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32X

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>

7^

GENERAL HISTORY
OF t H

:^i;'

BRITISH EMPIR
i

AM

Containing,

An Historical, Political, and


Commercial View
of the English Settlements
including all the
Countries in North-America. and
the West;

Indies, ceded by the Peace of Paris.

In

WO

WYNN

E.

V O L U

.V OL.

By Mr.

iff

S.

I.

PATRUM. SERIES LONGISSIMA


l^lTi^J^^'^^
PE^ TOT DUCTA VIROS ANTIQ^J^ aB ORIGINE RERUM
GENTIS.

ViRO.

^N.

I.

641,

LONDON,
Printed for

W. Richardson

and L.

Urquhart,

the Royal-*Exchange.

M DCC LXX.

^^

under

Sir.

fci

ha
th(

tha

isr

fR o D U C T

'~pHE

N.

Briti/h nation,

renowned through
every age. never
gained by all her conquefts even when
her arms fubd.e
F^re'
and thundered at the

J.

gates

of Parirfuc

''''-'^ '^
NoS:t^eS"tUerP"^^""'
Ac-

tmn
tion,

onA to party
and

'
rage, thefe
ipreadlng coIo-

n.esowedthe.rfirniefteftabli(hment.Whenhe
jncther-country was in the
moft deplorable of
Juat,os. when the axe was
laid

of the

fo the root

conft.tut.on.

and

all

the fair bioffoms

trom the bare trunk,


defpoiled of
jours. Ihot forth thefe
blanche,
flock,

where native vigour was


P^^^^^"''""^

'
and^hl''"?
and
h.s unwife miniftry.

all its

hn
'

."

fr

ftiH fcept alive!

o^klng Charles

forced numbers of

h.s fubjeas to feek


abroad that liberty
of con-

fcence they were


denied at home.'
Hap!,
had ,t been for that
unfortunate pdnce.
ifT
had never checked
thefe emigrations.
hofe

of,,

Hadi

,,,_^,^,^^^^^^^^^^^^^
'' ' ^'" ""-='
they would have

that of
Jthe'
. '"'f
the nat.on,

As

->^

eonfidc-rcd
It

INTRODUCTION.

iv
it

good policy,

as

high fpirits take


themfelves in America^
was plain they muft be dependant

their courfe,

where

it

and

to let thefe

fettle

on, and very likely that they would, in


time

become ferviceable to their mother-country.


But they followed other methods and the
i
ruin of the king, together with the
fubverfion of hi" government, chiefly by thofe

vei-y

men whom he

forbade to depart his domi-

nions, were the confequcnccs.

To
.

rebellion fucceeded anarchy, to

chy, a defpotifm

much worfe

anar-

than any the

people had before complained of :yet as


the
oppreffcd party became the vigors, and
ruled
^

every thing at

home, they were

little difpofed
tocolonizej and during the ufurpationof Cromwell, greater numbers returnedfrom America

to

England, than emigrated from England to Ame.


rica.

The

reftoration once

more changed

fcene; patents

and charters were

byK.

II. to

the

freely granted
fuch of his fubjedls as chofe
to fetde in the new world. James II.
reviving

Charles

the perfecution of the diffenters, they Aill


continued to flock thither ; and in his reign,

we

find

the colonies

Convenience,

have done

in

a flourifliing

ftate.

and a love of independancy,

fince the revolution, that

which

per-

fccution

INTRODUCTION.
ftcution did before; and

we now

r>

behold thefe

fettlernents arrived to fuch


a height
as to be able to conteft

cemin

mother-country

of power
points with their

which, it i, a great
pity,,
fhould ever be brought into
difpute!

When

the Spaniards

firft

difcovered

America, they found a


beautiful and
country,

filled

with inhabitants;

SoutbJ
fertile

abounding,

with natural produaions.


and with mines of
hidden treafure. They
depopulated whole regions, flew thoufands of
the inhabitants, and
compelled thoufands to ranfack
the bowels of
the earth for gold, to
gratify
their infatiable

avaHce.-What was the confequence


loft more by this
conduft, than
by

?They

they gained

the riches of Mexico


and Peru ; and
Spain, to this day, has caufe
to curfe the xui
when the new world was difcovered.
all

Their

gold ferves only to enrich

other

nation^

whereas commerce and good


government
would have enriched themfelves
:
their ill-oot.

ten wealth often prove,


an incitement to their

neighbours to

Spam

is

make war upon them

while

perpetually drained of her


inhabi-

tants to people thofe


colonies

mg every

'

which, weigh-

circumftance,

may juflly be fcid to


be rather burthenfome
than fe'rviceable to her.

H ow

:;

wmm

INTRODUCTION.

?i

How

has been the condudt of the

different

They founded

Englifli!

in barren countries

and inclement climes, amidft all the difTicultics


ariling from war, famine, and difeafe, a laft
ing and a flourifliing empire.
They forfook
-

the

fertile lands,

to feek

new

and a favage

the feat of their fore-fathers,

amongft an unknown

habitations
race.

They

cleared^vaft forefts

cultivated, with the fweat of their brow,

and often a thanklcfs

untilled,
njidft

of woods and

defarts, they

an

In the

foil.

ereded towns,

and formed well-regulated focietiesj in the


haunts of wild nations, they eftabliflied good
government and order.
Their habitations
were as cities of refuge to their countrymen,

when labouring under any difcontent at home


mean

more fubftantial benefit accrued


commerce with Great-Britain, than

while, a

from

their

from

all

the Spanifh mines of treafure in the


wealthy regions of South-America.

Never

did fortitude

and magnanimity, ne-

ver did wifdom and found policy Ihine


confpicuous, than in the

America
that

though,

firft fettlers

like

of the colonies

is

all

in

other

fometimcs

more

North-

hillories,

ftained

with blood. There were times, when thofe


who fled from perfecution themfclves became
per fee u tors.

INTRODUCTION,
perfecutors; forgetful of
that liberty for

vli

which

they had fo lately


contended, feme amonij
them fought to deprive their

of the undoubted right


of

feilow-coloniftl

men, to think
freely in regard to
matters of religion.
Hence
arofc troubles and
jealoufies. heart-b.rning,
and

animofities

all

but thefe were not to


laft for
reafon appeafed them,
and /hewed

ever
:

in

a juft light, the abfurdity

of fuch proceedings
Since that period, they
have agreed better
among themfelves, and have
proved ufeful
to

their fellow-fubjefts in
Britain,

unhappy
parties

pent.

conteft arofe,

may have

But

it

is

not

enter into the difpute,

amply confidered
ing
I

which

but too

till

hereafter both

much

my

caufc to re-

defign

which

in the courfe

the late

here

to

be more
of the followwill

flieets.

fliall

fequences

only obferve. that the


worft of con-

muft

neceffarily

ari/

contentions, to the joy of


our
mjes, and to the grief

from fuch

common

of every true

ene-

patriot,

whether in England or in
North- America
and that, as things have
fallen out, it is

well our intriguing


neighbours the French
have at prefent fo little
footing in the
wcftern worjd. They
^ho have ever de.
lighted

r**'

'

Y^i

>

INTRO D

C T

tr

^.

and whoeveif

lighted in fomenting difcord,

looked en our

thofe parts v^ith a

faccenfes in

jealous eye, would doubtlefs have ihewed


themfelves forward enough on this occaiion,
to have taken advantage of the difputes be-

tween Great-Britain and her colonies; and,


in fuch a cafe,

it

is

impeflible to

tell

where

the evil might have ended.


i fhall

conclude

with remarking,

this introdudtory difcourfc,

that,

as

it

is

likely

thefe differences have arii'en rather

take than

many of

from mif-

from deiign, fo nothing


more rathorough knowis

tional to fuppofc, than that a

ledge of each other's interefts,

may

contri-

bute to the reconciliation of both parties, and

be the means of once more uniting them in

them a ladwhich is the lin-

bonds of union, and procuring


ing and undifturbed repofe

for

cere wifli of every true patriot and diiintcrefled Briton,

Ml
I

1;

'

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40

^<i

Ol.

Vi^

BanJt4
leokeut

'^^"i-l*^-

3^

CONTENTS
O

VOLUME

Short
^

view of the conquefls of Mexico


and Peru
Page i 18.

The

Conjedlures on the aborigines of America.

of the difcovery of that country upon


the affairs of Europe
19
25.

effetfls

made by the Englifh


from the reign of Henry the Vllth to that of
26 37.
James the Ift

Difcoveries and fettlements

New-England.

Its

climatej

natural produdions

foil,

cattle,

and

o,^

43.

Nova-Scotia, Newfoundland, &c. The firft


fettlement of thefe countries.
Account of the
weather,

foil,

climate,

the French and Indians.


ifax, and other towns
a 2

&c.

Difputes with

Defcription of Hal-

43

51.

History

pplpwua^wiHii m iOHiini
li

'III

I'

CONTENTS.

Urn

History of New-England and the Chai^teii


Governments, from the forming of the fetNew- Plymouth, 1620, to the founBo (Ion
Page 5158.

tlemcnt at

dation of the city of

From

the eftabliftiment of Bofton to the junftion

of the four provinces of New England into a


with a llcetch of certain
;

general confederacy

peculiar laws and cuftoms

The

attempts of

dians,

Sufferings

Spirit

of the

French to difturb the peace of

England.

End of

the Indians.

the Phi-

^i
firft

ereded, 1679.

cxercifed on the province of

the mother country,

They refume

New

Arts of the

New

war

Places of defence

is

The

7190,

Farther perfecution of the Quakers.


Hoftiiities of

New-Eng-

of the Qiiakers.

witchcraft delufion 1692

lipic

tiieir

70.

colonifts to convert the In-

t;he

Perfecutions.

landers.

58

in

106.

Severities

New-England by

regard to their charters.

charter-government, which

confirmed by king William

107

118,

charter granted to the MafTachufets colonies,

1691.

recital

the Indians
Acadia.

of

it.

Farther difputes with

and French.

CcfTadon of arms

Fxpedition againft

J19

126

Differencj!

II

CONTENTS.
Difference between the old

New-England

ai
charter,

and that granted by king William. Pepredations of the favages.


Their formal fubmiffion
to the crown of England
Page 127 139.

Earl of Ballamont's arrival atBofton, 1699.


fuccefsful expedition againft Quebec 140

Un-

148.

Shute,

governor of New-England.

His com-

plaint againft she colony for invading the royal


prerogative.
explanatory charter in the

An

twelfth year of

George

I.

149, 130.

Burnet governor.

His difputes with the aflembly


for granting the governor a fettled
provifion.

The fame difputes continued with Mr. Belcher.


Regulations with regard to ihip-timber for the
royal navy.
Farther altercations between the
governor and affembly continued to the year
'741
150-157,
Obfervations on the government of New-England.
Peculiarities in its laws.
Foreign trade. Religion.
Police.
Shipping.
City of Bofton.

Manufadures

New-York.

158.170.

vaded by the Knglifh.

by the Dutch. InBecomes an Englifh

fettlement.

belonging

York.

FIrft

fettled

Territories

Burnet governor.

Montgomery governor

The

to

New-

royal charter.

170190.

Cofby

CONTENTS.

Cofby governor.

French and Indians attack the


of John Peter Zenger, a
Nature of the government. Trade
printer.
of the colony. Ofwego.
Prefent ftate of the
Trial

province.

city

pf

New- York.

General

of the pro-

flate

vince

Page 190

New- Jersey.

Great contentions at

the province.

people.

Civil conftitution

Boundaries.

pNSYLVANiA.

State of

Penn.
State
king Charles

the

218,

province.

Mr.

of Philadelphia.

Charter

Fundamental laws.

II.

Settled

and prefent

Some remarks on

Canada, from

225,

by lord Baltimore,

1632.

236

240.

the Indian nations,

its

the furrcnder of

of

Their

219

ftate

tory to the hiftory of

of

202

Handing charter

Its trade

of the pro-

Number

Trade.

Chief towns

Maryland.

fettling

firft

Inftrudions for the government

of the colony.
vince.

202.

Canada

firft

difcovery

Quebec

prepara-

240265.
by Cabot, to
1629

to the Englifh,

265290.
Champlain created governor of Canada.
fion

attempted

in

with the Iroquois

the

Huron

mif-

country.

War

292

206.
Zeal

CONTENTS.

V*

Zeal of the Jefuits to convert the favages.


pofals

for

perpetual

peace

Englifh and French colonies^

of Canada at the

arrival

in

the

1648.

the
State

Page 305^343.
danger of being extirpated by
Baron d*Avaugour appointed
Canada vifited with terrible tem-

fettlers

in

ravages.

governor.
pefts,

meteors,

governor.

and earthquakes.

De Tracy

governor.

flourifhes

Courcelles governor.
difcovery of

nor.

De Mefy
The colonv
344-368.

Frontenac governor.

the Miffiffippi.

that difcovery.

War

between

of the vilcount d'Ar-

genfon

French

Pro-

Le Fevre de

Firft

Profecydon of

Barre goverDeclining Ibte of the colony


^6g~^g^,

with the Iroquois.

la

Denonville eovernor
French 394

Qiiarrel between the Englifh

md

409.

Danger of

the Britifh intereft in

North-America

Treachery of the French.


fort at

Niagara.

Foundation of the
Scheme of the French

to

conquer New-York.
Succefsful depredations
Of the French upon the Englifh
fettlements

40943;.
Chevalier de Villebon promoted
to the command
of Acadia
Attempt of the Englifh
upon
Quebec. Proves abortive.
Parallel between
the conduct of the
Englifh and French

America

in

437455.
Plan

N T

vi

N T

^.

Plan formed by the French for deftroying an En^-^


Treaty with the
li(h fleet, and taking Bofton.
Ridiculous ceremonies attending the
Indians.
'

Page 456484.

treaty

Unfuccefsful attempt of the Englifli againft Port


Royal. Incurfions of the French and Indians
into

New- England.

Another unfuccefsful

tempt of the hnglifll againft Canada 484


Port Royal taken by the Englifli,
Annapolis.

Failure

of a defign

at-

495.

and named
Quebec.

againft

of the treaty of Utrecht upon the affairs


of America. Great preparations in the year
1746 to reduce Canada. Counter-plans of the

Eflfefts

French

495515-

Daring encroachments of the French. Rife of


515 5^^
the late war in America.

tHC

STORY

OF THE

BRITISH EMPIRE
IN

OF

all

the improvements and

ufeful

which the wit of mortals has invented,

of navigation,
eft

efteem, as

it

juftly held

makes commerce

motes and extends the

neds us with

is

benefits

of

A.

arts

that

in the highflourilh,

fociety,

tho^e diftant countries,

pro-

and con-

which muft

odierwife have been feparated from us for


ever.
But now vaft oceans are no longer confidered
as
ftacles; the prevailing induftry

obof men has ren-

dered the boifterous elements fubfervient


to their
purpofej winds and feas have been
obedient to

them;
fcarcely

md

fince

the compafs has been in uie,


any thing has been deemed impoflible
to

bold and perfevering adventurers.

Vol.

I,

J{

BRITISH EMPIRE

ft

It

was not

till

lent invention

the fifteenth century that this excel-

was adopted ; and the utility of it foon

after fufFiciently appeared, in the difcovery

of diftant

lands lying in another hemifphere,with abundance.of


other advantages, which will be enjoyed by lateft
pofterity.

Till this period, people

to direft their courfe

by the

ftars,

were accuftomed
and to make

te-

dious coafling voyages, feldom trufting themfelves


in the main fea, unlcfs compelled by contrary

winds, or unforefeen accidents.

It is fcarcely conceiv-

what pains the Phoenicians and other nations


of antiquity made their voyages and difcoveries, traable with

ded, and Tent colonies abroad.

enabled them to overcome

Perfeverance alone

difficulties

which

at

fijrft

feemcd unfurmountable. The


mixed fables with fads ; and fome later writers would
hiftories

of thofe times

even perfuade us that the continent, which


America, was

known

we

call

to the ancients, before the pep-

ple of Europe, Afia, or Africa, could poffibly be

fuppofed to imagine that there

was

fuch.

a track of

land exifling in the world.

The Portuguefe were the firft Europeans who


made any very valuable difcoveries. They touched at the Azores ; they palled the Equator, and
afterwards failed along the weftern coafl of Africa,
till

they doubled

they gave the

its

fouthmoft cape,

to

which

name of Bona Efperanza* and landed

1493, at Calicut in the Eaft-Indies, under their


famous admiral Vafco de Gama. The fuccefs of
in

i'-

f:

this expedition

gave birth to many others, and

firft
>

N AMER

A.

famous Chriftopher Columbus

infpired the

the notion of undertaking

ended

with

which

an expedition,

of the vafl continent of

difcovery

in the

*,

America.

He

conceived the defign of failing to the Indies

'by fleering weftward, founding his hopes of fuccefs,

on the fpherical figure of the earth.

chiefly

In this he was deceived

but his error produced a

moft valuable confequence. After having in vain


applied to king John of Poruigal, and other jtrin-

had done

ces, as his brother

* This

great

man was

to

Henry VII. of Eng-

defcended from an ancient family in

He

the territories of the republic of Genoa.

had an early

in-

clination to the fea, ftudied navigation in his youth, and mar-

and fettled in Portugal, from whence he traded to the coaft


He is faid to have been greatly encouraged to under-

tied

of GKiinea.

take his expedition to the weftward, by the reports of foveral


mariners,

whom

contrary winds had carried beyond the fiippofed

boundaries, of the
feveral

known

world, and

Some

leagues from the weftern iflands.

one Alonfo Sanchez,

who

declared they had fcen

of land at the diftance of feme hundred

evident tokens

who

died

in his

papers alfo,

houfe in

left

him by

the Tereeras,

which- contained an account of a newly-difcovcred country,


is

it

fuppofed to have confirmed thefe reports.

However

certain, that about the year 1484, he oftcred

is

that

be,

to the

Ge-

nocfe the plan for his intended expedition, with a view, as

have taken notice above, to


ftate

fail

wellward to the Indies.

of Genoa, either through the want of inclination or

ty, rejected his propofal,

whom

it

is laid

it,
"

abili-

as did alfo the court of Portugal, with

he was invited to

matter, but declined

we
The

He
B

treat

a fecond time about the

next fent his brother Barthoio-

Imd,

;;

BRITISH EMPIRE

land, he at length laid his plan

And

open to Ferdinand
king and queen of Spain. It was

Ifabella,

eight years before he could prevril on the court ro

him

At the end of this


with three Ihips from Palos, a port
of Andalufia, but not before he had obtained a
aflift

term he

in his undertaking.

fet fail

patent and appointment of admiral, in fuch parts as


he fhould difcover, and viceroy of countries, whicK

mofl of the. world fuppofed

own

merely in his
mew,

In 1485-,

England.

at that

time to exift

imagination.

to lay his fchcme befofe

This gentleman had

king Henty VII. of

the misfortune to fall into the

hands

t)f pirates,

it \vas

near three years before he was in a condiiion to

and arriving, oppreiftd with poverty and ^ftafe,

make

hi

propofals to that prince,

which however could npt b brought to

bear

engaged

till

his brother had

aajefties

for in

in the fervice

the year i486,

plied to Ferdinand and Ifabella, from

before he

were the

met with

of theiy catholic

ChriAopher Columbus ap-

whom

it

wa a long time

encouragement he deferved,

the

taunts hefuftained

Numberleff
on account of his povfrty, and the

vain fcheraes, aa the courtiers called them, which he was (b bufy


in projeding.

yet many

At

laft,

however, the queen became his patronefi

were

ftarted; one of which w$, tkc expence of the undertaking, though this adventurer offtxei to defray an eighth part of it himfelf,
Thcfe obftaclei at laft giving

way

to his

difficulties

magnanimity and perfeverance, he

third day of Auguft, from Palos with three

which was a decked

veflel

fet fail,

fhips

on the

his

own

and which he named the Santa Maria

a fecond called the Pinta, commanded by Martin Alonfo Pinion, and a third nan?ed the Ninna, of which Vifconti Yanne^

Pinaon was the captain,


V/ith the
.

!!

firft

the

foul wind,

two laft of which were without decksl

which happened on the tzd of Septem-

After

11^

AMERICA.

Afttr an abfence of nine mcmths, in whici ihort

lame he went through

much

more than once been

in

e,

native country, bringing with

American

illands,

he returned to hit

him fome inhabiwhich he had dif-

covered, and to which he had given the

the Weft-Indies,

had conceived

owing

that they

and had

danger of being com-

pelled to renounce his enterpri.

tants of the

vexation,

to

were

name of

the falfe notion


ATiatic

iiles,

he

a notion

which nothing but the adual difcovery of the


main land could convince him was erroneous, Hf
Was received with the greateft marks of rtfpea: by
t?!*, the crew tcgan to murmur, and fopn after
obliged him to
fromife to return again, if he did not difcovcr land
within three
days : pn th? very firft of thcfe they made St
Salvador, (as ip
was afterwards called) one of the Lucayas. They
found there 4
very innocent and fimple people, who told them,
that

the gol(|

they wore about them, tame from a rich kingdom


in the South.
Of this place they took formal poffeffion, in the name of
their
cathoUc majefties, and, departing, difcovcred feveral

otherinands.
time, Martin Alonfo Pinzon, imagining,
from the dif.*
rourfe of fome of the natives, that there
was much gold in Bokio, or Hifpaniola, feparated himfclf from
the other fhips to go In
queft of it; whither the admiral foon
after followed him, and
Was well received by the natives, who made him
prcfents of gold
and other valuable things, and permitted
him to build a fort on
the ifland, where he Ipft a colony of
Spaniards.
Here

About this

h|

his

own

helm

Wa
fhis

ing,

ftip,

by

the careleflhefs of the

man he had pLced

loft

at the

the inhabitants however were very


arduous ;n helping
men and the cargo that was on board

to preferve his

was a great

; yet
him, ai he hid but one veffel now
remain,
be was lamenting ^is misfortune^
and, examin-

lofs to

But wtUe

the

BitlTlSH feMPlftE

the king and queen,

who

honoured him as a gran-

dee of Spain, "nd permitted him to be covered ia


!.

their prefence
!i

who had

and thofe

before treated

with the utmoft contempt were now


to extol them.* The people were loud in

his defigns

the

firft

their acclamations,

and confidered him as the guar-

dian genius of their land.

All eyes were turned upon him with admiration.

fecond expedition

He

place.

propofed, and took

met no longer with

which had attended


fail

was foon
his

thofe difficulties

much

again for the fame parts,

He

preparation.

firft

better fiirniihed

But

difcovered Jamaica and the Caribb^e lilands.


ing the coaft, he unexpeftedly
caravel, the Pinta.

with the natifej,

fiable
fi\

lutlf

own

which

much gold

Haring

Spain with two velfels only.

way

He

fituation,

quitted Hifpaniola,

In his

ufe.

made

Aya really unjufti-

and Cplymbus confideri ig his prefent

to accept them.

for

of which he had diftributed amongft the

frivplous cxcufes for a conduft


;

Martin Alonfo*s

in with

fell

That commander had bartered

feamen, ^nd the other half he took for his

nuny

he

In the courfe of this voyage,

than before.

fet

he

fct

thought
fail

he again loft the

for

cara-.

vel Pinta, in a ftorm which threatened the Spaniards with dcftruction.

At

this time, the admiral

thinking hinjfelf in danger,

wrote fome account of his difcovencs on a


this

he wrapped in a piece of cere-cloth, put

threw

it

flcin
it

into the fca, in order that whatever

of parchment

into a barrel, and

might become of

himfelf, the fruits of this expedition might not be entirely loft.

The wind prcfently after abating, the failors deemed this fome
ad of piety and devotion. Landing at the Azores, the Portu\

if

gucfe behaved very haughtily to

with

much

trouble and vexation

hStt^

on

and his mei\, and he met

this

and other accounts.

In

JNT

AM ER

A.:l

wanted not thofe who envied the


of Columbus, he was maltreated by the
as there

fucceflcs

fpies of
government that were embarked on board his own
fleet, and after having experienced many
mortify-

ing circumflances, was at length brought


It

irons.

that he

by the

was

owed

this difgrace

home

in

of Burgos,

but the queen, moved


Univerfal voice of the people declaring in

and blulhing

his favour,
releafed

chiefly to Fonfeca, bifhop

him ;

at her

own

ingratitude,

much

yet fo

did jealoufy prevail at


the court of Spain, that it was four years before they

him again to depart. This third expediproduced fomething yet more extraordinary than

fuffered

tion

the two former. It was


|us

way he

treated,

now

that he difcovered the

put into the port of Lifton, where he

and from whence he

failed for Spain,

Palos, after an abfence of nine months.


ties

were then

received with the greateft refpeft

of

better

Their catholic majef-

When he came before them, he wa

at Barcelona.

turned thanks to

was

and arrived at

and the king and queen re-

God, in the mbft folemn manner,

for the fucceflea

their admiral.

He

fet

out on his next expedition with more favourable clr-

cumftances.

He

was

aflifted

ceflary for the undertaking

with thofe things which were ne-

bulls \vere obtained from the pope,

confirming the countries already difcovered,

and thofe which


might hereafter be difcovered, in the New World, to the Spanifh
monarch. On the 25th of September,
1495, he failed, with
feventeen Ihips and fifteen hundred men, from the bay of
Cadiz,
and arrived at the Canaries, on the ad of Oaober. Having
taken in wood,

cattle, and fwine, at Gomera, on the 7th


he
continued his voyage to the weftward, having prevloufly
given
inftruiiions to the commanders of each iliip, which
they were

the

BRITISH EMPIltE

oentiiient

kA America, at

fix degrees

dHhttoe

jftoin

the equator. Hearing that there \via a fea on the


other fide, he apprehended his error, In fuppofing

'! I

that the

illes

he had touched at belonged to Afia,

and generoufly owned the miftake


aflertcd the probability that

he
there was a communi:

however,

between the tryo oceans, a proof that he ftiH

cation

kept in view his chief defign, which was that of


(ailing

round the globe, afterwards fo fuccefsfully

attempted

may be
more

and which

it is

not improbable, if

indulged, conjeftures

may be

rendered

we
ftill

eafy in a future age, fince the fituation of the

which divides the weftem from thefouthcrn ocean, (and which is but a very narrow one)
peninfula,

erdered not to opea, unlefs they wete feparatcd from hkn.

way, he took

his

otiier iflands

polTcffion

In

of Marigaflante, Guadahipe, an4

from whence he proceeded to Hifpaniola, whlre

he found the Spanlfh colony deftroyed, the houfcs burned, and


The Cazique with whom he had mad*
all things in confiifion.

^^
\\l

alliance

on

hi former

tiansliad quarrelled

voyage, informed him that the Chrif-

among

themfclvet about gold. and

women;

they had killed one of their companions, and thatfome of

that

them had put themfelres tmder the proteftion of another

who had
l[

treachcroufly

truth of his aflertions,

murdered

them.

To

chief,

prov

the

the Indian produced fome wounds he had

received in fighting to defend his Spaniih allies, and which,

was

plain, wer infli6ted

it

with favage weapons. Leaving this place,

Columbus put into Cuba and Jamaica, the former of which he


coafted round, <> difcover whether it were an ifland or a continent.

An

Indian removed this doubt, and gave

tion of the place.

He

him a

defcrip-

then held on his comfe through ftornn,

thunder, and lightning, and was often in danger from rocks and
is

E
Ihitoe jfrom

IN AMERICA,

1V

IS

not fuch as) In the nature of things^ promifcs a long

'

Tea

on the

now

n fuppofing

11

he
communi-

rwever,

diat he

ft'iH

fuccefsfully

we

jndered

ftill

'

ition

of the

'1

nthefouthlarrow one)

1
9
S
B
H
B
fl
B
jH

,i--{^^HE

fpum hkn.

In

aadahipe, anA
paniola,
s

wh^re

burned, and

a he had
that

madt

the Chtif-

land women;
nd that feme of
another chief.

prov

the

wounds he had

'

':fl
'.^B

hrough ftomw,

^B
^H
^H
^H
^B

from rocks and

^^B

and which,

it

iTing this place.


r

of which he

and or a conti-

him a

defcrip-

aftually feid to exift

neck of land will one day be


by earthquakes, inundationsi or ibme of

dettroyed

thofe dreadful accidents to

which fuch iituations are


Wave this, the paffagc by
Cape Horn, and that through the Itrafts of Magellan were of themfelves fufficient to proVe
Columbus was in the right in the principal point of
his
conjectures, and thd circumnavigation of the
globe
was chiefly owing to the voyages of this ^reat
dlfgenerally liabld.-^ To

vas that of

able, if

from beneath is
and nothing is more

thefe feas

likely than that this

^d to AfoL,

.^ A conflux of

duration.

coyerer.

he died

After

many

toils

In

Ihallows.

from thence

lit

all the hafte

hands,

who

did

brotiier

Bartholomew

him of the

difficulties fie

wis declared admiral; on which

left at the court

of

This gentleman came


At Paris he fidt heard of his

he could to Spain

departed before his arrival.

jefties

illnefs

cxpedifioh.

queft of him.

difcoreaes and that he

who were

irtfdrmed

furtalned^

an

after

voyage he met with His

this

town of ifabella, who


had met with ih his Englifh
at the

made

and dangers

in i^o6, at Valladolid,

He

but

Dn

thf^n vifited his

of Spain and kifled

fte

Chriftopher was

twd ntphews^

their Catholic

ma-

him great honour, and coramiflioned

hini

go with an aid of three (hips in featch


of the admiral.
This was a joyful meeting; ahd
Bartholomew was created
lord lieutenant of the ifles by his
brother, a circumftance whidh
to

did not prove very agreeable^ as it

government,
this

the

who

was

afterwards thought

appointment a war broke

arms and horles of the

oiit

reprefented to the Spanifh

fit

to refent

it;

with the Indians,

Soon

after

whidh
Spaniards gave them the fup6rio%
iri

over their favage enemies, being


obliged to acknowledge th6
authority of their Catholic
majeftles, who v^ere well
pleaCe^

Vol. L

f.W

BRITISH EMPIRE

Vo

a few motoths, leaving behind him t fame fo juftly


acquired as will live to

all pofterity.

Thefe voyages of Cplumbus

laid the firft

found-

Mexico and Penl, By


Hernan Cottes and Francis Pizarro* The for-

ation for the conqueft of

mer of thefe failed, in the year 15 1 9, from the inland


of Cuba, on an expedition to the continent of America which had been already difcovered arid called
by the name of New Spain, He had with hira
fix

hundred men, and a few pieces of cannon.

who had

Spaniard,

been for a long time prifoner

in the country, ferved

an Indian lady
ed by the

whom

Seville,
mu:^;h

who

fuccefs.

fpoke

was

fent as a fpy

upon

fervice-

Neverthelefs there

of him at

ill

at lall prevailed fo far that

unealuiefs,

and

he caufed to be baptiz-

of their admiral's

were not waiitlng thofe

and

for an interpreter,

name of Marina, was extremely

w'lxh the accounts

Sj[)aJn,

him

tlic

court of

John Agiiado, a native of

his adtions,

who wrought him

and, magnifying thofe unavoidable inconve-

niences which arofe from

the

fituation

of the Spaniards in

f^range countrie, where the inhaWtants,

thing in their pov/cr to diftrefs


accounti of them
returning, he

was

now their foej, did every


them, he wrote hoMe difmal

yet Columbus had fo


fitted

much

influence,

that,

out for a third voyage, in which he dif-

covered the continent of America, though one Americus Vefpiifuis, a private adventurer, highly in favour with the bifliop of
Burgos, an enemy to Columbus, dlfputed with him the honour

of

that difcovery,

which has ever

fince

been called after him,

notwithftanding his pretentions were found to be groundlefs.


""hriftopher

jtiui

Columbus was,

after all his great

put in irons at the inftigation, as

it

waa

fervices taken

fuppofed, of the

able

IN AMERICA*
able to him.

He

lii

penetrated after various

adven-

which was a republic; and


he firft met with any material op-

tures as far as Tlafcala,

here

it

was that
The Indians were

polition.

defeated,

and

wards, entering into a treaty with him,

him

to

after-

helped

fubdue the Mexican empire, to whofe gran-

deur they were enemies.

From

thence he advanced (after fome time fpent


meflages
in
to the emperor Montezuma) towards

and

his capital,

at

laft

entered

it

without

refift-

was built upon a lake, and the various


quarters were joined by bridges or caufeways.
It
abounded in fpacious fquares and fine buildings,
and notwithflanding what may have been faid by
ance.

It

D.John

bilhop

de Fonfcca.

But when he arrived, in November

Cadiz having wrinen to the king and queen, they


order* that he ihould be fet at libeity ; and to cover the
ijfOO, at

graceful treatment he had undergon;, recciveti


telling

him

that they

and woidd take care


ceflbry to

it.

court of Spain,

Worn

were much offended at

him

fent
dif-

gracioully,

his confinement,

that thofe ihould be punifhed

who were acHowever he was far from being happy at the


where fo many viewed him with envious eyes.

with fatigue, and tortured with Ingratitude, he fell


fick
where he died, on the 20th of May, in the year

at Valladolid,

1506*
It is certain this great

ner.

were

man

wasaifed in a moft fhameful man-

Before he had difcovered the


treated as ridiculous

difcovered

it,

it

and

New World,

childifli

iVas pretended to

fancies

all his

fehemes

; after

he had
have been known long be-

fore. Being rallied one day by fome courtiers on this


fubjeft in
a vtry unfccmly manner, he called for an egg, and aiked If
any

^2

fome

^mm

BRITISH EMPIRE

la

to the contrary,

fome writers

was

inhabited

by

induftrious, well-tempered, and, in general, a

ai|

civi-*

lized people.

Montezuma

received Cortes with an

complaifance, and he and his

Some

the city.

men were lodged

however

difputes

affe(fled

arifing

in

between

the Indians and the Spaniards, fome of the latter

were

llain

on the road

one of them

Mexico, and the head of

to

Montezuma, who approved,

fent to

had fecredy given orders for the adtion, in

and

which, however,

were routed, though

his troops

with the lofs of three or four of his enemies. The


Mexicans had already found that thefe adventurers

were

not, as their

firft

appears^ce had led them to

immortal, and Cortes

began to be very
uncafy when he was informed of what had pafled,
believe,

of the company could


they anfwered,
liimfelf,

It

fet it upright

Ihell,

it.

not doubt it," replied Columbus

**

thought of

I firft

**

every miferable pilot can find his

faid,

And

thus

it

was

it

and inunediately perfcmi-

>\ny tody might have done

ed

It.

?When

was ImpoiUble, and that he could not do

he gravely cracked the

They then

on the fmaller end

It.

do

and yet none of you

that I difcovered the Indies.

conceived the defign of fteering that courfe, and

way

now

thither as well as I,

**

There are many things that appear eafy when once per-

*'

formed,

which before were

*'

ought to

refleft

*'

defign, before I put

on the
it

thought

feoffs

In execution."

extremely commended by the king


admire the

'

man whom he had

impracticable.

I fuffalned

on the

fcore

You
of

my

This fmart reply was

who

affe^ed greatly to

(9 inadequately contributed to

fupnort.

He

IN AMERICA.
He now

feized

the emperor in his

own

palace,

caufed him to be bound, and, by alternate threats

and

intreatips,

even to confent to become his pri-

He pbliged him afterwards

foner.

who had

thofe

A tribute

that he held his empire of Charles V.


alfo

up

to give

attacked his people, and to acknowledge

was annexed

to this

homage; and by

this

ftep the Spanilh general fecured himfelf in the very

midft of enemies.

peribn

was

was of

The

polTeffion

his fureft lafe-guard,

life to

him on many

of the emperor's

and his countenance

occafions.

ceeding, however unjuftifiable,

was

^This pro-

certainly a very

prudent one, and contributed the moft of any thing


he had atchieved to the conqueft of all Mexico.

In tht mean time Velafquez, the governor of Cuba,

fent

whofe

men

Pamphilo de Narvaez

fuccefs he envied,

as

had firft landed

againft

Cortes,

with almoft twice as many

in

Mexico.

But

thefe, that

able general, taking the advantage of the night and

ftormy weather, attacked and routed, making the


poijimander prifoner, and bringing over the remains

own party. He incorporated them


own men, and marched back to Mexico,

of his band to his

with his

where he found the eighty Spaniards he had

left

to

guard Montezuma, befieged in their quarters by


the whole force of the city, in revenge for fome cruelties

the former had committed on the inhabitants.

The approach of

Cortes, at this critical jun<flure

with fuch a reinforcen^ent, altered the face of affairs,

and enabled the Spaniards to gft upon the


oitenfive.

BRITISH EMPIKE

j4
offenfive.

"

Several engagements enfued, in

all

of

which the Mexicans were worfled. At length,


Montezuma was killed with a ftone, thrown by
one of his own fubjed:s, while he was harangiiing^
jind endeavouring to appeafe, the jullly enraged
I

multitude.

To

this

elected

monarch fucceeded Guatimozin, a prince

who

by the people,

power of a brave

chief

did

all

that

it

was

in the

unhappily fituated to

fo

doj for the expulfion of the invaders.

Pefperate

were fought, and the Spaniards were more


than once on the verge of deftrudion. They were
at laft obliged to quit the city, and retreat towards
Tlafcala, in which attempt they fucceeded, b\it
battles

not without

After they had got clear of the

lofs.

caufeways, they engaged, on the other fide


inountains, the

whole

ed them, and took

their royal ftandard.

returned with frefh

forces

Then

for

they

from Tlafcala, where

the brave general of the republic Xicotencal,

put to death

the

force of the empire, defeat-

was

a patriotic defign which he had

formed of not fighting

for

the enemies ^of his

country.

The Mexicans now

fought upon the lake, but

nine Spanifli boats, with three hundred foldiers on


board,

defeated

five

thoufand of theirs,

which

contained ten thoufand men, and Cortes attacking

them at the fame time from the caufeways, once


more won his way into the city. After many obfti-

nate difputes, the Spaniards proved at lad the victors*

t6M> jUAd Guatimozin v;^i taken, as h^


vourihg, by the

way of

was tMetL*

the lake,

to efcape from
This unhappy prince was aftenvardi
hufTiitd %\Wq, by order of the king of Spain's trea*
furer, being accufed of the extraordinary crime of

Ihe city*

toticeaitng his

own

gold from the invaders.

He

bore his tortures with becoming fortitude, anddied,

had

as ht

lived, like

a great prince and a brave

man.

Thus was
by

fix

the whole empire of Mexico flibdued


hundred Spaniards, a circumftance fufficient

to raifi the admiration of the world.

But eight

years afrer Corps's expedition, Francis Pizarro

and
Diego d'Alniagro, undertook one of the fame nature,
by way of the South-Seas, and fubverted the empire of Peru, as their fore-runner had done that of
Mexico. This kingdom, for a number of years, had
been governed by a race of abfolute princes, called

Yncas,

who were

at

the reformers, afterwards

firlt

fovereigns of the people.

The

ancient Peruvians,

(according to the traditions related by their pollerity) lived in

woods and caves, were favage and barba-

rous, ufed promifcuous

man

flefli,

and

copulation,

differed in

from the brutes. At length a great

among them, who

devoured hu-

nothing but their form


legiflator arofe

called himfelf the defcendant of

whom he firft ereded temples, and paid


divine honours.
He drew his countrymen from
their wUd abodes, eftablilhed cities, and focieties,
the fun, to

perfuaded

'

4
;

SRITISH EMPIRfi

i6

perfuaded fome, and afterwards by their help


pelled others, to

mane.

long line of

The

hira.

become more

twelfth

civilized

his fucceflbrs reigned after

Ynca was named Huayna CaThefe prince, of

pac, the father of Athabalipa*


legiHators

com*

and hu-

had become conquerors, and the

Ynca had fubdued Q^to.


fon, Athabalipa,

In

who had

this city, his

laft-

fecond

takeh his brother the

was found at the head of near forty


thoufand of his own foldiers, armed with darts and
long pikes of gold and filver.
Pizarro feot by
his interpreters to treat with Athabalipa, but re*
Ynca,

prifoner,

ceived no very friendly anfwer from the king,

thought with juftice that he had


pleafed with his

them

new

whq

reafon to

be

However, he gave
and mef-

a meeting, after feveral cmbaffies

fages had pafled; and,

he might

come

guefts.

little

what dreadful

notions foever

entertain of thefe invaders, he

feemed to

well provided againft the worfl^ as he

attended

by

fo great

The Spanilh

was

an army#

general, having difpofed every thiftg

for his reception, fent father Vincent de Valverda,

him upon the benefits of the chriftian


which was aukwardly done by the prieft,

to harangue
religion,

and

ftiU

whom

more aukwardly
the

Spaniards

interpreted

called

equally bafe and ignorant.

much

in the

little refpe(ft

by an Indian

Philip,

who was

Athabalipa being as

dark as ever, confequently fhewed but


to do^ftrincs

he did not underftand, and

which.

n
wkicbi

AM ERIC

.1

if they

had been never

Ai

-,

fo well explained,

were

certainly too prematurely delivered.


crca^ this naifunderOandmg, a
tumult

To

in-

arifmg on

ccount of the chriftians otfering to


feize an idol
adorned with gold and precious Hones.

The

turbancc alarming the father, he


quire into the caufe of

it ;

made

dif-

hafle to in-

and interpofmg among

the Indians and Spaniards,


the crofs and breviary
between them were thrown to the
ground. The

Spaniards immediately crying our,


that thefe holy
thmgs were profaned, fell upon
the Indians

and

routedthem, without the

own

with his

of a man. Pizarro
hand, pulled the Ynca from
his lit!

and made him

ter,

ceived a flight

lofs

prifoner, in doing

wound from one of

which he

own

his

who was
all

'I

re-

people

equally eager to fe'ze him; and


this
the chriftian blood flied upon
the occafion,

was

while

the poor harmlefs Peruvians


were flain .ike flieep
till the conquerors
were tired
killing them.

them not

Some

to fight

it

fay,
is

with purfuine and


had ordered

their prince

more probable,

and aftonifhment which .the


horfes,
and above all the fire-arms,
had

them of
be,

It

fpea

the

armour,

infpired, deprived

all

thoughts of defence.

was a bloody

mafTacre, and

dif^ace on the perpetrators


of

made

the dread

prifoner,

was

it.

However

that

refleds eternal

Athabalipa beinof mock re!

treated with a kind

even after this misfortune,


it \s faid,
he fent
orders to put his brother
(the lawful heir to
the
empire) to death, which was
tlie
:

worft

Vo..

I.

a<ftion

of

llT

m^'^tm

BRITISH EMPIRE

ll
his

In other rcfpefts he deferveck not the hit

lifcw

which attended him ;

I!

for in the end, failing in his

promife of giving a moft enormous ranfom for

he was on various pretences condemned


to be burned, but obtained the favour to be ftrangled firft, on confenting to be baptized, and own*
his liberty,

ing himfelf a chriftian.

many

After the death of Athabalipa,


arofe about the fucceffion,

difputeS

in the end,

which,

feM

upon Manco Capac. This Ynca was ill-treated


and imprifoned by the Spaniards, from whom he
found means to efcape, and gave them much trouble.
if

circumftance at ihat time happened, which,

duly attended

to,

might have given

This was no

a chance of expelling the invaders.


other, than

lieutenant
ties.

a difference

this prince

between Pizarro and

Almagro, which produced open

decifive battle,

his

hoftili-

fought under the walls of

Cufco, gave the viftory to Pizarro, and Almagro


was executed. The Ynca had dilbanded his army,
infancy of thefe

the Very

in

the Peruvians

loft

troubles;

fo

that

that opportunity of ftruggling

once more for their freedom, the


they have fmce moft feverely

lofs

of which

Pizarro was af-

felt.

terwards affaflinated in his palace by fome of the


partizans of his deceafed enemy.

And

thus ended

the lives of the conquerors of Peru.

The greateft part of Chili was reduced, andtheSpanilh

new

laws eftablilhed through


world.

The

all this

quarter of the

cruelty of the viAors, and the oppreflions,

si

ii

N AM

-^I

prcflions

E R

A,

19

of the vanquifhcd, arc too well

be here expatiated on

if

known

to

aded ujwu

the former had

of humanity and true policy, they might


have faved whole deluges of blood, and rendered rhefe
principles

acquifitions infinitely
It is

more

ufeful to their poffleObrs.

remarkable, that the race of

men

ing the continent of America, feemed to


in

minds and perfons from

inhabit-

differ

both

whofe

their invaders,

looks as well as their arms, ftruck a terror into

At

their hearts.

on account of
rage;

they believed

them

changed

unexampled

one error

them to be

to be gods,

their fuperior genius, fkill,

one would have imagined,

riencing their

'

firft

for

confound mankind.

that after expe-

they had only

cruelties,

and

another,

deftroying daemons,

and cou-

fuppofed

commiflioned to

Arts were indeed cultivated

Mexico and Peru, and even war itfelfwas reduced


to fome kind of rule ; yet how did the weaknefs of
in

thefe people expofe

itfelf, in

fuffcring as the\

deflrudiion of their country

dividing

themfelves

into

Nay,

tl

'ul,

the

i^Tuvians,-

two panics, fought

againft each other, lifting under the banners of Pi-

zarro and Almagro, their conquerors.


this

might

arife

How far all

from a defcd of aature, or

how

from the ftrength of prejudice, and the dread


firft impreffed upon their fpirits, may be
worth the
far

ferious confideration of a philofopher.

One would

be led to imagine nature to be alike indulgent to


all the fons
of Adam ; yet in fome there is at
leaft an apparent conftitutional, inferiority.

'

This

It,.

BRITISH EMPIRIE

to

This Inflexion naturally leads to the confideration|i


of what {lock the inhabitants of the new world*

how America

fprung from, and

a queftion which cannot


continent
reft

is

feparated

on all

The

of the globe.

eafily

\vas

firft

peopled,

be decided,

fides by

if

that

oceans fi-omthe

difcovery of a north-weft

palTage, would be likely to throw fonae light upott


this ; and it has at feveral times been unfuccefsfully

owing

attempted, perhaps

in thofe latitudes

weather

The
is

to the inclemency of the

where

it

was fought for*

Ruffians have generally furmifed that America

joined to the main land on the north-eaft, or at

leaft feparated

from

it

by a very narrow

ftrait.

HoW'-

ever, according to the niceft examination of the


matter, it appears that there is a vaft diftance

boundary of the Tarwhich they fuppofe it to


paffage by the north-weft to

between the north-eaft


tars

and

join.

California, to

That

the fea

there

fuch an one as
ficulty

other fide the globe,

on the

hio-hly probable

is

though whether

may be

and danger,

is

ftill

feems

will prove-

it

navigated without great difa queftioji

more

indeter-

minate.
If there be a connexion on any quarter with oitf

world, then will

it

no longer be a problem

was peopled

how

the

nO
Andfhould
fuch jiindtion, it will remain a debate.
we fay with a celebrated writer *, that men were

weftern continent

but

if

there be

M.

de Voltaire.

placed

IN AMERICA.

21

America by the fame power, who caufed


and plants to fpring up there, it is likely the

pli^ced in
trees

anfwer would not prove a very

fatisfadtory one.

Inthefirft place, the only hiftorian *, who


given us any rational account of the creation,

has
tells

we all fprang from one man and one woman> who drew theit firft breath in the eaft. How

us, that

then did theh* defendants migrate to America in


early times, before the ufe of the compafs w^s

known

But

if

we

fliould pafs over this difficulty,

and fuppofe with fome f , that this track of land


for fome ages to the continent of Alia,

was joined
ftill

We

another obftacle remains.

are informed
both by facred and profane writers, that about two
thoufand years after the Mofaic account of the creation,

happened a mighty

the dwellings

all

la^ds,

if

which overthrew
and feparated thefe

flood,

of men,

ever they were joined.

If they never

* Mofes.
Bifliop Bumet in Lis Theory of the Earth, has laboured
to
prove, that at the creation, the fea was Ihut up in the
bowels of

Ae

which was

earth,

in all parts

without mountains or valleys


tries Oft

one fmooth, continued

and, confequently,

all

furface,

the coun-

the face of the earth were connefted together in one


till the deluge, when by a violent
concuffion,

continued line,

:^e

fountains of the great deep were broken up^ the whole


earth overflowed, vaft continents rent afunder, iflands formed,

l!

and vari-

ous parts of the glohe for ever feparated from each other.
hypothefis

were,

it

This

from being received as a true one; but if it


would be infufficicnt to accounj for the peopling of
is far

America, as

is

fhewn above,

1(1

.!.

were.

0k.^^-:*m^

BRITISH EMPIRE

22
11

were, then the Americans, fuppofing them to havd


exitted from the creation, and even granting thatj

perhaps

is

more than ought

be granted) could

to

Adam.

n&ver have been the fons and daughters of

But

we

defcend from this height of fpecula-

more common
circumftances, we may reafon in this manner;
America was at firfl feen by accident* why might
accident likewife ? - If
it not be peopled by
and
one
woman
were fufficient to (lock all
man
one

tion,

if

^*'

(which

deluge extended not to their world,

the

and attribute the matter

to

why may we

Europe, Afia, and Africa,

not al-

low, that a few perfons driven by contrary winds


to the fourth quarter of the Avorld, might produce

the fame effedt there


defcendants of thefe

any one

who

ihift for their

when

If

it

could

underftands

an anfwer.

return

be

Jifked,

forget

human

nature,

When men

are

fubfillance

how
may

well

obliged to

woods and

in

the

their origin ?

wilds,

they have no opportunities of converfation

and improvement,

and

all

their

wits

are

em-v

ployed in defending themfelves from the inclemencies

of

of the weather, and providing the neceflaries

life,

it is

eafy to fuppofe they will, in time, for-

get the ufe of thofe faculties they ceale to exert, and

may not remember


came. The anceflors of

thus the fucceeding generations

from whjit flock they


the Mexicans,

we

are told,

were wild and favage

own

the Peruvians, according to their

traditions,

lived

IN AMEHlCA.t
lived

m rocks and

and civilized by

caves,

till

the Yrcas.

23

drawn from

And all

tfehce^

might have
fuppofmg thefe people to
have been
dnven thither from any ftrange country.
Forgetful of their origin, men like
beads may
been

this

rfie cafe,

deafne-

rate,

fomc

till

faculties, calls

once more

but what
will

The

But

to us.

is it

all

- There

fepine

this; yet

one

riueflion
I

are beafts in America,


traces tan
be found'

no

inhabitants

had never feen horfes.


world produces certain

own

their

nothing

exiftence

Europe.

awakes

them from their favage


haunts, and
them for fociety. There is

natural in

arife.

ftill

whofe

fits

is

exalted genius

;.

of
in

of Peru and Mexico

On

the contrary, the


ne^tr
creatures which are
ftranee
impoffibi: ':hat there are
fuch in

our

world, in parts

,,.own, or that they


may
have exifted, at fome former period
of time, in Aiia
Africa, or even in Europe itfelf
? It is a'
general
received
tindt

notion,

fince

that

no

the creation

fpecies

yet

it

is
is

entirely
certain,

exthat

wolves which formerly were fo


plentiful in England and Wales, are no where
to be found in
the
Britifh

dominions.

from an
nent? If from one
is

evident,

ther ?-^If

we may

m earneil,

in

Africa,

that a

we

fpecies

then

may

perilb

it

why not from a conti^


continent, why not
from anoifland;

believe a celebrated
author to be
fays of the interior
parts of
find by the account
which he gives

what he

fliall

whole race of men arcm danger


of ihariag
the

If
J.

'

<l

14
h

BMTISH

the (ame fate *, which

if

EMPIllfi

is

more

ftill

extfaofcfoifif*

But it is urged, that the men as well a* l^^fUls,


found in the weflern world, are, in many refpe^,
-^
different from thofe under our own hemifpher^,
Are not the Eaft Indians and the Europeans, the
Pcriians and the CaiFre Negroes as different? Do
not the HotMntots appear in fome refpcdts as another fpecies of men ? Yet it is highly probable, all
thefe defcended

from one

common

The

parent.

fame then may be the cafe with thi Americans,


whofe differing foil and climate, and other outaccidents might occafion the variation, ob-

ward
ferved.

All thefe, indeed, are but conjeftures; yet in cafes


this kind, probability in

of

an hypothelis

However

can reafonably be expected.

of

all that

this

vail:

certain that the natives

was peopled, it is
inhabiting Mexico and Peru, had formed

continent
t

is

it,

themfelves into

and were

far

focieties,

civil

cultivated the arts

One

from being unhappy.

thing

*
**

M.

there

de Voltaire fays,
is

a race,

**

In the interior parts of Africa

though very few

in

number,

of

little

men,

are as white as fnow, with faces like thofe of the na-

who

<*

groes, and round eyes,

tiidge."

exa^ly refembling

thofe

of a par-

Expatiating more fully on the matter, in another

he fays, that the neighbouring nations are continually deA white


ploying them, and their race is likely to be cxtinft.

place,

ncFTDC female anfvcring


:n En-^land
tfn
-IL

^im^:

whether

(lie

this defcription,

has been often fliewn

be of this race remains yet to be dc-

mined.

however,

Itewlwtr

& t6

W bbftiwd,

o ih |tt

weft

sttfcottits,

ftbty^nitirtl^i'

C^e,
t^mm,

^ of

Ftru,

d^^W tat^ peopia

iH

their

&dMt of

be

vKiicIl is thai kccordi

thefe

imptovementt

Athabalipa,

wai but

the

the

fiftfce

firft legiflators,

whd

If

^ ftAt of barbfirifm | a circumftance favourable to the opinions here deliwiedi


Mte'^ ^e peopling of thofe partal bore a date cofi-cMtt

*Val with the creation,

much

been
caiis

ftill

it is

likely they

continue \vild, and are perhaps of a


it is

tb the l*artars

nor

may owe

whofe favage manners

m^^
^e difcovery

is

it

quit6

their origiii
at leait fcenl

to thttri.

of America and fending colonies

thithd: occafioned

many

alterations in the fyftem

Europe.

politics throughotJt

cd bulls dividing the

The pope had

territories fettled

drawn

to the

Eaft

of

grants

by the Per-

tuguefe from thofe difcovered by the Spaniards


lines

ftill

prefumed would

been diredly the reverfe ;

impOilSMe that thtft people

fo

would havs

The North-Ameri-

fooner civilized.

!at6t origin, otherwifc the cafe

feiVe

by

and Weft;, but thefe

were perpetually broken through,

and by the

voyages afterwards made to the South Seas, render-

ed

ufelefs

and

at laft

The

ridiculous.

among whom Sir

Francis

completed

Drake

circum-navigators;'
ftands

the defign of

firft

in fame,

Columbus, and

brought the Europeans acquainted with the lituation of other nations and thi?ir own.
Gold and

Vol.

I.

s>

maturit)r:^^Huayt

filver

li'^tft***'

BRITISH EMPIRE

26
filvcr

became

plentiful, trade flouriflied^

things affumcd a different

and

all

face from whatithey had

done a century before. The indefatigable labours


and laudable fpirit of a few found employment
happincft,
for numbers, miniftered to the eafe and
and, in procefs of time, to die luxury and extrava-

gance of nations.

The

continent of America,

45 degrees of Weft

lies

between 35 and

80

longitude, and between

It is
degrees of North, and 58 of South latitude.
great
Weft;
the
by
bounded on the fide of Europe

and on the oppofite fide by the Pacific


Ocean. Its foil and climate are various, according
to the different fituations of its provinces, ibme of

em

Sea,

which exhibit the

raoft

enchanting fcenes of beauty^

while others are barren and defart;


but thefe latter are much more rare to be found than

and

fertility,

the former

and

this fpot,

taking

it

altogether,

may

^e confidered as a very agreeable country, well furniflied with the neceffaries, and even the luxuries
,:r^.
life.
jHaving already given a fummary of the difcovcries of Columbus, and the conqueft of Mexico

of

and Peru by the Spaniards, which


a proper intfodudtion to this work,
is

I conlidered as

as their hiftory

fometimesconneded with that of our own colonies.


main
(hall now proceed in the profecution of my

defign,

which

is

to prefent the reader with an ac-

count of the Britiih Empire in North America.

Our

IN AMERICA.
Our

colonics in thefe

difcontented, and driven

by

peopled by

parts

from

a?

men

homes
fortunes, or by

their native

religious perfecutions, defperate

a paffion for novelty and extraordinary undertakeings,

will afford a great field

If we confider at

improvement.
time, wealth,

formed,

what

country,

we

how

ufe

thefe infant colonies ^yere

have
at

proved

to

rejected

firil

the

their

motheranceftors,

be ftruck with n^onder and


The patience and induftry of the firft

certainly

their perfeverance

diftreflfes,

and the noble

under

fpirit

difficulties

deferve the greateft

a lading memorial

in

and

they exerted in eftab*

lilhing thcmfelves in thefe remote parts,

tahily

and

what expcnccof

greatly they have increafeo, and of

they

amazement.
fettlers

and labour,

which

muft

for reflexion

moft cer-

commendations; and

hiftory,

doubtedly tranfmit their names

which

\\'ith

will un-

honour

to lateft

pofterity.

was to the enterprizing genius of a Raleigh that


we owed the firfl peopling of our colonies in North
America, At the fame time, it is to be obferved,
It

whatever might be the extenfive comprehenof that great man, in regard to commercial
interefts, moft of thofe who undertook to
fettle in
that,

fion

thefe parts

were

vaft fortunes

infpired

with the hopes of gaining

by gold and

and other mineral


produdions, nor forefaw thofe greater and more certain advantages,

filver,

which proved,

reward of their unconquered

fpirit,

in the

end, the

and unremitted

labour,

North

\f

w^

I"

jfirft
North America, properly fo caUc4i
for
th^
Cabot,
Kngfilh,
difcovered by Sebaftian
for nwpr
but
remained
VU,
of
Henry
reign
in the
It w^
a century unclaimed and uncultivated.
renowped
the
that
Rih
year
the
until
1584,
not

Icigh

mand

fitted

firft

went on

flior

CPW*
Amlcks and Barlow, whp

on an

And forae

of America.

iiland

near the

contifjeRt

time afterwards ppfle^pn

was taken of

part of the continent, undqr the na,m^

of Virginia

beftowed on

title

m. hopo^i qf

it

who

the maiden queen, Elizabeth,


i!

out certain ihips, upder

of the captains

at

tl^at

time

fwayed the fceptre. Roanoke was tl^e name, of tkf


It was fitu^i^sd near
ifland on which they landed.
Albemarle,
m Npi^h iQ^ch
the mouth of the river
lina.

They carried on a

trade with the inh^biti^t%

and returned, brining with them two of the n*.


tives; but made no attempts towards fettling^
colony.

However, in April the next y^^r,


was encouraged to attempt a

Richard Grenville

^ir
fe-

cond expedition with feven Ihips, under the avifpiceg


He arrived
of him who had planned out the firil.
at the ifland

of Wokokoii, with the

his veffels.

From hence he went

but

plundering

to quit the

fliore

to

of one of

an Indian town was

obliged

with precipitation, and dired

his courfe towards Cape Hatteras.

^d over

lofs

to the continent}

There he

paf*

Roanoke, where he placed a colony of ao

hundred men, and from thence returned


Captain L?me,

whom

he

left at

to

England.

the head of the

fet-

tlemeut,

AMER

tiementi proceeded to

continent of America
fruitfefs

make

A.

t^

his difcoveries

on the

but the Indians, after fomc


oppofition, retired, burning their corn-fields,

9f4 defo)ating

their country

they

grew jealous of

who, as they advanced, had every


thing to fear from the favage inhabitants.
Lane
however proceeded, and being perfuaded by

the Engliih,

<!

Win-

an Indian prince, that he might meet with


great treafures near the fource of the river
Morogina,

|ock, failed

t,

up

ii

that river in boats, but failing in


point of provifions, and not being fupplied by
the

Indians,

who difappeared as

fall as

he advanced, he

returned, with his half-familhed crew, in great


diftreft

tptheiUand, Meanwhile,

his falfe friend

&m

Win-

amufed him with vain hopes, at the fame


tmc that he was in reality employed in concluding
treaties

with the other Indian nations, for the

extirpation of the Englifh.


difcovered,

colony

was

Sir Francis

and

and
in

his

perfon fecured

danger of deftrudion,

Drake

arrived

on the

harrafled as they were, they

inclinations to fettle

went on board the


England.

total

His defign was indeed


;

yet the

when

coaft.

little

happily

Wearied

had no longer any

on the inhofpitable Ihore, but


fleet and gladly fet fail for

They had not long been gone, when


Grenville arrived there with three

Sir

fliips.

Richard

Though

he found no traces of his countrymen, yet he


had
the boldnefs to leave fifteen men, vidualled
for
years,

upon the

two

illand.

Iq

<

^1

BRITISH EMPIRE

30

Ih 1587, Raleigh equipped three other ihipi, on


board which were an hundred and fifty adventurers.
Thefe he incorporated, by the name of the Borough
of Raleigh in Virginia.
conftituted governor,

in

One captain White was


whom, together with a

council of twelve perfons, the legiflative

power was

after a difficult paflage, arriving tt

Thefcj,

veiled.

Roanoke, found no other marks of the colony

by

there

man who had

been murdered by the Indians^

and a houfe which had been

Anxious

tlers.

men, and

to

know

unhappy

thefe

they were

after,

b^n
caped

by the

firft fet-

the fate of their country-

all

manner of

j^erfons;

and

inquiries

fome

lime

had

informed feven of them

by the

killed

built

fome meafure doubtful what might

in

prove their own, they made


after

left

Richard Grenville, than the fkeleton of

Sir

favages, and the reft

had gone over to another

whc>

iiland near

ef-

Cape

and were never heard of afterwards.

Hatteras,

The

colony of which

ing

into

hoftlUties

ans, found

are

now

fpeaking, enter-

with the neighbouring Indi-

neceflary to fend their governor to

it

England, to

we

follicit fupplies,

trouble in obtaining.

He fet

which he had much


fail

with a reinforce-

ment, on his return, but being attacked "by a great


ftorm, he put

were

left to

back again

to England.

The

fetrlers

themfelves, and periihed to a man,

Thus, for
unhappy perfons

fomine,

or the fword of the enemy.

want of

a proper attention, thefe

loft their liv^s

an4

th^ir

by

countrymen, for the prefent.

i If

ft

hopes of eftablilhing colonics on the


North Eaft continent of America.
In 1602, however, the captains Gilbert
and Gefnold failed from Plymouth, to that part of
Virginia
called New England, and built a fort
on a
fent, all their

little

which they named Elizabeth;

iHand,

but, quarrel-

ing with the Indians, it proved only a


trading
voyage, the profits of which defrayed the
expence
of the undertaking. Another enterprize, of
like

was fet on foot by Mr. Hacluit, prebendary


of Briftol, which met with the like fuccefs.
In
nature,

1605, the lords Southampton and Arundel fent a


Jhip to Hudfon's River, under captain

but

his

men kidnapping feme of

Weymouth ;

the Americans*

the intent of the voyage, to plant


colonies,

was

fruftrated.

Thus mu'jh of time and labour was thrown away


in fruitlefs undertakings

but in the year 1606, a

company of gentlemen and merchants obtained


a
patent to raife a fund for attempting

ments

in Virginia.

obtained,

and

it

was

As

new

fettle-

to Raleigh*s grant, beforeforfeited when he was attainted,

neceffarily reverted to the

who has

crown.

Every one

read the Englifh hiftory mull be


acquainted
with the charader of that great man,
his enter*

prifmg

and the barbarous treatment he received from King James I.


The fpirit of trade
and colonization however, which was
fpirit,

ftirred up
in the people, notwithftanding
their repeated difap-

pointments, ftUl fubfiiled, and the


body of

men

above-

BRITISH EMPIRE

If

were incorporated ilnder thd


names of the London and Briflol Com^ftoies. M.
the head of the latter were Sir J. PdphaiA^ chief
juflice, and Ferdinand Gorget, govcmoir. of Ply*
above-mentioned

mouth ;

Sir

Thomas Yates, and

mers were likewife ading men in

About an
fell,

Sir

Geor^ Sum*

this undertaking^

hundre^^ ^venturers fet out ta tJtree

under the

command of captain Newport,

yd^
fur*

with every accommodation that could be

niihed

They came

thov^ht necellary for their purpofe.

10 an anchor in the bay of Cheffapcak, at the latter

end of April,

in

party of Indians,

bad weather, and

whom

fell

in

with a

they had the good fortunt

to defeat; and the next day, entering

the town^

received their fubmiflions.

On

their departure

had received
ternal

from England, the colonic

fealed inftruftions relating to their in-

The

government.

time was

now come

la

which they were to be opened. This was done ia


full afleiiibly ; and fome caufes of difpkafure tQ
particular perfons were occafione^. by the contentfof them, and the
this

was

in

refult

be expected.

In

all cafes

be oftended, becaufe
I Ihall not

of the fubfcquent eled:ion

fome meafure no more dian what might

however

all

of this nature, fome will

cannot be alike preferred,

flop to expatiate

on

thefe griev-.

ances, but proceed to the more interefting parts o

the hiltory *.

'the names of the council were,

ui;it

Bartholomew Gcfnold,

Edward WinglieW, Chriftopher Newport, John^Smith, John


Mr. Wingfield
RatcliS^ John Martin, and George Kendall.

The

IN AMERICA.
The

emigrants

ncighboring

now began

Indians,

and

to

n
with the

treat

obtained

leave

to
build a fort, and ercft houfes
on a Cpot near the
river

called

Powhatocj-tfiis little eftablilhment


they
James-Town, and gave the river the
Englifh

ri

name of James-River

likewife; but, notwithftand-'


ing all thefe negociations,
they foon found themfelvcs fubjedted to the
attacks of the favage
inhabitants i and, in
confequence, were obliged

amend their fortifications, and


more upon their guard.
to

to put themfelvcs

After having proceeded in


the necefla
ches of agriculture, the
fleet

back agam

men

being

was

y bmn-

ached
hundred anu four
James-Town. Thefe had not
dii>

to England, one
left in

remained there long before


they found themfelves
reduced to great necefTity,
and alike purfued by
difeafe and by the fword.
Several people of con,
fequence perifhed, and the
colony was in the utmoft diftrefs, when they
thought fit to chiife
their rejected

who
trieve

member. Smith,

accepted the

office,

for their prefident

and endeavoured to

their almofl ruined


fortunes.

the Indians with various


fuccefs *
wa. chofen

prefident, and

Smith

left

He
;

re-

enRaged

and, by fre-

out of the council

though

hey had received from


England.
'^"^' ^"gagements he

nalv'""',f
nauves, and being

VoL.

condemned

to die,

wastakcn prifoner bythe


was pr.lerved by

the gene-

in

^m^'

BRITISH EMPIRE

34

quently defeating thei^, kept \\p the fitiking co-

But the villany of fome, and the

lony.

of others, together with

many

accidental caufes all

working together, contributed again

At

colony to the lowefl ebb.

careleffncfs

to fink the

a patent

laft

was

obtained for the appointment of a governor, with

and more authority th^n before.


Lord Delawar was pitched upon for this purpofe j
who conftituted Sir George Summers, Sir Thomas
greater privileges,

Yates, and captain Newport, his deputies.

with nine Ihips

fet fail

five

eight of thefe,

hundred perfons, got

nors,

was Ihipwrecked on

meanwhile
able,

fafe to Virginia

on board of which were

ninth,

who

thofe

They

with near
;

but the

deputy-gover-

th-:

the iilands of

Bermudas

were rendered un-

arrived

by party-divifions, to do any fervice to their

countrymen or
baleful

and

head,

continued

ftill

their abfolute deftrudion

ftroying fword

Difcord reared her

themfelvcs.

were

rife

diforder,

to

threaten

and the de-

amongft them

in

a word,

they experienced every evil that could enter into


the heart of

man

to conceive,

when

firft

the de-

puty-governors, and afterwards the Lord Delawar

The former of

himfelf arrived to their affilbnce.


rofity of

an Indian woman,

her father, the grant of his

Jpondence with hinr


all

who
life

not only obtained j( the chief,

and

in the couife of

liberty,

which

her countiymens plots againfl the Englifli

picpared

for,

and ready to defeat them.

appear romantic, but

it

biii

rtic
;

alfo

held a corre-

informed him of

fo that he

was ever

This circurnftancc may

well enough attefted,

tbefe

IN AMERICA.

35

tkfe gentlemen had made ^ift to condrua


two
out of the timber found on the iflands,
that
had conveyed them in fafety to this fcene
of confufion, which however they were
fo little
veflels

able to

reduce to order, that the whole colony


had adually
defcrted their town, and were ready to
fail for

Eng-

when

land,

the latter arrived,

who by

and juflice, and a due exertion of


abilities,,

retutn

his

prudence

his extraordinary

prevented their defertion, obliged


them to

to

the fettlement they had forfaken,


and

made fuch wife regulations as again rellored


the co*
lony to a more comfortable and happy
ftate.
Thus by the conduct of one fenfible and
fpirited
man was James-Town again rendered an
habita-

tion

fit

for Engliflimen,

and a fettlement revived,


which if it had then untimely expired,
would probably have thrown fo great a damp
upon the ardour of the.Englifh adventurers as
might in future
have prevented all thofe advantages
which Great
Britain has fince reaped from
colonization.
This
governor made many appointments,
fet about a reformation of manners, banilhed,
in a great meafure, all party difcontents,

juftice

der

by

with fuch a

him

at

fleacfy

and held the fword of


hand as failed not to ren-

once beloved by

his enemies.

He

his friends

difpatched Sir

and dreaded

Thomas Yates

over to England with the molt


flattering account
of the flate of the colony.
Soon after he himfelf
returned likewife for the recovery
of his health, to

I'

'

if

BRITISH EMPIRE

36

however the affairs of his


government were his great care, and thefe he reprefented in fuch a light as engaged the new comStill

his native country.

II

lit

to fend

pany
.'

fupplies

of

men and money

to Vir-

ii

Dale with three ihips, and afterwards Sir Thomas Yates arrived there with nine
more, in quality of Lord Delawar's deputy. At
this time an Euglilh captain marrying the daughFirft captain

ginia.

ter

of an Indian

who was

chief, fecured the friendlhip

of one

before a foe, and greatly benefited the

of his countrymen in thofe parts.

affairs

In the year 1618, Lord Delawar reimbarked


for Virginia, but ended his days on the paffage.

My. Argol was now entrufted with the adminiftration of affairs

more

but as he was thought to attend

to the difcovery of

good government of
and

Sir

countries than to the

his province,

he was recalled,

George Yardley fucceeded him

The

vernment.

owing

new

to this gentleman,

form of the

in the go-

cultivation of tobacco was greatly

who

befides altered the

conftitution, fo as to refemble as nearly

as poffible that of

Great Britain.

The

council

was

modelled by the Houfe of Lords, the general

f^mbly by that of the Commons, and


thefe eftates of the province
for the dlfpatch

met

at

James-Town

of bufinefs.

This m^ght properly be called the


firft

'VS
1

birth

of time the new world, became the


'i'

h
;,i'ii

rife

North America, the


and
to many others

fettlements in

which gave

af-

1620,

in

of our

fuccefs of
in procefs

af}'luni

of

all

who

who were

N A M E kl C

A.

37

male-contents, either in regard of

gion, or politics,

of

all

who were made

their private circumllances at


difpofition for roving,

home, or

reli-

uneafy by

who by

chofe to feek their fortunes

abroad: before fuch adventurers

toils

and dan-

gers feemed to vanilh, or even when they

really felt

them they were

all

generally alhamed to complain of

the choice they had niade, and were only diligent


in proportion as they

counter with.
other

of a

had more

to en-

difficulties

Thus, one fettlement producing an-

by a laudable induftry they

laid the foundation

great empire, and equally benefited themfelvcs


i

and

their

But in

mother country.

this place

we

flop to give the reader

\vill

fome account of the climate and natural produd:ions


of New England. The fummer feafon is warm,
but of Ihort duration. For the fpace of two months,
the Iky continues perfedly clear,

country fo healthy, that


ter

with

it

is

which renders the

reported to agree bet-

Britiih conftitutions, than

American provinces.
fevere, the

wind

The

any other of the

winters arc long

often boifterous, and the air ex-

tremely Iharp, but not intolerable.

Naturaliils af-

cribe the early approach, the length, and


rity

and

tlie

leve-

!i

of the winter feafon, to the large freih water

New

lakes, lying to the north weft

of

Towards

low and marlhy;

the

fea,

the land

is

England.

but, as you approach the interior country,


kito hills,

ir rifes

and on the north-eaft becomes altogether


rocky
it

:i

Ji*^'

BRITISH EMPIRE

Round

rocky and mountainous.


the

foil is

Mftffachufets Bky^

black, and as rich as in any part of

land; and the

firfl

planters found the grafs

Eng^

above

a yard high, but rank for want of mowing. The


uplands are lefs fruitful, being for the moft a mixture of fand and gravel, inclining to clay ; though
even there a fufEcient quantity of corn, and culinary vegetables are produced for the fubfiftence of
the inhabitants.

Few

countries are better watered with rivers

lakes than

New England, though

fo confiderable as thofe to the weft


.'11'

Seven of the rivers are navigable,

and

the latter are hot

and northward.

abound in fifh>
and many of them ahfwer every purpofe of commerce.

Gonnedticut

navigable a great
rifes in

river,

way by

all

may be

in particular,

the largeft veflels.

the northern froniier of the province,

It

and

runs diredly fouth, through the

diftrid:

name,

between the towns

until

it

difcharges

itfelf

of

of Saybrook and Line, after a courfe of

dred miles.

The

its

own

two hun-

other moft confiderable ftreams

Thames, Piicataqua, Merimech, Saca, Kennebe<fty, Patuxet, Cufco, and a few others ; and to
are the

many
number of

the convenience of fo

fine

afcribe the gxeat

large

towns

in this province.

abounds with cod


fifhery

^ hich

rivers,

Befides river

may we

and populous
filh,

the coaft

and formerly there was a whalebetween New England and New Yorkj,

is

now

entirely cngrofted

by the Newfoundlanders.

II

III

AN AMERICA.
landers.

59

The cod

taken here are faked and exported, not dniy to the


fugar colonies, but likewife to

Europe, conftituting a very


coniiderable
the trade of the province.

The country
plants, pulfe,

is

fruitful

and corn

in all kinds

article in

of efculent

but Indian corn, or maize

which the natives call Weachin,


is the moft
vated, and was alone
known here on the

culti'

firft

of the Europeans. The following


count of it, communicated to
the

ar-

rival

is

the ac-

royal fociety

Mr. Winftrop, and judged worthy


of being
ed

by

infert-

the Philofophical Tranfadions.


