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1ère Conference regionale Euro-méditerranéenne

Architecture Traditionnelle Méditerranéenne


Present et Futur

Barcelone,
du 12 au 15 juillet 2007

1ª Conferencia regional Euromediterránea


Arquitectura Tradicional Mediterránea.
Presente y Futuro

Barcelona,
del 12 al 15 de Julio de 2007

1st Euro-Mediterranean Regional Conference


Traditional Mediterranean Architecture
Present and Future

Barcelona,
12-15 July 2007
Consortium RehabiMed : Consorcio RehabiMed: Consortium RehabiMed:

Responsable du projet : Responsable del proyecto: Project Manager:


Xavier CASANOVAS Xavier CASANOVAS Xavier CASANOVAS

Membres : Miembros: Members:


Ministry of Communications and Works Department of Ministry of Communications and Works Department of Ministry of Communications and Works Department of
Antiquities of Cyprus Antiquities of Cyprus Antiquities of Cyprus
Responsable : Evi FIOURI Responsable: Evi FIOURI Person in charge: Evi FIOURI

Bureau Culturel de l’Ambassade de la République Arabe Bureau Culturel de l’Ambassade de la République Arabe Bureau Culturel de l’Ambassade de la République Arabe
d’Egypte en France d’Egypte en France Supreme Council of Antiquities, d’Egypte en France Supreme Council of Antiquities,
Supreme Council of Antiquities, Egypte Egypte Egypte
Responsables : Mahmoud ISMAÏL et Wahid Mohamed Responsables: Mahmoud ISMAÏL et Wahid Mohamed Persons in charge: Mahmoud ISMAÏL et Wahid Mohamed
EL-BARBARY EL-BARBARY EL-BARBARY

Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona, Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona, Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona,
Espagne Espagne Espagne
Responsable : Xavier CASANOVAS Responsable: Xavier CASANOVAS Person in charge: Xavier CASANOVAS

Ecole d’Avignon, France Ecole d’Avignon, France Ecole d’Avignon, France


Responsable : Responsable: Patrice MOROT-SIR Person in charge: Patrice MOROT-SIR

Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement Marrakech, Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement Marrakech, Centre Méditerranéen de l’Environnement Marrakech,
Maroc Maroc Maroc
Responsable : Moulay Abdeslam SAMRAKANDI Responsable: Moulay Abdeslam SAMRAKANDI Person in charge: Moulay Abdeslam SAMRAKANDI

Institut National du Patrimoine, Tunisie Institut National du Patrimoine, Tunisie Institut National du Patrimoine, Tunisie
Responsable : Mourad RAMMAH Responsable: Mourad RAMMAH Person in charge: Mourad RAMMAH

COMITÉ SCIENTIFIQUE CONFERENCE COMITÉ CIENTÍFICO DE LA CONFERENCIA SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Xavier Casanovas (Espagne): Président Xavier Casanovas (España): Presidente Xavier Casanovas (Spain): President
Gilles Nourissier (France): Secrétaire Gilles Nourissier (Francia): Secretario Gilles Nourissier (France): Secretary

Dinu Bumbaru (Canada): Secrétaire Général ICOMOS Dinu Bumbaru (Canadá): Secretario General de ICOMOS Dinu Bumbaru (Canada): General Secretary of ICOMOS
Brigitte Colin (France): UNESCO Brigitte Colin (Francia): UNESCO Brigitte Colin (France): UNESCO
Josep Giralt (Espagne): Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània Josep Giralt (España): Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània Josep Giralt (Spain): Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània
(IEMed) (IEMed) (IEMed)
Paul Oliver (Royaume Uni): Oxford Brookes University Paul Oliver (Reino Unido): Oxford Brookes University Paul Oliver (United Kingdom): Oxford Brookes University

