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\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Universidad de los Andes. Facultad de Ing
eniera.}\b0 \par\pard\li2586\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Esc
uela de Ingeniera Geolg}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ica. Materia: Fotogeologa
.}\b0 \par\pard\li2906\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Prof. Ju
lin A. Gutirrez. Mrida, Enero de 2.005}\b0 \par\pard\li3320\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li3320\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3320\ri0\sl-213\sl
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li3320\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3320\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li3320\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3320\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3320\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3320\ri0\sl-3
20\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {GUA TERICA DE FOTOGEOLOGA }\b0 \par\colum
n\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {0}\par\pard\sect\sectd
\sbknone\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Nota}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {: esta gua es un do
cumento prel}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {iminar, en continua redaccin }\fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {y revisin, es producto de la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {revisin, en algunos casos traduccin, }\fs22\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {de diferentes libros y documentos,}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { se
han obviado las citas. Es}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {para uso exclusivo de los }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estudiantes de l
a Escuela de Ingeniera}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Geolgica, Facultad de Ingeniera
de }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la Universid
ad de los Andes. Se recomienda revisar mas profundamente la bibliografa al final
del}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {texto. Se agr
adece comunicar al compilador cualquier error.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-45
3\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jguti
e@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingeni
eria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pg
hsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols3\colno1\colw8960\
colsr-0\colno2\colw1360\colsr-0\colno3\colw1120\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f

s18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Contenido}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {pgina }\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1}
\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Tema 1: DEFINICIONES Y CO
NCEPTOS }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {BSICOS DE FOTOGEOLOGA.
2}\
par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Definicin y obje
to de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la fotogeologa}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Utilidad y tipos de fotografa}\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {s areas e imgenes de radar}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {- Importancia de los estudios fotogeolgicos. Avances recient
es}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Medidas Fot
ogramtricas. Paralaje}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Tema 2: ANLISIS FOTOGEOLGICO DEL R
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ELIEVE
17 }\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- I
mportancia de la fotointerpretacin del relieve, definiciones}\par\pard\li1173\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Elementos bsicos para su r}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {econocimiento e interpretacin.}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Caractersticas fundamentales.}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {Tema 3: ANLISIS FOTOGEOLGICO DE LAS ES}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {TRU
CTURAS GEOLGICAS.
25 }\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {- Definiciones bsicas. Importancia.}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Reconocimiento e interpretacin de las expresio
nes morfo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lgicas estructurales:
}\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Fallas, Al
ineamientos }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {geolgicos, pliegues, geosinclinales, etc
.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Tema 4: ANLISIS FOTOGEOLGICO DE LA}\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {S ROCAS
29}\par\par
d\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Definiciones bsicas. Im
portancia.}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Rec
onocimiento e interpretacin. Elementos f}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {undamentales
para su fotointerpretacin:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {
a) Reconocimient}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o e interpret
acin de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { las rocas gneas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
b) Reconocimiento e
\uc
1\u8220X
\uc1\u8220X
sedimentarias}\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
c)
\uc1\u8220X
\uc1\u8220X
\uc1\u8220X
metamrficas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Bibliografa
38 }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1

8\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof
. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\
pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12
240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\col
w10320\colsr-0\colno2\colw1120\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\b {Tema 1: DEFINICIONES Y CONCEPT}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\b {OS BSICOS DE FOTOGEOLOGA.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.1.- Definicin y ob
jeto de la fotogeologa }\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {2}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn6
66\margrsxn133\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Se puede considerar la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {Fotogeologa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { como aquella rama de la
fotointerpretacin encargada de estudiar }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los sucesos geolgicos a travs de las fotografas areas.}{ }\f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Objeto de la Fotogeologa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {: el objeto de la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {fotogeologa es el estudio de la superficie terrestre, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {de los diversos materiales que la integran y de las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {huellas dejadas sobre ellos por la ser
ie de procesos}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { a los que han estado sometidos a lo
largo de los}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tiem
pos geolgicos. El estudio de la fotogeologa ab}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {arca l
a estratigrafa, litologa, geologa estructural,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {geomorfologa, tectnica, hidrogeologa, y, en resu}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {men, todas las ramas de la geologa que admitan}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {para su estudio una escala mac
roscpica. Hay ra}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mas que se salen de su campo, como p
ueden ser la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pale
ontologa, paleobotnica, mineraloga, y en gene}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ral, cual
quier tcnica que necesite una escala}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {reducida de trabajo, aunque mode}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
rnos mtodos de estudio por}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {sensores remotos}\b0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { permiten determinar}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {la presencia de minerales}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 { por sus curvas de reflectancia}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {.}\b0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Adems, de los trabajos puramente geolgicos, el}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 { uso de la fotogeolog}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a se hace c
ada vez mas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {impre
scindible en obras pblicas, localizacin de mate}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {riales
de construccin, trazado de carreteras y }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {canales, estudios de embalses, bsqued}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {a de minerales, etc. El fotogel}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ogo rene e in
terp}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reta datos igual}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que lo puede hacer el gelogo de campo, la nica di
ferencia estriba en la distinta escala a la que}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {trabajan uno y otro. La gran perspectiva que ofre
cen }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las fotos areas y la exageracin del relieve que s
e }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {logra en la vi
sin estereoscpica }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {permite un claro enfoque de los pro
blemas y una gran precisin de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {dibujo. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Como en cualquier otra tcnica, }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en fotogeologa es sumamente importante la experiencia
y prctica del}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {intr
prete. Adems de tener los conocimient}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {os precisos y n

ecesarios de un buen gelogo, la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {visin de}\b0 \par


\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {conjunto}\b0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 { que permite la fotografa le ob}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{liga a actuar con un criterio de se}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {leccin distinto
al que tiene el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {g
elogo de campo. En algunos casos, las caractersticas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
de la zona de estudio son tan patentes que}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cualquier gelogo familiarizado con la visin de re}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lieve puede, en una primera ojeada, saber qu tipo}\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de materiales la forman, s
i estn estratificados }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o no, direccin y buzamiento de}
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { los estratos, pliegues,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {etc. Otras veces slo se llega a una conclusin
de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {spus de un detenido anlisis de todos y cada uno de
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los rasgos del t
erreno, y es aqu donde la larga expe}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {riencia del foto
gelogo pue}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de ser decisiva.
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {Tambin en fotogeologa existe el problema de transm}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {itir a los dems lo que se denomina \uc1\u8220Xojo clnico\uc1\u8221X, }\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es decir, esa serie de peq
ueas observaciones y detall}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es, hijos de una larga prc
tica, en los cuales se}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {basa el intrprete, muchas veces inconscientemente,}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 { para llegar a conclusiones acertadas. Se pueden dar}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {criterios y caractersticas generales de l
as rocas, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eficaces para identificarlas geolgicamente
, pero es}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {difcil r
esumir en unas cuantas explicaciones ese co}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mplicado
proceso mental analgico por el cual un}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotogelogo experimentado, a la vista de un par este}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {reoscpico, puede decir inmediatamente: esto es}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {granito.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\b {Limitaciones y ventajas de la fotogeologa:}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ se tiene la creencia de que la fotogeologa es una}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disciplina que necesita una continua contrast
acin de campo, esto es verdad pero solo hasta cierto }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {punto. En la formacin bsica de un fotogelogo de
be}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { estar presente una buena formacin de trabajos}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {prcticos de campo, pe
ro sta misma formacin la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { necesita el minerlogo, el pet
roqumico y, en }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ge
neral, cualquier gelogo sea cual }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sea su especialidad
. Desde luego la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { fotogeologa tiene una serie de}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {limitaciones para las
cuales resulta de gran ayuda, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y en muchos casos im
prescindible, confrontar el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {trabajo fotogeolgico en el campo, bien lo haga el}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 { propio fotogelogo o su equipo, sin embargo, la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-32
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jguti
e@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingeni
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x100 {3}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotogeolo
ga es una tcni}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ca independiente que puede mantenerse p
or s sola. Cuanto mas se asle del}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {campo el fotogelogo mas correr el riesgo de conve}\fs22\cf0\f0\char
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curre a los minerlogos, geoqumicos , etc.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
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ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {errores caracterstic
os, diferentes a la de los mapas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {realizados \uc1\u8
220Xpie a tierra\uc1\u8221X. Entre los aciertos podran }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {contabilizarse la precisin de }\fs24\cf0\f0
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entos y aquellas caractersticas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c


harscalex100 {derivadas de una visin de conjunto, y en los defectos}\fs24\cf0\f0\
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ores los materiales}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { mas simples (granitos, gneises,
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con las fotografas areas puede localizarse }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cualquier afloramiento que en el campo pasara desa}\fs2
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rd\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotogeolgicos previos al
trabaj}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o de campo donde quedan esbozados}\fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 { y planteados los problemas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fundamentales y localizadas las zona}\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {s idneas donde se pueden resolver.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- E
l Espectro Electromagntico.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Todo sistema de detecc
in cuyo resultado sea una fotograf}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a o una imagen se b
asa en el registro de las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {longitudes de onda reflejadas o emitidas por los cuerpos y su transform
acin en una imagen visible, }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx5440\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {que puede ser estudiada }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y anali
zada fcilmente.}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {La ordenacin de las ondas elect
romagnticas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {segn su frecuencia o longitud de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 { onda, recibe el nombre de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Espectro Ele
ctromagntico}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (ver figura), }\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {espectro continuo, aunque para su es}
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tudio se divida en bandas atendie}\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {ndo al sistema de generacin de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {percepcin y a sus caractersticas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {energticas. Slo una pequea part}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e del espectro, la c
omprendida}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {entre
0,4 y 0,7}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {u}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, p
uede ser captada por el ojo humano y los }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sistemas c
onvencionales de fotografa; 0,25}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {hasta 1,1 por pelculas especiales llamadas infrarroja}\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {s, y para radiacion}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es superiores a s
ta longitud de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {on
da se necesitan otros tipos de sens}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ores llamados pti
co-electrnicos.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La captacin de longitudes de onda con f
otografas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y sensores remotos instalados a bordo de a
viones y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {platafor
mas espaciales depende no }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {solo de la existencia de
pelcu}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las y detectores sensibles a una}\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {radiacin determinada, sino tambin
, de la existenc}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ia de ventanas atmosfricas, llamando
as a aquella}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {part
e del espectro donde la atm}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sfera no juega un papel p
erturbador y permite pasar algn tipo de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {radiaciones. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7 um }\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
UV
Azul
verde
rojo
IR cercano}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
visible}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {Longitud
}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-6
-4

-2

-1
2
3
4
5
8
9}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {de onda (um)
10 .....10.. 10
10
1 10 10
10 10
10.... 10.. 10}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 { --------------------}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {----------------}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {------------------}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {---------------------------------}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-----------------}
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Rayos
Rayos x
//////
Termal
TV
y Radio
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Csmicos
IR medio
Microondas
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {um: micras o micrmetros
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { UV
I
R cercano
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Visible}\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Figura.- Espectro Electro-Magntic
o}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pro
f. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li
10320\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {4}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-41
3\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Evidentemente, las imgenes tomada}\fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {s utilizando longitudes de onda difere}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {ntes a las del espectro visible}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {aportan un tipo distinto de inform}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {acin, ya acentuando cara}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ctersticas observables o
medibles en las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {f
otografas areas convencionales ya}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { aportando otras nue
vas no }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {registrables en ese }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {sector del espectro.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {As, los detectores sensibles a las radiaciones del }\fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {infrarrojo trmico dan img}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {enes de distribucin d
e}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {temperaturas en
el cuerpo objeto que informan sobre la}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { distribucin
de fuentes de calor, diferencias de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {humedad del terreno, e incluso de }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{su composicin mineralgica, deduc}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ida de su inercia tr
mica; las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {imgenes
obtenidas por la reflexin de ondas de ra}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dar nos prop
orcionan caracte}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rsticas tectnicas del}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terreno e identificacin de pliegu
e}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s, con cierta independencia del }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {recubrimiento de nubes, mantos }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vegetales, etc.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La introduc
cin de sistemas electrnicos de registro }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ofrece la ven
taja de pode}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {r enviar a tierra datos}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desde satlites, adems de su fcil al
macenamiento y el poder procesar digitalmente la informacin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {obtenida, sometiendo la imagen a }\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {un anlisis que permita diferenc}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {iar an mas las caractersticas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {buscadas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.2.- Utilidad y tipos de f
otograf}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {as areas e imgenes de radar.}\b0 \par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {El desarrollo de los satlites, sensores remotos }\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {y ordenadores ha originado un gran auge de la}\par\pard\li466\ri0

\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {teledeteccin, principalmente en los ao


s setenta, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y siguientes, auge que no solo no ha rel
egado el}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {uso }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {de las fotografas areas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 { sino que lo ha incrementa}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {do, ya que por
su bajo cost}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e, fcil adquisicin, gran}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {escala y visin en relieve, son las
fotografas ar}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eas la herramienta primaria del fotogelo
go y son}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {impresci
ndibles en los estudios real}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {izados con imgenes de sa
tlite.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Y es que ningn ordenador ni tcnica espectral pued
e }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sustituir por completo al cerebro humano en ese}\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {complicado proceso
de apreciar los datos tiles, suprimir los superfluos, saber cundo dos texturas so
n}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {distintas a amb
os lados de una lnea recta corresponde}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n a diferentes
cultivos o a un contacto por falla o}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {reconocer de un vistazo si una es}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {tructura es sinclinal o anticlinal}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Se da por de
scontado que las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
imgenes tomadas con sensores ptico-electrnicos of}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {recen
posibilidades extraordinarias, y en muchos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aspectos nicas, aqu slo se trata de insistir de qu}\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e el fotointrprete debe ante todo saber qu le puede}\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pedir a cada tcnica y alc
anzar los mayores rendimi}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {entos con el menor coste p
osible de energa y }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{material; es decir, saber interpretar visualment}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e
una imagen antes de someterla a complicados }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tratamientos digitales.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{Para interpretar geolgicamente}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { una fotografa o
imagen, sea cual se}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a su escala y registro espectral
, }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es necesario }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {poseer unas nociones claras de fotogeologa, interpr
etacin de estructuras, anlisis}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {geomorfolgico y cmo se presentan las diversas litologas y dems ras
gos del terreno}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotografas convencionales }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {siguen siendo la base pr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {incipal del estu
dio fot}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ogeolgico, por diversas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {razones:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Existen vuelos fotogrficos, fcilmente}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { adquiribles, de
la mayor parte del mundo.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {- Su bajo coste, en comparacin de las otras tcnicas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Las fotos areas convencionales propo
rcionan inform}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acin sobre los materiales de la superf
icie}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terrestre ba
stante acorde con la percep}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cin que de ellos tiene el
ojo humano.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- En
fotogeologa no se analizan rasgos individuales, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sin
o una serie de detalles como textura, drenaje,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disposicin de los materiales, frac}\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {turacin, etc., en cuyo conjunto se ba}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sa
el fotointrprete para su}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {anlisis del terreno y conclusiones. Por tanto, su familiarizacin con las fo
tos en blanco y negro le sirve }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez

.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelp
rofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsx
n15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10320\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {5}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {de base para el posterior reconocimiento de los ras}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {gos geolgicos cuando utiliza otro tipo de fotografas }\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e imgenes.}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\b {- Tipos de fotografas areas: }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Fo
tografas en blanco y negro (pancromticas):}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { estn to
madas con pelcula pancromtica muy}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {rpida, sensible a todas las longitudes de onda }\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {del espectro visible (e}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s decir entre 0,4
y 0, 7}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {)}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { y an}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mas sensibles en lo
s extremos de la escala cromtic}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a que el ojo humano,
por lo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { que registran una serie}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de detalles que a simple vista pasa}\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ran desapercibidos. Son pelculas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {de grano fino, gran sensibilidad y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {poder de resolucin, que permiten un buen contra}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {ste, su gama de grises es reducida.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {- Fotografas en color:}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { son sensibles a las
longitudes de onda}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { del espectro visible (entre 0,4
y 0,7}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {) }\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estn formadas por tres
capas amarillo, magent}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a y cian, sensibles a }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las longitudes de onda }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {correspondientes a los colores azul}\fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {, verde y rojo, respectivamente. Es}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tos
tres colores bsicos permiten}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {la obtencin de toda la gama del espectro visibl}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {e, aunque con una linearidad distinta a la del ojo}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {humano (los colores obtenidos fotogrfica
mente no co}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {inciden exactamente con los visuales), l
o que no}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ofrece n
ingn inconveniente para la }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotointerpretacin fotogeolg
ica, si}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {empre que se tenga en cuenta. }\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {Las fotografas en color ofrecen todas las ventajas de las fotografa
s pancromticas, adems de una}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {mayor facilidad para la identific}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acin de m
ateriales, al aportar los cambios de matiz y el matiz}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {caracterstico, dato que falta en las fotogra
fas en blan}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {co y negro, en las que el nico elemento de
juicio}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sobre el
color de una roca es el cam}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bio de intensidad del ne
gro dentro}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de una gama reducida de grises.}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Son aconsejables en}\b0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- la separacin entre ve
rdes}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { y rojos, que en la fotografa panc}\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {romtica aparecen en el mismo tono de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {gris}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- estudios fluviales y marinos, por la mejor sensibil}\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {idad de la pelcula en la zona azul-violeta del}\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {espectro, que en las pancro
mticas queda prcticamente eliminada por el empleo de filtros. Esto }\par\pard\li46

