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édito sommaire N° 449 / Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
(Cadre Européen Commun de Référence pour les langues) :
 facile A2-B1  moyen B2-C1  difficile C1-C2
Pour faciliter le repérage et la compréhension, les mots traduits sont surlignés dans tous les
articles du magazine.

RÉDACTRICE EN CHEF Grand angle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
On parle d'eux .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

Celebrating Cinema… A la une
and Women  C1-C2 Cate Blanchett: ‘empathy is a noble cause’
THE GUARDIAN (UK) ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6
The time has come round again for the glitterati A chat with Cate Blanchett, Cannes Film Festival 2018 jury president.
to arrive against a backdrop of palm trees and the
red carpeted staircase, (upon which selfies are  A2-B1 Focus: Cannes Film Festival Jury ....................................................................................................... 10
no longer allowed, by the way). For its 71st year
(between 8 and 19 May), the 2018 Cannes Film
Festival has chosen an exceptional president for Société
its jury: the Australian actress Cate Blanchett.  B2-C1 India’s gender gap remains vast THE ECONOMIST (UK) ......................................... 12
The paradoxical status of women in Indian society.
Since her portrayal of Elisabeth I in Shekhar
Kapur’s biopic (1998), which propelled her into  B2-C1 The repair cafes against throwaway culture
worldwide celebrity and, notably, a Golden Globe, THE GUARDIAN (UK) ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
Cate Blanchett has belonged to a very small group Fixing things to fight against waste.
of the great film actors of her time. She excels
in the art of metamorphosis, her roles ranging  A2-B1 A 360° ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16
from the eclectic like Coffee and Cigarettes by Jim
Jarmush to the mega Lord of the Rings trilogy.
Although widely acclaimed by critics, and the PRATIC’ABLE  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17
recipient of dozens of awards, she has carefully Vocabulaire, expressions et astuces pour parler
preserved her freedom of artistic choice over comme un anglophone
roles and films. Le 1er mai / Point de grammaire : Les comparatifs

It is not very often that Cannes offers the presi-

dency to a woman. In fact it has only happened
eleven times since the first festival in 1946. Cate Enjeux
Blanchett is a prominent figure in the Time's Up  B2-C1 ‘Jacindamania’ in New Zealand LOS ANGELES TIMES (US) .................................... 21
movement against sexual harassment in the film A political figure that has conquered hearts worldwide.
industry. She is also the second only Australian to
have been nominated, the first being the director,  B2-C1 What’s next for Canada’s economy
George Miller in 2016. Bravo Cannes Film Festi- THE ECONOMIST (UK) ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
val, for this bold choice, and important moment, Canada bases its growth strategy on new industries.
to be savoured like a fine wine.

 A2-B1 Echos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 25

 B2-C1 Shakespeare and Company Is Back THE NEW YORK TIMES (US) ........... 26
Rejoignez-nous sur et suivez-nous sur et sur Renaissance for independent booksellers in New York.

BONUS  B2-C1 British scientists set to work on Zika vaccine
THE GUARDIAN (UK) ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 28.
L’article est repris sur le CD ou les MP3 New findings to deal with the Zika virus.
de conversation : Des interviews en V.O.
pour améliorer votre compréhension  B2-C1 Pall on testing of self-driving cars THE NEW YORK TIMES (UK) ............. 30.
Tous les articles du magazine sont lus par des Are self-driving cars really safe?
anglophones sur le CD (ou les MP3) de lecture

Retrouvez le reportage vidéo

lié à l’ article sur vocable.fr
Bons plans .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32
Les sorties ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Le dessin .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 35
Photo de couverture : THE GUARDIAN/SIPA
Grand L’actualité en images


(Simon Czapp/Solent/SIPA)

Did you know?

Robert Weighton, Britain’s oldest man, has just celebrated his 110th Birthday. He
In Great Britain, people celebrating their 100th was born in Hull on March 29, 1908 and has lived through both World Wars. He
birthday receive a congratulatory card from the trained in marine engineering but worked as an English teacher in Taiwan until
Queen, and a birthday card every year
thereafter. A “Centenarian team” comprised of
World War II. He has three children, 10 grandchildren and 25 great-grandchildren.
seven people is dedicated to keeping Although he received a letter from Queen Elizabeth II when he turned 100, he
information up to date about Britain’s oldest decided not to accept birthday cards from the Queen for every additional year,
citizens. Couples celebrating their 60th, 65th because he didn’t want to clutter up his house. He also said that the Queen looked
and 70th wedding anniversaries also receive a “a bit miserable while on official duties” in these birthday cards, however, he
royal congratulatory card as part of a tradition
dating back to 1917. would welcome birthday cards from the Royal Family again if there were a change
of monarch…
thereafter after that / to be comprised of to be
made up of / to be dedicated to to be devoted to
/ up to date relevant, with accurate information / birthday boy person (here, man) celebrating a birthday / to live through to experience, be alive during / both the two
citizen person, civilian, here subject / as part of / to train to learn professional skills / marine engineering naval engineer / great-grandchild your grandchild’s child /
here, following / to date back to to date from. although even though / to turn here, to reach the age of / to clutter up to mess up / to look to seem, appear /
miserable unhappy / while on during / duty here, official visit / to welcome here, to accept.

4 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018

On parle d'eux… Retrouvez le fil d’infos sur www.vocable.fr

Ceux qui font l'actu

Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the former wife of Nelson Mandela,
has died. She received a state funeral on April 14th. The politician and
anti-apartheid activist was revered by many South Africans, who
called her “Mother of the Nation”, but she remained a controversial
figure. As a prominent face of the struggle to overturn the apartheid
system, she campaigned tirelessly for Mandela’s release during his
27-year imprisonment, and spent 491 days in solitary confinement
herself. However, she was criticised because of her bodyguards’ role
in the kidnapping of four boys in Soweto, and her support for “neck-
lacing,” a torture and execution practice carried out on suspected
apartheid collaborators.
former ex / wife spouse / activist militant / to revere to worship, venerate / to remain to continue
(to be) / figure person, individual / prominent important / face here, personality / struggle fight,
battle / to overturn to put an end to / to campaign to conduct a campaign, fight for a cause, militate /
tirelessly with never-ending energy, non stop / release liberation from prison / to spend, spent,
spent to pass (time) / solitary confinement isolation / however nevertheless / support approval,
solidarity, endorsement / to carry out to commit, perpetrate / suspected presumed.

