ow rate for the vehicle category

represents the added energy:

h i

L1 L2 = 10 log10 100.1L1 + 100.1L2 (2.11)

in source-lines

source-line source-line

- average hourly traffic flow LV and HGV

- speeds and paces LV and HGV

- pavement category

- road gradient

acoustically homogeneous sections

section section

level per unit length

2.4.1 - General

Calculating a long-term equivalent sound level LAeq,T requires knowledge of the average hourly ow rates

representative of each vehicle category (LV and HGV) over the studied period T studied. The periods

normally targeted for standard needs (project design, strategic mapping, etc.) are 06:00-22:00 (which can

be split into 06:00-18:00 and 18:00-22:00) and 22:00-06:00.

The average hourly ow rates for each vehicle category in each of these periods are rarely available in a

noise study. They normally have to be estimated from AADT (annual average daily trac - in French

TMJA) adopted as hypotheses. This approach is described in the second part of this guide, Section 3.2.2.

Depending on circumstances, it can either involve analysing counts made on the site studied or a related

site, or applying estimation formulae to the AADT based on the road function and vehicle category. These

formulae, accompanied by their eld of application, are presented below, dierentiating between intercity

routes (see Section 2.4.2) and urban routes (see Section 2.4.3).

In all circumstances, including the situation for which the hourly ow rate hypotheses are available initially,

the values used in the acoustic study must not exceed the equivalent hourly ow rate of the maximum sound

emission of the stream (see Section 2.4.4).

For intercity roads and motorways (located outside large urban areas), estimation formulae for the distribu-

tion of LV and HGV trac over the four periods 06:00-22:00, 06:00-18:00, 18:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 have

been published in the information note in Stra series EEC no. 77 [Note77].

These formulae depend rstly on the type of route (road, motorway) and secondly on its function (long-

distance or regional). The information note also states the eld of application for formulae and the related

condence interval.

The reader can consult this information note in Appendix 3.

The vehicle ow rate hypotheses required for the acoustic studies are the average hourly ow rates for

each type of vehicle and for each period targeted (see Section 2.4.1). For urban roads, these ow rates are

determined or estimated by inputting the AADT or the all-vehicle ow rate during the evening rush hour

(in French - HPS). The average hourly ow rates for each type of vehicle are thus obtained from these input

data and for a given period according to the following formulae:

1 100 %HGVday

QLV,day = AADT %AVday (2.12)

16 100

1 %HGVday

QHGV,day = AADT %AVday (2.13)

16 100

1 100 %HGVnight

QLV,night = AADT %AVnight (2.14)

8 100

1 %HGVnight

QHGV,night = AADT %AVnight (2.15)

8 100

QERH

AADT = (2.16)

%ERH

where:

QLV,day , QHGV,day , QLV,night , QHGV,night are the average hourly ow rates respectively for the LV

and HGV and in the day (jour) and night (nuit) periods;

%HGVday and %HGVnight are the heavy goods vehicle percentages in the day and night periods;

%AVday and %AVnight are the all-vehicle (in French - TV) ow rate percentages for the day and night

periods;

QERH is the all-vehicle ow rate during the evening rush hour;

%ERH is the percentage of all-vehicle ow rate during the evening rush hour compared with the

AADT.

The coecients of the AADT passage or evening rush hour ow rate at hourly ow rates dier according to

the type of urban road network studied. There are three types of urban road network:

Structuring urban road networks: Urban motorways or urban expressways with interchanges, higher-

speed roads (90 km/h or 70 km/h) with at junctions and few changes in level, main roads or streets

(50 km/h), considerable night-time HGV trac.

Intersecting urban road networks: main roads and traditional streets restricted to 50 km/h with at

junctions with no changes in level, little HGV trac during the day and hardly any at night.

Sector urban road networks: slow trac lanes (30 km/h), very little daytime HGV trac

For urban expressways (VRU) and for a one day period, trac conditions corresponding to the maximum

sound emission can be adopted as a precaution (see Section 2.4.4). This will especially be the case when

trac forecasts anticipate capacity use of the road network in the short or medium term. However, a specic

estimation of ow rates will always be necessary for the night period. Night-time ow rates cannot be

deduced from daytime ow rates at the risk producing major errors in the estimation.

For the other urban road networks, the trac data produced in the Urban Area Road Network File (DVA)

and the Urban Movement Plan (PDU) can provide hypotheses on the evening rush hour. However, this

information only normally covers light vehicles and hypotheses must be produced for the heavy goods

vehicles.

Failing local data, the values of trac parameters could be adopted within the limits indicated in Table 2.1:

Structuring 5 to 20%

17,000 to

urban road day 5 to 35 7.5 to 9.5 _

217,000

networks % night

Intersecting

urban road 2,500 to 25,000 85 to

(50,000 in 0 to 5 % 6.5 to 9.5% 15 to 5 %

networks 95%

Sector urban Ile-de-France)

road networks

2.4.4 - Equivalent hourly flow rate of the maximum sound emission of the stream

The hourly ow rate (all vehicles) corresponding to the maximum sound emission of the stream depends on

the type of road, the number of lanes per road platform and the proportion of HGV (noted %HGV below).

The general considerations on this notion and the origin of the formulae that follow are presented in the

second part of this guide, Section 3.2

QAV,equiv = 2000 10 %HGV (2.17)

for a three-lane road platform:

The speeds associated with these formulae are specied in Section 2.5.2.

No specic formula is available. It is allowed that the formula relating to the intercity motorways also apply

to the intercity roads.

The formulae to be taken into account for the type A urban expressways are as follows:

QAV,equiv = 3050 24.8 %HGV (2.19)

The all-vehicle hourly ow rate QAV corresponding to the maximum sound emission is taken as equal to

1800 veh/h/lane as long as the lights are green. This ow rate has to be weighted for the percentage of time

the lights are green when the road in question is regulated by trac lights.

2.5.1 - General

The speed hypotheses to be used correspond to the arithmetic average speed for each category of vehicle.

The trac ow type characterises the entire stream and not each vehicle category independently. There are

three distinct cases: steady speed, acceleration or deceleration, without taking into account the value of the

acceleration numerically.

Unless supported otherwise by observations on the site studied, identical speed and trac ow type hy-

potheses will be adopted for all periods (day, evening, night, etc.).

In a link section, apart from special areas where the geometry induces speed constraints (high ramps, low

radius bends, etc.), the maximum speed limit is adopted as the speed hypothesis for the LV. The pre-dened

values indicated in Table 2.2 are adopted for the HGV, or the speed limit if lower:

The speed of the stream is steady.

Specic hypotheses must be adopted in sections where the geometry is restrictive and on the edges of special

layouts: upward and downward gradients, bend, approach and exit from a stopping point (crossroads, toll

barrier, etc.), roundabout, expressway entry and exit ramp, edges of sleeping policemen, etc. The current

Type of infrastructure HGV speed (km/h)

Link motorway 90

Urban expressway 90

Dual carriageway 85

Single carriageway road 80

In urban area speed limit

methods denes a special procedure for the last twenty metres before and the rst twenty metres after a

stopping point. This involves using a uniform sound emission power (see Section 2.6.2.2). There is therefore

no need to dene vehicle speed and trac ow type hypotheses in these sections. Vehicle speed (LV and

HGV) entering the stopping section and leaving the starting section is 25 km/h.

The speed and trac ow type hypotheses associated with other layouts are not addressed in this guide.

In terms of the speeds, useful information can be found in the guides on the geometric design of road

infrastructures. A list is provided for information in the second part of this guide, Section 3.3.

In the general case, the road is broken down into as many line-sources as there are trac lanes. Each

line-source is placed in the centre of the lane. Fewer line-sources are permitted in the following cases:

For two-lane roads, the road can be represented by a single line-source placed in the middle of the road

platform if the following conditions are combined:

the sound emission power (in other words all the inuence factors - ow rates, speeds, trac ow

types, road platform surface, gradient) is similar in both trac directions,

the acoustic calculation only covers receiving points located more than 11 m from the road axis.

For roads with more than two lanes, where the acoustic calculation only covers receiving points with

direct line of sight to the road:

The road can be represented by a single line-source per trac direction, placed in the middle of each

road platform, if all the receiving points in question are located at a distance from the road axis of at

least 2.4 times the width of the road platform.

In addition, where the sound emission power (ow rates, speeds, trac ow types, road platform

surface, gradient) is similar in both trac directions, the road can be represented by a single line-

source placed in the middle of the road platform.

For roads with more than two lanes, where the acoustic calculation only covers receiving points without

direct line of sight to the road:

The road can be represented by a single line-source per trac direction, placed in the middle of each

road platform, if all the receiving points in question are sited at a distance from the road axis of at

least six times the width of the road platform.

An acoustically-homogeneous section of line-source is a portion of the road with little variation in the sound

emission from the stream of vehicles and for which the emission is considered uniform in the modelling. In

Factor Variation

Average hourly ow rate in the period for each category of

Maximum variation 5%

vehicle (LV or HGV)

Representative speed for each vehicle category Maximum variation 10 km/h

Representative trac ow type for each vehicle category no change in trac ow type

Roadway surface category no change in road platform surface category

Road gradient (if more than 2%) Maximum variation 1 %

practice, the variation of factors inuencing the sound emission must respect in an acoustically-homogeneous

section the maximum values given in Table 2.3.

If one or other of these requirements is not met, the section in question must be sub-divided into several

acoustically-homogeneous sections.

At very low speeds, when vehicles are accelerating or decelerating, the maximum permitted speed variation

in an acoustically-homogeneous section should be in the order of 5 km/h to ensure little variation in the

emission. When starting o or immediately prior to stopping, such a speed variation occurs in very short

distances, with the results that the line-source is sub-divided into very short homogeneous sections. There

is no need for such a ne breakdown to maintain assessment accuracy at the receiving point. These areas

can be modelled by a uniform sound emission section without causing a signicant error.

In practice, if the road has a stopping point (crossroads with trac lights, stop sign, loss of priority, etc.), the

last twenty metres before the stopping point will be taken to be a single section, called a "stopping section".

Similarly, the rst twenty metres after a stopping point will be taken to be a single section, called "starting

section". The sound emission used for the calculations in both these sections is uniform. Vehicle speed (LV

and HGV) entering the stopping section and leaving the starting section is 25 km/h. The justication for

this principle is explained in Section 2.7.4 of this guide.

2.7 - Emission power per metre of line-source for a unit flow rate Lw/m

2.7.1 - Principles

For each vehicle category, the sound emission power per metre of line-source for a ow rate of 1 veh/h

(so-called "unit ow rate"), noted Lw/m/veh , is calculated by:

Where

Lr,w/m is the component of Lw/m/veh assumed to be emitted by the contact between tyre and road

platform, also known as the "rolling noise component";

Lm,w/m is the component of Lw/m/veh assumed to be emitted by all vehicle mechanical sources also

known as the "engine component";

h i

L1 L2 = 10 log10 100.1L1 + 100.1L2 (2.23)

Note

the expressions "engine component" and "rolling component" are loose terms. The authors make no claim

to the relevance of either of these two terms taken in isolation in terms of speeds, but only to their energy

sum Lw/m/veh . For further detail, see Section 3.4 in this guide.

Section 2.6 denes an acoustically-homogenous section called "starting" over the rst twenty metres after a

stopping point and an acoustically-homogeneous section called "stopping" over the last twenty metres before

a stopping point. These sections correspond to the areas where vehicle speed (LV and HGV) is less than 25

km/h. The emission power used in both these sections is uniform. The values of Lw/m/veh to be used are

provided in Appendix D.

The inuence of the road platform surface on the noise emitted by vehicles has been measured frequently

in France (procedures described in [S31119], [NFS31119p2]), with the results compiled into a database.

Figure 2.2 summarises the results obtained over some 380 sites with the SPB procedure (isolated vehicles)

for light vehicles. The results are compiled by technique. Each point represents the LAmax at 90 km/h of a

road section; it is the result of a statistical analysis of pass-by measurements from at least eighty vehicles in

the trac ow[CFTR4]. The gure also shows to the right of these points the average value of the surfacing

category and its standard deviation (in green).

Note a considerable scattering of measurement results within a same technique. Three surfacing categories

noted R1 to R3 can however be dened, with each category grouping several surfacing techniques.

LAmax (dB(A))

Figure 2.2: Dening surfacing categories - overview on the database of LV / SPB measurements of pavements.

Temperature 20C, speed 90 km/h.

BBUM: Ultra Thin Asphalt Concrete ECF: Cold-applied Slurry Surfacing

BBDr: Porous Asphalt BC: Cement Concrete

ES: Surface Dressing

Figure 2.2 only gives surface techniques with sucient data available to allow them to be exploited statisti-

cally (see Section 3.5).

If a user wishes to model a site with a surfacing technique not included in this gure, he will use the

granulometry, surface characteristics and potential porosity to determine the category most likely to represent

the desired technique. Cobblestones are a case in point, inasmuch as the related sound emission is higher

than the one set for category R3. Results of cobblestone measurements are provided as a rough guide in the

third part of this work, Section 3.5.

Given the diculties in implementing road platform surfaces, it must be said that Figure 2.2 in no way

implies that a same type of surface used on two dierent sites will be in the same category in both cases.

Thus for example, BBUM 0/6 could in some circumstances have the characteristics of an R1 surface but

those of an R2 surface in others. The classication comes simply from statistical observation after acoustic

measurements, illustrated by the gure above, where three categories of surface stand out clearly.

Figure 2.2 cannot therefore be considered as a reference by the project manager when choosing a surface.

2.7.2.2 - Emission power per metre of line-source Lr,w/m for an aged surface

Table 2.4 presents for each category of surface the Lr,w/m formulae for the LV and HGV and their eld of

application for speed.

Speed domain 20 km/h V 130 km/h 20 km/h V 100 km/h

R1 53.4 + 21 log10 (V /90) 61.5 + 20 log10 (V /80)

Surfacing category R2 55.4 + 20.1 log10 (V /90) 63.3 + 20 log10 (V /80)

R3 57.5 + 21.4 log10 (V /90) 64.1 + 20 log10 (V /80)

Table 2.4: Formulae for the "rolling noise component" for an aged surface.

These formulae are representative of the average emission for an aged surface less than ten years old, therefore

"in state of use" and without surface defects. They should be employed in the general case, especially when

modelling is employed to check compliance with regulatory sound levels on a far horizon or over a long

period.

Scattering of actual values - 95% condence interval of 95% The "rolling" component formulae stated above

correspond to the average of a large number of road sections for each surfacing category. The distribution

of values relating to each road section show an approximate Gaussian form around average values for each

technique. Table 2.5 presents the values for the 95% condence interval related to the "rolling" component".

R1 3.4 dB(A) 3.1 dB(A)

Surfacing category R2 2.5 dB(A) 3.2 dB(A)

R3 2.9 dB(A) 2.5 dB(A)

Table 2.5: Condence interval at 95% related to the "rolling noise component".

The dispersion of actual values of road sections within each surfacing category is not insignicant. Estimating

the rolling noise component of a given road section from the value of the surfacing category can cause a

signicant error in the sound levels calculated at the receiving points compared with the actual value.

Ideally, the 95% condence interval relating to the "rolling" component should be used in a noise prediction

calculation to assess the uncertainty over sound levels calculated at the receiving points. This appraisal could

prove especially useful when the aim of the prediction calculation is to check compliance with a regulatory

objective.

However, this appraisal necessitates combining the inaccuracies from other calculation elements (other input

data, propagation calculations, etc.), where knowledge is to date only very sketchy given the huge number

of parameters in play and the complexity of phenomena intervening in the propagation. The approach to

appraising uncertainties related to the calculation results will not be addressed in this guide.

A simpler approach, explained in the second part of Section 3.5 can consist of increasing the "rolling"

component by a safety coecient adapted to the probability of overtaking that the road authority deems

acceptable.

In any event, the decision about any overtaking of this type is the remit of the road authority for the modelled

infrastructure, as it will have to deal with the consequences of any under-estimations (creating a failure to

comply with regulatory requirements) and of any over-estimations (which could cause overdimensioning of

acoustic protections on the site).

2.7.2.3 - Emission power per metre of line-source Lr,w/m depending on the age of the surface

When the study is aiming to model a site with a surface less than ten years old, the emission power per

metre of line-source Lr,w/m is corrected by the term Lr,w/m dened in Table 2.6.

Age of surface 2 years 2 to 10 years 2 years 2 to 10 years

R1 -4 0.5(a 10) -2,4 0.3(a 10)

Surfacing category R2 -2 0.25(a 10) -1,2 0.15(a 10)

R3 -1,6 0.2(a 10) -1 0.12(a 10)

Table 2.6: Correction Lr,w/m , in dB(A), depending on the age of the surface, noted a, in years.

Scattering of actual values - 95% condence interval The values quoted in the previous chapter are valid

whatever the age of the surface.

Ignorance of actual acoustic characteristics of the road section to be modelled can cause a signicant error

in the sound levels calculated at the receiving points. To reduce this risk, under certain conditions it is

acceptable to use a value of the "rolling" component dierent from previously-dened formulae. These

conditions are:

the modelling must cover an existing situation: the road section exists and no projection over time is

carried out (this corresponds typically to assessing an initial state);

measurement results for vehicle pass-by noise, taken in the same road section under the standards in

force, are available for LV and HGV or failing that, for LV only. The "road trains" (heavy goods

vehicles with at least four axles) dened by standard S 31-119 will be considered here as representative

of all heavy goods vehicles;

the modelling is representative of the date on which the pass-by measurements were taken.

When these conditions are respected, the "rolling" component for LV and HGV on the site studied can

be assessed under the approach described in the third part of this work, in Section 3.5. These values are

produced under the sole responsibility of the operator and should be justied in the study report, particularly

by referring to the test report for measurements exploited.

The "engine" component Lm,w/m is based on the trac ow type and speed of vehicles and, for the HGV,

the road gradient.

There are three potential trac ow types: steady speed, acceleration and deceleration. Acceleration

is only taken into account through this qualitative approach, not in quantied fashion. The steady

speed condition applies only to a minimum speed of 20 km/h. Remember also that when accelerating

or decelerating, the engine and rolling noise components are only broken down for speeds faster than

25 km/h.

There are three potential gradients: horizontal road (gradient less than 2%), upwards (gradient of

2% to 6%) and downwards (gradient of 2% to 6%). The upwards and downwards gradient makes a

quantitative contribution to the calculation of the HGV "engine" component. Gradients of more than

6% are not dealt with by this method. In the method domain, the gradient has no inuence on the LV

"engine" component.

Note

The gradient of the road inuences the noise emitted in two ways: rstly, by modifying the speed of

vehicles and secondly by modifying the "engine" component at a given speed. The rst eect is addressed

in Section 3.6. Only the second eect is addressed here.

Formulae used to calculate the "engine" component Lm,w/m depending on the speed are presented for each

conguration below. A graph illustrating the value of Lw/m resulting from the combination with the three

surfacing categories for an aged road section is also presented for information.

2.7.3.1 - LV at steady speed (all gradients, V 20 km/h)

V - km/h Lm,w/m

20 to 30 36.7 10 log10 (V /90)

30 to 110 42.4 + 2.0 log10 (V /90)

110 to 130 40.7 + 21.3 log10 (V /90)

LV

steady speed

all gradients

aged pavement

2.7.3.2 - LV accelerating (all gradients, V 25 km/h)

V - km/h Lm,w/m

25 to 100 46.1 10 log10 (V /90)

100 to 130 44.3 + 28.6 log10 (V /90)

Starting

section

LV

acceleration

all gradients

aged pavement

2.7.3.3 - LV decelerating (all gradients, V 25 km/h)

V - km/h Lm,w/m

25 to 80 42.1 4.5 log10 (V /90)

80 to 110 42.4 + 2 log10 (V /90)

110 to 130 40.7 + 21.3 log10 (V /90)

Stopping

section

LV

deceleration

all gradients

aged pavement

2.7.3.4 - HGV, all traffic flow types and gradients

The formulae used to calculate Lm,w/m for the HGV are simpler than for the LV (Table 2.10). They are

obtained for the various trac ow type and gradient conditions from formulae relating to the steady speed

on a horizontal road by simply adding an independent speed correction Lm,w/m (Table 2.11). Lm,w/m

V - km/h Lm,w/m

20 to 701 49.6 10 log10 (V /80) + Lm,w/m

70 to 100 50.4 + 3 log10 (V /80) + Lm,w/m

gradient

0% p 2% upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%

steady speed 0 dB(A) 2(p 2) 1(p 2)

acceleration 5 dB(A) 5 + max (2(p 4.5); 0) 5 dB(A)

deceleration 0 dB(A) 0 dB(A) 1(p 2)

Figure 2.6 to Figure 2.10 illustrate for the simple congurations the value of Lw/m resulting from the

combination with the three surfacing categories for an aged road section.

HGV

steady speed

horizontal road

aged pavement

Figure 2.6: Lw/m for HGV at steady speed on a horizontal road, on an aged surface.