6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {permite una visin por transparen


ci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a de los volmenes de agua, lo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 { que la hace recomendable para:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {estudios de bajos fondos fluviales y marinos, dife}\b0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {renciar masas de agua de distinta composicin y}\b0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {temperatura, sa
lidas de agua dulce al mar}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (deltas sumergidos,
corrientes}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { costeras, contaminacin de }\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aguas, mareas, estudios de puer
t}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {os, transporte de sedimentos),}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\b {diferenciacin de grupos litolgicos}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {muy prximos entre si, que no han podido sepa}
\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {rarse por sus caractersticas morfolgicas ni}\b0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {topogrficas}\b0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (granitos, sienitas, grandioritas),}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- estudios de estructuras arrasa
das (}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {sinclinales y anticlinales erosionados}\b0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1866\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {- estudios de}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {afloramien
tos}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { dispersos, por el contraste que ofr}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {ece el color de las rocas con el del}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {recubrimiento}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- estudios de zonas de montaas (facilitan e
l estudio de partes sombreadas)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {- estudio de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {zonas mineralizadas
}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, por ejemplo, en la prospeccin de minerales rad
iactivos en terrenos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {sedimentarios, al facilitar la localizacin y seguimie}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {nto de niveles de areniscas reductoras grises, bien}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {directamente o previa localizacin de nive
les ocres de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { alteracin epigentica, ya que los yacimie
ntos de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {uranio va
n ntimamente asociados co}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n estos niveles reductores
grises.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Los inconvenientes de las fotografa}\fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {s en color son los costos (muy supe}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{riores a las pancromticas) y, su}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {extensin y comercializacin est limitada }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {a vuelos especiales ef}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ectuados por encargo. }\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin
A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http
://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn1
2240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10320\ri
0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {6}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Fotografa Infrarroja en blanco y negro}\b0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {: son sensibles a la zona del }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {espectro comprendida entre las }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {0,25 y 0,92}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {pero se filtra la zona inferior para eliminar }\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {las zonas ultravioleta, azul y verde, por lo que }\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx6693\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la sensibilidad efectiva
queda}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { situada entre las 0,57 y 0,92}\tab \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\i {.}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Las fotografas infrarrojas
no son }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sensible
s a la luz difusa o polarizada, no influyendo la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { di
reccin de los rayos solares en el momento de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la exposicin. En la actualidad estn siendo desp}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {lazadas por las pelculas de infrarrojo color o falso }\par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {color, y sobre todo por

las imgenes}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { obtenidas por sensores remotos.}\par\pa


rd\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Fotografas en Infrarrojo color}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {: son sensibles a las radiaciones }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {comprendida
s entre las 0,40 y 0,9}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {.}\i0 \par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Tambin se llaman falso color por la f
alta de corr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {espondencia que existe entre los colore
s registrados}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en
la pelcula y los que el oj}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o humano percibe en los ob
jetos }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotografiados. As, los colores }\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {originalmente verdes en las fot
ografas en falso colo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {r aparecen azules; los rojos ap
arecen verdes, y los}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {infrarrojos rojos. Son aconsejables para trabajar en: }\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {- zonas de baja visibilidad (nieblas, brumas, calina,}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 { polvo) por la claridad de detalle obtenida por la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mayor difusin de los tonos rojos e inf
ra}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rrojos en las partculas atmosfricas.}\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- estudios forestales y agrcolas
,}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { debido a que la clorof}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ila refleja la mayor pa}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rte de la radiacin}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {infrarroja, una planta ap
arecer en las fotos con t}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {onos rojos tanto mas brilla
nt}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es cuanto mayor sea la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {concentracin de clorofila, esto permite: hac
er inve}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ntario de plantaciones (d}\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {iferenciando unas especies}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {de otras), detectar plagas y enfermedades (la concentracin de
clorofila disminuye en las plantas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {atacadas).}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {- estudios relacionados con el agua, al ser sta abso}\fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {rbente de los rayos infrarrojos su superficie aparece }\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {totalmente negra, destacando
con claridad }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sobre la roca o vegetacin que la circun
da.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmul
t0 \*\tx1840\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En geologa,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {la fotografa infrarroja tiene aplicacin limitada}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {, porque las rocas reflejan menos }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {energa infrarroja que las plantas. }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {Algunos minerales s tienen signatura }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {espectral
pero para estudiarlas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {adecuadamente es necesario acudir a los }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {datos
obtenidos por sensores remotos.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Fotografas Areas V
erticales.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \*\tx5386\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Segn el ngulo de toma, }\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {las fotografas areas}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {puede
n ser verticales}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, cuando el eje ptico de la}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cmara coincide con la
vertical }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de lugar del campo fotografiado,}{ }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {y oblicuas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, cuando la t
oma se realiza}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {co
n un ngulo respecto a esta vertical, que normalm}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ente
oscila entre los 10 y 30 grados, pudiendo ser}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mayor en las fotografas tomadas desde satlite}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s artificiales. En fot}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ogeologa
se trabaja casi}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
exclusivamente con fotografas verticales por suministrar una informacin mas }\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {completa para los fines }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmul

t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {perseguidos. Las mas empleadas son las fotogr}\fs


24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {afas en blanco y negro tomadas con pelcula }\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pancromtica sensible entre 4.00
0 y 7.000 A, por ser la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s ondas comprendidas en el e
spectro visible.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Con el fin de intensificar el contraste, es fr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ecuen
te el empleo de filtros con tonos azulados.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Toma
de una fotografa vertical. }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Como se dijo anterior
mente, en la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s fotografas verticales el eje pt}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {ico de la cmara }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {coincide con la
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vertical del lug
ar del cam}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {po fotografiado, si dicha coincidencia no
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es absoluta, la desviacin puede ser}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {atribuida a dos causas:}{ }\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cabeceo}\b0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del avin en e
l momento de la expos}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {icin, o, inclinacin de las alas,
o}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {alabeo}\b0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Actualmente, los modernos mtodos de navegaci}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {n area permiten obten}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {er fotografa
s con una }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desvia
cin mnima de la vertical, error despreciable}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { frente a
otros introduci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dos por diversas causas,}\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {como distorsiones de los bo
rde}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s, terreno accidentado, etc. }\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\
sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbs
xn346\pard\li10320\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {7}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La toma de las fotografas suel
e ser sistemtica, }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {barriendo por completo la}\fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 { zona seleccionada, cada}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pasada fotogrfica de un avin se de}\fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {nomina banda, y al final de cada una}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { se in
vierte el sentido de vuelo}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx5520\fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {para empezar una banda paralela a la anterior.}\tab \fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {El nmero de bandas necesario}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ para recubrir}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {f
otogrficamente un terreno depende de}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la escala de la
fotografa, que }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a su vez depende de la altura de}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vuelo y la distancia
focal de la lente con que se}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { trabaja. Por ejemplo,
para recubrir el terreno}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {correspondiente a una hoja topogr}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fica de es
cala 1:50.000 con fot}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ografas de escala 1:30.000, el}
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {numero de bandas
oscila entre 4 y 5, que incluya}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n de 10 a 12 fotogra
fas por banda, para visin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {estereoscpica. Para un buen recubr}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {imiento est
ereoscpico, el solapamiento de dos fotos consecutivas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {debe ser de un 60 % del total de la fotografa
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, y entre dos bandas adyacentes de un 25 %. }\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La calidad de la fotograf}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a ten
dr una influencia }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {decisiva en su posterior }\fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {interpretacin, la toma se}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {efecta en das de buena transparencia y luminosid}\fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ad, por lo que se suele elegir la poca que}\par\pard\li46

6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {corresponda al final de la prim


avera y principio de }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {verano, salvo en zonas donde l
a intensidad forestal}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {pueda enmascarar el terreno, eligindose entonces el}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 { principio de primavera }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o final de verano, cuan
do}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {el ciclo veget
ativo de las plantas est}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en su comienzo o ha conclui
do. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estudio y terminologa de la}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {s fotografas verticales. }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- A
ltura de vuelo}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {: es la altura de vuelo en el mom
ento de la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { toma, referida al nivel del mar, se pued
e}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {leer en el altme
tro fotografiado en}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { el margen de la fotografa. }\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Altura de vuelo
sobre el terreno (Ho):}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { distancia existente entr
e el centro de la cmara y el terreno}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {en el momento de la exposicin, se halla restando la }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {lectura del altmetro de la cota del Punto Central}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de la fotografa.}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Distancia Focal (f):}\b0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { es la distancia que existe entre el foco }\fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {de la lente y el negativo de la pelcula.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Eje ptico}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {: lnea ideal que, pasando por el }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {centro de la
cmara, es perpendicular a la pelcula expuesta}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en su punto medio.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Punto Central (PC):}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 { se llama punto central a la interseccin}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { del ej
e ptico y la }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pelcula, corresponde}\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {al centro geomtrico }\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {de la fotografa.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {- Nadir (N):}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { es la proyeccin vertic
al del centro de la }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cmara sobre el terreno }\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {en el momento de la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {exposicin. Cuando la fotografa es absolutamente ve}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {rtical, el nadir coincide con el punto central, es}\par\pard
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t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La figura 4-6 representa la toma de una fotografa}
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\f0\charscalex100 {area,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en ella}\tab \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {los}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {principales}\tab \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {elementos}\par\pard\li733\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {geomtricos, con cuya terminologa debe estar}\par\pard\li733\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {familiarizado el fotogelogo. La distancia f
ocal y la}\par\pard\li733\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {altura
de vuelo no se han }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {representado en la misma}\par\pa
rd\li733\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {escala para lograr una m
a}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {yor claridad del dibujo.}\par\pard\li733\ri0\sl-21
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t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {directamente el positivo de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
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harscalex100 {cuenta que su situacin geomtrica est invertida}\par\pard\li733\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con respecto al negativo, lo que no alt
era las}\par\pard\li733\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {constante
s de proporcionalidad de la figura. Vamos}\par\pard\li733\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a definir a continuacin }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los
principales trminos}\par\pard\li733\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {usados en las fotografas areas verticales.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Escala de una fotografa }
\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {8}\par\p
ard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {En la figura 4-6, considerando semejantes los }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {tringulos A O B y a O b, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {podemos establecer
la }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {siguiente rel
acin: }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1 }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { = }\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 { i}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { = }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ f }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { = escala de la fotografa
Ec. (4-1)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {E
o
H
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Siendo i el
tamao de la imagen obtenida, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y o el del ob}\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {jeto fotografiado. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {F: distancia focal
H: altura de vuelo
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Es decir, para hall

ar la es}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cala media de una fotografa basta dividi}\fs


24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {r la distancia focal por la altura de }\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vuelo.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {Por lo tanto}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {cuando la altura del vuelo aumenta, la escala de la fotografa disminuye, y
,}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cuando la
distancia focal aumenta, la escala de la fotografa aumenta}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {. La distancia focal y la altura}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de vuelo suelen ir relacionadas, usndose las mas aprop
iadas para cada tipo de escala. Al hallar la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {escala de una fotografa tenemos que te}\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {ner en cuenta tres puntos importantes:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
1ro - el altmetro fotografiado al margen de la fotogr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{afa nos da la altura de vuelo sobre el nivel del}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mar, y como la que nos interesa es la que existe
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sobre el terreno habr que }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {restar a la lectura del}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {altmetro la altitud media del terreno, que se}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 { puede saber de antemano o hallar en un mapa.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La frmula 4 -1 quedara de esta forma:}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ = }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
f
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
=
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { 1}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { = }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 { f }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Ec.
(4-2)}\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {E
H \uc1\u8211X Hm
E
Ho}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {f = distancia focal de la lent
e
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
}\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {H = altura de vuelo medida en el altmetro}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Hm = altura media del terreno
Ho = al
tura de vuelo sobre el terreno 1 / E = escala de la fotografa}\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mai
l: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.v
e/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\margls
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x100 {9}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {2do \uc1\
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100 { y la lectura del altmetro}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en pies o en metros.
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Hay que tener e
n cuenta esta difere}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ncia de unidades a la hora de o
perar, reduciendo todos los datos a la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
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a, sin cambios }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acusados de relieve. En el caso de t
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o de la fo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tografa al variar continuamente el }\par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {factor de correccin Hm (
a}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ltura media del terreno).}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {As, la altura de vuelo }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {sobre un valle
ser mayor}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {q
ue sobre una montaa, y para una misma fot}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ografa

un monte o meseta tendr una escala}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\


cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {superior a la de un valle o depresin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {. Esta es una de las principales diferencias que existen entre las}\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotografas y los ma
pas. Para trabajar en fot}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ogrametra habr que hallar la
s distintas escalas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {correspondientes a las dis}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tintas elevaciones del
terreno.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Escala de una fotografa calculada con la
ayuda de un mapa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Otra manera de hallar la esc
ala de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una fotogr
afa es empleando el ot}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ro trmino de la ecuacin (4-1):}\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\ul {1}\ul0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\ul { = }\ul0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\ul { i}\ul0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {E
o}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Siendo o la distanci
a media entre dos puntos del te}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rreno, e i su eq
uivalente medida sobre la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {fotografa. En la imposibilidad de medir dicha }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {distancia sobre el terreno }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {podemos hallarla sobr
e un}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mapa, quedan
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-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
1
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ = }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { b
*
1
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {
E
c.
(4-3)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {E
(foto)
a
E (mapa)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Siendo:
1 / E (f
oto) = escala de la fotografa
1 / E (mapa) = escala del
mapa}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
b = distancia entre dos puntos medida en el mapa}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
a = distancia entr}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {e esos mismos puntos medida sobre la fotografa}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {Este mtodo resulta mas cmodo que el an}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {t
erior, siendo de hecho el mas usado.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Formato y da
tos informativos de las fotografas areas. }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El form
ato de las fotografas ar}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eas es cuadrado, genera}\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lmente de 23 x 23 cm, aunque puede variar su}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tamao para las distintas cmaras
y escalas. En los }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mrgenes de las fotografas aparecen
unas muescas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de
control, puntas de flecha, cuadrados, tringulos}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, etc
., que coinciden exactamente con el punto medio}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {geomtrico de cada lado. En uno o dos mrgenes ap}\fs
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{stintas referencias que}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {nos pueden servir para la identifi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cacin de l
a fotografa y estudio }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de la misma, como pueden ser:}
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Nmero de la fotografa}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Nmero de rollo al que pertenece}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Fecha en la que ha sido tomada
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Reloj con indi
cacin }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {exacta de la hora }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Distancia focal de la lente}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Altmetro indicando la altura

del av}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {in en el momento de la exposicin}\par\pard\li46


6\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
Email: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ul
a.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\mar
glsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {10}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {La lectura podr venir en pies o me}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tros (p
ondr feet o m, en uno u ot}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ro caso, aunque a veces se
precisa}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la ayuda
de una lupa para observa}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rlo). Los dos primeros dat
os son pr}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ecisos para tener una referencia}\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {exacta de cada fotografa y
los cuatro ltimos para su estudio. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Orientacin}\b0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Las fotografas areas se orientan segn el }\fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {criterio adoptado para los mapas, es decir,}\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con el Norte situado hacia arriba. }
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El mtodo mas rpido y seguro para }\fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {saber cual es el Norte es mirando}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hacia donde estn proyectadas las sombras,}{ }\fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\b {si se est en el hemisferio norte, desde que el sol sale}\b0 \p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {hasta que se ocul
te la sombra de un objeto de}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {scribe un semicrcu
lo proyectado hacia el Norte}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {; por}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eso las laderas de las montaas
}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reciben el nombre popular de \uc1\u8220Xsol}\fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {ana\uc1\u8221X o \uc1\u8220Xumbra\uc1\u8221X, segn estn o no}\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {orientadas al Sur.
Basta entonces mirar en la fot}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ografa cules son las l
aderas sombreadas para saber}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {cul es el Norte. Esta orientacin es la correcta }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {siempre que las fotografas se consulten como un mapa }\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o se usen en visin estereoscpica.}\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Sin embargo, orientada de este modo, la visin }\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {individual de una fotogr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {afa ofrece e
l grave}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {inconveni
ente de dar la sensaci}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n de que el relieve est in}\fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vertido (efecto pseudoscpico).}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {Si se desea }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {obtener una impresin correcta del relieve debe or}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b {ientarse la fotografa de manera que las}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {sombras estn situadas entre el obs}\b0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ervador y el objeto que las proyecta,}\b0 { }\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {es decir, con el Sur hacia}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {arriba, al contrario de lo que antes se aconsejab
a. }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Esto se debe a una ilusi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {n ptica ocasionada por la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {costumbre que tenemos de la vida real de ver las so}\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {mbras proyectadas por los objetos interpuestos entre}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estos y nosotros, pues cuando se
proyectan en sen}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tido contrario el mismo objeto nos
intercepta su}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vi
sin.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.3.- Importancia de los estudios fotogeolgicos.
Avances recientes.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En el campo geolgico la utiliz
acin de fotograf}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {as areas ha sufrido un gran incremento
, ya que }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adems de
l menor coste que ofrece el estudio fo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {togeolgico sob

re el trabajo de campo se puede}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\