(Chang W. Lee/The New York Times)

Jeremy Deller Justin Trudeau Elizabeth Esty

Jeremy Deller, an English artist who won the Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has Following days of controversy, Democrat
prestigious Turner Prize in 2004, has been exonerated six indigenous chiefs who were Representative Elizabeth Esty announced that
distributing anti-Facebook posters. His executed by colonial authorities more than she would not seek re-election to Congress in
posters, printed on pink paper, were handed 150 years ago. In 1864, the Tsilhqot’in chiefs her Connecticut district. She was forced out of
out in Liverpool and London train stations in were tricked into going to what they thought office after it was reported that she waited
the wake of the Cambridge Analytica scandal, were peace talks. They were then accused of three months to fire a former top aide, John
and explained to commuters how to delete murdering fourteen white road workers who Baker, after he sexually harassed and made
their Facebook accounts in six steps. The had entered their territory without permission, death threats to another co-worker. “Too many
action was part of a Liverpool-based project and hanged for the alleged crime. Justin women have been harmed by harassment in
called “Rapid Response Unit,” set up to Trudeau has apologised and absolved the the workplace. In the terrible situation in my
explore how news is received. Tsilhqot’in leaders in a statement to the office, I could have and should have done
prize award / to hand out to give out, distribute / in House of Commons. better,” she said in a statement.
the wake of as a result of, following / commuter to exonerate to prove innocent, discharge / to trick sb following after / to seek, sought, sought re-election
person travelling to work and back daily / to delete to into (+ger.) to make sb believe (falsely) / peace talks to stand for re-election / to force sb out of office to
remove / account here, online profile / step here stage, negotiations for an accord / to murder to kill, oblige sb to leave their position / to report to relate,
phase / action here, initiative / to be part of to be an assassinate / to hang, hanged or hung, hanged or reveal, bring to public attention / to fire to dismiss, sack /
integral aspect of / to set, set, set up to create, hung to execute by suspending from a rope around the top principal / aide adviser, collaborator / to harass to
establish / to explore here, to study / to receive here, neck / alleged supposed, presumed / to apologise to subject to intimidation, to treat in an offensive way / to
to perceive. say sorry for, ask for pardon / to absolve to recognise as make, made, made here, to menace with, send / threat
innocent / statement declaration / (the) House of expression of intention to inflict harm / co-worker
Commons chamber in the Canadian Parliament. colleague / to be harmed by to be a victim of / in the
workplace where one works, at work.

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 •5

À la une I Culture I AUSTRALIE

I  C2

Comment a réagi Cate Blanchett en recevant son deuxième Oscar ?

Découvrez le reportage vidéo et testez votre compréhension sur


Interview with the actress,
Cate Blanchett
Equally at ease in a mega-blockbuster as a
small independent production, Cate Blanchett
is undeniably one of the greatest actresses of
her time. The multi-Oscar winning Australian
star has been chosen to preside over the jury of
the 71st Cannes Film Festival in 2018 – a new
and challenging role for her. This lovely portrait
by The Guardian came out just after the release
of the film, Carol, in 2015.

(Swan Gallet/WWD/Shutter/SIPA)

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“She will be a committed President, a passionate

woman and a big-hearted spectator.”
Pierre Lescure and Thierry Frémaux, Cannes Festival Presidents