1

Reminder: the accelerating and decelerating trac ow types only apply to a speed faster than or equal to 25 km/h.

Starting

section

HGV

acceleration

horizontal road

aged pavement

Figure 2.7: Lw/m for HGV accelerating on a horizontal road, on an aged surface.

Stopping

section

HGV

deceleration

horizontal road

aged pavement

Figure 2.8: Lw/m for HGV decelerating on a horizontal road, on an aged surface.

HGV

steady speed

6% upwards gradient

aged pavement

Figure 2.9: Lw/m for HGV at steady speed on an upwards gradient of 6%, on an aged surface.

HGV

steady speed

6% downwards gradient

aged pavement

Figure 2.10: Lw/m for HGV at steady speed on a downwards gradient of 6%, on an aged surface.

2.7.4 - `Starting' and `stopping' sections

The emission powers Lw/m/veh to be used for the LV and the HGV on the "starting" and "stopping" sections

are dened in Table 2.12. They are independent from the resurfacing category (its inuence is considered

negligible at these low speeds). For the HGV, they depend on the gradient of the road.

LV all HGV

gradients horizontal road downwards 2%

upwards 2% < p 6%

0% p 2% < p 6%

starting section 51.1 62.4 62.4 + max (2(p 4.5); 0) 62.4

stopping section 44.5 58.0 58.0 + (p 2)

Table 2.12: Emission powers Lw/m/veh in dB(A), for "starting" and "stopping" sections. p is in % (absolute

value).

Note

Comment: these values represent the average sound emission of the section. There is therefore no conti-

nuity with the values corresponding to the same conguration for 25 km/h.

The values of Table 2.12 have been established without taking the eect of ageing into account. Taking

ageing into account gives the values in Table 2.13:

LV all HGV

gradients horizontal road downwards 2%

upwards 2% p 6%

0% p 2% p 6%

starting section 51.3 62.5 62.5 + max (2(p 4.5); 0) 62.5

stopping section 45.1 58.3 58.3 + (p 2)

Table 2.13: Emission powers Lw/m/veh in dB(A), for "starting" and "stopping" sections taking account of

ageing. p is in % (absolute value).

Two series of values according to the road platform surfacing technique are considered for the spectral

distribution R(j) per third-octave band of the sound emission power of an elementary point source (see

Table 2.14):

all the other surfacing techniques, secondly.

central frequency of

100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630

third-octave band (Hz)

porous surfaces -22 -22 -20 -17 -15 -12 -10 -8 -9

non-porous surfaces -27 -26 -24 -21 -19 -16 -14 -11 -11

central frequency of

800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 5000

third-octave band (Hz)

porous surfaces -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -16 -18 -20 -23

non-porous surfaces -8 -7 -8 -10 -13 -16 -18 -21 -23

Table 2.14: Spectral distribution R(j) per third-octave band of the sound emission power of an elementary

point source, in dB(A).

The energy sum of values corresponding to the eighteen third-octave bands is equal to 0 dB(A).

3 - Comments and analyses

3.1 - Introduction

The second part of this guide assembles all the elements and comments that the authors have deemed useful

to support the calculation method itself. For example:

the origin and justication of formulae and values adopted and their potential limitations;

amendments made to previous practice (French "Guide du Bruit" [GdB1980] and other documents);

more general thoughts on the state of knowledge of the various factors and on the work required for a

potential future version of the road noise forecasting method.

This part is organised wherever possible using a similar structure to the rst part. The following will be

addressed in succession:

% AADT

LV HGV

Time slot

Figure 3.1: Average daily proles of LV and HGV trac on national roads per hourly time slot.

The unit emission values are dealt with in several sections describing rst and foremost the general approach

to producing unit emission values Section 3.4), then more specically the approaches to producing rolling

noise components Section 3.5 and engine components for LV Section 3.6 and HGV Section 3.7. Lastly,

Section 3.8 and Section 3.9 comment on the issues relating to these values and compare them with those

published in the Guide to Noise.

3.2 - Flow rate hypotheses

The daily trac prole varies tremendously according to the category of vehicles and the category of infras-

tructure. Figure 3.1 represents for illustrative purposes the average share of trac in each hourly time slot

in the daily trac for LV and HGV separately, based on a sample of 249 site on national roads (RN).

Only LV peak in the late afternoon, ending at 7 p.m. The HGV trac is more regular throughout the day

and decreases from 6 p.m. onwards. However, proportionally more HGV travel at night than LV.

The trac survey thus carried out on the national intercity network in 1996-97 [Setra1999] showed that on

average:

on the national roads, 7% of LV and 14% of HGV travel at night (between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.). The

HGV share in the total trac is twice as high at night (22%) than from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. (11%);

this trend is even more pronounced on the motorways: 9% of LV and 18% of HGV travel at night.

The proportion of HGV in the total trac, equal to 14% from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m., increases to 25% at

night.

In addition, there are major disparities around these averages between the routes of the same administrative

category. The proportion of HGV in the motorway network at night varies from 8% to more than 40%

according to the sites. On national roads, for around the same AADT, the nocturnal HGV ow rate on one

site can be trebled on another.

Knowledge of LV and HGV daily trac (24 hours) and the road category alone is therefore not enough to

estimate the nocturnal sound levels correctly. This variability can be reduced by analysing the road function.

It seems that, for the intercity routes, nocturnal trac is linked to the amount of trac in transit: a road

mainly fullling a long-distance transit function (inter-regional and even international journeys) can expect

proportionally more night trac than a road used for short journeys (commuting, neighbourhood deliveries,

etc.).

Thus, an acoustic study misreading the particular operation of an infrastructure during the night risks

under-estimating substantially the noise levels and thus committing a very prejudicial error.

3.2.2 - General approach to estimating average hourly flow rates from AADT

Vehicle ow rates for each period can be determined by counting or estimated by applying formulae.

Counting operations to assess the daily distribution of LV and HGV trac are only physically possible when

studying an existing infrastructure. This approach can also be very cumbersome in some situations and

disproportionately costly in relation to the study issues, especially when studying an extensive network.

Counting is not therefore a systematic solution.

For this reason trac estimations for the dierent periods have been established from statistical analyses;

they are presented in part 2 of this guide in Section 2.4.2 and Section 2.4.3. These estimations are based on

average values obtained for each sub-sample in sites exploited.

The approach to be applied to assess the LV and HGV trac in the dierent periods will therefore be

chosen based on the context of the study. Regardless of the approach adopted, it is recommended to seek

systematically the advice of a trac survey specialist for its implementation.

Counting per period, and the subsequent use of the results, is generally only recommended when required by

a detailed study, i.e. focusing on a set route or localised area. Remember that these counts must distinguish

between LV and HGV. Attention is also drawn to the fact that the trac proles (especially evening and

night) tend to vary depending on the days of the week. It is therefore essential to involve a road survey

specialist in the denition of counting methods, to ensure sucient representativeness in relation to the

annual average.

These counts can then be used not just to assess the current situation, but also to assess a future situation,

if the study concerns an on-the-spot (widening, acoustic protection project, etc.) or a short deviation,

provided that the provisional trac survey has not revealed any change in the road function. To assess a

future situation, the daily distribution noted for each vehicle category is then applied to the AADT of the

prediction horizon.

When the study involves predicting the noise of a new road, or an existing road with changed function, the

analysis must distinguish between and deals separately with:

rstly, the trac linked to local establishments (large industrial estate, major shopping centre, etc.)

likely to generate a substantial share of the trac (especially heavy goods vehicles) predicted for the

itinerary. The provisional trac survey must include an analysis of the operation of these generators

according to the various periods;

secondly, the trac with "diuse" or distant origins and destinations linked to the general operation

of an urban area or itinerary: its breakdown between the dierent periods can be estimated as stated

in Section 2.4.2 and Section 2.4.3.

It is also recommended to use formulae for the macroscopic studies covering an extended network, where the

issue at stake does not normally justify specic counts except on a few clearly-identied routes.

The formulae dened to estimate the distribution of LV and HGV trac over the four periods 06:00-22:00,

06:00-18:00, 18:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 are those published in the information note in Stra series EEC no.

77 [Note77] (see Appendix C).

This note also states the eld of application for formulae, the related condence interval and describes the

sample of sites which has been used to reach these formulae. The reader is referred to this document to

familiarise himself with these elements.

For urban routes, the values presented in Section 2.4.3 come from a CERTU1 trac database. This database

was compiled between 2000 and 2005 and fed with data from counting in urban environments for other

purposes. Measuring campaigns on two hundred sites spread over 34 municipalities in France, mainly in

large urban areas, are thus available.

These data were rst used in 2005 to analyse the data compiled and produce the data described.

The values proposed show considerable variation in the percentage of heavy goods vehicles on urban ex-

pressways both during the time and at night and a very signicant relative variation in the percentage of

all-vehicle nocturnal trac compared with the total trac.

And it is precisely these magnitudes for which the issue is the most important. These elements cannot to

date be used to suggest passing trac formulae. The parameters aecting these percentages need to be

rened to explain these major variations.

3.2.5 - Equivalent hourly flow rate of the maximum sound emission of the stream

3.2.5.1 - Notions of equivalent flow rate of the maximum sound emission of the stream

Calculating the sound power level emitted per metre of road platform Lw/m requires knowledge of ow rates

and speeds for each category of vehicle. These two types of data are interdependent: a high ow rate induces

constraints on the ow of the stream, which results in a drop of speeds practiced. The increase in the ow

rate and the resulting reduction in speeds have opposite eects on the sound emission, so that it achieves a

maximum value for a ow rate below the capacity of the road platform. This situation is commonly called

"acoustic saturation".

To make things simple, the noise prediction calculations are based, for each vehicle category, on a hypothesis

of speed equal to the "free speed" or "no-load speed" (i.e. the speed when the ow rate is very low and

1

Centre d'Etude des Rseaux, de Transports de l'Urbanisme et des Constructions Publiques

which does not restrict the ow in any way) and not on the actual speeds which are dependent on the ow

rate. This principle inevitably over-estimates the sound emission power of the stream apart from introducing

directly the ow rate-speed laws into the forecast model.

Ceilings are set for the ow rate hypotheses to prevent the sound emission power produced by provisional

calculations exceeding that noted in an acoustic saturation situation.

For a given proportion of heavy goods vehicles, noted %HGV , the equivalent ow rate of the maximum

sound emission of the stream QAV,eq is called the value of the all-vehicle ow rate, which gives, for the

same value of %HGV and for LV and HGV free speeds, the maximum sound emission power relating to the

acoustic saturation situation.

The formulae for intercity motorways are taken from a previous study [Setra2007] and based on relationships

between ow rates and journey times published previously [Setra2004].

This study followed the outline below:

1. For numerous all-vehicle ow rate (600 to 4500 veh/h for a three-lane road platform and 40 to 3000

veh/h for a two-lane road platform) and HGV proportion (0 to 35%) hypotheses:

calculation of related journey times, then corresponding average speeds, by applying ow rate-

journey time relationships;

calculation of the sound emission power for a unit ow rate of each vehicle category, using formulae

presented in the second part of this guide, for the three categories of road platform surface;

calculation of the sound emission power per metre of road platform for the xed trac hypotheses

for the three categories of road platform surface.

the maximum value of the sound emission power encountered in the range of ow rates QAV

studied is taken;

the equivalent ow rate of the maximum emission of the stream QAV,eq is then calculated, which

gives, for the same value of %HGV and for the LV and HGV free speeds, this maximum sound

emission power.

3. Lastly, a general formula is sought to express QAV,eq depending on the %HGV . Figure 3.2 (two-lane

motorway) and Figure 3.3 (three-lane motorway) below present the variation in QAV,eq depending on

the %HGV for each surfacing category. The graphic representation of results obtained shows that the

curves relating to the R1 and R2 surfacing categories are almost amalgamated. For category R3, the

equivalent ow rate of the maximum sound emission of the stream is slightly less, in the order of 100

veh/h, with high HGV proportions.

Considering that the R3 category surfaces are rarely found on motorways with dense trac, the relationship

sought was established from categories R1 and R2.

2100

2 voies

R1

motorway

2000

R2

autoroute

QAV_equiv - 2-lane

Linear (R2)

Linaire

1800

QTV_equiv

1700

1600

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

% %PL

HGV

Figure 3.2: Variation in QAV,eq depending on the %HGV for each surfacing category - two-lane motorway.

3400

3300

3 voies

R1

motorway

3200

3100 R2

autoroute

y = -22,454x + 3294,1

3000 R3

QAV_equiv -3-lane

2900

Linaire

Linear (R2)

2800

QTV_equiv

2700

2600

2500

2400

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

%%PL

HGV

Figure 3.3: Variation in QAV,eq depending on the %HGV for each surfacing category - three-lane motorway.

The formulae for urban expressways are established from trac datasets on seventeen actual sites varying

from 2x2 to 2x5 lanes and statistical formulae from the Certu report to be published "Trac service levels

for type A urban expressways".

The methodology adopted is as follows. It is detailed in the Certu report to be published "Approach to the

maximum sound emission in type A expressways".

Choosing a ow rate/speed curve

For each route considered, a ow rate/speed curve is calibrated from parameters a, b and given in

the reference report.

In addition, attention focuses in these curves on the freely-moving trac part, as the trac ow types

of vehicles beyond this capacity are unknown.

All the sites are used, except Paris A1 as the measurements were taken at capacity, i.e. in conditions

where trac was not moving freely.

The calculations are based on theoretical formulae, by taking a trac equivalence LV/HGV Cvp equal

to 2 and the %HGV provided by document mentioned above.

Calculating of speeds depending on the concentration and rate of heavy goods vehicles

The speed of the stream of vehicles is calculated from the rate of heavy goods vehicles and the vehicle

concentration according to the following formula:

a ebK

V = (3.1)

1 + (Cvp 1) %HGV

with a heavy goods vehicle rate %HGV of between 0% and 20%, which takes into account the ma-

jority of cases encountered in urban expressways and a concentration K varying from 0 to the critical

concentration of the route.

QAV = K V (3.2)

Lacking information to dierentiate between the speeds of both vehicle categories, it is assumed that

the speed of LV is equal to the speed of HGV and equal to the speed of the vehicle stream.

the sound emission power for a unit ow rate of each vehicle category;

The maximum value of the sound emission power per metre of road platform is identied for each

surfacing category and for each value of %HGV . The equivalent ow rate of the maximum emission

of the stream QAV,eq is then calculated, which gives, for the same value, for each surfacing category

and the free speed of the stream, this maximum sound emission power.

Seeking formulae binding the equivalent ow rate and the HGV rate A function is sought for each site

studied for use in estimating the equivalent ow rate QAV,eq depending on the %HGV .

Figure 3.4 below represents the variation in the equivalent ow rate depending on the %HGV for each

surfacing category for a particular site. It is then clear that the values for each R3 surfacing category are

far lower than for categories R1 and R2. As the surfaces in category R3 are also barely represented and are

being replaced on the urban expressways, only the values of surfacing categories R1 and R2 are used as a

basis for seeking the function binding equivalent ow rate and %HGV .

QAV (veh/h)

Linear regression

%HGV

Figure 3.4: Variation in equivalent ow rate depending on the %HGV for the Paris N104 site.

Droites de rgression pour les diffrents sites tests

VRU de type A

5500

5250

Paris A86 2x2

Paris N104 2x2

4750 Toulouse 2x2

Lille 2x3

Lyon 1 2x3

4500 Lyon 2 2x3

Paris A3-1 2x3

Paris A3_2 2x3

4250 Paris A6_1 2x3

Paris A6_2 2x3

Toulouse 2x3

QAV (veh/h)

Paris A4-1 2x4

Paris A4-2 2x4

Paris A4 2x5

3750

3500

3250

3000

2750

2500

2250

2000

0,00% 5,00% 10,00% 15,00% 20,00%

!

%HGV

Figure 3.5: Regression lines QAV depending on the %HGV for the various sites tested.

Major deviations in the hourly ow rates are clear, between the classes of sites with the same number of trac

lanes as well as between the sites with the same number of lanes. However, the corresponding maximum

sound level power values are fairly close together within a same class and vary in order of 1 dB(A) between

the classes. The choice has therefore been made to adopt a formula by lane type, specically the one giving

the maximum ow rate values. The formula for the ve-lane road platforms is not given as no site of this

type is available.

Nowadays on urban routes, the speeds noted for light vehicles and heavy goods vehicles are to all intents

and purposes identical and equal to the speed limit. In these conditions, the maximum sound emission is

obtained for the maximum ow rate in vehicles for the route considered, i.e. 1800 veh/h/lane for a route

without trac lights.

For a route with trac lights, this ow rate can be weighted by the time the lights are green. For example,

for a route where the lights are green for 50% of the time, the all-vehicle ow rate to be considered is 900

veh/h/lane.

Take a group of vehicles i {1, ..., n} each travelling at speed Vi . If, in the speed range covered by these

vehicles, the sound emission can be assimilated with a law such as Lw/m/veh = a + b log10 (V /Vref ), then

it can be demonstrated that the sound emission of this group of vehicles is equal to that of a group of N

vehicles all travelling at the same "equivalent" speed Veq , so that:

b/10 1 X b/10

Veq = Vi (3.3)

N

i

If the arithmetical average V is taken as the representative speed of the vehicle category instead of Veq , the

error committed in the emission level is

V

Lw/m = Lw/m (V , N ) Lw/m (Veq , N ) = b log10 (3.4)

Veq

It depends on the average speed of the stream, the distribution of speeds and the slope b of the emission law.

In a link section, the histogram of speeds which can be noted for a given category of vehicle shows a Gaussian

form [FD2005]. The standard deviation for the distribution of speeds outside urban areas is in the order of

15 km/h for LV and does not exceed 10 km/h for HGV.

The sound level is slightly under-estimated when the arithmetical average V is taken as the representative

speed of the vehicle category instead of Veq . The curves plotted in Figure 3.6 are simulated 2 : they represent

Lw/m depending on the slope b of the emission law with the average speed of the stream as a parameter.

The error committed is negligible.

2

A random run of one thousand speed values is considered with uniform distribution (which triggers, for the same standard

deviation, a greater error than for normal distribution) in a range of speeds from 20 km/h to 30 km/h according to the average

speeds.

Figure 3.6: Error in dB(A) committed in estimating the sound level by taking the arithmetical average as

the representative speed of the vehicle category instead of Veq .

It has been decided in this method to adopt the arithmetical average speed as the representative speed of

the vehicle category.

According to the data published by the National Inter-ministerial Road Safety Observatory [FD2005], the

average speeds at night are in a range of 5 km/h compared with the average daytime speeds. It has not

therefore been deemed useful, in this method, to dene dierent values according to the period in the day.

The speed hypotheses dened in link section are based on the data published by the National Inter-ministerial

Road Safety Observatory [FD2005]. These elements show especially that the average LV speeds are fairly

close to maximum speed limits in a "freely-moving current" situation (non-saturated).

For the special areas on intercity roads and motorways (upwards and downwards gradients, bends, approach

and exit from a crossroads, roundabouts, slip roads), useful speed hypotheses can be found in the following

references, or their updated version:

Understanding the main parameters for geometric road design. Information sheet and note, Stra,

January 2006, 28 p.

Circular of 12 December 2000. Technical Guide, Stra, December 2000, 58 p.

Development of intercity crossroads on main roads. Crossroad drawings - Technical Guide, Stra,

December 1998, 133 p.

Development of Main Roads (ARP) Technical Guide, Stra, August 1994, 145 p.

Establishment of additional lanes as slip roads in 2 x 2 lane infrastructures. Information note, Eco-

nomics, Environment and Design Series no. 21, Stra, October 1989, 4 p.

Instruction on the Technical Development Conditions for Urban Expressways (ICTAVRU). Technical

Guide, Cetur, January 1990, 365 p.

Dimensioning urban road platform structures - Design methodology for a catalogue suitable for the

local context. Certu, April 2000, 58 pages

Study of complex links between urban forms and deterioration in road safety. Certu, December 2004,

120 pages

General guide to the urban road network. Cetur, May 1988, 197 pages

Sections 80 in an urban area environment - Guide to design and recommendations. Certu, June 1996,

47 pages

Structural design of a roundabout in an urban environment. Certu, December 1999, 41 pages

Guide to the 30 zone. Cetur, May 1992, 64 pages

Mini-roundabouts - texts and recommendations. Certu guide, December 1997, 19 pages.

Minor safety arrangements - 30 zone sheets, urban area crossing, urban area entrance, crossroads

layout, pedestrian crossing, public transport stop and access to a school. Certu 1994, 4 pages each

sheet Most of these documents can be downloaded from the French Road Techniques Documentation

Internet site (http://dtrf.setra.equipement.gouv.fr/).

3.4.1 - Issues

The models forecasting road noise in France estimate the noise from a stream of vehicles at the edge of

a lane. They are based on a set of unit sound emission values, with each unit value relating to a vehicle

category. The unit sound emission values of vehicles are supplied for all common usage conditions. They are

not the sound emissions from one or other vehicle model in a specic situation, but emissions representative

of each category which are used, for a given ow rate and composition, to obtain a correct estimate of the

noise at the edge of the road.

