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DOI: 10.1007/s12303-017-0036-2

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Article
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12303-017-0036-2
pISSN 1226-4806 eISSN 1598-7477 Geosciences Journal

Petrogenesis of the late Mesozoic highly fractionated


I-type granites in the Luanchuan district: implications
for the tectono-magmatic evolution of eastern Qinling
Yunhui Zhang1, Huawen Cao2*, Mo Xu1, Shouting Zhang3, Li Tang3, Shiyan Wang3, Qiuming Pei3,
Guojun Cai1, and Tong Shen1
1
State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan
610059, China
2
Chengdu Center, China Geological Survey, Chengdu, Sichuan 610081, China
3
School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China

ABSTRACT: Late Mesozoic granites are extensively distributed in the Luanchuan district of eastern Qinling and can be divided
into two types: Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous granites (ore-related plutons) and Late Cretaceous granites (Laojunshan batholith).
This study presents new geochemical and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data from the Shibaogou and Yuku plutons to provide robust
constraints on the petrogenesis and tectonic significance of the late Mesozoic granites in the Luanchuan district. Zircon U-Pb dat-
ing results yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 149.1 0.8 Ma and 150.5 0.8 Ma, which were interpreted as the crystallization ages
of the Shibaogou and Yuku plutons, respectively. We propose that the late Mesozoic granites contain high concentrations of SiO2
and alkali elements (Na2O + K2O) and feature metaluminous to weakly peraluminous characteristics. Enrichment in light rare earth
elements and large ion lithophile elements and depletion in high field strength elements are observed. Mineralogical and geo-
chemical evidence reveal that the late Mesozoic granites are highly fractionated I-type granites with fractional crystallization of
feldspar, plagioclase and accessory minerals (e.g., apatite and titanite or magnetite). Based on the Hf composition, we suggest that
the parental magmas of the ore-related plutons were derived from remelting of the Taihua and Xionger groups with minor contributions of
mantle-derived materials and that the Laojunshan batholith was generated by the hybridization of ancient crust- (Kuanping group)
and mantle-derived components. Collectively, the above arguments indicates a tectonic transition from compression to post-col-
lisional extension during the late Mesozoic, that was likely triggered by the continental collision of the North China Block and the
Yangtze Block, which generated numerous contemporaneous granites and Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au poly-metallic deposits.
Key words: geochemistry, petrogenesis, tectono-magmatic evolution, Luanchuan district, eastern Qinling

Manuscript received August 9, 2016; Manuscript accepted June 9, 2017

1. INTRODUCTION arc systems, etc. (Li et al., 2001, 2013; Dong et al., 2011, 2016;
Wu and Zheng, 2013; Liu et al., 2016; Tang et al., 2016) (Fig. 1a).
The Qinling Orogenic Belt (QOB), which tectonically lies The eastwest-trending,1500-km-long QOB is predominantly
between the North China Block (NCB) to the north and the Yangtze divided into the southern margin of the NCB, the North Qinling
Block (YZB) to the south, experienced long-term evolution Belt (NQB), the South Qinling Belt (SQB) and the northern
involving multiple periods of subduction and the collision and margin of the YZB, which are separated by the Luanchuan Fault
accretion of paleo-oceans, paleo-continents, microcontinents, and Shangdan and Mianlue Sutures from north to south,
respectively (Meng and Zhang, 2000; Dong and Santosh, 2016)
(Fig. 1b). Numerous granitoids that formed during four periods,
*Corresponding author: the Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic and early and late Mesozoic
Huawen Cao
Chengdu Center, China Geological Survey, Chengdu, Sichuan 610081,
periods, are extensively exposed along the QOB (Wang et al., 2013a,
China 2013b, 2015). Among these granitoids, Mesozoic granitoids are
Tel: +86-28-83226700, E-mail: caohuawen1988@126.com remarkably widespread, representing intense Mesozoic magmatic
The Association of Korean Geoscience Societies and Springer 2017 activity in the QOB. Moreover, during the Mesozoic, Mo-W-
2 Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Mo Xu, Shouting Zhang, Li Tang, Shiyan Wang, Qiuming Pei, Guojun Cai, and Tong Shen

Pb-Zn-Ag-Au poly-metallic deposits that are suggested to be 2. GEOLOGICAL SETTINGS


closely related to contemporaneous magmatism developed
throughout the QOB (Mao et al., 2008, 2011; Zhu et al., 2010; The Luanchuan district is located in eastern Qinling and is
Chen et al., 2013; Chen and Santosh, 2014; Gao et al., 2015; the junction of the NCB to the north and the NQB to the south.
Deng et al., 2016). The NCB and NQB are separated by the WNW-striking
The Luanchuan district, located in eastern Qinling, is a Luanchuan Fault (Fig. 1b). The Sanbao Fault and Shangdan
famous Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag producing area and consists of three Suture are suggested to serve as the northern boundary of the
super-large Mo deposits (i.e., Nannihu, Sandaozhuang and southern margin of the NCB and as the southern boundary of
Shangfanggou) and a series of large to medium Mo-W-Pb-Zn- the NQB, respectively (Dong et al., 2016) (Fig. 1b).
Ag deposits (e.g., Dongyuku, Chitudian, Jiudinggou, etc.) An obvious vertically two-layered structure involving crystalline
(Wang et al., 2008; Duan et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2012b, 2013b, basement and overlying strata is present in the Luanchuan
2016; Zhang et al., 2015) (Fig. 1c). Previous geochronological, district on the southern margin of the NCB. The crystalline
geochemical and isotopic studies indicated that the Mo-W-Pb- basement, termed the Archean Taihua group, was metamorphosed
Zn-Ag deposits are temporally and spatially associated with the under amphibolite- to granulite-facies conditions and is composed
late Mesozoic granites in the Luanchuan district (Yang et al., of tholeiite and tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite suites
2012a; Deng et al., 2013, 2014; Bao et al., 2014; Cao et al., 2015; (Huang et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2013). Due to intensive tectonic
Li et al., 2015). Two stages of the late Mesozoic magmatic activities, the stratigraphic sequences of the cover rocks overlying
activities are classified as follows: Stage 1, Late Jurassic to Early the Archean Taihua group are relatively incomplete and merely
Cretaceous (160130 Ma); and Stage 2, Late Cretaceous (115 include the Mesoproterozoic Xionger and Guandaokou group,
100 Ma). Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization is closely related to Neoproterozoic Luanchuan group and lower Paleozoic Taowan
the former stage. Furthermore, the Luanchuan district is group in upward succession (Fig. 1c). The strata overlying the
further divided into three parts: the Nannihu, Yuku and lower Paleozoic Taowan group are absent. The Mesoproterozoic
Daping ore fields (Cao et al., 2015) (Fig. 1c). Xionger group is dominated by mafic to felsic extrusive rocks
The Nannihu ore field has been studied in detail for decades (e.g., andesitic basalt and rhyolite) with minor sedimentary rocks
(Li et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2008), whereas the Daping ore field (Peng et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2009), whereas the Mesoproterozoic
is an immature area with potential for prospecting where only a Guandaokou and Neoproterozoic Luanchuan groups chiefly
Mo-W deposit and few geochemical anomalies have been include a series of marine sedimentary rocks consisting of
found so far (Zhang et al., 2015). It is noteworthy that the Yuku carbonate and clastic rocks with minor volcanic rocks (Cao et
ore field is currently the most important prospecting area in the al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015). The lower Paleozoic Taowan group
Luanchuan district and consists of the Dongyuku and Dawanggou is composed of terrigenous clastic and carbonate rocks (Cao et
Mo deposits and some Pb-Zn deposits (e.g., Zhongyuku and al., 2016a). In contrast, the strata exposed in the Luanchuan
Yindonggou) (Cao et al., 2015) (Fig. 1c). The Yuku and Shibaogou district of the NQB are characterized by marble and mafic
plutons, exposed in the Yuku ore field, are spatially associated volcanic rocks and are known as the Mesoproterozoic Kuanping
with these deposits and are suggested to be metallogenic plutons. group (Zhu et al., 2011; Cao et al., 2016b) (Fig. 1c).
However, geochronological and geochemical data from the Latticed faults are well developed in the Luanchuan district
Yuku and Shibaogou plutons remain unclear. Furthermore, the and include regional WNW-striking faults (Luanchuan fault,
differences between the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ore- Miaozi fault, etc.) and subordinate NE-striking brittle faults
related granites and the Late Cretaceous barren granites in the (Fig. 1c). The intersections between the WNW-striking and
Luanchuan district have been poorly discussed, and the detailed NE-striking faults are favourable locations for the formation of
Mesozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of the Luanchuan district the granites and deposits. Moreover, due to the multiple periods
in eastern Qinling has yet to be well constrained. of the northward subduction of the YZB, a north-dipping thrust
Systematic field- and microscope-based observations and a system that accompanies the consecutive successive anticlines
combined whole-rock geochemical and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic and synclines is present in the Luanchuan district, (Dong et al.,
study of the Yuku and Shibaogou plutons were conducted to 2016).
better understand the nature of the source and the petrogenesis The late Mesozoic granites, distributed in the Luanchuan
of the late Mesozoic two-stage granites in the Luanchuan district, can be divided into Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous
district. This work provides comprehensive insights into the (160130 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (115100 Ma) granites
tectono-magmatic evolution of the Luanchuan district in according to recent zircon U-Pb dating results (Bao et al., 2014;
eastern Qinling. Li et al., 2015). The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous granites,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12303-017-0036-2 http://www.springer.com/journal/12303
Mesozoic highly fractionated I-type granites, eastern Qinling 3