charscalex100 {considerar ms completo en algunos aspect}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {os y, desde luego, siempre complementario e}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {imprescindible. Se pueden medir sobre la fotografa}
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { columnas estratigrficas, direcciones, espesores,}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {buzamientos, alturas
, etc. Actualmente se cartografa s}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {obre la fotografa e
n lugar de sobre el mapa, y el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {gran auge de las imgenes de satlite y de radar }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {han impulsado el de las fotografas pancromticas por }\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la mayor facilidad que el fotointrpre}\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {te tiene con el espectro visible, }\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {en el que necesita apoyarse para}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {interpretar mejor las imgenes tomadas en }\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {otras bandas del espectro electromagntico.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {- El Radar.}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Con respecto al}{ }\fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\b {Radar}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, ste es un sensor acti
vo, se }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {llama sensor activo porque envan}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {oblicuamente sobre la superfi
cie terrestre un }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {haz de microondas (longitudes de o
ndas comprendido}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
entre 1 mm y 1 m). Una vez reflejada por el terr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eno
, las modificaciones sufridas por la onda son}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {detectadas por una antena; un convertidor y un tubo
de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { rayos catdicos transforman la seal recibida en}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {puntos luminosos, q
ue finalmente impresionan una pe}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lcula continua o que
dan }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {registrados en cintas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {magnticas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Exis
ten dos tipos de radar, el}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Radar de Apertura Re
al (RAR) y }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {el Radar de Apertura Sinttica}\b0 \
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {(SAR).}\b0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { El primero, utilizado a bordo de un avin, se llama as porq
ue la resolucin de las imgenes }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {depende de la longitud real de la antena acoplada la}\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {teralmente a la nave, por esta razn tambin recibe}\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {el nombre de radar lateral o SLAR}\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (Side Looking Airborne Radar). En}\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 { el segundo, la longitud de la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {antena es menor que en el RAR o SLAR, lo que}\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 { se compensa proyectando un haz de microondas mas }\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ancho, que la antena va barri
endo por tramos al }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desplazarse con el vuelo, }\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sintetizando una antena}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mayor.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\
pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn
666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\colw10200\colsr-0\colno2\colw1240\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Entre las ventajas del radar
estn:}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {11}
\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- uso en zonas con barrer
as atmosfr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {icas (nieblas, nubes, hielos, lluvias}\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {) y vegetales, puede atravesarlas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {por su gran longitud de onda.}\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- poner de relieve plegami

entos}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { y estructuras sedimentarias}\par\pard\li466\r


i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- trabajo de reconocimiento en gra
nde}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s reas: al ser un sensor activo pu}\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {ede trabajar las 24 horas del da.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Algu
nas caractersticas geolgicas del terreno en las imgenes de radar}\b0 \par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {El reconocimiento de diferentes litologas no es posib}\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {le, en general, en las imgenes de radar, a no ser }\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que los cambios litolgicos vayan a
compaados de va}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {riaciones en la rugosidad}\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 { de las superficies que}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sean detectables.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {El se
guimiento del trazado de las capas }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {es viable
si va acompaado de rasgos }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b {topogrficos o texturales (de rugosidad del suelo, por ejemplo);}\b
0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {as, en algunos casos es posible}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reconocer pliegues. }\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {El inters geolgico de las imgenes de radar}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {reside principalmente en la}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { posibili
dad de detectar}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {lineamientos}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, debido al carcter oblicuo de
la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { iluminacin y al fuerte resalte}\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 { de los rasgos topogrficos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {que se produce en estas imgenes. Para el estudio de}\fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 { lineamientos estructurales, es necesario que la }\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {direccin de la alineacin sea pe
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rpendicular a stos, a fin de que}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 { resalten convenientemente. Esta}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aplicacin es especialmente til en zonas boscosas,}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 { donde al no aparecer en la imagen los rboles }\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {individuales, por no permitirl
o la resolucin del sistema, resaltan mucho mas los rasgos de orden }\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {inmediatamente superior, como
pueden ser }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los topogrficos con c}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {ontrol estructural.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Programas espaciales
y Satlites.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {A partir de 1965, la NASA (National A
dministration }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {of Space and Aeronautics) lanz los satl
ites}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Gmini y Apolo
con la misin, entre }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {otras, de fotografiar la Tierra
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con pelcula en color. La Agencia}\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Espacial Europea (ESA), integrada p
or Alemania }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Federal, Austria, Blgica, Canad, Dinamarc
a,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Espaa, Francia,
Inglaterra, Irlanda, Italia, Noruega, Pases Bajos, Suecia y Suiza, cre el program
a }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Earthnet para
captar informacin de los principales sa}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tlites puestos
en rbita con estos fines, bien}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {americanos (Landsat, Nimbus, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {HCMM, Se
asat, NOAA, etc.) o japoneses (MOS). Adems tiene su}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {propio satlite, el ERS-1. Dado el propsito de es
te }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {libro, nos limitaremos a estudiar las imgenes de}
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {satlite que tengan
aplicacin en lo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s estudios fotogeolgicos. }\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\b {- Satlites LANDSAT}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Serie 1: Landsat 1 (ERTS-1), 2 y 3 (S}\fs24\cf0\f0\char

scalex100 {ensores MSS y RBV-cmara de vdeo)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs


24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Bandas: Verde, Rojo, Infrarrojo cercano, Infra}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {rrojo medio, Pancromtica (40 m, 99 x 99 Km) }\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Altura de vuelo: 920 Km}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Resolucin temporal: 18 das}
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Resolucin espacial
: 80 m}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Cobertura
x escena: 185 x 185 Km }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Serie 2: Landsat 4 y 5 (Sens
or TM, cartografa temtica)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {Bandas: Azul, Verde, Rojo, Infrarro}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {jos cerc
ano, medio y lejano, trmica }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {Altura de vuelo: 705 Km}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {Resolucin temporal: 16 das}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Resolucin espacial: 30 m (120 en la trmica)}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Cobertura x escena: 185 x 18
5 Km }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin
A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http
://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn1
2240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pgh
sxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\colw10200\
colsr-0\colno2\colw1240\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b {- Caractersticas de las bandas TM-Landsat 7}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Espectro visible = entre 0,4 y 0,7 mic
r}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {metros (um), azul, verde y rojo.}\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Infrarrojo cercano o refl}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {ejado = entre 0,7 y 1,3 um.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Infrarrojo medio = entre 1,3 y 1,8 um.}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Infrarrojo lejano o trm}\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ico = entre 8 y 14 um.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Banda
1: (0.45-0.52 mm, azul)}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {12}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prove
e incrementos de penetracin en los cuerpos de a}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {gua,
as como tambin soporta anlisis en el uso}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {de la tierra, suelo y caract}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ers
ticas de vegetacin. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Banda 2: (0.52-0.60 mm, verde)
}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Esta banda s
e extiende entre los lmites azul y rojo }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de absorcin d
e clorofila }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y por lo tanto corresponde}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a la reflexin verde de la vege
tacin viva.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-34
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Banda 3: (0.63-0.69, rojo)}\b0 \par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Es la banda de absorcin de
la cl}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {orofila roja de la vegetacin verde }\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {viva y representa una de las ms }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {importantes bandas para anlisis de la vegetacin. }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Es tambin til para delimitar lmites tanto de suelo}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {como geolgicos}\b0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Banda 4: (0.76-0.90, r
eflecti}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {va-infrarrojo cercano)}\b0 \par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Esta banda es especialmente
sensible a la cantidad }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de biomasa vegetativa presen
te en una escena, til}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {para la identificacin de cultivos y enfatiza }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los
contrastes suelo-cultivo y tierra-agua.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1

8\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Banda 5: (


1.55-1.75, media infrarroja)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {Esta banda es sensitiva a la cantidad de agua en las plantas, es
til en estudios de cultivos de zonas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {secas y en investigaciones del vigor de las plantas. }\par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\b {Banda 7: (2.08-2.35, media infrarroja)}\b0 \par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {til para la discriminacin de form
aciones geolgi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cas, particularmente importante en la
identificacin }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de}
{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {las zonas de alteracin hidrotermal en las rocas}
\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Banda 6: (10.4-12
.5, termal-infrarroja)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {Mide la cantidad de energa infrarroja radiante emitid}\fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {a de las superficies, la temperatura aparente es }\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {funcin de las emisiones y de la tempe
ratura real }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o cintica de la superficie. til en estudi
os de }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {activida
des geotermales, mapeo de la inercia termal para las clasificaciones geolgicas}\b
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {clasificacin de la vegetacin, an}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lisis
de tensin de vegetacin }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y estudios de humedad del suel
o.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Satlite SPOT (c/ visin estereoscpica)}\b0 \par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {Bandas: Verde, Rojo, Infrarro}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {jo
cercano, trmica (120 m) }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {Altura de vuelo: 832 Km}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {Resolucin temporal: 26 das}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Resolucin espacial: 20 m en la multiespectral, 10 m en la
pancromtica}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Cobert
ura x escena: 60 x 60 Km }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}
\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\par
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i0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.4.- Medidas Fotogramtricas. Par
alaje}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {13
}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Paralaje}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {: Estereoscpicam
ente, el desplazamiento de im}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {genes est expresado por
el Paralaje, se}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {d
efine como el desplazamiento aparente de las }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {imgenes
, debido a un cambio en la posicin del punto}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de toma o de observacin. En trminos fotogramtrico}\fs22\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s la paralaje estereoscpi}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ca es
t representada por}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{la diferencia algebraica medida pa}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ralelamente a la
lnea de vuelo, en}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tre las distancias de los puntos }
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conjugados a sus
puntos pr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {incipales respectivos.}\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {- Paralaje}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {: es el desplazamiento apar
ente en la posic}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {in de un objeto debido al}\fs24\cf0\

f0\charscalex100 { cambio de punto de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c


f0\f0\charscalex100 {observacin. Si colocamos un objeto cualquiera (por ej}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {emplo un lpiz) a la altura del pecho, vertical y}\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con la punta hacia arriba,
y cerrando alternativamente}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { un ojo y otro, veremos
que la punta del lpiz se }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {desplaza hacia el ojo que tenemos cerrado. Si pudis}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {emos hacer dos fotografas poniendo la cmara}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {primero en un ojo y luego en el otro, la imagen
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del lpiz quedara como en la figura 5-16 (p. 66 de }\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Lpez, 1988) }\par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {En las fotos areas ocurre lo mismo, la figura 5-}\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {17 (las figuras son toma}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {das de Lpez
, 1988) nos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {muest
ra un objeto de altura h fotografiado }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desde dos pun
tos distintos, A y B. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Segn vimos al hablar del despl
azamien}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {to radial del relieve (p. 51), al }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {tomar la fotografa desde B, la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {punta de la flecha (M) se nos proyectara en M, es
deci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {r, el desplazamiento sera OM, que en la foto}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {correspondiente de l
a derech}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a equivaldra a d2. Al tomar la fotograf}\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a desde A, M se nos proyectara en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {M , y el desplazamiento OM, en la fotografa co
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rrespondiente de la izquier}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {da, se traducira en d1.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Se llama}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {paralaje absoluto}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de un punto
en un par estereoscpico de fotografas}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {a la suma a
lgebraica}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {d
e la distancia entre la imagen de dicho punto en }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\b {cada fotografa y los puntos centrales de cada}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {una}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Esta
distancia debe ser medida}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { paralela a la lnea de vue
lo.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La figura 5-1
8 nos muestra, abatidas sobre un plano, la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s dos fot
ografas representadas en el esquema de }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la figura 5-17 (las figuras son tomadas de Lpez, 1988). }\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
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par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
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mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pr
of. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknon
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ex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
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3\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {15}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En esta
figura vemos que el parala}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {je absoluto de la punta d

e flecha }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ser la distancia existente entre}\par\pard\


li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dicha punta y PC1, en la fo
tografa izquierda, mas la }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {distancia entre dicha punt
a y PC2, en la fotografa}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {derecha. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Paralaje absoluto del punto }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {m = mPC1 + m PC2 = b + b}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El paralaj
e absoluto de la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { base de la flecha ser:}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {o = oPC1 + oPC2 = a + a }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Tngase en cuen
ta que, en este ca}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {so, coincide la proyeccin de la fl
}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {echa con la lnea de vuelo. En el}\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {caso de no ser coincidente, como ocu
rre en la figura 6-3 (p. 75), tendremos que tomar las distancias a y}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {b paralelas a dicha lnea.}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \*\t
x2680\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {El paralaje absoluto}\b0 \tab \fs22\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {de un punto es mayor cuanto mayor sea su }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {altura sobre el ni}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vel de referencia.}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Diferencia de paralaje entre
dos }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {puntos es la diferenc}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {ia algebraica que exis}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {te entre sus paralajes}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {absolutos.}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {En este caso, la diferencia de paralaje en}\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {tre la punta y la base}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de la flecha es:}\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Diferencia de paralaje entre o y m = (b}\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 { + b) \uc1\u8211X (a + a) = d1 + d2 = A - B }\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {Volviendo a la figura 5-17, vemos que ON1 y ON2 son la}\fs22\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {s distancias respectivas }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del objeto al Na
dir de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cada fotog
rafa. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Sustituyendo en la frmula del desplazamiento (4
-7) que, como recordamos era:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {D = }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {h * d
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
queda:
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {
Ho}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {P1 = h * ON1
P2 = h * ON2}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {
Ho
Ho }\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {P1 + P2 = }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {h * ON1 + h
* ON2 }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { = }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {h (ON1 +
ON2)}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {
Ho
Ho
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Tengamos en cuenta que (ON1 + ON2)
es la distanci}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a que hay entre dos tomas }\fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {del avin (aerobase) y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {su equivalencia en la fotografa }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {es la fotobase; sustituyendo P1 y P2 }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {por sus equ
ivalentes fotogrficos,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {d1 y d2: }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Dp = d1 + d2 = }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {h * }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i \ul {f}\i0 \ul0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\char

scalex100\ul {b}\ul0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1


00 {
Ho}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\ul {Dp = h * }
\ul0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i \ul {f}\i0 \ul0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{b }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
(5-1)}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Ho }\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Siendo: Dp = diferencia d
e para}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {laje
h = altura del objeto}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {
f}\i0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 { b = fotobase
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Ho = altura de vuelo sobre el terreno}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie
/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\m
argtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {16}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Si la altur
a del objeto es considerable frente a la altura de vuelo, tendremos que aplicar
la frmula (4-5) }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o
(4-6), segn consideremos el nivel de referencia}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { sit
uado al nivel del punto }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mas bajo o del mas alto.}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En este caso, la frm
ula resultante ser:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\ul {Dp = h * }\ul0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i \ul {f}\i0 \ul0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {b }\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {
(5-2)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Ho - h }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {Situando el nivel de referencia en}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la base del o
bjeto, o bien: }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\ul {Dp = h * }\ul0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\i \ul {f}\i0 \ul0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {b }\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {
(5-3)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Ho + h }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Cuando lo consideramos en la cima }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@u

la.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieri
a/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margr
sxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\colw10200\colsr-0\colno2\colw1240\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Tema 2: ANLISIS
FOTOGEOLGICO DEL RELIEVE}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {17}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-3
33\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estudio bibliogrfico.}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 { Como todo gelogo, el fotogelogo debe consultar la bibliografa de l
a zona}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de estudio
, a fin de realizar un }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {trabajo lo mas completo posi
ble. Las consultas bibliogrficas deben }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hacerse con criterio, es decir, nunca deben deshacer}\fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {se a la ligera los propi}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {os r
esultados porque no }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {coincidan con los del mapa o trabajo consultado. Oc}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {urre con frecuencia que formaciones marcadas por}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nosotros en las fotografas areas no }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {aparecen en otros trabajos sobr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e
las zonas ya publicados, y aunque}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {el fotogelogo posea gran experienci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{a y seguridad siempre tiende a pensar}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { si se habr eq
uivocado en su}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ap
reciacin. Si al estudiar un terreno el fotogelogo encuentra algo que llama clarame
nte su atencin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {deb
e estar seguro de que ese algo existe}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, est reflejado
o no en otros mapas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Un sistema para perfeccionar la
habilidad interpretativa, e}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {s comparar los mapas
geolgicos de buena}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {calidad con las fotografas areas pertinentes}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{. El trabajo con las fotografas debe hacerse}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estereoscpicamente, con gran atencin y en todo mo}\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mento la posicin del modelo estereoscpico debe}\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {relacionarse a la del mapa.
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Rutina fotogeolgica (Segn Lpez, 1988)}\b0 \par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {La manera correcta de comenzar un trabajo fotoge}\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {olgico consiste en la anotacin cuidadosa y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {constante de todos los datos que puedan s
er neces}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {arios para una posterior interpretacin geolgi
ca.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Analizaremos
a continuacin los diversos paso}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s a seguir para la co
nstruccin de un mapa }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {fotogeolgico.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1ro.- Anotacin de obras humanas.}\b
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Una vez preparado y montado sobr}\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {e las fotografas el papel de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {calco con sus diversas rotulaciones previamente }\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {hechas (Punto Central y Transferidos, nmero de}\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotografa, hoja la que pertenece
, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {etc.) se calcan con un lpiz rojo, }\fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {bien afilado, las obras humanas mas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {destacables de la fotografa, carrete}\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {ras, ferrocarriles, pueblos, minas,}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ etc. Es conveniente tener a mano}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {un mapa topogrfico de la zona para la localizaci}\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {n y rotulacin de caminos, canales, nombres de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl

-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pueblos, etc. Aconsejamos que junto a l


os pueblos se }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rotule su nombre para la }\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {posterior identificacin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de la zona. En la leyenda existe}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {nte al principio del libro vienen anotados los smbolos de uso mas }\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {frecuente.}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {Daremos aqu una ligera orientacin, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {para el
principiante en geologa, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sobre la identificacin de va
s de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {comunicacin,
dado que a veces es fcil confundir carre}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {teras con vas
de ferrocarril, sin embargo, son}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {fcilmente diferenciables; stas ltimas presenta}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {n un trazado recto, con curvas de gran radio y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pendientes suaves, a diferencia de las ca
rreteras, que}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, debido a la mayor movilidad de los v
ehculos que }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las u
san, pueden adaptarse mejor a la topografa de }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la zon
a, presentando curvas muy cerradas y fuertes}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pendientes.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {2do.- Hidro
grafa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Una vez calcado sobre el pa}\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {pel todo lo referent}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e a obras humana
s se}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { pasa a anotar}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la red hidrogrfica. Esta}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 { anotacin puede presentarse bajo dos aspectos: }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {
a) Servir de gua para el paso del trabajo fotogeolgico al mapa}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {. En este caso se calcan con lpiz azul }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los cauces de los ros y arroyos mas importante
s, sin }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {necesidad de anotar los ar}\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {royos de tercer y cuarto}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {orden ni los distintos tipos de corrientes (espordica, perenne
, br}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {azos muertos de un ro, brazos de}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {crecida, lecho de inundacin, etc.
). Si se necesita c}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {onfeccionar un mapa planimtrico f
inal, la precisin }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{y abundancia de anotaciones irn }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de acuerdo con la c
antidad de da}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tos que se desee obtener. }\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofeso
r.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840
\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {18}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\i {b) La red hidrogrfica tiene valor en s.}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Por ejemplo, para la separacin litolgica de distintos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {materiales, estudios de pantanos, }\fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {canales, trasvase de aguas, etc., deben aprovecharse las enorm
es}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ventajas ofrec
idas por las fotografas areas y a}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {notar con la mayor e
xactitud y precisin todos los}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {detalles hidrogrficos que sta pueda ofrecernos, en la}\fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 { mayora de los casos superior a los obtenidos en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {el campo.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{3ro}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { Ge}\b0 \f
s22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {morfologa.}\b0 \fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 { El anlisis geomorfolgico}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { que se
pude realizar sobr}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e las fotografas areas es}\par\pard