The experimental observations show that trac noise normally increases with the speed of the stream, but

that changes do not take place regularly over the entire speed spectrum. This is due to the fact that the

noise of a vehicle is produced by dierent sources, for which the emission laws do not change in the same

way depending on the speed. In the 1980 version of the French "Guide du Bruit" [GdB1980], the sound

emissions E(V ) plotted in semi-logarithmic coordinates (in V ) are segments of line and not a single line.

As indicated in Figure 3.7, it is agreed that the pass-by noise of a road vehicle normally comes from two

sources: one linked to the power unit and the other to the tyre/road contact.

the source linked to the engine depends mainly on the engine speed. It depends on the gear selected,

the trac ow type (stabilised, accelerated, etc.) and the load (horizontal road, gradient, etc.);

the rolling noise source depends on the speed and the road surface. It dominates at high speeds3 .

Figure 3.7: Principle of changes in overall noise level LAmax depending on the speed, with an engine

contribution independent from the speed.

This distinction between engine noise and rolling noise has guided the denition here of situations to be

considered and is conveyed in terms of trac ow type, gradients and surfacing category4 . The breakdown

has been widely used in formulating Lw/m and proves justied in the light of comparisons between model

and measurements.

Note

The distinction between engine and rolling is taken into account explicitly in certain models: the American

model, for example [DOT1995], stipulates a constant engine noise and a rolling noise changing with the

speed in A log10 V + B . The overall emission of a road vehicle is today formulated systematically at

INRETS in terms of "engine noise" and "rolling noise" [14, 15].

The entire approach, with some very rare exceptions, is based on using the results from vehicle pass-by

measurements. The measurements provide sound levels LAmax at 7.5 m from the lane axis and 1.2 m from

the ground.

The sound emission LAmax (overall level in dB(A)) is broken down into two independent terms assimilated

with the sound contributions from two sources:

L1 L2 = 10 log10 100.1L1 + 100.1L2 (3.6)

3

In the 1970s, rolling noise was acknowledged predominant from 70 km/h for LV and 90 km/h for HGV [IRT1979].

4

The inuence of the surface is not taken into account in the French `Guide du Bruit'[GdB1980].

Lrolling is called "rolling component" and is assumed to be emitted by the contact between the tyre

and the road platform. It depends on the speed and the type of surface. It dominates at high speeds.

Lengine is called "engine component" or "mechanical component" and is assumed to be emitted by all

the vehicle's mechanical sources. It depends on the engine speed and the load. This results here in

a mechanical component dependent on the speed, the gradient and the acceleration. It dominates at

low speeds.

heavy goods vehicles (HGV): vehicles of 3.5 t or more5 .

Two-wheelers are not taken specically into account for a number of reasons. Firstly, the trac hypotheses

used in the noise prediction calculations and the counts that can be used to model an existing situation do not

identify two-wheelers as a special category of vehicle but count them as light vehicles. In addition, motorised

two-wheelers are an extremely heterogeneous and still poorly-understood category in terms of sound emission;

producing specic emission hypotheses under actual usage conditions would involve cumbersome studies,

probably including vehicle segmentation into several categories, an approach which was not envisaged in the

work described in this guide. Lastly, as they normally account for a fairly low proportion of total trac in

French networks, it is estimated that, with possible exceptions, the sound contribution of motorised two-

wheelers to the overall LAeq triggered by the stream of trac is modest and that their assimilation with

light vehicles does not result in a signicant error in calculating this indicator. In any event, although there

is no disputing the inconvenience caused specically by the noise from motorised two-wheelers, evidence of

a more relevant acoustic indicator than the equivalent sound level LAeq is required to characterise this.

Emission values for the HGV vehicle category are founded on the results of measuring heavy goods vehicles

with at least four axles (known as "road trains" or TR).

Sensitivity tests have shown that for intercity trac (motorway or national road), the error committed in

trac noise (LV + HGV) by assimilating all the HGV with the road trains remains extremely low (less than

one dB [Lelong1997a]).

Dierentiating the heavy goods trac into several classes has been justied for the urban trac [Lelong1997b].

However, taking small HGV (two or three axles) into account specically would have required major data

compilation which was not deemed appropriate. It was therefore decided to assimilate all the HGV with

road trains for the noise trac calculations.

3.4.2.3 - Measurements

The vehicles measured are, as far as possible, trac vehicles (principle of the isolated vehicle in the statistical

pass-by method [ISO11819p1]) and the surveys are carried out on dierent sites to take into account the

dierent surfaces, trac conditions and vehicle numbers. When this proves impossible, i.e. when there is

no suitable site for either the trac conditions to be observed or the acoustic measurement requirements

("clear" site, suciently "isolated" trac vehicles"), test vehicles are used and the measurements are taken

on a track under controlled conditions.

The rolling noise component depends on the type of surface. It has been determined from measurements in

trac, on a sample suciently representative of surfaces.

The engine noise contribution is considered here not to depend on the type of surface (the acoustic absorption

of a porous surface is not suciently proven in the long term to take its eect on the engine noise into

account). The HGV category engine noise contribution has been determined from measurements in trac

(upwards and downwards gradients, acceleration, deceleration) or measurements in controlled conditions

(horizontal road at steady speed). The LV category engine noise contribution has been determined from

measurements in controlled conditions.

5

Administrative denition in force in France.

3.4.2.4 - Results

The results are expressed globally. The expression adopted to construct formulae is:

R road platform surface category,

p road gradient,

a vehicle trac ow type (steady speed, acceleration, deceleration).

The form Lrolling Lengine results therefore here from a construction: the contributions are only valid

insofar as their combination restores correctly the global emission values.

The rolling noise components are taken from values contained in the "rolling noise" database generated

by the Laboratoire Rgional des Ponts et Chausses in Strasbourg on behalf of the LPC, SETRA and

CERTU. This lists the data from measurements taken under the pass-by noise measuring standard S 31-119,

close to standard ISO 11 819, under the Isolated Vehicles (SPB) and Controlled Vehicles (CPB) procedures

[ISO11819p1], [S31119]. [NFS31119p2].

This base is fed by all the regional highways laboratories measuring rolling noise. It contains in particular

information on the sound levels measured for each vehicle category (LV and HGV) and on the surfaces. It

provides for each surfacing technique levels LAmax measured on dierent road sections. These values are

expressed in dB(A) and correspond to a temperature of 20C.

Within techniques where sampling plays a signicant role, major dispersion of measurement results has

been noted. Producing separate sound emission hypotheses for each of the normal road techniques would

have produce deviations in the order of one decibel between two neighbouring techniques, a deviation far

lower than the internal dispersion in each technique. The normal road surfacing techniques have therefore

been grouped into three categories noted R1 to R3 (see Section 3.5.5 for cobblestones, excluded from this

classication).

The classication of techniques has not in principle been dened but is the result of a statistical analysis of

the database.

Global level in dB(A).

6

Unless stated otherwise, "vehicle" will henceforth be taken to mean the vehicle representative of the category in question.

7

LV or HGV will also be used to designate the representative LV or the representative HGV

The base used to classify the surfaces is taken from LV measurements under the Isolated Vehicle (VI)

procedure. About a hundred road sections, with a reference speed of 90 km/h, have been used.

Note

A similar study in the Controlled Vehicles (VM) part of the base produced the same classication. Sim-

ilarly, the consistency with the SPB/LV at 120 km/h and the SPB/HGV measurements was veried.

3.5.2.1 - Approach

A representative emission formula has been produced for each vehicle category and each surfacing category.

The approach has been split into two stages to give identical weight to each road technique regardless of

the number of sites measured: the rst stage is a study per technique (as each road section is sampled at

10 km/h intervals, an arithmetical average is calculated for each speed segment of 10 km/h) and the second

aggregates the results of all techniques in a same category (by using the values per 10 km/h segments for

each technique).

The emission values have been calculated from the SPB base with added CPB values (a study has already

shown their equivalence), which represents about 450 LV road sections and about a hundred HGV road

sections (four axles or more).

For the HGV, techniques without sucient information were not incorporated into the calculations, but the

consistency of results was veried.

The specic measurement campaigns in upwards and downwards gradients were used to check that these

values matched these situations (LV measurements on horizontal roads, downwards and upwards, for speeds

between 70 and 130 km/h).

The formulae thus obtained (giving the LAmax depending on the speed logarithm) cover the speeds between

70 and 130 km/h for the LV and between 70 and 90 km/h for the HGV.

The dispersion of LAmax of each site around these averages values has also been studied. Within each

category of surface, the range between the sites is 5 to 6 dB(A). Their dispersion compared with the average

value of the category presents a Gaussian aspect, with a standard-deviation in the around 1 to 1.5 dB(A)

according to the type of vehicle, the speed and the surfacing category considered.

3.5.3.1 - Approach

Knowing:

rstly, the overall emission LAmax determined previously for the three surfacing categories R1 to R3

in the speed elds 70-130 km/h for the LV and 70-90 km/h for the HGV,

secondly, the value of Lengine for the LV and HGV stabilised, on a horizontal road (see further on),

the value of Lrolling (depending on the speed) for the three surfacing categories R1 to R3 has been deduced

by "energy subtraction" of these two levels, then adjustment by a linear formula in log10 V (Speed).

For the HGV, the slope was set pre-dened at 20 regardless of the surfacing category, to avoid problems of

consistency appearing subsequently. Having checked that the issue in the overall noise was low, the value

of 20 was adopted, rstly because of its consistency with the LV-related slope and secondly, because it is

approximately the value found for the contribution by the trailer area by measuring with an aerial in the

trac HGV.

The formulae thus obtained have been extrapolated to the entire speed eld targeted by the method: 5-130

km/h for the LV and 5-100 km/h for the HGV. At low speeds, their representativeness in terms of rolling

noise is not proven, but as their corresponding values are low compared with the engine component, this

does not raise doubts over the representativeness of the overall noise obtained by summing.

The database supplying the measurements relies for the most part on road sections less than three years old.

The sound emission values calculated from this base are therefore characteristic of fairly young surfaces and

are considered as representative of the average age of road sections, i.e. two years.

To assess the eect of ageing of two to ten years for the LV, the LAmax(VL, 90 km/h) of each road section

in the database have been represented depending on their age for each surfacing category, with:

a rst hypothesis considering the LAmax stable with age and equal to the rolling noise component of

the category;

a second hypothesis considering that the LAmax increases by 1 dB(A) every two years, with the rolling

noise component in the category corresponding to the age of two years.

The standard deviation between the scatterplot and each of these straight lines has been calculated.

The standard deviation relating to the regression is the lowest value that can be obtained if the scatterplot

is approximated by a straight line. The relevance of the hypothesis can be assessed by comparing this with

each one's standard deviation. This approach has been applied both to all the road sections and to those

road sections aged at least three years, to check that the conclusions are not too inuenced by the young

road sections, which make up the majority of the sample. For the road trains, the increase has been xed at

0.6 times the LV increase, for consistency with the relationships between LAmax LV and road trains obtained

elsewhere (see Section 3.5.7.3).

The surfacing classication does not include cobblestones. Given the diversity of possible characteristics for

this type of surface and the paucity of available measurements, providing average emission values is not an

option. However, as a rough guide, the values of Lrolling LV obtained from two sites with a similar type of

cobblestone (140/160 mm stones connected by cement mortar and more than 6 cm thick) are given here.

About 80 to 100 vehicles were measured per site, at speeds of 35 to 60 km/h (urban area).

As the measurements obtained on the two sites were viewed as close, a linear regression over all the mea-

surements from the two sites together was calculated. The rolling noise component was then obtained

by subtracting the LV engine component dened for a steady speed on a horizontal road (see Section 3.6

"Approach to producing LV engine components") and performing a linear regression.

The result obtained for this type of cobblestone is:

However, no measurement is available for the HGV. Given that an increase of 4 dB is noted for the LV

rolling noise component with this type of cobblestone compared with the R3 surface, and that HGV tyres

are in principle less sensitive to the state of the surface, the HGV R3 nomogram can be increased by 4 dB(A)

in the knowledge that this value is probably over-estimated. Note nevertheless that HGV can have other

sources of noise in addition to the rolling noise - noise from crates, for example.

For the variability of acoustic characteristics of road platform surfaces specically, the rolling noise component

can be increased by a safety coecient adapted to the probability of overtaking that the road authority deems

acceptable. Table 3.1 presents, for a Gaussian distribution, the increase to be applied to the average values

given in Section 2.7.2.3 depending on the accepted probability of overtaking.

probability of Increase hCI95% = 3

overtaking dB(A)

40 % 0.13 hCI95% 0.4 dB(A)

30 % 0.27 hCI95% 0.8 dB(A)

20 % 0.43 hCI95% 1.3 dB(A)

10 % 0.65 hCI95% 2.0 dB(A)

5% 0.84 hCI95% 2.5 dB(A)

Table 3.1: Increase to be applied to the average value depending on the accepted probability of overtaking

(hCI95% is the half-width of the condence interval at 95 %).

3.5.7.1 - Conditions

The "rolling" component formulae stated above correspond to the average of a large number of road sections

for each surfacing category. The dispersion of actual values for each road section within each surfacing

category is not insignicant (see Section 3.5.1). The deviation between the road section of the site to be

modelled and the hypothesis corresponding to the surfacing category can therefore cause a signicant error

in the sound levels calculated at the receiving points.

For this reason, using a value other than those given in the previous formulae for the "rolling" component

is permitted under certain conditions, which are:

the modelling must cover an existing situation: the road section exists and no projection over time is

carried out (this corresponds typically to assessing an initial state);

measurement results for vehicle pass-by noise, taken in the same road section under the standards in

force, are available for LV and HGV (or failing that, for LV only). The "road trains" (heavy goods

vehicles with at least four axles) dened by standard S 31-119 will be considered here as representative

of all heavy goods vehicles;

the model is representative of the date on which the pass-by measurements were taken.

These values are produced under the sole responsibility of the operator and should be justied in the study

report, particularly by referring to the test report for measurements exploited.

3.5.7.2 - Approach

For each category of vehicle, the test report for pass-by measurements provides the relationship between

the LAmax at 7.50 m (for the reference temperature of 20C) and the speed, for a speed range centred on

the mean speed V of vehicle pass-bys used. The approach involves calculating the rolling noise component

corresponding to the V speed. The general formula for the rolling noise component is then produced by

applying a pre-dened variation in log10 V to this value. The detail of these stages is as follows:

1. The value LAmax for this average speed V is extracted from the measurements report or recalculated

from the relationship supplied in the report.

2. The sound emission power level per metre of line-source for a unit ow rate Lw/m (V ) is calculated by:

This level must be at least 5 dB(A) higher than the engine component Lm,w/m (V ) in the vehicle

category at the speed V , dened in Section 2.7. This condition can limit the error committed at

the following stage in estimating the rolling noise component by subtraction. If this condition is not

veried, the approach cannot be continued and the model must be based on the formulae published in

this guide.

Lr,w/m (V ) = 10 log10 100.1Lw/m (V ) 100.1Lm,w/m (V ) (3.12)

where Lm,w/m (V ) is the engine component of the vehicle category at speed V under steady speed on

horizontal road conditions.

4. The general formula of the rolling noise component for the site studied is then obtained by:

V

Lr,w/m (V ) = a + b log10 (3.13)

Vref

where:

(

a = Lr,w/m (V ) 20 log10 VV

ref (3.14)

b = 20

Where the pass-by measurements are only available for the LV (or where the number of HGV measured is

less than the minimum required by the standard), the rolling noise component for the HGV can be estimated

from the LV rolling noise component using the following approach.

1. The LV rolling noise component is determined in accordance with the approach described above.

2. The power level Lw/m for the HGV at the reference speed of 80 km/h is estimated from the level Lw/m

for the LV at 90 km/h by: Lw/m (HGV, 80) = 0.6Lw/m (LV, 90) + 29.1 This formula is the result of a

statistical analysis of more than two hundred road sections8 [Doisy2005].

This level must be at least 5 dB(A) higher than the HGV engine component Lm,w/m at the speed 80

km/h, dened in Section 2.7. This condition can limit the error committed at the following stage in

estimating the rolling noise component by subtraction.

Lr,w/m (HGV, 80) = 10 log10 100.1Lw/m (HGV,80) 100.1Lm,w/m (HGV,80) (3.15)

where Lm,w/m (HGV, 80) is the HGV rolling noise component at 80 km/h under steady speed on

horizontal road conditions.

4. The general formula of the rolling noise component for the site studied is then obtained by:

8

The analysis was performed in LAmax and is transcribed here into Lw/m .

where:

a = Lr,w/m (HGV, 80)

(3.17)

b = 20

3.5.7.4 - Checking the relevance of using values other than the rolling noise component

A study has been performed on a sample of about two hundred sites to compare the trac noise obtained:

1. by summing the engine and rolling noise components dened in the emission nomograms;

2. based on the site's actual LAmax (LV, 90) and LAmax (HGV, 80) pass-by measurements;

3. based on the site's actual LAmax (LV, 90) and the LAmax (HGV, 80) estimated from the LV value under

the approach used in the previous chapter.

On each site, the sound emission power per metre of line-source for a unit ow rate (i.e. one vehicle per

hour) Lw/m has been calculated, for dierent HGV percentage hypotheses (0 to 50%) according to each of

three approaches.

The results conrm that, regardless of the surfacing category, the nomograms can deviate fairly strongly

from the measurements (standard deviation of 1 to 2.5 dB(A)) and that it is therefore preferable to use

pass-by measurement values if the conditions stated above are met.

In terms of assessing the HGV levels from LV levels, note the low sound emission power deviations compared

with the actual value (the majority are less than 1 dB), above all for the rather low HGV percentages

(remember that such an approximation will be made, in most cases, when few HGV are travelling in the

lane as it is dicult to measure them). Wherever possible, it would seem wise to use such an estimation,

therefore, in preference to the nomograms.

The LV engine component proposed, noted Lengine , is assumed to be emitted by all the mechanical sources

in an "average" vehicle representative of trac LV. It depends on the engine speed and torque. This results

here in a Lengine dependent on the speed, the gradient and the acceleration.

The assessments are rstly made in pass-by LAmax . They are then converted into Lw/m/LV . Here, The

formulae are expressed here in LAmax . They are given as line segments of the a + b log10 V type. They have

been "adjusted" to the margin to ensure their consistency.

Assessing the engine component of light vehicles is based on measurements on a track in controlled conditions.

The use of "in trac" surveys is virtually impossible: they must be made at very low speeds so that the

engine noise makes a signicant contribution to the total noise. This condition is more commonly found in

an urban environment where the sites are frequently not "clear" enough for acoustic measurements.

As the measurements are not taken in trac, a representative driving behaviour (using the gears depending

on the speed) has to be determined to assess the engine component.

All the LV noise measurements on a track are taken on the same site [21, 22, 23]. They will be designated

subsequently as "Track DB".

9

It is detailed in Section 3.6.4 as a rough guide.

2. information on an experimental study into the actual uses of vehicles (EUREV DB [Andre1987]).

The pass-by noise levels involve fourteen vehicles covering dierent engines (diesel, petrol) and a wide

range of engine capacities [21, 22]. About ten pass-bys were made for each engages gear ratio, spread

over the range of speeds covered by the gear selected10 . All the measurements were made on the

same test track. The engine noise (depending on the engine speed) and rolling noise (depending on

the driving speed) were assessed for each vehicle. Several methods were tried and tested to assess

the engine noise: direct measurement with the vehicle stopped [Lelong1999], "direct" measurement

in actual conditions through pass-bys under driving speeds/engine speeds where the engine noise was

dominant [Lelong1999], identication method using pass-by conditions where the engine noise and

rolling noise exist together [Hamet2004].

Driving behaviour

The Eurev database [Andre1987] contains recordings (speed, engine speed, gear selected, etc.) made

on vehicles driven by their owners over a period of a few weeks (actual usage). The journeys and the

type of route travelled are not identied.

The recordings are used to determine the use percentage of the gear selected based on the speed when

travelling at a steady speed11 .

Assessing the LV engine component at steady speed

The sound level of the engine component is determined based on the speed by taking the usage per-

centage of the gear selected into account:

for each vehicle and at each speed, the engine noise representative of the behaviour in trac is

assessed by combining (energy average) the sound levels at dierent gearbox ratios proportionally

to the use at the speed considered12 ;

the representative LV engine component13 is then calculated for each speed by taking the energy

average (average of all vehicles) of engine noises from each vehicle.

Formulation adopted

The formulation adopted after harmonising with the other formulae is given in Table 3.2.

Lengine [dB(A)] 60.6 66.3 + 12.0 log10 (V /90) 64.6 + 31.3 log10 (V /90)

Table 3.2: LV engine component, steady speed, horizontal road. The values correspond to the expressions

in LAmax .