Nur Akin (Turquie): Istanbul Technical University Nur Akin (Turquía): Istanbul Technical University Nur Akin (Turkey): Istanbul Technical University
Ziad Al-Saad (Jordanie) : Faculty of Archaeology and Ziad Al-Saad (Jordania) : Faculty of Archaeology and Ziad Al-Saad (Jordan) : Faculty of Archaeology and
Anthropology Anthropology Anthropology
Khaldun Bshara (Palestine): Riwaq-Centre for Architectural Khaldun Bshara (Palestina): Riwaq-Centre for Architectural Khaldun Bshara (Palestine): Riwaq-Centre for Architectural
Conservation Conservation Conservation
Michael Cohen (Israël): Israel Antiquities Authority Michael Cohen (Israel): Israel Antiquities Authority Michael Cohen (Israel): Israel Antiquities Authority
Oriol Cusidó (Espagne): Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Oriol Cusidó (España): Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Oriol Cusidó (Spain): Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes
Tècnics de Barcelona Tècnics de Barcelona Tècnics de Barcelona
Faisal Cherradi (Maroc): Centre Méditerranéen de Faisal Cherradi (Marruecos): Centre Méditerranéen de Faisal Cherradi (Morocco): Centre Méditerranéen de
l’Environnement Marrakech l’Environnement Marrakech l’Environnement Marrakech
Evi Fiouri (Chypre): Department of Antiquities of Cyprus. Evi Fiouri (Chipre): Department of Antiquities of Cyprus. Evi Fiouri (Cyprus): Department of Antiquities of Cyprus.
Giovanni Furio (Italie): Associazione Culturalle “Città, Giovanni Furio (Italia): Associazione Culturalle “Città, Giovanni Furio (Italia): Associazione Culturalle “Città,
Territorio-Ambiente” Territorio-Ambiente” Territorio-Ambiente”
Ramon Graus (Espagne): Universitat Politècnica de Ramon Graus (España): Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Ramon Graus (Spain): Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
Catalunya Mahmoud Ismail (Egipto): Centre Culturel d’Egypte à Paris Mahmoud Ismail (Egypt): Centre Culturel d’Egypte à Paris
Mahmoud Ismail (Egypte): Centre Culturel d’Égypte à Paris Nikolaus Kalogirou (Grecia): University of Thessaloniki Nikolaus Kalogirou (Greece): University of Thessaloniki
Nikolaus Kalogirou (Grèce): University of Thessaloniki Yasmine Makaroun Bou-Assaf (Líbano): Université Libanaise Yasmine Makaroun Bou-Assaf (Lebanon): Université
Yasmine Makaroun Bou-Assaf (Liban): Université Libanaise Mourad Rammah (Túnez): Institut National du Patrimoine Libanaise
Mourad Rammah (Tunisie): Institut National du Patrimoine Dahmani Younsi-Nawel (Argelia) : Direction Patrimoine Mourad Rammah (Tunisia): Institut National du Patrimoine
Dahmani Younsi-Nawel (Algérie) : Direction Patrimoine Culturel Dahmani Younsi-Nawel (Algeria) : Direction Patrimoine
Culturel Culturel
Diseño gráfico:
Conception graphique : LM,DG : Lluís MESTRES Graphic design:
LM,DG : Lluís MESTRES LM,DG : Lluís MESTRES
WEB:
Site web : www.rehabimed.net Website:
www.rehabimed.net www.rehabimed.net
© 2007 Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de
© 2007 Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de Barcelona para el consorcio RehabiMed. © 2007 Col·legi d’Aparelladors i Arquitectes Tècnics de
Barcelona pour le consortium Rehabimed. Bon Pastor, 5 – 08021 Barcelona, España Barcelona pour le consortium Rehabimed.
Bon Pastor, 5 – 08021 Barcelona, Espagne rehabimed@apabcn.cat Bon Pastor, 5 – 08021 Barcelona, Spain
rehabimed@apabcn.cat rehabimed@apabcn.cat
ISBN: 84-87104-79-7
ISBN: 84-87104-79-7 DL : ISBN: 84-87104-79-7
DL : DL:
RehabiMed incita la reproducción de esta obra y a la
RehabiMed incite à la reproduction de cet ouvrage ainsi difusión de su contenido, siempre que se cite la fuente. RehabiMed wish to encourage the reproduction of this
qu’à la diffusion de son contenu, en citant sa source. El proyecto ha sido financiado por el programa Euromed work and the diffusion of its contents, with due mention
Le projet a été financé par le programme Euromed Heritage de la Unión Europea y por la Agencia Española de of its source.
Heritage de l’Union européenne et l’Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional (AECI). This project is financed by the Euromed Heritage
Cooperación Internacional (AECI). Las opiniones expuestas en este documento no reflejan programme of the European Union and by the Agencia
Les opinions exposées dans le présent document ne necesariamente la posición de la Unión Europea ni la de sus Española de Cooperación Internacional (AECI).
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européenne ni celle de ses États membres. necessarily reflect the position of the European Union or its
member states.
Sommaire
Índice
Table of Contents