I am half an hour early for the interview

but the discreet hotel library has already
been taken. A woman (blond, gangly, faintly
familiar) is sitting on the floor, demolishing a
a Manhattan shopgirl. It is gracefully directed
by Todd Haynes, who made his name at the
vanguard of the New Queer Cinema movement
and seems drawn to tales of transgression and
she says, she was living in Egypt on a gap
year abroad, because at the time she was
planning on becoming a museum curator.
“So I was in this fleapit in Cairo, which has
plate of tenderstem broccoli. The movie camera tragedy (Far From Heaven, Safe). Blanchett probably long since burned down, called the
misleads. I have been watching [Cate Blanchett] reckons nobody else could have made it.  Oxford hotel. [...] And this random Scottish
for years and thought I knew just what to expect: guy came up and said they were looking for
some imposing snow queen, with wide geomet- 3. The pair last collaborated on the 2007 film I’m English-speaking extras, and that I’d get paid
ric features and a hard feline stare. It is only now, Not There, a fractured, skittish Bob Dylan bi- five Egyptian pounds and a falafel. At the
gawping at the loose-limbed, studious-looking opic in which six actors were time I didn’t have enough
thief on the floor, that I realise I got it wrong.  cast as the mercurial singer. money to pay my room for
Blanchett cropped up as an- the week. I went along and
COLLABORATIONS WITH TODD drogynous Bob, decked out in there was an Arabic guy
HAYNES black, a cigarette on the go,
“Acting had with a megaphone, like
2. Blanchett is in London to attend two movie whereas tragic Carol Aird, the something out of a silent
premieres. In the first, Truth, she stars as Mary eponymous heroine of the become like movie, and it was so hot and
Mapes, the CBS journalist who found herself new film, could hardly be this terrible so boring that I left.” 
targeted by the Bush administration during more feminine. She’s an explo-
the fraught run-up to the 2004 election. In the sion of platinum hair and addiction.” 5. Back in Australia, she en-
second, the extraordinary Carol, she plays the crimson nail polish. Virginal rolled at drama school and
sculpted 50s housewife who sets out to seduce Therese (Rooney Mara) is decided she might as well give
knocked for six and falls in acting a shot. I tell her she
love – and Carol appears to makes herself sound rather
love her back. Except that this is Eisenhower-era passive and again she corrects me; it was not
1. library collection of books / gangly tall and uncoordinated, America and Carol is married.  like that at all. “Acting had become like this
clumsy / faintly vaguely / to demolish to eat fast / terrible addiction. I felt I needed to give it five
tenderstem broccoli hybrid vegetable, combining broccoli
and kale / to mislead, misled, misled to trick, deceive / THE BEGINNINGS years and see where it took me.” 
feature part of a person’s face, eyes, nose, mouth, etc. / 4. I’m interested in how she then found an
stare fixed look, gaze / to gawp to look at with wonder and
surprise / loose-limbed supple / thief person who steals /
escape into acting. Sources state that she A PERFECT CAREER
to get, got, got sth wrong to make a mistake. made a low-rent film debut while she was 6. Specifically it took her to the Sydney stage,
2. to attend to be present at / premiere first showing still in her teens, playing a cheerleader in an through acclaimed turns in Sophocles’ Electra
(here of a film) / Truth (VF) Truth : Le Prix de la vérité Egyptian boxing movie called Crabs. Except (while she was still a student) and David
(2015), by James Vanderbilt / to star to have as the it transpires that the sources are wrong. Yes, Mamet’s Oleanna (shortly after graduation).
principal actor/actress / to target to have as an objective,
aim at / fraught difficult, demanding / run-up period It carried her to a Bafta award for her break-
before an event / sculpted with a sculpted silhouette / through role in the 1998 film Elizabeth. “I was
housewife woman who stays at home to look after the
gracefully elegantly / to direct to make a film /
shocked,” she recalls. “You know, I called my
house and children / to set, set, set out to make an
effort, undertake / vanguard avant-garde / queer slang for homosexual, but agent after making Elizabeth and said, ‘I think
also strange, odd, bizarre / to be drawn to to be I’ve ended my career before it’s even begun.’
interested in, attracted to / tale story / Far From Heaven
(VF) Loin du paradis / to reckon to think, believe.
So yeah, I was completely shocked by how that
3. pair here, duo / fractured broken, here having many
film was received.”  >>>
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE aspects rather than satisfying as a whole / skittish febrile
/ biopic biographical film / to cast, cast, cast to choose
to play a role / mercurial changeable, unstable, here,
gap year a sabbatical year between secondary school and
library (§ 1) moody / to crop up to appear / decked out dressed in / a
university, for work and travel / curator person in charge of
cigarette on the go a cigarette in the corner of the mouth /
N'oubliez pas que library se traduit hardly scarcely be, not be, with difficulty be / crimson a museum/gallery / fleapit old, shabby place / random
par bibliothèque et que librairie se dit bright red / nail polish varnish for fingernails and toenails here, coming from nowhere / extra person with a minor
bookshop ou bookstore. / to be knocked for six to be completely taken by non-speaking part in a film or play / silent movie film
surprise, overwhelmed. without sound.
Les bouquinistes, si célèbres à Paris, 5. to enroll (US) = to enrol (GB) to register, sign up for /
4. escape way out, evasion, release / acting profession of
sont des secondhand booksellers et drama school school of dramatic arts / to give, gave, given
acting / to state to affirm, declare / low-rent inexpensive,
"Shakespeare and Company" est un cheap / debut beginner, first film / in one’s teens as an a shot at sth to try sth / addiction here, obsession, passion.
secondhand bookshop qui vend des adolescent / cheerleader member of a team that 6. stage here theatre / acclaimed reputed, well
livres d'occasion. Quel plaisir de encourages a sports team by chanting and dancing using regarded, celebrated by the critics / turn performance /
browse through (feuilleter) their pom-poms / to transpire here, to turn out, it graduation finishing a course, getting one’s diploma /
stock ! transpires it turns out / Bafta = British Academy of Film and Television Arts /
breakthrough important success, here, stardom.

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 •7

À la une I Culture I AUSTRALIE I  C2

Cate Blanchett received 2 Academy Awards, 3 Golden Globe Awards

and 3 British Academy Film Awards.

Karl Urban and Cate Blanchett in Thor Ragnarok. (LILO/SIPA)

Isabelle Huppert and
Cate Blanchett in the
theatre play The Maids.
(Ruby Washington/The New
York Times) 

Cate Blanchett in the theatre play Uncle Vanya. (Sara Krulwich/The New York Times)

Cate Blanchett in Carol. (Moviestore/REX Shutters/SIPA) Cate Blanchett in Manifesto. (Julian Rosefeldt and VG Bild-Kuns)
8 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018  facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
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Selected Filmography
- Elizabeth (1998) - The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2008) - Thor: Ragnarok (2017)
- The Aviator (2004) - Blue Jasmine (2013) - Manifesto (2018)
- Babel (2006) - Carol (2015) - Ocean's Eight (2018)