Fig. 1. Tectonic map of China, marking the location of the Central China orogenic belt (a); the schematically tectonic map of the Qinling Oro-
gen, showing the location of the Luanchuan district (b); the geological and metallogenic map of the Luanchuan district, presenting the spa-
tial distributions of the granites and Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag poly-metallic deposits (c). Modified by Mao et al. (2011), Cao et al. (2015), Li et al. (2015).
The names of the deposits in (c) are as follows: BLG, Bailugou; BSD, Baishadong; DWG, Dawanggou; DYK, Dongyuku; HDG, Hongdonggou;
HTC, Hetaocha; JDG, Jiudinggou; LSBG, Lengshuibeigou; LTS, Luotuoshan; NNH, Nannihu; SDG, Sandaogou; SDZ, Sandaozhuang; SFG, Shang-
fanggou; XG, Xigou; YDG, Yindonggou; YHG, Yinhegou; YSA, Yangshuao; ZYK, Zhongyuku. The names of the granites are as follows: NNH,
Nannihu; SFG, Shangfanggou; DP, Daping; HBL, Huangbeiling; SBG, Shibaogou; YK, Yuku; LJS, Laojunshan.

which are characterized as small elliptical plutons (e.g., Nannihu, the middle and northern regions of the Luanchuan district and
Shangfang, Shibaogou, Yuku, Daping, etc.), are commonly located in intruded into the Mesoproterozoic Guandaokou group and

http://www.springer.com/journal/12303 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12303-017-0036-2
4 Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Mo Xu, Shouting Zhang, Li Tang, Shiyan Wang, Qiuming Pei, Guojun Cai, and Tong Shen

Neoproterozoic Luanchuan group (Fig. 1c). The Late Cretaceous strictly controlled by the intersections of the latticed faults (Fig.
(115100 Ma) granite, termed the Laojunshan batholith, which 1c). Cao et al. (2015) reported that the Mo-W deposits mainly
has an exposed area of 400 km2, is present in the southern part formed during 150140 Ma and that the Pb-Zn-Ag deposits
of the Luanchuan district and intruded into the Mesoproterozoic subsequently developed at ca. 137 Ma during the Late Jurassic to
Kuanping group (Fig. 1c). The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Early Cretaceous period.
granites contain slight mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs)
(e.g., Shibaogou pluton) (Fig. 2a). However, abundant MMEs 3. SAMPLES AND ANALYTICAL METHODS
and associated mafic dykes are widespread in the Laojunshan
batholith (Han et al., 2014). Potassic alteration, quartzification, 3.1. Samples
sericitization, chloritization, epidotization, and other forms of
alteration are present in the granites from the Luanchuan Eleven representative samples were collected from the fresh
district. Moreover, the WNW-striking dykes of the Proterozoic outcrops of the Shibaogou and Yuku plutons. The two samples
metagabbro and syenite porphyry are distributed in the Luanchuan used for zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic analysis (SBG-0 and YK-0)
district, indicating a Proterozoic extensional environment in the were larger than 5 kg, and the other samples used for whole-
Luanchuan district (Wang et al., 2011) (Fig. 1c). rock geochemistry analysis were larger than 2 kg.
Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag poly-metallic mineralization was mainly The samples from the Shibaogou and Yuku plutons are monzonitic
developed in the skarnized contact zone between the Late Jurassic granites with a massive structure. The monzogranites with
to Early Cretaceous granites and Neoproterozoic Luanchuan medium and coarse grains consist of K-feldspar (3040%),
group (Duan et al., 2011; Cao et al., 2015). The Late Jurassic to plagioclase (2030%), quartz (2535%) and biotite (< 5%) (Figs.
Early Cretaceous granites are closely related to mineralization 2a and b). The K-feldspars are generally subhedral to anhedral
and are regarded as ore-related plutons. Meanwhile, the with polysynthetic and Carlsbad twinning. The allotriomorphic
distributions of the orebodies and ore-related plutons are granular quartz and euhedral laminar biotite exhibit wavy

Fig. 2. Field photographs of the Yuku (a) and Shibaogou (b) granites, and their representative micrographs (c and d). Mineral abbreviation:
Qtz = quartz; Kfs = K-feldspar; Pl = plagioclase; Bt = biotite.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12303-017-0036-2 http://www.springer.com/journal/12303
Mesozoic highly fractionated I-type granites, eastern Qinling 5

extinction and one set of perfect cleavage, respectively (Figs. 2c 4. ANALYTICAL RESULTS
and d). The common accessory minerals include zircon, apatite,
titanite and magnetite. 4.1. Whole-rock Geochemistry