Ville et Territoire
Ciudad y Territorio
Town and Territory

Connaître le lieu avant d’intervenir


Conocer el lugar antes de intervenir
Knowledge prior to intervention

Tradition, Identity and Built Form. Nadia Charalambous 25


Traditional architectural heritage and hybridity. Julia Theodoraki-Patsi 28
El conocimiento de la ciudad como base de cualquier actuación en defensa de su patrimonio
construido. Andrés García Bodega, Fernando Da Casa Martín 31
The spatial effects of globalization on both shores of the Aegean. Ikbal Ece Postalcı 33
The role of resources management on shaping the landscape patterns: the water in the Royal
Estates of Lisbon region. Teresa Marat-Mendes, Albert Cuchí 36
Traditional landscape drystone architecture in Cyprus: character-classification-problems.
Anastasia Pitta 39
For a comprehensive approach to an agenda to protection (promotion) and
pesentaion in Palestine for cultural landscapes: “Case study Ain Arik Village”. Jamal Barghouth 41
The rural landscape: characteristic features, values and criticalities in good policies determination.
Antonia Cataldo 44
Architecture rurale et paysage. Daniela Bosia, Giovanna Franco, Stefano F. Musso 47
Valeur patrimoniale du tissu urbain. Bougherira Hadji Quenza 50
Urbanistic analysis and the value of architectural heritage in Cunda Island. Irem Yaylali 53
Urbanistic analysis of a Greek village “Sirince”. Mine Tanac Kiray 55
Archétypes urbains. Le cas d’étude de la ville de Nefta. Gaetano Ginex 58
Habitat traditionnel : patrimoine en cours de disparition dans la vallée du Todrha (Sud Marocain).
Mohamed Naim, Mustapha Abdechafk 61
Characteristics of vernacular architecture in Bodrum Peninsula. A case study: Ortakent and
Bitez Settlements. Nezih R. Aysel 64
Traditional Syrian architecture: Ottoman and French Mandate (Form, Sociology and Inspiration).
Nuhad Abdallah 67
El inventario de bienes patrimoniales de la medina de Tetuán. Ma Ángeles Ruiz Jiménez 70
The effects of sociacultural and religious transformation on the structure of the city,
the example of Ayvalik. M. Kerem ÖZEL 335
Conservation of cultural heritage and local identity of “Asansor” district of Izmir. Mine Tanac Kiray 338
Railway Heritage of Istanbul: Marmaray & Urban Regeneration Projects. Yonca Kosebay ERKAN 341
To have a new point of view on an ancient port: Alacati hotel project. Zafer SAGDIC 343
Modern treatment of open public space in the traditional settlements of norhern Greece:
An intermediate appraisal. Dimitrios Zygomalas 345
Rehabilitation and infill design projects in listed in Greece. A fragmented urban rehabilitation
approach. The case of the Upper Town quarter of Thessaloniki. Nikos Kalogirou, Alkmini Paka 348
The abandonment and subsequent rehabilitation of the traditional mountain settlements
in Greece. The exemplar case of Pandeleimon on Mount Olympus. Michael Nomikos 351
The Role of Conservation in the Re-production of Old Akko. Yael Naaman 354
The Rehabilitation of the Traditional Circassian settlements in Israel.
The test case of Kfar Kama in Eastern Galilee. Michael Cohen 357
Coexistence et juxtaposition, lecture et restructuration de l’îlot du quartier d’el Djezira situé en
position charnière entre la Médina de Tunis (centre ancien) et la ville Européenne. Khaled Karoui 360
Le Patrimoine Culturel, Facteur de Développement Durable :
L’expérience de la ville de Kairouan. Mounir ABID 363
La Médina de Tunis : de la cité à un quartier de la ville. Jamila Binous 366
Un nouvel élan pour Sidi-Ghiles, Algérie. Laetitia Belala, Julie Laborde, Jean-Marie Cottin 369
Réhabilitation de l’axe structurant du vieux Guemmar. « Au delà du décor ». Lakhda Kouici 371
Réhabilitation des lotissements coloniaux :
cas de la ville de blida. Leila Sahtaoui-Zerarka 374
La préservation et la restauration du système de gestion et de distribution
des eaux dans la Vallée du M’Zab – Ghardaïa, Algérie. Zouhir Ballalou 377
Architecture et patrimoine du vieux village de montagne
“Bordj Zemmoura” – Algérie. Said Madani 380
Representación e interpretación del sistema urbano de Gioia Tauro. Maria Follo 383
NÉCESSITÉ FAITE VERTU. C’est-à-dire hypothèse de De-codification de l’architecture
traditionnelle: le cas d’étude de l’intervention pilote dans la Ville-oasis de Nefta
auprès du Chott-el-Jerid, Tunisie. Corrado Trombetta 385
Les expériences de régénération urbaine des villes calabraises. Natalina Carrà 388
Paysage et villes méditerranéennes : le cas de Barcelone et l’intervention urbanistique
sur le site des « Tres Turons ». Rafael Balanzo Joue 390
The Set of the Syrian Roman theatres in more recent built environment. Saraa Saleh 393
Projet pilote de régénération urbaine par des interventions artistiques. Maria Urmă 396
The River Minho Fortifications Master Plan.
Helena Santos, Esmeralda Paupério, João Guedes, Aníbal Costa 399
Expériences de réhabilitation urbaine et territorial en méditerranée
Experiencias de rehabilitación urbana y territorial
Experiences of urban and territorial rehabilitation in mediterranean