>>> 7. Since then, it all looks to have been plain BLUE JASMINE perfection? The idea that something can be
sailing: a canny blend of multiplex blockbusters 10. Her role as Jasmine Francis, the brittle Park truly perfect only if there’s an imperfection in
with classy human dramas; an Oscar for her Avenue princess fallen on hard times, would it. We all have that, it’s what makes us human.
pitch-perfect impression of Katharine Hepburn go on to win Blanchett a second Oscar. But the And it doesn’t matter if you’re playing Elizabeth
in Martin Scorsese’s The Aviator. She points experience of shooting it was no bed of roses. I or Bob Dylan or Mary Mapes or Carol. You’ve
out that she once made a comedy – Bandits, She describes Woody Allen’s directing style as got to find as many warts as you can.” 
co-starring Bruce Willis – that had the misfor- one of “benign neglect”, although it doesn’t
tune to open the same week as the 9/11 terrorist sound altogether benign to me. “The first day 13. Is it important for her to have some affection
attacks and promptly sank without trace. But was brutal,” she recalls. “He came up to me and for the people she plays? “No, I don’t think so.
in scanning her credits, there aren’t many obvi- said, ‘This is awful and you’re awful.’ And then But I think that empathy is a noble cause. I
ous duds.  three weeks later it turned out that he didn’t think a point of understanding is probably a
like the costumes, he didn’t like the locations, good thing. I mean, with some people it’s
8. In her mid-20s, she met the Australian play- he didn’t like the scene. He said, ‘You’ve got to harder than with others. If I was playing Don-
wright Andrew Upton. They bonded over a help me rescue this movie.’”  ald Trump, it might be a tall order.” l
late-night poker game; he proposed marriage
just weeks later. They now have three sons 11. Blue Jasmine was a gift. Those films don’t
(Dashiell, Roman, Ignatius), along with baby come along too often. All the same, she feels wart growth on the skin, here, fault, defect.
Edith, who they adopted in March. Blanchett that most characters present at least some form
reckons the children keep her honest. “They of challenge. “Acting can be an anthropological
force you to be economical. To choose your roles process,” she says. She is fascinated by the ten-
wisely and then shrug them off as soon as sion between how people project themselves
you’re done.”  in public and who they become behind closed
doors; their capacity for surprising themselves
9. In 2008 she took the decision to limit her most of all. Surely there have been occasions
film roles in order to join her husband as co- when a character has defeated her, when there
artistic directors of the Sydney theatre com- are simply no hidden depths to explore? How
pany. She knows the move was a gamble; it about Galadriel, the distant, dreary elf queen
risked closing the door at her back. “When I from The Lord Of The Rings? The actor snorts;
stepped away to run the theatre company, a lot she’s not about to disown Galadriel. “Pointy
of people said, ‘This is a mistake. You realise ears,” she says. “What’s not to like?” 
you have a certain shelf life and you’re throw-
ing that away.’ But I think it’s made me a better FINDING IMPERFECTIONS
actor. If it hasn’t, I’m a fucking idiot.” She 12. Even Galadriel’s not perfect, everybody has
pauses. “But you do carry that fear with you. their flaws. “You know that eastern idea of
When I was getting ready to leave [the com-
pany], I did think, ‘Well, I’m in my 40s, I don’t
know if I’ve even got a film career to go back 10. brittle fragile / to fall, fell, fallen on hard times to
to.’ And then Blue Jasmine landed in my lap.” endure a difficult time / ...would go on to win Blanchett
a second Oscar ...brought her a second Oscar / to shoot,
shot, shot here, to play (in a film) / ...was no bed of
roses ...was not easy / benign harmless, mild, gentle /
7. to be plain sailing here, to be a smooth career path / neglect negligence / altogether completely / awful
canny clever / blend mix / blockbuster big-budget film / terrible, bad / to turn out to be revealed, prove /
classy elegant, stylish / pitch-perfect excellent, location place where a film is made / to
perfectly interpreted / to point out to draw attention to a rescue to save.
fact, remark / misfortune bad luck / to open here to start
showing at cinemas / to sink, sank, sunk to go down, 11. gift present, here, stroke of
here to disappear / to scan to look over, review / credits good luck / to come, came,
here, list of films made / dud flop, failure. come along to arrive, appear /
challenge here, demanding
8. playwright person who writes plays, dramatist / to bond task/undertaking / behind
to connect, form an emotional link / to be economical to do closed doors in private / to defeat to beat, overcome /
only what is essential / wisely intelligently, using good depth deep understanding / dreary boring, not
judgement / to shrug sth off to forget. interesting, dull / The Lord of the Rings Le Seigneur des
9. gamble bet, risk / to step away to move away, here, Anneaux / to snort to inhale through the nose / to
reduce one’s activity in / to run, ran, run to direct, lead / disown to renounce, repudiate / pointy pyramid-shaped,
shelf life here, period of activity, duration of professional conical / What’s not to like? what more could you want?.
life / to throw, threw, thrown away to waste / to land 12. flaw fault, failing /
to get (a role, contract etc.) / lap upper part of legs when in
sitting position.
(Noel West/The New York Times)

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 •9



Prizewinners and jury members from the 70th Cannes Film Festival. (SIPA)
Cate Blanchett has been appointed to
lead the jury at Cannes Film Festival in 2018. The 1st woman
She will be surrounded by eight other jurors, British-American actress Olivia de Havilland is the first woman to have been
chosen from different nationalities and a named jury president of the Cannes Film Festival, in 1965. She was a leading
variety of backgrounds (authors, critics, movie star during the so-called Golden Age of Hollywood and featured in 49
actors, cinema historians…). Cate films. She is especially famous for her portrayal of Melanie Hamilton in Gone with
Blanchett’s jury will determine the prizes the Wind (1939). She won two Best Actress Oscars for her roles in To Each His Own
for feature films that are part of the (1946) and The Heiress (1949). She is now 101 years old.
“Official Selection”. They will give a total of
leading eminent / so-called commonly termed / to feature to star, have in a prominent role /
seven awards, including the Palme d’Or –
especially particularly / portrayal interpretation (in the role of) / Gone with the Wind Autant