2. a driving behaviour hypothesis

The pass-by noise measurements involve ten vehicles. Ten passes were made for each gear, spread over

the entire speed range covered by the gear selected (i.e. up to very high engine speeds). The instruction

to the driver was to accelerate to adopt "real" driving behaviour; for two passes, the instruction was

10

Without exceeding 110 km/h.

11

The steady speed ranges adopted are those during which the speed remains constant for at least four seconds

12

The levels are those given by the engine component law based on the engine speed

13

Average LV in trac

to "put your foot down", but without sliding, however. The acceleration was measured at each pass.

Only the rst three gearbox ratios were used14 . The engine noise was assessed depending on the speed

for the acceleration classes of 0.5 m.s-2 of range15 .

Driving behaviour

The hypothesis adopted for the driving behaviour is that at the speed V in question the driver selects

the optimum gear16 and the maximum acceleration measured on the track in this gear.

Assessing the LV engine component when accelerating

An engine component when accelerating is therefore obtained for each vehicle (if the vehicle has not

been measured in these conditions, its engine component is assessed by extrapolation). The engine

component of a LV in trac is the energy average of engine components for ten vehicles.

Formulation adopted

The formulation adopted after harmonising with the other formulae is given in Table 3.3.

Lengine [dB(A)] 85.7 + 24.1 log10 (V /90) 70 68.2 + 38.6 log10 (V /90)

Table 3.3: LV engine component, acceleration, horizontal road. The values correspond to the expressions in

LAmax .

2. two driving behaviour hypotheses.

The measurements made on three vehicles whilst decelerating have shown that in a given speed/gear

conguration, the noise emitted is identical to the noise emitted at steady speed [Lelong2000]. It has

therefore been decided to use the steady speed noise as an experimental basis for the decelerating

noise17 .

Driving behaviour

Two driving behaviours are considered: decelerating by engine braking and using the foot brake.

When decelerating by engine braking, the gear used at the speed in question is the optimum gear

for the vehicle. Using rst gear is however excluded: the vehicle is kept in second gear at low

speeds except when the speed drops below the lowest pass-by speed measured in second gear with

this vehicle, at which point the vehicle is taken out of gear and the engine noise is therefore the

same as when idling.

When decelerating using the foot brake, an approach similar to steady speed is considered, exclud-

ing here also, however, the use of rst gear: where at the speed considered the driving behaviour

histogram leads to the selection of rst gear, the vehicle is kept in second gear, except when the

speed drops below the lowest pass-by speed measured in second gear with this vehicle, at which

point the vehicle is taken out of gear and the engine noise is therefore the same as when idling.

14

For the last gearbox ratios, the rolling noise dominates the engine noise (high speeds) and there is little acceleration

available.

15

[0, 0.5], ]0.5, 1.0], ..

16

The optimum gear is dened here as the gear which, at the speed in question, produces the closest engine speed to the

one relating to the maximum torque. The corresponding engine speed is not the maximum engine speed.

17

Reminder: where the decelerating engine noise is, under the same speed/gear conguration, equal to the engine speed at

steady speed, it does not necessarily follow that at the same trac speed the decelerating noise is the same as at steady speed:

the driving behaviour can in fact be dierent.

The individual engine components are assessed for each behaviour (engine component, decelerating,

for each of fourteen vehicles) and the energy average of individual engine components is adopted for

the average vehicle representative of the stream.

Using the optimum gear for the engine braking behaviour tends to consider fairly high engine speeds

and therefore give a larger engine component level than the foot brake behaviour. The dierence

ultimately proves negligible for speeds under 10 km/h, large at around 15 km/h and low from 40 km/h

upwards.

Given the lack of knowledge of actual behaviours, it has been decided to adopt for the engine compo-

nent:

Below 80 km/h, the energy average of components obtained with both hypotheses

Above 80 km/h, the component obtained with the "foot brake" hypothesis (i.e. the same compo-

nent as in steady speed).

Formulation adopted

The formulation adopted after harmonising with the other formulae is given in Table 3.4.

Lengine [dB(A)] 73.3 + 18.7Lv 66 + 5.5Lv 66.3 + 12Lv 64.6 + 31.3Lv

Table 3.4: LV engine component, deceleration, horizontal road. The values correspond to the expressions in

LAmax . Convention: Lv = log10 (V /90).

3.6.1.4 - Horizontal road. Comparing Lengine,LV with the different traffic flow types

The engine components corresponding to the dierent trac ow types are plotted in Figure 3.8. The steady

speed condition is considered to be produced from 20 km/h only. At lower speeds, the vehicles are considered

accelerating or decelerating.

Acceleration. This is the noisiest condition at all speeds. The increase in level between 10 km/h and

20 km/h corresponds to travelling in rst gear. The constant level range corresponds to gear changes.

The increase from 100 km/h corresponds to travelling in fth (top) gear.

Deceleration. Given the two driving behaviours (engine braking, foot brake) adopted below 80 km/h,

the engine component when decelerating is higher than that obtained at steady speed.

Steady speed. This is the least noisy condition. At high speeds, the increase in noise is found to

correspond to travelling in fth (top) gear.

3.6.2 - Upwards gradient

It was decided to adopt an identical engine contribution for the LV on a sliproad as on a horizontal road at

the same trac ow type.

The eect of an upwards sliproad on a vehicle travelling at steady speed is to increase the resistance to the

forward progress of the vehicle, and therefore the torque required to maintain the speed, and thus to increase

the noise radiated by the engine [Hamet2005]. At high speeds where the engine noise is masked by the rolling

noise, the expected eect on the overall noise is low. Experimental campaigns took place on test tracks in

controlled conditions [Lefevre2004], [Lefevre2004b], [Hamet2004b] and in actual trac [Hamet2006]. The

problem with the experimental approach is comparing pass-by levels observed in an upwards gradient with

those observed on a horizontal road, with everything else equal, especially the rolling noise. The rolling

noise components are, in addition, determined with a certain margin of uncertainty. Analysing results has

not produced a conclusion on an eect or a lack of eect of the upwards gradient on the engine noise. In all

hypotheses, the resulting eect on the overall noise is negligible.

The acceleration and the upwards gradient both increase engine load. Without knowing the cumulative

eect, it has been agreed to adopt an engine contribution identical to on a horizontal road at the same trac

ow type.

The upwards gradient favours deceleration and should therefore, compared with the horizontal road, reduce

the engine load at identical deceleration. Without knowing to what extent the engine load would be reduced,

it was agreed to adopt the same formula as when decelerating on a horizontal road.

3.6.3 - Downwards gradient

It was decided to adopt an identical engine contribution for the LV on a downwards gradient as on a horizontal

road at the same trac ow type.

For LV on a downwards gradient, experimental observations and theoretical reections also conclude that

there is no visible eect when in the same gear. A downwards behaviour using engine braking could indirectly

induce an eect of the downwards gradient on the engine contribution, basically at low speed. Nevertheless,

without more precise elements and given the results for an upwards gradient, it has been decided not to

retain a downwards slope eect: an identical engine contribution as on a horizontal road at the same trac

ow type is adopted for the LV on a downwards gradient at steady speed.

The downwards gradient favours acceleration and should therefore, at identical acceleration, reduce the

engine load. But for the normal gradients, it is assumed, as on a horizontal road, that the driver accelerates

as fast as his vehicle allows and that the engine load is therefore identical to the acceleration on a horizontal

road. The same formula is used, therefore.

Downwards gradient and deceleration (potentially) reduce the engine noise. As for steady speed, decelerating

using engine braking could induce an eect on the engine contribution. It has however been decided not to

retain the eect of the downwards slope. The formula for downwards decelerating is identical to that of a

horizontal road at the same trac ow type.

3.6.4 - Example: development of a LV engine component nomogram for the steady speed

The aim of the measuring protocol is to assess the noise emitted by light vehicles travelling under various

congurations [speed/gear]. The parameters measured are:

Kinematic data The speed is measured using ve infrared cells at 10 m intervals on the edge of the track.

Reective panels are arranged on the sides of the vehicle tested. When the vehicle passes in front of the

cells, a cueing signal is recorded by the central acquisition unit. When the measurements are being sorted,

this cueing signal is used to assess the speed and incidentally locate the vehicle as it passes in front of the

microphones.

Mechanical parameters Tyre characteristics (make and size) have been included in the measuring report.

The gear ratio is noted every time the vehicle passes by. The technical sheet for each vehicle studied is also

available. This technical sheet indicates, among other things, the mechanical characteristics of the gearbox

(reduction ratios) and the axle ratio.

Acoustic data The acoustic pressure levels (A-weighted global levels) are measured using a microphone

located at the edge of the track, 7.5 m from the vehicle passage axis and 1.2 m high. This geometry responds

to the stipulations of standards NF EN ISO 11819-1 [ISO11819p1] and S 31-119 [S31119]. The level adopted

for every time the vehicle passes is Lmax .

The engine speed can be estimated from measuring the pass-by speed of the vehicle and the gear selected

by using as information:

Vehicle speed and engine speed

A gearbox is characterised by its gears Rb (k) and its axle ratio Rp . The engine speed n (in rpm) is linked

to the engine speed nwheels by the relationship:

Rp

n = nwheels = nwheels i(k) (3.18)

Rb (k)

i.e., by using the relationship nwheels = 60/(2) v/r where v is the travelling speed (in m/s) and r the tyre

radius (in m):

60 v

n= i(k) (3.19)

2 r

Tyre radius

D S L

r = 25.4 + 103 (3.20)

2 100

As the aim is to create a sample representative of the number of French cars, the vehicles chosen cover the

range of engine capacities currently available on the market as far as possible and have either "petrol" or

"diesel" engines. The main characteristics of these vehicles are given in Table 3.5.

Engine

Make and Model Engine Mileage Tyres

capacity

Citron ZX Diesel 47 700 1.9 Michelin MXT 175/65/14

Opel Corsa Petrol 6 700 1.7 Michelin Energy 165/70/13

Renault Mgane Diesel 44 700 1.9 Michelin Classic 175/70/13

Citron XM Diesel 100 2.1 Michelin Energy 195/65/15

Opel Vectra Petrol 5 900 2.0 Michelin Energy 185/70/14

Ford Focus Petrol 1 400 2.0 Continental Contact 165/65/13

Opel Astra Petrol 23 200 2.0 Bridgestone 195/55/15

Citron Saxo Petrol 32 400 1.2 Michelin MXT 155/70/13

Citron Xantia Diesel 16 800 2.1 Michelin Energy 185/65/15

Ford Fiesta Petrol 41 000 1.4 Continental Contact 165/65/13

Renault Clio 1 Petrol 81 300 1.6 Michelin MXT 155/70/13

Renault Clio 2 Petrol 38 000 1.2 Dunlop SP 9 155/70/13

Ford Galaxy Diesel 21 400 1.9 Continental Contact 205/60/15

Ford Mondeo Diesel 1 400 1.8 Michelin Pilot HX 205/55/15

18

It is assumed to simplify things that "free" value and dynamic value are identical

3.6.4.4 - Passes made for each vehicle

For each gear, ten passes in the entire speed range covered by the gear selected.

Ten passes out of gear, engine idling (determining the driving speed). The pass-by speeds faster than

50 km/h are sucient to "mask" the engine noise.

The laws of evolution in the noise level depending on the speed, constructed for each vehicle and for each

gear, can prove linear (Eq. 3.21, C = 0) or quadratic (Eq. 3.21, C 6= 0). The quadratic laws basically involved

the noise levels measured in the diesel vehicles in the low gears (dominant engine noise).

The maximum pass-by level LAmax (global level expressed in dB(A) for each vehicle is expressed as being

the energy sum of two levels: one, Lm , corresponding to the contribution by a combination of engine sources

and mechanical components and the other, Lr , corresponding to the contribution of the tyre-road platform

contact source [Lelong1999], [Hamet2000]:

h i

L1 L2 = 10 log10 100.1L1 + 100.1L2 (3.23)

Lr is supposed to depend on the speed and the surface of the test track. It is formulated:

V

Lr = Ar + Br log10 (3.25)

Vref

The coecients Am , Bm , Cm Ar Br are determined by minimisation procedure (Eq. 3.26) of the average

quadratic deviation between the levels measured and the levels calculated (Eq. 3.22, 3.24 and 3.25).

N

[LAmax (Vi ) Lm (ni , Am , Bm , Cm ) Lr (Vi , Ar , Br )]2 /N

X

{Am , Bm , Cm , Ar , Br } = arg min (3.26)

i=1

The procedure is applied to all LAmax for each vehicle, i.e. all gears together. Figure 3.9 illustrates the

result.

Figure 3.9: Example of determining engine and rolling noise components for a diesel vehicle. The points

represent the noise levels measured. The total reconstituted levels (Eq. 3.21) appear as unbroken lines. The

table underneath the gure indicates, for a few characteristic speeds, the gear used, the engine speed, the

engine and rolling noise components and the total level determined from these components.

The experimental observations stated above have been established for vehicles travelling on the test track.

The conditions of use of these vehicles are dierent from those normally encountered in everyday trac (no

trac, road network layout, etc.). Taking into account the real use of a vehicle integrated in a stream of trac

would involve recourse to additional cumbersome experimentation using on-board instruments to compile

the useful information (cinematic and mechanical parameters such as the speed, trac ow type, engine

speed, gear selected, etc.). With no chance of this type of experimentation to update the nomograms, we

relied on an experimental study performed in the context of establishing driving cycles to measure pollutants

emitted by vehicles [Andre1987].

A database was compiled from this study containing recordings of cinematic and mechanical parameters

performed on vehicles driven by their owners over a period of a few weeks. These parameters are therefore

representative of the real use of vehicles. Note however that the information on the environment in which

the vehicles evolve (journey, type of route travelled, etc.) is not given. Three measuring campaigns took

place at European scale (1985, 1991 and 1995).

From a total of 52 vehicles (French cars), only those vehicles with ve-speed gearboxes were retained for the

assessment (37 vehicles). The recordings are used to determine the use percentage of the gear selected based

on the speed when travelling at a steady speed. The speed stability criterion corresponds to the "stabilised"

ranges during which the trac ow type does not vary more than 0.5 ms-2 for at least four seconds19 . It

has thus been possible to establish a histogram of use of gears depending on the speed (see Figure 3.10).

100

R1

90

80 R5

70 R2

R3 R4

60

%

50

40

30

20

histogramme

10

0

20 40 60 80 100 120 140

km/h

The engine component has been assessed as follows:

1. The laws of evolution of the engine noise depending on the engine speed established for each vehicle

studied are considered:

n(Ri , V ) n(Ri , V )

Lmj (Ri , V ) = Amj + Bmj log10 + Cmj log210 (3.27)

nref nref

2. The weighted "engine noise" level is calculated for each vehicle and at each speed (real use of the

vehicle: possible use of dierent gears) using the EUREV histogram (see Figure 3.10). The assessment

takes place between 20 km/h and 130 km/h at 2 km/h intervals:

X Lmj (Ri ,V )

Lmj (V ) = 10 log10 i 10 10 (3.28)

Ri

3. The "average" engine noise Lm (V ) emitted at a given speed v is determined by the energy average

Lmj (V ) in the N (N = 14) individual vehicles:

N Lmj

1 X

Lm (V ) = 10 log10 10 10 (3.29)

N

j=1

19

The eect of the acceleration on the noise emitted by a vehicle is signicant when it is greater than 0.5 ms-2 [Lelong1999b]

Engine component nomogram

The approximate law is formulated approximately as segments of type a + b log10 V in three speed ranges

(Table 3.6). It is plotted in Figure 3.11.

Figure 3.11: Engine component determined from fourteen vehicles measured on the test track and the

EUREV weighting histogram (Figure 3.10) and linearisation. Dotted line: assessment per 2 km/h intervals.

Straight line: approximate law.

Lm (dB(A)) 60.6 66.3 + 12 log10 (V /90) 64.6 + 31.3 log10 (V /90)

Table 3.6: Updating the nomogram for LV travelling at steady speed: formulation adopted for the engine

component.The values correspond to the expressions in LAmax .

3.7 - Approach to producing HGV engine components

low and average speeds, where given changes in gear, the engine component can be considered as

independent of the speed;

high speeds where, with top gear reached, the engine component increases with the speed.

Seven tractor vehicles of dierent makes and generations were measured on the test track. Each one was

hitched to two dierent trailers (one empty and one loaded) for speeds from 20 km/h to more than 80 km/h

at 10 km/h intervals. For each pass-by speed, the driver selected the gear he thought appropriate. Seeking

representative driving behaviour of a real use was therefore incorporated directly into the test conditions.

A regression of order 2 was calculated rstly in measurements where the speed was less than 60 km/h. This

curve was then broken down as a sum of a linear function rolling noise component of the speed logarithm

and a constant engine component. The latter was adopted as engine component.

The hypothesis of an engine component in LAmax independent of the speed between 20 and 70 km/h is

justied by the appearance of results of measurements obtained and by the fact that drivers of heavy goods

vehicles, with a huge number of gears, use their engine in a low variation range of the engine speed.

The validity of these results has been veried by comparison with the results of measurements performed

subsequently on a further seven vehicles.

Pass-by measurements of HGV in trac have been performed at the edges of two roundabout crossroads.

About eight hundred heavy goods vehicles were measured, at points at the roundabout exit and at 100 m,

200 m and 400 m for the roundabout exit. The speeds surveyed were between 25 and 80 km/h.

The engine component is initially taken as equal to the value of the polynomial regression of measurements

at a speed of 80 km/h, to which is added a variation in 31 log(V) (variation of the Lrolling for a category 2

surface, to which the surfaces measured belong).

An engine component independent of the speed is added to this rolling noise component, which is adjusted

to minimise the sum of squares of deviations in this construction with the regression of measurements, for

low speeds, i.e. between 20 and 40 km/h. The rolling noise component is then readjusted by subtracting

the engine component found from it. Checks are made for the intermediate speeds (40 to 80 km/h) that the

construction agrees with the measurements.

This methodology is applied separately on the two sites. A third site, providing incomplete data, could not

be exploited but the consistency of measurements with the other sites was veried.

For each site, measurement deviations in relation to the construction obtained are low (in each 10 km/h

segment, the average of deviations between the pass-by measurement of each vehicle and the construction is

largely lower than one dB).

The constructions obtained in overall noise for the two sites are close as their values dier by about 1 dB(A)

at low and high speeds. The dierence in engine component is about 1.5 dB(A). The value of the engine

component adopted is the average of engine components from both sites. It has been rounded up to the next

dB to bring it closer to measurement results from the third site. Note that it is 5 dB higher than the value

obtained for a steady speed.

Example on a site Figure 3.12 presents the heavy goods vehicles measured on the rst site. The polynomial

regression (in black) in all the measurements gives a noise level of 87.1 dB(A) at 80 km/h.

LAmax (dB(A)

Measurements

Construction

Polynomial regression

V (km/h)

!

Figure 3.12: Detail of the method on a site (HGV accelerating on horizontal road).

The construction (in red) is obtained by sum of a rolling noise component equal to

and a constant engine component which is determined so as to minimise the sum of squares of deviations in

this construction with the regression of measurements, for low speeds, i.e. between 20 and 40 km/h. The

engine component found here is 76.5 dB(A). The rolling noise component is therefore equal to the dierence

between the noise level of the regression at 80 km/h (87.1 dB(A)) and this engine component of 76.5 dB(A),

i.e. 86.7 dB(A). Attempts are therefore made to adjust the engine component by repeating the approach

with this rolling noise component value. In this case, no adjustment is necessary.

Measurements were taken at the edges of a roundabout crossroads (at 25 m, 50 m and 100 m from the entry

to the roundabout), counting about three hundred HGV in trac. The speeds surveyed were between 20

and 80 km/h.

As the regression made on the measurements taken at 100 m from entry to the roundabout is 3 dB(A) less

that the closest measuring points, it has only been taken into account when calculating the rolling noise

component (they are not considered to correspond to the deceleration).

The value of the rolling noise component has been obtained by taking into account the twenty or so vehicles

with a speed between 65 and 80 km/h. This is the average of these measurements brought back to 80 km/h

by applying a pre-dened slope of 31 (slope of the Lrolling for a category 2 surface, to which the measured

surface belongs).

As for the acceleration, an engine component is added to this rolling noise component, which is adjusted to

minimise the sum of squares of deviations in this construction with the regression of measurements, for low

speeds, i.e. between 20 and 40 km/h. The rolling noise component is then readjusted by subtracting the

engine component found from it.

Measurement deviations in relation to the construction obtained are low (in each 10 km/h segment, the

average of deviations between the pass-by measurement of each vehicle and the construction is largely lower

than one dB).

Note that the value of the engine component found is the same as obtained for a steady speed.

3.7.1.4 - HGV at steady speed on upwards gradient

HGV in trac were measured on ve sites with gradients of between 3% and 6%. Each site normally had

at least three measuring points in the upwards direction (up to eight points on one site) and a measuring

point in a horizontal section. At least eighty HGV were measured at each point.

