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BAI 1: CAU TAO OTO

* Muc tieu: Sau bai nay hoc sinh se co kha nang. - Ke ten va nhan biet c cac bo phan cau tao cua xe oto. - Trnh bay c mot so nguyen ly lam viec cua cac bo phan c ban tren xe oto.
I. GII THIEU CHUNG VE OTO.

1. Khai niem chung. Xe oto la mot trong nhng phng tien giao thong ng bo chu yeu, no co tnh c ong cao va pham vi hoat ong rong, do vay tren toan the gii ang c dung phng tien i lai cho ca nhan, van chuyen hanh khach va hang hoa, phuc s phat trien kinh te va an ninh quoc phong. 2. Phan loai xe oto. - Oto theo cho ngoi va tai trong. - Oto to ch ngi en 9 cho ngoi, oto to tai di 3500kg. - Oto to ch ngi tren 9 cho ngoi, oto to tai tren 3500kg. - Oto ch ngi t 10 en 30 cho. - Oto ch ngi t tren 30 cho. - Oto tai cac hang co keo rmooc tren 750kg. b. Theo loai nhien lieu s dung. - Xe oto chay xang - Xe oto chay dau Diezen - Xe oto chay kh ga hoac ga hoa long. - Xe oto chay ien. c. Theo cong dung - Oto ch hang bao gom: Oto tai, oto tai t o, oto tai co can cau. - oto ch ngi bao gom: oto buyt, oto tacxi, oto con, oto ch khach lien tnh. - Oto chuyen dung : Oto cu hoa, phun nc. 3. Cau tao chung cua xe oto. - Than vo xe. - ong c gam- ien. 1

II. ONG C OTO.

1. Cong dung va cau tao chung cua ong c oto.


- ong c la nguon ong lc cua oto, khimlam viec, nhiet nang c bien oi thanhnc nang va chuyen sang cac banh xe chu ong tao ra chuyen ong tnh tien cho xe oto. - ong bao gom cac c cau va he thong: C cau truc khuyu, thanh truyen, c cua phan phoi kh, c cau cung cap nhien lieu, he thong boi trn va he thong lam mat. a. Nhng nh ngha c ban dung cho ong c ot trong. * Chu ky cong tac :La tong hp tat ca cac qua trnh xay ra trong xi lanh ong c e thc hien mot lan sinh cong. * Ky : La mot phan cua chu trnh cong tac xay ra gia hai iem chet cua Pit tos. * iem chet: La v tr o Pit tos oi chieu chuen ong, co hai loai iem chet. - iem chet tren (CT) - iem chet di (CD) + iem chet tren la iem ma nh Pit tos xa tam truc khuyu nhat. + iem chet di la iem ma nh Pit tos gan tam truc khuyu nhat. * Hanh trnh Pit tos : KH = S: La khoang cach gia hai iem chet tren va di, ky hieu la S. * The tch buong chay : KH = Vc: La the tch be nhat trong mot chu ky cong tac :Vc. * The tch toan phan: Kh = Va.La the tch be nhat trong mot chu ky cong tac. * The tch cong tac : KH = Vh = Va = Vc.La the tch toan phan va the tch buong chay. * Ty so nen. KH = Va : Vc.: La hieu so gia the tch toan phan va the tch buong chay. b. Nguyen ly lam viec cua ong c xang 4 ky. * Ky hut ( hanh trnh th nhat nap H2) kh, Pit tos i t iem chet tren xuong, iem chet di nap m, luc nay the tch trong buong chay (xy lanh) ong lai. Tang P giam s chenh lech ap suot trong buong chay vi ngoai tri nen khong kh i t ngoai vao buong chay qua nam hut. * Ky nen: hanh trnh th hai. 2