The ear
a fpan long, compofed of
eight or more rows
of grain, according to the
quality of the foil, and
about thirty grains in each row;
fo that each ear,
at a medium, produces
about two hundred and forty
IS

grains, which is an aftonifhing


incrcafe.
It is of
various colours, red, white,
yellow, black, green,
&c. and the diverfity frequently
appears not only
the fame field, but in the
very fame ear of corn;

though white and yellow be


the mofl common,
55trong thick hufks ihield
the tender ear from cold
and norms ; and in many of the
provinces in North
America, the ftalk grows feven
or eight feet high,
and proportionably flrong and
thick.

fervable, that the

maize dwindles, the

advance to the northward, whence

it

is

ob.

farther

you

It

appears that

Avarm climates are more congenial


to its nature
and indeed its luxuriance in the
hotteft climes on
the coaft of Africa fufficiently
evince the Indian

corn

#..^=^
7f

BRITISH EMPlUfe

40
.

corn to be a native of

The

flalk

jointed

is

thft

lii:

more

a cane,

foiithern
is

juice as fweet as that of the fugar cane

to be incapable of being

The

called,

rye blof-

ufual time of fowing, or, as

of planting,

May

the middle of
the

com

is

the harveft

'i^iif

not

is

but, in the northern countries,

the ground before June

riir in

treme warmth of the


the Indians boil

futii'

till it is

to

fiti

owing

yet

to the ex-

This corn

months.

and eat with

fiih,

S unetimes they bruifc

in mortars, and then boil


is

ter

teiKlei,

fowl, or flelh, as bread,

method

here

it is

from the middle of April to

vlpe in di^^ -f^afon,

is

Every

leaf or ilag, and, at

the top, ihoots a branch of flowers like

foms.

appears

it

rendered ui"?fuU

marked with a long

is

with a

but from

the experiments that have been made,

joint

latitude!.

flipplied

it

but the moft ufual

to dry the corn high, without burning,

and beat

it

in

mortars into fine meal, which

th? In.):3ns either eat dry or mixed with water.

The

bake

Englifli

ner as flour
called Samfi

;,

it

into bread in the fj^me

cleared of the hufk, then

fifted,

it is

is

thorougidy

boiled,

apd eatqn

which
but an wholefome diet.

with milk, or butter and fugar, like rice


not only an agreeable,

Good

it

the corn b^ing fteeped in water, for

half an hour, beat in a mortar until

is

man-

but the beft food made from

ftrong beer

may

alfo

be brewed from

green, without ufing the cxpenfive European

it,

me*

thod of malting.

New
!:'

I
Jlfi'

'

IN AMERICA.

"1

New England produces

ppcars

a great variety of fowls


;
fuch as geefe, ducks, turkies, hens,
partridges, wid'
geons, fwans, herons, heathcocks,
pigeons, &c. Nor
h the feathered kind in greater plenty than
are

Every

quadroped& more immediately neceffary


to human

inidei.

with a

from

md,

the

pean

blof-

'e

elks
aeer, hares, rabbits, fqulrrels.
beavers, otters, mon'
keys, racoons, fables, bears,
wolves, foxes, ounces

jntries,

ic; yet

and a vancty of other tame and


wild quadrupeds
iome of which are imported into
Great Britain, as
foreign curiofities.
But the moft extraordinary
of
thefe animals is called
the Mofe, which is thus
defcribed by Mr. JofTelyn, in
his rarities of New
England,

the exlis

corn

ith

fifli,

jruife it

ufual

[t

urning,

"The Mofe

which
^^

n\an-

it

and his

we

which

ean

may

it,

of a

fize

his tail

is

bull's

manner of hunting
is

the

New

vol.

Ne%v

'iM

I.

The

-*

longer,

This author

many

as

readers

rattle-fnake

The account

neck

no^v pretty well over,

other natural curiofity of


this country,
peculiar to
l^ngland.

me*

his

Mofe ; but

extend an extra^:, which

afcribe to credulity.

fomewhat

extremely grateful."

believe that diverfion

we.lliQll not

diet,

flag's

fleili

defcribes the

id eatQii

about the

is

" ^^^embles a

rougi.ly

from

about

other.

" His body

is

ater, for

me

is

twelve feet high, having'


four horns, and broad
palms, fome diflant near'
twelve feet from the tip of
one horn to the

water.
le

All kinds of Euroand multiply exceedingly

and

tc

Lpril

convenience.

cattle thrive here,

thehorfes of the province are


hardy, mettlefome
fcrviccablc^ but fmall.
Here alfo are

here

is

md

fubfiflence

at

is

an-

though n r
given of this

venomous

BRlflStt EMI^iiE-

Ml
42,

venomous animal
vided
rattle
'

that Nattire hai

is,

Ihould give warning of

it

of twenty

loofe,

its

i;<rifely

pro-

mdfldiw bj^ a

hard, cartilagh^ibiiiiTi^^ Hi

the

tail,

which ihake and beat

ttfelf

in

length,

tion

Some, indeed, ilicdj^^ it


when the animil apprehends

noiffe

hazardous than other ferpents,

attacks any
;

mo^e*, wit^otit

danger, and calls out for alfif^iice. In


this fnake is commonly about fo^f ot fivi

feet, is lefs

dom

it

exertion*

any voluntary
only makes a

as

is

human

arid fel-

creature withotit provoca-

provided like the viper with a poifoSious

which,
bag, at the root of a hollow forked tooth,
being compreffed, as the animal fixes its jaws, pour
out a ftrong poifon on the wound, that is mortal in
applieda few hours, unlefs proper remedies are
oak,
timbet,
excellent
in
New England abounds
aih,

pine,

fir,

cedar, elm, cyprefs, beech. Walnut,

chefnur, hazel, faffafras, famach,

ufed in dying, or tanning leather,

and other Woods


carpenters work,

and (hip-building; yet fuch was the deftruftion


made in the forells, that a law was paffed to prevent
thofc
the wafte of woods, by inflifting j^enalties on

who

cut

down

were arrived

trees

growth and age. The


thofe of Norway in growth and
certain, Great Britain might be

at a fpecified

pines are equal to


ftraitnefs

of a certain kind, before they

and

provided from

it is

this

country with

all

the materials

of ihip-building, at prefent purchafed in the northern kingdoms, at the expence of a confiderable


i-

film of ready

money

to the natioq.

The

oak, indeed,

ti^

AMERICA.

41
^ed, b repoitcd to be inferior in quality to that of
England ; but as the forcfts of Great Britain arc on
the decline,

it

this valuable

is

certainly politic to be careful

commodity. But

it

now

is

of

time to

return to our hiftory.

NEWFOUNDLAND AND

OF

NOV A- SCOT

WHILE
creafmg,

the colony of

A.

James-Town was

in-

other fettlements

along the coaft

had been cftabliihed


and Newfoundland was peopled

by

the Engliih. Sebaftian Cabot, in the year


1497,
firft difcovered this ifland, which is
fituated be-

tween 46 and 51 degrees north, and is bordered on


the north and fouth by Canada and Nova Scotia,
the latter being feparated from

it

by a narrow

channel.

expedition thither

fruitlefs

fome

privatij

Henry VIIL

adventurers

in

was undertaken by
the reign of King

In 1519, Mr. Cotton of Southamp-

ton fent captain

Whitburn to fifh on the great


bank ; and he was afterwards employed by Mr.
Crook of the fame place for the like purpofe.
While

this

gentleman ftayed on the

Humphrey Gilbert arriving


it

for

this,

and

Queen
Sir

Elizabeth.

there,

ifland,

Sir

poffeffioh

of

About fourteen

Laurence Tanfield,

Sir Franci

took

Sir

years after

Bacon, with feveral other perfons


fe:

of note, obtained a grant of lands from Cape Bona-

li-

John Doddridge-,

vifta

BRITISH EMPIRE

44

whither a colony was fent un?

vifta to St. Mary's,

dcr the condudt of Mr. Guy.

Whitburn again

failed thither

to enquire into divers abufes


ried

on the

The

filhery,

In

1614, captain

with a commiilion

among

thofc

who

car--

which was bemtv-e rp rvextcnfive.

next year a

c^'-

little

'

iounded

at

Cambriol, on the fouthern pate ot Newfoundland,

of which the fame Whitburn was appointed governor.


Sir George Vaughan, a Roman Catholic,
alfp obtained the grant

of that part of

&:

j'^ii'l

lying between St. Mary's to the fouthward,

the Bay of Bulls to the eaflward

and

and the puri-

Wynne

ar-

rived before Sir Geoige, with a fmall colon}',

at

Captain Edward

tans reforted thitht'.

Newfoundland,
for

him

He

to

prepare every thing neceflary

and bore the commiflion of governor.

placed

hinifelf at Ferry-land, erede'd

and accommodated every thing as

ries,

iituation

would admit

of.

grana-

\vell as

Lord Faulkland,

the

lieu-

tenant of Ireland, alfo fent a colony to

land

made

but at

this

Newfoundwho was
Enghnd, where

time the proprietor,

lord Baltimore, returned to

he got a grant of Maryland, on the continent of


North America; notwithftai "ng which
flill
'

kept

his

fettlcmcnt at F<jrry-land,

verned by his deputies.

which he go-

Colonics were in a few

years planted in various parts of the ifland

and

the French, not to be behind hand with us, ffntcd


themfelves at Placentia.

From

the time

that thefe laft arrived, they were conftanti

^owr
]v

cr,
'ell-

ing

AMER ic A.

IN

4^

fcg with their neighbours, and


frequent chl
ements happened between them
with various lucceffcs
but peace at laft determined
:

and fecured
thall

be

The
tremes;

ma

the matter,

to us our rights,

unlefs the French


condition to break the treaty.

weather, in this country,


runs upon ext,ie fummers r^re very
hot, the winters

cxceffively cold, and exhibit


a difagreeable profped of fnow and ice for
whole months toaether
and, whatever fome vifionary
writers may have
dreamed of rhe fertility of its foil,
and the beauty

of

landfcapes,

Its

m general

it

is

certain, that

rV ground

barren, yielding mofs inftead

'ill

'1

is

^rafs

and fo little of corn and


other natural procW
and that the inhabitants a-e
obliged to be dei^ndant on their fupplies from
Europe
for the necefla-

ries
t^ie

of

life.

Timber, however,

is

country auounds in deer,

Butthe
boaft
:

(ea. is th.

IS

-reat 1

for the

difpuied between

.e

both nations have

En

fo ea.

mthisjfland
difpofir,op,

and

hare, and beavers;

nine of treafbre

'<e ot

plentiful here,

it

can

the cod-fifhery, fo
often
^ifh

,id

the French, that

>ly defircd a fettlement

The natives a .
but much given to

people of a mild

pilfering and other


tncks, of which they are not
at aP ifliamed
paint their bodies, and
are beardlel, a cir'
cumft ince which feems to
arife from a method
they have of plucking
the hairs ort by the
roots
tne mo.nent they appear.
They are fhorr flrpng
ipen, uith broad faces, but in
general liJ-ihaped

mean
They

and often mucli deibrmed

'

in their features.

Nova
I

ii

BRITISH EMPIRE

^6

on which Ncwfpyndland l^dcr$^


the next Britifh fcttleijientt wc ^^1 con<i4er, an4

Nova

is

Scotia,

which <:omprehen4uig Acadia, i boundccji to the


eaft and fouth by the ocean ; on th? ^orth-eaft aiwj
north-weft by the river St. Laurence, and on the
weft and fouth-weft by Canada and

New

England,

extending from the 43d to the 51ft degree of


north latitude, and including a Ipace of near fix:

hundred Englifli miles

*.

In 1618, governor Argol failed to Cai>e Cod,


where being informed t1 at the French had made||

ceeded thither,
fmall

fort,

and found a

and a (hip

at

gainft the garrifon,


aftei

who

little

anchor

niade himfelf mafter, and

he pro-

at St. Croix,

fettlement to the northward,

colony, with a

of the

latter

he

arms

then turned his

furrendered at difcretion.

a*

He

ards diflodged the French from another poft

and people of which were


tranfported to Canada, where, by their unwearied
at Port Royale, the garrifon

induftry and artful policy, they raifed at kft a flourilhmg colony. It appears, that king Charles the
Firft, confidered

Nova

Scotia,

property of England, and he


* The French

ftill

call

thi

and Canada as the

made out

country L'Acadic

grants

but under

difputes with regard to its


that name numbcrlefs have been the
having always endeaneighbours
good
our
thcfe
toundarics:

beautiful and bell cultivoured to fecure to themfelves the moft


permitted us to plant colonies
vated fpots, woulil gcneroufly have

on

North America.
Sir William Alexander.
and
Kirk
Sir David

all the

I To

barren rocks in

accordingly.

ii

IN AU^KltA.

ktibvrh td himfdf, he itlinqufflicd Ais


ri^t; but
'Cfomwcl, hiore fplrlted, took the matter into

ton-

iWirarion, and fent major

Sedgwick

info

Canada,

Ivho reduced the country, and obliged the


French
lifcfetion.
Treaty confirmed it to the

b rubmit at

Englifli, in the year 1655**.

When

the French were fettled in their


p()fl*eflions,
having formed alliances with the natives,
whofe
friendfhip they ufed every

foon

art to

became very troublefome

colonies,

and together

with

cultivate, they

to

the

Engli/h

their favage

allies,

they were guilty of fuch infults and


depredations,
as it was thought highly
proper to chaflife

them

Colonel Phipps was accordingly


fent
year 1690, with feven hundred
men, to
for.

in the

attack Vort

Royale,

which wa

The governor
nada.

but in

r.

a ftrongly fortified place.

capituiated,

and was fent to CaThis advantage was yielded up by


treaty,
1709, the French were a fecond time

obliged to evacuate Port Royale,

which rfie
By the
the whole province was ceded
to

name of Anrr polls Royal was


peace of Utrei

ht,

Britain, together

on the

to

given.

with an extenfive right of

fiiliin^

coaft.

* The

French pretended to hare made


purchafe of thh
Qou.itry for five thoufand
poi-nds, a price which was never
paid
zl\ov.ing that ther was
iuch Urgain;^that tl..-,e was

much

t be doubted.

'

il

But

'

BRITISH EMPIRE

48

But the French, regardlefs of the treaty^ adlei


from time to time, in open violation of it; they
were always engaged in cabals with the Indians, and
1:*

proceeded to open adts

frequently

By means, of

thefe, they infulted the

of

hoflility.

Englilh veflel^

the coaft, killed feveral Europeans,

and

attacked Annapolis, but were repulfed with

lofs.

fifhing

on

^ova Scotia, which feems to have been little attended to by the Englifh, was foon reduced to a
ruinous condition

having

Louifbourg,

1745, the French at


feized Canfo, and co-

and, in

firft

vered the Ibas with privateers,


Annapolis, under the
ary

named Luttre

made an attempt

condud of

oii

a French miffion-

but the arrival of a privateer

from Bofton, obliged him

to

decamp;

yet

the

principal inhabitants fent their moft valuable ef-

feds thither.
Vivier foon after joined the French miilionary with a body of Indians and fixty of his reguBeing encamped at Minas, he repeatedly
lars.

Du

fummoned
but

in vain

the garrifon of Annapolis to furrender,

they held out bravely, and the con-

was obliged

to defift

from

of Mafrachufet

Bay,

about

fcquence was, that he


his enterprize.

The government
this

time declared war with the Indians of Cape

Sable, forbidding
liance w^ith

all

the natives

who were

the Engllfh, from holding any

in al-

corref-

pondence with the enemy ; but they forbade in


The French found the means of drawing
vain.

them

IN AMERICA.
them
fand

off

from

their

45

and one thouof them joining M. Marin, a


Canadian,
allegiance,

once more befieged Annapolis, but


were called

away

to deifend Louifbourg, which


was then attacked by the Englilh both by land
and fed.

M. Ramfay, and M.

d'Anville, again fuccefTivcly attacked this feemingly devoted


place, but both
met with the fame Ul fortune as their
predeceffors

command had

done.

thefe parts, the French

Aix-la-Chapelle, ceded
tain

but the

After various fuccelTes


in
at lafl, at the peace
of

Nova

Scotia to Great-Bri-

of that nation,

treaties

like the
admitting of equivoca*
tion, this formal ceffion
prevented not a feries of
difputes concerning the limits
of the

oracles of old, generally

territory in

quedion, and contributed to give


war.

rife to

another

Annapolis and Canfo are the chief


towns in this
province, the former of which has
an excellent
harbour, capable of containing a
thoufand
veflels.

Canfo
ful

is

fituate

on the

on account of

eaflern ihore,

its fifliery.

is

chiefly ufe-

But here

we muft

not omit to mention the

owes

its firft

town of Halifax, which


eflablifhment to the earl of that
name.

Three thoufand
new fettlement in
diers ftationed
fults

and

of the
is

families
this

were tranfported

country in

there to proted

natives.'

to

the

1743, and

fol-

them from the

Halifax has a

fine

in

harbour,

othcrwile very commodioufly


fituated;

makes no contemptible figure yet


;
Vol. I.
^^

the

ground

it

is

not

BRITISH EMPIRE

56

cklrtd,
not well improved, as it is difficult to be
of
inairfions
The
fertile.
aod far from being very
troUthe Indians here are very frequent and very
carrying
from
blefome, and prevent the colonifts

on

works of agriculture. They are obliged to


England for moft of the neceffaries of life,

their

New

having

little

of their

on. There

fubfift

is

own

befides the filhery to

alfo

fettlement of

little

Germans from Halifax, at a place called LunenThe Cape Sable coafl is valuable on acburg.

count of
harbours.

fame

The

famous

is

for

alfo

good

ifland of Sables lies within the

iuril"di<ftion.

Cape Breton
St.

and

filhing,

the largefl ifland in the gulph of

is

Laurence, fituate from 45 to

north latitude

it

commands

the

47

degrees of

fiflieries

in the

bay, and, in the hands of the French, might prove


a great annoyance to our Newfoundland trade.
When the fort of LouiilxDurg on this ifle was laft
taken by our troops, it was demolifhed, and
left in

John's ifland belongs likewife

St.

ruins.

to theEnglifli in thefe parts


little

but

it is

confideration to be d\velt

a place of too

upon

in this hif-

lory.

The whole

territory

of

Nova

Scotia,

fcems to

have been rather kept as as barrier and defence of


our colonies, than for any vail: profits of another
kind w hich could accrue to either party from the
pofldTion of it ; fmce, as we have already obfcrved,

the

foil

is

far

Iwm

being

fruitful,

and

were

E)

IN AMERICA.
were the

afliftance

it

51

from the mother

receives

country withdrawn from it, it would


at once fall
to nothing ; yet here it was, on this
unlovely fpot,
that the French, as we have already
obferved,

made

their early fettlements,

and from hence overfpread

Canada, and the adjacent country.


have now
got rid of thefe troublefome neighbours
and not
;
only this province, but a vail trad
of North Ame-

We

formerly in their territory,


acknowledcres
our fovereignty, and pays obedience
to a Britilh
rica,

government : thus have thofe difturbers


of the
peace by a jufl difpenfation of Fate,
not only lolt

what they

unjuilly

own pofleffions with

contended

for,

but alfo their

it.

OF NEW ENGLAND AND THE


^

CHARTER. GOVERNMENTS.
HAVING thus defcribed thefe northern colo-

nies,

we

fl^all

now

return to the affairs of

England, or Virginia,
previoufly fettlement,

of which

we were

New-

being the

under

^a

firft

neceffity

to fay fo

much, and have already made


mention
of a numerous colony at
James-Town there.

The

diflenters,

fecuted at

ment

who began

home, had by

to

be very much per-

this lime,

made

another part of the countrv.

a ^-ttle-

Some of

thefe, who were retired


to Leyden, whofe
was named Eobinfon, formed a
dcfign of

pallor
goinp-

over to New-England, and,


through the interce^
fiorv

iJ'A

BRITISH EMPIRE

52

of flate,
of Sir Robert Naunton, the fecretary
put it in excr
obtained leave from king James I. to
fion

many difappointments, they failed


one hunfrom Plymouth in two Ihips, containing
After

GUtian.

feamen

befides

dred and twenty palTengers

but

through treachery or miflake, were obliged


feems they had no
to land at Cape Cod, where it
Carver,
inclination to have difembarked. Mr. John
fixteen
with
was chofen their governor, went
either

men

to find a

to Barnftaple county,

convenieut

Anodifappointed.
fpot to fettle on, but returned
through
ther party, going in fearch of a harbour

I!

i'

They
Patuxet cQuntryj met with better fuccefs.
found a traft of land wliich feemed proper for
and called
their purpofe, fettled themfelves there,
it

New

died

Many

Plymouth.

the

winter.

fucceeding

new o

of thefe
In

fpring,

the

Sc^amore, one of the Indian chiefs,

ifts

vifited

them,

and afterwards prevailed upon the great Sachem


to do the
Maffafoit, with a train of fixty perfons
faid, this chief

fame.

It

of the

land whereon

is

ipouth, and

all

they

made them
had

built

a prefent

New

Ply-

the adjacent country.

Mr. Bradford, who fuccecded Carver

in the go-

vernment, being informed of certain depredations

committed by fome of the favage tribes of Indians,


who feemed determined to keep no terms with
with a
the Engliih, detached captain Standilh,
fmall party of

men

effeduully,

(hat

fo

them, which he did


faid, the neighbouring

to reduce
it

is

chiefs

'm>/'.:J

:m p.

IN AMERICA.
chiefs

made a

formal fubmiffion *.

had now great hopes of

53

The

planters

fuccefs, to enfure

which

however, their ihip the Mayflower, was


difpatched to England, in the fpring of the year
1621. A
great number of paflengers arriving foo
after,

with one Wefton, provifions grew fcarce ; and


as
thefe new fettlers had brought none with
them, it is
likely a

famine would have enfued, but that the


of an Englifli merchantman on the coaft
prevented it. Wefton produced a patent for efta-

''J

arrival

bliihing a

new

fettlement, at a place called

Wafu-

gufquafet, in order to propagate the dodrines of

He

the church of England.


at the formal

they were no
ciples

* In

was

juftly difguiled

cant of fome of the puritans, and

lefs

difpleafcd with his religious prin-

the confequence was, that the

the accounts

which mention

two

this fubmiflionj

we

colofind

copy of an inftrument, whereby they bound themfelves,


which
runs as follows

" Know
**

"

all

men by thefe

prefcnts, that

we, whofe names are

hereunto annexed, do acknowledge ourfelves the legal fubjefts of James, Jcing of Great-Britain.
In witncfs whereof,

and

**

names or marks,

as

a teftimony of the lame, we hare


as followeth

fubfcribed

Obbatinua, Nattamawhunt, Coubatant, Chillaback,

quina, Huttamoiden, Apadnow.]'*

with

ries

bccaufe

make

it

it is

rather too

This

ftory

Quada-

however

the air of & romance.

car-

Firft,

unlikely the fav^gcs fhould be fo generous as to

fuch a grant

that they

much of

our

[Obquamehud, Cawnacome,

and, Secondly, becaufc

were ignorant of the nature of

it

is

almoft certain

xviiiten deeds

and if

|hcy did really fign fuch agreement, they knsvf not what they
<^id,

and n^ight the xnore eafily be

i^jpofeci

m,
nies

BRITISH EMPIRE

^4
nies

conspiracy of the Indis^ns

was

to be formed againft the

new

enemies.

ui their hearts inveterate

became

^< thi* time reported

comers, which the

irregularities thiy pre-

^iflenters attributed to the

tended to have feen praetilbd by thofc

men though

others are of opinion, that

was no more

this

all

to

than a fcheme of the formalifts

ruin the fettle-

ment, and to gain honour by fuppreffing a plot that


they themfclves had

perhaps

no

real

firft

encouraged, or \yhich had

exiftence.

This

opinion

latter

feems to be the more truly founded, as captain


Standilh from

men

New

Plymouth,

by eight

affifted

only, fupprelled this dreadful confpiracy.

This colony

now grew

plans were laid

cpilcopacy

to a flour iihing ftate,

and

in Old England, tor introducing

among them.

Mr. Gorges, fon

to Sic

Ferdinando Gorges, arrived there wdth feveral


milies,

They oppofed him

the

England

of

a church

and

true

fa-

clergyman.

fpirif

of fanatic

obilinacy prevailed, and, weary of contending with

a people

whom

reafon, he

he found

it

returned with

all

New-Plymouthers fome

his aflbciates.

time

afterwards

The
made

feveral ove^-tures toward?

purchafmg the patent 06

Plymouth company.

In this they met with

the

fome

obftacles

but

at

Winflow, he obtained
^'^11

impoffible to bring to

furrendered

were

it

to

tiie

it

lafl,

fending

for their

general council.

increafed to five

thefc colonifts rendered

over Mr.

governor,

The

affiftants
f})irit

of

fearful

of

for the republican

them extremely

who

rruding

IN AMERICA/
trufting poWfcr eveh

any thing

w jth

who had

one

to forfeit their efteem

Winflow, returning from

"Ij

neVer donS

Mh

and coniiddnce.

his negoclatioh

in th
year 1624, brought over, amongft oth*r fupplifes,
a bull and three heifers, the firf.t ever feen in thofe

He

parts.

alfo furnillied the

and poultry,

which

thirty-two houfes,

eighty people.

exceedingly.
At
Plymouth containe<i
inhabited by one hundred and

It ^^'as

New

half a mile in circumfe-

rence, fenced in with pales, and

The

the middle.

in

hoo-s

increafed

time the towii of

this

with

colonifts

had a watch-tower

lands around

it were cleared
on which many planters lived like
our farmers with their families.

and

cultivated,

In 1626, captain Woolafton came over wdth

view

now

to

on Mailachufet Bay,

fettle

went from thence to Virginia,


and chofe one Morton

having committed
his

tiie

vrhe-.e his

w^ho

heinous crime of dancincr,

men, round a maypole,

in

contcmnr of

New

Plvinouch

captain Standilh with a party to fecure hiu,

which was done


* Some of

witli difficulty,

and he was fent over

their paity accufed lilm Ilkevvife

the Indians

tl?e

that time a

very wrong aition

its

men mu-

for tiieir chief,

the puritans *, the government of


fent

d.

a place

called Braintree, but failing in his defign, he

tinied,

w^ith

at

ufe

of fire-arms, which,

birth from the Jiliike

hh

but

t vex hira

iliifpiicd thr.ri.

haj

is

of having taught
tvcrc true,

was

likely this charge

at

Ud

contempt of the puriuns had ex-

cited in their bofoinr

who

it

if it

and that they only took

this

opportunity

to

BRITISH EMPIRE

^
to

be

tried

deeming

his

notice of

by the New England council, who


impeachment a frivolous one, took no

it ;

and thus the matter ended.

It is

remarkable in this proceeding, that the colonifts


not to punilh Morton for mutinying againft

fought

deemed pardonable j but a


contemptuous treatment of them and their formaI only
forgiven.
lities was a crime never to be
obferve this, in fupport of a very juft maxim,
fuperior

his

that they

That contempt is worfe to bear than hatred it felf, and that one might more fafely attack the
perfons of fome men than their ridiculous opi-

**

<<

nions."

This delign of Woolafton*s having thus mifcarDorchefter, got


ried, Mr. John White, minifler of
to Sir
Plymouth,
a patent from the council of
Henry Rofwel, Sir John Young, and many others,
which is fituatc
for that part of New England
and as
three miles north of the river Merrimach ;
many to the fouth of Charles-River, which falls
the fea,

into

The

fiift

at the

bottom of Maffachufet-Bay.

pattentees aflbciated to themfelves foon af-

terwards a number of other gentlemen, which obin March,


liged them to take out a new patent
** The
1628, being incoriX)rated under the title of
Goveinor and Comiiany of MalTachufet Bay, in

New

England."

They had

the iK)wer of eleding

laws, not
a governor and magiftrates, and of making
repugnant to thole of the mother-country, with

,Li

a full liberty of confciencc

granted

to

the

fettlCiS.

TN AMERICA.
ders*

Charles

5^

gave them a patent to

hold

thofe lands, yielding to his majefty


a fifth of all
the gold and filvcr ore that Ihould be
found in the

country.

Mr.Endicotwas,
by Mr. White with
for the

by

new

but

three hundred and

fifty

cattle,

perfons

AS dlfo warlike ftores

vernment of

loft

many

of his

men

Six Ihips were prepared, and about

board them, with


life,

timcj difpatched

and a reinforcement

fupplies,

colonifts,

ficknefs.

mean

in the

New

thefe; but they

were embarked on

and other

neceflaries

and provifions.

The go-

Plymouth was of great ufe

made

of
to

their conditions, that they

fhould adopt no other fyftem than that of the


puritans, to which they were obliged to agree,
thouo-h

k was
and

contrary to the conftitution of the colonies^

diredtly oppofitc to the

firft

defign of them,

which was to allow liberty of confcience but fo


far were thefe men from ading up to the
fpirit o
toleration, which
they had formerly profefled,
,-

that

they

fent

of Browne,
following

for

the

home two

brothers of the

no other
church

offence,

of

pi

name

than that of

England,

although
This condudt was highly
bfurd and blameable, and favoured fo ftrono-ly
of
they were patentees.

i^rfecution, that

many of

cenfured the proceeding


too great

their friends in

England

but thefe were placed at

a diftanee for their cenfuies to be re-

garded.

Vol. L

The..

BRITISH

58

The

governor c

firft

Craddock, Efq.
dicot) to this

this

Mattktw

colony was

deputy wai Mr. John En-

(whde

firft

Mr.\^'inthrop,

"

EMPl/flfE

mentioned ge-rteiiian futeceedwj

who

had fold

his eftate to raifc

mo^

ney for the colony ; to EndieOt, fucceedcd lull^y,


once a foldier, but now a zealous puritan. 'On

board

who

gers,

fecond

this

were

fleet

t\vo

arrived at Salem in a

hundred pAffen-

bad

of kealdii

ftate

of the colonifts, in the mean whHe,


whom Mr. Endicot had carried dver, died of difi
cafe, a circumftance which muft have been owitg

An hundred

unwhoUbmenefs and inconveniences arifi^g


from an uncleared country, to fuch as were accuftomed to dwell in great cities and cultivated fpots
of ground ; the greatell proof of which is, that,

to the

'^i

number and induftry of the colonics have


promoted the works of agriculture, and altered; the

fince the

of the country,

face

we no

longer hear of fuch

mortalities.

The new
one

ties,

colonifts

fettled

.it

being illvided into two

jjar-

a place called Dorcheftcr, at the

bottom of MaffachufetBax , and the other at CharlesTown; but the latter iuon after removed toBofton,

and founded that metropolis fmce


in the annals of New England*.
It

was now

111

and
*

fo

attrai^t

remarkable

grew

that the fettlement

formidable as to

fo

flourilhing

the jealoufy of the

Wilfon, Warehz-m, Hooker, and Elliot puritan minifters

were the chief promuttvi of

this colony,

the

formaliits affcdeil to call the apolUe of the

laft

of

whom

the

new worW.
natives.

Mim

Mk

"EN AMERl
7 key watched

natives.

Vwm&

and began

eye,

them^ when

A.

thefe inmates

med

to

5^
with an en.

ate mifchief againft

enemy the (ni^ll-pox de*


fchemes, and Jmoft extir^^ated the

their mgrtal

fcatedall their

whole race of Indians inhabiting that part of


the
country.

Nor were

the colonifts

behind-hand with the

ikvages in revenging, xvhen


tdic

4toafi

and

offices

ill

them by

inlults

it

the favac^es;

fcrupulous

rights of th-

which

er

neither

in

Indians,

fent

home

pretences*.

* Among

far,

powcr^
to

be

and were

the natural

imt often adojLed

they always

countr-men, fome of

and

too

confidering

neither juli

:re

in their

perhaps 'they fome-

times carried their refeniii.eni

not over

was

done or defigned

maxims

politic in this regard,

.olerant fpirit to^heir

(,

whom

they took pr. "mers

Old ..agland upon very frivolous


About this time, two Englilh gentle-

thefe

to

was Sir Chrlftopher Gaullner, a


gentleman

who having lived extravagantly in

his youth,, fettled

amonglt

the Indians near Bofton with his la.ly,


in order to pafs his life
in retirement.
Some bufy pcrfons having perfuaded the
governor that he was a catholic (though he
profclTed himfelf, and
in all probability was, a dilfenter) the Indians
were en^ red to

take him prifoner, which they did with


great ditficulfy,
'
having made a brave refiftance, he received fome
wounds

Sr

'

jie

encounter, which being

hack

was

to

firft cured, he was


afterwards carried
England, where not a fingle article of
impeachment

He vcy ju% exclaimed againll thefe


and was ever after an avowed enemy to
the colony.

exhibited againft him.

jVQceeilings,

^ ^

men

^^1

*^

IMAGE EVALUATION
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Sdences
Corporation

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23 WEST MAIN STREET
WEBSTER, NY )4S80
(716) B72-4S03

r^^^

<s'^*

BRITISH EMPIRf

6o

men

out in a fmall

fetting

veffel

from

New

Eng^

land towards Virginia, fcized two Pequot Indians^


a tribe inhabiting the neighbourhood of New Ply-

mouth, to

pilot

revenge this

them up Connecticut
and

ii^iury,

To

river.

perhaps to prevent greater

which they fufpedcd were planning

againft them,

the Indians furprizcd and put to death the tvo

with

agreflbrs, together

fix

of

their attendants;

and

the veflel was blown up, either by chance or detfign, after it had been plundered of what they deem^

cd moft valuable.

The
natives

Sir

New

between the EngU H and thefe

differences
ftill

increafing?

it

Hpnry Vane the younger,


England in a

fleet

was though proper


in the year 163^,

of twenty

He

ftorcs at>d paflTengers of all kinds.

couraged to this voyage by Charle

be

rid

fail,
is

three years.

A man

went over to

well provided with

faid to

I. himfelf^,

of him, and perfiiaded his father to

to

let

have been en-

who wanted

him be

to

abfent for

of his figure and reputation highly engag-

ed the attention of both Old and New England ; and, jnftcad of


forming a fcttlement, as he propofed to do, on the banks of Connecticut River, he accepted of the government of Maflachufet,

tvhich wa offered him,


tirely different from

who, moft

His fchcme of government was en-

the principles of the ruling party there,

inconfiftently with their

own

fcondud, demanded a

rigorous conformity, through all their colony, in matters of religion.

Sir Henry, (who, if he h;^ any principle, adopted that

which was afterwards


henfion of the baptifls,

c;|lled

and

independency) was for a compri-

all the

from the church of England

other fcftarias

the minifters and their ruling elders.


11

^ere

Being

obftinate, at the next ejection he

Winthrop was

Replaced in the

who

diffented

nor would he be dieted to by

was

as violent as they
fet aiide,

and Mr.

government; upon which Sit

make

IN AM
make i

Eft

A.

6i

on Conne^iicut River, in order


might prove a check upon the latter. A detachment was accordbgly fent thither under Mr;
that

fcttlement

it

Hooker ;

thefe

banks of that
ter\vards

buik the tovm of Hertford on the


Several others were built af-

river.

by fucceeding

ing they were

many

ill

fettlers

and, notwithftandj-

fupplied with

and

provifions,

perfons deferted the colony, to

go back

their former plantation,

who

loil their lives in

attempt, yet in 1636,

was

in

ftate,

It

and was erected

it

Warwick

the

governments

'M

prevailing cuftom in Bri-

tain for people to emigrate

\the earl of

a very promifing

into a feparate

was now become a

to

to

North America.

obtained a grant from the

.1

Henry returned to England, where he afted a part fufficicntly


known in biftoiy.
One Mr. Williams, the miniftcr of Salem, had broached feveral wrong>headed opnions, and amongft others the following,
viz.

That

it

was not lawful

prayer with the wicked; that

to the

civil magiftrate

fa:
it

and that

good men to join

in

family

was unlawful to take an oath


the king of England having no

right over the Indians of America, his patent was invalid


feveral other principles of the like tendency.

with

Williams was

fo

he defended his doftrines, for which he and his


followers were driven out of Maflachufet colony, and took re-

obftinate, that

fuge on the hanks of an adjoining river, where they built a


town, which they called Providence, lying to the fouthward pf

Plymouth, oppofite Rhode-Ifiand, and in the country of the


Narragantfets.
Williams, in other refpeds, feems to have been

p wife, virtuous, worthy man, and proved afterwards to be one


of the greateft benefa&ors to the ew fettlci^eat that ever went
fr^m Old England.

king

mmt
I

BUCTISH EMFIttE

6d

king of certain lands^extending.forttfeeijoco


ieagpes from the river Njurangiut,, whichr he md^
over ta the

lordsi

Brooke and Say, Charles Fiennc,

Efq. Sir Nathanael Rich, Sir

RichwdSakoaitti

Richard Knightly, Efq; John Pym, Efq, John Hanap*


den, Efq. and Mr Herbert Pelham. But a thefo
gentlemen imagined from fome ap|>arent cil^umftances, that affau's. in England* would take ai di^
-

ferent turn
paffed,

from what

and

the)'

had done

for

fome lame

the court began to take meajfures

as.

from emigrating, they


lands and laid afida their defign of

for reftraining the fubjedts

difpofed of their

leaving their native country.

Meanwhile,
\vel,

and

Sir

Arthur Hafelrig, Oliver Crom-

were prevented from trying their


New Enghmd, by an embargo laid up-

others,

fortunes in

oh the Ihipping by king Charles I. whereby eight


veffels were prevented from failing for thofe parts.
Let us view this meafure in what light we pleafe,
the abfurdity of it ifr equally ttriking ; it was no
lefs impolitic

than unjuft; and by

prince fealed, as

it

that

it

unhappy

were, the warrant for his

own

If thefe men were become troublefome to


death.
the church and ftate, where co'^^ a fairer opportunity be found to get rid of them ? At home tliey

were malecontents ;
might be of

abroad

it

was

evident they

fervice to their mother-country.

Jx

would therefore have been the wifdom of government to have given them all manner of affiftance
in their emigrations, rather than to

have reftrained

them

I,K<, ifltM

ERiIiC

thorn; but fuehiethods of educing


evU, were meafures unknown
,

^
geadiu,a
ttf

to this 4iofottuito

n^.'^M prohibition iacwtfesdefirejffofthejpowflr


Of ^e-court was ,not:aifficientto-,preveat people

Hanap*
i&

the^

circuai-T

di^

6e ai

tnetime

iraofporting themfelves to Aimmsi.

II

Was overftocked with

Mftfliiqhufct .Bay

fifom

a^he jcotei^ of
i^katcrs:;

teore-jaads iwrexpurobafedef.the

GoHrtfiAicut River

.lod^s betvv^eeh
and New orX; aad the gmem-

merit (of Newhjkvcm^was founded,


wisfii

LoBg-^Iiland

ch8fe,.ndwafrfeon
lefigtiof

^hkh ^together

was eomprehcnded in theipur*


filled

with towns.

.nj

The iDutch were,,by this time, fettled m the croim-.

mow diftingmfhed by the name of iNew-Yoak,


ana *^an to be ucafy at the fuccefs
of their

try

Crom-

ng their
laidupby eight
parts,:
e pleafct

waanQ
Linbappy

own

his

efome to
:r

oppoi^

jme

tlicy

ent they
ntry.

fx

governifliflance

eilrained

TO^bours

the ^Englilh, the French dlfo

fcated.iin.Canada4ared ^11 poffiWe

who .^wie

means to

diftupb

nd incommode ;them; and the new


colony was
vexed ^vith internal feuds and dilfentioras.
aiieiPequots (Who weie engaged ina
\vrwith
bdTides

riieir;neighboiirs Che

cafion to

alarm and
borne their

rhitherto

not in very
-at this

Narag^tfets) took^very ocdifturb the


infults

good condition

who had

only beoaufe they were


to revenge them. [But

period, as the four iifter-coionies


could

^feven thoufand

men, the Indians

'tended :to enter .into alliance

-many

EnglHh,

^Vifely

^^'ith

iraife

enough pw-

them.

Aft^r

fruitlefs

overtures, they at length deciareri


they -would-be friends to the Engiiih,
if they

could
between them.and the Nara^ould not eafily .bc.effa^fecd,. and

bring about a peace


tgantfcts
:

but

them
*

'.

this

rhe

Mu

BRITISH fiMPlkE

64

Ih^J
the favagcs, once more giving way to their eVJI
WeathersEngliflimcn
at
cUnations, killed fevcral

on Conntdticut River, and


took two young^ maidens prifdfters, who would
have fallen the viaimi* of thdir cruelty and luft, and

field,

a town

fituats

end been put to death by torture, had not


the Sachem's wife, a woman of a moft noble and
mmiable charafter, interceded for them, with a
in the

becoming her

tendernefs truly

fex, delivered

them

from the favage fury of her countrymen, and taken


An hundred and
them under her protection.

twenty men, under the conduft of captain EndiGot were

by

fent

the Englilh

demand

to

fatis-

feaion for thefe depredations* The Indians fled


before them, but, on their retreat, attacked the Eng*
repulfed, they
lifh fort edled Seabrook, where being
ap*
killed fome flragglers in the fields, and made
plication even to their enemies the

Naragantfets

thefe not only refiifed,

but joined the

for aid,

which

them, to

colonifts againfl

"sHage through

whom

they granted a free

them

their country to attack

Sachem of the Pequots, was fo brave


and warlike a chief, that he was deemed invincible.
On intelligence of the approach of the New Engtwo
land men, he had divided his troops into
Saffacus,

bodies and

made them

river Miftic.

The

retire into

firft

prifed in the night, fet

fword

all

who

two

forts

on the

of thefe the Englifh fur-,


the
fire to it, ^nd put

efcaped the flames.

from a confideration of the

neceffity

Were
of

it

not

thefe fevere

proceedings,

IN AMERICA.

6^

where an enemy is at the fame time fo


numerous and fo favage, this aaioh c6uld with no
ihadow of Juftic^ be called any thing elfe than a

fi^e<diftgs

barbarous maflacre, in which aboVe four hundred


perfonS loft their lives, many of whom
ouId really be charged with no offence againft the

ileeping

allies.
By this time the Indian
chief Saffacus had coUeded a body of fix hundred

EnglJfli or their

men
Irfh

with Which he harrafled the rear of the Engarmy ; but the good fuccefe which the latter

met with
lefs

in their Undertakings, occafioned his faith^

tfoops to

kave

their brave prince.

i fecond pgfty of the


fachufet Bay,

who

colonifts arrived

committed many

the Pcquot country, putting to death

Meanwhile
from Maf^
cruelties in

two of

their

fachems, and fparing a third, on condition only


that

he

fliould betray Saffacus, -who

made

his ef-

cape, however, to the country of the Mohocks,

where he was

own men

treacheroufly murdered.

ftood

would have given

by him
his

Had

his

certain

that he
enemies a great deal of trouit

is

ble before they could have completely vanquilhed

him ; but the favages were


pcriority of the Engliih,

feeing

fo flruck

with the

and fo much furprifed

fu-

them gain any advantrge over a

chief

at

whom

they counted almoft immortal, that they refufed to

be brought to the charge, and by

flying,

moft pro-

more of their people than the}^ would


have done by fighting; but their fears overcame
Vol* I.
their

bably,

loft

BRITISH EMPIRE

66

^nd gave

their reafon,

more

their neighbours evert

advantages than they coyld have pxpe^tccL


party of the colonifts in one of their expeditions,

eight hundred of the Indians,

clrove

hundred of

wives and children into a fwamp.


favoured .ae efcape of the former,

without leaving feveral dead

though not

wounded behind them.


and
at

infants remaining,

to

difcretion

wife

who had

The

fachem's

She made two requefts, which

from a tendernefs and virtue not

among

women

were obliged to furrender


conquerors.

the

helplefs

and

delivered the Weathersfield maidens,

was among them.


arofc

But the

favages.

The

firft

common

was, that her chaftlty

might remain unviolated, and the fecond, that her


The
children might not be taken away from her.
amiable fweetnefs of her counten^tice, and the moworthy of the
deft dignity of her deportment, were

chamber
and were

ted

ihe fupported for innocence and juftice,


fufficient to Ihew the Europeans that even

theii

bdUring

with two

their

fog arifing,

Wililttg

But V
ried on,

by

diflei

in

confi

difputes.
**

the

**

rence^

and

c(

thii

fuch

ar

howdvei

Aflcmbl
natics,

the

fpiri

Antinon

to grov^

New E
fet

up

fc

barbarous nations fometimes produce inftances of

out;

heroic virtue.

length,

The women and

children taken in this attack,

were difperfed through the neighbouring colonies,


the male infants excepted, who were fent to the
Bermudas.

The

Engliih feemed fully determined

on deftroying the whole race of the Pcquot Inthe


dians, whofe lands were diftributed among
and others
fettlers ; fome quitting their own country,
furrendering to the vidtors,

who

were no longer
willing

the

afFai

chafed
foon

rifliing

even

and con
creafe

IK A M
Veiling to
ted them

let

G R

them remain a

among

A,

nation,

it
but dirtribu*

the Nardgantfets, and other neigh-

Injuring Indians.

But while

theCe affairs

began

ried on, the colonifts

among

by

diilenfions

in

confequence

difputes.
**

**

were

fo ibccefsfully car-

be made unhappy

to

which happened

themfelves,

fome ridiculous

of

Whether

theological

the covenant of works, ot

the covenant of grace ought to have the prefe-

** fence,**

and

this

-was

took

become a moft important queftion


its rife from women, whom alone

fuch arguments could bcfeem.

Their hufbands,

however, caught the contagion of their nonfenfe.


Aflemblies were holden in the houfes of female fanatics,

and

difcoui-fes delivered,

equally contrary to

the fpiritof goodfenfe and of true religion.

Antinomians thus
to

foftered

rn

thefe parts,

grow extremely ttoublefome

New
fet

out

up
;

England.

The

for preachers,

began

t6 the clergy

of

loweft of the people were

and the old minifters

with many fuch

The

fooleries.

Tned

The magiftrates,

at

which took cognizance of


and condemned the fcftaries, who pur-

length, called a fynod,

the

affair,

chafed the land called Rhode^Ifland, which

foon well peopled,

and

is

was

at prefent a very flou-

Thus good

arofe from e\'il, and


and debates produced population
and convenience. Evefy thing tended Co the in-

rifhing colony,

even

difputes

creafe

of the inhabitants.

All
.

difficulties

Were

fur-

mounted

BMPIRP

BRITI^SH

69

mounted by the induftry of the planters, and tkc^r


toils were crowned with the deferved fijccjsfs.
At this time there happened alfo fom^ civil
cantentions
inhabitants

among the New England


of Hingham, in Suffolk

The

people.

county, htv-

iag broken the peace, Mr. Winthrop, the deputygovernor of Maflachufet Bay, committed tlve rio-

on refufingto give bail. A petition


was foon afterwards prefented by fome of the inhabitants who infifted on a right of appealing to the.
Englifli' parliament, for which they were, fined and

ters to prifon,

imprifoned.

Mr. Winthrop was the

their complaints, and,

on the

trial,

chief objeft of

was ordered to

defcend from the bench and vindicate himfelf.

He

did fo, to the univerfal fatisfadion of the magiftratesi

of the offenders were in.He then refumed his feat and office, arid
creafed.
a manner which did
harangued the affembly

and people, and the

fines

equal honour to the integrity of his heart, and the


foundnefs of his underflanding *.
*

Th

excellent fpeech here alluded to

was

couclicd

the

following terms.

* Gentlemen,
* I will not look

back to

tlie

paft proceedings

nor to tlw perfons dierein concerned:

publicly aocufed, and

give

me

dut

am

tiiis

opinion of the people, from

was

publiply acquitted; bu^

am now

leave to fay fomething on

of tHscourt^

fadsfied that I

occalion, that

whom

may

rec-

thefe diftcmpcrs of

i(

tify the

(t

the ftate have arifen,

(I

countr}^ of late have been about the authority of the magiftrale,

and the

liberty

Tht

of the people.

queftions

that have troubled the

Magiftrates are certainly an ap-

It

AMBRIC^

IN
thqr

xd

ft

is

necdTary to take

provincct of

n^ civU
T)ie

e.

New

notice

England

that

united

the

themfelves

a general confederacy, yet retained the conftitution and independency of their feparate governin

y, htv

ment

depwity-

imion of the feven provinces.

The

like the dates of Holland, but

were fubjedt

tlve

rio-

petition

he inha)% to th^,
il^ed

and,

He

elf.

igiftrates

were
fice,

in.-

and

This in

its

form fomewhat refembled the


deputies fate

other controul than that of their conftituents

to

no

and

thus they eredted themfelves into a fort of republican

government, though they acknowledged themfelves


the fubjefts of a limited monarchy.

3bjedt of
rdcjr^d to

four

This prqjeft had been long

in agitation, and,

on the feventh of September, 1643, ^^^


fame was efFedted by an inftniment under the following title, viz. " Articles of confederation, beat laft,

**

tween the plantations under the government of

**

the Maflachufets, the plantations under the go-

*'

polntment of God; and I intreat you to confider that you chofe

hich did

and the

clied

in

thera from

to the like

govern you according to God's laws and our own, to the bcft
of our Ikill; if we commit errors, noi willingly, but for want

tific

this court^

that I

was

quitted; buE
at

may

recr

liftempcrs of

troubled the
:

imgiftrate^

tainly

an ap-

among

yourfelves, and that they are men, fubjtft

paflTions

with yourfelves.

We take an
Nor would

'

of fkiU, you ought to bear with

**

miflake you?

we lift, without regard to law or ju; k .

us.

There

liberty.

i"
'

* inconfiflcnt
*

own

coniifti in

with authority

oath to

have you

a liberty in doing what


:

this liberty

is

indeed

but civil, moral, federal liberty

?very one's enjoying his property, and having the

what you ought to

**

benefit of the laws of his country; this is

**

contend for, with the hazard of your lives; but

confiftent withaduefubjeftion to the civil magiftrate, and the

paying him that refpeft that his chara^er in common


t(

this is

very

requires.**

vernment

It

If

BRITISH EMPIRE

" vcrnment of Plymouth^ the plantations tind^


" the government of Connedicut, and the govcrn**

ment of Ncwhaven,

combination therewith."

declared that they

with the plantations in

By

came

all

thofe articles they

into thofe

of

parts

America with the fame errand and aim, to ad


vance the chriftian religion, and enjoy the liberty

of their

with

confciences

and peace;

purity

that

two commiffioners ihould annually be cho-

fen,

who

neral

Ihould have full powers

from the gecourt of each fettlement to meet at an apand conclude

pointed place to concert

matters

of general concernment, fuch as peace, or war,

and other

affairs

conducive to the general wel-*

fare of the confederacy*.

* Here

it

may

not be improper to take a

and cuftoms, peculiar to


thus united, as

we

find

view of certain laws

government of the four provinces

this

them

fet

down

Summary,

in Douglas's

and other writers of authority.

For many years from the beginning, the governor,

afliffants,

or council, not imder fc\ on, and deputies or rcprcfentatives In a


Itgiflative capacity voted together; but

from long experience

divers inconveniences were found to arifc, and


i:6jff ,

it

was ena^ed

that the magiftrates [governor and council] Ihould

in

fit

and

and

the

vote apart, constituting a fcparate negative.

Their cnaiting

ftyle

was,

// is

ordered By thh courtf

authorily thereof.

The

governor, deputy governor,

called magiiirates,
cafes

and

alTIftants,

were the fuperior court

or council

for appeals in civil

and were the court of oyer and terminer in cafes of

jpember, b^niihrnent, and divorce.

life,

After they were conflituted

The

IN AMERICA.
The

colony cf

^s

New

Plymouth was, before


with planters that they began
to forfake the fettlement, the foil of which
was by
this time pretty much worn out, and
removed
this period, fo filled

to

two diftina

houfes, If they happened to aiffer In any


cafcs

judicature, civil or criminal, the affair

was

to be determined

of

by a

vote of the whole court met together.

had power
prefent,

to pardon

was

prefid.nt in all courts.

tinued above on*

wajorily pf the

affembly

is

The general court only


condemned criminals. The governor, when

year.

aflillants,

The
may

No general

governor,
call

court to be con-

deputy-govemor,

a general affcmbly

but

not to be adjourned or diflblvcd, but by a vote of

gr
this
thje

une>

County courts may admit freemen,

being church-members,
of the independent or congregational religious
mode ;
only freemen were capable of voting in civil alfcmblies
that

if,

upon the kings

letter, this

Formerly fome townfliips had

it

in their option, to fend or not

to fend deputies to the general affembly.

and fuch other towns

may be
Th^
ty

1662,

law was repealed.

as arc not

The

deputies of

by law bound

Dover,

to fend deputies^

cxcufcd.

ainually elcfted by the freemen in general


(not
their reprefgntotivcs or deputies in the general
court 01 affem*
officers

Wy) were the

governor, the deputy-governor, the affilrants


or
council, the treafurer, the major-general,
the admiral at fea, the
commiffioners for the united colonies, and the
fccrctary.

By

an ad in 1641, tlie freemen of any ftiire or town,


have literty to ch^f(p deputies for the general court,
cither in their own
(hire or town, or clfewhere as they
judge fitteft ; fo they be
freemen and inhabiting this jurifditiou.

By

a law

attorney in

made

any

in 16^4,

no perfon, who is an

ufual or

inferior court, fhail be admitted to

fit

common

as a deputy

thf general court or affembly.

a place

BRITISH EMPIRE.

72

a place called Narnfet, where they purchaffid land


of the natives and built the town of Etfthalli in BAilaplC county.

The New

Englanders

now began

tUnl their

to

thoughts on the converfion and civilizing of the


Mr. Elliot, a minifter, undertook to learn
Indians.

Where

the country or colony laws are deficient, die

be determined by the word of God.


E^sfranchifement, and banlfhmsht, were

tjic ufoal

cstfe ftll

jihalties

for great crimes.

Governor and deputy-governor jointly peeing, or aiy cf


consenting, have power out df tourf, to re-

their affiftants,

affiftants,
prieve a condemned malefaaor, till the next court of
r general court; and the general court only hath ^ower to

saidon a condemned malefaftor.


to
i6^z. Enaftcd, That a mint-houfc be ercfted In fioftoit,
3d. pieces, in
and
6d.
lid.
in
alloy
fterling
of
filver
coin

"

than that of the prcfent Englifh coin by 2 d. in the


the one
lulling; the ftamp to be, within a double ring; on

alue

left

fide ** Maffachufets/*
*

witha

New-England," with

tree in the centre

tiie

on the other

year i6c'2, and the

figure

fide

Xii,

and III, according to the value of feach piece ; with a priExcepting Englifh coin, no other money to be catvate mark.
per cent, for charges of cbining;
rtnt in this common-wealth \

i,

be allowed by the owners of the filver brought into the mint


Exportation of this coin, except twenty (hiDings
to be coined.
confiffcation of
neceffary expences, is prohibited, tn pain of
tb

for
all

vifible

eftate. Coinage

not of a colony.
all

is

a prerogative of the fovereignty,

Scarcely any of this coin

other filver coin,

it is

driven

away by a

now

appeafs; with

multiplied fallacioM

bafe paper-currency.

imporBefidts fome fmall duties of impoft upon ftrong liquors


cyder,
ted; and a fmaU excifc of i, 6d. per hogftead, on

the

IN AMERICA.

7.^

the language of the favage?, and to' preach

among them.

gofpel

the

In 1646, he advanced into

whom he intended to convert, having previouily fent proper perfons to apprize them
their country

^]i
I

and malt HqHors retained; and

6//. per toinipon fliip-

tfrtinage

ping; theonlinnry revenue was a poli-tax or capitation upon all


male V'hites of fix teen years of age and upwards, and a ratt of
d. in the pound of principal ell ate at IhuU valuaiions
thu3

anno 16^1, the tax was 20


in the pound ettatc.

for inllance,

of

I d.

Anno

when

1692,

and a rate of 30
.

computed to

Anno

aiFairs

raife

d. per poll,

and a rate

the old charter expired, a tax of 10. f. poll,

upon every 100/. of principal elktc, was

j:.

30,000/. value eoual to proclamation money.

1639, a court-merchant

do not allow him

is

appoj-

.1.

to tarrj- the ordinary

Whenal!ra;if-ci'3

terms of the couits

the governoj or deputy, with any three of the alliiiants,


call a fpecial court.

Several ads for fairs and


tancc,

in Bolton

two

markets in fcveral towns

may

for inf-

yearly fairs, and a weekly market upon

the fifth day,

Enaited, a fmall body of good maritime laws In twcnty-feven


fedions.

The oecononiy of
white men of iixtecn

theii'
j

militia

cars

to

be

towns are

no

trocps

to join)

officers

to

be

chofen

by

urjd^n-

this

manner

fixty-four private

The

All

inlirtcd

men (fmuU

of hoife to exceed feveniy men.

o;!icei3 to he

of the company.

after

of age and upwards, v;ere

no company of foot

The non-commilfion

was

appoint^id

by the commiii-on

conimiiiloa oHicers of a

mijorlty

of

the

men

inlillcd

company, to be appi-ovcd by the county-court, or

ccmpany
in L:at

feilious.

All

the companies of one county or regiment, by a majoiiLVor the

men bdongintr

to that rci^iment are, to

the county, the conimanucr of that

iS

all

the militia ol the colony

Vol.

I.

was

chafe a fcijeanwriujor of

regiment

The c.mu.anJ

in a major-general,

annualiy

of

BRITISH EMPIRE

74
of

coming.

his

The

him

to fettle in their

cliofen

preaching,

his

Any

the general affcmbly.

by

their

at

and fuffered
were
numbers
country, where

to

borders, attended

met him

Indians

feven

affiftants,

be one,
the governor or deputy-governor to

may

whero

imprefs

fol-

diers.

exceflive wages for


prevent opprcffion, any pcrfon talcing
merchaftdife;
neceffaiy
for
prices
unrcafon'ble
work done, or
the offence is
where
court
the
of
difcretion
Jhall be fined at the

To

The

prefented.

feled

men

to regulate the

wages of

By

porters.

name of
Ever-living God.-By the great name
the Living, and fon^tlmes
God. By the great and dreadful
of the Ever-living Almighty

The

forms of their judicial oaths

name of

the Ever-liiing

were

the

GUThefe were ufcd according to the

folemnity of the ocoaiion.


of any records
Any perfon may view and have atteftcd copies
excepted.
the journals of the council

Powowers

Jcfuits, or

to be fined five pounds.

catholic ecclefiaas,

to be banilhed;

Roman

any

to fuffer

if they return,

extended to the quakcrs.


death.This law was afterwards
heretics, lately
Anno 165^. None of that curfed fed of

Up

in the world,

imported
per hoar,

which

arc

commonly

piece, and 405.


penalty upon the mailer iool. per
entertaining
any other perfon harbouring or
for

them.

1658.

*^'

rifen

called quakers, are to be

quakcr convided,

Punalty for playing

(hall

at cards or dice

.^

be banifhed upon

p.

for obfervlng

pam

ot

any fuch

of the fabbath-day, for the bxi\


day as Chriibnas 5 s. prutaners
but for after-offences to be fined.
offence '- be admonilhcd,

Drinking hcilths aboard of

veffels

20

5I. or
vlllng magiltrates or miniftcrs

8.

every health.

Re-

whipping.

and toto prefent unprofitable fowlers,


,633. Conftablcs arc
magillratc.
bacco-takcrs, to the next

brought

IN AMERICA.
brought over to thr

ment of

New

En<> uid gave

countenance and

on the

No

fpot,

hriftian

affiftance.

and the

75

The

faith.

govern-

him all manner of


A town was built

tools proper for agriculture

motion of marriage to be made to any maid, without the

and

to

eonfent of her parents.

Births, marriages,

recorded in each town

to be returned yearly to the county-

deatlis

be

court or fefflons.

general affembly having received and perufcd a letter

The

from the privy-council


12 Carol.

II.

of parliament

officers in all their fea-ports, the tranfac-

tions to be tranfoiitted to

men

ad

for the encouraging of fhipping and navigation

they appointed naval

"Women,

England, with an

in

London once a year by

the fecretary.

girls, and boys, are enjoined to fpin.

The

feleft

of each town, are to alTefs each family, at one or more

fpinners

when they have avocations of

to be deemed

half or quarter fpinners.

other bufinefs, they are

A whole fpinner

fpin every year, for thirty vireeks, three pounds every

(hall

week of

linen, cotton, or woollen.

Five years quiet

commonages
1667.

poflefllon

five fheep (hall

No

to

be deemed a good

In

title.

be reckoned equal to one cow.

licenfed peifon to fell beer, but of four bufhels

barley malt at leaft, to the hogfliead, and not to be fold above

2 d. the ale quart

or other materials.

fpending whilft

not to be mixed with malaffes, coarfc

No

frelh, before the firft

veyors appointed to view

Wampumpeag
ing 40

s.

mackarel

to be

fiigar,

except for

of July annually.

Sur-

all fliippiag in building.

to be a tender in

at eight

caught,

payment of debts not exceed-

white, or four black a penny,

This was

re-

pealed anno 1661.

After a vote paflTed in an affembly or civil court, a

may

member

enter his diflent, without entering his rcafons of diffcnt

to be recorded.

and

BRITISH EMPIRE

76

'

andorlrr neceflary employments being furnilhed


to the favages, the EnglUli began to form them into
:

well-ordered focieties, and brought them to fubmit


to feveral regulations* not ill calculated for the
In allaflemHies, neuters, that

Any two

votes for the n'^gative.

the county,

may

filent,

ts

fliall

be iocoutited

magiflrates, with the clerk of

take probate of wills, or grant adminiftra-

tion.

In old charter times, the colony was

at firft

divided into the

when they
three counties of Suffolk, Effex; andMiddlefex
province
of
and
the
afn-.med the jurifdictlun of New-KampHiire
:

Main, and

fettled

lony, in 1671,

compaiVly upcn Connefticut River, the co-

was divided

ioto thefc fix counties

Counties.

Shire-Towns,

Suffolk,

Bofton.
Salifbuiy and Hampton.

Norfolk,

Salem and Ipfwich.


Pifcataqua,

Dover and

Uliddlefex,,

Cliarles-Tov\ n and Cambridge,

Portfmoiith.

Yovkflnre,

York.

Ham p

Northampton and

111 ire,

* The regulations here mentioned were


**

any

*'

If

man

.:

be idle a foitnight, he Ihall

as

Springfield.

follow,*' If

iV.ifeit five

fliillings.-

two unmarried people commit fornication, the man IhaU

**

pay twenty fhilUngs.

*'

fh.U

be bound
Is

If

any man

and publicly

(hall beat

puniflied.

*'

who

wigvvatn [or dwtll'nq] for himfeJf, and not

**

ill

**

a man's or 'langing loufc, (he

*'

woman

five

unm;;rried

thofo olotheis,

' fined

and not another's fcivant

If

any woman
f>.J.l!

ihall

pay

his

fliall fct

fhift

the

-All

men who

up ami

up a

down

wear her haircut like


five (hillings.

cvpofin^ htr breafls with')ut a covering

fl'.illines.

wife he

Eveiy young man

Any

fliall

wear long locks

forfeit

ihall

be

Ume fum."
firfl

IN AMERICA.
Brfi:

The

11

advances towards civilizing thefe barbarians.


inhabitants of the neighbouring

town of Con-

cord^ were fo well pleafed with the report of thefe

amendments, that they likewife


verted.

Mr.

Elliot accordingly

He

town among them.

defired to

be

went and

con*-

built a

upon them

prevailed

to

abolifh the infamous conjurings and other ridicu-

lous

impofitions

pradifed

by

their

priefts;

to

make murder and adultery capital crimes, and to


eftablilli many other regulations of a limilar nature
to

had before introduced amono;

thofe he

their

Their bodily welfare was likewife

neighbours.

provided for, and doaths, and other neceflaries


fachems,
"Englifh,

dif-

now

forae of the heathen

finding themfelves

furrounded by the

tributed to them.

began to

But

of their

fear a total fubverfion

ancient cuftoms, by the introdudion of chriftians

One of them, named Cutfhamoquin, made heavy complaints againfl them, and

into their territories.

prohibited
religion

all fuch of his people as changed their


from building any towns within his do-

minions, alledging, that his praying fubjecfts did

not pay

him

tribute

as formerly.

many

After

debates about the matter, however, his Indian


jefly turned chriftian himfelf, for the fake

creasing his revenue.

town

in

converts

now

of

in-

built a

the middle of the MaiTachufets, confift-

ing of three
the third

The

ma

flreets,

by a

river,

two of them

feparated

from

but joined by a wooden bridge,

A larg

BRITISH EMPIRE

j9

large houfe,

built after the

European manner

ferved for a church, a (lore houfe, a fchool-room,

and a dwelling houfe, for Mr. Elliot. The .Indians became fchoolmaflers, preachers, and even
magiftrates, in confequence of the wife and juft
meafures at

this

time taken by the

fettlers,

which

tended to the eltablilhment of peace and tranquiinterefts of the


lity, and the advancement of the
colony.

Yet the heathen Indians, and efpecially fuch as


had been roughly treated by the Englilh, continued to look with an evil eye upon them, and not
the higheft notions

to entertain

of their juftice

and humanity*. However, 5000 favages^ were


converted, and a focicty for the propagation of
the gofpel in thofe parts was formed, and encouraged by ads of parliament pafled in England,

where a corporation was

elVabliflied for that

pur-

yearly
pofe, with liberty to purchafe lands to the

value of

Two
engaged

fix

hundred pounds.

years before this period, the French had


fome Indians to mafihcre the magiftrates

Newhaven; but the fchemc mifcarried. The


New Eng landers delivered from their enemies,
began afrefh to perfecute their brethren. As foon
at

As an
conTct

Inftance of this, one

a fachem,

En.^lid-

(hewed in

good

how

the

firft."
little

Indi.in

Mr. Mayhew endeavouring to


bad him " Go, and make the

Ihrewd reply of the favage,^

cflimation he held

tlie

^vhic-h

morals of his pray-

ing neighbours.

as

^I

N AMERICA.

79

as the prefbyterlans had received the fanftion of


the civil power for their ecclefiaftical government,

they bpgan to

treat the different fedaries

among

themfelves with more feverity, than they had for-

merly been treated with by the church of England; the anabaptifls and the quakers were the
objefts of their religious fury,

and

to thefe they

ihewed no mercy.

The

perfecution

firfl

broke out

Plymouth county, where

anabaptifls

who
were

whipped, and imprifoned.

fined,
-

in

their brethren,

feveral

had fevered themfelves from

Rehobeth,

at

Thefe, likemoft

bigots were as ready to bear punifhments, as their


adverfaries

boafls
**

were

of what they termed

gofpel of truth.'*

and

them, and made great

to inflict

All feds

*'

fuffering

grow by

for

not too bold to fay, that to this principle

it is

under Divine Providence,

chriltianity

itfelf,

the flourifliing ftate to which, through fo


firey

trials,

at laft

wards the quakers


felt

the

oppreflion

it

arrived.

in the

Some

new world

the iron hand of power.

come from the Wefl-Indies

Many

owed
many

years afteras

feverely

of thefe had

to fettle

among

the

they were ordered back again, and it


was immediately enacted that all mailers of veiTels
bringing any (Quakers to New England fliould
puritans

forfeit a

hundred pounds; that

all

quakers land-

ing in that government fliould be fent to the houfe

of corredlion, to be whipped and kept to hard


boUa",

with many other claufes fuihciently

la-

fevere.

Yet

BRITISH EMPIRE

8o

Yettothcfe upon a more mature

Wfic

delibttiation,

added the following.


" A quaker returning to

New

England

after

" banilhment, if a man, to have one ear cut off,


and kept to hard labour in the houfe of correc" tion, till he can be ihipped off at his own

"
"
<(

"
*'

offence, to

For the fecond

charges.

lofe

the

other ear, and l^ kept in the houfe of correcIf a woman, to be whipped and kept
tion.

as

abovementioned. For the third offence, whe-

ther

men

or

women,

to

have

tongues bored

tlieir

" with

<*

the
a hot iron, and then to be detained in
off
Ihipped
hoiife of corre<5tion till they can be
at their

own

All thefe laws, hard as

chnrgcs."

the quakers,

they were, feemed

rather to invite

than to deter them

from flocking to the colonies.

Endicot, the governor,


thufiaft.

No bounds,

himfelf a violent en-

was

confccpiently,

perlecution of thefe people.

It

was

were

fet to

at length

the

made

having been
capital for a quaker tu return after
(three
trafnported from the colonics. Four of them

men and one woman) were

aa. Charles

II.

who was

executed upon this

by

this

time rellored,

to
difapproved of thefe meafures, and fent orders
thefe
flop all proceedings agalnll: the quakers ;

\vcre not fo

much

attended to as they

ought

to

have been; but they occafioncd a repeal of tliat


peobloody law which condemned thefe wretched
ple to death for their ridiculous opinions.
.

One

IN AMERICA*
Ont

ii

cannot help remarking here the pcrverienofs

of mankind, that

has, in almod; every age, turned

which was intended

that principle

gjood into the greateft

evil.

for the greateft

With what

juftiee

did the primitive chriftians cry out againft their hea-

then adverfaries for the

them

with

How
their

feverities

blood

dod:rines

tliofe

The good maxims

preach!

inflided

nobly did they ftand the

upon

and

teft,

feal

came

they

to

they inculcated, the

fimplicity andfpotlefs purity of their lives, their

who

generous forgivenefs of thofe

and above
barbarifm
the

one another,

its

in

at laft

fufferings,

and

overcame even

and forced the nations to confefs


which feemed fo clofely

itfelf,

power of

to copy

their conftancy

all

their love for

injured them,

that religion

divine original.

vourably received

in

Chriftianity

the world.

and great

ftates

What was

the confequence

was

fa-

Mighty princes

countenanced and proteftedit.

the perfecutlons of the

Thofe

who, during

heathens, had been infc-

parably united in the bond of love, and walked


like brethren together in the fteps of their great

mailer, began
felves

now

be divided amongft them-

to

about vain points of fpeculation.

They

into different fedts, and whichever of thefe

permoft

failed

vex and harrafs the

not to

Councils were called;

made, and men,

articles

at length, punilTied in their per-

then forgot themfelves


I.

reft.

exhibited; decrees

ibns for mere matters of opinion.

Vol.

fplir

was up-

I'he chriftians

they were no longer -the

children

BRITISH EMPIRE

8f

children of one father, the fervants of one lord,

meek and humble Patron of


rather like fo many

the followers of the


their

faith; they appeared

who were

favages

entered into a folemn compad:

to endeavour the deftruftion of each other.


fince thofe times, there has fcarceiy

or feft of men,

who

have not,

in their turns

ever they had the authority, played the

The

over their brethren.

And

been any churck

proteftants

whentyrants

feparated

themfelves from the Romilh church of whofe perfecuting fpirit they with juflice complained; yet

they could not

refift

the opportunity of perfccuting

the diirenters.

The

zeal of the latter infpired

them

with an ardour and conftancy which got the better

of

all

of the

oppofition.
(late

home,

at

oceans, fled to

Some

wrought the fubverfion

whilft others

woods and,

defetigable induftry (never too

mended) procured
jjind fecurity
'

pafled

much

tc

be com-

to themfelves dwellings

among

vaft

wilds, and with an in-

of peace

the haunts of favages,

facrifi-

cing to the enjoyment of their rights and liberties


every focial
CQpnexions.

reaping the
tJemcnts

tie,

and

all

fruits

now
new fet-

thefe very people

of their labours

perpetually

and deareft

their neareft

Let us behold

flouriihing

their

and

extending

themfelves, chiefly on account of their being confldered as a

retreat for all

the mother-country.

be jnore

abllird

manner of perfons from

In this view, can any thing

then to perceive fuch a fociety

endeavouring

IN AMERICA.
endeavouring to overturn

own

its

eftablifhments,

and perfecuting vith the moft implacable hatred


a fet of poor deluded wretches, wLom their contempt would have been the moft cffe<ftual means
of vanquiihing

?
Surely this is a proof at once
of the weaknefs and of the depravity of human
nature, where pride and fclf-love are fuffered to

predominate; and

it

is

the moft humiliating cir-

cumftancc to a philanthropift, to confider that the

fame

has reigned fo univerfally through the

fpirit

world, which defeats the ends intended to be anfwcrcd by true religion, converts that great lit^ht
firom heaven into the groflhefs of darknefs, and
leaves us in a labyrinth of error.

Would man-

kind confider themfelves as brethren, would they


but refledt that the great intent of religion is to

make them
that love

charitable neighbours to each other;

and obedience are the moft acceptable


the Creator, and that the torments or

facrifice to

deftruftion of his creatures, on any pretence whatfoever,


I

fay,

thefe

men

muft

neceflarily

be difpleafing

and better

chriftians.

troducing a reflexion, which


will pardon, as

of the

hiftory.

it

But

came

could not help


I

in-

hope the reader

naturally occurred at this period

After the death

two

in his fight:

would they but meditate ferioufly upon


things, it is likely they would become better

to proceed.

of the fachem Mafiafoit,

his

New

Plymouth, where they


were baptized by the names of Alexander and
fons

to

Philip.
il

If

If

BRITISH EMPIRE

84

Tl

Philip

of thefc being fufpcftcd of fomc

latter

michi :itio. ^s tgainft the Englilh, and being by


them taken .rifoner, as he was a very haughty
man, brooked hii confinement U> ill that he fell
His
feck of a fevtr whkh put an end to his life

ferofher Philip, a prince of great fpirit,

alliance >vith the colonilb,

renewed

by a written deed, not

to oblige himfelf,

his

ven went fo far as

ana

to alienate

any of his lands without their confent and approbation

while they, on their parts, entered into

folemn

and defenfive with one

league offenfive

9.

who

afterwards proved their biftereft enemy.

The Bartholomew
by which

land,

all

tors

taking place in Eng-

England was

and with theological difpntes


fucceeded,

dclufion

timely put a flop

to,

which

An
tans,

evil

it

filled

with paf-

a moft

fat^l

had not been


the de-

ia

whole colony.

unaccountable fancy
that they

if

might have ended

flrudlion of almoll the

and

now

nonconformifts were turned out

New

of their livings.

adt

poflefl'ed the

pious puri-

were under the power of witches

fpirits,

which

produced fome of the

ftrangeft confequences ever heard of in hiftory.

was

at a

town

this delufion

called Salem, in

firfl

ller thf^re.

He

convulfions

began.

One

New England,
Paris

It

that

was the mini-

had two daughters troubled

which being atiended with

^'

forrc-

""h
c>

thofe extraordinary ap])earances not imfrequcnt in

fuch diforders, he imagined they were bewitched.

As

fc"

'i

as he concluded

upon witchcraft

as the

caufe

AMERICA.

