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l
BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA 1. Report No.
- _ _ T _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
_, I
3. Recipient's Accession No. , ~ .
SHEET
1. AFML-TR-68-115 ,,
4. Title and Subtitle
s. Report Date Date ot
Aerospace Structura l Metals Handbook Issue - January 1972
6.

7. Author(s) Chief Technical Editor - W. F. Brown, Jr., NASA, 8. Performing Organization Rept.
Lewis Research Center No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address 10. Project/Task/ Work Unit No.
Mechanica l Propertie s Data Center AF Project 1f:8975
Belfour Stulen, Inc. 11. Contract/Gra nt No.
13919 West Bay Shore Drive F33615-70 -C-1152 and
Traverse Citv Michigan 49684 DSA900-72-C-0787
12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address 13. Type of Report & Period
Air Force Materials Lab. Defense Electroni cs Supply Center Covered
Wright-Pa tterson AFB 1507 Wilmingto n Pike Handbook, updat~~
Ohio, 45433 annua 1.lv
Dayton, Ohio 45401 14.

4 Volume 1972 edition- $75.00/se t; 1972 Revision Service- $25.00;


15. Supplementary Notes
Annual Revision Service distribute d on quarterly basis as new and/or revised
informatio n becomes available .
1l6. Abstracts
~The~;;~~ Aerospace Structura l Metals Handbook, in 4 volumes, is a continuat ion of
work first published by Syracuse Universit y in 1963 under Air Force Material Laborator v
sponsorsh ip. The continuin g effort has produced graphic and tabular displays of chemi
cal, mechanica l and physical propertie s on 200 metals and alloys of structura l impor-
tance in aerospace and defense applicati ons. The data presented is intended to
character ize the materials rather than establish desigrr minimums. Also included are
data sources, a general discussio n of material propertie s, a glossary of heat treating
terms, a discussio n of fracture toughness and an alloy cross index. ( )- ~(-_-

17. Key Words and Document Analysis. 17a. Descriptors

Chemical propertie s, mechanica l propertie s, physical propertie s, alloys, metals,


and handbook.

\lo '- . l:l='


17b. Identifiers/Op en-Ended Terms

17c. COSATJ Field/Group

Distribut ion unlimited .


18. Availability Statement 19 . Security Class (This 21. No. of Pages
Available only from Mechanica l Propertie s Data Re)~~fr ASSTFTFn 2,500
Center, Traverse City, Michigan. 20. Security Class (This 22. Price
~p ~
~~~~~~~--------------------------------------~----~U~N~C~L~A~S~SJ~F~IE~D~--~-----
FORM NTIS3S lt0'7fll -------~1
BIG 3% x 11" PAGES
OVER 200 ALLOY CHAPTERS
OVER 2500 PAGES
OVER 4GOO GRAPHIC DISPLAYS
OVER 1500 DATA TABLES
MORE THAN 3500 VALUABLE REFERENCES CITED

..
r.t_i( .p:... ,.~ ,p;.. R. ~ ~\ ~! 7
~ -r-~ ~

y-lj~.:.~ ~0~~JYV J~
1
?ublishod for tho Department of Defense
Complete coverage on available alloy properties and handling
characterist ics. The data for each alloy are presented
according to'a definite alloy property code system designed for
the purpose of this Handbook. The Handbook is .
published for the Department of Defense and is kept up to
date and abreast of current developmen ts by the
Quarterly Revision Service. This. comprehens ive 4 volume
metals library NEVER becomes obsolete.

A TOPICAL OUTLINE OF THE PROPERTY CODE


IS GIVEN BELOW:
GENERAL Thermal Properties Bearing
Commercii!! Designation Other Physical Properties Stress concentration
Chemical Properties Notch properties
,. Alternate Designations
Nuclear Properties Fracture Toughnc::s
Specifications
Combined properties
Composition MECHANICAL Creep and Cruop Rupture
l
Heat Treatment PROPERTIES Propurties
Forms and Conditions r.focchunicul Properties Fatiuue Properties
Available at Room and Varloua
Temperatures Elastic Properties
Melting and Casting
; Practice Tension FASRICATION
J Special Consideration s Compression Formability
; i'PHYSICAL AND
CHEMICAL
Impact
Bending
Machining and Grinding
Welding
,
j PROPERTIES Torsion and shear Heat Treatment

L ---- _____.__) ALSO INCLUDED: General Discussion of Alloys and :h~:r


----~~ --._. :;,_-.c:::J~. '. . .~. 09-_ '.::l.-:--.. -~... ~ ....
'.::l i::Ji::J -... properties. Abbreviations. Glossary of Heat and 1-i.::.r
_ ....- ~ _... ....... <.'-.\~-- _ -...... _ Treating Terms. Discussion of Fracture Toughness. Cross
__;::::..-- . -.. --~V/ ,. .. ~ ~, Index of Alloys.
---0 ,v.-.,
!
0 ! j. \. . ~ ... ..,.
.

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J Complete 4-volume sot

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(!)

AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL METALS HANDBOOK

1972 PUBLICATION
(with 1971 Supplement IV incorporated)

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES DATA CENTER


BELFOUR STULEN, INC.

=====~============================-~&'=7~:--
r -.- ---
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
TECHNICAL MONITORING BY
AIR FORCE MATERIALS LABORATORY
AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND
WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE. 01-110
NOTICES

When Government drawings, specificati ons, or other data are used for any
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sponsibilit y nor any obligation whatsoeve r; and the fact that the Govern-
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Certain portions of this Handbook are reproduce d from copyrighte d publi-


cations with permissio n of the respective copyright owners. Certain alloy
identifying names used are trademark ed. No reproducti on of copyrighte d
material and no use of trademark ed names maybe made without the express
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unlimited. Copies are not available from the Clearingho use for
Scientific and Technical Informatio n (CFSTI). The Mechanica l Properties
Data Center may be contacted directly for copies or informatio n relative
to the Handbook.
REVISED DECEMBER 1970

AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL METALS HANDBOOK

COORDINATING EDITOR CHIEF TECHNICAL EDITOR


J. WOLF W. F. BROWN, JR.

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS

W. F. BROWN, JR. C. F. HICKEY, JR. J. G. SESSLER

W. W. DYRKACZ J. R. KATTUS J. L. SHANNON,JR.

D. C. GOLDBERG S. S. MANSON DR. R. P. WEI

PRODUCED BY

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES DATA CENTER


TRAVERSE CITY, MICHIGAN 49684

COOPERATING ORGANIZATIONS
THE HANDBOOK WAS ORIGINATED AND DEVELOPED THROUGH 1967 BY SYRACUSE
UNIVERSITY WITH COOPERATION AND CONTI!lBUTIVE EFFORT FROM INDIVIDUAL,
CORPORATE, AND GOVERNMENT SOURCES. THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES DATA
CENTER, IN ASSUMING MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CONTINUATION
OF THE HANDBOOK, IS INDEBTED TO THESE CONTRIBUTORS.

Allison Division, General Allegheny lAldlum Steel Corp. Armco Steel Corporation Boeing Company
Motors Corporation G. N. Aggen (Baltimore, Maryland) E. E. Bauer
D. K. Hanlnk A. G. Cook H. \V. Gs.rvln Ill. A. Dlsotall
P. E. Hamilton R. L. Cook K. L. White c. G. Tiffany
R. H. Kaltcnhlluser R. I. Psyck
. R. A. lAlla T. E. Molnar Brush Beryllium Company
T. T. Magel B. King
Alloy CaBling Institute J. R. Miller
E. A. Scboefer J. L. Nock Army Materials and Mechanics Cannon- Muskegon Corporation
Research Center A. Dykema
J. 1. muhm S. Morykawas
F. R. Larson
Allvac Carpenter Stoel Company
Aluminum Association T. E. Williams, Jr. c. Brumbach
P. V. Mara D. Enkerud
Babcock and Wilcox Company
Armco Steel Corporation R. C. Angell Cleveland Refractory Metals
J. N. Barnett J. W. Spelman
L .1.'. Logby
Aluminum Company of America M. Marshall The Bendix Corporation
M. Holt D. C. Percy J. L. Beaten Cllmax Molybdenum Company
L. W. Mayer D. L. Frisby J. A. Gr<XIrlan J. Z. Briggs

l'.:
Cobalt In!ormatlon Cf..'llter
Battelle Memorial Institute
F. R. Morral
Imperial Metal Industries, Ltd.
Birmingham 6, England
T. E. Green
North American Rockwell Q-;p.
p. s. Maynard
Timken Roller Bearing Company
E. S. Rowland
C. P. Weigel
t
~

North American Rockwell Corp.


Crucible Steel Company or International Nickel Company, Inc. Los Angeles Division Titanium Metals Corporation
America C. C. Clark c. L. Davis or America
J. A. Bucy R. T. Decker
P. Darby E. F. rbin
R. W. Fawley North American Rockwell Corp. c. W. Field
R. C. Durstein K. D. Millls Rocketdyne Division
A.Kasak W. W. Minkler
c. J. Novak J. A. Doe
R. T. Morelli c. E. Witherell
F. F. Heatley Union Carbide Stellite Company
Nuclear Metals, Inc. Division of Union Co.rbide Corp.
International Nickel Company, Inc. S. H. Gelles F. A. Hughes, Jr.
Curtiss- Wright Corporation Huntington Alloy Products Div.
V. J. Mebra S. J. McCracken
M. P. Buck Oregon Metallurgical Corp. K. F. Tupper
c. Ciancia E. B. Fernsler Y. Ito E. G. Ridoux
P. Ranson
Defense Metals Inrormation Phelps Dodge Copper Product Div. United States Naval Research
Center, Battelle Memorial Jones and Laugblln Steel Corp. J. J. Conlon Laboratory
Institute R. Bergeson B. J. Soiris T. Crooker
F. J. Barone G. P. Lobman P. Puzak
H. Brown Pratt and Whitney Aircraft
R. Favor Kaise::- Aluminum and Olemical Division of United Aircrafl Corp. United States Steel Corporation
D.P. Moon Corporation J. E. Arnesen J. M. Barsom
J. D. Jackson L. J. Barker G. Fluery D. J. Carney
B. E. Snyder J. Gross
Douglas Al.rcraft Company, Inc.
Aircraft ll!vision J. R. Hamilton
Kawecki Berylco Industries J. M. Hodge
J. s. Dunning R. J. Gennone D. W. Kinsey
E. W. Filer Reactive Metals, Inc. A. W. MacLaren
Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc. S. Olinowsky 0. Bertea
Missile and Space Systems Div. w. J. Murphy
H. D. Kessler S. Novak
z. P. Zaperstein H. M. Lunds~rom L. F. Porter
Ladisb Company L. G. McCoy A. M. Rathbone
Dow Cbemical Company C. K. n>.vid G. D. Willette
11. Baker A. K. Shoemaker
C. A. Furgason W. A. Spitzig
M. E. Brooks Republic Steel Corporation
K. E. Nelson G. J. 5paeder
Latrobe Steel Company R. Ault ~-
Universal-Cyc lops Steel Corp. 6':.(
R. S. Hodder E. S. Bower
E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Co. R. W. Kofller ~;:Ol
R. A. Woodall J. E. Fogarty G. A. Liadis
c. M. Cooper B. Glasgal
Lockbeed- Ca1Uornia Company
c. P. Mueller
G. W. Hinkle A. Nagy
Electronic 5peclalty Company v. D. Moss s. J. Matas
D. Stein R. P. Routt D. H. Ruhnke VASCO
G. E. Wald J. Savas
Fabricated Metals Division A. Bayer
H. K. Porter Company, Inc. Lockbeed- Georgia Company
D. F. Blake Vanadium-All oys Steel CompliiiY
W. T. Shuler Reynolds Metals Company J. C. Hamalter, Jr.
H. W. Stemme W. E. Kelly
Fansteel, Inc. D. 11. Yates
A. W. Dana A.M. Bayer
Lockbeed Missiles and Space Co.
M. Schussler Rolled Alloys, Inc.
R. W. Fenn
R. W. Boring Vanadium Corporation of
H. C. Slaughter B. McLeod
Firth Sterllng,Inc. America
i W. A. McKeen T. W. Merrill
i Tbe Marquardt Corporation Joseph T. Ryerson and Son, Inc.
'i. M. J. Albom R. G. Glass Vought Aeronautics
~ A. E. Hobman
~ Frontier Bronze Corporation Marshall 5pace Flight Center Southern Research Institute w. H. Sparrow
u T. H. Booth W. A. Mrazek J. D. Morrislon W. B. Vorhes
~ J. E. Kingsbury
f, Wah Chang Corporation
f' 5pecial Metals, Inc.
' General Electric Company
W. B. Au!derhaar
W. T. Belous
c. Forney
W. G. Baxter Martin Metals Company T. W. Cowan
G. E. Best W. P. Danes! WulMet Alloys Company
B. D.Bowen J. Hockin Stulnless Foundry and Engineering
H. G. Popp R. J. Dvorak
C. H. Lund Company G. J. Grott
E. W. Ross J. McBroom, Jr.
G. J. Wile G. D. Haley
Mellon Institute
J. A. Moir G. K. Bhat Standard Pressed Steel Company Westinghouse Electric Corporation
Great Lakes Steel Corporation
c. Floros R. W. Dague
Misco Precision Casting Company
c. L. Al tenburger P. G. DeHuff
R. J. Wilcox Sylvania Electric Products J. K. Wolfe
A. J. Block E. T. Portco
J. D. Wright NASA, Lewis Research Center Henry Wiggin & Company, Ltd. ,.: . ~

G. M. Ault Thompson- Ramo- Wooldridge Hereford, England


Tbe John Hopkins Uulversity '~ f
Applied Physics Laboratory
Tapco Division H. Hodges ~~').V
Nitralloy Corporation G. J., Hanna P. A. Morgan
w. c. Caywood c. F. Floc E. A. Steigerwald R. s. Norton

': ..
FOREWORD

The "Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook" was originally compiled by Syracuse


University under USAF Contract No. AF 33(616)-7792. The contract was initiated
r:,.
under Project 7381, Task No. 738103 and was administered under the direction of
Theinformation Processing Section, Materials Information Branch, Air Force Ma-
terials Laboratory, with Mr. George C. Young acting as project engineer. The
Handbook became available for distribution in March 1963.

Four revision supplements to the Handbook ASD-TR-63-741 have subsequently been


prepared. The first supplement was compiled under USAF Contract No. AF33(616)-
7792, and the second, third and fourth supplements were compiled under USAF
Contract No. AF33(615)-1184, by Syracuse University.

The contract for continuing assimilation and presentation of data for the Handbook
was awarded to the Mechanical Properties Data Center at Belfour Stulen, Inc., in
September 1966 .

The first supplement to the Handbook AFML-TR-68-11 5 was compiled under USAF
Contract No. F33615-67-c-12 54by the Mechanical Properties Data Center, Belfour
Stulen, Inc.

This Handbook is subject to periodic expansion and revision. The editors would be
grateful for comments, suggestions or criticisms from those who utilize the docu-
ment.

Correspondence of this nature should be addressed to:

Mr. Joe Wolf, Handbook Coordinator


Mechanical Properties Data Center
i".
Technical Information Systems Division
Belfour Stulen , Inc.
Traverse City, Michigan 49684

The technical documentary report has been reviewed and is approved.

(.
:...
-~:
t
.~
~~rInfo?m~on
Chief, Materials Bran.ch
; i-:i Materials Support Division

:l
AF Materials Laboratory

I e 1970, Bel!our Stulen, Inc.


,v_
ABSTRACT

The "1970 Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook", up-dated with the insertion of
Supplement II, now contains physical, chemical, and mechanical property infor-
mation on 187 metals and alloys of interest for aerospace structural applications.
The present Handbook AFMlrTR-6 8-115 consists of three volumes as follows:

Volume I: Ferrous Alloys

Volume II: Non-Ferrou s, Light Metal Alloys

Volume IIA: Non- Ferrous, Heat Resistant Alloys

Each volume is self-containe d in a loose-leaf, standard 3 post binder. Volume I


contains 67 ferrous alloy chapters, Volume II contains 61 chapters on heat resist-
ant alloys. Also included are data source references, a general discussion of
properties, a glossary of terms, a discussion of fracture toughness and a cross-
index of the alloys contained herein. New and revised chapters of the annual
revision supplements are distributed on a quarterly basis to assure currency of
content.

vi
4:1 1970, :; .;:rour Stu len, Inc.
')'
"'l'

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The informati,:>n assembled in this Handbook has been obtained primarily


from metal alloy producers' printed and unprinteddata sheets, Air Force
and other Government agency technical reports and reports issued by
Information Centers. In addition, data was acquired from professional
society pubUJations, aerospace companies, air-engine manufactuers and
fabricators of components. The sources of data for each alloy are re-
ferenced at the end of each alloy chapter.

The edito:r:~l staff is indebted to the many persons who have contributed
to the generation of tba Handbook. Contributions to the present edition
are acknowledged. on the contributors' page. Acknowledgment is also made
to the many i."ldividu::tls and organizations that participated in generating
the first edition of the Handbook entitled "Air Weapons Materials Appli-
ca.tion Handbook-Metals and Alloys", (ARDC -TR-59-66), and its supple-
ment (AFSC Supplement I to ARDC-TR-59-66). Their names appear on
the contributors' page of the respective editions.

,.
',

.~,..

i.~,
vii
C 1970, Belfour Stulen, loc.
CONTENTS

COOPERATING ORGANIZATIONS Ill


FOREWARD v
ABSTRACT vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS vii
CONTENTS be
INTRODUCTION

GENERAL DISCUSSION OF ALLOYS AND THEIR PROPERTIES 3


0. INTRODUCTION
I. GENERAL
2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
4. FABRICATION

CODE DESIGNATION REVISED

CARBOU AND LOW ALLOY STEELS (FeC)


UOl Fe-(O.lC)-0. SCr-0. SSI-0. 4Cu-0. 35Mn-O. 3Nl-0.11P OorTeu Marll3
1102 Fe-(0.14C)-O. 7551-0. 6Cr-O. 2Mo-0.1Zr , NAX AC 9115 Mar63
110~ Fe-(0.15C)-0.92Mn-0.88Nl-0.50Cr-0.46Mo-0.32Cu-0.26~l: T-1 aDd T-1 Type A Mar6~

ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH STEELS (FeUH)


1201 Ft(0.30C)-0.95Cr-0. 20Mo ......................... ......................... ...... 4130 Mar63
1203 Fe-(0.4C)-1Cr-0.21\fo ......................... ......................... ........... 4140 Mar63
. 1204 Fe-(0.3C)-1. SNI-0. SCr-0. 4Mo-O. 07V ......................... ; .............. 4330 V Mod Mar69
1205 Fe-(0.35C)-1. SNI-O.BCr-0. 351\lo-0.2V ......................... .............. 4335 V Mod Mar65
12011 Fe-(0.4C)-1.8Nl-0.8Cr-0.25 Mo ......................... .................... 4340 (4337) Dec 63
1207 Fe-(1C)-1.45Cr ......................... ......................... ............... .52100 Mar63
1208 Fe-(0.3C)-0.55:-Il-O.ser-o. 2olllo ......................... ......................... . 8630 Mar63
1209 Fe-(O.lC)-3.25Nl-l.:!Cr-O. IMo ......................... ......................... E 9310 Mar 63
1210 Fe-(0.3C)-1.3Cr-0.5Mo-0.2 5V ......................... ...................... 17-22 A(S) Mar63
1211 Fe-(0. 28C)-l. 25Cr-0.85 V-0. 65Sl-0.5Mo ......................... .............. 17-22A(V) Mar63
1213 Fe-(0.46C)-l.DCr-l.Ol\lo-0. 55Nl .......................... .......................... DBA Mar68
1214 Fe-(0.25C)-1. 8Nl-1.5Sl-1.311!n-0.4Mo .......................... ................. HY-1\ll Mar63
1215 Fe-(0.4C)-1.6Cr-1.1Al1D.61 11n-0.35Mo ......................... ........ Nltralloy 135 Mod Mar63
12111 Fe-SNI-0. SSCr-0. 17lllo..O. 075 V ......................... ................... 5Nl-Cr-lllo- V Mar69
1217 Fe-(0.43C)-1. BNI-1. 651-0:SCr-0. 4Mo+V ......................... ................. 30D-M Mar63
1218 Fe-(0.4C)-5Cr-1.3l\lo-0.5V ...... ; ......................... .................. H-11 Mod Dec 63
1Z19 Fe-(0.5C)-Cr-ll!o-W-V ......................... ......................... ..... Vuco P.lA Mar63
1220 Fe-18Nl-7 .SCo-51\to- Tl-Al .......................... ........... lBNI Maraglni (250 Grade) Sept 10
1221 Fe-BNI-4Co-Cr-llto-V ......................... ......................... ....... 9NI-4Co Mar71
l2Z2 Fe-12Nl-SCr-31\!o-TI-Al ......................... ........................ 12Nl Maraging Mar66
1223 Fe-16Nl-8.5Co-Mo-TI-Al ......................... ............. lBNI Maraglng (200 Grade) Mar68
122~ Fe-18Nl-8.5Co-Mo-TI-Al ........................ : ............. lBNI Maraglng (300 Grade) Sept 69

1171, Belfour St\llen, IDe.


C)
ix
DESIGNATION REVISED
CODE

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS (FeA)


~ Type 301 and 302
wares
1S01 Fe-18C r-8Nl , , , Mar83
or Se Types 303, 303 Se
1302. Fe-18Cr -9Nl+S Mar87
C)-19Cr 10NI , Types 304, 304L
1303 Fe-(l.Qw Mar63
, Type 305
1304 Fe-18 Cr-1 2Nl , , Mar&ll
r-20Nl ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ..... , ....... .. , l)'pe 310, 310S
1305 Fe-Z5C Mar83
....... ....... ....... ....... ..... Type 314
1:SOS Fe-Z5C r-20Nl-2 Sl ....... ...... _....... ..... , Mar63
....... ....... ....... ... Types 31S and 317
1307 Fe-1!;Cr -13Nl+M c. ....... ....... ....... ....... Marll7
....... ....... ....... ....... .... .'l'ype 321
1308 Fe-18Cr -13NI+M o ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar 83
....... ....... ....... ... Types 347 and 348
1309 Fe-18Cr -12Nl+C b ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar63
....... ....... ..... 19-9 DL and 19-9 DX
1311 Fe-?.0C r-10Nl-1 .5Mo-1. 5W ....... ....... ....... Dec 63
....... ....... ....... ....... . Type 201
1312 Fe-17Cr -6.5MD -4.5Nl ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar71
....... ....... ..... , , ....... ... 203EZ
1313 Fe-17Cr -6Nl-6M n-2Cu + S ....... ....... .......

MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEELS (FeM)


Sept 71
....... ....... .. l)'pes 403, 410, 416
1401 Fe-(l.Qw C)-12Cr ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar63
....... .... : ....... ....... ....... l)'pe 420
1402 Fe-(Med C)-13Cr ....... ....... ....... ....... M.u63
....... ....... ....... ....... . Type 422
1403 Fe-12Cr -1Mo-1 W-0.8-0 .Z5V ....... ....... ....... M.u63
....... ....... ....... ....... ....... 431
1404 Fe-(0.2C )-16Cr- 2Nl ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar63
....... ....... ..Type 440 A, Band C
l405 Fe-(IUg b C)-17Cr -0.5lllo ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar 113
....... ....... ....... ....... UBS-121\toV
1406 Fe-12C r-1Mo-0 .65Nl-0 .3V ....... ....... ....... Mar&&
....... ....... ....... Greek AJicaloy
1407 Fe-13Cr -3W-2N I ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar 85
....... ....... ....... ....... AM-363
14011 Fe-(0.0 4C)-11. 5Cr-4.0 Nl-0.3T l ....... ....... .......

AGE HARDENING STEELS (FeAH)


Mar 63
....... ....... ....... ....... ...... 17-4PH
1501 Fe-17Cr -4Nl-4C u ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar70
-7~-1Al ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ...... 17-7 PH;
1503 Fe-17Cr ....... ....... JwJ 70
r-7Ni-2. 51\to ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... . PH15-7M o
1503 Fe-15..:! Mar.65
....... ....... ....... ....... ..... AM-350
1504 Fe-17Cr -4Nl-31 \lo ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar 65
....... ....... ....... ....... . AM-355
1505 Fe-15.5 Cr-4.5N I-3Mo ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar63
....... ....... ....... ....... .. HNM
15011 Fe-(0,3 C)-18.5 Cr-9.5N I-3.5Mn ....... ....... ....... Mar71
....... ....... ....... ..... PH14-Bl llo
Fe-14Cr -6NI-2.5 Mo-Al ....... ....... ....... ....... Dec 63
' -' 1507
1508 Fe-18M n-12Ct'- 3Mo + V + B ....... ....... .......
....... ....... ....... ....... .... AF-71
Mar 70
....... ....... ....... ...... , AFC 77
15011 Fe-0.15 Q-14.5C r-13.5C o-5Mo-O .SV-O.O SN2 ....... Mar65
....... ....... ....... ....... .. PH13-8M o
1111!1 Fe-13Cr -BNI-21 \Io ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar68
....... ....... ....... ... Stalnlea s W
1511 Fe-17C r-7N + TI ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... Mar68
....... ....... ....... .. AM 362, Almar 362
11112 Fe-15C r-7Nl + Tl ....... ....... ....... ....... Sept 119
....... ... , .. , ....... ....... ...... 15-SPH
1513 . Fe-15Cr -5NI-4C u ....... ....... ....... .......

APPENDICES
A
ABBREVIATIONS
TERMS B
GLOSSARY OF HEATING AND HEAT TREATING
FRACTURE TOUGHNESS
c
D
CROSS INDEX OF ALLOYS
.........
X
..-< . ..
~:)
.,,;;

INTRODUCTION

The Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook is published in three volumes. Volume


I titled "Ferrous Alloys", Volume II titled "Non-Fer rous, Light Metal Alloys" ,
and Volmne IIA titled "Non- Ferrous, Heat Resistant Alloys" are all constituted
with a series of chapters each dealing with a specific metal or alloy. A unique
code number is assigned to each metal or alloy so that a group of identical (or
significan tly similar) commerci ally designated alloys can be referred to by one
code number. The format is the same for all chapters. In addition to the acknowl-
edgment, foreword, table of contents~ and introducto ry pages the Handbook con-
tains the following:

General Discussio n of Alloys and Their Propertie s


Appendix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviati ons
Appendix B ........ .... Heat Treat Terms
Appendix C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fracture Toughness
Appendix D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross Index of Alloys

The Handbook was formerly produced by Syracuse Univerisit y and is now pre-
pared and updated by the Mechanica l Properties Data Center. The Data Center,
operated by Belfour Stulen, Inc. , Traverse City, Michigan for the United States
Departme nt of Defense is one of several Informatio n Centers under contract with
the Air Force Materials Laborator y, Wright-P attersonA ir Force Base, Dayton,
Ohio 45433. Chapter revisions and additions are now released quarterly in an
annual supplemen t form by the Mechanica l Properties Data Center. Single chapter
copies are distributed exclusivel y by Materials Engineerin g, Reinhold Publishing
Corporatio n. Holders of Handbooks may determine the revision status of their
volumes by comparing them with the latest tables of contents .

The Handbook, as published in three volumes, is intend'3d to present a compilatio n


of data and informatio n on metals and alloys that are of interest to the Aerospace
Industries . It is not intended that it be used as a specificati on document. Each
chapter is devoted to an alloy and is revised as informatio n becomes available.
Chapte rs are the result of coopera tive efforts between the Mechan ical Proper ties
Data Center, technic al consult ants, other informa tion centers , and a number of
individ uals from alloy produc ers, users, laborat ories, and profess ional societie s.
Mr. William F. Brown, Jr. of NASA LeWis Labora tories continu es to contrib ute
to this effort in the capacit y of author and Chief Technic al Consult ant and is sup-
ported by contrib uting authors W.W. Dyrkac z, D. C. Goldberg, C. F. Hickey, Jr.,
J. R. Kattus, S. S. Manson , J. G. Sessler , J. L. Shannon, Jr., Dr. R. P.
Wei,
and staff informa tion special ists of MPDC. The sources of the data and informa
-
tion are given at the end of each chapter in the referen ce list. other informa tion
that is collecte d between printing s or is too detailed in nature to be include d in
the Handbook may be obtaine d from the Mechan ical Proper ties Data Center which
retriev es data from comput er storage in answer to specific questio ns.

Mechan ical Propert ies Data Center


Belfour Stulen, Inc.
13919 West Bay Shore Drive
Traver se City, Michigan 49684

Phone 616-947 -4500


etc. are not given unless their addition is particularly
GENERAL DISCUSSION OF ALLOYS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
designed to yield special mechanical prooerties.
0,021 in aJdition to the above system of identification the common-
0. INTRODUCTION ly used systems such as AISI and the most widely used
The purpose of this section Is to introduce to the reader trade name are Indicated on each page. Additional desig-
the systems used in the classification and identification of nations and trade names are listed in the data sheets under
the alloys listed herein and the organization of data on Commercial Designations (Section 1. 01) and Alternate
these alloys as presented ln this Handbook. The pertinent Designations (Section 1. 02).
facts regarding reliability and significance of these data as 0.022 To further facllitate the location of a particular alloy a
well as the definitions for certain terms and processes are cross-Index Is given as Appendix D which provides a
also included In this discussion. cross reference of major designations and trade names.

0.01 Alloy Classification 0.03 Data Organization


The alloys are listed in the Handbook according to specific The data for each alloy are presented according to a
alioy groups, and each group is assigned an alloy code definite alloy property code system designed for the pur-
series. For example, in Volume I (Ferrous Alloys), the pose of this Handbook. A topical outline of the property
first alloy group listed in the Table of Contents is Carbon code is given below:
and Low Al!ov Steels (FeC), alloy code series UOO. Within
each group individual atloys are asstgned an alloy coae
number starting with the first number of the series. Thus,
"Corten," the first low alloy steel listed Is assigned alloy 1. GENERAL
code number 1101, "NAX AC 9115" is assigned alloy code 1. 01 Commercial Designation
1102, etc. The code number appears at the bottom of each 1. 02 Alternate Designations
page of every alloy chapter along with the page number. 1. 03 Specifications
Alloy chapters are lnsert~'<l into the handbook binder In 1. 04 Composition
numerical sequence (according to alloy code number) thus 1. OS Heat Treatment
providing a rapid means of locating a desired alloy. An 1.06 Hardness (Formerly HardenabUity)
outline of the alloy code series sequence Is given below. 1. 07 ~nd Conditions Available
1. 08 Melting and Casting Practice
1. 09 Special Considerations
FERROUS ALLOYS
Category 2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Oxic Series
-~ 2.01 Thermal Properties
Carllon and Low Alloy Steels (FcC) Melting range
2.011
Ultra High Strengtll Steels (FeUH) 1200
2.012 Phase changes
Austenitic Stainless Steels (FeA) 1300
2.0121 Time-temperature-tr ansformation
Martensltlc Stainless Steels (FeM) 1400
diagrams
Age Hardening Steels (FeAH) 1500
2.013 Thermal conductivity
Nickel Chromium Steels (FeNC) lhOO
2.014 Thermal expansion
Future Elxpan"lon (Ferrous Alloys) 1700 to ~()(JU
2.015 Specific heat
2.016 Thermal dlftuslvlty
NON-FERROUS ALLOYS 2.02 Other Physical Properties
2.021 Density
Aluminum Alloys (AIC) 3100
2.022 Electrical properties
A:uminum Alloys (AlWT) 3200
2.023 Magnetic properties
Aluminum Alloys (AIWN) 3300
2.024 Emissivity
Magnesium Alloys (MgC) 34(10
2.025 Damping capacity
Magnesium Alloys (MgWT) 3500
2.03 Chemical Properties
Magnesium Alloys (MgWN) :1600
3700
2.04 Nuclear Properties
Titanium Alloys (TI)
Future Expansion (Low Density Alloys) 3800 to 4000
4100 3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Nickel l~1se Alloys (<5% Co)(Nl)
4200 3.01 ~peclfled Mechanical Properties
Nickel Base Alloys (>5% Co)(NiCo)
4300 3.02 Mechanical Properties o~ Room Tem-
Collalt llasc Alloys (Co) perature
Future Expansion (NI, Co, Cr Alloys) 4400 to 5000
5i00 3.021 Tension
Beryllium Alloys (Be) 3.0211 Stress strain diagrams
Columbium (Niobium) Alloys (Cb) 5200
5300 3.022 Compression
Molybdenum Alloys (Mo)
5400 3. 0221 Stress strain diagrams
Tantalum Alloys (Ta) 3.023 Impact
Tungsten Alloys (W) 5500
5600 3.024 Bending
Vanadium Alloys (V)
5700
3.025 Torsion and shear
Zirconium Alloys (Zr) 3.026 Bearing
3.027 Stress concentration
0.02 Alloy idcr.tlflcation
3.0271 Notch properties
Alloys arc identified primarily by chemical composition, 3.0272 Fracture toughness (See Appendix C)
and each particular alloy is designated by its mnjor clement Combined properties
3.028
followed by the minor clements In decreasing order of 3.03 Mechanical Properties at Various Tem-
percentage by weight. When two or more clements arc peratures
present in equal quantity they nrc list~"<! alphabetically.
3. 031 Tension
Impurities are neglected. Minor elements are given only
3. 0311 Stress strain diagrams
when Intentionally introduced and when their percentage is
3.032 Compression
not definitely established they appear at the end of the
3.0321 Stress strain diagrams
designation without a percontagc figure. When this system
is applied to steels ce1tnin problems arise. Where carbon
has a paramount influence on the mechanical properties It The property code data classification system described above has
is listed immediately after iron. Otherwise, ferritlc recently been revised. It Is planned that all alloy chapters wnt
steels are designated as low carbon (Low C), medium eventually be arranged in accordance with this system. However, a
carbon (Med C) and high carbon (High C) grades. Minor number of alloy chapters in this volume do not as yet conform to the
clements in steels such as silicon, manganese, sulfur, above property code system except with respect to the major headings.

3
--,.-~---....,....,"""'.._,IVI'IV"I r""\L...Lo.\J'IVr"'\I'U IIIL-11\ 11\.UI ~1\IIL..._,

3.033 Impact forms or those of different agencies.


3.034 Bcndlntt 1.042 Certain elements normally listed in spcci!icatlon may
:!.035 To=slon and .shear include other clements which have a similar effect on the
3.036 Bearing properties hut which nrc difficult to Isolate. Outstanding
3.037 Stresr .:oncentration example are nickel, which usually include cobalt, and
3.0371 Notch properties columbium (niobium) which usually includes tantalum. The
3.0372 Fracture touglllicss (See Append!x C) practice of separately reporting such elements is not yet
3.038 Combined properties in general use and is not employed in this handbook.
3.04 Creep and Creep Rupture Properties
3.05 Fntlgue Properties 1. 05 Heat Treatment
3,()1\ Elastic Properties The generol meoning of this term as it Is used in this hand-
3.Uiil Poisson's ratio book Includes both hardening and softening treatments.
3.062 Modulus of elasticity 1. 051 A given heat treatment may be designated in several ways.
3.063 Modulus of rigidity ln some cases the designation refers to the process and in
others to the result produced by the process. Since a
4. FABRICATION clear understanding of heat treating terms Is intportnnt,
4.01 Formability n Glossary of Heating and Heat Treating Terms is given in
4.02 Machining and Grinding Appendix B.
4.03 Welding
4.04 Heat Treatment I. 06 Hardness
4.05 Surface Treatn~cnt The term hardness Is used here as a measure of the ability
of an alloy to rez:iist indentation or permanent deformation.
In general, hardness is related to alloy strength character
istlcs and, L~crcfore, a scale or hardness can be utilized to
describe an alloy's response to strengthening by heat treat-
1. GENERAL ment and/or cold work. Data on the effect or any given
A brief description of thL nllov ns well as vat'lous inrorma parameter on hardness Is given In this section.
tion of general lntcrc.:st 1::; rcp~rtt.."(] und~:r thb hcmling. I. 06i n~e depth to which an alloy will harden under definite cool-
Ing conditions Is consldcr~'<l to be na important as the actual
1. 01 Commercial Dcslgnnt ion hardness value. Tho property that determines Ute depth and
1.011 The preferred commcn.'ial llt.slgnnt i''" rnr un ~lloy mny distribution or hardness Is coiled "hardennblllty." High
come from one of many different soun. L~ omll tlll'y may he hnrdcnablllty Indicates hardening through the section.
altert..>d from time to time .. Gcnlt";lly, rlw mosl pertinent Although this ll!rm Is normally applied to quenched fcrritlc
name Is given. Whcrcv,!r possihlc1 thi~ rwn1e b. the s~mc steels_, it appears well suited for general usage. For
as used tn other rcfcrcnc(! puhlico:ltion.., Slh..'li a.: thl Acto measuring the hnrdcnnblllty or heat treated rerrltlc steels
space Material Specifications (AMS). In the case of some two mothods arc generally used. Hardcnnbility curves
proprietary alloys, an abbreviation of the :Jctual n::1mc relate to the hardness distribution along the axis of a
Is in common usage. cylinder which has hccn water quenched on one end face only,
1.012 h should Joe.:- nol<.'il IIWI Lit<.: il.l.:nl ifpn,l! llilllll::-. 11:-.( d JJL.ry Ill (c. g. Jomlny end-quench test for steels). More complete
trmlt!uHJrk names with ;.til right~; ihl"l"l'ltl l"l!lili11vd h\ rilL Information Is obtained by quenching cylinders of various
appropriate compuny. ln this C,J.-.c, lht TJ.IIIH:.~ l!.rv: !Lr!n <iiamctcts :mtl rletermlnlng the resulting hardness variation
usc:.-d for cros!'i reference und illcutil"y1ug purpus('s only. across their diameters.
The rcmler should he governed hy tn,dcm;Jrk rnlt.s in his 1.062 11tc more common method of hardening alloys is by heat
usage of such names, unci should contact lilt ;1pproprialc t rentmcnt, although cold work or combinations of cold work
company owning: the tnH.Icnwrk 1r lhlrc he ;111y quvstlnn and heat treatment ore also employed.
concerning rlwlr use. I.On3 The response of different alloys to hardening by heat
treatment and/or cold work Is dependent upon a number or
1.02 ~!:~otc Designatio!~ factors such as chcmlcol composltlon, thcnnal ttcatmcnts,
1.02i The alternate dcsiRnations lndUt.le prnprh:t:ny rwnh:s i.lnd cooling rates (and time delays), microstructure, slmul
other frequently cncountcrc.:d nunws. Since it is ltnpn~.si tancous transformations or aging and others.
blc tu list all d~tdgnatlons, only lho. wl: hh ,ll't..: fn.qucnrly
cncountcn."l.l in lttcruturc and v~ninus nporls n ns<.:d. 1.07 Forms and Conditions Avallnblc
1.022 t\ complete l.:ros~ index of all alloy n:.tllll'S 11~td i:-< prcscntc.-d Only very con~-;;rn;auo;; Is given regarding the
tn Arpcndlx D. avallnblllty or an alloy In Its various forms, section sizes
awl conditions. Complete ava!lnhlllty Information may be
1.03 ~pcctncatlons obtnln<'<i from t.hc Producer or Supplier.
1. 031 TI1c hn.sic spcciflcntions useU in this Jmndbook are the
Aeronnutlcnl Material Specifications (AMS) or the Society 1.08 Melting and Casting Practice .,
of 1\utomotlve Engineers since these arc the most complete ~rlef statements wgardlng the meltlnl'l and casting practices
In regard to new alloys. In addition, Mllitorr Specifica- normally employed for the alloy ore lnduded h"re. Further
tions and, occaslf'nally, Federal Specifications arc !ncluded. information may he obtained from the Producer or Supplier.
It is not possible here to rercr co all t~c numerous srcct- J.OSi Melting. Melting techniques used by the producers of Ute
flcations In existence. alloy nrc given, when available, to call attention to the
1.032 Producers also frequently supply limited lists or specifi- effect of melting procedures on physical or mechanical
cations on request and these arc reported in certain properties.
Instances. 1.082 Casting. Casting techniques and cnstnbillty ratings for
1.033 A cross Index of AMS Specifications lnr.luded Ia available cast alloys nrc discussed where they appear to t>c ol
In Appendix D. interest for the selection or an alloy. !! available, pertinent
miscellaneous information is added.
1.04 Composition
The chemical compositions reported nrc primarily those i.09 SpccU.l Considerations
given In AMS, and arc complemented hy those specified hy This section of each alloy chapter includes a few remarks
the producers and other sources whenever It appeared regarding particular problems encountHed which require
necessary. special consideration.
1.041 The allowable variations in chemical composition or an
alloy are one of the major stipulations of a specification. 2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
However, for any ghcn alloy, the chemistry may differ
slightly In different specll!catlons and considerable over In reporting physical properties of metals and alloys the
lapping may occur either in specifications [or c!!ffcrent common British units arc generally used by the Armed

4
GENERAL DISCUSSION OF ALLOYS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

Forces and industry In this country and this system Is 2. 015 Specifl. heJ't. :he English units used In thia document are
followed here, Where several such units exist, those ~u p.:r (',!:. Fj.
standardized by the American Society of Mechanical 2. 016 Thern:lll 1iffuslvlty Is defined as thermal conductivity
Engineers have been preferred, and their abbreviations divided ,,., :.:enslty and heat capacity, where heat capacity
have been used. A Symbols and Technical Abbreviations Is usually taken as the value of specific heat at constant
list Is given In Appendix A. Unfortunately, most reports pressure. The units employed here for thermal diffuslvlty
of physical properties do not give the form and condition are tt 2/hr.
of the material. This may explain part of the differences
between the published values for certain properties. 2, 02 Other Physical Properties
When values of physical properties are given without Under this heading all properties are assembled e:ccept
mentioning the test temperature, the values apply to room thermal, chemical. nuclear and mechanical.
temperature. In some cases the determination of this 2. 021 Density Is given, as the only exception, In both British
property requires measurements at two or more tempera- units and In metric units, since both are widely used.
tures (e.g. thermal expansion). These temperatures, 2. 022 Electrical resistivity Is another property reported In a
unless otherwise indicated, are room temperature and large variety of units. The unit used here Is microhm-ln.
212 F, or In the range from room temperature to 212 F. 2. 023 Magnetic properties. Only limited Information on the
Usually, the difference In values for any one temperature magnetic properties of the various forms and conditions,
In this range Is less than the uncertainty of the value Is presented here.
Itself. 2. 024 Emissivity. The term emissivity Is reserved for the case
of an opaque material having an optically smooth surface,
2. 01 Thermal Properties and Is defined as the limiting .value of the emittance of the
Thermal properties of metals Include the melting range, body as the surface Is made more and more optically smooth.
phase changes, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Thus, for an opaque body the emissivity Is the lowest limit
specific heat, and where available, diffuslvlty and dimen- of Emittance, (5).
sional changes on heat treating. 2, 0241 Emittance Is defined as the ratio of the rate of radiant
2. 011 Melting range of many alloys Is not well known and the emission from a body, as a consequence of its temperature
values given are generally only approximate, The upper only, to the corresponding rate of emission from a black
value as a rule relates to full melting (liquidus) and the body at the same temperature. This ratio c:nnot exceed
lower value to the beginning of melting (solidus). The 1.0.
Actual beginning of melting may be Important, as It deter- 2. 0242 Radiancy Is defined as the rate of radiant energy emission
mines the maxim urn temperature to which the alloy may from a unit area of a source In all the radial directions
be heated without damage. However, It Is frequently not of an overspreading hemisphere. Some authors report
well known because of the great Influence of small changes radiancy data as emissivity data.
In composition. 2. 0243 The majority of data presented herein are obtained from
2. 012 l'hase changes occur In nearly all commercial alloys. various types of emittance measurements and are reported
The phase change reported under this heading Is transfor- as hemispherical, total, normal or spectral emittance as
mation of the matrix, I. e. of the r.lajor phase of the alloy, a function of temperature. For further Information on
from one crystal structure Into another. The most common this subject, see Ref. 5.
and significant transformation Is that of all ferrltlc steels 2. 025 D:Jmping capacity Is defined as the amount of Internal
...' -~ and also of many so called austenitic steels, from the high friction and dissipation of energy per unit volume of
temperature phase, austenite, to the low temperature material for one cycle of stress. It can be determined by
phase. The critical temperatures for tim beginning and the cyclic bending or alternating torsion and Is normally
end of the phase change are designated respectively as A reported In units of lnch-lb per cubic Inch per cycle. 1he
and A Because the reaction Is sluggish these tempera-3 area of the stress-strain hysteresis loop Is a measure of
1 damping capacity, (6).
tures may differ on heating and cooling. Ar3 and Arl
refer to transformations during cooling and Act and Ac3
refer to transformations during heating. On fast cooling
the reaction also may be suppressed and martensltlc fer- 2. 03 Chemical Properties
rite may form at relatively low temperatures, between This section Includes a general discussion of the resistance
M and Mr' Also, In stainless steels, martensite may of an alloy to various types of environments, except those
ncl form during cooling, but may result from plastic encountered In nuclear reactors. The chemical propertie11
deformation. Similar transformations occur In otre r most frequently Investigated and reported are corrosion
alloys, particularly that from the alpha to the beta phase resistance and oxidation resistance.
In titanium alloys. 2. 031 Corrosion resistance. The diacusslon of corrosion re-
2. 0121 Isothermal transformation diagrams (also called time- slstnncu In this Handbook Is by necessity very short and
temperature-transformation diagrarns, T-T-T diagrams, primarily concerned with phenomena adverse to strUC-
or S curves) enable the user to estimate how an alloy tural applications. Among these are: (a) the general
wUI respond to cooling from the austenite (or solution corrosion resistance In certain liquid media at low and
elc;-;ated temperatures; (b) special types of corrosion,
treat) temperature range. Where available these diagrams
are Included In this handbook. such as galvanic and lntergranular corrosion; (c) the
deterioration and resulting brittle behavior Induced by
2. 013 Thermal conductivity values arc reported In the literature
stresses In corrosive environments, called variously
In a variety of units. The following units are used hrre,
Btu ft per (hr sq ft F). stress corrosion. stress corrosion cracldng and stress
cracking, depending on the resulting effect rather than on
2. 014 Thermal expansion Is usually reported for the temperature
any real physical difference; and. (d) hydrogen embrlttle-
range which excludes dimensional changes associated with
ment of steels and titanium alloys.
matrix transformations. It Is also reported In a variety
of ways, and the system selected here Is that used most
2. 032 Oxidation resistance. The term oxidation resiatnnce Is
used here not only forthe effect of oxidizing atmosphere,
frequently. The mean coefficient of linear expansion Is
given for the range from room temperature to another but also of any other !dud of ~taseous environment at
comparatively high temperatw:es and particularly at
temperature, and plotted as a function of this latter temper-
service temperatures.
ature. To obtain the total expansion from room to a par-
ticular temperature the value at this temperature Is mul-
2. 04 Nuclear Properties
tiplied h'J the difference between the temperature In qlies-
Thia general term Is used as a headlcg for any property or
tlon and room temperature. This procedure answers
property change which Is significant for the use ol the
automatically the frequently raised question of how the
curve Is used at temperatures below room temperature. particular alloy In nuclear reactor coastruction. These
The value of expansion In the curves Is always positive, Include: (a) the nuclear cross section, (b) various effects
of irradiation, (c) corrosion phenomena In reactors. and
but the temperature difference Is then negative, and,
(d) the application of grades having different chemistry,
hence, the total expansion becomes, correctly, negative.
etc.
GENERAL DISCUSS.ION OF ALLOYS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ever, several criteria are useful in this respect, namely
(a) comparison of similar data !rom different sources,
The properties presented in this chapter include all (b) the extent ol. scattering, (c) the volwne of data, and
mechanical properties. including elastic constants and (d) (in the case of very limited dsts) a comparison wlth
tangent and secant mndull. The chapter is sulxllvided into some other proparty, such as that of compressive to
6 sections. tensile yield strength. In this Instance, the expectation
All strength quantities are given In ksl, 1. e. thousand is that compressive yield !ltrength is equal to or slightly
pounds per square inch. This Is already establlshed higher than tensile yield strength. However, reported
practice in design, except for elastic properties. Mcst values of compressive yield strength may In some cases
of the data reported apply to the various forms commer- be too high l1<.--cause of friction at the anvil surfaces.
cially available and to standardized processing conditions. Primary Interest in room temperature data relates to a
No attempt has been made to describe the results of ex- number of variables. These variables are the following:
perimental processes and heat treatments. However, (a) Effects of !ahrlcatlng and serv Icc conditions.
because preference is given to alloys of current interest These Include exposure to ele<1ated temperature with
and to their elevated temperature performance, many and wltl1out load and plastic deformations inserted
current heat treatments may undergo changes in the ncar between various steps of heat treating.
future. In addition, the necessity for forming and welding (b) Effects of testing variables. Particularly slgni!l-
many structural parts has led to special processing con- cant are the effects of the size of the material !rom
dltlons and these will probably increase in the future. which the specimens were taken, the dimensions of
Problems of this nature arc also discussed to some extent these specimens, and whether these specimens were
under FABRICATION (Sec Section 4)- tal.:cn before or after the final heat treatment.
The need for dcflnlng tl1c material condition and the testing
3.01 Specl!led Mcchanlcal Properties conditions is fully recognized In this document. However,
3.011 Although this document is primarily a source of information discretion Is nc'Ccssnry in reporting these, partly because
and not a design ha:xlbook, an attempt has been made to of space limitations and partly because of the confusion
include specl!led properties !rom certain sources- These which may be caused by reporting details of little or no
sources arc the AMS, the producers' data sheets and significance when considering the cod product. Unfot-
occasionally consumers' specifications. In addition, tunately, In the majority of Instances, even some of the
many specified properties will be subject to future changes, pcnlncnt processing and testing data are not completely
particularly in regard to the effect of testing temperature. available.
Although some specifications involve other than room tem- Specimen types and test methods arc omitted If they arc
perature properties, room temperature mechanical convcntlotml. The respective American Society !or
properties nrc the core of acceptance spcclflcut ions. Testing Material specifications should be consulted In this
These arc of two types, (a) minimum and, occasionally, case.
maximum values fer design purposes, and (b) limiting The following static room temperature mechanical proper-
values for forming purposes. it is heyond the scope f tics nrc presented In tabular or graphical form, and in
this handbook to descrihe the test n)elhtxls usl In deter- most cases arc given as functions of the major parameters
mine these propenics. Mechanical prop..orties :ot clevatcl that Influence the panlcuiar property, (e.g. carbon content
temperatures arc spccific..-d in a numhlr of lnstnnccs mxJ in steels, hmt treat conditions, etc.).
arc given In this se-ction. AMS, in purtkulur, frequently 3. 021 Tension. Tensile ultimate strength, tensile yield strength
specifics a special creep rupture test for smooth and and ductility (elongation and r~>duction of area) ns measured
notchc'tl specimens. Smooth specimens arc s . metimes in a conventional tensile test. Yield strength test data
required to withstand a speclficl stress and tcmpcratur" (F ) arc based on the 0. 2 percent offset method unless
for a minimum time. If rupture does not occur within otl~~rwlse Indicated.
this time the test Is contlnuc'tl until rupture occurs either 3. 0211 Stress strain diagrams. Curves of tensile stress versus
maintaining the same stress or Increasing till' stress. tensile strain.
In either case the specimen mu~t cxhlhh a Npc-clfkl mlnl- 3. 022 Compression. Compressive yield strength as measured
mwn elongation at rupturca In c.cnain cases n t.:omhinatlon by conventional techniques.
notch and smooth specimen Is uscl having equal notchcod 3. 0221 Stress strain diagrams. Curves of compressive stress
and smootl1 areas. Such specimens ure required to with- versus compressive strain.
stand,, specified stress and tcmperuturc for :o minimum 3. 023 Impact. Impact energy values as measured by the Charpy
time. If rupture docs not occur within this time the test (notch or keyhole), izod, tension Impact or drop weight
is continued either maintaining thl' same stress or Increas- (NOT) test.
Ing the stress, according to a specified schcodulc. Rupture 3. 024 Bending. Maxlmwn bend strength In outer fiber as mea-
is required to occur In the smooth ::;,ctlon and minimum sured In pure bending, concentrated load bendir.g or
values of rupture elongation arc spcoclfled. cantikoycr bending.
3.012 Bending properties som ctlmcs specified by AMS arc 3. 025 Torsion and s11cnr. Well defined standards have not been
omitt~'tl In this document. The procedure now generally cstabllsht'<l. lhcluded here arc torque-twist tests, tear-
cstahllshed is different from that used by the AMS and the tests, etc.
resulting values cannot be convened (see 4. 011 also). 3. 026 Bearing. Ilea ring strength is defined as the maximwn
bearing load at fnllure divided by the effective bearing
3.02 Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature
area. In a pinned or riveted joint, the effective area Is
These properties arc most signl!lcant !or certain classes the product Of the hole diameter and the thickness of the
of alloys, used primarily within a temperature range bearing member, (see Metals Handbook, Vol- I, 8th
where they arc structurally stable and not su.ccptlble to Edition, page 4). Specimen geometry must be considered
creep. In such Instances, most or the data on typical me-ch- In evaluating bearing test results. The important dimen-
anical properties will be found In this section, with the sions of the test specimen, hole diameter (D) and the
exception of those for fatigue strength and clastic properties distance from the center of the hole to the end of the
which ore discussed separately. For alloys used predom- specimen (c) arc usually expressed by the ratio, e/0.
inantly at elevated temperatures the room temperature 3. 027 Stress concentration. The behavior of materials In the
value or any specific property IS only one of o series of presence of stress concentration (localized stress values
values at different temperatures. Therefore, for these greater than the nomL"llll stress) Is ol concern to the
alloys Information on typical room temperature properties design engineer, portkularly 1! the usc of high strength
Is Included In the data for various temperatures, sec 3. 03. alloys Is being con,.idered !or cl:ltlcal service applications.
The room temperature data arc typical values. They nrc The information required is usually obtained !rom tests
presumably representative of material in present commer- dcsfgned to measure the loss in load carrying capacity of
cial production. There exists no yardstick to completely a material within a certain area of test conditions. A
evaluate the reliability of reported typical values. How- large yariety of types of tests have been used !or this '
\

6
GENERAL DISCUSSION OF ALLOYS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

.:..;: purpose. However, the majority fall Into one of two For some applleatlons, the stress r~uired to obtain a
'"-':;; categories; notch tests or fracture toughness tests. certain total strain (composed of the sum of elastic and
3.0271 Notch properties. These Include the results of test on plastic strains) at a particular. temperature and time Is
round and flat specimens contalnlng notches of various used. For other applications, only the plastic strain or
dimensions. The specimen geometry, elastic stress "creep" is considered. The strains of interest range
concentration factor (Kt) a~ material condition are primarily from 0. 2 to 1 percent.
generally Included with the data presented since these 3.041 Creep rupture strength (also called stress rupture strength)
fuctors are known to Influence notch strength. Notch Is simply the applied stress value which causes rupture,
tests are recognized as being particularly Important for saW stress being a function of the rupture time and tem-
the evaluation of material embrlttlement as may be caused perature. The significance of creep rupture strength Is
by such factors as heat treatment. low temperatures, cold frequently minimized, but a continuous and voluminous
work, etc. stream of such data Is being demanded and supplied for
3.0272 Recently the need for a reliable and reproducible alloys which serve at elevated temperatures. Although
measurement of a materials' resistance to the catastrophic elongation and reduction of area In creep rupture tests
propagation of sharp cracks under stress became apparent. are significant for service .performance, they are reportll<i
This characteristic can be suitably expressed in terms of only Infrequently. These data, therefore. are not Included
fracture tougheess, I. e. the stress intensity factor K at in this document.
the onset of rapid crack growth. Often the critical energy 3.042 The creep rupture strength of notched specimens is used
release rate..$ has been used in the literature for the same to reveal the presence and magnitude of embrlttlement
purpose. However, for the ~e of uniformity and since which occurs in many high temperature alloys within a
.$ and K are related by K =E,J; .the term fracture tough- certain range of temperature and time. The life of turbine
ness as used in this handboolo alw.fys refers to K values. disks and buckets in some cases appears to he related
Sections 3. 0272 and 3. 0372 list such fracture toughness more closely to the rupture time of notched speclmene,
than to that of smooth ones. A number of Air Material
data wherever available. A more detailed description of
the definition of K values, the equations for their determ- Specifications require such tests and the considerable
Ination, the differentiation for plane stress nod plane amount of Information available In this respect Ia included
strain conditions and the selection criteria used for the in this document.
data included arc given in Appendix C.
3.043 The many variables considered for creep and creep rup-
3.028 Combined properties. This section Is reserved for data ture have led to the use of different methods of graphical
obtained by test methods involving combined load and tabular representation. In this Handbook, stress Is
applications, (e.g. internal pressure Inn thin-walled tube used as the ordinate and time as the abscissa, usually
plus axial tension). Also included here ore data on multi- with one other variable as parameter. The log-log rep-
ple processes (e. g. tension test subsequent to pre strain resentation Is preferred over semi-log coordinates,
in compression). because It allows reading stresses at any level with equal
percentage of accuracy.
3.03 Mechanical Properties at Various Temperatures 3.044 Creep and total strain data, however, are best reported
In this section only the so called short time properties ore In the form of Isochronous stress-strain curves. To
discussed. These are obtained by first raising or lowering obtain such n curve, the total strain at a particular
the temperature of the SP<->elmen to the desired IL"Vcl, time is plotted as the abscissa with the stress necessary
holding It at this temperature for n ccrtnln time, and tl1cn to obtain this strain as the ordinate. Time Is then the
testing In much the same manner as at room temperature. parameter. The creep Is obtained by deducting from thb
Only deviations from standard methods nrc Indicated. It total strain the elastic component. This procedure Is
should be noted that yield strength test data ( F ) nrc somewhat lr.deflnltc because of the uncertainty regarding
based on the 0. 2 percent offset method nnless ~crwlsc the modulus of elasticity, Indicated by the tangent at the
Indicated. origin of the lsochronO'ds curve.
3.031 Tension. The bulk of short time mechanical test data is 3.045 A number of attempts have been made to assemble Infor-
obtained by means of tension tests, In general, good mation on creep, and particularly on creep rupture strength,
agreement Is noted for data from different S<lUrces up ton for a given alloy condition In a single master curve.
certain temperature. However, for the highest tempera- While It Is not yet estabUshed that the effects of temper-
tures the values obtained from conventional short time ature and lim can be thus substituted for each other,
tests frequently vary wWcly. It nppcnrs, that test condi- master curves greatly assist In the first selection of
tions nrc generally not sufficiently controlled to yield materials and the planning of more specific tests. Master
consistent results at temperatures exccL'<ilng the usual curves nrc generally plotted on semi-log coordinates,
range of application. For high temperatures, therefore, with the stress as the ordinate and the so called "Parame-
more closely controlled tension testing techniques nrc Cl.nd- ter, " (I. e. a func.tlon of temperature nod time), as the
!ng Increasing nppllcnllon. TI1csc are Indicated In the abscissa.
respective graphs where available. 3.0451 The most accurate master curves are the Linear Parame-
ter Curves developed for many alloys by Manson, et al.
3.0311 Stress strain diagrams, see 3.0211.
(1)(2). The abscissa for this system Is a function of the
3.032 Compression, see 3. 022,
following form:
3.0321 Stress strain diagrams, see 3. 0221.
3.033 Impact, see 3. 023.
3.034 Bending, see 3. 024,
where T Is the temperature, F, t Is the time In hr, and
3.035 Torsion and shear, see 3. 025.
Ta and log 'a are constants depending on the material.
3.036 Bearing, sec 3. 026.
3.0452 Another parameter representation, that of Larson and
3.037 Stress concentration, see 3. 027.
Miller (3), Is also frequently used. It has the advantage
3.0371 Notch properties, sec 3. 0271.
that It can he derived from a limited amount of experimen-
3.0372 Fracture toughness, sec 3. 0272.
tation, hut the disadvantage or reduced accuracy. In this
3.038 Combined properties, see 3. 028. system the abscissa Is usually:
3.04 Creep and Creep Rupture Properties
TIese properties are lncrcnslng In Importance because
(T + 460) (log t + 20)
of the continuously increasing service temperatures which
However, In some Instances a different value than 20,
aerospace systems must withstand. At such temperatures
EUCh as 25, may be substituted In this equation.
alloys generally deform or creep slowly under load and
eventually rupture. As a role, tests arc performed with 3.05 Fatigue Properties
temperature and load kept constant and the deformation
These properties depend not only on the metal condition,
~ ,, measured as a function of time. Frequently, only the
rupture time Is observed. For evaluating materials regard
form and test temperature, bnt also on a niDDber of other
~-;- lng their resistance to creep, va~lous criteria nrc used.
test variables. The m!1st Important ol these are: (a) the
type of loading, (b) the limiting stress values, (c) the 3.061 Values for Poisson's ratio. p. , are reported ooly for room
nwnber of cycles to !allure, and (d) the geometry of the temperature. The value may be measured or calculated
test specimen. In addition the frequency of cycling from EandG.
becomes an Important variable at elevated temperatures. 3.062 The modulus of elasticity Is the most Important elastic
3. 051 The basic types of tests used are: (a) rotating beam, constant. It may be determined either from static tests
where a circular specimen rotates under an applied sta- or using vibration (dynamic) techniques. Static values
tionary bending moment, (b) reverse bending, in which the represent the slope of the stress strain curve at the origin.
specimen 1s subjected to alternating bending, (c) axlsl They are difficult to determine at elevated temperatures
load in which the alternating stresses are tension or and are affected by variations In the testing techniques.
compression, parallel to the specimen axis. These tests Dynamic moduli are generally more consistent than static
are generally performed with the load fluctuating between values and may be considered to represent the true clas-
two definite limits until failure occurs (stress controlled tic constants. In this Handbook static moduli are given
fatigue). The nominal stresses at these limits are cal- only If reasonably consistent.
culated by conventional elastic methods and are called the The static compression modulus, Ec' Is theoretically
maxlmwn stress, F ax' and the minlmwn stress, F min
In recent years, fatf&ue tests performed by cycling be-
equal to the tensile value, E. However, particularly In
cold rolled materials residual stresses may cause con-
tween two deflnlte strain limits (strain controlk'<l fatigue) siderable differences between these two values.
have gained considerable prominence, particularly In the 3.063 The above discussed factors also apply to the modulus of
low cycle fatigue range. Such Information Is of special rigidity, G.
Importance to the design of pressure vessels for nuclear 3.064 The tangent modulus Is the slope of the stress strain
and other applications. The terminology for strain cycling curve at each stress value considered. Reported values
Is analogous to that for stress cycling If the term "strain" arc subject to considerable variations because of the
Is substituted for "stress" In the equations (4). basic dlfflcul ty of determining accurately the slope 6f any
3. 0511 In order to define a series of fatigue tests common prac- curve. The tangent modulus may be reported either for
tice uses stress ratio, R, which Is dcscrlb~>d by the fol- tension or compression. Preference has been given In
lowing expression: this report to the compressive values which are signifi-
cant In regard to buckling and crippling of structures.
R = Fmln/Fmax 3.065 Values of the secant modulus, I. c. of the slope of a line
from the origin to the stress value considered, are re-
3. 0512 An alternative definition of the stress ratio Is the function: ported only Infrequently, but are presented here If avail
able.
A= Falt/Fmf
4. FABRICATION
where Fait= l/2(Fmax- Fmtn> Is the alternating stress
and F mr = 1/ 2(!1 max+ F min> Is the mean &tress. The term rab;,-icntion Is used here comprehensively to
3.0513 Where only one stress ratio Is lnvolv~-d, It Is common to mean atl of the processes which may ncrmally be employed
report this ratio and the fatigue strcn~'lh In tubular form In the manufacture of parts or components from materials
for various cycles to failure. as supplied by commercial producers. The processes
3.0514 Where series of d:llu Jnvnlvc more: tlmn nne stress n.11 io, Include formabU!ty (forging, rolling, drawing, forming,
usc Is made prcfernhly of n stress ntlli(C dlal(rnm. E:och etc.), material removal (machining, grinding, etc.),
curve Jn this dtagrnm gives the ultcrnuling :lfrc:-~s us a joining (welding, brazing, etc.) and the corresponding
function of the mean stress for a given numilcr of cycles post-operational treatments that may be required (heat
to failure. The fatigue strength Is dcrfv~'<l from this treatm<-nt, surface treatment etc.). A limited amount of
curve by means or the relation: Information on fabrication Is presented In this Handbook.
The Information presented Is Intended to convey, first,
n picture of the relative fabrfcabllity or the alloy, ancl
F
max
= F
mf
+ Falt
second, to pinpoint areas In which material proper-
tics may be adversely affected by fabrication techniques.
3.052 At elevated temperatures. creep phcnor11cnu or<..! super-
Imposed on fatigue. If the temper:Hun Is very high 4.01 Formablllty
and the mean stress Is also high, creep ruplure ruther This section .. ssembles for wrought alloys some pertinent
than fatigue hecomes the dominant factor. Under uch Information on their formability. The term "formability,
conditions, the time to failure, rather than the numilcrs of as used here, Is an Indication of a materlsl's ability to be
cycles, Is frequently reported. In ,order to utlllze data permanently deformed from a given shape to a different
of this type to Its full extent the frequency or the Ioadfng shape by means of the practices presently employed (e.g.
should be reported. If stress range diagrams arc used to forging, rolling, drawing, forming, dimpling, etc.). The
present such information. creep data obtained during temperature ranges Involved, the mechanical power
the fatigue tests moy also be fncl uded. A number of stress require-d and the resulting material properties are all"
range diagrams for elevated temperntures have been made Important factors- to be considered In tho! evaluation of
available to this handbook by the Design Criteria Unit of formabllfty.
the Gen~ral Electric Co. These arc based on rotating 4.011 General Information on formablllty relates primarily to
beam tests for F ~ 0 and direct stress tests for F ?0. the forming of sheet, strip and plate In various conditions.
In order to opply'\}{ls doto to the service performancJr Where available, more specific" instructions for the
the values obtained from direct stress tests hove been forming rf the different conditions have bel!n added.
Increased by a factor of 1. 15. Bending properties arc reported In terms of the bend
3.053 Additional significant variables are geometry of the speci- factor, which Is the ratio of minimum bend radius to
men and Its surface condition. The tr.st s reported common- thickness.
ly relate to two types of specimens, rne smocth specimen 4.012 Forging temperatures are reported as the maximum start
with the surface carefully polished In tne direction paral- lng temperature and the minimum finishing temperature,
lel to the axis, and the notched specimen. Notched spe- and apply to closed die forgings or blacksmith forgings in
cimens usually have a circular cross section provided the weight range of 5 to about 1000 pounds. Forging
with a circumferential groove. The fatigue strength of temperatures for small parts, such as turbine blades or
such specimens depends on the strP.ss concentration buckets, are approximately the same. However, for these
factor, Kt, for this notch. forgings, a great deal of care ll'.Ust be exercised to avoid
critical strains which will Induce grain growth on reheating
3.06 l\lastlc Properties for a subsequent operation or during heat-treating. Control
Under this heading not only the classical elastic constants or groin size Is usually obtained by doing only a limited
but also the tangent modulus und secant modulus are re- amount of forging after each heating operation. Forging
ported. temperatures and the amount of mechanical work per-

8
'"''-,..'-"' "'"- Lll~vv~~IVI'II vr '"'LLVT;: ) '"'I"U I Ml:.lrt t'rtUt'l: .n I II:.;)

,..:..
formed at a given temperature are interrelated; and,
hence, a forging temperature cannot be specUied
without also specUylng the amount cf mechanical work
perlormed at that temperature . Detailed Information
on forgillg has been added where supplied by the producers.
(Wyman Ggrdon).
4.013 Information on rolling, extruding, drawing, various types
of formlng,dlm pllng, joggling, stamping, shearing and
riveting Is included when available In a form suitable for
Handbook presentation .
4.02 Machln1ng and Grlndlng
A very limited amount of Information on machining Is
presented here, and this Is given to Uiustrate primarily
the perlormance of different alloy conditions In various
machining operations.

4.03 Welding
The Information on welding assembled In this Handbook
serves primarily to call attention to areas where thP.
mechanical or. physical properties are nffected. Weld
abllity of an alloy Is an Important factor for Its selection
and has been discussed where Information Is available.

4. 04 Heat Treatment
This s~tlon complement s I. 05 and assembles specUic
details of the techniques which should be followed by
fabricators and users of the alloy.

4. 05 Surlace Treating
From this large topic, only a few Items, which appear
to be of particular Interest In connection with the general
purpose of the Handbook have been Included.

REFERENCES

Manson. S. S. and Haferd, A. M., "A Linear Time Tempera


ture Relation for Extrapolatio n of Creep and StressRupr ure
Data," NACA TN 2890, (March 1953)
2 Manson. S. S. and Brown. W. F., Jr,, 'TimeTemp ersture
Relations for the Correlation and Extrapolatio n of Stress
Rupture Data, " Proceedings, ASTM, Vol. 53, p. 693, (1953)
3 Larson. F. R. and Mlller, J., "A Time-Temp erature Relation
ship for Rupture and Creep Stress," Trans. ASME, Vol. 74,
p. 765, (1952)
4 Sachs, G., Gerberich, W. W,, Weiss, v. aod La Torre, J. V.,
"Low Cycle Fatigue of Pressure Vessel Materials," Proceedings,
ASTM, Vol. 60, p. 512, (1960)
5 Wood, W.D.,Deem , H. W.and Lucks, C. F., "Bmlaslvlty aod
Emittance What are They'", DMIC Memorandum 72, Battelle
Memorial Institute, (November 1960)
6 Sisco, F. T., "Modern Metallurgy for Buglneera", (Book), Second
~ ' Edition. Pitman l'llbl. Co., (1948)
:'i~
"'... ,..

9
REVISED MARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

1. GENERAL
TABLB3.011
This low carbon low alloy steel Is typical d. those havlug a
Source uss J.2, _1).12, 13) Fe
toral alloy content less than about 2. 5 percent. It Is not
heat treatable but In the annealed or normalized condition
Alloy Fe~OJ2C\-G.8Cr-G.5SI-G.4Cu-G.35Mn-G.3NI-O.ll
Galvanized, CR or CoUs
0.1 c
It Is significantly stronger than plain carbon steel and has Condition HR
superior corrosion resistance. It Is easily formed and Ann or Norm 0.8 Cr
welded, (1, p. 2, 3) (4). >0.5 >1.5 > 0.5 > 1.5
Thickness - In ~0.5
to 1.5 to 3
:=;0.5
tol.5 to 3
0.5 Si
1. 01 Commercial Designation. USS CorTen. mln-lcsl 70 67 63 65 62 58 0.4 Cu
Ftu'
F min-ks! :. ~ 47 43 45 42 38
- -- -- 0.35 Mn
1. 02 Alternate Designation. None. Fty'
Fe~
mln-lcsl
min-lsi
50 -
- - --
52.5 0.3 Ni
1.03 Specification. MIL-S-7809, (1, p.2). ef~ln)mln-percen
e( 81n)mln-perceu
22
18
-
19
24
19
-
-
-- -- 0.11 p
1.04 Composition. Table 1. 04.

TABLE 1 04 CorTen
3.02 Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature
Source uss (2, p.12)
3.021 Typical mechanical properties of bar and sheet at room
~- Percent temperature, Table 3.021.
Min Msx
Carbon - 0.12 TABLE3 021
Chromium 0.30 1.25 Source (3,_p. 160
Copper 0.25 0.55 Alloy e-(0.12C)-G.BCr-G.5SI-G.4Cu-0.35Ma-0.3Ni-G.llP
Manga,ce 0.20 0.50 Form Rouod bar
Nlclct.) - 0.65 Condition _HR_
Silicon 0.25 0.75 Dla - In 0. 75
l'llosphorus 0.07 0.15 F , typ lcsl 78.4
Sulfur
Iron
- Balance
0.05 Ftu, typ - lcsl
e(~ln)typ-percent
60.6
26.6
e(21n)typ-percent 40.2
RA -percent 72.0
1.05 Heat Treatment Hardness,
1.051 Normalize. 1650 F, air cool, (2, p. 51). BHN 156
1.052 Anneal. 1550 F, furnace cool, (2, p. 51).
1.05S Stress rellcC. 1150 F, 1 hr per In of maximum section
3. 0211 Stress strain curve at room temperature for sheet In ten-
thickness, (2, p. 51).
sloo, Fig. 3. 0211.
3.0212 Stress strain curves at room temperature for welded and
1.06 Hardenablllty
This alloy cannot be hardened by heat treatment, (4). unwelded sheet, Fig. 3. 0212.
1.061
3.022 Typical static torsloo values of bar aod tube at room tem-
Forms and Conditions Available perature, Table 3. 022.
1.07
1.071 General. This steel is available In all products and most TABLE 3 022
of the sizes and sections which are supplied In carbo:l
Source 13. n.160
steel, (2, p.19).
Alloy Fe- 0.12C -o.BCr-0.5SI-0.4Cu-G.35Mn-0.3NlO.UP
Form HR bar
1. 08 Melting and Casting Practice
Dla -In .500 0.538 0. 050 In wall thickness
1. 09

2.
Spec in! Considerations

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES


F
F:
- lcsl
- ksl
85.5
39.8 I 59.0
31.9 -
3.():!3 Tension Impact properties of bar at room temperature,
2.01 Thermal Properties Table 3,023.
2.011 Melting point
l'llase changes TABLE 3 023
2.012
2.013 Thermal conductivity -6 Source (3 n.l62l
Thermal expansion at 70 to 200 F, 6.3 x 10 In per In Allov Fe- 0.12Cl-G.BCr-0.5SI-0.4Cu-G.35Mn-0.3NIO .llP
2.014
per F, (2, p.13). IForm HR bar
Dla -In 0.2 smooth I notched as shown
Ft-lb 129.1 42.0"
2.02
2.021
2.022
Other l'llyslcal Pro;>crtles
Density
Electrical properties
e (2 ln)-percent
Avg of two tests
28.2 I
7.7

2.023 Magnetic properties. Steel Is ferromagnetic.

~~:~
2.03 Chemical Properties
2.031 Corrosion resistance. This alloy 1s 4 to 6 times more
resistant to atmospheric corrosion than plain carbon steel
and 2 to 3 times more than copper steel because of
formation of a dense~; more adherent protective oxide
r 0.01
coating, (2, p. 9).
2.0311 Time-corrosion curves In lndustrlnl and marine atmos- 3.03 Mechanical Properties at Various Temperatures
pheres at ambient temperature, Fig. 2, 0311. 3.031 Short time tensloo properties
3.0311 B!fect of shan-time ~e to elnated temperature on
2.04 tensile properties , Fig. 3. 0311

3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 3.04 Creep and Creep Rupture Properties

3.01 Specified M~~~tles 3.05 Fatigue Properties


3.011 Producer's minimum mechanical properties, Table 3.011. 3.051 Typical fatigue properties of bar, Table 3, 051.

CODE 1101
PAGE
FER ROU S ALLOYS REVI SED MARC H 1963

TABLE 3.051
Fe Source 3 p.163
4.034 For gas welding, hlgll strength welding rodd (such
as
Alloy ASTM A 251, CA-65) are recomm ended, (2, p.53).
0.1 c Form
Fe- 0.12C)- 0.8Cr-0 .5SI-0.4 Cu-0.35 Mn-0.3 Nl-0.1J
Smooth specime n Specimen A Specim en B
P 4.035 Carbon arc welding Is not,reco mmend ed, (2, p.53X4)
.
4.036 This steel may be resistan ce welded to ltoei! or
0.8 Cr Dla- In 0.300 0.25, 0. 75 long, 0.02 radius hole
other
resistan ce-weld able ferrous alloys, using the same
0.500 0.400 method s applied to plain carbon steel, (2, p.53),
0.5 Si Rot beam Maxi-
mwn thickne ss 0. 125 In re.:omm ended for spot welding
ksl ,
0.4 Cu In air 54.0
(4).
24.5 25.0
0.35 Mn In water 29.0 13.0 18.0 4.04 Heating and Heat Treatin g
4.041 Aller forging, either normal izing or annealin g may
0.3 Ni desirab le, (2, p.Sl). (See 1.051 and 1.052).
be
0.11 p __.::J o.75
1- 4.042 After welding or cold forming , heat treatme nt usually
Is
0

~
not require d, but stress relief may be desirab le
in applt-
cations requirin g maximw n ductility , (:Z, p. 51).(See
Cor Ten 1. 053).
4.05 Surface Treatin g
4.051 This steel may be satisfac torily galvaniz ed In either
the
Specim en A formed or flat conditio n by standar d procedu res,
Specimen B (2, p, 51).

3.052 Axial t~sloo fatigue (R =ao). Enduran ce limit


60 ksl for
15 x 10 cycles, (3, p.l75).

3.06 Elastic Propert ies


3.061 Modulus of elastici ty, 28 to 30 x 103 ksi, (2, p.l3).

4. FABRICATION

4.01 Formin g and Casting


4.011 Hot forming between 1500 and 1650 F, (2, p. 48).
4.012 Forging temper ature 2100 F precede d by soak at
1850 F,
(2, p.SO),
4.013 This steel Is readily cold formed if provisio ns are
made
Cor liberal bend radii and for spring-b ack,
(2, p. 49).
This materia l does nothsve directio nal propert ies.
For deep
drawing temper roiled II'B terlal (about 1 percent
reductio n)
should be used, (1, p.U).
4.0131 Minimwn bend radii, Table 4, 0131.

4. 0132 Hot forming is recomm ended for angie bending rna


terlai
aver 0. 5 in thick, (2, p. 12).

4. C2 Machining
4.021 Machin ability is superio r to plain carbon steels
of the same
strength IP.Vels, (4).
4.03 Weidi11g_
4. 031 The slioy can be welded readily by the usual gas
and arc
methodn With comple te freedom from air-hard ening,
(4).
To a:old to;;hness reductio n in heavier sections
, 0. 5 In
Is recomm ended as the maximlim thickne ss in welded
ap-
plicatio nn, (2, p. 52).
4, 032 .ASTM A 233 or E II.\ rJecuod "'' are recomm ended
for
shielded arc welding. Weld~ made with thes" electro
des .
will have yield Dtl .'llgths in rxcess or eql:.tl to that
of the
base metals, t2, p. 5~)(4).
4.033 Mechan ical ;>r<fJCrtles of welded and ur.welded sheet,
Table 4 033
TABLE 4 033
!Source I, p.4)
IAiiov Fe-(0. J2C)-0. 8Cr-0.5 St0.4C u-0.35M nO. 3NlO.
Form IIP
Sheet
Condition Welded (Oxwel # 32 ruler).
Unweided Welded (AJSl 410 SS~r:lier)
NoHT 1500 F, 1 hr 700 F I ~11150 F,l5 min 1150 F. I h
' AC+700 F. I hr '
Thickn ess - In 0.048 o.o,c 0.048 0.070 0.048 0.070
L T L T 0.070
L L L L L
Ftu - ks1 72.6 72,7. 74.5 74.4 74.6 76.6 75.7 76.1 77.6
F - ksl 53.3 54 s; 74 74.7

I
55.4

I
53.8 59.8
e ~ In) - percent
56.8 62 62.7 57.5
26 25 28 21 60
20 20 20 21 18 20 20

CODE 1101
1---------l
PAGE 2
REVISEO MARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS
..,. ..

'" ....
'~ 12 Fe-(OJ2C)-0.8C,--0, Sl-0.4Cu-0 .35Mn-
i!S
S(
C. 3N!-0.11P
70

0. 070 IN SHEET, L
..., .-
Fe-(O.l2C)-0.8cr-o.5Si-0.4Cu-ll_.35Mn-
0 ' 3 Nl-O.UP
0.1
Fe
c
Cr
/p 0.8
60
,f
m8 ,_ 0.5 Si
~ 0.4 Cu
so

!5
~~~ ~-- ~--~16
/;'
;
RT
0.35
0.3
Mn
Ni
~0~
~ 0 I 8
0.11 p
YEARS
FIG. 2. 0311 'liME-CORROSION CURVES IN IN-
DUSTRIAL AND MARINE ATMOS- 30
fh'
I
I
Cor Ten
PHERES AT AMBIENT TEMPERA-
'TURE (2, p. 10)