3.2. Whole-rock Geochemistry The results of the major and trace element (including rare
earth element) analyses of the Shibaogou and Yuku plutons are
Major, trace and rare earth elements analyses were performed given in Table 1.
at the State Key Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral
Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing. Prior to 4.1.1. Shibaogou pluton
analysis, the samples were washed and crushed to less than 200 The samples from the Shibaogou pluton have high SiO2
mesh size. Major and trace elements (including rare earth contents (70.573.4 wt%), moderate Al2O3 contents (13.314.1
elements) were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF- wt%), low MgO (0.21.0 wt%), CaO (1.01.8 wt%) and P2O5
1800) and ELAN DRC-quadruple inductively coupled plasma contents (0.10.2 wt%), and alkalinity (ALK) (molar (Na2O +
mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. The analytical K2O) from 5.8 to 9.0 wt%). In the K2O-SiO2 diagram, the
precision levels of the major and trace elements (including samples from the Shibaogou pluton commonly plot in the high
rare earth element) analyses were better than 1% and 5%, K calc-alkaline to shoshonite series field (Fig. 3a). The samples
respectively. The USGS standard GSP-2 and Chinese National from the Shibaogou pluton exhibit metaluminous to slightly
standards GSR-1 and GSR-2 were used to calibrate the element peraluminous characteristics, with values of A/CNK (molar
concentrations of the unknowns. More detailed procedures are (Al2O3)/molar (CaO + Na2O + K2O)) ranging from 0.9 to 1.0
described by (Zhang et al., 2015). (Fig. 3b).
The total rare earth element (REE) concentrations range
3.3. Zircon U-Pb Dating and Hf Isotopic Composition from 118.9 to 173.1 ppm, and the samples are enriched in light
rare earth elements (LREEs), with total LREE (LREE) to total
Zircons were separated from the samples SBG-0 and YK-0 heavy rare earth element (HREE) ratios of 14.917.1 and (La/
using the conventional heavy liquid and magnetic techniques Yb)N ratios of 20.024.0. The chondrite-normalized REE diagram
and then purified and selected by hand under a binocular with highly fractionated REE patterns exhibit a rightward slope
microscope. The selected zircons were polished to expose their with moderately negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.400.68)
grain centres. The internal structures of the zircons were examined and slightly negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* = 0.861.20) that are
and imaged by using cathodoluminescence (CL) before LA- similar to those of the global average upper crust (Rudnick and
ICP-MS U-Pb dating at the State Key Laboratory of Geological Gao, 2003) (Fig. 4a). The primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams
Process and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, show great variations with negative anomalies in high field strength
Beijing. elements (HFSEs, e.g., P, Nb, and Ti) and distinctly positive
LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating was conducted using a Finnigan anomalies in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs, e.g., Rb, Ba,
Neptune MC-ICP-MS instrument. Zircon GJ1 was used as an and K) (Fig. 5a).
external standard for U-Pb dating. For detailed instrument
parameters and analytical procedures, see Cao et al. (2016a). 4.1.2. Yuku pluton
The uncertainties quoted in the tables and figures are at the The samples of the Yuku pluton contain 69.674.0 wt% SiO2,
1 level. Data reduction was carried out using Isoplot (ver. 13.814.7 wt% Al2O3, 3.14.0 wt% Na2O, 4.76.0 wt% K2O,
2.06) (Ludwig, 1999) and ICPMSDataCal (ver. 6.7) (Liu et al., 1.32.4 wt% CaO and 0.10.2 wt% P2O5, with ALK and A/CNK
2010). values of 1.31.9 and 0.91.0, respectively. The samples generally
In situ zircon Hf isotopic analysis was conducted at the exhibit the characteristics of the high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonite
Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources in series with the metaluminous affinities (Fig. 3).
Tianjin, China. Detailed instrument parameter and analytical The samples have total REE contents (REE) of 45.4156.9 ppm,
procedures were described by Cao et al. (2016a). The GJ1 forming distinctly right-inclined REE patterns and enrichment
zircon used as the monitoring standard had 176Hf/177Hf of LREEs, with (La/Yb)N and LREE/HREE ratio values of 5.6
and 176Lu/177Hf ratios of 0.281953 to 0.282051 and 0.0003, 33.6 and 8.021.6, respectively. All the samples, except for one
respectively, which correspond with the values recommended by sample from the Yuku pluton, exhibit slightly positive Eu anomalies
Elhlou et al. (2006). (Eu/Eu* = 1.071.16), which is characteristic of the upper crust
(Rudnick and Gao, 2003) (Fig. 4b). In the primitive mantle-

http://www.springer.com/journal/12303 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12303-017-0036-2
6 Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Mo Xu, Shouting Zhang, Li Tang, Shiyan Wang, Qiuming Pei, Guojun Cai, and Tong Shen

Table 1. Major elements (wt%) and trace elements (ppm) analytical results for the Shibaogou and Yuku plutons
Sample No SBG-1 SBG-2 SBG-3 SBG-4 SBG-5 YK-1 YK-2 YK-3 YK-4 YK-5 YK-6 YK-7
Major oxides (wt%)
SiO2 73.42 72.22 73.11 72.44 70.48 73.58 72.28 71.12 69.79 69.62 70.16 73.99
TiO2 0.18 0.23 0.19 0.18 0.32 0.16 0.16 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.27 0.17
Al2O3 13.52 14.15 13.80 13.31 13.59 13.80 14.65 14.06 14.80 14.45 14.09 14.18
Fe2O3 1.77 1.20 1.33 1.16 1.00 0.93 1.18 1.90 2.18 2.39 2.53 0.41
FeO 0.28 0.61 0.68 1.51 1.75 0.30 0.50 0.75 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.20
MnO 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02
MgO 0.57 1.01 0.59 0.15 0.64 0.40 0.48 0.57 0.63 0.62 0.69 0.33
CaO 0.97 1.02 1.10 1.26 1.84 1.25 1.60 1.92 1.83 1.86 1.69 2.41
Na2O 3.02 3.81 3.78 2.52 3.56 3.77 3.98 3.59 3.99 3.44 3.07 4.77
K2O 5.76 5.21 4.90 6.37 4.85 5.34 4.91 4.76 4.73 5.63 6.00 2.63
P2O5 0.10 0.12 0.10 0.07 0.15 0.08 0.07 0.12 0.12 0.15 0.16 0.07
LOI 0.78 0.74 1.10 0.90 0.85 0.59 0.54 1.58 1.54 1.46 1.22 0.93
Sum 100.39 100.40 100.71 100.56 100.46 100.21 100.39 100.66 100.66 100.63 100.60 100.11
ALK 5.86 5.33 8.78 9.02 8.68 5.42 4.98 4.88 4.85 5.78 6.16 7.40
A/NK 1.41 1.63 1.21 1.19 1.20 1.56 1.80 1.77 1.87 1.53 1.40 1.33
A/CNK 0.90 0.90 1.04 1.03 1.02 0.88 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.92 0.90 0.94
Trace element (ppm)
La 40.26 29.78 36.00 37.17 58.64 30.20 28.60 36.70 40.10 37.00 42.30 8.58
Ce 78.19 51.43 57.48 83.41 99.98 50.70 47.40 65.70 68.60 65.00 71.80 18.80
Pr 9.16 6.12 6.22 6.42 9.20 4.74 4.47 6.11 6.95 6.57 7.11 2.29
Nd 28.41 19.75 17.26 20.48 29.45 15.30 14.50 20.30 23.50 23.20 24.10 8.68
Sm 5.66 3.66 2.93 3.66 5.24 2.02 1.92 2.93 3.68 3.43 3.54 1.62
Eu 0.65 0.72 0.52 0.85 1.17 0.73 0.69 0.94 1.06 1.10 1.11 0.35
Gd 3.92 2.52 2.26 2.42 3.28 1.75 1.62 2.30 2.58 2.65 2.58 1.28
Tb 0.66 0.41 0.66 0.34 0.47 0.23 0.24 0.33 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.21
Dy 2.72 1.87 1.49 2.07 2.61 1.30 1.26 1.65 1.94 1.89 1.75 1.18
Ho 0.49 0.36 0.39 0.59 0.75 0.25 0.22 0.28 0.33 0.33 0.29 0.22
Er 1.27 0.97 0.88 1.49 1.75 0.75 0.82 0.93 1.02 1.02 0.82 0.76
Tm 0.22 0.17 0.21 0.25 0.30 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.14 0.16
Yb 1.31 1.01 1.02 1.37 1.60 1.08 1.26 1.16 1.24 1.08 0.86 1.04
Lu 0.20 0.15 0.14 0.03 0.13 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.20 0.19 0.16 0.19
Y 13.45 10.74 9.07 10.56 14.02 7.84 8.02 9.45 10.40 10.40 9.14 7.46
REE 173.12 118.92 173.12 118.92 127.46 109.41 103.36 139.70 151.75 144.01 156.92 45.35
LREE/HREE 15.04 14.94 15.04 14.94 17.08 18.11 16.88 18.91 18.32 17.67 21.55 8.02
LaN/YbN 20.88 20.03 20.88 20.03 23.98 19.00 15.42 21.49 21.97 23.27 33.61 5.60
Eu/Eu* 0.40 0.68 0.40 0.68 0.59 1.15 1.16 1.07 1.00 1.07 1.07 0.72
Ce/Ce* 0.95 0.88 0.86 1.20 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.97 0.92 0.93 0.92 1.01
Rb 173.50 154.20 191.20 176.70 168.50 112.00 174.00 194.00 170.00 180.00 155.00 62.60
Ba 1264.00 1431.00 1595.00 1482.00 1396.00 1274.00 1134.00 1418.00 1844.00 1613.00 1662.00 352.00
Th 33.62 34.95 30.13 39.74 25.63 24.50 26.40 16.10 18.00 15.70 13.90 20.50
U 7.42 6.53 5.91 5.88 9.15 8.44 8.85 5.85 6.09 5.83 4.00 4.79
Nb 44.58 47.61 43.95 52.17 63.25 39.00 45.60 35.70 42.80 37.00 27.30 48.00
Ta 2.51 3.67 3.55 2.93 2.71 3.25 3.80 2.74 2.96 2.56 1.83 3.97
Zr 158.40 169.20 162.30 177.90 173.80 121.00 61.30 71.00 70.10 77.10 60.50 70.70
Hf 4.71 4.96 3.64 3.98 4.02 4.08 2.74 2.63 2.49 2.60 2.15 3.06
Ga 17.68 18.85 17.23 18.54 18.49 18.40 19.40 20.20 21.20 19.40 16.30 19.30
Sr 185.13 173.25 182.71 191.62 217.45 357.28 262.19 284.64 380.33 349.17 362.25 164.30
TZr (oC) 744 746 740 744 717 702 639 641 643 646 630 633
Notes: LOI = loss on ignition, ALK = molar (Na2O + K2O), A/CNK = [molar ratio Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O)], A/NK = [molar ratio Al2O3/
(Na2O + K2O)], LaN/YbN values are La/Yb ratios normalized to chondrite values after Sun and McDonough (1989), Eu/Eu* = 2w(Eu)N/
[w(Sm)N + w(Gd)N], Ce/Ce* = 2w(Ce)N/[w(La)N + w(Pr)N]; TZr (C) (Zr saturate temperature) = 12, 900/[2.95 + 0.85 M + In(496,000/
Zr(ppm))], M = (Na + K + 2Ca)/(Al Si) (Miller et al., 2003).