the most prestigious award –, as well as en emporte le vent / To Each His Own A chacun son destin / The Heiress L’Héritière.
Jury Prize, Best Actor, and Best Actress.
to appoint to select, choose, designate / to
surround to be associated with / juror here,
member of a panel to choose winners /
background experience, training, field / prize The jury in numbers
award / feature film full-length film / to be part
of here, to be on the shortlist of / award prize,
9 people make up the Jury. The 65 directors have received the
honour, distinction / as well as in addition to. choice of an odd number is to avoid Palme d’or.
the possibility of a tie. Only 1 woman has been
12 women have been a president awarded the Palme d’or: New
The president of the jury at Cannes is an
of the jury at Cannes since Olivia de Zealand director Jane Campion,
internationally recognised person involved
Havilland. in 1993, for her movie The Piano.
in cinema. According to Thierry Frémaux,
the head of Cannes Film Festival, the 1 person had the honour of being With 16 American movies
president must be trusted to lead a jury, president of the jury twice: Jeanne awarded the Palme d’or, the
conduct debates and establish a list of Moreau. United States has the highest
winners. Being appointed to this position In 1955, the Palme d’or was number of winners.
constitutes the recognition of an awarded for the first time. Its palm
exceptional career. leaf pattern is taken from the old
to be involved in to participate in, be connected coat of arms of the city of Cannes.
to / according to in the opinion of / to trust to
have confidence in / to conduct to lead / to make, made, made up to constitute / odd here, uneven / to avoid to prevent / tie equal number of votes on each side /
position post, function. leaf organ of photosynthesis of a plant / pattern design, motif / coat of arms heraldic insignia / director filmmaker / The
Piano La Leçon de piano.

10 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018

Société I Droits des femmes I INDE I  B2-C1

Women prepare for a day of work at the meat-

THE ECONOMIST processing factories nearby, in Peepli Khera, India.
(Andrea Bruce/The New York Times)


Breaking traditional gender barriers in India (gap disparity, difference, inequality)

India is without doubt one of the most paradoxical places on the planet when it comes to women’s rights. It is one of the first and
only countries to have had a female leader, Indira Gandhi, elected in 1966. Yet, some barriers are difficult to overcome, due mainly
to the position of women in society, and even in the family unit.

P OLICE in Haldwani, a small town

where the Gangetic Plain bumps
against the Himalayas, shrugged when Kamini
Sen lodged charges against her husband last
and motorbikes, confessed that he was not a man
but a woman. 

2. Growing numbers of Indian women are, like

3. Yet traditional practices still hold Indian
women back. The problem is not just specific
customs, such as the payment of dowries or
October. What could be more ordinary than Ms Sen, breaking traditional gender barriers. living with in-laws. Deepa Narayan, a develop-
wife-beating and dowry extortion? The case got India’s defence and foreign ministers are wom- ment consultant, argues in a new book titled
hotter when the 29-year-old, who holds masters en. A woman recently stepped down as head of Chup—meaning “be quiet” in Hindi—that wom-
degrees in both English and psychology, added its biggest bank. There have been a female en across social classes are still conditioned from
that her spouse had also secretly married a president and prime minister, as well as female early childhood to be subservient. 
younger woman. But only the final twist, re- chief ministers in various states. Women are
vealed later when police tracked and caught becoming better educated, better paid and 4. Indian women suffer handicaps at every stage
Krishna “Sweety” Sen, shocked India. The two- healthier than they were. Literacy among 21-year- of life, starting with birth. Although determining
timing swindler, said to like cursing, smoking old women leapt, for example, from 60% in 1990 the sex of a fetus has been banned since 1994,
to 85% in 2011.  and in spite of an intensified campaign to stress >>>
1. Gangetic Plain North Indian River Plain, fertile plain of 255
million hectares covering parts of northern India, eastern
Pakistan and all of Bangladesh / to shrug to raise and lower 2. to step down to resign / chief minister head of one of 3. early childhood period from birth to 8 years old / to hold,
one’s shoulders / to lodge to submit / charges formal the 29 state governments or 2 union territories (Delhi and held, held back to restrict / in-laws family of one’s husband
accusation of criminal wrongdoing against sb / dowry money/ Puducherry) / literacy ability to read and write / to leap, or wife (here, husband) / to argue to claim, to affirm, to say /
property given to a husband by the family of his future wife leaped or leapt to jump, to increase considerably. subservient servile, submissive, subordinate.
upon marriage / hot exciting / twist unexpected development 4. to ban to prohibit / to stress to insist upon, to
in a story / to track to trace / two-timing unfaithful / underline the importance of /
swindler cheat / to curse to use offensive language.

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 11

Société I Droits des femmes I INDE I  B2-C1

March on International Women's Day in New Delhi, 2018. (Manish Swarup/AP/SIPA)

>>> the value of daughters under the current prime FEMALE LITERACY number of them with jobs is still under 30%. In
minister, Narendra Modi, parents wanting sons 5. Indian officials are rightly proud of boosting fact, the proportion of women in the workforce
have continued to find ways to abort girls. The female literacy and school attendance. Gender has been steadily dropping for more than a
skewed sex ratio for newborns has not improved gaps do remain in education, though. Notably, decade, reflecting both a steep decline in farm
since Amartya Sen, an economist, calculated 28 girls are far more likely to drop out of secondary jobs and a preference among newly urban
years ago that India had some 40m “missing school than boys. Perhaps more tellingly, an families to show that their womenfolk do not
women.” In recent years it has got worse. In some annual survey of education results for 14- to need to work. 
districts the sex ratio at birth has fallen below 18-year-olds, published in January, found differ-
800 girls for every 1,000 boys.  ences in educational attainment. Whereas 82% THE MARRIAGE ISSUE
of boys could count money and 66% could tell 7. Of all the hurdles Indian women still face, sex
time in a simple test, the corresponding propor- and marriage may be the highest. The vast
tions for girls were 70% and 53%.  majority of marriages are still arranged by
to abort to terminate a pregnancy / skewed imbalanced
/ ratio proportion. families, and some 94% of them among Hindus
6. Although impressive numbers of Indian are within the same caste. Women are expected,
women now go on to higher studies, with ever by and large, to become part of the husband’s
more venturing into fields that were long male family, and to bring along a sweetener. In-laws
preserves such as engineering, their efforts may can press their demands in unsubtle ways. Aside
not bring similar rewards. While women with from an annual average of around 8,000 “dow-
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE college degrees are more likely to work than ry deaths”—wives killed because they have not
those with just high-school certificates, the coughed up enough money—recent newspaper
Notez que spouse veut dire "époux" 5. official person in charge, government representative / workforce working population / steadily progressively /
rightly justifiably / to boost to increase, to encourage the to drop to decrease, to go down / steep sudden, marked /
et "épouse" mais on l'utilise development of, to promote / school attendance regular
uniquement comme language farm agricultural / womenfolk women (of a community/
presence at school / to drop out to abandon one’s studies, to family).
formel ou dans une situation leave / tellingly revealingly / survey poll, study / educational
humoristique. attainment school achievement, academic results. 7. hurdle obstacle / by and large on the whole, in general
/ sweetener sugar substitute, here, financial incentive / to
Pour présenter son mari ou sa 6. impressive admirably high / to venture to dare to go, press demands to insist on one’s requests / unsubtle
to embark upon sth risky / preserve protected domain /
femme à quelqu'un on dit my clear, blatant, direct / to cough up to give (a sum of
engineering practical application of scientific knowledge money), to pay /
husband ou my wife. / reward recompense, payment / college degree
university degree /