20
!U'II
10 I' --NOT WELDED
- .,..- AS WELDED
-
WELDED+ STRESS
RELmR llSOF,l H~-

0
If (INERT GAS ARC
WELDING WITH OX-
WELD # 32j'lLLER )
0 0.002 0.004 0.006
STRAIN - IN PER IN
FIG. 3.0212 STRESS STRAIN CURVES AT ROOM
TEMPERATURE FOR WELDED AND
UNWELDED SHEET ( 1, p.I.f- 22)

100

80

!DC 60~
.
t2

100 Fe-(0.12C)-0.8Cr-O.~Sl-0.4Cu-0.35Mn- "'


0. 3Nl-O.UP
80 40
0. 070 IN SHEET
80

v- RT. ['.... 60

60
I""
/ ~
J.j() 0

TENSION 20

20

0
0 0.160
o. 080 o. 240 0.320
STRAIN - IN PER IN FIG. 3.0311 EFFECT OF SHORT-TIME
EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED
FIG. 3.0211 STRESS STRAIN CURVE AT ROOM TEMPERATURES ON TEN-
TEMPERATURE FOR SHEET IN SILE PROPERTmS
TENSION (1, p.IS) (5, p.38)

CODE 1101
r110.nnvu.: ALLUT:; REVISED MARCH 1963

REFERENCES
Fe
0.1 c Dolega, E. A., '"Investigation of Low Alloy, High Strength
Steel as a Missile Fuel Tanlc'', Belf Aircraft Corp. Rep.
0.8 Cr No. BLR 5356 (March 31, 1953)
2 United Srates Steel Corp., Pittsburgh, uss CorTen, High
0.5 Si Streugtb Low Alloy Steel'", (1960)
3 Collins, W. L. &Dd Dolan, T. ]., '"Physical Properties of
0.4 Cu Fuur Low Alloy High Strength Steels'' Proc. ASTM,
Vol. 38, Pt. II (1938)
035 Mn 4 Alloy Digest, '"USS CorTen'", Filing Code SA-17, Steel
Alloy (April 1954)
0.3 Nf
5 Steurer, W. H., '"Metals for Structures Exposed to Aero-
0.11 p dynamic Heating'', Chapter 2 In '"Merals for Supersonic
Aircraft and Missiles'", (Crobecker, D. W., Tech. Ed.),
Cor Ten ASM, Cleveland (1958)

CODE 1101
PAGE 4
REVISEDMAR CH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