The speed domain observed was suciently wide (30 to 90 km/h) to assess the engine component. The

approach was applied in two stages:

knowing the engine component on a horizontal route at stabilised place (see above), the Lrolling

component associated with the surface of the site's road platform has been assessed at the measuring

point in horizontal section, by assuming that the rolling noise component is the same in the horizontal

section and on the upwards gradient;

the engine component associated with each measuring point in the upwards gradient has been sought

to adjust the measurements in the best way possible (using the same method as for the acceleration);

the Lengine values assessed for the various gradients have been deemed suciently dierent to justify

taking the "gradient" parameter into account in this component quantitatively and continuously rather

than qualitatively.

Measurement deviations in relation to the construction obtained are low (in each 10 km/h segment, the

average of deviations between the pass-by measurement of each vehicle and the construction is largely lower

than one dB).

HGV in trac have been measured on a site with a downwards gradient of 6%. They cover about 250

vehicles travelling at between 30 and 70 km/h.

As it was impossible to take measurements in a horizontal section on the same surface, the rolling noise

component had to be pre-dened at the average value for the technique (taken from the database).

The engine component was then sought to adjust the measurements in the best way possible (same approach

as for the acceleration).

Note however that the value of the engine component obtained is very sensitive to the value of the rolling

noise component adopted as hypothesis (a 2.5 dB variation in the rolling noise component causes a 5 dB

variation in the engine component).

Measurement deviations in relation to the construction obtained are low (in each 10 km/h segment, the

average of deviations between the pass-by measurement of each vehicle and the construction is largely lower

than one dB).

Lacking information for the intermediate gradient values, the same rule of variation has been adopted as for

the upwards gradient, i.e. considering a linear variation of between 2% and 6%.

When the seven heavy goods vehicles were being measured on the test track (see Section 3.7.1.5), the

engine speeds were recorded at each pass by direct meter reading. A subsequent study [Hamet2004] applied

the approach of a breakdown into two components - engine (depending on the engine speed) and rolling

(depending on the speed) - applied previously to the LV (see Approach to producing LV engine components).

The engine component was then expressed depending on the speed, given the mechanical characteristics of

vehicles and the gears selected by the drivers. For the 20-70 km/h speed range, the average of the engine

components of the seven HGV proves to be very close to the value obtained by the initial approach.

For the 70-100 km/h speed segment, the engine component of each HGV has been extrapolated by assuming

the same driving behaviour (gear selection producing as far as possible the same engine speed). The average

of the engine components of the seven HGV thus obtained has been adopted for the new sound emission

values. This engine component is no longer independent of the speed: above 70 km/h, most HGV are in top

gear and the engine speed increases with the speed.

Beyond 70 km/h, the engine component expressed in LAmax therefore increases in 13 log10 V on a horizontal

road at steady speed. This variation in 13 log10 V is also applied to the other cases by assuming that the

driver does not change gear in this speed range in any of the congurations. It follows that the engine

components in the dierent cases only dier from a constant independent of the speed.

The approach used provides an engine component for speeds faster than 20 km/h and it has therefore been

decided to consider that this value is also constant between 5 and 20 km/h. At 20 km/h, the heavy goods

vehicles are already in a high gear and it is considered that they therefore have sucient gears from 5 km/h

onwards to drive at a constant engine speed.

The engine components corresponding to the acceleration and deceleration in upwards and downwards gra-

dient are deduced using the same principle as for the LV (see Section 3.6). This principle is summarised in

Table 3.7, Table 3.8 and Table 3.9.

upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%

max.(acceleration*horizontal road;

acceleration = acceleration*horizontal road

steady speed*upwards gradient)

max.(deceleration*horizontal road;

deceleration = deceleration*horizontal road

steady speed*downwards gradient)

V - km/h 5 to 70 70 to 100

Lengine 73 + L 73.8 + 13 log10 (V /80) + L

Table 3.8: Formulation adopted for the HGV engine component for all trac ow types and all gradients

(expressions in LAmax ).

L is a correction independent of the speed, depending on the trac ow type and the gradient.

gradient

L

upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%

acceleration max (2(p 2); 5) 5 dB(A)

deceleration 0 dB(A) 1(p 2)

3.8 - Comments on the new unit emission values

The engine and rolling noise components are the result of a construction. They are only valid insofar as their

combination restores correctly the global emission values. The new emission values have been developed by

considering that:

the rolling noise component depends on the type of vehicles (LV or HGV), the surfacing category (R1,

R2 or R3) and the speed. It does not depend on either the trac ow type (stabilised, accelerated,

decelerated) or the gradient,

the engine component depends on the type of vehicle, the speed, the trac ow type and, for the

HGV, the gradient. It does not depend on the surfacing category.

The components are given as gures for ve scenarios: the three trac ow types on horizontal road, the

upwards gradient (6%) and the downwards gradient (6%) for the steady speed. Two gures relate to each

scenario: one for the LV and the other for the HGV. On each gure are plotted, depending on the speed of

the stream (semi-logarithmical scale):

A table relates to each graph in which are indicated the trac speeds20 from which the expected reduction

in trac noise by using an R1 category surface rather than an R3 category surface (see Section 3.8.2) reaches

2 dB(A)21 .

20

Approximate values at 5 km/h

21

value of the acoustic criterion used to dene the "signicant change" in an infrastructure.

3.8.1.1 - Steady speed

LV

Figure 3.13: New emission values. Steady speed. Top gures: horizontal road. Middle gures: upwards

gradient (6%). Bottom gures: downwards gradient (6%). Left-hand: LV trac. Right-hand: HGV trac.

Steady speed LV HGV

Horizontal road 25 km/h 40 km/h

Upwards gradient (6%) 25 km/h 80 km/h

Downwards gradient (6%) 25 km/h 55 km/h

Table 3.10: Steady speed - speeds from which Lt (R3) Lt (R1) 2 dB(A).

Figure 3.14: New emission values. Acceleration, horizontal road. Left-hand: LV trac. Right-hand: HGV

trac.

Acceleration LV HGV

Horizontal road 45 km/h 60 km/h

Table 3.11: Acceleration - horizontal road - speeds from which Lt (R3) Lt (R1) 2 dB(A).

3.8.1.3 - Deceleration - Horizontal road

Figure 3.15: New emission values. Deceleration, horizontal road. Left-hand: LV trac. Right-hand: HGV

trac.

Deceleration LV HGV

Horizontal road 30 km/h 40 km/h

Table 3.12: Deceleration - horizontal road - speeds from which Lt (R3) Lt (R1) 2 dB(A).

3.8.2 - Surfacing effect

The surface eect is the expected dierence in trac noise through using an R1 category surface rather than

an R3 category surface.

4.5

horizontal road

4 steady speed

Lt (R3) Lt (R1) (dB(A))

3.5

2.5

1.5

1

LV

0.5 HGV

0

20 30 50 70 90 130

V (km/h)

Figure 3.16: Surfacing eect on horizontal road for the steady speed.

The eect in steady speed on a horizontal road is plotted in Figure 3.16. It is virtually higher than 2 dB(A)

from 25 km/h for LV trac and 40 km/h for HGV trac.

5 5

4 steady speed 4 steady speed

Lt (R3) Lt (R1) (dB(A))

3.5 3.5

3 3

2.5 2.5

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1

LV LV

0.5 HGV 0.5 HGV

0 0

20 30 50 70 90 130 20 30 50 70 90 130

V (km/h) V (km/h)

Figure 3.17: Surfacing eect on a sliproad with 6% upwards (left-hand) and downwards (right-hand) gradient.

Steady speed.

A gradient does not aect the LV emission level22 . The surfacing eect for this category is therefore the same

as on a horizontal road. The surfacing eect is negligible for the HGV trac on a 6% upwards gradient: it

only exceeds 2 dB(A) from 80 km/h onwards (Figure 3.17, left-hand graph). However, on a 6% downwards

gradient, the surfacing eect exceeds 2 dB(A) from 55 km/h onwards (Figure 3.17, right-hand graph).

5 5

4 acceleration 4 deceleration

Lt (R3) Lt (R1) (dB(A))

3.5 3.5

3 3

2.5 2.5

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1

LV LV

0.5 HGV 0.5 HGV

0 0

20 30 50 70 90 130 20 30 50 70 90 130

V (km/h) V (km/h)

Figure 3.18: Surfacing eect on a horizontal road for accelerated (left-hand) and decelerated (right-hand)

trac ow types.

In acceleration on a horizontal road, the surfacing eect exceeds 2 dB(A) from 45 km/h onwards for LV

trac and 50 km/h onwards for HGV trac. In deceleration, the critical speed drops to 25 km/h for the

LV trac and 45 km/h for the HGV trac.

Figure 3.19: LV trac. Dierence in emission between acceleration and steady speed. Left-hand: LV.

Right-hand: HGV.

22

The new values are established for gradients of less than 6%.

On a horizontal road, the emission values are greater in acceleration and in steady speed (Figure 3.19). They

depend on the surface. For the LV (left-hand graph), the dierence exceeds 2 dB(A) up to 45 km/h for

category R2 and up to 55 km/h for category R1. For the HGV (right-hand graph), the dierence remains

greater than 2 dB(A) below 35 km/h for category R2 and below 45 km/h for category R1.

On a horizontal road, the LV emission values in deceleration dier little from those in steady speed (Fig-

ure 3.20). The HGV emission values in deceleration are the same as in steady speed.

Figure 3.20: LV trac. Dierence in emission between deceleration and steady speed.

3.9 - Comparing unit emission values with those in the French "Guide du Bruit" (1980) [GdB1980]

For convenience, we shall use the term `GdB80' to refer to the Guide to Land Transport Noise [GdB1980]

which dates from 1980.

The unit emission values in GdB80 are sound emissions E of the detailed method [GdB1980], supplied as

nomograms in the volume "Sound level forecast" and reproduced in Figure 3.21.

E = Lw 10 log10 V 50 (3.31)

It is equal numerically to the Leq,1h triggered by a vehicle with sound power Lw , travelling at speed V km/h

on a straight lane 50 m from the measuring point23 .

The sound emission E is given, depending on the speed, for two categories of vehicle (LV: less than 3.5 t and

HGV: 3.5 t or more) and twelve congurations characterised by the type of ow and the type of longitudinal

prole.

Some congurations are considered to be equivalent, i.e. producing the same noise. The equivalences are

not the same for the LV and the HGV. They are summarised in Table 3.13. All the congurations identied

23

In a clear site (no nearby screen or buildings) and with reecting ground.

by the same symbol have the same emission level. The noise of LV is thus dened by seven sound emission

nomograms, with four for the HGV.

LV HGV

GdB80 E

horizontal upwards downwards horizontal upwards downwards

prole gradient gradient prole gradient gradient

continuous

0 0

freely-moving x

A B

pulsed no A

+ +

dierentiation

pulsed

a b +

accelerated

pulsed

c + d C D

decelerated

Table 3.13: GdB80, unit emissions equivalence grid: congurations with the same symbol have the same

sound emission level E .

The option adopted for the new values is to characterise the sound emission by the sound power of a "line-

source", quantity best suited to trac noise forecasting software. It is given per unit of length. Its level, for

a ow rate of one vehicle/hour is:

The sound emission is, here also, given as a function of the speed for both vehicle categories, but with only

nine trac ow type/longitudinal prole congurations considered (Table 3.14).

LV HGV

Lw/m

horizontal upwards downwards horizontal upwards downwards

steady speed s S B C

acceleration a A E A

deceleration d S C

Table 3.14: New guide, unit emissions equivalence grid: congurations with the same symbol have the same

sound emission level Lw/m .

The emission values obtained for the LV are proving to depend on the trac ow type only, not the gradient.

Those obtained for the HGV depend normally on trac ow type and gradient24 .

3.9.3 - Comparison

Lw/m/veh = E + 20 (3.33)

The GdB80 considers continuous freely-moving, pulsed accelerated and pulsed decelerated ows. The new

guide considers steady speed, acceleration and deceleration. The comparisons will be made between contin-

uous freely-moving/steady speed, pulsed accelerated/acceleration and pulsed decelerated/deceleration.

24

The new values are only established for gradients of no more than 6%

The pulsed, no dierentiation ow considered in the GdB80 contrasts with the freely-moving ow. It is

neither stable nor over time (abrupt variation of ow rates in short time periods) nor in trac ow types

(irregular concentration of vehicles in the section studied, at a given moment). The new procedure sub-divides

a line-source into acoustically-homogeneous sections (ow rate, speed, trac ow type) and therefore does

not provide an emission value for this type of ow.

3.9.3.2 - Gradient

In both the GdB80 and the new guide, gradients less than 2% are considered not to have an inuence on

the sound emission of a vehicle.

The GdB80 considers that the sound emissions are independent of the gradient, both upwards and down-

wards25 . The new guide reaches the same conclusion for the LV26 ; however, for some congurations, the HGV

emission values depend on the gradient. The new guide only gives assessments for gradients not exceeding

6% and the comparisons with the GdB80 are made for a gradient of 6%.

3.9.3.3 - Surfaces

The inuence of the surface (category, age) was not considered in the GdB80. The comparisons are made

here with the new emission values corresponding to recent surfaces (two years or less) and not those over

ten years old.

3.9.3.4 - Organisation

The comparisons are organised by trac ow type (stabilised, accelerated, decelerated) and, for each trac

ow type, by type of longitudinal prole (horizontal road, 6% upwards gradient, 6% downwards gradient).

The comparisons are given in each category/conguration in the form of two graphs, with the speed as a

variable: one (top graph) with the emission values from the GdB80 and the new guide plotted (for the R1,

R2 and R3 categories) and the other (bottom graph) where the dierence between the emission values given

by the new guide (category R3) and by the GdB80 are plotted. A negative means that the trac noise (on

a category R3 surface) is today lower than in the 1970s. To recall that the ageing eect is not included here,

the categories are identied R1 J, R2 J and R3 J.

25

More than 2%.

26

It is even concluded that at a given trac ow type, the LV emission values, on a horizontal road, an upwards gradient

or a downwards gradient, are the same.

3.9.4 - Steady speed (Figure 3.22)

From about 40 km/h, the new LV emission values for category R3 J are the same as in the GdB80: at

medium and high speeds, the LV trac noise on category R3 surfaces is the same today as 25 years ago27 .

Beyond 40 km/h the new emission values are lower. This can be interpreted today as resulting from a

reduced engine noise component in light vehicles on the road between the 1980s and today. The reduction

in the trac noise is about 3 dB(A) at 25 km/h.

The new HGV emission values in R3 J are only identical to the GdB80 values beyond 70 km/h. At 25 km/h,

the HGV trac noise given by the new guide (R3 J) is 9 dB(A) lower than the GdB80.

Old and new emission values (R3 J) for an upwards gradient come together from 80 km/h onwards for the

LV and 60 km/h onwards for the HGV (6% gradient). The deviations at 25 km/h between new and GdB80

values are greater for the LV (L = 10 dB(A)) and less so for the HGV (L = 4 dB(A)) than noted in

the horizontal road.

For the LV, same results and comments as for steady speed/horizontal road.

According to the GdB80, the HGV travelling at steady speed make the same noise on a downwards gradient

as on a horizontal road. The new estimations suggest that a gradient above -2% increases the sound emission

of HGV.

The HGV emission given by the new guide in R3 J is less than given by the GdB80 below 70 km/h. The

deviation reaches -6 dB(A) at 25 km/h. Beyond 70 km/h the levels are practically the same.

27

See Section 3.9.3

Figure 3.22: Steady speed. GdB80 emissions and new values (without ageing eect). Left-hand: LV. Right-

hand: HGV. Top: horizontal road. Middle: Upwards gradient (6% for the new guide). Bottom: downwards

gradient (6% for the new guide).

3.9.5 - Acceleration (Figure 3.23)

At acceleration, the LV emissions in category R3 J are practically equal to the GdB80 emissions beyond 55

km/h. The deviation at very low speeds is in the order as noted for the steady speed.

For the HGV, the dierences at low speeds are lower than noted at steady speed (at 25 km/h, L = 6

dB(A) at acceleration against L = 9 dB(A) at steady speed). New values in R3 J and GdB80 values

come together from 70 km/h onwards.

The LV emission values in upwards gradient/acceleration are only given in the GdB80 for speeds lower than

60 km/h. They are 3 dB(A) to 4 dB(A) higher than the new values (R3 J).

The HGV emission in upwards gradient is the same for both the GdB80 and the new values (sliproad

6%) at acceleration and at steady speed. Old and new values come together from 60 km/h onwards. The

deviation between values at 25 km/h is L = 4 dB(A).

The acceleration/downwards gradient conguration is the only one where the new LV emission values are

proving to be very close to the GdB80 values over the entire speed range28 .

According to the GdB80 and the new guide, an HGV driving at acceleration on a downwards gradient

makes the same noise as at accelerated rate on a horizontal road29 . For the observations see therefore

acceleration/horizontal road above.

The HGV emission given by the new guide in R3 is less than given by the GdB80 below about 70 km/h.

The deviation is about -5 dB(A) at 25 km/h. Beyond 70 km/h the levels are practically the same.

28

The LV emission values are considered to be independent of the gradient for both the GdB80 and the new guide. The

values in the new guide are only established for gradients of no more than 6%

29

The HGV emission values are at acceleration/downwards gradient are independent of the gradient for both the GdB80

and the new guide. The values in the new guide are only established for gradients of no more than 6%.

Figure 3.23: Acceleration. GdB80 emissions and new values (without ageing eect). Left-hand: LV. Right-

hand: HGV. Top: horizontal road. Middle: Upwards gradient (6% for the new guide). Bottom: downwards

gradient (6% for the new guide).

3.9.6 - Deceleration (Figure 3.25)

Unlike what is seen in most other cases, the new emission values in R3 J are proving in some speed ranges

to be higher than given in the GdB80 (between 40 km/h and 100 km/h for the LV, below 95 km/h for the

HGV).

The approach used to construct the new values considers that the deceleration is obtained by some drivers

using the foot brake and by others applying engine braking. The engine component and the overall emission

are therefore greater at deceleration than at steady speed.

The GdB80 emission values at steady speed and at deceleration are plotted on the same graph, Figure 3.24.

According to the GdB80, a decelerating LV emits somewhat less noise than at steady speed (left-hand graph)

and a decelerating HGV emits far less noise than at steady speed (right-hand graph).

Figure 3.24: GdB80 Horizontal road. Steady speed and deceleration. Left-hand: LV. Right-hand: HGV.

GdB80 and the new guide give the same emission values from 50 km/h onwards as for the LV in upwards

gradient/deceleration. At 25 km/h the deviation between values reaches -6 dB(A).

According to the GdB80, the HGV at deceleration makes more noise on an upwards gradient on than a

horizontal road. According to the new estimations, the HGV at deceleration makes the same noise on an

upwards gradient as on a horizontal road. The new values (R3 J) are proving practically equal to the GdB80

values above 60 km/h. The deviation at 25 km/h is in the order of -4 dB(A).

The LV emission values given by the GdB80 for the downwards gradient/deceleration conguration are the

lowest of all. Apart from at very low speeds, they are proving to be lower than the new values (R3 J).

For both the GdB80 and the new guide, the HGV emission values in a 6% downwards gradient at deceleration

are the same as at steady speed.

The HGV emission given by the new guide in R3 J is less than given by the GdB80 below 70 km/h. The

deviation reaches -6 dB(A) at 25 km/h. Beyond 70 km/h the levels are practically the same.

Figure 3.25: Steady speed. GdB80 emissions and new values (without ageing eect). Left-hand: LV. Right-

hand: HGV. Top: horizontal road. Middle: Upwards gradient (6% for the new guide). Bottom: downwards

gradient (6% for the new guide).

3.9.6.4 - Conclusion

Apart from the three trac ow type/conguration scenarios, the emission values in the new guide in the

R3 category (without ageing eect) virtually match the GdB80 values at high speeds, an area where rolling

noise dominates. It seems therefore that the driving speed on category R3 surfaces corresponds to the driving

speed on the 1970s' surfaces for both LV and HGV. This is not too surprising inasmuch as the surfacing

techniques used in the 1970s were in the main classied in category R3. This implies however that the

acoustic characteristics of tyres have changed little since the 1970s (this acoustic tyre stability was noted by

Sandberg for the period 1920-1980 [Sandberg1984]).

At low speeds, the new emission values are normally lower than the GdB80 values. This can be interpreted

as resulting from a reduced engine component in light vehicles on the road between the 1980s and today.

The noise reductions noted at 25 km/h are in the order of 3 dB(A) for LV and 5 dB(A) for HGV.

The speed over which the emission values in the new guide in R3 remain practically equal to the GdB80

values depends on the vehicle category and the conguration Table 3.15.

LV HGV

prole gradient gradient prole gradient gradient

steady steady

40 80 40

speed speed 70

60 70

acceleration 80 x 80 acceleration

deceleration x 50 x deceleration x

Table 3.15: Speeds (in km/h) over which the emission values in the GdB80 and the new guide (R3) remain

practically equal.

At low speeds, the new emission values are normally lower than the GdB80 values. The dierences at a

speed of 25 km/h are given in Table 3.16.