+ Pit tos i t iem chet tren xuong iem chet di, luc nay nam nap va xa dau ong the tch trong buong chay giam, nhiet o tang ap suat tang. H2. + Cuoi ky nen tia la ien nen bat la chay * Ky no : no (hanhntrnh chay dan n sinh cong) + Khi tia la nen bat chay ot H2, dan n tao ap suat ln ay Pit tos t iem chet tren xuong iem chet di, luc nay the tch tang nhiet o ap suat giam. * Ky xa . + Luc nay Pit tos i t iem chet di len iem chet tren, xupap xa m, xupap hut ong ap suat va nhiet o trong xylanh ln hn nhiet o ngoai tri san vat chay c ay ra ngoai.C nh the hanh trnh xay ra lien tuc Pit tos lai i xuong thc hien mot chu ky khac. c. Nguyen ly lam viec cua ong Diezel. - Nguyen ly lam viec cua ong c dau cung gom 4 ky nh ong c xang, ch khac cho ky nap khong kh c hut vao xilanh va cuoi qua trnh nen dau c phun vao hoa tron vi khong kh ngay trong buong ot, nhiet o cao va ap suat ln hon hp kh t boc chay va sinh cong.

2. Cac chi tiet chuyen ong.


* Pit tos: + Nhiem vu hng dan cho thanh truyen chuyen ong, bao kn buong chay. Trc tiep nhan lc truyen qua thanh truyen. + Vi ong c hai ky Pittos con lam nhiem vu ong m thay xupap xa va hut. Cau tao : 3 phan . nh, than, vay. + Co ranh lap vong gang va lo lap chot Pit tos. * Chot Pit tos: Nhiem vu truyen lc t Pit tos qua thanh truyen. * Vong gang: Nhiem vu gi kn hi buong chay va khong cho dau t ay dau len buong chay, truen nhiet qua thanh xy lanh toa nhiet. Chu nhiet o cao va mai mon ln. * Thanh truyen: Nhiem vu t Pit tos qua truc khuyu. * Truc khuyu.Nhiem vu nhan va truyen cong suat ra ngoai, ong c chu mai mon lc xoan va ap. 3 . C cau phan phoi kh. - Nhiem vu dung e ong m kh trong va ngoai xi lanh cho phu hp vi ieu kien cua ong c. 3

- Cau tao gom: supap hut, xa ong dan hng, ua ay, con oi truc cam lo xo mong ham va mieng supap.

4. He thong cung cap nhien lieu


a. Cong dung: - He thong cung cap nhien lieu ong c xang dung e hoa tron xang vi khong kh sach theo mot ty le nhat nh tao thanh kh hon hp, cung cap cho cac xi lanh cua ong c theo th t lam viec. b. Yeu cau: * e phat huy cong xuat cua ong c, he thong cung cap nhien lieu cua ong c phai am am bao yeu cau sau. - Xang phai c loc sach nc va bui ban, cung nh cac tap chat khac. - Khong kh phai c loc sach. - Xang va khong kh phai c phun vao buong chay cua ong c di dang sng mu, hat nho, o am ac ( ty le gia xang va khong kh) phai thay oi phu hp vi cac che o lam viec cua ong c. - Lng kh hon hp cung cap cho cac xi lanh phai ong eu. c. Phan loai: * He thong cung cap nhien lieu ong c xang gom cac loai sau: - He thong cung cap nhien lieu kieu hut - He thong cung cap nhien lieu kieu bm. d. Nguyen ly lam viec : Khi ong c lam viec, bm xang hut xang t thung cha theo ong dan qua coc loc, loc can ban va nc, roi theo ong dan vao buong phao cua bo che hoa kh, hanh trnh hut, pt-ton i xuong ap xuat trong xi lanh giam gau chenh lech ap suat vi ben ngoai, hut khong kh t ngoai vao qua bau loc roi qua che hoa kh tao ra o chan khong co hut, hut xang phun ra, hoa tron eu tao thanh hon hp nhien lieu theo ng ong nap, nap vao cac xi lanh theo trnh t lam viec cua ong c. cuoi thi ky nen bu gi bat tia la ien ot chay hon hp kh trong buong chay cua ong c, sau qua trnh chay, gian n, sinh cong, kh chay trong xi lanh c thai ra ngoai theo ng ong thai, qua ong giam am ra ngoai. Mc nhien lieu thung cha c bao tren ong ho ca bin. 4