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Mesozoic highly fractionated I-type granites, eastern Qinling 7

Fig. 3. Plots of SiO2 vs. K2O (a) (after Peccerillo and Taylor, 1976) and A/CNK [molar ratio Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O)] vs. A/NK [molar ratio Al2O3/
(Na2O + K2O)] (b) (after Maniar and Piccoli, 1989). The yellow and pink color areas stand for the samples from the Laojunshan batholith and
ore-related plutons, respectively. Previous data of the ore-related plutons and Laojunshan batholith from Meng (2010), Li et al. (2012a), Yang
et al. (2012a), Bao et al. (2014), Zhang et al. (2015).

Fig. 4. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for the Shibaogou pluton (a), Yuku pluton (b), Laojunshan batholith (c) and ore-related plutons
(d) in the Luanchuan district. Chondrite data are from Sun and McDonough (1989). Dotted lines stand for upper continent crust, and solid
lines stand for lower continent crust (Rudnick and Gao, 2003). Previous data of the Laojunshan batholith and ore-related plutons are from
Meng (2010), Li et al. (2012a), Yang et al. (2012a), Bao et al. (2014), Zhang et al. (2015).

normalized spidergrams, enrichments in LILEs (e.g., Rb, Ba, (Fig. 5b).


and K) and depletions in HFSEs (e.g., P, Nb, and Ti) are present In addition, together with the previous data, the patterns in

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8 Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Mo Xu, Shouting Zhang, Li Tang, Shiyan Wang, Qiuming Pei, Guojun Cai, and Tong Shen

Fig. 5. Primitive mantle-normalized elements patterns for Shibaogou pluton (a), Yuku pluton (b), the Laojunshan batholith (c) and ore-related
plutons (d) in the Luanchuan district. Primitive mantle data are from Sun and McDonough (1989). Previous data of the Laojunshan batholith
and ore-related plutons are from Meng (2010), Li et al. (2012a), Yang et al. (2012a), Bao et al. (2014), Zhang et al. (2015).

the chondrite-normalized REE diagram and primitive mantle- cathodoluminescence (CL) images are shown in Figure 6. The
normalized spidergram of the ore-related plutons and Laojunshan zircons of vitreous lustre are colourless and transparent, with
batholith are nearly parallel, representing a similar process in lengths ranging from 100 to 250 m and widths ranging from
magmatic evolution (Figs. 4 and 5). However, the patterns in the 50 to 100 m. Euhedral crystals and clear oscillatory zoning are
chondrite-normalized REE diagram of the ore-related plutons common. The concentrations of U and Th range from 216 to
are steeper than those of the Laojunshan batholith, suggesting 1996 ppm and from 206 to 3856 ppm, respectively, and the Th/
more remarkable differentiation between HREEs and LREEs. U ratios range from 0.48 to 1.93 (thus, higher than 0.1). The
Both enrichment of HREEs and depletion of Eu exist in garnet features above imply a magmatic origin.
and fractional differentiation of garnet will cause the magma The 206Pb/238U ages obtained from 11 analyses of magmatic zircons
depleting in HREE and enriching in Eu (Arth et al., 1975; Yang from the Shibaogou pluton yield a weighted average 206Pb/238U
et al., 2013a). Hence, we consider the steeper REE patterns were age of 149.1 0.8 Ma (MSWD = 2.0), which is interpreted to be
caused by stronger fractional differentiation of garnet, which is the formation age of the Shibaogou pluton (Fig. 7a).
in accordance with other ore-related plutons in eastern Qinling The 206Pb/238U ages obtained from 21 analyses of magmatic zircons
(Zhu et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012a, 2012b; Bao et al., 2014; Zhang from the Yuku pluton yield a weighted average 206Pb/238U age of
et al., 2015). 150.5 0.8 Ma (MSWD = 1.7), which is interpreted as the emplacement
and crystallization age of the Yuku pluton (Fig. 7b).
4.2. Zircon U-Pb Ages
4.3. Zircon Hf Isotopes
The zircon U-Pb dating results from the Shibaogou and Yuku
plutons are listed in Table 2, and representative zircon In situ zircon Hf -isotope analytical data from the Shibaogou

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Mesozoic highly fractionated I-type granites, eastern Qinling 9