LV HGV

prole gradient gradient prole gradient gradient

steady steady

-10 -9 -6

speed -3 -3 speed

-4

acceleration -4 acceleration -6 -5

deceleration x -6 x deceleration x -6

Table 3.16: Dierences in dB(A) between the new guide values (R3) and the GdB80 values at 25 km/h.

The heavy goods vehicle equivalent is a notion introduced in the simplied GdB80 method to simplify the

calculations. It is used to assess the trac noise from a single equation where a single speed - that of LV -

gures. The expression takes the form30 :

30

The acoustic equivalence factor and the sound emission level are designated by the same symbol E in the GdB80. We

propose using EqHGV here to avoid any confusion.

QLV : representative LV ow rate,

V trac speed.

The equivalence is also expressed by the relationship HGV = EqHGV LV EqHGV takes into account the

fact that the HGV trac speed can be dierent from the LV speed. The values proposed in the GdB80 are

repeated in Table 3.17:

2% 3% 4% 5% 6%

Motorway 4 5 6

Urban expressway 7 9 10 11 12

Urban road 10 13 16 18 20

Table 3.17: Acoustic equivalence factor EqHGV between HGV and LV: HGV = EqHGV LV (simplied

GdB80 method).

Unless speed cross-references can be found between HGV and LV used in the GdB80 for various types of lane,

it is impossible to give an HGV equivalence for the new values which can be compared with the simplied

method.

An equivalence factor EqHGV is proposed, with as speed hypothesis

The emission levels taken here for the new guide correspond to an aged surface.

The values EqHGV corresponding to the new emission values are plotted in Figure 3.26 (steady speed, hor-

izontal road), 3.44 (steady speed, 6% upwards gradient and 6% downwards gradient) and 3.45 (acceleration

and deceleration on horizontal road) for the three surfacing categories. The GdB80 values are re-assessed

using nomograms in Figure 1 of the GdB80.

The equivalence factor generally depends on the speed. For the new values and at speeds faster than 100

km/h, it diminishes when the speed increases: the noise of the LV increases with the speed whilst the HGV

continue to travel at a speed of 100 km/h. The equivalence factors in R1 and R2 are close and higher than

the equivalence factor in R3.

3.9.8.2 - Stabilised speed, horizontal road

The equivalence factors in R1 and R2 are in the order of eight between 60 km/h and 100 km/h. The R3

equivalence factor is in the order of six in the same speed range. The equivalence factor increases signicantly

at low speeds for all three categories.

Beyond 65 km/h, the GdB80 equivalence factor is rather close to that of R1 and R2.

! !

Figure 3.27: Equivalence factor EqHGV . Stabilised speed - LEFT-HAND: upwards gradient. RIGHT-

HAND: downwards gradient.

Between 60 km/h and 100 km/h at steady speed, the equivalence factor in R1 and R2 is in the order of ten

to fteen in an upwards gradient and in the order of nine in a downwards gradient. In R3 where there is

more rolling noise, the equivalence factor is lower (about six to eight). The equivalences given by the GdB80

are comparable orders of magnitude.

Figure 3.28: Equivalence factor EqHGV . Stabilised speed. LEFT-HAND: accelerating. RIGHT-HAND:

decelerating.

When accelerating or decelerating on a horizontal road, the HGV are considered to make about seven times

more noise than the LV, except at very high speeds for both cases and very low speeds for deceleration.

The GdB80 gives comparable equivalences, except at low speeds.

The data relating to trenches, tunnels and coverings have not been deal with and updated in this guide. The

formula given in the GdB80 remain unchanged therefore [GdB1980].

The spectre values provided are taken from measurements listed in the "rolling noise" database and obtained

by the pass-by method. A spectrum is association with each database road section, obtained form vehicles

measured31 (at least eighty).

Average LV and HGV spectra in third-octave band have been calculated as follows:

all the spectra in the database have been brought to an overall value of 0 dB(A);

per surfacing technique and per type of vehicle (LV and HGV), the arithmetical average per third

octave of all the spectra has been calculated. This average has then been brought to an overall value

of 0 dB(A);

31

This spectrum is obtained by calculating, in each third-octave band, the linear regression of LAmax levels of vehicles

according to the speed logarithm. It is given for a certain value of the speed, called reference speed [see standard 31 119].

these average spectra per technique have been classied into four families distinguishing between the

LV and HGV and between porous and non-porous surfaces.

When examining these average spectra obtained per surfacing technique, it is clear that in the non-porous

surfacing family, the standard deviation of spectra is 1 to 2 dB according to the frequencies for the LV and

0.5 to 1.5 dB according to the frequencies for the HGV. For the porous surfaces, the data used basically

cover the BBDr 0/10 surface and the notion of standard deviation is therefore not appropriate.

An examination of graphic representations has shown that, inside each of the four families, the spectra are of

similar form. They have therefore all be included in the calculation of spectra representative of each family,

i.e.:

150 LV spectra and eighty HGV spectra for the non-porous surfaces,

The representative spectra for each family have been calculated by creating the arithmetical average per

third octave of spectra in each technique. This average has then been brought to an overall value of 0

dB(A).

Note

The type 2 BBTM (Very Thin Asphalt Concrete) surfaces cannot be classied in the same surfacing family

as the porous surfaces as the forms dier: their spectra show a peak towards 1000 Hz, which is not present

in the porous surface spectra.

This approach to determining vehicle sound emission spectra does not take account any potential inuence of

speed on the form of the spectrum (the hypothesis adopted is that the speed alters the level of the spectrum,

not its form).

Note

The spectra dened here are taken from pass-by values measured at high speeds. It was considered

that they could also be used in the speed domain where the engine noise dominates. Observations have

shown that the frequency ranges brought into play are similar for both the engine and the rolling noise

components.

The "trac" spectra with a pre-dened percentage of 85% LV and 15% HGV were compared with fteen

spectra (including four porous) also measured in LAeq (at 7.5 m from the lane and 1.2 m high for 45 minutes).

This comparison shows that the pre-dened spectra (porous/non-porous surfaces) are well within the zones

of values measured under medium and high frequencies, but that they are systematically under frequencies

lower than 500 Hz. However, these deviations have little inuence on the overall level.

To assess the advantage of presenting two dierentiated LV and HGV spectra, the inuence of the HGV

percentage has been studied by comparing the constructed noise spectra with extreme HGV proportions

(0% and 40%). Note that the "trac" spectra reformed with a variable proportion of HGV are very similar,

except in the 400-630 Hz range (i.e. the 500 Hz bandwidth), where the width of the envelope reaches 5 to 6

dB for the non-porous surfaces and 2 to 3 dB for the porous surfaces.

Given these results, the representation by a single emission spectrum combining both types of vehicle has

been adopted to predict the noise not far from the road, as the two disadvantages mentioned (weaknesses in

the aggregates and variability according to the HGV percentage around 500 Hz) do not seem unacceptable

given the relatively low weight of the frequencies in question.

3.10.4 - Propagation from afar

To ensure that the contribution by these frequencies to the overall noise remains limited even far from the

road, spectra with various LV compositions have been propagated 100 m and 200 m away using a theoretical

model, with a simple site conguration (road at natural level of the land, at ground) for both times of

favourable and homogeneous meteorological conditions. The results show a low scattering of attenuations

compared with 7.50 m, regardless of the scenarios envisaged. However, the results obtained with 15% HGV

are closer to the results obtained for trac with 40% HGV than with 0%. Trac including 10% HGV has

therefore been adopted as an intermediate value (the corresponding spectra, per third octave, are given in

Section 2.8).

The spectrum in the NMPB 96 [NMPB96] is dened in bandwidths and it is therefore dicult to compare

it directly with the spectra in the current method (given in third-octave bands).

As a rough guide, Figure 3.29 compares both spectra in the current method (porous and non-porous surfaces)

with the spectrum provided by standard EN 1793-3 [EN1793p3] (the spectrum in the NMPB 96 is taken

directly from this standard, by summing third-octave bands).

70

NMPB 2008 Non drainage

65 NMPB 2008 Drainage

EN 1793-3

60

LAw (dB)

55

50

45

40

35

125 250 500 1000 2000 4000

Frequency (Hz)

Figure 3.29: Comparison between dened spectra and the spectrum in standard EN 1793-3.

In the high and low frequencies, the spectra proposed are lower than the spectrum in standard EN 1793-3,

whereas this is found more between the porous and non-porous spectra in the medium frequencies (dominant

frequencies).

4 - Bibliography

[Andre1987] M. Andr, J.P. Roumegoux, J. Delsey, J.P. Guitton, and J.P., Experimental study on the

actual uses of vehicles (EUREV) - Technical Report No. 48, Copyright 1987 INRETS.

[CFTR4] Inuence of the road platform surface course Note Cftr 4, Copyright June 2001. CFTR.

[DOT1995] G. Fleming, A. Rapoza, and C. Lee, Development of national reference energy mean emission

levels for the FHWA Trac Noise Model - Final report, Copyright 1995 US Department

of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration.

[Decree95] Decree 95-22 of 9 January 1995 on the limitation of the noise from land transport develop-

ments and infrastructures (FROJ of 10/01/95).

[Doisy2005] S. Doisy, Exploitation of the "Driving noise" database:LAmax HGV / LAmax LV relation-

ship, Copyright May 2005 LRPC Strasbourg.

[EN1793p3] NF EN 1793-3 (classication index: S 31-303), Road trac noise reducing devices - Test

method for determining the acoustic performance - Part 3: normalised trac noise spec-

trum., Copyright November 1997 AFNOR.

[END] European Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and Council of 25 June 2002

relative to the assessment and management of environmental noise, ECOJ of 18 July 2002.

[FD2005] Road safety in France: 2005 assessment. Extracts can be consulted online at

http://www2.securiteroutiere.gouv.fr/infos-ref/observatoire/l-observatoire/l-observatoire-

national-interministeriel-de-securi.html, Copyright 2005 French documentation.

[GdB1980] Guide du bruit des transports terrestres - Prvision des niveaux sonores, Copyright 1980

CERTU (in french), 317p, 2-11-083290-8.

[Hamet2000] J.F. Hamet and V. Steimer, Noise from road trains - Simplied modelling from measure-

ments on test tracks - Technical Report LTE 2025, Copyright 2000 INRETS.

[Hamet2004] J.F. Hamet, Road train noise - Estimated engine noise when driving in suitable gear -

Technical Report LTE 0413, Copyright 2004 INRETS.

[Hamet2004b] J.F. Hamet and J. Lelong, Light vehicle noise on sliproad - Analysis of results obtained on

the Charade site - Technical Report LTE 0437, Copyright 2004 INRETS.

[Hamet2005] J.F. Hamet and J. Lelong, Acoustic emission of a passenger car - Eect of road gradient -

Technical Report SILVIA-INRETS-015-WP5, Copyright 2005 INRETS.

[Hamet2006] J.F. Hamet and J. Lelong, Light vehicle noise on sliproad - Analysis of results obtained on

the Orcines la Baraque site - Technical Report LTE 0617, Copyright 2006 INRETS.

[Hamet2007] JF. Hamet, F. Besnard, and J. Lelong, New sound emission values for road vehicles. The

acoustically-homogeneous section. Report INRETS/LTE 0721, Copyright November

2007 INRETS.

[IRT1979] G. Pachiaudi and B. Favre, Noise caused by means of transport - Information note no. 15,

Copyright 1979 IRT.

[ISO11819p1] ISO 11819-1 - Acoustics - Measurement of the inuence of road platform surfaces on trac

noise - Part 1: Statistical pass-by method, Copyright September 1997 ISO.

[Law2005] Law 2005-1319 of 26 October 2005 covering various provisions for adapting community

environmental law, (FROJ of 27 October 2005)..

Bibliography 83

[Lefevre2004] H. Lefevre, Pass-by noise measurement - Controlled Vehicle method on national roads and

track - acoustic eect of a sliproad and acceleration on the sound emission of an HGV -

Technical Report, Copyright 2004 LR Clermont-Ferrand.

[Lefevre2004b] H. Lefevre, HVG noise measurement on sliproad at low speed - Charade Track - Technical

Report, Copyright 2004 LR Clermont-Ferrand.

[Lelong1997a] J. Lelong, Inuence of vehicles on intercity trac noise - HGV/road train sensitivity tests

Technical Report MMA 9701, Copyright 1997 INRETS.

[Lelong1997b] J. Lelong, Inuence of vehicles on urba trac noise - HGV/road train sensitivity tests

Technical Report MMA 9703, Copyright 1997 INRETS.

[Lelong1999] J. Lelong, "Vehicle noise emission of tyre/road and motor noise contribution".

Internoise, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, 1999.

Forum Acusticum, Berlin, 1999.

[Lelong2000] J. Lelong, Light vehicles - Acoustic emission at dierent urban and intercity trac ow

types - Technical Report LTE 2024, Copyright 2000 INRETS.

[Michelet1998] R. Michelet and J. Lelong, Acoustic emissions from road vehicles - Measuring campaigns

1997 - Technical Report MMA 9802b,, Copyright 1998 INRETS.

[Michelet1999] R. Michelet and J. Lelong, Acoustic emissions from road vehicles - Measuring campaigns

1998 - Technical Report LTE 9922, Copyright 1999 INRETS.

surfaces - Pass-by acoustic measurements - "Controlled Vehicles" procedure, Copyright

December 2000 AFNOR.

french), Mthode de calcul incluant les eets mtorologiques - version exprimentale -

NMPB Routes 96, 98p, 2-11-089201-3 (in french).

[Note77] Road noise prediction calculation - Daily trac proles on intercity roads and motorways.

Economics, Environment and Design Information Note no. 77, Copyright February 2007

Stra, 10 p.

[Order95] Order of 5 May 1995 on the noise from road infrastructures., FROJ of 10/05/95.

[S31119] S 31-119 - Acoustics: In situ characterisation of acoustic qualities of road platform surfaces

- Pass-by acoustic measurements, Copyright october 1993 AFNOR.

[Sandberg1984] U. Sandberg, Six decades of vehicle noise abatement - but what happened to the tires ? -

Technical Report 100, Copyright 1984 VTI.

[Setra1999] Trac structure in the national road network - Analysis and changes, Copyright 1999

Stra, 30 p.

[Setra2004] Time-ow rate functions on intercity motorways - Renewing relationships between journey

time and ow rate to simulate trac - Technical report, Copyright November 2001

(re-issued July 2004) Stra.

[Setra2007] Acoustic saturation on intercity motorways. Study report, Copyright March 2007 Stra.

4.2 - Stra bibliographical documents

[GdB1980] Guide du bruit des transports terrestres - Prvision des niveaux sonores, Copyright 1980

CERTU (in french), 317p, 2-11-083290-8.

[NMPB2008] Methodological Guide - Road noise prediction - 2- Noise propagation computation method

including meterological eects (NMPB 2008), Copyright 2009 Stra.

french), Mthode de calcul incluant les eets mtorologiques - version exprimentale -

NMPB Routes 96, 98p, 2-11-089201-3 (in french).

[Note78] Road noise prediction calculation - Daily trac proles on intercity roads and motorways.

Economics, Environment and Design Information Note no. 78, Copyright February 2007

Stra, 10.

[Setra2001] Road noise and studies - Project Manager Manual, Copyright October 2001 Stra,

CERTU.

Bibliography 85

Appendices

A - Notations and symbols

the decibel (A), unit used to express the sound level, or pressure level,

representative of the transmitted energy. Weighting curves are used to take

dB(A)

account of the eective sensation of the human ear. The A weighting curve is

used for road noise and indeed for most environmental noise.

light vehicles, vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of less than

LV

3.5 tonnes

HGV heavy goods vehicles, vehicles with a GVWR of more than 3.5 tonnes.

L sound level dened by the following relationship

2

L = 10 log10 pp2

0

p average of the quadratic pressure or gradient of the land

p0 reference pressure, equal to the threshold of absolute audibility: 2.10-5 Pa

equivalent noise level, expressed in A decibels, representing the constant noise

level potentially produced by the same energy as the actually existing noise

during the period T in question. It therefore expresses the average of the

LAeq,T

energy received, with the A weighting taking account of the sensitivity of the

ear based on the frequency from a standardised weighting curve. The LAeq

calculation formula is:R 2

LAeq,T = 10 log10 T1 T p p(t)

2 dt

0

T period considered

V vehicle speed

Vref reference speed (90 km/h for LV and 80 km/h for HGV)

Vmin minimum speed

Vmax maximum speed

W sound power

W0 reference sound power of value W0 = 1012 W

maximum sound level noted during a given period using "pass-by" measuring

LAmax

procedures

Lw sound power level of formula

W

Lw = 10 log10 W 0

Lw/m emission power per metre of lane

Lw/m (j) sound emission power per metre of line-source and per third-octave band

emission power per metre of lane of the vehicle category for a unit ow rate (1

veh/h). It can also be noted Lw/m . This therefore gives Lw/m/LV (respectively

Lw/m

Lw/m/HGV ) for the LV (respectively HGV). It is broken down into two terms

Lr,w/m and Lm,w/m according to the following formula:

Lw/m/veh = Lr,w/m Lm,w/m

is the component of Lw/m assumed to be emitted by the contact between tyre

Lr,w/m and road platform, also known as the "rolling noise component". It can also be

noted Lrolling

is the component of Lw/m/veh assumed to be emitted by all vehicle mechanical

Lm,w/m sources also known as the "power unit noise component". It can also be noted

Lengine

represents the added

energy:

L1 L2 = 10 log10 100.1L1 + 100.1L2

Lm,w/m error committed in the emission level of the "engine" component

Ri gear

AADT annual average daily trac

%HGV percentage of heavy goods vehicles. This is the HGV share in the total trac

%HGVday heavy goods vehicle percentages during the day

%HGVnight heavy goods vehicle percentages during the night

%AVday all-vehicle ow rate percentages during the day

%AVnight all-vehicle ow rate percentages during the night

Qveh average hourly ow rate for the vehicle category

QLV average hourly ow rate for the LV

QHGV average hourly ow rate for the HGV

QAV average hourly ow rate for all LV and HGV vehicles

QLV,day average hourly LV ow rate during the day

QLV,night average hourly LV ow rate during the night

QHGV,day average hourly HGV ow rate during the day

QHGV,night average hourly HGV ow rate during the night

equivalent ow rate of the maximum sound emission of the stream. For a given

proportion of heavy goods vehicles, it is the all-vehicle ow rate which gives, for

QAV,eq

the same value of %HGV and for LV and HGV free speeds, the maximum

sound emission relating to the acoustic saturation situation.

QERH all-vehicle ow rate during the evening rush hour

percentage of all-vehicle ow rate during the evening rush hour compared with

%ERH

the AADT.

Cvp LV/HGV trac equivalence

K vehicle concentration

j index of the third-octave band

R(j) spectral distribution of the emission power

BBTM 0/6 types 1 and 2

R1 BBUM 0/6

BBDr 0/10

BBTM 0/10 type 2

BBTM 0/10 type 1

R2 BBSG 0/10

ECF

BBUM 0/10

BC

R3 BBTM 0/14

BBSG 0/14

ES 6/10

ES 10/14

BBTM Very Thin Asphalt Concrete

BBUM Ultra Thin Asphalt Concrete

BBDr Porous Asphalt

BBSG Dense Asphalt Concrete

ECF Cold-applied Slurry Surfacing

BC Cement Concrete

ES Surface Dressing

a age of the surface in the correction to calculate the rolling noise component

L correction to calculate the HGV engine component

E = Lw 10 log10 V 50

E It is equal numerically to the Leq,1h triggered by a vehicle with sound power

Lw , travelling at speed V km/h on a straight lane 50 m from the measuring

point, in a clear site (no nearby screen or building), and with reecting ground

EqHGV acoustic equivalence factor between HGV and LV

GdB80 reference to the French "Guide du Bruit [GdB1980]

B - Form

the equivalent level adapted to the characterisation of a relatively stable noise or to slow changes like

the noise of freely-moving trac,

the maximum level, adapted to the characterisation of an event like the pass-by noise of a vehicle.

The sound levels depend on the acoustic power of sources, their speed and the distance between source and

observation. Simplied expressions are used in transport noise. The purpose of this form is to give the

relationships between the various quantities.

The sound pressure level is expressed in decibels. It is dened by a relationship of the form

p2m

L = 10 log10 (B.1)

p20

where p2m is an average of the quadratic pressure and p0 a reference pressure. The sound pressure is

systematically taken with the frequential weighting A. This is therefore known as A-weighted level.

The equivalent sound pressure level characterises a noise over a given time T . It uses the average of the

quadratic pressure for pm . It can depend on the moment considered. Noted LAeq,T (t) it is given by the

relationship:

p2T

LAeq,T (t) = 10 log10 (B.2)

p20

Z t

1

p2T = p2A ( )d (B.3)

T tT

Changes in trac noise can for example be characterised by changes in the equivalent level taken over one

hour LAeq,1h .