5. He thong lam mat.


a. Cong dung : + Lam giam nhiet o cac chi tiet may b nong trong qua trnh lam viec. + Gi cho ong c on nh mot nhiet o nhat nh khoang 800 C - 900 C. b. Cac phng phap lam mat . + Lam mat bang khong kh. + Lam mat bang nc. * Lam mat bang khong kh: Thng c s dung cac loai xe oto chay nhng vung sa mac hoac vung nc thieu: * Lam mat bang nc Co nhieu u iem hn nenc s dung rong rai tren cac loai ong c. c. Cac loai yeu cau vi nc lam mat. + Nc can co tnh chat khong can cao. + Khong co tap chat hoac can ba. + Trong qua trnh s dung phai c s dung nc sach e lam mat ong c.

d. mat
-

Cau tao mot so bo phan cua he thong lam

Ket lam mat nc . Bm nc. Van hang nhitet: (Bo ieu tiet nhiet o). Quat gio:

e. Nguyen ly lam viec . Khi ong c lam viec ai truyen va pu ly dan ong truc bm nc va quat gio quay bn nc hut t buong di cua ket va ay vao buong dan nc trong than may e lam mat cac xi lanh, than may, roi lam mat phan buong chay tren nap may sau khi lam mat than may va nap ma.Neu nhiet o nc nho hn nho hn 75 0C th nc van phu cua van hang nhiet theo ng nc phu ve bm nc luc nay nc lam mat khong ra ket nc nen nhiet o cua nc tang nhanh at en nhiet o thch hp. Neu nhiet o cua nc at 750C van phu cua van hang nhiet ong ng nc chnh e m nc theo ng ong nc ra buong tren cua ket lam mat. Nc t buong mat lai tiep tuc theo ng ong len bm e i lam mat cho ong c. e tang hieu qua lam mat cho ong c th pha sau ket nc va ong c co bo tr quat gio.

6. He thong boi trn


a. Cong dung. - a dau ti cac be mat ma sat e boi trn. - Loc sach tap chat lan trong dau nhn va tay ra cac be mat ma sat. Lam mat cac be mat ma sat (nhiet o sinh ra do ma sat gia cac be mat) va lam mat dau nhn e am bao tnh nang ly hoa cua no.

b. Cau tao cac chi tiet chnh cua he thong boi trn.
Bm dau: Cau tao bm dau kien banh rang: Bau loc dau Bau loc tinh kieu ly tam: Ket lam mat dau. Cacte cha dau :

c. Nguyen ly lam viec. + Khi ong c lam viec, bm dau hut dau t cac te qua phao loc va ay dau len bau loc tho. bau loc tho dau c loc sach cac tap chat c hoc, sau o phan ln dau (khoang 80 - 85% i ti ng dau chnh e boi trn cho cac co truc, cac co thanh truyen cua truc khuyu, cac co truc cam, dan on ganh con phan nho ( khoang 15 - 20%) khi en bau loc tinh sau khi loc sach tr ve cac te. Cac chi tiet nh xi lanh, pt tong, vong gang c boi trn bang phng phap vung te. Dau sau khi i boi trn cac be mat lam viec ri tr ve cac te. + Khi nhiet odau ln hn 800C van ieu kien m cho mot phan au ra ket lam mat e giam nhiet o, sau o tr ve cac te. + Khi bau loc tho b tac do ban th van an toan bau loc tho m cho dau qua van i boi trn ma khong qua bau loc e tranh hien tng thieu dau. Van ieu chnh ap xuat co tac dung bao am cho ap xuat trong he thong co gia tr khong oi.
III. HE THONG GAM OTO.

1. He thong truyen lc. * Oto bo tr ong c pha trc, cau chu ong pha sau, qua trnh truyen lc: - ong c Ly hp Hop so Cac ang Cau chu ong Banh xe chu ong. * Oto bo tr ong c pha trc, cau trc chu ong hoac ong c pha sau, qua trnh truyen lc: 6

- ong c Ly hp Hop so Cau chu ong Banh xe chu ong. 2. Ly hp. - Ly hp c at gia ong c va hop so, dung e truyen hoac ngat truyen ong en hop so . 3. Hop so. - Hop so dung e truyen va thay oi mo men t ong c en banh xe chu ong. - Hop so cat truyen ong t ong c en cac banh chu ong, hop so am bao cho oto chuyen ong lui. 4. Truyen ong cac ang. Truyen ong cac ang dung e truyen mo men xoan khong cung nam tren mot ng thang va goc lech truc luon thay oi trong qua trnh chuyen ong. 5. Cau chu ong. Truyen lc chnh dung e tang va truyen mo men xoan gia cac truc vuong goc vi nhau. 6. He thong truyen ong. - Khung xe he thong treo Banh xe va lop. 7. He thong ieu khien. - He thong lai He thong phanh.
IV. HE THONG IEN.