I.N
ij^ufc
tfi

of the

next inquiry was, hcyrj

diilenfiper, the

who

fipd put the perfon

He

cail his eyes

his

own,

whom

$5

bai.

bewitched

th<"

pon an Indian fervant woman ot


he frequently beat, and ufed lier

feverity that Ihe at lift conttiicd herfelf

with fuch

the witch, and

was committed

The

lay for a long time.

to goal,

where

imaginations of

r)ie

make

ple were not yet fufficiently heated to

flic

peo-

a very

bufinefs of this; therefore they were- content

formal

to difchargc her from prifon after a long confinenuent,

and to

fell

her as a Have for her

ever, as this ejc;imple


icraft

on

foot,

conjpiaint,
too,

^nd

How-

fees.

the difcourfe about witch-

fct

fome people, troubled with a

began

to think themfelves

Perfons in ^n

ill

(late

fimilar

bewitched

of health are naturally

of finding out caufes for their diftempers

pecially fuch as aye extraordinary,

of the public upon them.


fomething of malice in the

of the

firft

whom

objedts

and

ef-

call the eya

There was perhaps

affair

befides

fojr

they fixed upon

one

was Mr.

who had formerly been


upon fome of the religious

Burroughs, a gentleman
minifter of Salem: but,

difputes

with

which divided the country, he

his flock

and

with two others

left

them.

This

for witchcraft,

by

differed

man was

tried

a fpecial coni-

miflion of oyer and terminer, dircdted to

fome of

the gentlemen of the beft fortunes, and reputed to

be of the beft underftandings

in the country.

fore thefe judges, a piece of evidence

the moft

weak and

childilh, the

was

Be-

delivered,

moft repugnant to
itfclf.

mLJist

BRITISH EM? IRE

and to common fenfe, that perhaps ever was


known upon any ferioiis occaiion. Yet by thofc
itfelf,

judges,

upon

ed upon

it,

and the verdift founds

that evidence,

of a moft uncxcep.

this minifter, a perfon

tionable charafter, and

two

others,

men

irreproach*

able in their lives, were fentenced to die, and were ac-

Then

cordingly executed.

thefe

vi^ims of the po-

pular madnefs were (tripped naked, and their bodies

thrown

into a pit, half covered

to the difcretion

Upon
fixteen

with earth, and

of the birds and wild

the fame evidence, in a

more

fuffercd

left

beafts.

little

time

after,

death; the greatefl part of

them dying

in the moft exemplary fentiments of


with
and
the ftrongeft profeffions of their
piety,
One man, refufing to plead, fuifered in
innocence.

the cruel

manner the law

by a flow

on that

occafion,

The moft

ordinary

direfts

prefTure to death.

and innocent adtions were metamorphofed into magical ceremonies, and the fury of the people aug-

mented

in proportion as this

increafed.

into every

The

gloom of imagination

flame fpread with rage and rapidity

part of the country.

Neither the ten-

demefs of youth, nor the infirmity of age, nor the

honour of the
ftry,

fex,

nor the facrednefs of the mini-

nor the refpecftable

charadlcr,

was

condition of fortune or

the leaft protection.

eleven years old were taken

women were
to fearch
ftains

III

up

Children of

for forceries.

ftripped in the moft fliamcful

them

for magical teats.

common on

the

fleins

The

The

manner

fcorbutic

of old pcrfons, were

N AMER

A*

87

This was indifputable


As fuch they adimtted

called ihe devil's pinches.

them.

evideiwe againft

every idle flying report, and even

ftories

of ghofts^

which they honoured with a name, not found in


our law books: they called them Speftral Evidence. Some women owned they had been lain
with by die devil, and other things equally ridi-

w
lii

culous and abominable.

The

wretches

not more preflcd

who fuffcred the torture, being


to own themfelves guilty than to

itii

difcover their aflbciates and accomplices, unable to

give any real account,

named people

random,

at

who were

immediately taken up, and treated in


the fame cruel manner, upon this extorted evidence.

An
all.

univerfal terror

Some prevented

felves

with

and conflernation
accufation,

preparing to

fly.

The

upon

and fo

witchcraft,

others fled the province

feizcd

and charged them-

efcaped death;
and many more were

prifons

were crowded; peo-

ple were executed daily; yet the rage of the accufers

was

as freih as ever,

and the number of the

witches and the bewitched increafed every hour.

A magiftrate, who

had committed

this crime, fatigued

with

fo difagreeable

ployment and afliamed of the


refufed to grant any
felf

forty perfons for

fliare

immediately accufed of forcery

he had

He

more warrants.
;

an emin

it,

was him-

and thought

himfelf happy in leaving his family and fortune,

and cfcaping with

life

out of the province.

A jury,.

(1 ill

BRIttl^rt fiMPlAE

A jury,

ftruck witk th6

the folcmn

affufatices

skffeftJhfe

m^ilhcr

of mi!&6entt df a wb^alfl
.

brotijght before them, ventured !d i6quk hef

the judges fent

theltti

out

agalii

ous mSinner forced them to

and

and

trates

minifters,

been employed
fuaging

They

its

in

fury,

The

whofe ptudenc^ ought

threw in

ndw

acciifers

but

the W()ifiai4 guilty j

healing this

encouraged the

iftd in ifi iittpeirl*

fitid

was executed inlin^iAtdy.

flie

ftfid

difttfrtiptt

ifiag^^

to have
and tf*

coinbuftlble matter.
;

they

affifted at thfc

examinations, and they extorted the ccmfeffions, of


witches.

None

more upon

this

bcca-

iion than Sir William Phips, the governor, a

New

fignalized their zeal

England man, of the loWeft

birth,

and yet meaner

education; who, having raifed a fudden fortune by

a lucky accident, was knighted, and afterwards


made governor of the province. Dod:or Increifc

Mather, and dodtor Cotton Mather, the


the

New

pillars

of

England church, were equally fanguine.

Several of the moft popular miniften, after twenty

executions had been made, addrelfed Sir William

Phips with thanks for what he had done, and with


exhortations

The
know where

to proceed

accufers, encouraged

laudable a work.

fo

in this

how

manner, did not

to proceed.

They

They began at lad to


What was worfe,
accufe the judges themfelves.
the ncarcft relations of Mr. Increafe Mather were

were

Si

to flop, nor

in

at a lofs

for objefts.

Wl B|

involved, and witchcraft began even to approach

A 1 uMi
EM
mil

the

i'is
i'

M^

11

tifll

lU 1
lU'
I^H
[Ml
IB^^S ^^H
1

AMERICA.

IN
the governor's

own

family.

It

to give things another turn.

difcouraged by authority.

who

was now high time


The accufers were

One hundred and

fifty,

Two

lay in prifon, were difcharged.

hundred more were under accufation ; they were pafled


over 5 and thofe who had received fentence of
death were reprieved, and in due time pardoned.

A few cool moments

(hewed them the grofs and


them aw ay, and which

ftupid error that had carried

was

utterly invifible to

were engaged

in

them

ail

the while they

this ftrange

perfecution.
They
grew heartily alhamed of what they had done. But
what was infinitely mortifying, the quakers took

occafionto attribute

ment on them for


faft was appointed ;
pardon

all

all this

their

mifchief to a judge-

perfecution,

general

the puritans praying

God to
the errors of his people in a late tragedy,

amongft them by Satan and his^ inftrumeTits.


Such was the end of this extraordinary madneft,

raifed

which had fo fatally


which was one of

(trongeft

few things

fo

general good, fo

bad

it is

as not to

likely this

have

New

of

there

conduce to fome

work

off the

England people, and

free ufe gf their reafon.

removal

As

temporary lunacy

contributed in a great meafure to

humours of the
them to a more

p^ple, and

ebullitions

known among them.

enthufiafm ever
are

pofleffed thefe

the

to

ill

brin^

Many evils

own extremes^ Thif


remedy which though fqueezed from tl)e
very heart of fanatlcifm, was t^ befl
application
Vol. I.
whereby

was

their

in their

the

go

BRITISH EMPIRE

whereby

to effedl a cure

with

poifon.

its

on fuch as were tainted


certain, that whatever yvtrt

It is

the follies of the puritans, rtluch of their bigotry


was loft after this period, and expired with the

witchcraft delufion.

The

extraordhiary fcene

was no

fooner clofed

than the magiftrates began to reflea that they had


punilhin Reality no right to inllia any capital

John Winthrop, Efq. fon to the


governor of Mallachufet, was employed by the

Upon

ments.
lute

this,

Connedicut and Newhaven to folicit


the charter for them which united them into one
colonifts of

body corporate.
Upon the breaking -out of the Dutch war, his
majcily, who fecmcd ftill to have been uneafy about
the conftitution of
the

New England,

duke of York of

Dutch on both

fides

all

made

a grant to

the lands poffefled by the

of Hudfon's Bay, and a fqua-

dron of ihips, with land forces, were fent to drive


them away, under the command of Sir Robert Car,

That

and colonel NichoUs.

fervice being perform-

two commanders, with other two commiffioncrs, Cartwright and Maverick, were order-

ed, the

ed to repair to

New

England, there to decide

controverted points amongll the colonifts.


incr there,
cil

*in

of

ali

Arriv-

thev prefented to the governor and coun-

New

Plymouth a

which he promifes

and privileges, both


the leaft violation.

to

letter

from

his majefty,

prcferve all their liberties

eccleliaftical

and

civil,

" This," (continued

\vithout

his majefty)

" we

'

IN AMERICA.

9i

wd prerume will difpofe you to manifeft by all


' the ways in your power, your loyalty,
and afFedion
" to us, that all the world may know that
you
'* look ujwn
yourfelves as being as much our fub*

*^

jetfls,

"

as if

and living under the fame obedience to us,


you continued in your natural country."

Though

thofe expreflions from a king of

to one of his colonies

were

juilifiable,

fence of the commiffioners


at
''"

New Plymouth.
Soon

was not very acceptable

after this, upoji

'

foi-rte

natural appearances in the

England

yet the pre-^

-^'^'^

"^^^

extraordinar>',

air,

though

the magifirates, ^vho

feem to have been

as much fuperflition-ftruck as
the loweft of their people, wrote circular letters
to
the minifters and elders of every town to promote

the reformation of manners, as

had been

^^1 event

at

if

hand.

fome very dread-

The

that kind, however, that happened

of their

own

fines,

they

now

and imprifonments.

terpofition

thin^r

of

was a renewal

perfecutions of the baptifts and the

whom

quakers,

only

ruined by basiilliments,

This produced an

from the heads of the prelbyterian

in-

clerj^y

England, for a mitigation of the fulferings of the


baptifts, addrcfled to John Leverett, Efq.
governor
of the Maflachufets. At the lame time, the chief
in

of the London quakers obtained a like letter, fio-ncd by eleven of the moil eminent diflenrin^^- divines

favour of their brethren

no purpofts
land

was

While

but

all

was

the government of

to

little

or

New Eng-

thus, our of zeal for chriftianit\', cxercif-

ino-

BRITISH EMPIRE

9i

ing a moft unchriftian

Philip, king of the

fpirit,

Wami)anoags, the fame

we

have already mention-

was medi*

ed, mindful of his brother's difgrace,

nting a moft fevere revenge againft the Engliih,


and condudied himfelf with as much policy and
courage, as his namefake of Macedon could have
done, had he been in the like circumftances.
year 1673, there

was no

In the

America be-

difpute in

tween the courts of France and England ; but it


appears, at the fame time, that this was owing to
the tamenefs of the court of England,

perfuaded by

the French to order

leave the fine fettlements they

which wt*

its

fubjedts to

had upon the banks

of the river Kennsbek, which they accordingly did,

New

England, which nov/ far exceeded the French boalled colony at Quebec, in
populoufnefs, ftrcngth, riches, commerce, and every

and

retired to

circumftance that could render the lives of the colonifts fecure

fore,

at

confidered Bofton as

any

The

and agreeable.

rate, to

French, there-

the Carthage that was,

be demolillied, and early entered

into fecret connexions

with king Philip.

He

faw

him

they were not then in a condition to


and, though he was a complete matter of diffimuaflift

lation,

the Engli/h

at

New

Plymouth began to

and ordered him

fufped his

intentions.,

Taunton.

Philip obeyed,

confirmed

to repair to
his

former

pay
treaty with that government, and confented to
a hundred pounds for damages done by himfelf
and his fubjects ; and, to Ihew that he was a vaffal
to

N AMERIC

to the colony of

them every

A,

93

New Plymouth,

he agreed to fend
by way of tenure, five wolves

year,

heads.

If the colony demanded

this,

it

was

iinjuft, as^

they could have no fuch claim of fuperiority


over
a native and independent prince.
If the fubmiffion

was voluntary, yet


of

it,

Upon

as they

it

the whole,

thofe colonics,

was

them to accept
was diifembled.

impolitic in

know

mull

that

it

appears but too plainh-, that


thinking themfelves invincible,

it

now

proceeded againll Philip and his

allies

too haughti-

and unguardedly, and with too great a contempt


of their power. Philip had a fecretary, one Sanfa^
man, but whether he was his natural-born fubjecl;
ly,

does not appear, though he probably was. He


was
the fon of a converted Indian ; but growing
up, h
returned to the religion of his

which he

apoftatized,

and a preacher, he was fent upon the


miffion.

Having

from

forefathers,

and again turning

chriftian

Wampanoag

in his heathenilh ftate

been

fecje-

tary to Philip, fuch an apoftle could not be


a very

agreeable guefl in his dominions


travelling the country, be

of Philip's counfeilors, at
the iefs furprifed, as

we

;
and, as he was
was murdered by fonie
which we ought to be

are told that, during his

miffion, he held a correfpondence with the Engliih.

The governor of New Plymouth, fufpe^ing


truth,

ordered the body to

grave, and, the coroners mqucft fitting

brought

in

their

vcrdid

*^

tlic

be taken out of

upon

it,

wilful murder,"

its

they

upon

which

BRITISH EMPIRE

94

which one Tobias, one of Philip's counfellors, and


his fon, were upon tlie evidence of an Indian, and
the ridiculous one of the body's bleed inp; at the

touch of Tobias, tried by a jury, half Englilh, half


Indians, convicted, and cxecutcci.

About

time,

this

fome

pirates ran

on board the long boat; and both

meet

ton ;

men

mafler and fome of his

ihip, after putting the

to

away with a

parlies

happened

very fame time in the port of Bof-

at the

upon which the

pirates

were

and

feized, tried,

the rin2;leaders executed.

King

Philip's patience

was, by

out, nor can

we

be furprized at

dignities he

had

fuffered.

out near
lifh

plantation

manded

His

Mount Hope, where

ufual, to the
Ir,

in the fields

worn

confidering the in-

iirft hoflilities

broke

he plundered an Eng-

but, inllcad of giving fatisfaclion as

governor of

his Indians

by

it,

this time,

New

Plymouth,

who

de-

murdered three Engliihmen

day, and fix others in the

town of

This was in the year 1675;


and the governor of New Plymouth immediately

Swanfey by night.

demanded from the confederate colonics their ftipulated affiftances. The Plymouth forces lay at Swanfey,

under captain Cudworth, and the Maflachufets

colony detached captain Prentice, with a troop of


horfe, captain

Henchman, with a company of

foot,

and captain Mofely, with another of volunteers, to


join him.

brought
peans

The

Indians feldom or never could be

Hand a pitched battle with the Euroand this jundion being formed, they fled
to

into

"^7^

W>

E R rc

A.

95
upon which the Englifh took pof*
of Mount Hope, and ravaged their
country.

into the woods,


fcffion

They

then com^jelled the Naragantfets to


renounce

their alliance

with king Philip, and to enter into


the Englifh againlt him, and
all
their other enemies ; and, by
way of encouragement, they were promifcd two coats for
articles to

aflift

every

liv-

and one for every dead Wampanoag,


and
twenty good coats for Philip's head.
ing,

How

far this

reward

for

the life ofafovercign


prince ^vas agreeable to juftice or
the law of n^ations

may be juftly

doubted, efpecially as it did not


then judicially appear that he authorifed
the barbarities that

had been committed by his fubjeds.


In the mean while, captain
Cudworth marched to
prevent the Pocalfets, anothei- Indian
tribe,

joining with Philip

froiii

but he found that they had


already taken arms, and he was too
vv'cak to reduce
them.
Philip knew perfectly well
;

how

himfelf of the

was by ambufcades and


officers,

to avail

Indian manner of fighting, which


'

furprifes.

on the other hand, finding

The Englifh
their

enemies

fled,

fcoured the country-, with

tion,

and were often over-reached bv the


Ibaia-

gems of

the barbarians.

little

The head

or no precau-

quarters of the

were then at Taunton, froiii M'hencc th-y


broke up, upon advice that Philip ^vtls
in a
Englifli

hvampV

lying

on a fpot called Pocafik-Neck,


bctuccn
Rhode-Ifland and Monument-Bay,
about eighteen
miles dillant from Taunton.

Thitiicr they

march-

BRITISH EMPIRE

9$

but, after lofing fome men, they found them*


fclves obliged to turn their attack into a blockade,

tlic field

which they formed with two hundred men, in hopes


of llarving out Philip, or obliging him to furren*

great

al

der.

from

hi

This fervice was performed by the Engliih with


neither conragc nor conduct ; for Philip, in the

dancy

ed

By

time, crofled the river on a raft,

mean

his efcape into the country

and made

of the Nipmucks

liundued of his men, however, were

mide

one

prifo-

ners.- The Nipmucks were Indians, lying between


Connecticut and New York, and had already made

fuch devaftations in Suffolk county, as had obliged


the Engliih to draw off great part of their troops
their expedition

from
them.

At

firft,

againft Philip

to fupprefe

the Engliih endeavoured to detach

them, by a treaty, from Philip's

intereft

arrival

fome of his men, and obliging the

Philip,

who was by

this

prifcd

fifty

reft to fly.

men,

fur-

the Indians in the night-time, killed eighty

of them, and obliged Philip,

hoftages

Nipmuc

fo attach

own

kir

marched

the capta
fix

of

The

the

reft

the colon

by the

time very ftrong, purfucd

head of no more than

ar

roufed in

then-

have l^een taken or burned, had they not been relieved by major Willard, another Englifh officer,
at the

with a

in

them, and drove them, to the number of about


fe\'enty, into a houfe, where they muft probably

who,

obferve

but they

no fooner heard of that prince's


country, than they fired upon captain Hut ;hinfon,
one of the two officers fent to negotiate with them,
killed

tl

in his turn, to retreat,

which he did towards the Nipmuck country.

By

fered the

inland to

and burn
tion,

wl:

Beers was

he was

nr

himfelf a
to fly to

larger

de

brought

of ftarvin

Vol. I

IN AMERICA.
By

this

tlic field

Connedicut

time, the

great

we

abilities,

from

who was

under major Treat,

obferve Philip's motions.

infpiring

his

dircded to

fay virtues,

arifes

the favages in thofe parts

all

with a palfion for recovering

When

dancy and country.

had taken

proof of that prince's

not

will

97

forces

their

native indepen-

demanded

the Engliih

hoftages from the favages on the borders of the

Nipmuck

country, inftead of obeying, they were

fo attached to Philip, that they cut in pieces their

own

king for liftening to the propofition,

marched

the captains Lathrop and Beers,


fix

of them, with the

The

reft

who

of ten of

killed twenty-

own men.

their

All the out-fettlements of

New England were now ravaged


whom Philip had every where

the colonifts of

by the

lofs

joined Philip.

and

They were purfued by

to join Philip.

natives,

roufed into arms


fered the moft.

but the Connedricut colony

The

fuf-

inhabitants of Deerfield, an

inland town, after feeing their plantations deftroyed


and burned, fh^it themfelves up in a flight fortification,

where they defended themfelves.

was fent
he was met by
Beers

at the

head of

the favages,

thirty-fix

who

Captaia

men

but

put to the fword

himfelf and ten of his foldiers, and obliged the


reft
to fly to

larger

Hadley.

Major Treat,
detachment, had better

brought off the befieged


of ftarving, having

Vol.

I,

at the

head of a

fortune,

for

he

but they were in danger

left their

com

behind them.
Captaij^

II

BRITISH EMPIRE

98

Captain Lathrop, on the fifteenth cf September,

went,

head of a large detachment, confiding

at the

almoft of the whole force of Eil'ex county, with


carts to fetch

It

but he was furrounded by the

off ;

them

Indians, and, endeavouring to fight

own

manner, he himfclf and feventy of

were

in their

his

men

Ihot dead, through the fuperior dexterity of

This was

the Indians in managing their fire-arms.


the grcatcll

had ever

lofs

men

of

the

New England colonies

fuftained at one time

nor was

repaired

it

by captain Mofeley, w ho, though he came too late


to fave his countrymen, killed above one hundred
ot'

two of

the Indians, lofing but

his

own men.

Lathrop's defeat encouraged the favages upon Con-

nedicut lliver

to declare for Philip

gcs they had given for the


peace,

had

the

Springfield, a

objed of

firft

addrefs

town

to

on

lying

their fury.

and the hofta-

prefervation

of the

make

cfcape.

that

their

was

river,

the

There they burned down

would have maflacred all


had they not been put upon their

thirty-two houfes, and

the inhabitants,

guard by Toto, a

faithful Indian,

the ftrongell places of the toun,

fended

till

all

retired into

they de-

they were relieved by a detachment un-

der captain Appieton.


that

and

w hich

It

is

probable, however,

Haniplliire muft have been deftroyed, had

not the government ordered the Connecticut forces


to

cover

its

frontiers,

erpecially

in

Hadley, Northampton, and Hatfield

the towns of
;

lying upon, or near Conncfticut River.

all

of them

This was
done

done with

fo

N AM
much

hundred Indians

try

A.

99

upon Hatfield

*-'it

being re-

they retreated ro the coun-

lofs,

whom

of the Naragantfets,

the commiflioners

for the aflbciated colonies voted

to be enemies

to

theEnglifh, for fheltciing them.

Though
celfity

it

was now

far in the winter, the ne-

of chaftifing the Naragantfets was fo great

Mr. Window,
mouth, put himfelf

the governor

that

at the

of

New

Ply-

head of a hundred men,

and, having for his guide one Peter, a Naragantfet

renegade,

he

carried

about
fire

beginning

the

and

fifty

dozen of

But the operations of

paign foon aflumed a

new

their

country,

of their wigwams, and

killed or took prifoners about a

habitants.

September,

of

fword into

burned a hundred and

face.

this

their in-

winter cam-

The enemy

flill

continued their ravages and murders, particularly

about Peteciuamfet
Peter, that the

was

and Winflow underftood from

whole flower of the enemy's

force

ihut up in a fort, the moll regular that had

ever been raifed by the Indians, built upon a kind

of an iHand, acceflible only by one way. Winflow,


being joined by a hundred

and

fifty

Mohegins,

bravely refolved to lofe no time, but inftantly to


attack this fort.

The

officers

under him were the

who led the van ;


who were in the centre ;
Appleton and captain Oliver, who

captains Mofely and Davenport,

Gardner and Johnfon,


and major

brought up the rear of the Maflachufet forces

an army of eight

fecrefy, that

fell

pulfed with great

E R

by
which
:

Ji

BRITISH EMPIRE

lOO
vvliich

it

is

by

with

himfelf, as general,

coimanded

probable that Winflow had

conlidcrably re-inforced

the Englilh.

hceit

New Plyipouth

his

He

men,

and major Treat, with

in the centre,

Mafon, Senly, and Willis,

the captains Gallop,

fervcd with the Conned:icut

forces

in

the rear.

All of them were under the diredtion of Peter,

who

conducfted

breach, but of

them through the fwamp

what kind we

which was attacked and defended with equal


nacy and

The
than

obili-

of the favages was fteady

and no fewer

brave Englifli captains, Davenport, Gard-

ner, Johnfon, Gallop, Senly,

The

killed in the attack.

rated that fo

many of

and Marlhall, were

Engliih

foldiers, ex^^'jC"

their gallant officers

were ufcd

ihould

whom

they

to defpife, at laft carried their point.

The

by the hands of the barbarians,

fall

refolution.

fire

fix

to

are not informed,,

enemy w^as beaten from poll to poll

into a cedar

fwamp
down

was burned

at

fome

diftance.

Their

fort

the fctifications were levelled

feven hun-

dred of the favages, with arms in their hands, were

put to the fword, amongft


their chief captains

of

their

lefs

three

whom

were twenty of

hundred, befides, died

wounds, and a great number of defencechildren, who had taken

men, women, and

refiige in the fort,

pcrilhed,

The

lofs

either

believing

it

to

by the fword or

be impregnable,
in

of the Englifh, befides the

the flames.
fix captains.

was
fifty

N A M E R I C A.
men

eighty-five

killed,

men wounded.

loi

1
iH 91

and a hundred and

'

liHlHa

iioii

Count de Frontenac, a haughty and


man, being then governor of New

fufpicious

ll'ltlin'
1

France,

and

having a mortal antipathy to the


Englifli Americans,
he openly and fecretly fupported

'

9
I
m
ftS

hI

'a! i

the

infurrcdtion of the favages againft


the
If we are to believe our
England

New

colonifts.

hiftorians,

he, this winter, fent

who

aaied

a detachment from Canada,


concert with the barbarians,

in

and

threatened the very extinftion


colony.

They burnea down


corned off

all

the

town of Mendham, and

the live ftock of the

whofe farms were generally


thofe in England.

town

of the Maffachufet

inhabitants ;

as well

flocked al

They plundered

or burned the
of Lancaftcr, and carried forty-two
perfons

into captivity.

Marlborough, Sudbury,
Chelmsand Medfield, where they
killed twenty
Enghfli, underwent the fame fate;
and they
ford,

fpread

their ravages within

Bofton.

The

be owing

Enghlh

to

a few miies of the


gates of
fuccelTes of the barbarians
feem

two

colonifts

to

The

caufes.

were

fo

firft

intent

was, that

th(^

upon proteftine

their properties, that they


fplit their ftrength
into
too many fubdivifions
;
while the

French had

taught the barbarians to march in


a body, to
quickly from place to place, and

move

objed, but the fpreading around


them as

much

to

mind no other
defolation

BRITISH EMPIRE

I02

The

defolation as pofliblc.

fecond caufe

Mr. Ncal, who informs us,


t^s. winter was fo extremely

is

afligned

that the cold


that

intenfc,

of
ther

Ehglifh durft hardly look out of their quarters.

Notwithftanding thofe two reafons, fomcthing dill


part of the
fecms to have been wanting on the
left
enemies,
Englilh, who, while purfuing their
country expofed, and, before the camprecautions to
paign opened, had not taken proper
In the fpring of 1677, a
defend themfelvcs.

their

own

hundred Indians,
party of feventy Englilh and one
feventy-fix of the
under captain Dennifon, flew
of the Conneaiaits'
goftile Indians,, and a party
made prifoners about forty-four. Canenbilled or

chet, fon of

Naraganfets,
accufed by

Miantonimo, the chief fachem of the

was amongft
the Englifli

He was

the prifoners.

of having concluded a

months before, and


peace with them at Bofton, fix
he returned home.
of having broken it as foon as

We arc to obfervc,
was no

Med

however, that his

friend to the Englifh,

of

the

government.

was
Be

father,

alive

this

who

and pof

as

it

will,

him into the hands of the


she Indians delivered
of hatred
Mohocks, and they cut off his head, out

Philip

had commanded in the faone of thofc


mous defence of the fort, and was
whence he
had efcaped to the fwamp, from

CO.

his father.

who

went

to the Matjuas,

one of the

Mohock

nations,

them to a war with the Englifli. Findnig


cring his folicidiey were backward in anfw

to excite

that

tations,

tationsj

which

barban

woods,

own h
he

infc

Englifli

butchei

one of

wound(
fachem
againft
gainft

diately

was, by
vice to

longer

habitant
cord,

fometim

the fma

them.
carried

efcape,d
ait Rive
captain

'

who pu

drowned

an ambi:

from

Bri(

'

IN AMERICA.

loj

he fell upon an expedient to induce them,


which could be fuggefted only by a more
than
rations,

barbarous fpirit of revenge; for, going into


the
woods, he murdered fome of theMaquas
with hi&

own

hands, and, returning in the utmoft


hurry,
he informed the prince of that people,
that the
Englilh had invaded his lands, and were

then

butchering his fubjedts.

Unfortunately for

Philiii,

one of the favages happened only to be


feverely
wounded, and crawling home, he informed
the
fachem and his people of the truth, which
turned

againft Philip all the rage they


gainft the Englilh

for

their

had conceived awhole nation imme-

diatcly declared for the colonifls.

Their alliance
was, by giving a diverfion to Philip,
of infinite fervice to the Engliih ; for his Indians
could now no
longer march in large bodies ; and
though the inhabitants of Plymouth, Taunton,
Chelmsford,

Conand Wooburn, were


fometimes alarmed, they did not fuffer
much, from
the fmall numbers of the favages
who attacked
cord, Havenhill, Bradford,

them.
carried

Several,
off',

however, were

killed,

but two Englilh boys,

and fome

who made their

efcape,defcribed a place towards the falls of


Connediait River,

where a body of Indianswere

furprifed

by

captain Turner, with one hundred and


eighty men,
who put a hundred of them to the fword,

and

drowned

as

many.

He

afterwards

an ambulh of the Indians,


from Bridgewater.

was

who had

killed

in

been driven
In

!l
*i

EMPIRE

BittTISH

,64

In ihort, the fortune of the war was now inhad protirely inclined towards the Englilh^ who

by

fited

and, in a Ihort time,

their misfortunes,

Famine

cut off about fix hundred of the favages.


co-operated with the arms of the colonifts
thoughtlefs barbarians had been

for thofe

upon

fo intent

re-

venge, that they had negleded their harveft ; and


two hundred of them threw themfelves upon the

all
mercy of the Englilh at New Plymouth ;
being
of thefe were pardoned but three, who,
were hanged.
convidied of atrocious crimes,

kept the field; but, being at the head


of no more than two hundred favages, he could do

Philip

ftill

nothing efPediially, and returned to


at

Mount Hope, where

his old retreat

chief employment was


Major
the cobnies.

his

to plan ambulhes againft


Bradford, with a party of Engliih, happily efcaped
one of them ; and, marching into the land of

the Taconets, obliged the queen of that country,

with her whole army, wtiich

of ninety

confifted

men, to receive the Engliih yoke.


About the end of July, a fachem or fegamore
of the Nipmuck Indians, with one hundred and
eighty of his men, fubmitted to the Englilh, and
delivered
that war,

Wc

fliall,

up Matoonas,
had

the

firft

favage,

once

for all, obferve,


all

this

that the

time,

upon

ples that felf-prefervation alone could

1
i.

^HRf^B

lu

in

appeared in arms againft the Englifh.

fcem to have atted,

thofe

who,

Indians were

the

colonifts

princi-

If

juftify.

fubjcds of England,

it

was

It,

IN AMERICA.
^as

powers from England

for

gainft their fellow-fubjetfts.

dant,

why

legal

If they

were indepen\i

they ihould be put

The

death, becaufe, in the


they could only be prifoners of war.

feem to have been fomewhat ap-.

colonifts

prifed of their

own

doubtful

ftead of putting

Matoonas

they ordered the

Nipmuck

fituation;

pardoned.

many

great

of them, in general
liih)

happened about

very

little

fegamore to fhoot

As
fpirits

other fkirmilhes,

time

(all

of the Eno--

but they were of

to Philip, all his arts could not

when

his allies, the

cd by the Englilh,
laft

keep up the

they met with

flie

fuccefs.

ill

queen of PocafTet,

called, dcferves particular mention.

out to the

hinj,

confequence.

of his party

of

If

in-

but the fon Was

to the advantage
this

for,

death themfelves,

to

which he accordingly performed

as Ihe

is

Being

furprif-

men

to hold

animated her

but they meanly deferted her, and,

endeavouring to efcape upon a

in

had

proceeding capitally a-

will perhaps be difficult to affign a reafon

it

lad cafe,

One

105

neceflary for the colonics to have

raft,

llie

was

Her body being found, the Englifh,


knowing whofe it was, cut off her head, and fet
it, with others, upon a pole at Taunton, where it
was foon recognifed by the Indians, and her obfedrowned.
not

quics were celebrated with bowlings which

high cfteem Ihe was held

fied the

men.

in

tefli-

by her country-

Philip, notwithllanding all his misfortunes.

Vol.

I.

conr

J.'*

BRITISH EMPIRE

io6

continued the undaunted and

of

Engiiiliiiien,

pieces

witi:

and went

own hands

his

irrecciicilcablef

who

an Indian,

and counfellors,

who

probably was of a

warning by the

pacific difpofition likewife, taking


fate

of

had

One of

dared to mention propofals for a peace.


his friends

cnqr.y

even to cut tp

lb far as

his feliow-lubjc*'!:^, lied to Rhode-Ifland

there he difcovered

where Philip
was, and the means by which he might be fur-r
Captain Church, upon this, went with a
prifcd.
fmall party, and found him, with a few attendants,

'

in a

to the Englifh

fwamp, which, by the

defcription,

is

furrounded by fordable llagnated waters.

a place

Philip

endeavoured to efcape, but was fmgled out by an

Lnglifhman
piece milled

The Engliihman*s

and an Indian.

but that of the Indian laid him

fire,

dead.

His body, being taken up, was quartered,

and

head was carried

his

mouth, where

his

IkuU

in
is

triumph
to

be

to

New

feen

at

Plj'-

this

day.

Thus ended what is


and it
Philippic war
;

New England hiflorians,

very pro])erly called the


is

obferved,

even by the

that the Indians to the eaft-

ward were an independant

people, their country

lying without the line of the charter of the Maffachulets.


lip*s

'I'hey continued the

death, with feme advantages,

ment of Boilon
men,

war, even after Phi-

interpofed,

who made

and

till

fent

the govern-

a body

of

four hundred Indians prifoners,

two hundred of wijom were

fold for flaves,

and
thQ

IN AMERICA.

107

reft, excepting a few who luid been


m?.de examples of for having been guilty of murders,
were fent home, on promife of behaving better for
the future.
In the relation of this war, we hnve
thfe

omitted many little ikirmi flies, that have


been defcribed with great minutenefs by the New
England hiftorians ; bur they confiil: only of fiirpiirix)fely

furprifes

of very

make up

matters with the fachcm of Penobfcot,

fmall bodies.
After the
death of king Philip, major Waldcren was fent
to

which he fucceeded but

in

all,

when

a kind

indifferently

ded, the Englilh were obliged to

dians of the

and, after

of general peace was conclu-

eaftern

allow the In-

parts a

certain quantity of
corn yearly, and to pay a fmall quit-rent for
their
lands which they pofleffed, or rather had
ufurped
from them.

Though
of

war was

the

New England,

where the
impofitions

yet

it

extinguifhed in one part


flill

continued in another,

natives rcfented the grofs affronts

of the

upon the

The favages had


were not invincible

now heard

borders of Hampfhirc.
that the EngliHi

the

war was raging

while

in the

the plantations in the


all

and

efpecially

fettlers

w efl,

they

fell

upon

where they murdered


the Englilh they met; and the latter made fe-

vere reprifals.
fufficiently

fent a

eafl,

The government of

employed

in the

Roffon, though

war with king

Phili|),

body of men, under captain Ha\\thorn,

the relief of their eaftern neighbours

to,

and they fururifed

BRITISH EMPIRE

,o8

were plunderthem all


ing major Walderen's houfe, and made
Half of thefe were fold for ilaveS,
prifoners.
were exethe other half, excepting a few, who
procuted for atrocious crimes, were difmiffed on
mife of a

as they

hundred Indians

prifed foui*

more

pacific behaviour.

This, in faa,
cafion for

many

They found
no ftrong

ferious

war which gave

finiftied

reflediions

oc-

to the Englifli.

the vail inconvenience of their having


places to defend them againft the

themfelves to build fome at

and therefore they fet


Scarborough, Falmouth,

Falmouth, York, Dover,

and other

flying attacks of the Indians

war had occafioned a negled of


uncomrtion profligacy of manners

and therefore,

in the year 1

parts.

The

agriculture, and

an

among the people;

fy679, a true prefbyterian

vote,
nod, in which lay-members were admitted to
was held at Boflon, for the reformation of manners.

About

this time, the

province of

New

England

in

general met with three fevere blows, in the deaths


of Mr. Winthrop, the governor of Connedicut and

Newhaven; Mr.

the

governor of the

and Mr. Winflow, the governor of


Plymouth colony ; all of them gentlemen of

Maflachufets

New

Leveret,

great experience and honell intentions.

The

firft

fuGceeded by William Lee, Efq; the fecond

was
by Simon

Bradllrcct, Efq:

province

of

and the third by Robert


Treat, Efq; but Charles II. towards the end of
parliament, the
his reign, getting the better of his

New

Engl-ird

underwent a fevere
per-

IN AMERICA.
A quo warranto

pcrfecution.

the

New Ply

lO^

was brought

againft

nouth colony, and judgement was en-

tered in chancery.

The Maffachufets colony In the


much the fame

years 1683 and 1684, had pretty


fate

but

when

the quo warrant*

Conne^icut and Newhaven,

was

were given to underftand, by a


king, that

if

letter

from the

they quietly refigned their charter,

they might have


either under

fent againft

governments

their

it

New

in their option to

be aflbciated

York, or Bofton.

Finding their
,.

Rhode-

fate inevitable, they wifely chofe the latter.

Ifland,

whofe charter

luable, gave

it

is

faid to

up without

have been very va-

a ftruggle

Hamplhire and Maine refigned

into the

and

New

hands of

the crown the aflbciation under which they were


conftituted; fince

which time

council have been

named by

their

governor and

the king, but their go-

vernor has generally been the fame with that of


the Maffachufets.

Henry

Cranfield, Efq;

was

the

firft

governor

upon his arrival in


New England, he uirncd out Mr. Bradftreet, Mr.
Cranfield was -turned out of
Lett, and Mr. Treat.
his government upon the death of Charles II. and
under this regulation

fucceeded by
land man.

and,

Thomas Dudley,

Efq; a

New

Eng-

This governor endeavoured to fupporr

himfelf in the favour of the court, by favouring the

church of England againft the


fo

provoked the

prcft^yterlans,

New England men,

that,

by

which
a very

un-

BRITISH EMPIRE

110

uncommon
him

ftrain

])riibner to

who

is

faid to

be governor of

to

ter-governraenf.

It

that captain

made

man,

land

Edmund

dinary manner.

New England

was

William Phipps,
fortune

his

fame

likewife about the

New Eng-

very extraor-

in a

Underftanding that, about the year

1640, a large Spanilli galleon had been


Port d^

Andros,

time the people had refumed their chai>

juft at the

time,

Sir

have been a poor knight of Guern-

came over

fey,

of liberty, they depofed and fent

Old England.

la Plata,

he obtained of Charles

h^

II.

near

a fmall

of eighteen guns, and ninety-five mep, with


which he failed to Hifpaniola, and continued divfrigate

ing for her, but without any fuccefs, and

ed to give up the enterprize


w^hich the

was

oblig-

notwithftanding

duke of Albermarle, fon

to the reftorer

duke, being in dcfperate circumftances,


the defperate undertaking of Phipps,

adopted

who

pro-

profed to divide the contingent prize-money into a

number of

Ihares, each

proportioned to the ihare

of expence advanced by the adventurer. A fhip


of about two hundred tons was bought, witl^

which Phipps
tion

but

fct

to the old fpot

fail

after various

of exploraand tedious attempts by a

canoe and a tender, on board of w^hich were divers

of

all

the

kinds,

he was about to have given over

attempt again,

when

the

wreck was

difco-

vered; and fo induftrioufly did they work, that,


in a

ver

few

days,

no

lefs

than thirty-two tons of fiU

was brought up, with an immcnfe

treafure in

gold,

IN AMERICA.

ui

gold, pearls, diamonds, and othet


commodities.
13 laid,

to

that the whole,

Engbnd, amounted

pounds, of which
ihare of the

It

when brought by Phipps


to three

ninety

hundred thoufand

thoufand

duke of Albermarle

came

to

and

the

twenty

thoufand to that of Phipps, wlio was


knighreJ by
king James II. ~> A long calm in
the at}ws of
New England fucceeded, and continued ro the
time of the revolution, when the Indians
began to
complain of the little attention that was
i)aid to

the treaty by

which they were

ance of corn.

of

their

Saco river

by

They complained,

being interrupted
;

that their fields

the English cattle

in

have an allow-

to

at the

their

were

planners

upon
and that the government of

of

upon

trefpallbd

Boilon had given away their lands.


that the

lame time,

lilhery

The

truth

i*,

New

England, about this


time, were a little too free with the
natives, and
alfo with the French.
They took upon them.

new boundaries to their jurifdidion,


they feized a great deal of French
pro'

felves to affix

by which

perty, particularly
teen.

fome belonging

The French

ambaflador

order from theEnglifh


teen's goods, and,

which

court,

to

one

Caf-

for

rcftoring Caf-

particularly,

a parcel of wine,
the colonifls had arbitrarily feized;
but no,

regard feems to have been paid to it.


It
ble that the people of New England,
time,

St.

had i)rocured an

began to

fufped that king

vernment would be but very

is

proba-.

by

this

James's go-

fliort-lived

Tnd
they

BRITISH EMPIRE
and an athey had conceived at once a contempt
verfion for their

was

Cafteen

governor Andros.

marhimfelf an almoft naturalized Indian, having


the daughter of one of their fachems or fegaried

mores
tivcs

them

humour

the na^

were, he had no great difficulty in perfuading


They accordingly
to enter upon holVilities.

fome

killed
to

and, therefore, in the bad

be

which they pretended


upon their grounds ; and one

Englilli cattle,

trefpaffers

up about

bufy

Blackman,

of

juftice

peace, took

the

tv/enty of the offenders,

and fent them


This produced

under a ftrong guard to Falmouth.


reprifals'on the part of the Indians,

and Gendal

the

particularly

fome Engliih,

the former of

captains

whom

hands.
It

who

died

Indians' to reafon

conceffions, to have
;

itt

their

-/v

u
by

eafy for the Englifh,

would have been

making proper

feizcd

Rowdcn

but the

latter

brought the

were diffuaded by

of the inhabitants ot
the French, and killed fcveral
take
New Yarmouth, which obliged the others to
Ihcltcr in their fortifications.

New York

but,

upon

his

Andros was then


r

at

turn to Boflon, he.

and ordered
difapproved of Blackman's conduct,
in the hands of the Englilh
aJl the Indian prifoners
without infilling ujwn any equivato

be

rclcafed,

lent.

The
dua,

pufillammous confavages confidered this


weaknefs, and captain
as proceeding from

Gendall,

whom

with
they had releafed, being fent
a party

AMERICA.

IJ^
a party

to.

New

but mofl of

his

Yarmouth, was attacked by them;


men, whom they had taken pri-

were afterwards recovered.

foners,

i,^

time, the Indians murdered

near Kennebek, and

mean

In the

two Englifh

fiimilies

the frontiers were

all

filled

with blood and devaftarions.

Andros put himfelf


at the head of one thonfand men, and marched
towards them in the very depth of winter, but
without any fuccefs ; and^

New England

by the

in confcquence,

hiftorians, 4iot

is

accufed

only of

neo--

leding the colony, but of perfecuting thofe

who

up

flood

for

defence, and even of correfpond-

its

ing with the French

They

berty.

Canada, and of fetting the


had been guilty of murder, at li-

who

Indians,

England,

fay,

in

that the

was

at this time,

New

government of

moft deplorable condition : That the governor, with four or five


Grangers of his council, men of defperate fortunes
nd
in a

bad,

if any, principles,

what

taxes they plcafed on the peciple:

without an affembly,

on

all eftates in

made what laws, and


a penny in the

rai

the countr^

imported goods,

levied

Thatthefc,
pound

and two-pence on

bofides twenty-pence

per

all

head,

poll-money, and a large excifc on wine, mm,


and other liquors That feveral perfons having,
in an humbk addrefs, reprefented this
proceeding
:

as a grievance,
for a high

were committed

Habeas Corpus
county

Vol.

a<ft,

trieil

fined exorbitantly,
I.

to the countv uil

mifdemeanor, denied the

Q^

out

and

of the

benef]!.

o'f

riieir

ob],iged

to

own
pay
one

BRITISH empire;

Vi4

It

profecution

when the
them fo many

Ihillings

to complete the

one hundred and

pounds

fixty

for fees,

would hardly have coft


inGreatBritain;and that,

their trial, they

oppreffion,

when, on

privileges

of EngliOimen,

o^ April
ly

the towi
like

gentleman,

New Engknders feemed

to

for

whom

the
into

have entertained ^

and to

countr)men to

folicit

their

the king to reftore

charter-government,

whereve

Sir William Phipps was


moft inveterate hatred.
favourite
then in England, and being a kind of
remonto
liberty
with king James, he took the
Andros and his
ftrate againft the behaviour of

counfellors,

was

itport

exhibited againft this

made

fcoffingly

" Thefe things would not follow thkm to the


Such were the complaints
ends of the earth."
told,

portunit

claimed the

they were

was

himfelf

they fer

"

King James, however, created a new kind


him, by
of pod for Sir William; for he made
gave much
patent, llieriff of New England, which

vain.

umbrage to the governor and his friends.


At laft, Mr. Increafe Mather, reftor of the colwere
lege at Cambridge, with two other gentlemen,

Sir

" Oi

hia

but in

jail,

of the,

"

this

pi'ifcc

of

th

**

norar

^*

necef

*'

the

**

ing

England, to complain ofSirEdmond

." they

revolution
Andros to the king and council. The
New
was then in agitation ; and news arriving at
Andros
landing,
England of the prince of Orange's
publilhed a pronot only imprifoned the bearer, but
by
for preventing any one commiflioned

" tend
" fary,

Vent over

to

" up

fervc

*'

dired

Thofe

fudd

Andros and his


violences introduced a fancy that
and
inhabitants
;
favourites intended to maflUcre the

"

fecui

**

your

clamation

the prince

from

landing in the province.

it-

It

was

N A M ER I C

A.

115
an op-

artfully kept up, to give the people

On

portunity of confederating together.

the i8th

or April, 1689, proper difpoiitions being previously

made, a retort was fpread

the
like

town that
was fpread of the

Tfeport eflfefted the

north end of

at the

the fouth end was

and the

in arms,

This

north, in the fouth end.

thing; the governor's people,

wherever they were found, were fecured and thrown


into

jail.

The

principal inhabitants took poffeffion

of the council-houfe, and the governor


himfelf up in the

they fent
*'

him

caftle, to

(t

hin.

from thence,

letter.

Sir,

" Ourfelves and many


**

draw

the following

ihuttiii^^

this

others, the inhabitants

of

town, and the places adjacent, being fur-

pififed

a of the

with the people's fudden taking of arms,


firft

motion whereof

we were

wholly

ig-

^*

norant; being driven by the prefent accident, are

^*

neceflitated to acquaint

your excellency,

tl

ii
j

that, for

*'

the quieting and fecuring the people inhabit-

i(

ing in this country from the imminent danger

iC

they many ways

'^'11
<

'

tt

tendering your

ti

fary, that

lie

own

open and expofed


fafety;

we judge

to,
it

and

necef-

^li

ffl

1i
ill

If

11

f(

you forthwith furrender and deliver


up the government and fortifications, to be pre-

'*

ferved and difpofed of, according to order and

**

dirediion 'from the

(C

fuddenly are expcfted to arrive

(<

fecurity

from

crown of England, which


;

promifing

violence to yourfelf, or

your gentlemen, or

foldiers,

in

all

any of

perfons or

ef-

tare

^-s

BRITISH EMPIRE

m6

wc

are aflured they will cn-

**

tate: otherwife

**

deavour the taking the fortification by ftorm,

**

if

any oppofition be made,

^<

White Winthrop, Simon Bradftreet, William


*'

Stoughton, Samuel Shrimpton, Bartho-

**

lomew Gidney, William Browne, Tho-

**

mas Danfurth, John Richards,

*'

Gook,

**

Adam

*f

Fofter,

This

letter

writers of

Andros

at

it,

firft

Elilha

Addington, John Nclfon,

Ifaac

Winthrop, Peter Sergeant, John


David Waterhoufe."

was a fufficient intimation that the


were refolved to carry their point.
flood upon his defence, and fent for

arms to a king's

frigate

and the governor,

ed the furrender of the

fort

finding he had no

means of

farther

refiilance,

gave

Thefe men then repaired to the councilchamber, from whence they read a long and laup,

boured declaration of
ple,

arms.

their grievances to the peo-

about three thoufand of

They fummoned

whom

were

in

a general alTembly, con-

fiding of the reprefentatives of the united colonies;

and, on the 24th of

they rcfumed
* In

then lying in the port.

But they were intercepted by a party of the


townfmen under John Nelfon, Efq. who demand-

it

May, by

their

own

their charter-government*,

the year 1685, Charles II. having,

neral aflcmbly of Maflachufet Bay,

authority,

which pro-

hy a meffagc to the ge-

dcfired, that, in confMleration

of fcveial complaints entered againft thcin, they would furtender

ceeuing

'

AMERICA

IN
cecding of theirs

was approved of by king Wil-

liam and queen Mary,

who

magiftrates in their power.

confidering

on what

cended the throne.

England

at the

confirmed the reftpred

This was- no wonder,

principles their majefties af-

William Phipps was

Sir

time of the revolution

their charter to the king's pleafure

aflembly was refufed.

117.

'

Thereupon,

ment was entered

and

it

and king

was vacated

dated Inner-Temple,

the

letter to the

May

2,

go-

1685, and

The

'*

read in the general affembly, July 8th following, writes,

breaches affigned againft you, are as obvious as unanfwerable';

**

fo that

**

done yo'

a^'

fervice

*'^e
,

your council and friends could have

would have only fcrved to deplore, not to pr-

vent, that inevitable lofs.

I fent

15, i6k54, requiring

you

the lord-keepcr'd order

your appearing on the

firft

day of

**

of June

Michaelmas-term,

<*

was to

"

torney neither were, nor indeed could be, returned; accord-

elfe

When

ftand.

judgement entered againft your charter


day came, your

this firft

of

letters

applied to the chancery for farther time

at-

where

**

ingly, I

judgment paffes by

of fending letters of attorney, the colony fent only an addrefs

* to

refault, there

may be

the king, without the colony-feal, or

der

therefore

it

was

copy of the judgement againft your

%vas fixed upon,

by Charles

a rehearing.Inflead

any {ubfcriptiort/<?r orI herewith fend

not prefented.

Robtit Humphrey,

Efq. agent for Maffachufet Bay colony, in his

*'

El li Q

by a vote of general

this,

againft their charter,

vernor and council,

**

i!;i'i,'

in coufeqiicnce of a tjuo %var-

colony*s agents or attornies not appearing.

"

!i

zni/cire/acias^ 1684, in chancery, In Trinity-term, judge-

ranta.,

**

in

charter.

II, to be

yoirr

governor; and

faid to have renewed his patent for your

James

II, is

ment."

Tiis

atfair,

govem-

however, was ne^^kaed, and the

England colonics continued

for

you a

Colonel Kirk

New

fome time in the enjoyment of

their charter privileges.

James

BRITISH EMPIRE

n8
James
land

offered

but he

him

is faid

at this time,

volution,

to

taking place,

as well as in Europe.

The

win over

Eng-

The rean open war

have declined

enfued between the French and Englilli

at great pair*^ to

New

the government of

it.

in

America,

who had been


natives, now endea-

French,

the

voured to perfuade them that the Englifli, being

were abandoned by God and man ; and


promifed to fupport them with all the power of the
rebels,

Quebec

colony.

A new

charter

was granted

to the colonifts, bear-

ing date the feventh of Oftober 1691, which, after


reciting the former grant, was thus continued:

company of Maffachufet Bay in New England, by virtue of the


it
faid letters patent, are become very populous and
" well fetded ; and whereas the faid charter was

**

Whereas

the faid governor and

'

vacated by a judgement in Chancery, in Trinity-t

" term, in the year 1684; the agents of that colo" ny have petitioned to be rC'incorporated by a
" new charter ; and alfo to the end that our co*

lony of

New

Plymouth,

in

New

England,

may

be brought under fuch a form of government,


**
as may put them in a better condition of de-

We do,

by

thcfe prefents, incorporate into

**

fence :

*'

one real province, by the name of the province

**

of Maflachufet Bay in

New England;

former colony of Maflachufet Bay,


*

"

of

New

territory

viz, the

the colony

Plymouth, the province of Main, the


of Acadia, or

Nova Scotia, and

the track
((

lying

'

IN AMEB:IC
"
"

lying batween

**

ifles

Noya

Scotia

A.

119

and the province of

Main,, the north half of the

of fhoals, the

ifles

of Capawock, and Nantucket, near Cape

**

Cod, and

"

oppolite to the main-land within the faid bounds.

*'

To

their

fucceflbrs,

it

gold,

and

**

found there

all

inlands

within ten leagues diredly

our fubjedts, inhabitants of the

filver,

and precious

Confirming

all

i(

and

ftones, that

all

may be

lands, hereditaments,

&c. formerly granted by any

faid lands

a fifth part of

quit-rents,

general court to

perfons, bodies corporate, towns, villages, colleges, or fchools

faving the claims of Samuel

John Mafon, and any other claim.


Former grants and conveyances not to be pre judiced for want of form. The governor, lieu-

**

Allen, under

**

tenant governor, and fecretary, to be in the king'?.

" nomination

;'

twenty-eight counfellors, whereof

"

feven at lead fhall

make

a board,

A general court

"

or aflembly, to be convened the

**

May

**

and reprefentatives of the tov/ns or places, not

**

exceeding two for one place; qualification for

" an

yearly

laft

Wednefday

eledtor forty ihillings freehold, ^r fifty

pounds

"

fterling perfonal eftate.

**

ele(ft twenty-eight counfellors, eighteen of

" from

in

confiding of the governor, council,

The

general alfembly to

the old colony of MalTachufet

them

Bay, four

colony, three from the pro-

**

from Plymouth

**

vince of Main, one for the territory of Sagada-

late

" hock, and two at large. The governor, with


" conlcnt of the council, to appoint the officers iw

" the

ii-f

BRITISH EMPIRE

20

the courts of juftice.

or in the paflage to and from

natural born fubjeds of England.

"

confcience to

All born in the province,

all chriftlans,

general affembly

it,

to be

the

deemed

Liberty of

**

portf

The

**

confi

except papifts.

law
of tl" lieut(

to conftitute judicatories for all

caufes, criminal or civil, capital or not capit^il.

" Probate of wills, and granting of adminiflrations,


" to be in the governor and council. In perfonal
a<ftions, exceeding the value of three hundred

*'

pounds fterling, an appeal lies to the king incoun cil, if the appeal be made in fourteen days after
" judgement; but execution not to be (laid. The

o-cneral affembly to

make

laws,

if

not repugnant

**

"

to the

"

ncers, excepting the officers of the courts of juf-

**

" tice ; to impofc taxes to be difpofed by the go" vernor and council. The converfion of the In-

*'

laws of England

to appoint

all civil of-

dians to be endeavoured. The governor to have


" a negative in all adts and eleaiions. All afts
" of affembly to be

fcnt

home by

the

firll

oppor-

coimcil for approbation

**

timiry to the king in

after their being


if not difallowcd in three years
prefented, fhall continue in force until repealed

"

by the affembly.

The

general

affembly

may

grant any lands in the late Maffachufet Bay and


" Plymouth colonies, and in the province of
*

" Main but no grant of lands from Sagadahock


River to St. Laurence River ihall be valid, with out the royal approbation. The governor to

want

" powc
" to th
jea c
thefc

**

may

poffei

for

upwa
u

ing

" vate|
for c

"

poun(

Majoi

a frontie

tained A

leave to

morning
of the

Ir

diftance,

command the

militia, to ufe the

law martial in
" time

about

tv

led offt\

mitting

Vol.

E R

C AmS

T21.
I!

"* tim of
*

ztm\ war, to erea forts and demolilh


the fame at pleafure. No perfons to be tranf-

**

ported out of the province, without their

*'

confent, or that of the general aflembly.

**

law martial not

" of

the council.

to

**

"
*'

*'
*'

be executed without confent

When

" lieutenant-governor

own
The

there

no governor, the

is

when both

to act;

is

are

wanting, the majority of the council to have the


power. The admiralty jurifdiiftion is referved
to the king, or lords of the admiralty.
No fubjea of Ejiglaud to be debarred from filhing on
the fea-coaft, creeks, or f-dt-water rivers, and they

" may ered lodges and

<c

any lands not

ftages in

'in

of particular proprietors All trees fit


for malls, of twenty-four inches diameter and
upwards, twelve inches from the ground, growpoff^lfion

(C

ing upon land not heretofore granted to any pri-

"

vate perfons, are referved to the

crown; penalty

" for cutting any fuch


referved
it
pounds fterling for each tree."
tt

trees

Major Walderen then commanded


a frontier fort of great importance.
tained Mefandonit,

a hundred

in

Quacheco,

He

had enter-

a fachem, and had given

leave to lodge in the fort

but the barbarian,

him

in the

morning, unbarred the gates, and admitted a party


of the Indians, who had lain in ambufh at a little
diftance,

and who, ruihing

in, killed

the major, atid

about twenty-two men, burned feveral houfes, and


led off twenty-nine Englilh prifoners, befides

mitting other ads of murder and violence.

VoL.

i:

comCaptaia

IMIlM

BRITISH EMPIRE

122

though

Noycs was ordered to march with a party to


thofc
Penecook; but the favages had retired from
He
them.
to
quarters before he could come up

tain

render

was

country, and deftroying their wig\vams.

vages afterwards furprifed

Pemmaquid

fort,

and

relief;

its

bitants of Sheepfcot

upon which the inharetired to Fal-

and Kennebek

Swj

jors

by butchering

to

tl

boys, w]

fa-

likewife broke
killed fourteen Englifhmen; they
fort furrendered,
the capitulation upon which the
the garrifon, and fome troops who

were advancing

inf

dered

wafte their
had, however, the fatisfaaion of laying

The

war, the
mouth. In the time of the lad Indian
New England men were fully convinced of their
detachments ; and now,
error in adiing by fmall

the Fren

Eng

the

figns

Point,

without
notice.

The:

the Fren

at the abfolute

root of

raifed a thoufand men,


ruin of their colony, they
of whom were fent from the Maffa-

Quebec

feeing that the French

were aiming

hundred

five

chufets,

under major Swayne, and

five

hundred,

Plymouth ; but,
under major Church, from New
taught the barbarians
by this time, the French had
own arts, particularly thofe of gaining intelli-

pofleffio

Quebec,

The
was
a

giv

frigate

their

They had every


gence by means of corruption.
them of the mowhere their fpies, who informed
tions of the Englilh,

many

of

were
cut off; and the favages
all

whom

were thereby

fo well inftrufted

behaved towards
the arts of treachery, that they
their
with a brutality even foreign to

the Engliih

nature, barbarous as

it

was.

Particular mention

is

boys, who demade of the bravery of two Englilh


the Indians, and,
fended a fort that was furprifed by

though

fixteen,

diately

garrifon

with

eig

not tena
lifh

arm;

neval,
Sir

tl

Wii:

vemor

IN AMERICA.
though reduced to the
render

was

it,

till

laft

123

extremity, refufed to fur-

they obtained a capitulation, which

infamouily broken by the enemy,

dered

three

or

four

who mur-

and one of the

children

made his efcape.


Swayne and Church were, by the

The ma-

boys, whilfl the other


jors

the French,

who

the Englilh Indians, difappointed in


figns

Point,

fo

practice of

had found means to corrupt even


all

their de-

that the former, after garrifoning Blue

was obliged

without effeding

to retire into winter quarters,

any thing

worthy of

farther

notice.

The

Englilh government was fully fenfible of

the French practices, and refolved to ftrike at the


root of the evil,

by attacking,

Quebec and Acadia, [or


I

Ihall

take notice in

The command of

one time, both


then in the

Of the expedition

pofleffion of the French.

Quebec,

at

New Scotland]
its

againft

proi)er place.

that intended againft Acadia

was given

to Sir William Phipps.


It confifted of
a frigate mounting forty cannons, another Ihip of
fixteen, and a third of eight.
Sir William imme-

diately bore

down upon

Port Royal, where, the

no more than eighty-fix men,


with eighteen unmounted cannons, and the works
garrifon confifted of

On the 2 2d of May, 1690, the Eni^Hlh armament appeared before the place ; and Man-

not tenable.

neval, the French governor, fcnt a prieft to

know

William's demand, which was, that the gO;vemor ihould furrender at difcretion. This was
Sir

peremptorily

BRITISH EMPIRE

i4

peremptorily refufed
articles

by

the pried,

who

produced

of capiti'lation ready drawn up.

The

firft

was, That the foldiers, with their arms and bag


gage, Ihould be tranfported to
lilh veflel.

The

be maintained
perties,

fecond,

That

Quebec

Eng*

the inhabitants Ihould

in peaceable pofleffion of their pro-

and that the honour of the

The

be preferved.

third was.

That

ihould have the free exercife of the

women

{hould

the inhabitant!

Roman

catho-

and that none of the church goods

religion,

lic

an

in

ihould be touched.

word,

lign them, faying, that his

as a general,

was a

Manneval was

better fecurity than any fignature.

up with this verbal aiTurance ; and,


came on board the Englifli iliip, where
capitulation was ratified, and the keys of the

obliged to put
the next day,

Upon

fort delivered to Phipps,


latter

was

furprifed at the

and repented

his

good terms,

According

pli

the pr

ed

his

an oat

Mary,
they

The

w:

by

ly

bee, in

Phipps, agreed to thefe conditions, but refufed to

the

centme

and

entering

it,

the

weaknefs of the place,

having given the garrifon fuch


to the

French writers, he

means to break them. While Manwas on board the Engiilh ihip, fome ftores,

and

thi

thoufan

mi

tlieir

One.
wood,

frontier-

carried

turing

<

four or
killing

foon found

the plac

neval

of

belonging to the former governor, were feizcd up-

on by

certain

drunken

Phipps conltrued

wdilch undoubtedly

nied

therefore,

owning the

it

ridiculoi

their lav

a handle

of

is

it

not defor dif-

capitulation, he difarmed the foldiers,

and Ihut tliem up

in

the

caj

breach of the terms,

was, as the fadt

making

This

and the inhabitants^

foldiers

this into a

their

church.

He

confined

Manneval

major
to

Quel

natives.

i^Jil

centinel,

iN

to his

own

ftrippcd

E R

A.

t25

houfe, under the care of

him of

money and cloatha,


and plundered the people, without fparing either
the priefts or the churches, and then re-imbar
Iced his men, after obliging the inhabitants to take
an oath of fidelity to king William and
queen
Mary.

As

to the

they will be

The whole
ly

by

his

all

New

managed

England

expedition
its

againft

natiycs perilhed

ill
;

hundred and forty


all

men and Ihips in their return.


One Artell, a French Canadian officer, and Hoopwood, a Huron chief, attacked Salmon Falls,
a
where they

killed

thirty people,

and

carried off fifty prifoners.

Lieutenant Clark, ven-

turing out of Cafco,

furprifed

was

by a body of

four or five hundred Indians and Frei -h,


who, after
thirteen of his

men, burned down

the place; the garrifon furrendering, on


condition

of

their

This

111,

Que-

tlieir

him and

Vw

fullered great-

thoufand pounds in debt, befides lofmg


almoft

killing

,.

of Phipps's undertakings,
mentioned in their proper places.

bec, in which a thoufand of


and the public there ran a

frontier-town,

,,i

reft

colony of
ill

his

being carried to the next Englilh town.

capitulation, however,

was broken, on

ridiculous pretence, that the Englilh

were

their lawful Ibvereign.

garrifon,

Some of the

the

rebels to

with
major Davis, the commandant, were fent
prifoners
to Quebec, and the reft were
murdered by the
natives.
Tiie garrifons of Papcodac, Spamwick,

Black

BRITISH EMPIRE

126

Black Point, and Blue Point, were thrown into


fuch confternation by the dcrtrud^ion of Cafco, that
they fled as far as Suco,

abandoned

purfuing them,

dcllroved

round, and murdered

The

into his hands.

all

all

the

open country

the inhabitants,

who

fell

captains Floyd and Greenleaf

came up with him, routed his party, and

at laft

wounded

who

The French and


many

tage in

He was

himfelf.

French,

the

which garrifon likewife

and Hoo}>wood, the Huron,

polls,

its

afterwards killed

miftook him

by

an Iroquois.

for

Indians, after this. Had the advan-

encounters, which, though of too

lit-

confideration to be feparately particularifed, vet

tle

formed, upon the whole, a very confiderable


both of

The

men and

jfs

propert}'.

was

only expedition worth notice,

that un-

dertaken by major Church, with three hundred


men, to Cafco Bay, where he burnt fome French

and Indian

forts,

The war

tives.

fuccefs,

Englifh

and releafed a few Englifh cap-

afterwards continued with various

but by no means to the advantage of the


;

and, at

laft,

celiatiori

3691, was agreed on both


Sir William Phipps, all
the court of

head of a
rible

England

new

war, in

of arms,

May

till

fides.

this time,

was

in foliciting to

bufied at

be put

at the

Quebec but the terwhich the king was engaged, and


expedition to

the bad fuccefs of his


his

endeavours

Mr.

Increafe

late attempt,

fruitlefs.

Mather were

rendered

all

Henry Aihurft and


the fame time in Eng-

Sir

at

land,

\M

IN AMERICA.
land, as agents for the people of
liciting the reftoration

neither king

England,

of their old charter.

William nor

his

to encourage any

difpofitions

New

*7
fo-

But

minifters were of
motion that tended

towards the indei>cndancy of the colony uix)n the


prerogative ; and the renewal was in effedt rcfufed.

They

then contented thcmlelvcs with petitioning


for a new charter with more ample
privileges.

They

obtained, indeed, a

privileges, even

under the

new

charter

late one,

but their

were abridged

or rather annihilated. By king William's charter,


the
crown has the nomination of rb-^, pernor, lieutenant-

governor, fecretary,
miralty, (all

power of

the

vernor.

and

which was
the

Me

of the

ad-

be/oi o in ths people)

and

militia

ofhf ts

w,

veited in the go^

All judges, juftices,

and iheritfb, were


by the governor, with the advice and

appointed

confent of his majcfty's

council; and he likewife was to have a negative upon all


laws, and
public adts of the general alTembly and
council.

Laftly, all laws,

nor,

when approved of by

were to be tranfmitted

to England,

the gover-

and to be

void, if difallowed of, in the fpace


of three years

all

which has been Ihewn

In Ihort,

all

was

obtained,

governor
Phipps.

the favour the

and

the

power

at large already.

New

their choice fell

Scarcely

was

this

England

of eledlng

upon

important

peoj^le

their firit

Sir

William

affair

fettled,

A\'hen hoflilities

were recommenced by the Indians


near Berwick, Exeter, and Cape
Nidduck. Upon
this, fome officers, with four
hundred men,

jnarched
to

Hnnii

BHITISH tllPIttE

U8

kw

to Pcchvpfot; but, not ohferving difclplirie, dief

were attacked by the favagcs, and dHVcn, wkh


ibme lofs, to their Ihips. This'Was followed by
barbarities and murders in many other places ; and
the Maffachufet itfclf was attacked from die eaftThis
ward, which it never had been before.
filled the colony with alarms; and the fort of Cape

the baj

was

jfived in

the ftrongeft in thofe parts,

Nidduck, one of
abandoned by

its

garrifon,

which had been

greatly

with th

andi

intercoi;

-miffionz

their int

wi

ter,

After

thinned by draughts.

c(

mo-

he dech

and attacked the town of York, where they


killed fifty of the inhabitants, and carried a hun-

Indians

The

French favages were

now

likewife in

tion,

dred into captivit}\

The government, upon

this.

Tent parties under different officers to redeem the


prifoners

but they found

headed the Indians;

that

French

officers

were

that French foldiers

intermingled with them

that no fewer than five

hundred Hurons were in the field, and that four


or five Indian chiefs with their troops were confederated againft them.

Convers,

honour,

mentioned on

is

for

more than

the

one of

one

Englilh captain,

this occafion

with ^eat

having maintained a poft with no

fifteen or

two hundred cf
us,

An

twenty men, and beating off

the barbarians,

their chiefs.

command of

headed by

Convers, after

this,

Moxtook

the Eiiglilh, and beat the French

and favages from Sagadahock, the French com-

mandant La

ified

of

feat

acquaint

about

it

four hu

building

of the

was

ere

howevei
nated

from

tl

Sir

be only
of their
fort

and

great

and

Broffe, being killed in the action.

thaj

j^ative

i:

thij

vices in
It

Vol.

tm AUB^ It
It

A.

15,9

wa Tcm^rked,

that 4wii>g this exixcdit;ip9,


the barbarians charged thjc N,ew E^gl^tod ipei?
with thefc Englilh words, iin tlaeir mouths, " Fire
**

and

fall

on, brave boys!" a proof of

intercourfe with

t;he

great

thjcir

Engllfh, though the French

h^d the addrefs to detach them from


Sir William Phipps was now artheir intereft.
i:ived in New England with the colony's new char-

4nti5onaries

which

.ter,

gave great difTatisfadion to many.

Aft^r confirming the laws enaded by the affeirbly,

he declared

his refolution

fied than
^^iative

could be better qualihe was for fuch an undertaking, being a

of that part of the country where

of war

feat

lay,

He

it.

every

fpot

and lurking-place

immediately marched eaftward with

four hundred and

fifty

men

and gave orders

building a fort at Pemmaquid.

of the llrongeft and largeft

was ereded

there.

however, was

The charge

Sir

North America
of building

faid to

have

effedt

alie-

New

of private refentment on account

their charter

fort

for it is certain, that both that


;
and the others which he conllruAed, were of

great

and

ufe
this

to

vices in his

Vol. L

the

governor

own

eaftern

parts

of

likewile performed

the colony,

many

perlbn agaii.ft the favages,

Mn

it,

England colony
William ever afterwards. But this coul^

be only the
of

it is

for

Accordingly, one

in all

^o great, that

nated the affedlions of the

from

chief

t..j

near Kennebek. River, and well

with

acquainted

about

of marching againft the

No jnan

Indians in perfon.

fer-

who
wero

.51

BRITISH EMPIRE

130

Being
were become more unruly than even
been
hkd
they
French,
the
up by
ilill fpirited

many

guilty of

murders, towards the north of the


Oyfter, and Connedticut.

Merimack,

rivers

Ihe

governor gave Convers, noAv a major, the command of the eaftern garriibns, and fent three hundred and

fifty

men

to reinforce

him

with which

he was enabled to invade the Indian


country, and to deftroy all their lands and habita-

aiTiftance

Near Connecticut River the


in arms, were attacked

about Taconet.

tions

Indians,

who

were there

by the Englilh, who gave them a total defeat, and


retook the captives they were carrying off; while
Sir

William, the better to bridle them, built anoAll thofe difpofitions, w^ith the

ther fort 9t Saco.


fear of bringing a

Mohock war upon

The French

inclined the barbarians to a peace.


or,

aorent,

did

as he

wzs a

ullial,
all

is

their hands,

called, ambaflador,

prieft) at the courts

(who,

as

of their fachems,

he could to perfuade them to continue the

war, and, probably, he might have been fuccefsful,


had the French in Canada been in a condition to
have

fent

promifed.

them the arms and

But that not being the

barians adually

had

cafe, the bar-

for a peace

was held at
William Fuiiry, between

miflioners,

fort,

and a con-

fmce called

three Englifh

com-

and thirteen Indian fachems with pro-

per interpreters.
an.l

begged

Pemmaquid

grcfs
fort

afliftance they

important,

This meeting was very formal


and,

by

the

articles

then con-

cluded

IN

E R

A.

131

eluded, the Indians acknowledged themfelves fubjcdl


to the

crown of England

confirmed them

in

of their lands, renounced their alliance

poffeflion

with the French, and fubmitted

their

between themfelves and the Engliih

commerce

to the general

aflcmbly.

The

witchcraft delufion of

which we have

al-

ready fpoken, had fpreaditfclf abroad during Sir William's government,

count of it

hiftory, that

though

we

chofe to place the ac-

manner, which rather anticipated the

in a
it

might not break

in

on our narra-

tion of the public affairs of the province.

It is

likely how^ever, that the above-mentioned perfccu-

tion happening under his

adminiilration,

knight no great honour,

but co-operated with

many

greater caufes to render

the people.

Whilft

articles

him

did the

dlfagreeable to

of com}>laint were ex-

hibiting againft this gentleman, be died of a

lignant fever in
*

**

London

*,

and was fucceeded

..

in

Sir William Phipps (fays Douglas) was the fon of a blackfmlth,

born in 16^0,

at a plantation

on the liverQuenebcc, after keeping

fheep fome years, he was bound apprentice to a Ihip-carpcnter for


four years; he afterwatds went to Bollon,

learned to read and

write, followed the carpenter's trade, and married the

Mr. John

Hull, merchant.

Upon

about the Bahamas, he took a voyage


ccfs.

widow of

advice of a Spanifh wreck


thither,

but without fuc-

In 1685, in a king's frigate, the Algier Rofe, he was

fitted out

upon the dlfcovery of another

Port de

Plata upon Hifpaniola, but returned to England un-

la

fuccefsful.

Soon

after 1687, he

Sj aaifh

wreck, near

prevailed with tKe duke

of

Albemarle, at that time governor of Jg,niaiia, and fome other

S 2

his

r4

BRITISH tUTtKE

132

by William Stoughton, Efq. who


the affairs of his government in the

Sd

KiS office

not find

The Canadians were

order imaginable.

very powerful and very troiiblefome.

becortie

was the

of the French nation to win the Indians

policy

perfons of quality, to
miffion

It

heUt

to

filli

bim out with a royal

fit

upon the Spaniih

By

about fifty years fince.

patent or

com-

wreck which had been

good luck,

in

loft

about feven or eight

fathom water, he filhed the value of near three hundred thoufand pounds llerling (the Bermudians found good gleanings there
after

his

pounds

whereof he had about fixteen

dc]iarture)

fterling for his (hare,

and obtained of king James

tholifand

and the honour of knighthood


II.

by purchafe, to be conftituted

high (herifF of New-England, but was never in the execution

of

this patent,

not received baptifm until

came back

to

1688, (N. B. he had

and returned to England,

March 1690, JEt.

Nevir England.

Upon

40.) and foon after

the breaking out of the

Indian ivar, in 1688, he follicited an expedition


Scotia,

May

but his

fame

was

expedition in autumn, againft Canada, the

fiibfequent

year,

againft Nova,

1690, and had good fucccfs againft the French

difaftrouf,

and

came

to

the words of Mr. Mather,

' Though

too

dctp

this was
Amongft other bad confequcnces of

an

p" ite,

affair

nothing;

uied

for

to

and, in

diving

for

him to dire into,"

this ill-contrived

and worfe

manaped Canada expedition, was the introducing of a pernicious, fraudulent paper-currency, or bills of public credit, to pay
the charges or debt

currency

is

incurred.

fuch, that

are rtduced to one

all

for

eight (or fevcn-eighths


the lofs of

The

operation of this injurious

pcrfonal eftates (fpccialties excepted)


eight, reckoning

by heavy pieces of

of an ounce of filvei) at fix Ihillings

men was of very bad

confcq\ience to an infant co-

was not by the enemy, but by a camp fever, the


fmall-pox, and difafters in returning home; notwithftanding,
as Dr. Mather exprcfles it, " the wheel of prayer for themMn
lony, which

over

AMERICA.