Table 2. In situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating results for zircons from the Shibaogou and Yuku plutons
Isotopic rations 207
Pb/206Pb 207Pb/235U 206Pb/238U
Spot No. ( Pb Th U
106) ( 106) ( 106) Th/U 207
Pb/ Pb 206 207 235
Pb/ U 206 238
Pb/ U (Ma, 1) (Ma, 1) (Ma, 1)
Yuku pluton
YK-0-1 532 805 1139 0.71 0.0505 0.0023 0.1689 0.0059 0.0243 0.0003 217 106 158 5 155 2
YK-0-2 426 763 987 0.77 0.0511 0.0003 0.1686 0.0024 0.0239 0.0003 256 15 158 2 152 2
YK-0-3 195 348 650 0.54 0.0503 0.0006 0.1640 0.0026 0.0236 0.0003 209 23 154 2 151 2
YK-0-4 107 296 322 0.92 0.0515 0.0023 0.1697 0.0065 0.0239 0.0002 261 97 159 6 152 1
YK-0-5 380 732 891 0.82 0.0499 0.0003 0.1641 0.0016 0.0238 0.0002 191 15 154 1 152 1
YK-0-6 164 285 361 0.79 0.0503 0.0009 0.1662 0.0028 0.0240 0.0003 209 41 156 2 153 2
YK-0-7 192 383 432 0.89 0.0504 0.0005 0.1623 0.0021 0.0233 0.0002 217 20 153 2 149 1
YK-0-8 264 509 794 0.64 0.0510 0.0004 0.1646 0.0012 0.0235 0.0002 239 17 155 1 149 1
YK-0-9 353 720 762 0.95 0.0525 0.0005 0.1706 0.0024 0.0236 0.0002 306 22 160 2 150 2
YK-0-10 265 513 815 0.63 0.0510 0.0006 0.1660 0.0031 0.0236 0.0002 239 26 156 3 151 3
YK-0-11 142 262 393 0.67 0.0518 0.0006 0.1701 0.0052 0.0238 0.0006 276 23 160 5 152 4
YK-0-12 264 538 623 0.86 0.0511 0.0006 0.1686 0.0035 0.0239 0.0004 256 26 158 3 152 3
YK-0-13 212 507 496 1.02 0.0516 0.0008 0.1650 0.0059 0.0232 0.0008 265 35 155 5 148 5
YK-0-14 244 464 752 0.62 0.0499 0.0002 0.1601 0.0010 0.0233 0.0001 187 5 151 1 148 1
YK-0-15 101 203 296 0.69 0.0512 0.0004 0.1680 0.0017 0.0238 0.0002 250 49 158 1 152 1
YK-0-16 490 927 1345 0.69 0.0514 0.0002 0.1688 0.0012 0.0239 0.0002 257 5 158 1 152 1
YK-0-17 150 288 439 0.66 0.0503 0.0004 0.1624 0.0023 0.0234 0.0003 209 20 153 2 149 2
YK-0-18 238 420 777 0.54 0.0524 0.0005 0.1745 0.0029 0.0242 0.0003 302 19 163 3 154 2
YK-0-19 167 247 449 0.55 0.0535 0.0007 0.1737 0.0020 0.0235 0.0002 350 32 163 2 150 1
YK-0-20 194 342 720 0.48 0.0529 0.0011 0.1704 0.0020 0.0234 0.0002 324 46 160 2 149 1
YK-0-21 150 206 256 0.8 0.0541 0.0014 0.1768 0.0059 0.0237 0.0002 376 57 165 5 151 1
Shibaogou pluton
SBG-0-1 707 1404 804 1.75 0.0503 0.0002 0.1613 0.0009 0.0233 0.0001 209 9 152 1 148 1
SBG-0-2 529 888 1629 0.55 0.0509 0.0002 0.1647 0.0009 0.0235 0.0001 235 7 155 1 150 1
SBG-0-3 278 467 587 0.8 0.0501 0.0009 0.1638 0.0041 0.0237 0.0003 198 36 154 4 151 2
SBG-0-4 1979 3856 1996 1.93 0.0542 0.0003 0.1750 0.0014 0.0234 0.0001 389 11 164 1 149 1
SBG-0-5 520 961 1160 0.83 0.0537 0.0004 0.1762 0.0022 0.0238 0.0002 367 19 165 2 152 2
SBG-0-6 296 576 1093 0.53 0.0507 0.0002 0.1652 0.0010 0.0236 0.0001 228 9 155 1 151 1
SBG-0-7 139 277 216 1.28 0.0513 0.0006 0.1638 0.0026 0.0232 0.0001 254 23 154 2 148 1
SBG-0-8 192 449 690 0.65 0.0493 0.0012 0.1571 0.0028 0.0231 0.0002 161 59 148 2 147 1
SBG-0-9 174 501 604 0.83 0.0534 0.0010 0.1738 0.0045 0.0236 0.0004 346 43 163 4 150 3
SBG-0-10 655 1621 891 1.82 0.0508 0.0005 0.1658 0.0022 0.0237 0.0003 232 22 156 2 151 2
SBG-0-11 185 422 549 0.77 0.0522 0.0011 0.1699 0.0041 0.0236 0.0004 295 44 159 4 150 2
Notes: Errors are 1 representing standard deviation; Pbc and Pb* indicate the common and radiogenic portions, respectively; Common Pb
corrected using measured 204Pb; Common Pb corrected by assuming 206Pb/238U-207Pb/235U age-concordance.

and Yuku plutons are shown in Table 3. 5. DISCUSSION


The 176Yb/177Hf ratios and 176Lu/177Hf ratios from the zircons
in the Shibaogou pluton range from 0.0284 to 0.0940 and from 5.1. Late Mesozoic Magmatic and Metallogenic
0.0011 to 0.0027, respectively, with Hf (t) values ranging from Events in the Luanchuan District
24.2 to 13.8, corresponding to two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2)
of 2.072.72 Ga. In this study, the zircon U-Pb ages of 149.1 0.8 Ma and 150.5
The zircons from the Yuku pluton have low 176Yb/177Hf and 0.8 Ma represent the emplacement and crystallization ages of
176
Lu/177Hf ratios (0.0292 to 0.0592 and 0.0010 to 0.0021, respectively), the Shibaogou and Yuku plutons, respectively, indicating a Late
negative Hf(t) values (19.8 to 15.5) and ancient two-stage Hf Jurassic to Early Cretaceous magmatic event in the Luanchuan
model ages (TDM2) of 2.172.44 Ga. district.
Based on the previous zircon U-Pb dating results, the granitoid

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10 Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Mo Xu, Shouting Zhang, Li Tang, Shiyan Wang, Qiuming Pei, Guojun Cai, and Tong Shen

Fig. 6. Representative cathodoluminescence (CL) images of zircons from the Shibaogou and Yuku plutons dated in this study. White circles
are analyzed spots for zircon U-Pb dating.

Fig. 7. Zircon 207Pb/235U-206Pb/238U Concordia diagrams of samples from the Shibaogou (a) and Yuku (b) plutons. MSWD mean square of
weighted deviates.

plutons distributed throughout the QOB have been divided into These magmatic events can be divided into two stages, the Late
four periods: Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic and early and late Mesozoic Jurassic to Early Cretaceous stage (160130 Ma) and the Late
(Wang et al., 2013b). Among these four periods, the late Mesozoic Cretaceous stage (115100 Ma). Additionally, the metallogenic
magmatism generated immense Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au poly- events are mainly composed of porphyry-skarn Mo deposits
metallic mineralizations and formed the East Qinling Metallogenic (150140 Ma) and hydrothermal Pb-Zn deposits (ca. 137 Ma),
Belt, which is one of the most significant Mo-producing belts in which have been dated using the precise molybdenite Re-Os
the world (Mao et al., 2011). The Luanchuan district, composed and sphalerite Rb-Sr isotopic methods (Cao et al., 2015; Li et al.,
of numerous late Mesozoic Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits, is a 2015; Zhang et al., 2015). In terms of the temporal and spatial
crucial part of the East Qinling Metallogenic Belt. Therefore, the accordance between the granites and deposits, it is plausible that
late Mesozoic magmatism in the Luanchuan district appears to the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous magmatic activity directly
play a key role in the poly-metallic mineralization process. supplied the heat and ore-forming materials. In contrast, the
Combined with the previous geochronological data from the Late Cretaceous magmatism occurred after the formation of the
granites and deposits, late Mesozoic magmatic and metallogenic Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits. Therefore, the Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag
events have been identified in the Luanchuan district (Fig. 8). deposits were likely distributed around the Late Jurassic to Early