The effects of sociacultural and religious THE ANALYSE OF URBAN STRUCTURE


transformation on the structure of the
Topography
city, the example of Ayvalik Ayvalık’s most important urban feature is its topography. Three
geographical elements of topography, namely hills, plains and the coast
line, are determine the morphologhy of the city; routes of the paths,
structural characteristics of its districts, its edges, its boundaries, and
M. Kerem Özel even the functional uses of the districts. In the urban structure nodes
and the sites of landmarks are formed by these components. (Fig. 01)
- PhD in Architectural Design (2004).
Hills
- Between 1998 and 2004 he worked as teaching and research
There are three hills surrounding the city by north, east and south
assistant in Faculty of Architecture at Mimar Sinan University in directions. Among them, the north one, called Ilk Kurşun Tepesi (First
Istanbul. Since 2005 he is working as Ass. Professor at the same Bullet Hill), is the most distinctive one because of its steep and sharp
university. topography. According to some historians, the first settlement in this
- Since 1995 he is participating in some urban projects, restoration- geography was established on the south-west slopes of this hill in order
conversation projects and national/international architecture-urban to be protected from the north winds.
competitions. In 2005 he won the 2nd prize at the national project
competition of Market District (Dogu Garaji and Halk Pazari) in Routes
Antalya-Turkey. The coast line and the bottom line of the hills determine the main
- He has collaborated with CEKUL Foundation (a NGO in Turkey) for routes of the city. There are four routes:
some non-profit organizations related with Eastern Anatolian part of
- The first and the most important one is the Sefa Avenue; it is parallel
Turkey
to the coast line along the north-south direction. In the north, Sefa
Address: Avenue links the city with Balıkesir and Istanbul. In the Greek period,
M.S.G.S.Ü. Mimarlık Fakültesi Bina Bilgisi Kürsüsü, Meclis-I Mebusan this avenue was marked by two important buildings, the Academy
Cad. No.24 Fındıklı 34427 Istanbul Turkey in the north and Priest Ikonomos farm in the south.
- The second paralel route to the coast is Altınova Avenue, which is
E-mail address:
also the bottom line of the eastern. This avenue links the city with
kerem@msu.edu.tr, kerem.o@superonline.com
Izmir.
Telephone: - The third one is Dereboyu Avenue; the first perpendicular line to
+(90) 212 252 16 00 (internal:285), +(90) 535 623 54 11 the coast following the valley line between Ilk Kurşun Tepesi on the
north and the eastern. This route is the most dominant one among
the paths providing the connection between Ayvalık and the small
villages inland.
- The fourth one, Altınova Avenue 18th Street, is also perpendicular to
This paper aims to discuss the effects of sociocultural and religious the coast and has similar characteristics with the third one. It follows
transformation on the structure of an Aegean port town in Anatolia. the valley line between the eastern and southern hills.
Ayvalık is an unusual Anatolian town because of its history. In the early-
tweenteenth century, the town was turkized after being under the Districts
influence of Greek population and culture along for approximately two In Ayvalık, the paths constituing the urban structure also define the
century time. Its extraordinary history has affected its urban structure. districts with their different characteristics from one another. So the city
When we agree that at those time one of the dominant features is divided into three districts:
constituting a community was the religion, this paper chooses the
religious buildings as the case-study in order to analyse and discuss - The hill district, the slopes of Ilk Kurşun Tepesi, seemed to be divided
the effects of sociocultural and religious transformation on the urban into two sub-districts, a high and a low one. The settlement on its
structure. steep slopes has a radial pattern. Since the first settlement in Ayvalık,
In Ayvalık there were ten churches built in the territories of the town this part of the city is still the residential area. The lower area of the
in the Greek period. Most of them survived; one is still being used as a district is close to the city center. The steep gradient weekens, and
church, some of them have become mosques, and some others are no the radial urban texture turns to organic pattern. The hill disrict
longer used for religious purposes. embodies the oldest religious buildings. The church of Profiti Ilias,
There has been one mosque built in the Greek period. The Hamidiye the most important landmark of the Greek period located at the
mosques dated to the late-nineteenth century, and it was built by highest point of the hill and has been the focal point of the hole
Sultan Abdülhamid the Second. Since the exchange in 1923, the Greek settlement on its slopes, didn’t survive. Taksiyarhis and Agios Dimitri
churches in town have transformed into mosques by adding a minaret churches are located on the slopes, Metropol and Agios Yannis
and a mihrab. churches are located at the heart of the market where the slope
softens.

335
Expériences de réhabilitation urbaine et territorial en méditerranée
Experiencias de rehabilitación urbana y territorial
Experiences of urban and territorial rehabilitation in mediterranean