:f^

iii.

them up
4giin{i thcit' TieighboUrs. Thefe were fupplied with
mortey and irms from Otd Frahce, and a grand
^xp^ditibn was planned againft the New England
T^he fea armament for which was
fettleihehts.

over t6 their religion, and then to

ftir

put under the corrtmand of the chevalier Nefmorid, who- Was to be joined by one thoufand five

"I
4'i

hundred French from Canada.

The count
general of

Frontenac,

New

France

and did every thing

was

in his

i'age nations to break

at that

tiflie

he was a

power

governor-

politic

man,

to excite the fa*

their treaties,

and

to rife for

the utter extirpation of the Englifli colonies.

Twelve

months were not expired, after the conclufion of the


treaty at Pemmaquid, before the French invaded
the town of Oyfter-RiVer, from whence they carried

hundred

off a

They

prifoners.

afterwards

murdered one Mrs. Cutts and her family, and falling upon the open countr) , committed many cruel<*

New England

Soon

was kept conftantly going round."

after

his return to Bofton he went for London, to petition the court

of England (notwithflanding former


pacity to manage the
againft Canada.

Upon

affair)

difafters,

and his

own

inca-

to encourage another expedition

obtaining a

new

charter, dated

06tober 7,

1691, at the defire of the New England agents, Sir William


Phipps was appointed governor of the province of Maflachufet

Bay and

territories thereto

charter,

May

ndw

charter,

belonging

14,

1692

met

for the firft time.

died at London, as

we have

day of February, 1693."

he arrived with the

and, June 8, the

new

aflembly under the

Being ordered home, he

above related, on the eighteenth

'

ties

BRITISH EMPIRE

134

which, though often reAt laft Bomafeen,


rei)cated.

and devaftation* ;

ties

pulfed,

rs often

th. y

one of the principal Indian fachcms in their

was made prifoner and

tereft,

event occafioned the

fome time, and


their Englilh

much

trib:*s

in earneft

to ceafe hoftilities

enter into treaties ot

captives

inte-

This

ient to Bofton.

f<:>r

the releafe ef

but neither party being;

about the matter, the negotiation

was dropped, and

war renewed with

the

greater fury

than ever.
Indians improved daily in the art of v/ar,

The

zud now,

for the

upon

English.

were feen on hoi feback

French had by

taking;

Pemmaquid

Ibeivill?

beft officers,

time,

I'hf

at Billericay.

folved

firft

m ere

time re-

from the

fort

and Ibnaventure, two of

upon

pitched

expedition planned out

had orders to

this

rafe the

for

this

to

their

command the
They

purpofe.

fort as foon as

it

fliould

be

taken, and then proceed to the deftrudion of the


Englifh in other parts of their fettlements. One
the governor of this devoted

Chub was
tion,

who

of the Abenaquais Indians,

dead while he was treating

which was returned on


with

their,

two of whom he Ihot


with them ; an adion

the fide of the favages,

ufual afts of fury and inhumanity.

The two French commanders


rived before

the

fortifica-

had behaved very treacheroufly to fome

Pemmaquid,

at this junfture ar-

Iberville

firft

having taken

Newport, an Englilh man of war of twenty-

four guns.

Be :orc

AMER IC A.

IN

M^s

Before any firing began, the French

Chub to
great

ihew of

to hold

fummoned

furrender the place, and he anfwcred vnth

it

he was determined

refolution, that

out to the

though the French fliould

laft,

cover the fea with their Ihips, and the land with

Upon

their Indians.

both

fides,

battery,

and

this a

Iberville

fmart firing began on

coming on

fhore, raifed

from whence he played with

This daunted

Chub and

his garrifon, efpecially as

they were informed by the French, that,


place were taken

by

florm,

be

fent

and

it

with

for

and

the

agreed, that the Englifli Ihould

all their

be exchanged

and favages

was

if

would be left to
capitulation was then

they

the mercy of the favages.

begun

bombs,

five

goods and efFeds to Bollon to

an equal number of French


that, in

the

mean

while, they

Ihould be protefted from the fury of the Indians.

ill
i||||5

The French

fay, that

rifon,

which

men,

(the Englilh

forced

by

his gar-

no more than ninety-two


two hundred) to accept of
When the enemy entered the

confifted of

this capitulation.
fort,

Chub was

fay

they there found one of the natives in irons,

and ready

to expire under the fe verities he

The

fered in his confinement.

fight

of

this

put the Indians into fuch a fury,

tive

French

faid,

it

was with

had

cap-

that the

is

jil

great difiiculty they could

prevent the favages from falling upon the garrifon.


It

fuf-

generally admitted,

that

have held out a long time, had

by brave men, they having

this
it

fort

might

been garrifoned

fifteen

cnnon, and
Dleiitv

II

'

il

111' \

1,

'1.

'

BRITISH EM PI R E

136

plenty of ammunition and provifion?,


tulation

of

met with fomc

it.

of the garrifon to Bolton


the

fame time, that

the execution

difficulties in

The French commandant


;

feot, indeed

exchange

for the remainder of die garrifpn,

ihould be

one hundred

men

molilhed die

fortifications

mean

and, in the

his

commiffion

falling

fliort

but,

Such

to execute the

he fent

Frenchmen,

gard they generally pay to

them
This

Before

perceiving that he

of provifions,

the policy of

above

time, he dc-

Englilh prifoners to Bofton, except the


is

and the

to

of Pemmaquid.

he received an anfwer, he departed


of

at

fet atJiberty, in

crew of the Newport, which amountisd

reft

few

the French and Indian pri-

all

New England

was

but he demanded,

foners in

^pi-

Tfce

the

all

officers.

and fuch the

treaties

namely

to

re-

keep

jull as far as they are convenient.

the

lofs

New

was too

threw a great damp upon the

England men.

late, fent

fquadron.

The

governor,

fplrits

of

when

it

three fliips in purfuit of the French

Colonel Gedney alfo marched with five

which however
was deferted by the French and their Indians.
Chub was carried prifoner to Bofton, and deprived
hundred men

to fcour the country,

of his commiffion.

Either he was not deemed

guilty

of the fault charged upon him by fome, of delivering

up

a place he might have preferved, or elfe the

government of the province did


think proper to be fevere

The Indiana now began to

not, at thrt time,

in their punilhments.
def])ife

the Engliffi.

They
fell

AMER IC .V

IN
fett

upon the people of Hiverhill,

and took
thofe

fevcrai

whom

prifoners.

they attacked, a

ftrength and

courage, whole

^37

In ElFex-county,

There

w'as

woman

of amazing

among

name was Hannah

Dunftcr.

She had been but a few days brought


to bed, bur, perceiving herfelf on
the point of

falling a

viclim to the cruelty and brutalities


of
iTie, together ^vith her
nurfc and an

the favagcs,
luiglifh

bo\:,

killed

The French

rtill

of the Indians,' and

ten

caped to Boilon, where


fewarded.

all

three

planning the

of our colonies were

bufily

ef-

wcie handfomely
total deflruftion

employed

in

fitting

an expedition, the raifcarriage of


which,
ihall have occafion to fpeak
of more at
out-

we

large

hereafter.

The rumour of

more roufed

the fpirits

Major March being

the preparation once


of the
England men :

New

difpatched to the eafhvard,

lllilill

drove the lavages from Cafco Bay, and


repeated
his check fo effeftually, that he
difpirited
the In-

and prevented, in all probability,


their
tent of joining the French, who
afterwards
dians,

turned difappointed to their

own

countr}^

inre.

King William now beftowed

the government of
England (with \%hlch that of New
York
alfo joined) on the earl of
Bellamont, ^ peer

New
\\'as

of Ireland.

As

to Stoughton, ^vho,

as it fcems,
formal commiflion for himas deputy-governor, during
two

had never obtained


felf,

years

he

aded

that

his

lordlhip

remained

in

Endand.
n

BRITISH EMPIRE

138

About
tain

New

of the people of

was

Kidd,

privateer,

to

indifferent fuccefs

in

them; but meeting with


h^ nndertaking, he turned

and s-re av ^y for the lall Indies,

fettlers

Indians continued to maflacre the Englilh

them

c"'

cnlonel Bradllreet, and

whom we

.'-^

Chub, of

have already l]x)ken, were murdered by

but they were repulfed from Deerfield on

Connei'Vicut River,

by one Williams, the

The

head of the inhabitants.

at the

Ryfv.ick at

laft

miniiter,

treaty

of

peace for fome time to

reftored

and count Fronttnac gave the favathe French intereft to underftand, that they

the country

ges in

muft make the bed terms the

could with the

Englifh for themfelves, as he had no longer orders


to

?ffift

ftitution

them

A negotiation

of prifcners, between

enfued for the re-

intcrefts in

with

and

whom

the

the e\

**

hay^

" majeft
" delive

liih
" they c(
" Wh
" fubfcri
" men oi

ii

" Keiine!
" adjacei
<<

"
"
**

foily,

miffion

ings ar

ourfelv

" m^

lei

for

feventv-

**

into hi*

as a very politic

**

and

^rcai ferviccs to his country-

**

Indians

"

aforefai

America.

many

in

difF

the

congrefs

fachems of the Indian

a treaty

Wl

fion

latioiis

count and earl


ilties

was

flill

held at Penobfcot, beiween the Englilh commif.fioners

"

"

tlic

and the former died (ocn after,


eighth year of his age. -He

mens

"

<*

of Rcllamonr, which met with

man, and had don

be]

of fubm

out as a

fitted

where he commirted many depredations on the


fubjeds of the Great Mogol.

The

who

the

England, one cap-

with a fhip

fent

fupprefs

pirate himfelf,

made of

complaints being

this time,

piracies

was

naticiis,

at length concluded,

t\

in

'*

of Gre

**

profefs

and

**

crown

\h

'*

tify

and

IN AMERICA.
Who

befides:,

fubfcribed the folio

}i9

inftrument

of fubmiffion to the crown of EngL J :


" Whereas, notwithftanding our late

't

fiibmif-'

u fion
and agreement, certain Indian through'
the
evil counfel and inftigation of the
French,'
hay?
perpetrated

((

it

"
**

majefty's

in

hoftilities

againft

their

hands, as in

the faid fubmiffion

they covenanted.

" Wherefore we, whofe names


"fubfcribed,

fegamores,

captains,

" men of the Indians, bek nging


" Kennebeck, Ammonofcoggir
" adjacent, being fenfible of our

to

are

hereunto

and principal
the rivers

Saco,

of
and parts

great offence and


complying with the aforefaid fub" miflion and agreement, and alfo of the
fuffer*' ings and
mifchrefs that we have hereby expofed
*<

folly, in

not

**

ourfelves unto,

"

m;.: ler cift ourfelves

do

for th

"

latiohi of

"

into his m.

If

humble and fubmiffive


upon his majefty's mercy,

in all

pardon of

<*

our rebellions and viopromifes, praying to be received


's

all

gn

e and proteftion; and for

" and
**

his

and have not'


ind returned him the feveral Eng-

delivered
lilh

fundry

fubjeds the Englifh,

in behalt c
urfelves, and of all the other
Indians belonging to the feveral rivers and
places

" aforefaid, within the fover-ignty of his


majefty
" of Great Britain, do again acknowledge
and
*

profefs an

<*

crown of England,

'*

tify

and

hearty and fincert

confirn), all

anc.

do

obedience ro the

lole

inly renew,

and every rhe

articles
((

ra-'

ivi

agree*

<

agreements contained

**

rubmiflion

*.*

EMPIRE

BillTISH

140

and

the

we,

hereof,

and

the

principal

men,

at

Cafco

our hands and

let

recited

aforefaid

teftimony

in

captains

feganiores,

(aid

" have hereunto

in

feals,

**

Bay, near Mare's Point, the fcventh day of Ja-

*'

nuary, in

**

William the

the

tenth year* of his

1698."

third, in the year

Subfcribed by Moxus, and the


V

kin^

rnajefty

of th?

reft

fegamores prcfent,
In the prefence

of James Convcrs,

Southack, John G)
alias

The

les, interpreter,

Cyprian

Scodook,

Sampfon,

carl

of Bellamont coming to

Boflon

ii

1699, convened a general aficmbly there, though


he fixed his refidence at New York, He was al-

lowed a

falary of

a prefent of

one thoufand pounds a

to

which he was

at Boflon, and

was

tried

ft)on

fent

to

on

his

return

for the govern-

He

apjiointed.

him over

and executed.

after,

and

hundred pounds, and Teems to

five

have been a very proper pcrfon

ment

5Hrar,

feized Kidd,

England, where he

nobleman died

Tiiis
to

New

York,

anrl

Stoughton for a while refumed the government.

An

interval of tranquillity

was

now

fucceeded,

only interrupted by a dreadful

fire,

piuch damage as might defervedly


l?e

reckoned a public calamity

which

that did io

occafioii

it

to

?ind the fiicceeding

war

AH E R IC A.

IN
vtr

the cblonifli were in a

t4t

good condition of dcj

fence.

In June, 1702, Jofeph Dudley, Efq.


arrivecl
with a commiffion, to take upon him the
govern.
meat of New England. The miniftry at
home

had

now planned

out a fcheme for the conqueftof

t^ebcc; this dcfign was


but was revived again at
Nichollbn,

who had

for

a time

laid afide,

the inftances of colonel


recovered Nova Scotia for his

countr>'men, and went over to England,


carrying
with him fome Indian chiefs. The miniftry
were
prevailed on to fend five regiments of foot,
and a
battalion of marines, the latter under
the command of colonel Charles Churchill, on this

expe-

dition,

and the Edgar,

Humber,
tague,

Monmouth,

Devonfliirc,

Swiftfure, Kingfton^ Sunderland,

and Dunkirk,

Mon-

from England with'


them. T is force was to be joined by an
additional number of troops and Ihips when
it arrived
in New England, which was the iirft
place of its
deftination.

people of

It

failed

im

'A

does not, however, appear, that the

New

England had received any

tions for that purpofe; or if they did,

to have neglefted

them.

inftruc-

they feemed

The armament

failed

from Plymouth on the fourth of May, and arrived


atBofton the fourth of June 171 1. So little
was
it

expedted, that

upon

iil|!!

its firft

appearance, a troop

of guards, and a regiment of foot that were


the town, put themfelves under arms,
and the
habitants

made

in
in-

the jMroper difpofuions for repelling


jin

BIl'ITISH

14*

EMPIRE.

an enemy, but were foon undeceived. The gene*ral and the admiral had at firft no thoughts of
landing their men here ; but coming on ihore, after
conference with the inhabitants, found that

fomc

they themfelves were not in the

The

niftry.

latter

had

fecre*^

of the mi-

brought

often

fevere

ceivmg
pedited

ready

tl

time

tl

it

was

troops

on dcfigns

fine reg

which no fupnot
had a
parliament
the
pUes had been given, and

NewTi!

charges againft

the whigs

laid before parliament,

little

for entering

and

for

before declared, that to enlarge the fcrvice,

or increafe the charge beyond the bounds prcfcriband


^d, and the fupplies granted, wis illegal,

of their

an invafion

ed the patrons of

This perhaps

rights.

this expedition

fill-

with apprehen-;

truft to but fuccefs


fions, and they had nothing to
Looking upon fecrecy as
lor being indemnified.

hadbeing one of the great means of fuccefs, they


Engthe New
cither concealed their defign from

land men,

when

explained

or

it

fo

impcrfedly, that

the admiral and genenl came on Ihore they

were amazed

to find

that

no

provifions

were

in

expedition
furtherance for their proceeding on the
f^wnt, notall their own provifions being
fo that,

the men
withftanding the Ihortnefs of the paflage,
encamped on
were landed out of the ftiips, and
Nicholcolonel
ifland near Botton, where

Noddes

This delay, probably, was the


fon Kkewife was.
is owned on alb
ruin of the expedition; but it

Vetch.

men

of

of warl
tenders,

board

was

the

for

the

colonel

'.

York,

where

New

Je

about as

the Cafi

voufed,

comman
ler,

and

Canada

<

TheE

Bay, nea

eighteen!

the good,

hard fror

per4
appearance the troops and ihips made, and
ceiving

tranfporti

bands, that the

New England men

fetjing

AMERICA.

^^tN

143

celving the officers to be thoroughly in camcft, expedited the raifing their quota of men, and got

ready the provifions demanded of them in a ihorter


time than could have been well expected
yet.
;
it was the
twentieth of July, before the Britilh
troops re-embarked, and they were joined
by two
fine regiments of one thoufand
England and

New

New York

men, under the colonels Walton and

Vetch.

The whole

men of

war, and

of warlike
tenders,

flores,

and

fleet

fix

then confifted of twelve

ftore-lhips,

with

all

kinds

befides fire-fhips, bomb-ketches,

tranfports,

board for drawing a

fine

with
train

forty

of

horfe

on

artillery.

It

was

the thirtieth of July before the fleet


failed
for the river St. Lawrence.
At the fame time
colonel Nicholfon fet out from Bofton
for

York,

from whence

-where the forces of

New

he

proceeded

New York,

New

to Albany,

colonel Ingoldfby, colonel Schuy'

and colonel Wiilting, who marched


towards
Canada on the twenty-eighth of AuguH.
ler,

The

Englilh

!.;|l'il"l

Connedicut, and

Jerfey, about one thoufand Palatines,


and
about as many Indians of the Five Nations,
under
the Cafiques who had been in England,
rendezvoufed, to the number of about four
thoufand men,

commanded by

ml

fleet

proceeding, arrived off Gafpe


Bay, near the entrance of the river
Canada, on the
eighteenth of Auguft, where the
wind

blowing

hard from the norrh-w^ft, they anchored,


left the
tranfports fhould be leparated and
driven to lee*

ward.

:::l::

BRITISH EMPIRE

'44

Here they burned a French filhing veflel, and


on the twentieth of the lame month held on theiif
But the two
courfe, the wind veering wefterly.
fucceeding days proved very foggy, and the gaje
jvard*

at length Ihifting to the tiorth-eaft, rendered


rnoft impoflible

to

fleer

any courfe

with

it

al-

fafety,

having neither fight of land, foundings, nor anThe veffels then, by the advice of the
chorage.
pilots, were

brought to with

their heads to the fouth-

ward ; ncverthelefs, about ten at night, they found


themfclves among the northern rocks and jhoals,
where eight

which had upwards of


and fearaen on board, were

tranfports,

nine hundred foldiers


loft,

and the men of war efcaped with great

diffi-

culty.

when

After this misfortune, and

Walker had
between the

Sir

Hovenden

two days with very hard gales,


weft and the fouth, to fave what lives
plied

when

he could, he called a council of war,


after examining the pilots, and weighing

ever)'

circumftance,

and

ftores

for a fleet to get

was judged impradicable


up to Quebec ; and it was, befides,

the opinion of

all

it

the pilots, that had the fqua-

dron been higher up the

met with,

At

loft.

b^fidcs

all

this council

the

Soames, John
ton,

the ihipi

river,

with the gales they

would have been

inevitably

of war there were

j>refent,

captains

J()f:ph

rear-admiral,

the

Mitchell, llobcrt Arris, (ieorge

Henry Gore, George

l^uUlon,

Wal-

John Cock-

byrn, and Auguftlne Ruuic.


ft

if"-

I;-.

Oa

In AMERICA;
Oh

Hi

the fcventh of September, th6

another

joined,

council v/as

of the

of fea and

called,

whetherj under the pre*

land-officers, to determine,

(ent circumftances

being

fliips

fleet

and army^

it

were

advifeable to attempt any thing againft Placentia

but

appearing that they had not ten weeks pro-

it

vifions,

and that

were uncertain,

fupplies

was

it

At

unanimoully determined to return home*

this

who

board were prefent, befides thofe

fea-officers

were

colonel

Charles

William Windrefle,

colonel

f'lW

the

at

Churchill,

general Hill,

laft,

colonel

ipl

and colonel Kirk;

Campenfelt, colonel Clayton,

who commanded

together with Vetch and Walton,

the

New

England

forces

and purfutnt the

deter-

mination of thefe gentlemen, the whole armament


let fail for

having cffedled any thing*

The whole conduft

of the miniftry in

was indeed fomewhat

fair,

place,

we

Odp"

England, where they arrived in

ber, without

In the

furpriiing.

find that the matter

was

from the board of admiralty, and

this af-

k<

firll

a fecret

feconoiy, not at

or at beft, but very imperfe(ftly communicated

all,

to thole

who

the

people of

of

this

kind

is

New

the

who

nations.

is

extraordinary,,

Whatever

had the management of

Vot.

erroi

as

the

generally a proverb a-

maxim

occjiftoned

thofe

affairs at this pilriodj

to run into the other extreme,


their ailopting fuch a

An

England*

more

opennefs of the Englilh

mongft the

bear fo great a Ihare in

v^'ere likely to

it,

it

is

certain, that

contributed

much

tt>

thU

111

I'

BRITISH EMPIRE

I4
the

fuccefs of the expedition

ill

to

furd

imagine with fomc

who

though

it

indeed, a fet

were denominated Whigs,

ceeding reign, made

one of the

this

ab*

if

was any

that there

It is true

deep dcfign in the matter.


of men,

in a fuc-

of the

articles

of Oxford's impeachment ; but that is a circumftance which proves little to any one who is

earl

"acquainted with the blindnefs of party zeal, and

which once or twice

the extraordinary prejudices

of

in a century blind the people

plain tha* Sir


to,

It is

this ifland.

Hovenden Walke; was

neither privy

nor fufpefted the mlniftry of any double de-

He

fign.

ufed to fay, that the expedition

deed unfortunate, becaiife


tliat

it

in-

he added,

failed; but

would have been much more

it

was

fo, if

the

had advanced up the River St. Lawrence :


" For," faid he, " our mens pr ...ons would then

fleet

" have been reduced to eight or nine, perhaps to


**
no relief could pofjibly
fix weeks allowance
" have been hoped for in lefs than ten months;
" the Feverlham, and three llore-lliips, laden with
;

" the provifions dcfigned for

"
**

call

away

in their

paflage;

very great chance)

-**

tboufand

between ten

men mull have

((

we had

prey

to the

returning

Ihips have

enemy.

On

hand, had the enemy held out

had fpent

all

their

and twelve

inevitably perilhed

" cold and hunger, and the


41

fo that, if

cfcaped ihipwrec':, (which would have been a

V**

,*^

being

their fupply,

provifions,

till

the

with

become a
other

the

our people
latter

muft

" have

AMERlCAii

.IN

down

5*

have

at difcretion, to avoid death in

<c

Ihape,

**

laid

their arms,

rW

and have furrendered


its mofl frightful

that of famine; or,

even

they had

if

taken the place, either by ftorm or capitulation,


the remaining

of a fmall garrifon

provifions

i|

.
!

would not have gone far towards fubfifting ib


number ; nor could they, at that feafon

." large a

"
**

/**
,

"

of the year, have marched through the country


in fearch of more.

been

iimilar,

And

the cafe

would have

had they afterwards attempted Pia-

centia."

The governor
in

alfo apologized

for the colonifts

a fpeech which was certainly

were not

for the Americans

very proper;

in the leaft charge-

able with the mifcarriage of the

I""

Quebec expediII

tion.

They

fmccrely and juftly believed the go-

vernment to be in earneft

in their intentions

(what!l

ever ibmc over-wife politiciani might urge to the


contrary

and, accordingly, they really chearfully

aflifted to th<;

were concerted

in

how

imprudently meafures

England, and the confequenc-e

was, that they did

all

power

in their

to

the defedt. they obferved, and by their

gence to make amends


mother country.
abortive,

of

was

That
whofe

their fervants could

cidents

which

it

was

remedy

own

for the remiffnefs


all thefe

of

dili-

their

endeavours proved

partly chargeable on che

the miniftry;

'ii

Tney wese

utmofl of their power.

not however, ignorant

,1

ralhnefs

ill

condud:

no prudence of

compenfate, and partly to ac'K4.

inhuman policy

^2

to prevent.

Queen
imm nam

BRITISH EMPIRE

148

Queen Anne dying

in the year

17 14, George,

eledor of Hanover, fuccceded to the crown of


Great Britain. That prince appointed colonel

Shute to the government of New England, a gentle*


man, who had ferVed under the duke of Marlbo-

rough, and was generally cfleemed a good and


prudent governor. In his time the province wai
that inftead of giving encou-.

well cultivated,

jfo

ragement to the planters for clearing the country,


felling trees, an a^: was paffed in England, to

by

prevent any more from being cut down ; as ap^


this goTernor
l^ears from the following fpeech of
to the affembly.

law paffed
(lores, and

*^

?^

trees, his

^^ fpoils

" Notwithftanding,"
England

in

for

"

fays he,

the

encouraging naval

for the preffervation

of white pine

majefty has been informed that great

are daily

commited

in his

woods,

in the

" province of Main, and in fome parts of Maffar


^* chufet bay, by cutting
down, and putting to
*

private ufe fuch trees as

" navy
*'

all

f<

new

royal

therefore

laws againft

it

may

ones be made,

may be
he

proper for the

recommends

if thefe

In

17 17

and

are not fufficient.**

In the fame fpeech he recommended the


ing pf the fort Pemmaquid, or erecting a
that neighbourhood.

that

be put in exetutioh,

rebuild-^

fort in

he met the heads

^i the eaftern ladians near Kennebek

river,

and

found that the French priefts from Canada had


been again tampering with them to renounce their
alliance with, and fubmiflion to the crown of
Gtcat

IN AMEEICA.
Great

This appeared

Britain.

H9

in the haughtinefs

of

the behaviour of the fachemi, who, with a peremptory air, demanded that the Engliih ihould
build no more forts, nor make any more fettlcnientg on their lands ; to which the governor refolutely anfwered, that he would not part with an
inch of ground that belonged to his province, and
threatened to build a fort upon every fcttlement
in

it.

Upon

bouring

this, the

illf^nd

favages departed to a neigh-

but

with a fhew of refentment ;

upon the governor's ordering the ihip of war


which attended him, to put herfelf in a failing
pofture,

they fent to dcfire

mm

i'iiiii

another conference,

which with fome difficulty was granted ; and the


fachcms, to the number of twenty-three, renewed
their fubmiffion to the crown of England, and all

m
mm

the articles of their former agreement, faying at


lf>!i|iiiii

the fame time, in

hoped

it

would kC:

endured.

Upon

French renewed

their

native flyle,

as long as the fun

that they

and

moon

their practices

with them, and

two hundred of them marched, unuer French


lours,

to the

town of Arrowf ck;

they fent a menacing

letter to thr

laid it before the affembly.

expedition,
counfellors,

r'

then veturn home, however, the

fronp
,

This produced
five

co-

of the

the danger.

upon him by the colony


fo

III!

who
a new

Colonel Shute, at this time, endeavoured in vain

and the affembly gave him

much

fci

whence

\;vernor,

which was attended by


and which foon diffipated

to get a falary fettled

trouble, that

ke

fi

%c was

forced to carry over to England

laft

i^mplaint gainft them, confilling of fcven arti


ties for invading the royal prerogative
viz.
*f h Their taking
pofleffion of royal mails cut
:

IL Refufmg the governor's negative


the fpeaker.
III. Aiiuming authority jointly
with the governor and council to appoint fafts
into logs.

of
*'

" and thankfgiyings. IV. Adjourning themfelves


" for more than two days at a time. V. Dif<c

H
ft

f*

t<
(C

mantling of

pending

of

their

treafurer's

their pay.

own

Mr. Cook,
tativcs,

and ordering the guns and

of military

" them of
**

the

into

(lores

forts,

VI. Suf-

cuftody.

officers,

and mutilating

VII. Sending a committee

to muftcr the king's forces."

the agent for the houfe of reprefen-

admitted the

firfl,

feventh articles to be true


conilituents he

third, fifth,

and

fixth

and on the part of his

acknowledged

their fault,

but

laid

the blame upon the precedents of former aflemblies.


As to the two articles not acknowledged,
an explanatory charter was made out in the twelfth

year of George the


claufe

Firfl,

" Vi^hercas

" rcAed concerning


prcfcntativcs, and
it
i

it is

whichis the following

in their charter*

nothing

is

di-

a fpeaker of the houfe of

rfr.

their adjourning themfelves;

hereby ordered, That the governor or com-

mander

in chief, Hiall

tiedlion

"

fentatives

in

have a negative

in

the

of the fpeaktr, and the houfe of wpre-

may

idijurn themfelves, not exceed-

ing two days at a time.**

William

/ WiHidm Burnet, Efq. foa to the biftiop of th


name, fuccecdcd colonel Shute. When he entered
upon his government he found the people more m>.
merous than thofe of any colony

commerce

flourilhing,

and

but they had not laid af


ples

of

their

England

jnjlly

inconfiftent

To

anceftors;

in the

world

their riches

their

immeniie;

the independent princi-

IH^t.

and the government of

thought that they affefted powers

with their duty to their mother country^

put them to a

tefl

of their obedience, Mr. Burv-

net had an inftrudion peremptorily to


fettled provifion for

him

as

upon a
governor, which was as
iniift

peremptorily refufed by the affembly.


putes on this head increafed fo

much,

The

that for

dif-

m
I

fome

time no public bufinefs could be tranfaded.

Bur-

was a zealous promoter of the good of the colony, and had many fchemes for its fervice, which
were fo juft that he had credit enough to carry them

net

into execution.

It

is

l!<l!

Hi

,m

thought that he would even

have given up the point of his falary had he not


ii.i

been tied

down by

But

would have been

this

his inilrudtions

from England.

impro^jer, he having

given up a very lucrative place in Great Britain


for the

government of

New York,

in

ceedcd governor Hunter, as colonel


did him.

The

which he

fuc-

Montgomery

province of Maflachufet perceiving

they could gain nothing upon their governor in the

matter of his falary, fent over Jonathan Belcher,

Efq. to join with Mr. Wilks in an application to


the

government of England to get a revocation of


his

ss

ll

r!?>
.

BRITISH EMPIRE

15*

The Engliih imftry bcin at that time, divided among themielvei^


the New ^.ngland agents, who were charged with
on that head.

his inftruftion

upon a

infifting

falary, received great

enco

be laid before the parliament

i-

that the affair Ihould


;

but Burnet dying

Mr.Dummer

in

**

;Jtcd as lieutenant governor.

Mr. Belcher arrived at New York on the eighth of


Auguft 1730, and was received with great joy by
the

natives,

who

thought that under

The

but they were deceived.

government was

the affembly of N'ew Hampshire his

aftrudtions to

ftep he

took

obtain a

two
diet

in his

falr^: ?,

hundrtcl

<

was

to obtain

a proportionable fum from the affembly at Bofton.


The general affembly of New England met at Cam-

was opened
which he ufcd

alfo

twei

^'

fupi

"

futu

broi

foi

tiih p-

cher,

on

the

his fa
-

paffcd

uncert

The

bridge, on the ninth of September, and

to his

by the governor with a fpecch, in


the following expreffions " Gentlemen, the king's

day

" placing

" taken
((

me

at the

head of his government here,

in all circumftances

of

it,

childn

and they accordingly granted him


unds a year. But their example

not further his main end, which

h'.

the

firll

to lay before

it

**

countryman they had nothing to apprehend, efpecially as he had fo lately been employed by them as
their agent;

priv

will
" tot

own

their

noui

Britj

" com

September, 1729, Mr. Belcher was appointed to fucIn the mean


eeed him as governor of New York.
time,

peoj

"
"

ragcment from one part of the adminiftration, and

were threatened by the other

ftfnc

*^*

**

other complaints a^lnft their governor, befides that

of his

flood

b(

th(

(without affum-

<

the

fuch an in-

<

Jftrii

ing any perfonal merit to myfelf)

is

"

ftance

Yo

\
IN AMFRrCA.
*

ft?ncc of his majcity*8 grace

^*

people, a

want words

((

privileges
it

bt

and

my

ng

and favour to the

The

to exprefs.

" nour of the cro vn, and


" Britain, are doiutlefs v
it

153

the intcreft of
'

(ivi

compatible witl

ot ht : plantations

berties

'^<^-

duty to fupport the former,

it

-d

will

" alfo be my c re to prote<!it the latter. I have in


" command to communicate to you his maji fty'i
*'

twenty-feventh inftrudion to me,

**

fupjx)rt of his governors

"
a

regard

will give your

fuLure:

my native
mod calm and

for

a^''^"'^

country,
deliberat-

cention

to this affair, of fo nice a confequence, ..nd

it

brought to a

the former

arrears

to

due to the

be

Ill

Bri-'

and Mr. Bel-

baffled, infifttng

!l

up-

governor bui net's

late

he mentions was

crifis

for fixing a falary

fhew he was not

cher, to

now

of obtaining the fan<flion of a

tl.

tilh parliame.it

on the

The

ite

you

it

crifis."

the

ref|^etting

province tor the

from the

therefore delire,

hre

in this

filii

children at the rate of a thoufand pounds a year for


his falary.

At length

his falary

was

pafTcd in the aflembly, but in fo

council however,

was willing

by a

bill

ambiguous and

uncertain a manner, that he refufed

The

fixed

it

his confent.

to have agreed

to his terms; but the houfe of repr entatives

flood out.

On

the

firfl

of January being the very

day before the governor diliblve'


ed the following minute

in

"

the moft

ftruttion for fixing a falary

Vol,

I.

ftill

aeni, they enter-

their

books,

"

After

-Tious confideration of his majefty's in-

an

his excellency

and

"

his

fw4

ii2^

IMAGE EVALUATION
TEST TARGET (MT-3)

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1.6

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7

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9>

>

Photographic
Sciences
Corporation

%'1>
23 WEST MAIN STREET
WEBSTER, N.Y 14580
(716) 872-4503

BRITISH EMPIRE

154
<(

his fucccflbrs, together

C(

leges

<(

ought not to accede thereto; but

iS

time,

iC

well as their honours, willingly and unanimously

to give their votes in pafling a^ts for the

<t

and honourable fupport

it

of the people,

we

efteem

it,

with the rights and

we

privi-

apprehend the houfe

fame

at the

the duty of this houfe, .as

of

his

ample

majefty*s gv/-

vernor."

The
lution,

aflcmbly which met upon the above difib-

being as refractory as that which was

folved,

met with the fame

it

bly was called, to

and a

fate,

whom the g")vernor

die neceflity of their complyin

with

new

dif*

affem-

again urged
his majefty's

twcnty-fcventh inftru(ftion, relicing to his falary.

At
and

after various expedicucs

lafl,

the governor

rcje<5ted,

was

had been propofed

prevailed

on

to ac-

cept of one thoufand pounds a year, but in fuch z

manner

as that the

ligatory

upon

great

moment

payment of

it

(hould not bf ob-

future allemblies.
to the peace

and

Other matters of
profi)crity

of the

colony happened about the fame time, particularly


a difputc between the province of Maflachufet Bay

and that of New Hampihire, about the white pines,


already mentioned to be fo eflcntial to the Ihipping
of Great

Britain*

It is

almoft impoffiblc, confidcr-

ing the vait extent of territory, where the white


pines grou', to afcertajn thofc feveral boundaries

between the king


certain

that

traiftor for

antl

the private fubjetft.

Ralph GuHlon,

Efc}.

who was

the ihip-timbcr for the royal navy,

It is

con-

m^t
with

AMERIC

IN
With fuch

difSculties in executing his contract, that

he was forced to have recourfe


authority,

who

to the governor's

referred the affair to the aflembly.

was

After fome deliberation, a proclamatbn

by

A,--

iffued

dcfire of the houfe, to prevent any kind of

ieftation

mo-

being given to Mr. Gulflon or his agents

and Mr. Dunbar, the furvcyor-general, gave the

fol-

lowing publication.
^f

Whereas a number of people, who

fclves proprietors

their faid claims,

petitioned his

and

are, as I

am

t(

informed, providing to fend thither and take pof-

((

fcflion

Kennebek River,

Mr. Waldo,

their agent

by
majefty upon

have,

them-

of lands in Sheepfcot River, and

other parts to the eaftward of


it

call

of the faid lands, without waiting for hi*


majefty's pleafure and determination thereupon

do hereby give notice to all perfons concerned, that I am dire^ied, by his majefty's roydl in ftruftions, to lay afide three hundred thoufand
I

acres of land, bearing the beft timber, as conti-

gu)us as

may be

to the fea-fhore

Nova

C(

rivers within the province

f*

referved as a nurfery of trees for the royal navy:

"

have,

obedience

in

to

of

my

made choice of feveral


" Kennebek River, and more
**

faid

Scotia, to b<r

inftruftions,

places from the

4t

{cot River.'*

that
trees

by the

It is

to

charter granted to the

of the diameter

eail-fide

take notice,
colony,

of twenty-four inches

of

efpecially in Sheep-

here proper

Imm

and navigable

all

and

upwards.

liii

ii

BRITISH EMPIRE

ti6

upwards, twelve inches from the ground, growing


in the province, were referved to the crown.

Mr. Belcher had the


notwithftahding

for

deavours for

were

fent

the

fate

his

all

good

of

of

predeceflbrs

his

colony,

in

his

tyranny,

being an enemy to the diflenting

his

New

were

letters

over to the government of England,

-complaining of his adminillration,

and

en-

public-fpirited

the

England.

"WTitten

in

Thofe

letters,

incendiary

the

effed,

regard to their American

would

flrain,

had not the governmefit

have had very


of England rcfolv^d to adopt a new
little

intereft

moft of which

affairs.

with

fyfteni,

They were

pro^

voked to this, by a difpute raifed by the affembly


of New England, about the diiiwfal of public mopcy, which they pretended, becaufe they granted
This was
it, ought to be yefted folely in them.
talking in a very high flrain of independancy

ujion

its

being checked by the governor, a com-

plaint

was

voted

in

^*

((

carried over to England,

where

was

it

parliament, " That the com))laint, con-

taincd in the

was
upon

tion,
fult

and

New

frivolous

England memorial and

peti-

and groundlefs, an high

his majefly's

in-

government, and tending

*'

to lliake off the independancy of the faid colony

."

upon

",they

this

are,

kingdom,

to

which, by law and

and ought to be, fubjeft."

The

right,

affem-

bly ^ven ventured to cenlure Mr. Dunbar, for giv-

ing evidence before the houfe of

commons

in

bill

relating to the better fecuring and encouraging the

trade of the fu gar-colonies in America;

upon

vvhicl

AMERICA.^

IN

M7

houfe voted unanimoufly, " That the prcfuming


to call any perfon to account, or pafs a ceniiire

tliat
((
(C

by fuch perfpn be-

for evidence given

upon him,

was an audacious proceec^ng^

fore that houfe,

and an high

violation of the privileges of that

-^^<.i
William
In 1741 the government nominated
Shirley, Efq. to fucceed Mr. Belcher, of wrhofe con

houfe."'

we

duct

mention
fent

have occafion to make particular


the fequel. of this hiftory ; but at pre-

Ihall

in

we

(hall

fome account of the

off to give

break

neighbouring colonies, under the

having

firft

New

legiflative

currence

makes

body

New

in

laws,

England,

it

and

is

the

In con-

the colony.

governor,

with the

grants, enadts

grievances of every kind.


trates,

dominion,

England.

general aflembly of

fupreme

Britilli

added a few obfervations concerning

the government of

The

impofcs taxes,
redreffe* public

It confifts

of the magif-

and a certain number of reprefcntatives,

which form two chambers fo nearly refembling


our lords and commons, that the confcnt of the
majority of both

is

necclfary before

be prefented to the governor


as

we

any

bill

for his affent.

have an authentic reprefentation

can

But

from the

commiffions of trade to the houfe of lords in Janu-

ary 1733,
their

fenfe

England,

we

cannot do better than

of the
viz.

three c.harter

general

They

repeat

government of

obferve

governments,

to

that

there

New
arc

of which the chief


is

BRITISH EMPIRE

1^8

the province of

cslkd

New

commonly

Maflachufet Bay,

England

the conftitution whereof

is

of a mixed nature, the power being divided be-

tween the king and the

in

j>eople,

have much the greatcft Ihare

which

tlie latter

for here the people

do not only chufe the aflembly, but the a^mbly^


chuies the council alfo

upon

and the governor depends

the aflembly for his annual fupport,

which

has too frequently laid the governors of this province under temptations of giving up the prerogative

of the

crown,

and the

of Great

intereft

Britain.

Connecticut and Rhode Ifland,

are the

othef

charter governments, or rather corporations,

where

almoft the whole jwwer of the crown


to the people,

who make

their aflembly, thew*

likewife;
councils

delegated

cil,

anl

their

governor

to the majority of which aflembliesi


and governors refpe^ively, being col-

jwwer of making laws

leftivc bodies, the

cd

coui

is

an annual eleftion of

is

grant-t

and, as their charters are worded, they can,

and do make laws, even without the governor**


aflcnt,

and dire<^ly contrary to

negative voice being referved to


in thfc faid charter

and as the

their opinions,

them
faid

no

as governors

governors are

annually chofen, their office generally expires before his majcfly's approbation can be obtained, of

any fecurity taken for the due obfervance of the

laws of trade and navigation, and hold


eorrefpondencc

with

our

office.

little

or no

Thefc colonial
have

IN AMERICA.

59

have the power of making laws for

their bettet

government and fupport, provided they be not

pugnant to the law* of Great

Britain,

mental to their mother country

whea

nor

re^

detri"

and thefe law*,

they have regularly paffed the council, and

aflembly of any province, and received the govern

become
temain repcalable by
Dior's

affent,

juft complaint,

valid

in that

province,

his majefty in council,

yet

upon

and do not acquire a perpetual


(fit

force, unlefs they are confirmed

But there

council.

are

by

his majefty in

fome exceptions

to thit

ft

I"

,i|

rule in the proprietary

Thus,

and

charter-governments.

in the Maflachufet Bay, if their laws are

iiiili

i|,
I'iii

ii

not repealed within three years after they have

been prefented to

his majefty for his

approbation

or diikllowance, they are not repealable by the


crown after that time : and the provinces of Con*
ncdticut and
gation,

by

Rhode

their

Ifland are not

under any obli*

refpcdtive conftitutions, to return

authentic copies of their laws to the

crown

for

approbation or difallowance, or to give any ac*


count of their proceedings. There is alfo this

m
Hiiirii
i
i

ilUlhlH

fingularity in the

R-hode Ifland,

governments of Connedlicut and

that their, law? are are hot repeal*

able by the crown, but the validity of them de

pends upon
as

may be

their

being not contrary, but as near

agreeable to the laws of England.

There has

been from the beginning, an ofereded by law in every count)', where aM conveyances of land are entered at large, after the

iiee

granters

BRITISH EMPIRE

i6o

granters have

of peace, by which means no perlon can

jufticc

than

made

it is

up more money upon

twice, or take

fell his efb.te


it

acknowledged them before a

firft

Provifion has likewife been

worth.

and property,

for the fecurity of life

eleftion of juries,
iheriflf

vho

by the

of the county, but are chofen

towns

bitants of the

in

the

are not returned by the

and

eleftion

this

iniia-

under

is

human prudence can


The Iheriffs
corruption.

the exadeft regulation that


for preventing

fuggeft,

in plantations are comparatively

but

officers,

little

and therefore not to be trufted like ours. Redrefs


the New England courts of law is very quick
and cheap ; all procefles are in Englilh, and no

fpecial pleadings or

the general iffue


ters

brought

cxpence
lofe

and

his

in

is

evidence,

for

merit of the caufc

but

always given, and fpecial mat-

in this

eftatc

of clerkfhi[>.

demurrers are admitted

faves time

which

cafe a

man

is

not liable to

a dcfeft in form, nor

made

to

depend on

By a law of the

and

is

the

the niceties

country-,

no writ

abated for a circumftantial error, fuch as a


mifnomcr, or any informality : and by ano-

may be
flight

ther law,

it is

enafted, that every attorney taking

indorfe his
out a wrir from the clerk's office, fhall
name upon it, and be liable to pay the advcrfe
non^profecuhis coits and charges in cafe of

party

plaintiff
rion or dilcontinuance, or that the

fuitcd, or

judgement

provided in

pafs againlt

him.

tL lame ad. That

if

be non-

And

the

it

is

plaintiff

M ER

fT

i6i

A.

by the attorney's miilaying

ihall fuffcr a non-fuit

the aaion, he

writ without a fee, in cafe the party ihall fee


the

revive

fuit

which

the cafe

fit

parts of the writ,

If

particularly fet forth.

is

the accompt

be matter of accompt,

to

of

difpatch

quicker

made

are

caufes, declarations

in

the

for

new

be obliged to draw a

ihall

is

it

annexed to

the writ, and copies of both left with the defendant, which being done fourteen days before the
fitting

of the court, he

is

obliged to plead direftly,

and the iffue is then tried. Nor are the people of


New England opprefTed with the infinite delays
and expcncc that attend proceedings in chancery.
But as in all other countries, England only ex-

y aquum

cepted ji
divided

fo

it is

are

held the fame, and never

here, a

power of chancery being

vefted in the judges of the courts of


as to

fome particular

cafes,

ble conftru^ions in others.


all forts, are fettled

common

law,

and they make equitaThe fees of officers of

by ads of ^flembly

at

mode-

rate prices.

Adultery, blafphemy, llriking or curfing a pa-

by them punilhed with death ; as is ^^er^


No perfon lan
jury, where lifie may be affe(ftcd.
be arretted if he has the means of making any farent, is

tisfra:ion.

Quakers,

fcr death.

Great care

of

the

morals

drunkennefs,

Vol.

I,

of

jefuits

the

is

and popilh

taken, by their laws, of

Indians,

and

fwearing and curfing;

priefis are

to

prevent

and one of
theit

BHITISH EMPIRE

i62

which they much boaft of, is, th^t


Itrangcrs flying from tyranny, are to be

:{ht\T laws>

Chriftian

maintained by the public, or othenvife provided


for.

'

Every town,

contains thirty bnrgeflV^, can

if it

fend

two

one

but Bofton nominates four.

reprefentatives to parliament

the

members

of the council, or

who ad

houfe of lords,

nor

what we may

the

call

as nf^ftants to the gover*

but he mufl approve of the elc(^on.

the

in

is

felcding the

privilege of

peculiar

aflembly

if tv.rntt'',

There

The

prudence of the colonies of Connecticut and Rhode


Jiland ferved

them

in great ftcad

when

their char1

ters

were

by Charles

called in

II.

for they furrcn-

dered only that which had been granted them


the crown

but,

when

b\'

the revolution took plact,

they produced that which they held from the Maf-'

which never had been revoked,

fachufet company,

and which

own

entitled

They went
that when

fo

tar

The
various

to

own

lafl privilege,

Benjamin

appointed

New York

governor of

command

militia.

the Conned:icuC

province refufed to obey him.

foreign trade of
articles.

nobfcot there
the

to elcdt their

their

in aflerting this

who was

and Penniylvania,
forces,

command

king William

Fletcher, Efq.

tlie

them annually

and to

o-overnor,

is

At

th2

New

England

mouth of

a mackarel filbery,

confills

of

the river Pe*

from which

inhabitants fuppiy Barbadocs, and other Bri*


tifll

I
tifli

iflaiuis

N AMERIC
Amciica.

in

A,

They

4lfe

likewiii:

^ih iA
Their

wkter for cod, whkh they dry vx the froft,


hand ; 9nd
iik works *re upon the improving
laid

foon have

will

they

fait

it ii

fufficient to ierv?

11^

Rich mines of iron of a moft excel-

themlelvcs.

difcovcred in New
kind of temper have been
time they
England, and if improved, in a ihort
having re^ourfe
fupply Great Britain, without
lent

may

to the northern

nations for that commodity.

Be-

fides

Barbadocs
mackarel and cod, they fend to

md

the

meal* fait,
other BritiQi iilands, bifcuit,
cattle and horfes, planks,

provifiona,

fometimes

Jioops, fliingles,

pipe-ftaves, butter, cheefe, grain,

calves-ikins, tobacco,
oU, tallow, turpentine, bark,
thefe merchandizes
.apples and onions ; and of

of one hunBarbadoes takes annually to the value


Fropi Barbadoc*
dred thoufand pounds fterling.

and thofe

illands, they bring,

ton, gipgcr,

in return, fugar, cot-

and various other commodities. From

Europe they import wine,

woollen cloth,

filks,

fluffs, laces, pa-,


toys, hard-ware, linen, ribbands,

nU kinds,

tpols of
per, houfe-furniture, hufbandry

tordage hats, flockings,


to

the value of

In

J ort,

hundred thoufand

four
there

is

no

Britifh

manu-

pounds

a year.

ja^ure

luxury, or
that fervgs the purpof^s of ufc,

ornament, which
.

above

and India goods,

llioes,

not import.
per,

tlie

people of

Their money,

ftruck into

till

what they

which occaftoned many

New
lately,

call

England do

was

all

pa^

province-bills,^

incpnveniencies,

and thpv'

wi^'

BRITISH EMPt RE

1^4

many

manufiiftures are as yet not

much encouraged by
however

arc

mother country

their

and

daily improving,

and

wars with France

nor ait they

the

have

Spain

they

two

laft

intrc^.uced

abundance of hard money.

With

regard to religion, befoe the year 1740,

the province of MaflTachufct

Bay contained above

one hundred Engliih congregations, befides


afiembhes of Indian

But of

chrilVians.

thirty

thofe

all

congregations not above three or four of them

followed

forms of the church of England,

the

JBvcry j^articuiar fociety amongft them

dant of

all

does there
or cenfures.

fynods
their
all

other

a<fls,

which

churches,

jurifdi(ftion

fyno'Js

is,

are

w ho

have no power to inforce

to

to deliberate

be

laid

have ])ower to

and even to give

nifters

before

the

feveral

approve of

majriftrates

have

particular exigen-

their opinion in

The

it.

ml-

of Bolton depend entirely on the generoiity

of their hearers
contribution

gregation
ed.

on general mat-

rejod: or

them as they fee proper. The


jwwer to call a fynod u})on any
cy,

nor

punilhments

their

or to eftablifh any thing coercive

they can do

ters,

indepen-

Their church-government admits of

hut thofe

own

ecclefiaftical

any appeal from

lie

is

The

for

being

fupport

their

made

for

every time divine

them by the confcrvice

police ,of the inhabitants of

land, with regard to their morals,


that of any in the world.

voluntary

is

is

celebrat-

New

as rigid as

Every town of

Eng-

fifty fa-

milies

IN

A,

165

obliged to maintain a fchool for reading


a gramwriting, and of one hundred families

iMlies

and

MER

mar

IS

common

that arc

vices

Thils

inftruAion of youth.

fchool for the

in

other parts of the

all

New

England, if
might be unkno\vn
had not introthe increafe of power and riches
early habitubeing
duced them. Their children
ideas of
ated to induftry, could otherwife have no
in

Avorld,

their
cxpenlive pleafures or enervating debauches,
them in
conftitution in church and ftate confirming
this fobriety

but

^at of

of habit.

They have no holydays

the annual eledtion of the magiftrates

commencement

of Bofton, and the

at

Cambridge.

Thus an uninterrupted courfe of induftry and application to bufmefs prevails all the year round.

The

province

divided

is

into

twelve

counties,

each county town containing a guildhall, arid the


whole confifts of fixty-one marker-towns, twentyfeven fortified places

and two
flipping

Before the year

colleges.

was

thoufand

faid

fail,

upon eleven navigable

to have confifted

exclufive of

but fince that time


increafed,

that

it

it

is

their

has been

of,

1743,

their

at leaft

filhing
fo

rivers,

one

barks;

very greatly

on a moderate calculation

thought, that during the late war, the i)rivateers


the royal
pf New England only were equal to all

navy of England

in

the reign

of

queen Eliza-

beth.

We

have taken notice of feveral towns there,


government; but
Vinder regular ma^iftraclcs and
the

BRIT

j6d

the &ae& of

aU

I'tS

theft

Engliih coionies

is

JHi

lEM ^IJR E.

and the metropolis of the


TIais is htad^

6o(lon.

>

'

'

fome city, r.uated on a peainfula, at tiie bottom of a fine cai^acious and fafe hwrbour, which
jis defended from the outrages of the lea, by a mun~
bfiTj^pf lilaiid% and rocks whkh appear above water.
It if entered but by one lafepaifage; and that
is

narrow, and coverfid by the cannon of a

lar

and very ftrong

The harbour

fortrefs.

is

regu-*

more

fiifficient for the great numba* of veflels,


which carry on the extcnfive tracje of jSoClon. At
the bottom of the bay is a noble pier,, newr two
thouftnd feet in length, along which on the north
iide extends a row of warehoules.
The h,cad of

than

this

pier joins the principal

which h,

like

of the l(*wn,

moft of the others, fpacious

The town

buik.

flreet

lies

md well

at the bottom of the har^


It

has

tlie

cx

bonr, and forms a very agreeable view.

a town houfe, where the courts meet, and


change

is

kept, large, and of a very tolerable tafte

of archittdiure.

Round

number of well-furniihed
employment for live

find

the exchange, are a great


bookfellcrs fhops,

which

printing prefTes.

Tlvere

town ; and

are ten churches within this

it

contains

at leafl twenty thoufand inhabitants.

That we may be enabled

ment of the wealth of

this

to

citv,

term fome judge-

we muft

obfervc

from Chrillmas 1747, toChriftmas 1748,, five


hundred veflels cleared out from this port only,
that

for a

foreign trade; and tour

hundred and

thirty

AM EKX C

IN

t^

A.

nothing of coaftiiig
ivtre ttitcted inwards; to fay
veffeh, both of which arc extremely

ind fifhing
numerous, and

be equal in number to tht

faid to

Indeed the trade of

others.

New England it great,

of goods from witbas it iuppHes a large quantity


greater, as the people of
in itfelf; but it is yet
this

the

country are in a manner the carriers for all


colonies of North America and the Weft-In-

and even

dies,

may be

for

feme

They
Dutch o^

parts of Europe,
as the

confidcred in this rcfpea:

America.
the country yields aff

The commodities which


principally mafts

trad

largely

with the
ftaves,

turpentine;

for

and yards,
al

navyj

horfes

and

peafe; cyder, apples,


trjr

trade

is

live

tliey

con-

wd

pitch, tar,

boards;

lumber,

all

foru oC

Urge
catde; Indian corn and
and

provifions, beef, pork, butter


tpiantities;

which

hemp and

cheefe, in

flax.

not very confiderablc.

The

Their pelr
codfiihery

coaft, emwhich they have always upon their


arc enathey
people;
ploys a vaft number t>f their

above thirty^wo
bled by this to export annually
to Spain,
thoufand quintals of choice cod fiih,

and the Mediterranean, and about aiactcen


to the Weftthoufand qumtals of the rt-fufe fort
food for the negroes. The quantity of
Italy,

Indies, as

fpirits,

laflcs

which they

diftil

they bring in from

Indies,

is

they vend

in

Bofton from the

all

parts of the

mo-

Wcft-

at whicli
as furprifing as the ch^ap rate
t^vo fhiUings a galit, which is under
lon*

,a

EMPIRE

BHITISIJ

i68

With

lort>'

this

they fupply jlmoft

all

the coa-

(iimption of our colonies in North America, th&


Indian trade there, the vaft demands of their own

and

the

Newfoundland

fifhery,

and

in

a great mea-

more

-fure thofe of the African trade; but they are

&mous

and cheapnefs, than

for the quantity

for

the excellency of their rum.

They

who

are alntioft the only people of our colonies

have any of

factures.

own

A number of

prefbyterians

land driven thence, as


ihcir landlords,

ments, chofe

it is

from an

It

cloathing.

but a coarfe ftubborn

ftrong,

faid,

by the

affinity in

New England

fort

liderable quantities,

principal fettlement

pliment to them,

way,

The

New

find a
fetting

is

it,

feverity

of

their ikill in the

very large

to the great ad-

prefent they

make

con-

and of a very good kind;

their

a town, which, in

com-

is

in

called Londonderry.

England, which,

good vent

up of

Ire-

as their place of refuge.

encouragement, they exercifed

At

a clofc

religious fentiv

linen manufaftures, and meeting with

vantage of this colony.

is

of cloth.

from the North of

Thofe people brought with them

ttiade in

much

Of the former they have nearly as

as fuffices for their

and

and linen manu-

the woollen

thefe

in

all

in

Hats

are

a clandeftine

the other colonies.

manufadures has been

great meafure a matter neccffary to

them ;

in

for as

they have not been properly encouraged in fome

commodity, by which they might communicate with their motlier country, while they were

ilaple

AMERICA.

IN

i6^

cut off from ^U other refoiwces, they muft ekhcf

have abaiidc

the country, or have found means

of employing their
out of

it

own

&ill and induftry to

the neceffaries of

The fame

life.

draW
necef-

together with their convenience for building

fity,

and manning

made them the

Ihips, has

carriers

for the other colonies.

The

bufmefs of Ihip-building

one of the moft

is

which Bofton or the other fea-port


towns in New England carry on. Ships are fometimes byilt here upon commiffion; but freqnently,
the merchants of New England have them conconfiderable

ftrufted

upon

them with
fifh,

and

their

own

account; and loading

the produce of the colony, naval (lores,

fifti-oil

principally, they

upon a trading voyage


Mediterranean;
cargo, they

fend

to Spain, Portugal, or the

where, having difpofed of their

make what advantage

freight, until fuch time as they can

herfelf to advantage,

do

in

of the

fell

They

by

can

they

the veffel

which they feldom

a reafonable time.
veflel, as

them out

fall

to

receive the value

welV as of the freight of the goods,

which from time to time they carried, and of the


cargo with which they failed originally, in bills
of exchange upon London; for as the people of
New England have no commodity to return for
the value of above a hundred thoufand pounds,

which they take in various forts of goods from


England, but fome naval ftores. and thofe in no
great quantities, they are obliged to keep the ba-

Vol.

I.

Zi

laoce

BRITISH EMPIRE

1^70

lance fomewhat even by this circuitous commerce,

which, though not carried on with Great Britain


nor with Britilh

where

all

the

centers in

vcifels, yet

money which

By

fettlement

may

obfervations

thcfe

be

may be

is

in

is

made

laft.

from the beft

collected

how
and of how much
feen

itfelf,

to the

profits,

the colonies can make,

in any manner, muft center at

authorities,

'its

flourifhing

this

ufc

it;

mother country.

OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY.

NEW York

is

faid

to have been

fiift

dilco-

vcred by one captain Hudfon, an Englifhraan,


fold

it

to the

Dutch about

the year 1608.

ho

v^

James

I,

then king of England indeed protefted againft the


fettlement

At

but his neighbours

kept pofleffion.

flill

length Sir Samuel Argol governor of Virginia

attacked and deflro)ed

their colonies.

Dutch com[>lained of as an

This the

outrage, and applied to

the king of Etigland for a confirmation of the con-

They could

veyaice.

fome cottages

only obtain leave to build

for the convenience

But they found means


miffion fo far, that at
called the
(late.

New

fouth, that

York

is,

province,

parallel

which they

to a flourilhing

rofe

of the government or jurifdicis

as follows

from Sandy Hook,

from north to
in latitude forty

degrees, thirty m'nutes to the fuppofed


in the

fhips.

enlarge upon this per-

laft this

New Netherlands,

The extent

tion of

to

of their

of forty-five

degrees

Canada

line

latitude

are

three

IN AMERICA.
three hundred

from weft

and

to

171

thirteen Englifli miles

eaft

various,

is

the extent

From

i.

the eaft

foutherly termination of the boundary line, between

the Jerfeys and

New York, in

upon Hudfon*s River,

grees

latitude forty-one de-

to

Byram River, where

5ie colony of Connefticut begins, are one hundred


miles.

the weft northerly termination o

From

2.

the faid boundary line between Jerfcy and

New

York, on the north branch of Delaware River, ia


latitude forty-one degrees, forty minutes to Connefticut weft line, including the oblong, are eighty-

two

miles,

whereof about

fixty miles

from Dela-

ware River to Hudfon^s^ River, and twenty-two


miles from Hudfon*s River to the prefcnt Connecticut weft line, oblong are included. 3. From fortyone degrees forty minutes on Delaware River, New
runs twenty mile* higher on Delaware River

York

to the parallel of forty-one degrees latitude, which,

by Pennfylvania

royal grant,

divides

from the province of Pennfylvania.


rallel

Erie

New York

is

New York

Upon

this

fuppofed to extend weft to

and from thence along Lake

Erie,

pa-

Lake

and along

Lake
and along Lake

the communicating great run of water, from

Erie to Lake Ontario or Cataraqui,


Cataraqui, and
aforefaid
lonics.

York

difcharge Cataraqui River, to the

Canada fuppofed

We

ftiall

line

with the

inftance the

province from

in this line.

many

its

Ofwego ;

Ofwego

fort

Britilh co-

breadth of

as being a

New

medium

and trading place, with

nations of Indans upon the Lake Ontario,

Cataraqui

BRITISH EMPIRE

t^l

Cataraqui or Ofwego, in latitude forty-three dcr


grccs

two

weft

lies

northerly

hufldred miles,

Albany

from

Albany

about

and about twenty miles from

to the weft line of the province of Mafla-

chufet Bay, in

all

treal lies north

Mon-

about two hundred miles.

by

eaft

of Albany above two hun-

dred and twenty miles.

New

Several iflands belong to the province of


as
is

Long

York, fuch
Naffau, and

long from

eaft to weft,

The

than ten broad.

was

fettled

the ifland

Illand,

is

which the Dutch

from

New

but no more, at a medium,

of

eaftern part

a barren, fandy

is

foil.

inhabited by

as well as Englifli.

and Elizabeth
to

New

Staten Ifland

and

is

fix in

Dutch and French,

Nantucket^ Martha's vineyard,

Iflands, formerly

belonged likcwife

new

York,, but were, by the

Maflachufct Bay, granted at

nexed

this illand

England, but two thirds of

about twelve miles in length north,


breadth, and

call

about one hundred and twenty miles

to that colony.

New

charter of

the revolution, an-

York

contains

four

incorprated towns, which have feveral exclufive


privileges,

and fend reprefentatives to the general

The names of the towns are as follow


York and its territory, which was eftab-

aflembly.
I.

New

liflied

by colonel Dungan, and fends four reprefen-

.tatives to the general

aHembly.

Albany, which fends two

2.

The

reprefentatives.

city
3.

of

The

town of Wcft-Chefter; and, 4. That ot" Schenedtady,


each of which fends one. The climate and foil of

New

IN AMERICA.

173

New York being greatly fuperior even to thofe of


an objea: greatly
New England, had made
The hiftory of New
defireable by the Englilh.
it

York, during the time the Dutch held


little

it,

affords

what will be found


Dutch governor waj

or nothing material, but

in that of

Henry

Canada.

yard, and he

was

difcovered Martha's vine-

fucceeded by Jacob Elkin,

to that

was appointed

Weft

Its

who

ChriiVian,

firft

who

government by the Dutch

India company, to

whom

the country be-

longed. When the Dutch war became inevitable,


a prefent
in the year 1664, king Charles II. made

of vaft tracks of land in thofe countries to his broYork was


ther the duke of York, in which New
included, and the duke let it out in other fuWivi-

To

fions to other proprietors.


cffedtual, Sir

^f

Robert Car, an Englilh commander

great courage and

of the

firlt

render thofe gifts

fpirit,

Dutch war, was

before the declaration

with a ftrong fqua-

fent

dron, and three thoufand land forces, the greateft

armament

that

had been ever

fent

from Europe to

America, with orders to difpolTefs the Dutch of


of York in
this fine country, and to put the duke
poffeffion of

it.

He was

attended,

by

colonel Ri-

Sachard Nicholls, Efq. George Carteret, Efq. and


Meverich, Efq. and he dlffcmbarked his land

muel

on Manehattan ifland, towards the end of


marched dithe year 1664, and he and Nicholls
Amfterdam. The
rci^tly agaiuil the town of New

forces

Dutch

UIHAJ.,*), ,1-

IHIM

JliM

BRITISH EMPIRE

174

Dutch governor, though a brave man, being unprovided to receive them, was obliged to capituThe ca])itulalate, and to deliver up the place.
tion was wife and honourable
for all the Dutch
;

who

fubjefts

were willing to fubmit to the Eng-

government were

lilh

place,

and protected

The town,
in all

Dutch

at liberty

in

at that time,

their pcrfons

was one of

and

elfecfts.

the handfomeft

inhabitants chofe to fubmit to the Englifli

off their cffedls


lilh,

who

The

firft

liberty to carry

at

and were fucceeded by the Eng-

gave the colony the name of


Englilh governor of

lonel Nichoils,

New

which was

who,

New York.

New York was

Amfterdam, marched

Orange

to

power

of the Englilh.

Fort,

him ; and

likewife furrendered to

vernor, under the

co-

thirteen dav8 after the furren-

the draggling plantations in that country

the

the

in

and above half of the

North America;

government, while others were

der of

to rcfide

all

under

fell

Nichoils adted as go-

duke of York,

till

the year 1683,

and feems to have been wife, provident perfon.


It \vas he who concluded the ufeful treaty between
the Indians of the five nations and the Engliih inhabitants,

which

however, recovered

ed

it,

by

Sir

New York

a few months

Nichoils

The Dutch,

fubfifts to this day.

after,

was fucceeded

by

in

1672, but

in this

government

Edmund A ndroi, whom we

mentioned

in the hiftory

of

reftor-

the treaty of peace.

New

in

1683

have already

England,

Andros by colonel Dungan, afterwards

and

earl of

Limericks

Dungan^

AMERICA.

-IN
Ihingan,

was

175

a catholic; but he had the juftcft

fenfe of the interefts of

England, and was an irreconr

enemy to the French in America. While


James was on the throne, an order came to

cxleablc
l^ing

him from England, to admit French miffionaricsfrom


QueVec, to make converts to their religion in New
Tiie colonel could not difpute the order
fufpeding their intention was to debauch

York.
but

friendlhijl with
the five Indian nations from their
England; he turned them out of the colony. The

of
French complained to the court of England
ofDungan's honeft proceeding, and fome pretend to
had king
fay that he mull have loft his government

When

James continued much longer upon the throne.

difqualified
the revolution took place, his religion

New

him from continuing in the government of


York ; but king William had fo juft a fenfe of
.

meri:, that

he

is

faid to

have

command

him a confiderable
which Dungan refufed
his obligations to
tion,

in the Spanilh

to accept of,

king James.

the French found

army,

on account of

After the revolu-

up the Huof New York; and co-

means

to f\nrit

rons againft the inhabitants


next governor,
lonel Benjamin Fletcher, the

wa^
fome

ordered to carry over from England


colony.
land forces for the proteAion of the
thither

the

mean while,

an inhabitant of

in

In

1690, colonel Peter Schuyler,

New York,

railed three

hundred

with
and three hundred friendly Indians,
I'his feems to
he marched againft Quebec.
have

Englifti

whom

bis

offered to procure

.'^^d^'A^J^

-ii'^-^'-'

BRITISH EMPIRE

17^

have been an

was cafy
which was dcfti*

ill-digeftcd expedition, as

to forefee that the Engliih force,

was

nite of heavy artillery,

jng any ftrong place.

nada with great

it

infufficient for mafter-

Schuyler advanced into Ca-

intrepidity,

and was oppofed by a

army of French, which, he engaged

fiiiTerior

after killing three

but

hundred of them, perceiving his

ftrength to be too fmall to attempt any thing of

great confeqiience,
ter this, the

he

returned home.

Soon

French invaded the province of

af-

New

York, took and burned the town of Scheneftady,

was abfurdly rewas favoured by certain

murdered the inhabitants.

arttl

ported that this invafion


friends of Andros.

lime

in

truth

a ftate of anarchy,

himfelf at
in

The

government of

riving, the

t'le

head of the

eonjunt^ion

It

Fletcher not ar-

is,

New York
when
affairs

was

at this

colonel Lefley put

of the province,

with one Mr. Jrtcob Milbourne.

Thcfe two adbciates were wrong-headed enough to


imagine, that they would be continued from

Eng-

land in their government, and that they were even


|!rong enough to hoKl out againft the governor

named by king William.


Fletcher
J.efley

and Milbourn

York: which
cd one of

his

to give

mean while,

In the

arrived with his trcxips,

and fummoned

up the

fort

of

New

thev not on] v refufed to do, but killfoldiers,

Fletcher,

however, foon

poflci1i'.)n of the fort, and ordered Lefley and


Milbourn to be tried for high treafon, which they

gcr

were, and condemned, and executed accordingly.

After

Tjpf!jpjf'if|T-w

IN AMERICA.

::

After this, .the fon of

New York was

igular garrifon, to prevent

with a

177*
provided

fiirprifes

from

During Fletcher's
the 'French or their Indians.
governor of
government, Frontenac, the French
barrier of
Canada, invaded Albany, the Engliih
New York, with three thoufand French and CanaHe advanced by Hudfon's river, and, after
dians.
fell into the
a march of three hundred miles, he
five nation!
country of the Onondagoes, one of the

with the Engliih, where the count


proviiion,
deftroyed their habitations, corn,, and
againft
Fletcher hearing of this invafion, advanced

in friendihip

friendly
him, and was joined by feveral of the
againft the
Indians, who were highly exafperated
reFrench and the Hurons, Upon this the count
Englifli and
treated, but with confiderable lofs, the
killing a
the Iroquois falling upon his rear, and

many of his men.

great

ed Fletcher

in this

Efq. did him.

Colonel Slaughter fucceed-

government, as Jofeph Dudley,

BelIn the year 1697, the earl of

was named to
New Eng"
the joint governments of New York and
for the
land and Mr. Nanfan aded as his deputy
admittance, by
former. In 1 700 Mr. Nantan refufed
from England, to the Scotch ihips from Da*

lamont, as

we

have already

feen,

orders

fien; a proceeding

human.

The

which was thought

to be in-

earl
lord Cornbury, eldeftfon to the

death, was
of Clarendon, upon lord Beliamont's
carried over
appointed governor of New York, and
thither his wife

Vol,

I,

and family.
'

5^

His lordlhip

is

faid

BRITISH EMPIilE

1^1

t^^tvtctrriH matters with a

to

the

of the colony were under hkn

affiiiri

cjccciicnt order.

dkn

very, high hind;


inr

In 1710, five of the friendly *In*

kings were fcnt to England, where they wcr

kindly reccu d at court; and they addreffcd queea

Annp

in

the following terms:

" Great Queen,

Wc

have undertaken a long voyage, which


none of our prcdeceflbrs could be prevailed with
" to undertake, to lee our great queen, and relate
f(

*.*

to her thofe things

**

ly ncceffury for the

allies,

on the other

which we thought abfolute


good of her and of us her
ftdc

of the water.

" We doubt not but our great queen has been


u acquainted with our long and tedbus war, ia.
" conjunction with her children, againft her cne*.
" mics, the French; and that we have been afe
" a ftrong wall for their fecurity, even to the loff
of our beft men. We were mightily rejoiced
u when we heard our great queen had refolved to
* fend
an army to reduce Canada; and immc

*'

token of friendship,

we hung up

the

**

diately, in

kettle, and took up the hatchet, and, %vith ono

confcnt, affiftcd

'*

preparations on this fide the lake: but at length

we were

told,

colonel

Nicholfon

our great tjueen, by

in

ior.it:.

making
imporh

prc^
was prevented in her r^ei^g!*
French,
the
left
which made us forrowfiil^

'*

tant affairs,

**

fcnt,

**

w ho had

*^

now think
them. The re^

hitherto dreaded us, Ihould

unable to

make war

againft

" duftion

y^iWPWig^^^^.

-^

weight

our free

A\x&\on of Canada

hunting; fo that if our great ^uc'.

be

<

habitations,
forfake our counrrv, and feck other
be m\3ch
or (land neuter, either of which will

<*

of great

^uld not

e mull, with our families,

of us,

ni ndful

<*.

W\

againft our inclinations.


nations, we
In token of the fincerity of t^efe
great queen
do, in their names, prefcnt our

'<

with the belt! of waAnpum,

"

our great queen's favour, leave

**

gracious confideration."
It

was

it

hopei of

to her moft

confequence of this addrefs, the ex-

under colonel Hill and

pedition

Walker

in

in

and.,

againft Canada,

Sir

which we

Hovenden

have mention-

ed in the hiftory of New England, was unucrtaken. General Nicholfon was to command in
chief the

New

of which, befides

forces;

regiments were

Indians, three

command

York

raifed,

under the

of the colonels Ingoldlby, Schuyler, and

Whiting. They accordingly marched towards Quebec; but, upon Walker's mifcarriage, they returned to New York. After this, great numbers of
Palatines

were
of

and

German

proteftants

arrived,

and

fettled in the colony, but a vote of the houfe

commons

paffed againft

it,

as

bein^ an extra-

vagant and unreafonable charge to the kingdom,


tending to the increafe and oppreflion of the Eng^
Hfti

poor, and of dangerous

church.

But the new

both

H idfon's

fides

confequence to the

colonifts

were

fettled

on

river, between eighty and a hun-

a 2

dred

ft-

BRITISH EMPIRfi

i8o

dred miles above the city of New York. Lord


Cornbury, at the fame time he was governor of

New York,

was appointed governor of the Jerfeys


and, when recalled from his government, he was

who

fucceeded by lord Lovelace,

arrived at

New

York, November 13, 1708, but died in May following. He was fucceeded by colonel Ingoldfby,
a captain of one of the independant companies, as
from which poll he was removed by a letter from the queen to the council
of New York. In 1710 colonel Hunter was appointed to the government of New York, where
li'eutenant-governor;

he arrived on the 14th of June that year, carrying


with him two thoufand feven hundred Palatines to
fetde in

No

more than ten acres


one family; upon which they
go to Pennfylvania, where they

that province.

were allowed to

were obliged to
fettled, and became part of
ny.

As

to

Mr. Hunter,

colo-

that flouriiliing

it

that his abilities and integrity

is

generallv allowed

were equal

to thofe

of any governor that ever went from England to


America. Having a true fenfe of the intereft of
the colony, he renewed the treaty, or, as

the covenant-chain, with

of the Indians.

He was

the five

it is

caUed(

friendly nations

afterwards

made gover-

nor of Jamaica.

Mr. Hunter was fucceeded


William Burnet, Efq. fon to
Salifbury.

in his

government by

the famous bilhop of

This gentleman has been already men-

tioned in the hiftory of

New

England.