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Mesozoic highly fractionated I-type granites, eastern Qinling 11

Table 3. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions for the Shibaogou and Yuku plutons
Spot No. Ma 176
Yb/177Hf 2 176
Lu/177Hf 2 176
Hf/177Hf 2 Hf(0) Hf(t) TDM1 (Ma) TDM2 (Ma) fLu/Hf
Yuku pluton
YK-0-1 155 0.0519 0.0002 0.0017 0.0000 0.282126 0.000024 22.8 19.6 1616 2436 0.95
YK-0-2 152 0.0366 0.0003 0.0014 0.0000 0.282217 0.000022 19.6 16.4 1473 2234 0.96
YK-0-3 151 0.0592 0.0005 0.0021 0.0000 0.282160 0.000029 21.6 18.5 1586 2365 0.94
YK-0-4 152 0.0363 0.0002 0.0016 0.0000 0.282127 0.000028 22.8 19.6 1608 2435 0.95
YK-0-5 152 0.0390 0.0002 0.0016 0.0000 0.282216 0.000024 19.7 16.5 1484 2238 0.95
YK-0-6 153 0.0438 0.0002 0.0017 0.0000 0.282149 0.000020 22.0 18.8 1583 2386 0.95
YK-0-7 149 0.0321 0.0001 0.0013 0.0000 0.282125 0.000021 22.9 19.7 1600 2440 0.96
YK-0-8 149 0.0344 0.0002 0.0014 0.0000 0.282205 0.000021 20.1 16.9 1491 2263 0.96
YK-0-9 150 0.0411 0.0007 0.0016 0.0000 0.282182 0.000025 20.9 17.7 1534 2315 0.95
YK-0-10 151 0.0452 0.0007 0.0016 0.0000 0.282237 0.000022 18.9 15.8 1455 2193 0.95
YK-0-11 152 0.0332 0.0004 0.0012 0.0000 0.282170 0.000023 21.3 18.1 1534 2338 0.96
YK-0-12 152 0.0321 0.0001 0.0012 0.0000 0.282134 0.000024 22.6 19.3 1583 2417 0.96
YK-0-13 148 0.0334 0.0001 0.0013 0.0000 0.282153 0.000027 21.9 18.8 1562 2379 0.96
YK-0-14 148 0.0292 0.0005 0.0010 0.0000 0.282176 0.000021 21.1 17.9 1517 2325 0.97
YK-0-15 152 0.0484 0.0011 0.0015 0.0000 0.282201 0.000030 20.2 17.0 1501 2270 0.95
YK-0-16 152 0.0461 0.0005 0.0018 0.0000 0.282151 0.000026 22.0 18.8 1582 2383 0.95
YK-0-17 149 0.0497 0.0003 0.0016 0.0000 0.282130 0.000027 22.7 19.6 1607 2430 0.95
YK-0-18 154 0.0438 0.0007 0.0015 0.0000 0.282225 0.000029 19.3 16.1 1468 2216 0.95
YK-0-19 150 0.0399 0.0003 0.0013 0.0000 0.282144 0.000028 22.2 19.0 1573 2397 0.96
YK-0-20 149 0.0360 0.0007 0.0011 0.0000 0.282245 0.000024 18.6 15.5 1425 2173 0.97
YK-0-21 151 0.0420 0.0003 0.0014 0.0000 0.282123 0.000031 22.9 19.8 1608 2443 0.96
Shibaogou pluton
SBG-0-1 148 0.0722 0.0012 0.0025 0.0000 0.282273 0.000029 17.6 14.6 1440 2119 0.92
SBG-0-2 150 0.0560 0.0004 0.0018 0.0000 0.282100 0.000022 23.8 20.7 1656 2497 0.95
SBG-0-3 151 0.0772 0.0011 0.0027 0.0000 0.282288 0.000020 17.1 14.1 1425 2085 0.92
SBG-0-4 149 0.0375 0.0000 0.0015 0.0000 0.282159 0.000018 21.7 18.6 1560 2365 0.96
SBG-0-5 152 0.0284 0.0003 0.0011 0.0000 0.282221 0.000022 19.5 16.3 1458 2225 0.97
SBG-0-6 151 0.0380 0.0001 0.0014 0.0000 0.282270 0.000027 17.8 14.6 1400 2119 0.96
SBG-0-7 148 0.0415 0.0002 0.0017 0.0000 0.282169 0.000020 21.3 18.3 1556 2346 0.95
SBG-0-8 147 0.0415 0.0002 0.0017 0.0000 0.282169 0.000020 21.3 18.3 1556 2346 0.95
SBG-0-9 150 0.0940 0.0018 0.0023 0.0000 0.282001 0.000036 27.2 24.2 1821 2717 0.93
SBG-0-10 151 0.0394 0.0002 0.0012 0.0000 0.282291 0.000026 17.0 13.8 1363 2071 0.96
Notes: Hf(0) = ((176Hf/177Hf)S/(176Hf/177Hf)CHUR 1) 10000, Hf(t) = ((176Hf/177Hf)S (176Lu/177Hf)S (et 1))/((176Hf/177Hf)CHUR,0 (176Lu/177Hf)CHUR
(et 1)) 1) 10000; TDM1(Hf) = 1/ ln[1 + ((176Hf/177Hf)S (176Hf/177Hf)DM)/((176Lu/177Hf)S (176Lu/177Hf)DM)]; TDM2(Hf) = TDM1(Hf)
(TDM1(Hf) t)(fCC fS)/(fCC fDM); fLu/Hf = (176Lu/177Hf)S /(176Lu/177Hf)CHUR 1; (176Lu/177Hf)CHUR = 0.0332, (176Hf/177Hf)CHUR,0 = 0.282772 (Bli-
chert-Toft and Albarde, 1997), (176Lu/177Hf)DM = 0.0384, (176Hf/177Hf)DM = 0.28325 (Griffin et al., 2000), fCC = [(176Lu/177Hf)mean crust/(176Lu/
177
Hf)CHUR] 1, fDM = [(176Lu/177Hf)DM/(176Lu/177Hf)CHUR] 1, = 1.867 1011 year1 (Sderlund et al., 2004), t = crystallization age of zircon.
( Hf/177Hf)S and (176Lu/177Hf)S are the measured values of samples; fCC, fS, and fDM are the fLu/Hf of crust, sample, and depleted mantle, respec-
176

tively. The 2 represents standard deviation.