\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {muy importante, aunque no


exhaustivo, teniendo que}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { recurrir al trabajo de cam
po para poder}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {com
pletarle, sin embargo, su uso no slo reduce c}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {onsider
ablemente este ltimo, sino que pude aportar}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una serie de datos que de otra ma}\fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {nera pasaran inadvertidos. Dado que}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { una de l
as bases principales de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {la interpretacin fotogeolgica es el anlisis geom}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{orfolgico, el fotogelogo debe estar ampliamente}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {formado en este tema por ser uno de los que mas di
re}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ctamente pueden influir en }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {su trabajo. Se hace un}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {anlisis de la morfologa originad}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a por lo
s distintos procesos erosi}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vos, tipos de rocas, frac
turaciones,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {plega
mientos, etc.,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4to. Estudio geolgico.}\b0 \fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 { Terminados los dos estudios anterior}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {mente citados se pa}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sa al geolgico,}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {propiamente dicho. Igual que l
os pa}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sos anteriores debe ser definitivo,}\fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 { es decir, una vez terminado el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estudio del drenaje no debe ser neces}\fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {ario volver sobre la fotografa pa}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
ra rectificar ni aadir ningn}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {dato. En el estudio geolgico se }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {debe obrar
con una metodologa di}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {stinta, dando sucesivas pasada
s al}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {trabajo hast
a completarlo definitivamente.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La primera pasada o es
tudio prelimin}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ar ofrece una visin de conjunto }\fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de la zona y el fotointrprete}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {debe limitarse a anotar slo los rasgos mas seg
uros e }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {importantes de ella, este trabajo deber reali
zarse }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de una man
era metdica y exhaustiva,}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {anotando todo tipo de
capas, afloramientos, fracturas, fallas }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {y dems rasgos geolgicos claramente visibles en la fo
tografa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. No es conveniente realizar la}\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {interpretacin fotogeolgica e
n esta primera pasada; as, los contactos entre dos formaciones slo }\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {deben marcarse si son absolutam
ente seguros. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Si no se est seguro de la exactitud de
un}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {contacto}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,
pero es conveniente su }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {anotacin para localizarlo}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en las fotografas col
indantes, se }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {puede dibujar con una lnea de punt}\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {os, rectificable a trazo continuo}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cuando la seguridad del contacto se hag
a mas patent}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e. Tanto en un caso como en otro, a amb
os lados de }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la ln
ea de contacto se a}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nota otra a lpiz, del colo}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {r correspondiente a la form}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ac
in. Si no se est seguro}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {de la identidad litolgica se espera a una segunda }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {vuelta antes de marcar con color, la precisin de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dibujo as obtenida es supe}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {rior a la logrado usando el}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { lpiz exclusivame

nte. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\sl


mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Para los distintos tipos de formaciones se usa
n l}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pices de distintos colore}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {s, siempre perfectamente}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {afilados, para no empastar el dibujo. La tabla geol}\fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {gica internacional de colore}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s debe empl
earse en el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mapa
final, pero no durante el }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {trabajo fotogeolgico, dond
e es conve}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {niente destacar las formaciones}\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {importantes con colores bi
en visi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bles, as como las capas guas, et}\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {c. Si no se dispone de colores}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {suficientes para el nmero de distintas formaciones }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {se pueden trazar rayas horizontales, verticales,}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cruces, etc., procur
ando no empaar }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la claridad del dibujo. Los afloramie
ntos, buzamientos, direcciones}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {de esquistosidad y en general todos los rasgos }\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {propios de una roca se anotan en el color que}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {previamente se les haya signado, y en neg
ro las fa}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {llas fracturas, ejes de }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {pliegues y dems rasgos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {estructurales que puedan afectar a una zona}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 { externa y no a una roca en particular.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una v
ez terminada la primera pasada se da una o dos }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mas
(suelen ser necesarias),}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en las que se afirman}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o rectifican las anot
aciones anteriores, se terminan}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de identificar las
litologas, marcar las fallas y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\se
ct\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\mar
gbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {19}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {contactos, etc. Segn sea l
a naturale}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {za del estudio y el fin al que va}\fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {ya encaminado se completa mas en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {un sentido que en otro, por ejemplo, en un
trazado de carreteras interesar marcar la zona de }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desplomes, avalanchas, peligro}\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 { de coladas fangosas, etc.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Si no es fcil e
ncontrar el lmite }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {entre una formacin y otra, como mu}
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {chas veces ocurre, se pone el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {smbolo de \uc1\u8220Xcontacto no localiz
ado\uc1\u8221X (ver leyenda al}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { principio del libro)
y se cierra el trabajo sin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {intentar forzar un contacto que, de hecho, no se ha}\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 { podido ver. Y, por ltimo, no se debe olvidar que}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una leyenda fotogeolgica nunca ser como
una leyenda}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { efectuada en el campo, si el fotogelogo
no ha}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {podido ide
ntificar la litologa de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { una formacin, no debe comprom
e}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terse dndole alguna, sino dejarla}\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tranquilamente anotada como \uc1\u
8220XFormacin A\uc1\u8221X y e}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {xplicar sus caractersti
cas en la memoria que}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {acompaa al trabajo.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estudio del Tono y Vegeta
cin }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {en las fotografas areas. }\b0 \par\pard\li4

66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c


harscalex100\b {- Tonalidad y Textura.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \*\tx3200\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {E
l tono en las fotografas}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {se refiere a la inten
sidad relativa }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {de luz reflejada por el terren
o y}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {registr
ada en la pelcula}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. En cambio, la textura}{ }\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {representa la frecuencia de cambio de tonalidad en}\b0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {la foto}\b0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Aunque la tonalidad es un valor relativo, juega un p
apel de suma importancia en la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {identificacin de rocas. Es preciso de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s
tacar que la evaluacin de la tonalidad consiste en comparar el}\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tono de varias imgenes sobre fotos.
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { El tono en las fotos en}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ blanco y negro est }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dado por tonalidades de}\par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {gris que van desde blan
co o gris }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {claro hasta gris oscuro o negro. }\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {En muchos casos, la tonalidad,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {considerada en conjunto con otras car}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {actersticas de la roca, como el}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
drenaje, por ejemplo, puede ser}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {diagnstico para identificar la litolog}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{a y rasgos estructurales de una regin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {En cuanto a l
a tonalidad tpica de rocas,}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { pueden hacerse las
siguientes generalizaciones}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {:}\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {- De tono blanco a gris claro: }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nieve, agu
a reflejando luz, nubes, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {olas, evaporitas, caliche,
barreal,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx5360\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\b {ciertas arenas y gravas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b {dunas, ciertas tobas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}\tab \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {algunos rasgos de altera}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\b {cin hidrotermal (talco,}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1560\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {amianto}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {),}\tab \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\b {corales, cuerpos cuarzo-feldespaticos, dique}\b0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {s cidos, pegmatitas, ciertas cuarcitas y}\b0 \par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {calizas. }\b0 \par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \*\tx3013\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- De tono gris mediano:}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{yeso, rocas calcreas y dolomticas, a}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {reniscas c
laras, arcillitas, lutitas,}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {limolitas, margas, intrusivas y ef}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {usivas leucocrticas y bsicas.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- De tono gris
oscuro a negro: somb}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ra de lagos y curs}\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {os de agua, csped,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {carbn, arenisc
as y lutitas}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{rojas, grauvacas oscuras, areniscas con contenid}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {o orgnico, rocas intrusivas, efusivas, bsicas y}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ultrabsicas.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {Dejando a un lado los efectos que la bruma, el }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {f
iltro, y el revelado produc}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en sobre la tonalidad}\f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {, el tono}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {est determinado en muchos casos por el contenido de a
gua, humedad y permeabilidad de la}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {roca, y consecuentemente, por la vegetacin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {. La seleccin del filtro puede en algunos casos separar}\par\pa

rd\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {efectivamente dos rocas


de difere}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nte litologa, aunque aparentement}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {e similares en fotos tomadas sin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {filtro.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La distrib
ucin areal de varios tono}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s de gris define la textura
de la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { foto (Lmina IX). Dependiendo de }\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los elementos que causan el c
ambio de tono,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {la textura}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 { puede tener un aspecto grueso, fino, uniforme, }\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail:
jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/i
ngenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn6
66\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {20}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {liso, lineado, moteado o }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bandeado. As, la}{ }\f
s22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {\uc1\u8220Xtextura geomorfolgica\uc1\u8221X}\b0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { se refiere al grado de diseccin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del relieve, a la densidad del drenaje y a
la frecuenci}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a de los cursos de agua en un rea deter
minada. En}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cuanto
a la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {\uc1\u8220Xtextura litolgica\uc1\u8221X}\b
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, el cambio de tono se debe a una di}\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {stinta composicin mineralgica o a }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {meteorizacin, rasgos acentuados por un notable ban
deado, particularmente evidente en ambientes}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\*\tx1653\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ridos. La}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{\uc1\u8220Xtextura de erosin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8221X se refi
ere al aspecto fino o gr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ueso de la roca; son de ton
o}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {relativamente m
as claro y \uc1\u8220Xtextura de erosin\uc1\u8221X unifor}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {me y fina las rocas con s}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {uperficies lisas, com
o por }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ejemplo, l
utitas; por otra parte, rocas fracturadas, co}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mo sue
len ser las rocas gr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {anticas, o material de}\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {grano grueso, como conglom
erados, presentan una \uc1\u8220Xt}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {extura de erosin\u
c1\u8221X gruesa y generalmente poco}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {uniforme.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Tambin son de tono relat
ivamente mas claro rocas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desteidas o decolorada}\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s, reas cubiertas por}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vegetacin caduca y, en general, zonas situadas en}\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { clima rido. Adems, en ambientes hmedos, las}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pendientes expuestas al sol pu
e}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {den soportar una vegetacin mas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {densa y resultar }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con un tono mas }\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {oscuro que en ambientes ri
dos, donde las partes expuestas al sol son secas y, en consecuencia, se}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {caracterizan por un t}\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ono mucho mas claro.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una tex
tura \uc1\u8220Xmoteada\uc1\u8221X es, en muchos casos, indi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {cadora de diferencias en humedad, porosidad y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \*\tx5160\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {contenido orgnico de la roca. Por
ejemplo,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {materiales arenosos y permeables sob
re terrenos}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{elevados, son de tono mas claro que arci}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {llas
y limos en depresiones y valles}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. \uc1\u8220XT
exturas moteadas\uc1\u8221X}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char

scalex100 {se encuentran tambin en terrenos de rocas calcreas (manchas de tono mas
oscuro se deben a una}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {concentracin de arcillas residuales coloradas en }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {sumideros); en rocas volcn}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {icas (manchas claras }\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {debido a escape y
decoloracin por efecto de gases); en llanuras glaciofluviales y till glaciario, y
en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx8813\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {zona
s con rocas bituminosas (manchas oscu}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ras se deben a
l co}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ntenido orgnico).}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {En general, las }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\b {depresiones resultan mas oscuras por la concentracin de humedad}\b0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (Lminas VI, XII, XV, XX).}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{- Importancia de la fotointerpreta}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cin del rel
ieve, definiciones. }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Anlisis geomorfolgico }\
b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \*\tx8346\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El anlisis geomorfolgico que se pude}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 { realizar sobre las fotografas areas}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b {es muy importante}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aunque no exhaustivo, teniendo qu
e recu}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rrir al trabajo de campo para }\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {poder completarle, sin embargo,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {su uso no slo reduce considerablemente este ltim}\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o, sino que pude aportar una serie de datos que de}\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx5146\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {otra manera p
asaran inadvertidos. Dado que}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {una de las bases
principales de la interpretacin}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {fotogeolgica es el an}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {lisis
geomorfolgico}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, el fotogelogo debe estar ampliame
nte formado en este}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {tema por ser uno de los que mas directamente pueden in}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {fluir en su trabajo. Se }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hace un anlisis de la
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {morfologa origina
da por lo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s distintos procesos eros}\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {ivos, tipos de rocas, fracturaciones, plegamientos, }\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {etc., pero por limitaciones de e
spacio y objeto de }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esta obra impiden mayor dedicacin
, por lo que se}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {r
ecomienda a los fotogelogos y estudiantes de }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotogeo
loga se formen ampliamente con libros}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {especializados. En este captulo nos limitaremos a }\fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {hacer un breve anlisis de dos caractersticas }\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {geomorfolgicas principales}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {: topografa y drenaje}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Elementos bsicos para su reconocimiento e interpretacin
}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmu
lt0 \*\tx9453\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Topografa.}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 { El primer contacto del fotogelogo }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con una zo
na es a travs de la}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {expresin}\b0 \par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {topogrfica}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {, y son las formas del relieve su gua principal }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {para cualquier tipo de }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estudio, sea litolgi
co, }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estratigrfico
o estructural. La gran extensin de terreno abarcada en las fotografas permite}{ }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {una visin}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {de conjunto}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { imposib
le de obtener en el campo, visin que adems ofrece la ventaja de acentuar las }\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez

.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelp
rofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsx
n15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {21}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {diferencias de relieve debido a la}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 { exageracin vertical que ofrece la visin estereoscpica. Esta}\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx6746\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {expresin topogrfica vendr det
e}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rminada por varios aspectos:}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\b {naturaleza de la roca y estructuras}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {geolgicas.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{a) Naturaleza de la roca.}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Su composicin, cohes
in, tamao de}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { grano, estructura interna, etc.,}\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {determinarn su resistenci
a a la }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {erosin y, por tanto, su influencia }\fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {en el moldeado del terreno. Cuando}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {se dice que una roca es resistente o dbil de
be entende}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rse que lo es al conjunto de agentes eros
ivos que}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {actan sob
re ella (una roca puede ser }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {muy dura en el sentido
fsico y comportarse dbilmente frente a la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {accin de los agentes qumicos), pero dada la mayor}\fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 { importancia erosiva de}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { los agen
tes puramente}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mecn
icos frente a los qumicos las rocas duras o comp}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acta
s (cuarcitas, granito) ofrecen una resistencia}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \*\tx10160\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a la erosin superior a las bla}\fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {ndas y deleznables. De este m}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {odo
se va moldeando el terreno, y}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {los}\b0 \par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {materiales mas consist
entes dan }\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {un relieve superior a los blandos,}
\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { lo que recibe el nombre de}\b0 \par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {relieve diferencial,}\b0 \fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { siendo frecuente que el cambio de uni}\fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {dades litolgicas ve}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nga indicado por un}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {escarpe. }\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {b) Estructuras geolgicas.}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { E
n fotogeologa, cuando se habla del }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {trmino \uc1\u8220X
estructura\uc1\u8221X, tanto la propia }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de la roca (}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {planos de estr
atificacin, }\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {esquistosidad, diaclasas, etc}\b0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.) como las deformaciones sufridas }\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {por ella a lo largo de los tiempo
s geolgicos (}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {plegamientos, fracturas, fallas, etc}
\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.), cuyas diferencias}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {se encargar de acentuar }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {la accin continuada de la erosin. As}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, en un t
erreno fracturado, el agua}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {correr principalmente a favor de las fracturas (como }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {se ha indicado en el tema anterior), filtrndose a}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {favor de ellas y acentuando, al cabo
del tiem}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {po, los rasgos tectnicos de la zona. }\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En las zonas plegadas, la topografa es una ayuda }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {valiossima para seguir las estructuras y ver la}\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {direccin y buzamiento de las cap
as.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {La erosin diferencial acentuar la diferencia
existente entre}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {los diversos estratos}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, erosionando ms fcilme

nte los menos resi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {stentes y facilitan}\fs24\cf0\f0\


charscalex100 {do la identificacin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {de capas gua, diferencias litolgicas, etc.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {La clara visin de los buzamientos obtenida en}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b { las fotografas areas permite, generalmente, }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {trazar los ejes anticlinales y sinclinale
s }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {y los diversos tipos de}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b { pliegues que forman}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Cuando est
a}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {apreciacin no es
tan fcil es conven}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {iente tener una serie de ideas cl
aras sobre la interrelacin de la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx4520\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estructura y la topografa. Unos pocos}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\b {criterios generales}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { sobre el ca
so bastarn para ello, pero}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {teniendo en cuenta que stos, a pesar de su ge}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{neralidad, no son aplicable}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s en todos los casos.}
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1ro.- Los anticlinales pueden aparecer erosionados
o no}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, dando lugar a distintas formas topogrficas
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(cuadro 11-1, lo
s cuadros son de Lpez, 1988)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {2do. En los sinclinales
tambin puede darse la inversin del relieve}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, orig
inando montes alargados}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {de vertientes abruptas. Su parte }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {superior pu
ede ser plana o ligeram}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ente deprimida. Sus principa
les }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {caracterstica
s son:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- La charnela suele coincidir con una zona dep
rimida }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {por la que corre el valle principal. Suele s
er de }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mayor exte
nsin que en los anticlinales}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {- Si la serie plegada est formada }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {por est
ratos de diferente resistenci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a a la erosin, da lugar
a una serie}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de s
ierras alargadas cuya vertiente mas suave mira h}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aci
a el eje del sinclinal (principal diferencia con }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {respecto a los anticlinales).}\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofes
or.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn1584
0\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {22}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {3ro. Terminaciones periclinales}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{. Si los buzamientos aparecen claros en la fotografa, no hay duda}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {respecto a si corresponden a u
n sinc}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {linal o anticlinal. En caso contra}\fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {rio se puede deducir del siguiente }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {modo:}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- ser un anticlinal si la vertient}\fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {e mas abrupta del afloramiento mira }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hacia
el interior de la curva, }\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {es decir, hacia el lado cncavo (fot}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o 11-7,
las fotos son de Lpez, 1988)}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {- un sinclinal, si mira hacia }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la parte
convexa (foto 11-7)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4to. Sinclinales y anticlinale
s con ngulo de inmersin}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Si tenemos una serie de}