1. GENERAL 2.022 Elect.tical properties


This low carbon low alloy steel Is normally used in the 2.023 Magnetic properties. Steel is ferromagnetic. Fe
stress relieved condition after hot or cold rolling. Moder-
ate strength Is maintained up to about 800 F combined with 2.03 Chemical Properties 0.14 c
high toughness. Corrosion and oxidation resistance are 2.031 Considerably superior tn plain carbon steel when exposed
superior to plain carbon grades. Weldabillty Is excellent. to rural, marine or Industrial atmosphere, (4). 0.75 Si
2.032 Oxidation resistance Is superior to that or plain carbon
1.01 Commercial Designation. NAX AC 9115. steels at all temperatures, (4).
0.6 Cr
1.02 Alternate Oeslgnati'ln. None.
0.2 Mo
2.04 Nucl""r Properties
0.1 Zr
1.03 Specification. Table 1. 03. 3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

TABLE 3.01 Specified Mechanical Properties NAX AC9115


Form 3.011 AMS design mechsnical properties for sheet, strip and
Sheet, strip and plate plate, Table 3.011.
Wire
TABLE 3.011
Source AMSffi
1. 04 Composition. Table 1. 04. Allov Fe 0.14C)-D. 7SSI-D.6Cr-D.2Mo0. 1Zr
Form Sheet, strln and nlate
TABLE 1 04 Condition HR or CR +ann
Source AMS 1 !National Steel 2 Thickness In s 0.5 > 0.5 to! ; 1 to 2 > 2 to4
Percent Percent Ftu ksl 70 65 63 60
Min Max Min Max ~ ?:z . ksl 50 43 40 38
Carbon e inl oercent 22 22 22 22
0.10 0.17 0.10 0.17
Chromlwn 0.50 0.75 0.50 0.75
Copper . 0.35 . . 3. 02 Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature
Manganese 0.50 0.80 0.50 0.80 3. 02i Typical room temperature tensile properties or bar and
Molybdenum 0.15 0.25 . 0.15 sheet, Table 3. 021.
Nickel . 0.25 . .
SUicon 0.60 0.90 0.60 0.90 TABLE 3 021
Zirconium 0.05 0.15 0.05 0.15 Source 21
Phosphorus . 0.040 . 0.04 Allov Fe 0.14C -o. 75St-o. 6er-o. 2Mo-D.1Zr
Sulfur . 0.040 . 0.04 Form Bar Plate Sheet
lron Balance Balance I Condition HR CR
Thickness In I. 0 dla 0.1875 0.078 I 0.0375
F
Ftu
ksl 76 76.5 78 ! 75.3

...' /
1.05
1.051
1.052
1.053
Heat Treatment
Anneal. 1625 to 1650 F, furnace cool, (3).
Normalize. 1650 to 1675 F, air cool, (3).
Stress relief anneal. 900 to 1150 F, air cool, 30 min ro
e
ty
ksl
percent
RA . percent
52
40 (2 in)
74
53
25 (Bin)
.
56
25 _(8 In) I 50.5
25 (8 in)
.
6 hr, (2, p. 2).
1.0531 Etreci of stress relief temperature and holding time on ten 3.03 Mechanical Properties at Various Temperatures
sUe properties of hot and cold rolled sheet, Fig. 1. 0531. 3.031 Short time tension properties
1.054 For optlmwn physical propertleB, normalizing above AcJ 3.0311 Effect of test temperature on tenstle properties or hot
(see 2.012) Is preferred to either annealing or spheroldlze rolled bar, Fig. 3. 0311.
anneal, (2, p. 5). 3.0312 Effect or test temperature and stress relief on tensUe
propenles or cold rolled sheet, l'ig. 3. 0312.
1.06 HardenabUity 3.032 Short time properties other than tension
1.061 End quench hardenablllty at various carbon levels, Fig. 3.0321 Ertect of low and elevated temperatures on Impact strength
1.061. or welded plate, Fig. 3.0321.
1.07 Forms and Conditions Avall.lble 3.04 Creep and Creep Rupture Properties
1.071 This steel Is available " cold drawn wire, hot or cold 3.041 Creep rupture curves at 800 to liDO F for as hot rolled
rolled sheet or strip, hot rolled light plate, bar, billet and for spheroldized !r, Fig. 3,041.
and bloom, (1). 3.042 Creep curves at 800 to liDO F fur spheroldlzed bar, Fig.
3.042.
1.08 Melting and Casting Practice
1.0&1 Basic open hearth, (4). 3.05 Fatigue Properties

'1.09 Special Conslderallons 3.051 Endurance limit at room temperature by both cantUever
bCndlng and rotating beam Is 46 to SO ksi, (4).
2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
3.06 Elastic Properties
2.01 Thermal Properties 3.061 Modulus or elasticity at room and elevated temperatures,
2.011 Melting point Fig. 3.061.
2:012 Critical wmperatures, (2, p. 5). 3
3.062 Modulus of rigidity. 11.8 ksl x i0
A ~ 1390 F Arl 1300 F
A~ X 1570 F (0.17C) A = 1490 F (0.17C) 4. FABRICATION
3
AcJ 1.600 F (O.IOC) A~3 E 1530 F (O.IOC).
2.013 Thermal c.,nductiv1ty 4.01 Forming and Casting
2.014 Thermal expansion, Fig. 2. 014. 4.0ll 1111s steel can be cold formed by standard proc<>lures used
2.015 Specific heat ' for ordinary carbon steels U provisions are made for the
higher strength of the alloy, (3). Intermediate anneals are
2.02 Other Physical Properties recommended for heavy reductions. Sprlngback Is about
2.021 Density. 0. 284 lb per cu ln. 7. 84 gr per cu em. the same as annealed AISI 304 !llalnless steel.
4.012 Forging. Starting temperature 2150 to 2250 F, finishing

1102
PAGE
Fee
FERRO liS ALLOYS REVISCJ MARCH 1963

temperature 1700 F minimum. Finishing at 1700 F produces


Fe beaer properties than higher finishing temperature s, (3). Ill 48 Fe-(0.100.1 6C)-O. 745!-0. 6Cr-O. 2Mo-
0.14
0.75
c
Si
4.02
4.021
Machining
General. The alloy machines beaer than carbon steels ol
~
"'
.1Zr
-o. 6c
l
approximate ly the same tensile strength, (3). The cold t? 40 - - 0.13 C
0.6 Cr worked condition has the best machinabilit y.
-- 0.10 c
0.2 Mo 4.03 Welding
4.031 For arc welding,_ low hydrogen electrodes recommende d are;
0.1 Zr E 6015 (thin gages) aod E 7015 (multipass welds), (2, p.6).
4,032 For hellarc weldlng,a filler wire ol NAX AC 9115 may be
used.
NAX AC 9115 4.033 Spot welding should be performed by pulsation methods for
heavier gauges and by post heat cycles for the lighter gauges,
(2, p.6).

Heating and Heat Treating


160 2 4 8
4.05 Surface Treating DISI'ANCB FROM QUBNCHBD BND
SDtTBBNl1:l IN
FIG. 1.061 ENDQUENCHHARDBNABILlTY AT
VARIOUS CARBON LBVBLS
(2, p.ll)

9 Fe(0.14C)-O . 75Si0.6CrO . 2Mo0.1Zr

"'I!! 8 1llERMAL
Ill:
MBAN clEFEXPANSIO
LINEL N--1--.,.....fo:::::;;._--f
i5
Ill:
I!!
i5 7~---+~~~--~~--~--~

~c~----400~----600~----~----~=---~1:0
TBMP-F
FIG. 2.014 nuuu.u.L BXPA!omON
(3)
1110
Fe(0.14C)-0 . 75Si0.6Cr0 .2Mo
1110 ~----~----~----r----,
p.1Zr e 0.1110 IN HR} sHasT Fe-(0.14C)- 0. 75SI-0.6Cr0.2Mo0,1~r
o 0.060 INCR
80
,
I~
.. -
;.~
...
0.0875INHR BAR

~'ru

60
I.-- -~I"'
I"'
~'n

20 HOlDING TIMB
e 1/2 HR
0 6 HR

~0 20 e 12 IN\ '1:P'

~
0
0 800 1200
TEMP- F
FIG 1,0531 F.FFECT OF STRESS RELffiF 0
TBMPr!RATURE AND HOLDING -200 200 600 1000 1400
TIME ON TENSILE PROPERTIES TEMP F
OF HOT AJIO OOLD ROLLED FIG. 3.0311 EFFECT OF TEST TEMPERAnJ RE
SHEET ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF HOT
(2, p. 2-3) ROLLED BAR
(2, p.4)

CODE 1102
REVISEDMARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

Fe
0.14 c
0.75 Si
0.6 Cr
0.2 Mo
0.1 Zr

~
20
o
0.062 }
0. 050 IN SHEBT CR
NAX AC9115
STRBSS RBLIBF USO F
0 --- ANN

~~--~~~--~~~--~~----~ft FIG. 3.041 CREEP RUPTL"'tE CURVES AT 800


TO 1100 F FOR AS HOT ROLLED
TBMP-F .-\ND FOR SPHBo. OIDIZBD EAR
FIG. 3.0312 BFFBcr OF TBST TBMPBRATURH AND (2, p.S)
srRBSS RBLIBF ON TBNSILB PROPBR-
TIBS OF COlD ROLLED SHBBT Fe-(O.l4C)-o. 75Sl-D.6er0b. 2Mo-D.l7.r
(2, p.4)
r--- iiR.BJ.R

-----
&.10 F
10
8
900F
6
1000 F

2 """- .......
1100 F
0.1~ CRB,
1
10 100 1000 10,000
11MB -HR
FIG. 3. 042 CREEP CURVES AT 800 TO 1100 F
FOR SPHBROIDIZBD EAR (2, p.S)
36
Fe-(0.14C)-D. 75Sl-D. 6Cr-D. 2Mo-D.1Zr

80 Fe-(0.14C)-O. 75 i-0. 6Cr-O. 2 o-0. l r


0.500 IN PLATB
28 -- HRBAR

~
B (STATIC)

12
0 ~ 800
\ 1~ 1600
TEMP- F

20 -.- AS ROLLED FIG. 3.061 M:>DULUSOF ELASTICITY' AT ROOM

0I
- - WBLD METAL
---- LINB OF FUSION
--HEAT APPEcrED ZONE
I I I
e L
0 T I AND ELEVATED TEMPBRATURBS

REFERENCES
(2, p.S)

-100 -so o so 100 AMS 6354 and 640(), (May I, 1954)


TBMP- F 2 "N-A-X AC 9115 Alloy Steel", Great Lakes Steel Corp.
FIG 3,0321 EFFEcr ,)pLOW AND ELEVATBD (National Steel)
TEMPERATURES ON IMPAcr 3 Alloy Digest, "N-A-X AC 9115", Filing Code: SA -II,
STRENGTH OF WELDED PLATE Steel Alloy, (Aug. 1953)
(2, p.7) 4 Data on NAX AC 9115 (lener), Great Lakes Steel Corp.,
(Jan. 2, 1959)
... ,

CODE 1102
PAGE 3'
1.0 GENERAL
T-1 is a low carbon, quenched and tem~ed construct 1.05 Heat Treatmen t
lonal alloy steel combinlDg good weldab1llty with high 1.051 General. The strength aDd hardness of T-1 and T-1
yield streogtb and high toughness even at subzero type A are imparted by quenching and tempering . These Fe
temperatu res. Its resistance to atmospher ic corrosion
is considerab ly better than that of convention al carbon
alloys should not be used without best treatment,
Normally they are aupplled in the best treated Condltloo
0.15 c
steels. When beat treated to 321 or 360 Brinell mlnlm um If it Is necessary or desirable to bot work (above HOOF)
hardness, the alloy bas good resistance to imptct aDd subsequen tly heat treat the alloys, the suggested 0.92 Mn
abrasion. The compositio n employed produces a steel heat treatment is as follows, (2X8).
of high bsrdensbil lty so that high streogtb is maintained 1.052 Austenitiz e, 1650F to 1750F, water quench, (5).
0.88Ni
in the larger size products. !.053 Temper. USOF to 127SF. Qui!IICblq,; lifter tempering
T-1 type A is n lower-allo yed modUled version of the is desirable but not absolutely neces98ry , (2)(8),
0.50Cr
alloy having n leaner chemical compositio n than the Tempering temperatu re should not exceed 1275F, (5).
parent alloy, T-1, but similar mecbsnlca l properties , 1.054 To improve notch toughness of heavy sections over 2, 5
0.46 Mo
T -1 type A was developed to provide a c:onst:ructlonal inches, the following is recommen ded:
alloy of high strength at mlnlmum cost, (1)(2X3)(4). 1750P, water quench, reheat to 1650F, water quench.
0.32 Cu
Temper as in 1. 053, (5), 0.26Si
Commerci sl Designatio n
T-1, T-1 type A, 1.06 Hardness
1.061 Typical hardness of best treated plate. 275 Brinell 0.06V
1.02 Alternate Desigt!ation (approx. ), (2).
USS "T-1", USS "T1" type A, 1.062. Effect of tempering temperatu re on hardness, Fig. +B
1,062,
1.03 Specificati ons 1.063 EDd quench bsrdenabi llty baDds, Fig. 1.063.
1.031
T-1
MIL-S-197 95.
1.032 ASME Code Case 120410. 1.07 Forms aDd Coa:!ltlons Available
1.033 ASTMA514, A517. 1.071 Alloys are available in the form of best treated sheet,
plate, bar, structural shapes and seamless tubular Fe
1.04
1.041
Compositi on
Chemical compositio n of T-1 alloy, Table 1. 041 1.072
products, (7).
Alloys are also available in semifinls hed form as
0.17 c
blllets aDd as non-heat treated plate (under 0. 25 lncbes)
TABLE 1 041
aDd bar, (7).
0.86Mn
Source S Steel r.
Alloy 1.073 T-1 alloy is avallable as castings solely through 0.50Cr
T-1 licensees r1 U.s. Steel, (7).
Form (c) Plate
R~lar
T-1 alloy plate is supplied only in the heat treated 0.25Si
Firebox ASME Code(a'Jia rdness1b CoDdition in thicknesse s from 0. 187 inch to 6. 0 lncbea
Percent Percent Percent Percent and widths up to 147 inches and in vnrious qualities
Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max
including regular, firebox, ASME Code Case 120410,
022 Mo
Boron ~~~~~~~~~~~~~00~
~ 321 aDd 360 Brine!! mlnlmum Dardnesa. Maximum
Carbon ~ 10 o. :a!
0.10 o. 20 o. 10 o. 20 0.10 o. 20 length available is 480 lncbes, (7),
0.05V
Chromium p.40 0.65
0.40 0.65 0.40 0.80 0.40 0.65 1.075 T-1 type A plate is supplied only in the heat treated 0.02Ti
Copper ~-15 o.so
0.15 o.so 0.15 0.50 0,15 0.50 Condition in tl-Jcknesse s from 0,187 inch to 1. 25 1ncb
'~ Manganese ~.60 1.00 0.60 1.00 0.60 1.00 0.60 1.00
~ "/ Molybdenum p.40 0.60 0.40 0.60 0.40 0.60 0.40 0.60
aDd widths up to 147 inches and in various qualities
including regular, firebox, 321 Brinell mlnlmum
+B
Nickel p.70 !.00 0.70 1.00 0.70 1.00 0.70 1.00
Phosphorus - hardness and Floor Plate; Maximum length available
0.040 - 0.03 - 0.03! - 0.040
Silicon 0.!5 0.35 0.15 0.35 0.15 0,35 0.15 .35
is 480 inches, (7), T-1 TYPE A
Sulfur - 1.076 Bar is availabl10 In a wide range of sizes in either the
0.040 - 0.04( - 0.04( 0.040
Vanadium 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.08 beat treated or non-heat treated Condition, (7).
0.03 0.10 0.03 0.08 1.077
Iron Balance Balance Balance Heat treated S!rUCtural shapes aDd tubular products
Balance
are available in various shapes, sizes and Conditloos ,
a) Furnished to ASME Code Case 1204-10, firebox quality. (7).
b) Furnished to 321 or 360 minimum Brinell hardness for resistance 1.078 For detailed informatio n on Forma and CoDdltlona
to Impact abrasion. available, please rder to Reference 7.
c) Regular plate, bar, structural shapes and seamless tube products.
1.042 Chemical compositio n of T-1 type A alloy, Table 1.042. 1.08 Melting and Casting Practice
TABLE I 042
1.09 Special Considera tions
Source lJS s.....J '71 1.091 Blooms, blllets, bars or ingots which bsve net been
Alloy Tl TvoeA heat treated should never be gas cut. They should be
Form (cl
Min~!~n~~
sawed or hot sheared; or cold sheared If the size permits,
Quality Rei<ular Firebnx Floor Plat<! (5).
Percent Percent Percent Percent 1.092 When heating to llOOF fur forming, temperatu re should
Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max be accurately controlled .
Boron p.ooo o.oos p.ooo5 0.005 p.ooos 0,005 .000! 0,005 1.093 Alloys must always be in the quenched and tempered
Carbon 0.!2 0.21 p.!2 0.21 p.!2 0.21 .12 0.21 condition before welding or gas cutting,
Chromium p.40 0.65 p.40 0.65 p.40 0.65 .40 0.65 1.094 Alloys form an adherent scale; thus extremely high forging
Copper (b)
Manganese
- 1.00- .70- 1.00
. p.70
- p.70- 1.00- ,70- 1.00
- temperatu res should be avoided.
Molybdenum p.!S
0.25 .15 0.25 p.!S 0,25 .IS 0.25 2.
Phosphoru s
Silicon
- 0.040 - 0.035 - 0.040 - 0.040
p.20 0.35 .20 0.35 .20 0.35 .20 0.35
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

2,01
Sulfur
Titanium
- 0.040 - 0.040 - 0.040 - O.Ol
p.OI 0.03 .01 0.03 .01 0,03
2.011
Thermal Properties
Melting range.
~.01
0.03 2.012 Phase cbsngea,
Vanadium p.03 0.08 .03 0.08 .03 0,08 11.03 0.08
Iron 2.0121 Time-tem perature transform ation diagram, Pig, 2.0121.
Balance Ba ance Balance Balance
(a) Furnished to 321 minimum Brlnell Hardness for resistance 2.013 Thermal conductivi ty.
to 1m 2.014 Thermal exptnaion ,
pact abrasion
(b) Copper added If desired T-1 alloy:
2.014 -75 to 200F, 6.5 x 106 in/in/F,
(c) Regular plate, bar, structural shapes and seamless tube products
70 to 1300F, 7. 74 X 106 in/in/F.

CODE 1103
PAGE
FERROUS ALLOYS MARCHI965

Tl type A alloy:
Fe 75 to 200P, 6.5 x xo6 ID/ID/11, TABLR 2 041
0.15 c 2,015
80 ro 1300P, 7.60 x 10-6 ID/ID/P , (5).
SpecJtlc beat
Source
Alloy_
Mill
T-1
2.016 Therma l dlffuaiv lty
Q92 Mn I SPecimen narc:b lmoact. 0.187 to 0. 2 In , cantilev er
Tell! Effect of Irradiat ion on !n.pact propert ies - -
2.02 Other l'byalcal Propert ies
Q88N i 2.021 Density . o. 284 lb per cu ln. 7. 85 gr per cu em,
llrradia tloa
Conditio ns
Transiti on Temp-F ,(a Mu energy absorpti on ,
2.022 (2). IDIb (b)
EJectrlc al properti eD
0.50 Cr 2.0221 Realsr1v lty. Apprax. :U mlcrobm cm at 70P, Exposure.
2.023 (5). Temp-P nvr (c) Co::ttol Irradiat ed Control Irradiate d
Magneti c properti es < 100
Q46 Mo 2.0231 Normal DC magnetl zatloa curve for plate, Flg. <200 l.:~~gf8
16$ +167 67 22
2.0231. 240 -40 48 40
2,024 Bmlaolv lty <200 7xlo19
Q32 Cu 2.025 Dlunpillg capacity 575 Sx10l8
240 +1:;0 48 23
-240 -us 48 48
2.026 Cryaral structur e <200 2.3xtol 9
0.26S i <200 3.3x1o1 9
-214 + 19 86 52
:ZH + 68 86 52
2.03 Cbemlca l Properti es
Q06V 2,031 Corrosi oa. The atmoaph erlc corroalo o realstal
(a) Taken from transltio o ;,urve, criterio n: m;{,
of maximu m Impact
lce of energy
T1 alloy ls approxi mately four times tbar of 8trucrur
+B carbon areds. PreUmln a.-y atudlea 1Ddlcate rbat
al (b) Taken from rranslrlt ln ~urve
the (c) > 1 Mev
corrosio n realstao ce of Tl type A steel Is ar least
two
T-1 times rbat of structur al carbon steels, (5).
2.042 Btlect of ur.:urron Irradiat ion on tenaUe propert
..-----2.032 Welgbt loss In lndllltti al, marine lliXI semi-ru ral ies,
Table 2, 04,2,
atmoaph erea for Tl areet, Table 2,032,
Fe TABLE 2 042
0.17 c TABLE 2 032
I Source_
IAIIov
6
T1 Steel
Source (5)
0.86Mn Tell! Effect of Irradiat ion on tensile tn'onen tes
AllOY Tl
Tear
1rrad Cond Pru ksl F 1Y! kai e(1 lo) -percen
AtmoS'Dhertc corrosio n nvt
Q50C r Form 4 1o x 6 1o flat Temp P Exposur e !control lrrad Control lrrad on:ol
Atmosp here lrrad
Weight toss-gra ms
0.25 Si <100 1,3x JOZl 116.0 180.0 IOO.Oa,l BO.Oa) 20.0

0.22 Mo
Industri al
Marloe
Semiru ral
s.o
2. 8
-
I I I
S velll'~ll Svearst~-~v~al7 '<v~
8.2
5.9
7.1
9.4
10.4
11.3
15.4
<200
<200
<200
1,7 X 1019 129.0
1.0 X 1020 129.0
2.3 X 1019 139.7
171.0 120,0 170.0
187.2 120.0 186,0
186.f 129.3 184.0
14.0 4.5
14.0 3.8
4.7

JS.Ob 9.0(b)
0.05V 9.6 11 4 <200 3.3 x 1019 139.7 !89.4 129.3 186.8 1S.Ob 8.6(b)

0.02 Ti a) 0.1 percent offset yield strength


2.033 Exposur e of T -1 steel ro various arreaa corrosio b) 0. 275 Inch gage leogth
n
+B media, Table 2.033.

T-ITYPE A
TABLE 2 033 3. MBCHANICAL PROPI!RTIB!:
Source 5
Allov Tl
r~or
3,01 ~lfled Mecban lcal Propert!e!!
Rxooour e tn
mNIIa 3,011 Oducer'a apeclfle d mechani cal properti es.
Tear Medium
Pickling acid, 12% H2S04 at 160P
s:'!:':.':!:!ty 3,0111 Produce r's apeclfle d tensile propenl es for bear
regular lliXI firebox quality plate and floor plate,
treated
Table
31\j NaCI solution (aerated ) No 3.0111.
3% NaCI aolutlon (aerated with cathodic protecti on ar No
300 amps per aq em
Sea war:er No
Marine atmosph ere No
Water, H2S saturate d No
Molten sulfur wlth small amounts of H S Yea
Molten sulfur with small amounts of H2S and water No
TABLE 3 0111
Sour crude oii(C<>ntainillg H~S) 2 No por
Unconta minated agrlcult ura ammoni a Yea (a)
~.J.oy T-1
Agricult ural ammoni a, coataml nated with air No T-1 , type A
rrear Tensile
Agricult ural ammoni a, contaml oated wlth air and Yea (b)
ondltlon HT
Inhibited with water orm Pia !e (c)
No (b) Plate (c) Floor
(a) Depends upon H S content IlllciClle OSin Plate
2 .187" 12,5 to 1.0 to '.187to 1~ to IU.IHIO
(b) Stress relief Ia necessa ry to prevent atreaac 2.5 4.0
orroslon cracldn g 6.0 .75 1.25 o.so
tu maxkai 135 135 135 135 135 135
min k&i us 105 105 115 us
IFry. maxkl - . . . -
115
-
min-leal 100 90 90 100 100 100
2. 034 Results ol two year exposur e tesro ol lllrlp 1o oea r:<21a), mlnper cenr 18(a) 17 16 18(a) 18 .
Flg. 2,034.
water, jRA, mloper cent SO(b) so 45 40 so .
2.04 IWclear Properti eo a) mongatl on for plates under 0.25 Inch tblck
2.041 Ia 15 percent mlolmum
Btlect ol neurroa lrradlat lm m impact properti
es, b) Reductlo a of areo for plarea :s 0. 75 loch ta 40
percent
Table 2,041. c) Regular and firebox quality

CODE 1103
PAGE
1,'
2
li'
~:

3,0112 Producer's specified teDIIUe properw..a far beat treated 3.0116 Producers' beod teat values for beat treated plate wbeu
ASMB Code Case 120410 plate, TIJ>te 3,0112, . speclffed, Table 3. 0116. Fe
150urce
TABL'~ 3 0112
m rsnu.-c-~-
TABLE 3. 0116
171 0.15 c
I ALloy T1 ll~ T- .,._,
oodltlon HT HT
Q92 Mn
~at T<msUe
orm Plate
Coodltlon HT est Al>-n.l bend test a 0.88Ni
Form !'late ASMB Code Case 120410
QiiilliV Regular Firebox ASMElb Resrular Firebox
Tblckness-ln 025to20 2.0to2 5 Orlentstlon L T T L T 0.50Cr
Fru, max-leal
mlnlcsl
135
115
135
105
11ticlcnesaln
To 1.0
c
2t
c
2t
-
2t 2t
-
2t
0.46 Mo
Ff!J' min-leal
e( In), min-percent
100 90
18
1.0to 1.25 - . - 3t
--
31
-- Q32Cu
RA. . mlnMrcent :!.1 so 1.0 to 2,S
2,5 to 4.0
3t
4t
3t
4t
3t
- 0.26Si
(a) 0. 75 Inch 8lld under is 40 percent
over 4.0 None - - - -
3.0113 Producer's specified teDIIUe properties far beat treated 0.06V
bar, Table 3, 0113. !"~ 180 d"'!l"ee bend
b ASME Code Case 120410
TABLE 3 0113
{c) Supplied to these values .when specUied +B
Source 12U51m
Allov T-1 Tl.tvne A
Teat Tensile 3.02 Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature T-1
HT
3.021 T..,.lon, see also 3.01and 3.031.
Condition
Form 3.0211 Typical t<mslle atrea&atrsln diagram for cast bar 8lld
4.0 tbru 7.0 7.0 tbru 9.5 Up to 1.5 plate, Fig. 3. 0211. Fe
~-~::.~--~ lm....... ~
Size-In
3,0212 Typlcaltenslle values for wrougbt T-1 alloy, Table 3.0212,
Ftu, maxlc81 140 135 135 140 0.17 c
minlc81 115 105 105 115
Fty' maxksl
min-ksl 100
- 95
- 90
- -
100 SOUrce
TABLE 3 0212
5
0.86Mn
e(21n), min-percent 18 16 16 18 Allov T- 0.50Cr
RJ. min -oercent 55Cal 45 45
(a) Reduction of area for flats 0. 75 and under Is 45 percent
55(a) Property
Condition
....""
H'T" Q25 Si
(b) LongitudinAl properties Ftu. typ-1:&1 122
Fry, t yplcsl 111 0.22 Mo
3.0114 Producers' specified tensUe properties for heat treated Uniform e, (21n)-perccnt 8,2
structural shapes and tubular products, Table 3. 0114. Toral e, (21n)-percent 18.5 0.05 v
TABLE:J 01H RA -percent 62
Source 5117 Strain hardenliU! exoonent 0.07 0.02Ti
Alloy T-1 T-1 tv1>e A T-1 and T-1 tvoe A
Tel!lt TensUe +B
Condition HT
Form Structural sha""liea Seamless tublna d
Thlclcneaa-ln ..::2.5 <1.25 lh\ c 3.0213 Typical t<msile values for cast bar and plate, Table 3,0213, T-1 TYPE A
Ftu, max-leal 140 140 145 140
miD leal 115 llS llS lOS
Fty' max-leal
miD leal
-
100 100
- -
100
-
90 TABLE3 0213
e(21D)miD-percent 18 .18 18 18 Source !12l
RA, min-percent 55 (a) SS(a) - . Allov T-1
a) Kelluctlon Ol area tor snapes 7~ ID aDd llDler 18 ;, percent mlnlm um Form Cast bar(l. Sxl. Ox6. 0 In) aod Plate 0. 25 In thick
(b) All wall thicknesses for rniiDII tubing Condlton Aa cast
(c) All wall thicknesses for square and rectangular lubillg Test TensUe (base metal and weld
(d) On strip specimens s 0. 25 Inch, e Ia reduced accordingly Ftul:ol p..,-lc&l lel21n :ct: RA%
3. 0115 Producers' specified Impact values far beat treated plate [Biir{imwelded)
and structural shapes, Table 3, 011S. maxtmwn 122.5 113.0 18 55
TABLE 3 0115 minimum 111.0 99.5 8 29
Av.(ll testa) 119.0 108.6 15 43
l!;nuPo 5117
Plate(unwelded)
~loy Tl T-1 tvJ>e A Tl
[(:oodltlon HT Av.(3 teats) 106.8 105.0 2.8 -
Form Plate Structural shapes Plate(welded) (a) 106.0 95.0 3.3 -
Quality Firebox ASME Firebox - .
Code (b) (a) Sj.oeclmen taken tranoverse to weld bead In welded plate
lblclcneaaln 0.187to 0;-25"to 0.187 to
2.5 2.S 1.25 .:S 1.25 ::;;2.5
Charpy lmpect, Ct-1
(a) Keyholemln
Lor T, 50F IS (c) 1S (c) IS 15 (d) IS (d)
(a) Vnotchmln
L, 10F 30 - . - 30 3.022 Compresaloa
T, !OF 20 -- . -- -- 3.0221 Typical compressive atreoastraln diagram for T-1 steel
L, -SOF IS . at room temperature, Fig. 3,0221.
a) AS"IM proc51ure 3.023 Impact, see also 3.033.
3.0231 l!ffect ol plate tblclcneiB oa Charpy V-DOlCh ltnpact
(b) AliME: Code Case 120410
(c) charpy Impact value for plates <0,5 Inch may be DOI!otlated transition temperature, Fig. 3.0231.
(d) Lcmgltudlnal only 3.0232 l!ffect ol strain and strain plus aging on Charpy l:eyllole
ductility traDaldoo tempcrattu:e, Table 3.0232.

CODE 1103
PAGE 5
TABLE 3.0232 be accompUsb ed wltb cooventlooa l equipment. Wherever
Fe ource l:OJ possible lbese steels should be fabricated 1n tbe best
est Btfect of strain aDd strain+ a~te
r:-
,.-.ao c pecimen Cbarpy keybole (a)
treated (queacbed aDd tempered) Caadltloo.
Hct working operatloos can destroy or alter lbe m:lglnal
nov T-1 T-1 tvPe A best treated mecbanlcal Jirc>pertie~. Mecbanlcal propeztles
0.92 Mn oadltloo Ductlllty transltloo temp-F (b)
can be restored by quencblng aDd tempering. Stress
nstralned -:.<:>:. -9~
rellef may also be desirable prior to surface macb1nlng
0.88 Ni S!raln 5% -so operations to reduce residual stresses aDd maintain
0.50 Cr
S!raln 111.1\
S!raln 5% +age
-225
- -
-so 4.012
dlmenslnna l &tabUlty, (5),
Forging. Steels may be forged by asual melbeds at a
0.46 Mo
S!raln 111.1\ +age
S!raln 5% +age+
-198 - temperatur e about SOP lower tban tbat used for plain

0.32 Cu
stress relieve
S!raln 111.1\ + stress
- -100
carboo steels. A blast of compressed air or steam abould
be used oa tbe forging to prevent lbe formatloo of scale

0.26Si
relieve
a) LongitUdinal specimens
-275 - pita. Forgings over 16 Inches square cross section
abould be cooled In lime, dry ssDd or ctber medium to
prevent lnteraal rupture. AU forged pieces must be
(b) 15 ft-lb
0.06V best treated to provide adequate mecbsnlcal properties,
(5). See also 1. 094.
3.024 Beading, see Table ~.0116. 4.013 Cold forming. Steels may be readUy cold formed or angle
+B 3.025 "l'orsloo aDd sbear, beat U sufficient power aDd suitable bead radll are used.
Fsu = 75% of Fw (approx.) Suggested minimum bead radii for plates up to 1. 0
Fsy =58% of Fcy (approx.) Inch Is 2 T, aDd for plates from 1.0 Inch to 2.0 Inch
T-1 3.026 llearlng Is 3 T. For brake press forming, lbe lower die span
3.027 Stress concentratl oo abould be at least 16 times tbe plate tblclaless. Air
3.0271 Nolch properties beads are preferable to closed-die beads. Mutlple
Fe 3.0272 Fracture lnugbness bits abould be used where possible, (5).
3,028
0.17 c Combined properties 4.014 Hct forming. Hct forming can be employed wben plate
sizes are too heavy for cold forming. Farming
3.0.1 Mecbanlcal Properties at Various Temperatu res
0.86 Mn 3.031 Tensloo
temperatur e should DOt exceed 1100F aDd beating abould
preferably be dooe In a controlled furnace. If lbla
3.0311 Stress-stra in diagrams
0.50 Cr 3.0312 Typi.:al tensUe prnpertles for T-1 aDd T-1 type A steels
temperatur e Is exceeded for aevere formatloos (never
blgber tban 18001') lbe steel must be 6Uhscqucntly quenched
at various temperatur es, Fig. 3.0312.
0.25 Si 3.0313
.
Btfect of strain-rate oo tenslle properUes of T-1 at
aDd tempered to restore mecbsnlcal properties, (5).
4.015 Puncblng aDd blllllldng. Steels may be satlsfactorU y
various temperatur es, Fig. 3. 0313.
0.22 Mo 3.032 Comprellslo o
puDCbed In tblckness to 0. 5 Inch.
For circle-blank ing of plate, die clearances sbould be
3.0321 Stress-stra in diagrams
0.05V 3.033 Impact
as close as possible.
4.016 Shearing. Steels may be sbearold In tblclalesses up to
3.0331 Btfect of temperatur e oo Cbarpy Vnotcb values for T-1
0.02 Ti plate, Fig. 3. 0331.
1. 0 Inch U sufficient sbear capacity aDd blade strength
are avallable.
3.0332 l!ffect of temperatur e oo Cbarpy V-notcb values for T-1
+B
...__ _ _ _... 3.034 type A plate, Fig. 3, 0332.
4.017 Gas cutting. T-1 steels can be readUy gas cut by haDd
or macb1ne. No preheating Is necessary for sectloos
BeDding, see 3. 024. .
up to 4 Inches In tblclaless, but sectloos larger tban
3 035
T-1 TYPE A 3.036 'I'orsloo aDd sbesr
' 4 Inches 6buuld te preheated 300 to 4001' (net higber
Bearing
tbaa 4001'). Stack cutting of light plates abould be
3.037 Stress coocentratlo o
avoided. The gas cut edge wlll be bard (about 415
3.0371 Notch properties
Brinell) but wlll also be tough. The flame cut surface
3.0372 Fracture tOUE:bN.-ss
3,038 can be softened to fscllltste macb1nlng but lbe softening
Combined propcni ..s
temperatur e must not exceed 1100F, (5).
3,04 Creep aDd~ Ruptl!re Properties 4.02 Machining and IJrlldlng
3.041 General. 'ih T-1 steels r-m good strength properties 4.021 Carbide tools are recommeed ed for all machining
up to about SOOF.
operatloos allbough hlgb speed steellnols may also be
3.042 Creep rupture strength of T-1 alloy at various tem~
satisfactory . Tools abould be kept abarp aDd coaslderabl e
atures, Fig, 3,042.
coolant abould be used. In general, macb1nlng speeds
3.043 Typical C~'eep data for T-1 r..'eel, Fig. 3.043.
are reduced about 40 percent as compared to steels such
as AfiTM-A7. For drllling, two-flute drllls wllb
3.05 ~~ Included point angle of 135 degrees have been successfull y
3.051 S-N curve for T-1 aDd T-1 type A plate at room temper-
employed wltb speeds of 30-SO sfpm aDd feeds 15-25 percent
ature, Fig. ~.1!51.
3,052 less tban !bose used for mUd steel. Posltlve feed must be
S-N curve for 'I 1. plate at room temperatur e, Fig. 3. 052.
used to prevent ;Jlazing ahead ollbe drlll point.
4.022 It Is recommeed od tbat plates or olber sectloos of T-1
3.06 B!alltlc Propert'.es
steels be stress Yelleved after beat treatment to reduce
3.061 PoiSQn' a ratlo
residual llttesses aDd prevent excessive movement
3.06l Mod11lus of elasticity at room aDd elevated temperatur es,
during machining, (tl.
FJ,\1. 3.062.
3.06;!1 Campresslve ma:lulus.
4.03 Welding
30 x 1o3 ksl (approx.), (1), 4.031 Geoeral. T-1 steels can be welded satlsfactorU y by all
3.063 Modulus of rigidity
of tbe major welding processes U suitable procedures are
3.064 Typical compresslo o taqrent modulus curve for T-1
employed. Normally, lbese steels abould be welded
steel, Fig. 3. 064.
only wbeo In lbe quenched and tempered Coedltlon.
For manual metal-arc welding, lbe use of low hydrogen
4. FABRlCA'IlON
electrodes of lbe B-9015 to lbe B-12015 clasaUicatl oas
Ia recommeed ed. Electrodes must be kept dry. The
4.01 Formablllty
steels can also be automatlcal ly welded by submerged-
4.011 General. Despite lbeir blgb yield llttengths, lbe T-1
arc aDd Inert-gas-s hielded metal-arc processes. The
steels may be readily tabrlcated. Hct aDd cold forming,
"stringer bead" tecbnlque Is preferred. Using proper
she...-ing, puDCblng, flame cutting aDd macblnlng can
tecbnlques aDd clectredes, joint efficiencies of 90 aDd

CODE 1103
PAGE 4
~:.:-,. 100 percent are readlly attained, (1)(2){3)(5)(8)(9), shot blastlng or wire brusblng, Jf name descallng Is
used, the surface of the scale should never show a red
'
~:i 4,032 Reheat-treatmeot after welding by abielded m_.-arc
(covered electrodes), submerged-arc aod Inert-gas
4.052
color, even In the dart, (5),
T-1 type A usually will plclde faster aod cleaner than 0.15
Fe
c
abielded metal-arc processes, Is not necesaary.
4,033 Reheat treatment after welding by oxy-acetylene gaR aod T-1 steel.
electroslag welding Ia gl!llel'ally leequlred. These
4.053 Alloys can be painted, metal-sprayed, bot dipped or Q92Mn
teclmlques should Dot be used unless the sultablllty m electr:>lytlcally protected by employing the recommended
the l'l"OCess Is established, procedures of coating manufacturers, (2), 0.88Ni
4.034 Plash welding can be used on T-1 steels either beat
treaied or noi: heat treated. However, all such weld- 0.50 Cr
menta should be heat treated after welding.
4.035 Retention of blgh strength aod notch toughness In the 0.46Mo
beat affected zone (HAZ) depends on the rapid dissipation
of welding beat to permit formatloo mdesirable 0.32 Cu
microstructures. Thus, any practices wblcb subject
the steels to slow coi>ll:>g should be avoided, 0.26Si
4.036 Typical notch toughness data on firebox quality T-1
steel plate, Table 4. 036. 0.06V
TABLE 4 036 +B
~rce 5\110
T-1 T-1
orm Plate
QWilliV
Thickness-In
est
Firebox

Specimen Condition
Orientation of
o.s
Notch to mhncss

D-.!Ctlllty
Fracture
Apl'earance
Transition Transittnn
45

35
.........
-- --- -"\"1...... ~
\
T-1 AND T-1 TYPE A

~-1 TYPE A 0.17


0.86Mn
Fe
c

"
Specimen Temo-Fia\ Temn-Ffh\ T-1
jKinzel Notch- bend L unwelded -68 -67
T
L
unwelded
welded
-62
-42
-59
-42
'
gj25
1\, 0.50Cr
0.25 Si
~,
-so
~..:
T welded -47

NRL drop-weight
L

L
welded +(c)
stress rei.
welded (d)
-30
-80
-7:1
-
<
!I: IS
\- 0.22 Mo
0.05 v
NRL bulge-exploslo
T
-
welded (d)
welded (d)
-80
-
-
-51J(e)
AS 400 600 800 1000 1200
I 0.02Ti
!ifDiiCtUity transition temperature at middle ol band for Kinzel notch- 1400
QUENCHED
bend and total !allure at 3 percent angle for NRL drop-weight test
(b) Fracture appearance transition temperature selected at SO% shear
TEMPERIKJ TEMP - F +B
for Kinzel notch-bend and faUure across plate for NRL bulge-explo- FIG. 1.062 EFFECT OF TEMPERIKJ TEMPERATURE ON
s!on test HARDNESS (S) T-1 TYPE A
(c) Stress relieved at liOOF for I hour
(d) Hard facing electrodes
(e) Fracture-arrest transition temperature

4.037 Typical notch toughness data ou firebox quality T-1


type A steel plate, Table 4.037.