12 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018  facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Améliorez votre prononciation en écoutant tous les articles sur le supplément audio de lecture.

reports tell of such persuasive methods as beat- inheritance and property. But Hindu inheritance policies accordingly. His project to equip house-
ing with hockey sticks, stealing a kidney and law was only substantially reformed in 2005, holds with cooking gas to replace solid fuel not
blackmailing with sex tapes. and in the patriarchal north it only saves thousands of lives that would other-
More broadly, violence is still considered proper for wise be lost to smoke inhalation, it also directly
against women in various sons alone to hold property targets women voters. Mr Modi has also court-
forms appears to be on the Within Indian and perform religious rites. ed Muslim women by attacking “triple talaq”,
increase, although this may
chiefly be the result of an in-
homes, women The north also happens to be
the heartland of the ruling
an arcane tradition long since abandoned in most
Muslim-majority countries, which permits a
creased tendency to report are winning Bharatiya Janata Party, which man to divorce simply by saying the word three
such crimes.  more respect. can make it awkward for the times. 
government to campaign too
CASTE SYSTEM forcefully for women’s rights.  12. Female voters have helped put issues such as
8. Part of the trouble lies with public safety, underage marriage, alcohol abuse
the caste system. The compartmentalisation of RECENT PROGRESSES and sanitation at the centre of national politics.
society into narrow layers negates what should 10. In important respects, however, not just “We might be on the cusp of a real transition,”
be a supply-and-demand empowerment of numbers but attitudes are definitely changing. says Yamini Aiyar of the Centre for Policy Re-
women due to their shrinking proportion. In Within Indian homes, women are winning more search, a think-tank in Delhi. “From the way
essence, women’s families still compete to en- respect: between national health surveys in 2006 people dress—rural women have dropped their
snare the best husbands within a relatively and 2016, a striking number reported stronger dupattas [gauzy scarves] and now wear kurtas
limited pool. The conservative Hinduism of the participation in family decision-making. Ever [long shirts] over jeans—to changing marriage
northern Hindi-speaking heartland does not more Indian women are also voting. In the na- expectations, to forging a woman-centred po-
help, either. In parts of the south, Hindus have tional election of 1991, 10% more men than litical narrative, the pace is speeding up.” The
a long tradition of matriarchy. women voted. At the most recent election, in two-timing Ms Sen should have realised that
2014, this gap was down to 1.5%.  men can’t get away with what they used to. l
9. By the same token, Muslim and Christian
minorities have long given women rights to 11. Canny politicians such as Mr Modi have not
accordingly consequently / household home / fuel
failed to notice, and increasingly tailor their combustible material used as a source of energy / to
target to have as an objective, to aim at / to court to try
report article / hockey stick long, thin wooden object
to attract, to seduce / arcane secret, mysterious, complex.
used to hit the ball in a game of hockey / kidney renal
property buildings and land / substantially significantly 12. underage below the legal age / sanitation hygiene
organ / to blackmail to use threats to extort money /
/ proper appropriate, here, socially accepted, the norm / measures to protect public health / on the cusp of on the
tape video recording / to report to register a complaint
to perform to do, carry out / ruling in power / awkward verge of / think-tank group of experts who research and
officially with the police, to denounce.
difficult / forcefully with force, strongly. study solutions for a specific problem / to drop to
8. to lie, lay, lain with to be because of / layer level, stratum /
10. respect way, aspect / definitely undeniably, clearly / abandon, here, to stop wearing / gauzy made of a light,
to negate to invalidate / supply-and-demand principle of
striking noticeable, significant / to report to declare. thin fabric / scarf piece of material worn around the neck/
the relationship between the availability of a product which in
11. canny smart, intelligent, calculating / to tailor to head / expectation aspiration, hope / narrative version
turn regulates the demand and value / empowerment
adapt / of the facts / pace rate, speed, rhythm / to speed,
emancipation / shrinking diminishing / to compete to be in
speeded or sped, speeded or sped up to accelerate / to
competition with one another / to ensnare to catch, to capture
get, got, got away with to do sth without being criticized
/ pool group / heartland central region, here, bastion.
or punished.
9. by the same token in the same way /

Musclez votre anglais ! newsletter

Le 25 mai, à vos souris ! Prêts ? Partez !
➛ Des exercices pour revoir les basiques
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VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 13

Société I Idéologie I ROYAUME-UNI I  B2-C1


Nikki Slade Robinson et Jim Robinson nous expliquent comment ils
Reading recyclent et réparent tout chez eux depuis des années.
CD audio ou téléchargement MP3


For the ecologically aware, a place to take
things to be fixed rather than thrown away