\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { sierras convergentes }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\sl


mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en las que no se aprecia claramente el}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 { buzamiento, hay que tener en cuenta que:}\par\pard\li1173\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- si la vertiente mas abrupta de
las sierras est situada hacia dentro de la formacin, sta}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {corresponder a un anticlinal buzante hacia
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {el sentido de la c}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {onve
rgencia (foto 11-7)}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {- si la vertiente mas abrupta mira}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { hacia el ext
erior, el pliegue }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ser un sinclinal que buza en el}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sentido contrario a
l de convergencia.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {5to. Domos y cubetas}\b0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {. Su topografa ser semejante a la de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 { los anticlinales y sinclinales de doble}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terminacin periclinal, pero en planta anular. Hay que
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { tener en cuenta que al }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ir avanzando el grado de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {erosin de la estructura, la exposic}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {in de la
s rocas del ncleo y su ti}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {po de litologa puede dar lug
ar a}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una inversin
del relieve, como en lo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s casos indicados en el cuad
ro 11-2.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Drenaje}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
. Despus de la tonalida}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {d y la textura, el rec}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {onocimiento del tipo de dren}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a
je es el elemento de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {mayor importancia en la interpretacin fotogeolgica, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {ya que el drenaje depende}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, esencialmente, de las
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {caractersticas li
tolgicas, estructurales y climticas de la zona. En la interpretacin fotogeolgica}{ }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {es}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {aconsejable: 1) analizar el drenaje desde caracter}\b0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {sticas litolgicas, estructurales y frecuencia de}\b0 \p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {los cursos de agu
a, o textura del drenaje; 2) el }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {diseo de la re
d de drenaje, y 3) el perfil}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {transversal de los cursos de agua, particularmente las crcavas.
}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La densidad del drenaje }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {puede expresarse como denso, mediano o espaciado.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\b {Rocas impermeables de}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\b {grano fino, como lutitas y margas, muestran generalmente un d
renaje denso}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (lmina IV, las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lminas son de Rmer, 1969);}{ }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {rocas permeables de grano grueso, como areniscas y rocas gne
as,}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {tiene g
eneralmente un drenaje mas espaciado}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (lmina II,
III; VIII; XXVIII).}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El diseo de la red de drenaje,}\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { como por ejemplo, el diseo radi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {al, emparrado, angular}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, y dendrtico,}\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {refleja por lo general, la
litologa y la estructu}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ra de la roca (lminas XXI, XXVI
I). Sin embargo, un}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {diseo dendrtico puede encontrarse tanto en rocas consolidadas como en inconsoli
dadas, en rocas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx9186\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {sedimentarias, gneas o metamrficas, en }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terre
nos de estructura simple o compleja.}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {El requi
sito}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {esenci

al para un desarrollo del di}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {seo dendrtico es la


homogeneidad}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { de la textura de la roca y }\b0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {una resistenci
a uniforme a la erosin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (lmina IX).}\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {Se puede generalizar pues, que el ti}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {po
de drenaje est rel}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acionado principalmente a }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la resistencia de la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*
\tx5200\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {roca a la erosin y a su permeabilidad. As,}\tab
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {puede expresarse que la densidad de drenaje es}\b
0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {inversamente
proporcional a la resistencia }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {a la erosin y pe
rmeabilidad de las rocas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Por ejemplo,}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en un ambiente dado, las
lutitas son poco permeables,}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { menos resistentes y mu
estran una textura de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {drenaje fina. Por otro lado, areniscas de grano }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{grueso son mas permeable}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s y mas resistentes, y}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {consecuentemente, e
stn caracterizadas por una densidad de drenaje espaciada.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {En cuanto a los}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {perfiles transversales de cr
cavas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, se ha demostrado que tambin pueden facili
tar la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {interpreta
cin litolgica. Se consid}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {era que la profundidad y perf
iles de crcavas tiene importancia para}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par
\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsx
n666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {23}
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la definicin de la
roca, aunque debe recordarse}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { que estas caracterstic
as dependen mayormente del}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx6333\fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {estadio alcanzado en el ciclo geomorfolgico y del clima.}\tab
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {En materiales de poca cohesin y gran}\b0 \par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {porosidad, como arenas}\b
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, las crcavas son cortas, rectas y es}\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {trechas, de poca prof}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {undidad y en fo
rma }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de V, con pa
redes verticales en la pa}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rte superior y una ramific
acin espaciada. }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {En materiales de}\b0 \par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {mayor cohesin como lutitas, a
rcillas, margas, etc.,}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la ramificacin es complej
a, son mas largas, }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {anchas y profundas, con fondo llano }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y paredes su
aves (Lmina XV). }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Por supuesto, materiales de}\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cohesin y porosidad inter
media, como lutitas arenosas, flysch, etc., presentan todo tipo de }\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {transiciones. }\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {Se debe tener siempre presente que los rasgos antedi}\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {chos, como la tonalidad, te}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {xtura, r
ed y perfiles de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
drenaje son valores relativos, que co}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ntribuyen indi
rectamente a la iden}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tificacin litolgica y estructural
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del rea observada
.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Existen varios tipos de controles }\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {que pueden influir sobre }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la disposicin d
e la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { red, que se pueden}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\

slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reducir a tres principales:}\par\pard\li466\


ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {- Control litolgico}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {- Control topogrfico (ros consecuentes)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Control estructural}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {- Control litolgico. }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Cada tipo de roca dar l
ugar a una serie de modificaci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ones en la forma del
drenaje, principalmente en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {la: }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {a) Forma de los arroyos}\b0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {. La forma de los arroyos, tanto en plan}\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {ta como en perfil, depender de una}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {serie de caractersticas de la roca, como son la di}\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {stribucin istropa o anis}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tropa
de los minerales}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{dentro de la misma, cohesin, perm}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eabilidad, etc. As,
la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s rocas plutnicas dan l}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {ugar a una terminacin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {tpica de los arroyos en forma de pi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nza, las a
rcillas presen}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tan un perfil en forma de V, etc. (fo
to 28-2)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {b) Densidad del drenaje}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {. O espaciado existente entr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e los arr
oyos, es uno de }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los elementos de juicio}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mas claros que tenemos sobre
una serie de propied}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ades de la roca, como pueden s
er la erosin, }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {per
meabilidad, clima, etc. As tenemos que:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- a mayor dure
za y resistencia, menor densidad}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {- cuando mas finos sean los materiales que la integr}\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {an, mas tupida y mas ramificada se hace la red}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- en climas ridos la densidad de}\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {l drenaje es mayor que en climas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {hmedos, aunque los ros principales}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estn mas separados de lo que pueden estar en stos.}\par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\b {c) Uniformidad}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. La unifo
rmidad del drenaje es un dato }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {indicativo de la homo
geneidad de los}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {m
ateriales por los que corre. Esta }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {homogeneidad se r
efiere tanto a la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { litologa de la zona como a su}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estructura (plegamien
tos, fallas, etc.). }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {As los granitos, gneises, piza
rras, etc., nos darn un drenaje}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\b {uniforme, mientras que en una serie sedi}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b {mentaria plegada dicha uniformidad habr}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {desaparecido}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {, al estar condicionad}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a la red por las estr
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ucturas, corriendo principalmente por los}\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {materiales mas blandos}{ }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {(drenaje subsecuente)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-ma
il: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.
ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\margl
sxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {24}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc

alex100\b {- Control estructural.}\b0 { }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El control


estructural al }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que puede estar sometida una red hid
rogrfica puede ser}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{de dos tipos:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Por plegamiento}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Por fracturacin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {a) Control estructural por plegamie
nto}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Cuando los materiales estn pl}\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {egados, la red hidrogrfica }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {suele adaptarse a las principales estructuras. Los }\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ros adaptados a las estructuras suelen estarlo}\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {igualmente a la litologa, d
ando origen a valles }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {longitudinales que, segn las es
tructuras por las que}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {transcurran, pueden ser de tres tipos: }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Valle
s anticlinales: cuando coinciden con los ejes anti}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {c
linales erosionados, suelen ser valles primarios}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Valles sinclinales: cuando se han }\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {desarrollado sobre el eje de un sinc}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{linal, suelen ser mas amplios que}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {los anteriores.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {- Valles homoclinales: si corren por las rocas bla}\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {ndas, situadas en los flancos de los pliegues,}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {generalmente son valles secundari
os.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Segn la forma que adopten, las redes de }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {drenaje recibirn distintos nombres: }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {- Red dendrtica}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{- Red paralela}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Red subparalela}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
- Red radial centrfuga}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {- Red radial centrpeta}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {- Red anastomosada}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {- Red meandriforme}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {- Red abanico}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {- Red anular centrfuga}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {- Red anular centrpeta}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Todos los siste
mas de drenaje estn compuestos por}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { una red intercone
ctada de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { corrientes que, juntas,}\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {forman modelos concretos. La natura
leza de un mode}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lo de drenaje puede variar mucho de
un tipo de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terren
o a otro, fundamentalmente en re}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {spuesta a los tipos
de rocas los cual}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es se desarrolla la corriente o}\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {al modelo estructu
ral }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de fallas y pliegues.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \*\tx7613\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {El modelo de drenaje encontrado }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con mas
frecuencia es el modelo}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {dendrtico}\b0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {. Este modelo se }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {caracteriza por una ramifi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cacin
irregular de las corrientes tr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ibutarias que recuer
da al modelo}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rami
ficado de un rbol caducifolio. De hecho, la pala}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bra
dendrtico significa \uc1\u8220Xsemejante a rbol\uc1\u8221X. El}\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {modelo dendrtico se forma donde el }\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sustrato de la roca subyacente es}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc

alex100 { relativamente uniforme, como en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs


24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estratos sedimentarios planos }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {o rocas gneas masivas. Dado que}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { el material suby
acente es}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esencia
lmente uniforme en su resistencia a la erosin, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {no co
ntrola el flujo de la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { corriente. En cambio, el}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {modelo viene determin
ado fundamentalmente por}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la direccin de la pendiente
del terreno.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Cuando las corrientes divergen desde un
rea central }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {como los radios de una rueda, se dice q
ue el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1680\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mo
delo es}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {radial}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{. Este modelo se desarrolla normalmente}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en zonas
volcnicas aisladas y en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {elevaciones de tipo domo.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\p
ar\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margt
sxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {2
5}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \*\tx1600\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El mod
elo}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {rectangular}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 { se caracteriza por poseer muchos recodos en ngulo recto. Este modelo se}\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desarrolla cuando el s
ustrato rocoso}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { est entrecruzado por }\fs22\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {una serie de fallas y diaclasas. Dado que esas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estructuras son erosionadas con mas f
acilidad que la roca no fracturada, su modelo geomtrico orienta }\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la direccin de las co}\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {rrientes a medida que excavan sus valles. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {El modelo de drenaje de red enre}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {jada es un m
odelo rectangular en}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { el cual los af}\fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {luentes son casi}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {paralelos entre s y tiene el aspecto de un jardn enrejado. Este model
o se forma en reas donde }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {subyacen bandas alternativas de rocas resistentes y }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {menos resistentes, y est particularmente bien}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desarrollado en los Apalaches plegados amer
icanos}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, donde estratos dbile}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {s y fuertes afloran en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {cinturones casi paralelos.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {b) Control es
tructural por fracturacin.}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { En un terreno fractur
ado los ros y arroyos tienden a correr}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {por las fallas y fracturas, por se}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {r lneas de menor resistencia. Como final diremos que la red}\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hidrogrfica suele ser de tipo mixto
, adaptndose en cad}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a tramo al tipo de materi}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {al por el que corre.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Clima y
vegetacin.}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { El ambiente climtico se manifiesta en
las fotografas areas principalmente por}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la presencia o ausencia de vegetacin. Adems, la presencia de
vegetacin es}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {t controlada por la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {litologa y tipos de suelos por un lado
, y por rasgos }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estructurales y topogrficos por el ot
ro. En muchos }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ca
sos, la presencia de varios tonos }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de gris en fotos

areas se refiere }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a distintos tipos y concentracin de}


\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vegetacin; eso sir
ve para delinear diferentes zonas de vegetacin que }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {r
eflejan una diferente}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {composicin qumica del terreno. reas txicas (aguas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
saladas, emanaciones de ga}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s) y su control sobre}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la vegetacin han sido
utilizadas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {para localizar depsitos minerales.}\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/
}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\ma
rgtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\colw10200\colsr-0\colno2\colw1240\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Tema 3: ANLISIS FOTOGE
OLGICO}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { DE LAS ESTRUCTURAS GEOLGICAS. }\b0 \par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {3.1- Definiciones bsic
as. Importancia.}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {26}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsx
n133\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {3.2.- Reconocimie
nto e interpreta}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cin de las expresiones morfol}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {gicas estructurales: Fallas,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Alineamientos geolgicos, Plie}\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {gues, Geosinclinales, etc.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3.1.- Definici
ones bsicas. Importancia.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Rasgos estructurales.}
\b0 { }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Observando fotos areas es posible apreciar, qu
izs en mayor grado que en el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {terreno,}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {la estrecha relacin que exis
te entr}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {e el tipo de roca y la estructura}\b0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Los rasgos estructurales}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {derivado del estudio de fotos areas, no sol
amente son }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {decisivos para identificar el tipo de ro
ca, sino}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tambin pa
ra evaluar las relaciones }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {espaciales de las unida}\
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {des litolgicas, y desarrollar la secuencia}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {histrica y coherente de proce
sos geolgicos. Adems}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, la evaluacin de rasgos estructur
ales por medio}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx8000\fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {de fotos areas puede conducir a la }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {localizacin
de depsitos minerales.}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {En la identificacin de}
\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {estructuras

, la erosin diferencial de}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { las rocas juega un


papel primordial.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {De todos los estudios abordados
}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en fotogeologa es en el}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {anlisis estructural}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de un terreno donde es
ta}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tcnica alcanza
su mxima u}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tilizacin. Ello es debido a:}\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- La gran corrida alcanzada por
las estructuras }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {geolgicas, en muchos casos de decen
as y hasta}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {centen
ares de kilmetros, exigen para su estudio }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una escala
macroscpica co}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mo la ofrecida por las}\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotos areas y las imgenes obtenid
as por satlite. Es, }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {por tanto, en el anlisis }\fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {estructural de un terreno}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {donde el fotogelogo corre menos riesgo de \uc1\u822
0Xequivoc}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {arse\uc1\u8221X al hacer su interpretacin.
Y es fcil}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reconoce
r que un mapa estructural se}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { ha realizado con la ay
uda de fo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tografas, por su abundancia de }\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {datos y la precisin de dibujo
s. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- La exagera
cin del relieve obteni}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {da en la visin estereoscpica, }\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ya que toda estructura geolgica}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {queda reflejada por un relieve, la acen
tuacin de los }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rasgos topogrficos permite seguir las e
structuras}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con ma
yor facilidad, incluso en aquellos puntos}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { que sobre
el terreno pasan desapercibidas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Todo ello convierte
las fo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tografas areas en una herramienta im}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {prescindible en el estudio geolgico}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estructural de una zona. Sobre las fotos se
puede}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n seguir los plegamientos }\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {en toda su extensin,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {trazar}\b0 \par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {la posicin de los ejes
sinclinales y anticlinales}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { con gran exactitud,
detectar}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la asimetra y vergencia}\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de los pliegues, erosin de las charn
elas, etc., y se}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {guir las estructuras incluso }\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en aquellos casos que se}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {presentan difciles por la escasez y dispersin de lo
s afloramientos.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estudio fotogeolgico de la}\b0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { fracturacin. Generalidades}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {En geologa, el estudio de la fr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acturacin tiene
dos objetivos: el es}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tudio tectnico de las formacione
s,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {equivalente al
realizado en el }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {campo, que estudia las diferentes
fracturas y fallas, desplazamientos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {efectuados por estas, etc., y el est}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {udio del grado de fractur}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acin de la roca y su}\f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s caractersticas, como}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ayuda para su identificacin fotogeolgica.}{ }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {El grado de fracturacin de }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {una roca puede servir como}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {gua para su identificacin fot}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
b {ogeolgica. La densidad de fractu}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ras y su gr
ado de visibilidad y}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca

lex100\b {claridad en la fotografa son un ndice de la ri}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal


