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习题

A.选择题
1.B 2.A 3.C 4.B 5.D 6.A 7.C

B.作答题
1.(1)A——磷脂 B——蛋白质
(2)构成细胞膜的脂双层不是固态物质,其内的磷脂和蛋白质可以
在脂双层中流动。另外,蛋白质分子是以球状的形式镶嵌在脂
双层中或表面。因此,被称为流动镶嵌模型。
(3)结构 B 的功能有:
(a)为穿透膜的通道,以让不能透过脂双层的一些物质出入细胞。
(b)为运载物质的载体,以进行主动运输。
(c)为某些化学物质(如激素、药物)的受体。
(d)为催化化学作用的酶。
(任选两项)
2.(1)红血球会胀大并破裂,称为溶血作用。
(2)蒸馏水为低张溶液,水渗透入红血球。
(3)其表皮细胞会胀大但不会破裂,因它具有细胞壁。
(4)细胞质会缺水萎缩并和细胞壁分离,称为质壁分离。这是因为当细胞置于高张溶液中,水
会渗出细胞外。

3.选择透过性。

4.(1)不相同。水溶性物质通过膜上的蛋白质形成的载体或通道出入
细胞,而脂溶性物质可直接通过脂双层出入细胞。
(2)大分子物质主要通过内吞作用进入细胞。

5.因为人类成熟的红血球缺乏细胞核。

6.
结构 细菌 肝细胞 叶肉细胞
细胞壁 √ × √
核膜 × √ √
叶绿体 × × √
线粒体 × √ √
DNA √ √ √
7.(1) 位于细胞内,行使特殊功能的小结构。
(2) A—内质网;与物质的合成及运输有关。
B—溶酶体;内含多种水解酶,可分解多种物质。
C—高尔基体;与细胞分泌物的形成有关,可对蛋白质进行加工和转运输。
D—核糖体;是蛋白质合成的主要场所。
E—线粒体;细胞进行有氧呼吸的主要场所 o
F—液泡;使细胞保持一定的渗透压。
G—叶绿体;进行光合作用。
(3) 细胞壁、伪足、囊泡。

8.中心体、溶酶体

Exercise
1. C 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. A

6. (1) The fluid mosaic model of membrane structure consists of a bilayer of


phospholipids with various protein molecules embedded and attached to it. The bilayer of the cell
membrane is an oily liquid with the viscosity of olive oil. The protein molecules scattered in
phospholipid bilayer, give it a mosaic appearance.
(2) The main ways in which substances may be transported across the cell
membrane are:
(a) Diffusion: Lipid-soluble molecules and gases can diffuse through the membrane.
Water-soluble substances like glucose across the membrane by facilitated diffusion.
(b) Osmosis: The diffusion of water across adifferentially permeable membrane is called osmosis.
(c)Active transport: Specific solutes like Na+ are pumped through interior of transport proteins requires
energy boost.
(d) Endocytosis and exocytosis: The macromolecules such as polypeptides, polynucleotides, are
transported in and out the cell by endocytosis and exocytosis.

7.(1) The nucleus is where the inherited information is stored. The information is kept on the chromatin.
(2) The nucleus is vital to organise and direct the reactions in the cell.
8. The cell membrane is selectively permeable and controls the exchange of substances between the cell
and its environment. The cell wall allows plant cells to become full of water without bursting and to
develop turgor pressure which helps support the plant. Most cell wall are completely permeable to
water and provide a pathway for the free flow of water and mineral salts.