TABLE 4 037
Snurce Sll 0
llov T- Tv~ A
Form Plate
bualltv Firebox
!Thickness -In 0.5
est Notch Touahness
Specimen Condition Ductility Fracture
Orientation ol Transition Appearance T-1 AND T-1 TYPE A
Specimen Tcmp-F(a) Transition
Tcmo-Fib
Kinzel notch-bend L welded -56 -44
L welded+
stress rcl(c -40
- -12
- 35
u
I NRL d~nnwPI.,ht L
(a)(b)(c)(d) see Table 4. 036
welded ldi -60 - ..:

4. 038 Bftect ol stress ratio on fatigue ll!e ol transverse butt- ~


z 25
welded specimens, Fig. 4. 038, c..:
4.039 For comprehensive aod detslled Information 011 the
welding of T-1 steels, the user Is referred to References ;!
1, 5 and 9.

4.04 Heat Treatment 15


See 4.0ll, 4.012, 4.014 aod 4.022. 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
DISTANCE FRa.! QUENCHED END - IN
4.05 Surface Treatment
4.051 Scale and rust may be removed by acid plcldlng, grit or FIG. 1.063 END - QUENCH HARDENABILITY SAN>S (5)

CODE 1103
PAGE
FeC FERROUS ALLOYS MARCHI965

20
T1
~
0. 75 IN PLATB ~
15
../" ~

f
~ 10 1-
<

~
NORMALDC
MAGNETIZATION CURVB
5

0
0
l/
5 10 50 100 200 300
H OBRSTBDS

TIMB SI!CONDS FIG. 2.0231 NORMAL DC MAGNETIZATION CURVE FOR PLATB


(5)
T-1 FIG. 2.0121 TIMBTBMPBRATURB TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAM
(5)

Fe
0.17 c
0.8~3Mn

0.50 Cr
0.25 Si
0.22 Mo
0.05 v
o.m~ Ti
+B
T-1 TYPE A

120
Tl

10
BAR AND PLATE
AS CAST
... -;.::. ~
--
v
T1 100
16FT STRIPS
l'
0::
~
8
80
lj
>-
:5...
"'::l::; 6

TIDAL--~ 1'------
-----

lil
:.t
60
/I
/I/
Ill ZONll .J.VG OF'J
f-
< 4
~i:J~~
/J

,1
0::
z0 IMMBRSBD QNB
1--
8
r.v--
v
0:: 2
0:: SBA WATBR 20
0
u CORROSIIN ---a.Ox 1.51NBAR

0 ~ --0.251NPLATE
0 4 8 12 16 0 I t
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010
DISTANCE FROM TOP OF STRIP FT
STRAII\.'-IN PER IN
FIG. 2.034 RBSULTS OF TWO YBAR BXPOSURB
TBSTS OF STRIP IN SBA WATBR FIG. 3.0211 TYPICAL TENSILE STRBSSSTRAIN DIAGRAMS
(5) FOR CAST BAR AND PLATE (12)

CODE 1103
PAGE 6
MARCHI965 FERROUS ALLOYS
Fe(;

T-1 A!ID T-1 TYPE A


140
Fe
(,--- ~ -
Tl
I
015 c
120 0.92 Mn

100 I 0.88Ni
0.50 Cr

I Q46Mo
0.32 Cu

v
80

0.26Si
60 0.06V

I T-1
+B

20
I 0.17
Fe
c
1/
Fey 127 KSI
Be 30.2 x 1oJ KSI
I I 0.86Mn
2 4 6 8 0.50 Cr
STRAIN - PBRCBm'
TYPICAL COMPRBSSIVB STRESS
0.25 Si
FIG. 3.0221
STRAIN DIAGRAM FOR T-1 STBBL
022 Mo
AT Road TI!MPBRATURB (1) OL---~----~----~--~----~--~
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0.05V
Tl!MP- F
FIG. 3.0312 TYPICAL TBNSILB PROPERTIES FOR T-1 AliD T-1 0.02 Ti
TYPB A STBBL AT VARIOUS TI!MPBRATURBS (3X5)
+B
T-1 TYPE A

140 160

~
0 T1STBBL
T1 HT
LONLY
~ 140
120
-so

--
li!
lil
Fru
_.........._ )<
)<
100
__. >--:: 120 '

.t
i:!
"'
80 100
150 .:. -5 F FTY
oe SOP
o6ooP
80
60
10"5 10" 4 10"3 10"
2 -
10 I
STRAIN RATB- IN PBR IN PBR SEC
PLATE THICKNESS IN
FIG. 3.0.113 BFFBCT OF STRAIN RATE ON TBNSILB
FIG. 3.0231 BFFBCT OF PLATE THICKNESS ON CHARPY PROPBR1111.S OF Tl AT VARIOUS TBM-
V-NOTCH IMPACT TRANSITION TI!MPBRATIJRB PBRATIJRBS (5)
(5)

CODE 1103
PAGE T
re\J
FER.ROUS ALLO YS MARCHI965

60

0.15 c
Fe
L
40
092 Mn
088N i
20
Q50C r 60
~
Q46M o ...E!.
0.32 Cu 40

Q26S i
0.06V 20
L T
+B e " 0.63 IN} PLATE
0 .C. 2.0 IN
0
T-1 -80 -40 0 40 80 800 900 1000 1100
TEMP .P
TEMP- F
Fe PIG. 3.0331 BPPBCT OF TBMPI!RA1URE ON
FIG. 3.042 CRI!I!PR UPruRB STRRN:;TH OF
CHARPY V-NOTCH VALUHS FOR
0.17 c T-1 PLAT!! (5)
T-1 SI'I!BL AT VARIOUS TI!MPRRA1URES

(5)
0.86M n
0.50C r 100
T-1

~
025 Si
022 Mo 80

0.05V \
0.02 Ti
+B
T-1 TYPE A
60

"\
20
STIII!SS FOR 1%
CREEP IN 10,000 HR
\\
0
700
I
800
I ~
900 1000
TI!MP- F
PIG. 3.043 TYPICAL CRBBP DATA FOR T-1
SI'EI!L (3)

100
TI-1 Atl) T-1 TYPE A
1.75 IN PLATE
Pro 116. 2 KSI
80

OL-- --1-- --1-- --'--- --'


-80 -.0 0
CHARPY V NOTCH

.a 80
60
~l

(FOLISHBO SPECIMEN)
(0, 25 IN RBOUCRD DlA)
-
ROTATIK l - BEAM TE5I'S

.a
TRMP- P 1:as Ill" 107 10 8
PIG. 3.0332 BPFBCT OP TI!MPRRA1URE ON ~BRR OF CYCLES
CHARPY VNOTCH VALUES FOR
T-1 TYPI! A PLATE PIG. 3.051 5-N CURVES FOR T-1 Atl) T-1 TYPE A PLATE
(5)
AT ROCfd TBMPI!RA1URE (5)

CODE 1103
PAGE 8
l'
80 T1 Fe
T-1

1\_
0.5 INPLATB
0.5 INPLATB
HR SURFACB TRANSVBRSB
BUTTWBLDBD JOINTS
Ql5 c
HT
60 Q92Mn

~
RT
=
cS
0.88Ni
~ u.so Q50Cr
0.46Mo
~
PULSATIN:> TBiiON FATIGUB
~ 0.75
Q32Cu
1o5 to6 10 20 so 100 200 500 1000 2COO 0.26Si
NUMBBR OF CYCLBS
N!NBBR OF CYCLBS 0.06V
FIG. 3.052 SN CURVBS FOR T-1 PLATH AT Roet./1
FIG. 4.038 BFFBCT OF STRBSS RATIO ON FATIGUB LIFB OP
TBMPBRATURB (5) TRANSVBRSB BUTTWBLDBD SPBCIMBNS (5) +B
T-1
32
T1
Fe
28
"~ 0.17
0.86Mn
c
~
24 ~ 0.50Cr
"\ 025 Si
Iii
=-:
~ 20
B
1\ 0.22 Mo
Q05V

16
\' 0.02Ti
+B
.,
''i'
....,., 12
0 200 600 800 1000 1200
RBPBRBNCBS

United lbllos Slee1 Corp.' "USS T-1 Stu!, A Provi.!JI Bn T-I


giDeerlng Msrerlal", (1959)
TYPE A
2 Alloy Dlgest,''USS T-1 "I)pe A", Filing Code: SA-1~7.
TBMP F
Steel Alloy, (November 1963)
FIG. 3.062 MODULUS OP BLASTICITY AT R<XN AI'D BLBVATBD 3 Bemlett, B. V., "Super-Strength Strucwral Sleel", pre
TBMPBRATURBS (5) pared for the Cl1mmt Molybdeuum Co.
United Sbdes Slee1 Corp., ''New Sleels, New Shapes,
New Coacepts". (1961)
5 United lbllos Sleel Corp., "USS T-1 Sleel;' (revllllon ol
ref. 1), ID be Puhllsbed
160 6 l'orber, L. P., "Radiation BffectB In Steel", ASTM Spec
T-1 lal TeciUilcal l'llbllc:atioD No. 276, Materlale In Nuclear
Appllcadoos, (JuDe 1960)

--
7 Uoitecllbllos Slee1 Corp., "Avallabilldes Guide, Quall
120
1--. lies, Forms, Sizes and Properties, USS Tl and T-1
"I)pe A Sleels", (May 1963)
8 Alloy Digest, "Cartlloy T1", PlliDg Code: SA-25, Steel
Alloy, (January 1955)
9 Uoitecllbllos Slee1 Corp., "Haw 1D Weld T-1 and T1
"I)pe A Steels", l'llhlicatloo No. ADUCO 01006, (l.al:est
revision)
10 Fuzak, P. P. and PelllDl, W. S., "Bvaluatlon of the Slgolfl
c:aoce ol OJarpy TeBtB for Quench and Tempered Steels",
The Weldlng Joumal Vol. 35(6), Research Suppl. 275-S
CCMPRBSSION ID 2905, (1956)
TAN:>BNT MODULUS 11 DalaL N., Keales, T. L. and Balley, R. B., "Reac111r
I I PreAUrC Vessel Design for Nuclear Reactloas", Sympo
0 Blum on Radlatloo Bffects on Materlals, Vol. 3, ASTM
0 8 16 24 32
STP No. 233, (1958)
1000 KSI 12 McDoanell A1rcraft Corp. , "McchiDlcal Properties and
Weldahlllty of Cast'T-1 Sleel", from First Quarterly
PIG. 3.064 TYPICAL CCMPRBSSION TAN:>BNT
ProgreBB Report oo Uopuhllllbed Materlala Research and
MODULUS CURVB FOR T1 STBBL DevelopMDt Prognms, Rep. No. 8743, Vol, IV, Ser.
(I)
1, (AprU 1962)

CODE 1103
~.,.
PAGE 9
.. ).~
"'I.'.P
FeUH
MARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

1. GBNBRAL 1.053 Critical temperatures (appraxlmate, depeDdlng on


Thla beat-treatable chromlum-moly bdenwn alloy baa
good teaane atreDgth &Dd realataDCe to fatigue aDd
beattnc aDd cocllal ratea), (i1)(U).
A 1380F
Fe
lm~ct up to 700 F. Due to Ita relatively blab atreagth A~1 1250 F 0.3 c
Ia the normalized coodltlon, It Ia frequemly used Ia Ar 1 1475 F
thla coodttlon for applications requlrlag blgber tenane A:1350F 0.95Cr
atreagth than can be obtained fl:om the low carbon
steels. 1f bardenlqr Ia required, consideration must 1.06 Hardness 0.2 Mo
be given to thlclcneaa of section. alace tbe bardenabnt 1.061 ~bar size on surface hardness of quenched aDd'-----~
ty cbaracterlatlca of tbe alloy are low. Care must tempered,apec lm..,., Flg. 1.061.
also be taken In applytnc tbe alloy at very low 1.062 BDd-quencb bardenabntty, Flg. 1. 062. 4130
temperatUres (320 F) becauae of poor lm~ct resis- 1.063 mfect d. tempering temperature on hardness d.
tance at such temperatures. 1f corrosion realataDCe quencbed aDd tempered rod. Flg. 1.063.
Ia required, a protective coating or plattnc must be 1.064 Bffect or temperlag temperature 00 bardnesl or
applied. Macblntnc cbaracterlatlca of tbe alloy, aDd calltlag, Ftg.: 1. 064.
formabUity Ia sheet form are good. It Ia readlly fusion 1.065 mrect d. temperlag temperature 011 hardness d. tubtag,
welded, but realat&DCe weldlag !a not recommeDded. Flg. 1.065.

1.01 Commercial Oeallp!atlon. 4130. 1.07 Forma aDd Coodltlona AvaUable


Billets, bars, rods, forgtaga, sheets, plates, strip.
1.02 Alternate Oea!BnatiODB. AISI4130, SAB 4130. tublag aDd caattaga.
4130 H IDdlcalea that tbe steel Ia supplied to harden-
ability specifications rather tban to chemistry apec- 1.08. Meltigg aDd Castl!!!! Practice
lflcaUoaa. Open beartb or electric furnace air melt. IDducUon
aDd cODSumable electrode vacuum melts.
1.03 Specifications. Table 1. 03.
1.09 Special Considerations
Because of low bardenabUity section lhlclcneaa must be
coaaldered when beat treatlag 10 hlah atreagtb. It Ia
Sbeel, strip Dot subject to temper-embrltt lemeDI aDd reapoDda to
IL-S-18729
Seamless tubing ILT-6736, Cond. N DltrkliD&, (i1).
Seamless tubing !IL-T-6736, Cond. HT-125
Seamless tubing IL-T-6736, Cond. HT-15 2. PHYSICAL AM> QfBMlCAL PROPBRTIBS
Bars, forgings and forging
stock 2.01 'Thermal Properties
Heavy wall tubing 2.011 Mel tiDe raQge.2795 F, (24).
2.012 Pbaae chaQgea, See 1.053.
1.04 Composition. Table 1. O.f. 2.0121 Ttme-temperatu re-tr&D8forma llon diagrams
2.01211 Tlmetemjlerar ure-traaaforma llon diagram for alloy
auatenltlzed at 1550.1;:, Flg. 2.01211.
2.013 Thermal coDductivlty, Flg. 2. 013.

......,.
Mlov
AM5
TABLB 1.04
IAllov
P .. -t0.3C: t-o.
11
.211Mn
2.014
2.015
2.016
Thermal expaaaloa, Flg. 2. 014.
Specific beat, Flg. 2. 015.
Thermal dlffualvlty
IP.,rm Wr..mtr C. or
l'l!rc- Percent 2. 02 Other l'byalcal Propertle!

Carbon
Mia
0.28"
Max
0.33
Mia
0.28
~ ..
0.33
2. 021
2.022
Density 0. 283 lb per cu ID, 7. 83 JIT per cu em, (11),
Blectrlcal realatlvlty, Flg. 2.1)22.
2. 023 Magnetic properties. Steel Ia ferromagnetic.
Manganese 0.40 0.60 0.60 1.00 2. 024 l!mlaalvlty
SUicon 0.29 0.35 0.60 2. 025 Damplag ca~clty
l'boapborua 0.040 o.os
Sulfur 0.010 o.os 2. 03 Chemical Properties. See 4340
Cbrcmlum 0.80 1.10 0.75 1.10
Molybdenum 0.15 0.25 0.15 0.30 2. 04 Nuclear Propert.le
Iron Balance Balance
AMS 6361 aDd 6362 give 0. 27. 3. MIICHANICAL PROPBRTIBS

3. 01 Specified Mecbaalcal Prceerttea


1.05 Heat Treatm- 3.01.1 AMS specified mecbaalcal properties, Table 3.011.
1.051 Castlala, (12).
1.0511 Normalize. 1900 F, 1 hour, air cool.
1.0512 AusteDitlze.1600 101650 F, 1 bour,on quench.
1.0513 Temper. 800 to 1350 F.
1.052 Wrought, (11).
.1.0521 Normallze.1600 to 1700 F, air cool
1.0522 Amlea1.1525 to 1575 F, furnace cool.
1.0523 Austenltlze.1550 to 1600 F, water quench or 1575 to
1625 F, on queacb.
1.0524 Temper. 400 to 1200 F depeDdlnl on deaired atr~
level:
F 100 to 160 1:&1. temper 800 to 900 F, 4 hours;
Ftu 150 to 170 1:&1. temper 850 to 950 F, 4 hours;
Ftu 125 to 14SI:at. temper 1050 to 1150 F, 4
tuboura, (8).
1.0525 Spberoldlzeo1400 to 1425 F, 6 to 12 bour., furnace
cool.

CODE 1201
PAGE
FERROUS ALLOYS MARCH 1963

TABLI! 3 011
Fe Sour"" AMSL4l I AMS(3) I AMSl2l
llov Fe- O. 3C -0. 95Cr-O. 20Co
0.3 c Form
Cnndlrtnn
Seamless tub!AA
Heat treated
0.95Cr Size- In 0.188 Maximum 00<0.500 00<0.500 ~0.500 o~.soo
Wall thickness Walls0.188 Wa11~.188 Walls0.188 Wall>0.188
0.2 Mo ~'tv mln-ksl 150 125 95 90 95
Pfl' mlnksl
e( In) -percent
135 100 75 70 75
90
70
4130 a) Full tube 10 12 10 10 12 15
b) Strip
Grain size,
6 7 - - 7 10
ASTM No min 5 5 s s s s
A heat of steel or grain size predominantly 5 or less, with grains as large as 3 Is permissible.
3. 032 Compression
3.012 Grain size speclllcaUons on bars, forgings arr:l forging 3.0321 Stress strain diagrams
stock (5), on heavy wall tubing for machining (6), arr:l 3. 03211 Stress strain curves for sheet at roum arr:l elevated
on sheet, strip and plate (1) same as on footnote, temperatures In compression, Pig. 3. 03211.
Table 3. 011. 3.0322 I!Cfect or room arr:l elevated temperatures on yield
3.013 Typical room temperature prc.::'Crties of wrought and strength or sheet In compression, Pig. 3. 0322.
cast alloy, Table 3. 013. 3.033 Impact
3.0331 I!CCect of la.v arr:l elevated temperatures on Charpy V
TARLI'! ~- 013
[:Source Impact properties at various streagth levels, Pig.
(11
Alloy Fe- o. 3C)O. 95Cr-o. 20Mo 3.0331.
3.034 Berr:llng
Form Wrought, rod Cast 3.035 Torsion and sbear
Corr:lltlon HR CD 3.0351 .Effect of room aDd e:evated temperatures on shear
Norm 16501' strength of normalized and heat treated alloy, Pig.
+16001', WQ 3.0351.
AR Norm Ann Unann Ann 11SOF, AC 3.036 Bearing
Ftu ksl 116 108 88 122 98 137 3.036! I!Cfect or room and elevated temperatures on bearing
""?' ksl
e( In) percent
70
22
65
27 30
60 105 82 109
3.037
strength or sbeet, Fig. 3. 0361.
Stress concentration
16 20 13.5
RA- percent 53 57 65 45 53 3!.2 3.0371 Notch properties
Hardness, BHN 229
Surface
207 179 248 201 - 3.03711 I!Cfect of la.v arr:l elevated temperatures on net frac-
ture stress and percent shear area on fracture surface
or shear cracked sheet specimens heat treated to 200
Ftu kal at room temperature, Fig. 3.03711.
3.03712 Comparison between two methods or determining frac-
3.02 Mechanical Prope rtles at Room Temperature tm., stress arr:l fracture appearance, Fig. 3. 03712.
3.021 Tension 3.03713 I!Cfea or la.v arr:l elevated temperatures on tensile
3.0211 Stress strain diagrams propenles or smOoth specimens arr:l on net fracture
3.0212 I!Cfect or tempering terr.perature on tensile properties stress and percent shear area on fracture surface for
or casting, Pig. 3. 0712. shear _cracked heet specimens heat treated to 240
3.0213 I!Cfect or temperlnj; temperature on tensile propertl:s
~u lr.sl at room temperature, Fig. 3. 03713.
or bar, Fig. 3.0213.
3.03714 lllrect of la.v -and elevated temperatures arr:l load
3.0214 I!Cfect ol size or quenched bar on tensile properties
rate on net fracture stress and fracture ~tppearance
of specimens cut from Inside of bar, Fig. 3. 0214.
3.022 on fatigue cracked sheet specimens heat treated to
Compression
3.023 250 Ftu ksl at room temperature, Fig. 3.03714.
Impact 3.0372 Fracture toughness
3.0231 I!Cfect or tempering temperature on room temperature
3.038 Combined properties
Impact properties of extruded bar, Pig. 3.0231.
3.039 Other static properties
3.024 Berr:llng
3.025 Torsion arr:l shear
3.04 Creep and Creep Rupture Properties
3.026 Bearing
3.041 Creep rupture curves front 700 to 1100 1', Fig. 3,041.
3.027 Stress concentration
3.0271 Notch properties, see section 3, 0326.
3.05 Fatigue Properties
3.028 Combined properties
3.051 SN curve at room temperature In rotating bending,
3.03 Mechanical Properties at Various Temperatures Fig. 3.051.
3.031
3.052 I!C!ect or weld configuration arr:l surface grinding on
Tension
3.0311 fatigue lite at sheet In axial loading at room tempera
Stress strain diagrams
ture, Fig. 3. 052.
3.03111 Stress strain curves for sheet at room and elevated
temperatures in tension, Fig. 3.03111. 3.06 l!lutlc Properties
3.0312 I!Cfect or la.v arr:l elevated temperatures on tensile 3.061 Poisson's ratio 0. 23, (18), 0. 288, (24).
properties of normalized arr:l heat treated bar, 3.062 Modulus or elasticity
Pig. 3.0312. 3.0621 I!Clect al room and elevated temperature on elastic
3.0313 I!Cfect of room arr:l elevated temperatures on tensile modulus In tenalon and compreaslon aa determined
properties of sheet, Pig. 3. 0313. from ""Iitle stress stnln curves, Fig. 3. 0621.
3.0314 I!Cfect or room and elevated temperatures, strain 3.063 Modulua al rigidity
rate arr:l holding time on tenaUe properties of normal- 3.064 l!lrect of streas and teU-.penture on tangent modulua In
Ized sheet, Fig. 3, 0314. compreaalon, Fig. 3. 064.
3.0315 I!Cfect or room arr:l elevated temperatures, strain rate
krr:l holdlllg time on tensile properties or heat treated 4. FABRICATION
sheet, Pig. 3. 0315.
3.0316 I!Cfect of teat temperature arr:l strain rate on tensile 4.01 Formability
properties or high strength sheet In range exhibiting 4.011 General
strain aging, Fig. 3. 0316.

CODE 1201
PAGE 2
FeUH
MARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

4.012 Forging. StartlnJ temperature 2300 F maximum,


flnlshl"'l temperature 1650 F mlnlmwn, (9). Recom
meDdoo forging temperature range 2000 to 2200 F,
Fe
alr or slow cOCil alter fot"glng with finishing tempera-
tute preferably above 1800 F, (11).
0.3 c
4.02
4.021
Machlol!!g and Grinding
General. Cold drawn material has machinability
~ ro~~~~~----~~~--~----~--~
a:
0.95Cr
0.2 Mo
ratlf;g of 60 percent of IllS! 81112 Bessemer screw ;!
st<clc. U annealed prior to cold drawing the machlo .J
ablllty can be advanced 10 percent for most machining
operations, (11). a 20~-----r------~~~-r----_,--~ 4130
"'~ 0
:.:
4.03 Welding 16 24 32
4,031 General. The alloy Is readily welded by either oxy DISTANCE FROM QUENCHED BND- SIXTBBNI'H IJICH
acetylene or electric arc process. For oxyacetylene
welding, a soft' neutral ilame Is used, with a welding FIG. 1. 062 E:NJJ.QUBNCH HIIRDEN.AB!LITY (29, p. 211 )
rod of same composltlon. Par arc welding d c-equlp
ment with shielded t~rc carbon-molybdenum electrodes
or other recommended electrodes are used, (11).
Both .A-613 and Oxweld 71 filler wires show good
compatibility with thl steel when heated to Ptu
between 150 to 200 ksl, although ductility Is Detter
Cor the .A-613 filler when measured In tensile s~lmens 500~----T-----~----~-----r~
colllalnlng a welded cross-section or In tensile specl- Fe-(0, 3C)O, 95Cr-o. 20Mo
me~t~~ D)&Chlned entirely from the welded region, (16), !INDIA BAR
Hellarc filler wires MW am ll-515 and electrode
AW-4 .ore satisfactory fur welding material at all
strength levels between Ptu 125 to 200 leal . They also
have the ben haodllng characteristics , (!3). Brazing
Type J04.stalnless steel to 4130 steel with Oxweld 26
braze alloy produces metallurgically sound joints. which
do not appeor to be excessively susceptible to corro
slon: (19). The alloy can be satisfactorily vacuum
metallized with aluminum coatings of thickness at least
up to 0.0003 loch, (20).

4.04 Heat Treatment

4.05 Surface Treatment

FIG. 1.063 BFFBc:I' OF TEMPERII'K: TEMPERATURE ON


HARDNESS OF QUENCHED AND TEMPERED
ROD (ll)

"'.J Fe(0.3C)O. 95C'rO. 20Mo


~ 320
BAR, FORGII'K:
'1550 F, OQ, +TEMPER 1000 f
z
:l:
"'
~ 280
\
0
a:
<
:: 240
"'~
\ \
s 200
~ ~
"' 0 1 2 3
DIAMETER OF QUENCHED BAR IN BOO IOOl 1:100 1400
TBMPI!RJJ~X; TEMP F
FIG. 1.061 EFFECT OF BAR SIZE ON SURF/ICE
HARDNESS OF QUEJICI1BD AND FIG. I. OM EFFBc:I' OF TI!MPI!RI!IC TEMPER/\
TEM.t'I!RED SPECIMENS
TURE ON HARDNESS OF CIIST1t-K:
(II, 'Ill!.. 5) (12)

CODE 1201
PAGE 3
~'W't I

FERROUS ALLOYS MARCH 1963

Fe(O. 3C)-D. 9SCrO. 20Mo 30 ~-----.----.---,.....---,


Fe TUBIN:l AS QUEN::HED Fe-(0. 3C)-D. 95~r-O. 20Mo
0.3 c Ill
..:1
<
+TEMPER,! HR.

0.95Cr
0.2 Mo
ll
"'
l) .. L )<25m
"'~ I
Q 1
4130
"'
<
;.:
40
l RC ~ .
..:1
iil
"'8
:00: 20

"'
0
0 200 .f()J 600 800 1000 1200
FIG. 2. 013 THBRMAL CONDUCTIVITY (2')
TEMPERIN3 TEMP F

FIG. I. 055 EFFECT OF TEMPBRIN3 TEMPERATURE ON HARDNESS OF


TUBIN:l (21)

1600 ~-------------r----------------r-----~F-e~~o~.~3~-o~.~95C~r~
-o~.~20C~o-,
A AUSTENITlZED AT 1550F

. "'"
Fe-(0. 3C)O. 95CrO. 20Mo
"' r--
~ 1000
....

v --- - \_, v"'"\

7 LINEAR MEAN COEP


THERMAL EXPANSION

400 ~1------------~1~0~--------~1~
------------~r-----~~~_J

FRQd RT TO T i P
TIMB SECONJS INDICATED1
2
FIG. 2. 01211 TIMETBMPBRATURBTRANSFORMATION DIAGRAM FOR 400 0 400 800 1200 1600
ALLOY AUSTENlTlZED AT 1550 F (30, p. 101) TEMP P

Calculated Temperature. PIG. 2.014 THERMAL EXPANSION (24)

CODE 1201
PAGE 4
FeUH
MARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

0.40 240
Pe-(0. 3C)-D. 95Cr-o. 20Mo Fe
0.3 c
0.35 240 200 0.95Cr
0.2 Mo
ii:" 0.30 ~ 200 16(1 ~
' ~4130
~ [.
E 0.25 160 120
"'
SPECIPtC HI!AT

0.20 80
~

/ \ ~40~--4---~--~~~
_....v
0.15
u
re
0.10
0 fOO 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 800 141>)
TEMP- F TEMPERIN:l TEMP P

PIG. 2.015 SPECIFIC HI!AT (24) J>IG, 3.0212 EFFECT OF TEMPBRIN:l TEMPERA
TURE ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF
CASTIN:l (1~

~ C)-0. 95Cr-O. 20Mo


',., ... IN R!oR
240
QUENCHED
+TEMPER

.160 ~

40
Pe-(0.3 )-0. 95CrO. 20Mo

~ECTRICAL
v
RESISTIVITY
10 /
[7 0 o~-----40~o~--~so~J~~-~2~00----I-J400
0 400 BOO 1200 TEMPERIN:l TEMP P
TEMP- F
PIG. 3.0213 EFFECT OF TEMPnt!I.C TEMPERA
FIG . 2.022 ELECTRICAL RESISTIVrrY TURE ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF
(24) BAR (II)

CODE 1201
PAGE !5
FeUH
FERROUS ALLOYS MARCH 1963

Fe Pe-(0.3C) -0.95Cr0 .20 Me Fe(O. C)O. 95CrO. 20Mo


160 1550 F, 0Q O.OM IN SHEET
0.3 c +TEMP R 1000 F HT TO 125 KSI PTU AT RT

0.95Cr
iil 120
~ FTU RT

I~ r--
.0.2 Mo :.:
80 I--+~4~00~F-1--......:j
4130 80 EXPOSURE
1/2 TO 10 HR
120
0.505INTE NSILE SPECIMENS CUT
PROM CENI'ER (I INDIA) OR AT
MIDRADIUS (2 AND 3 IN DIA)
80
!a1>1 RA
t)
0:
1>1
"' 40
e 2 IN)

0
J I 2 3 4
DIAMETER OF QUENCHED BAR IN 0.004. 0.008 0.012
STRAIN IN PER IN
FIG. 3. 0214 EFFECT OF SIZE OP QUENCHED BAR ON FIG. 3.03111 STRESS STRAIN CURVES FOR
TENSILE PROPERTIES OF SPECIMENS CUT SHEET AT ROOM AND ELEVATED
FROM INSIDE OF BAR (11) TEMPERATURES IN TENSION
(25, FIG. 43, 49, 57)

200r-----r---~~--~----~--
--~
Fe(O. 3C)-O. 95CrO. 2lMo
B.~R

iil
:.:
so t---"1:-<;~-+-.......;~~~--~----1
120
Fe(O. 3C)-O. 95CrO. 20Mo
11NBAR

80
15501600 F, WQ+TEMPER
/
IECHAR PYV/
v
t: 40

___./
v !220 r----+~~~~--~~~~~
1>1
t)
~
0:
1>1
400 600 80)
TEMPERIJIXI TEMP F
1000 121>)
"' 0 ~---~----~
40J 0 ----~-----~----~
'OJ BOO 1200 1600
TEMP- F
FIG. 3. 0231 EFFECT OF TEMPERIJIXI TEMPERATURE ON
ROOM TEMPERATURE IMPACT PROPBRTIBS FIG. 3. 0312 EFFECT OF LOW AND !!.LEVATED TEMPERA
OF EXTRUDED BAR (11, TBL. 3) TURES ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF NORMAL
IZED AND HEAT TREATED BAR (24) (25)

CODE 1201
PAGE 6
t-eUH
MARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS
... ...
~

:/1
~
r-----~----~----------~----~----~200
Fe(O. 3C)-O. 95CrO. 20Mo
Fe
0.3 c
0.95Cr
0.2 Mo
2)0
4130

- 160 --1-~..--"H------1 80 -
"'
:.: "'
:.:

>- ::J
l-'
~120 l-__:~.::r40 11.

80 0

40
.125 INS EET
HT TO 170 KSI FTU AT RT
oe O.OM IN SHEET
HTTO 125 KSI F T RT
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
TEMP- F

FIG. 3.0313 EFFECT OF ROOM AND I!LI!VATI!DTI!MPERA-


TURES ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF SHEET
(25)

120

80

~w~~~~~--4-----~-----+----~~~~

J 401-----+-----4-----~~~--~---__:~~~~

~40
Ill
u
"'
0 lo~::;2too;::::4!oo~==:;~~~l==::~8!oo;=::~,o~o~J====~,2oo
Ill
....

TEMP- F

FIG. 3. 0314 EFFECT OF ROOM AND ELI!V ATI!D TEMPERA


TURES, STRAIN RATE AND HOLOJN:; TIME ON
TENSILE PROPERTIES OF NORMALIZED SHEET
(28)

CODE 1201
PAGE 7
FeUH

FERROUS ALLOYS MARCH 1963

\ ....)
Fe
0.3 c
0.95Cr
0.2 Mo
80
4130

HOLOIN3 TIME, SBC 0


A0010
..... 1800
STRAIN RATE, IN/IN/SBC -1---+---4-~~....1
A A 0.00005
0 0.01
01.0

200 fOO 600 800


TEMP- F
FIG. 3.0315 BPPBCr OF ROCd AND ELEVATED TI!MPBRA-
TURBS. STRAIN RATE AND HOLD!~ TIMB ON
TENSILE PROPERTIBS OP HEAT TREATED SHEET
(28)

....... ,.:

0 200 .fOO 500


TEMP - P

PIG. 3.0316 BPPBCr OP TB5I' TEMPERATURE AND STRAIN


RATE ON TBNSILB PROPBRTIBS OP HIGH
STRE~H SHEET IN RA~E EXHIBIT!~
STRAIN AGOO (23)

CODE 1201
PAGE 8
FeUH
MARCHI963 FERROUS ALLOYS

--- -
Fe-(0. 3C)-O. 95Cr-O. 2~Mo
0.064 IN SHI!lrr
120
Fe-(0.3C) -o, 95Cr-o. 20Mo Fe
;!!.i!.OR~2S ICSI RT FTU
100 -Lin ' 160 TO 180 ICSI FT .ATRT 0.3 c
;d:,40.: F
;,;::R 80 --....... 0.95Cr
80
'..,~Oi F
z_ 80[ F i2 ~~~L~;,- --- ~ 0.2 Mo

' / /2 TOtO iiR 40


Fsu
~ 4130

40
v UK~'

I/2HR 0
0 200 400 600
TEMP- F
800 1000
'"""-

1200

FIG. 3,0351 EFFI!CT OF ROCM AND I!LI!VAT0 TEMPBRATURES


ON SHI!AR STRI!~TH OF NORMALIZED AND HI!AT
20
TRI!ATBD ALLOY (24) (25)

0
I COMPaBf lON (T)

0 o. 004
o. 008 o. 012
STRAIN - IN PI!R IN
FIG. 3, 03211 STRI!SS STRAIN CURVI!S FOR SHI!lrr
AT ROCM AND I!LI!VATBD TI!MPI!RA-
TURI!S IN Ca.!PRI!SSION
(25, FIG. 54-58)
120
Fe(O. 3C)O. 95Cr-O. 20Mo
~

;
80-
---- -~
0. 064 IN SHI!Irr

-
HT TO 2S ICSI P :.J AT RT
1

~~
~- 40 ....
''"'"'
FTY '
0 0
200 4QoJ 500 800 1000 1200
TEMPF
PIG. 3,0322 EFFI!CT OF ROCM AND I!LI!VATBDTI!MPI!RA
TURI!S ON YIELD STRBN:lTH OF SHI!Irr IN
Ca.!PRI!SSION (25, FIG. 40)

Pe-(0. 3C)O, 95Cr-o. 20Mo


40
/'
3(1
II!CHARP YV
~ -- 200

.. Fe-(0, 3C)-o, 95Cr-o. 2ilMo


0. 064 IN SHI!Irr

I~~ / HT TO 12.; ICSI PTU AT RT


160

- ---- ~ I'..
~ 2il
'I
A.

I .,i/, 12~ :---


t: I'
~
~~
PBRY
10
~-1.5
HT TO Fro AT RT
' j. - - 150 - 160 KSI 80
~,

~
- - - 100 - 120 KSI
0 - - -:83 - 95 K"Si
-400 -2oa o 200 400
TI!MP- F 40 0 200 400 600 800 10110 1200
FIG. 3.0331 I!FFI!CT OF LOW AND I!LI!VATI!O TBM TEMP- F
PI!RATURI!S ON CHARPY V IMPACT PRO- FIG. 3.0361 BFFI!CT OF ROCM AND I!LI!VATBDTBMPBRATURB
PI!RTII!S AT VARIOUS STR~H LI!VI!LS
ON BI!AROO STR~TH OF SHI!BT
(24, FIG. 77)
(25, FIG. 42, 44)

CODE i201
f'AGE
FeUH
FERROUS ALLOYS MARCH 1963

2~r-----~----~------r------r-----,
Fe Fe-(0. 3C)-O. 95Cr-O. 2uMo
0.100 IN SHEI!T
0.3 c 11, 68 MIN, 0Q + 825 F,1 HR
1700

0.95Cr 200~~~~~~~t:---r---1
0.2 Mo lC

L------J ill~ 160 t--,-fU~i----.ljlo.I~--'G::----'i----t


4130 ffi Q
u I NET FRACTURE STRESS
~ 1~ ~f--,_---+---~--,_---i
o I PRACTUr APPs:rNCE - i_SHEAR
~ I -- - --~
~ 80 !-"'~'--I--t---STANDARD SPECIMENS, STRAIN
I RATE 0001 IN/SEC
I ---SHEAR CRACKED SPECIMEN;,
I CROSSHP.AO RATE .01 IN/MIN
iO
~ r=a !12---il 'T
0
I
I
oi!l
SHEAR C ACKED S ECIME
3p-b:
-2uo 0

PIG. 3.03711 EFFECT OF LOW AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURES


ON Nl!T FRACTURE STRESS AND PERCEI'IT SHEAR
AREA ON FRACTURE SURFACE OF SHEAR CRACKED
SHEET SPECIMENS HEAT TREATED TO 200 FTU KSI
AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
(22, FIG. II, TBL. 14, IS)
Fc-(0. 3C)-O. 95Cr-O. 20Mo
0. 040 IN SHEI!T
1~70 F. 30 MIN (ARGON), 0Q
28 ot--+---t----~-----+-~+_4~0~0~P~~2~H~R~_4
.....