1. Khai niem chung He thong ien tren oto e cungcap ien nang cho he thong anh la( ong c xang)va cho cac nguon tieu thu ienkhac nh may khi ong,en chieu sang,en tn hieu,cac ong ho o Khi ong c o to quay nhanh,ien ap do may sinh ra ln en mot tr so nh mc th may phat ien se cung cap ien cho cac bo phan tieu thuva nap ien cho ap quy 2. He thong nguon ien tren oto a. Ac quy Ac quy e tch tr ien nang cho cac cho cac phu tai: May khi ong e klhi ong o c hoac toc o quay cua may phat. b. May phat ien. - May phat ien e phat ra ien nang cung cap cho cac phu tai va nap ien cho ac quy. * Nguyen ly lam viec: Khi ong c lam viec, qua bo truyen ai lam truc roto quay, t trng trong cac cuon day 7

cua roto quay, quet qua cac cuon day phan ng (Stato) lam t thong bien thien qua cac cuon day sinh ra sc ien ong cam ng va phat ra dong ien co chieu va tr so thay oi theo thi gian (goi la dong ien xoay chieu) dong ien xoay chieu theo cac au day qua bo chan lu nan thanh dong ien mot chieu cung cap cho phu tai va nap ien cho ac quy. c. Bo ieu chnh ien. Bo ieu chnh ien e ieu chnh cho ien ap va cng o dong ien cua may phat luon trong pham vi quy nh ong thi cat va noi dong ien t ac quy ti may phat. d. He thong anh la. He thonh anh la s dung dung e bien dong ha ap co ien ap thap thanh dong ien cao ap co ien ap cao tao ra tia la ien buzi. * Tren oto s dung nhieu loai he thong anh la khac nhau. - He thong anh la co tiep iem. - He thong anh la ban dan co tiep iem. - He thong anh la ban dan khong tiep iem. * Nguyen ly lam viec: Khi khoa ien 8 ong, cam 4 quay ti v tr thap, cap tiep iem 2,3 ong, trong mach ien ap thap co dong ien i theo mach cc dng ac quy qua khoa ien 8, qua ien tr phu 9, qua cuon day s cap 10, qua on bay ngat mach 1, cap tien iem 2,3 ve ca am ac quy. Dong ien qua cuon day 10 tao ra nang lng ien tch tr di dang t trng trong bien ap anh la 12,. Khi cam 4 quay ti v tr cao, cap tiep iem 2;3 m, dong ien qua cuon day 10 b ngat, t trng trong bien ap anh la 12, b mat ot ngot lam san sinh ra s ien cam ng co ien ap cao (15.000 -:- 20.000W) Trong cuon day th cap 11 dong ien cao ap i theo day dan ti bo chia ien 20. Tai day con quay chia ien 19 chia ien ra cac nen anh la theo th t no cua ong c. e tao ra tia la ien ot chay hon hp nhien lieu, cuon day s cap 10 cung ong thi sinh ra sc ien ong t cam (khong can thiet) tao ra tia la ien tiep iem e khac phuc van e nay ta s dung tu ien 6. (co s o rieng) Cau hoi on tap Cau 1: Anh (ch) hay trnh bay cac bo phan chuyen ong trong ong c..? 8

Cau 2 : Anh (ch) hay trnh bay nguyen ly lam viec cua he thong anh la..? Cau 3. Anh( ch) neu nguyen ly lam viec cua he thong cung cap nhien lieu

BAI 2 : BAO DNG THNG XUYEN O TO


* Muc tieu: Sau bai hoc nay hoc sinh se co kha nang - Thc hanh bao dng ky thuat cac bo phan tren xe oto. - Kiem tra chan oan va sa cha c mot so h hong thong cua he thong cung cap nhien lieu va he thong anh la.
I. NOI QUY XNG VA KY THUAT AN TOAN S DUNG O NGHE