- The coast district, the area bounded by the coast and the Sefa - In Islamic world, the mosque, as a congregation place, functions as
Avenue, has a grid fabric. Both in the period of Greeks and Turks a core around which an urban structure made of mostly residential
who took over the trade and industry market, this district was used units. Moreover in the Ottoman civizilation, the mosque as the
especially for the olive growing and associated industries. Factories primary component of the kulliye-complex, was used to be the
with their long chimneys, warehouses and workshops define its centre of new urban developments of settlement politics.
character. The building blocks are narrow on the coast side and - In Islamic world, the vertical effect of the mosque is as important as
long on their length. In the coast district, there has never been any its congregational function. The mosque make its location visible
religious buildings. with its minaret as an emergent point. The contibution of Ottoman
- The middle district, the inland, has the most extensive and wide architecture to this topic is that the mosque has become an urban
building blocks among other districts. Funcitonally, a part of the landmark dominant to the entire setting, not only with its minaret,
commercial center and weekly bazaar are located in this district, but but also with its dome. Thus, it emphasizes the topography, can
most of it is in residential use. There are five churches where Agios be seen from far a distance, and sometimes clarifies the entering-
Yorgis and Kato Panaya churches are the focal points. exiting points of the city. The knowledge how to use and deal with
the topography make these characteristics possible.
RELATION BETWEEN THE CHURCHES AND MAIN ROUTES
In Ayvalık, churches, which are serving as cores, provide the dwellings to In the light of this brief summary, when we analyse the effect of
grow in their surroundings like in many Christian towns. Analysing the Hamidiye mosque on Ayvalık’s urban structure, these facts can be
settlements around these churches, it can be seen that the street fabric brought up:
and building blocks are formed around the churches. Furthermore, the
neighbourhoods around the churches are named after them. - In contrast to the general attitude of the mosques in Islamic and
Analysing the relationship between the routes of the city and the sites of Ottoman world, Hamidiye mosque stands alone. Furthermore,
the churches, seven out of ten churches are located on the main routes. comparing it with the churches as cores of their neighbourhood in
Considering the choice of location, Agios Yorgios and Metropolitene Ayvalık, the solitude of Hamidiye mosque reveals more. One reason
churches are the most important ones; they are located in the center trying to explain this isolation could be the minor Turk population
of the city at the nodes of main perpendicular and parallel routes to of those days. Consequently, if a specific “Turkish neighbourhood”
the coast line. couldn’t be mentioned, being the core of a Muslim settlement
As a result, churches played an important role on the urban structure in couldn’t be the Sultan’s intention while building a mosque in
the Greek period of Ayvalık because they both formed the cores of the Ayvalık.
settlements and located on the main routes. - Approaching the city from the north via Balıkesir-Istanbul road, just
before entering the city via Sefa Avenue, there is a small hill, which