ex100\b {gidez del material, cohesi}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {n, dureza,
plasticidad,}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx2213\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\b {elasticidad, etc.}\b0 \tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {As, el granito
presentar un alto grad}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o de fracturacin, igua}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {l que el gneis, las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cuarcitas, etc., mientras que arcill}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {as, arenas, yesos, etc., tiene un grado de fracturacin mucho mas bajo.}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jg
utie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ing
enieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666
\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsx
n133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\colw10200\colsr-0\colno2\colw1240\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estudio de la
direccin y buzamiento de los estratos.}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {27}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn
15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La apreciacin de un ngulo de b
uzamiento, direccin de un estrato, etc., son observaciones fciles de }\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {realizar en la fotografa. }\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {La actuacin de los agentes erosivos, ahondando y excav
ando con ms }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{facilidad en las rocas deleznable}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {s que en la
s resistentes, va acentuando los rasgos topogrficos, }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {poniendo de manifiesto las estructuras
ntimament}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {e relacionadas con ellos. Segn la eta
pa en que}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {s
e encuentre el ciclo erosivo, la topografa ser ms o menos acusada, y, por tanto, lo
s rasgos }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {e
structurales}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. De todas maneras, las estructuras
suelen tras}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lucirse en las fotografas aun en una fas
e de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {arrasamiento
total, permitiendo seguir la direccin de los estratos, aunque a veces no pueda a
preciarse}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la dire
ccin y sentido de }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {su buzamiento (foto 12-1).}\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {En los casos en que la erosin no permita ver con cl}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {aridad el buzamiento de una capa, pueden aplicarse}\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estas dos reglas generales:
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- la capa buza h
acia la parte cncava de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la traza marcada por el aflo
ramiento}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- el tal
ud que mira hacia el buzamiento es ms }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tendido que el
que mira hacia su parte exterior}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \*\tx4453\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estrat
os de poca inclinacin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Son}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\b {fcilmente reconocibles por la presencia de bandas de}\b0 \par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {tonalidad variable que si
gu}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {en los niveles topogrficos}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {. En perfiles a lo largo }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de valles,
se observan}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con f
recuencia tales bandas paralelas de vegetacin }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mas o
menos densa o de tipo diferente, que indican}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una alternancia de capas de composicin vari}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {able. En superficies de lutitas y areniscas}\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {interestratificadas y de poca incl

inacin, la tonalid}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ad no es siempre uniforme, sino qu


e presenta un}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {asp
ecto moteado; las manchas de tono relativament}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e ms o
scuro corresponden en la mayora de los }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {casos a concentraciones de humedad y vegetacin en}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 { depresiones poco profundas;}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { las
paredes suaves y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{fondo chato de stas reflejan generalmen}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {te un horizo
nte subyacente de lutitas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estratos de inclinacin
media a fuerte}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. La cantidad de informacin es}\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tructural que se puede sacar}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de fotos areas depender de la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {erosin selectiva}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { a la cual fue
ron sometidas las rocas. As,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {la erosin }\b0 \par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {de estratos dbiles de
ja para la}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { observacin pendientes compuestas de
rocas resistentes, se refiere}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\b {a stas como pendientes estructurales (dip slope),}\b0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 { si la pendiente topogrfica coincide con la}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {inclinacin de los estratos resiste
ntes. Estas pendi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {entes estructurales se pr}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {estan muy bien para la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estimacin y medicin de las inclinaci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {ones de los estratos (lmina I).}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {No deben conf
undirse, sin embargo, las pendientes }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estructurales
verdaderas}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { con las falsas, cuyas}\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pendientes no reflejan la inclinacin
verdadera de lo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s estratos; stas ltimas suelen ocurri
r en terrenos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con
litologa homognea y son productos de erosin, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {meteoriz
acin y remocin en masa de material}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {semiconsolidado a suelto, como por ejemplo, conos }\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {de escombros de talud o derrubio, terrazas de}\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {erosin o acumulacin marina, rasgos de
deslizam}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ientos y otros. Otros ejemplos de pendiente
s}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estructurales f
alsas son aquellos de forma triangular}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { que represen
tan planos }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de fallas, localizadas a}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {veces a lo largo de valles (lmina
s XXI, XXVII).}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Como en la estimacin de inclinacio}\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nes en mapas geolgicos-topogrficos,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\b {la regla de la V}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { determina,}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tambin en fotos areas, la i
nclinacin de los estr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {atos. De acuerdo con la misma,
la V apunta en la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{direccin de la inclinacin }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(dip) de las capas, except
o:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- si ambas, la
pendiente del valle }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y la inclinacin de los estratos
, ti}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ene el mismo sentido de inclinacin, }\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- y, si la pendiente del va
lle (pendiente topogrf}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ica) es mayor que la }\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {inclinacin de las capas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-453\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@u
la.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieri
a/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margr
sxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage{\shp

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165BAD14375A2803FFD9}
}}}}\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\par
d\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {28}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-413\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Adems, estratos con una inclinacin desd
e muy fuer}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {te hasta vertical no de}\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {sarrollan una V, sino que }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {cortan el valle en lnea recta. Una morfologa con espinazos}{
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {(hogbacks)}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { es ta
mbin, a veces, indicadora}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {de inclinaciones fuertes. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {La parte centra
l de la foto}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, es decir, el cuadrado cuyo lados
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pasan aproximadamente entre el punto}\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {principal y los puntos pr}\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {incipales transferidos,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {
es la parte ptima para hacer estimaciones correctas }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {de inclinaciones. Por el desplazamiento
de imge}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {nes y por la distorsin }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\b {de pendientes, no es}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {aconsejable estimar inclinacione}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\b {s en los bordes de las fotos}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. S
i la exageracin vertical es muy}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {grande debido a una distancia focal }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {c
orta y la altura de vuelo muy ba}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ja, las inclinacion
es o pendientes }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
de 70 pueden aparecer en visin }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estereoscpica como vert
icales.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Particularmente en terrenos cubiertos por veg
etaci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n densa, la red y textura del drenaje son un ay
uda}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {valiosa para
determinar la inclinacin de los estratos. En la parte }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\b {obsecuente (subsecuente)}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { del valle,}\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {la densidad del drenaj
e es alta}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {; es decir, hay un nmero relativa}\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mente grande de arroyos pequeos,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {poco espaciados y cortos. En el lado}{ }\f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {resecuente}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { del vall
e, por otra parte,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {se encuentran relativamente}
\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {pocos curso
s de agua}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, cuyos cauces son mas largos, mas esp
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aciados y rectos (ver figura 18, p. 26,}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Rmer, 1969).}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {- Pliegues.}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { En general, la observacin ester
eoscpica de}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tallada de rumbos e inclinaciones indicar
al }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotogelogo, a
veces por mtodos indi}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rectos ya mencionados, si hay e
s}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tructuras de pliegues. En reas }\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con pliegues de poca complejidad, la

}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { inclinacin del plano axl que}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex


100 {da indicado, en planta, por la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {diferencia de anchura de los estratos y por la dist}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {ancia capa-eje en ambos lados}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de
l eje (figura 19, p. 27}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {Rmer, 1969).}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\s
ect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\ma
rgbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {29}\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Por supuesto en terrenos
de plegamiento complejo }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y posiblemente repetido, c
on pliegues isoclinales,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {afectados por corrimientos, la interpretacin estr}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {uctural se hace mas dif}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cil y problemtica. La}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {comprobacin de campo
en estos caso es esencial (lminas XII, XV, XXII, XXIII, XXVIII).}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {Un anlisis geomorfolgico, en particular,}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
b {rasgos de erosin selectiva, el}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { tipo y densi
dad de drenaje}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\b {y la actitud de bandas paralelas con concentracin de vegetacin variable}\b0 \f
s22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, son los elementos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {principales a considerar en la lo}\fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {calizacin de pliegues en reas cubier}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tas po
r vegetacin. Los cursos de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {agua describen a menudo una curva a lo largo de}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 { narices de pliegues de fuerte buzamiento.}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{Tambin se}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {h
a observado que los cauces de los ros que oc}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {up
an sinclinales son relativamente ms anchos y}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {desarrollan meandros, en anticlinales, tiene }\
b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {la tendencia a ser mas rectos y encajonados.}\b
0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Fallas}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Se usan
los mismos criterios de reconocimien}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {to en fotos area
s como en el terreno, en la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {mayora de los casos, las fallas y los movimien}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {tos relativos a lo largo de las mismas pueden}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {identificarse con facilidad, aunque }\fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {su descripcin detallada}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { y clasifi
cacin debe}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n ser comprobadas pro}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {trabajos de campo. Las fallas de gran
}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { inclinacin son las que se distinguen mejor. Durante
la tarea de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx2386\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {fotointerpretacin,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {los rasgos principales
que hacen s}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {uponer la presencia de fallas son
}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { los }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {siguientes:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\b {valle recto u otro rasgo lineal,}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ con evidente truncamiento y desplazamiento de unidades litolgicas,}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ros y otros elementos morfol}\

fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {gicos (lminas IX, XII, XXII)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280


\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {alineami
entos de ros, lagos, sumideros}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, zonas de vegetac
in y otros }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rasgos morfolgicos (lminas}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {XXVII).}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {espolon
es, a veces triangulares (facetas triangulares), a lo largo de cursos de agua,}\
b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { indicando un}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rechazo (figura 20, p. 28)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cambio
brusco en el tipo o textura de la vegetacin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en
ambos lados de la falla}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {- pliegues o flexuras son tambin, a veces, elementos }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {que permiten localizar una }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {falla y suelen i
ndicar}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los sentid
os de movimientos relativos a }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lo largo de stas (lmina
s XII, XXII)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-}{
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cambios evidentes del diseo y textura del drenaje}
\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {de la tonalid
ad o de la textura de erosin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. }\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- capas en \uc1\u8220Xechelon\uc1
\u8221X hacen suponer una falla de in}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {clinacin, mient
ras que }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una repeticin de capas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {puede indicar fallas de rumbo}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- alineamientos rectos so
n mas tpicos de fallas dire}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ctas; lineamientos en for
ma de curva, mas bien de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {fallas inversas o sobrecorrimientos (lmina I).}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{La identificacin de dislocaciones en terrenos de ro}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
cas metamrficas, particularmente cuando se trata}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de fallas de rumbo o sobrecorrimient}\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {os, es difcil y tiene que ser comp}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ro
bada por trabajos de campo.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {Sin embargo, la presencia de fracturas, en general, es mas fcil }\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de comprobar con la observacin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estereoscpica que por trabajo de }\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {campo, en particular en regiones cu}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{biertas por una vegetacin densa.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Criterios fotogeolg
icos para el reconocimiento de fracturas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {: }\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Escarpes, cambios
bruscos de pendiente }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {- Alineacin de arroyos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {- Tramo de ro o arroyo que corre en}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { lnea r
ecta durante cierto trecho}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {- Angularidad de la red fluvial}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Alineacin de la vegetacin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Alineacin de form}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{as de disolucin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Franja estrecha y alargada, c}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {on humedad superior a
l resto}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Lnea rec
ta y neta, generalmente de }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tono mas oscuro, que atr
aviesa la roca}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pr
of. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpag
e\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\l
i10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {30}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl413\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Discordancias.}\b0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {stas pueden ser raramente diferenciadas de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1

00 { las fallas, ya que en ambos casos los }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \


fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {criterios de identificacin son sim}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {ilares. Sin embargo, contactos de di}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {scorda
ncia en la mayora de los}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {casos estn representados por lneas curvas y discon}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {tinuas (Lminas III, V, VI). Por supuesto, estratos }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cubiertos por coladas o materiales poco co
nsolida}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dos, como, por ejemplo, depsitos de pie de mo
nte, }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terrazas, e
tc., son generalmente indicios de discordanc}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ias. Un
a discordancia identificada por trabajos de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {campo puede servir como base para}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 { su localizacin por medi}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o de fotos areas en}
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { otros sectores del}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rea. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A
. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http:
//webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12
240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\col
w10200\colsr-0\colno2\colw1240\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\b {- Tema 4: ANLISIS FOT}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {OGEOLGI
CO DE LAS ROCAS}\b0 \par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {- Definiciones bsicas. Importancia.}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Reconocimiento e interpretacin. El}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {ementos fundamentales para su }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
fotointerpretacin:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
a) Reconocimient}\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {o e interpretacin de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { las rocas gneas.}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
b) Recon
ocimiento e
\uc1\u8220X
\uc1\u8220X
sedimen
tarias}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {

c)
\uc1\u8220X
\uc1\u8220X
\uc1\u8220X
metamrficas }\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {31}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn158
40\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {El xito del gelogo en interpret
ar correctament}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {e las fotografas areas depender m
ayormente}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {d
e los siguientes factores:}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1) El tipo, calidad y
escala de las fotos, as como}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { tambin la exactitud con
que}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { le vuelo fue realizado.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {2) La posicin geogrfica del rea fotografiad
a; por ejemplo, fotos }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de regiones con clima rido dan
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {generalmente mej
ores resultados }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que las reas con clima tropical}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {3) La litologa del rea
a estudiar; as,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {las rocas sedimentarias se prest
an generalmente mas a la }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b {interpretacin que las rocas gneas; la}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {s metamrficas son an mas difciles}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Adems, reas
en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estado de madu
rez del ciclo geomorfolgico son comp}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {arativamente mas
aptas para la interpretacin.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {4)}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {La informacin geolgica disponible}
\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx840\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {5)}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {La experiencia de
l interpretador}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, particularmente en los cam}\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pos de la geomorfologa,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {levantamiento topogrfico y de sus conocimientos en
ge}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ologa estructural. La ef}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {iciencia y el xito en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {fotointerpretacin, en genera}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {l, es directamen
te proporcional, no tant}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o al numero de lib}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {ros ledos, sino a}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {la cantidad de fotos areas examinadas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {6) La interpretacin litolgica por}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 { medio de fotos areas es un pr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o
ceso complicado debido a que el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {observador debe inferir de eviden}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cia
s indirectas, la composicin de las rocas. Como en cualquier}\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {investigacin, es preciso que el fotogelo
go rena }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y combine todos los elementos a su disposicin
,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {teniendo en c
uenta, entre otros factores, la mo}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {rfologa, ton
alidad, drenaje, clima, vegetacin.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {7) Finalmente, la calidad del mapa}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 { fotogeolgico, depender de la posibilidad de verificacin en el}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {campo.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {Es preciso que las interpretaciones sean comprobadas en el terreno}\b0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {; mas an, en la mayora }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de los casos, la opinin decisiva sobre la identifi
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cacin correcta de la litologa queda en las manos del}
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {equipo de campo,
particularmente en }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lo que se refiere a la composici
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n exacta, detalles estructurales y}\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {edad absoluta de la roca. }\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {- El reconocimiento de los tipos de rocas
}\b
0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Para reconocer o distinguir entre diferentes lito}\

fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {logas en una foto, el}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { gelo


go necesita dos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {p
rerrequisitos: una suficiente correlacin entre la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { ge
ologa y la geomorfol}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {oga y, una combinacin de }\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {experiencia, paciencia, p
ercepcin e i}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ngenuidad. Los atributos fotogrficos}{ }\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {tono, textura, patrones,}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {contexto y escala}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 { necesitan ser combinados con un conocimiento de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b {cmo los diferentes tipos de}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {rocas responden en diferentes climas a la meteori
zacin y erosin.}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { En esta seccin se hace la}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {divisin bsica en rocas sedi
mentarias, rocas gneas (extrusivas e intrusivas) y rocas metamrficas. }\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Debido a que muchos tipos de
rocas tienen aparie}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ncias diferentes bajo }\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {condiciones climticas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {diferentes, en la medida de lo posib}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {le se ilustran con muchas imgenes. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {No exist
e una rutina rgida para el reconocimiento de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { litologa
s en la fotointerpretacin geolgica, sin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {embargo, es esencial desarrollar un }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {enfoque sistemtico, debe ser respaldado por toma de notas sobre}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las imgenes, de manera que se
mantenga un regist}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ro permanente, la experiencia se
construye de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jg
utie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ing
enieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666
\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsx
n133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {32}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {maner
a que pueda ser referenciada en un futuro.}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Como
gua a este enfoque}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { se recomienda el siguiente}\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esquema general:}\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- se debe}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {evaluar el
ambiente climtico}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, si es hmedo, rido, bor}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {eal, templado o tropical.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- si existe,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {es la
vegetacin natural o agrcola}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {?}\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {e
l ambiente de erosin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { debe ser evaluado en trminos
de su energa, su estado de desarrollo y la }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {contribucin relativa de la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {erosin fluvial, glacial y elica estimada}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- el rea debe}{ }\f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ser dividida en partes que }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {sean dominados por depsitos }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {superfic
iales y aquellos que}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {tengan roca madre en o cerca de la superficie}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {rea
s con afloramientos}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (outcrops) o roca madre cer
ca de la superficie deben ser examinadas}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {en}\b0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {bsqueda de}\b0
{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {bandeados litolgicos}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {, o su aparente ausencia, y }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {definidos de acuer
do a esto.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-33
3\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El siguiente conjunto de pasos depende de

la descri}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pcin sistemtica de reas con roca madre expues