1- Noi quy thc tap tai xng + Moi xng thc tap eu co noi quy. Xng trng co nhiem vu pho bien can ke cho hoc sinh trc khi bat au thc tap va nhan manh cac iem sau : - Hoc sinh en xng lan au phai c pho bien can ke cac quy an toan giao thong va phong chay. - Hoc sinh en xng thc tap phai ung gi quy nh va mac trang phuc lao ong, khong i giay hoac dep co e trn eo phu hieu lien ngc, co so thc tap ay u. - Hoc sinh phai chap hanh nghien chnh ky luat lao ong, cac quy nh ve an toan lao ong, ve sinh cong nghiep. - Hoc sinh phai chap hanh theo s hng dan cua giao vien, khong c s dung cac may moc, cac hien vat cua xng thc tap, ac biet la cac may cong cu, cac thiet b co kh nen, co s dung ien nang. - Hoc sinh phai lam ung s phan cong va hng dan cua giao vien theo cac v tr lam viec, khong i lai lung tung, khong t y thay oi lam viec,. - Nghiem cam hoc sinh ua nghchco hanh ong vo y thc nh am a, nem, uoi nhaugay hau qua nghien trong. - Cho lam viec phai sach se va ngan nap( khong c vt ba bai cac chi tiet, dung cu, o nghe).Cam e dau m day tren nen nha gay trn trt.

- Cam hut thuoc va s dung la trong xng thc tap, chap hanh cac quy nh ve chong chay. - Het gi thc tap, phai lau chui ve sinh ni lam viec va ban giao dung cu, o nghe cho xng. - Cat cau giao ien trc khi ra khoi xng. 2- Dung cu o nghe dung cho lai xe a) Bo do nghe ln, bo o nghe nho 1. Tuoc vt 2. Mo let 3. Cai ot 4. cai uc 5. Cai bua 6.Cha van ai oc 27x30 7. Cha van trong 19x22 8 . Cha van ai oc co ranh cua tr lc lai 9. Cha van ai oc giam chan va nap on dan ong lai. 22. Cha van 32x 36 23. on quay 24. Palang cap 25. Kch 12T 26. Ong bm lop 27.Bm m 28. Cha van ong 19 30. Cha van 19x22 31. Cai km

10. Tui ng ong ho o ap sua 32. Tuoc vt 1,5 x0,7 lop. 11. en soi cam tay 12. Bat thao may banh xe sau va ai oc vi sai 13. Van thao voi phun 14. Cha van ai oc may trc 15. Cha van 24 xiet nap may 16. Cha van ai oc banh xe 17. on thao lop - 61 va can ay kch 18. on bay 19. Cha van 36x38 20. Cha van 24x27 21 Cha van mot trong 33. Cha van 17x19 34. Tay quay 35.Tay quay ong 36. cha van 8x10 37. Cha van 12 38. Cha van 10x12 39. Cha van ai oc may nen kh 40. Thc la 41. Cha van ong 42. Tay quay 43. Cha van ong

3 - He thong cac cap bao dng o to. a) Muc ch, yeu cau oi vi cong tac bao dng. 10

+ Muc ch cua bao dng ky thuat la bao dng o to thng xuyen co tnh nang ky thuat tot, gi gn c hnh thc ben ngoai, giam cng o hao moncua cacchi tiet, ngan nga va kp hti phat hien cac h hong va sai lech ky thuat e khac phuc. + Trc khi bao dng phai tien hanh kiem tra ky thuat xe, e xac nh tnh trang ky thuat xe hoac cac bo phan tong thanh, qua o xac nh phng hng sa cha co noi dung h ly. + Chan oan ky thuat la mot lnh vc khoa hoc nham xac nh tnh trang ky thuat xe hoac cac tong thanh khong can phai thao ri chan oan la mot nguyen cong quan trong trong quy trnh cong nghe bao dng sa cha oto. * Bao dng ky thuat xe la mot cong viec bat buoc e keo dai tuoi tho cua oto. b. Bao dng sa cha theo quy trnh hien hanh. + Bao dng dng ky thuat ca I + Bao dng ky thuat cap II * Tac dung cua bao dng cap I va bao dng cap II, la giam bt cng o mai mon cua cac chi tiet, phat hien va ngan nga trc khi sai lech, h hong bang cach ong thi thc hien kiem tra chan oan, xiet chat, ieu chnh boi trn thay dau m va mot so cong viec khac. * Bao dng I va II thc hien theo quy trnh xe chay, chu ky cac cap bao dng theo bang sau: + Chu ky bao dng oto va r mooc. Loai xe Chu ky bao dng (tng bang km) Bao dng 1 2.5000 - 3.500 2.000 - 3.000 1.500 - 2.500 Bao dng 2 10.000 13.000 8.000 12.000 6.000 10.000

- Oto con - Oto khach - Oto tai + r mooc va na r mooc.