J Fc-(0.3C)-0.95Cr -0.20 Mo
0.100 IN SHEET
~
<e200~~~--+~~~=a~~~-~+---4-~
170r F,6S Ml~ OQ, +825 F,l HR :c
2JO "'
;; NET FJACTURE lrrRESS ~ lbO t---+---~i----+-~~~--~~~~+--4

~
~
lC

lC
160 ~'-... ...
~~

~ ~ t---t-----+---~----t----+----~-4
........... ~ '(/'
:c
"'
Ill
f "l:f''
;;;
:..:
120

u 120
lC
...
N

~
< 80 ~
, F~CTURE APi'EARANCE-% S!iEAR 80
tl. .STAND~ RD SPECIMENS, STRAIN RATE
0.0001/SBC
SHEAR CRACKED SPECIMENS, CROSSHEAD RATE
iil fO 0.01 IN/MIN 1----3 V~
:..:

fO
I o.@ _yiTr2
0 L--4---~-----~-S_H~EA~R~C~R~A~C~K~ED~S~PEC~IM~E~N~~
0 0 FATIGUE CRACKED SPECIMENS
-200 0 200 400 6()) 800
IJ SHiR CRACiED SPECLENS
TEMP- F
a
-200 0 2()) 40U 600 SOJ FIG. 3.03713 EFFECT OF LOW AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
TEMP- F ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF SMOOfH SPECIMENS,
AND ON NET FRACTURE STRESS AND PERCEI'IT
FIG. 3. 03712 COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO MBTHOOS OF SHEAR AREA ON FRACTURE SURFACE FOR SHEAR-
DllTERMINING FRACTURE STRESS AND CRACKED SHEET SP2CIMENS HEAT TREATED TO
FRACTURE APPEARANCE. 240 FTU KSIAT ROOM TEMPERATURE
(22, FIG. 39, II, TBL. 42, 14, iS) (22, FIG. 8, TBL. 8, 9)

CODE 1201
PAGE 10
FeUH
MARCH 1963 FERROUS AL~OYS
.... ~

b 260
Pe-(0. 3C)-o. 95Cr-o. 20Mo Fe
0.040 lN SH.BBT
iii
:.0:
570 P 1 30 MlN (ARGO~ OQ, 0.3 c
I 220
0.95,Cr
~
0.2 Mo
E
Dl 180
4130
t;
<
a: 140
"'
!;;
z

a: 50
~ PIG. 3.051 SN CURVE .AT ROOM TEMPERATURE 1N
ill
I
RarATING BENDING (27, FIG. 4)
~ 100 1---t!KPt:}-+-M----e~~...a.,e-o....o---1

~
0
200 400 600
TEMP- P
PIG. 3:037.14 EPPBCT OF LOW AND ELEVATED TEMP-
ERATURES .AND LOAD RATE ON NIIT FRACTURE
STRESS .AND FRACTURE .APPEARANCE ON
FATIGUE CRACKED SHEIIT SPECIMENS HEAT
TREATED TO 250 PTU KSI AT Road TEMPERA-
TURE (23, 'Il!L. 3A5.A)

Fe(O. 3C)O. 95CrO. 20Mo


1650 F. OQ
200
+1100. HR

200
I- I HR AT 110 KSI Rs2. 7~ Fe-(0.3C)O. 95Cr-o. 20Mo
700 F ~ O.I25 INSHEIIT
100 O. I2S ~ 180 TO 2il3 P KSI
80 ::.J 3 .0 ~ ............ ,..,_, ~TRT
~ !...ann"
60
- 103
on
:.0:
1 80
'.
~ .
'~~
~
>:
60
-UNWELDED
'...:: '
~
'
;j - - PlSHMOUTH WELD, GROU

' 40 - - SC.ARPWBLD, GROIDIJ- r:z::J _

""
----- BlTIT WELD, UNGROUND}- [IJ
---- BlTIT WELD, GROUND
20
~ CURVES FAIR ED THROUGH MEANS OF .APPROX

1>--1100 F
8 TBSTS1 EACH .AT 0. 6 FTU, 0. 4 FTU, 0, 3 FTU
4 5 6
10 10 10
NUMBER OF CYCLES
10
10 100 1000
TIME HR PIG. 3.052 EFFBCT OF WELD CONFIGURATION AND
SURFACE GRINDING ON FATIGUE LIFE OF
FIG. 3.0H CREEP RUPruRE CURVES FROM 700 SHEIIT IN .AXIAL LOADING AT Road TEMP
TO 1100 F (21) ER.ATURE (15, FIG. 2 TO 5)

I
..... " CODE 1201
PAGE II
rvun

FERROUS ALLOYS MARCH 1963

"'l!...
Fe Fe-(0.3C) -Q. 95Cr-o. 20Mo RBFBRBNCBS
0.3 c O.OS4INSHBBT
HT TO 125 FTU AT RT 1 AMS 6351, (Dec. 1, 1953)
32 2 AMS 6360D, (Feb. 15, 1953)
0.95C r
e-- ~ 3 AMS 6361, (JUDe 1, 1942)
0.2 Mo (-!:._ i'--- 4
5
AMS 6362, (June 1, 1942)
AMS 6370D, (Oct. 1, 1951)
!2 24 6 AMS 6371C, (Oct. 1, 1951)
4130 8 OB}STATIC
7 AMS 5336, (July 1, 1957)

""' \
5: 8 Bendix Aviation Corp., '"Process SpeeJflca tlon 4130 Steel,

OBc No. P. S. 2101-4130, (March 18, 1958)
16 1\. 9 Wyma.a..Oordon, '"Forging Tempera ture Spec:Uicatlons on
Csrboo Steels,'" (Jan. 19, 1959)
STRAIN RATB
10 Sachs, George, '"Survey of Low Alloy Aircraft Steels Heat
0.01 IN PBR MIN
Treated to High Strength Levels,'" WAOC TR 53254, Plan
8 0
L (Aug. 1954)
4,
200 400 600 BOJ IOJO 1200 11 Alloy Digest AISI 4130 FUing Code SA 23 Steel-All oy,
TBMJ'- F (New. 1954)
12 Hayues StellJte Co., '"Haynes Low Alloy Steels, '" (1959)
FIG. 3.0621 BFFBCT OF ROOM AND BLBVATBDTBMl'BRATURBS 13 Geueral Dynamics Corp., ''Determi nation of Mechanic al
ON BLASTIC MODULUS IN TENSION AND COMPRESSION Propenle s of Material 4130 Steel Weldlag, '" Rep. No. FTOM
AS DBTBRMINBD FROM STATIC STRBSS STRAIN CURVBS 1626, (AprU 6, 1962)
(25, FIG. 4858) 14 Geaeral Dynamics Corp., '"Btfect of Incomple te Root Pene
tratlon on Mecba.alcal Propertie s of Wlag-lnb oard Pylon Box
and Outboard Pylon Plate Welds,'" Rep. No. FGT-1997 ,
(AprU 9, 1962)
15 McDonnell Alrcralt, 'Tenslle Fatigue Test ot Welds on 4!30
Steel,'" Rep. No. 8875, (July 10, 1962)
16 General Dynamics Corp., MBvaluatlon ot Flller Metals
(Biectrod es and Weldlag Rods) for Low Alloy Steels, '" Rep.
No. FTOM 2776, (Jan. 30, 1962)
17 McDonnell Aircraft Co., First Quanerly Progress Repon
oo
Unpubllahed Materials Research and Developm ent Programs
,
Rep. No. 8743, Vol. 11, Serial 1, (AprU 10, 1962)
18 O'Keef,., D. P., '"Development of Methods for the Oetermln
a-
tlon ot Blalltlc Constanta for Sheet Metal at Elevated Tempera

ture,'" General Dynamics Rep. No. ERR-FW-Q53, (March
7,
1962)
19 McDonnell Aircraft Co., '"Brazing ot 304 to 4130 and Oxidation
Protection ot Vaacojet 1000, .. Rep. No. 8877, Serial No.
1, ......
(July 10, 1962)
20 McDonnell Aircraft Co., First SemiAnn ual Summary Repon
oo Unpublished Materials Research and Developm ent Programs
,
Repon 8938, Serial 1, (July 10, 1962)
21 Babcock and WUcox Co., Data Sheet'on 4140, 4130
and 410
Steels, (1962)
22 Morrison , ], D., and Kattus, ]. R., SlD1Jmary Technica l
Fe(O. 3C)O. 95CrO. 20Mo Repon on '"AD Investigat ion of Methods for OetermiDing the
100 1--- +--- 0. 0625 Crack-Pr opagation Resistanc e of High Strength Alloys, '"
IN SHEBT
Southern Research lnst. Prepared under Bu. Naval Weapons
3~J~.t:sT~ ~~~~~: ;~ Contract NO as 606040-c ,(Oct. 14, 1959 through Jan. 14,
1961)
TEST Southern Research Institute, '"An Investiga tion ot the Crack
23
Propagation Rl!slstanc e of High Strength Alloys and Heat
Resistant Alloys,'" Prepared under Bu. Naval Weapons
Contract NO as 61-D392-d. Bimonthly Progress Rep. No.
5,
(Nov. 23, 1961)
- 60 ~-~.....,::,'k---+-==l--++---i 24 Nonh American Aviation Data Sheet on Alloy Steel-AIS I 4130,
~ Al2604
25 Favor, Ronald J., Achboch, WUIIam P., and Hyler, Walter
S., Materials -Propert y Design Criteria for Metals, l'lart
7,
'The Conventional ShortTim e Blevated Tempera ture Proper
ties ot Selected Low and Medium Alloy Steels," WAOCTR
-55-
150, Plan 7
26 Miller, Donald E., '"Determination of the Tensile Compres

slve and Bearing Propenh: a ot Ferrous and Nonferro ua
STRAIN RATE Structura l Sheet Material at Elevated Tempera tures, '"
0. 01 IN P~R MIN AF TR 6517, Plan 5, ASTIA No. AD142218.
27 Manson, S. S., Nachtlgall, A. ]. , and Frecbe, ]. C., '"A
O COMPR ION Proposed New Relation for ClD11ulatlve Fatigue Damage In
0 10 20 30 40 Bendlag,'" Proc. ASTM, (1961)
TA~ENT MODULUS - KSI 28 WAOC, 'Tenslle Propertie s of Alrcraft Structura l Metals
at
Various Rates ot Loading After Rapid Heat1J18, '" Rep. No.
FIG. 3. 064 BFFBCT OF STRI!Ss AND TEMPERA 55t99, Pt. 2, ASTIA No. AD 110540, (Nov. 1956)
TURB ONTA~ENT MODULUS IN 29 Metals Handbook. ASM, Vol. 1, 8th l!dltloq,, (1961)
COMPRBSSION 30 United States Steel Co., '"Atlas of Isotherm al Tra.aator matlon
(26, FIG. 75) Diagrams ,'" (1951)

CODE 1201
PAGE 12
REVISED MARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

1. GENERAL
TABLE 1 0554
'Ibis Is a medlwn carbon chramlwn-molybdenwn steel
3
Fe
Source
widely used where the blgber strength capabUity and blgber
bardenalllllty of 4340 Is not req~~lred. It ls avaUable In all All.Qy_ FeC0.4C 1Cr0.2Mo
Recommended
0.4 c
commercial wrought forms and ls used for blgb strength Min tempering temp - F
castlngs,(1) (2. p.3) (3) (7). TensUe strengths up to240J:sl
Ftu - ksl tempering range - F I Cr
are readU y achieved through coaventiooal beat treatment, 200-220 700 750-850
0.2 Mo
(8), It can be nltrlded successfully. 180-200 800 850 - 950
160 - 180 950 950 1100
1.01 Commercial Designation. 4140. 4140
1.02 Alternate Designations. SAE 4140, AlSl 4140.
The deslgnatloo 4140 H denotes the steel Is supplied to
bardeuabUity limits.

1.03 Specifications. Table 1. 03. 1.06 HardenabUlty


1.061 Bnd quench hardenabUity, Pig. 1.061.

TABLE 1 03 1.07 Forms and Conditions Available


AMS Form M1 tary 1.071 This steel Is avaUable In full commercial range of sizes
5336 Precision Investment castings and forms for wrought products. Hot rolled or cold
5338 Precision Investment castings finished stock Is furnished In the annealed, normalized or
6378 Bars, die drawn and tempu' spheroldlzed coodltloo, (1) (7).
F c 130 J:sl 1.072 Ole drawn and tempered bars areavaUable to mlnlmwn ten
6379 Ba~s, die drown and temper sUe property specifications, (26) (27).
p cy = 165 kill 1.073 Investment castings furnished In normall:r.ed and tempered
6381 A Heavy wall tubing condition, unless otherwise speclf1ed (AMS 5336 and 5338),
6382 0 Bars, forgings and forging stock MILS-5626 (22) (23).

1.08 Melting and Castl!!g Practice. Open hearth or electric


furnace air melt.
Composition. Table l. 04.
1.09 Special Considerations. When beat treated to high atrengtb
levels special precautions must be taken to avoid hydrogen
embrlttlement and reduce stress concentrations. See 4340.
TABLE 1 04
AMS (22) (24) (25) 2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Source AMS (23)
(26) (27)
Percent Percent 2. 01 Thermal Properties
Min Max Min Max 2. 011 Melting point.
o.38 0.43 0.35 0.45 2. 012 Critical temperatures, (1):
Carbon
0.80 1.10 0.80 1.10 A 1380 F Ac3 1460 F
Chromlwn 1
Manganese
Molybdenwn
0.75
0.15
1.00
0.25
0.75
0.15
1.00
0.25 M;
Ac 1280 F
650 P
Ar3 1370 F
Mf 500 F
SUicon 0.20 0.35 -- 1.00 2.013 Thermal conductivity. 22 Btu ft per (hr sq ft F), (9).
Phosphorus
Sulfur
-
-
0.040
0.040 -
0.040
0.040
2. 014 Thermal expaosloo at 0 to 200 F, 6. 3 x 10~ In per In
perF, (9),
Iron Balance Balance 2. 015 Specific heat. 0.107 Btu per (lb F), (9).
AMS 6378 spec!fles 0. 38 to 0. 45C (26)
~379 specifies 0. 40 to 0. 53C (27) 2.02 Other Physical Properties
AMS
2.021 Density. 0. 283 lb per cu ln. 7. 83 gr per cu em, (9).
AMS 5336 specifies 0. 25 to 0. 35C (22)
2.022 Electrical properties
2.023 Magnetic properties. Steel Is ferromagnetic.

2. 03 Chemical Properties. See 4340,


1. 05 Heat Treatment Nuclear Properties
2.04
l. 051 Normalize. 1600 to 1650 F, alr cool, (1). AMS 5336 spec
lfles 1700 to 1750 P, 1 hr mlnlmwn, air cool, (22); AMS MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
3.
5338 specifies 1650 to 1700 P, 1 hr minlmwn, air cool,
(23); AMS 6382 0 and 6381 A specify 1690 to 1710 F, (24) 3.01 Sneclfled Mechanical Properties
(25). l){lnlmwn guaranteed properties for heat treated bar and
3.011
l. 052 Anneal. 1550 to 1600 P, furnace cool, (1 ). forgings, Table 3.011.
1.053 Harden. 1550 to 1600 P, oil quench, (1). AMS 5336 spec!
flea 1590 to 1610 P, 30 min, oU quench; AMS 5338 specifies
1540 to 1560 P, 30 min, oll quench; AMS 6381 A and 6382
0 specify 1540 to 1560 F.
1.054 Spheroldlze. 1400 to 1425 P, furnace cool, (1).
1. 055 Specified heat treatment process for ultimate tensile TABLE 3 011
strength up to 220 ksl, (3). Source ASM 10
1,0551 Anneal. 1525 to 1575 P, furnace, ash or lime cool. Alloy Fe-<;0.4C 1Cr~.2Mo
1.0552 Normsll:r.e. 1575 to 1700 F, air cool. Temper 1250 P Form Bar forllln~rs
maxlmwn draw for machlnabUity. Temper 1D Temper to rremper to
Condition Norm
1. 0553 Austenltl:r.e. 1500 to 1575 F, oll quench (75 to 140 P) cool Fro 140kat Ftu160kal Ptul80kai
to 160 F maxlmwn, or salt quench 390 to 410 P, 10 min 90 140 180
mlnlmwn, air cool to 160 F maxlmwn. Ptu' min ksl 160
Fty' min ksl 70 120 145 165
1.0554 Temper. Temper for 4 hr to required strength, see Table
+' . 1.0554.
e percent 15 14 12 10
~
'"'';..-

CODE 12031
FeUH
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISED MARCH 1963

3.012 .AMS specified properties, Table 3. 012.


Fe
0.4 c Source AMS 22
TABLE 3 012
AMS 23) I AMS 2S AMS 26 AMS(27
Cr A!ToV Fe-(0.4C -1Cr-D.2Mo
Bars, forgings and
0.2 Mo Form Prec Invest casting Prec Invest casting
forging stock Ole drawn Ole drawn

Condition Norm + 1590 to 1610 F, Norm + 1540 to 1560 F,


HF CF tempered tempered
4140 30 min;OQ + 800 F min 30 min, OQ + 900 F min
Ftu,
F '
min- ksi
min- ksi
150
125
liS
160
-- -- 150
130
180
165

-- --
efl D), min - percent s 3 10 5
RA, min - percent 10 6 35 20
Hardness

-- - -
BHN, min - 302 360
max - 229 241 - -
3.013 Typical room temperature properties of unhardened cast-
Ings, Table 3. 013. TABLE 3 0233
Source 12
TABLE 3 013 Allov Fe-10.4Cl-1Cr-D. 2Mo
Source 2, p,25 1 Form Extruded bar
Allov Fe-(0.4C)-1Cr-0. 2Mo Thickness - In 374x3 f/8
Form Cast Charpy Keyhole Impact Rockwell
Condition As-cast Norm Condition
Ann strength (ft lb) hardness
Ftu - ksi 131.3 90 135 Lonll Trans
p -ksl 100.8 60 100 As -enruded 24.5 16.3 890
e ty- percent 6.0(1in) 25 (2in) 16 (2 In)
RA- percent 8.0 Norm, 1650 P, OQ
45 28 14.5 8.5 C-48
Hardness + t<':nper 2 hr, 600 F
BHN
RC
-
33.5
220
-
275
-
Norm, 1650 P, 0Q
+temper 2 hr, 900 F 23.0 10.5 C-40
Each value average of 4 tests
3.014 Typical room temperature properties of unhardened
wrought steel, Table 3.014. 3.0.'1 Mechanical Properties at Various Tempezatures
3.031 Shon time tension properties
....... ,
3.0311 Effect of test temperature on tensUe properties ol. heat
TABLE 3 014 treated bar and forging at various strength levels, Fig.
Source I 3.0311.
Allov Fe-10.4C -1Cr-D.2Mo 3.0312 Effect of test temperature on tensile properties of
Form Wrouldtt alloy tempered at various temperatures, Pig. 3.0312.
!Condition As-rolled Ann Norm 3. 032 Short time properties other than tension
Ftu - ksi llO to 130 90 to 100 120 to 138 3. 0321 EUect of test temperature oo compressive yield strength
P - ksi 65 to 95 65 to 70 95 to 100 of bar and forgings, heat treated to various strength levels,
el! in)-perccn 15 to 20 25 to 27 18 to 22 Fig. 3.0321.
RA -percent 40 to 45 50 to 55 44 to 55 3. 0322 EUect of test temperature on shear strength of bar and
Hardness - forglngs 1heat treated to various strength levels, Pig
BHN 229 to 270 185 to 200 241 to 280 3.0322.
3. 0323 EUect nf test temperature on bearing strength nf bar and
forgings, heat treated to various strength levels, Pig.
3.0323.
3.0324 EUect of test temperature and various heat treatmentB 011
3.02 Mecllanical Properties at Room Temperature impact properties, Pig. 3. 0324.
3.021 Hardness 3.033 Static stress concentratloo eUects
3.0211 EUect of tempering temperature on room temperature 3.04 Creep a"rKI-creePRuptur e Propen"ies
hardneAs of castings and wrought bar, Pig. 3. 0211. 3.041 Creep curves at 1000 and 1200 P for sheet In various heat
3.0212 Effect of elevated temperature on room temperature hard- treated conditions, Pig. 3. 041.
ness of annealed and cold ro11ed bar, Pig. 3. 0212. 3.042 Creep curves at 600 P for steel, heat treated 180 to 200
3.0213 Effect of elevated temperature on room temperature hard- Flu -ksl, l"ig. 3. 042,
ness of heat treated and cold rolfed bar, Pig. 3. 0213. 3.043 Effect of coi<! rolling on rupture time of quenched and tem-
3.022 Tension properties ~red rod at v:orlous temperatures, Pig. 3. 043.
3.0221 Effect of tempering temperature on room temperature ten- 3.044 Effect of cold rolling on minimum creep rate of quencbed
sUe properties of cast steel, Pig. 3.0221. and tempered rod at various test temperatures, Fig. 3.044.
3.0222 Effect of tempering temperature on room temperature ten-
sUe properties of wrought bar, Fig. 3. 0222. 3.05 Fatigue Properties
3.0223 EUect of bar diameter on room temperature tensUe proper- 3.051 S-N curves at room tem;>erature for smooth and notched
ties of quencbed and tempered bar, Fig. 3. 0223. bar .In th~ longlrudlnal and transverse direction, Pig. 3.051.
3.0224 EUect of cold rolling on room temperature tensUe proper- 3;os2 S-N curv!"s at room tempen!ture for smooth bar, tempered
ties of bar, Fig. 3. 0224. to various strength levels, Pt~. 3. 052.
3.023 Properties other than tension . 3.053 S-N curves at room temperatur" for notched bar, tem-
3.0231 EUect of tempering temperature on room temperature pered to various strength levels, Pig. 3.053.
torsional properties of bar, Fig. 3. 0231.
3.0232 Effect of tempering temperature on rocm temperature im .. 4. FABRICATION
pact properties of bar, Fig. 3. 0232.
3.0233 Effect or tempering temperature on room temperature Im- 4.01 Forming an<! C:lslln&
pact properties of ruttrudoo bar, Table 3. 0233. 4.011 Porge at 2000 to 22 F with 1800 P minimum flnlsbing
temperature, (1).
'. FeUH

REVISED MARCH 1963


FERROUS ALLOYS

280 P -co:4G ).:'i'&- o.ZMo Fe

----
~- See43 40.
4.02
., 3/4 JN IllA BAR
0.4 c
See 4340.
4.03 Weldin g. ~ ......._
i'""
,., Heatin g and Heat Treati ng. See 4340.
~ .260
.JIY" -....:.; I Cr
~
~
4.04
0.2 Mo
R
v ANN160 0F,1:~
4.05
4.051
Surfac e Treatln &
This alloy may be nltrlde d to Improv e wear
resista nce, (1).
and abrasio n

hardne ss or
I uo .....,-- +HBA T 1 HR
+CR,
"""'- 4140
4.052 I!f!ect or tempe ring tempe rature on case
nitrlde d alloy, Fig. 4. 052.
~..:I AT INDICATBD TEMP

..:I
ga: 220
"" ll'l
COLD WORK (RA)
61\', 121\',
200 800 1000 1200
0 200 600400
~~~o,
TBMP - F
6,.-----~--~F~e--~~~.4C~)~-1~cr~-o~. TBMl'B RAnJR B ON ROOM
FIG. 3.0212 BFFBC T OF RLBVATBD AND
4140 H TBMPBRA'11lllB HARDNBSS OF ANNBAUID
COLD ROLLBD BAR {14, p.828)

~56
0

! 48

~40~--~~~~~~
..:I
..:I
~
~3 2~--~--+-~~~~
a:
AMS 6381A +6382 0
MINIMUM RBQUIRBMBNT
24L-----~-----L----- J~--~
8 24
16 32
0
DISTANCE FROM QUBNCHED END
SIXTB EN'lll IN
LITY (21)
FIG. 1. 061 END QUBNCH HARDENABI

Fe-(0. 4C)-1C r-O. 2Mo

i.o~----~--~~~~~~--~---;
~ -CA ST {2)
NORM, 1900 F, I HR, AC
~ +HAR D!600 F,1 HR,OQ
j!l: 32 + TBMPER --1-- --j-:l l,=:. ...:-+
-_,-- -i
~ e 1/2 IN DlA BAR
g NORM 1600 F
111 +HAR D !550 F, OQ
+TEM PER ,..,;.:{1:,:_)-1-- --11 ---- -l-+
--t
24
liN DIA BAR
OIL HARDEN
+TBM R (I)
16 1200 !400 TBMP - F
400 600 800 1000
ON ROOM
TEMPERING TEMP - F FIG. 3. 0213 BFFBC T OF BLBVATBD TBMPBRA'IURB
TBD
TEMPERATURE ON TEMPERA'IURB HARDNESS OF HBAT TRBA
FIG. 3.0211 EFFEC T OF TEMPERING GS AND COLD ROLI.BD BAR
ROOM TEMPE RATU RE HARDNESS OF CASTIN (14, p.827)
AND WROUGHT BAR (I) (2, p. 30)

CODE 1203
FeUH
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISED MARCH 1963

Fe 280 Pe-(0.4C -1Cr-0.2Mo


l'RBCINVBSTCAS11NG
0.4 c NORM 1900 P, 1 HR, AC
+ 1600 P, 1 HR, OQ
Cr 240 + TBMPBR, 1 HR --+----1
0.2 Mo
4140

Pe-(0.4C)-1 r-o. 2Mo 320


1/2 1N DlA BAR, NORM 1600 F
+RBHBAT 1550 P, OQ +TEMP (1)
1 1N DlA BAR, OIL HARDBN +TEMP (1)
J;lo,,...--- BAR, ANN 1550 P, OQ +TBMP (11) 280
0}1/2 1N NORM 1650 P +TBMP (13)
0 A DlA BAR. Q 1525 +TEMP (13)
600 800
TBMPBRlNG TBMP - P
PIG. 3.0221 BPPBCT OF TEMPBRING TEMPBRA-
TURB ON ROOM TEMPBRATURB 12
TENSILE PROI'BRTIBS OF CAST STEEL
(2, p.30) L_~~~-+----r---~~ ~

"'

80

TEMPERING TEMP P
PIG. 3. 0222 BPPBCT OF TEMI'BRING TEMPERATURB ON
ROOM TEMPBRATUi'.B TENSILE PROPBRTIBS
OF WROUGHT BAR
(J) (11) (13, p. 982)

ll"nn.,.
FeUH
REV I SED MARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

180 180 Pe-(0.4C)-1Cr-G.2! o


p -(0.4C)-1Cr-o.~o
BAR 3/4 IN DIA BAR
Fe
1550 P, OQ
+ 1000 P TEMP}!R
1600 P, ~ HR, OQ
+1170 P, 2HR __. 0.4 c
160
160 +CR
:.--- Cr

~~
1000 p

l\TU ~140
PTU
0.2 Mo

1\~ ~TY
140 ~
4140

120
~ 120
/
PTY\

100

80
60
SPECIMEN POSITION
BAR CENTER
.6.1/2 RADIUS
"' ......, 100

80
RA
~
.._ e

~ ~o.rs
0
0 10 20 30 40
~2IN) COlD ROLL - PBRCBNT
PIG. 3.0224 BPPBCT OF COlD ROLLING ON ROOM
TBMPBRATURB TBNSILB PROPBRTIBS
0
0 2 3 OF BAR
(14, p.820)
BAR DIAMETER - IN
PIG. 3. 0223 EFFECT OF BAR DIAMETER
ON ROOM TBMPERATURE
TEN;ILE PROPERTIES OF
QUENCHED AND TEMPERED
BAR (1)

Pe-(0. 4C)-1Cr-G. 2Mo


11NDIA BAR
160
OQ+TBMI'BR

"
""' ~
140
"""~
TORSION ULTD.t.\"1

~ 120 '' TORSION


'' BLASTIC

100 ' ', LIMIT

'
80
600 800 1000
'
1200
TBMPBRING TEMP - P
FIG. 3.0231 EFFECT OF TEMPERING TEM-
PERATURE ON ROOM TEMPER-
ATURE TORSIONAL PROPER-
TIES OF BAR
(1)

I
CODE 12031
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISED MARCH 1963

120
Fe Fe-(0.40)-lCr-o. 2Mo
e 1/2 IN DIA BAR
0.4 c NORM1600 F

I
0.2
Cr
Mo
..
..:I
80
+1550F, 0Q
+TEMPER
Al IN ROD
OIL HARDEN
t: +TEMPER
40
4140

01~~~~---b--~~
400 600 800 1000 12()1) 1400
TEMPERING TEMP - F
FIG. 3.0232 EFFECT OF TEMPERING TEMPERATURE ON
ROOM TEMPERATURE IMPACT PROPERTIES
OF BAR (1)

Fe-(0.40)-ICr-o.
BAR, FORGINGS

160 ~

200
/ '

160
I

~ 120

/
~
"' B

~
~20~----+-~~ER~~-r--;
40 TEMPER
fe"' ,. 900 F
0 950 F
0 0 ll. 1100 T 1265 F
~0-----4~00~----800~--~,2~00~~
TEMP- F / 0 400
TEMP- P
800 1200

FIG. 3. 0311 EFFECT OF TEST TEMPERATURE FIG. 3. 0312 EFFECT OF TEST TEMPER-
ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF HEAT ATURE ON TENSILE PROPER-
TREATED BAR AND FORGINGS AT TIES OF ALLOY TEMPERED
VARIOUS STRENGTII LEVELS AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURSS
(10, p. 219) (16, p.l13) (28, p.497)

I
CODE
~4GF"
FeUH
REVISEDMARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOY S

"''-'~
~ Fe-(0 .4C)-1Cr,.0.2 Mo Fe
BAR, FORGING~ 320
e/01.51'0 2.0
0.4 c
I Cr
:uo 0.2 Mo

TEMP- F
PIG. 3, 0321 EFFECT OF TEST TBMPBRATURE
ON COMPRESSIVE YlBLD STRENG11i
OF BAR AND FORGINGS, HEAT
TREATED TO VARIOUS STRENG11i
LEVELS (lO)

TEMP- P
PIG. 3,0323 EFFECT OF TEST TEMPBRATURB
ON BEARING STRBNG11i OF BAR
AND PORGlNGS, HBAT TRBATBD
TO VARIOUS STRBNG11i LB\'lU.S
(10)

...,.-,.

140
Fe-(0. 4C)-1CrIJ. 2MO
--1575 F, OQ
TBMPBR
120~--~~~~~--I:UOFTO
288BHN
---1575 F, OQ
TEMPER
~~~~~~~--1~5FTO
286BHN
--1650 F, AC
ro255 BHN

lB CliARPY V

100 200 300


TBMPF TEMP- F
FJG. 3,0322 EFFECT OF TEST TEMPERATURE FIG. 3.0324 EFFECT OF TEST TEMPERATURE
ON SHEAR STRENG11i OF BAR AND AND VARIOUS HEAT TREAn.tEN I'S
FORGJNnS,HEAT TREATED TO ON IMPACT PROPERTlBS
VARIOUS STRENG11i LEVELS (IO) (I)

ICODE
FeUH
FERROUS ALLOYS REV I SED MARCH 1963

100 2000
Fe Fe-(0,4C)-1Cr-0.2Mo
80 O;OSO'IN SHBB1' -j,.------+64 HR IN NlTRATB
Fe-(0.4C)-1Cr-D. 2Mo

0.4
Cr
().2 Mo
c 6o
40
JIATII.AT 1_000 F

1000 F
1000
800
600
I
-I
/

v
U.75 IN ROD,
1600 P, 1 HR, OQ
+1170 P, +CR 2 Hit

400

4140 20
1\\i
2% l I
5\\j

~
"10\\i ~
0
10 ~
. ]<....
80
60

40
0 "'.__,_ ...,..
TBST :_I1!M i> F STRBSS JCSI
600 120
700 100
20 aoo 80
~
., 900 60
~~-'
35
0
10 20
- ~ -
30
--
----.
10 COlD ROLL - PBRCBNI'
1200 F
8 PIG. 3, 043 BPFBCT OF OOID ROLLING ON RUl'ItJRB
TD1B OF QUBNCHBD AND 'Jma'BRBD ROD
60 AT VARJ)US TBSI' TBMPBRA1URBS
(14.p.822)
40

20

101~--~----+--~~~~~~~~~
8~--~~----~-----+----~~--~
0.001 O.Dl 0. 1 1
11MB -HR
PIG. 3.1141 CRBBP CURVES AT 1000 AND 1200 P FOR SHBBT IN
VAJUOUS HBAT TR.BATBD CONDrriONS
0 8 Fe-(0.4C)-1Cr-D.2Mo
(17, p.36)
0.75 IN ROD

"
:1:

"
~
~ 0 'ifl.=---+----.j-AUST--1""'600~FI-,-l""'HR,__,-OQ~I
l;l +1170F, 2HR
~ +CR

0.1 1.L---~--~~--~~--~20~-~~n----;,100~-~200~~.00 10 20 30
11MB -HR
COlD ROLL - PBRCBNI'
FIG. 3, 044 BFPBcT OF OOlD ROLLING ON MINDruM
FIG. 3.1142 CRBBPCURVBSAT600FFORSI1mL, HBATTRBATBOTO
CRBBP RATB OF QUBNCHBD AND 'Im4PBRBD
180 TO 200 FruKSI
(16, p.l17) ROD AT VARIOUS TBST 11U.CPBRA1URBS
(14, p.&23)

I CODE i203l
FeUH
REVISED MARCH 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

1
~ Fe-(0. -1er-o.
D1 D2 r LONGITtlDINAL
Fe
120
o.~ o.215 o.o25
o.~ 0.21 o.o25 - - 1 - - - - - 1
0.4 c
0.29 0.22 0.015 I Cr
0.2 Mo

4140

7 8
10 10 10 109
CYCLES TO FAILURE
FIG. 3,051 SN CURVBS AT ROOM TBMPBRATURB FOR
SMOOTH AND NOTCHED BAR IN THB LONGI
TUDINAL AND TRANsvBllsB DIRBC'DON
(13, p. 993)

FlG. 3. 053 SN CURVES AT ROOM TBMPI!RA


TURE FOR NOI'CHBD~, TBM
PBRED TO VARIOUI STRENGTH
LBVBLS (13)(18)

1~
Fe-(0. 4C)1Cr-o. 2Mo
BAR
~~ LONGrryr mw-
120

~ '-...:.FTU237 KSI
I

100 ~ ~
~

""\
~
80

60
. ~
">
...
FTU 1~ ICSl-
~

FTullO ICSI
e 1500 F, 1 HR, OQ 64
+TEMPER 550 F, 1 HR ; Pe-(0.:)-1 er-4i;2Mo
.A. 1500 F, 1 HR, OQ
+TEMPER 1150 F, 1 HR
fli 1550 F, OQ
u +TBMPBR
NORM 1650 F
' + Nrl'RIDB IN Nlf3
+TEMPER 1200 F ROTBBAM ~ 60).l- --+-- (PLOB PROCESS)
20
I-r----a 7ft6 ~~-NO: FAILURE ~ 60HRAT9 7 P

t::Jt ~5 ~Mr-~~~---r--,
~
0.2151
OR 0.270
CONVBR FROM
105 1o6 107 108 ROCnBLL 15N
CYCLES TO FAILURE 521-.--.1---.1---J...---1
a; 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250
FlG. 3.052 SN CURVES AT ROOM '!'BMPERA
TURE FOR SMOO'Ill BAR. TEM 11!MPBRING TBWP F
PERBD TO VARIOUI STRENGTH FIG. 4. 052 BPFBCT OP 'IlUoll'BRING TBMI'BRA'IUI.B
ON CASH HARDNBSS OF Nrl'RIDBD ALLOY
LEVELS (13, p. 993)(18, p. 5254)
(19, p.16)

ICODE 12031
FERROUS ALLOYS REVIS ED MARCH 1963

REFERENC BS
Fe 1 Alloy Digest, "AlSI 4140", Flllng Code: SA-18, Steel
0.4 c 2
Alloy, (May 1954)
Ha.unes Stellite Co., "Haynes Low Alloy Steels" (1959)
I Cr 3 BeDdlx Products Oiv., Data Sheet on 4140, No. P.S. 2101-
4140, (March 18, 1958)
0.2 Mo 7 Joseph T. Ryerson & Son, Inc., "Ryerson Aircraft Steels",
Bulletin No. RM-88-8, (1958)
8 Florent!Do, R.J., Roach, D. B. ami Hall, A. M., ''Heat
4140 Treannent of High-Stren gth Steels for Airframe Applies-
tloos", DMIC Rep. 119, (Nov. 27, 1959)
9 "Strength of Metal Aircraft Elements", MILHDBK-5,
(Dec. 30, 1958)
10 Grobeclcer, D. W. (Techn. Editor), "Metals for Supersonic
Aircraft and Mlsslles", Proc. of the Conference "Heat
Tolerant Metals for Aerodynam ic Application s'; (Jan.1957,
pub!. 1958)
11 Joseph T. Ryerson & Son, Inc., "Guide to Steel Selection",
Bulletin No. R 8-62
12 Fioreutlno, R. J. and Ssbroff, A. M.. "Avai!shilit y and
Mechanics! Properties of High-Stren gth Steel Extrusions ",
DMIC Rep. 138,(0ct. 26, 1960)
13 Evans, E. B., Ebert, L. J. and Briggs, c. W., "Fatigue
Properties of Comparabl e Cast and Wrought Steels", Proc.
ASTM. Vol. 56 (1956)
14 Sbshlnisn, P., Achter, M. R. aod Pennington, W. A.,
'"l'he ntfect of Cold Work and Temperatu re on Strength
ami Structure of Steel", Trans. ASM. Vol. 53, (1961)
16 Sachs, G., "S~ey of L01v!.Jioy Aircraft Steels Heat
Treated to High-Streng th Levels", (High-Stren gth
Steels and Their General Ststlc Properties) WADC TR-
53-254, Pt. 4 (Dec. 1953)
17 Mlller, J., Smith, L. W. and Porter, P. K., "Ut!lization
of Low Alloy Materials for High Temperatu re Service
Application s", United States Air Force, AF TR 5929,
Oune 1949)
18 Jackson, L. R. and Pochapsky, T. E., '"l'he Effect of
Compositio n on the Fatigue Strength of Decarburiz ed Steel';

19
Trans. ASM. Vol. 39, (1947)
The Nitrslloy Corp., "Nitralloy and Nltridln;~" (Including
,,..,.
The New Floe Process), (1954)
21 "Alloy Steel: Semiflnlshe d; Hot Rolled and Cold Finished
Bars", AlSI Steel Products Manual, Quly 1955)
22 AMS 5336, Ou!y 1, 1957)
23 AMS 5338, Ou!y 1, 1957)
24 AMS 6381 A. Qune 15, 1953)
25 AMS 6382 0. Oune 1, 1951)
26 AMS 6378, Ou!y 15, 1961)
27 AMS 6379, Quly 15, 1961)
28 Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, ASM Vol. 1 (1961)

CODE 1203
DAI.!:~ on
REVISED: MARCH 1969 FERROUS ALLOYS

1. GENERAL 1.042 4330V (Mod. + Si), Table 1.042


This steel is one of a group of medium carbon, low-alloy TABLE 1,042 Fe
(msrtensitic) ultra-bigh-etrength steels developed on the
basis of the standard .4340 composition. It is available in Source (3) 0.3 c
the form of bar, forging, plate and tubing and is primarily
used In the beat treated condition at a tensile strength Weight Percent 1.8 Ni
between 220 and 240 kai (2, 3). Because of the reduced Minimum Maximum
carbon content, this ultra-bigh-etrength steel possesses
0.8 Cr
Carbon 0.28 0.33 11
better fracture toughness, and better welding and general ().,!4 Mo
fabrication characteristics than those of lts bigher carbon Manganese 0.65 0. 85
counterparls. The addition of vanadium improves Silicon
Phosphorus
1. 45 Typical
- - 0.'07 v
bardenablllty and provides some secondary strengthening.
Addition of silicon to 1. 5 weight percent (simUar to 300M) Sulfur - -
retards tempering, so that bigher strengths may be re- Chromium 0.70
1.65 2.00
0.90 4330
tained at the higher tempering temperatures. However, Nickel
the attainment of Improved properties anticipated by this Molybdenum 0.20 0.30 V Mod
modification is not obvious For appUcations where Vanadium 0.10 Typical
bigher strength is desired, another modification with a Iron Balimce
higher carbon and vanadium content than 4330V Mod. or
4330V (Mod. + Sl) is used. Tbis modification is discussed
separately under 4335V Mod. (chapter code 1205). Many
of the properties of these steels are nearly identical.
1.05 Heat Treatment
1.01 Commercial Designation 1,051 Normalize. 1600 - 1700F, 1 bour per Inch thickness
4330 Mod., 4330 (Mod. + Si) (1 hour minimum) AC (2, p. 7)(4, p. 24-26).
1.02 Alternate Designations 1.052 Temper normalized condition for processing and macbin-
AMS 6427, 4330V, 4330V Mod. , 4330 Modified, ability l250F maximum, (1 + 1) hour per Inch In
4330V (Mod. + Sl) thiclaless, AC (2,p. 7)(4, pp, 24-26).
1.053 Full anneal. 1525 to 1575F, FC or cool In ash or lime,
1.03 Specifications (2,p. 7), 1525 to 1625F (5,p.61).
Table 1.03 1.054 Stress relieving.
1.0541 Stress relieving of paris after straightening, etc (6),
Table 1,0541.

TABLE 1 0541
Form
Bar, forgings, tubing Source (2, p. 3, 8)

, .. .., Alloy_ 4330 Mod


Condition Tempering Temp Stress Relief
Ftu - kai F Temp-F Tlme-hr
1.04
1.041
Compos!tlon
4330V Mod,,Table 1.1!41
150 to 160 min - 700 3
>850 800 1
180 to 200 - 700 3
TABLE 1.041 200 to 220 - - -
Source AMS (1) 220 to 240* - .700
or 650
3
4
Weight Percent
or 550 5
Minimum Maximum
<400 275 l2
Carbon 0,28 0.33
Manganese 0.75 1.00 Carburlzed parts - 275 l2
SU!con 0.2G 0.35
Stress relief temperature limited by tempering
Phosphorus - 0.04
temperoture aod strength requirements
Sulfur
Chromium
-
0.75
0.04
1.00
Nickel 1,65 2,00 1.0542 Stress relieving after welding. 1175 to 1225F, 1 hour
Molybdenum 0.35 0.50 per inch In thiclaless (1 hour minimum). No streso
Vanadium 0.05 0.10 relieving treatment Is required I! the component Is beat
Iron Balance treated Immediately (4, pp. 24-26).
1.055 Austenltize. 1525 to 1600F, 15 minutes per inch,
(15 minute minimum for parts under 1/2 inch
and 30 minute minimum for parts over 1/Z !ncb
In thlclaless). (2)(4, pp. 24-26) (5, p.61).
1.056 Cooling after austen!tizat!on.
1.0561 on quench. on temperature 75-140F, cocl to 160F
maximum (2, p. 7).
1.0562 OU quench (altemate). Hold in bot oll until the heaviest
section ls at 400F, air cool to 160F maximum (4, pp. 24-
26).
1.0563 Salt quench. Salt temperature 390 to 410F, bold 10 minutes
alr cool to 160F maximum (2, p, 7)
1.057 Temper. 400 to 1200F, depending on desired strength.
Single or double temper may be aU<?'t>yed.
1,0571 To obtain the following strengths te'laper at:
Ftu = 180 to 200 kal 950 to llOOF, 4hr (2,p.8)
Ftu = 200 to 220 kal 750 to 950F, 4hr (2,p.8)
Ftu =220 to 240 kal 625 to 750!', 2 + Zhr (2, p. 8)
IV\Jn

FERRO US ALLOYS REVISED : MARCH 1969

1.0572 Effect of tempering temperatur e on the tenelle properti9S 1.09 Special Considerat ions
Ft 1.0573
of bar, Figure 1.0572. 1.091 Decarburiz ation, although less pronoWICed than In the
Effect of tempering temperatur e on the tenelle properties
0.3 c of plate, Figure 1.0573.
higher carbon steels, should not exceed a very small
amount, particularl y for application s lnvclvlng repeated
1.8 Ni 1.06 Hardenabll ity
stresses. Decarburiz ation or carburizati on during normal
heat treatment (normaliza tion and austenltiza tlon) should
1.061 End quench hardenabil!Ly, Figure 1. 061
0.8 Cr 1.062 Hardness distribution In oil quenched bars of different
be avclded by using suitable, neutral protective atmos-
pheres, unless the surface layer can be removed following
diameters, Figure 1.062.
0.4 Mo 1.063 Effect of as-quenche d section size on the tensile properties
heat treatment.