ta,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de ser posibl
e, el terr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eno debe ser cuidadosamente examinado par
a}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {determinar cualquier lmite obvio}\b0 \par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx5960\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {entre diferente
s tipos de superficie,}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { despus de una}\tab \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {divisin preliminar de tipos de superficies}\b0 \par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {contrastantes (unidades d
e paisaje)}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, cada una debe ser de}\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {scrita utilizando los }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {siguientes crit
erios}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {claves:}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- debe ser descrita}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { la to
pografa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, en particular resaltando la resistenci}
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a relativa de la }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {unidad
a la erosin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y cua
lquier caracterstica anmala}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {- cul es el}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {patrn de drenaje}\b0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 { y cul es el espaciamiento entre los cursos individuales }\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- de ser posible, s
e deben describir la forma de los pe}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rfiles o seccio
nes de las }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {caractersticas del drenaje}\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mas pequeas}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {(crcavas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- debe ser anotado el}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {uso y cobertura actual}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { directament
e relacionado a cada unidad }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx7560\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {- finalmente, si es visible el su}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {elo desnudo o afloramientos rocosos,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {su to
no y textura debe ser}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\b {comparado con las otras unidades,}\b0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
y cualquier caracterstica te}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {xtural debe ser anotada.
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- En cuanto a la tonalidad tpica de rocas,}\b0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { pueden hacerse las siguientes generalizaciones}\b0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- De tono blanco a gris c
laro: }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nieve, agua reflejando luz, nubes, }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {olas, evaporitas, caliche, barreal,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \*\tx5360\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ciertas arenas y gravas}\b0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {dunas, ciertas tobas
}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {algunos ra
sgos de altera}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cin hidrotermal (talco,}\b0 \par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1560\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {amianto}\b
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {),}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {corales, cue
rpos cuarzo-feldespaticos, dique}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {s cidos, pegma
titas, ciertas cuarcitas y}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\b {calizas. }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \*\tx3013\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- De tono gri
s mediano:}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {yeso, rocas calcreas y dolomticas, a
}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {reniscas claras, arcillitas, lutitas,}\b0 \pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {limolitas, margas,
intrusivas y ef}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {usivas leucocrticas y bsicas.}\
b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- De tono gris oscuro a negro: sombra de lagos y c
ursos de agua, csped,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {carbn, areniscas y lutitas}
\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {rojas, grau
vacas oscuras, areniscas con contenid}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {o orgnico
, rocas intrusivas, efusivas, bsicas y}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ultrabsicas.}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f

s18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\pa
r\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margts
xn666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\colw10200\colsr-0\colno2\colw1240\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4.2.- Reconocimiento e inte
rpretacin. Elementos fundamentales para su fotointerpretacin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {:}\par\pard\li826\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1186\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {a)}\b0 \tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Reconocimiento e interpretacin d
e las rocas sedimentarias}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b {Nota:}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en adelante las Lminas son
de R}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mer (1969) y Fotos son de Lpez (1988).}\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\b {- Rocas sedimentarias}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {: }\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Detrticas: Conglome
rado, Brech}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a, Arcosa, Grauvaca, Lutita}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Qumicas: Inorgnicas (Caliza,
Doloma, S}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lex, Yeso), Orgnicas (C}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {aliza, Slex, Carbn)}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {33}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666
\margrsxn133\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \*\tx906\*\tx8586\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Por}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\b {la estratificacin, tona}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {lidad y eros
in diferencial}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, las rocas sedimentarias}\tab \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {son relativamente}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {mas fciles de identificar}\b0 { }\fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {sobre fotos areas que las rocas gneas }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y
metamrficas. La estratificacin es}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {muchas veces reconocible en la parte obsecuente de valles por la
s}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {bandas paralelas de vegetacin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 { que }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {reflejan diferente composicin de los estratos. Normalmente,}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {sedimentitas de grano fino son de tono }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx5160\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {mas oscuros que las de gr
ano grueso}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. El}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
b {drenaje es externo o superficial en sedimentitas }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {relativamente impermeables,}\b0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 { como lutitas;}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {interno o
subterrneo en materiales gruesos}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, poco o no}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {consolidados, y en ro
cas calcreas, part}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {icularmente en clima clido y hmedo.
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Las siguientes foto-caractersticas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 { de los principales grupos sedime}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n
tarios se refieren a rocas de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {composicin homognea; es preciso recordar, sin embargo, que las sedime
ntitas son raramente de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {composicin uniforme. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \*\tx7000\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Conglomerad
os (Detrticas = D, > 2 mm)}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Suelen tener un}\tab
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {drenaje espaciado, con crcavas}\b0 \par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cortas, rectas y con perfil en
V; el tono es}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { gris claro y la textura de ero
sin gruesa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Materiales}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conglomerdicos, constituyendo aluviones, co

nos, mdanos, albardones, etc., son fcilmente}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f


s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reconocibles por su relacin estructural con otras }\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {formaciones y sus rasgos geomorfolgicos. Lminas}\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {II, III, IV, VIII }\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {En general, la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {red de drena
je es espaciada}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en materiales bien drenados}\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, mientras que materiales de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {poca permeabilidad estn caracterizados por
una red densa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { y una textura moteada. Lminas II
y IV }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Areniscas (D, 2-1/16 mm)}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {. Aunque la composicin, color, estr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {uc
tura y grano de }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {areniscas son muy}\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {variables y cambian de un rea a ot}
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ra, puede generalizarse y decir que }\fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {en las areniscas de grano grueso,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {el drenaje es espaciado, a menudo angular por la
s }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {diaclasas, con crcavas co}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\b {rtas y con seccin en}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {V}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {; la textura del dren
aje se vuelve mas densa, y hay }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {relativamente ms vege
taci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n en los paquetes de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lutitas intercaladas (Lminas}\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 { IV, V, VI, XII y XIV). Areniscas cuarzo-feldespticas}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {son de tono gris}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {claro}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, mientras que las
arcosas presentan formas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {redondeadas, parecida a l
a morfologa de reas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{granticas. Areniscas impuras, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {como grauvacas, muest
ran un}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {tono gris oscuro y textura de erosin }\b0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {mediana}\b0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {;}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {areniscas rojas o c
on contenido bituminoso tambin aparecen con tono gris oscuro a}\b0 \par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {negro}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {, y pueden a veces confundirse c}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {on filones
, capas o coladas, en}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { caso de no encontrar rasgos }
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {volcnicos en estas
ltimas (Lminas I, III, XII, XIV,}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { XVIi, XIX, XXII). E
l factor clima es importante: }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1333\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {as, las}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {areniscas en re
giones ridas soportan poca vegetacin en comparacin con lutitas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mie
ntras que}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {en ambientes hmedos, las areniscas estn
}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {caracterizadas por sustentar una densa}\b0 \
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cubierta vegetal
}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. En cuanto a fallas y diaclasas, son relativam
ente fciles de identificar en areniscas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(Lminas XII, XXII),}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \*\tx5320\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {
- Lutitas, limolitas, ar}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cilitas (D, < 1/16 mm
).}\b0 \tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Son generalmente las mas comunes de la
s rocas}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {sed
imentarias.}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Aparecen en la foto con}{ }\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {un tono ms oscuro debido al contenido de humedad y}\b0 \par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {frecuente cubierta
vegetal;}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { tambin se caracterizan por una textur}\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a de erosin mucho mas fina que la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail:
jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/i

ngenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn6
66\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margr
sxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {34}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de
las areniscas (Lmina IV). Por lo comn,}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {el drenaje
es externo y denso; las crcavas son largas}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con perfil en forma
de U en el fondo y paredes }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {inclinadas. En clima hmed
o, las paredes de las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {crcavas son mas suaves que en ambiente rido. El}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
loess presenta una excep}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cin en este respecto, ya}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que muestra una text
ura de drenaj}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e muy fino, aunque la roca est bien dre
nada internamente, las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {crcavas en loess tienen genera}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lmente un perfil
en U con paredes verticales y fondo chato. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La morf
ologa de lutitas, limolitas y arcilit}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {as depende mayo
rmente del ambiente climtico.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {En regiones }\b0 \
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {de clima hmedo, l
a morfologa es mas suave que en ambientes ridos, donde una morfologa de }\b0 \par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {\uc1\u8220Xmal pas\uc1
\u8221X es caracterstica.}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Por otra parte, capas
horizontales con areniscas intercaladas forman}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {caones. En la identificacin de sedimentitas de co}\f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mposicin intermedia que refleja variaciones de}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {facies, la red de drenaje
, el tono }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y la textura son los factores prin}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cipales a considerar. As, con un}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \*\tx4013\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aumento del componente arenoso,}\t
ab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {la red de drenaje se pone relativamente mas esp
aciada}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {paredes de las crcavas mas inclinadas}\b0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {, el}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {tono mas claro y la tex
t}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ura de erosin menos lisa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {. En}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
terrenos de lutitas, limolitas y arcilitas hay gene}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
ralmente pocas evidencias claras de diaclasas o}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dislocaciones; sin embargo, en terrenos}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 { de areniscas y lutitas interestrati}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {ficadas, la presencia de fallas y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {diaclasas puede determinar}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {se c
on mayor facilidad.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Rocas calcreas (Qumicas = Q)}\b0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Entre las rocas sedimentarias, la}\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {s calizas, dolomitas, margas y otras}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rocas con contenido calcreo, son la}\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {s que se prestan menos a la identif}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {i
cacin; el mtodo a seguir aqu}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {es, en muchos casos, por eliminacin de otros grupos sedimentarios.}{ }\f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {El tono gris claro, la textura lisa}\b0 \par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {de aspecto aterciopelado, r
asgos de solucin y un}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { drenaje de tipo interno,
son las caractersticas }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {mas prominentes de rocas calcreas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.
A veces aparece una textura mo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {teada debida a mancha
s oscuras }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que re
flejan concentracin de materiales arcillosos }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {residua
les, sin embargo, el}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { aspecto morfolgico, el}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tono, textura y drenaje d

ependen mucho del ambiente climtico. As, en regiones de considerable}\par\pard\li4


66\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {precipitacin, las calizas sopor
tan comparativamente}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { menos vegetacin, en am}\fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {biente rido, forman a }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menudo paredes verticales y llanos chatos.}{ }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {En regiones tropicales, las rocas calcreas desarrollan en}\b
0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {la mayora de l
os casos una morfologa de \uc1\u8220Xkarst\uc1\u8221X muy abrupta}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {, parecida a un paisaje de esponjas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con densa cubierta vegetal.}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {Rasgos de solucin, a lo largo de crcavas o como cuencas pequeas y poco p
rofundas, distribuidas en}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {superficies extensas, son fcilmente identificables }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {y representan uno de los cr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {iterios mas vali
osos para}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {diferen
ciar rocas calcreas de rocas arenosas o arci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {llosas (
lminas III, VI, VII, VIII). No es fcil }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {identificar rocas calcreas de composicin intermedia}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {, como las margas, por ejemplo, en ese caso, el}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {drenaje es mas parecido al de
ro}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cas arcillosas. En terrenos de dolo}\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {mitas asociadas con calizas, las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {primeras estn caracterizadas por una morfologa un }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {poco ms dentada y abrupta, pero no hay criterios}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {seguros para distingu
irlas inequvocamente de las ltimas en las fotos areas. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
b {- Caractersticas fotogeolgicas de}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { las rocas
sedimentarias. }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Las rocas sedimentarias}{ }\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {son las mas fciles}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de i
dentificar en fotogeolog}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a, debido a sus caracterstica
s}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {peculiares. Sal
vo las que no est}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n consolidadas, como aluviones, }\f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conos de deyeccin, depsitos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {litorales, elicos, etc., el resto}{ }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\b {suele presentar planos de estratificacin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 { fciles de identificar en las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotografas porque origina un bandeado caracterstic}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o que en muchos casos puede seguirse durante}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {decenas de kilmetros (lo que no
ocurre con los pla}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nos de equistosidad de las rocas
metamrficas). }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Es
te bandeado puede verse resaltado por la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {presen
cia de vegetacin desa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {rrollada slo a favor de}\b
0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {algunos tipos
de estratos}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Sobre las fotografas es fcil determ
in}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ar la direccin y el buzamiento de la}\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\s
ect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\ma
rgbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {35}\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {serie, sobre todo cuando
or}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {igina superficies es}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{tructurales en la que la s}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {uperficie topogrf}\fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {ica coincide}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {con el techo de los estratos.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.-

Rocas detrticas (de Lpez, 1988)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p


ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Anlisis fotogeolg
ico de Arcillas (< 1/16 mm) (fotos 19-1 a 8)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Partculas muy pequeas, falta de consolidacin, }\fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8220XTierras malas\uc1\u8221X, Permeabilidad baja
, por lo tanto:}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {D
renaje dendrtico, no controlado, Fallas y fracturas di}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{fciles de observar en las fotos, Tonos oscuros.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Anlisis fotogeolgico de Mar}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {gas (< 1/16 mm) (fo
tos 20-1 a 6)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Son arcillas con un 35 a 65 % de carbonato clcic}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o,
todo igual a las arcilla}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s excepto que no forman }\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tierras malas. }\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Anlisis fotogeolgico de Arenas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\b { (entre 2 y 1/16 mm) (fotos 21-1 a 3)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Depsitos no consolidados, poco coherentes, fc
ilmente erosionables, Permeabilidad alta, Red de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {drenaje Dendrtica espaciada, grado ba}\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {jo de fracturacin, Tonos claros. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {
- Anlisis fotogeolgico de Arcosas (entre 2 y 1/16 mm) (fotos 22-1)}\b0 \par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Las Arcosas (Areniscas) son
depsitos de manto, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {generalmente de poca pot}\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {encia y con frecuencia}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {asociadas al granito, no consolidadas y poco c}\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {oherentes, permeabilidad alta, drenaje dendrtico}\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(angular) poco espaciado, c
on ligero control estr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {uctural, con buena vegetacin,
tonos claros.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Anlisis fotogeolgico }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {de Areniscas (entre 2 y }
\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1/16 mm) (fotos 23-1 a 6)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Difcil de identificar por variedad
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de presentaciones (rocas), de resist}\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {encia media, estratificacin clara, }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de permeabilidad media, valles en V, drenaje de
ndrtico poco acusado (angular), con control}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estructural, frecuentemente falla}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {das y dislocadas, tonos claros.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Anlisis fo
togeolgico de los Cong}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {lomerados (> 2 mm) (fot
os 24-1 a 3)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Gran variedad de morfologas y re}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lieves, por origen d
e los clastos,}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { composicin y cohesin de la}\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {matriz; con buzamientos bajo
s forman superficies estr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ucturales, permeabilidad }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en general alta, drenaje}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pobre, espaciado, aparecen}\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 { fallados, tonos claros.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {2.- Rocas Qumica
s}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Anlisis fotogeolgico de las }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {Calizas (Karst) (fotos 25-1 a 13)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Por su variada composicin y gnesis present
an lo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s relieves mas variados, grandes relieves o en
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estratos planos
horizontales, con facilida}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {d de observar la fractura
cin, tonos claros. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Anlisis fotogeolgico de}\b0 \fs

24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { los Yesos (fotos 27-1 a 3)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\s


l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Frecuentemente interestratificado con
margas, aren}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {iscas, calizas, etc., se presenta forma
ndo}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {depresiones o
relieves de tipo medio (agujeros, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hundimientos, de
presiones), tonos blancos, red}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {hidrogrfica pobre, difcil de observar la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ fracturacin, vegetacin nula o escasa. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofe
sor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn158
40\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\colw10200\colsr0\colno2\colw1240\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {b) Reconocimiento e interpret}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {acin de las
rocas gneas }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Rocas gneas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {: Granito, Cuarzo, Feldespato, Moscovita, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Biotita, Anfbol, Basalto, Plagioclasa }\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {36}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15
840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {A) Rocas plutnicas (Fanerticas
, Intrusivas, Grano grueso)}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Las rocas de orige
n intrusivo, de }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
composicin cida o bsica, desarrollan una }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {morfologa, dre
naje y textura similares.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {La diferencia}\b0 \pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {entre los varios g
rupos de rocas plutn}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {icas est principalmente en
el tono}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Las rocas intrusivas }\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {muestran una}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {red de drenaje externa espaciada y bien desarrollada}\b0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {, frecuentemente}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {controlada p
or}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {diaclasa
s y fallas (}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Lminas XVI, XVII, XIX, XXVII). Se di
sti}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nguen de las rocas sedimentarias, en }\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {especial por la}{ }\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {ausencia de estratificacin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
, una textura de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {erosin homognea, aunque gruesa}\
b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, como }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tambin por el drenaje y la distribucin mas unifo}\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {rme de la vegetacin. Adems, los contactos son un}\par\pard\li466\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {criterio valioso para clasificarl
as co}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mo intrusivas (Lminas XV, XVII, XXIII)}\par\par
d\li1173\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\b {A.1) Rocas granticas (Flsicas, bast}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\b {ante Slice, ltimas en cristalizar).}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Da
n}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {un tono gris}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \*\tx8440\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {mediano y textura gruesa}\b0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, pero homognea (Lminas XVI, XVII, XIX),}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {la morfologa mas}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {frecuente es la de lomas suaves}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {, aunque eso depende del clima. }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Las rocas gra
nticas, en zonas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {t
ropicales, ocupan generalmente zonas bajas.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Una
caracterstica sobresaliente de las crcavas en }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ambientes de estas rocas es su }\b0 \fs24\cf0

\f0\charscalex100\b {terminacin en forma de pinzas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100