The noise of a moving vehicle is characterised by changes in its pass-by sound pressure level. A weighted

average known as FAST is considered for the quadratic pressure. The sound pressure level is called FAST

sound pressure level. It is given by the relationship

LA,F AST (t) = 10 log10 (B.4)

p20

Z t t

p2F AST = e 0.125 p2A ( )d (B.5)

where t and are expressed in seconds. The contribution of p2A ( ) to the F AST level decreases as is

further away from the instant of observation t.

Appendix B. Form 89

B.4 - Sound pressure level of a vehicle

The sound emission of a vehicle is represented by the emission of a set of point sources, more often than not

omnidirectional. The sound pressure level triggered by all sources is taken as equal to the energy sum of

sound levels triggered each one by a source1 .

The basic relationship used in transport noise to assess the sound pressure levels is the one giving the

quadratic pressure triggered by a point source in free eld2 :

Wm (t)

p2m (t) = 0 c0 (B.6)

4r2 (t)

Wm is the eective sound power of the source3 , r is the distance from the source, 0 is the air density and

c0 the celerity of airwaves through the air.

The time factor is used to take into account the movement of the source and any variation in the radiated

power (slowing down or acceleration of the vehicle, for example). The Doppler eect from the movement of

the source is ignored in this simplied expression.

W

Lw = 10 log10 (B.7)

W0

W0

p20 = 0 c0 (B.8)

r02

p0 2.10-5 Pa

W0 10-12 Watt

0 c0 400 Ns/m

r0 1 m

1

The sources are said not to be correlated

2

There is no screen between the source and the observation point nor reecting element in the vicinity

3

Average power taken over a short period

B.7 - Pass-by sound pressure level

pass-by axis

B.7.1 - Notations

p2 (r)

Lp (r) = 10 log10 (B.9)

p20

p2A,max

LA,max = 10 log10 (B.10)

p20

p2A,max is the maximum of the FAST quadratic pressure, taken (in the absence of a screen) at the standardised

distance p

dn = 7.52 + 1.22 (B.11)

(horizontal distance of 7.5 m with respect to the passage axis and 1.2 m above the ground).

B.7.2 - Formulae

r

Lp (r) = Lw 20 log10 10 log10 2 (B.12)

r0

dn

LA,max = Lw 20 log10 10 log10 2 (B.13)

r0

r

Lp (r) Lw 20 log10 7.98 (B.14)

r0

Appendix B. Form 91

B.8 - Equivalent sound pressure level

B.8.1 - Notation

p2T

LeqT (d) = 10 log10 (B.16)

p20

B.8.2 - Formulae

LeqT (d) = Lw 10 log10 V T d + 10 log10 10 log10 2 (B.17)

V Td

LeqT (d) = LA,max 10 log10 + 10 log10 (B.18)

d2n

VT

LeqT (dn ) = LA,max 10 log10 + 10 log10 (B.19)

dn

The angle is introduced to take into account a potential screen eect (see illustration).

To simplify the writing, the unit magnitudes are frequently omitted from the formulae (for example,

log10 (V d) is written instead of log10 V d/V0 d0 )

Leq,1h at distance d

Leq,1h (d) = Lw 10 log10 V d + 10 log10 33.01 (B.20)

Leq,1h (d) = LA,max 10 log10 V d + 10 log10 7.41 (B.21)

Leq,1h at distance dn

Leq,1h (dn ) = Lw 10 log10 V + 10 log10 41.81 (B.22)

Leq,1h (dn ) = LA,max 10 log10 V + 10 log10 16.21 (B.23)

B.9 - Noise created by a section

The new emission values are expressed in sound power per metre of lane. This chapter gives the basic

formulae for the noise created by a lane section and establishes the cross-reference between the unit power

level per metre of lane Lw/m/veh and the maximum pass-by level LAmax .

A ow rate q veh/s of the same type of vehicle, travelling on a lane at speed v m/s corresponds to a lane

density q/v vehicles/metre. If W is the average sound power of vehicles, the power W/m per unit of lane

length is:

q

W/m = W (B.24)

v

Q

W/m = W (B.25)

1000V

The sound power level per unit of lane length, noted Lw/m , is given by the relationship:

W/m Q V

Lw/m = 10 log10 = Lw + 10 log10 10 log10 30 (B.26)

W0 1m 1 veh/h 1km/h

The cross-reference between Lw/m/veh and the LAmax of the vehicle is established by using equations B.13

and B.27. This gives:

4

i.e. corresponding to a ow rate of one vehicle/hour

5

The formulae are simplied here by not introducing unit magnitudes

Appendix B. Form 93

B.10 - Sound pressure level created by a section

Where the sound power is constant over a length of section, the quadratic pressure created by this element

of length is [Hamet2007]:

0 c0 1

p2L = W/m (B.30)

2 d

the related sound pressure level is

LeqL = LW/m + 10 log10 10 log10 d (B.31)

2

Very far away (L/d 1 ) and without the need for a constant acoustic power, the following can be written

0 c0

p2L = W L (B.32)

2r2 /m

and

where W/m is the average of W/m over the length L and r is the distance from the middle of the section to

the observation point.

C - Daily traffic profiles on intercity roads and motorways

C.1 - Introduction

Road noise studies must assess sound levels in specic periods of the day (day, night, evening, etc.). To

achieve this, the acoustic design oce needs hypotheses on light vehicle and heavy goods vehicle ow rates

in each of these periods.

This note presents a method and formulae for intercity roads and motorways to estimate these ow rates

from existing or projected daily ow rates in the infrastructure. It cancels and replaces information note no.

70 (September 2002).

the impact study for a road project and checking for compliance with regulatory requirements (Decree

95-22 of 9 January 1995 decret9522, Order of 5 May 1995 [2]);

the resorption of an excessive sound exposure situation, such as, for the national road network, the

noise black spots (Circular of 25 May 2004 on the noise from land transport infrastructures [3]);

the assessment of eects of a road project on the pre-existing network, especially the monetisation of

the variation in sound nuisances (DR instruction of 20 October 1998, currently being revised [4]);

the sound classication of an infrastructure (Decree 95-21 of 9 January 1995 [5], Order of 30 May 1996

[6]);

the creation of diagnostics at macroscopic scale, such as strategic noise maps dened by the Euro-

pean directive of 25 June 2002, transposed into French law by articles L. 572-1 to L. 572-11 of the

Environmental Code, the Decree of 24 March 2006 [7] and the Order of 4 April 2006 [8].

These approaches are based on assessing the equivalent sound level LAeq over miscellaneous periods:

06:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 for regulations relating to road projects, the monetisation of sound nui-

sances and the sound classication of infrastructures;

06:00-18:00, 18:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 for the strategic noise maps (these three periods being aggre-

gated in a global indicator LDEN );

the four periods for the approach to resorption noise black spots.

C.3 - Issue

On an intercity road, depending on the driving speeds and trac conditions, a heavy goods vehicle (HGV)

emits as much noise as four to ten light vehicles (LV). The design oce therefore needs separate trac

hypotheses for the LV and HGV and for each interested period to carry out an acoustic study. The acoustician

cannot produce a reliable study from just the trac hypotheses expressed in the annual average daily trac

(AADT) for all vehicles or units of specic vehicles (u.v.p.).

The sound contribution of the stream of vehicles, for a given category, is based on the decimal logarithm

of the ow rate: this is the famous rule whereby twice the trac causes the noise to increase by 3 dB(A).

A relative error in the tracs therefore corresponds to an absolute error in the sound levels. Returning to

the previous example, an error twice as high in the trac estimations induces an error of 3 dB(A) in the

estimation of sound levels. The risk of error in the sound levels is therefore at its highest for the periods

when the trac is at the lowest absolute value, especially at night.

The daily trac prole varies tremendously according to the category of vehicles and the category of infras-

tructure. Figure C.1 represents the average share of trac in each hourly time slot in the daily trac for

LV and HGV separately, based on the sample of sites on national roads (RN).

% AADT

LV HGV

Time slot

Figure C.1: Average daily proles of LV and HGV trac on national roads per hourly time slot.

Only LV peak in the late afternoon, ending at 7 p.m. The HGV trac is more regular throughout the day

and decreases from 6 p.m. onwards. However, proportionally more HGV travel at night than LV. The trac

survey thus carried out on the national intercity network in 1996-97 [12] showed that on average:

on the national roads, 7% of LV and 14% of HGV travel at night (between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.). The

HGV share in the total trac is twice as high at night (22%) than from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. (11%);

this trend is even more pronounced on the motorways: 9% of LV and 18% of HGV travel at night.

The proportion of HGV in the total trac, equal to 14% from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m., increases to 25% at

night.

In addition, there are major disparities around these averages between the routes of the same administrative

category. The proportion of HGV in the motorway network at night varies from 8% to more than 40%

according to the sites. On national roads, for around the same AADT, the nocturnal HGV ow rate on one

site can be trebled on another.

Knowledge of LV and HGV daily trac (24 hours) and the road category alone is therefore not enough to

estimate the nocturnal sound levels correctly. This variability can be reduced by analysing the road function.

It seems that the nocturnal trac is linked to the amount of trac in transit: a road mainly fullling a long-

distance transit function (inter-regional and even international journeys) can expect proportionally more

night trac than a road used for short journeys (commuting, neighbourhood deliveries, etc.).

Thus, an acoustic study misreading the particular operation of an infrastructure during the night risks

under-estimating substantially the noise levels and thus committing a very prejudicial error.

C.4 - Approach to be adopted to determine flow rates per period

Vehicle ow rates for each period can be determined by counting or by applying estimation formulae.

Counting operations to assess the daily distribution of LV and HGV trac are only physically possible when

studying an existing infrastructure. This approach can also be very cumbersome in some situations and

disproportionately costly in relation to the study issues, especially when studying an extensive network.

Counting is not therefore a systematic solution.

For this reason trac estimation formulae for the dierent periods have been established from statistical

analyses; they are presented in chapter 4 of this guide. These formulae are based on average values obtained

for each sub-sample in sites exploited.

The approach to be applied to assess the LV and HGV trac in the dierent periods will therefore be

chosen based on the context of the study. Regardless of the approach adopted, it is recommended to seek

systematically the advice of a trac survey specialist for its implementation.

Counting per period, and the subsequent use of the results, is generally only recommended when required by

a detailed study, i.e. focusing on a set route or localised area. Remember that these counts must distinguish

between LV and HGV. Attention is also drawn to the fact that the trac proles (especially evening and

night) tend to vary depending on the days of the week. It is therefore essential to involve a road survey

specialist in the denition of counting methods, to ensure sucient representativeness in relation to the

annual average.

These counts can then be used not just to assess the current situation, but also to assess a future situation,

if the study concerns an on-the-spot development (widening, acoustic protection project, etc.) or a short

deviation, provided that the provisional trac survey has not revealed any change in the road function. To

assess a future situation, the daily distribution noted for each vehicle category is then applied to the AADT

of the prediction horizon.

When the study involves predicting the noise of a new road, or an existing road with changed function, the

analysis must distinguish between and deal separately with:

1. rstly, the trac linked to local establishments (large industrial estate, major shopping centre, etc.)

likely to generate a substantial share of the trac (especially heavy goods vehicles) predicted for the

itinerary. The provisional trac survey must include an analysis of the operation of these generators

according to the various periods;

2. secondly, the trac with "diuse" or distant origins and destinations linked to the general operation of

an urban area or itinerary: its breakdown between the various periods can be estimated using formulae

presented in Section C.5.

It is also recommended to use formulae for the macroscopic studies covering an extended network, where the

issue at stake does not normally justify specic counts except in a few clearly-identied routes.

The formulae are used to estimate the ow rates in the various periods starting from knowledge of the AADT

for LV and HGV and a general understanding of the trac structure. The procedure involves:

2. checking that the AADT for LV and HGV gure in the eld of application of estimation formulae (see

Section C.5.3),

3. calculating the estimated ow rates for each period in the day (see Section C.5.4).

These formulae have been established by a CETE Est study described in Section C.5.6

C.5.2 - Defining infrastructure categories

A road or motorway is considered as having a dominant long distance function in terms of heavy good vehicles

if it features national or international links and large tonnage vehicles. A high proportion of journeys are

made at night.

The infrastructures forming a link or maintaining the continuity of an international itinerary normally fall

into this category.

A road or motorway is considered as having a dominant regional function in terms of heavy good vehicles if

it features short, repetitive journeys and small and medium tonnage vehicles. A low proportion of journeys

are made at night. Roads parallel to the motorways normally fall into this category (with a few notable

exceptions: the RN9 between Narbonne and Perpignan, the RN6 in the Yonne, Cte d'Or and Sane et

Loire and the RN77 between Troyes and Chlons-en-Champagne).

Warning

The fact that a road endures a high proportion of HGV trac does not systematically imply

that it has a dominant long distance function: there are roads with a regional function with a

considerable share of HGV trac in the AADT and roads with a long-distance function where this

share is lower. It is the type of heavy goods vehicles, not the volume or proportion in the total

trac, which determines the function of the road and the related daily proles.

Determining the most suitable function for the infrastructure studied must involve a trac survey specialist.

Samples of sites forming the sample used in the CETE Est study attached to this note can also be used to

understand better the function of a route studied, through similarities with existing and familiar itineraries.

The formulae presented in Section C.5.4 only apply to infrastructures outside urban areas. Table C.1 gives

the bounds of the trac domain for which the formulae are considered valid. The three conditions (all-vehicle

AADT, HGV AADT and HGV share in the AADT) must be met.

(veh./d) (HGV/d) AADT

Long distance

7000 to 70000 1300 to 13500 16 to 30 %

Link motorways function

Regional

7000 to 93000 500 to 14000 6 to 34 %

function

Long distance

2500 to 22500 300 to 5000 8 to 34 %

Intercity roads function

Regional

2500 to 22000 250 to 2500 5 to 17 %

function

C.5.4 - Formulae

The database used for the sound predictions is the average hourly ow rate for the period in question.

Table C.2 and Table C.3 present separately for the LV and HGV the relationship between this hourly ow

rate and the AADT for the category of vehicle in question. These formulae only apply to the scope of

application specied in Section C.5.3.

Comments:

The divider coecients are given to the nearest unit. It would however be an illusion to make them

this accurate for the nocturnal period. The reliability of formulae in the sample of sites in the study

is presented in Section C.5.5.

Average hourly LV ow rate in the period in question

06:00-22:00 06:00-18:00 18:00-22:00 22:00-06:00

Long

Link distance AADT LV / 18 AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 19 AADT LV / 82

motorways function

Regional

AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 18 AADT LV / 100

function

Long

Intercity distance AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 19 AADT LV / 110

roads function

Regional

AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 17 AADT LV / 19 AADT LV / 120

function

Table C.2: Formulae for estimating average hourly ow rates for the LV.

06:00-22:00 06:00-18:00 18:00-22:00 22:00-06:00

Long

Link distance AADT HGV / 20 AADT HGV / 20 AADT HGV / 20 AADT HGV / 39

motorways function

Regional

AADT HGV / 19 AADT HGV / 17 AADT HGV / 28 AADT HGV / 50

function

Long

Intercity distance AADT HGV / 19 AADT HGV / 17 AADT HGV / 27 AADT HGV / 51

roads function

Regional

AADT HGV / 18 AADT HGV / 16 AADT HGV / 34 AADT HGV / 73

function

Table C.3: Formulae for estimating average hourly ow rates for the HGV.

As they are rounded, any reconstitution of the 24-hour trac using hourly values estimated using these

formulae will not match exactly the AADT used initially. Where perfect consistency must be displayed

between the hypotheses of ow rates adopted for each period and the AADT, it is advisable to use

the formulae for the evening and night periods only and to deduce the average hourly ow rates for

the daytime periods (twelve hours or sixteen hours) through complementarity with the AADT. This

alternative procedure has no signicant eect on assessing sound levels.

The study only covered the national road network. It is however accepted that the "Intercity roads -

regional function" formulae are also applicable to district roads and municipality roads and streets when the

anticipated trac is included in the scope of application dened in Section C.5.3.

The acoustic error committed in each site of the sample by applying estimation formulae was assessed under

the hypothesis that an HGV "is the equivalent acoustically" to 4.5 LV on a motorway and seven LV on a

road (these values come from work in progress to update sound emission values of vehicles used for the road

noise prediction). These error calculations were carried out for each period and for the LDEN resulting from

combining three periods 06:00-18:00, 18:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00.

For each category of infrastructure and each period, the distribution of errors has a relatively Gaussian

appearance. In these conditions, the 95% condence interval associated with the estimation has for half-

width twice the standard deviation in the distribution of errors. Table C.4 presents this interval for each

infrastructure category and each period.

Long

Link distance 0.2 0.3 0.4 1.3 0.6

motorways function

Regional

0.3 0.5 0.6 2.1 0.9

function

Long

Intercity distance 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.7 0.9

roads function

Regional

0.1 0.3 0.6 1.4 0.6

function

Table C.4: 95% condence interval associated with the estimation of tracs per period, in dB(A).

The 95% condence interval is very narrow for the 06:00-22:00 period: the estimation is very reliable.

Conversely, the interval associated with the 22:00-06:00 period illustrates the extensive dispersion of trac

proles in the nocturnal period, even when separating out the two functions. For the other periods, the

condence intervals have intermediate widths.

A previous note [9] had used the data from the 1996-97 trac survey, culminating in the publication in Stra

information note 70 [10] of formulae relating to the 06:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 periods for "long distance"

and "regional" function infrastructures. The formulae above come from a new study by CETE Est [11]

covering 37 stations on motorways and 249 stations on national roads, based on hourly counts of the same

database to meet two additional objectives:

the search for a criterion characterising a "Road near an urban area" category, aiming to account for

the inuence of pendular movements of residents in the fringe of a few dozen kilometres around a major

urban area.

100 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

For this search, the CETE Est studied the advantage of site segmentation based on miscellaneous criteria

assumed characteristic of pendular movements, such as the pre-eminence of rush hours. It concluded that

unlike other expectations, segmentation of this type would not improve signicantly the accuracy of esti-

mation formulae associated with each period. The identical denition of infrastructure categories given in

information note no. 70 has therefore been repeated.

As previously, the statistical analysis deduced:

formulae used to estimate the LV and HGV ow rates for each period, from the knowledge of their

average daily ow rates and the category of road,

Given the stricter criteria applied to the data used, the sample of sites used in this study diers slightly from

the one used in the previous study. This only induces minor dierences for the divider coecients, however.

These coecients are identical for the 06:00-22:00 period. For the night period, they only change for the

LV on a motorway and the HGV on a road; the new divider coecients are slightly higher than previously,

which results for a given AADT in an estimation 4% to 9% lower for the nocturnal trac of the vehicle

category and an estimation 0.2 to 0.4 dB(A) lower for its sound contribution. Given that this variation only

involves one of two vehicle categories for each road function, its eect on the overall noise is very limited.

The overall accuracy of formulae in the 06:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 periods does not change signicantly

compared with the previous formulae.

C.6 - Bibliography

[1] Decree 95-22 of 9 January 1995 on the limitation of the noise from land transport developments and

infrastructures (FROJ of 10/01/95).

[2] Order of 5 May 1995 on the noise from road infrastructures (FROJ of 10/05/95)

[3] Circular DR-DTT-DPPR-DIV of 25 May 2004 on the noise from land transport infrastructures.

[4] Circular DR no. 98-99 of 20 October 1998 and Instruction relating to economic assessment methods of

road investments in open country (Special BO booklet no. 98-7)

[5] Decree 95-21 of 9 January 1995 relating to the classication of land transport infrastructures and modi-

fying the Town Planning Code and the Construction and Housing Code (FROF of 10/01/95)

[6] Order of 30 May 1996 relating to the classication methods for land transport infrastructures and the

soundproong of dwelling buildings in the sectors aected by noise (FROJ of 28/06/96)

[7] Decree 2006-361 of 24 March 2006 on the establishment of noise maps and environmental noise prevention

plans and modifying the Town Planning Code (FROJ of 26/03/06)

[8] Order of 4 April 2006 on establishing noise maps and environmental noise prevention plans (FROJ of

05/04/06)

[9] Trac and acoustic studies on motorways and national roads - Update of the 97 study (use of 90 survey

data) based on 96 census and survey data. Study report. CETE Est, April 2002, 93 p.

[10] Road noise prediction calculation: trac parameters on intercity roads and motorways. Economics,

Environment and Design Information Note no. 77, Stra, September 2002, 8 p.

[11] Trac and acoustic studies on motorways and national roads - Widening of the 2002 study. Study

report. CETE Est, December 2006.

[12] Trac structure in the national road network - Analysis and changes. Themed le. Stra, 1999, 30 p.

C.7 - Appendix: Examples of sections classified per function

Warning

This appendix is a rough guide to sites covered by the 1996-97 trac survey and used during

the study, classied according to the function of the infrastructure. This classication is therefore

linked to the state of the network at that time. It may have changed since then, given the opening

up of new itineraries, for example.