0.07 v 1,064
of bar tempered at 1000F, Figure 1.063.
Effect of as-quenche d section size on the tensile properties
of bars tempered at 1200F, Figure 1. 064.
4330
1.07 Forms and Conditions Available
V Mod 1.071 Alloy Is available In the full commercia l range of sizes
for low alloy steels In the form of bar, forging, plate 1.092 Material heat treated to F tu ~ 220 to 260 ksi requires
and tubing.
1.072 All products are available In the annea!ed or normalized careful dsslgnlng to keep stress concentrat ions at a
condition, forgings also In heat treated condition. minimum and special measures during fabrication for
4337 and 4340 are given as guldo>s:
1.08 (a) Decarburiz ation must be completely removed.
Melting and Casting Practice
(b) Straighteni ng or heat treated parte should be
Electric furnace air melt. Induction and consumabl e
limited to 1/4 degree and performed at
electrode vacuum melts.
1.081 temperatur es between 70 to 200F followed by
ECCect of melting practice on mechanical properties ,
retemperin g at 390 to 410F, 4 hours.
Table 1. 081.
Straightene d sections must be shot peened.
(c) Grinding of beat tr'lated parte must be
TABLE 1.081
performed with extreme caution and must be
Source followed by baking at 365 to 385F and shot
(11)
peening.
Alloy Fe-(0.3C)- 1. 8NI-D. 8Cr-G.4Mo -O. 07V (d) Scale and rust removal should be by machining,
Form 4 Inch dia bar 3x5 plate 4 Inch dia bar sand blasting or wet blasting.
Melting P;:'ll(ll:ica (e) Vapor or solvent degreaslng must be used.
(a) I (b) (c)
Pickling and cathodic cleaning are prohibited
Condition (d) because of the susceptibU ity of Inducing
Actual Carbon Leve 0.33C 0.31C o.3oc hydrogen embritUem ent.
Dlrectiot L (f) Plating must be followed by baking at 365 to
T L ST L T 385F, 8 hours, minimum. lC parte are plated
Ftu, ksi 220.4 for oxidation protection before austeniUzln g,
222.2 213.7 216.2 229.9 230.1
Fty, ksl this must be followed by baking at 350 to 400~,
193.5 194.0 185.5 187.5 198.6 201.3 3 hours.
e(1 In), percent (g) A final baking at 250F, 24 hours Is required to
11.0 5.0 12.0 s.o 13.0 4.0
RA, percent 36.5 stabilize austenite. Alternative ly,
15.0 56.3 11.7 56.4 10.2 refrigerati on can be used. (Cleveland
Sharp Notch Pneumatic Tool 1958). Honing to a depth not
Strength , ksl 233.7 exceeding o. 010 Inch may follow shot peening,
168.2 250.6 198.8 251.9 192.9
but grinding after peening Is not permissibl e.
(a) Electric furnace air melt 1.093 Hydrogen embritUem ent Is a problem If the steel Is heat
(b) Vacuum stream degas treated to F tu above 200 ksl.
(c) Cyclic vacuum degas
(d) 1700F, l hr,AC + 1600F,1 hr,OQ +Temper at 600F,2 hr,AC
2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTI ES
Dortmund - Horder ( cyclic vacuum degassing) process
2. 01 Thermal Properties
'\601 2. 011
2. 012
Melting range. 2645 - 2645F
Phase changes. This steel transforms from austenite to

~- ~D '-:tOOW
to ferrite and carbides on slow cooling and to martensite
on fast cooling. Critical temperatur es (approxima te)

~
(5,p.61)
Ac1 =1320F
root radius Yo7 In max. Ac3 = 1485F
Ar3 = 915F
Ar1 = 610F
Ms point 575F*
Me point = 360F*
*Determine d on specimens with o. 35C (Republic Steel
1958). See 4335V Mod.
2.0121 Tlme-temp erature-tl'll iUJformAti on diagrams.
2.013 Thermal conductivit y.
2.014 Thermal expansion.
2.015 Specific heat.
2.016 Thsrmal diffuslvlty.

2.02 Other Phvalcal Properties


2.021 De1111lty.
2,022 Electrical propertie.s .
I-8UH
REVISED: MARCH 1969 FERROUS ALLOYS

2.023 Magnetic properties. 3.0272 Fracture toughness.


2.024 Emissivity. 3.02721
2.025 Damping capacity.
Plane-strain fracture toughness of a plate (laboratory-
air-melt) with additions of sWcon and chromium,
Fe
2.03 Chemical Properties 3.028
Figure 3. 02721.
Combined properties.
0.3 c
Slmllar to 4340 and 300M. 1.8 Ni
3.03 Mechanical Properties at Varlo118 Temperatures
2.04 Nuclear Properties 3.031 Tension. 0.8 Cr
3.0311 Stress -strain diagrams.
3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 3.0312 Effect of cycllc exposure and teat temperature on tenslle 0.4 Mo
properties of bar, Figure 3. 0312
3.01 Specified Mechanlcal Properties 3.0313 Effect of test temperature on tenslle properties of a plate 0.07V
3.011 AMS specified mechanlcal properties, Table 3.011. (tempered at 1050F) with aillcon and chromium additions,
Figure 3. 0313. 4330
TABLE 3.011 3.032 Compression.
3.0321 Stress -strain diagrams. V Mod
Source AMS(1) 3.033 Impact.
Alloy 4330Mod 3.0331 Effects of test temperature, aootion size and test direction
Form Bar, forging on impact strength of bar, Figure 3. 0331.
3.0332 Effect of tempering temperature on the impact properties
Condition 1540 to 1560F, OQ +GOOF mlnlmum
' of plate at+ 30F, Figure 3.0332.
Thlckness - inch <2 3.034 Bending.
3.035 Torsion and shear.
Hardness RC, mill 45 3.036 Bearing.
Impact - ft lb 3.037 Stress concentration.
Izod, m1n 15 3.0371 Notch properties.
3.03711 Effect of tempering temperature on tbe crack strength of
3.02 Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature forged bUlet at two test temperatures, Table 3.03711.
3.021 Tension.
TABLE 3.03711
3.0211 Stress -strain d1agrams.
3.0212 Effects of specimen location and tempering temperature Source (22)
on tenslle properties of a large forglng, Figure 3. 0212. Alloy Fe-(0.3C)-1.8N1-D.8Cr-D.4 Mo-D.07V
3.0213 Effects of as-quenched section size and tempering temper Form
ature on tenslle properties of bar, Figure 3.0213. Forged BUlet
3.0214 Effects of silicon addition on teuslle properties, Condition A118tenltize, OQ +Temper, AC
Table 3.0214. Tempering Temp. 450F 625F
TABLE 3.0214 Test Temperature RT ~5F RT ~5F
Source (15, p. 2)
Crack strength - ksi 98 54 77 52
Alloy Fe-(0. 3C)-1. BNi-D. 8Cr-D. 4Mo-D. 07V (T orientation) 103 56 77
Condition 1650F, OQ + Temper 109 61 84
Tempering temper 113 89
GOOF 1050F 114 100
Direction T. T L T 102
Ftu - ksi
Fty -ksi
e(2 In) - percent
248.3
206.0
7.6
247.3
206.0
7.0
191.7
172.2
12.2
191.4
174.7
11.5
iLJ
f-a inch ..
1.06 lncb

lr 0.188 inch
thick

3.0215 Effect of silicon and chromium additions on the tenslle


properties of plate, Figure 3. 0215.
3.022 Compression.
3.0221 Stress-strain diagrams. 3.0372 Fracture toughness.
3.023 Impact. 3.03721 Plane-strain fracture toughness of forglngs at two teat
3.0231 Effects of carbon content and tempering temperature on temperatures, Table 3.03721.
impact strength of bar, Figure 3. 0231.
3.0232 Effect of specimen location and tempering temperature on TABLE 3 03721
impact strength of bar and forgings, Figure 3. 0232. Source (23)
3.0233 Effects of as-quenched section size o.nd tempering Alloy Fe-(0.3C)-1. 8Ni-o. 8Cr-D.4Mo-D. 07V
temperature on impact strength of bar, Figure 3.0233. Form Forgings
3.024 Bending.
3.025 Condition Heat Treated to F tu a 220 - 240 ksi
Torsion and shear.
3.0Z6 Bearing. Test Temp. 70F ~6F
3.027 Stress concentration. Direction L T L T
3.0271 Notch properties
3.02711 Effects of carbon content and tempering temperature on KJc -ksNin 61 39 40
notch strength of bar, Figure 3.02711. 52 41 41
3.02712 Effects of specimen location and tempering temperature (Center - cracked 42

IIID.
on notch strength of a large forging, Figure 3. 02712. specimens) 48
3.02713 Effects of specimen size and teat direction on notob 49
strength of bar at varlol18 strength levala, Figure 3.02713 50
3.02714 Effects of stress concentration tempering temperature,
specimen ~lze and test direction on notch strength ratio
of bar, Figure 3.02714.
3.02715 The 100 hour rupture strength for cadmium-plated
"W a 1.5 inch to 3.4 inch ; 2a/W 0.4 to 0.5 ; 0.2 inch thick.
notched ban as a function of tempering temperature (Bl<ilept 0.4 inch thick)
and stress concentration, Figure 3. 02715
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISED: MARCH 1969

, - - - - - - - . 3.03722 Effect of test temperature on plane'iltrain fracture


Fe toughness of plate wlth slllcon and chromium additions,
(tempered at GOOF), Figure 3. 03722.
0. 3 c 3.038 Combined properties

1.8 Ni 3.04 Creep and Creep Rupture Properties

0.8 Cr 3.05 Fatigue Properties


3.051 Room temperature fatl1.,.1e properties Of heat treated bar,
0.4 Mo Table 3.051.
0.07 v TABLE 3.051
Sou:roe (18, p. 92-98)
4330 Form 4lncbbar
V Mod Condition 1600F +Temper 1 bour to Ftu bolow
Ftu- ksl Method Stress Stress Fatigue strength
Ratio Concen- ks1 at cycles
tratton 3. 052 Room temperature fatigue properties of forged billet,
A R 105 106 107 Table 3.052.
201 Rotating 00 -1 Smooth 105 65 85 TABLE 3.052
222 Beam Kt=l 105 90 90
236 115 95 90 Source (22)
250 120 95 90 Alloy Fe-(0. 3C)-l. 8Nt-O. SCr-o. 4Mo-D. 07V
263 130 95 80 Form Forged Billet
201 Notched 50 40 40 Condition Heat Treated to Ftu = 220 - 240 ksl
250 Kt;= 8 60 50 50 Stress Concentration Kt=3
263 65 65 65 Stress Ratio R=O.l, A=0.82
- Maximum stress-ksl Fatigue Life
lav. of 41 cvcle
Axial Load (L) 150 4,4 X 10~
1.- 130 7.8xlo3
1,3 X 104

~~H
118
100 2,0 X 104
R= 82 6,0 X 104
600 .016 70 1.1 X lOS

Ytj8 60 1.0:; loG

3. 053 S-N curves for effect of double tempering on smooth


and notched bars, Figure 3.053.
3. 054 Rate of fatigue crack propagation ln forgings (Ftu
= 240 ksl) ln air at room temperature, Figure 3. 054.
3.055 Rate of fatigue crack propagation ln forgings (Ftu
= 250 ksl ) ln air at room temperature, Figure 3. 055.
3. 056 Fatigue and burst properties of pressure vessels
machined from forgings, Table 3. 056.
TABLE 3.05d

Source (15, p. 2- 4)
Alloy Fe-(0,3C)-1.8Nt-o.scr-o.4Mo-o.o7v
Form Forgings (1,45SI)
Condition - 1650F, OQ + Temper
Tempering Temperature 600F 1050F
Specimen Type Capped 0pP.n Capped Open
Cycling pressure, pel 7725 6180 7725 6180 8370 6975 5580 6975 5580
Cycles to lead 3417 8890 2889 7380 2660 3835 12,031 2809 6170
Burst pressure, pel 9300 9200 8800 9200 85~0 8400 8300 7700 8000

-a-
Hoop stress at burst - ksl 171 171 164 164 155 153 144 135 133
I

--- - r:;;-.., - ...

fu
...
. .
Capped- ,..... - ..
0
CD
0
0
0
..;
. .

Q:5.oo~noh~ 1.--- 7 .oo Inch --I


( 2: 1 Blax1al Stress ) 7. 00 Inch ( Hoop Stresa Only )
l"tRR OUS ALLOYS

.....
\& 3.06 Elastic Propert ies (see 4335V Mod. and 4340, 4337)
3.061 Poisson 's ratio.
3.062 Fe;o; 3C)-1. SNi-o. scr-o.4 Mo-o. 07V
Modulus of elastici ty.
3.063 Modulus of rigidity .
1-JNCH THICK CEVM PLATE (0.30C) Fe
1600F, 1 HR, OQ +TEMP ER (2 + 2 HR), AC
280
0.3 c
4. FABRICATION (see 4340, 4337) 1.8 Ni
4.01
4.02
ForDII!bllitv
Machining and Grindin g
c~"'" 0.8 Cr
240
0.4 Mo

.. ""
4.03 Welding
4.04 FTU
4.05
Heat Treatme nt
Surface Treatm ent ~ 0.07 v
240 t:--.. 200 ;
~ !-< 4330
200 "
r;_ 160
~
V Mod

"'-. FTY
)
~
~ 160 ~'
~
eL
~
~
OT

120
80

40 ~

~
~~ -
RA _J
~
0

r------r------~-----
r----~------~----~32

Fe-(0.3 C)-1.BN 1-o.scr- o.4Mo- o.07V


0
-
u
e(2 IN)
g
~ ~
40

BAR 0 .A
v
l
1550 TO 1600F, 0Q + TEMPE R 0 400 600 800
1000 1200
280 TEMPE RING TEMPE RATUR E - F
FIG. 1.0573 EFFEC T OF TEMPE RATUR E ON THE TENSILE
PROPER TIEB OF PLATE (10)

~
I
240 t----r ----i- ----1- ----"F <:::... .::.0.. ..--+- -----1 200 ~
~

200
~
I
><
!-<
~
160

0
0.305C, 11/4 INCH (9)
0.30 C, 3/4 INCH (7) 60,.----..----------
Fe-(0.3 C)-1.8N l-o.scr- o.4Mo- o.07V
"'
1::.
~} 0.32C, 4 INCH (8)
120
80

40
!-<
z
f<l
~ 0
f<l
40
Po
301~----~-
---~------------~
0 8 16 24 32
DISTANCE FROM QUENCHED END -SIXTE ENTHS
IN
0
0 FIG. 1.061 END QUENCH HARDENABlLITY (12)
1200
... ..,
)
-::
TEMPE RING TEMPE RATtffi E - F
FIG. 1.0572 EFFEC T OF TEMPE RING TEMPE RATUR E ON TENSIL
E
PROPER TIES OF BAR (7, p. 11) (8, p. 30) (9)
' v...,,'
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISED: MARCH 1969

200
Fe-(O,SC)-1. am-o. 8Cr-o.4Mo-o. 07V
Fe Fe-(O.SC)-1. BNt-o. 8Cr-D.4Mo-D. 07V
1lARS (L)
BAR
0.3 c 1550F, 0Q (0.305C)
180
1700F, AC + 1550F, OQ (IN SIZES SHOWN)
DIAME'IER, INCH +TEMPER AT 1200F, AC
1.8 Ni
~ _2..

--
0.8 Cr ~~ ""' 9
4
~
r 160 FTU
0.4 Mo
~ FTY~
0.07 v
140
:-::--~---.. ~
4330
V Mod
40
2 1 0 1
DISTANCE FROM CENTER -IN
2 ----....
FIG. 1.062 HARDNESS DISTRIBUTION IN OIL QUENCHED RA
60
BARS OF DIFFERENT DIAMETERS (13)
~

~ 40
HALF-RADWS POSITION
fol FOR BARS
&!fol 1 1/2 INCH DIAMETER
Ill
e(2 IN)
20

0
1 3 4 2 5 6
BAR DIAMETER -INCH
FIG. 1,064 EFFECT OF AB QUENCHED SECTION SIZE ON
THE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF BARS TEMPERED
AT 1200F (5,p.79)

.:.... ... /

220 Fe-(O.SC)-1.8Nt-o.scr-o.4Mo-o.07V
Fe-(O.SC)-1. 8N1-D. 8Cr-6.4Mo-o. 07V
BARS (L) 1),320 - 12 INCH DIAMETER FORGING
280
1700F, AC + 1550F, 0Q (IN SIZES SHOWN) 1625F, 4 HR, AC + 1600F, 4 HR, 0Q + TEMPER
+ TEMPER AT 1000F, AC 2x3HR
20 0 Clol
~
18 0
1-- - 1---
-=::r---_ -
FTU 240
FTU
I~

16 0
HALF-RADIUS POSITION
FOR BARS
1 1/2 INCH mAMETER
---- ~200
.A..

FTY
"'-
~
<> <> 16 0
0
L
T QUENCHED AS
RA TUBE WITH 9 INCH lD
6 o_ t:. T, FLASH LINE

120

0 0
.. RA

20
e(2 IN)
0
0
~
"' - .. .I!.

e
_;;,
.A
~

0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 0 200 400 600 800 1000
BA.'l DIAMETER -INCH TEMPERING TEMPERATURE - F
~.
FIG. 1.063 EFFECT OF AB QUENCHED SECTION SIZE ON
THE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF BARS TEMPERED FIG. 3,0212 EFFECTS OF SPECIMEN LOCATION AND TEMPERING---
AT 1000F, (5,p.78) TEMPERATURE ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF A LARGE
FORGING (14, p. 20)
l'lt.VIS~D: MARCH 1969 t-t.I1HOUS ALLOYS

Fe-(0,3C)-1,8N1-o. 8Cr-o,4Mo-o. 07V


l : - - - + - - - l f - 0,305C-11/8 TO 4 1/4 INCH BAR 240 Fe
1600F, 1 + 1550F, OQ
0.3 C
Fro
1.8 Ni
0.8 Cr
0.4 Mo
fJ 200
0.07 v
I Fe-(0. 30)-1. BNl-o. BCr-o. 4Mo-o. 07V
~ 1 1/4 INCH BAR
DIAMETER OF QUENCHED BAR; O e 0 250 }2HEATSEACH
4330
60
e 4 INCH } 0.505INCHDIAMETE R VA 0.30C V Mod
A 3 INCH MIDWAY L 1550F, 0Q
"" 2 INCH SPECIMENS
0 0.531NCH
~ 40~~-1~~-+-~~-r~~~~~

RA
"'""

IEIZODV

500 600
700 BOO 900 1000
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE- F TEMPERING TEMPERATURE - F
FIG. 3,0213 EFFECTS OF AS QUENCHED SECTION SlZE AND TEMPERING FIG. 3. 0231 EFFECTS OF CARBON CONTENT AND TEMPERING
TEMPERATURE ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF BAR (13) TEMPERATURE ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF BAR
(14, Fig 126)

280
Fe-(0. 30)-1. BNl-o.scr-o. 4Mo-o. 07V
1 INCH THICK PLATE
~ORY AIR MELT)
j Fro
240
0.31C, 1.59Sl, 2.04Cr
~
1700F, 1 HOUR, OQ + TEMPER 1 HOUR, ~
AC (4 HOUR FOR SPECIMENS AT 1050F) I

r..i::
240 200
"'\ Fe-(0.3C)-1. SNI-o. 8Cr-o.4Mo-o. 07V

~ 200
v-- ~ """ 160
e L
OT
} 0.32C,
BAR FORGING
1600F, OQ + TEMPER

121NCHDIA

~~
I
T, FLASH LINE (14) FORGING
~ "'RIM L
rs.

160
~
40 "" CENTER L
6 RIM
V CENTER T
T

0,30C, 3/4 INCH BAR


} 0.32C, 41NCH BAR
(8)

(7)
60
20 .......
_.,
/ 0.
_._
.I_

- -
--

40 ./'
RA l,../" ~> lECHARPYV
>
_.A
I'<
~
~
1&1
p..
20
e(2 IN)
...-' ~
/
20 ~ -. ~ ~
~
v
0
500 600 800 700 900 1000
0
0
lor

200 400
- 600
"".tl
800 1000
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE - F TEMPERING TEMPERATURE -F
?IG. 3,0215 EFFECT OF SILICON AND CHROMIUM ADDmONS ON THE
FIG. 3.0232 EFFECTS OF SPECIMEN LOCATION AND TEMPER-
TENS1LE PROPERTIES OF A PLATE (L) ING TEMPERATURE ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF BAR
(16, p.5) (17) AND FORGINGS (18, p. 88-92)(7, p.l1)(14, p. 20)
FERROUS ALLOYS REVIS ED: MARCH 1969

Fe-(O.S C)-1. 8Nt-o. 8Cr-G.4 Yo-G.0 '1V


Fe 0.305C - 1 1/8 TO 4 1/4 INCH BAR
0.3 c 80 1 1
1550F, OQ
Fe-(O.S C)-1. 8Ni-o. BCr-o. 4Mo-G. 0'1V
0.32C - 12 INCH DIAMETER FORGING
320
1.8 Ni I I
1625F, 4 HOUR, AC + 1600F, 4 HOUR, 0Q + TEMP
TEMPERING TEMP - 1200F ax3HO UR
0.8 Cr N<ra'CB
60 STRENGTH
0.4 Mo
0.07 v .. UOOF
280

40
..___, ,___
433 0
V Mod
!::::: ~
900F.l
-
IE IZOD V (L, MIDWAY)
1000F

800F-'
i2 240

200
~~.212
l..
~60)"

r = 0.001
..............
QUENC HED'-. ...
AS TUBE
9INCH ID
e L
0 T
0 Kt=9 1::. T, FLASH LINE
160L-----~----~-----
0 1 2 3 4 -~----~----~--~
0 200 400 800600 1000
AS QUENCHED DIA -IN
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE - F
FIG. 3.0233 EFFEC TS OF AS QUENCHED SECTIO
N FIG. 3,0271 2 EFFEC TS OF SPECIMEN LOCAT
SIZE AND TEMPE RING TEMPERATURE ION AND TEMPERING
ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF BAR TEMPERATURE ON NOTCH STRENGTH OF A
LARGE
FORGING (14, p.21)
(13)

Fe-(0.3 C)-1.8N 1-o.8C r-G.4M o-o.07V


360 4 INCH BAR
1600F, 1 HOUR, OQ + TEMPE R,
1 JIOUR

Fe-(0. 3C)-1. 8Nt-o. 8Cr-G.4 Mo-G, 07V


360
BAR
1550 TO 1600F, OQ
NOTCH STRENGTH

280

~
240 -- ,,
'
.6. 0,305C , 5/8 INCH
D,INC H

(15)
o.30C, 3/4 INCH 160
~ ~\ 0.3
.6. L 0 5
200 (9) ;::,. T
y 0.32C, 4 INCH (10)

0 200 400 600 800 1000 120 L-------------------------~


160 200 240 280 320
TEMPERING TEMPE RATUR E - F
Fro-K BI
FIG. 3. 02711 EFFEC TS OF CARBON CONTE NT
AND TEMPERING FIG. 3.0271 3 EFFEC TS OF SPECIMEN SIZE AND TEST
TEMPERATURE ON NOTCH STRENGTH OF BAR
DIRECTION ON NOTCH STRENGTH OF
(7)(8, p.35)(1 9, p. 102)
BAR AT VARIOUS STRENGTH LEVEL S
(8)
REVISED: MARCH 1969 FERROUS ALLOYS

""'
{')'
Fe(0.3C)-1.8Nl-o.acr-o.4Mo-o.07V
100
Fe
1.8 4niCHBAR
1600F, 1 HOUR, OQ + TEMPER, 1 HOUR
Fe-(0.3C)-1.8Nl-G.8Cr-o.4Mo-o.07V
1 INCH TWCK PLATE (LABORATORY
0.3 c
AIR MELT) (L) - (0.31C -1.(;951- 2.04Cr) I. '8 Ni
~1.4~~~~~~~-t~~~~~ 80
1700F, 1 HOUR, OQ +TEMPER, 1 HOUR,
AC 0.8 Cr
i:l *FOR TEMPERING TEMPERATURES
0.4 Mo
~Z I.O J:------l,.----l--+---+- -+---1
LESS THAN 950F, D = 0, 75 INCH
GREATER THAN 950F, D = 1.00 INCH ~I
0.07 v
)
E 1.4 1-f----1--+---t-1---1 --i---1
60

4330
=
~ '\457
V Mod

m t-=t=B
1.0
TEMPER TEMP -F 40
Tl 0 650
1D 500
6. 400
0.6
r VAR
- - - - DUCTILE

101
CONDmONS
3 5 10
20
500 600
FATIGUE CRACKED

700 800
.
900 1000
1 3 5
STRESS CONCENTRATION, K TEMPERING 'l'EMPERATURE - F
FIG. 3.(!2714 EFFECTS OF STRESS CONCENTRATION, TEMPER- FIG. 3.02721 PLM!E STRAIN FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF A :PLA'l'E
ING TEMPERATURE, SPECIMEN SIZE AND TEST ( LAR - AIR MELT) WITH ADDmONS OF SILICON
DIRECTION ON NOTCH STRENGTH RA'l'IO OF BAR AND CHROMIUM (16, p.5)
(18)

220 ....---....----..----.......- -......- .....


Fe-(0.3C)-1. 8Nl-o. 8Cr-o.4Mo-o. 07V
4 INCliBAR
200 1600F, 1 HOUR, OQ +TEMPER
Fe-(0. 3C)-1. 8Nl-o. BCr-o. 4Mo-o, 07V
280 1650F, OQ + TEMPER, 4 HOUR, AC
180

EXPOSURE AT TEST TEMP


e.A.1/2HOUR
V 20 HOUR (250 - 5 MINUTE
~ 140 CYCLES)
(1000 CYCLES)
.! ~
180

80 140
e Kt=3
Kt=5
... Kt = 10
120
40L----~--_._ _ _ _~---~---~
200 400 600 1000 80

TEMPERING TEMPERATURE - F
800
...z
1&1
RA
FIG. 3.02715 'lHE 100 HOUR RUPTURE STRENGTH FOR ~ 40
CADMIUM-PLATED NOTCHED BARS AS A 1&1
llo
FUNCTION OF TEMPERING TEMPERATURE
AND STRESS CONCENTRATION, (20)
e (2IN)
0
0 200 400 600 800
TEMPERATURE - F
FIG. 3.0312 EFFECTS OF CYCLIC EXPOSURE AND
TEST TEMPERATURE ON TENSILE
PROPERTIES OF BAR (21, p. 36)
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISED: MARCH 1969

Fe Fe-(0,3C}-1. BNl-6. 8Cr-6.4Mo-o. 07V


1 INCH tiDCK PLATE (LABORATORY
0.3 c 240
AIR MELT) (L)
(0.31C -1.59Sl- 2,04Cr) -1700F, 1 HOUR,
1.8 Ni r~ +TEMPE 4 HOUR, 1050F, AJ
~
0.8 Cr
0.4 Mo
200
"' r-.-. FTU

0.07 v
160
...............
r---- r---- F--.._
TY

t--
4330 60
RA -

V Mod ~
""
[;l 40 -
""
II<
I

20 e ( 2IN)
--
0
-200 -100 0 100 200 300
TEMPERATURE - F
FIG. 3,0313 EFFECT OF TEST TEMPERATURE ON TENSILE
4or-----------~-----------T~
PROPERTlES OF A PLATE (TEMPERED AT 1050F)
Fe-(0.3C)-1. 8Nl-D.8Cr-0.4Mo-o. 07V
WITH SlLICON AND CHROMIUM ADDITIONS (17)
BAR e

400F
0
40

40

IY' 4 3/4 INCH WADC TR 53-205 (7)

lOOOF i ~ } 4 INCH, WADC TR 55-103 (18)


0~----~~--~----~----~~
-400 -200 0 200 400
TEMPERATURE- F
FIG. 3.0331 EFFECTS OF TEST TEMPERATURE SECTION '-
SIZE AND TEST DffiECTION ON IMPACT
STRENGTH OF BAR (18, p. 77)(9, p. 57)
IVUn
REVISE D: MARCH 1969 FERRO US ALLOYS

."'-' .
t~J
Fe-(0. 3C)-1. 8Nl-o. 8Cr-o.4Mo- o.IYTV
1 INCH THICK PLATE (CEVM)
1600F, 1 HOUR, OQ + TEMPER, 2 + 2 HR,
Fe
AC 4000 0.3 c
~
E-< 1.8 Ni
r-.

~t
0.8 Cr
.L ~WEJ..OD
3000
[ 0.4 .l4o
80
3 IN 4 3/4 IN ~ 0.07 v
T 2000 r.1
E-<

~'
E-<
4330
~ BRITTLE PLATE
s= V Mod
!;: so 1000 :
I
:> ~
I>< 1=1

~ 40 eL
0
el
0 OT
el
20
IE CHAPRYV

o~v-~~----~----~----~~--~
40(1 600 800 1000 1200
TEMPERING TEMPERA TURE -F
Fe-(O.:IC )-1. 8Nl-o. 8Cr-o.4Mo -o. 07V
FIG. 3.0332 EFFECT OF TEMPERIN G TEMPERA TURE ON 11/8 TO 1 1/4 INCH BAR
THE IMPACT PROPERTI ES OF A PLATE (10) 1550 TO 1600F, OQ + TEMPER,
46 T047 RC

ROTATING BEAM

40
0 0.3000, 650FSING LE TEMPER
e 0, 305C, 650F DOUBLE TEMPER } (13)
.6. 0.300, 670F SINGLE TEMPER
A 0,300, 670F DOUBLE TEMPER } (9)

0~---
104
---~------~------~----~
100 105 106 107 108
Fe-(0. 3C)-l. 8Nl-o. 8Cr-O. 4Mo-o.IYTV
liN THICK PLATE (LAB AIR MELT) (L) NUMBER OF CYCLES
(0.31C -1.59Sl- 2.04Cr) -1700F, 1 HR, OQ + FIG 3. 053 S-N CURVES FOR EFFECT OF DOUBLE TEMPERING ON SMOOTH
80 TEMPER, 1 HR, 600F, AC AND .NOTCHED BAR (9, p. 14, 16){13)

~~ 60 f
FATIGUE
Jf'-; 0.75
-L
CRACKE~ 1---
I
s;
:.: v
40

20
v
-200 -100 0 100 200 300
TEST TEMPERA TURE- F
FIG. 3,03722 EFFECT OF TEST TEMPERA TURE ON PLANE-
STRAIN FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF PLATE WITH
- r.oN AND CHROMIUM ADDmONS (17)
r-t:.KK UUS ALLOY S REVISE D: MARCH 1969

Fe Fe-(0.3C)- 1,8Ni-0.8C r-0.4Mo-o ,o7V


10-4
0.3 c FORGINGS, FTU= 240 KSI

1.8 Ni I.
1/
0.8 Cr
0.4 Mo
I
0.07 v
I J.
4330
V Mod
r-:1
.:I
1o-5

R = 0,05 t
'"'
~ 1- f = 120 CPM -1 1 - -
0
P:
r-:1 -
""
= -w .....
~ I
1
z
~ { 02a
<

'
~

10-6
t

J
0
0,2 INCH THICK
0,4 INCH THICK
J
I
IJ
10 20 40 100 200
KMAX=~
FIG, 3.054 RATE OF FATIGUE -CRACK PROPAGATION IN
FORGINGS (FTU 240 KSI) IN AIR AT ROOM
TEMPERI.TUIU: (23)
Fe-(0, 3C)-1. BN1-o. 8Cr-0,4Mo -o, 07V
LANJ)ING GEAR (FORGING), FTu= 230 KSI

0,19 INCH THICK

.!
R = 0.05
I
f= 120CPM
~
-
,. -
4
f( l -
:
2a -
H
............
-
J
I
i -w- -

10-6
) l
I I I I I I I II I I-
I I .I I I I II
10 20 40 100 200
, KMAX = KSI.{fif

FIG. 3,055 RATE OF FATIGUE -CRACK PROPAGATION IN FORGINGS


(FTu= 230 KSI) IN AIR AT ROOM TEMPERA TURE (23)
REVISED: MARCH 1969 FERROUS ALLOYS

Fe
0.3 c
1.8 Ni
0.8 Cr
0.4 Mo
0.07 v

4330
V Mod

REFERENCES

1. AMS 6427C (January 31, 1964)


2. Bendix Products Division, "Heat Treatment of Low Alloy
Steelf" (March 18, 1958).
3. DM:~ Memo 239
4. DMIC Report 119 (November 27, 1959)
5. Republic Stel!ll Corporation, "Mechanical Properties of
Alloy Steels ADV. 1&036-10M-266 (1961)
6. Bendix Aviation, "Personal Communication" Trodrian, J.
(October 12, 1959)
7. Klingler, L.J. Barnett, W.J., Frohmberg, R.P. and
Troiano, A. R., "The EmbritUement or Alloy Steels at
High Strength Levels", WADC TR 53-205 (July 1953)
8. Muvdl, B.B., Sachs, G. and Kllor, E. P., "Design
Properties of High Strength Steels in the Presence of
Stress Concentrations", WADC TR56-395, Part I
(December 1956)
\.,., 9. Bendix Aviation Corporation, "A Comparison of Two High
Strength Low Alloy Steels (May 6, 1953)
10. Puzak, P. P. et al, "Metsllurglcal Characteristics or
High Strength Structural Materials (Third Quarterly
Report), NRL Report 6086 (January 1964)
11. Vacuum Degassing in the Production of Premium -Quality
Steels (March 11, 1964)
12. MacLaren, A. W., "Personal Communication", United
States Steel Corporation Data Sheet (June 26 1959)
13. Republlc Steel Corporation, "Experimental Testing or a
lleat of Hlgh TensUe Alloy Steel" (September 22, 1949)
14. Ragland, F.J. Jr. and Barrett, G.N. Jr., "Evaluation
of Forging or 4330 Modlfied, 4340, and 9840 Stools
at Hlgh-8trength Levels'', WADC TR 54-89 (March 1954)
16. Carman, C,M., Armiento, D. F. and Markus, H.,
"Fracture Toughness and Pressure Vessel Performance"
ASME Paper No. 63-WA-138 (1963)
16. Baker, A.J., Lauta, F.J. and Wei, R.P. "Relationship
between Microstructure and Toughness in Quenched and
Tempered Ultrahlgh-8trength Steels" ASTM STP 370,
p.3 (1965)
17. U.s. Steel Corporation, Applled Research Lnboratory,
''Unpublished Data", communloation to R.P. Wei (1969).
18. Muvdl, B. B., Kller, E.P. and Sachs, G., "Design
Properties of High .Strength Steels in the Presence of
Stress-<:oncentration" WADC TR55-103 (January 1956)
19. Sachs, G. and Klier, E.P., "B.lrvey or Low-Alloy
Aircraft Steels Heat Treatod to High Strength Levels",
WADC TR 53-254, Part 5, (September 1954)
20. Kller, E.P., Muvdl, B.B. and Sachs, G., ''The Response
of High -strength Steels in the Range of 180 to 300 kai
to Hydrogen EmbritUement from Cadmium Plating",
Proc. ASTM, Vol. 58, pp. 597-622 (1958)
21. Sachs, G.,Muvdl, B.,and Klier, E.P., WADC TR 55-103,
Supplement 2 (1956)
22. General Dynamics Corporation, "Steel Alloy Selection for
F-111, JustUlcation Data for D6AC Steel", Report
_, FZM-12-408 (February 1964)
I
.. '>"' 23. Smith, S.H., Personal Communication, The Boeing
Company, Commerclal Airplane Division (October 29,
1968)
~EVISED MARCH 196!5 FERROUS ALLOYS FeUH

1. GBNBRAL
This steel is a development of 4330 and 4330V Mod. The TABLE 1.057
blgher carbon contellt appreciably IDcreasea the tensUe Source '~> -10.~~1"\- OM-O.RCr-n.~~u, Fe
aod yield strengths at low temperiug temperatures . The Condition 1611 -t<\!inF: .... -0-2V
no
alloy is used prlmarUy in a condition beat treated to Form of Product Temper Fru, ksl FTm:ksl 0.35C
Fry a 210 ksl minimum. It Is avaUable in the form of lmiD) miD)
sheet, strip, plate, bar, forgings and tubiug. It AMS6429 Bars, forgings, tube 400-SOOF 240 210 1.8 Ni
possesses good weldiug characteristi cs and the formabU!ty (vacuum melted) 2 hr (miD)
of the steel, I! spberoldized , is also good. AMS 6430Bars, forgings, tube 700F (mtDl 205 190 0.8 Cr
(special grade) 2 hr (miD)
1.01; Commercial Deslg!lation AMS643o Sheet, strip .and plat 700F(miD) 205 190 0.35Mo
4335 V Modl!ied. (special grade) 2 hr (miD)
1.02
AMS6435 Sheet; Strip and plate 400-SOOF 240 210 0.2 v
Alternate Designation (vacuum melted) 2 hr (miD)
4335 Modl!ied.
4335VM od
1. 03 Specification s
Table 1.03.
1.058 Alteroste beat treatment for sheet. 1635 to 1665F, 20
TABLE !.03 minutes, quench in sslt bath at 375 to 415F unrU metal
AMS Form reaches temperature of 400 to SOOF, bold 2 hours
. 6428 Bars, forgings, forging stock and minimum. This treatment produces less distortion tb.an
mechanical tubing oU quenching.
6429 Bars,. forgings, forging stock and
mechanical tubing (vacuum m~lt) 1.06 Hardness
6430 Bars, forgings, forging stock and 1.061 End quench hardenabUity , Fig. 1.061.
mechanical tubing (special grade) 1. 062 Effect of tempering temperature, quencbiug media and
6433 Sheet, strip and plate (sp.:ciai grade) melt method on hardness of sheet, Fig. 1.062.
6434 S:1eet, strip and plate
6435 Sheet strio and olate (vacuum melt\ 1.07 Forms and Conditions AvaUable
1.071 Alloy is avaUable in the full commercial range d. sizes
for sheet, Strip, plate, bar, forgiugs and tubiug,
1.04 Composition 1.072 Bar and forgings are avaUable in the normalized coodl:lon.
Table 1.04. Sheet and plate are avaUable ID various annealed conditions.
TABLE I 04 1.08 Melting and Castl!!g Practice
Blectrlc furosce air melt. Induction and consumable
AMS AMS electrode vacuum melts,
Source (1)(5) (2)(3)(4)(6)
Percent 1. 09 Special Consideratio ns
Percent
Min See 4340.
Max Min Max
Carbon 0.32 0.38 0.33 0.38 2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Chromium 0.65 0.90 0.65 o,90
Manganese 0.60 0.80 0.60 0.90 2. 01 Thermal Properties
Molybdenum 0.30 0.40 0.30 0.40 2. 011 Melting range. 2645 to 2845F.
Nickel 1.65 2.00 1.65 2.00 2. 012 Phase changes. Transformati on temperature from ferrite
Phosphorus
Silicon
- 0.040 - 0.010 to austenite,
0.20 0.35 0.40 0.60 Ac1 1310F
Sulfur
Vanadium
-
0.17
0.040
0.23
-
0.17
0.010
0.23
Ac3 1480F
Ms poiDt 575F
Iron Balance Balance Mf poiDt near 360F.
AMS 6434 gives 0.31 DetermiDed on specimens with 0. 35C, (11).
2.0121 Time-temper ature-transfo rmation diagram, Fig. 2. 0121.
1. OS Heat Treatment 2.0122 Time-temper ature-trana!o rmation diagram, Fig. 2. 0122.
1.051 Normalize. 1600 to 1750F, air cool. Normaliziug 2.013 Thermal conductivity. 29.2 Btu ft per (hr sq tt F).
temperature Is frequently kept low, (e.g. 1585 to 1615F, 2.014 Thermal expansion, Fig. 2.014.
20 minutes). AMS 6428 gives 1690 to 17JOF. 2.015 Specl!lc heat. 0.16 Btu per lb F.
1.052 Full anneal~ 1585 to 161SF, 1 hour per incb thickness, 2.016 Thermal dlf!uslvlty
furnace cool to 1400F, continue furnace cool at 30F per
hour maximum to lOOOF maximum. 2.02 Other Physical Properties
1.053 Spheroldize anneal sheet and plate for maximum 2.021 Density. 0.283 lb percu in, 7. 83 gr per cu em.
formability. 1435 to 1465F, 10 hours, furnace cool 20F 2.022 Blectrlcal resistivity
per hour maximum to 800F maximum. 2.023 Magnetic properties. Alloy is ferromagneti c,
1. 054 intermediate anneal to remove strain hardeniug of cold 2.024 Emissivity
worked spheroidized sheet. 1200 to 1250F, 2 to 8 hours. 2.025 Dampiug capacity
1.055 Stress relief welded material. 1025 to 1075F, 30
minutes, furosce cool to 500F. 2.03 Chemical Properties
1.056 Austenitlze. 1600 to J650F, 20 miDutes per IDch thickness, SlmUar to 4340.
30 minutes minimum, air cool or oil quench. Below 1600F,
the properties may be Irregular. TensUe properties de- 2.04 Nuclear Properties
crease slightly with increasing austenltizing temperatures .
Normalizing should precede austenitiziug If steel has been 3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
p::evlously spberoldized .
1.057 Temper. 400 to SOOF, 2 hours miD!mum, to obtaiD 3.01 Specified Mechanlcal' Propenles
F IV 210 ksl minimum, and 700F miDimum for at least 3.011 AMS specification s
21iours to obtain Fry 190 ksl miD!mum, Table 1.057. 3.0111 AMS specification s for sheet, atrlp nd plate. Table
3.0111.