{ (Lmina XXI). Un diagnstico}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx3973\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {importante es, en algunos casos,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\b {la red de drenaje angular}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, controlado p
or fallas y diaclasas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {entrecruzadas, que soportan una ve}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {getacin relat
ivamente mas dens}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a, distinguible en la foto,}{ }\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {una red}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {dendrtica o radial es tambin frecuente}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1173\ri0
\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {A.2) Rocas bsicas (Ultramficas)}\b0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. La morfologa de rocas bsicas}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 { o ultrabsicas se diferencia}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {con dificultad de las rocas cidas.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
b {El tono de rocas bsicas es, sin embargo, de gris oscuro a negro.}\b0 \par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La textura de rocas ultrabs
icas}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { es raramente uniforme, as,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {peridotitas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, las cuales parecen de
tono casi}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {negro,
estn a veces caracterizadas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {por zonas difusas de to
no gris mediano, correspondientes a partes}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {serpentinizadas; o un tono gris a }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {blanco, cuando ste corresponde a }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {zonas de a
mianto o talco (Lmina }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {XII). Adems,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {las rocas bsicas casi no tienen
vegetacin}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, ya que su suelo es }\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {poco favorable para el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {desarrollo de plantas silvestres o cultivos.}\par\pard\li1173\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\b {A.3) Diques y filones capa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Los d
iques son generalmente bien reconocibles sobre fotos areas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {por las evidencias de sus contactos; ad
ems, se ma}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nifiestan comnmente en juegos paralelos for
mando}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {salientes o
depresiones lineales (Lm}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {inas XII y XXII). La variac
in de la tonalidad va de gris muy}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {claro a muy oscuro, dependiendo de la composicin (Lmina XXIII). Di
ques fallados son}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{particularmente muy tiles para comprobar la }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {existen
cia de fallas y el sentido relativo del}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desplazamiento de bloques (Lminas XVI y XVII). Los filones
de capas son mas difciles de observar,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {particularmente si tienen poc}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
o espesor, apareciendo slo en perfiles.}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { En caso de q
ue se presenten como}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {superficies de erosin, tapando en concordancia a }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{otras rocas, su identificac}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {in es mas segura. No}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {obstante, antes de i
dentificarlas como tales, es pr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eciso considerar el
ambien}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {te geolgico general del}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rea bajo estudio, esto es, tener en cuen
ta la pos}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ibilidad de que haya filones capa en dicha
regin. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {B) Rocas volcnicas (Afanti}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {cas, Extrusivas, Grano fino)}\b0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Los elementos principales que en fotos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {areas distinguen las rocas volcnicas de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 { las intrusivas son las siguientes:}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {su
morfologa, la presencia}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {de estructuras de flujo y de cierta alternancia }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c

harscalex100\b {o bandeado, el tono gris }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {clar


o a blanco de rocas }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b {piroclsticas, y la textura com}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {nmente
moteada y poco uniforme}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Adems,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {las rocas efusivas son, }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {en general, porosas y permeables y, por consiguie
nte, no muestran un drenaje bien definido}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aunque esto depender d
e la edad y el clima.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd
\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li
10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {37}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {B1) Efusivas bsicas (Mficas, 1ras en }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cri
stalizar, poco Slice, Basalto, Gabro)}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}{ }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Tpicas de}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx180
0\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {los basaltos}\b0 \tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
b {son de tono gris oscuro a negro}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, la textura
moteada y rasgos de flujo. A veces la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {superficie aparece cubierta de manchas de tono gr}\fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {is claro, reflejando meteorizacin o alteracin}\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hidrotermal. Es caracterstica la f
orma lobulada con rasgos de flujo en coladas y \uc1\u8220Xmudflows\uc1\u8221X}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {volcnicos, como tamb
in la discordancia angula}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {r con rocas subyacentes. La
s coladas de menor }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {viscosidad son generalmen}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {te de composicin mas bsic
a, y en c}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {onsecuencia, son de tono relativamente}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mas oscuro y con tex
tura claramente arrugada. En coladas relativamente recientes, el drenaje es}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {comnmente mas bien int
erno e irregular; pero en }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {basaltos viejos puede apa
recer como paralelo o}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {dendrtico (Lmina IX). Basaltos en clima rido o }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hme
do soportan generalmente poca vegetacin; sin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {embargo, en ambientes tropicales, ro}\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {cas baslticas con desarrollo de }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {laterita
s estn c}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ubiertas por una }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {densa vegetacin y suelos aptos para cultivos
. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En reas con varias coladas, stas son relativamente
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fciles de diferenciar entre s (Lminas X y XIII). }\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En la mayora de los ca
sos, las coladas mas antig}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {uas tienen tono mas oscur
o, una vegetacin mas densa}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {y un drenaje mas uniforma y mejor desarrollado que }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {en cuerpos efusivos recientes. Comnmente, se}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {observan las bardas tpicas de cola}\fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {das horizontales, en perfiles a lo la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {rgo de los ros que atraviesan}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {terrenos volcnicos. Se advierte a }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ve
ces, perfectamente, rasgos de deslizamientos (Lmina XI), tpicos }\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de reas de basaltos y rocas arcillo
sas subyacentes}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Por el contrario, es difcil a veces
, diferenciar}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {col
adas volcnicas de aren}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {iscas rojas y de bancos grueso
s, ya que}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { el tono y textura pu}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {eden ser similares}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars

calex100 {en ambos casos. Sin embargo, los contactos, la mo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca


lex100 {rfologa de montculos, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la forma lobulada y la
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {textura moteada,
el drenaje irregular y los rasgos}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de flujo son bue
nos elem}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {entos para la diagnosis.}\par\pard\li1173\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {B2) Efusivas cidas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {Aunque el tono es parecido al del }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {granito, gris claro, la textura es}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {normalmente mas lisa}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {. La morfologa, por lo menos en am}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bientes ridos,
es mas abrupta y las}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {serranas mas agudas que en }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terrenos granticos. El
dren}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aje es irregu}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lar,
a veces}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {dendrtico o angular}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {co
n cabeceras en forma de pinza. Hay menos indicios}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { c
laros de estructura de flujo que en coladas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {baslticas; comnmente, se observa}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 { una leve estratificacin debida}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { a bandas de r
ocas piroclsticas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
intercaladas. En general, es difcil identificar sobr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
e fotos areas rocas efusivas}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { cidas como tales, sin }\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {haber encontrado p
reviamente cierta inform}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acin en la literatura o en e
l campo. }\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {B3) Rocas piroclsticas (Toba)}\b0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Los rasgos aerofotogrficos de las rocas piroclsticas son
muy}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {variables, ya
que pueden constituir}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { rocas consolidadas o no cons
olidad}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {as, friables o masivas, de grano}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fino a grueso, de colores var
iados y de }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {composicin muy distinta. En general,}{ }\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {se puede afirmar que}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {rocas tobceas tienen caractersticas similar
es a }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {lutitas y limolitas, es decir, una red d
e drenaje}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {d
ensa y textura uniforme}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Sin embargo,}{ }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {el tono es en la mayora }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{de los casos mas claro y llega}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\b {hasta blanco}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Los piroclst
icos de grano grueso, como }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aglomerados, por ejemplo
, muestran tonos de }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {gris claro a oscuro, a veces negro, y una red de dr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {enaje del tipo interno, por ser un material mas bien}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {permeable (Lmina II)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {La morfologa y la cubierta vege}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tal dependen m
ayormente del clima. En ambiente tropical, zonas de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {rocas tobceas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ son frtiles, con vegetacin densa y relieve}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { relati
vamente poco accidentado; en zonas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \*\tx1240
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ridas,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {rocas piroc
lsticas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { forman serranas agudas y escarpa}\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {s abruptas, y sostienen muy poca}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vegetacin (Lminas IX, XIV, XXII). La estratifi
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cacin, muy comn en las rocas piroclsticas, produce}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en la foto una textu
ra bandeada, por supuesto, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {su asociacin con rocas vo
lcnicas ayuda a su}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100

{identificacin como tal.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li


466\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.
ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\m
arglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\colw10200\colsr-0\co
lno2\colw1240\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{- Estudio fotogeolgico de las ro}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cas plutnicas
. (de Lpez, 1988)}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {38}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\mar
grsxn133\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Generalmente es fcil identificar }\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {las rocas plutnicas en fotogeolog}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a, aunqu
e no diferenciar unas de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {otras y ni tan siquiera si}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { se trata de roca
s plutnicas cidas o }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bsicas, ya que ambos grupos tienen
unas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {caracterstic
as fotogeolgicas muy parecidas. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estudio fotogeolg
ico del Granito. }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {(fotos 28-1 al 6, 28-9, 28-1
0, 28-11) }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {S
iempre aparece formando una masa homognea y }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {uniforme
en la que no aparecen direcciones}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {predominantes, origina gran divers}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{idad de relieves, desde grandes co}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rdilleras a exte
nsas penillanuras,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{con redes de drenaje dendrticas y/}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o angulares por
control }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estructural, siendo su }\fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {intensa fracturacin la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {caracterstica fotogeolgica mas sobresaliente en la }\fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {tectnica del granito (por }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {su poca elasti
cidad). Con}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {frecu
ente presencia de diques (reconocibles por la erosin diferencial, Foto 28-5 y 289), con bastante}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
vegetacin, y tonos gris claros.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {c) Reconocimiento e
}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {interpretacin de las rocas metamrficas. }\b0 \
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Rocas metamrficas:}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { P
izarras, Filitas y Esquistos, Gneise}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s, Mrmoles, Cuar
citas, Anfibolita}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estudio fotogeolgico de las roca
s }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {metamrficas. Tipos de metamorfismo.}\b0 \par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {1.- Metamorfismo de contacto}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {. Se produce cuando la ascensin de un magma hacia las zonas}\par\pard\li466
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {superficiales de la corteza terr
estre}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { provoca, por su elevada temperatur}\fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {a, un cambio brusco en las zonas}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que atraviesa. Este cambio afecta solo a la zo
na de }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {contacto de la roca encajante, siendo su exte
nsin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {variable. El
metamorfismo de contact}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o solo se aprecia en la foto
grafa en el caso de que la zona }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {afectada sea extensa o el metamorfismo suficientement}\fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {e acusado para traslucirse en el color de la roca, }\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {morfologa, drenaje o cualqui
er ot}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ro efecto capaz de ser percibido.}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {2.- Metamorfismo dinmico}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Tiene

lugar en zonas de grandes tritu}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {raciones, zonas de


fallas y fracturas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {intensas, donde las ro}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cas se deforman por la pre
s}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {in sufrida, reorganizndose su}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 { estructura. Producto de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {este metamorfismo, por ejemplo, son las milonitas. Es}\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {te metemorfismo es difcil de apreciar en la}\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fotografa por su reducida extensin.}\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {3.- Metamorfismo regional.}\b0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {Es el mas importante, pudiendo afectar cientos de kilmetros cuadrados.}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Es el que ha dado lu
gar a la formacin de lo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s principales tipos de rocas
metamrficas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-3
33\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Las rocas metamrficas no son solamente e
l }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {grupo de rocas mas difcil de identificar}\b0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en fotos }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {areas, sino que tambin}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {hay
pocos indicios para distinguir}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b { las unidades
metamrficas entre s}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {por}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {el
simple hecho que son productos de rocas gne}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {as
, sedimentarias, e inclusive otras metamrficas}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y, por lo tanto, contienen rasgos tpicos de esos
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {grupos litolgicos. Adems, el origen sedimentario,}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {gneo o metamrfico de
la roca metamrfica se hace a}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n mas difcil de determinar
por el grado y el tipo}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {de metamorfismo tan variable a que}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la roca p
udo haber sido sometida.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Antes de considerar el tipo
de roca metamrfica, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {sera prudente examinar bien los
rasgos regionales}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\b {del rea a estudiar y reunir toda la informac}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {in geolgica disponible de regiones adyacentes.}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 { La }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {verificac
in previa de campo es, en muchos cas}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {os, necesaria pa
ra identificar el tipo de roca}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {metamrfica. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li466\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofeso
r.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840
\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li10200\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {39}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {- Pizarras.}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { El aspecto de las pizarras
es muy similar al de las lutitas,}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {el tono es g
ris mediano, la red}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {de drenaje es muy densa, dendrtica o angular, }\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\b {con crcavas largas y profundas, con paredes}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-2
80\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {suaves y fondo llano}\b0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {. Es preciso tener cuidado en no confundi}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {r el clivaje con la estratificacin, a}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {menos que se encuentren intercalaciones de cuerpos }\fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mas competentes, como areniscas, por ejemplo. En}\par\pa
rd\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {general, no es posible i
dentificar en las fotos pizarras como tales, sin tener previamente datos }\par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {geolgicos directos}\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de la regin. }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Mrmol}\b0 \f

s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Dado que el grado de recrista}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale


x100 {lizacin de las rocas calcreas }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {no se manifiesta
en las fotos }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {area
s con ningn rasgo caracterstico, el m}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rmol no es identi
ficable como tal.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
b {- Filitas y Esquistos}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. En las fotos}{ }\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {las filitas se presentan parecidas a las pizarras}\b0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {; sin embargo, los}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esquistos pueden identificarse con mas certeza, par
ticul}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {armente si son de alto grado de metamorfismo y
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estn caracterizad
os por una separacin muy pronunc}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {iada de componentes
cuarzo-feldespticos y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {micceos,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {el tono suele s}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b {er gris mediano}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { con salientes li
neales de tono}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { claro y textura mas gruesa,}\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {correspondientes a vetas
o a pegmatitas. A veces, lo}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s complejos de esquistos
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {contiene intercalaciones}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de rocas bsicas metamorfizadas (anfibolitas
) que }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aparecen en fotos como cuerpos o zonas difusa
s y }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {discontinuas
de tono gris oscuro a }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {negro (Lminas XII, XXII, XXII
I). }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La red de drenaje depende principalmente de la
co}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mposicin de los esquistos y de la presencia de}\pa
r\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fracturas, as, en esq
uistos ricos en cuarzo y feld}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {espato, el drenaje es
menos}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { denso que en esquistos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {principalmente micceos. La morfologa es m
as abr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {upta en ambientes ridos que en climas hmedos,}\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mas propicios para
el desarrollo de suelos. Observ}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ando grandes superf
icies, comnmente los esquistos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {se identifican como tales por la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {e
xfoliacin o esquistosidad}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, que en muchos caso es
}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {intensamente }\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {plegada}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { y,
por lo menos en partes, puede ser de fuer}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {te inclin
acin (Lminas XV, XXV). En terrenos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {ridos se destacan muy bien ln}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eas o ba
ndas paralelas de vegetaci}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n, que corresponden a hori
zontes de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {composi
cin o metamorfismo variable.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Gneises y migmatitas}
\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {. Son poco diferenciables de esquistos}\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {. En terrenos de clima tropical son}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {comnmente cubiertos por vegetacin y un manto
grue}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {so de meteorizacin, ha}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {ciendo la identificacin}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {casi imposible. En ambientes ridos o en terrenos }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {afectados por glaciacin cont}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {inental, sin emba
rgo,}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {zonas parale
las de tonalidad variable y estructuras de pliegues de fuerte buzamiento son sus
rasgos}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {diagnstico
s principales. Tambin es caracterstic}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a la textura lit
olgica poco uniforme, dada por}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {cuerpos intrusivos discordantes o in}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {te
rcalaciones de material leucocr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tico de tono gris cla
ro a blanco.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La r

ed de drenaje es posiblemente }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las menos angular y g


eneralmente ma}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s densa que en terrenos de roca}\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {granticas homogneas, aun
que aqu tambin las cr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cavas suelen desarrollar fo}\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rma de pinza (lminas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {XXI y XXVII).}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {El tono es
parecido al de las rocas granticas}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {, pero la tex
tura litolgica tiene un aspecto mucho}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {menos regular, reflejando la composicin variable}\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 { de rocas de alto grado de metamorfismo, que}\par\pard\li466\ri0
\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {componen el basamento cristalino (lmi
nas XVIII, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {XX, XXIV, XXVI, XXVIII). Como en el caso
de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las otras roc
as metamrficas antes descritas se acons}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eja, si es po
sible, buscar informacin directa de}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {campo o consultar la literatura de las regiones a}\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {dyacentes, antes de formular una opinin basada}\par\pard\li466\ri
0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {solamente sobre la observacin estere
oscpica de fotos areas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li46
6\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Caractersticas generale}\b0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {s de las rocas metamrf}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {icas. (de Lpez, 1988)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Pizarrosidad: miner
ales con orie}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ntacin en una misma direccin }\fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {con planos de exfoliacin mas }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dbiles que el resto
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@
ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenier
ia/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\marg
rsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols2\colno1\colw10200\colsr-0\colno2\colw1240\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Drenaje: espa
ciado con control es}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tructural (salvo las cuarcitas)
}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {- Tono: colores
oscuros (salvo las cuarcitas)}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estudio fotogeolgico
de las }\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Pizarras. (fotos 30-3 y 30-4)}\b0 \pa
r\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {40}\par\pard\se
ct\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li466\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Originalmente Arcillas, Limos, Cienos
, Lutitas. Re}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lieves bajos, planos, drenaje dendrtico
bastante }\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tupido
con control estructural, la fr}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acturacin es difcil de
apreciar, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vegetacin escasa, tonos gris medio}\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a oscuro.}\par\pard\li
466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estudio fotogeolgico de lo
}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {s Esquistos. (fotos 31-2 )}\b0 \par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Intercalados con las pizarras,
re}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lieves medios, lomas largadas, con }\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {drenaje dendrtico }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { espaciado, con}\p
ar\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vegetacin en climas
hmedos y poca en ridos, tonos gris medio a oscuro.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Estudio fotogeolgico de las Cuarci}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {tas. (fotos
32-1, 32-2, 32-3, 32-7, 32-4, 32-8)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Relieves fuertes, Sierras alargadas, plegadas, con estrat
ificacin, buzamientos fuertes, drenaje recto y}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {paralelo a los estratos, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {fracturacin intensa, veget}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acin escasa, tonos claro

s.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Estudio fotogeolgico de los Gn}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b {eises. (fotos 33-1, 33-2, 33-3)}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Semejante al granito, duro y resistente, c
on much}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a fracturacin, presencia }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {de diques, con abundante}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {vegetacin, tonos claros. Se difere}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n
cia en la presencia de un ba}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ndeado discontinuo }\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e irregular (el}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {granito es uniforme), de asp}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ecto menos rugoso, sin diaclasas.}\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4
66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sb
knone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pg
wsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\cols2\coln
o1\colw10200\colsr-0\colno2\colw1240\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Bibliogra
fa}\b0 \par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li466\ri0\sl-346\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {- Allum, J.A.E. 1978}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {. Fotogeologa y Cartografa por Zonas. }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(Biblio
teca de Ing Geolgica).
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charscalex100 {Prof. Julin A. Gutirrez.
E-mail: jgutie@ula.ve }\fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ingenieria/jgutie/}\par}