The

fatal

South

IN AMERl

i8x

A,

his fortune ; fo that he


South Sea year had affeaed
his place of comptrolfound it expedient to change
which was
of the culloms at London,

krrgeneral

the government of New


given to Mr. Hunter, for
his arrival, advice
and New Jerfey. Before

York
came

to

New York,

'ill

"

v/ere
that the friendly Indians

againft fomc diflant


meditating an expedition

fa--

entertained
vages, and that they

amongft them one

government of New
Coeur, a Frenchman. The
expedition would be
York thought that fuch an
and Pethe interefts of the colony;

iletrimental to

of the council,
Schuyler, Efq. then prefident
of the province, apand the commander in chief
his plenipotentiancs,
pointedfeveral gentlemen, as
Indians, and to diffuade
to treat with the
efpecially from enterthem from their purpofes,
The Indians accordingly met thofe
taining Cocur.
and it appears, from the
ter

gentlemen at Albany;

that the gentlemen of


minutes of the conference,

New York

were very

defirous that the favages to

trade with their province;


the fouthward Ihould
five nations endeavoured
while the deputies of the
excluding themfelves from
toevade the queftion, as

that

with

come

commerce:-they
their

fouthern brethren,

if

elfe.
to Albany, but not

could not take

it

Enghfti might do

him

to the

the latter

As

would

to the affair

gentlemen, that they


themfelves, but that the

fairly told the

of Coeur, they

<.f

however, to treat

offered,

upon
it

if

they pleafed, or

complam

As

to the ex-

governor of Canada.

pedition

BRITISH

l82

:e*MI>1RE

were about to undertake, they ewilthey had fuch an intention, but that thdy

^edition they
ed that

could fay nothing farther concerning


confulted at

home with

iachems that were to


conference broke

The

off.

it,

th^

till

young men and their


head them ; and thus the
their

ftate

of

affairs

between

the Engliih and the five nations oceafioned another conference with the latter, at which, hfides the

governor of

governors

New York,

were prefent the

of Pennfylvania and Virginia.

This

conference ended to the mutual fatisfad:ion of aU


parties.

It is

allowed on

all

hands that governor

Burnet underllood extremely well

The

his government.
lified

the. interefts

of

building of Ofwcgo, a foD-

warehoufe for the

convenience of trading

with the Indians, was owing to him ; and he, at


laf^

York
tereft

making the people of New


it was not ibr their in-

fucceeded in

fully fenfible, that

to

encourage

the great

between them and the French

trade carried
in

Canada.

the year 1720, the governor obtained

New York

and Canada.

In

from the

aflembly an adl, prohibiting, for three years,


trade betwixt

on

Upon

all

the

London merchants who


York men with the commodi-

expiration of this adt, the

fupplied the
ties

New

that they ufed

to fend

to

Canada (nine hun-

dred pieces of woollen cloth having been carried


from Albany to Montreal in one year) finding
themfelves deprived of this beneficial commerce,
applied to the king and council againft the conti-v

nuance

'

law i chiefly, on pretence^ that thf


that if
Ifrench could be fupplicd otherwiic ; and
they were deprived of the EagliAi commodities,
to
the French Canadians would apply thcmfelves
nisince of the

the woollen

This petition

and other manufadures.

the council referred to a committee of the


board of trade and plantations, who tranfmitted a
copy of it, with the reafons on which it was-

wsis

by

founded, to governor Burnet; but his reply proved fo fatisfadory, that the ad was continued, and,

>^
perpetual, '5!^

was, by the aflembly, made


and afterwards confirmed by the king and council
were:
in England. The good effcfts of this meafure

in 1727,

it

foon feen.

The
ftead

diftant Indians,

who came

of purfuing a long

Montreal, ftopt at

to traffic, in*

to

fatiguing journey

Ofwcgo, which had been

on,
at the governor's private expence,

built

Lake Onta-

and was always garrifoned by twenty foldiers


and a lieutenant. There the favages furniflied
thcmfelves from the Englifli, at half the price
with all the commotliey uied to pay the French,

rio,

dities

they wanted.

trade of

New

This naturally increafed the

York, and brought great numbers

pf Britiih fubjei^is into that province

was no longer monopolized by


merchants, but divided into

immenfe

profit

many

fo that

it

few overgrown
channels, to the

of the colony.

Befides the main-land of New York,


mentioned fome iflands belonging to it.

we
i.

have

LongIlland

j^

BRITISH empire;

18^4

by

Ifland, called

the Indians Matowacks, and

the Dutch, Naflau.

This

lies in

bjr'

length from call to

weft about one hundred and twenty miles, and,

a medium,

is

about ten miles broad

fandy

as

is all

flat,

the eaft Ihore of

Cape-Cod of

ca from

latitude, forty-two

few

Upon

inlets,

the

an(;J

New

ihore

its

twenty-five degrees
fhore

at'

is

North Ameri-

England,

in

north

to

Cape

north

lati-

degrees, ten minutes

Florida, in about
tude.

of Long-Illand are very

thefe very Ihallow

its

north fide

good water, there being a found between it and


the main land of Connefticut ; the wideft part of
this near New-haven df Connedricut,
does not
is

Two

exceed eight leagues.


a barren fandy
tled

from

New

The

foil.

England, and

were

the weftern

parts

where many

families to

other language but


couHties,

viz.

and Suffolk

thirds of this iiland

eaftern parts

Queen's

count}'',

is

fet-

retain their cuftoms

fettled

by the Dutch,

day underftand no

this

theirs.

were

It is

county.

divided into three

King's

county,

and pays confiderably above

one-fourth of the taxes or charges of the governs

mcnt of the province. Hell-Gate, where


confluence or meeting of the eaft and weft
Lon<i--inand found,
city of
eaft

New

York.

is

is

the

tide in

about twelve miles from the


Staten-Ifland.

2.

This

at it^

end, has a ferry of three miles to the weft of

Lona--IIlLind;

at its

weft end

a ferry of one mile

is

to Perth- Ambo}', of Eall-Jcrfics


flaft-Jcifies

by a creek

is in

it is

divided from

length about twelve


miles

IN AMERICA.
miles,

and about

county, called

miles brotd, and makes one


Richmond, which pays fcarce one

in one and t\venty of the provincial


tax
in one parifli, but feveral congregations
^

185

fix

3.

viz.

Engliih, Dutch, and French congregation


habitants are mofUy Englifn
; only one

able village, called Cuckold's-town.

it is all

an

the in-

confider-

Nantucket,

Martha's vineyard and Elizabeth iflands


were formerly under the jurifdidlion of New
York ; but
upon the revolution they were annexed by
the new
charter of Maffachufet Bay, to
the jurifdiaion of
Maflachufet Bay; not

many

the freeholders of thefe iflands

New

York, were

arretted

years fmce,

when

fome of

oecafionally in

for the arrears

of the

general quit-rents of thefe iflands.


4. Manhatans,
the Indian name.
Amfterdam

New

name, or
called

an

New
ifland,

York

the

the Englifli name,

though

it

Dutch

may be

has a communication

with the main-land, by King's-bridge


; the whole
being about fourteen miles long,
but very
narrow, is all in the jurifdiftion of the
city of New
York ; it lies on the mouth of Hudfon's River.
In the province of New York are four
ifland

incorpo-

rated towns,

which hold courts within themfelves,

fend reprcfentativcs to the general


aflcmbly or le
^flature, with fundry exclufive
privileges,
i. The
city

of

liflied

tives.

New York and its territory, formerly eftabby colonel Dungan, fends four
reprefenta2.

Tlie city of Albany probably had


their

charter alfo from colonel

^^-I-

Dungan, and

Bb

js

nearly the

fame

('

BRITISH EMPIRE

.i86

fame with that of

New York;

two

fends

3. The borough of Weft


The townihip of Schenedtady*

reprcfert*

tativesw

Chefter; and,

4.

It

two corporations had


volution, and each of

feems theft

their charters before the re-

them fend one

reprefentative

to the general aflembly.

The
a

full

t<

is

and exclufive one, and runs as follows:

" Whereas the


city,

New York

old charter of the city of

and the

city

of

New

York

citizens anciently a

is

an ancient

body

politic

with fundry rights, privileges, &c. as well by


prefcription as by charters, letters patent, grants

and confirmations, not only of divers governors


it

and commanders

in chief in the faid province,

but alfo of feveral governors, direftors, generals,

" and commanders


*'

in chief of the

nation, while the


their

power and

fubjeftion.

That Thomas Dunof New York,

tt

gan, Efq. lieutenant governor

t(

under king James

"

"
"

II. Auguft 27, 1686, by a


charter confirmed all their former cjrants not re-

]>ugnant to the laws of England and provlncd of

New

York, with fome

iC

them

all

i(

mark

in

ii
it
il

Nether Dutch

fame was or has been under

additions,

granting to

the unappropriated lar.ds to low-water

Manhatan's

iiland,

under the yearly

quit-rent of one bcaver-fkin, or the value thereof; their jurifdiftion to extend all over
the
iHand, &c."
And this charter was

confirmed

by

a fubfequent charter

from lord Cornbury governor, April 19, 1708, with fome additions
granted

'

JN AMERICA.
cd to them the

ferries,

&c.

As

i8^

fome queftion-

ed the validity of their former charters, becaufe

were

in the governor's name only, and not


name
of their kings and queens,, they petiin the
tion governor Montgomery for a new charter, con-

they

firming
ditions

Wl

former privileges, with fome adgranting to them four hundred feet below

all their

mark

low-water

in Hudfon's River, &c.


the
on
acceffion of his majefty George II,
1 727,
to the crown of Great Britain, Mr, Burnet being
promoted to the government of New England, was

In

New York

fuccceded in that of

Under

gomery.

concerning

this

by colonel Mont-

gentleman fome doubts arofe

the validity of the

from former governors,

charters, obtained

whofe names they

in

ran,

and not in thofe of the kings and queens of Eng-

They

land,

procure
did,

therefore petitioned their governor to

them a

royal charter,

bearing date the

ter

which he accordingly

not only confirming their privileges, but en-

larging their bounds

and the purport of the charday of January

fifth

is

a?

follows
<'
**

*<

They

are incorporated

by the name of the


mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of the city of
New York. The city to be divided into {even

" wards, yiz. weft-ward, fouth-ward, duck-ward,


" caft-ward, north-ward, Montgomery-\\'ard, and
**

the out-ward divided into the

" Harlem

divifion.

" one mayor, one

!..

The

Bowry

divifion

and

corporation to confift of

recorder, and feven aldermen,

Bh

feven

11

-^m^mm

BRITISH EMPIRE

188

fcven afliftants, one

one coroner, one comclerk, one chamberlain


or treafurer, one
high conftable, fixteen afleflbrs,
feven
fhcriff,

mon

'*

*^

colledlors,

fixtccn conftables,

^'^

with
" of

and one marfhal.

The mayor,'
may appoint one
deputy.
The governor

confent of the governor,

his

aldermen

his

" yearly to appoint the mayor,


Iheriff, and coroner,
'* and the
freeholders and freemen
in their refpec-

^"

tive

wards to chufe the other

the chamberlain,

who

is

II

to

officers,

excepting

be a]>pointed

"

in

council by the mayor, four or


more aldermen,
* and tour
or more afllftants.
The mayor to ap.
pomt the high conftable. All
officers to take thei

" proper

oaths, and to continue in


have been chofen in their room.

I'
'I
"

cer dies, the

II

is

fine,

the

common

others

any

offi-

upon

council

re-

may

not exceeding fifteen pounds,


for

the ufe of the corporation.


The
corder, and four or more aldermen,

H
" more

till

When

to chufe another;

fufal to ferve in office,

impofe a
I*

ward

office

mayor or

re-

with four or

be a common council to make


to regulate the freemen,
to leafe lands
tenements, &c. but to do nothing
inconfiftent
affiftants, to

" by-laws,
and
<(

it

with the laws of Great-Britain


or of this pro<
; fuch laws and orders not to
continue

u vince

in
u force
exceeding twelve months, unlefs
confirm^
iC
ed by the governor and council.
They
it

may

punifh

by

disfranchifing, or fines for the


ufe of the corporation.
The common

"

all

council fhall decide in


controverted eledions of officers.
The com-

" moa

IN AMERICA.
mon

conncii

189

.[

may be

called by the raayorj of in


abfence by the recorder: fine of a member
for non-attendance not exceeding twenty-fhil-

his

"
"

littgs

for the ufc of the corporation.

The

cor-

" poration may eftablifh as many ferries as they


" may fee fit, and let the fame. To hold a mar" icet at five or more different places ever}' day of
i(

iC

week, excepthig Sunday

the

bread, wine, &c.

to fix the afilze

of

1 he mayor with four or more

" aldermen may make freemen,

fees not to

none but freemen

exceed

"

five

'

or exercife any trade, (penalty five pounds)

**

aliens to

*i

vagaljonds, cred work-houfes, goals, and almf-

pounds

be made

*i

houfes.

^i

market, and water

free.

The mayor

to appoint the clerk

porters, criers, Scavengers,

**

licence

"

for

licence

**

rent

ing,

of the

and the like ; to give

taverns and retailers of flrong drink

felling

money

" mayor,

no

to licenfe carmen,

one year, not exceeding thirteen

**

goods

To commit commtm

bailiff;

ii

|to

fliall retail

without licence

toties quoties.

recorder,

five

Ihillings per

pounds cur-

The mayor, deputy

and aldermen

for the time be-

to be jullices of the peace.

The mayor,

deputy mayor, and recorder, or any of them,

" with
**

three or

more of the aldermen,

quarter feffions, not to

fit

fi-iall

hold

exceeding four days.

*^

Moreover, recorder, and aldermen, to be named

"

in all

**

delivery.

**

or any one of them, with three Qr more of tha

commiffions of oyer and terminer, and goal

The mayor,
'

deputy ma/or, recorder,

" aldermen,

'if

tl

BRITISH EMPIRE

190

"

aldermen, Ihall and may


hold every Tueftfay
a
court of record, to try all
civil caufes, real,
per,

fonal, or

mixed, within the city and


county. May
adjourn the mayor's court
to any time not
ex'

ceedmg twenty-eight

The

days.

have a common clerk, who


of the court of record, and

fhall

feflions

**

"

to be appointed during
his

corporation to

be alfo clerk

pf the peace

good behaviour, by

the governor. Eight attornics


in the beginning,
but as they drop, only fix to
be allowed, during
their good behaviour,
for the mayor's court
the mayor's court to have the
direction and cog!
nifancc of the attornies, w
ho, uix)n a vacancy,
Ihall recommend one to the
governor for his ap!
probation.
The mayor, recorder, or any

alder-

" man, may, with or without a jury,


determine

"

cafes not exceeding forty


Ihillings

''

freeman inhabitant

" any
*

**

office

mation to

fhall

out of the

city.

value.

be obliged to ferve in

grant and confir-

the inhabitants of
their hereditaments, &c. paying the quit-rent
referved
all

by

in

No

grants.

The

corporation

" hereditaments, &c.

may

fo as the

their

purchafc and hold


clear yearly value

" exceed not three thoufand jxjunds


fterling, and
the fame to difpofe of at pleafure.
To pay a
** quit-rent of
thirty ihillings proclamation

money

*'

a year,

"

lings current

"

No

**

for

befides

the beaver fkin, and five

money

ihil-

former charters required.


adtion to be allowed againft
the corporation
in

any matters or caule whatfocvcr


prior to
**

this

charter.

AME R

IN
A

A.

,91

charter.

"

feitnres,

"

or the inrolment thereof [record] ihall


be valid
in law, notwithflanding of imperfedtions,
the

pardon

of

&c. prior to

all

profccutions,

this charter.

"

imperfcaions may

"

the charge of the corporation."

in

for-

This grant

time coming be

rcftified at

W\

Colonel Montgomery, during the fhort


time he
as governor there, was charged
with mak-

aded

ing judges without the advice of the council


he died in July 1731, and his government

but

in ge-

neral has

been greatly applauded. He is particularly mentioned, as having been a


great promoter
of mathematical knowledge in the colony.
At
the

time Mr.

Montgomery

Rip Van Dam, Efq.


being prefident of the council, afted
in the capacity of governor and commander
in chief
died,

of

York.

New

It

unfortunately happened for our American provinces, at the time we now treat
of,

that a
any of our colonies in thofe parts,
was fcarcely looked upon in any other
light than

government

in

of an hofpital, where the favourites


of the
might lie till they had recovered their
broken fortunes; and oftentimes they
that

miniftry

ferved as afy-

lums from

their creditors.

Upon

the death of co-

Montgomery, the French and their Indians


became extremely troublefome to the
people of
New York, and the prefident gave notice
lonel

accord-

ingly to

Mr. Belcher

at Bolton,

who

took the pro-

per methods for obviating the


danger.
the year 1732, when
colonel Colby

It

was

arrived at his

government

"

BRITISH EMPIRE

x9

government

New

at

while, the prcfident


nel's EC(nieft,

York ; and in
Van Dam, had, at

mean

the

the colo-

advanced feveral fums on his ac-

count, which, on the governor's


arrival,
ouly refurt'd to repay, but commenced

he not

adions

of

arrears

and

i>cr(iuirites

fees

"iviiich

he alledgcd had been received by Van

Thefc

altercations

the

for

Dam.

were attended with very bad


the civil and commercial ftate of

confetjuences to

the colony

governor availed himfelf of

his fuporior authority in the colony to


opprefs

Dam ; but
nion

was marued

then captain of a
It

was during

Auguftus Fitxroy^

man of war upon

the people

of

which drew from the pen of

riic

the

lowing reproaches
*

"

New
agaiiifl

grew extreme-

New
very

Kiigland,
intellio-cnt

England agent, the ^folthe government of New

New York has always kept iifelf in a


of neutrality, contributing nothing to the
conamon fafety of the Hritifli colonics, vvhile the

York
i

that ftation.

the government of that gentleman,

ly troublefome to

Mr.Dummer,

w hofc

the governor,

to lord

that the French and their Indian allies

.1

Van

the chief juftice Morrice gave his opi-

flatly in contradidVion to

claughtcr

for

belonoing to him,

"

ftate

'*

Canada

**

ufed

New

to

Indians, joined

make

by

their route

parties

of the French,

by the

borders of

York, without any moleftation from the


" Englilh of that province, and fall upon the out* towns of
New England. This behaviour was
**

t^

the

more unpardonable

in that

government ;
**

be-.

caulc

IN AMERICA.
'*

caufe they

haw

maintained

" have
"

who

" might
"

charge,

on their con-.
on them, and
had they been engaged in the

caufe, have

intercepted the French in

marches, and thereby have prevented the


depredations on his majefty's fubjecls of New
their

**

" England.

Solemn

and

repeated

applications

" were made

to the government of New York by


" the governors of the Mallachufets, Connefticur,
" and Rhode Ifland, in joint letters on this fubjedt,

" but in vain. The anfwer was, They could not


" think it projier to engage their Indians in adual
" war, left they Ihould endanger their own fron" tiers, and bring upon themfelves tn expencc
" which they were in no condition to provide for.
* And thus the poor colonies, whofe conftitution
" was charter-government, were left to bear the
" whole burden, without any help from thofe
" provinces, whofe governors held their commif-^

,)

and

are entirely dependent

eafily,

" common

the king's

at

'(

nations of the Iroquois

five

fines,

hundred regular troops

Auur

them

'

193

fions

By

New

from the crown.'*

this

change,

York

it

appears, that the people of

in general

means obliged

thought they were by no

to involve themfelves in inconveni-

ences on account of their


fay the truth,
in a

neighbours;

and,

great meafure,

owing

to

their cultivating a

good underftanding widi the native Indians of


nations,

Vol.

to

the profperlty of their colony was,

all

not to mention, that, by the fituation of


I,

theif

li

BRITISH EMPIRE,

1914

their country, their frontier

was more expofed than

that of any other colony to the inroads of thofe


barbariansp
This ap})eared
the "year

1734,

when

the mo'tions of the Indians, under the French


influence, made tliem apprehenfive of an invafion,

Upon this occafion, the afTembly, without entcr^


ing upon any offenfivc meafures, came to feveral
refolutions

for their

pounds were voted

York

own

defence.

Six thoufand

for fortifying the city of

New

four thoufand for ereding a ilone fort,


and
other conveniences for foldiers and artillery at
AlV

bany

eioht hundred for a fort and blockhoufes


at

Schenedlati}'.

Scnecas,

and

and,

if

five

hundred

for

managing the

pradicable, for bu'Mino-

fortifi,

Rations in their country.

In the

time,

the eondut^l: of the governor

became more obnoxious

Cofb)',

He had
place,

mean

to the inhabitants,
altered the chief juflice Morrice out
of hij?

for

o])ponng him

in his

difpute with

Van

Pam, and

he nad turned the courts of law


into a
court of chancery againft Nvhich the
lawyers of the
province had flatly given their
o])inions ; faying,
-,

that the conllitution of the courts


in that colony
were originally the famo ^vith thofe
in

England,

Thofe }>roceedings rendered the governor


and
^tlminilb-acion

Zenger, a

his'

unpopular, that one John Peter

jn'inter,

was

])rivatcly

encouraged by

rhc inhabitants, to publifn a weekly


journal, \vhere.
\i]
^e pulidcal -^tUirs of the colony, and the
go,
yeri^of

ill

IN AMERICA.

1^5

Vernof and his council, were very boldly treated.

About two months


this

paper,

De

after the

Lancey,

the

new

charged the grand jury to find a


ger,

which they

refufed

to

chief juftice,

bill

to join

numbers of the
the

pers left
cil.

in

a vote

of aflembly

conlattei*

when

But

reported

was

burning three

fot*

jorurnaU

faid

conference,

concern

thisj

afieiftbly

and the former required the

with them

committee

Zcn-

againft

Upon

do.

committee of the council and the


ferred together,

of

publication

firft

the

the

refult

of

hd
and they returned the |)a*
with them by the committee of the coun*
it

refolvcd

to

ordered,

by

take

in the matter,

The

latter,

upon

this,

the papers in

authority,

their

owrt

queilion to be burned,

which was executed by the hands of the

Iherilf*

One Hamilton, a lawyer of Philadelphia, cime to


New York on purpofe to plead Zenger's caufe^
and the jury brought

in the prifoner not guilty*

Mr* Cofby, was fucceeded

in the adminiftratioii

1736, by Geofge Clarke, Efq. and in

May

iti

1741,

George Clinton, Efq< uncle to the


carl of Lincoln, and afterwards admirsrl of the
white, was nominated to the government of NcW
the honourable

York.

Nothing

gard to

this

tions,

till

France,

remarkable

laft

we

we may

fliall

treat

in

c a

war with

its

avoid impropriety as

re-

adminiftra-

the breaking out of the late

of which

place, that

happened with

colony during the two

proper

much

as

pofJibl^

BRITISH EMPIRE

196

pofliblc, as the hiftory

of all the Britifh empire


America, without dull repetitions is
our defign.
This is a crown-government, adminiftered
governor,
feal

who

by a
has his commiffion under the
broad

of England.

thority

is

In

The

power and au-

legiflative

lodged in the governor

;
the council,
are t\velve in number, appointed
by the king,
but are filled up by the governor
when vacancies
happen, and t^venty-feven reprcfentatives
elcdled
by the people. In other refpeds the
government

who

is

as conformable to the laws of

England as

that

of

a colony can be. The exercife


of the government
the governor and council
of whom five is a
;
quorum, and upon the death or
abfence of the
governor, the firfl in nomination
in the council is
IS

The people chufe their reprcfentatives


the numbers of whom are fixed
by the
to prefide.

crown

thofe reprcfentatives have


:\l

much

and

the fame privileges

with the members of the Britifh


parliament
modes of the chriflian religion
not

AH

detrimental to

fociet)^

are tolerated in this colony,


but that of the
Homifh church ; an impolitic
exception, too
praftifed

much

our colonies, which ought


by
ture to admit all nations and
religions

in the world
good citizens'
fubjeds to the form of
governmen;

to long as they

and

dutiful

by law duly
As to the
Wheat,
P

their na-

demean themfclves

as

eflablifhed.

trade of

New

flour, fkins, furs, oil

York,

it

confifls

In

of whales, and fea-calves,


iron

IN AMERICA.
and copper, of both which very
have been difcovered there. There
iron

great intercourfc between

The

Indians.

induflry

197
very

is

colony

this

mines

rich

and

of the inhabitants

the

equal

is

of any people on the face of the globe.


trade not only with England but with

to that

They

Spain, Portugal, Africa,


iflands,

and

1^

the Weft-India

all

not excepting the French and Dutch, and

even with the Spaniih continent in America, by

which means they

are enabled to pay in gold

and

manufadtures they bring from their


mother-country. The foil of the province is ferfor the

filver

tile

almoft beyond

tle are

belief.

All kind of black cat-

more numerous here than

in

any European

country, and they have a breed of excellent horfes

of their own.
chiefly

carried

The

trade

of the inhabitants

is

on by water-carriage, and ihips of

hundred tons may come up to the wharfs of


the city, and be always afloat.
Hudfon*s river,
where it runs by New York, is above three miles
five

and proves a noble conveyance for the


goods of the counties of Albany, Ulfter, Dutchefs,
Orange and Winchcfter to that city, of which
broad,

we
we

fliall

voyage

Weft
this

give a circumftantial defcription before

conclude

from
Indies,

this

New York
has

The

feftion..

been

to

of

facility

of the

England and
infinite

fervice

tlic

to

colony; for by the lownefs of the freight,

-they purchafe furs at a very

cheap rate for ftrouds,


[a woollen

.'Ji

BRITISH EMPIRE

198

fa woollen mannfaa:iire

eftabliflied

England] and other woollen goods


fure of a ready vent

^^^Ith

at Stroud

in

which Zf6

all

the Indians.

Briftol

is

the chief .place in Englaiid, which


the colonifls of
York trade with, and they generally per-

New

form,

two voyages

at leaft,

fafety, that the infurance

In a year

with

upon fhipping

fo

much

time of
no more than two {^er cent. As to the
amount of their trade with their mother
country,

peace

it

was

from

in

is

feven years ago

it

computed

that their imports

was annually about one hundred and

thoufand poimds

but they are fince

fo

much

creafed with the trade of the colony,


that
not venture to aflign them a value.
^

Ofwego, formerly mentioned,

dian trading place in times

of

rifon

taken

foldiers

is

fifty

wc

in-

can*

a fort, and In-

of peace, with agar-

from

the four indepen-

dent regular companies, to prevent any


diforders
in trade, this being in the feafon
a kind of Indian

French war the garrifon confiflcd of two


hundred men of regular troops and militia, and
the
fair

laft

French did not find

it

convenient to moleft them.

traders with the Indians

fit

pay a certain duty upon what

buy

at

Ofwego

Our

out from Albany, and


they vend

and
from Albany to

their route is

Schcnedady town, or corporatbn upon


Mohocks
land carriage; thence up Mohocks river ; in this river is only one fhort
river, fixteen miles

carry-

Ing place at a
river a carrying

fell

in that river

from Mohocks

place of three to five miles according;

ill

IN AMERICA.

199

wording to the feafops, here arc convenient Dutch


land carriages to be hired, to a river which
into the Oneidas lake

Onondagocs

river to

lake Ontario

then from this lake

Ofwego

there

down

trading place

a Ihort

is

fall in

fallf

upon

Onondagoei

Ahuoft the whole of the eaft iide of the


Ontario lake lies in the Onondagoes country^

river

From Ofwego

fort to

Niagara

falls,

on French

fori

Dononville are about one hundred and fixty miles,

and from Ofwego


alfo called

fort) -fix

miles to fort Frontenac,

Cataraqui fort, where the lake

vents

by Cataraqui river, which with the Outawac river makes St, Laurence river called the Great River of Canada ; this fort Frontenac is about two
hundred miles down that rocky

river to Montreal.

By conje^ure of the French Coureurs des bois


in

round numbers, the circumference of

lakes or inland feas of


rio,

two

leagues,
three

North America,

hundred leagues,

Hurons

three

five great

Onta^

are,

two hundred

Erie,

hundred leagues, Mihagan,

hundred leagues, and the upper lake

fivQ

hundred leagues.

New

York,

Jndians live on the fouth fide of a branch of

Hudx

The Mohock

nation of our allied

fon's river, called

Mohocks

north fide thereof, as

The Oneidas

maps.

is

nation

miles weft from Albany,

Mohocks

river.

hundred and

river,

but not on the

reprefented in the French

about one hundred

lie

n^ar

the

The Onondagoes

thirty miles weft

head of the
lie

about one

from Alba^iy.

The

Tufca-

01'

'

BRITISH EMPIRE

too

Tufcatoras,

an adventitious or

partly with

the Oncidas,

fixth nation

live

and partly with the


The Cayugas about one hundred

Onondagocs.
and fixty miles weft from Albany.
The Senecas
Who live upon the frontiers of Pennfylvania
are

about one hundred and forty


miles weft from Albany. A noted French writer,
M. dc Lille, calls
thefe nations by the name of
Iroquois.
Formerly the French had popilh
miffionaries

Jlif

with the Oneidas, Onondagoes,


and Cayugas, and
endeavoured to keep them in their
intereft.
There is fcarce any beaver in the
country of the
Five Nations ; therefore their hunting
at a great
diflance from home, occafions
frequent
jarrings

with other Indian nations


praftice, to

this trains

them up by

be better warriors than the other


Indian

nations.

The

province

of

New

York
name of

two

has

cities;

the

firft is

felf.

was denominated New Amfterdam when


Dutch poflefTed Ir, but it has changed
itj

the

called

by the

the province

it-

It

name along with

its

mafters.

This

city

moft

is

eommodioiilly fituated for trade, upon an


excellent
harbour, in an illand called Manahatton,

about

fourteen miles long, though not above


one or
broad.
This ifland lies juft in the

two

mouth of the

river

Hudfon, which difcharges

long courfu

America.
Jiilcs.

Ir

The

This
is

is

itfelf

here after

one of the nobleft

st

rivers in

navigable upwards of two hundred

tide

ihws one hundred and

fiity.

Tiie

^ili

IN
The

city of

AMERICA.

201

New- York

contains upwards of two


thonfand houfes, and above twelve thoufand inhabitants, the defcendants of Dutch and Enalifli.

and commodioufly built, extending a mile


in length, and about half that in breadth, and
has
a very good afpedl from the fea ; but it is by no
means properly fortified. The houfes are built of
It is well

Dutch tafte ; the ftreets not regular,


There is one large church built
church of England worlhip ; and three

brick, in the

but well paved.


for the

others, a Dutch, a French, and a Lutheran.


The
town has a very flourifliing trade, and in which
great profits are made. The merchants are
wealthy,
and the people in general moft comfortably
pro-

vided for, and with a moderate labour.


year 1749 to 1750, two hundred and

From

the

thirty-two

have been entered in this port, and


two
hundred and eighty. fix cleared outwards. In
thefe
veflels were fliipped fix thoufand feven
hundred
and thirty-one tons of provifions, chiefly
veflels

flour,

and a vaft quantity of grain

of which

have no

particular

account.
In the year 1755, the export
of flax-feed to Ireland amounted to twelve
thou-

fand five hundred and twenty-eight


hoglheads.
The inhabitants of the province are between

eighty and an hundred thoufand


the lower clafs
the better fort rich and hofpitable
great
;
freedom of fociety ; and the entry to
foreigners
made eafy by a general toleration of all
-,

eafy,

religious

perfuafions.

Vol..

I.

In a word, this province yields to

no

part

BRITISH EMPIRE

i02

part of America in the healthfulnefs of its air,


and the fertility of its foiJ.
It is much fuperioi*
in the great convenience of water-carriage, which
fpecdily,

and

at the fiightefl:

expence,

carries the

protkid: of the rcmotell farms to a certain and profitable

market.

Upon
and

fifty

the river

Hudfon, about one hundred


New- York, is Albany ; a

miles from

town of not

fo

much

houies or inhabitants

note

for

its

number of

which
on with ihe Indians, and indeed, by
connivance, with the French for the ufe of the
iame people.
'! his trade
takes off a great quanis

tity

as for the great trade

carried

of coarfe woollen goods, fuch as ftrouds and


and with th^>fe, guns, hatchets, knives,
;

dufllls

hoes, kettles,

cloachs

powder and

ready made,

fnot

befides

fliirts

and fevcral other

and

articles.

Here

it is that the treaties and other tranliiclions


between us and the Iroquois Indians are nego-

tiated.

The province of New Jerfcy was formerly


under the lame governor as New- York ; and it
formed part of New Holland when conquered
from the Dutch. It is certain, however, that it
was not inhabited by the hnglilh long after the
difcovcry, and

the

firfl:

here were the Swedes,

Europeans we iind

who

fcuth of the river Raritan,

chiefly

now

feared

called

fettled

on the

Delaware

river, towards the iiontiers of Pcnnfylvania.


Here
they had three towns, Chrillina, Gottembourgh and

Elfun-

i:ii

I'

Mil

!N AMERICA.
filfunboiirg,

which

when

pretended,

or

name

retains its

lafl

day. Notwithftanding

this, it

Charles

203
to this

was afterwards found,


perceived

II.

con-

it

venient for his purpofe, that Scbaftian Cabot

formerly taken poffcflion of

name of Henry
will,

VII. of England.

Swedes

certain that the

is

it

this

all

ing no great turn for commercial


rial

coaft

Be

had

the

in

this as it

hav-

in general

or territo-

affairs

:i

improvements, fuffered their fettlement here to

languilh

Dutch almoft

fo that the

entirely planted
.}'.

the north parts of

Nova

New

Belgia, and, about the year

the Swedilh general, fold to

vince

became

river,

Nova

Belgia.

was

1665, Rizing,
all

the Swedifli

New Jerfey, with the


of Pennfylvania upon Dela-

three lower counties

or

them

After this,

pofleffions.

ware

by the name of

Jerfey

part of the

When

refolved

New

Netherlands

the reduction of this pro-

upon by Charles

II.

he made a

previous grant of both the property and govern-

ment of
deed,

it

duke of York, by a
1663; and the duke

to his brother the

dated

March

12,

afligned the government

New

called

George
the

This

laft

grant

was

pofterior to

duke of York's commiffion granted

The

nor Nichols.

New Jerfey,

in the illand

Philip Carteret, Efq.

who

in

Auguft

of

from the great property

George Carteret had


ment

to gover-

lieutenant-governor

firft

fo called

is

the lord Berkley and Sir

Jerfey, to

Carteret.

of that port, which

entered on his govern-

The duke of York's

\h(yc^.

Sir

of Jerfey, was

grant
wa:v

I'

**p^ ':%^"^f!''

ao4

BRITIS-H

was from

the

Noordc

EMPIRE

Rivicr,

river, to the Ziiydc Rivier,

river

and up Hudfon's

north

now called Hudfon'i


now called Delaware

river to forty-one degrees

and up Delaware

latitude,

river to forty-one

dci'-fces forty

minutes, and from thefe

headt:d by a

ftrait line acrofs.

when

that,
it,

this

It

two

itationi

does not appear

grant was made, the

Dutch oppofed

was made by the proprieduke of York. When the New

or the fettlement that

tors under

the

Netherlands were con(,uered from the Dutch,

was thought

new

lus

J.',

it

proper, that king Charles Ihould re-

rant to his brother, who bylealeand releafe,

on tlietwcn^y-eighih and twenty-ninth ofJuly, 1674,


conveyed to Su- George Carteret the caftern diviflon
of

New

of the

point of

from the weftern divifion

Jcrfeys, divided

Jeifeys,
I^ittle

by a

ftrait

line

from the fouth-eaft

Egg Harbour, on

Barnegate Creek,

being about the middle between Sandy

Cape May,

to

or creek a

kill

cokus Kill on Delaware


thirty -five miles)
river,

up

ed upon

ftrait

Hook

and

below Ren-

and thence (about

courfe along

Delaware

to foity-one degrees forty minutes north

latitude, the

Yoik and

by a

river,

little

north

diviiional

his

line

between

New

When

Mr. Carteret entergoxernment, which comprehended the

the Jerfeys.

joint coiicern of both the proprietors, the people of

Elizabeth

rown

\\ere

extremely unmanageable,

and upon the commencement of the

on

the tv.enty-fiUh of

pay them, under pretence


liil

quit-rents,

March, 1670, they refufcd

to

that they held their poflcffions

<W"F^W*IW*

IN AMERICA.

205

by Indian grants, and not from the proprieThis mutiny went fo far, that they, in tad^
tors.
difplaccd their governor, and chofe a new one, a

fions

dilfolute fon of Sir

\-ernor

was

In the

complaints.
the

New

more

George

mean

time, the conqueft of

No-

quiet, and governor Carteret returned in

new

conccffions, as they

public

which confirmed the

called,

George

Carteret, as

tained Eaft Jerfey, the

upon Pennfylvania,
and

hi

Netherlands happening, every thing grew

vember, 1674, with

Sir

Carteret, fo that the go-

obliged to go to England with

we

have

Weft

feen,

Jerfcy,

were

tranquility.

having ob-

which borders

remained to lord Berkeley;

he, in 1676, refigned his right therein to

Wil-

liam Penn, Efq. Mr. Gawen Laurie, of London,


merchant, Mr. Nicholas Lucas, of London, merwho agreed
chant, and Mr. Edward Bylling,

George Carteret,
of York, and
duke
which was confirmed by the
afterwards by a general affembly of the Jerfeys.
On the twenty-fifth of December, 1678, Sir George
vipon a

Carteret

new

partition

made over

who were

to

with

Sir

Eaft Jerfey to certain truftees,

fell it at

his death

and accordingly,

it to
on the fecond of February, 168 1,
the following twelve perfons William Penn, Ro-

they affigned

Thomas Rudyard, Samuel Groom,


Thomas Hart, Richard Mew, Thomas Wilcox,
Ambrofe Riggs, John Haward, Hugh Hartlhorn,
and
Clement Plumfted, and Thomas Cooper

bert

Weft,

thcfc

twelve

proprietors

conveyed one half of


tlieir

-tT,Ty.,|.

BRITISH EMPIRE

o6
their

intercft

to

twelve other perfons


fepiratcly

Robert Berkeley, Edward


Bylling, Robert
Turner, James Brien, Arcnt
Soumans, William
Gibfon, Gawen Laurie, Thomas
i^z.

Barker,

Evarner,

James

earl

and John Drummond.

Thomas

of Perth,

Robert Gordon,
This conveyance was af-

terwards confirmed by the


duke of York.
after this, the proprietors

Jeifey to

fold fhares

of Eaft

Soon

New

James Drummond,

earl of Perth John


Efq. Sir George Mackenzie,
Robert
Barclay, and David Barclay of
Ury, Efquires;

Drummond,

RoGordon, Efq. Mr. Robert Burnet,


Mr. Gowen Laurie, Mr. Thomas Nairn,
Mr. James Braine,
Mr. Wilham Dockwra, Mr. Peter
Soumans, Mr.
William Gibfon, Thomas Cox, Efq.
Mr. Walter
Benthal, Mr. Robert Turner,
Mr. Thomas Barker,
and Mr. Edward Bylling. The
conveyances
bert

to thofe

gentlemen were likewife confirmed


by the duke of
York ini682. A governor and
lieutenant-goveraor were then provided, the
nomination of the former, falling upon Robert
Barclay, the famous
quaker, and of the latter upon
Gawen Laurie.

muft be confefled that the mixture


of proprie-

It

tors

in

this

fetrlcment

was

very extraordinary.

They

confiiied of very high prerogative


pcctally thole fn^m Scotland)

of

and

quakers.

that

this

ligions

was

It

is

men,

(cf-

diflenters, papifts,

pretended by fome people,

heterogeneous mixture

of different re-

privately encouraged

by the duke of
York, that he might make an
experiment of that
favourite

IN AMERICA.
favourite toleration,

which he aftenvards,

for himfclf, attemptca to introduce

remarkable, that though

It is

to>

the patentees of

all

New

Weft

lord Berkeley's divifion of

cepting one, were proprietors of Eaft

governments

yet their

The

ftill

were

fitted for

ill

the fettlement of Eaft


miferably.

Dockwra

The

and

marlhal.

The

and
moft

Mr. William

fecretary,

They

and towns, referving

parilhes,

feventh.

Jerfcy,

languiftied

chofe

fchemes of partition, and

to

ex-

the principal fet-

New Jerfey

proprietors

their

New

fuch an undertaking

for their regifter

Lockhart for

Jerfcy,

continued to be diftinft.

who were

Scots, however,

tlers,

fo fatally

England.

into

and one

then proceeded

out

laid

counties,

to themfelves

one

terms of purchafe were, that every

mafter of a family

was

to have fifty acres fet out,

twenty-five for his wife, and

h.

of his children

and fervants, oaying twelve-ptnce a head to the


regifter

fervants,

have

to

pence

ity

when

their times expire*',

All

acres.

perfons

to

acre quit-rent, or purchafe their freeholds

all

at fifty Ihillings for ev jry twenty-five acres

up.
in

Mr. Laurie,

Weft

were

pay two-

who

New Jerfey,

that divifion

for

had a confiderable

was thought

while he

iield

taken

intereft

to be partial to

the government

before Berkeley's arrival, he relufed to obey the


proprietors in removing tht courts from Elizabeth-

town

to

pointetl

it

Perth Ambov,

out as the

had every thing

the

ca]iltal

elfe

fituatlon

of which

of the province; but,

fuccceded with our

fettlers,

they

BRITISH EMPIRE

ion

they were under one capital defed, that muft have


all their fchemes ; we mean,
the

overthrown

want of

induftry and inhabitants.

After the revo-

Andrew Hamilton was

1696, colonel

lution, in

appointed governor, and was fucceeded the next


year by Jeremiah BaflTe, Efq. who being recalled,
colonel Hamilton,

'

was

reinftated in the

government,

which a few months after was given to Bafle.


The latter was fucceeded by colonel Andrew
Brown, who held it at the time that the propriefurrendered

^ tors

the

fovereignty of

to queen

it

Anne, in 1701.

As

to

Weft

Jerfey, or lord Berkeley's divifion,

from the year 1674,

we

Sir

Edmund

Andros,

have fpoken of in the hiftory of

whom

New

Eng-

fome fay by virtue of a commiffion from the


duke of York, wrefted the government from lord

land,

Berkeley's

affignees

but they recovered

having obtained a

new

Edward

Efq.

Bylling,

and

it,

grant in 1680, they chofc


for

their

governor.

In

1690, Dr. Daniel Cox, of the college of phyficians in London, having purchafed the greateft part

of the property of Weft' Jerfey, appointed himfelf


governor, but never went over thither, and at

laft

fold all his intereft there for nine thoufand pounds,

to Sir

Thomas Lane.

tions

amongft the Iharers of both the

All this while, the contenJerfeys,

as

well as about matters of property the right of appointing a governor, had reduced the
vinces to a moft lamentable condition

two
;

pro-

and the
'

pro-

IN AMERICA,

209

proprietors wtfely refolved to rcfign ks


to the

crown, refcrving

all their

government

Ac-

other rights.

cordingly, on the twenty-fccond of April,

1702,

Sir Thoi^as Lane, in the name of the proprietors


of Weft New Jerfey, and Mr. William Dockwra,
in the name of thofe of Eaft New Jerfey, having

refigned the governments of thefe refpeftive pro-*

vinces to queen Anne,

appointed the lord

her majefty immediately

Combury

and his fecretary was Mr.

for their governor

Bafle, the late governor.

At the fame time, the proprietors obtained of the


crown, in favour of themfelves and of the people, a
fet of ftanding inflruftions, which were to ferve as
rules

The

for the coridudt of future governors.

heads of thofe
for the

inftruftions

were well calculated

The

good of the colony.

firft

>

was. That

the governor Ihould confent to no tax upon lands


that were vacant or unprofitable. The fecond, That

no lapds fhould be purchafed of the Indians, but


by the general proprietors ; and the third, which

was a moft

That

excellent provifion, was,

pu:chafed ihould be improved by the

The government of
by a governor,
cil

was

to

the

cou'xcil,

two

Jerfeys

was then held

and alTembly.

The coun-

be chofen by the governor,

who had

power to appoint his lieutenant governor


though the price of lands was

two

afrer the

provinces

came

turnr

Vol.

It

Hill

into

the affairs of the colony took

lands

all

poffeflbrs.

and

very low, yet

one government,

a very

favourable

then appeared that the two provinces of

.t:

the

BRITISH EMPIRE

2110

Weft New Jerfeys, had in faft been


made jobbs of by different proprietors, who had
the Eaft and

bought them, without the

regard to the good

leaft

of the colonies, but that they might fell them


again.
For many years, the governors of the pro-

New

vince of

Jerfey (for fo

the

i^eace of Utrecht,

above

fixteen

ment of the

was

called)

was

and, before

was thought

to contain

inhabitants.

Upon

it

thoufand

death of colonel Colby,

it

New York;

vefted in ihe governor of

the

appears that the govern-

it

was wholly detached from


York, and was given to Lewis Morrice, Efq. who had been
chief juftice of New
York, and died May 14, 1746. He was fucceedthat of

Jerfeys

New

cd by Jonathan Belcher, Efcj. whofe firft meeting


with the provincial aflembly was on the twentyfecond of Auguft the fame year. The hiftory of

New

now

Jerfey

Britilh colonies

with France,

with that of the other


of America, during the laft wars
falling in

we

Ihall

therefore

])rocccd to

its

civil hiftory.

In the

civil conftitution

there

were

who

is

i.

z.

chancery.

twenty of

3.

Of

whom

maining four

the

for the

find

council,

which,

a court of error and

houfe

ferve for

we

and chancellor of

That of the

the governor, forms

Jerfev,

That of the governor,

likewife vice-admiral

the province,

with

New

of

three negatives,

of reprefentatives,

counties,

two towns

or

and the

cities,

re-

as they
are

IN AMERICA.
Amboy and

are called, of Perth

houfe,

courts

the

of

has the

mal-adminiftration

Upon

jufticc.

This

Burlington.

though no court of judicature,

privilege of inquiring into the

of

2IX

the

duke

of

York's granting the two Jerfeys to lord Berkeley


and Sir George Carteret, NichoUs, who was then

New

governor of

appre-

that duke,

for

Jerfey

hending that he might be fuperfeded in his governhis


ment, took advantage of the inftrudions of

and gave leave to certain perfons to purcertain


chafe lands from the Indians, fubjea to
quit-rents ; and the like was done by Carteret,
Such purthe firft governor under the affignees.

patent,

duke

chafes being expreflly againft the fpirit of the

of

York's grant,

inexpreflible

and yet good in law, created

difturbances

and

in

confufion

this

government ; but the Indian purchafers feem to


have had the better in the difpute, which, we apprehend,

New

was never

Jerfey,

fully decided.

according to the

common maps,

is

by Delaware Bay and


by that river on the fouth and weft ; and, on the
and
north, by New York and unknown countries ;

bounded on the

fouth-eaft

by the Atlantic Ocean on the


thirty-five

degrees

It lies

between

forty-one minutes, and

nine degrees ten minutes

between

caft.

feventy-threc

thirty-

of north latitude

degrees

forty-fix

and

minutes,

and feventy-five degrees fifteen minutes weft longitude.

It

is

in

length on

the fea-coaft, and along

Hudfon'sRiver,thatis,from fouth to north, about one

JLc I

hundred

BRITISH EMPIRE

212

hundred and forty miles, and about eighty where


broaden ; but this menfuration is all conjedurc.
Eaf! Jcrfey

divided into four counties, viz. thofe

is

of Monmouth, Middlefex, Effex, and Bergen.


It
contains a town called Middleton, which is twentymiles fouth of Pifcataqua

fix

town
town

is

Shrewfbury, which

in the

thoufand

feys,

Between Shrewf-

an iron-work.

is

The

chief

of Eflex-county, and indeed in both the Jer*


is Elizabeth town, which lies
oppofite to the

The

i/land.

trade of the province

Newark

is

part of

it

about

them remains

dlefex county has for

which,
of Eaft

is

greateft

here

part of

carried

on.

another town in Effex county,

has annexed to

tcv^d fU*

the moft fouthern

out-plantation acres.

weftward of Staten
the

is

principal

its

province, and contains about thirty

bury and Middleton


to\i'n

but

its

It (lands

ware

river, as

Hook

bay, which

Midtown Perth Amboy,

to be the provincial

near the

runs into the

it

but

to be cultivated.

chief

ought

in reality,

Jerfey.

ftill

and

thoufand acres

fifty

town
mouth of Dckmouth of Sandy

never frozen, and is capacious enough to contain five hundred fhips.


It is
generally allowed that this might have been
ren-

dered one of the

had

finefl

towns

in all

North America,

not been for the extraordinary mifmanageof the Scotch planters, and the bad condud:

it

ment
of

is

Gawen

gen county

Laurie,
lies

the deputy-governor.

upon Hudfon's River, and

tremely well watered

but, in general,

it

Beris
is

ex-

but

thinly

N AMER

where

this province,

of youth was

4f3

A.

Bruniwiek -is another town in

inhabited.

ihir.ly

cftabliilied

The

governor Belcher.

\f

Uvtttp

,^

a college for the inftmftion

Oftober 22, 1746, by


trullees

are generally prelbyterians, and

of

it is

this college

governed by a

prelident.

As
to

Weft

to

be

laid

Jerfey,

out into feven counties

ject never took


as Eaft Jerfey,

for trade.

was intended by Dr. Cox

it

It is

effcdt.

though

The

it

lies

but

this pro-

not fo well planted


equally

only fpot of

commodioui

ground

''

that retains

name of a county is that of Cape May, which


lies at the mouth of Delaware Bay, dividing the
two Jerfeys. Burlington, which lies in an iHand

the

middle of Delaware River, oppolite to Phi-

in the

ladelphia,

is

the capital of the province, the courts

and the affemblies of Weft Jerfey being holden here.


It is

well fituated for trade, the

town

is

well built,

with town-houfcs, and two bridges. Weft New


Jerfey has an eafy communication by the river
iEfopus with

New

Yoi-k, and with Maryland

by

withm four miles of


was once on foot for
bay by an artificial canal

another river, which comes

Chefapeak-bay.

project

joining this river and the

but
tants

it

met with fuch

oppofition from the inhabi-

of Virginia and Maryland, that

it

came

to

nothing.

Notwithftanding the inexpreffible difadvantages

under which

the nature of

Ntw
its

Jerfey fo long laboured

conftitution,

from

the multiplicity of
Its

/^^*^'

^
'

BRITISH EMPIRE

214
its

owners, and the uncertainty of their tenures

made

the inhabitants have

both in trade and agriculture

grefs,

yet

a moft furprifing pro^


lince

they

were under the government of the crown. This


is owing to their commodious fituation, which, in
a manner, invites commerce to

and from

being

their

expofed than

lefs

neighbours are to the

their

The

New

people of

amongft them,

refide

infults

had

Jerfey

many of

of the favages.
fhare of the

their

trouble and expence of the Canada expedition in

lyid

but

that time they have recovered

iince

their credit fo greatly, that their

to the amount of

fixty

paper-cutrcncy,

thoufand pounds, has more

credit than that of either Pennfylvania

York,

or

New

for the Pennfylvania bills are not received at

New

York, nor

nia

but the

thofe of

New

New York

at

Pennfylva-

Jerfey bills circulate through

both thofe provinces. As before the peace of Utrecht


the inhabitants of New Jerfey were computed at fixteen thoufand, fo at prefent they

amount

to near fixty

During the wars between France and

thoufand.

England, they contributed very confiderably towards


carrying them on; and in the year 1746,

was
and

men

a fchcmc for invading Canada, they


vi<5tuallcd

As

each.

five

companies of one

to the trade of

New

and it is
an excellent corn country
other
colonies
than
any
more wheat
;

wife

with

when

raife

fome

New

flax

and hemp.

York and

They

Pennlylvania,

there
raifed

hundred

Jerfey,

it

is

faid to raife
;

they like-

chiefly trade

where they
difpofc

;;

IN AMERICA.
of their grain;

difpofe

come

late

they htve

with

confiderable trade for provifion

into a

the Antilles;

and

they fend to Portugal, Sptin,

tobacco,

and the Canaries,

oil,

grain,

filh,

'M

and

of employing ne-

By means

provifions.

other

but of

215

groes, as their neighbours do, in cultivating their

have of

lands, they

value

and they

late

more than double

now work

their

a copper ore mine,

and manufa<fl:ure iron ore into pigs and bars. To


give the reader fome idea of the prefent value of
this

country, the property of half of

which fome

was thought dear at nine thoufand


pounds, and, indeed, was deemed not worth

rears

ago

we

holding,

Ihall here infert

imports and exports from


June,

to

fome

the fame day next year.

Flour, fix thoufand four hundred


barrels

of their
of'

[Exported,

and tsventy-four

bread, one hundred and fixty-eight thou-

fand five

hundred weight

beef and pork, three

hundred and fourteen barrels;


thoufand

articles

the twenty-fourth

nine hundred

and

grain,

forty-one

feventecn
bufliels

hemp, fourteen thouflmd weight. Some firkins of


butter, fome hams, beer, flax-feed, bar-iron, fome
lumber.
fix

Imported,

hundred and

one thoufand,

rum,

thirty-nine

fe\'enty gallons
fix

hundred gallons;

thoufand eighty-niue hundred weight

and turpentine, four hundred


wines,

one

thoufand,

molaffes, thirtyfugar,
;

two

pitch, tar,

thirty-feven barrels

hundred twenty-three

pipes

fait,

twelve thoufand feven hundred fiftv-ninc bulhcls.]

Th?

'<<4l

BRITISH EMPIRE

ai6

The
fey,-

New Jcf,

principtl rivers in the province of

are

the

Noorde Rivier or Hudfon's River,

which we have already delineated in the feaion of


New York, and Zuide Rivier or Delaware River.

We
fide

^^.
'

ihall

of

here

this

take

notice,

that in

Thefc
of Cohanfy, and of Salem twenty miles higher,
make one diflrict of cuitom-houfe ; at Bridlington

twenty miles above Philadelphia

the Jerfey

River are feveral Ihort creeks.

diftria:.

Thefe

another cuftom

is

two cuftom-houfe

diftricls,

their

quarterly entries aud clearances of veiTels, are generally

little,

and fcarce deferve the name of preven-

tive creeks.
The main branch of Delaware River
f:ome from Cat-kill mountains, a few miles weft

of the fountains of Scoharie River, a branch of

Mohocks

the

River.

Raritan River

falls into

San-

dy Hook Bay at Amboy point ; the tide flows twelve


miles up to Brunfwick
at the mouth of this river
:

the only confidcrable fea-port and cyftom-houfe

is

of

New

it

is

Here

Jerfey.

is

New Jerfey,

and here are kept the provincial records


a good deep water
try

ance of a

earl
'

;i

lea line of

Amboy

title

Amboy

New

Sound,

there

is

has only the appear-

it

The name

village.

the honorary

of Perth, and

The
and

mean

harbour and promiling coun-

but notwithftanding,

.of Perth,

Amboy,

the city of Perth

the capital of the province of

is

of the late

its

compound

Drummond,

Indian name.

Jerfey,

is

Arthur Cul Bay,

between Staten Illand and


he

-^
IN AMERICA.

217

the main, about <-wenty miles fouth.

Thefe receive

the rivulets of Hackinfack, Paflaick,

Bounds Creek,

and

Raway; from Amboy

Point to Sandyhook

Hook is in Eaftjerfey) twelve miles caft from


Sandy Hook to Cape May, one hundred and twenty

(Sandy

miles fouth

wefterly,

having fome

ihore,

is

flat

and dojuble fandy

pradicable only by fmall

inlets

craft.

There

are fcveral chains or ridges of hills in this

province, but of no conlideration.

Jerfey

Amboy

town of Eafl
Bridlington is the province town of Well
diftance fifty miles, where the general af-

Perth
;

Jcrfey,

is

the provincial

fembly of all the Jerfey s

fits

alternately,

and where

the diftindt provincial judicatories or fupreme courts


fit

rcfpedtivcly.

lington,
is

is

Bridlington,

a pleafant

village-.

Town

Elizabeth

the moft ancient corporation and confiderable

town of the province.


is

commonly called Bur-

nearly the centre of the Eaft and

where

is

Eaft Jerfey

^Br uiifw iek in

Weft

l-H'^

Jerfeys

lately eftabliflied. a college for the iiiftnic-

tlon of youth,

by

a charter from governor Belcher,

dated October 22,1 746^ with

power to confer all deof England the prefent

grees as in the univerfities

truftees are generally prefbyterlan, a

feven

or more truftees

majority of

have the management;

each fcholar and pays four pounds per annum, at


eight Ihillings an ounce filver

kenlbn w^as

Vol.

I,

their

firft

and,
f

Mr. Jonathan Dic-

Mr. Burr

is

their

prefent

0:t- V

;:

BRITISH EMPIRE

fti8

pfcfent prefident; in this college Odlober 5, 1749,

commenced- feven batchelors of

The

road as in prefent

city to Philadelphia,

zabeth

Town

is,

arts.

New

to Eli-

from

Town

Trent

thirty miles, thence to Philadelphia


all

York

feventeen miles, thence to Brunfwick

twenty-two miles, thence to

being in

New York

from

life,

from

the city of

Ferry

twenty miles

Nev^ York

to Phi-

ladelphia one hundred and four miles.

From Cape May to Salem


thence to Bridlington

Town

falls

fifteen

fifty

below

when

thcfe falls

land floodings in the

miles, thence to

Thefe are the

miles.

of Delaware River, and

are about fixty miles,

fo

firft falls

high the tide flows

the tide

river.

Trent

is

The

down and no
driver

itfelf is

fordable.
.

In the province of the Jcrfcys are five

tions

with courts; whereof three are

the city of Perth

Amboy,

in Eaft Jerfcy,

the city of

New

wick, and the borough of Elizabeth

two

in

Weft

Brunf-

Town; and

Jerfey, the city of Bridlington, alias

Burlington, and the borough of Trent


thefe

corpora -

only two, Perth

Town. Of

Amboy and Burlington,

fend

leprefentatives to the general aflembly.

The two new

out counties of Morris, and Trent,

feem hitherto not

to

have been reduced to any

re-

gulations.

OF

IN AMERICA.

219

OF PENNSYLVANIA.

PENNSYLVANIA
hundred and
are

fifty

is

inhabited by full'two

whom

thoufand people, half of

Here you

Germans, Swedes, or Dutch.

the Quakers, Churchmen,

fee

Lutherans,

Calvinifts,

Catholics, Methodills, Meniftb, Moravians,

Inde-

pendants, the Anabaptills, and the Dumplers, a fort

of

German

fedt,

that live in fomething like a re-

wear long beards, and

ligious fociety,

fembling that of

and languages

people, religions, nations,

prodigious, and the


together no

who

harmony

edifying.

lefs

which

prevails,

which they

live

man,

in

forry to fee the di-

is

and would,

and honeft methods, endeavour

when once

no longer an union of fentiments,

liberty;

men

mild

all

yet,

it ;

when

it is

preferve at leall an union of affed:ions


to fee

by

to prevent

the evil has happened,

tiful profped:,

here, is

For, though every

wiihes well to religion,

verfity

a habit re-

In fhort, the diverfity of

friars.

there

is

glorious to
itis

a beau-

take and give an equal

to fee them live, if not as belonging to

the fame church, yet as to the fame chriftian religi-

on ; and

if

not to the fame religion, yet to the fame

great fraternity of mankind.

the quakers,

who

great

meafure, the

made

ufe

of

it

in

in the finglc cafe of

had, and

power
any

fort

do not obferve, that

who
in

to

f 2

have in a

hands,

j^rfccute

George Keith,

Hill

their

whom

have
except

they

firfl;

imprifoncd.

BRITISH EMPIRE

tio

imprifoncd, and then banifhcd out of the province.

This Keith was

originally a minifter of the church

of England, then a quaker, and afterwards return-

ed

to his

with the

But whilft he remained

former miniftry.

he was a troublcfome and

friends,

ous man, and was

litigi*

for pulhing the particularities

of quakerjfm to yet more extravagant lengths, and


for

mak ng new

refinements, even

which

ralh

where the

mod

they had gone far enough;

enthuHaftic thought

and turbulent conduct

raifed fuch

ftorm, as fhook the church he then adhered

to
1

tiie

to,

very foundations.

This

little fally

inftance,

means

into intolerance, as

it

a fingle

is

and with great provocation, ought by no

to be imputed to the principles of the qua-

kers, confidering the

humane

Uinple and

they have allowed in

all

other

latitude

was

It

refj^edts.

certainly a very right policy to encourage the im-

portation of foreigners into Pennfylvania, as well


as into our other colonies.

By

this

we

are great

gainers, without any diminution of the inhabitants

of Great

Britain.

ferved, and, as

it

But

it

has been frequently ob-

Ihould feem, very juftly com^

plained of, that they are


likely to continue fo for

dill

left

many

and

foreigners,

generations

as they

have fchools taught, books printed, and even the

common news

papers in their

which means, and

o\\'n

language

as they poflTels large

trad:s

by
of

the country without anv intermixture of Englilh,


there

is

no appearance of

their

blending and be-

coming

E R

A.

ill

coming one people with

us.
This certainly is a
great irregularity, and the greater, as thefc foreigners,

by

their induftry,

of living,
have, in
places

frugdity, and a hard

way

which they greatly exceed our people,


a manner, thruft them out in feveral
in

lb as to threaten the

ger of being wholly (oreian

colony with the danguage, manners,

in lai

and perhaps even inclinations. In the year


1750,
were imported into Pennfylvania and itsdcpenden*
ces, four thouland three hundred and
feventeen
Germans, whereas, of Britifli and Irilli but
one
thoufand arrived j
confiderable number, if it were
not fo vallly jvcrbaUr.ced by that of the
foreigners.
I do by no -Pcar:. think that this
fort of "tranf.'

plantations ou^^..^ to be dilcouraged

would only
ought
to be other wife regulated, and
means fought'^to

obferve, that

tlie

manner of

have them naturalized

The

their fettlement

in reality.

late

troubles very unhappily reverfed


fyftcm fo long purfued, and with fuch
great
fucccfs, in this part of the world.
The Pennfylvaniuns fuffered feverely by the
the

incurfions of
the favage Americans as well as their
neighbours;
but the quakers could not be
prevailed upon,
by what did not diredly afT;:^ thofe
of their

own

communion

(for they

milchief in the

more

their pacific principles

were out of the way of

fettled parts;,

to relinquifli

which reafon, a confiderable o-pofition, (in


which, however, we muft
uo the quakers the juftice to
obferve they were
;

for

not

i-ij

BRITISH EMPIRE

222

not unanimous) was made, both within their af-.


fembly and alfo without doors, again ft granting
any money to carry on the war 5 and the fame, or
a more vigorous oppofition, was

ing a militia

bill.

bill

made

againft pafl-

of this kind has at length

of
paired, but fcarcely fuch as the circumftances
retimes,
the country, and the exigencies of the
quired.

may, perhaps, appear an error, to have


great a part of the government in the

It

placed fo

hands of men who hold opinions diredly contraAs a peaceable, indufry to its end and defign.
cannot be too
quakers
the
trious, honefl people,
much cheriflied j but furely they- cannot ihemfelves
complain that, when they value themfelves upon
non-refiftance, they (hould not be entrufted with.
cares fo opppfite to their principles

*..

Mr. Pcnn, when, for his father's fervices, and by his own
inheritance of this country
interell at court, he obtained the
make the grant of value
could
he
that
faw
government,

and

its

all peohim only, by rendering the country as agreeable to


purpofe,
this
make it. To
ple, as eafe and government could
from
purcliafrng the foil, at a very low rate indeed,

to

he began by

By this
little ufe.
the original poff.flbrs, to whom it was of
his dealings
all
made
he
beginning,
the
at
cheap aft of jaftice
prepolTefling the Indians with
for th'- luturc the more eafy, by
The other part
opinion of him and his defigns.

a fr.'.cunble
he had fecf his plan, which was, to people this country, after
by
the uneafacilitated
much
faw
ciued the pofl ffion of it, he
refufing
who,
England,
in
quakers
the
fmcfs of his brethren
fufFcrcil a great deal
to pay the cythcs and other church dues,

from the
for the

fpiritual courts.

Their high opinion

man, who was an honour

to their

of,

and regard

new church, made

Thetc

IN AMERICA.
There are

many good towns

fo

223

in the

province

of Pennfylvania, even exceeding the capitals ot


fome other provinces, that nothing could excule
paffing

them by, but

attention

wholly

to

upon a tongue of
fluence of two fine

drawing the

Philadelphia's

This

itfelf.

Hands

city

land, immediately at the con-

Delaware and the

rivers, the

them the more ready to follow him over the vaft ocean into an
Neither

untried climate and country.


in

any thing which could encoiurage

he himfelf wanting

/as

For he expended

thera.

large fums in tranfporting and finding

them

in

all

necelfaries

and, not aiming at a fuddcn profit, he difpofed of his land at

a very light purchafe.


charter of privileges,
ple in the

of (o

But what crowned

world ; and which has

many

all

by which he rendered them


fince

was, that noble

as free as

any peo-

drawn fuch vaA numbers,

different perfuafions and fuch various countries, to

put themfelves under the protection of his laws.

moft perfed freedom, both religious and


eftablifliment;

and

civil,

He made

rfjc

of

this

the bans

done more towards the fettling of

this has

the provi nee, and towards the fettling of

in a ftrong

it

and per-

manent manner, than the wifeft regulations could have don


upon any other plan.
'jod

All perfons

are freely tolerated;

thofe

who profcfs to believe one


who believe in Jefus Chrift,

of whatever denomination, are not excluded from employments

and polls.

This great man lived


his

own name; he

the people free

in

it

of his

to fee an extenfive country called after

lived to fee

it

peopled by his

and flourifhing, and the

own

perfuafion

own

wifdora,

m.oft flourifhing people

he lived to lay the foundations of

a fplendid and wealthy city; he lived

to-

fee

It

promife every

thing from the fituatlon which he hinifclf had chofen, and the

encouragement which he himfelf

hiiJ

given

it

but he died

in

the Fleet priioi'.

Schuikil.

BRITISH EMPIRE

824
Schulkil.

It is difpofed

long, defigned to extend


river

but the buildings

the form of an ob-

in

two miles from river to


do not extend above a

mile and a half on the weft fide of Delaware in


length, and not more than half a mile where the

town

The

broadeft.

is

longeft ftretch,

original plan can be fully executed,

eight parallel

ftreets,

all

of^^o

thefe arc to be interfedlcd"

by

when

to

is

compofe

miles in length:

lixtcen others, each

in length a mile, broad, fpacious, and even

proper fpaces

left for

the

with

the public buildings, churches,

and market-places.

In the centre

a fquare of

is

ten acres, round which, moft of the public build-

The two

ings are difpofed.


city arc

each one hundred

principal ftreets of the

feet

wide, and moft of the

houfes have a fmall garden and orchard.


rivers

The quays

beneficial.

principal one
this a

veffel

arc

the

fpacious and fine; the

two hundred

is

of

The

broadfide.

five

feet

way

wide, and to

hundred tons may lay her

warehoufes are large, numerous,

nd commodious, and the docks


every

From

are cut fcveral canals, equally agreeable and

for ftiip-building

A great

well adapted to their purpofes.

number of

veflels

have been

have been upon the ftocks

built

here; twenty

at a time.

Contains, exclufive of warehoufes

The

city

and outhoufes,

about nvo thoufand houfes; moft of them of brick,

and well

built;

worth four or
tants are

five

it is

faid, there are feveral

of them

The

inhabi-

thoufand pounds.

now about thirteen

thoufand.

There

IN AMERICA.
There

225

arc in this city a great numbejr of very

wealthy merchants

when one

which

no

way

confiders the great trade

furprifing,

which

car*

it

on with the Englilh, French, Spanilh, and


Dutch colonies in America ; with the Azores,

ries

the Canaries, and the Madeira


Britain and Ireland; with

Holland
in

and the great

many branches of

(quantity

of

which
commerce.

this

made

are

profits

Befides the

kinds of the produce of this pro*

all

which

vince,

Wands ; with Great

Spain, Portugal, and

Is

down

brought

the Rivers Dela-

ware and Schulkil, (the former of which

is

navi-

more than

gable, for velfels of one fort or other,

two hundred miles above Philadelphia) the Dutch


employ between eight and nine thoufand v/aggons,

drawn each by four


dud: of their farms to
three

horfes, in bringing the

hundred and three

wards

at this port,

this mark-^

the year

veiTels w'ere

There

are,

ports of this province, cuitom-houfe

the foreign trade in thefe places

The

city

yet, fo far as

and

it

is

built,

is

increafes in the

it,

its

buildings every

of which this city


Britiili

in-

is

ojEficers

but

not worth notice*


it

may be

from complereing the original plan,

to

of

749,

at the other

of Philadelphia, though, as

far

is

entered

and two hundred and ninety-

one cleared outwards.

judged,

pro*

America

day
is

carried

and

as for the province,

the capital,

in a

on conformably

number and beauty of


tli^re is

more growing

no part

condition.

In fome years, more people have tranlportcd thera-

VoL.

I.

(elves

BRITISH EMPIRE

226

Pennfylvania than into

felves into

In 1729,

fettlements together.

thoufand two

hundred and eight perfons came to


paffengers or fervants, four

were from

Penn, the founder of the colony,

pounds

for a thoufand

every

fhilling

fettle here, as

whom

at leaft

province has

from the time of

blifliment, that, \Vhercas, lands

ty

of

In Ihort, this

Ireland.

increafed fo greatly

fifths

the other

all

fix

firfc

its

efta-

were given by Mr.


at the rate

of twen-

acres, referving only a

hundred acres for

and

quit-rent,

fome of the bell lituated parts of the province yet now, at a great diftance from navigathis in

tion, land

acres,

is

granted at twelve pounds the hundred

and a quit-rent of four

and the land which


twenty

In

the acre.

ihillings

at the diftance of feveral miles


fells for

The
people

Ihillings

referved

near Philadelphia, rents for

is

many

and

places,

from that

land

city,

twenty years purchafe.


Pennfylvanians are an induftrious and hardy
they are moft of them fubflantial, though

but a few of the landed people can be confidered


as rich

but they are

well lodged, well fed,

all

and, for their condition, well clad too; and this


at the

more eafy

rate, as

nufadiure moft of

and woollens.

their

ma-

the inferior people

own wear,

both linens

There are but few blacks,

in

all

not the fortieth part of the people of the province.

King Charles

the Second's patent of the pro-

vince of Pennfylvania

which an abftrad

is:

is

"

dated

To

March

4,

1680, of

our trufty and well beloved

IN AMERICA.

'

227

" loved fubjed, William Perm, Efq. fon and heir


** of Sir William Penn (deceaied) to reduce the face

vage nations, by gentle and

*'

love of civil

fociety

jull

and the

manners, to the

chriftian religion

" (with regard to the memory and merits of his


" late father, in divers fervices, particularly in the
fea-fight againft the Dutch 1665, under the
a duke of York)

to tranfport

an ample colony

i(

towards enlarging the Englifli empire and

it

trade, is granted all that track of land in

"
ic

K
<i

rica,

Its

Ame-

bounded eaftward on Delaware River from

twelve miles northward of Newcaftle, to the forty


third degree of northern latitude, and to extend five

degrees in longitude from the faid river;

to

" be bounded northerly by the beginning of the


" forty third degree of northern latitude, and on the
**

"
c

fouth,

tance

by a circle drawn at twelve miles diffrom Newcaftle northward, and weftw^ard

unto the beginning of the fortieth decree of northern latitude; and then

by a

ftrait line

weftw^ard

cc

to the limits of longitude abovementioned

it

ing to us and our fucceflbrs the allegiance

iC

foverelgnty, to

be holden

tc

Windibr,

county of Berks, paying for quit-

IC

rent tw^o buck-fkins to

ly, in

our

In the

caftle

as of

our

fav-

and

caftle

of

be delivered to us year-

of W^indfor, on the

firft

of Jan-

uary ; and the fifth of all gold and filver ore,


" clear of all charges. Eredted into a province and
*' feignory, to be called Penn{\lvania.
The fa'j
William Pcnn, &c. and

Gg

his lieutenants,

with the
((

aflcat

<lj

BRITISH EMPIRE

228

" aflent of a majority of the freemen or their dft" legates aflembled, to raife money for public ufef,
to eftablilh judges, juftices, and other magif" trates; probateof wills and granringof a-'minif" trationr. included; to pardon ortcmit all crimeS^
" and oflences committed within the xnd proviru e,
^*

(treafon

'*

however, they

"
"

and

pleafure

wilfr.l

miv

murder excepted) which,


reprieve until the

king's

beknowiu The judges by them

confti-

tuted to hold plea? as

", ptifonal, real,

and

'.veil

criminal

as civii,

mixe<i. Their laws co be con-

"*

fonant to resfon, and not rejiUgnaiii: to the VaWS

**

of Ens^i^nd, referving to us, &c. a powder to

^'

hear and determine upon apneals.

**

the laws of England to take place, where nd

**

pofitive

In

all

law of the province appears.

made

matters

du-

**

plicate of all laws

*'

within

five

**

council

"

received, they

'*

prerogative or laws of England, they ihall be

"

void,

**

themfelves and families unto the faid country.

**

**

dreds, and counties, to incorporate

**

roughs and

*'

kets,

**

minions, paying the cuftomary duties.

*'

to conftitute

**

of fuch officers as ih^U,

in the province, fl>aH;

years, be tranfmitted to the privy-

and

if,

within

-fix

be deemed

months, being there

inconfiftent

licence for our fubicd:s to tranfport

liberty to divide the country into

with the

cities,

and

towns, hun*-

towns into

to conftitute fairs

liberty of trade

fea-ports

with

all

bo*'

and mar-

our other do*

A power

and ruays, but to admit


fr

lime to time, he

" appointed

IN AMERICA.

22^

**

appointed by the commiffioners of our cufloms.

**

The

proprietors

may

receive fuch

impofitions

" upon goods as the affembly ihall cnadt. The


" proprietors to appoint an agent or attorney to
near the court in London, to anfwer for

**

refide

the default of the

" mages are


<*

thefe

proprietors; and

afcertained

damages

" fpace of one


<*

government,

"

fatisfied,

"

ticular

where da-

by any of our courts, if


made good within the

are not

crown may refume the


damages and penalties are

year, the
until fuch

but without any detriment to the par-

owners or adventurers

in the

province.

**

To

**

mies.

**

even to death and to transfer property,

maintain no correfpondence with our cne-

A power

to purfue enemies and robbers

" creA manors, that may hold


the crown ihall make no

**

And

courts baron.
taxation or

and

impo-

((

iition in the faid province,

<(

of the proprietary, or aflcmbly, or by adt of

t(

parliament in England.

u number of
i<
<(

t^venty,

the bilhop of

without the confent

Any inhabitants,

to the

may, by writing, apply to

London

for a preacher, or preach-

ers.

and Mr. Penn's charter of liberties and privileges to the people, there wefe fome
other fimdamental laws agreed upon in England,
Befides thcfe,

[ " Every reiident

vernment,
tlefting

Ihall

who pays fcot

and

lot to the

go-

be deemed a freeman capable of

and of being

elefted.

council and general aflcmbly to

The
be

folc

provincial

judges in
the

BRITISH EMPIRE

230

the eled:ions of their refpcdtive members.


ty-four

men

for

for a petty jury,

be returned by the

to

iheriff.

perfons wrongfully imprifoned or profecuted

All
at

Twen-

a grand jury of inqueft, and twelve

have double damages againfl the


Seven years ixyfleffion Ihall

law, Ihall

informer or profecutor.
give an

unqueftionable right, excepting in cafes

of lunatics, infants, married women, and perfons

beyond the

The

fea.

public

confirmed.

Almighty God,

eltablilhed.