Cretaceous granites in the Luanchuan district, which is significant The geochemical data above are similar to the remarkable
information for future prospecting. characteristics of highly fractionated granites (Chappell and
White, 1992, 2001; Chappell, 1999; Wu et al., 2003a, 2003b).
5.2. Genetic Types of the Granites To date, based on mineralogical and geochemical evidence,
granites have generally been classified into three types (I-, S-
The granites in the Luanchuan district have high SiO2 contents and A-type granites) (Whalen et al., 1987; Chappell and White,
and ALK values and low CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, MnO2, TiO2 and 1992). Among these types, A-type granites are distinctly different
P2O5 contents. The trace element patterns show the enrichment from I- and S-type granites due to their enrichment in HFSEs
of Rb, Ba and K and the depletion of Nb, P and Ti (Figs. 4 and 5). (Zr, Nb and Y), high-temperature anhydrous phases (pyroxene

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12 Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Mo Xu, Shouting Zhang, Li Tang, Shiyan Wang, Qiuming Pei, Guojun Cai, and Tong Shen

between I- and S-type granites (Chappell, 1999). Most samples


from the granites in the Luanchuan district have low A/CNK
ratios of less than 1.1 with metaluminous characteristics, probably
indicating I-type granites (Fig. 3b). However, Wu et al. (2003a)
concluded that the A/CNK ratio may not be well suited for
discriminating highly fractionated granites. Alternately, the negative
correlation between SiO2 and P2O5 is consistent with the characteristic
of I-type granites (Fig. 9b). Moreover, S-type granites are
generally characterized by ubiquitous Al-rich minerals (e.g.,
muscovite, garnet, cordierite, and tourmaline) (Clemens, 2003).
However, these Al-rich minerals are absent in the studied
granites, excluding the possibility of S-type origin.
Wu et al. (2003a) suggested that depletions in CaO, Sr and Eu
are indicative of plagioclase and/or K-feldspar fractionation.
The granites in the Luanchuan district generally plot between
the trendline of plagioclase and K-feldspar, indicating that the
fractional crystallization of plagioclase and K-feldspar predominately
occurred in the fractionation process of magmatic evolution
(Fig. 10). Meanwhile, the distinct depletions of P and Ti in
Fig. 8. Frequency of ages for the Late Mesozoic granites and depos- Figure 5 are proposed to represent the fractionation of apatite
its from the Luanchuan district, eastern Qinling. Data sources are
from Li et al. (2004, 2015), Meng (2010), Yang et al. (2012a, 2016), Bao and titanite or magnetite.
et al. (2014), Cao et al. (2015), Zhang et al. (2015) and this paper. In summary, the late Mesozoic granites in the Luanchuan
district are classified as highly fractionated I-type granites rather
and fayalite) and late-crystallizing biotite and hornblende than S- or A-type granites according to their petrographical and
(Whalen et al., 1987; King et al., 1997). geochemical features, and these granites experienced fractional
However, the granites exposed in the Luanchuan district are crystallization of minerals (e.g., plagioclase, K-feldspar, apatite,
depleted in HFSEs and lack the minerals commonly associated and titanite or magnetite).
with A-type granites. Additionally, the granites plot in the fractionated
granite area in the Zr + Nb + Ce + Y vs. TFeO/MgO diagram 5.3. Magma Source
(Fig. 9a). Thus, these characteristics do not correspond to those
of A-type granites. Until now, three models for the generation of highly fractionated
The A/CNK ratio of 1.1 is the boundary used to discriminate I-type granite with metaluminous to slightly peraluminous

Fig. 9. Plots of Zr + Nb + Ce + Y vs. TFeO/MgO (a), SiO2 vs. P2O5 (b). A-type = A-type granite, FG = fractionated M-, I- and S-type felsic granites,
OGT = unfractionated M-, I- and S-type granites. Data sources are from Meng (2010), Li et al. (2012a), Yang et al. (2012a), Bao et al. (2014),
Zhang et al. (2015) and this paper. Plots are from Whalen et al. (1987), Chappell (1999).

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Mesozoic highly fractionated I-type granites, eastern Qinling 13

Fig. 10. Rb vs. Sr (a), Eu/Eu* vs. Ba (b), Sr vs. Ba (c) and Eu vs. Ba (d) plots for the Late Mesozoic granites from the Luanchuan district, eastern
Qinling. Arrow directions are the trend of mineral fractionation phase. Pl = plagioclase, Kfs = K-feldspar, Bt = biotite, Ms = muscovite, Hb =
hornblende. Data sources are from Meng (2010), Li et al. (2012a), Yang et al. (2012a), Bao et al. (2014), Zhang et al. (2015) and this paper. Arrow
direction are after Janouek et al. (2004), Rollinson (2014).

compositions have been proposed: (1) partial melting of crustal of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ore-related granites range
materials and subsequent fractional crystallization of the melts from 29.1 to 11.7 (mainly from 25 to 15), thus showing a
(Chappell and White, 2001; Griffin et al., 2002), (2) mixing of distinct heterogeneity (Figs. 11a and 12). Morevoer, the Hf(t)
the melts from mantle-derived magmas and partial melting of values of the Late Cretaceous Laojunshan batholith are from
crustal materials (Kemp et al., 2005; Zhu et al., 2009), and (3) 2.7 to 2.1, indicating distinctly hybrid sources of mantle- and
advanced fractional crystallization from primarily mantle-derived crust-derived melts (Fig. 11a). The two-stage Hf model ages
magmas (Chiaradia, 2009; Li et al., 2009). Notably, the SiO2 (TDM2) of the ore-related plutons and the Laojunshan batholith
contents of the granites in the Luanchuan district are commonly range from 1.7 Ga to 3.0 Ga and 1.0 Ga to 1.3 Ga, respectively,
greater than 70%. Together with the low Hf(t) values, these indicating a dominantly ancient crustal source (Fig. 11b).
values are inconsistent with the generation of granites from Additionally, the chondrite-normalized patterns of the ore-
primarily mantle-derived magmas. Granites derived from pure related granites and Laojunshan batholith exhibit upper crustal
mantle- or crust-derived magmas are characterized by a narrow features (Fig. 4). The occurrence of MMEs and associated mafic
range of Hf(t) values (Yin et al., 2016). However, the Hf(t) values dykes from the granites in the Luanchuan district implies the

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14 Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Mo Xu, Shouting Zhang, Li Tang, Shiyan Wang, Qiuming Pei, Guojun Cai, and Tong Shen

Fig. 11. Frequency of Hf(t) values (a) and Two-stage Hf model ages (b) for the Late Mesozoic granites from the Luanchuan district, eastern
Qinling. Data sources are from Meng (2010), Li et al. (2012a), Yang et al. (2012a), Bao et al. (2014), Zhang et al. (2015) and this paper.

mixing of mantle-derived magmas. Similarly, the Pb compositions derived magmas.