+ Chu ky bao dng oto va r mooc theo thi gian quy ng sau: - Bao dng ky thuat cap 1;2 thang 1 lan. 11

- Bao dng ky thuat cap 2: 1 nam 1 lan. Oto co tnh trang ky thuat kem hoac thng xuyen hoat ong ttrong ieu kien hoat ong ng kho khan tren eo doc, cong trng can chon chu ky bao dng thap va dng tot co the chon chu ky bao dng cao.Chu ky bao bao dng pjai nam gia gii han cao nhat va thap nhat. c. Cong tac kiem tra chan oan. 10 xem xet h hong ben ngoai oto, kiem tra toan bo trang thai buong lai, thung xe oto, knh, gng phan hau, sn bien so, c cau ong m ca buong lai, c cau nang buong lai, lop va ap suat lop, neu thieu bm them. 2) Kiem tra hoat ong cua ca ong ho, cac loai en; coi, gat ma, c cau ca knh, he thong quat gio. 3) Kiem tra xem o kn cua tr kc o r cua tay lai , o r r cua truyen ong lai va hanh trrnh t do cua vanh tay lai. 4) Liem tra xem xet o kn cua he thong phanh, he thong cung cap nhien liau, lam mat, boi trn c cau nang thung cua oto. 5) Kiem tra lam viec cua cac tong thanh, cac cum cac he thong va cac dung cu kiem tra o ac tren oto, ( ong c, ly hp, may nen kh, he thong phanh, truc truyen cau oto, c cau nang o, he thong ien. Lam mat boi trn, cung cap nhien lieu, cac dung cu kiem tra va ong ho. d. Cong viec boi trn va lam sach. 1. Kiem tra mc dau neu cau thiet phai o them dau vao ong c, vi loai loc dau tho, quay c bang tay th quay mot en hai vong. 2. Kiem tra nmc dau trong bm cao ap va bo ieu chnh toc o quay ong c dieden. 3. kIem tra mc o nc trong he thong lam mat va khi can o them. 4. Xa cac can ban va nc cac bnh loc dau, bnh cha dau, b nh cha kh nen, bau loc nhien lieu. 5. Kiem tra mc nien lieu trong bnh neu can thiet o them. e. Cac cong viec phai lam them oi vi oto khach va xe con. 1. Kiem tra tnh trang san oto, em ta ghe ngoi, be xe, cac ca len xuong.

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2. Kiem tra tac dung cua c cau m ca, va o kn cua he thong hi. 3. Kiem tra tn hieu gia ngi lai va phu lai, en chieu sang oto, en dau va tn hieu ch huy ng. 4. Kiem tra xem xet trang thai chnh cua thung oto, bnh hi, nhp. 5. Lau sach cac ghe ngoi va roan bo xe. 4. Bao dng ong c. a. Nhng h hong chnh cua bao dng ong c. Nhng h hong chnh cua ong c co nhng dau hieu chnh nh sau ; - Giam cong suat. - Tang mc tieu hao nhien lieu. - Kh xa co nhieu khoi. - Giam ap suat cuoi ky nen. - Tieng go khac thng trong ong c. + Cong suat cau ong c gam va tieu hao nhien lieu tang khi he thong cung cap nhien lieu va he thong ang la hong.buong chay b muoi than, tac ng ong nap, he thong lam mat b cau ban, hieu c cau phan phoi kh khong ung, ap suat xilanh trong ong c khong u, khong kh lot van he thong nap, tang mc tieu hao dau nhn va khoi, bao hieu vong gang (xec mang, bac hi) b gay mat tnh an hoi, mon ranh cha vong gang. Mon hoac v ong lot xy lanh, ro r dau nht qua au truc khuyaKh xa co nhieu khoi thng lien quan en h hong he thong phun nhien lieu, ieu chnh garanti khong ung, Hien tng giam sut nen trong xi lanh hng co nguyen nhan la vong gang va ong lot xy lanh , xupap khong kn, mo n ong dan hng xunpap, long moi siet nap may, rach em nap may, sai lech khe h trong he thong phan phoi kh, tieng go khac thng trong ong c, xuat hien khi gay lo xo xu pap, ket xu pap, xc be mat ong lot xy lanh va pit tos, tang khe h gia uoi xupap va mo on bay xu pap, mon chat pittos, mon bac au nho thanh truyen, mon o thanh truyen, o truc khuya. b. Bao dng ky thuat va c cau truc khuyu, thanh truyen, c cau phan phoi khi. Can kiem tra s bat chat cua cac thiet b phu lap tren ong c, cac ong dan kh xa, s bat chat ong c len khung xe. + Viec chan oan ky thuat ong c phai tien hanh tram bao dng, nham kiem tra cac thong so ky thuat 13