CODE 1205
PAGE
Fe Soorce
TABLE a 011!
(4)(6)_
0.35 c Allov
Form Fe 0,35C 1.8Ni 0.8Cr-0 .35Mo 0.2V
Sheet stria and nlat~
1.8 Ni lr.nnA(tinn 1600 to 165U F, 1 hr, 0Q +
>700F 2hr
1M n '<M 10'_ ? ~r
0.8 Cr Thickn ess ID < 0.070
> 0.070 to >0.249 to
0.249 0.349 > U.349 >0.070
fFtu, miDIcsi > 0. 070 to 0. 249
0.35M o 205 20S 20S 205 240
> 0.349
Ff]' miDIcsi 190 190 240 24U
190 190
0.2 v e( ID) miD-percent 5 6 8 10
21U
5
210
6
21U
8

4335 V Mod 3' 0112 AMS specUic ations !or bars, !org1ngs stock
Table 3. 0112.
or bUlets, 3.02135 Effect ol temper ina time and temper ature and
time of
austenl tlzlna on tensile propen ies of sheet a.nd
plate
austenl tlzed at 1650F, Fig. 3.02135
.3.02136 Effect of temper lng temper ature a.nd
quenchina media
TABLE 3 0112 and melt method on tensile propen les of sheet,
Fig.
I Source 3.02136 ,
.AllnV
(2 I (3)
F..t0.3SC:I- . RNI-n.Rr.r-n_ ~~Mn-n-?
3.02137 Effect of temper1ng time a.nd quenchl
na media on tensile
propert ies of sheet, Fig. 3. 02137.
!600 to 1650F, I hr, OQ + 3.02138 Effect of temper1ng temper ature
Condition > 700 F 2 hr on uolaxlal and biaxial
400 to 5M I' 2 hr tensile stress propen les of sheet, Fig. 3,02138
Form Bar 1: Forging s, Bar l~.::gl ngs, 3,0214 Effect ol temper1ng temper ature a.nd time on
.
Stock Billets Qt'ila>a tensile
'J1ticJcnPSS I!J Not ven propert ies of bar.
Ftu min - ksi 3.02141 Effect of quench1ng and temper
240 205 ina temper ature on tensile
F7J' miD - Jcsi
e( 0) miD-pe rcent
210 !90
propen les of bar, Fig. 3.0214 1.
3,02142 Effect of temper lna time and
IO(L) 1 7('!) IO(L) 1 7('!) temper ature on tensile
propen ies of bar, Fig. 3. 02142.
3.0215 Size effects on tensile propen ies.
3,02151 Effect of thickne ss on tensile propen
3.0!2 Fabric ators' specUied mechan ical propert ies, i~s of sheet and
Table plate, Pig. 3. 02151.
3.012. 3.022 Compre ssion
3,0221 Stress- strain diagram s.
TABLE 3.012 3.02211 StrelisBtraiD curve ID compre ssion
Source !or bar, Fig. 3. 02211.
Aero et 8 3.023 Impact
Allov Fe(O. 35C)I. 8NIO. 8CrU. 35MoO. 2V 3.0231 Effect of quenchlna and temper1ng temper ature
Sheet, StrJp, on Impact
Bar strengt h of bar, Fig. 3.0231 .
Form Plate Billet 3.0232 Effect of temper1ng time and temper ature on
Condition 1625 F, 0Q + 400 to 500 F, 2 hr minimum Impact
Strengt h of bar, Fig. 3,0232 .
Fry miD ksi . 210 210 3.024 Bend ina
L
. - 3.025 Terion and shear
T
e (2 In), minpe rcenl
210 - 3.0251 Effect of diamet er to thickne ss ratio on ultimat
strengt h of hollow cylinde rs, Fig. 3. 0251.
e shear
L 10 3.026 BearIna
T 6 - 7 3.027
3.0271
Stress concent ration
Notch propen ies , see also 3, 0272 and 3, 0371.
3.02711 Effect of temper1ng temper ature
3.02 Mechanical Propen ies at Roan Tempe rature on tensile propen ies and
notch strengt h of plate, Fig. 3. 02711.
3.021 Tension 3.02712 Effect of temper lna temper ature,
3.0211 Stress- atraiD diagram s meltina practic e and
sheet thickne ss on notch strengt.~ of sheet, Fig.
3.02111 Stress- straiD curve In tension !or bar, Fig. 3.02713 Effect of stress concen tration 3, 02712.
3. 02111. "" notch strengt h of sheet,
3.0212 Effect of austenl tlzina temper ature and time
on tensile Fig. 3.027!3 .
propert ies. 3.02714 Effect of temper ina temper ature
3.02121 Effect of austenl tlzina time and temper ature on notch strengt h of sheet
on tensile austenl tlzed at 1650F, Fig. 3. 02714.
propert ieD of bar, Fig. 3.02!21 . 3.02715 Effect of temper1ng temper ature
3.0212 2 Effect of austenl tlzina temper ature on tensile on notch strengt h of
propert ies plate austeui tlzed at !650F, Fig. 3.02715 .
of sheet, Fig. 3. 02122. 3.02716 . Effect of temper1ng time and temper
3.02123 Effect of austeni tlzlna time on tensile propert ature on notch
ies of sheet, mrengt h of bar, Fig. 3. 02716.
rig. 3.02123 . 3.02717 Effect of qcenching and temper lna
3.0212 4 l!f!ect of quenching time at 400F ID salt on tensile temper ature on notch
propen ies strengt h of bar, Fig. 3.02717 .
CJl slleet, Fig. 3. 02!24,
3.0272 Fractu re toughne ss
3.0212 5 Effect of homogenlzina and austeni tlzlna temper
ature on 3.02721 Effect of austenl tlzlna temper ature
tensile propert ies of sheet and plate, Fig. 3. on notch Strength and
02125. fractur e toughne ss of sheet, Fig. 3. 02721.
3.0213 Effect of temper ina temper ature and time on 3,02722 Effect of temper1ng temper ature
tensile
propert ies of sheet and plate. on notch strengt h and
3.02131 fractur e toughne ss of sheet, Fig. 3.02722 .
Effect of austeni tizina ond temper1ng temper atures 3.02723 Effect of temper1ng temper ature
on on fractur e toughness of
tensile propen ies of sheet, Fig. 3, 02131.
3.0213 2 sheet austenl tlzed at 1625F, Fig. 3,02723 .
Effect ol melting practic e and temper1ng temper 3.02724 Effect of temper1ng temper ature
ature on on fractur e toughness of
tensile propert ies of sheet, Fig. 3,02132 .
3.02133 plate austenl tlzed at1625 F, Fig. 3.02724 .
Effect of temperi ng time and temper ature and 3.02725 Effect of temper lna temper ature
time of on lractur e toughness of
austenl tlzlna on !ensUe propen i.,s of sheet and
plate sheet austenl tlzed at 1650F, Fig. 3,02725 .
austenl tlzed at 1550F, Fig. 3.02133 . 3.02726 Effect of temper1ng temper ature
3.0213 4 Effect of temperi ng time and temper ature and on fractur e toughness of
time of plate austenl tlzed at !650F, Fig. 3, 02726.
austeni tlzina on tensile propert ies of sheet and 3.02727 Effect of thickne ss on notch strengt
plate h and fractur e toughness
austeni tlzed at 1600F, Fig'. 3. 02134,
of sheet, Fig. 3.0272 7.
3.028 Combined propert ies

CODE 1205
PAGE 2
..""! ....
REVISED MARCH 196~ FERROUS ALLOYS FeUH

3,03 Mechalllcal Properties at Various Temperature s


3.031 Tension Fe(O. 3SC)I. 8NIO. 8Cr0.35MoU .2V
3,0311 Stress-strain diagrams 60 <ill. MAX" Fe

-r-.:::::
3.0312 Eflect of test temperature on teosUe properties of sheet, .. _j
Fig. 3; 0312. tJ 0.35C
3.032
3.0321
Compression
Stress-strain diagrams
"' C..M1NM
1.8 Ni
40
3.033
3.0331
Impact
Eflect of test temperature on Impact strength of plate, -- LIMITS OF HEATS, 0.34 TOO 36CU.:t5
TO 0. 3251, (15)(16)
0.8 Cr
Fig. 3,0331.
3.034 Bending I - ..L_ 0.35Mo
20
3.035
3.036
Torsion and shear NORM 1700F, A~.f~ (8) 0.2 v
Besrll.g + AUST 16SOF, OQ 4 (I)
3,037 Stress concentration
o 8
4335 VMod
3.0371 Notch properties 16 24 32 40
3.03712 Eflect of test temperature on net fracture stress and DISTANCE FROM QUENCHED ENDSIXTEENili IN
fracrure appearance of shear-cracke d sheet, Pig.
FIG. I. 061 END QUENCH HARDENABILITY
3.03712.
3, 0372 Fracture toughness (1)(8)(15)(16)
3, 038 Combined properties

3.04 Creep and Creep Rupture Propertleu

3, OS Fatigue Properties
3.051 S-N curves for bar with various surface treatments.
Fig. 3.051.
3, 052 SN curves for smooth and notched bar, Fig. 3, 052.
3,06 Elastic Properties
3.061 Poisson's ratio. Dynamic bending, 0. 303. Static
tension, 0. 293.
3, 062 Modulus or elasticity, 30, 000 ksl.
3. 063 Modulus or rigidity, 11, 000 ksl.

4. FABRICATION
SlmUar to 4330 V Mod.

FormabUity
Severe forming or sheet and strip Is performed In the
spheroldlzed condition, with the hardness limited to
95 RB maximum.
4.011 Forging range. 20002200F, (19, p. 10).

4. 02 Mach!nlng and Grinding


Bar and forgings can be machined in the normaUzcd
condition, with additional tempering at 127SF r"lCommended
for best machlnablllty .

4.03 Welding
4.031 Flash welding or air melted plate results In reduced joint
erflclency when heat treated to maximum strength.
El'fects or nash welding nod temPering temperature on
tenslle properties and endurnnce limit of air melted
plate, Fig. 4.031.
4.032 Flash welding or vacuum melted plate results In better
joint efficiency Rnd considerably Increased endurance u
limit. El'fect of nash welding and tempering temperature ~ 44r-----+-----+---~~~~~~--~
on tensile properties aud endurance limit of vacuum
melted plate, Fig. 4. 032, ~
4,033 Multi-pass welding technique Is required for welding
"'
0. 220 Inch thick material. A SOOF preheat and a SOOF
post heat for 30 rr11nutes result8 In the optimum as-
~ 40r---~---+----+---~~~
welded weld ductUity, (30),
I AUSTIN SALT 162SF, 30 MIN
4.034 Tests or welded 0, 093 Inch sheet, contalnlng weld repairs
after heat treatment, show Ftu reduced 20 to 30 ksl and
Fry reduced 10 to 15 ksl, Fracture toughness of repair
weld after heat treatment generally was better than a
normal heat-treated weld, (31).
36
AIR MELT

VACMELT
je SQ. 400F, 5 MINt 0.09S IN
~ OQ, RT
AUST- 1575F
20 MIN, 0Q. t c 0. 109 IN
Y40MIN, 0Q. t=0.0901N
(18)

(21)
. CEY.ul.W.T..~Jl.MJN....OQ.....l c '
4.04 32
Heat Treatment 0 400 600 800 1000
4,05 Surface Treatment
TEMPERING TEMP - F

FIG, 1.062 EFFECT OF TEMPERING TEMPI!RATURB,


QUENCH!~ MEDIA AND MELTMB1ll OD
ON HARDNESS OF SHEET (18, p, 23-25)
(21, p. 10)

CODE 1205
PAGE 3
FeUH
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISED MARCH 196~

1600
Fe
Q35C
f------
Ae3

11e1
------ ---------------
Fe(Oo 35C)-l, 8NlO. 8Cr-0.35Mo-O. 'ZV
-
1.8 Ni
f..----- ----- -;::.::.;-- ~
- --
1200
0.8 Cr A '---- ~ F+C .... ~A+F+C
Q35Mo
0.2 v "'
0
Ao 800
_C' -
~------
! ) (
4335VMod -Ms I---
Bt..V
400
Mt

0
1 10 102 Io4 loS
TIME SECONDS

FIG. 2.0121 TIME TEMFERA'ruRE TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAM (11, Fig. 8)

1600
Fe(0.3SC)-l. 8Nl-U. 8CrD.Z SMoD. 2V
JIUl>"T 1650 F o
-----
Ae3
r-- - - - 1 - - - - r- - -_:::: -
--;:-- ----- --~ --- .....
1200 _......
~~ J\
F+C
-.;;-

_C_ JI+F+C

Ms _:J { F+C
Mf ........... ~'

0 1 10

TIME SECONDS

FIG. 2. 0122 TIME - TEMPI!IIJITURE -TRANSFORMATION" DIJ\GRJ\M (25, p. 19)

IL

...~ sr----~----r---~r---~r---~~~-i--i
::;
~ 7r----4-----+~~~~~~~~=~~~,
~

0 200 600 800 1000


TEMP F

FIG. 2.014 1llERMAL BXPANSION (11)(17)

CODE 1205
PAGE 4 ''..
REVISED MARCH 196!5 FERROUS ALLOYS FeUH

l',./i 2~ ~~~~-~1.~8~M~~~.~w~r--~o~.3~5~o~~.%V~
AUST 1525 F, 1 HR, OQ RT Fe(0.35C )-1. 8MO. 8Cr-O,J5Mo~. %V
TBMPHR 465 F, 2 HR, AC ~ 0.095 IN SHI!BT d Ao .
AUl) IN SALT Mlfll,
Fe
SQAT40 0F, 5Mifll, AC 0.35C
TBMPBR 500 F, 2 HR
,..... 1.8 Ni
~'ru
0.8 Cr
0.35Mo
200
FTY 0.2 v
~ 10
u e (21N) 4335VMod
~ 0
lSOO 1550 1600 1650 1700
AUSTBNITIZINJ TBMP- F

FIG. 3,02122 BFFBCT OF AUl>T.I!NITIZI!IIl


TBMPBRATURB ON TBNSILB
PROPBK1li!S OF SH.I!BT
(18, p. 19)
280
Fe(0,35C)-1.8M-0.8Cr-tl.35Mo-O,%V I T
0.095 IN SH BT AUST 1625 F, SQ AT 400 F,
0 0.012 0.016 5 MIN, AC, TI!MPBR 500 F,
2HR
l>'TRAIN - IN PBR IN
FIG. 3.02111 l>'TRI!SS-l>'TRAIN CURVB IN
TBNl>10N FOR BAR
FTU r-
(23, p. 50, 51)
200

10
F
TY - t-e

e(2 IN) - 1...-e

0 5 10 20 50 100 200
TIM!! - MINUTES
Fe(O. 3sc;S_l. 8M -o. aer-o. 35Mo-o. %V FIG. 3.02123 BFFBCT OF AUSTBNITIZI!IIl TIMB ON TBNSILB PROPBRn

.
fa/41NBAR .I!S
AUST OF SHBBT (18, p. 20)

: ~ HR
280
Fe(0.35C )-1.8M-0 .8Cr-0.35 Mo-o.%V
0.095 n SHBBT
.!. j_
280 AUSTIN SALT 1625 F, 15
OQ. TI!MPBR 450F, 2 HR MIN, SQ 400 F, AC, TI!MPBR
SOO F, 2 HR
Fro

~
FTU
--
200
Fn
..." 200
FTY

e
1550 1600

AUSTBNITIZINJ TBMP- F
1650 1700
u
~
~
10

0
5 10 20
e (2 IN)

50 100
-
200
FIG. 3.02121 BFFBCT OF AUSTBNITIZINJ TIMB TIMB - MINUTBS
. AND TI!MPBRATURB ON TBNSILB
PROPBRTIBS OF BAR (23, p. 39) FlO. 3.02124 BFFBCT OF QUBNCHINJ TIMB .\T 400 FIN
SALT ON
TBNSlLB PROPBRnBS OF SHI!BT (18, p. 22)

CODE 1205
PAGE 5
REVISED MARCH 196 5

0.09 3 IN SHE ET
Fe 280

Fe(0,3~1,8Nl-O.
SCr-0,35 Mo- 0,2V
F 0.22 0 IN PLATE
0.35 c rolr:mo:a
1.8 Ni 240

0.8 Cr
ro. --
"" FTY
A
~
0.35 Mo :0.:200 FTY

0.2 v HetdOGENI~
I HetdOGENIZE 15 t. IN, FC
T01 550 F, AC
15 MIN
FC TO 1500 F, AC AIJST 1 HR, SQ. 375-.j()()
F
160 TEMPER 500 F 2 + 2 HR
433 5V Mo d

!z 10

~18
Nal"IHGtdOGEL.:~m
50~
lZl 1900 1
F HetdOG ENI:Gl!D
u ... 1950 I
~ 2050 F e(21 N)
0
1500 1600 1700 1500 1600 1700 1800
A IJ~jEm'!ZJN:; TEMP - F
FIG. 3,02 125 EFF ECT OF HetdOGENIZI
N:; AND AIJl:.jENJ11ZJN:;
TEMPHRATIJRB ON Tl!NSILE
PROPERTIES OF
SHE ET AND PLATE
(20, p, 35,3 6)

Fe-( 0. 35C) -1. 8NlO. 8Cr-O.


SMoO. 2 280
SHEE
1620 F, 1/2 I!R, OQ +TE MPE ~,
R 2 HR
~~~~~----+-----
!----~,_---,24
0
Fe-( 0. 3 C) -1. 8Nl-U. 8Cr- O.
~5Mo-O. 2V
SHEET, 0. 3 280
1550 TO 1650 F, OQ
FTU +TE MPE R, 2 HR

~----}-----~~~~---
-f-----1240~

~40 1-A-U_ST_E_N_,_T_EM_P_
.
:.:

1550 p 120
~ ... 1600 p
-::: 200 l-"':::..:.:16::5::.o.:..rt---+---t-=-~.
.a
E 160 l20 4
e
.095 1NA IR MEL T, 0,36
0.06 3 IN AiR MEL T, 0.35
C
C
o 0.06 3 IN CONSUME BLBCTR
ODE
80~-+~V~A~C~ffi~~~M==E~L
~T~,r0.~3~5C~-f----~~~--
i

e (21N)
oL----J-----L-
0
---J-----~--~
200 600 e(2 IN)
800 1000
OIL_~.j()()~----76 ou~----800~----7.l00
TEMPERIN:; TEMP - F 0~----~~2~00~--~~~~
FIG. 3.02131 EFF ECT OF AUSTENITIZ TEMPERII':l TEMP - F
IN:; AND TEMPERIN:;
TEMPERATURES ON TEN
SILE PROPERTIES OF FIG. 3.02 132
SHEET EFF ECT S OF MELTIN:; PRA
U~
CTICE AND TEMPERI(I(J
TEMPERATURE ON TENSILE
PROPERTIES OF SHE ET
(ll, p. 844-846)

CODE 120 5
PAGE 6
FERROUS ALLOYS
FeUH
REVISED MARCH 196!5

280 .35C)-t.8Nl-o.scr-o,35Mo- o.w


0,093 IN SHEET F~

t ~~ 0.2201 PLATE

~~ .---Fe
F
FTU """<C.(((~TU
Q35 fl
~
200
FTY
~
~ - ~ ~
1.8 Ni
0.8 Cr
~ AUST1 HR
--.c(2!
AUST 1 HR
280 0.35Mo
.~ v
AUST 1 So F, .... FTU 0.2
~ b... SQ400F ~ P>,...
~
~
4335VMod

200
AU~T2HR

P'
~
TY

AUST2HR
~
~ ~
TEMPER TIME
~
280 1 -
1
A 1+1} HR ""<
b
2
~, 2+2 ~ ~ ~ FTU

240 FTU
~
..,_
~~~ ~
~
._
-
TY ~
t""'
200
AUST3HR ~ AUST3HR

~ 10 e p,_ e
~ Wh: ~ v~
tJ
gj AUST 1-3 HR AUST 1-3 HR
... 0
500 600 700 800 500 600 700 800

TEMPBRif\13 TI!MP - F

.
:;.

~-"';
FIG. 3, 02133 EFFECT OF TEMPERIN> TIME AND TEM-
PERATURE AND TIME OF AUSTENITIZif\13
ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF SHEET AND
PLATE AUSTENITIZBO AT 1550F
(20, p. 46-48, 55 -57)

TBMPERif\13 TEMP - F

FIG. 3,02134 EFFECT OF TEMPBRJf\13 TIMB AND TEMPERATURE AND TIMB


OF AUSTENITIZlN> ON TENSILE PROPEKTIES OF SllEET AND
PLATE AUSTBNJTIZBO AT 1600 F (20, p. 46-48, 5557)

CODE 1205
PAGE 7
FeUH FER-ROUS ALLOYS REVISED MARCH 1965

"......)

TEMPERII\G TEMP F

FIG. 3.02135 EPPBCT OF TEMPERII'G TIME AND TEMPERATURE AND TIME Fe(0.35 J,8N10,8Cr0.35Mo U,2V
OP AUSTENITIZII\G ON TEN~1LE PROPERTIES OF SHEET AND SHEET
PLATE AUSTENITIZED AT 1(50 F (20, p, 4951, 5860) AUSTIN SALT 162SF, 30 MIN
SQ. 400F, s MIN~t E 0.095 1N(I8)
AIR MELT & OQ,
RT
{ AUST JS75F
15 C 20 MIN, OQ}
1 0. 109 IN
VAC MELTYV 40 MIN, OQ t 0.090 IN (21)
CEV MELT ~40 MIN, 0Q 1 0. 080 IN

TI!MPERII'G TEMP F

FIG, 3, 02136 ~FFECT OF TEMP~RI~>K; TEMPERATURE


AND QtJEIICHIIIK; MEDIA AND MELT
METIICIO ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF
SHEET (18, p. 2325)
(21, p. 10)

CODE 1205
PAGE 8
REVISED MARCH 196~ FERROUS ALLOYS

280 Fe(O. 35C) 1. 8NIO. 8CrO, 35MoU. 2V


.a... 0.095 IN SHEET
Fe

- --
F11J 0.35C
...._
1.8 Ni
FTY
0.8 Cr
0.35Mo
200

10
- e <}IN)
0.2 v

4335VMod

AUST 1625 F, 15 MIN


SQ. 400 F, 5 MIN, AC,TEMPER 500 F
160
... OQ. RT, TEMPER 400 F e 0Q. 2HR, AC, RT
A 0Q. 2 HR, COOLED T(J 120 F
20 50 100 200 500
e A TEMPER 2 HR, AC, RT
TIME MINUTES 120 TEMPER 2 HR, COOL TO 120 F
+TEMPER 2 HR, AC, RT
FIG. 3,02137 EFFECT OF TEMPERING TIME AND QUENCHING MEDIA CN 60
(18, p. 26) F, 0Q. HR
TENSILE PROPERTIES OF SHEET

RA
40

!iIll
0 20
01:
...
1:<1

0
~.00 300 400 500 600

QUENCH AND TEIIPERING TEMP F

FIG. 3.02141 EFFECT OF QUENCH!(\(; AND


TEMPERING TEMPERATURE ON
TENSILE PROPERnES OF BAR
(23, p. 45)

Fe(0.35C)-1. SNIO:SCr-0. 35MoO. 2V


3/4 IN BAR
FTil
~~
.._ -
... fTY~ ~
RA

AUST !525, I HR, 0Q


TEMPER
2
.. 4
1-- 8 HR
.,. 24 e

0
TEMPERING TEMP ~
400 425 450 475 500

EFFECT OF TEMPERING TEM TEMPERING TEMP .. F


FIG. 3,02138
PERA111RE ON UNIAXIAL AND
BIAXIAL TENSILE STRESS FIG. 3.02142 EFFECT OF TEMPERING TIME
PROPERni!S OF SHEET AND TEMPERATURE ON TENSILI!
(27, p. 4,5) PROPERTIES OP BAR (23, p, 41)

COOE 1205
PAGE 9
FeUH
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISED MARCH 1965

Fe(0,3~, 8NIO. 8Cr0,35MoO, 2V


Fe 2BO ntBET A PLATE b.

0.35C FTU
lQ-.!' ... "'...
1.8 Ni li! 240
~--
-"

l<
0.8 Cr
0.35Mo PTY
_.t:.

0.2 v 200 AS RECEwBO CON m;N


eoMILLANN
46MILL SPHBROIDIZBD
HI!AT TREAThti!NI' L....:500:..:.:...:.F.:..,..L::....:4..:H..:R.;_..___ _.....__ __.
8
4335VMod 160
e4AUST 1625 F, I HR, SQ390P,
200 300
2 MIN, AC, TEMPBR 475 P, 2 Hf 500 600
Ob. SPHI!ROIDIZBD 1500 P, 10 HR, PC
TO 400 P, + 1225 P, 48 HR, AC QUENCH AND TEMPERING TEMP F
AUST 1625 F, 1 HR, SQ 400 P,
- TEMPI!R 450 P, 2 HR.
10 PIG. 3,0231 I!PPI!CT OF QUENCHING AND TEMPERING
~
al ~~ TEMPERATURE ON IMPACT STRI!NG1l! OF
u '11! e (2 IN) BAR (23, p. 48)
a:
Ill
0..
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
.. -
0.4

THICKNESS IN

PIG 1. 02151 I!PP OCT OP 1lflCKNHSS ON


TI!NSILI! PROPI!RTII!S OF SHI!I!'f
AND PLAT!! (20, p. 28, 29)

280 \ ..-.
F e(O. 35C)l. 8NlO. 8CrO, 35MoO. 2V
Il/41NBAR
AUSf 1,525F, !HI\. 00. RT
TEMPER 465P, 2 HR, AC TEMPERING TEMP F

FIG. 3,0232 I!PFECT OF TEMPERING TIM!!

200 I AND TEMPERATURE ON IMPACT


STRI!NG1l! OF BAR (23, p. 44)

160 I
~
120

80 7
7
0
f7 CCI.l PR I!SSION
I
DIAMETER TO 1l!ICKNI!SS RATIO
0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016
FIG. 3,0251 I!PPI!CT OF O!AMETI!R TO
STRAIN IN PI!R IN
niiCKNI!SS RATIO ON
ULTIMATE SHEAR STRI!NG1l!
FIG, 3. 02211 STRESS STRAIN CURVE IN
OF HOLLOW CYLINDERS
COMPRI!SSION FOR BAR (23, p. 52)
(23, p. 54)