of the ore-related granites in the Luanchuan district revealed The main lithology units of the NQB include the Archean to
that the magma source was derived from both the lower crust Paleoproterozoic Qinling group (1.92.7 Ga) (Diwu et al., 2014)
and mantle (Li et al., 2015). and Neoproterozoic Kuanping group (0.91.1 Ga) (Zhu et al.,
Based on these findings, it is evident that the granites in the 2011; Shi et al., 2013). Considering the TDM2 values of the Laojunshan
Luanchuan district resulted from the mixing of partially melted batholith (1.01.3 Ga), the Neoproterozoic Kuanping group is
ancient crustal magma with mantle-derived materials, which proposed to be the main source of magma for the Laojunshan
agrees with the previously published Sr-Nd isotopic data presented batholith. Additionally, the Hf (t) values of the Laojunshan
by Bao et al. (2014) and Meng (2010). batholith (2.7 to 2.1) are higher than the Hf(t) values calculated
To date, the sources of the late Mesozoic granites in the at 110 Ma from the Neoproterozoic Kuanping group (64.6 to
Luanchuan district are controversial, and two sources have been 6.5, average 27.7) (Shi et al., 2013), indicating the mixing of
proposed: (1) the mixing of remelted Taihua and Xionger mantle-derived components.
groups with minor mantle melts (Li et al., 2012a, 2012b, 2015), Taken together, the ore-related plutons were generated by the
and (2) the remelting of the subducted continental crust of the partial melting of the Archean Taihua group and Mesoproterozoic
northern YZB (Bao et al., 2014). However, the remarkable Xionger group with minor mantle-derived magmas contributions.
differences of Hf(t) values and TDM2 ages between the two- In contrast, the source materials of the Laojunshan batholith
stages granites in the Luanchuan district obviously indicate that consisted of a mixture of the Mesoproterozoic Kuanping group
their magmatic sources cannot be simply attributed to either of and mantle-derived components. Due to the much lower Hf(t)
the processes described above. values, a larger contribution of crust-derived magmas is thought
The Archean Taihua group (2.52.8 Ga) and Mesoproterozoic to have been involved in the emplacement of the ore-related
Xionger group (1.82.1 Ga) form the main lower-crust lithologic plutons, leading to Mo enrichment, which is consistent with the
strata in the southern margin of the NCB and have TDM2(Hf) results of a previous study by Wang et al. (2015).
values consistent with those of ore-related granites (primarily
during 2.02.6 Ga) (Peng et al., 2008; He et al., 2009; Zhao et al., 5.4. Tectonic Implications
2009; Huang et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2013). In addition, the
calculated Hf(t) values at 140 Ma from the Archean Taihua group The final closure of the Mianlue Ocean is argued to have
(62.3 to 42.2, average 51.8) (Huang et al., 2010; Yu et al., occurred in the Early Triassic and to have resulted in the
2013) and Mesoproterozoic Xionger group (49.0 to 45.7) (He collision between the YZB and SQB and the formation of the
et al., 2009; Zhao et al., 2009) are lower than those of the ore- Mianlue Suture (Li et al., 2007; Dong et al., 2011, 2016). After
related granites (29.1 to 11.7), suggesting the mixing of mantle- the closure of the Mianlue Ocean, the NCB, QOB and YZB were

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12303-017-0036-2 http://www.springer.com/journal/12303
Mesozoic highly fractionated I-type granites, eastern Qinling 15

combined into an integrated whole, followed by northward


subduction and the collision between the YZB and the NCB
(Meng et al., 2000; Dong et al., 2011, 2016). Due to the continuous
continental collision between the YZB and NCB, a series of
south-verging thrusts consisting of ophiolites and volcanic
rocks developed due to the intense compression, resulting in the
shortening and thickening of the lithosphere (Dong et al., 2016).
Subsequently, the tectonic regime transitioned from collisional
to extensional during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Due
to remelting of the thickened ancient crust by heating from the
upwelling asthenospheric mantle, contemporaneous Mo deposits
and ore-related granites developed in eastern Qinling. Interestingly,
the Hf(t) values from the Late Cretaceous granites are higher.
This pattern was interpreted to indicate that the ancient crust
became thinner and that more upwelling mantle-derived magmas
were involved. Therefore, during the Late Cretaceous, the
tectonic environment was extensional. Additionally, the WNW-
striking distribution of the granites in the QOB corresponds
with the orientation of the deep regional WNW-striking faults,
Fig. 12. Zircon U-Pb age vs. Hf(t) values for the Late Mesozoic gran-
suggesting that the magmas upwelled along these faults. ites from the Luanchuan district, eastern Qinling. The pink and yel-
Between the two-stage magmatic activities, a magmatic quiescence low color areas stand for the samples from the Laojunshan batholith
and ore-related plutons, respectively. Data sources are from Meng
was notably present during 130115 Ma (Fig. 12), probably (2010), Li et al. (2012a), Yang et al. (2012a), Bao et al. (2014), Zhang
indicating a short stable period during the late transition stage. et al. (2015) and this paper.
Granites are commonly used to identify the tectonic environment
during their formation (Pearce et al., 1984; Maniar and Piccoli, (2) a post-collisional environment (Zhang et al., 2016), (3)
1989). Highly fractionated I-type granites are generated in four oceanic subduction (Wang et al., 2014), and (4) underplating
types of tectonic environments: (1) the breakup and foundering via lithospheric delamination beneath a collisional zone (Wang
of a subducted slab beneath continental crust (Li et al., 2007), et al., 2016). The high K, Si-rich, calc-alkaline, I-type granites

Fig. 13. Discrimination diagrams of tectonic setting. Y + Nb vs. Rb (a) (Pearce et al., 1984) and Rb/30-Hf-Ta*3 (b) (Harris et al., 1986) for the
Late Mesozoic granites samples from the Luanchuan district, eastern Qinling. The pink and yellow color areas stand for the samples from the
Laojunshan batholith and ore-related plutons, respectively. Data sources are from Meng (2010), Li et al. (2012a), Yang et al. (2012a), Bao et
al. (2014), Zhang et al. (2015) and this paper.

http://www.springer.com/journal/12303 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12303-017-0036-2
16 Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Mo Xu, Shouting Zhang, Li Tang, Shiyan Wang, Qiuming Pei, Guojun Cai, and Tong Shen

such as the SBG or Yuku plutons usually form in collisional or Hence, the formation of granites in the Luanchuan district was
post-collisional settings (Roberts and Clemens, 1993). closely related to subduction and collision. Moreover, based on
The granites in the Luanchuan district mostly plot in the the Hf compositions mentioned above, more upwelling mantle-
post-collision granite (Post-COLG) fields in the Y + Nb vs. Rb derived magmas were involved in the formation of the Late
diagram and Rb/30-Hf-Ta*3 triangle diagram (Fig. 13). The Cretaceous Laojunshan batholith than in the formation of the
subduction or arc setting is constrained by the enrichment of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ore-related plutons. Consistently,
LILEs and the depletion of the HFSEs (Pearce et al., 1984). the Zr saturation temperatures of the Late Cretaceous Laojunshan

Fig. 14. Schematic geodynamic model for the Mesozoic tectono-magmatic evolution in eastern Qinling.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12303-017-0036-2 http://www.springer.com/journal/12303
Mesozoic highly fractionated I-type granites, eastern Qinling 17

batholith (654797 C) are higher than those of the Late Jurassic likely derived from the remelting of the Taihua and Xionger
to Early Cretaceous ore-related plutons (630748 C) (Zr groups with minor mantle-derived magmas, and the Laojunshan
concentrations of the SBG and Yk plutons are from this study; batholith was generated from the hybridization of both ancient
others are from Meng, 2010; Li et al., 2012a, 2015; Bao et al., crust- (Kuanping group) and mantle-derived components.
2014; Zhang et al., 2015). This difference probably indicates that (4) Numerous Mesozoic granites and Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au
the remelting of ancient crust shifted upward due to intra- poly-metallic deposits in eastern Qinling were generated from
continental extension and lithospheric thinning (Fig. 14). Based the continental collision between the NCB and YZB. The Late
on the geochemical and isotopic data above, the late Mesozoic Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ore-related plutons were generated
Luanchuan granites were generated in a post-collision environment. in the transitional regime between compression and extension,
The ore-related granites formed during the transition from whereas the Late Cretaceous Laojunshan batholith was emplaced
compression to extension, and the Laojunshan batholith formed in an intra-continental extensional environment.
during lithospheric thinning and intra-continental extension.
Taking the above geochronological, geochemical and isotopic ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
features into account, the Mesozoic tectono-magmatic evolution
of the Luanchuan district in eastern Qinling is closely related to This work was sponsored by the National key research and
the continental collision between the NCB and YZB. This development plan of China (No. 2016YFC0600504) and the
collisional process can be divided into three stages (Figs. 12 and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.
14): (1) northward subduction and collision of the YZB beneath 41202209).
the NCB, causing intense compression, shortening and thickening
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http://www.springer.com/journal/12303 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12303-017-0036-2
20 Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Mo Xu, Shouting Zhang, Li Tang, Shiyan Wang, Qiuming Pei, Guojun Cai, and Tong Shen

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