cua ong c, lng tieu hao nhien lieu, may nghe, ap suat nen trong xy lanh, .khe h cua uoi xy pap vi co mo.trong qua trnh bao dng can thiet phai siet chat va ieu chnh cac thong so ky thuat cho phu hp. + Nhng h hong cua c cau truc khuya thanh truyen va c cau phan phoi kh thng la: thung, v than xy lanh, ong lot xy lanh va than pttos b mon, Xc bac bien, goi , truc khuya b mon cong hoac co the gay, cong venh nap may, chay, h em nap may, mon chot pittos, long oc bat bac bien. * Cach sa chua can c vao nguyen nhan h hong sau khi kiem tra. c. Bao dng ky thuat va sa cha he thong lam mat va boi trn. + Kiem tra sc ay u cua cac he thong lam mat va he thong boi trn neu thieu phai bo sung kp thi, neu ng ong b tac th phai thong ra, dung kh nen lam sach, neu bm dau nhn yeu phai khac phuc huac thay ngay.oi vi nbau, loc dau nhn khi sa cha can phai co sach cac bau loc va neu can thay loi loc va cac chi tiet hong, trong he thong lam mat h hong cua no thng la : ket mat b tac, ro r, ban, bom nc b hong. d. Bao dng ky thuat va sa cha he thong cung cap nhien lieu. Trong qua trnh bao dng he thong cung cap nhien lieu can kiem tra mc xang, dau trong thung, bm nhien lieu, s bat chat cac khp noi, co ra. Lam sach mbau ml5c khong kh, bau loc nhien lieu, Kiem tra va ieu chnh mc xang trong buong phao, oi vi ong c diezen can kiem tra va ieu chnh bm cao ap, kim phun ng ong. * Bien phap bao am an toan khi bao dng ky thuat ong c. Cac dung cu khi bao bao dng ong c phai sach va tot, ong bo, khi khiong ong c phai khi ong bang ien, trng hp ac biet phai s dung bang tay quay th het sc chu y anh tra nguy hiem.
II. SA CHA THONG THNG

1. Sa cha pan xang.


a. Bm xang len che hoa kh. * Trng hp 1: Bm xang luon nang. - Nguyen nhan: H hoac tac t bm tr ve thung cha hoac het xang trong thung. 14

- Kiem tra khac phuc: Neu tac th thoi lai ng ong, neu h th khac phuc lam kn lai, het xang th bo sung vao. * Trng hp 2 : Bm tay luon nhe: - Nguyen nhan : Tac t bm len bo che hoa kh hoac bo che hoao kh a ay xang hay kim van canh b ket. - Kiem tra khac phuc : Thong thoi t bm len bo che hoa kh, kiem tra van kim xem co ket hay khong, bo che hoa kh a ay xang cha. - Khi bm tay luc au thay nang sau thay nhe dan, sau o nghe thay xang len bo che hoa kh la tot: + Dap ga moi xang may khong no. + Hien tng dap ga may no het xang moi may chet. - Nguyen nhan : ng xang chnh b tac mc xang trong buong phao qua thap, h gio len. - Kiem tra khac phuc : Thoi thong va kiem tra ng xang chnh ieu chnh mc xang trong buong phao va kiem tra lam kn. * ong c chay nhanh khong chay cham c va rung dat. - Nguyen nhan : Do ieu chnh chay cham, ng xang cah cham b tac, h gio ln. - Kem tra khac phuc thoi thong va lam kn ng xang chay cham, ieu chnh chay cham cho ung.