William Penn

charter granted by

habitants

regifler

All

fball not

to the in-

who acknowledge

be molefled

one

in their reli-

gious perfuaiions, in matters of faith and w^orlhip,

and
any

be compelled to maintain or frequent

fhall not

ihall

religious miniflry.

be a day of

reft.

Every

firft

None of

day of the week

thefe articles Ihall

be altered without confent of the governor or his


fix parts
cven of the freemen met

deputy, and

in provincial council

and general allembly."} This

was

figned and fealed by the governor and free-

men

or adventurers, in London, the

third

fifth

day of the

month, called May, 1682,

There were

certain conditions agreed

upon by

the proprietor, and the adventurers and purchafers,

July

1 1,

168 1

highways to be

for inftance,[" Convenient rpads


laid out before the dividend

to the purchafers.
^

Land

purchafers and adventurers


I

fahd acres to

fettle

to be laid out

by

one family;

lot.

and

of acres
to the

Every thou-

All dealings with

the Indians be to 19 public market.

All
iiiMI

IN AMERICA.'
"

231

All differences between the planters and native

Indians

to be ended by fix planters

Laws

tives.

fame as

in

and

relating to immorality

England.

of trees to be

fix

be

to

nathe

In clearing of land, one acre

left for

every five acres, to prelcrvc

uak and mulberries for (hipping and filk


" None to leave the pro\ince, without publication
thereof in the market-})lace three

By

new

charter from the

cond day

of

alterations

made

as to the

April,
in

in
his

weeks before"]
proprietary the fc*

1683,
firft

there

fome

are

charter, principally

numbers of the provincial council and

aflembly.

to

This charter, as inconvenient, was furrendered


Mr. Penn, in May, in the year 700 by fix
1

fevenths of the freemen of the province


tories,

and a new charter granted.

their ftanding
lar.

charter,

The preamble

we

Ihall

and

As this

is

terri-

now

be more particu-

runs thus

" Whereas, king Charles II. granted to Wil" Ham Penn the property and government of tlie
" province of Pennfylvania, March
1680; and
4,

" the duke of York granted to the faid Penn the


" property and government of a track of land, now
" called the territories of Pennfylvania,
Auguft
" 24, 1683: And whereas, the faid William Penn
" for the encouragement of the fettlers, did,
in

((
(I

the year

1683, grant and confirm to the freemen, by an inllrumcnt intitlcd, The frame of

the
government, &c. which charter or frame
*^

beinsr

n
lai

;!^

'^'-'^^
'^^S!Pf

BRITISH EMPIRE

* being

found, in fomc part of

<*

not fo

it,

fultahltf

to the prcfcnt circ imftances of the inhabitants,

was delivered up as above, and at the rcqueft


" of the aflfembly, another was granted by the proMr,*Penn,

**

pvicffiry

**

And

i-ovvcrs

*^

mg

to

" and
" No
**

"

and

all

granted

who

i^erfons

ihall

**

the crown, confirm-

him

in

l^pi'eve in

be molefted

ligious

far as

peaceably under

" nor compelled


**

him by

the inhabitants their former liberties

privileges, fo

live

purfuance of the rights

in

Firft,

government,

civil

in their religious

perfuafions,

maintain any rc-

to freijucnt or

who

one Almighty God,

liic

worihip contrary to

all i->erfons

licth.

their

That

mind.

profefs to believe in Jefus ChrifV,

" are capable of ferving the government in any


" capacity, thefe folemnly ]>romifing, when re" quired, allcgia ice to the crown, and fidelity to
" the proprietor and governor. .^cLi^ndly, That
" annually, upon the firft day of October for ever,
" there ihall an aliembly be chofen, to fit 0*1 the
" fourteenth day of the ^^me month, ViZ. four
" perfons out of each count}', or a greater num-

" bcr,

"
"
'k

In

(<

as

the

/ernor and alfemblymay, from

time tu time,

.^gree,

>

the

ith all

privileges of an afiembly, as

is

powers and

ufual in any of

"

the king's plan Ations ir America; two thirds


" of the whole number that 01 y,ht to nr :et ihall
" be a quorum; 10 fit u]K)n their own adjourn**

ments.

" ing

T*

for elc

il'

n^^

The freem-n
:cprefenLati^

at

their

meet-

to chuic theriS
<

and

IN AMERICA,

and

coroners.

counties

to

ic

juftices

Mi

the rcfpecti

nominate clerks of the peace. Fourth-

ly. The laws of the government Ihall be in thb


Ityle, [By tkc governor, with the confent and
" approbation of the freemen In general affembly
" met.] Fifthly, No perfon to be licenfed by the
" governor to keep an ordinary or tavern but luch
" as are recommended by the juftices of the coun" ty. Sixthly, No alteration to be made in this

* charter without the confent of the governor and


<
^*

"

fix parts

of fevenof the affembly met. [SignedWil-

liam Penn at Philadelphia in Pennfylvania, October 28, 17

government.]
((

1,

and the

twenty-firft year

of

my

Notwithftanding any thing for-

merly alledging the province and

"

join together in legiflation,

"

declares, that

if at

territories

Mr. Penn

to

hereby

any time hereafter, within

" three years, their refpedive tffemblies Ihall not


" agree to join in legiflation, and Ihall fignify the

" fane to me; in fuch cafe, the inhabitants of


" each of the three counties of the province ihall
:ive lefs than eight reprefentatives, ana the
vn of Philadelphia, when incorporated, ihall

**

not

*'

Lu

'

" have two reprefentatives. The inhabitants of


" each cour"^ in the territories Ihr'' 'vweasmany
" perfons to rt ^refent them in a uiitir
iffembly
" fortheterritMries,aslhallbe^yihcmrcquefted. Pro-

" vincc
"

ter,

aa<^ territories ihall

liberties

Vol.

J.

enjoy the fame char-

and privileges

Xhc

BRITISH EMPIRE

t34

The

report

is

probable, that Mr. Penn, befides

his royal grant of the province of

PennAlvania,

had, moreover, a grant of the fame from the duke

of Yofk, to obviate any pretence, that the pro-

was comprehended

vince

of

New

Mn

a former royal grant

in

Netherlands to the duke of York.

i'enn's

charter conceffions, as

firft

we have

already taken notice of, or form of government to

the

fcttlers,

conllitured

Icgiflature

and two

gatives, viz. the governor

of X reprefentatives chofen by the

of

tliree

diftinfl

houfcs

freemen

was

other

members

bly of tu o hundred

an

power

exorl itant

upon, and preparing


allembly

was

the

called

provincial

bills

aHcm-

the council had

of exclufive
all

one

mem-

called the provincial council of feventy-two


bers, the

ne-

for

deliberating

the

provincial

the executive part of the government

entirely

The

with them.

in the bills to

be enaCled, had no deliberative pri-

Yes or

vilege, only a

vincial council

provincial aflembly,

No

thcfe

numbers of pro-

and provincial aflembly leem to be

extravagantly large for an infant colony. Perhaps

he was of opinion with fome good

no general model of

there can be

ment

but

of various
fettled

the inclinations,

that

focieties

a fmall

govern-

fociety naturally requi.es the .deliconl'cnt

taxation and legillature

numerous

civil

and numbers

muft be confulted andvarioufly

beration and general

too

politicians, that

for fiich

of tlidr freemen for

when

the fociety becomes

univcrfal meetings, a re-

prcfcnration or deputation from fcvcral

diflriifls

is

more

IN AMERICA.
ft

more convenient and

laft

of the province and

prtly ferve

to

cafy atlminiftration.

and prcffnt. Handing cbaitcr

Odober 28, lyoii


The council have no

#35
I lis

to the inhabitants

of PennlVlvania,

territories

runs into the (ithcr extreme.


negative in the legillature, and

as the propriefary's council of advice

the proprietary's governor.

In 1746, by adt of

parliament, the negative of the board of aldermcii


4ri

London,

for certain rcafons \N'as abrogated.

council chofen by the people, to negative refolves

of reprcfentatives alfo appointtd

by the people,

fcems to be a wheel within a wheel, and incon-

gruous

but a council appointed by the court of

Great Britain
polic)',

a negative, feems to be a good

'^s

by way

of controul upon the excefles of

the governor on the one hand, and of the people,

by

their reprcfentatives,

The

on the other hand.

province of Pennfylvania fome years fince

was mortgaged

to

Mr. Gee, and

tlioufand fix hundred

1713, Mr. Penn,

pounds

by agreement,

his rights in Pennfylvania to


fidcration

pthers, for

fterling.

made over

vantages which their

firft

who

but

was executed,

he died apoplectic, and PenniVlvania


family of the Penns,

all

the croWn, in con-

of twelve thoufand pounds fterling

before the inftrument of furrender

witii the

fix

In the year

ftill

remains

reap the ad-

founder took

fo

much

pains to fccure.

II h

OF

BRITISH EMPIRE.

ttsfi

OF MARYLAND.
It

wai

in the reigp of Charles the Firft, that the

lord Baltimore applied for a patent for a part of

and obtained,

Virginia,

in

1632, a grant of a

track of land upon Chefapeak bay, of about one

hundred and forty miles long, and an hundred


and thirty broad, having Pennfylvania, then in the
hands of the Dutch, upon the north, the Atlantic

Ocean upon the


upon the fouth ;

this province

His

and the

eaft,

in

Potowmack

honour of the queen, he called

Maryland.

lordlhip

was a

catholic,

of making

his defign

river

and had formed

this fettlemcnt, in order to

enjoy a liberty of confcience, which though the

government of England, was by no means difpofed to deny him ; yet the rigour of the laws
threatened,

in

of, the feverity

er of the court

The
more

a great meafure, to deprive

of which
itfelf,

it

at that

was not

in the

him
pow

time to relax.

fettlement of the colony coft the lord Balti-

was made, under hit aufpices, by his brother, and about two hundred perfons, Roman catholics, and moft of them of good
a large fum.

families.

It

This fettlement, at the beginning, did

not meet with the fame


raffed

made.
fort

difficulties

which embar*
we had

and retarded moft of the others

The

people were generally of the better

a proper fuburdinaiion was obferved amongft

them

them

N AM

E R

A,

437

and the Indians gave and took

town, and fome time

The

thefe ftrangers.

make

to

fo little of-

one half of their principal

fence, that they ceded

how

after, the

whole of

women

Indian

bread of their corn;

went out to hunt and

fifli

to

it,

taught ourg

men

their

with the Englilh

they

them in the chace, and fold them the


game they took themfelves, for a trifling consideration ; fo that the new fettlers had a fort of town

ailiiled

ready built, ground ready cleared for their fubfif-

and no enemy to harrafs them.

tancc,

They

lived thus, without

fome

until

much

trouble or fear,

ill-difpofed perfons in Virginia infinuated

colony had

to the Indians, that the Baltimore

upon them;

figns

not Englilhmen

that they

and fuch other

they judged proper to fow the

and enmity
the

in the

minds of

appearance, that

firft

de-

were Spaniards and


idle

ftorics

as

feeds of fufpicion

thefe

people.

Unon

the malice of the

Vir-

new planters were not


They built a good fort

ginians had taken effed:, the

wanting to theaifdves.
with
fary

all

expedition, and took every other necef-

meafure for

their defence

Hill to treat

the Indians

that, partly

by

their

arms, the

that,
ill

but they continued

with fo

much

kindnefs,

and partly by the awe of

defigns of their enemies

were

defeated.

As

met with fo few obftiudiors,


the catholics in England were yet more

the colony

and as

fcverely treated, in proportion

as the court party

declined.

BRITISH EMPIRE

z$%

numbers conftantly arrived to replenlih


the fettlement, which the lord proprietor omitted
no care, and withheld no expence, to fupport and
declined,

encourage;

until

government

at

the

ulurpation

overturned

th*

home, and deprived him of his


rights abroad.
Maryland remained under the governors appointed by the parliament and by Cromwell until the reftoration,

was

when lord Baltimore


former poffeffions, which he
former wifdom, care, and mo-

re-inftated in his

cultivated with his

No

deration.
fecority

and

people could live in greater eafe and


his lordfhip. willing that as

many

foffiblc Ihoiild enjoy the benefits of his mild

as

and

equitable adminiftration, gave his confent to an ad:

of

Jjfiemblv,

which he had

before promoted in

hii;

province, for allowing a free and unlimittcd toleration to

all

who

])iofefred the chriftian religion,

whatever dcnominatioi^
never

This

liberty,

which

of

v.as

the leaft inftance violated, encouraged

in

a
great number, not only of the church of I'.nglnnd,

but of

prelbytcrians,

(}uaker?,

diffenters, to fettle in Mar)'land,

ime, was almoft

and

all kinds of
which before that

Roman

wliolly in the hands of

catholics.
It
this

is

faid,

that

king James called

nobleman's charter.

jurifdicftion

were

and when

left

to

him

quelbon

In kiiig William's time

he was deprived of his


l>ill

in

but the

his

profits

defccndants

afterwards confornncd to the church of England,


they \vere reflored to their rights aed privileges ag
fully

IN AMERICA.
any other proprietors are indulged

as

fiilly

iff

them.

When,
hands

upon

the

power changed

revolution,

in that province,

the

new men made but an

indifferent requital for the liberties

and indulgences
had enjoyed under the old adminiflration*

they

They not only deprived


fliare

the harmlcfs catholics of all

the government, but of

in

the rights of
but they even adopted the whole body
of the penal laws of England againft them ; they
are always meditating new laws in
the fame

freemen

i\nnt,

and they would undoubtedly go to the

greatell

lengths

in this refped:, if the

and good fenfe of the government


not

all

let

fome bounds

very prudently that


efpially

to
it

their

in

moderation

England did

bigotry,

were highly

thinking

unjuft,

and

impolitic, to allow an afylum abroad to

any religious perfuafions, which they judged it improper to tolerate at ho'^e, and then to deprive
them of its protection, r. -oUedting and at the fame
time, in the various changes which our religion
and government have undergone, which have in
their turns rendered every

fort

of party and

reli-

gion obnoxious to the reigning powers, that this

American aAlum, which has been admitted


hortefl

of

infinite fervicc,

the

not only to the prefent peace of

England, but to the profperity of


the cftablilhment of

of men,

in

limes of pcrfecution at home, has proved

who

its

will not

power.

commerce and
There are a fort
its

fee lb plain a truth

and
thev

BRITISH EMPIRE

a40

they arc the perfons

moft warmly

who would

for liberty

but

appear to contend

it is

only a party

berty for which they contend

they would flretch out one

only to contract

in another

they

way

li-

a liberty, which
it

alhamed of ufing the

are not

very fame pretences for perfecuting others, that


their enemies ufe for perfecuting them.

This colony, as

for a long time

it

had with

Pennfylvania, the honour of being unftained with

any

religious perfecution, fo neither they nor the

Pennfylvanians have ever, until very


harrafled

by

with

defnfive,

whom

neighbours,

with

Indeed,

in

war which

the Indians

Virginia,

land ; but they were

of their miftake, and

it.

But

by miftake
the bounds of Mary-

fenfible

later troubles

have

fince x:hanged

every thing, and the Indians have been taught to

laugh
1.

Indian

made upon th^ ^Dlony of


they made an h.wurfion into
atoned for
?

their

they always lived in the moft exemplary

harmony.

been

lately,

the calamity of any war, ofFenfive or

at their ancient alliances.

Maryland, like Virginia, has no very confider;able

town

ment, which

but Annapolis
is

cipal

is

the feat of govern-

a fmall though beautifully

ated town, upon the

Here

is

iitu-

river Severn.

the feat of the governor, and the prin-

cuftom-houfe

colle^ion.

Maryland have the fame

The

people

eftablifhed religion

thofe of Virginia, that of the church of

but here the clergy are provided for

of

with

England

in a

much
more

IN AMERICA.
more

liberal

cent,

and the

241

manner, and they are the moft debeft of the clergy in North
America.
They export from Maryland the fame things in
all
refpcfts, that they

do from Virginia. Their tobacabout forty thoufand hogfheads. The


white
inhabitants are about forty thoufand^
the negroes
upwards of fixty thoufand.
co

is

OF THE INDIAN NATIONS.

THE

North- American natives

a wild and

a faithlefs fet

are a complication

Their manners
of ill-chofen cuitoms, favage,

and barbarous.

ridiculous,

fay of their genius,

are, in general,

of men.

it is

Whatever fome may

certainly not equal to that

of the inhabitants of our world; and


America
in

this

fcnfe,

The

Europe.

juftly ftyled

the

younger

filter

is,

of

pains taken to inftrua: thefe favages

in
the laws and religion, have
been moltly
thrown away, and fo bigotted are they
their o\s-n
manner of living, that forr. of them
who have
been regularly bred, cloached,
and educated, have
thrown away their cloaths, run into
^

the woods
forfaken fociety, and returned to
their own bar-

barous manners, preferring what they


fooliAly termed Liberty, among their favannahs

and vaft forells


to all the benefics enjoved
in a well-ordered ftste:

From whence
^

rived

The

thefe people

were originally de^


fome conjedures.

v.e !iave already offered


r rench

^"^*

were very inquifuive about


I

thi matter,

an4

BRITISH EMPIRE

242

":

and

employed a

abfolutely

cf enquiring into

bufinefs

and a

travelling,

civilized Indian in the

who,

it,

without being able thoroughly to


riofity,

long

after

variety of adventures, returned,


fatisfy

his

cu^

or that of his employers *.

* M. Le Page du Pratz, being extremclj' defiroui to Inform


himfelf of the origin of the American nations, was continiully enquiring of the old Indians concerning it, and was at laft
^

'

fo fortunate as to

meet

an old man, belonging to the na-

vwith

tion of the Jazous, called Moncacht-ape,

who was

man of

fcnfc and genius, and having been poffeflcd with the fame cyrio-

had

lity as himfelfj

no pains nor

fjiared

fatigue, to get inform-

of the country from whence the North American nations


came.
With this view be travelled from nation to nation,
ation

expeding to
iiad

difcover the country from

come, or to approach fo near

telligence and

In

gin.

more

it,

whence their

particular traditions concerning their ori-

expedition, he fpent eight years, and

this

father*

to get fome furer in-

M. Le

Page du Pratz, having infinuated himfelf into his good graces,


by all forts of kindnefs, had from him the following account.
** Having loft my wife
and children, I refolved to travel,

in order to difcover

*'

all the perfuafions


**

'*

it

era

took

my way

bank of the

the river

by the high-grounds

*1

Canadian French.
in a little time.

*'

and then coDtinued

I then

in order

St.

As

the grafs

ftaycd there

my

calt-

to join the Illinois,

Louis,

made a

ver St. Louis, and

raft

of

when

was

Ihort,

eight days

to

route along tic ealtern


till

where the River MifTouri


*'

"

river

crofs,

on the

might only have

of Tamaroua, a confiderable fettlemcnt of the

**

" fame

that are

river St. Louis, that I

Ouabache to

** at the village

**

our original country, notwithftanding

of my parents and relations to the contrary,

was a

reft myfelf,

bank of the

above the place

falls into it.

caiics or
I

little

arrived there

reeds, and crolfed

was near the oppoiitc

fide.

tke

ri-

I fuf-

The

IN AMERICA.
The Efqulmaux, (which

43

an Indian word

is

nifying an eater of raw-flefh) are, of

fig-

Indians

all

the fierceft, the moft mifchievous, and untameable.

By

their beards they are

fercd

*'

the confiux of the

my

down

be carried

raft to

two

thought originally to prothe ftrcam,

Here

rivers.

till

came to

had the pleafure of

how

*'

feeing the rivers mix, and of obferving

"

of the river St. Louis are, before they receive the nuiddy

*'

ftreams of the Miflburi.

I landed here, and

the north fide of the Miflburi, for a great

at laft, I

*'

flayed a confiderable time, not only to

" my
<'

came

to the nation of the

along

travelled

many

liTouris

days,

till,

with them

repofe myfclf after

fatigue, but,alfo to learn their language,

or underftood

clear the waters

by a great many nations.

which

is

fiioken

In this country

<'

one fcarce fees anything but large meads, above aday's jour-

*'

ney, and covered with large

"

eat

any thing but

as

may

fle(h

cattle.

they

The

Miflburis feldom

much maize

only cultivate as

fcrvc for a change, and prevent their being cloyed

with beef and game, with which their country abounds.

*'

rirj the winter, which

*'

the
**

t'e^t'i

of

As Toon

fpent

with them, the fnow

Dii-

fell

to

fix feet.

as the winter

was over,

I refumed

**

along the banks of the Miflburi, and travelled

'

to the

fhie

nation of the welt,

*'

long journey to

*'

came; that

*'

[a

*'

fliould turn

*'

end of a few days,

*'

ran from

was

told,

my journey
till

came

that

it

was a

ccmtry, f-om whence both they and

th

yc:

I nnlft

t-ivel

during the fpace of a

we

moon

month] towards the fource of the Miflburi, that then I


to the right, and go direilly north, and, at the

caft

to

meet with another

I ftiould

river,

which

weft, quite contraiy to the courfe of the

" Miflburi; then I might fall down this river at my eafe upon
' rafts, until I came to the nation of the Loutres, or Otters,
" where
*'

might

reil,

and receive more ample and particular

inflviidions.

ceed

'11

BRITISH EMPIRE

144
ceed

from Greenland, and they have fomething

exceffively Ihocking in their air and mien.


flature

advantageous and their fkin

is

**

In purfuance of thefe

*'

Iburi,

*'

too foon

*'

was going

up the Mif-

travelled

night after I had kindled

wardi the place where the fun

*'

night there, and that

*'

of the

Loutres.

be furprifed, but

"

underlland each other by ligns.

**

three day,

*'

and her hiilband

*'

by the

one of the
left

travelled yet

me

**'

which time we came to

*'

When we

*'

canoci,

till

in order to return

home

along with them.

up the Milfouri fcven cafy days journey,

and then went directly north

where the hunters had

embarked

we came

days, at the

five

for

end of

river of very fine, clear water.

to the place

three

being near her delivery, Ihe

company,

the

**

all

made towards them, and

After I had been with them

women

road, and took

came

to pafs the

men and fome women. They feemcd to


We could only
received me civilly enough.

*'

we

and

probably they might be of the nation

immediately

found about thirty

"eafieft

fire,

immediately concluded

fet; I

was a party of hunters, who propofcd

*'

Wc

my

perceived fome fmoke at a diftance, to-

reft,

that this

in

one of them, and

to their village.

left their
fell

down

was very well

found that this wai indeed the

*'

received by them, and foon

nation of the Loutres, which I was in qucft of.

"

winter .ith thtm, and employed myfclf in learning their lan-

*^

guage, which tbev told

**

which

lay

me

vras undcrllood

by

all

I fpent

the

the nations,

between them and the great water.

The winter was

fcarccly enJed,

when

embarked

in a

canoe

**

with fome provifions, a pot to rook them, and fomcthing to

iir OKI,

**

rw a vrrv fmall nation, wbcjfe

to

*'

**

when one

* the river
ill: i?|

dlrciSlions,

t kind of

above a month, being afraid of turning off to the right

**

"

white, be-

naked. They wear

go

caufe they never

is

Their

and defccnded the

ba::ks, bluntly

demanded

river.

In

little

time, I

came

chief happciu^ig to be upon the

Who

art

thou'

What

bufnicfs haft

ihirf

N AM

made of

ihlrt

bladders, or

neatly

fewed together;

furtout

made of

the Ihirt

ih thy

thou here

though

my

A.

445

the inteftines

above

this

of

filh,

they wear a

To

cowl or hood, which covers the


hairs?

fhort

Moncacht-ape, that
that

a bear's, or fome other fkin.

fixed a

is

E R

told

my namewat

him

came from the nation of the Loutres,


hair was fhort, my heart wai good, and thea
I

my journey. He replied, that though I


might come from the nation of the Loutrei, he faw plainly
I was not one of that nation, and -vondered at my
fpcaking
hinted the defign of

the language.

I told

whofe name was


of Salt-tear,

him

who was one

to ftay in his village as

ed,

that I had learned

it of an old man,
no fooner heard the name

He

Salt-tear.

of his friendi, than he invited

me

Upon this I landhad ordered me to fee an old

long as I would.

and told him, that Salt-tear

man, whofe name was the Great Roebuck. This happened


to be the father of the chief: he ordered him to be called*
and the old
and led

me

man

received

me

at if I had been his

own

fon,

to his cottage.

" The next day he informed me of every thing I wanted to


told me that I Ihould be very hofpitably received

know, and
by

all

telling

the nations between

them

was the

them and

friend of the

the great water,

Great Roebuck.

on

I only

two days longer : I then put on board my canoe a flock


of provifion, prepared from certain fmall grains, lefs than
French peafe, which afford an excellent food, and immediateftayed

ly

embarked, and continued to

fail

down

the river, not flay-

ing above a day with each nation I met with in

" The

lafl

from tho

of

fea,

thcfe

nations

is

and about the race

from the river.

They

of the bearded men.

of a

live concealed

my

way.

fettled about a day's journey

man
in the

[near a league}

woods

was received by them

been one of their

own

upon

on account of the bearded men,

their guaul,

countrymen.

They

for fear

as if I

had

are continually

who do
head,

BRITISH

i4^

MP

RF

head, and terminates in a nift of hair that han 's


over their foreheads :
their Ihirt fills no low-

down

tr than their

?nd

loins,

behind; but that of the worn


* all

hangs lower

their furtout
.n

defccnds to her

they can to carry off youag people, without doubt, to

make them

**

whites, that they had a long black beard, which fell

upon

wer

wll as their

feet,

* fluffs; that their

and

where

when they faw

that

fmall

the red

men

and that

which, as

'cgs,

with red or yellow


and a great

noife,

[the natives]

we

great

them.

'

which yields

**

a fine yellow colonr;

the fun feis

[the weft]

in queft of a loft yc'

yellow liquor of a
>

fire,

more

an^

without doubt] which contained about


They added, that thefe ftrangcrs came from n

where

alfo covered

feafonc,

5r

that

that they

Itufft,

ft

down

(liort,

fliip,

<

"

hotf

weapons made a great

'

^^

in the

with

numerous than themfelves, they retired to a

**

*^

were thick and

their cloaths reached to the middle of tht

men were

ucarded

tlicfc

large, and covered

wre always cloathed, even

me

told

their brcait, that their bodies

their heads

They

(lavci.

ly

of

place

<w vood,

fine fmcll,

and which dyes

that obfcrving they

came every year

as foon as winter was over to fetch this wood, they


had, according to the advice of one of their old men, cut
down and
deflroyeJ all the trees, fince which time they had
not been
fo often troubled with the vifits of thefe bftardcd
men; but

that

they Hill vifited every ycai-

two

adjacent nations,

who

'

could not imitate their policy, becaufc the yellow

"

wood their countiy produced ; and that all the neighbouring nations had agreed to arm and join together,
the
approaching fummer, in order to deftroy thofe bearded men,

"

wood was

the only

at

*'

their next coming, and rid the country of them.

" As
*

"
"

had feen fire-arms, ami was not afraid of them, and

as the route they purpofcd to take


I
I

was

in quell of,

readily

they propofing

was the way to the nation

my

going along with them,

agreed, and as foon ai famaiev came,

maiched

mid-Iegj

IN AMERICA.
men wear

mid-leg; the

bree

with the hair inwards, and


ermine.

witi. furs

or

m-ide

flioes,

yf

They

ikins,

'^^s

made of

*o

(kins

the outfide

uc wear

1'

and

!i'

pumps

of the fan e

)ts

" with the warriors of thii natioa to the general rcndczvwii,


The bearded men came later than uf'ul this year. AVhilc w
waited for them, liic natives flic red me the i^ce where they

**

ufcd

to

lay

their

great

canoe

[the

Ihip.]

was be*

It

" twcen two high and long rocks, which formed the mouth of
" a fliallow river, the banks w
f ^cre covered with yel" low wood. It was agreed to
ambufli for the bearded
*' men, and that when they had
j, and were bufy in cutting
* the yellow wood, we flioul
e, furround them, and cut
** them off.
At the end of fcventeen days, two great canoes
" appeared, and they came to their ulual place between tlie
ocks.
'*

"

The

firft

thing the bearded

men

did after their arrival,

were two men privately placed upon the rocks to


obferve them) wai
fill certain
>vooden veffels with watti.
(

for there

>

" A the end of the fourth day th j irmcd and landed, an4
" went to cut wood. They had no fooner begun to cut than
" they were attacked on all fides, but notwithltanding our ut" moli efforts, we killed but eleven, all the reft gained their
**

little

"

launched into the great water, and difappeared.

canoes,

and fled to

their

great ones,

which foon

** Up<m examining the


dead, I found them to be lefs than we
" are, and very white ; their bodies were thick, and their heads
" large: about the m" .Idle
their head their hair was long.
" They wore no hats as you do, but had their heads bound
" about with a great
^i of fome fort of fluff; their cloaths
" were neither of wi,, nor hark, but of fonietliing like your
" old fluits, very foft and fine, and of different colour., [filk
" without doubt.] The coveri of their legs and feet were all
" of a piece I endeavoured to put on one of them but my
x

.ibove

^.^
^/

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IMAGE EVALUATION
TEST TARGET (MT-3)

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Photographic
Sciences
Corporation

23 WEST MAIN STREET


WEBSTER, NY. 14580
(716) 872-4503

Qi

BRITISH EMPIRE

248

above them,

over thofe,

and,

they are fometimes

fliod three

or four times in that

Their weapons are arrows, pointed with

manner.

Of

were too large.

eleven that were killed, only

the

two had fire-arms, powder and

found they did not carry fo fax as yours

**

mixed of

the large made the greateft part.

"

three

Thefe were the remarks

made upon

powder was

the bearded

which, leaving the warriors with wh'^

"

home, I joined thofe nations,


farther towards the weit

who w
we

and

**

the coaft,

which

*'

When we

came

**

were a great deal longer than with

**

Ihort.

I alked

**

none.

I refted with

*'

men

**

ther.

**

between the north and weft ; that

is

their

of grain, large, middle, ad

forts

and

I tried thefc pieces,

ball.

** coaft,

and

the hairy fide always inwards,

boots, with

* fcct

pumps and

other

ai I

but

men,

after

came, to return
fettled

re
.

fine

upon the

llowed the courfe of

between tu. north and the weft.

dircftly

to their fettlements, I obferved that the

them tha reafon of

them a

us,

it,

days

and the nights very

but they could give rae

confiderable time.

me that it was in vain for me to


They faid, that the coaft extended itfelf

told

Their old

proceed any far-

yet a great

way

afterwards turned Ihort to

it

**

the weft, and having run, for a confiderable diftance, in that

**

direftion, it

***

One

was cut by

of them added,

the fea directly from north to fouth.

that,

at

**

eafily

**

merly been dry land.

travelling

**

and defert,

**

me

**

advice, and returned by the


*'

**

rocks and (hallows

is

M. Le

They

farther,

dcftitiite

to return to

Such

and

any

the

in

afliiiiiig

low water,
the

all

one might

channel,

which had

joined to difluadc

me,

that the country

fee
for-

me from
was cold

of animals and inhabitants, and advlfed

my own

country.

way

I accordingly took their

that I came.

account Moncacht-ape gave

Page du Pratz

cbfcrves,

tiut

the

of his travels,

good

fenfe

and

the

IN AMERICA.
tht teetK of a fea-cow, or,

core

with

it,

fummer

they can pro-

iron; they are very adive,

live in

the open

promifciioufly

lie

when

249

and

air,

in

On

in caverns.

and

all

the

winter they

the fouth of

Hudfon's Bay, being the weftern part of Canada,

by

nations to

countries, inhabited

we ^are llrangers.

which

The French

the Matallins, the Mofonis, the Chrifti-

mention

naux, and

of

unknown

a vaft track of

lies

own, and

their

The

Affiniboils.

latter

diftant country; the other three

The

quin language.

have a dialcft

are thought to inhabit a very

fpcak the Algon-

Chriftinaux live to the north-

The

ward of Lake Superior.

Indians in the neigh-

bourhood of the River Bourbon, and thofe on the


River

but

Terefa, differ intirely in their language;

St.

faid, that

is

it

a hundred leagues from the

mouth of this river, it is unnavigable for fifty


more ; but that a paflage is found by means of
rivers and lakes which fall into it, and that afterwards

runs through the middle of a very fine

it

which continues

country,
'*

and proHity of

iloubt

'

beauled

*'

bourhootl of

YaKOiis to

man,

the

of the truth of

<* ftiorcs

men

aft the

ja^n.

l3ie

as far as the lake of the

it.

left

He

him but

little

room

inhabitants of fomt ifles in the nigh-

The

(liftance,

fartheft nation

in a ftrait line, from the

Moncacht-ape

vifited,

upon the

of the north- weftern ocean, according to the beft

M.

to

alfo thinks it probable that the

efti-

du Prati could make, from the number of his days

*<

mate

journeys, and rate qf travelling, fecms to be about a hyndicd

'*

Icdgues."

Vol.

I.

Affiniboils,

it,

BRITISH EMPIRE

250

from whence the

Afliniboils,

Thofe Indians are extremely


the other Indians of

river takes

its

rife.

fuperftitious, and, lil;e

Canada

they have notions


of a good and an evil genius; and believe the fun
to be the great divinity of the world.
They have
;

even a fpecies of
rate

facrifices, and when they delibeupon any matter of importance, their co\incils

are attended wlA feveral folemnities.


They aflemblc at the houfe or cabin of. fomc of then- chiefs by
break of day, and the mafter of it, after lightings
his pipe, prefcnts

he then turns
call

it

it

three times to the rifmg fun

with both

his hands,

from the

towards the weft, and invokes the favour of the


Thefe nations, though various and diftind:

deity.

from each

other, generally

go under the name of

Savannois, becaiafe of the favannahs, or

low lying

grounds, which they inhabit.

The

Savannois arc often at war with a kind of


Indians, inhabiting the banks of the Danilh River
and the Sea-wolf River, to the north of Hudfon's

Bay, ^vhich go by the name of Flat-fidcd Dogs


but it is obferved, that fuch wars are not attended

with thofe circumftances of horror and cruelty as amonft the other Canadians, for they are contented

with keeping one another's captives in prifon. The


Savannois have a notion of a future ftate; they think
'

el

that a

man who

w orld

at the

dies old, is born again in the other


age of a fucking child, and that if a

man goes young out of the world, when he arrives at


thq

;;

RE
kes

IN AMERICA.
its

lil^e

have notions
licve

the fun

They have
they delibehelr councils

They

aflem-

eh' chiefs

by

lightings

?ter

rifing

fun

from the

s,

'avourofthe

and diftind
he

name

of

T low lying

he becomes

fouls,

old!
their natural indolence, or the
barrcnnefs

country, renders the

when

ble, that

are

Either

of their
of theSavannois fo mlferahunting feafon is over, they

life

their

of provifions, and fome


have even
faid that
they eat their own fpecies.
Their
doarine of tranfmigration has a
very fingular
cffea:, for when a man grows
old, fo as to be a
burden both to himfelf and his
family, he
deftitute

a rope about

fixes

two

extremities

who

of

to

it

inftantly flrangles

crity.

The

neck,

his

fon-in-law

the

and prefents' the


he loves bell,

fon

him with

the utmoft ala'

obliged

is

to
the father-in-law in a kind of fervitude

live

with

he has
children; and their marriages are
aJvays mah
with the confent of their parents. They
burn
till

their

h a kind of
)anilh
)f

River

Hudfon's

idcd
lot

Dogs

attended

cruelty asa-

c contented
prifon.
;

country of

the

and,

IS,

251

rife.

The

they think

to M'hich

they affix tobacco, and if he

bow and

arrows

The

wodd,

^e arrives at

thq

all

that gave

charaa:er of a hunter

other
if a

with

hunter,

his

the barbarians in

enjoyments

the next

gree in
that

for,

was a

almoft every part of the globe, they


believe that
the deceafed are fond of the fame

that of a warrior,
in ,the
id

dead bodies, and, after wrapping the


aihes in the
bark of a tree, they b.iry them in
the ground,
and raife a monument to the deceafed,

it

much

them delight
is

in

in this.

with them equal to

and the candidate takes a deof that of the an-

in the nature

cient knights errant.


To qualify himfelf for this
degree, the candidate's face muft be
painted with
black, and for three days h(? muft tafte

nothing

teaif

BRITISH EMPIRE

4^2,
fcaft

the

then prepared, and a morfel of each of


animals, commonly the tongue and muzzle,
is

which on other
hunter himfelf,
great

As

fpirit.

occafioni
is

offered

is

the perquilite of the

up

as a facrifice to the

to the charaaer of ihofe Indians,

of people,
thy are faid to be a difintcreited kind
to hate lying.

and

In

the vaft extent of Canada, there are but


Alradical or mother tongues, the Sioux,

all

three

As

gonquin and Huron.

to the

firft, it is

impoffible

French
and neither
with thofe who
nor Englifli are much acquainted
all we know
life,
fpeak it. In their manner of

to fay

is

how

far

it

extends

greatly

that they

the

refemble the Tartars

for

to place, but generally


they wander from place
tents of well
dwell in meadows, under large

wrought ikins. Their food

is

wild oats, and the

their finiaof the buffalo. It is thought, by


difpofition, as well as rhe
tion, and their roving
which
commerce they carry on, that the Sioux,

flelh

name

is

a contraaion of the

word NadoccefTioux,

than any other people of the weftern


to.^^^hich the Europeans
parts of North America,
They cut ofl' the
fo much ftrangers.

know more
are

ftill

tips of their nofes,

<

-il

and

part of the fkin

upon the

imagine that they


top of their heads, and fome
in their accent and
creatly refemble the Chinefe
lan<yuage.

Before the Iroquois forced the Hurons


to take refuge amongft the Sioux,

amrOutawas
iti
!

the
^>1III

latter

were a harmlcfs people j and though the

IN AMERICA.

253

moft populous of all the Indian nations, till they


became warlike by their intercourfe with thofe iwo
people, they

knew

little

of the ufe of arms.

of

Affiniboils inhabit the borders of a lake

The

that name, of which the Europeans know very little.


This, perhaps, is the reafon why fo many wonders
are reported of

iburce of the

America
ceflible

but

it is

by reafon

which furround
fix

Probably

it.

greateft

is

next to

though

its

inac-^

Though

circumference

it lies

Superior, the climate

weft of Lake

The

it

in NortJ\

mountains and woods

of the

it;

the refervoir or

and lakes

certain that

hundred leagues.

mild.

it is

rivers

natives report, that

is

men

is

to the northfaid to

be

are fettled in

their neighbourhood, refembling Europeans, an4


in a country where gold and filvcr is put to the
pioft

common

ufes,

As

wnccrt^ain.

but

all

to the Affiniboils themfelves, they

are remarkably phlegmatic


froiji

their

thefe ftories are very

and

in this they differ

neighbours the Chriftinaux,

who

are

moft volatile and 'talkative of all the Indians,


being perpetually dancing and finging. The Af-

^c

iiniboils are great travellers,

and robuft in

By an

formed

their perfons.

acquaintancg with the Algonquin and

ron languages, a pcrfon

may

travel

Hu-

one thoufand

country without an

hundred leagues in this


terpreter i for though he may

five

for fatigue, tall

vifit

in-

above one hun-

dred different nations, each of which has a partioilar idiom, yet he can make himfclf underftood

by

I'

BRITISH EMPIRE

154
by

all

and even amongft the Indians of

Towards

Eijgland and Virginia.

Montreal the country

ifland of

but a few villages belonging


are

to

ftill

be met with.

who

Algonquins, and

As

language.

to the old inhabitants

Mention

is

a numerous

from a lake

met

preferve

the purity of that

the Outawas, though formerly

few of them

nation,

Lake

the banks of

with

ihort,

a traveller can

the Chriftinaux

and

know

He may

the world, without

rally

and

very

little

fineft

does

fo ftupid, fo cruel, fo

filhing
)v

.'..-ki

on

ftill

and hunting

in

lak^s and rivers

meet,

human

are

gene-

The few AU

be fecn appear

to

In

of- this

barbarous or Ihy, as

of agriculture,

notions

all

pofts

may make

fcarcely.to deferve that denomination.

of

be

meeting with a

he

thoi^

gonquin nations

to

wander over tboufands of

miles on the banks of the

creature

fome

Afliniboils.

country from the obfervations he

in

now

are

eftabliflied

Superior, where they carried on

trade

his journeys.

parti-

defcendants of the

The French

with.

made,

the

are

ftill

to

tlic

thinly i>eopled

is

cularly, of the Nipiffings, fo called

of that name,

New

the north of

and

to be void

fubfift

upon

and thefe daily dccreafe in

populoufnefs, though they allow themfelves a plu-

contain above

them

Few

of wives.

rality

not

The

two

fix

or

none of their nations

thoufand people, and

many of

thoufand.

Indians to the fouthward of the river St4

Laurence,

as far

as Virginia,

fpeak the

Huron

language.

N AMER

though

language,
iedt

ufed

is

almoft

in

certain,

is

it

every

the five nations or cantons,

A,

7,35

a diflercnt dia-

vUlage

even

which form the

Iro*

quois commonwealth, have each a different pronunciation.

cal languages

to

Sioux,

with

fo
is

it,

common

that

acquainted

of

it

do not

miffionarics

with the

fincft

language

have furmifed, that

limilar

found

and

has

it

with the Greek tongue,

and

fignification

would bid fair to


the Iroquois and the Hurons from the
whofe language was the mother of the

Greek; but

Hurons

This,

if true,

the Algonquin tongue excels that of the

fmoothnefs

in

an evident

and elegance.

partiality in the

favour of the

Huron

the true Hurons,

who

Many

origin

words of a

Celts,

The

compare

to

occur in both.
derive

The

language has great energy,

elevation.

known.

is

mentioned have annexed

the Europeans are

as

far

even fcruple
that

radi-

rather a hiffing than an articulation

and

pathos,

three

different original proi)crties.

The Huron

words.

we have

them three

that the

obferved,

It is

nation.

who

appear to have

There

French mifi

is

'aries, in

According to them,

are called Tionnonatez, and

been a prerogative

tribe

amongft thofe Indians, have an hereditary chieftainlhip anfwering to the European royalty, and
their police
tional

and form of government

is

more

ra-

and regular than thofe of the other Indian

nations,

who

fying and

likewife

improving

fall fliort

their

of them in

forti-

and

their

land,

in

buildings.

BRITISH fiMPlRE

56

They

buildings.

did

not

adnftit

of polygamy

tnd yt they were more populous than any of


their neighbouring tribes,

refpeft

more

focial

But

neighbours.^

and they were

in

every

and better polifhed than their


have

in vain

European au-

all

thors fcarched for the maxims, and even the forms

by

The

w^hich thefe people govern themfelves.

Hurons

true

are

now

reduced to two middling

villages at a great diftance

from each other, and

yet they govern the councils of

round them.

tions

all

the Indian na

But, notwithflanding

that

all

the French fay of this favourite race, they feem to

have been
this
J&

thofe

inferior

to

the Iroquois

and

makes it neceflary to give fomc account of


two nations immediately before the French

fettlemcnt at Qtiebec

monuments,

tical

any

war

in

we

certain accounts of

for,

they have no hifto-

as

cannot be expedled to give

them

till

near that period.

Some years before the time we fpeak of, the Iromade a league with the Algonquins

quois had

'I

who

poflTefled

great

tracks of

Que-

land near

bec, poffibly from Tadouflac to the lake Nipiffing,

and

all

rence.

along the north fhore of the river

The Algonquins had no

St.

rivals in all

Lau-

North

America, as hunters and warriors, the only two

manly characters
idea of.

that thofe barbarians have any

In the alliance between thofe

two people

the Algonquins were obliged to prote<5t the Iro-

quois from

all

invaders,

ihare of their venifen.

and

The

to let

them have

Iroquois,

on the other
hand,

IN AMERICA.

*57

hand, were to pay a tribute out of the culture of


the earth to their

and

allies,

perform for thcnl

to

the labours of agriculture and the menial du-

all

ties,

fuch as flaying the game, curing the

and drefling the


plain, that the

By

fkins.

this

flefh^

compromife

it

is

Algonquin nation had the poft of

honour ; but the Iroquois at

laft

came

to be piqued

which they thought their


By degrees they aflbciatc4
hunting matches and warlike expeditions of

the fmall efteem in

at

neighbours held them.


in the

the Algonquins,

who,

ing any jealoufy of


the Iroquois

at

them

firft,
;

were

far

from hav-

but, in procefs of time,

began to fancy themfelves as well

qualified as the

Algonquins were, both for war and

One

winter, a large detachment of both

hunting.

went out a hunting, and when they


thought they had fecured a vaft quantity of game,
fix young Algonquins, and as many Iroquois were
the nations

fent

by

out to begin the ilaughter.

this time, probably,

of their aflbciates, and,

wanted them

tc

The Algonquin*

had become a

upon

little

feeing a

jealous

few

elks,

go back, on pretence that the Iro-

would have employment fufficient in flaying


game they fliould kill. The fix Algonquins,

quois
the

however, after three days h rning,

killed none,

on which the Iroquois exulted, and in a day or

two they

privately

kt out

to

hunt by themfelves,

being provoked by the reproaches of the Algonquins for their inferiority.

The Algonquins

ing the Iroquois gone, and feeing

Vol.

I,

them

at

find-

night
return

BHItlSH EMPIRE

tjt

^th

tetumliden

j^inft thenii

game, cortceivedfo viotenti hlitrecl

riiat>

before morning, they butchered

who

all thfc Iro(]uoiS

were

in the exj^editionk

This

W93 the effedt of that capricious


which thofe barbarians in general ..ic

bltxkly ihaflk<bre

j^aldufy of

In vain did the Iroquois demand

fo ftifceptible.
'

for they received nothing

fiitisfadiion^

was the contempt

ib great

them.

by

Exftfiierateil

but

infults

the Algonquins had for


this

and yet

treatment,

tfraid to try rheir ftrength with the Algotiquins>

thef

ftifled their

ielvfes

refentment

to War, they

nattous^

till,

and to enure them-

upon other

fell

in a ihort time, they

|>ra6tiied in the art

powerful

lefs

became

of blood, (for war

it

fo well

ought not

to be called) that they thought themfelves a

match
Algon^ins, and fell u[K>n them with a
fury, which ihewed as if they could be fatiatcd
for the

tvith nothing lefs than the extermination of the

^Algonquin race.

The Hurons
country
I

^\'as

could not be neutral

for theit

environed by thofe of the two

gerent powers

they therefore took

i^art

belli-

with the

Algonquins, and the war was carried on, on the


part of the exafperated Iroquois, with diabolical
fury.

The

vi^orious
fide,

the

Iroquois,

it

is

true,

were generally

but no quarter being given on

war

either

threatened an utter extind:ion of

the three nations.

Amongft

viAory can be decifive

thofe

for the

all

barbarians no

numbers

in

which

they fight, arc fcldom above three or four hundred

I
dred on a
priic^

N AM

Ai

,(|

j9

ar J every thing bcii^ done by fut-

fide,

the inhabitants

of"

whole

may be

the conquering party,

BloQdfhed and

5;

village,

even qf

cut off ^U at

o(k^

only to cxafix?ratc thet^

lofles ferve

and the vidors feek death and dagger at fuch di^


tancc* from their own homes, that conque(l itfclf is
fure to diminilh their ni^bers.
riod of

time,

we

that

the hiilory of Canada,

It

is

at this pe-

arc properly to take

which begins with

u^

its firft

difcovery, while thofe

wars between the Iroquoisi


the Algohquins, which \ye |i;^ve ipo^cn of, an4
HuroBs were raging*

And

here

we

fcription given
ter

think- it proper to fubjoin the dci

by

father Marquette, a

who

Illinois,

differ

known by the name of


many refpedts from th^

in:

Jroquois and other nations of

and with
tion

this

men,

favagps

account

North America;,

we

ihall

in

their

conclude the fec-

The word
fies

French wri-

of the tribe of Indians,

Illinois,

language,

as beafts

that they arc not

and^ truly,

it

altogether

in

^gnU

upon

the other

may be

confeffed,

as if they ihowld look

the wrong,

for

more humanity than moft of the other


Indian nations, and alfo differ from them in mjiny.
of the cufloras and manners which they adopt.
they have

They

are divided into feveral

fome arc remete from thofe that


call

them Perouarea.

hi

villages,

have

But as they
z

whereof

feen, they

live

fo

fas^

one

6ne from the other, their language is tlfo verj'


different: however, it is a dialcft of the Algonquin,

and

^hat

they fay, and to convcrfe with them.

thefe

are

latter

able

to

underftand

They
They

are good-natured men, tractable and eafy.

keep

and yet they are exceedingly

feveral wives,

jealous; they obferve

with great care their be-

haviour, and if they find them in any fault as to


their chaftity, they cut their nofes

there are feveral of them,


faces thefe

The

marks of

Illinois

dextrous.

They

and ears

carry

upon

and
their

their infidelity.

well Ihaped,

and very

good marks-men

\vith their

very

are

who

are

arrows and fmall guns, with which they are fup-

by the favagei, and have a commerce with


This makes them formidable to

plied

the Europeans.

other nations, inhabiting

have no arms.

The

to

Illinois

the

who

wcftward,

knowing how much

thefe are frighted at the noife of their guns,

make

excurfionl very f&r to the weftward, and

being
from thence, which they barter with other

ilaves

Indians for the commodities they want.

Thofc

nations are altogether ignorant of iron tools,


their knives, axes,

of

and
and other inftaiments, are made

and other iliarp flones. When the Illigo upon any expedition, the whole village

flints,

nois

mufl have notice of

make

an

out-cry

it,

and therefore they ufe to

at the

door of their huts the

evening before they go, and the morning they


arc to

fet

out.

Their captains arc diftinguiflied

from

IN AMERICA.
from the

foldiers

by

hair of bears, or

wild oxen, that are curioufly

They have abundance of game; and

wrought.
their foil

made with the

certain fcarffs,

is

feldom

fo fertile, that their Indian corn

and therefore they feldom fuffer by famine.


beans and melons, which are excellent, and
fow
They
cfpecially thofe whofe feed is red.
Their cabins are very large ; they are made,
fails,

covered, and paved, with mats

of marih rulhcs.

made
which

Their dilhes arc of wood, but their fpoons are

with the bones of the ikuUs of wild oxen,

them very

they cut fo as to render

They hav^

their fagamite, or pottage.

cat

towards

cians,

whom

convfenient

they are

to

phjrfi-

when

ry liberal

they are fick, thinking that the operation of the

remedies they take,

is

proportionable to the prefents

they make to thofc who have

prefcribed them.

have no other cloaths but the Ikins of


an extraordinary fuperftition,

it

muft be fome myftery inth


marry,

and work

in

and

certainly there

matter; for they never

women,
below then* to do. They

go, however, to the wars

ufe only a club, and not

bows and

as they fay, only for men.

but they muft


arrows, which,

They

are

fit,

all

the fuperftitions of their jugglers,

folemn dances

in

When
in their

the cabins -with

which other men think it

may

off;

is

By

beafts.

feme of the lUinoit

and Nadonefians wear women's apparel.


they have taken the fame, which they do
youth, they never leave

They

affift

and

at

their

honour of the Calumet, at which


they

.1

BRITISH J&MpiRE

|$

may fing, but


dnicc. They are
tiiey

90tbiiig

Uwful

not

is

called to

their

for

them tf

councHs,

anc^

determined without their advice; for

is

tewtfe of

it

way

their extraordinary

of living, they

aregeBeraliy looked upon as great and incomparably


!

The Calumet,
^nWorld. The

the moft extraordinary thing }i|

^s

fccptrea of our kings are no| fo

DBUch refilled; for the iavages l>ave fuch a

de-<

rfe:e for this pipe, that theyfeemtotlnnkit the gO(t


t^p^9f:Cf and war, and the arbiter of

Ope,

v^tih this

tnfft6^si^

and

C^umet^ may

of peace

They make
aod

venlui:^' aipiong hi%

iacjed piipe-

different fionA,t)iiit:

is

Their
of war.

ufc of the former to |(l;^heit alliances,

treaties, to travel

gcfs ; and the other

of a red

and death*

in the hottcft engagements, they lay

4wtou ^cir arms before the


CalpiiJct

lif<5

Jione,

with

is

fafety, aind receive ftran^^

to proclawi war.

It is

Hkc our marble;, the head

car conurion tobacco pipes, but larger; and


fixed to a hollow reed

They adorn

it

with

sftd they called

it

hold

ftne feathers

it

made

is

like
it is

for fraoaking.

of feveral colours^-

the aiiimet of the fun, to

whom

they prefcnt it, efpecially when' they want a change


cf weather, thinking that that ptoet can have
iu> leis refi)edt for it than.

men

have, and therefore

that th^y ihall obtain their dcfirei.

waih themfclves
fummer, or taftc
i

in rivers in the
tlie

new

fruit

Tl^y dare not


beginning of the

of

trees,

before

they

IN AMERIC/L
tky have dinced

whidi diqr

the '^aiutnet,

*^l
do m

tbe fbilowing manncf

Tkisdancxrof cheaiiumet

is

^ich

amofigft the iavages,

afolemn

tmportaat occaifions, to confirm an


to

make peace with

them; and,

in this cafe,

badl.

They perform

cabins,

and

in

open

alliance^

we may

it

comes to

confider

it

vifit

as their

in winter time in their

fields in

chufe for this purpofe, a

or

They ufe it

their neighbours.

to entertain any nation that

alio

oefenioo|'

they perform upon

fet

the fummer.

among

place

They

trees,

t9

&eiter themfelves againft the heat of the fun,

and

middle a large mat as a carpet,

fct-

lay in the

ting

upon

who

give the ball; for every one has his [peculiar

it

whom

god,

the

god of the chief of the company

they call manitoa:

it

is

a bird, a ferpent, or any thing

ftone,

dream of

in their ileep;

for they

fometimes a
elfe that

think that this

manitoa will profper their undertakings, as


hunting, and other enterprlfes.
their

they

To

filhing,

the right of

manitoa, they place the calumet, as their great

making round about

deity,

with their

arms.

it,

All things

a kind of trophy

being

thus

def-

and the hour of dancing coming on, thofe


are to fing take the moil honourable feats

pofed,

who

under the Ihade of the

trees,

or the green arbours

they make, in cafe the trees be not thick enough to

Ihade

them.

Every body

round

about,

ikluted

the manitoa,

as

they

fits

down

come, having

afterwards
firft

of

all

which they do by blowing


the

BRITISH EMPIRE

'^54

the fmoke of their tobacco upon

afterward^

it;

every one of the company, in his turn, takes the

calumet, and, holding


cet with

it,

it

This preludium being


the dance

with both

his hands, dan^*

following the cadence of the fongs.

who

over, he

is

and, having taken the calumet, prcfents


iiin,

would

as if he

moves

it

number of

poftures, fome-

near the ground, then ftretching

it

wings

as if he

lenting

it

would make
all

of this favage

it

who fmoke

with

This

ball.

itt

and then pre-

fly,

the while.

to the fpedrators,

ftcr another, dancing


^rft fcene

to the

it

invite him to fmoke; then he

into an infinite

times laying

to begin

middle of the alTembly,

appears in the

The

it

one

is

the

fecond

is

fight with vocal and inftrumental mufic (for they


Ixave a

kind of drum, which agrees pretty well

with the

voices).

The

perfon

who

dances with die

calumet, gives a fignal to one of their warriors,

who takes

bow

and arrows with an axe, from the

trophies already mentioned, and fights the other,

who
i>f

them dancing

over,
^(Si

defends himfelf with the calumet alone, both

he

who

all

the while.

The

fight beingj

holds the calumet makes a fpeech,

wherein he gives an account of the

battles

he has

fought, and the prifoners he has taken, and then


receives a

chief of the ball

another,

or Ibme other prefent

gown,

who

a third, and

he then gives the calumet to

having afted
lb to

all

returns to the captain,


-.I

from the

his

part, delivers

the others,

who

prefents

till

it

it

to

the calumet

to the nation
iDvited>

AMERICA.

IN

invited unto the feaft, as a

mark of

and a confirmation of their

Such

is

265

their friendihip,

alliances.

the account of the ceremonies of thefe

we thought
worth prefenting to the reader, and with which
people,

we

which,

for

their

oddity,

ihall conclude, for the prefent,

our account of the

Indian nations inhabiting North America, and pro-

ceed to fpeak of the French fettlement of Canada,

now, both by conqueft and

ceflion,

become a pro-

vince of the Britilh empire.

O F

CABOT,
failed

under

NAD

C A

the famous Italian adventurer,

a commiffion

venth of England, was the


vaft extent

A.

prince, probably,

fetdement there.

from Henry the Se-

who difcovered that


now goes under the

firft

of country, that

name of Canada

who

but the frugal maxims of that

hindered his

The

making any regular

difcovery, however, took air,

we find the French fifhing for cod on the


banks of Newfoundland, and along the fea-coaft
of Canada, in the beginning of the fixteenth cenand

Nay, about the year 1506, one Denys, a


Frenchman, drew a map of the Gulph of St, Laurence, and within about 'two years, Aubert, a
tury.

Ihip-mafler

of Dieppe,

feme of the natives of Canada.


the Spanilh conquefls in

make a
VoL,

great noife
I.

all

over to

carried

Some

France

time after,

South America began to

over Europe

Mm

but the difcovery

BRITISH EMPIRE

266

new

very of this

country not promiling the fame

amazing mines of gold and

Mexico
feem

contained,

have

to

of France, a

the French,

command

years,

Francis

it.

and enterprifing prince,

in the year 1523, fent four Ihips,

laft,

I.

at

under the

of Verazani, a Florentine, to profecute

\difcoveries in that country.

We

are

is to the particulars of Verazani's

All

fome

for

entirely neglected

fenfible

Peru and

filver that

we know

is,

dark

in the

firft

expedition.

that he returned to France,

and

the next year he undertook a fecond, in which he

touched

at the iiland

of Madeira, from whence he

directed his courfe to the American coaft.

proaching

came

In ap-

he met with a violent ftorm

it,

fo near the coaft, that he

faw the

but

natives

on

and could difcern Ihem making friendly

Ihore,

iigns inviting
pra5ticable,

one of the

him

by

to land.

This being found im-

reafon of the furf

failors

upon the

threw himfelf into the

fea

coaft,
;

but,

endeavouring to fwim back to the

fhip, a furge

threw him on

life.

fhore, without figns of

He was,

however, treated by the natives with fuch care and


humanity, that he recovered his ftrength, and Was
fufFered to
ately

fwim back

to the Ihip,

which immedi-

returned to France; and this

known

of Verazani's fecond voyage.

is

all

that

is

After this,

he embarked on the third expedition, but was


no more heard of; and it is thought that he and
all his company periftied before he could form
any colony.
"'^

'

Though

IN AMERICA.
Though Canada gave
gold, filver,

or

importance to which
raged, therefore,

the French no aflurance of

diamond mines,

enough of the country


it

be

to

might

fenfible

fet fail,

Cape Bonavifta

May

fuccefs,

in April,

following, he ar-

He

Newfoundland.

in

had with him two fmall


hundred

Malo,

difcou-

under a commiflion from the French

king, and, on the tenth of


rived at

'

of the vaft

Not

by Verazani's want of
St.

kdew

they

yet

arrive.

one Jaques Cartier, a native of


1534,

267

ihips,

and twenty-two men,

containing

one

and he cruifed

along the coaft of Newfoundland, on which he


difcerned inhabitants, probably the Efquimaux, in
the drefs

we have

But though he found

defcribed.

many commodious harbours,

yet the land

was

le

uninviting, and the climate fo cold, that he fet


fail

for the

leurs,

fultry

gulph, and entered the Bay of Cha-

or Heats, as he called

it,

on account of the

weather he then met with.

This bay

Leaving

by fome called Spanifh Bay.

it,

is

Cartier

landed at feveral other places along the coaft of


the gulph, and took poUeffion of the country in

the

name of

method

his

a cheap
Returning to

moft Chriftian majefly

of obtaining

France, that monarch,

dominion,

upon

his report,

in

1535,

gave him a commiflion, and fent him out with a


large force.

After

meeting with various ftorms

and feparations, the three Ihips he had with him


rendczvoufed in the gulph

by

St

but he was compelled

tempeft to take refuge in the port of

Mma

St.

Nicholas.

BRITISH EMPIRE

a68
Nicholas.

From

thence he

on the tenth of

failed,

Augult, and gave the gulph the name of

from

rence,

val; and

his entering

name of

Lau-

on the day of that

fefti-

river now^

the

Faffing by the

the

it

St.

retains

the fame name.

of Anticofti, to which he gave

ifle

up

AflTumption, he failed

the river Sa-

guenay, and anchored by a fmall illand to which he

gave the name of Coudres, or Hazels, from the numbers of thofe trees growing upon

Returning

it.

and proceeding up the

from thence,

Laurence, he came to an illand


that he called

it

the

ille

of Bacchus

He

goes by the name of Orleans.

river

St.

of vines,

fo full

but

it

now

had, the

laft

time he was in Canada, the precaution to cany

two Americans with him to France, where they


learned as much of the language as enabled them
to ferve for interpreters between him and their countrymen.
Sailing up a fmall river, he had an interview with an Indian chief

called

Donnacona, and

he then heard of an Indian town,


ga, which was,

as

it

were, the metropolis

whole country, lying on an


the

and other works

tioned,

and

with fome kind of

fufficient to

defend

it

The* inhabitants proba-

againlt a fudden attack.

bly were the Hurons,

of the

now known by

ifland,

name of Montreal, provided

palifadoes,

Hochela-

called

whom we

they treated

have already men-

Cartier

tendants^ with an equal degree

and

his

at-

of hofpitality and

aftoniihment at their perfons, drefs, and accoutre-

ments.
-ihip,

He

had

at

this

time with

and two long boats, having

him only one


left

...

the

reft at

St,

IN AMERICA.
St.

169

Croix, to which he returned, and there fpent

the winter, which proved fo fevere, that he and his

people muft have perifhed of the fcurvy, had they


not,

by

the advice of the natives,

made

ufe of

decoAio'n of the bark and tops of the white pine.

was ungenerous enough to kidnap

Carrier

his In-

dian friend, Donnacona, and to carry him, in the


fpring, to France.

gold and

filver, all

and the

fettlement,

But, not being able to produce

he

about the

faid

utiliy

of the

was

fruitfulnefs of the country

defpifed

by the public

berval,

who was by

fo that

in

'

the year

j 540,
de
Rohe was obliged to ferve as pilot to monfieur

viceroy

with

who

of Canada, and

five

veflels.

command

king appointed

failed

Arriving in

Laurence, they built a


tier to

the French

the

from France

Gulph of

and Roberval

fort,

a garrifon in

it,

St.

Car-

left

and went back

in

perfon to France, from whence he returned with


additional recruits to his

wards

failed

up

the river

new
St.

fettlement.

He

after-

Laurence, as far as that

of Saguenay, where, by means of a Portuguefe,

he endeavoured, but in vain, to find out a northwefl:

paflage to the Eaft Indies.

and captivity of Francis

the attention of the French

for

The

fome

expeditions

time, diverted

from improving

this

fettlement; but in 15491 Roberval and his brother, of whom we have a great charader, with a

of adventurers, embarked for the

numerous

train

river

Laurence,

St.

and

never were

heard

of

more.

This

BRITISH EMPIRE

i70
This

fatal accident

difcouraged the public, and


government of France fo greatly, that fof fifty
years no meafures were taken for fupplying the
French fettlcrs that ftill remained in Canada. At
laft, Henry IV. apix)inted the marquis de la Roche.
a Breton gentleman, lieutenant-general of Canada,
Hochelaga, Newfoundland, Labrador, and the

l>ay

and

of

river

Laurence,

St.

This gentleman
from France, in the year 1598,
and landed on the Ifle of Sable, which lies about
fet fail

fifty

in a Ihip

leagues to the fouth-eaft of

rfiirty-five

thought

eaftward of Canfo.

Cape

Breton, and

The marquis abfurdly

to be a proper place for erecting a


but no place could be more unfit for it

this

fettlement

than this was, being fmall, and without any port,


producing nothing but briars. It is narrow, and
has

bow.

the Ihape of a

In the middle of

it

a lake about five leagues in compai*r>, and the


ille itfelf is about ten.
It has a fand-br nk at each
is

end, one of which runs north-eaft and

the other fouth-eaft.

It

ealt,

and

may

be fcen feven or eight leagues


of the

contains

fettlcrs

The

pedition.

time on

by

has fand-hills, which

The

off.

the hiftory

of

hiftory

this

ex-

manjuls, after cruifing for fome

the coaft

of

Nova

Scotia,

returned

to

France, without being able to carry them off the


miferable ifland

having

loft

all

and there he died

his

intereft

his wretched colony,

of grief for

at that court.

As

for

they muft have periftied had

not a French Ihip been wrecked upon the ifland,

and

a. few llieep

driven

upon

it

at the

fame time.

tN AMERICA.

vpi

With

the boards of the wreck they ercAed huts


;
with the fheei,
^^^V Supported nature, and when
they had cat them up they lived on filh ; but
their

deaths wearing out, they made coats of feals-fkins,


and in this miferable condition they fpent
feven

when Henry IV. ordered Chetodel, who


had been pilot to La Roche to bring them
to
years,

France.

Chetodel

found only twelve of them


and when he returned, Henry had the curiofity to fee them in their feal-lkin drcfles
; and their
appearance moved him fo much, that he ordered
them a general pardon for their offences, and gave
each of them fifty crowns to begin the world
wirii
alive,

anew.

Though La Roche's patent had been very ample


and exclusive, yet private adventurers had ftill traded to the river St. Laurence, without any notice
being taken of them by the government. Amongft
others was one Pontgrave, a merchant of St. Malo,

who

Ijad

made feveral trading voyages for furs to


Upon the death of La Roche, his pa-

Tadouffac.
tent

was renewed in favour of Chauvin, a command-

der in the French navy, and he put himfelf under


the diredtion of Pontgrave.
In the year

Chauvin,

attended by

him, made a

1600,
voyage to

Tadouffac,

where he left fome of his people,


and returned with a very gairtful quantity of furs
to France.

Next

with the like

ame

time.

year he renewed the fame voyage

goo4

fortune,

was preparing for the

third.

but he died while he

The many

fpecimens

0f

BRITISH EMPIRE

ftT*

f orof'
llKfr

.o

brmade by

the Canadian trade, had

Ji to think tavourably of it

.,

govcinr of

Ihe

Diep[)c,

L,jve been, to

hi?

Ie<f

and de Chatte,

Picceeded Chauvin,

DcChac

governor of Canada.

*s

as

fcheme feems to

ve carried on that trade with France

by a company of Rouen merchants and adventuAn armament for ii s purpofe was accord-

fcfi.

ingly equipped,

and the

command of

given to

it

Pontgravc, with powers to extend his difcoverics

up

the River St.

fquadron

failed

Laurence.

in

Pontgravc with his

having

1603,

in his

company

Samuel Champlain, afterwards the famous founder


of Quebec, who had been a captain in the navy,
and was a man of
Tadouflac they

and

parts

fpirit.

left their fliips there,

Arriving at

and

in a long-

boat they proceeded up the river as far as the

of

St.

Louis, and then returned

to

FallLi

By

France.

this time de Chatte was dead, and was fucceeded in

his

De Monts, whofe commit-

patent by the Sieur

fion for an exclufive fur-trade extended

from

forty

is,

from

Virginia almoft to the top of Hudfon's Bay.

He

to

fift}^-five

degrees of north latitude, that

had. I'kewife the


forty-iix

and

power of granting
being

lands as far as

lieutenant-gentral

waole extcnfive province,

it

may be

of that
that

faid

The French merchants

was

at his difpofal.

now

fo well reconciled to the

Monts was foon enabled

to

Canadian trade,

th ':';.'

form a company

iiiore

confidcrable than any that had yet undertaken

and

>-!io

Clulivc

it

^vzrc

it,

refolved to avail tliemfelves of their ex-

v'TJt.

With

IN AMERICA;
With
Monts

view they

this

in perfon

took the

73

out fourfliips: D(-

fitted

comma

of two of thcr
and was attended hy Champlain, and a gentleman,
called Pontrincourt,

with a number of volnnrcer

Mps was

Another of the

adventurers.

deftined

on the fur-trade at Tadoulfac, and the


fourth was given to Pontgravc, who, after touchto carry

Nova

ing at Canfo, in

Scotia,

was ordered

the fea

between Cape Breton and

and to

clcai-

k of

all

St.

interlopers.

to fcour

John's Ifland
It

was on the

feventeenth of
ed

March, 1614, when De Monts, failfrom Havre dc Grace, and, touching at Acadia:

he there confifcated the Nightingale, an interloping veflel which


he found in the harbour.

He

then

fleered

towards

another haven,

which he called Mutton-haven, on account of a


iheep that tumbled over board there, and where
he remained for a month.
this

while

fituation

upon a
L'ifle

for

they had
tion

St.

which he

I'

by the name of
half

but

it

this

foon appeared that

a very injudicious choice of a fitua-

fettlement

had been

^^^-

called

he pitched

He was followed to

for

fowcd there produced very


they

at lafl

John's River, and about

De Monts;

made

fur a

and

fettlement,

league in circumference.

by M.

all

Croix, about twenty leagues to the

St.

weftward of

ifland

Charnplain was

long-boat in fearch, of a proper

ifland

little

de

in

very

though the corn they


and though

line crops,

fuccefsful

in

clearing

the

ground.

BRITISH EMPIRE.

174

ground, they found themfelves,

when winter came


wood for firing,

on, without frelh water, without

and,

to

crown

ing

their

misfortunes,

without frelh

To fave themfelves the trouble of bring-

provifions.

water from the continent^ many of the


drank melted fnow, which filled the

frelli

new

fettlcrs

little

colony with

difeafes,

ind fwept many of them


ces determined

De Monts

particularly the fcurvy,

Thofe inconvenien-

off.

to

remove

his fettlement

to Port Royal, which has fince been called

An-

napolis Royal, and which, during the winter,

had
been difcovered by Champlain.
By this time,
Pontgrave was returned to St. Croix from France;

and found

that colony almoft ruined, but agreed

with

De Monts

court

was

fo

tion,

that

De Monts,

made

in fettling at

Port Royal.

much enamoured of
in virtue

this

Pontrin-

new

fitua-

of his commiffion,

over to him, and appointed him, at the


fame time, to be his lieutenant-general, upon Ponit

trincourt's propofing to fend for all his family to fettle at

Port Royal.

De Monts

then returned

to

France, where matters had taken a turn not at


favour; for the French court began to
think they had gone upon very miflaken maxims
all in his

in the exclufive privilege that had been granted

him.
trade

The maders of

the fifhing vefltls, the bed

which France then had, made the miniftry


De Monts, on pretence of preventing

fenfible that

the trading with the natives, kept them from the


nccellarics

fit

for filhing,

and that they were upon


the

IN AMERICA.
thei)oint of

abandoning the

175

upon which
Dc Monts's patent was revoked, though ten yean
of it were ftill to run. This did not damp De
fiiheries;

Monts; he entered into new engagements with

who was

Pontrincourt,

and

the latter

then likcAvife in France;

again failed for America, in an arm-

ed veflel from Rochelle in 1606.

By

the time they

had arrived at Canfo, the fettlement at Port Royal,

which had been

left to

reduced to fuch
to

re-imbark

he

left

the care of Pontgrave,

difficulties,

all

was obliged

the inhabitants but two,

to take care of the

Before he

ry off.

that he

left

effecfls

was

whom

he could not car-

the bay of Fundy, he heard

of Pontrincourt's arrival at

Canfo, upon which

he returned to Port Royal, where the other ar-

about the fame time.

rived

The

relief

Pontrincourt brought to his infant colony,


fo feafonably that it
its

again held up

profperity was, in a

and

the fpirit
yer,

who,

of

abilities

partly

At

far
his

and

owing

to

to Pontrincourt^

made

this

Pontgrave, the ableft

voy-

man by

of any concerned in the projed, had refigned

command, and

De

affairs,

Monts,

all

concerns with Pontrincourt;

who had fomewhat

abandoned

all

His company,

two

fliips,

who never had


which

retrieved his

connexion with Acadia, and

was applying himfelf tothc fur-trade


out

but

Carbot, a French law-

from friendlhip

this time,

head;

great meafurc,

Le

and partly through curiofity, had


age.

its

which
came

at

Tadouffac.

forfaken him, fitted

failed for the

River

St.

Laureice

BRITISH EMPIRE

^76

rence in the fprlng of the year 1608.

THe

fur-

was now become very confiderablc, and the


company, which was mollly compofed of St. Male
trade

merchants,

throve exceedingly

but

De

Monts,

finding their interefls were hurt by his remaining


at their head, entirely withdrew from the
aflbcia-

upon which the company was re-inftated in


and the ufe which they made of
them, was for thei- private emolument.
tion;

their privileges,

Very

who,
in

different w^ere

after

examining

the

all

views of Champlain,

the moft promifing places

Acadia, and on the river

chofe

Quebec

to fettle in.

He

St.

Laurence, at

arrived there

lafl

on the

third of July,

1608, and, after building fome barracks for lodgings for his people, he began to
clear
the ground where they fowed wheat and rye,

produced

vafl returns.

which
Champlain then went back

turned to France, but revifited his colony in 16


10,
and found them in a healthful, profperous condition.

It

was

at this

time that the Iroquois bade

fair to -exterminate the Algonquins,

and the

whofe country Quebec was

fituated,

rons, in

who,

in

hopes of the French

tremely complaifant to the


lain,

afliflance,

new

on the other hand, did not

fettlers.
fail

Hu-

and
were ex-

Champ-

to give

them

the encouragement they could defire, and


fupplied them with provifions when the hunting
all

::r;

!
'

''5?

fea-

fon

was

when they were reduced to


The Hurons, in the f])ring of

over, and

grcatcft diftrcfs.

the

the
year 16 jo, widi their afTociatcs, prepared to take
the

AMERICA.

11*

'

power and

ed to join With them.

Champlain,

in

27^

and Champlain, ignorant of the great


fiercenefs of their enemies, was perKiad-

the fidd,

who

This

ftep

was

impolitic

did not forefee that,

of humbling the Iroquois, and uniting

all

dians of that continent with France, he

inftead

the In-

was

for-

cing the Iroquois to throw themfelves under the


proteftion of the Englilh and Dutch.
He em-

barked on the River Sorel, then called the River


of the Iroquois, with his allies; but after advanc-

up it for about fifteen leagues, he was flopped by the Fall of Chambly, and forced to fend

ing

back

Though he had

chaloup to Quebec.

his

been affured that this Fall would flop his chaloup,

he continued to march, attended only by two French-

men,

who

their

canoes over the bearing places, as they are

carried

they launched them again above the Fall,

called,

and then he purfued

their

which he gave

own

his

voyage through a lake, to


name, which it Hill re-

and where the River

tains,

aftenvards found a fecond


the

Having

refufed to leave him.