CODE 1205
PAGE 10
FeUH
REVISED MARCH 1965 FERROUS ALLOYS

320 280
Fe(O. JSC)-1. 8Ni -0. 8Cr-O. 35MoO. 2
Fe-(0.35C)-I. 8NlO. 8Cr0.35Mo-0.2V
0.500 1N PJ.ATB, 0.3aC, T lil 0.063 1N SHEET, 0.33C Fe
:..: "'-.. !'-..
280
1575 F, OQ + TEM,:ER, 2 HR
1--1----1----11- --+--1 i5 240
/ 1600 F, 30 MIN, OQ+500 F, 2 Hf
0.35C
F ........._

~~~
~ 1.8 Ni
..."'a:
"'
:c
g
200
'IU '-..__
--- NOTCH
~ 0.8 Cr
0.35Mo
~ STR~r
T 0.2 v
160 I o L
0.045 0.014 0.007 0.004 0.0027 0.0019
4335VMod
400 500 600 700 I
I
I
3
I
5
r- li>l
I7 I
9
I
11
I
13
TEMPERING TEMP - F
STRESS CONCENTRATION - Kt
FIG. 3.02711 EFFECT OF TEMPERING TEMP-
ERATURE ON TENSU.E PROPERTIES FIG. 3. 02713 EFFECT OF STRESS CONCENTRATION ON NOTCH
AND NOTCH STRENGTII OF PLATE STRENGTH OF SHEET (13)
(7)

..... Fe-(0. 3SC) -1. 8NiO. 8CrO. 35MoO~~


.....
2
40 0.095 IN ,, 1620 F, 30 MIN, 0Q +TEMPER, zHR
SHE

0.036 C
e ~} NOTCH STRENGTH
AIR MELT
' ', o
-
F
TU

--
00
.._
~....

~
~ '\
60 __-v
~
~

~
20
40

"',
'
no ........ r < 0.001
~ K~ 17
280 r---~--~Fq~0.-3~SC)~-~-.-8N-l--O-.~OC-r---0.-3-SMTo---0.-2-V~
v

~~
0.093 IN SHEET
AUS'f 1650 F, I 1/3 HR, SQ 400 F
60 '----+.....:;:,.-lo=:----,-T..:..::EM:::..:.;PH::;R;2 + 2 HR < SUO F

'
240r 2 HR >SUO F
0. 063 IN, 0. 035 C
AIR MELT
20 't',.p
40
'-,

~ ~'
' ......
0

\~
2 0

h
'<.>-
H I>'TRI!I'}TH
'( 60 " K(17

ru .120 -
0. 063 IN, 0. 035 C
0
L
T
.
COtS EL VA~UUM MElT
r 0.001 MAX
.uoo 1200 1400 80
400 600 80U
400 500 600 700 8(l:l 900 1000
TEMPERING TEMP F
TEMPERING TEMP - F
FIG. 3.02712 EFFECT OF TEMPERII'} TEMPERATURE,
MELTil'} PRACTICE AND SHEET TIIICKNI!SS FIG. 3,02714 EFFECT OF TEMPERING TEMPERATURE ON NOTCH
ON NOTCH STRENGTil OF SHEET STRENG11i OF SHEET AUI>'TENITIZED AT !650 F
(12, p. 844-846) (20, p. 68, 69)

C~DE 1205
PAGE II
FeUH
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISED MARCH 1965

Fe Fe(O. 35C) 1. 8N10. 8CrO. 35MoO. 'lV


280 1----1 ----+- 0,220 IN PLAT
0.35C FTU A UST 1650 F, 1 1/3 HR, SQ 400 F
TEMPER 2 + 2 HR < SUOF
1.8 Ni 2 HR > SUOF

0.8 Cr
0.35 Mo
0.2 v lil
L------ ':.0:
4335VM od

e L
o T
SOL-- -JL..-- .......1 ----L-- --L---- --'
400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

TEMPERIN:l TEMP F QUENCH AND TEMPERIN:l TEMP F


FIG, 3,02715 EFFECT OF TI!MPERIN:l TEMPERATURE ON NOTCH
FIG, 3,02717 EFFECT OF QUENCHIN:l AND
STREN:JTH OF PLATE AUSTENITIZED AT 1650 F
TEMPERIN:l TEMPERATURI!
(20, p. 70, 71)
ON NOTCH STREN:JTH OF BAR
(23, p. 47)

2 40
F e(O, 35C)1, HNIO, SC.:rO. 35MoO. 2V
l>lll!l!T
I!MPI!R600F,1HR
~ 200~~:~~===-~~---+---~

~
160 NOTCH l>'TRI!N:lTH
1200

~
~ 1000
"'
~ T
~500 1600 1700 1800 1900

Alll>'Tl!NITIZI!D TI!MP F
TEMPERIN:l TEMP F
F'/G, 3.02721 l!FFECT OF AUSTI!NITIZIN:J
FIG. 3,02716 EFFECT OF TI!MFERIN:l TIME TI!MPI!RATURI! ON NOTCH
AND TEMPERATUR!! ON NOTCH S'l'REN:JTH AND FRACTURI!
l>"TREN:JTii OF BAR (23, p. 43) TOOOHNBSS OF l\liBET
.(28, P 11)

CODE 1205
PAGE 12
REVISED MARCH 1965 FERROUS ALLOYS FeUH

280
...---r-::F;-:-e(:;;:O:-;3;;5C),;;--1:-.-;BN1~-<,o.sc;;:r:
, --o;;-,-;35~M:;.o=-;;-o,-:;2VU1
I 0,10 IN SHEET Fe
AUST 1650 F, 30 MIN, 0Q
0.35C
1.8 Ni
0.8 Cr
0.35 Mo
0.2 v

4335VMod
120

120D

~
a:
...Ill 800

"'-l
700 900 :?:
TEMPERIN::l TEMP F 400
400 SOD 600 700 800 900
FIG. 3.02722 EFFECT OF TEMPBRIN::l TEMPERATIJRE
ON NOTCH STREN::lTH AND FRACTURE TEMI'E RIN::l TEMP F
TOUGHNESS OP SHEET (29, p, 10)
FIG, 3.02724 EFFECT OF TEMPERING TBMPERATIJRE
ON FRIICTURE TOOOHNESS OF PLATE
AUSTENITIZBD AT 1625 F (20, p, 38,39)

Fe(O. 35C)-l. BNI-0. 8Cr0.35MoO. 2V


280 0.093 IN SHEET
AUIT 1650 F, I I/3 HR, SQ 400 P TEMPER
2+ 2 HR-< 500 F

::1 2H >SOD F
_._

.
240

u;
Ul
~

20D
.Ll.

NOTCHED STREN::lTH
~
~
- ~~
---........

0 -~
0

:.: 200 r-- _I -..


Ooll. L

160
160
160D
0.0. T t-3.0D-
-t0.75t-
1..1 0. 78. L I' o.oo
FTY' -
...t.
1 ~ ~ 0
::! !200 ~ ~
"' >
~ :It
~
BOD
400 SOD 60D 700 SOD 900 1000
TBMPBRIN::l TEMP - F
TEMPERING TEMP F
FIG. 3,02723 EFFECT OF TEMPERIN::l TEMPERATURE
FIG. 3.02725 EFF::CT OF TEMPER1N::l TEMPERATURE ON FRACTIJRE
ON FRACTURE TOOOHNF.SS OF SHEET
TOOOHNBSS OF SHEET AUSTENITIZI!O AT 1650 F
AUSTENITIZI!O AT 1625 F (20, p. 40,41)
(20, p. 61, 63, 64)

CODE 1205
PAGE 13
r-euH
FER RO US ALL OY S REVISED MARCH 1965

Fe(0. 35C) -1. SN!-0. 8Cr-0 .35M o-0.2


Fe 0.220 IN PLATE
V 240~----~---
-T- ----~--~
Fe(0, 35C} I. SNI-0. SCr-0 , 35Mo-O. 2V
0.35 c AUST 1650 F, 1 1/3 HR, SQ 400
TEMPER 2 ~ 2 HR < 500 F
F SHEET
AUST 1575 F, 1 HR, OQ
1.8 Ni 2 HR > 500 F

0.8 Cr
0.35Mo
0.2 v
433 5VM od


0
THICKNESS- INCHES
FIG, 3,02727 EFFE CT OF THICKNESS ON NOTC
H
STRENGTH AND FRACTURE TOUG
HNESS
OF SHEET
(29, p, 20)

500 600 700 800 900 1000


TEMPERINJ TEMP F .
FIG. 3,027 26 EFFE CT OF TEMPERINJ TllMP
ERATURE ON FRACTURE
TOUGHNESS OF PLATE AUSTENJT
IZEO AT 1650 F
(20, p. 62, 65, 66)

160
~ 10
Ill
t)
gj
0. 0
200 0 200 400 600
TEM P F
FIG. 3.031 2 EFFJl..:T OF Tasf TEMPERATURE
ON TENS!i..., :>aoPERTIES OF
SHEET (22, p. 62)

CODE 1205
PAGE 14
REVISE[): MARCH 1965 FERROUS ALLOYS FeUH

16 240 r----.-----r-----r----~--~
Fe(0,35C 1.8Ni0.8Cr0.35Mo0,2V Fe(0.35C)1.8NIO, 8Cr0.35MoO. 2V
Fe
1/2 IN PLATE
I I 3/41NBAR
AUST 1525 F, 1 HR
0.35C
1.8 Ni
0.8 Cr
0.35Mo
\
\ 0.2 v
~ I~ 1--.-;~-1----4---~1----1 ~ 120 1----+--':-,-+....:::~~~-....;;~---1
(-o
u.
\ 4335VMod
\ R. R. MQORE
8 80 r---~-~'rt--~--~1--~
-CADMIUM PLATED
--SHOT PEENED, CHROMIUM PLATED
AND GROUND
---- SHOT PEENED
40 --SMOOTH GROUND TO 16.-!n-RM.....,S--+----1

IE CHARPY V ---CHROMIUM PLATED AND SMOOTH GROUND


0.38 c --POLISHED LOll(; PER AIAARTC-W76
O ---MA HINE TO 250 RMS
~400 -200 0 200 400 103 104 105 1o6 107 108

TEMPF NUMBER OF CYCLES

FIG. 3.0331 EFFECT OF TEST TEMPERATURE


ON IMPACT STRENJTH OF PLATE FIG. 3,051 SN CURVES FOR BAR WITH VARIOUS SURFACE
(26, p. 14) TREATMENTS (23, p. 60)

K~~ 3?;~~E~ -o. scr-o. 35Mo-o. zv


4
AUST 1620 F, 30 MIN, ARGON
OQ. TEMPER 400 F, 2 HR
280 CROSS HEAD TRAVEL RATE
0.!!_1 IN/MIN

\ ... "'
..........
F:ru-
,. / ' I
240

r
\

~-
FTY
...... - ... \
......

Vi
:.t
200
NET
FRACTURE
STRESS ~
X_,_ .....
240r-----~~~~----~----~---,
Fc(0.35C)I. 8NtO. 8CrO. 35MoO. 2V
3/4 IN AND I IN DAR
AUST 1525 F, I HR
200 r----4!!1--\---1--::~:1. OQ TO RT,
160 TEMPER 465 F, 2 HR, AC

120 -"
l
RO -
;;-
80

B
SHEAR
~
UJ
u 40 I '\60"J'
a:
...
OE~
UJ 40

'
5
0 I
200 0 200 400 600 r
0
TEMP F Jo3 104 105 106 10; toB

FIG. 3.03712 EFFECT OF TEST TEMPEUATURE NUMBER OF CYCLES


ON NET FRACTURE STRESS AND.
FRACTURE APPEARANCE OF SHEAR FJ- . 3.052 SNCURVEl> F()P. SMOOTIJ AND NOTCHED
CRACKED SHEET (22, p. 63) DAR (24, p. 1215)

CODE 1205
PAGE 15
r-eun
FERR OUS ALLOYS REVISED MARCH 1965

Fe Fe(O. 35C)1. 8NIO. 8CrO. ~5MoO. 2V


~/8 IN PLATE (0.34C)A IR MELTED
0.35 c 1650 F, 1 HR, 0Q +TEMPER , 4 TO 18 HR

1.8 Ni
~80
--
0.8 Cr
:lA
.T ' "'
In 240
0.35Mo :.: F ~

~~
TU
0.2 v T METAL
200 oL FLASH
4335VMod AT W~LDED

~
tzl
u
~0
..
... ..A._
e (21N) .. .l>
a:
tzl
"' 0
... -ll
ENDURANCE LIMIT
120 PROT METHOD ROT BEAM

u;
:.: 80
1--
-.u
I
.,
....
e
....

Au

40
0 200 400 600 800 1000

TEMPERING TEMP F

FIG. 4.031 EFFECTS OF FLASH WELDING AND TEMPERING


TEMPERA TURE ON TENSILE PROPERTIES AND
ENDURANCE LIMIT OF AIR MELTED PLATE
(14, p. 67)

Fe (0.35C)I. 8N!O. 8Cr0.35M oO. 2V


280 3/8 IN PLATE. 0.31 C
VACL'UM MELTED

lil
~ 1650 F, I HR, pQ+ TEMPER,
4 TO 18 HR
240
:.:


e L} PARENT
T METAL
~~
!'.....
~-FLASH
200
0
AT WELDED li
~tJ
a:
...
til
20

0
160
~ t11
e (2 IN)
-- J!

.. -.., ~
l
li!
:.: 120

80

0
ENDURANCE LIMirPRO T ~F.THOD,
VACUUM MELT
200 400
--
-...!il r---....
lf

OTBEAMI
~

600 800 J(IOO


TEMPERING TEMP F
FIG. 4.032 EFFECT OF FLASH WELDING AND TEMPEl lNG
TEMPERA TURE ON TENSILE PROPERTIES .'.NO
ENDURANCE LIMIT OF VACUUM MELTED PLATE
(14)

CODE 1205
PAGE 16
REVISED MARCH 1965 FERROUS ALLOYS FeUH

/
RBPBRB!oCBS
'i... .. )

1 AMS 6428 (June 15, 1953)


28

29
.
Bernatelll, H. K. IUid Youag, G. C., "Prcgresa Report em
Fracture Tougbness Te818 fl. High Streagtb Sheet Metals"
NAVORD Report 6496 WF-T-7-59, (May 18, 1959)
Bematelll, H. IUid Youag, G. C., "2od Prcgrees Report
Fe
2 AMS 6429 (June 30, 1960) oa Fracture Toughnesa fl. Hlgb Streagtb Sheet Metals",
Q35C
3 AMS 6430 (Jmuary 15, 1961) NAVORD Report 6496 (Part 21, NRL 108), (January 28,
4 AMS 6433 (Jmuary 15, 1961) 1960)
1.8 Ni
5 AMS 6434 (January 15, 1953) 30
6 AMS 6435 (June 30, 1960)
"WeldiDg 1blck Sectloa of 4335 V Type Low Alloy Steel", Q8 Cr
Aerojet General Corp., (October 15, 1962)
7 Aerojet-Gaeral Corporatioa, Material Data Sheet No. 31
p 2101, (January 17, 1959)
"Repair Weldlug 4335 V Type All")' Steel After Flllal 0.35 Mo
Heat Treatment", Aerojet General Corp., (Jmuary 15,
8 Aerojet-General Corporatioa, "Steel l'l&tea, Sheets IUid
Stripe; Cbromlwn-Nickei- Molybdezwm-Vma dlum",
1963) 0.2 v
Development Material Specltlcatioa, AMS - M:ISSa,
(July 14, 1958)
9 Aerojet-General Corporatioa, "List fl. Data Sheets IUid
4335VMod
Reporta oa AMS 6434, Alloy Steel", (1959)
111 Warga, J,J., ''Mechanical Properties of AMS t.434 Steel",
Aerojet-General Corporatioa, Report No. SRP 121
(Special), (June 19, 1958)
11 Gable, G. W., "Crltlcal Polllts &Ill Heat TreatmeJII: fl.
1 - 3/4 NICr-MoV Steel, Heat 654550" Republic
Steel Corporatloa, Y. S. 625, (December 12, 1958)
12 Bspey, G.B., Jones, M.H. and Brown, W.F., Jr.,
"The Sbarp P.dge Notch Te1111Ue Streagtb fl. Several Hlgb
Streagtb Steel Sbeet Alloys", AS'lld Proceedlugs, Vol. 59,
(1959)
13 Sachs, G. &Ill Sessler, J, G,, "llffec:t of Stress CODCentratioa
oa TaaUe Strength of Tltaalum and Steel Alloy Sbeet at
Various Temperatures", Symposium oa Low-Temperature
Properties of Hlgb-Strength Aircrllt &Ill MleaUe Materials,
ASTM STP No. 287, p. 122135, (June 30, 1960)
14 Kreger, J, &Ill Mayer, H., "Comparative Properties fl.
Air Melt and Vacuum Melt AMS 6434 Steel in the Ultra
Hlgb Strength TeDSUe Rauge", A.O. Smith Corporatloa,
Aeroaautlcal Division Report No. AD-282, (December
4, 1956)
15 MacLaren, A, W,, "Fersoaal Communlcatloa", Uall:ed
States Steel Corporatloa, (June 26, 1959)
16 Republic Steel Carporalloa,4335 V Mod., Data Sheet,
(May 28, 1959)
17 Aerojet-General, (1958)
18 March, J.L., "AMS 6434 (ModUiod) Steel Sbeet Material
Characteristics and Heat TreatmeJII:", American Car &Ill
Foundry Divisioa, ACF Industries, Major Report 458,
(June 18, 1959)
19 Climax Molybdenum Compaoy, "Ultra Strength Steele",
(1957)
20 Aerojet General, "Heat Treatement fl. a 4335 V Type Low
Alloy Steel", (October 15, 1962)
21 Campbell, J. B., "Steels for Lsrse Solid-Propellant
Roclcet Motor Cases", DMIC Rpt. 178, (November 20,
1962)
22 Morrisoa, J.D., Kattus, J. R., "An Investigation of
Methods for Determlalug the Crack-Propagatloa
ResletaiiCe of Hlgb Strength Alloys", Summary Tecbn!cal
Report, Southern Research lnstitute, (March 7, 1961)
23 Joaes, R. C., ''Materials - SAB 4335 (ModUied) Steel
260, 000 to 280, 000 pal Heat Treatment - Development
of Process C011troliUid Mechaalcal Properties for",
Coavair Divisloa - General Dynamics, (October 24, 1962)
24 Whitney, R. C., ''Material SAB 4335 (ModUled) Steel
Process Coatrol and Mechaalcal Properties - Development
of", General Dynamics, Coavair Dlvleioa, Report
1659, (November 9, 1962)
25 Plorentlno, R.J., Roach, D. B. aod Hall, A.M., "Heat
Treatment fl. HlgbStreugtb Steels for Airframe
Applicatloae", DMIC Report 119, (November 27, 1959)
26 Gilbert, L. L., Brown, J.A., ''Materials &Ill Fabrlcatloa
Problema Associated with Hlgb Streugtb Llgbtwelght
Homcgeneoua Pressure Vessels", Proceedlugs fl. the
Golda Gate Metals CoafereiiCe oa Hlgb Strength Steele,
for the MiaaUe Industry", ASM, (1961)
27 Bbst, G,IC. &Ill Llndb, D. V., "Bvaluatloa fl. Ultra-Hlgb
Strength Steels for Tbln Walled Preellllre Veuelo 011Jd
Roclcet Motor Caaea", ASMB, Paper No. 62, Met-16,
(AprU 1962)

CODE 1205
PAGE 17
FeUH
REVISED DECEMBER 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

1. GHNRRAL 1.0551 !'arts heat treated up to Ftu 220 to 240 ksl, Table
4340, Including Its variety 4337 which bas a sllghdy 1.05SI. Fe
lower carbon cootent, Is lite preferred common low
alloy sleet for air weapons where good strenglb, high :;ource
TABLE I 0551
S D. 3
0.4 c
bardenablllty and unUormlty are desired. It can be Alloy 4340
heat treated to strenglh values wllhln a wide raoge. At Condition
1.8 Ni
strength values up to about Ftu = 200 ksl other low Tempering Temp- Stress Relief
Ftu tal
alloy sleets which have sufficient hardenablllty possess F TempF Timehr 0.8 Cr
nearly lbe same mechanical and other properties as ISO to 160 min . 700 3
4340. At Ptu a 200 to 220 ksl, and Ftu a 260 to 280 ksl - >850 800 1 0.25Mo
this steel has been found to be superior to ether common 180 to 200 and . 700 4
low alloy steels aud also to some ol the recently 200 to 220
developed more complex low alloy steels . (The term 220 to 240. . 700 3 4340,4337
ultra high stl\eDgth' sleets Is applied to such steels that or 650 4
are used at various values of F10 above 200 ksl and up or 550 5
to about 300 ksl). 4340 Is available In all wrought forms . <400 275 n
and castings In this steel are wxler development. It Carburized oarts . 275 12
possesses a fair formablllty when properly aMealed Stress relief temperature limited by tempering temperature
and can be welded by various methods. Forgings In
and strength requirements.
this alloy, heat treated to Ptu 26C to 280 ksl, require
special measures In design and fabricating.
I.OSS2 !'arts hear treated ro F.,_ 260 to 280 ksland subae~
1.01 Commercial Designations quently subjected 10 grinding, machining, proof testing
4340 and 4337. or straightening. 350 to 400P, 4 hours minimum.
Temperature should not exceed tempering temperature
1.02 Alternate Designations or reduce Ftu below 260 ksl (34, p. 1).
AlSI 4337 and AlSI 4340, SAE 4337 and SAE 4340. 1.056 Austenlrlze. 1475 to IS75P, IS minutes per luch
Additional letters In the name Indicate special thickness, IS minutes minimum. Normalize welded
characteristics or speclftcattons, e. g. 4340 H and E or brazed parts before austeniUzing.
4340. H means that the steel Is supplied to harden 1.0561 Gnln size of air melted austenlUzed alloy, FIB. I. 0561.
ability rather than to chemistry specUlcatlons and E 1.057 Cool after austenltizlng.
indicates electric furnace melted"steel. 1.0571 Oil quench. Oil temperature 75 to 140F, cool to 150F
maximum, (7, p. 2).
1.03 SpecUlcatlons 1.0572 Salt quench. Salt temperature 390 to 410F, hold 10
Table 1.03. minutes, air cool to 160F maximum. Alternatively,
525 to 575P, hold until uniform temperature Is reachl.'d,
TABLE I 03 (7, p. 2).
AMS Tvne Form Mllltarv 1.058 ~:~~lifO to 1200F dependlns on desired strength,
6359 A 4340 Sheet, strip, plate MILSSOOO A 1.0581 To Ftu 160 to 180 ksl, 950 to UOOF, 4 hours.
6"5 P. 4340 Ror. lnro-ln~s tubl= MILSSOOO A 1.0582 To' Ftu 180 to 200 ksl, 850 to 950F, 4 hours.
6412 D 4337 Bar, forgings 1.0583 To Ftu 200 to 220 ksl, 750 to 850F, 4 hours.
6413 c ~ .. ":', I Tubing 1.0584 To Ftu 260 to 280 ksl. 400 to SOOF, 2 hours per
inch thickness, 6 hours minimum. Double tempering,
which is sometimes recommended, does not appear
1.04 Composition neces~ary. The exact tempering temperature depends
Table 1.04 on as quenched hardness as follOW's:
390 to 410F, for 53 to 56 'RC
TABLE I 04 440 to 460F, for 57 to 58 RC, and
!:<>urce AM~ II'' 121 AMS 13\ 14\ 490 to SlOP, for 59 RC or higher.
AtiM.- 4340 4337 Tempering below 390F or above 510F Is not permissible.
Percent Percent 1.059 Austenite srabillzarlon.
Min Max Min Max 1.0591 Austenite stabilization at 250F, 24 hours should follow
Carbon any final heating of material heat treated to Ftu 260 to
0.38 0.43 0.35 0.40 280 ksl. This also applies to the baking operation at
Chromium 0.70 0.90 0.70 0.90 365 to 385F, 8 hours, which relieves hydrogen
Manganese 0.65 o.ss 0.65 o.ss emhrlttlement after plating, (6, p. 3).
Molybdenum 0.20 0.30 0.20 0.30 l.OS92 Refrigeration at UO to 1301', 3 hoou, l an
Nickel 1.65 2.00 1.65 2.00
Phosphorus . 0.040 . 0.040
alternatlve method which eliminates untempercd
martensite. It Is applicable only to ~lcknesscs up to
Silicon 0.20 0.3S 0.20 0.35
Sulfur . 0.040 0.040
2 Inch arx:l slmple shapes to avoid cracking, and It
Iron Balance should he followed by retemperlng.
Balance
AMS 6359 A gives 0. 60 Min, 0. 80 Max. 1.06 Hardness
1.061 Ilnd quench hardenabillty, Fig. I. 061.
1.062 4337 Is used only up to 7/8 Inch diameter. 4340
through hardens on oil quenching up to 3 Inch diameter.
4 1/2 Inch diameter bar, when water quenched, wlll
1.05 Heat Treatment contain more rhan 95 percent martensite plus austenJre
1.051 Normalize. 157S to 1700F, I hour per inch or maximum and wlll develop nearly full hardness.
thlckneas, alr cool, (5, p. 9). 1.063 Rflect of tempering temperature on hardness of alloy,
1.052 Temper normalized condition for machlnablllty. 1250F FiB. 1.063.
maximum, (S, p. 9).
1.053 Full aMeal. 1525 to I650P, furnace cool or cool ln 1.07 Forma and ConditJonti Avatlab1e
ash or lime, (5, p. 9). 1.071 The steel Ia available In the lull commercial range of
1.054 Spheroldizlng anneal. 1425P, 2 hours, furnace cool ro sizes for all forma.
1210P, hold 8 hours, furnace cool or air cool. 1.072 All products are available In the hot rolll.'d or forged,
I.OSS Stress relief parts after atra!Bhtenlng, machining, ere. normalized, aMealed or spheroldized condlllon.

CODE 1206
PAGE
FeUH
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISED DECEMBER 1963

1.08 Melting and Cast!na Practice 2.022 mectrlcal reslotaoce. At 120P, 11.7 mlcrohmln aod
FtJ Electric funw:e air melt, Ioductlon aod consumable at 570F, 18.7 microhm ID, (8, p, 2).
electrode vacuum melts are also avaUable. 2,023 Magaetlc properties. Steel Is ferromagneti c, (8, p. 2),
0.4 c 1.09 Special Consideration s
2.024
2.025
Emlsalvlly
Damping capacity
1.8 Ni 1.091 Low alloy steels decarburlze under normal beat!Jog and
heat treat!Jog coodltlona and !his Ia detrimental to the 2,03 Chemical Properties
0.8 Cr fatigue strength ol the higher strength levels, 2.031 The geueral corroalon resistance of all low alloy steels
Decarburlzatl on must be either carefully removed by Ia poor and they need corrosion protection.
0.25Mo machining or, In the case of sheet, an Inert abnoa 2,032 Hydrogen embrlttlemen t becomes pronounced In material
phere must be uaed to avoid either decarburlzlng or heat treated to Ptu above 200 kal, wben ex-posed to
carburlzlng. hydrogenating condltlons,auc h as plcldlug. cathodic
4340,433 7 1.092 Material heat treated 10 Ftu = 260 to 280 kel requires clean!Dg or electroplating . The steel may then fall at
careful designing to keep stress concentration s at a a very low strength and In a brittle manner at locations
minimum and special measures during fabtlcatlon as ol high stress concentration s and during slow rates d.
follows: loading or sustained loads, The absence ol hydrogen
(a) Decarburlzatl on must be completely embrlttlemen t should be demonstrated by means of notched
removed. tensile specimens, See 3.027111.
(b) Straightening of heat treated parts
ohould be limited to 1/4 degree and 2.04 1\b:lear Properties
performed at temperatures between 2.041 Irradiation effects on the mechanical properties ollow
70 to 200F followed by retemperlng alloy steels depend upon their heat treatment and grain
at 390 to 410F, 4 hours, Straightened structure. They consist of an increase in hardness and
sections muot be hot peened. yield strength, a slight Increase In tensile strength,
(c) Grinding of heat treated part must be a large decrease In elongation and a reduction In Impact
performed with extreme c.autfon and strength. The quenched and tempered conditions are
must be followed by baking at 365 tn most resistant to trradiatlon.
38SF and shot peening,
(d) Scale and ruot removal ohould be by 3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
machining, .. ad blaotlng or wet
blaotlng 3.01 Specl!led Mechanical Propenle&
(e) Vapor or oolvent degreaalng must be 3.011 AM::-5 design mechanical properties for wrought fonns,
used, Pickling and cathodic cleaning Table 3. 011.
are prohibited because ol the
susceptibility of Inducing hydrogen TABLE 3 011
embrittl ement. I Snurcr 10 D, 2.25
(I) Plating must be followed by baking at I Allnv 4340
365 to 385F, 8 hours. minimum. U LE=m All wrOUJ<ht forms
parts are plated for oxidation protectloo Heat treated (quenched and tempered)
before austenlttzlng, this must be Condition to oblaln the Ftu Indicated
followed by baking at 350 to 400F, 3 Fru. mln-ksi 90 95 125 !50 180 200 260
hours. Ftyo mlnksl 70 75 !03 132 163 176 217
(g) A final baking at 250F, 24 hours Is
Fey min-kst 70 75 113 145 179 198 242
required to slablllze austenite. Fsu mlnksl 55 55 82 95 109 119 149
AhernaUvely. refrigeraUon can be
Fbru mlnksl
used. (Cleveland Pneumatic Tool
1958). Honing to a depth not exceeding
0, 010 Inch may follow shot peening,
(e/0 1.5)
(e/0 2.0)
Fbry min-ksl
.
140
.
140
194
251
219
287
. 250
326
272
355
347
440
but grinding alter peening Is not
permissible.
(e/0 1.5)
(e/0 2,0)
- . !51
!80
189
218
230
256
255
280
312
346
1.093 Hydrogen embrlnlemen t Is a problem II the steel Is heat e, percent 23.0 . 23.0 18.5 15.0 13.5 .
treated to F1u above 200 ksl.

2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 3.012 Boeing addltion.Ll design properties for Pw 260 kal
minimum condition, Table 3. 012.
2.01 Thermal Properties
2.011 Melting point, 2HOF, approximately , (8).
2.012 Phase changes. This steel transforms from ausll!nJte
to ferrite and carbides on slow cooling and to TABLE 3 012
I Source f34. n~ -21
martensite on fast cooJlnsr.
Aliov 4340
Critical temperatures , -
I Form Bar fondnas. tublnsr
Acl t350F 'Cnrxlitlnn rtu ZOO to Z80 ka
Ac3 1425F
Cross scctlonsatn 100 or less Over 100
Arl 725F+
Ar3 900 to 1200F, (8, p, 2) RA, mlnpcrcent
2.0121 nmetemperaturt~transformatJon, Fig. 2.0121.
Single value 6 6
2.013 Thermal conductivity. 21,7 Btu It per (hr sq ft F), Average or heat IS 10
(8, p. 2),
2.014 Thermal expansion
At 0 to 200F, 6. 3 x 10"6 in per In per F,
0 to 1200F, 8.1 x to6,n per In perF, (B,p.12).
2.015 SpecUic hea(, o. 107 Btu per (lb F), (8, p. 2),
2.016 Thermal dlffuslvlty 3.02 Mcchantca1 Properties It Room Temperature
3.021 Tension
2.02 Other Rlysical Properties 3.0211 Stress-strain diagrams
2.021 Density. 0. 283 lb per cu ln. 7. 83 gr per cu em, 3,02111 Typical stresa-straln curves for various strength
(8), ' l""ela, Fig, 3.02111.
3.0212 Effect of tempering temperature on tenolle properties.

CODE 1206
PAGE 2
rt:un

REVISED DECEMBER 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

( .
'----' Effect ot tempering temperature oo tensile properties 3.0312 Effect ot test temperature "" tensile properties ot bar
3,02121
ot bar, Pig. 3. 02121. and sheet beat trealc!d to various strength levels, Fig. Fe
3.0312.
3.02122 l!lfect ot tempering temperature and test direction ca
tensile properties ot bar and forging, Fig. 3, 02122, 3.0313 Effect <:1. low test temperature on tensUe properties of 0.4 c
bar heat treated to Ftu = 270 ksl, Fig. 3. 0313.
3,02123 Effect of temperiDg temperature oo teosUe properties
of sheet, Fig. 3. 02i23. 3.0314 Relatica between tensUe strength at -320F, -100F and 1.8 Ni
Effect ot tempei"IDg temperature oo tensUe properties at room temperature , Fig. 3. 0314.
3.02124 0.8 Cr
ot single and double tempered bar, Fig. 3.02124, 3.0315 llffect of sUicoo on tensile properties at RT and 600 P,
Effect of tempermg temperature on tensllle properties ot Fig. 3. 0315.
3.02125
iO percent cold reduction, Pig. 3. 02i25. 3.032 Compresaloo 0.25Mo
llffect of strain rate on tensUe strength and elcagstloo 3.0321 Stress-strain diagrams
3.0213
of bar, Pig. 3.0213. 3.03211 Stress:strain curves in compression at room and
I!Cfect of strain rate on upper and lower yield strength elevated temperatures for sheet heat treated to 4340,4337
3.0214
ot bar, Fig. 3.0214. Fru = 2QO ksl, Fig. 3,032ll.
I!Cfect of cold reduction on tensile properties of bars 3.0322 I!Cfect of test temperature on compressive yield strength
3.0215
of sheet heat treated to Ftu = 200 ksi, Fig. 3. 0322.
tempered at 1000 P, Pig. 3, 0215.
3.0216 llffect oJf cold reduction on tensile properties or bars 3.033 Impact
3.0331 llffect of tempering and test temperatures oo Impact
tempered at ll50F, Fig. 3.0216.
3.022 Compressloo strength of bar, Fig. 3. 0331.
&:ress-strain diagrams 3.0332 Effect of test temperature on Impact strength of alloy,
3.0221
3.0222 Relation between compressive yield strength and tensUe Fig. 3. 0332.
strength, Fig. 3. 0222. 3.0333 Effect of low and elevated temperalllres on Impact
3.023 Impact strength of alloy, F.l. 3. 0333.
3.024 Bending 3.034 Bending
3.0241 Bend strength of tubing heat treated to Ftu = 260 to 280 3.035 Torsloo and shear
ksl, Fig. 3.0241. 3.036 Bear lug
3.025 Torsion and shear 3.037 Stress concentration
Relatioo between torsion strength and tensile strength, 3.0371 Notch properties
3.0251
Fig. 3. 0251. 3.03711 I!Cfect ot test temperature on notch strength of bar heat
3.0252 Torsion strength o( tubing heat treated to FlU = 260 to trealc!d to Ftu = 270 ksl, Pig. 3. 03711,
280 ksl, Fig. 3. 0252. 3.03712 llffect ot low and room temperature oo smooth and
Bearing notched properties of air mellc!d sheet heat treated to
3.026 Fru i90 11:11, Pig, 3.037i2.
3.0261 Relatioo between bearing properties and tensile strength,
Fig. 3. 0261. 3.03713 Effect ot temperature on tensile and notch tensile
3.027 Stress concentration properties of sheet heat treated to 280 ksl, Fig. 3. 03713.
3.0271 Notch properties 3.03714 I!Cfect ot room and elevated temperature on smooth
3.02711 I!Cfect of tempering temperature on notch properties. and notched properties of a1r melted tempered
3.027U1 I!Cfect or tempering temperature, hydrogen content, sheet, Fig. 3. 03714.
stress concentration and rate of loading co the tensile 3.0372 Fracture toughness
strength of notched bar, Fl!(. 3.0271ll. 3,03721 llffect ot low and elevated temperature on tensile
3.027112 I!Cfect of temp! ring temperature and specimen locatloo properties, notch strengd.nd .fracture toughness ot
on tensile properties and n~tch strength of a forging, air melt and vacuum arc mell''<l alloy, Fig. 3. 03721.
Fig. 3.027112. 3.03722 Effect of low and elevated temperature on tensile
3.027113 l!lfect of tempering temperature on notch strength ot properties, notch strength and fracture toughness of
sheet, Pig. 3. 027113. vacuum Induction melted and remellc!d alloy, Fig.
3.027114 I!Cfect ot tempering temperature and load direction on 3,03722.
notch strength of air melt bar, Fig. 3.027114. 3.03723 I!Cfect of temperature on smooth and notch properties
3.o27a5 Effect of tempering temperature on notch strength ot and fracture toughness of sheet md bar tempered at
10 percent cold reduced bar, Fig. 3.027115. 400F, Fig. 3. 03723.
3.02712 Relatioo between notch strength for dUferent test bar 3.03724 I!Cfect of low and elevated temperature on tensile
sizes, stress concentration and test directions arxt: properties, notch strength and fracture toughness of
lenslle strength, Fig. 3. 02712, sheet and bar tempered at 7SOF, Fig. 3.03724.
3.02713 Bffect of specimen cross section. notch radius and 3.038 Combined properties
notch depth on notch strength ratio of bar, Pig. 3,02713.
3.02714 I!Cfect of ratio of thickness to notch root radius on notch 3.04 Cree(! and Creel! Rui!!!!!e Pr!!J!!:rtiea
strength of sheet and plate, Pig. 3,02714. 3.041 Creep curves for sheet at 1000 and 1200F, Fig. 3. 041.
3.02715 I!Cfect of net section strength on tensile yield strength of 3.042 Short time toto! strain curves for sheet at 1000 to
sheet with centrally located holes or fatigue cracks, 1SOOF, Fig. 3. 042.
Pig. 3. 02715.
3.02716 I!Cfect of centrally located fatigue cracks of various 3.05 Fatigue Pr!!J!erties
3.051 S-N curves for smooth and notched specimens In
3.02717
lengths on net section strength, Fig. 3. 02716.
I!Cfect of cold reduction on notch strength ol bars au:.tliig ~rn
Pig, 3.051.
= di:-cc: :::-:::::! !=t trc:ncd b:lr,
temperated at IOOOF, Pig. 3.02717.
3.02718 I!Cfect of cold reduction on notch strength of bars 3.052 Relatloo between endurance limit >:::d tensile strength
tempered at 1150F, Fig. 3.02718. for ..,ooth and notched bar, Fig. 3.052.
3.0272 Fracture toughness 3.053 E!tfCC: of specimen size on endurance limit for smooth
3.02721 l!lfect of tempering temperature oo fracture toughness and notched apeclmens, Fis. 3. 053.
of air melted sheet, Fig. 3. 02721. 3.054 Stress range diagrams for bar heat treated to various
3.028 Combined properties strength levels, Pig. 3. 054.
3.055 Stress range diagrams for mooth and notched bar at
3.03 Mecbanlcal Pro~rtles at Various Tem~ratures room temperature to 1000i', l'lg. 3. 055.
3.031 Tension 3.056 S N curves for notched rhrome plated, chrome
3.0311 Stress-strain diagrams diffused and bare bar at room temperature and
3.03111 Stress-straln curves at room and elevated temperatures 3SOF for Ftu a 200 to 220 ksl, Fig. 3. 056.
for sheet heat treated to P1u 200 ksl, Fig. 3.03111. 3.057 S N curves for notched chrome plated. chrome
3.03112 Stress-straln curves at room and low temperatures for diffused and bare bar at room temperature and 3SOF
bar heat treated to Ftu 270 ksl, Fig. 3.03112. for Ptu 260 to 280 ksl, Pig. 3.057.

CODE 1206
PAGE 3
FeUH
FERROUS ALLOYS REVISEOz DECE M8ER 1963
.. .
~j;
TABLE 4 037
sml shear
3.058 S-N curves for pin loaded lug jolDt specim en Source 48, :;!. 3)
joint spec:Jmen, Fig. 3. 058, Fe 0.4C 1.8Ni O.BC r0.25M o
Fe S-N curves for 4340 welds (Oxweld 71 fUJer
metals ), All~
3.059 Form Sheet
0.4 c Fig. 3.059. Condition Ann
0.030
Thickn ess - In
Blastic l'ropen iea
1.8 Ni 3.06
l'o1aao n's ratio. o. 3,
Failure
Load1 b Ftuks i"
3.061 atures, l'ig. I Ovcrlll.l!_
Mmlulu s cl elastic ity at variou s temper
QB Cr 3.062
3.062.
1/2in 1190 80
73
lin 2180
Modulu s of rigidity 88
Q25 Mo 3.063
Tangen t modulu s
lin 2660
3.064
3.0641 Tangen t modulu s curves In tensloo for differe
nt strengt h Based on origina l cross section al area.
levels, Fig. 3, 0641.
4340 ,433 7 Tangen t modulu s curves In compre ssion
at room aod 4.04 Heat Treatm ent
ated,
3.0642
4.041 DCCarburiZitlciii sho.,ld be avoide d or elimin
elevate d temper atures, Flg,'3, 0642. strengt h,
as it bi:I.J au advt.!rse eUect on the fatigue
3.065 Secant modulu s particu larly of the high strengi h levels.
Specifi cations
room and
Secant modulus curves in comprc ssloo at In
3.0651 genera lly permit a dccarb urizati oo of 0.003
elevate d temper atures, Fig. 3. 0651. The decarb urized layer
maxim um on !he finishe d part.
d. That
presen t In proces sed bar should be remove
FABRICATION forging s aod
4. resultin g frotn heat treatin g plate, bar,
to !he 0. 003
tubing, sttould be control led or remove d
4.01 Forma hlllty from critica l
larly In sheet In tnaxlm um specific'<! or even less
4.011 Genera l. The formab Ulty of 4340, particu section s subject to stress concen tration or
repeate :l
carbon Clllltent
form, Is not well known. Becaus e r:J Its loading .
formin g
ami Its air harden ing charac teristic s severe 4.042 Sheet should be supplie d practic ally free
from dccarb Ur
ng, ami
should rLoqulre full or spherol dlzlng alllleali lzatlon and heat treated In a low humidi ty
locrt gas
mod,
It should form In a manne r Inferio r to 4335 atmosp here.
ed cold. U
4.012 Straigh tening of parts should be perform 4.043 Heating and austeni tlzlng times for variou
s thickne sses,
operati on should
heat treated parts are stralgh teoed, ibis Fig. 4.043.
be followe d by stress relief, See 1. 05. ted becaus e
um, 4.044 Plating prior to austenl tlzing Is not permit
4.013 Forgin g. Startin g temper ature 2250F maxlm of diffusio n and decrea se hi fatigue strcngi
h.
LUte all ultra
finishin g temper ature 1950F minimu m.
capabil ity
high strengt h steels having air harden ing 4.05 Surface Trcn tmcnt
In ash or lime
prehea ting ami furnace cooling or cooling 4.051 Cle:~nlng ol parts heat treated
to variou s strengt h levels,
after forging Is recomm cooed. should be
up to and Including Ftu: 220 to 240 ksl,
such as
perform ed prefera bly by mechan icr.l means,
Machin ing ami Grindin g wire brushin g. etc.
4.02 normal ized shot, grit or sand blaatin g or
4.021 For r<Jgh machin ing !he steel should be Pickling should be followed by baking (cmbrl
ttlcmcn t
and temper ed at J250F maxim um. relief) at 375F, 3 hours, (5, p. 2).
materi al heat treaed heat treated to
4.0Z2 Finishi ng can be perform ed on 4.052 Hydr~enatlng treatm ents of ports
to all strengi h levels. U materi al heat
treated to
on should Fw a 260 to 280 ksl, should be followe d
by baking ....... ,
Fw ~ 260 to 280 kslls machin ed, ibis operati accord ing to T,1blc 4.052. Hydrog enating
treatm ents
be followe d by a stress relief, See 1.0552 . oiher !han ih<>Sc listed In Table 4. OSZ should
not be
tlemcn t
perform ed, as the resultin g hydrog en embrit
4.03 Weldin g, See also 3, 059. caMot be fully remove d.
teristic s
4.031 Genera l. This steel has good welding charac
me !hods
and parts can bo: joined by gas or arc fusion TABLE 4 052
and rcslst.t nce nash welding , (28), Source _{34 _jJ. 2
ition and
4.032 For fusion welding usc rod of same compos Al!oy_ 4340
for arc welding usc cooted electro des, (28). Condltl oo rtu ~ou to 21KJ hi
Spot and sesm welding or sheet is not
recomm ended
4.033 Embrlt tlemen t Relief
becaus e of air hardeni ng, (28). Treatm ent Temp F Time, minhr
forging s
4.034 Fusion or resista nce nash welding of bar, I
to 280 ksl l'hosph atlzing 210 to 220
and tubing to be heat treated to Ftu 260 24
t of !he Chrom ium plating 35010 400
Is not permis sible, becaus e r:J embrlt tlemen 3
Surface temper etch 350 to 400
joint area.
ity of
4.035 Tests were perform ed to establi sh sultabU
:i1iit uf
comme rcial filler metai~ for use in wt:iWm 4.053 Hard chromi um plating or parts heat treated
to
ksl, 200 to
4340 ste;,ls at strengi h IL'Yels 180 to 200 Ftu = 260 to 280 ksl should be pre-ceded
by vapor
ng results :
220 ksi and 260 to 292 ksl, wlih the followi degrea slng, sand blastin g and chromi c acid anodic
In !he 180 to 220 kal strcngi hs Oxweld
71 filler wire sible. Cttihodlc
ties while In etching . Anodic picklin g Is also permis
produc ed !he better combin ation of proper not be used.
picklin g and non-ele ctrolyt ic picklin g should
4340 electro de
!he 260 to 292 ksl strengi h bodJ rand H Cleanin g should be followL'CI by a otress
relief at 375F,
9IJX, joint
and !he Oxweld 71 filler wire produc ed over 4 hours minimu m aoo plating should be followc'C I by
y, (39) (54).
efficie ncies an.J csh>bited very good ductilit baking at 375F, 24 hours, Chrom e plaiL'CI
specim ens,
of weld and
4.036 Biaxial ~nd uniaxia l stress- strain curves wlih a cylindr ical diamet er or 0. 357 Inch
and a SO
parent metal, Fig. 4. 036. of 0. 025 inch,
be explosi on percen t, bO dcgrt.-e nocch with a radius
Sheet of O.roo Inch ihlckne ss can also percen t of
4.037
have been should nOI rupture within 200 hours 31 75
welded to 4340. The following variab les chc ROICh Sltcngl h of unplatt: d Spt."Cinrcns,
(5).
studied : C:ldmiu m plating suitabl e for parts heal
crcah."ll up ID
4.054
ing
300 ksi can be obtninl.od in a lxtth contain
(a) l!lchan t for surface treatme nt 3 to 4 oz per gal cadmiu m
(b) Spacing betwee n sheets B. 5 to 9. 5 oz per gal sodium cyanid e
(c) Exploa lve forces applied 2.5 to 3 07. Jle!r gal sodium hydrox ide
(d) IDitiatlng directi ons 8 oz per gal rnaxlm um sodium carbon ate
(e) Medium transm itting the forces 0. 5 10 0. 7 oz per gal cadaly tc brighte ner
at 70 to
Table 4. 037.
Tensio n t..st r:J explosi ve welded alloy, 90F and 20 to 40 ampo per sq ft.

CODE 1206
PAGE 4
FeUH
REVISEOa DECEMBER 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS

ll Bbould be preceded by a str<;ss relief and. U lbe pan


bod been cold warted, proal! ..led or grOUIII:I. clfl&Dblg Fe
abould be as before cbrcmluo ,, plating IUid plating
abould be followed by a cbran.lc acid rlll8e IUid 1111 0.4 c
embritdemeat relief.
4.055 Strlppillg ol. plating oa parts beat treated to Pru a 260 1.8 Ni
to 280 tal mould be by mecballlcal or uodlc albiiDe
me&DB. 0.8 Cr
4.056 SbotpeeDIDg Is uaed to Improve tbe fatigue reslaaDce ol.
lbe high streugtb levels. Par material beat treated to 0.25Mo
Pru 260 to 280 ksl It follows lbe stress relief before
cleaning IUid plating. The only operatlcm permlaslllle
alter abotpeeDIDg Is booiDg to a deplb ol. 0. 010 In 4340,4337
maalmuoo.

PIG. 1.0561 GRAIN SIZE OF AIR MELTBD


AUSTENITIZBD ALLOY
(36,p.88)

Fe(0.4C)-1.8NI0.8Cr0.25Mo
.
.
60
~-- -
-- r.::::--
- .
- - ............
0
.... ~
50
MIN"'
1--- '0...'- ~"--
40
- - A lSI E4340H
----AISI 4340H
-...... ....
--lSI 4337H
4340 (2)
0 4337 (3) ( 4)
30
0 8 16 24 32
DISTAN:E FRCfd QUBN:HBD END - SIXTEBNrnS IN
FIG. 1.061 END QUEN:H HARDBNABILITY (2) (3) (4)

Fc(0.4C)1.8NI0.8Cr0.25Mo

.Ill
0

..~
~
40 t---t----t::-.E----1

200.__ _400..L.---800.l---I.J200

TBMPERINJ TEMP F
FIG. I. 063 EFFI!CT OF TBMFERIN::
TEMPERATURE ON HARD
NESS OF ALLOY
(36, p. 76)

CODE 1206
PAGE 5
I ""''-"' f

FERROUS ALLOYS REVISEDDECEMBER 1963

Fe
0.4 c
1.8 Ni
0.8 Cr
Q25 Mo

4340,4337 ':"
c.
~
...

400IC:~~~~~-------L~-------L--------~------~
10 1o2 1ol lo4 uP 106
TIME - SECOND
FIG. 2.0121 TIMETEMPEF.A1URETRANSFORMA110N (52, p. lOS)

320

Fe (0. 4C) I. 8NlO. 8CrO. 25Mo 280

I
Fru 280 KS!l

;},v~
240
L...----~~>c-+-----t---; 2401i!
:.c
200

160 L
? 200 KSI

180 KSI
.,_zoo~----~----~----+----~~-

12 0
L 140 KSI
:.c

120

80
1/
I
j

ov
0

TEiiON

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0 0 400 600 800 1000 1200
STRAIN IN PER IN
TEMPERII'C TEMP F
FIG. 3. 02111 TYPICAL STRESS STRAIN CURVES FOR
FIG. 3.02121 EFFECT OF TEMPBRIIII:l TEMPERA11!RE ON TENSILE
VARIOUS STREIII:lTil LEVELS (31) (35) I'ROPER11ES OF BAR (13, p. 78)

CODE 1206
PAGE 6
FeUH
REVISE!) DECEMBER 1963 FERRO US ALLOYS

32'~--~-----r-F~e~-(~0.~~~-1~.8~~~-o~.8~C~r~-0~25~M~o 320
Fe-(0.4C)-1,8~-0.8Cr0.25Mo
BAR FORG!KlS
0. 75 IN BAR
Fe
1550F, 0Q
zro~~--~\-~----t---~+~TrEM~P~E~R~ FTU 0.4 c
240 v
---, l- 1.8 Ni
lil
:.c ..o- PTY 0.8 Cr
160
NORM 1650 F 0.25Mo
lil HUST 1575 F, 0Q
>t
e +SIKlLEE}TEMPER
200~-*-----+--~~~~,_----1 ro
0 DOUBLE 4340,43 37
~ ~f3/41NBAR RA
A. 45 DI!G TO FIBER,
160 l--1t!F:_:O~R~G!!.IM:i!:!j------f------.~~---1
e(2 IN)

0
600 700 800 900
TEMPERIK l TEMP - F
PIG. 3.02124 EFFECT OF TEMPl!RIM:i
TEMPERA11JRE ON TENSILE
PROPERTIES OF SIM:iLE AND
DOUBLE TEMPI!RHD BAR
(40, TBI. 2)

TEMPERIM:i TEMP - F
FIG. 3.02122 EFFECT OF TEMPl!RIM:i TEMPERA11JRE
AND TEST DIRl!CTION ON Tl!NSILE PROP-
ERTIES OF BAR AND FORGIM:iS
(13, p. 92)
r----,----,---~F~'e~-(~0.7.4C~)~-1~.8~N~I-0~.~8C~-~0~.2~5M~o 400
FINAL BAR DIA 0. 409 IN
NORM 1650F, I HR, AC
2M AUST 1SSOF, I HR, OQ

I
Fe(0.4C) 1.8Ni0.8C r -0.25Mo
SHl!ET
TEMPER, I HR, AC 320

~--~~---t-----t-----r----i240

lil M
>t

!7.Ill
u 20
""le
0
0 2110 400 600 BOO 1000 1200
TEMPERIM:i TEMP - F
TEMPl!RII'I:l TEMP I'
FIG. 3.02123 EFFECT OF TEMPERIN:l TEMPI!RA11JRE
ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF SHEET FIG. 3.02125 EFFECT OP TEMPERII'I:l TEMP!!RA11JRE ON TI!NSILE
(22, p. 55 -57) (29) PROPER'I1l!S OF 10 PERCENT COLD REDIJC'J10N
(53, p. 7. 8, 9)

CODE 1206
PAGE 7
FERROUS ALLOYS
REVIS E[) DECEMBER 1963

Fe Fe-(0. 4C)-1. BNI-0. BCr-0. 25Mo 220


Fe(0.4C )1.8NI-D .8Cr0.25 Mo
0.4 c 220 I
__..
11/BIN BAR
!..
11/8 IN ij.\R

. - ' .,
1.8 Ni 1575F, 0 1575P, OQ...I ....___ ~

~
+800P +800F
0.8 Cr
0.25Mo
200
..... _.-5
/ 80
.,
+925F-'
u
+925F. /
4340, 4337 180 v ....Z1

lil --'<7"' ~ + ll25F -v


:..:
160 + 1125--;1
Fro
i""

HO
+ 1300 TO 1200F, PC + 1200P ;-"\
+l~T01200F,FC+1200F,
2 HR
'fER
~ lA

u---
l ~ LOWER
(
j.o FTY
120
I
1575 TO UOOF, 2HR PC+ 1200F, 2HR
. ~I .1 ,P
100 157z to 1 F, 2 H , FC + lj_:_:::~-

-
20
-"
e (21N)
n Ia
A 0.001 0.01
0.1 10 100
~ STRAIN RATB IN PBR IN PER MIN
n [']
PIG. 3.0214 EFFECT OF STRAIN RATE ON UPPER
AM> LOWER
0 0.01
YIELD STR Ei'illi OF liAR (l6, p. 7 12)
0.1 10 100 1000
STRAIN RATB- IN PER IN PER MIN
FIG. 3.0213 EFFECT OF STRAIN RATE ON TENSILE
STRI!['K;lli
AND EI..ON:IATION OF BAR (16, p. 7-25)

Fe-(0. 4C)-1. 8NI-D. 8Cr-D.25Mo


FINAL BAR D!A O.IK9 IN
NORM 1650F, 1 HR, AC
AUST 1550P, 1 HR, OQ
TEMPER IOOOP, 1.HR, AC

lil
:..: j!
2001iJ
.
:..:

~~~~~~~---;160~

e(11N)
10 20 30 40
COLD RBDUCTION PBRCENT
FIG. 3.0215 BPPBCT OP COLD RI!IXX:TJON
ON TENSU.B PROPBRnBS OF BARS
1Bt.IPI!a SD AT 1000 P (53)

CODE 1206
PAGE 8
FeUH
REVISED DECEMBER 1963 FERROUS ALLOYS
';.~

'W ~rA---;r---~----~-----r----~
Fe-(0. 4C>:-\ 8NI-Q. 8CrO. 25Mo Fe
13/8 TO 2 7/8 IN TUIIIl'C
F 260 TO 2~ KSI
. 0.4 c
0 (31) 1.8 Ni
(32)
ADJUSTBD TO 260 KSl 0.8 Cr
0.25Mo
lil
~
160 4340,4:337
~
II.

120

40

f
~
u 20
a:
re
0 RATIO OF DIAMETER TO WALL 1HlCKNI!SS
0 10 20 30 40
FIG. 3. 0241 BEND STRENG1H OF TIJBING HEAT TREATBD
COLD RBDUCTION PERCEf\rl"
TO Fro 260 TO 280 KSI (31) (32)
FIG. 3. 0216 EFFECT OF COLD RBDUCTION ON
TI!NSILE mOPERTII!S OF BARS
TEMPERBD AT USOF (53, p. 7)

Fe(0.4C)l.8NIO.BCr0.2SM
160 .liN BAR
./
151SF, OQ+ TEMPER

/
/
1
I

.... "/ .,.. v


TORSION

120 160 200 240 280


Fro KSI
FIG. 3.0251 RELATION BmBEN TORSION STRE~1H
AND TI!NSILE STRENG1H (22)
200~--~~--~--~----~

2~r-----r-----~----~----~-----
Pe(O. 4C)l. 8NIO. BCrO. 25Mo

-- .
\

320
120 160
Fro KSl RATIO OF DIAMETER TO WALL 1HlCKNI!SS
PIG. 3.0222 RELATION BE"IWBEN COMl'RI!SSIVB YlBL