Chay cham c nhng khong chay nhanh c.

- Nguyen nhan : Voi phun chnh b tac, h gio ln. - Kiem tra khac phuc : Thoi thong va lam kn lai. * ong c kho no, khi no co khoi en, mui xang song.May no rung dat hoac co tieng no luc buc ong xa. - Nguyen nhan : Do d xang, Bau loc gio b tac, ng xang chnh b mon, long, mc xang trong buong phao qua cao, gicl ng xang chnh b tac. - Kiem tra khac phuc : Thoi thong ra sach bau thong gio, kiem tra gic l ng xang chnh, ieu chnh mc xang trong buong phao cho ung. * ong c kho no : Phut la len bo che hoa kh, khep kn bm gio ong c mi no c. - Nguyen nhan : Thieu xang mc xang trong buong phao qua thap, ng xang chnh b tac, cac be mat lap ghep b h. 15

- Kiem tra khac phuc: ieu chnh mc xang trong buong phao cho ung thong thoi ng xang chnh, kiem tra lam kn cac be mat lap ghep. * Vu ga may no lm i - Nguyen nhan : C cau dan ong b tuot, lo xo tang toc b gay, mang bm b rach, ng xang tang toc b tac. - Kiem tra khac phuc: C cau dan ong, mang bm, lo xo, thoi thong n xang tang toc. - Sau khi sa cha khac phuc kiem tra lai thay ong c no qua 5 che o eu em, no gion, vu ga ot ngot va tha ga ot ngot khong chet may la tot.

2. Sa cha pan ien.


* Khong co tia la ien tai nen anh la do cac nguyen nhan sau: - Tiep iem cua bo chia ien b mon. - Khi bach kim b mon qua 0,25mm th phai thay tiep iem mi. * Khong co khe h tiep iem cua bo chia ien. - De tia la ien phat hien c phai lam cho mach s cap h, muon vay phai ieu chnh khe h tiep iem cua bo chia ien ung tieu chuan. * e bang nha tekxtolic cua tiep iem ong b mon. - Khi thay iep b mon chung ta phai thay mi va thay luon ca tiep iem ong . * Tiep iem cua bo chia ien b chung dau - Neu tiep iem b dnh dau, se khong co tia la ien bu gi phai dung con, ru ra sach. * Lo xo cua can tiep ien b gay . - Trong qua trnh s dung qua lau lo xo co the b gay ma vt khong tiep xuc vi nhau mach ha the b ha th tia la ien khong xuat hien tia la ien. ong - Neu lo xo b gay th phai thay mi cung vi ba vt

* Bo ac quy b phong ien. - Trong qua trnh s dung qua lau hoac bao dng khong ung dong ien b triet tieu tia la ien tren nen la ien b mat. - Khi s dung phai thng xuyen kiem tra trang thai cua ac quy khong cho phep no phong ien hoan toan 16

* Tiep iem cua bo chia ien khong ong - Khi khe h cua ma vt qua ln khong ong lai c, luc nay cuon day s cap, dong ien ha the khong chay qua va cuon day th cap khong co dong ien cam ng ngha la bugi tia la ien khong xuat hien. - e am bao no ong m c phai ieu chnh lai khe h. * ien tr phu b chay + Khi no b chay mach ien, dau hieu cua h hong la khong co tia la ien, neu hong phai thay mi * Day dan can noi ma vt ong vi ay oc cach ien vo bo chia ien biet. + Khi s dung qua lau thng say ra t day va lam hong cac cho noi khong co dong ien ha the va mat tia la ien, neu t phai thay mi.
CAU HOI ON TAP

Cau 1: Anh (ch) hay neu cac hien tng, nguyen nhan, cach khac phuc pan xang Cau 2: Anh (ch) hay neu cac hien tng thng h hong pan ien ..? Cau 3: Hay trnh bay muc ch va yeu cau oi vi viec bao dng xe oto..? Cau 4: Hay trnh bay cac cong viec can lam khi kiem tra, chan oan bao dng xe oto..?

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