Sorel

fall at

They

ends.

the farther end at

communication with Lake Sacrament.

During

this

voyage, Champlain received great

illands

from the promifing appearance of the


by which he had pafled, but was lliocked

by the

fuperftitions

pleafure

pofitions

of

of his

new

allies,

their fpiritual jugglers.

and the im-

One of

thofe

always attends upon their armies, and covering


himfelf

up with

Ikins,

from thence he emits various


founds.

EMPIRE

iBRITISH

7S

founds, but fuch as do not refcmblc hur^stn,


and
he pretends come from the god of war.

ivibich

The fame
lion

jugglers pretend to the fpirit of divinaand when Champlain ufed to reproach them

for their repeated failures, in

what>they had

fore-

had always fomc excufe ready. The


tricks of thofe mountebanks, however, were attended with one very bad effed:, that they infpircd
told, they

their

votaries with a fpirit of raflinefs

leflhefs,

by generally prediding

and carethem good fuc-

to

<3efs.

Upon

the borders of the

the Iroquois

it

battle

thought to have furprifed


It

being then

late,

to defer the battle

it

till

Lake Sacrament

ftood

though the Hurons


them in their village.

array,

was

agreed, on both fides,

next morning.

Champlain

in the meantime, attended by a party of his fa-

vages, and

his

neighbouring

were

in

two Frenchmen, withdrew

wood

number about

fo

that

the

to

Iroquois,

who

tw^o hundred, feeing but

handful of their enemies, made themfelves fure of


vkflor)'.

They were commanded by

three chiefs^

who were diftinguilhed by larger plumes


on

their

were pointed out by the Hurons


who, as foon as the battle began,
party out of his retreat, and,

charge of

his

firelock, killed

and dangeroufiy wounded the


jiation

of feathers

heads, than thofe the others wore, tnd


to

Champlain,

ifllied

with

hisf

firft

dii^

with the

two of their

chiefs,

The

confter-

third.

and ailoniihment of the Iroquois at the appearance

IN AMERICA.

47^

pcirance of Champlain with his


as well as at the report

anns,

was

two companions,
and execution of his fire-

he was rechargtwo companions having kill-

inexpreffiblc; and, while

ing his mulkct, his

ed fome more of the Iroquois with

my

fell

into

and

total rout,

could before the vidiorious

and took others

prifoncrs.

theirs, the

ene-

fled as faft as

they

allies,

The

who

killed fome^

allies

then, hav-

ing none killed, and only fourteen or fifteen


ed, fell

upon

the fpoils of the

field,

fome maize, which they devoured, and


a very feafonable relief to them, their
vifions

As amongft

proved

own

pro-

thofe barbarians, the conquerors, as

conquered,

the difpatch they can,

ter travelling

it

of

now entirely exhaufted.

being

well as the
all

wound-

confiiling

make

their retreat

with

the vid:or Hurons, af-

about eight leagues, flopped and

inti-

mated to one of their captives, that he muft die by


the

fame cruel torments that

often inflicted

upon

en into their hands.


(Irated

by

his

nation had

who

had

fo

fall-

Champlain ftrongly remon-

againft this jnhumanity

gain, either

his

their brethren,

but

authority, or

all

his

he could
intreatics,

was, that he ftiouid be mailer of the captive's fate,

upon which he immediately Ihot him dead.

The

vidors then opened the body, threw the bowels

and

into

the lake,

legs,

but without touching the trunk, though be-

fore

they have been faid to feed upon

French

lay,

cut

off the head, the arms,

it.

The

they kept the Icalp, and cut the heart


ia

BRITISH EMPIRE

^So

which they forced

in pieces,

the prifoners to eat

fmall pieces; but that the brother of the c^eceafed,

who
after

amongft the

\vas
it

had been crammed

nations of the

Algonquins,

The
ed

captives, fpit out his part

allies,

the

in

Hurons,

to their

own

country, and the

lafl to

approached that village, they

upon the

necks by

way

fwam

theni-

and

to their canoes,

hung them round

fcalps,

long

Their wo-

them than they threw

ielves into the river,

feizing

As they

tied the fcalps to

poles, as the fignals of their triumph.

fooner faw

retreat-

Tadouflac,

where they were joined by Champlain.

men no

were the

and the Montagnez.

remained at Quebec; the fecond

firft

The

mouth.

into his

this expedition,

They

of ornament.

their

offered one

to

Champlain, but he refufed

it, and they made him


a prefent of fome bows and arrows, which they
had taken from the enemy, and which they begged

Mm to prefent to the French


upon

he being

king,

now

his return to France.

Champlain, not meeting with a Ihip at Tadoliflac, returned to Quebec, from whence he and
Pontgrave once more embarked for France, leaving the command of their promifing colony to Pe-

ter

Chauvin.

They waited upon

majefly at Fontainblcau

nada received the name of

New

merchants,

I.e

Gendre and

the compan}^, foon procured

it

was

that

Ca-

France, by which

the French afterwards affeded to

Two

moll Chriflian

his

and then

diftinguilh

Collier, chiefs

two new

ihips

it.

of
for

Cham-

IN AMERICA.

281

Champlain and Pontgrave, and, embarking on the


feventh of March, 16 10, they arrived the twenty,
fixth of April at Tadouffac,
There they put themfclves at the

head of the Montagnez, and proceedr


ing up to Quebec, the allies again marching to
the
river Sorel,

which

the place of rendezvous

w^as

when Champlain arrived there, he was no;


joined by near fo many Indians as he
expcfted;
but

and he was there obliged to abandon his


chaloup!
fooner was he landed than all his Indians
dif

No

perfed,

and he was

men, the

reft

chaloup.
pinefs

He

alone with four French,

left

of the crev/ remaining to guard

began to be

diftrefled

hi-j

by the Av^m,

of the ground over which he was obliged

march, and the continual bitings of the gnats


and vermin that infefted the air, when one of his
to

favages

came running,

to

tell

him

that bis allies

were engaged with their

enemies,
Upon this he
quickened his pite, and foon fouqd that the Hurons
and Algonquins, having attacked their enemies
ip
their intrenchments, had met with a
repulfe ; but he
and his party being reinforced by feycn French-

men, made fo furious an attack,


the Iroquois

were

the vl^flor Indians

r,

chiefs of

that almoft all

killed or taken prifoners.

were exercifing

While

their ^nielti^s

upon thevanquilhed, Champlaii; r^quefled his


al,
lies to give
him one of th^ Iroquois captives,
which thay did. He likewife prevailed upon
theQi

to receive a

Frenchman

might learn

their language,

Vol,

I,

into their fociety,

and Xo fend a

thai-

he

youi:ig

Hvro;i

BRITISH EMPIRE

92

Huron

to France,

in

order to fee that kingdom,

might make a favourable report of the


fame to his friends and countrymen upon his

that he

return.

Henry IV. being dead by


Champlain applied

advice,

this time,

by

De

to Charles of

count of Soiflbns, to be the father of

an honour which that prince

Mont*s

Bourbon,

New

France,

readily accepted of,

and, having obtained a proper commiffion from


the queen-regent, he nominated Champlain to be
his lieutenant

dying foon

New

The

with unlimited powers.

after,

count

the government of Canada, or

France, devolved upon the prince of Conde,

who

continued Champlain

in

his

government.

Some commercial differences that happened amongft


the company detained Champlain in France

all

the

1612; and, on the fixth of March, 16 13, he


embarked on board a veflel commanded by Pontgrave, for Quebec, before which place he landed
on the feventh of May. They found the Quebec
year

colony in fo thriving a

flate that

they

immediately

proceeded up to Montreal, and foon after


returned to France with

plain

Cham-

Pontgrave.

But

1615, he formed fomc new engagements


with the merchants of Paris, Rouen, and Roin

chclle

Conde,
of

New

which were confirmed by the prince of

who

had

now

afliimed the

title

of viceroy

France.

Champlain, leaving the Recollefts, went to Montreal,

where he had another interview with

his favage
allies,

IN AMERICA.
and undertook

allies,

dition againft

to head

the Iroquois.

*h

them in a third expe*


By this condud he

made himfclf cheap^ in the eyes of the Indians


;
but fo llrong was his propenfity to adion, that he
Caron, one of the Recollea:

left

fathers,

attended him, with the Hurons,

promifc that they would not

fet

who had

and took

their

out on their expe-

dition, till his return from Quebec, whither


he
was called by fome bufinefs.
This Caron was a thorough enthufiaft, and af-

pired to the

crown of martyrdom.

regarded Champlain fo

The

favages

that they

little,

fet out
Montreal before he returned from Quebec, and
carried Caron with them and fome other
French-

for

men.
bec,

Champlain difpatching
returned

to

Montreal

his bufinefs at

with

Que-

two- French-

men, and was there joined oy ten more of his countrymen, that had been brought by Caron from Quebec, but found no Hurons.
Though the difregard ihewn him by the favages might have excufed

Champlain from

fulfilling

his

engagements,

yet,

pretending to be greatly concerned about Caron,


he proceeded to the Huron village, where he met

with his
twelve

allies.

Being

Frenchmen,

thirfted to ihed the

now

at the

befides

head of about

father Caron,

who

blood of unbelievers, he thought

himfelf invincible, and fetting out at the head of


his allies,

of no
cut

found

mean

down

to

his

enemies intrenched in a

conftruftion for defence, with

block up the paflages to

o 2

it.

fort,

tree^

Cham*
plain

BRITISH EMPIRE

ti4

plain immediately led his party to the affault, but

was

rcpulfcd with

to the fort

fire

He

lofs.

endeavoured to

but the Iroquois Ibrefeeing

fct

that,

had provided plenty of water, which extinguilhcd

He

the flames.

wooden

then

conftrufted a

mufqueteers being

his

down upon
effed:,

of a

kind

ftage, to overlook the building, fo as

placed on

that

might

it,

fire

the enemy. Before this expedient took

he was wounded in the leg and knee, which

much

ilruck the favages with fo

th^y refufed to follow

him

abandon the attack with

lofs

for five

favages carrying their

to

indeed, but with-

man

out being purfued or lofing a

which continued

dejection, that

and he was obliged

in his retreat,

and twenty leagues, the

wounded

all

that

way upon

hurdles.

After Champlain

was cured of

demanded the guides

that

his

wounds, he

hadbeen promifed him,

to

re-condu(fthim to Quebec; but they were tlv^nied him


in the harfheft

manner, and he %vas therefore oblig-

He
He

ed to fpend the winter amongft the favages.

made

then

the bell ufe he could of his time.

vifited all the

Huron

villages,

and penetrated into

thofe of the Algonquins, as far as the lake Nepiffing

and as foon

as the river

became navigable,

having engaged ibme Hurons to be

faithful to

him,

embarked with them, and arrived at


he
Quebec, with father Caron, on the eleventh of
Both of them were received with
July, 1616.
fecretly

the

grcateft joy,

and having

flaid

there

for i

month,

IN AMERICA.

2t^

month, Champlain,

the fuperior of the mUfion,


and Caron, took fhipping for France, leaving only
t\vo of the Recolkds, D'Olbeau, and Dupleflys,
In

New France.
During

to

his abfence,

his Indian allies giving vent

the lulpicions they entertained of the French

formed a defign of cutting the throats

intentions,

of

who were

the French

all

Champlain

had

fettled

amongft

them.

Trois Rivieres a fmall

at

French colony, and two of them were murdered

by the
eigh

natives,

who

aflembled, to the

number of

hundred, near that place, to carry their bloody

intentions

into execution.

Champlain,

returning

from France,

demanded to have the murdereri


of the two Frenchmen delivered up to him. One
of them was fent, and along with him a quantity
of furs to cover the dead, which
preifion

eiltiniedhim

he

was

for

making

murder; and

fatisfaftion for

obliged to put

atonement.

an Indian ex-

is

up with

that kind

In the year 1620, the prince of

New

of

Conde

fold the vice-royalty

of

in-law, the raarlhal

Montmorenci, who continued

he

in

his

lieutenancy,

other affairs of Canada to

France to his brother-

but intruded

M.

then carried his family over to

Dolu.

New

all

the

Champlain

France, where

month of May ; and fo greatly


was the company abufed, that at Tadouffac, he
found traders from Rochelle, not only trafficking
they arrived in the

with the favages, but bargaining with

them

for fire-

arms,

lS6

BRITISH EMPIRE

arms, the

rtioft

pernicious

introduced, for the colony.

commerce

that could

In the year 162

1,

be
the

Iroquois ailembled in three bodies, being deter-

mined,

if poffible,

to exterminate the

French from
asnongilthem; perhaps not more, from any refentment
againft them, than to gratify that vindiftrve fpirit

which they entertained


the,

againft the

One of

Hurons.

Algonquins and

thofc bodies

attacked the

pafs at the Falls of St. Louis, but were repulfed

fome of them

^vere killed,

and others

fled,

carry-

ing with them Poulain, a French Recoiled.

The

French, in vain, endeavoured to refcue him


they

gave one of

their

captives

pair to his countrymen, and

change the Recoiled:

who had

for

propofe

to

The

at the Iroquois village, juft as the

to
to

one of the Iroquois

been made prifoncr.

for putting

liberty

but
re-

ex-

chiefs,

captive arrived

fire

was prepared,

the Recoiled to a miferable death

but the terms he propofed were accepted of, and


the exchange was made.
The fecond body of the
Iroquois went

down

canoes to attack the

in thirty

convent of the Recolleds near Quebec


ing the enterprife too hazardous, they
party of the

making fome

Hurons

in the

but find-

fell

upoij. a

neighbourhood, and,

burned them. There


no account of what became of the third body.
Champlain, at this time, received a letter from his
prifoners, they

is

moft

chriftian

majefty,

highly

condud, and confirming him


while the vice-roy, by another

approving of
in his

letter,

his

command

exhorted him
to

AM

I If

do

t6

the

all

G AM

R'l

h^ cot]d to

fcrvice

tSf
neW pt-

liie

tcntees.

The

whoI<j colony it

Quebec did not ejcceod


men, women, and children; but an eftablilhment had been formed &t
the

number of My

pcrlbns,

and a brifk trade continued to be


Tadouflac.
The Hurons, at tha

^Trois Rivieres,

on

carried

at

time, notwithftanding

the fervices

all

Champlpin

had done them, began to fufpcdt the views of the


French upon their habitations, and to hate them
even worfe than they did the
invited

French

the

them

to join

Irocjuois, whom they


an attempt to exterminate

ia

fettlers

in

their

common

country,

Champlain, having undoubted intelligence of their


defign, difpatched father Caron and two
other
miffionaries,

keep the Hurons firm to

to

ance with the French


fion,
.the

their alli-

but not trufting to this mifhe built the fort of Quebec, allof ftone, for

better

was

proteftion of his

finilhed,

it

colony.

No

fooner

than his volatile humour, to the

amazement of the colonics, led him back to


France, to which, at the fame time, he carried his

From whence a body of fivejefuits was


under the condud of William de Caen, to

family.
font,

Canada,
nifm,
after

who

was accufed of

and injuring
their

arrival,

as

two of

of them were preparing to


fion

Viel,

of the Hurons,

and a young

favouring Calvi-

the mifllon.

fet

few

the moll

days

zealous

out for the conver-

they heard of the death of

chriilian convert,

who

had been
overfet

'i

mh1Bn9

]
1

EMPIRE

EIIITX$H

tZt

a boat by thofe barbarians, feemingly


with defign, as they feized upon their baggage.
overfet in

To the religious

molt probably, owing

wzSf

it

dilputcs that prevailed in France,


that,

about the

year 1626, Quebec began to aflume the face of a


city; but as it was under a Hugonot direction, the
jefuits prevailed with the duke De Ventadour, to
write a Iharp letter to Caen,

whom

ed as being the author of

all

the difficulties they

ftate

of the colony had

This divided

met with.

almoft ruined

it.

The

natives maflacred the French

wherever they could fecurcly do

came

difputes in the colony


in 1627,

they reprefent-

when Champlain

it,

and

religious

to fuch a height, that,

returned to Quebec, he

found no advances had been made, either


ing houfes or clearing the ground

uuild*

ir^

''.

Richelieu

charafter

is

proteftants,

was then

well

and

known

the

He

to th? world,

rpfolv?d entirely to

Quebec, by putting that colony and

of France,

minlfter

firft

alt?r
its

whofe

hated the French

the

of

conftitution

trade into the hands of

hundred partners, under the following regulations, Firft, That


the partnerfhip (hould next year (1628) fend over to

two or

three hundred

workmen of

all

kinds

New France

and before the year

1645, engage to augment the French inhabitants to tlie number of


iixteen thoufand ; to lodge, n^aintain, and find them in ail neceffarlcs for three years,

and then to make an equal

diftribution

amongft

them of the lands that (hould be cleared, according to their refpective wants, fiirni(hing each

That no

colonift,

admitted iu

New

who was

Secondly,

not a native Frenchman, (hould be

Hugonots,

as well

ad

Thirdly, That in every diftri^,

at

France; and that

ftrangers, (hould be excluded.


\ciHtf

family with feed to fow.

all

three prielts ibould be mainuined,

whom the

partnerfhip

was

Charles

IN AMERICA.

289

Charles the FIrfl quarrelling with France, David

commonly

Kertk,

called Sir

David Kirk, a native

of Dieppe (probably inftigated by Caen,

piqued at
to fupply
fifteen

with

his cxclufive privilege)

loft

all neceflarles

ti-.o

cleared

were to be affigned them.

the other hand, his moft chriftlan majefty, to indemnify


the

partnerlhip for thofe expences,


fort

re-

both for their perfons and miffions for

years; after which time they were to live upon

lands that

On

having

who was

and

gave up to them in perpetuity the

of Quebec, with

diftrift

all

New France,

the territory of

comprehending that part of Florida which had been


predeccirors,

with

the courfe of the

all

fettled

Great River,

till

by
it

his
dif-

charges itfelf into the fea; with alltheifles, ports, havens, mines,

and liberies, contained in that vaft extent of territory


referving to himfelf only the faith

his majefty

and homage of the inhabitants,

crown of eight marks weight, to be paid to every


new king of France, together with the provifions for the officers
of juftice, who were to be named, and prefented to him by the
and a golden

aflbciates

a civil
to call
tify

or partners, as foon as

government

cannon, and to

places.

The

conveying lands,
proper,

it

The

there.

make

(hould be requifite to eftablilh

partnerlhip had likewife

all forts

fecond article gave the partnerlhip a power of


in fuch proportions as his majefty Ihould think

and to annex fuch

titles,

honours, rights, and powers^ to

them, as he Ihould prefcribe, according to the merits


but with certain reftriftions

of duchies, marquifates,
the royal letters

power

of arms, as well as to for-

and conditions

of the perfons,

but that the erediou

earldoms, and baronies,

fliould require

of confirmation upon the prefentation of cardinal

Richlieu, great mafter, head,

and

and fuperintendant, of the navigation


commerce of France. The third article repealed all the former

grants of the
the fur

fame nature, and gave the

and peltry, and

limits for fifteen years,

tended Ihould be

VoL.

I,

.in
.

all otlier trades,

except the

common

partnerfliip for ever all

witliin the before-mentioned

filheries,

which

to all his fubjeits.

P p

his majefty in-

By

tlie

fourth

ir-

ceivcd

BRITISH EMPIRE

290

command of

ceived the

up

River

the

three Englifh (hips, failed

Laurence, ravaged the country,

St.

and then proceeded to Quebec, and fummoned the


governor to furrender.

The
ticle,

infant colony, at that time,

might trade with the natives

oF

difpofed

only

their beavers

them

obliged to take

company two

fiiips

ticle,

the

ftiips,

if,

The fifth

who

were to replace them

repay to his majefty

to

firft

and

their

was

patent

to be

carry over the fame number during the


feventh and

laft aiticle,

all

his

majefty

but the

company had

the oflicers and foldiers of their

them a prefent of four

By

the

if loft,

By

tlie

tlae

price of two

fixth ar-

men and women,

to

void, if tiiey did not

laft

five

By

years.

own

(hips,

were

the

to be appointed

power of appointing

the
fhips

and

his majefty

all

made

culverins.

another ordonnance, the king of France gave

encouragement to

to

tons,

militaiy officers, and foldiers of what-

ever kind, feut to Canada in thofe two

by

were

ten years of their contraft, they did not

carry ever one thoufand five hundred French


;

tlie

granted

of war, each of two or three hundred

company was

France

who

article

were deftroyed or taken by an enemy.

during the

upon

for furs, provided they

to die -company's faftors,

at a certain price.

to be vitluaUed by the company,


unlcfs they

New

in a mifer-

the French fettled in Canada, and not depending

partuerihip,

the

was

new

colouifts,

mechanics employed by the company,

viz.

who

ftill

greater

All tratleftnen and

Ihould chufe to return

to France, after refiding fix years in Cana<la, had liberty to practife

fevcral

their

profefiions

in Paris

or any place in France;

merchandifcs mannfadurcd there, were to pay no impofts upon

being impoitcd into France for

fifteen

years

nor was any tax

be laid upon provifuMis of any kind exported to the


Ecclefiaftics,

might do

it

noblemen,

aifd others,

|naj;fly w.is to create twclvs.:

aatlvcg

aflbciating

in

th.c

without dcro-itlon to their rank or honours

of Canada were, to

of the company nobles


all

iijicnts

and p

to

colony.

n?.vv

conijiany,
;

and

his

ail

tliQ

ami

rpofes, to

be

re-

ablg

1
r

N AM

able iituation, being

E R

A,

291

reduced to feven ounces of

bread a day for each man, and they had but five

pounds of powder in the garrifon.


ing.this,
s

in a mifer-

Notwithftand-

Champlain and Pontgrave,

ed to be then at

Quebec,

after

who

happen-

fome confultation,

returned for anfwer to the Englifh officer, that they

were determined to hold out the fort to the

laft

This bravado, perhaps, would have

extremity.

been ineffeftual, had not Kirk had intelligence from

Caen of a fquadron's having entered the river, under


Roqueraont, with provilions and
ceflaries

new

the

for

all

kind of ne-

This Roquemont

colony.

New

had been governor and lieutenant-general of


France under his moft chriftian majefty

and

in-

of avoiding Kirk, he met and fought him,

flead

but ^vas defeated, and his fquadron taken.

This misfortune increafed the

which now had nothing

colony,

of fome miffionaries,

the labours

of Old France.

putcd natives
felf

the qualification

(hould meet

And

of the above

diftreffes

to

of th^

depend on but

who had

return-

his majefty refervcd to hui>

articles,

with any obftruftion frou;

in

virar,

cafe the
either

company

civil

or fo-

reign.

Thefe
tlie

duke

New

feven
the

De

were figned on the nineteenth of April, 1627, and

Ventadour,

at the

fame time, refigned into his ma

hands the poft of vice-roy.

jefty's

of

articles

Franc"

at

its

the head of

marefchal

perfons of

and

The company was

numbers loon

whom

rofe to

were the cardinal Richlicii himfelfv

Defiat, fuperintendant of the

great diftindtion

called that

one hundred and

but the bulk

finances,

and other

was composed of rich

mtivhaHt? and traders.

P p

.1

-T

BRITISH EMPIRE

2^i

ed to France to

were

provifions of

,:i

fore

folicit

their friends for relief.

fo fuccefsful as to procure a Ihip laden

it

all

kinds; but

touched Quebec.

colony to the utmoft

This

with

was wrecked

it

difafter

diflrefs,

They
be-

reduced the

which was aggra-

vated by the divifions that prevailed amongft the colonics themfelves, and the growing difrefpedt of
the favages for the French,

the caufe of which


Hugonots introduced amongft
them by Caen. In this extremity, Champlain made
war upon the favages out of mere neceflity; and

fome

the

attributed to the

colonifts,

who

confifted

but of one

hundred

people, were obliged to repair to the woods, and


there to dig roots for their fuftenance.
Towards

the end of July, 1629, the Englifli, under Kirk,


again appeared off point Levi, and an officer was
fent on Ihore to

Champlain,

Quebec

to

fummon

in the fituation

it

to furrender.

he then was, looked

upon this fummons as his deliverance, and the capitulation was foon made between him and Kirk*s

two
'

brothers, the one of

whom

was

to

command

the fquadron, and the other to be governor of


Quebec.

The treaty being thus finilhed, Champlain went


on board one of the Englifli fhips for Tadouflac,
and it was met, and would have been taken, by
a French ihip under the command of Emery dc
Caen

but

according, to
;,ert

crew being compofed of Calvinifts,


the French writers, did not chufe to ex-

his

themfelves againll the Englifli.

Upon Champlain'*

1
r

IN AMERICA.
Iain's

295

return to France, he perceived

the

there divided with regard to Canada;

ing that

it

was not worth

public

feme think-

the reclaiming, as

it

had already coft the government vaft fums, without bringing any return; and that it only ferved
to depopulate the mother-country.
fiderations

tages

were

of the

fifhery,

its

thefe con-

vaft advan-

proving a nur-

Champlain fupportcd

fery for feamen.


fo

and by

But

by the

over-ballanced^

plan

his

well that he carried his point; and not only

Canada, but Acadia, and the

were

reftored to the

Germain's, in 1632.
treaty to

this time,

French by the

governor
to

him.

however, the Englifh began to have

of the fur-trade

profits

though, by the treaty of

St.

French were to exercife

for a

left

St.

the

carried

command

his

of

treaty

Emery de Caen

who refigned

fome idea of the

the

of Cape Breton,

Lewis Kirk, who had been

of Canada, and

By

ifle

whole year

for

Germain's, none but;

it.

Kirk carried

after the furrender

it

on

of Quebec.

company of New France re-entered


rights in Canada, of which Champlain

In 1633, the
into all

its

was made governor; and


adt, that, in a Ihort time,

new armament,
Jefuits,

fo indefatigably did

inhabitants,

and

all

try,

<juia

fettle

but met with

a million

many

a freih recruit of

kinds of neceflaries for

the welfare of the revived colony.

deavoured to

he

he was at the head of a

furnifhed with

'

In

in the

difficulties.

634, he en-

Huron counA):\

Algon-

had killed a Frenchman, and Ghamplaia had


put

.J

BRITISH EMPIRE

494

put the murderer in prifon; the miflionaries were


then ready to depart for the country of the Hurons,

but an Algonquin chief


to

embark

flatly

refufcd to fuffer

in their canoes, (the only

them

way by which
was fet

they could travel) unlefs his countryman


at liberty.

The

reafon he gave for his obflinacy

in this point, was, that the parents and relations


of the criminal expe(5ted him, and that they durft

carry no

him.

It

Frenchman
was in vain

with the chief on

into

this occafion;

Algonquin had feemcd


yet

it

country without

their

for the governor to reafon

for

be fingle

to

foon appeared that

all

though the

in his opinion,

the others were, in

concert with him, and that he fpoke their fenfe;


lb that

Champlain perfuaded the

lain feems to
ties

miflionaries to drop

The

zeal of

Champ-

have been increafed by the

diflicul-

their journey for that time.

he encountered.

The Hurons

could not be

perfuaded to admit a mifliionary into their country


they obtained their

till

own

terms

and even then,

they appeared fo referved that the fathers looked

ujwn themfelves as fo many flieep in


At la]J they gained footing

wolves.

the midfl: of
in

a village

where they made half a dozen


which they dedicated
to St. Jofeph, whofe name they likewife gave to
the village ; and they began to gain fome footing
called

Jouliatiri,

converts, and

by

built a chapel

their inflexible perfeverance.

New

France,

all

this

while, was gaining inhabitants, and the co-

lony

was approaching

to a

degree of confiUcncy.
^

In

IN AMERICA.

295

Rene Rochault, eldefl fon of the marquis


Gamache, having entered into the fociety of

In 1635,

de

Jefus,

refumed the defign he had before formed,


had been interrupted by the conqueft

but which

which the Englilh had made of Quebec, of founding a college there.

While

tation, the indefatigable

1635, at Quebec; and, in


M. De Montmagny fucceeded him

ment of

New

France; and

new

in the

govern-

M. De L'Ifle command-

fettlement of Trois Rivieres; both

propagation

the

for

of the

Montmagny encouraged
children to

advantage.

religion.

to fend their

of the

little

but their tempoeating

prefents, they

compliance, but retradted

nothing more to expedt.

fe-

But

Jefuits.

While they were

drinking, and receiving


all

catholic

Hurons

in the college

barbarians ftudied

thofe

rary

the

zealous

Quebec, where he had projedted a

minary for them

to

the year 1606,

them being knights of Malta, and

of

be

in agi-

Decem-

died, in

ber,

ed at the

was

this affair

Champlain

Five or

when

fix

and

feemed to
they had

Indians agreed

fend their fons to the feminary; but after they

were put on board the canoes, they purfued and


took them out of the hands of the fathers.
foon found that the colony lay

plan

but nothing was to be done with the

favages without
deficient

under great

Montmagny proceeded upon Champ-

difficulties.
Iain's

flill

They

in

this

rewards.
refpett,

He

found

his

funds

and the ardour of the


natives

BRITISH EMPIRE

29

natives cooled every day,

till,

who were

ftill

came o be

at laft, they

The

almoft eflranged from the French.

Iroquois,

more untradtable than the Hurons

or the Algonquins, courted their enemies to take


part

with them againft the French ; but the Hurons

depending on French

affiftance,

very

the Iroquois furprifed and

little

maffacred

trouble,

till

many of them.

wrote over to France

In the
in

gave themfelves

mean time the Jefuits

the moft afFeding and

pathetic terms, accounts of the difficulties, the dan-

and the unfpeakable fatigues they daily un-

gers,

The Iroquois,
Montmagny could do to
derwent.

notwithftanding

all

that

blind them, were fen-

fible of the real weaknefs of the colony, and even


infuked the governor of Trois Rivieres; fo that the
affairs of New France were in immediate danger
of being ruined, when the European Jefuits, who

had the

poffeffion of the confciences

and

court

with fuch

and the

miniftry,

blew the flames of

efficacy as

In the beginning of the year

a contagious dillemper broke out


villages, and, in

itfelf to

religion

engaged the queen herfelf

princcflcs of the blood in the fupport of

the colony.

Huron

of the French

the

whole

in

1628,

one of the

alhorttime, communicated

nation.

The

ver reafon but from appearances,

favages,
till

who

this

ne-

happen-

ed, had attributed all the calamities they met with


to the incantations and witchcraft of the chriftians

amongft them; but they were

Thok

barbariajis

were

as

now

undeceived.

ignorant in treating

in-

ward

N AMER

ward maladies
external

wc

they are

as

and the

inds;

effedlual medicines

diftemper^ and

297
curing

Jefuits adminiflered

fuch

as flopped the progrefs of the

accounts

of

nunnery

them

to

their

animated the

this

court of France; fo that a fcheme


ellablilhing a

A.

excellent in

greatly reconciled

The

company.

was

forpied of

Quebec, to which the

at

Urfulincs and the Hofpitalers offered their perfons

and their

fervices

commander of

with the moft

Sylleri

was

The

lively zeal.

indefatigable in fecond-

ing the views of the Jefuits for erecting a

ment compofed only of


to

chriflians

and

fettle-

profelytes,

be a bulwark for the colony againft the

infults

of the Iroquois, and to promote the cultivation of


lands.

bec,

With

view he

this

and requefted

fent

workmen

Le Jcunc

father

Que-

to

upon

to pitch

The

a proper fpot for their fettlement.

father

chofe one on the north-fide of the River St.


rence, into

which twelve

whofe numbers foon


this

time

retains

the

increafed,

and the place at

name of

the

fchool for female children,


lick,

were

dill

as yet very indigent;

hofpital

it

for the

was equal-

and the natives, both being

and the fchool was to be un-

der the direftlon of French Urfulines,

educate in

founder.

and an hofpital

The

wanting.

ly to ferve the colonifls

Lau-

chriflian families entered,

who were

not only French, but alfo favage

to

girls.

[The duchefs of Aiguillon undertook the foundation


of the hofpital, and, by her perfuaiion, the religious
Hofpitalers of Dieppe,

Vol.

I.

all

of them females, offered

Q^q

ta

\m

BRITISH EMPIRE

apS

facrifice

all

Canadians.

It

to

had to the

they

was

thought proper to

therefore

choice of no more than

make

new

that the

The

began

to think that the

iing too

much power

It

pofliblc

is

France by

good

accord-

Urfuline foun-

difficulties.

New

company of

who

three,

ingly departed for the colony.

dation encountered

of fick

fcrvice

time

this

were engrof-

Jefuits

to themfelves;

and

it

muft

that jun'^ure wore

be confelied

that the colony at

the face of

a religious feminary rather than a na-

For that reafon they had giv-

tional

undertaking.

en no

attention to the

thing, however, could

refill

the ridiculous

devotion that then obtained in France.

widow

Madame

of Alen^on,

de La

ed her perfon and fortune to

and came

No-

Urfuline foundation.

fpirit

of

young

Peltrie, devot-

this cftabliihment

and

to Paris to regulate her proceeding,

removed from thence to Tours;

there Ihe found

for her ends, viz. (the illuftrious

two
Mary of the

Incarnation, to fpeak in the terms of

Charlevoix,

who

Urfulines

de

Sr.

Jofeph.

to Dieppe,

lit

has written her

From Tours

where

flie

per for her purpofe.

this

found a

holy

fiftors,

and Mary

widow removed

thirtl

Urfuline pro-

Nothing can exceed the

furd'ty of the miracles faid to be

who

life)

worked by

ab-

thofe

have been always looked upon

by the Canadians as their tutelar angels. They


embarked on the fourth of May, 163Q, along widi
Madame de La Peltrie and father Vimond, who
had been appointed

to fuccccd father

Le Jcune,

as

fu|x:rior

AMERICA.

IN

299

fnperior of thejcfuit miflion in

Canada; and

a hazardous voyage they landed

at

firft

after

Quebec, on the

This new kuid of mlffion makes

of Auguft.

The

great figure in the annals of Canada.

go-

vernor received the ladies, on their debarkment, at


the head of hi? troops,

They

arms.

entered

who were drawn up

Quebec under

nnder

a general dif-

charge of the cannon, and proceeded

triumph,

in

amidil the acclamations of the people, to the church,

where

Te Deum was

rival.

This was a period of triumph to the

They held

folemnly fung for their arJefuits.

not only to the favages, but to

forth

the colony, the infinite merits of thofe ladies,

who

could exchange eafe and affluence in Europe, for


fatigue

and

difficulties

America; and the beha-

in

viour of the ladies themfelves confirmed

all

they

faid in their praife.

Far from being fhocked at the

indigence, poverty,

and mean appearance of the

Indian huts, they feemed to rejoice at their having

an opportunity to manifeft their zeal by their intenfe

labours

enthufiafm of

for

propagating chriflianity.

Madame

de

La

went

Peltrie

She not only dripped

travagance.

The
to ex-

herfelf, that Ihe

might cloath the naked favages, but worked with


her

own

hands

in cultivating the

The

fubfiitencc.

ground

Urfullnes and the

llrove to out-do one another in their zeal

former
levi,

fettled

where

patients.

at

the

Quebec, as the

was

hofpital

The labours of

Qjl

and the

latter did at Syl-

daily

thofe

for their

Hofpitallers

good

crowded with
fillers,

as well

as

BRITISH EMPIRE
as the charities of the inhabitants of Quebec,

company

inconceivable; but the

and gave them

part,

While

their

in

their

Canadians were rejoicing

the

were

on

or no afliftance].

war broke out

the

zeal

little

failed

between the Iro-

afrelh

quois and the Hurons; which was attended as ufual

with barbarities Ihocking to human nature


* As a fpecimen of
with the following
vantage in a

No
of

tlie

One

Huron

it

prefcnt the reader

chief captive, and he

where the

villages,

fooncr was he arrived, than

tire

here

Hurons having the

day, the

made an Iroquois

flci'-niilh,

brought to one of

we

thefc cruelties,

ftory.

was

ad-

was

fathers aflenibled.

decreed, in an affembly

ancient favagcs, that he fhould be prefented to one of their

old chiefs, to replace bis nephew,

who had

been killed in war,

or to be difiwfcd of as he (hould think proper.


the Jefuits, inunediately rcfolved to convert

The

*.

captive

was

cloatlied

in

new

Brebeuf, one of

him

to chriftianity.

beaver habit, with a curious

necklace, and his temples were circled with a kind of diadem

he

v;as furroundcd

ed to be

by a troop of triumphant warriors, and feem-

quite unconcerned at his fate.

ed him, he perceived,

had been

two

One of

tortiu-ed.

Hints,

that,

and had

loft

before his
his hands

a finger.

which had been cut off by a


had been
All

this

tered the

burnt,

Huron

treated

was

alTigned

tiou

when
firft

tliii

beuf was

Brebeuf approach-

was determined, he

had been

cruflied

His other hand had

hatchet.

The

between

loft tv^o,

joints of his

arms

appeared upon one of them.

gafti

village; for he

no

fooiier arrivijd

than he

there

with the guateft endearments, and a yoimg

him

for his wife.

he was

Such was

adult converr, that ever

while

fuffcred

woman

this barbarian's

fitua-

converted by Brebe^if ; and he was eftcemed to

tion; being baptized by the

All

fate

had been inflicted upon the poor wretch, before he en-

was

be the

and a great

When

tliC

to

captive

take

was made of the Iroquois nar

name of Jofeph.
was loaded with

him

to

iris

carefles,

and Bre-

tent every night; but his

By

IN AMERICA.
Bt

this time, the

301

fcttlement of Trols Rivieres

began to be greatly

reforted

to,

not only by the

Algonquins, but by the moft diftant northerly nations, particularly the Attikamegue3, who lived in
fores

now became
was

mifery, he

and

putrid

To

of worms.

full

in triumph

carried

from village

increafc

hi$

to village,

and

wherever he came he was obliged to ling, fo that fomcnmes his


voice entirely failed

him; nor had he

the leaft refpitc, but

when
At laft

he was alone with Brebcuf, or fome of the milfionaries.

was conveyed

he

The

fate.

an air perfeftly unconcerned,


furveying him, talked to

phew,"
when I
" Vv-hom

faid

he,

to

him

who was

lived

captive prcfented hinifclf,

his fuppofed

in the

" you cannot

who,

uncle,

after

" Ne-

following ftraln.

to fupply the place

had already prepared a mat

with

im^'gine the joy I conceived,

you were

underftood that

have

where the chief

the village

to

of his

to be the difpofer

of him

you in
" my cabin, and it was wlch the utmoft fatlsfa6tion, that I re" folved to pafs the reft of my days with you in peace ; but the
" condition I fee you in, forces me to alter my refolu' \. It
loft;

is

'

infupportabk

"

fervice in abridging

"

in this manner, have caufe^i )our death.

plain that the

"

fore,

"

that

my

its

dear nephew

indifference,

The
and

was very well.


victuals,

onl

The

uncle,

Th-

you

that

render

ur

fifter

his

life

do you

that I

who have mangled yoU'


Take courage, therethis

evening to fhevv

are furperiot to the

aafwercd with

force of

a refolute

rreateft

voice, that

it

of the decealed then ferved him with


in the

own

his brows,

of paternal love.
his fiippoied

miift

Prepare yourfelf

and curdled him

from

fuffer,

captive heard this difcourfe with the

old chieftain put

the fweat

you

and you muft think

courfe.

you are a man, and

" torments."

the

tortures

to yourfelf,

for

moft affectionate manner, while

pipe into his mouth, and

wiped

with the moft tender diraoaftrations

Towards noon the captive, at ti expence of


made his farewel feaft, and while the ina-

biunts of tlic village were

.-

all afle-nblei

around lum, he harangued

the

BRITISH EMPIRE
the neighbourhood of the lake St.

who

the fathers

frequented that fettlement found

to be a very tradable race.

formed

Another miffion was

Tadoufiac, the moll frequented ftation

at

thein as follows

"
"

felves boldly

"

Brethren, I

around

me

am

about to die.

be convinced that I

Divert your-

am

He

then began

when

is

a fong, in which he was joined by the warriors

He

prefent.

the fcaft

which

was then

was ended, he was

called the cabin

prcibnted with

evening

all

the

favages

young r-en who were


ing the

firft

their infernal

to

row round

of blood, [or heads cut off] and always

of the

About eight o'clock

hands were

The
tied,

prifoner

One

was then

all

the time,

which he

faid

was

was

to cut off his head,

raged

to the

with

much

as

tvlth his family.

and the

elders faid

fun-rifing, for

that tim.e,

when

good

moft amazing firmnefs,

kaft reproachable word.


nation, with

writers, the

[naming

which, with an
feaft

upon

without

even talked of the

indifference, as if he

Eleven
it

He

fires

which

dropping
affairs

af

the
his

had been at home

had been lighted to torment him;

was of confequence,

which reafon

it.

father Brebeuf encou-

tofuffer with the fentlments of chrlftianity,

tlie Viiilini

he did

French

and thca

deftined for fuch a chief

arm, was to be given to fuch another village, to

According

feated

of the elders then took from

that fuch a village

his robe,

the

and then rifing, he danced

round the cabin, finging his death fong

him

in the

airembled^

were exhorted by one of

the prifoner,

replaced himfelf upon the mat.

him]

being

village

be executioners of the tragedy, fonn-

to the moft excruciating tortures.


his

and

behave well, meaning thereby to put him

elders to

on a mat, where

vittnals,

carried to the place of execution,

belongs to the head of the village.

out

a man, and

that I neither fear death, nor all the toiments yoii can infli6\."

who were

at

whom

Thomas,

that he fhould be alive

his tortures

were prolonged

to

the barbarians, fearing that he fhould expire with-

iron, (another of their barbarous fuperftitious)

canicd him

ia

IN AMERICA.
in all

Canada by

303

the favages, particularly the Pa-

pinachies, the Berfiamites, the Mountaineers,

the Porcupines.

Sometimes

together at Tadouflac

all thofe

but as foon as their

and

met

nations

traffic

was over, they returned to their wilds and forefls,


to which they were often followed by the miffionaries,

ings,

who even attended them


which

comfortable

winter hunt^

prefented the moft dreadful and unIcenes, as the

generally fupplied

the

mofl

who

frightful

plenty

greatcll

But fome of the favages,


in

in their

refided all the winter

the neighbourhood of Tadouflac,

converted.
ever, in

tons,

The

prefcnce

continued

ftill

were there

of the French, how-

Canada, overawed the

who

defarts

of game.

five

Iroquois Can-

the irreconcileable ene-

mies of the Hurons and the Algonquins; and the


war amongft them was ftill carried on, but began
to turn in favour of the

Hurons.

It appears, that

notwithflanding their docility to be inftrufted in


the chriftian religion, the miflionaries never could
prevail
their

to

with them to abolifh the

prifoners to death.

pravfl:ice

of putting

they could do

All

convert and baptize them before they

and, like the

ancient Druids,

into the heat

of the

battle,

they

was

liifFered;-

often rufhed

w^here they baptized

wounded, and the dying, or adminiftered to


them other fpiritual afliflaace.
the

out of the

vllla.tre,

and

c.-t

ofF one of his

which were difpofcd of


thrown into a caldron.

head,

as piopofcd,

feet,

hanil,

and hts

while his body was

The

BRITISH EMPIRE.

304

The

Iroquois having received a confiderable de-

were cunning enough

feat,

French from

uniting the

to lay a plan for dif-

their favage

exciting in the latter a fufpicion of their

With

this

fuch

of the

with

view, in

French as
humanity,

great

about Trois Rivieres,

had

in

M. de

that

into

fell

their

hands

but

the natives with


body of them gathered
which, for fome time, they

a manner befieged.

lately fucceeded

fidelity*

excurfions, they treated

all their

ufual cruelties.

their

by

allies,

M. Champfleurs had
government of

L*Ille in the

and when he lead expedted

fcttlement,

it,

they fent one of their French captives to propofe

a peace with him, provided the Hurons and Al*

gonquins were nor comprehended

was

fleurs

no condition

in

in

to carry

it.

Champ-

on the war;

but the prifoner cautioning him againfl the


cerity

infin-

of the Iroquois, he fent an account of what

Montmagny

w^as paffing to

at

Quebec,

mediately came up to Trois Rivieres,

who

im-

and from

thence fent two deputies to demand from the Iroquois,


liberty.
civility,

tliat their

The
and

French prifoners ihould be

at

deputies were received with great

in quality of mediators,

en a buckler.
were brought

fet

After

this,

the

forth, Hightly tied,

were

feated

French captives

and then one of

the Iroquois chiefs began a formal harangue, ex-

prclTmg the great defire he and his nation had to


live

in friendfliip

of his fpeech he

with the French.

unbound

In the midll

the captives, and, throw-

ing

arangiie, ex-

IN AMERICA,
ing the cords over the pallifades into

501
the river,

he wiflicd that the ftream might carry them away


never to be heard of more. He then prefentcd
the

two

deputies with a belt of

wampum

as

pledge of their liberty, reftored to the children of


Ononthio, or the great mountain, (for fo they

Montmagny) but when they fpoke of the


French king, they called him the grand Ononthio.
He then placed two bundles of beaver Ikins becalled

fore the captives, to

ing, as

he

them

f^rve

faid, unjuft to

for robesi

fend them

be-

it

away naked ;

and renewed the affurances he had already given

them of peace, begging


that Ononthio

tion,

cloaths the hatchets

du

rons,

name of his nawould conceal under his


in the

of the Algonquins and

ihe negociation, protefting

Hu-

that they

would commit no hoftility.


While the Indian was yet fpeaking, two Algoftqain canoes came in fight, and were immediately
chaced by the Iroquois. The Algonquins being
themfelves

fwam on

overpowered,

were plundered, in

who was

fight

Ihore,

and

their

canoes

of the French general,

preparing to punifti their treachery, but

they inftantly vanilhed, and foon after plundered

a
number of Huron canoes going to Quebec, laden
with furs.
But in faa:, notwithftanding the accubrought agalnft the Iroquois on this occais no very eafy matter to fix upon them

fations
fion,

it

the charge
treaty

of treachery for what happened, as


was not concluded, and it was natural

Vc.

I.

the
for

the

'

f,

EMPIRE

BJllTISH

306

the Iroquois, upon the appearance of their prbfefled


enemies, to ftifpedl the intentions of the French.
However, the favages changed their language
after

acciident

tl:is

continued

but the

of the colony

affairs

be fo much negleded by the


conrpany, that k was on the point of being ruined,
when a fpirit for the converfion of the Indians
ftill

to

again broke forth

^nd

amongft the great in France,


of quality affociated them-

thirty-five perfons

felvcs together to fettle Montreal.


The new company proceeded upon a rational plan. Thpy reiblved to begin, by ereding upon that illand
a
l|l;, 'r

French

fortification, flrong

aflaults

of the favages

bitants received into

ikrM 1

to earn their

own

illand Ihould

be

enough

to

Ihould be put into a

it,

the

refill all

that the poor French inha-

way

bread, and that the reft of the

by

fettled

favages, without refped

to their tribes, provided they were chriftians,


or
willing to become fuch. It was likewife propofed

not only to

afllire

their enemies in

them of

this

new

protedlion, againft

all

fettlement, but to pro-

vide them with medicines and fubfillence, till


they
could be fo far civilized as to get their livelihood

by

their

own

tion, the

labour.

To

carry this plan into execu-

French king,

in 1640, veiled the property of the illand in the thirty-fivc aflbciates,


and
next year one of them, Maifonneuve, a gentleman

of Champaigne,
milies,

amongll

condition,

carried thither feveral French fa-

whom was

who was

young

lady

of
propofed to be iavelled with
the

N AMER

A.

307-

the fuperintendkncy of the female colonifts,

Mai-

fonneuve being declared governor of the illand,

6n the

fifteenth

of October following.

May

before the feventeenth of

and chapel of

with

this

ifland,

fuperabundancy

of

was not

next year, that thef

French entered into poffeffion of their


tion

It

new

habita-

which they

religious

did,

exercifes,

which are too tedious to mention.


Notwithftanding

the

precaution taken

by the

French fettlement at Montreal, the Iroquois

make

continued to

ftili'

dreadful irruptions into French

Canada, into which they generally penetrated, by

own name, but afterwards


Sorel.
At the entrance
of this river, Montraagny, who iufpedted that the
Iroquois were inftigated and fupplied by the Dutch
a river called after their

by thofe of Richlieu and

fettled in

to

eredt

New
a

Holland,

now New York, began

and completed

fort,

it,

though the

workmen were interrupted by feven hundred of


the Iroquois, who attacked them, but were repulfed with lofs.
Amongfl other converts was
Ahaliflari, who was baptized by the name of E'lflace.
He was a Huron chief, offuch diflinguilhed
power and authority

that his

example brought

an incredible number of his countrymen into the


pale of chriftianity.
dian warriors,

all

He

raifed a large bod}'^

of them chriftians

of In-

and about

this

time the Jefuits received an invitation from a re-

mote nation of Indians, that go by the name of


Pauoirigoudieuhak.

Thofe favages inhabit a counr

try,

BRITISH EMPIRE

308

try near the Falls of St.

Lake

whic)i the

Mary, on the canal by

Superior difcharges

itfelf into that

of Huron, and may be confidcrcd as lying in the


very heirt of French Canada. The Jefuit fathers,

and Charles Raimbaut undertook this


dangerous miffion to the country of the Saulteurs.
Following the Saulteur deputies, they arrived at

Ifaac Jogues

where they were

their nation,

ed

but before they could

progrefs, they

were

afFedtionately receiv-

make any

confiderable

Quebec. By this
time the Iroquois had entered into a confiderable
recalled to

commerce with the Dutch

at

New

Holland, to

whom

they difpofed of their peltry, and

niflied

them with

fire-arms,

who

fur-

by which means they

obtained a decifive fuperiority over the Hurons,

Upon

their recall

teenth of June,

from

1642,

their miflion

the

two

on the

thir-

reached

Jefuits

Quebec, where they had indifpenfable bufmefs, and,

on

the

firft

of Augull, they

fet out under a convoy


of thirteen armed canoes, manned with chriflians,
and converts, under the command of Euflace, and
.

other celebrated warriors,


nity

had

now

for inflead of

tack,

little

miilaken

chriftia-

degenerated into miferablc bigpts

making

preparations to

pafTed ami/ngft

hortations to

About

whom

fuflfer

refill

an

at-

them but mutual ex-

bravely in the caufe of Chrift.

from Quebec, they perceived


the footfteps of the Iro(|uois, but were fo fecurc
in their imagined fuperiority, that they
proceeded

up che

fixteen leagues

river

without the

leaft

precaution,

till

they

came

AMERICA.

rIN
came

30^

to a pafs wjiere feventy Iroquois lay in

and where they were

bufli,

faluted

am-

with a brilk

re

which wounded many of the chriftianv


and pierced their canoes. Some of them, upon this
fled; but the braveft amongft them, encouraged
by two or three Frenchmen who had accompagular

fire,

made a

nied father Jogues,

noes were full of water,

but a ViTy few

were obliged

who

to

refiftance,

till

their ca-

and then

all

of them,

efcaped

furrender

in

the

confufion,

themfelves

prifoners.

Jogues might have efcaped likewife, and his companions even preffed him to it ; but his frantic zeal
for the

crown of martyrdom detained him, and he

refolved to fh^re the fate of his dear children, as


called the prifoners.

He even

amidft this fcene of /laughter, with


furc imaginable,, and then, with

Frenchman,

who was

he

baptized an Indian
all

the comix)^

Couture, another

refolved to follow his for-

furrendered himfclf prifoner to the barba-

tune,

The

rians.

French have been

^t great pains to re-

jhe particulars of the miferies this Jefuit


and his fellow prifoners underwent. Euftace fuf-

count

all

fered at the ftake

the barbarians
fingers,

and

wounds and

but as to father Jogues, though

had crushed

filled

his face

fores, that

his hands, cut off

hijs

and whole body with

had become

putrid, yet

he

furvived all his iufferings, and continued indefatigable in his profefiion of making profelytes.

He

now

paffed his time chiefly amongft the Agniers,

who, tiotwithftanding
I

all

the remonftranccs of the

governor

BRITISH EMPIRE

^m:

governor of Canada^

refiafcd to part with him ;>


a variety of adventures, he efcaped to New
YoiJt, and from thence to France.

aftet

lathe year 1644, ^^e colony of Montreal had


grained over a great number of Indians tjo the
chriftian f^ith.

on an

The Algonquins, who were


formed by the Outawas,

ifland

featcd;

had

the-

commerce with our new colonifts ; but


they were headed by a chief who had an invincigreateft

ble avsrfion to the chriflian religion, though he

pretended to be a great friend to the French nation.

He

was

Iroquois

rather

more

fierce

themfelves.

phew who

fettled at

on

this

head than the

This barbarian had a neMontreal, together with his

and

there, by the pcrfuafion of two Jefuits,


Vimond and Poncet,. they embraced chrillianity,
but were much grieved to think that their uncle

wife

ihould

flill

continue in a ftate of obftinate infide-

After feveral difcourfes held between this

lity.

profelyte

and

his ghoftly fathers,

of converting the uncle,

who

upon the means

had been for fome

time gone upon an expedition, the

appeared

latter

in his nephew's cabin, and declared that, as

was

traverfing the wilds of the country,

he

he was

feized with an irrefiftible impulfeto

become a chrifand that he^could have no peace of mind till

tian,

he fiiould repair t6 Montreal for baptifm, together


his wife who was imprefled with the fame

with

Maifonneuve and the Jefuits did not


encourage thefe Indians in their pious dif-

fcntiraents.
fail

to

pofitions;

IN AMERICA-pofitions

great

and both of them were baptized with


ceremony.

pomp and

But about
both

3x1

in

this time, the

enemies of the fathers,

Canada and Europe, gave out

labours tended only to

eftablifli

that all their

themfelvcs in the

which, in fadt, was now ingrofled by


company of a hundred, or Canadian company.

fur-trade,

the

The

thought themfelves at

latter

laft

obliged to

which they

contradift thofe ijeports,

did, in an auunder their hands and feals.


During the wandering and painful life they led for

thentic declaration

three years, having received

no fupply of

they were almoft naked

want of communion

for

cloaths,

elements they could not adminifter the facrament

and when

their

wine had

failed

them, they were

even obliged to fqueeze the wild grapes the^


found in the woods. At laft, fomc Hurons ven*

go

upon the ice to Quebec,


where they kid before the governor the diftr^es
of the miffion, and a fupply of provifions was ortured to

in winter-time

dered for their relief ; but the dangers of the journey; were fo dreadful that even the moft zealoui
declined

it,

took

He

till

Breffani,

Roman

Jefuit,

under-

embarked towards the end of Aprils


attended
by a young Frenchman, and fix
1644,
it.

Hurons, two of

whom

hands of the Iroquois

of

entrance

Wrecked
^fter,

had been faved out of the


but

when

they

came

to the

Lake, their canoe was


and a thick fnow happening the night
St.

Peter's

feveral of the

convoy were

fo

imprudent as
to

'*J=

BRITISH Empire

312
to

fire

upon fome
one of the

killed

favages,

who

to the Iro<iuois,

which difcovcred them

inftantly feized

the booty,

and forced the

prifoneri,

reft

to

and day, fomctimes Iwimming, and


fometimes on foot, loading them all the way with
travel night

fcvere baftinadoes
left

the

but they fplit the miffionary's


;
hand between two ftoncs, and, after coming to
firft

were redoubled,

tures
jlind

village of the canton ot Agnier, his tor-

motionlefs

his left

fo that he fell

down

lifelefs

and to recover him, they cut off

thumb and two

lingers of his rigfit hand.

The tortures, manglings, and burnings, which


he afterwards underwent, are incredible ; fo
that his body became one continued fore, crawU
ing with worms and maggots, and emitted

ibme a

fmell, that

undcrftood at

laft

fo noi^

He

none durft approach him.

from the

elders

of the barba-

were refolved not to put him to


a favour which the good father attributed to

rians, that they

death

his devotions.
tron,

who

He was

treated

then configned to a ma-

him with humanity; but

the

ftench ilTuing from his fores remained fo offenfive,


that Ihe fent

him

to be fold.

Fortunately

to the next

for

Dutch
him,

fettlement to

he

found a

Dutchman who bought him, and after ordering


his wounds to be carefully infpedted, they were
cured, and the father was put on board a ilvp
landed him at Rochelle towards the end of November.

The

The

'

E R

A.

3Y5

now amufed Montmagny with

Iroquois

jiropofals

1 1^

of peace, which he earncftl^ wiHicd for

but they had no other dcfign than to have an opportunity of learning flie litliation of the
colony*
At lad Montmagny wns reduced to the moft defpi-

and

cable ihifts,
to gain

rians,

About

colony.

()l)ligcd

to

little rcfjVife

foorhe the

for

barbae

himfelf and his

time, Champfleurs, governor

this

of Trois Ptivieres, informed

Montmagny

that

fome

Huron's had arrived at Trois Rivieres, ^vith three


Iroquois prifoners, one of whom they had given
to the

Algonquins,
prevailed

difficulty,
till

\\'ho

had been, with much


to put him to death,

Upon not

he could hear fiom Montmagny.

the latter immediately

Upon

thi

went Up

to Trois Pviviercs
with fome prefents, and, fummoning together th6

heads of the Algonquins and ITuronSj he difplayed


his prefents

before their eyes,

them, that, in order

from their

wanted

common

and then informed

to prevent

any impofirionS

enemies the Iroquois, he only

liberty to fend

one of the prifoners to the

cantons of the Iroquois, to inform them, that ff


they

meant

foners,
full

of the other two pri-

they muft immediately fend deputies, with

power

fpeech

to fave the lives

to

being

of an accommodat'on.

treat

finiflicd,

and, prefenting his }.rlfoner to

him,

That he could

and that

if his

'

Vol.

I.

reuifi^

prefents

only in order to dry

up

His

an Algonciuih chief arofe*

Montmagnv, he

nothing to his

were accepted

the

tevirs

S f

of,

told

father';
it

was

of a family where
'

that

BRITISH EMPIRE

3H

that captive

as to replace

v\

would be

maenv

then turned to the

air,

chant

bit to fight

Hurons

them

had not

he*

told

know

to

their
re-

had

another Huron, who,

it

of

fo great a

whom

that he
in

the confolation of

would fay,
death.
Mont-

his nation

feems,

him

drclled him, and gave


his nation,

to trade,

captives, or to die

he would have

thatOnonthio was the caufc of


magny appeared difconcerted at

his

this fpeech,

was a

reafons

when

chriftian, ad-

why

the ciders

none were then prefent,

highly amifs,

it

home

his

he might take them

make more

to

cafe

laft

left

dying as a man, but that

muft take

Mont-

it.

him with a

that if the governor

knew where

of

but

That he was a warrior, and not a mer-

that

defire for prifoners,

which

dead

its

a very difficult matter to efTedt

fcnriments, and one of


Xohice

one of

wilhed for a peace, he was afraid it

that thouj^jh he

if they,

^vho were

all

of them young men, Ihould return with merchanof prifoners, with

difes inftcad

vations equally forcible.

anfwerablc
aflembly,

Montmagny

ibner

on their

and,

who

prefcntcd to

this

that

telling the

it

departed with their

being called, they

by

it,

was un-

pri-

arrival, a general council

of

refolved that the

be given up to Montmagny,

prifoners Hiould

had,

other obfer-

reafoning

was more
of the French, to make

The Hurons then

their nation

two

that

many

agreed to

the fame time,

at

their intercft, than

peace.

Mis

time, fent

him by

home

the Algonquins.

the captive

The

Iro-

quois,

AMERICA.

IN

-^'S

quois, to manifeft their defire of peace at the


time, fent Couture,

who had

dill

foner with

them

with

Jogues, and the captive

fiither

fame

remained a

pri-

he had been taken along

after

who

had been

taken by the Hurons, and five deputies, with full


power to the Hurons for concluding a treaty. As
loon as

thofe deputies arrived at Trois Rivieres,

Montmagny gave them


the caflle,

vas

audience in the fquare of

which was covered

he himfelf being feated

at the top
in

with can-

an elbow chair,

and attended by Champfleurs, father Viniond, and


the principal inhabitants of 'jvj .olony ; while the
Iroquois deputies, to fhev

Ononthio, as they called


at

his

their iefped: to father

}^l'\-\i:\vApAy,

upon a mat.

feet

were feated

Algonquins,

'^..c

and

other nations of their language, ranged themfelves


oppofite to Montmagny; but the French and

Hu-

rons

were

feated

together

and the Iroquois had

brought along with them feventeen belts of


pum, having run a firing between two

wampoles

from one end to the other of the void fpace,


on
which they were feverally to hang the belts *.
*

At thU

conference,

having prefentecl

accompanied

it

" Ononthio,
by

my

the fpeaker

Montmagny

witli

of the

one of the

Iroquois canton!
belts

of

wampum,

with a fpeech to this efFed


lend an ear to

mouth ;

my

my

voice

all

the Iroquois fpeak

heart harbours no bad fentimeiits, and

intentions are upright.


" and to exchange them

We

want

to forget

all

my

our fongs of war

for fougs of joy."

Sf2

It

BRITISH TSMFIRE

i6
It

the cnilom of thofe favages, that they

is

ther give nor receive an anfwer the

a public propolition

Montmagny
He

returned

then begin fingingj

in

his

fame day that

Two

made.

is

and rliiowing

ntU

days

after,

which

meeting,

hiniiclf into a thoiifand

walking about, and frequently looking upon

r'uliculoua attitudes,

the fun: at length, in a calmer manner, he proceeded as follows:

"The

belt,

my

which

father,

**>

for

having refcued

*'

b\it

how

my

couldft thou let

*'

cance been overfet,

*'

Had

I here prcfent thee,

thanks thee

brother from the tooth of the Algonquin

him

fetufn

who was

home by

to affift

him

Had

himfelf ?

to bring

to rights

it

his
?

he been drowned, or perifhed by any other accident, thou

*'

wouldft have hsard no word of peace from us, and wouldft,

*'

perhaps, have imputed to us the fault committed by thyfelf."

"When
,^e cord

the orator had finifhed

turning again to
*'

My

Montmagny, he

far

*'

of his

home

never could

fafe arrival.

back thy

have been ealy

My

brother,

"

fuflercd

*'

obliged alone to carry his

*'

drag his canoe againft the

"

againil furprife."

The

thus addrelTed

father, this belt brings thee

own

leprcfcnted a

man

bundle

him

arm, and,

fubjeiit

but I was

He

tl ,.n

had certainly heard

thou haft fcnt us back

many
to

all

was

day, to

fpeech

with the moft exprefllve

refuming his

fometimes he feemed

fpirits,

he appeared more

then fccn.cd as if he had hurt his foot againft a ftone in

carrying his bundle

and, halting along as if he had been wounded,

he thus couthiucd his difcourfe

" Hadft thou but

*'

furmonntiiig the moft difticult parts of his journey.

**

father,

He

perils.

fwim

fometimes pufliing forvvard a canoe

with a pole, fometimes paddling with an oar

=i

the belt on

and to be always on his guard

falls,

orator accompanied this

which

till

whom

a great deal, and underwent

to be out of breath, and


cairn.

hung

to Couture's

it

from faying unto him, Nephew, take a canoe, and return

*'

tion,

fpeech, he

tliis

then, taking another, he fixed

know

affifted

Really,

not what bccaqie of thy underftanding


^
i.

him

when

in

my

thou

\vas5

%^

'was as
as

IN A M ER

numerous

many

as the former,

A.

317

and where he made

he had received belts of

prefents as

pum. Couture, on
ter, and performed'

wam-

this occalion ferved as interpreoffice in a

his

grave folemn

manner, fuitable to the dignity of the perfonage


for
his

whom

who was

fpeech, Piefkarct,

the bravcft

When

he interpreted.

men

on the tomb of thofe who died


'>'-

fenteft

attendant, and without, aififtance

'

faid to

him,

Come

war,

t';

at

none

I did not ferve Coutm-e fo.

my nephew, follow me,


the peril of my own life."

along,

thee to thy family,

The

in

ns Lack in this m<mner one of thy chilch-cn, without an

"
'

efteemed one of

Canada produced, made


which he faid he placed

that ever

of a ftone,

his prefent

he had finilhed

at

I will reftore

other belts were difpofed of in the fame manlier as the

two

preceding; and each of them had a particular allufion to the terms

of the peace in agitation, which was explained by the orator in a

One

veiy picfturefque manner.

of them levelled the roads, another

of them fmoothed the river, a third fiuiuihed the contrailing parries

v/ith

daufer.

the meanr.

One was

amongft them

of vifiting one another without

emblematical of

to fee

them

Jogues and Breffani

three Iroquoi". captives.

icompanied with a fpeech,


fuffieiently expreffive

return,

their thanks

would meet with, and

tinued this

difti-uft

or

were to pds

that

another of the alliance to be concluded, and their

intentions to icftorc the fathers,


?heJr impatience

the' feafts

When
it

the cordial

for the late deliverance

the deliveiy of a belt

was with

gefticulations

of the

was not ac-

who

con-

amazing fpace of

three hours

for he afterwards led

up a dance,

fatiguing fcenc for the

^nd joined in the linking and

of

and motion^,

of the meaning of the orator,

without appearing to be heated

others,

reception they

fe^fting,

which concluded

the con-

furence.

might

BRITISH EMPIRE

3i8

might dare
venging

to

remove

their

bones or think of

re-

their death.

Negabamat, the chief of the


mountaineers, then made them a prefent
of an
elk's fkin, faying, that it was to
make Ihoes for the
Iroquois deputies, that they might not
hurt their feet
their return homewards.
The other

in

nations

prefent, probably

having with them neither chief

nor interpreters, made no fpeeches.

When

conferences were over, three cannons


were
as the governor ordered the favages

be

to

the

fired,

told, to

carry every

where the news of the peace. The


favages ^vere then feafted by the
fuperior of the Jcfuits, and his good cheer
rendered them extremely
eloquent, and drew from them
many profeffions of

Next

friendihip.

day,

the

deputies

returned

home, attended by two Hurons, and


two Algon^
quins, for
tages.

whom

The

treaty

three Iroquois remained as

was

ratified

efpecially that of Agnier,

war with

France.

Brcflani

two Frenchmen, and

attended the

were

hof-

the cantons,
in

open

afterwards returned

from the report of

four favages

Iroquois deputies,

that

who had

the

people

defirous of having miffionarics

he eagerly
eft

all

which had been

to Canada, and underftanding,

the

by

offered himfelf,

amongft them,
and even made inter^

for the miflion.

the Hurons,

md

Next winter, the Iroquois,


the Algonquins, hunted together,

as if they had been but one


nation ; a circum^
fiance which had not happened
fince the arrival of
the French in Canada but juft
as the latter were bei

ginning

IN

ginning to

who

AMERICA

31^

tafte the

fweets of peace, the Sokokiy


were enemies to the Algonquins,
and

done

had

they could to hinder the


Iroquois from
concluding the treaty, murdered
feveral of the
chriftian favages after they had
fettled at
all

Sylleri

The Agniers,

to exculpate themfelves,
again ratl^
fied the treaty by new
deputies, who hinted
to
Montmagny, that he ought to be upon
his

guard

agamft

all

cluded

the favages

who were

not expreffly in-

in the treaty,

and that he had it in


his
power to bring them in, by procuring
the releafe
of fome of their prifoners who
had
been taken

by the

allies

of the French

but

this counfel

was followed.

never

Father Jogues, a: well as BrelTani,


returning to
Canada, being more zealous than
ever for the crown
of martyrdom, petitioned
the governor fc
ve
again .to vifit the Agniers
;
which was granted
him, provided he came back
after the treaty had
been ratified by the other four
cantons of
.

the Iro-

ciiiois,

to

difpofitions

give

Montmagny an

he found them

the

But the Algonquins

in.

very earneftiy infilled, that


he Ihould neither appear

account of

in

his

iirft

expedition,

in the 'habit

der nor

of his orfpeak of religion, which


advice he rom-

phed with.

He

fet

in

their

out, on the fixteenth of


Mav
by Bourdon, one of the
moft confide;!
mhabitants of Quebec, and
two Algonquins

attended
aole

who earned
tion to that

canoe prefents from their


na-

of the Iroquois.

At

the full Ac^nier


viiiage

BRITISH

jao

came

village Jogues

of

who

and compliments,
to

refolution

back

he wai^

former tormentor*,

his

careffes

to,

EMPllltt

to Richlieu,

who

well

fo that

among them, and hurried


where Montmagny was, to be

He

aflurecl

knew from what

that he might depend

Agniers; and,

him with
Jogncs came to

fettle

difcharged of his promife.


ral,

known by fow

loaded

at laft,

that gene-

motives he fpoke,

upon the friendlhip of


he was releafed from

engagement, and returned to

the
his

his miflion,* attended

by a Frenchman and four favages.


the Upper Iroquois, who compofed

By

this time,

the four can-

tons that had not ratified the peace, had recom-

menced

hollilities againft

one

prifed

however,

the Hurons, and had fur-

The

of their villages.
felicitated

miflionaries,

themfelves upon

the

great

progrefs their labours had

made during

interval of peace ;-ni-but they

were foon undeceived

Father Jogues

had fcavcely paiTed Trois Rivieres,

when he was abandoned by


and

alone

left

with

his

his four

favage guides,

young Frenchman,

the

to

good

who

father,

began,

as

could fpeuk their language, to expollulate


eloquently
all

La

This fudden change was matter of amaze-

Land.

ment

the Ihort

the

with them,

but

all

him,

favour they iliewed

Head of burning him and


their heads

were cut

off'

to

his

no
was,

he
very

pur])ofe

that in-

companion

with a hatchet in

alive,

their

cabins.
..:..

...

The

IN AMERICA.
The

hatred of the chriftians carried

of

excefs

fury,

to an

to fex or age,

whenAmongft others
was the brave Pief-

into their hands.

fell

died martyrs to their rage,

whom

Jcaret,

tlien:i

they murdered or. tormented

for

them to death, without regard


ever they

who

321

one of the

not daring to attack

parties

him

met

alone,

to his face,

and

engaged

in

a familiar converfation

from behind.

way

their

and had

this occafion,

to the French,

One of

fur-

on

them of their danger

ed

IS,

The

their enemies

filled

with him, and killed him


Algonquin women nobly re-

were the

and, fighting

firft

who appriz-

*.

them, being taken prifoner, was carried to an


Iro-

quois village,

where

fhe

was

ftrlpped naked, and her hands

and

feet

bound with ropes, in one of

(he

remained for ten days, the favages'lleeping round her


every

The

night.

their cabins.

In

eleventh night, perceiving they were

this condition

all

afleep, flie

difengaged one of her hands, and foon freeing herfelf


from the
ropes, went to the door, where ihe fnatched up
a hatchet, flew

favage that lay next her, and fpringing out of the


cabin, con-

the

cealed herfelf in a

hollow

near the place.

fore,

tree,

The

alarmed the other favages, and

began,

as

he

fult

of her.

all

the

Perceiving, from her

dying pcrfon made, foon

young ones

tree,

her fanftuary,
forefi:

out in pur-

them direded

was near

her,

flie letc

and flying by an oppofite dlrcdion, fhe ran into

without being perceived.

pened, her

fet

that all of

courfe one way, and that no perfon

their

that fhe had obferved the day be-

noife the

The

fecond day after this hap-

wore perceived, and they followed her with


1uch expedition, that, on the third day, flic difcovered
her purfuers
at

footftcps

her heels.

Sh,inftantly threw

hcrfclt* into a pond of water


where diving amongft fomc weeds and bul-

\\ hit-li

was near

rutlics,

flje could jufl breath above water


without being perceived
her purfuers, after m;iking a moll: diligent fearch for her.

ie tl.at

Voi.

I.

her,

While

mm

BRITISH EMPIRE

322

While

the Ircxjuois were thus Ihaking off their

chriftianity,

an Inuian

New

and

it

was taken up by the Abenaquais,


Lake Champlain

nation lying between

England, and divided into various

who

live

and,

about

on the banks of the

many

land being very Ihong, and

who had been driven

nifters,

try

on account of

)f

from

French

Dreuillet'fts

vrM

at

fettled

there,

feiu:

that thh
nibas,

was

liiillioD

folicitcd

The French

For

to return.

five

and thirty days

fay

Can-

the

for b}'

who uided
who had been

Their countrymen

were forced

Thii

it.

Abenaquais nation

an

Quebec.

Quebec; and father Gubriel


upon a mlfTion amongft the

Abena<[Luii'' for their converfion.

with
con-

poor

this

crea^

held on htr coiirfe, through woods and dcfarts, without any

When

other fuftcnance than roots and wild berries.


to the

River

of a wicker

St.

raft,

Laurence,

on which

Rivieres, without well

canoe

full

flic
flie

pafTcd

continuing her courfe,

flie

and when they approached


calling out to them,
flic

came

fiie

went by Trois

fhe

was,

flie

perceived

of Imllans, and, fcaiing they might be Iroquois,

then difcovered by a pa:ty

btcaufe

As

It.

knowing where

flic

fooi! after,

flie

made with her own hands a kind

?gain ran into the woods, where

was

native coun-

zealous for the converfion

i:;

had made a very confiderabie prognrfs

9.

Eng-

the Indians as the Jefuits thcmf.lves were, ami

nlariT:'-;; ':he

tiirc

Per.i:r^i>-eoi:i

New

diflenring mi-

ths^ir

having

religion,

them grev/

fonie of

river

the colony of

lime,

this

tribes

was

that

UiikeJv

her,

rtie

They

whom
flip

remained

fun-fet;

faw Trois Rivieres.


flie

flic

but

She

i^ncw to be Huiuns,

down

behind a

bufli,

in a condition to be

fecii,

f(juaUed

w*s not

till

inmiediatcly tiuew her 4 blanket,

verted

IN AMERICA.
verted

by theEnglilh, and who

England, beginning to

and

thrive,

3^3

lay neareft to
to live in

New
much,

greater abundance than before, their lands


being
better improved, and their perfons
better
cloathed; the Abenaquais, who lay neareflr
to Canada, being miferably poor and lazy,

much

no doubt

expefted the like defireable change of circumllances

from their converfion by the French


bers

were accordingly made

and num-

profelytes to the chrif-

tian faith.

At

this period

Montmagny

from his court to deliver up

who had

lebouft,

Trois Rivieres

faid

to

Having

at

France with
abilities.

be a very deferving

but a zealot for the

Indians.

foi

both for his virtues and

His fucceflbr was

an order

fome time commanded

for

and he departed

a great charafter,

perfon,

received

commiffion to d'Ail-

his

converfion of

the

great experience in the affairs of

French colony, high expedations "vvere formed of his government ; and it was owing to negled:
the

and mifmanagement at home, that they were not


anfwered.
The Andades, a warlike tribe of In-

dians,

now

offered their affiilancc to the

Hurons,

who ftill continued to be their


implacable enemies; but the former fccmcd to have
againft the Iroquois,

exchanged for

chriilianlty all their native

courage

and conduaed her to the fort of Trols Rivieres,


where (he reher ftory; the moft remarkable circiiniftance of whieh

counted

ndidoa to be

fccii,

is

her innate dtlire of blood, that

to kill the favat-e,

was

which oecafioned

fo ftrong as to induce her

all tlic

danger that at'terwards

iuirfucd her,

and

BRITISH EMPIRE

324

and love of

Depending on

their country.

the pro-

tcdtion of the French, they civilly declined the of-

of the Andaftes, and giving

fer

tural

indolence, they

defence,

of

St.

till

made no

the Agniers

fell

upon

them

Ignatius, and gave

way

their

M
PI

blow, rclapled into

village

a complete defeat.