Volunteer repairman Ted Haubrich fixes a mixer at the Lincoln

Repair Cafe, in Nebraska, United States. (Calla Kessler/AP/SIPA)

Each year we produce between 3.4 and 4 billion tons of rubbish worldwide. With the ing a world of stuff, of white goods littering dumps
advent of web marketing and the strategies of obsolescence built into most
in west Africa and trash swilling through the
products, we have been witnessing a significant global rise in the consummation of
oceans in huge gyres. The hair clippers belong to
industrial goods in the last few years. In the United Kingdom, citizens opposed to this
William, who does not want to give his surname
kind of consumerism have decided to take matters into their own hands, literally…

but cheerfully describes himself as “mechanically
incompetent”. He has owned them for 25 years, but
10 years ago they stopped working and they have
vacuum cleaner, a hair straightener, a single afternoon by British volunteers determined been sitting unused in his cupboard ever since. 
laptop, Christmas lights, an e-reader, a to get people to stop throwing stuff away.
blender, a kettle, two bags, a pair of jeans, a remote- 3. He sits down at the table of Colin Haycock, an
control helicopter, a spoon, a dining-room chair, COMBATTING THE “THROWAWAY IT professional who volunteers at the repair cafe,
a lamp and hair clippers. All broken. It sounds like CULTURE”
a pile of things that you’d stick in boxes and take 2. This is the Reading Repair Cafe, part of a bur-
to the tip. In fact, it’s a list of things mended in a geoning international network aimed at confront- world of stuff consumer society / white goods electrical
appliance such as washing machine, dishwasher, etc / to
litter to scatter about, here, to fill with / dump place to
put rubbish / trash rubbish / to swill (through) here, to
1. vacuum cleaner hoover / hair straightener electrical
move in circles / huge massive / gyre spiral, vortex / to
appliance to smooth hair / laptop portable computer /
single one / volunteer benevolent worker / to get, got, belong to to be the property of / surname family name /
blender food mixer / kettle container used for boiling water
got sb to to encourage sb to / to throw, threw, thrown cheerfully happily, here, readily, unashamedly / to own to
/ remote-control device for operating TV and music
stuff away here, to waste. possess / to work here, to function / to sit, sat, sat to
equipment from a distance / hair clippers electronic device
remain / cupboard enclosed place for storing food,
for cutting hair / to sound like to seem like, resemble / to 2. network system of linked things/people / to be aimed
clothes etc / ever since since then.
stick, stuck, stuck to put / to take, took, taken here, to at to have as an objective / to confront here, to fight
transport / tip dump / to mend to repair / against / 3. IT = information technology /

14 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018  facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Retrouvez plus d’infos sur www.vocable.fr