THE EFFECT OF THE CHURCHES ON THE URBAN SKYLINE can easily be seen from the road, creates a narrow passage to the
In general, churches as buildings are not effective in the skyline of city because of its closeness to the coast. That is the location where
Ayvalık. There are a lot of reasons for this: Hamidiye mosque rises as a landmark. This effect of landmark doesn’t
weaken while approaching the city from the sea, as well. In contrast
- Since the apse axis of the churches is perpendicular to the coast line, to the monumental churches lost in the urban structure; Hamidiye
the buildings of the churches appear in the skyline with their narrow mosque, which is located a little bit outside of the town but on a
edges. Therefore, their effect in the skyline decreases. small hill in the foreground, can easily be distinguished ın the urban
- As we know, both the churches and the mosques become more skyline from the dense fabric of the city and the cumulative effect of
visible with the help of their vertical elements, such as the bell tower factory chimneys. (Fig.04)
and the minaret. In the case of Ayvalık, the bell towers of churches
disappear because of the strong cumulative effect of high factory CONCLUSION
chimneys. The factory chimneys are dense on the sea side of the In the light of the mentioned analyses above, we can come up with
Sefa Avenue. They constitue a vertical fabric, breaking the overall two different conclusions:
horizontal urban landscape. As there are many, they can’t be
perceived as single landmarks, on the contrary they are dominant - The first one; in 1923, when Ayvalık went through the most essential
with their cumulative effect. Therefore, approaching Ayvalık from sociocultural and religious changes, there wasn’t a single significant
the sea we can talk about a perception of abundance made of a transformation on its urban structure. This fact can be explained by
crowd of factory chimneys and bell towers instead of one single the cultural similarities between the exchanged Greeks and Turks.
tower or a few chimneys. (Fig. 02) Although there was an exchange of racial and religious population,
there was a fewer transformation in terms of sociocultural and
THE CONTRIBUTION OF OTTOMANS ON AYVALIK’S URBAN economical aspects: The new-settled Turks took over the Greek’s
STRUCTURE factories, and the churches were transformed into the mosques.
To understand the contribution of the single mosque, namely Hamidiye - The other conclusion is that a small but symbolically important
mosque (Fig.03) on Ayvalık’s urban structure, first of all, we have to addition to Ayvalık’s urban structure was done with the impact of
mention two subjects briefly: the meaning of the mosque in Islamic the Greek revolution in 1821. This caused a modest transformation
culture and the relationship between the mosques and the pre-existing on the urban structure.
urban structures in Ottoman architecture.

336
Expériences de réhabilitation urbaine et territorial en méditerranée
Experiencias de rehabilitación urbana y territorial
Experiences of urban and territorial rehabilitation in mediterranean

It was the Hamidiye mosque which seems to have a symbolical attitude


embodying the power of the central government rather than serving
as a congregational place for the muslim community; the power of
imperial capital, taking the rule over, following the mutiny, which came
after a period of economical and cultural prosperity provided by the
autonomy of a city-state.

Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Fig. 3 Fig. 4

337