Inftead of preparing to revenge their

rons finding their enemies

to their na-

provifion for their

lofs, 'the

former fupinenefs; and

all their

fomc time the colony enjoyed a Hate of

for

while

quility,

Hu-

not follow their

did

the French followed

tran-

the fur-trade

about Trois Rivieres and TadoufTac, with great


fuccefs

and

profit.

fecurity of the

The

Iroquois had forefeen the

Hurons; and, watching

they fecrctlv armed themfelves,


flood that the greateft

their time,

when they

number of

the

under-

young Hu-

rons were gone to hunt, and, on the fudden, they


invefled the populous village of St. Jofeph.

Daniel, an

attended

had but

obftinate enthufiaflic

this village,

and

miflionary,

t6 lock

of his

up the holy

ecclefiafti-

when

utenfils,

he faw himfelf furrounded with the Iroquois,


flaughrered

Hepped
if

his

all

in water,

many who implored

and obllhiarely rcfufing


laft

The

they found.

father

who

intrepidly

into the midrt of the carnage, and, dipping

handkerchief

ling,

who

was then faying mafs, and

juft time to flrip himfelf

cal habit,

Father

he baptized by fprinkit

moments;
was himfelf the

in their laft

to fly, he

victim of the fury of the Iroquois,

who

killed

him

mm
HHI
I

N AMER

him with

A.

and mangled

their arrows,

325
his

body in

a barbarous manner.

The

people of

New

England, in 1648, fent to

the governor and council of Canada, a propofal


there Ihould be a perpetual peace between

that

two

the

even though their mother-counwere at war ; but it came to nothing. The

tries

colonies,

had difcontinued their maflacres for fix


months, and the chriftian Hurons continued to live
Iroquois

with their ufual indolence, as

my

if they had no enewhen, on the fixtecnth of


1649, before day, a body of oije thou-

guard

to

March,

againft,

fand Iroquois fuddenly furprifed the village of St.


Ignatius, and butchered or took prifoners moft of
the inhabitants.

of

Two hundred of the Iroquois, the main body


whom had now returned to St. Louis, approach-

ed St. Mary's, a populous and well-fortified village,

but

who

killed

to fly,

into an

fell

ambufcade of the Hurons,

many of them,

purfued them as far as

themfelves,

who were

prifed in trheir turn,

They defended
;

killed,

fome were made

them efcaped

nation.

reft

themfelves, however, very

of them were wounded,

and

the

Louis, where

but a handful, were fur-

bravely

all

St.

and furrounded by their ene-

mies.

Huron

and, forcing

in

The

many were

prifoners, but

them

fell

people at

none of

the flower of the


St.

Mary's were

overwhelmed with confternation and

defpair, at

hearing of this defeat; but the Iroquois, the next

day.

BRITISH EMPIRE

326

day were fcizcd with a pani , and returned home,


where they put their prifoners to death by the torture.
St.

The

amongft the Indians of


formed a projeft for coU

miffionaries

Mary's, upon this,

leding together

remains of that nation, and

f^'*

tranfportlnor *hci'

they

coulc^ not

place of fafety,

..uc

thispurpclL they propofed the

a narrow

was

of Manitoualin;

ifle

about forty leagues in length, lying

fpot,

in the fouth part of lake


ial

where
For

be uiiturbed by their enemies.

^ '

but

propo-

this

by the Hurons, bccaufe

rejected

wag

it

at too great a dillance from their native country;

and

pitched upon the

the}'

within

lying

I'his place

fight

w as

grew niimerou

of

of

little ifland

their

ancient

Jofeph,

St,

habitations.

foon peopled, and the inhabitants

on account of the convenience

:.,

of filhing and hunting

the neigbourhcx)d

in

while

the miflionarics, inftead of imtruding them in the


tional parts of chrilVianit)

and the

't-

of indullry,

arts

fpent their time in myflic devotions, and baptized


three thoufand Ir.dians in a fhort time.

mcr

The

fum-

palled o\ er without any thing remarkable hap-

pening

mentable
votion,

fitu

that

their filhery

game

but

\\as

they began

inter

'on.

overtook them

So

fer

id

iney had lowed

mod

in

had been
little

or

theii'

la-

de-

nothing;

and

all their

foon deHroyed; lu that indie

autumn

of

tamine.

had

ti'rncd

to* feel

This calamity was

the
folio

\\hilc the inhalitants of

out very

ill,

aj>pr nachcs

cd h
^

a peililcnce; aid

of

St. Jofe h

were

plunged

IN AMERICA.
plunged into thefe

miferics,

Huron

three

nation

taken the

field,

that

v$

hun. red

32;
came

to the

Iroquois had

and feemed to meditate fome blow


Hurons. This tribe waj

againft the Tii nnontatez

populous, that one of their villages, that


of St.
John, contained upwards of fix hundred families.
(o

The Huron

chiefs, far

guard, took the

field

from keeping upon

their

queft of their enemies,

in

who, giving them the


wards

St.

foners all

flip, marched diredly towhere they killed and took prithey met with, and put to death father

John's,

Gamier,

meantime, the miferable remains of the


Jofcph colony had left it ; and many of them
hnd perifl>-d in the lake, the ice breaking
under
In the

St.

who remained alive, who did not


exceed three hundred, applied to father
Ragueneau,
them

Thofe

?heir miffionary,

to Ihelter

bvconc^ia^ng them
pror^-ai.-n

to

them from the

Iroquois,

Quebec, where, under the

of the governor,

they might cultivate


iands that fhould be affigned them.
The falacr, by
he advice of his brethren, confcnted.
They let out
the river of the Ouatawas, and,
th

'

rendering them hardy, thev marched


on
without being attacked hy their
enemies.
On the
r .ad they met BrefTani,
ui o, being informed c die
fate of the chrirtian Hui
.,
thouf^ht he could not
do better than go back with Rn
nieneau ; and accordingly returned to Quebec. -- ^'.u
h of the T

def..air

\irons as
could not be DerfuaJed to ^-uve
their native country

BRITISH EMPIRE

328

try, exi)i lencetl great variety of milcrics.


Some of
them fled for ihelter to other nations, who thereby drew upon them the arms of the Iroqutns;
others of them fettled under the i)rGtcdtion of the

Englilh, on the borders of Pennfylvania; andfome


of the inhabitants of the villages which remained
ftill

imdeflroyc' followed a different courfe

for

they fubmitted to the Irocjuois, and were taken


into their friendihip

The

color "fts
fubfift

and

alliance.

incrcafe of people at

Quebec

laid the

French

there under inconceivable difficulties to

them; and they found thcmfelves become

almofl as contemptible as their Indian


been, in the eyes

allies had
of the Iroquois; whilft thofe

of the Hurons who had taken refugee under the


cannon of Quebec, having now wherewithal to
fubfift on,

forgot their former miferies, and palled

from defpondency to prefumption. They alTociated themfelves witk their countrymen at Sylleri,
with the Algonquins of Tfois Rivieres, and the
gleanings of their countrymen who had efcaped
the hatchets of the Iroquois, and madly formed

amongft thenifelvcs

a confederacy to exterminate
the Iroquois, thofe profeffed enemies to the gofpel.

Setting out upon this ill concerted expedition,


they difpatched a Huron, and an Algonc^uin, to
reconnoitre a village of the Agniers, which they

were

The former fell into the hands


of the Agniers, and he betrayed his countrymen
to the enemy, l))- bringing them to the place
where
to attack.

tlicy

IN

they were lying aflecp.

E R

32^

They were awakened by a

difcharge of mufqiietry,
their bell warriors

which

lor the

killed or difablcd

Agnicrs had time to

take their aim.

Some of them, however, fought

way

neighbouring wood, where they

their

into a

faved themfelves; but

ed or burt
to

alive,

all

the reft were cither kill-

who

excepting two,

efcaped

Quebec with the melancholy news.

The French
tereft

to

at

Tadoulfac found

indulge the

Algonciuins

it

for their in-

and Hurons,

who

repaired thither, with the ule of brandy, which

kejit

them

their
fo

in a

paffion

perpetual ftate

and

violent

tif

ftrong liquors

for

intradiable,

now

recalled,

and

grew every day

that

either civil or ecclefiaftic, could

D'Aillebouft was

intoxication

no authority,

put a flop to

and

M.

it.

de Laufon,

one of the chief diredors of the Quebec company,

was nominated
rive at his

to fuccced

government

till

him; but he did not


the next year.

He

ar-

had

great experience in the affairs of the colon)-, and

had negotiated the


I^nglifh;

reftitution

of Quebec by the

but was amazed to find the colony in

fo miferable a ftate

marched up
non without
Bochart, a

upon

his arrival.

The Iroquois

mouth of the French canand infulted them on all hands.

to the very
fear,

man of

capacity and virtue, was then


French governor at Trois Rivieres, and had
prevented the vice of drunkennefs fi:om infeding
the

that

fettlement,

good

order.

VoL, L

which^ under him, "was in very

Perceiving thai

II

the Indians extend-

ed

fill

BRITISH EMPIRE

330
cd

fomewhat

his government, he

their infults to

unadvifedly marched out in perfon againft tliem,

and was

His death increafed

killed.

of the favages, and the new

found himfclf obliged to incU)le

The Abenaquais were

wall.

nation

whom

the inlb'ence

governor of C^iebec

with a

Sylleri

the only

chriftian

the Iroquois did not attack; but they

were probably

by the

reftrained

who feems
much greater

Father Dreuillettes,

to have had the

lame

capacity, than

zeal,

they bore

reipcd:

for the Englilh.

but a

brother miffionaries, had been

his

long employed with great fuccefs in converting


^

thefe,

and having

won

their

affedion, he formed

them into a barrier againft the Englilh fettlers.


It was about this time that father Buteux., in tra^
veiling to convert

Indians in undifcovered regions

of the north, was murdered by the Iroquois. At


laft, the perfeverar^ce and zeal of the Jcfuits began
to abate, and

amonft

ment
ties.

fome of them returned to Europe;

whom

was ^nther

at Montreal,

Breflani.

The

fettle-

partook of the general calami-

Maifonneuve,

who

ftill

continued to govern

there, found himfelf obliged to

o-o to

Old Franc*

for frefh recruits; and, in 1653, he returned with,

one hundred men,

and a female houfe-keeper,

called Margaret Bourgeois,

who

afterwards

inftitut-

cd the order of the daughters of the congregation.

While Maifonneuve was employed


Montreal from
Iribe called

furprifes,

^bout

fixty

Onnondagans, prefcnted

in

guarding

of the favagc
th(.'mielvcs at
the.

N AMER

Ai

331

^he gate of the fort, and

demanded a parley, upon


\vhich fome of them were admitted into the place,
and declared that their nation was difpofcd to treat
They accompanied their fpeech with

of a peace.

and

prefents,

Upon

frelh

alfurances of their fincerity.

they were fuffered to return to their


chiefs with the terms offered by the governor,
and
this,

in their

way

they engaged the tribes of

n
n

Onneyouth

and Goyogouin to join them in the negociationv


T^he head of the latter not only named his deputies

go

to

bfelt

were on

Iroq^-is

their

march

to attack Trois Ri-

viereu^ f..vlaifonneuve acquainting I.aufon with his

danger, the latter

immediately affembled

the

all

Hurons he could get together, and attacked a body


of the Agniers,
chief

whom

and many of

he defeated, making their

tha'iv

leaders

other party of the Iroquois

gates of

prifoners.

marched up

* Amongft

tliefe

was

who was

father Poncet,

whom they

*'

rons
us

now

off,

his

naturalized Iroquois, and

woman came

on

the

" Six Hu-

four Agniers have carried

but as yet done ui no harm."


for

allbciation to

fellow prifoners, engiaved

when they came

They
to

tht

where an afleinbh' was held, to deliberate on the


a

ail

with the following note underneath

to alter their tone;

fnr3^

Foity Frenchj

and, fetting out from Quebec, dlfcovcred

names of Poncet, and

irunk of a tree,

the darling of

ciiried into captivity.

and a number of favages inftantly entered into


deliver their milFionary,

"

An-

to the very

Quebec, where they made fome prifoners *>

the province,

the

w:

Montreal^ but fent along with him a


of wampum, as a token that five hundred
to

foon had reafon

Agnier
fate

village,

of the pii-

up to the party, and prefented them with

UH

Pcacfi

'?.

BRITISH EMPIRE.

332

Peace was

concluded, and a reciprocal

at laft

confidence fecmed to have been fettled on both

Next

year father

Le Moyne was

fides.

Onnon-

fent to

dago, to ratify the treaty, and was fo well

fatis-

with the cordial reception he had from the

fied

up

favages, that he offered to take

his

reiidencc

with them, which was readily accepted ; an apart-

ment was

af!igned him, and he accordingly took

of

poH/?nion

He

it.

then

loaded with prefents from

Quebec,

out for

fct

the Iroquois chiefs.

all

a firing of wampura, that (he might be permitted to cut off one

of the

nHtiffionary's

to tlic great

This favour was granted her : and,

fingers.

joy of the miirionary,

who

the facred ccremouies with the right hand,


left

hand that (he cut

it
it

onn

fecms ufed

was the

fore

,2ttlcr
of the

ffi.j,ci

Next day he was abandoned

off.

to the bar-

barous treatment of the children of the feveral villages througli


i||
I

-Ml

which he was
lied,

to be carried; and, at laft, another council aflem-

who pronounced

the

fentence, that

Frenchman,

his

com-

panion, fliould be burnt alive, which was executed immediately

and that the father (hould be put into the hands of a matron

had

loft

lub life.

near relation in the

Tluce days

after,

an

war

came exprcfs from Trois

Iroqtiois

Rivieres with an account that peace was upon the poii


concluded, and that Ononthio had obliged

him

whofe

hoftaiTcs,

lives

who

and fhe gave the miffionavy

of being

the Iroquois to give


tor tliat of father

were to be anfwerable

Poiicet.

This news
Ijiin

to

Orange, the ncareil Dutch

cloathed, hib

he was

entire'y altered the father's fituation.

own

coiidu*i:1ed

ftraiious of the
lit'th

joy by

moft

his

Upon

from one canton to another, with

of November,

s^reateft

fetrlcnicnt,

cloaths being torn to pieces.

They

fip.ccre friendftiip;

at

and

carried

where he was new


his return,
all

denion-

at laft arrived, on

tl;e

Quebec, where he was received with the

countrymen.

He

IN AMERICA,

How'cver, before he had reached there,


of the
faith

little

dependance

of thofe favages.

tliat

is

Being

to

^f

a proof

be had upon the

in a

canoe with two

Onnondagans, and followed by other canoes. In


which were Algonquins and Hurons, when they
came near Montreal they were furrounded by feveral
canoes a

who poured into his


of mufquetry, which killed all the

with Agniers,

boats filled
fire

Algonquins and Hurons, and one of his Onnon-"


dagans ; and the enemy then took and bound the

he had been a prifoner of war.


fame time told the furviving OnnoR-'
dagan, that he was at liberty to return home.
father himfelf, as if

They

at the

But the favage declared, that he never

don the miffionary,

would aban-

and threatened the Agniers

with the refentment of the

Upper Iroquois ; fo that


him to be refolute and
purpofe, unbound the father, and

the barbarians, perceiving


inflexible in his

replaced

him under

who conducted him

the care of his faithful guide,


to Montreal.

Th

difavowed by the Agnier canton:


dians perceiving, that

their

own

every day diminiihing, fccretly


the peace,

armed

aftion

was

but thefe In-

importance was

refolved to break

which obliged them never

in the

to appear
French colony, and not to interrupt

the miffionaries in their funftions.

In a Ihort time

was fovmd murdered and fcalped near


and it was plain, that the barbarians had

a miffionary
S}ileri,

refolved

upon a

rupture.

This,

BRITISH EMPIRE

S54

This, and

many

other adts of treachery, at kft

obliged the French to take the

could not,
Iroquois

at that time,

and

knew

becaule they

did, the rather

this

had

field,

which they
the

Agniers

be fupported by the upper

good an

fo

effed: that thofe

barbarians apologized for their condujft) and not

only offered to enter into the treaty without any


reftri<5t:ion,

but carneftly petitioned to have a

fionary fent to inflrud: them.

About

the Iroquois fo efTediually exterminated a


called the P>ies, that no

main, nor could

were

it

be

traces of

known

which
rcafon,

flill

re-

they ever had exifled,

they purfucd

and, which, for

bears their name.

beginning
it

The

that

Iroquois, at

war, were worfled;

of that

with fac^

the cataflrophe

effe6:

nation

them now

not for the great lake, on the borders of

it

they were fituated,

the

miftimcj

this

we

but

nrelenting fury as to

The

have mentioned.

French were under great apprehenfions, that this


fuccefs of the Iroquois might encourage them to

renew the war, which indeed might have been


the cafe, had not the canton of the Onnondagans
been

(o

well difpofed to chrifliauity, that they

fufed to enter into the quarrel.


ther;
fion

for they fcnt father

from

Laufon

their chiefs, to

to fend a

They went

re^

far-

Dablon, with a commif-

Quebec,

number of French

to perfuade

to fettle

Mi

amongfl

Dab) on, attended by a numerous retinue


of the natives, arrived at Quebec; and notwithftanding all that an ancient Huron, who had lived
them.

long

IN AMERICA.

535

long in the Onnondagan country, could do


to
iuade hira, Laufon refolved to grant the

dif-

requeft.

Frenchmen, with the Sieur Dupuis, to command them, were chofen for the new fettlement.
Three miffionaries were affigned them, and
though
the harveft had been but indiftercnt,
Dupuis was
furnilhed with provifions to fiipply his
colony
Fifty

a year, and to

fow

all

for
the ground that (hould be

affigned him.

The

Iroquois raifed four hundred men,


whom
they fent out to attack the party under
Dupuis on

march;

their

upon fome

but, miffing

ftray canoes,

tending that they did not


the French,

time

the

in

blow, they

know

fell

pillaged, pre-

they belonged to

but thought they were Hurons or


Algonflower of the chriftian Hurons
were

The

quins.
at this

their

which they

number of fix hundred,


of Orleans, where they had begim
to
the grounds; but they were
fo carelefs,
fettled, to the

ifle

cultivate

Loquois found means in one day tc


carry
of them to their own country,
where they

that the
offfifty

were put to death with mofl horrible


tortures, without being purfued by Laufon, though
the barbarians,

on

their

way homewards

infulted

own cannon.
The Iroquois having fubdued

him under

his

fell

own

upon the Outa\^

as,

but the

the Hurons, next


latter

left

their

country,

and difperfed themfelves through


various parts of the continent,
the bulk of them
fettling

BRITISH EMPIRE

336
fettling
their

ron

on the borders of the river wliich

name.

After the entire

liabitations, they

tatez

Hurons,

and

flillbear^

of the

deftru(!ilion

Hu-

were joined by the Tionnonthey

came to the River


ibme of them made an
they

moved fouthwards,

till

Miffiffippi, ^^'here, at firil,

alliance

with the Sioux

but, breaking with them, they were reduced to


the great;eft mifery, and obliged to divide themlelves into little parties,

wandering wherever they

could find fubfiftance through the vaft tra6:s lying


to

the caflward of the Mifliflippi.

men came up

Two

French-

with about twenty of them,

whom

they condud:ed from the banks of lake Michi-

gan, as they had fome furs with them, to Quebec;

where they were favourably received, on account


of their civilities to their two French conductors.
Laufon, bewaring that a fettlemcnt of thoie

was had been made on

b^B

jjan,

and feeing

their

Oiita

the borders of lake Michito be of an

furs

excelleni:

-kind, immediately thought of fending fome French

to fettle among them. Thirty young Frenchmen


fered themielvcs voluntecis for that

of-

lervicc, nor

^^^^^^K

was

there

wanting plenty of

to attend the

venturers

fet

Outawas on

millionaries, as ufuai,

th-ir return.

The

ad-

out from Quebec, about die twcllth

of Augull:, 1656; but as they drew near Trois Rivieres, they

form them

met with an advice-canoe,

fent to in-

that a party of the Agniers was. in the

neighbourhood.

Being thus

})ut

they cfcaped the ambufcade

upon

their guard,

the barbarians had


planted

IN AMERICA.

337

planted for them, and arrived fafe at Trois

The French

vieres.

Ri-

adventurers landing there, be-

gan lerioufly to reflet upon the dangers they were


about to encounter, efpecially as they faw their
favage friends but

ill

provided for an engagement.

All of them, therefore, but three, who would not


abandon their ghoflly fathers, refufed to proceed.
The Outawas, however, having provided them-

before

entirely

unacquainted, diverted thcmfclves

them

with firing

off,

which, when they were

them, in the route they had taken

and they had

to prepare a frelh ambufcade.

fufficient leifure

were then above the ifland of Montreal

Hurons,
arics,

killed

fix firft
all

but father Garreau one of the miflion-

a full difcharge of their fire-arms, which


many of thtiii ; and then, the canoes being

firfl:

who

did not

difcharge, were killed or

who were

The Outawas,
to

poured

canoes, which were filled with

attacked hatchet in hand, all

late

They

and the

Agniers, having chofjn a proper ftation,

the

re-

who watched

cmbarked, inltrufted the Agniers,

the

prevent

made

not engaged,

fall

by

nrifoners.

came too

the mifchief whitli rhey

feemed
I

refolved to

revenge;

but, after a briik fkirmifh,

they intrenched themfelves,

departed with
hind

ii

with fire-arms, with which they had been

felves

into

all

them the two

and the next day they

imaginable
Jcfuits,

fecref)^,

one of

leaving

whom was

wounded, und the three Frenchmen.


Vot. I.
X X

be-

mor-

tallv

The

('

<i'

BRITISH EMPIRE

338

The French undement


march

to the country

difappointed in their

great hardfliips in their

of the Onnondagans, being


fcheme of fupporting them-

by hunting and filhing ; and they muft have


perilhed for want of the mere neceflaries of life,
had not the elders of the Onnondagans fent them
felves

provifions

on the road

They were, at
number of the

canoes.

in

the fame time, informed that a vafl

Iroquois, and other favages were aflembled on the

borders of the lake Gunnentaha, to receive them;

upon which M. Dupuys prepared to


try, and in fuch a manner as might
all

that

the

the

The French were

received

devotion,

favages could exprefs.

mote cantons demanded


llruftion,

moft proof of
the

Their moft

miffionaries for

country

their

friendihip,

introduced

To

when

diftempers

their

give the

impofed on the

ut-

the heats of

amongft

the

French, the favages cured them by medicines


culiar to themfelves,

re-

their in-

and they were obliged to enlarge

chapel to receive their converts.

ftrike the bar-

marks of honour, and even

barians with refpedt.

with

enter the counr

i^-

Thofe friendly appearances

greateft part, but the

moft

fenfible

amongft the Frcach, advifed their countrymen to


be upon their guard, and to build a fort which
might brkile the natives. This a^lvice, however,
could not be complied with, becaule of the poverty of New France J though the neceffity of it becaaic every cay ipore gnd

more apparent.

The

IN AMERICA.
The Hurons

of the

339

of Orleans, thinking

ifle

'v4

Ml

they were not fafe there,

had removed to Quebec,


refentment for the French having, as they

and, in

thought, abandoned

them

to their enemies, they

had fecretly fent a meflage to propofe to the Agnicrs

and to becon'

an union,

had

latter

Hurons
fire

embraced

retracing

one people ;

the

propofiil

they

it,

rcfolved

number of

thought they had been

niers

carry

laft,

fufficiently

Quebec to condudt the Hurons to


This deputation behaved

The

tlnefs.

in a full

them demanded an audience


was weak enough
the manner in whi<fth he deli-

and

with the haughtinefs of

himfclf, together

as extraordinary as the humility

which the French received

The
gufted

Hurons
with

this

in

tamenefs;

them.
were

general

made

greatly

dif-

fome of them w^re

joining the Onnondagans, to

already

their country.

with intolerable haugh-

chief of

demands, was

with

humbled,

aflembly, which Laufon

grant,

vered

of thirty of their chiefs to

they fent a deputation

for

to

the

Hurons were acwhen the Ag-

the ftraggling

cordingly put to death ; and, at

his

and the
but

and fword, as they did, into their country.

great

to

whom

they had

propofals for that purpofe; others

were for remaining in the protection of the French;


but the tribe of the Bear remained firm to their

engagements with the Agniers.


ing fettled, the council

Agnier deputies called

Thofe points be-

was re-aflembled, and the

in,

XX

Laufon himfelf having


2

the

fi.

i.i

>i

'

BRITISH EMPIRE

340

Le Moyi^

the meannefs to continue prefent. Father

on

fervcd as interpreter

and thus ad-

this occafioii,

" Onnon-

c^refledhimfelf to the Agnier deputation,


**

thio, faid

'

children, but he does not hold th<

<(

lage; thou

(C

hence

the Ilurons, they

he, loves

haft

are

his

pupil-

undertaken to condudi

them

they are of age to chv.fe for themfelvcs

" he opens his arms, and gives them liberty to go


" whither they plcafe for my part, I will follow
:

*'

them wherever they go.

"

nier, to

cliy

If they repair,

country, I will inftrudt

what manner

wife in

"

to be

*'

myfelf that thou wilt hear

" and thy indocility


" with the Hurons.
**

the Author of

prayed to and adored

We

me

all

As
if

is

flatter

know

things

cannot

but I will comfort

have been demanded,

" make them.

but

Ag-

tlic'e like-

L.ee

myfclt

fomc canoes which

to

you want any, you

have not enough for

niuf}

ourfelves."

T^v; chief of the Bear tribe then addrefled himfelf


**

die

t'l

My

deputies

brother, I

am

in

yours

follow'ng manner:

the
;

throw myfelf

" my eyes fhut into your canoes,


" every thing, even to die but
" and my family Ihall go firft.
;

"
"

others

"

fhall

**

me."

reft

of

to

embark with me

my

n-ation lliall join us,

be ghid to

He

fee,

am

intend that

afterwards

it is

before-hand,

will fuffer no

I
if

with

refolved on

well

the

but

how you

treat

then prefcnted the deputation with

three belts, to prevail with


his family well.

After

this,

them

to treat

him

and

the Bear tribe, and

fa-

thei

m^

f
N AM

Le Moyne embarked

tSct

fome days
the

A.

341

with the deputies

on the fame errand

when

they ht

gone off with

the

againft

threats

and

after their departure, deputies cat

Onnondag.

incenfed,

>om

that the Bear tni

Agnitrs,

the Hurons,

and

began

who made

nad

to ufc

the beft

apology they could, but to ver} little purpofe.


Laufon was then obliged to interpofe, nnd to

teli

them, That they were wanting in the refpeft they


owed to their father ; that the Hurons in general

were ready to follow them


and childu
like

w^re

but tha!

appearance, which were very

they
thers

were applying
;

and adt

them

them as
they would return

tha*- if
r

forman e of
fpeech,

drinking

all

to

the

arly,

at Montreal,

ad warper while

in^

friends

and bro-

to their country,

Hurons would wait

and give

oflages

fome

days,

for

for the per-

thuy had promifed th

with good entertainment


for

.vives

terrified at their thi

This

and

eating

in

pacified the deputies,

and they returned home, feemingly well fatisfied.


But the deputation of the Onnondagans was detrimental to the interefts of the French in
da, becaufe
inability

to

They came,

it

Cana-

expofed their weaknefs, and their

proted

their

^iend\

Indians

as had been flipuh^ d at

year before, to carry with the a the

Quebec the

Hurons,

who

were accompanied by two Jcfuits, and fome Frenchmen. Ou the day of embarkation, the latter

were furprifed

when

the

Onnondagans

rcfufed

to

fuffer

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BRITISH EMPIRE

342

any but the Hurons to attend them. They,


however, at laft agreed to take fome of the French,

fuffer

but were fo obftinate againft the Jcfuits, who


would by no means abandon their Huron difciples,
that thefe were obliged to embark on board a ca-

noe without any proyifion, but a fmall bag of


meal. This fpecimen of the behaviour of the Onnondagans created many melancholy apprehenfions

amongft the Hurons, which were lioon verified. A


Huron woman had her brains beaten out by an

Onnondagan
and foon
fiderable

chief,

who

attempted to ravilh her

a great r jmber of the moft con-

after,

Hurons were

ffacred,

and the

furvi-

vors treated as (laves, f^rAc of them being even


burned alive. The two miffionaries and the four

French,

moment

attended the Hurons,

who

the fame fate

expe^^d every

but (for what reafon does

not appear) they were faved> and arrived with the


convoy at Onnondago, where they underftood from

Dupuys, that a

rcfolution

favagcs to cut off

all

had been taken by the

the French in their coun-

try *.

* This barbarous
fion.

bo<^y of

near Montreal
in the

took

fhoiild

all

from

tlie

following occa-

and D'Ailleboftt, the French governor at Quebec,

the Iroquois

receive

This exafperated

rife

Onneyouths had murdered three Frenchmen

room of Laufon, who was

jmprifoned

he

refolution

whom

recalled to France, feized and

he could find in his colony,

fatisfadion for the

the favage tribes

deatli

till

of the Frenchmen.

but inftead of proceeding im-

mediately to violences, they coolly refolved on the following fchenie

Such

IN AMERICA.
Such was the

iituation

of French Canada, when

the vifcount D^Argenfon,

governor-general of

343

who

had been appointed

New France,

arrrived at

Que-

bec to take pofleffion of his government.


of murder.

Father

Le Moyne was

His

to be fent, attended by a nu-

merous convoy, to proted him, as they pretended, againft th

of the young favages, to

infults

At

quois.

the fame time,

lyere to fall

upon

could be found,

the French,

till

and murder them wherever they

are inconftant in their refolutiojis,

they come to aftion, wheii their motive

without waiting for

Le Moyne,

is

This alarmed the

field

fufpicions

and

revenge;

of the Ag-

great bodies

Onneyouths, and Onnondagaiw, took the


warlike equipages.

their

who,

and the colony under Dupuys was to undergo the

Thofe favages

fete.

impatient

niers,

of the ranfom of the Iro-

bodies of other Indians were

as they heard of the deliverance of their countrymen,

as foon

fo that

treat

themfelves through the neighbourhood of Qjiebec,

to difperfe

fame

large

with

all

of Dupuys;

and being informed by a chriftian convert of the truth, he fent a


courier to

M.

D'Aillebouft, to

warn him of

As

his danger.

to

and his people, he cpuld think of no expedient of fafety

himfelf

but to fly

and he immediately

fet

them to work to make boats in

an outlying barn of the Jefuits, that they might not be difcovered

by the favages, and effefted his efcape, according to the French


in the following wonderful

writers,

A young Frenchman,

of adoption, that he dreamed of one of thofe

perfuaded his father


feafts,

at

which

manner:.

the adopted fon of one of the favages,

guefts are obliged to ea^

tlie

finalleft

morfel was

left.

and invited

requeft,

the fourteenth

The

is ferve^'i

he fhould die

up

if the

afFeftiongte Indian granted the fon's

which was

the tribe to the feaft,

fixed for

of March, the day on which the frcnch were to

attempt their efcape.

wiih

all

that

all

infilUd that fuch a (Qi&. (hould be msule, snd (aid

Every thing lucceeded

the guptts feafted under the found of

tmnj^ets of the village,

till

aU of theoi fcU

as
all

fatt

the latter could

the dioims arn^


aller p

urA ;he

BRITISH EMPIRE

344
firfl

of power

cxercife

was

there,

to detach about

two hundred men, French and


come up with them.

natives, againfi the

Iroquois, but thefe could not

The

favagcs marched next to furprife the

fettle-

ment of Trois Rivieres they propofed to do this


by amufing De la Potherie, the French commandant there, with a Iham conference, and dif;

patched eight of their countrymen to Trois Rivieres for that purpofe: but Potherie was aware of their

and

intention,

ges, one

and

on the eight

inftantly feized

of whom

he detained in his

own

fava-

prifon,

fent the other fevcn to the governor-generalj

by whofe

orders they were put to death

feafonable feverity for

fome time

and

this

reftored tranquillity

to the province.

In 1659, a bilhop was fent to

refide in

Canada,

The firfl thing this new prelate did, was to demand the famous father Jerome Lallemant, who
Freuchman, watching his opportunity,
companions, who, favoured by the
in their boats
ties

and

and

fatigues,

M.

flipped out and joined his

noife, had,

Dupuys,

by

this time, got off

after enco.mtfiring vail difficul-

There

arrived in fifteen days at Montreal.

he found confternation and confulion fpread through

all

the colony.

Parties of the Iroquois covered the country, and, without declar-

ing themlelves enemies, obliged


walls.

been preaching
ted,

among

tJie

May,

Tow;irds the end of

wards joined the other Iroquois

^jiins,

father

bjoke out into open

to

their

Le Moyne, who

the Agniers, was by ihcm

according to their promile,

iHljtliatcIy

French to keep within

Montreal;

had

fafely conduc-

and they

after-

upon which, thole favages im-

hollllltlcs,

even under the canuou of the

fit

and murdered the Algouof Quebec.

then

IN AMERICA.

345

then prefided in the college of La Fleche, from the


general of the Jefuits to attend him to Canada
?

and his

was accordingly complied with.

reqiieft

He, however, introduced a

total alteration into the

and government of Canada,


but Jefuits had hitherto found ac-

ecclefiaftical difcipline

where no
cefs

fot

priefts

he

firft

other orders,

carried over

who were

but Montreal and

its

with him monks of

inftituted

to

benefices;

dependancies remained under

the diredion of the fathers of the feminary of Sr.

Sulpice

and having obtained from the pope a

brief,

appointing him apoftolical vicar of New France, and


being amufed with daily accounts of difcoveries of
nations to the north

and weft of Lake Huron

prepared, in concert with

father Lallemant,

he

who

had been again named fuperior-gereral of the miffor their converfion.

lions,

In the year 1 660, an Algonquin

met with numbers

of his countrymen r^ar Hudfon's Bay,


thither

well

countrymen

join with the


fent

New

He found

from the Iroquois.

as his

fled

the natives as

there, fo well difpofed to

French againft the Iroquois, that they

him with

prefents to the governor-general of

France, to aflure

affiftance.

who had

him of

About the fame

and
two Frenchmen,

their friendship

time,

who had wintered on the borders of the upper lake,


by travelling weftward, difcovered the nation of the
Sioux, who, at that time, had never heard of the
French, and

Vol. L

who were but

little

known, even

to

the

BniTISH EMPIRE

346

the Hurdns and Algonquins. The Huron nations


of the Tionnontatez and the Outawas, whom

.we have already mentioned,


arms, fought to
the Sioux, to

make

whom

trufting to their 6re-

good amongft

their quarters

they fled for proteftion, and

even killed fome of them

but th?fe people,

attacked their guefts in a

though

ftartlcd at

Jjody,

and defeated a gteat number of them,

firft,

while they maffacred others,

whom

a kind of a

unawares they found

v/here

pool,

they drove into

man

and not one

themfelves entangled,

This deter-

death from the arrows of the enemy.

mined the Hurons


where; and they

efcapcd

to feek their habitations elfeto the fouth-caft of the

fettled

weftern point of the upper lake.


IT

The

Iroquois remained mailers of

country,
bec.

who
body

ravagec'

it

m^jny of the colonifts


again

the open

from Montreal to Quethem had de-

of feven hundred of

feated a large party of French

lembark

all

Old

for

nuns were obliged

and Indians, and

were making

to fly

difpofitions to

Even

France.

from

the

their monafteries, to

take refuge at Montreal and Quebec

and

fo ciofely

|iad the favages blocked

up the French within

walls, that there was

the appearance of an ap-

proaching

famine

places, not daring to

all

Frenchmen,

the
llir

in

many

abroad, either to reap or

fow ; and, towards the end of w inter,


appeared

in

their

more numerous

bodies,

butchered the French and Indians,

their enemies

and every where

Amongil

the

former,
MttBii akziiem^isbiim

IN AMERICA.
former, fome pcrfons of rank

amongft
they

would

fought
their

the

as

into the

fall

bravely as

loft their lives

women,

the

latter,

147
and

than

rather

hands of the Iroquas,

the

To

men.

heighten

the inhabitants were attacked

misfortunes,

by a kind of hooping cough, which proved epidemical and turned into a pleurify that carried off
great numbers.

But while

this deplorable ftate

On-

of the colony continued, the councils of the

nondagans took a favourable turn for the French.


It

ieems

that,

amongft thofe favages, the matrons

form a confiderable part of the government


the

men, knowing

them were

that moft of

converts, and friends to the miffionaries,

from

fully concealed

their

and

fincerc

had care-

females the intended

maflacre of the French under

M. Dupuys.

On

difcovering that the French and the miffionaries

were gone, the

women and

their daughters ccle*

brated a general mourning, and,


their prerogative

it is faid,

fo refolutely that they fet at liberty all the

prifoners,

afferted

from the ufurpations of the

men

French

amounting to twenty, and converted one

of their cabins into a chapel, where great numbers

of chriftians prayed every day;

and

in effecting

by the
chriftians of the cantons of Goyogouin and Onneyouth, who continued In the faith. Soon after
this

great revolution,

this

news came

the

they

were

Iroquois

affifted

difappeared

and,

towards the end of July, 1661, two canoes, with a


white flag, appeared before Montreal.

V 2

Being fuffered

BRITISH EMPIRE

48

fcred to approach, they

were found to be deputies

from the cantons of Onnondago and Goyogouin


and the deputy from the latter had not only
the beft intercft of any man in his canton, but was
the moft determined friend the French hid amongft
'4

all

They brought with them

the favages.

Frenchmen,
eight

whom

Goyogouin

their remaining

fom*

they propofed to exchange for

prifoners,

and to

fet

at liberty all

French captives on the

like terras.

.They prefented Maifonneuve, at the fame time,


with a

letter

of the remaining French prifoners,

forming him of the good


but at the fame time, that
jcxchange were

fclf fyfficiently

if

rejected, they

dergo the flames.

in-

treatment they received,


the propofal of their

muft

infallibly

un-

Maifonneuve, not thinking him-

authorifed to return an anfwcr to

them to
the governor-general, and, in the mean while,
lodged the deputies in his fort. D'Argenfon, who,
by this time, had become peevilh and four by his
fituation, and had demanded his recal, with fomc
difficulty agreed to the propofals ; but was at firft at
thofe

XI

propofitions, fent an exprefs with

lofs to find

a mifiionar)',

who would

venture into

the favage country, which the Indians infifled on


as

an indifpenfable preliminary of the accommo-

dation

but his uneafinefs was foon over

zealous father

Le Moyne

for the

chearfully undertook the

cmbafly.

D'Argenfon was fucceeded


the baron

in his

government by

D'Avaugour, who had been bred up

in

the

IN AMERICA.

349

the wars of Hungary, and was eftecmcd an honcft

man, as well

as a

fpeas was very


general of

good

ill

officer,

qualified to

New France.

Having

yet in other re-

be a governorvifited the poftg

of Canada, he appeared highly furprifed and


dif.
appointed at feeing them fo weak, and
openly
declared, that if the French court did not fend
him
the fupplies and re-inforcements they

had promifed
he would leave his government, without
waiting for the appointment of his fucceflbr.
By
him,

thb time Lc

Moyne had

fathers Dreuillettes

left

and Dablon

Quebec, while the


failed

up

the river

Saguenay, as far as the fource of the river Nekouba, thereby to get a paffage into the North

Sea. After they had pafTed the Lake of St. John,


they found fome favages, whom they converted to
chrillianity,

ba,

about the fource of the River Nekou-

beyond which they could not proceed, on acwho were approaching, and

count of the Iroquois,

had lately deftroyed a whole nation.

Thou^

the
of thofe favages are
independant of "one another, and though cac'^
different tribes

and

townfliips

adopts a form of government, as cuftom or caprice dire^s, yet they

commonly have fome

perfon

among them, whom they conthe chief of their nation, and who guides
their general delibeiations.
The refolution

of high diftinftion
fidcr ao

them
taken

in

by the Onnondagans

to maflacre

Dupuys,

and his people, was only that of the tribe which


had fent deputies to Montreal ; for, from what follows.

BRITISH EKfP IRE

35b
lows,

it

docs not appear to have been the general

icnfe of the nation to break with the French.

ther

Le Moyne,

in his travels to the

Fa-

Onnoadagan

country, efcapcd feveral dangers from the Agniers,

the Onneyouths,

had

no

and the Tfonnonthouans, who


the

chief in

Montreal.

to

deputation

he came within two leagues of Onnonda-

When

by Garakonthic,
the grand chief of the whole nation, and lord of
that canton in particular ; as he knew that thofe

go, he

was

furprifed to

be

n^et

iavages feldom or never advance above a quarter of

a mile to meet their deputies on their return. But


this Garakonthie was a very extraordinary perfonage, and had nothing about

but his birth

with

and education.

him of
By his

canton he had faved the

his

French prifoners

his

the favage,
great credit

lives

of

all the

people had made, and had

even the addrefs to deliver many who were in the


hands of the Agniers ; and he was inceflantly labouring to bring about a firm alliance between the

French and his countr}'men.


On the rvvelfth of Auguft the deputies of Onnondago, Goyogouin, and Tfonnonthouan, aflembled in Garakonthie's cabin, to which Le Moyne

was

invited.

opened

He

accordingly repaired thither, and

his negotiation

In

fdemn and

mafterly

manner. Thofe Indians having deliberated upon


father's

wM
i

K-^--

^Bllf

11

prifoners

they
.1

propofals,
{liould

would

determined

be

rcferve

fent to

the

that

nine

the

French

Onnonthio, but

that

others in compliment to

him,

IN AMERICA,

351

him, to keep him company during the winter;


and that Garakonthie fliould be appointed head of
the deputation which was to be fent to Montreal
to

conclude the peace.

In the middle of September, Garakonthie fct


out upon his embafly ; and, upon his arrival at
Montreal, he was received with diftindtions due to
the great fervices he

had done the colony.

In

many

private conferences he

general, the latter


his

well as capacity, that,

iincerity, as

him

promifing

had there with the governorconceived fo high an opinion of

to return in the fpring

maining French prifoners,

were delivered into


the fuperior cantons

all

upon

his

with the

re-

the Iroquois captives

He imagined, that
of the Iroquois were fo far in-

his hands.

war with the Andaftes, and the Agniers,


with other nations, fupported by the Abenaquais,

volved in

that the delire

of peace amongft

would become general

all

the Irequois

but he foon received in-

were vid:orious over


they had either conquered,

telligence, that the Iroquois


all

whom

their enemies,

or forced to fue

for peace.

The Onnondagans

hearing of this, and that the Agniers

had again

puflied their ravages to the very gates of Montreal,

took arms againft the .-ench.

Being no longer
awed by the prefencc of Garakonthie, two hundred
of them invaded the French colonies, and, attack-

many of
at work in

ing a great

who were

the town^major,

the inhabitants of Montreal,


the fields, they cut in pieces

who had

fallicd

out with twentyiix

352

BRITISH EMPIRE

fix foldiei

s,

to bring off the people of Montreiil.

In the mean while Le Moync continued to cxcrcife


his functions amongft the Onnondagans, notwithftanding the hoililitics their countrymen had been
guilty of againft the French; and, by a prudent
<:ourfe

of diffimulation, he gained his ends.

Gara-

konthie, loaded with valuable prefents, and, attend.

ed by the Iroquois captives, arrived at this critical


jundure at Onnondago, and, though greatly
ftartled at the alteration

of his people's fcntiments,

he afted with lb much addrefs and firmnefs, that


he not only obtained a ratification of ihe treaty he

had concluded, but the delivery of all the French


prifoncrs into the hands of father Le Moyne, excepting one, who was put to death by his maftcr,
bccaufe he refufed to join himfelf to a female Indian, being already a married

The

governor

to the court

now

wrote

man.

in the ftrongeft terms

of France for re-inforcements,

Boucher, the commandant

of Trois Rivieres,

by

who

honeft man, and extremely well acquainted

was an

with the

affairs

6i'

Canada.

The French

king,

upon his reprefentations, appeared to be greatly


furprifed that fo piromifing a colony fhould have
been

fo

much

negledicd, and immediately ordered

four hundred of his troops to embark for Canaila,


to ftrengthen the moft
val at Quebec, and

exiwOd

ix)fts.

Demont's promife of

re-inforcements next year, gave

colony

Their

new

arri-

farther

fpirits to the

but they wcr foon damped by the ralh


condu<^

IN AMERTCA.
conduft of :1k governor-general.
dcrs had been IHlied

ing any
ges

Her

ftrldleft or-,

to the lava-

Quebec woman having been detcdled


fad, was immediately carried to prifon.
a

and

tears

to

relcafe

the interceflions of her relations

with father Lallcmant to apply for her

prevailed

the

who,

governor,

haughtinefs, anfwercd, that,


not punilhable in that
in

The

for preventing the fell-

brandy or fpirituous liquors

and

this

in

by him

^S3

woman,

What

any other perfon.

with a ftrange

fmcc the cr'me was


it

is

(hould not be fo
worfc, he ad-

flill

hered fo Uridly to this declaration, that he thought


it

a point

of honour not to retrad

introduced fuch a

among the

of debauchery, not only

fpirit

Indians, but

amongft the French folthat the clergy were infulted, and all kind of

diers,

order

This licence

it.

and decency

colony

in the

was

difregarded

upon which the bilhop, defpairing of being able


to do any fervice by his authority, refolved to embark for France, and there to lay his complaints
before the king.

About

mod

time

whole

overturned,

fubterraneous

troubled
nature

WMth

vifited

meteors

ocean

was
I.

provinces

and earth-

wrapped

in

mofl portentous manner from


caverns

caft

on

of

fhore

the
its

The

The

earth.

monllers.

convulfed, and trembled as at

proaching difTolution.

Vol.

fiery

was

Trees were torn up by the roots, moun-

flames, iffiiing in a
the

Canada

terrible tempefts,

quakes.
tains

this

clergy and

its

All
ap-

religious

orders.

BRITISH EMPIRE

354

imme-

orders confidered all thefe phoenomena as


diate

judgments

fent

from heaven upon the fms oi

They magnified

the people.

thefe calamities,

fiiffi-

and continued perpe-

ciently terrible in themfelves,

and

tually to exhort the Canadians to repentance,

an amendment of life, which indeed was


come highly and indifpenfably neceffary

now

be-

and

it

was afterwards obferved by them, that though


nothing was more pliin than that all thefe calamities proceeded

from fupernatural caufes, yet

Heaven, merciful

in

its

chaftifements,

that

had not per-

mitted any of the inhabitants to perilh amidfl the


horrors of

took great pains to


tallrophc, if
nefs,

At the fame time they

judgements.

its

forctel

ftill

more

terrible ca-

the people, obftinate in their wickcd-

fhould not turn from thofe evil courfes which

had awakened the anger of the offended Deity.


Their remonftrances were not loft ; they not only
brought the profeflbrs of
of their crimes and
o-rcat

numbers of

chrilVianiry to a

irregularities,

now

fenfc

but occafioncd

fincerc converfions

natives, fo that nothing was

due

amongft

the

to be fcen, buf

public penances, faftings, alms, pilgrimages, and


proccflions

tuous liquors

Upon

the

and the

was folemnly

whole,

have not ftuck to


tions

of

illicit

thefe

though

commerce

in

fpiri-

decried and dctefted.


perhajjs,

the

Jefuits

ft rid truth in their reprefenta-

amazing

of nature in Canada,

to

quent evidences that the

incidents,
this

day,

yet

the face

affords fre-

earthquakes and hurricanes.

we

can<s,

have mentioned, were the

any country ever

The

llroyed.

who

quois,

AMERICA.

IN

fuffered, that

255

mod

was not

dreadful

entirely de-

confternation even reached the Iro-

wer^

fo

amazed, that though they a-

gain appeared in arms near Montreal, they

loft

all

courage, and were beaten in feveral fmall encounters

by the French and their Indians.


foon after

vages

this,

and, at

The

fmall-pox,

fwept off great numbers of the


laft,

they

came

pofed towards a peace, that the

ra-

to be fo well dif-

Onnondagans not

only invited the French to refume their former

fet*

tlement amongft them, but offered to fend their

daughters as hoftages to Quebec, there to be edu-

by

cated

fhe Urfuline

nu

and feemed fmccrely

-j,

difpofed to favour the chriftian religion.

[Thus
tional

it

often happens, that what the moft ra-

arguments, the force of virtue, and the

cred authority of religion

of accidents,

feries

caufes,
is

is

found

itfelf

arifing

fufficient to

cannot

merely from

bring about.

fa-

effeft,

natural

Afflid:ioii

generally the bcft reformer of depraved mankind.

and the hurry of the

In the height of profperity


paffions,
fil)le

firy

men

to the

and

are deaf to remonftrance,

calm voice of Reafon

has feized upon them,

when

infen-

but when Advermisfortunes fol-

lowing misfortunes, have opprefled and weighed


rhem down ; ^\ hen Anguilh has taken place of
and Gritf has foftcned the heart, then Vice
a Pilars in her own hateful colours, and is de-

Pride,
firfi

tellcd for the milcries entailed

z 2

upon her

then \

ir-

ttie

ill

BRITISH EMPIRE

55^5

mod

appears

tue

and

lovely,

courted for that

is

happinefs which Ihe brings with her as a dowry.


It is,

probably, for this realbn that

many examples
comes have

of penitence

we

meet with

among

whofe

thofe

ruined their perfons or ellates

fo

and, on

ii
fl.

the other hand, fo few, where fortune has fmiled

upon
lar

The

fuccefsful villany.

notion of a particu-

providence, has, in fome cafes, as in this be-

fore us, contributed


tions

yet,

we fhall

if

work wonderful

to

reforma-

the matter be impartially confidered,

find that a perfon has occafion only to confult

hiflory and his

own

experience in

life,

be con-

to

vinced of the abfolute abfuidity of fuch an opinion.

But

as

arguments of

this

kind do not

within our province, after having faid thus

on the

fubjeft,

we

fhall leave

and proceed with our

The company
their right to the

Mefy

them

fall

much

to theologians,

hiftory.]

of Canada,

at this period, rcfigned

French king,

to fucceed the baron

who

appointed

D'Avaugour

De

as gover-

nor, and the Sieur Gaudais to go as his commifTary,

and

to take poUeflion, in his

Along with

France.
troops,

thofe

and one hundred

name, of

all

two gentlemen a body of


families, for peopling the

colony, embarked, befides other officers of

The commifiary began by

nominations.
:he oath

all

de-

receiving

of allegiance from the inhabitants, and

crtablifhing
Juflicc

New

new

courts, ^vhere

were introduced

very dilforcnt

effc^Jt

new

procefles of

but thofe regulations had

from what

his

moft

chriflian

majefty

majeflyexpe^
time,

had bui

E R

A.

357

The French Canadians, till that


very few difFe-rences among
them*

concerning matters of property


; and thofe
few were always decided by the
governor-general,
upon the principles of equity and good
fenfe.
felves,

But

no fooner did the above-mentioned


regulations take
place, than the Canadians,
from being amongft
themfelves the molt inoffenfive
i)eople in the worfd,
became the moft litigious. A council
of ftate
likewife eftablilhed in the year
pofed of De Mefy, the

663.

was
It was com-

governor-general, the bi-

ihop of Petree,
fellors,

whom

Robert the intendant, four counthey were to name, a


procurator-

general, and a head fecretarv.

The

Sieur Gaudais returned,


according to order,
to France, that he might
make a report to the

king of France,
the

colony, the

of the flute and difpofitions


of
conduct of D'Avaugour, whofe
'

had been greatly complained


of, and the
in which the new
governor, and regulations had been received.
All this he did j and
D'Avaugour having returned to Europe,
had his
fcverity

manner

mafter's

permimon

fervice againft the

to re-enter into

Turks

killed the next ye:^r.

the emperor's

Hunsarv, where he was


But the arrival of re-lnforcein

ments from France retarded the


reftoration of peace
with the Itoquois

for

when it was on the point of


who was a naturalized

being concluded, a Huron,

Iroquois, fpread a report,


that, before

he

left

Trois

Riv icres.

BRITISH EMPIRE

358

Rivieres, he faw thoufands of foldicrs

Quebec, and that the French were

landing at

in full

march

to

deftroy the dwellings, and exterminate the race of

This report broke

the Iroquois.

the negociation*

The

for that time,

off,

favages flood on their guard,

but without venturing to invade the colony.


ceiving, how^ever,

no
#

hoflile

made

by

intentions

incurfions

Per-

degrees, that the French had

towards the

northern

into the

winter they
parts,

where

they were guilty of enormous cruelties.

But fuch was the


though,

fpirit

of thofe barbarians, that


they believed the

in all probability,

port of

French immenfe re-inforcements,

the

and

it

it

them one advance towards

did not produce from

a fubmiffion

firfl re-

required

credit of Garakonthie, to

into farther hoflilities.

He

he aflembled the French

all

the prudence, and

keep them from breaking


fuccecded fo far that

prifoners,

taken, in the cantons, and gave

who had

them an

been

efcort of

twenty Onnondagans, to condudt them to Quebec.


In their voyage thither, they were attacked, on the
fudden, by a party of Algonquins,
for enemies, and killed

fcveral

the French efcaped unhurt.

who took them

of the Iroquois; but

This accident muft

have protluccd an immediate, and a frefh rupture,

had not Garakonthie perfuaded the Onnondagans,


that
after,
K.aB,^ !*.((.!

it

was owing

the

to a

Goyogouin

colony at Quebec

miftake.

Some months

chief agreeably furprifed the

with a

pacific vifit.

He

pre-

fentcd

IN AMERICA.

359

fented the governor-general with belts, on


the parts
of all the cantons, excepting that ^f
Onneyouth,
and declared, that they were fully refolved
to live
in

peace with the colony.

pleafed with the


fuperiority,

refolved to

The

general,

though

compliment, put on an

air of
and acquainted the Indian, that he
was
be upon his guard againft a nation
that

had been fo often trufted by his


predeceflbrs, and
had fo often betrayed them. He,

however,

treat-

ed the chief with great politenefs and


civility.

was about

this

time that the colony of Canada

It

was

deeply affedied by the Englifh having


gotten poffeffion

of

New York,

as

we

have already mentioned

in the hifloryof that province.

The

biihop had been the main inftrument


in
procuring the recal.of the late governor
d*Avau-

and recommened

gour,

De Mefy

to fucceed

he fcarcely was fixed in his government,


the bifhop found he had miftaken
his man.
yet

bifhop patronifcd the Jefuits,

De Mefy

him:

when
The

hated them;

and the colony was

fplit into two parties.


The
bifhop took advantage of fome
unguarded adts,
which the governor could not difprove.
But, notwithftanding all the power of the Jefuits,
M.Col-

bert,

then

to give

firft

minifter of France, though obliged

way to the

recal of De Mefy, did not conceal


opinion, that the good fathers were
rather an
over-match for the credit that ought
to be vefted
his

in a

care

governor-general of fuch a province, and that


ought to be taken to circumfcribe their power.

BRITISH EMPIRfi

360

who

to lend over governors,

and

more temper an4 prudence


The recal of Mefy being

could do

it

with

*.

relblved

on, the king

nominated Daniel de Remi, lord of Courcelles,

M. Talon, to be intendant,
who never had gone to New

to be his fucceflbr. and


in the

room of Robert,

commillion had likewife been iffued out

empower

thefe perfons together with the marquis

France,
to

De

Tracy, who was then in America, to enquire into


condud of De Mefy ; and, if they thought him

the

culpable, to put

At

him under

and

arreft,

to try him.

the fame time orders were expedited, for raifmg

* When
that

the old

Canada company refigned

countiy, to his moft

rights hi

all their

majefty, he tratisferred the

chriftian

fame to the Weft-Iudia comp?.ny, together with the power of


nominating

company,

all

the governors and officers

politely

of Canada; but

declined that honour, and

enough,

the

thofe

left

nominations in the hands of his majefty, on pretence that they

were not

make a

of

this

neral

proper choice of

falof felf-denial,

New

of

marquis

De

miflion to

vifit

his

r".ie

and

his majt-fty

viceroy over

to

all

alfo

little

the

New

and then to repair to

it

his

De Mefy

moft chriftian majcily had,

in confequence of petitions from the colony,


fend thit'ier

This

againft the Iroquois.

hefore the difputes betwte.'

and the bifhop began, and when

rioiis refoUition to

nominated

America, with a com-

pive orders for the future eftablifhmciit

fecuriiig

wris expedited a

In confequence

officers.

had been appointed governor-ge-

the French Iflaiuls,

colony, and for

commilfion

high

its

De Mefy

France,

Tracy,

France, where he was

of

the affairs of the province

fufficiently acquainted with

to

a moft

effe<itual

come

t'j

and powerful

fc-

fup-

ply, both of troops and inhabitants.

colonics,

it.Ml^ni.

IN AMERICA.^

361

and for fending the regiment of Carignan


of which was with De Tracy, who

coloniftg,

Salieres, (part

was appointed viceroy)

Canada.

to

In June, the

De Tracy

fame year,

arrived there, with three


companies of that regiment, and inftantly drove
back the Iroquois, who had again begun their

by which feafonable check the inhabitants

inroads,

got in their harveft without any moleftation.


after>

the

reft

Soon

of the regiment of Carignan arrived


fell

M. De

with their colonel,

with

Salieres, together

Courcelles and Talon, on board a powerful fquadron,

which

carried a great

number of

rradefmen, articled fervants, the

firft

families,

horfes

that

had ever been feen in Canada, horned cattle, and

The

fheep.

three forts

viceroy then gave orders for budding

towards the mouth of the River Riche-

one upon the fpot where Fort Richelieu had


Hood, the command of which was given to M.

lieu,

Sgrel,

from

whom

The fecond was


called

of

its

St.

Louis

governor,

proprietor

it

refa.

river,

but afterwards took the

name

M. Chambly, who was

of land

by M. De

The

and

there,

this

The

fort.

Salieres,

and was

a great

was

third fort
called St.

built

was
The-

conftruvftion of thefe, at fuft ftruck the

Iroquois with confternation


of

called Fort Sorel.

of a rapid

on the ruins of a former


re<fled

now

is

built at the foot

and, towards the end

December, Garakonthic arrived with the de-

puties

of

his canton,

nonthouan.

Vol,

I,

of Goyogoufn and of Tfon-

After delivering his prefents, and

A aa

mak*
ing

BRITISH EMPIRE

^62,

ing the general compliments of fubmiffion, from


the three colonies, he uttered a kind of funeral ora-

upon the death of father Le Moyne, which


had happened fome time before, in terms that af-

tion

fedted and

aftonilhed

his

but with great modefty, on


\f

his

colony, and concluded with a

and the freedom of

No

touched,

ferviccs to the

demand of

peace,

fince

the

la ft

ex-

the requeft accordingly was granted.

fooner had they taken leave of the viceroy,

two bodies of

than

own

the prifoners of die three

had been made

cantons, that

change :

all

He

hearers.

againft the Agniers,

regulars

and the Onneyouths, under

Courcelles, and SoreL


diately offered to

were ordered out

make

The Onneyouths immetheir fubmiffion,

by fend-

who are faid to have been


charged with the like commiffion on the part of

ing deputies to Quebec,

the Agniers; but they failed in the negociation;


for the laft

mentioned favages had

the field, one of

which

killed

all this

niers,

parties in

De Chafy, the viceroy's

nephew, and two other French

was

ftill

officers.

Sorel

while upon his march againft the Ag-

but on approaching one of their villages,

he was met by
of whom

w as

a troop of the warriors.

The

chief

a baftard Fleming, who, approaching,

made fignals for a parley, and acquainted Sorel, that


he was going to Quebec to treat of peace with
the viceroy ; upon which Sorel, \N'ithout any hefitation, accomjianied him thither ;> and being well
.received by the viceroy, he was followed in a day
or two by another Agnicr deputy. He too was

li

civilly

AMERICA.

IN
civilly received

and

363

were they from being

fo far

fufpedted not to be real deputies, that th^ viceroy


entertained

them

where mention w^s

at his table,

made of M. de Chafy's

Upon

death.

this,

the laft

arrived barbarian, with a favage air of triumph,

arm,

ftretching forth his

very hand that


the viceroy, " it

killed

" Here, is the


" Then," replied

faid,

him."

never Ihall

kill

another ;" and he

him immediately to be flrangled by the


common hangman, which was performed in the

ordered

prefence of the baftard Fleming,

who was

fent to

prifon.

Courcelles,

who knew

nothing of what had paff-

ed at Quebec, was then at Corhr, a fettlement


belonging to Albany, upon the borders of the Irocountry

quois

hoflilititfs

before he

where,

with the Iroquois, he prevailed with the

Engliih commandant to promife


give no affiftance to the Agniers.

formed

upon

entered

this

in the

journey

that he

would

Courcelles per-

midft of winter, walk-

ing with fnow ihoes, and carrying his arms and


When he enprovifions like the meaneft foldier.
tered the country of the Agniers,
villages

he found

their

abandoned, and that their children, wo-

men, and old men, had fecured themfelves in the


woods, while their warriors had marched againft
other nations,

till

they Ihould

know

the refult of

negociation.

All

he could do

the

Onncyouths

was

to kill or pick

vages

up

few

ftragglers of the fa-

Returning to Quebec, he found

Aaa

De

Tracy,

though

BRITISH EMPIRE

364

though then above feventy years of age, ready


to
fet ou! on an expedition againjft the
Onneyouths
and the Agnicrs.
hundred

His

re^nlars, the

amy was compofed of fix


fame number of Canadians,

and one hunuitj favages of different nations;


but
he carried with him r- more than two pieces

of

While he was fetting out, new deputies


came from the uvo cantons to negociate an accomartillery.

modation, but they were detained prifoners,


and
army began its march, in three divifions, on

the

the fourteenth of September.


provifions

Their magazines of

w^ere ralcubred to ferve

ihould arrive

counted upon

them till he
the enemy's country, where they
being plentifuHy fuppiied; but, be-

in

had got half way, they found their proviat an end; and they muft adually
have returned, had it not been for a wood of
chefnuts;
on which they lived, till they reached the
fore they

fions

enemy's

land.

body of Algonquirs,
.

before the

of the

firft

divifion,

alarmed the inhabitants

village they reached,

firft

general entered, with

all

who marched

which the French

the difplay of military

pomp: but he found no inhabitants there, excepting


a few oM men and women, who were
too decrel>id to fly.
Upon fearching tkrther, they difcovered
in amazing
ground,

quantit)'

of provifions buried under-

fufficient to ferve

De

all the colony for tw6


Tracy, inftead of burning the provifions
he could not carry off, contented himfelf
with

years

burning the cabins, of which he did not leave one

ilanding

IN AMERICA.

365

(landing in the whole canton; and marched againft

who were too wife to hazard an engagement with him, but bade him defiance in their

the favarrs,

woods and fallnelTes.


It was now towards

the end of Oftober, and,

confequently, too late to proceed againft the canton

of Onneyouth.

Dc

In

Tracy's return, his troops

fuffered

gre^y from

and an

officer

paffing

Lake Champlain.

the fatigues of their march,

and fome

foldiers

Upon

Quebec, he ordered fome of


banged, and fent

The

baftard.

home

laft

were drowned
his

in

arrival

at

to

be

his prifoncrs

the others with the Flemilh

adt of his

government

at

New

France was to eftablilh the Weft-India company


in all the rights of the old

Canada company, and

he returned to France.

then

ftanding

all

his omiflions,

Canada,

might,

notwith-

however, date

the ara of her importance from his adminiftration.

The

late

expedition againft the Iroquois, had

it

muft have rendered her


but her government, notwith-

been properly purfued,


colonifts refpe<ftable;

ftanding the fenfible remonftrances of Talon,

upon %vrong
of

principles.

The

Old France, who guided

were devoted

went

bigots at the court

that king's confcience,

to the Jefuits,

who

appear,

by

all

have made the converfion


of the Indians the primary objeft of the colony

own

their

relations, to

whereas, in
did,

it

vajges

purfuing thofe conversions, as they

was threatened with ruin; becaufe the

fa-

no foQner became converts than they lived


like

BRITISH EMPIRE.

366
UhM
'

drones,

ck

upon the

The afccndaacy of
of France could

ii

wever, render

practices

.'

werQ

by

ouki,

entirely

it

amongft the favagcs

thercfoif repeated orders

that the miffionaries

and indulged

ftock,

indolence.

rhe Jefuit couufels at the court

nor,

infenftbie of their

and

j^ublic

irrcfiftiule proj)enfity to

all.

fent to

Talon,

means, inftnid

the children of the lavages in the French language.

Talon

ftill

exerted amazi/ig talents in promoting

the profperity and

had been

wmmcrce

of the colony.

told of filver mines that

He

were to be found

in Canada; but in this he

was foon undeceived


experience; other mines, however, wre dif-

by

covered in great abundance, and efpecially fomc


of iron; and Talon formed a fcheme for manufac-tiiring it, and Ihipping it to Europe from Gafpey,
tlien in poffeffion

he

of the French.

employed La

In Auguft,

Tefl'arie to difcover

666,

mines; and

he found a very fine one of iron, with a profped


of copper and other mines. Soon after, he himfelf
A\cnt to France, and prevailed with Colbert to
fend

La

Potardicre, a

where he matle a

famous miner,

to

Canada,

moll: favourable rejx)rt

of the

mines, particularly thofe about the town of Champlain,

and Cape Magdalen, bet\reen Quebec and

Trois Rivieres.

commerce was

In the year i668, fu'^ liberty of


publiOi:'! I in

Canada;

P.rd

'^

'

to-

gether with the difcovery of the mints, arid a tannery,


f>f
I -4

which bad been

fuccefs, raifcd

fet

up with great appearance

high expedations in thofe

who
hid

IN A M

E R

3^7

had any concern with Canada. Yet notwitV^and^.ly,


ing all the promifing app ranees of this

from

its

and man

les

The

nothing.

Jefuits

thought, i>erhap3,

if

fiiduiea, thq'

who

the

i.

came to

had the afccndancy,

habitants (hould once

be

pollelied of a fpirit of

commerce,

muft ceafe of courfe.

The Outawa^. whom we

their functions

have already mentioned to be feated on the up|)cr


lak', now drove a great trade with the French

Cinadians

in

furs,

be fent amongft

and

might

folicitcd that a Jefuit

them, in hopes that other French

would follow him, and make a fettlcment in their


This requeft was granted, notwithltandcountry.
.

ing

the dreadful

father Allouez

fate

of other miflionaries

was employed

furmounted incredible

in that milTion.

hardlhips,

thither; and, according to the

very fuccefsful in

making

his

in

ant

He

voyage

French writers, was

profelytes

among

the

unconverted Indian nations of the Outagamis, the


Illinois,

and even the Sioux, though with the

latl

And
he could converfe only by his interpreters.
pains
more
in exploits like thefe, the fathers took
than in promoting the real intereft of the colony
to

which they belonged.


In the mean time, the Iroquois cantons of A gnier

and Onneyouth,

at the departure

of

De Trac}%

per-

ceiving the French were now grown too powerful


for them in Canada, made their fubmiflions to
Courcelles,

the.

governor-general,

requelt, fent the fathers

who

at

their

Bruyas and Fremin to

la-

bour

BRITISH EMPIRE

368

bour among them

in the vineyard

Gamier was

Father

fent after to

of converfions.

them

; but
of Onnondago, he was detained there by Garakonthie, who built him a
cabin and a chapel, and engaged him to remain there

affift

vifiting the chriftians

till

he

ton,

from Quebec,

return

fliould

was going

and that of Goyoquin.

fome

where he

to folicit for miffionaries to his

flay

Quebec,

at

own can-

Garakonthie, after

returned

to

Onnondago,

with the fathers Carheil and Milet ; and the bilhop


of Petree "was fo aftive, that, excepting the canton of Tfonnonthouan,

all

the favage nations in

America were provided with


notwithflanding

all

truth

of trade

is,

was but very moderate.

thofe favages

gain

was

now knew

the fweets

their only religion,

and comand the labours of the miffionwere defeated partly by their own ill conduft

merce
aries

but,

the pains the good fathers took,

their fuccefs in converfions

The

miffionaries;

their

worfhip

and enthufiafm,

and partly by the paffion

for

ftrong liquors

which the French, Engliih, and

Dutch

had too much indulged

tives

fettlers

in the na-

of North America.

The
mifing

colony of Canada, in 1668, put on a proafpeift.

People of honourable families, but

Old France, tranfported themfelves


New, where they had lands and lordlhips

fmall fortunes, in
to the

affigned them; and, with a very moderate ihare


of induftry, they were foon enabled to live like

men of quality.

Even

foldiers

were become pUn-

N AMER

I
tcrs

and

and every

colonifts,

he was de-

A.

officer

But as

was a great landholder.


o,

369

amongll them

were

thefe habits

of no long continuance, the French planters hav-

found means tofublift with

ing

and fplendour,

fliew

laid afide,

their toil

a little outward
and application was

which always gave the Englilh an im-

portant fuperiority in the folid pofleffions

The

life.

however, which the colony en-

tranquillity,

joyed

of

was a proof of

its

profperity; fo that, to-

wards the end of this year, even the Tfonnonthouans applied


inftru<ft

to

M.

Courcelles for a miffionary to

them, and he fent them father Fremin.

who had

hitherto appeared the

moft

determined enemies of the miffionaries, and

who

The Agniers,

had fo often

became
vafl

now

embrued

their

hands in their blood,

to their

reconciled

dodlrines;

and

numbers of converts were made about the Falls

of St.

Lewis; and the mountain.

The

Iroquois,

remaining in perfed peace, the Algonquins,


they

whom

had dillodged and driven away, returned to

their

former habitations,

chriftianity; butit is

verfions
only,

were the

and feldom

all

probable that moft of thofe con-

efFedl

of

intereft

and convenience

fincere.

A mifunderftanding now
celles,

of them converts t6

arofc

between Cour-

the governor-general, and Talon, the inten-

dant general of

New

them

men of

eafily

together, and

great

WHS fucceeded by

Vol.

I.

France,

abilities,

who were both

Talon going over

M.

Bouteroue.

B b b

of

fo that they lived un-

to

France

This minifter
brought

BRITISH EMPIRE

370

brought along with him a

which

to Courcelles,

ftand that

he ought to

live

from M. Colbert

letter

politely

gave him to under-

upon

better terms than

and the Jefuits,


he did with the bilhop of Petree
and that M. Bouterouc was preferred to the intendancy of the province chiefly on account of the
great regard he had for that order.
For fome years paft a negociation had been on

and Rome about


fbot betweci the courts of France
As there was
erefting Quebec into a bifhopric.
srt

time but a very indifferent undcrllanding

this

between the two courts, his holinefs made great


difficulties on account of the independancy, which
a biihop of Quebec might affed: in fo diftant a
country. At
his

mod

fion for

all difficulties

laft,

chriftian majefty, to

the

new

were got over,

make

and

fuitable provi^

bifhopric, gave to

it,

and

the

chapter of the cathedral, the rents of the abbey of


Maubec, which was afterwards increafed with thofe
In the

of the abbey of Benevent.

new
of

bilhop of Quebec was fo poor that the

this creation

of money

About
'

mean time

lay four years

at

Rome

bulls

for want

to defray the expence of paflTing them.

this time,

Maironneuvc,

who had

fo long

snd io worthily governed Montreal, refigncd


j->oll,

and

M.

Aiccecd him.

his

Brcronvllliers, as fuperior general of

the feminary of

St.

The

ut Talon, thought
'iinclfr

the

Sulpice,
latter,
it

named M.

Perrot, to

who had married a niece

beneath his charadler

a conuiiiffion from a

to

ad

private fubjed, and,


therefore,

:illteaMcSiill!

N AMER

had

tliercfbre,

enough

intereft

A.

371

to obtain a

commif-

from the king, which, ho-wever, expreflly


mentioned that it was granted upon the nomination
fion

of M. Brcttonvilliers.
Courcelles was extremely alert in every thing
relating to the intereft

of

New

France, efpecially

Underftanding that

with regard to the favages.


the Iroquois, who lay towards the

Lake

Ontario,

had fent prefents to the Outawas to engage them to


bring their furs to them that they might difpofe of
to the Englilh of

them

New York,

he refolved to

check them. For that purpofe he embarked with


a body of troops on the River St. Laurence, and

number of falls he met


with between Montreal and Lake Ontario, he
ihewed the favages that it would always be in the
power of the French to invade them by boats
notwithftanding the great

which had

all

the effed he could have wilhed for,

by their breaking off their commerce with the


tawas,
age,

and the other northern

however, did

fo

much

Ou-

This voy-

favages.

prejudice to his health,

he foon after defired to be recalled. The remaining term of his government was chiefly taken

that

up

in

replacing the French fettlements of Acadia

and Newfoundland, which had been ceded to the


crown of France, by the treaty of Breda. In the
year 1670,

M.

iatendancy of

Talon,

New

who

had

retired

from the

France, only that he might

with greater advantages, returned

refume

it

nada.

That able

to

Ca-

minifter, notwithftanding all his

b b 2

attachment

BRITISH EMPIRE

372

attachment to the
miniftry

was

Jefuits,

was convinced

that their

prejudicial to the temporal affairs of

colony; and, during his ablence in France,

the

he had obtained the re-eftablfliment of the RecclTalon's view in this was to moderate the
lefts.
influence and

power of the

Jefuits over the natives,

they abfolutely governed, not only by the

whom

fway they had over their confciences, but by


barring them from, or indulging them in, the
of

fpirituous liquors.

time a recruit of

mofl

chriftian

after fetting

He

five

obtained

deufe

fame

at the

hundred families from

his

majefly for peopling Canada; but

fail

with part of them, the ihip

they

were in was wrecked and many of them loft. He,


however, foon raifed frefh recruits both of RecolIcfts

and inhabitants, with

whom

he arrived

at

Quebec.

His
out
into

its

zeal

for peopling

inconveniences

the

country vices

an Iroquois

for his colonifts imported


till

Three French

inhabitants.

cargo of

Canada, was not with-

then

unknown

foldiers

to the

meeting

with

who had with him a valuable


firft made him drunk, and then mur-

chief,

furs,

dered him; but notwithftanding

all

the precautions

they took, they were difcovered and thrown

Into

While their procefs was preparing, fix


Mahingan Indians, who weic pofTefTed of furs to
the amount of a thoufand crowns, after being
made drunk, were murdered and robbed by three

prilbn.

other French foldiers,

who

fold the furs as their

own

N AMERIC

own

property, and

had fo

A.

373

precaution, that

little

they did not even bury the dead bodies,

<