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R

R n

C

C n

B

B

=

B

{0}

N

Z

R

+

t A

(u.v )

u|v

u v u v

×

V

I

O

A ◦ B A B

AB A B

A A

A A

tr(A )

A

tr(A)

A

det(A ) A

det(A)

A

χ

1

A 1

P + Q

A

A

A

P Q

E R B = (e 1 , e 2 , e 3 )

B = (|e 1 , |e 2 , |e 3 ) B

B

|e 1 =

B

1

0

0

|e 2 = 1

0

0

B

|e 3 =

B

0

0

1

,

e iB B

e i .e j e i |e j = t e iB e j B = 0

1

i

i = j

= j

δ ij

t δ

e 1 |e 2 = ( 1 0

0 )

0

1

0

= 0

e 3 |e 3 = ( 0

0

1 )

0

0

1

= 1 .

|u B u B

u i i = 1, 2, 3 |u

u

u

u

1

2

3

  .

|u =

3

i=1

B

u i |e i = u B .

u i = e i |u

e i |u = e i |

u 2 = ( 0 1 0 ) u 2

u 3

u

1

j

 

u j |e j   = u j e i |e j = u i .

j

δ

ij

u |u

A A

A A = t A

|u = u| u| B

B

u| = u

B

u

u

u

1

2

3

= ( u 1

u 2

u 3 ) ;

u B

u| U

E → R |x ∈ E |x

→ U|x u|x R

|u u|

E

E

n E E

E ( e 1 |, · · · , e n |)

0

1

0

0

e i | = |e i =

B

i =

 

i

0

·

·

·

0

1

0

·

·

·

0

.

R

B

|u

1

B

= u 2

3

u

u

|v = v 2

v

v

3

1

B

,

u|v ( u 1

u 2

u 3 ) v 2 = u B v B = u 1 v 1 + u 2 v 2 + u 3 v 3 .

v

v

3

1

u| = i u i e i |

R

|v = i v i |e i

u|v = u i e i |

i

=

u i v j e i |e j

ij

δ ij

= u i v i .

i

j

v j |e j

u i

|u

B

|u = u i |e i ⇐⇒ u | = u i e i | .

i

i

u|v = u i e i |

i

=

u i v j e i |e j

ij

δ

ij

=

u i v i .

i

j

j e i | e j ij δ ij = u i v i . i

u|v = v |u .

v j |e j

|u

u = u|u

=

(u i ) 2 .

i

u = i u i u i = i | u i | 2 ||

u = i u i u i = i |u i | 2

||λ u|| = |λ | ||u||

λ R C

|u |v

u|v = 1 4 ||u + v || 2 − ||u v || 2 ;

|u |v

cos(u v ) =

u|v ||u|| ||v || .

|u |v u|v = 0

· |u |v

| u|v | ≤ u v .

|u |v

| u|v | = u v .

·

u v ⇐⇒ ∃ ( µ, ν )

= (0 , 0) , µ u + ν v = 0

u

= 0

λ = 0,

v = λ u .

·

u v ⇐⇒ u × v = 0

×

|u |v

u × v = u 3 v 1

B

u 2 v 3 u 3 v 2

u 1 v 3 .

u 1 v 2 u 2 v 1

v × u = u × v

( u.v ) λ C, (λ u.v ) =

¯

λ( u.v )

( uv ) = λ( u.v )

B B

|e i

B

V = |det ( e 1B

·

·

·

e

n ′ B )|

V

= | det ( e

1B

e

2B ) | =

=

e

1B

0

× e

2B

0

||e 1 || ||e 2 || sin( e

e

1

2

)

V

= | det ( e

1B

e 2B

e

e

2 .(e 3 × e

e

3B ) | = 1 .(e 2 × e

3

1

=

V = 1

=

3 .(e 1 × e

e

2

)

)

)

.

.

· B B

B

det ( e 1B

·

·

·

e

n B )

· B

< 2π

|u |v |u v |

|x ( |u v |) |x = ( v |x )|u ∈ E ;

|u v | B

1

|u v | = u 2

B

u

u

3

( v 1

v 2

1 v 1

v 3 ) = u 2 v 1

u

u

3 v 1

u

u

u

1 v 2 2 v 2 3 v 2

u

u 2 v 3 ,

u

1 v 3

3 v 3

·

·

B

u i

E E

R C

A : E → E |u A|u

A A i j

A|e i = A j i |e j

j

|u

A|u

A

i

  A i j u j   |e i

j

j A 1 j u j

j A 2 j u j

j A 3 j u j

=

A|u =

B

=

A 1 1 A 2 1 A 3 1

B

A 1

A 2

2

A 3 2

2

A 1 3 A 2 3 A 3 3

. u 2

u

u

3

1

A u B .

A

A|e 1 = A 1 1 |e 1 + A 2 1 |e 2 + A 3 1 |e 3 ⇐⇒ A

1

0 =

0

A 1 1 A 2 1 A 3 1

A|e i = A j

jk

k

e iB k

3 1   A| e i = A j jk k e i B ⌉
3 1   A| e i = A j jk k e i B ⌉

δ k i

|e j = A j i |e j .

j

δ

A

A i j = e i | ( A|e j ) e i |A|e j

.

A 1 3 = ( 1

0

0 )

A 1 1 A 2 1 A 3 1

A 1 2 A 2 2 A 3 2

A 1 3 A 2 3 A 3 3

 

0

0 = ( 1

1

0

0 )

A 1 3 A 2 3 A 3 3

.

A ◦ B AB

· A A B

A tr(A)

tr(A) =

i

A i i .

A

tr(A )

·

B

tr(A 1 + A 2 ) = tr(A 1 ) + tr(A 2 )

tr(A 1 + A 2 ) = tr(A 1 ) + tr(A 2 )

tr(A 1 ◦ A 2 ) = tr(A 2 ◦ A 1 )

tr(A 1 A 2 ) = tr(A 2 A 1 )

·

· A A B

A det(A)

det(A) =

σ S n

( 1) sig(σ )

i

A i σ (i)

.

n

S n n

(σ ) σ

· A 1 A 2

B A 1 A 2

det(A 1 A 2 ) = det(A 1 ) det(A 2 ) .

·

A det(A )

·

det(A 1 ◦ A 2 ) = det(A 1 ) det(A 2 ) .

·

A u|A |v = v |A|u

A t A

(A † ) i j = A j i
(A † ) i j = A j i

A = A 1 A 2 α = (A 2 ) 1 A 1 A 2 = A A 2 A 1 = α 1 = A A

A

det(A 1 A 2 ) = det(A 2 A 1 )

C

det(A ) = det(A)

|u ∈ E |v = A|u

|v = A|u = A i j u j |e i

B

=

ij

j u j A 1

j

j u j A n

j

v | = u|A = u j A j i e i |

ij

B

=

B

=

=

( j u j A j 1

· · · j u j A j n )

( v 1

j u j A 1 j

·

·

·

v n ) · · · j u j A n j .

e i |A = A i j e j | .

j

|e i e j |

B

|e i e j | = i

0

0

0

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

E E

·

·

·

·

0

·

·

j

0

0

1

0

0

·

·

·

·

0

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

0

0

0

.

A

A = A i j |e i e j | .

ij

A|e i = A j