C.7.1 - Motorways

In the CETE Est study, the criterion used to dene the motorways with a long-distance function was: "the

proportion of heavy goods vehicles with four axles or more in the total average daily heavy goods vehicle

trac is greater than or equal to 75%".

As a rough guide, the following itineraries can be mentioned:

Motorways with long distance function (outside Motorways with regional function (outside urban

urban areas) areas)

A6 in its entirety

A5 between Troyes and Langres

A16 in the Nord

A7 in its entirety

A28 between the A29 and Rouen

A9 in its entirety

A38 in the Cte-d'Or

A10 between Blois and Poitiers

A42 in its entirety

A26 in the Aube

A68 between Toulouse and Albiw

A31 from Nancy to Dijon

A75 in its entirety

A36 in its entirety

A203 in the Ardennes

A63 in its entirety

A71 in the Allier

In the CETE Est study, the criterion used to dene the national roads with a long-distance function was:

`the proportion of heavy goods vehicles with four axles or more in the total average daily heavy goods vehicle

trac is greater than or equal to 60 %'.

The following itineraries, given as a rough guide, are grouped per geographical area to make searching easier.

They are identied by their numbering when the survey was performed (1996-97), therefore independently

of recent transfers to the departments.

National roads with regional function

function

RN10 from Tours to Chtellerault

RN76 from Bourges to the RN7

RN76 from Bourges to Vierzon (A71)

Centre Region (Nivre)

RN152 between Tours and Orlans

RN20 from La Francilienne to Orlans

RN143 between Tours and

RN152 between Tours and Langeais

Chteauroux

RN60 from Orlans to Troyes

102 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

National roads with long distance

National roads with regional function

function

RN174 in the Calvados (between the

RN31 between Beauvais and Rouen

Normandy and A84 and the Vire)

RN12 between Dreux and Mayenne

West RN166 in the Morbihan (from Vannes

RN138 between Rouen and Alenon

to Plormel)

RN137 between Rennes and Saintes

RN15 from Yvetot to Rouen

RN151 from Poitiers to the A20 (Indre)

Cahors

RN10 between Poitiers and Bordeaux RN20 to the south of Toulouse

South West RN141 between Limoges and RN113 in the Lot-et-Garonne

Angoulme RN134 in the Landes

RN211 between Limoges and Prigueux RN124 in the Gers

RN21 between Prigueux (RN89) and

Tarbes

Massif Central RN145 from Bellac (Creuse) to RN88 from St Etienne to Albi

Auvergne Montluon RN120 from Uzerche (Corrze) to

RN7 in the Allier Aurillac

RN102 in the Haute-Loire

Bouches-du-Rhne and Var

Mediterranean RN568 from Fos-sur-Mer to the RN113

RN106 in the Gard

RN9 from Narbonne to Perpignan

RN86 in the Gard

RN112 from Bziers to Albi

RN84 at Nantua

Rhne-Alpes RN504 in the Ain and Savoie

RN71 from Troyes to Dijon

Burgundy RN6 in the Yonne, Cte d'Or and

RN85 from Vizille (Isre) to Gap

Sane-et-Loire

RN102 in the Ardche

Meurthe-et-Moselle and Moselle RN57 between Vesoul and Pontarlier

North-East RN44 between Reims and RN62 between Sarreguemines and

Franche-Comt Vitry-le-Franois Haguenau

RN77 between Troyes and RN74 in the Haute-Marne

Chlons-en-Champagne RN35 in the Meuse

RN67 between St-Dizier and Chaumont

boundary of the Oise

RN2 between La Capelle and Laon RN41 in the Nord and the

Nord-Picardie RN29 in the Somme Pas-de-Calais

RN31 between Beauvais and Reims RN43 between Douai and

RN25 in the Somme Charleville-Mzires

RN43 between Calais and Bthune

RN49 from Valenciennes to Maubeuge

D - Vehicle sound emission values

Lrolling depends on the speed (V ) and the surfacing category (R1, R2 or R3)

Lengine depends on the gradient (p), the trac ow type (stabilised, acceleration, deceleration) and

the speed (V )

Vmin =

5 km/h when accelerating and decelerating

130 km/h LV

Vmax =

100 km/h HGV

Note

the acceleration and deceleration formulae were produced from 5 km/h onwards. However, it was decided

subsequently to produce specic emission powers for the starting and stopping sections and to publish

formulae depending on V for V > 25 km/h only.

Surfacing

LV HGV

category

R1 73.3 + 31 log10 (V /90) 82.5 + 30 log10 (V /80)

R2 77.3 + 30.1 log10 (V /90) 85.6 + 30 log10 (V /80)

R3 79.8 + 31.4 log10 (V /90) 86.6 + 30 log10 (V /80)

Table D.1: Lrolling - Recent surfaces (V in km/h). LV sources: [h]; HGV sources: [b, m].

In Table D.1, for the HGV, the values at 80 km/h come from [b], the slope is imposed equal to 30 [m]

as described in Section 3.5 "Approach to producing rolling noise components".

Ageing eect from 2 to 10 years old: see Table D.2.

surfacing

LV HGV

category

R1 + 4 dB(A) + 2.4 dB(A)

R2 + 2 dB(A) + 1.2 dB(A)

R3 + 1.2 dB(A) + 1 dB(A)

104 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

V - km/h 20 to 30 30 to 110 110 to 130

Lengine 60,6 66.3 + 12.0 log10 (V /90) 64.6 + 31.3 log10 (V /90)

Table D.3: Lengine - LV steady speed, all gradients. Sources: horizontal road: [a, h]; upwards and downwards

gradients: [i].

Lengine 85.7 + 24.1 log10 (V /90) 70 68.2 + 38.6 log10 (V /90)

5 to

V - km/h 10 to 25 25 to 80 80 to 110 110 to 130

10

73.3 + 66 + 66.3 + 64.6 +

Lengine 55.5

18.7 log10 (V /90) 5.5 log10 (V /90) 12 log10 (V /90) 31.3 log10 (V /90)

General principle: see Table D.6.

Which gives Table D.7 with the previous formulae:

At the end of the day, the gradient does not therefore have an eect for the LV.

See Table D.8.

In Table D.8, L is a correction independent of the speed, depending on the trac ow type and the

gradient. Its values are given in Table D.9.

for the "simple combinations" in the 20-70 km/h domain, see Table D.10.

for the "simple combinations" in the 5-20 and 70-100 km/h domains: [f] for steady speed *

horizontal road in 70-100 km/h, [g] for the others;

for the trac ow type * gradient combinations: [g] modied by [j] (modication without eect

for the HGV).

upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%

max.(acceleration*horizontal

= acceleration*horizontal

acceleration road; steady

road

speed*upwards gradient)

max(deceleration*horizontal

= deceleration*horizontal road; steady

deceleration

road speed*downwards

gradient)

Table D.6: Lengine - LV (trac ow type, gradient) combinations - general principle. Source: [g] modied

by [j]

upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%

acceleration = acceleration*horizontal road

deceleration = deceleration*horizontal road

V - km/h 5 to 70 70 to 100

Lengine 73 + L 73.8 + 13 log10 (V /80) + L

Table D.8: Lengine - HGV all trac ow types, all gradients.

gradient

L

0% p 2% upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%

steady speed 0 dB(A) 2(p 2) 1(p 2)

acceleration 5 dB(A) max [2(p 2); 5] 5 dB(A)

deceleration 0 dB(A) 1(p 2)

gradient

L

0% p 2% upwards 2% p 6% downwards 2% p 6%

steady speed [b] [c]

acceleration [d]

---

deceleration [e]

106 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

D.2 - Formulae in Lw/m (1 veh/h)

Reminder:

LAmax (7.50m) = Lw 25.6 (D.2)

For a unit ow rate of 1 veh/h, the density of vehicles per metre of lane is 1/(1000V ), with V in km/h. The

power per metre of lane for 1 veh/h is therefore

i.e.

A = a 10 log10 (Vref ) 4.4

(D.6)

B = b 10

A = a + (b 10) log10 (Vref ) 4.4

(D.7)

B = b 10

surfacing

LV HGV

category

R1 49.4 + 21 log10 (V /90) 59.1 + 20 log10 (V /80)

R2 53.4 + 20.1 log10 (V /90) 62.1 + 20 log10 (V /80)

R3 55.9 + 21.4 log10 (V /90) 63.1 + 20 log10 (V /80)

The ageing eect is added to the previous values, which gives Table D.12.

Correction according to the age to be applied to the value at 10 years are shown in Table D.13.

surfacing

LV HGV

category

R1 53.4 + 21 log10 (V /90) 61.5 + 20 log10 (V /80)

R2 55.4 + 20.1 log10 (V /90) 63.3 + 20 log10 (V /80)

R3 57.5 + 21.4 log10 (V /90) 64.1 + 20 log10 (V /80)

LV HGV

Age of surface (a) 2 years 2 to 10 years 2 years 2 to 10 years

R1 -4 0.5(a 10) -2,4 0.3(a 10)

Surfacing

R2 -2 0.25(a 10) -1,2 0.15(a 10)

category

R3 -1.6 0.2(a 10) -1 0.12(a 10)

Table D.13: Rolling component - Correction according to the age to be applied to the value at 10 years.

Note

The acceleration and deceleration formulae are only published for V > 25 km/h. For lower speeds, see the

specic emission powers for the starting and stopping sections.

Lengine 36.7 10 log10 (V /90) 42.4 + 2.0 log10 (V /90) 40.7 + 21.3 log10 (V /90)

LV decelerating, all gradients: see Table D.16

HGV all trac ow types, all gradients: see Table D.17

In Table D.17, L is a correction independent of the speed, depending on the trac ow type and the

gradient. Its values are provided in Table D.18.

Note

For acceleration on an upwards gradient, writing 5 + max [2(p 4.5); 0] is preferred to max[2.(p-2); 5] to

improve display consistency with the starting section (see further on).

The values in Table D.19 apply to the rst twenty metres after or the last twenty metres before a stopping

point. There is no breakdown into engine and rolling noise components, the values below are expressed

directly in Lw/m (1 veh/h) and do not depend on the surface (negligible inuence at low speeds).

F. Besnard proposal: x a speed at extremity of 25 km/h for all cases.

For the LV, no eect of the gradient on the engine component (see above), therefore no eect here either.

For the HGV, the gradient has an eect on the engine component. If the rolling noise component is considered

to be negligible in these sections, the correction L seen above can be applied, which gives:

108 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

V - km/h 5 to 20 20 to 100 100 to 130

Lengine 61.8 + 14.1 log10 (V /90) 46.1 10 log10 (V /90) 44.3 + 28.6 log10 (V /90)

31.6 49.4 + 42.1 42.4 + 40.7 +

Lengine

10 log10 (V /90) 8.7 log10 (V /90) 4.5 log10 (V /90) 2 log10 (V /90) 21.3 log10 (V /90)

V - km/h 5 to 70 70 to 100

Lengine 49.6 10 log10 (V /80) + L 50.4 + 3 log10 (V /80) + L

Table D.17: Engine component - HGV all trac ow types, all gradients.

gradient

L

upwards 2% p downwards 2% p

0% p 2%

6% 6%

steady speed 0 dB(A) 2(p 2) 1(p 2)

acceleration 5 dB(A) max [2(p 2); 5] 5 dB(A)

deceleration 0 dB(A) 1(p 2)

LV HGV

V at extremity, Lw/m (1 veh/h) V at extremity, Lw/m (1 veh/h)

km/h dB(A) km/h dB(A)

starting 23,5 51,1 25 62,4

stopping 22,5 44,5 25 58,0

Table D.19: Starting and stopping sections valid only on horizontal road. Results from J.F. Hamet [1].

starting on an upwards gradient:

Lw/m (1 veh/h) = 62.4 + max [2(p 2); 5] 5 = 62.4 + max [2p 9; 0] (D.8)

D.2.5.2 - Summary:

LV all HGV

gradients horizontal road 0% upwards 2% p downwards 2% p

p 2% 6% 6%

62.4 +

starting 51.1 62.4 62.4

max [2(p 4.5); 0]

stopping 44.5 58.0 58.0 + (p 2)

Table D.20: Starting and stopping sections without ageing. p in % (absolute value).

The values of the table above have been established without taking the eect of ageing into account. Taking

ageing into account gives Table D.21.

LV all HGV

gradients horizontal road 0% upwards 2% p downwards 2% p

p 2% 6% 6%

62.5 +

starting 51.3 62.5 62.5

max [2(p 4.5); 0]

stopping 45.1 58.3 58.3 + (p 2)

110 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

D.3 - Transcription of formulae from the French "Guide du Bruit" [GdB1980]

E = Lw 10 log10 V 50 (D.10)

therefore

therefore

[b]; Report V. Steimer - "Sound emission nomograms: Summary of measurements on sliproad and

track", April 2001.

[c]:Report S. Doisy - "Sound emission nomograms - Road train supplement on sliproad and track",

June 2002.

[d]:Decision meeting November 2003 + Report S. Doisy "Road train acceleration/deceleration mea-

surements", September 2004

[e]:Decision meeting September 2004 + Report S. Doisy "Road train acceleration/deceleration mea-

surements", September 2004

[l]:Report J.F. Hamet - "The acoustically-homogeneous section", chap. 5 (being nalised in January

2007).

E - Graphic results

The graphs given in this chapter represent the changes in sound levels depending on the speed in the new

guide to calculating sound emissions from trac noise.

Each graph covers a vehicle category (LV or HGV) and a surfacing age segment (at most two years old or

at least ten years old).

The emission values obtained for the LV only depend on the trac ow type, not the gradient. Changes in

sound levels for all the gradients are represented therefore in each graph for the LV on recent surfaces (at

most two years old) then on surfaces at least ten years old (see Section E.2 and Section E.6).

The emission values obtained for the HGV depend on the trac ow type and the gradient. The following

are represented for the HGV on recent surfaces, at most two years old, then surfaces at least ten years old:

Changes in sound levels for the steady speed and all gradients (see Section E.3 and Section E.7);

Changes in sound levels for the acceleration and all gradients (see Section E.4 and Section E.8);

Changes in sound levels for the deceleration and all gradients (see Section E.5 and Section E.9).

The rst set of graphs covers the levels expressed in LAmax and the second those expressed in Lw/m/veh .

LV

0% + 6% - 6% HGV

Additional indications are given in the graphs to make it easier to identify curve families: a, s or d for

acceleration, steady speed or deceleration; +6%, 0% or -6% for 6% upwards gradient, horizontal road or 6%

downwards gradient.

112 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

E.2 - LAmax graphs - LV (Figures A)

90

LV

Steady speed / acceleration / deceleration

85 All gradients below 6% R3

Age 2 years

R2

80 R1

LAmax (dB(A))

75

70 a

Lm_acc

d

65 d Lm_dec

s

s

s Lm_stab

60

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

90

LV

Steady speed / acceleration / deceleration R3

85 All gradients below 6%

Age 10 years R2

R1

80

LAmax (dB(A))

75

a

70 Lm_acc

d d

65 Lm_dec

s

s

s

Lm_stab

60

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

E.3 - LAmax graphs - HGV, steady speed (Figures B)

95

HGV

Steady speed

90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R3

Age 2 years R2

R1

85

LAmax (dB(A))

+ 6% Lm, g=+6%

80

- 6% Lm, g=-6%

75

0% Lm, g=0%

70

65

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

95

HGV

Steady speed R3

90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R2

Age 10 years R1

85

LAmax (dB(A))

+ 6% Lm, g=+6%

80

- 6% Lm, g=-6%

75 0%

Lm, g=0%

70

65

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

114 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

E.4 - LAmax graphs - HGV, acceleration (Figures C)

95

HGV

Acceleration

90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R3

Age 2 years R2

R1

85

LAmax (dB(A))

Lm, g=+6%

+ 6%

80

0%

& - 6% Lm, g=0% & g=-6%

75

70

65

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

95

HGV

Acceleration R3

90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R2

Age 10 years R1

85

LAmax (dB(A))

Lm, g=+6%

+ 6%

80

0%

& - 6% Lm, g=0% & g=-6%

75

70

65

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

E.5 - LAmax graphs - HGV, deceleration (Figures D)

95

HGV

Deceleration

90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R3

Age 2 years R2

R1

85

LAmax (dB(A))

80

- 6% Lm, g=-6%

75 0%

& + 6%

Lm, g=0% & g=+6%

70

65

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

95

HGV

Deceleration R3

90 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6% R2

Age 10 years

R1

85

LAmax (dB(A))

80

- 6% Lm, g=-6%

0%

75 & + 6%

Lm, g=0% & g=+6%

70

65

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

116 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

E.6 - Lw/m/veh graphs - LV (Figures A)

65

LV

Steady speed / acceleration / deceleration

60 All gradients below 6% R3

Age 2 years

R2

Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

55

R1

a

50

d

s d Lm_acc

45 s

s Lm_dec

Lm_stab

40

35

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

65

LV

Steady speed / acceleration / deceleration

All gradients below 6%

R3

60

Age 10 years R2

R1

Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

55

a

50

d

s d

s Lm_acc

45 s

Lm_dec

Lm_stab

40

35

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

E.7 - Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, steady speed (Figures B)

75

HGV

Steady speed

70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%

Age 2 years

R3

Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

65 R2

+ 6%

R1

60 - 6%

Lm, g=+6%

0%

55

Lm, g=-6%

50 Lm, g=0%

45

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

75

HGV

Steady speed

70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%

Age 10 years

R3

Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

65 R2

+ 6%

R1

60 - 6%

Lm, g=+6%

0%

55

Lm, g=-6%

50 Lm, g=0%

45

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

118 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

E.8 - Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, acceleration (Figures C)

75

HGV

Acceleration

70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%

Age 2 years

R3

Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

65 R2

+ 6% R1

0%

60 & - 6%

Lm, g=+6%

50

45

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

75

HGV

Acceleration

70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%

Age 10 years

R3

R2

Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

65

R1

+ 6%

0%

60 & - 6%

Lm, g=+6%

50

45

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

E.9 - Lw/m/veh graphs - HGV, deceleration (Figures D)

75

75

HGV

Deceleration

70

70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%

Age 210years

years

R3

R3

(dB(A))

65

65 R2

LAmax (dB(A))

R2

R1

R1

60

60

Lw/m/veh

-- 6%

6%

0%

0%

&& ++ 6%

6%

55

55

Lm, g=-6%

Lm, g=-6%

50

50 Lm,

Lm, g=0%

g=0% && g=+6%

g=+6%

45

45

20

20 30

30 50

50 70

70 90

90 110

110 130

130

V

V (km/h)

(km/h)

75

HGV

Deceleration

70 Gradients g=0, +6%, -6%

Age 10 years

R3

Lw/m/veh (dB(A))

65 R2

R1

60 - 6%

0%

& + 6%

55

Lm, g=-6%

45

20 30 50 70 90 110 130

V (km/h)

120 Road noise prediction 1: Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

Page laisse blanche intentionnellement

Stra

Stra

juin 2009

translate september 2011

Service d'tudes

sur les transports,

les routes et leurs

amnagements

1 - Calculating sound emissions from road traffic

The previous guide to predicting noise emissions from road traffic dates back to 1980. The

numbers of cars, the road surfaces and the methods of assessing sound emissions have all

changed. It was therefore essential to produce a new guide to calculating emissions. This is

the purpose of this document.

The sound level calculation thus obtained is necessary for the subsequent prediction of far

away sound levels by taking account of the effects of the ground and of meteorology on the

propagation. This is the purpose of another guide entitled Road noise prediction - NMPB 2008

- Noise propagation computation method including meteorological effects.

The tools thus obtained are ideal for road project impact studies, checking compliance with

regulations or an acoustic objective set by the road authority and road design of acoustic

protections.

characteristic traffic magnitudes, presentation of work hypotheses, etc.), the guide studies the

two components of emitted noise. The emission is in fact broken down into two components:

one component due to the so-called driving noise caused by the contact between tyre and

roadway, and an engine component.

The guide breaks new ground by taking into account the surfacing category and its age when

calculating the driving noise.

The first part of the guide describes the method (approach and formulae). The second part

presents the related issues, the bases for formulae or values used and their limitations and

compares the two guides (the 1980 guide and the 2008 guide).

Service d'tudes

sur les transports,

Prvision du bruit routier

les routes et leurs

amnagements

46 avenue Aristide Briand

BP 100 - 92225 Bagneux

Cedex - France

tl : 33 (0)1 46 11 31 31

fax : 33 (0)1 46 11 31 69

tific andtechnical networkof

the French PublicWork Ministry au Rseau Scientifique

This document is awailable and can be downloaded (RST) et Technique du Meeddat

on Stra website: http://www.setra.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/

Couverture - crdit photos : Cete de Lyon/Lebert ; Cete de lEst/Dutilleux ; DREIF/Gorby

Conception graphique de la couverture : Philippe Masingarbe (Stra)

This document may not be reproduced even partially without Stras prior consent.

Rfrence 0924-1A - 20011 Stra - ISRN No. : EQ-SETRA--11-ED13--FR+ENG

www.setra.developpement-durable.gouv.fr