which has been running monthly for about four manufacturers design products to break down up in landfill. But the Remakery is unique in that,
years and is a place where people can bring all after a certain amount of time and are often dif- unlike much of the repair movement, which is
manner of household items to be fixed for free. In ficult or expensive to fix. In December, Apple ad- volunteer-led, it is a viable business, employing 11
less than five minutes, Haycock has unscrewed mitted to slowing older models of phones, though staff and 10 freelancers. Last year the shop had an
and removed the blades, cleaned out some gunk it claimed it did this for operational not obsoles- income of £236,000 – 30% from grants, 70% gener-
from inside the machine, oiled the blades, and cence reasons.  ated through sales of furniture and electronics,
screwed it all back together. The clippers purr hap- workshops and repair appointments. 
pily.William looks sheepish; Haycock looks pleased. A POLITICAL ACT
“I wish they were all that simple,” he says.  7. Repair cafe volunteer Stuart Ward says that when 11. The financial viability of the shop makes it at-
fixing items is actively discouraged by manufactur- tractive as a model. In the last year, Sophie Unwin,
4. Today, the repairers will divert 24kg of waste ers, repair becomes a political act. He is vehement the co-founder of the Remakery in Brixton and the
from going to landfill and save 284kg of CO2. Some about the “right to repair”, a movement opposed to founder of Edinburgh Remakery is setting up the
items can’t be fixed on the spot – notably a hunting the practices of companies like the machinery Remakery network to replicate the work interna-
horn split in two, which requires soldering with a company John Deere, which, under copyright laws, tionally. She has had 53 inquiries from groups in-
blow torch – but very little needs to be thrown doesn’t allow people to fix their own equipment or terested in setting up similar enterprises in the US,
away.  take them to independent repairers.  New Zealand, Canada, South Korea, Austria, Ire-
land, Germany, Australia and elsewhere in the UK. 
A HUGE WASTE 8. Teaching people how to fix their own gear is at
5. Gabrielle Stanley, who used to run a clothing the heart of the Edinburgh Remakery, a store on 12. The network will provide toolkits and advice to
alterations business, says she was drawn to volun- the main street of Leith that is part repair shop, groups who want to recreate what she has done in
teering at the repair cafe to combat the “throwaway part secondhand store, part repair education centre. Edinburgh. Unwin hopes that these resources will
culture” she sees. “You go into certain stores...” - she “We do the repair in front of a customer, not out allow other groups to do in two years what it has
throws a dark look - “how they can sell clothes for in the back, not hidden,” says Sotiris Katsimbas, taken eight years of trial and error and extremely
that price, when I couldn’t even buy the fabric for the lead IT technician at the Remakery. To do this, hard graft to achieve. For repairers, fixing things
that much? And then you hear about things that Katsimbas and his team conduct one-to-one IT is a way of doing something about an obsession
happen [in the factories] in the far east.”  repair appointments for a small fee, as do their with consumerism that Unwin calls “a kind of
colleagues who specialise in sewing and furniture sickness in society”. l
6. An estimated 300,000 tonnes of clothing was repairs. 
sent to landfill in the UK in 2016 and a report from
Wrap puts the average lifespan for a piece of cloth- 9. “It’s a matter of confidence. It’s not magic. Some- to end up to finish up / unlike contrary to / to lead, led,
led to run, direct, control / freelancer independent worker
ing in the UK at 3.3 years. Globally, the amount of one put it together, someone can take it apart, you / income revenue / grant financial aid / through thanks
e-waste generated is expected to hit 50m tonnes only need a Phillips screwdriver and some knowl- to, because of / workshop room where manual work is
by the end of 2018. This is partly driven by consum- edge,” says Katsimbas as he shows Daniel Turner done.
ers’ eagerness for new products, but there are also how to open up his laptop so he can clean out the 11. to make, made, made to render, result in /
co-founder joint founder / to set, set, set up to put in
concerns about built-in obsolescence, in which fluff and dust that is causing the machine to over- place / to replicate to reproduce / inquiry request for
heat.  information.
to run, ran, run here, to operate / about around / place 12. to provide to furnish, here offer / toolkit set of tools /
location / all manner of household items all sorts of A NEW BUSINESS MODEL? advice (inv.) suggestion as to what one should do / trial
appliances / to unscrew to take out a screw / to remove to and error experiment and learn from mistakes / hard
10. Since it opened in 2012, the Remakery has di-
take off / blade thin sheet of metal with sharp edge used in graft hard work / to achieve to accomplish / kind sort,
razors / to clean out here, to clear out, get rid of / gunk dirt, verted 205 tonnes of waste that would have ended type / sickness illness, here disorder.
dust / to screw sth all back together to reassemble, and
put screws back in / to purr to make the sound of a cat, here
to function well / happily well, perfectly / to look to seem / manufacturer company that makes products, maker / to
sheepish slightly embarrassed. design to devise, conceive, intend / to break, broke,
broken down to have a problem, not to be working / to
4. to divert to avoid / waste refuse / landfill large hole in admit to concede, recognise / though although / to SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
the ground where waste is deposited / to save to economise claim to assert, maintain.
/ on the spot then and there, immediately / notably
7. law legislation / to allow to permit, authorize / own
particularly / hunting horn straight horn blown to give
signals during hunting / to split, split, split to divide / to belonging to sb individually / to take, took, taken sth to Un peu de DIY ou Do-It-
solder to join or fuse using melted metal / blowtorch here, to have sth repaired by. Yourself (bricolage) !
burner that mixes air and gas to produce a very hot flame. 8. gear equipment, stuff / secondhand used, having a to repair, to fix to mend réparer
5. used to to regularly do sth in the past / to run, ran, run previous owner / customer client / out at the back at the
rear (where the customer cannot see) / lead chief / to
workshop atelier
to manage / alteration here, to change or repair / business toolkit boîte à outils
company / to draw, drew, drawn here, to attract / even at conduct to organise / one-to-one face to face, individual /
the very least / fabric material, cloth / to happen to take appointment meeting / fee charge, cost / sewing stitching, a screwdriver un tournevis
place, occur / factory place where goods are manufactured/ joining two parts together with thread / furniture (inv.) to screw, to unscrew visser, dévisser
produced / (the) Far East ref to east and southeast Asia. movable objects in a house, chairs, tables etc.. to solder souder
6. report analysis, study / to put, put, put here, to 9. matter question / confidence assurance, belief / to a blow torch, blow lamp lampe à
estimate / average here approximate period of time / put, put, put sth together to assemble sth / to take, souder
lifespan here, length of time sth will be used / piece of took, taken sth apart to undo sth, disassemble sth /
to take apart démonter
clothing item of apparel / globally worldwide / amount screwdriver tool / fluff here, lightweight dirt / dust fine
particles of dirt / to cause to result in, lead to / to to put together rassembler
quantity / to expect to anticipate / to hit, hit, hit to reach /
to be driven by to be due to / eagerness desire to do sth / overheat to become too hot.
concern preoccupation / built-in integrated / 10. business model economic model /

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 15

À 360°
Le tour du monde en V.O.
Retrouvez plus d’infos sur www.vocable.fr

Emotional return
Nobel Peace Prize winner Malala Yousafza,
who was shot by Pakistani Taliban militants
in 2012 for championing girls’ education and
who has since lived in Britain, has made a
surprise four-day trip to her home country in
April. It was the first time the young activist
has returned to Pakistan since the shooting.
She was received by members of the
Pakistani government and made a powerful

televised speech, in which she said she
would continue to fight for girls’ access to

Culture clash
return act of going back / to shoot, shot, shot to
fire a gun at / to champion to defend, support, fight
French waiter, Guillaume Rey, who worked at a Vancouver restaurant between Octo- for / home here, native / activist militant.
ber 2016 and August 2017, has filed a complaint with British Colombia’s Human Rights
Tribunal against his former employer after being dismissed for his “aggressive, rude
and disrespectful” behaviour. Guillaume Rey claimed he was discriminated against
because of his culture. He said his former colleagues didn’t understand his “direct,
honest and professional personality,” which he acquired when working in the hospi-
tality industry in France. His former employer tried to have the complaint dismissed,
but a tribunal member rejected the plea, so the case will go ahead.
waiter person who serves food in a restaurant / to file a complaint to make an official complaint / former ex, previous /
to dismiss here, to fire, remove from a job, also, to reject / rude impolite / behaviour conduct, attitude / to claim to
assert, maintain / hospitality service industry such as hotel and restaurant / plea appeal, request / case affair, here trial
/ to go, went, gone ahead to continue.

New political party
Greek ex-Finance Minister Yanis Varoufakis Bikes ban
has launched a new political party in Greece:
MeRA25. His goal is to organize a pan- Prague will soon ban cyclists from some
European movement by 2025 that will parts of the city’s historic centre. The ban, to
overturn the European establishment and be implemented in the next few weeks, was
release Greece from “debt bondage”. Many established by Prague 1 municipality in order
Greeks blame Varoufakis for what they to protect tourists. Cyclists will be banned
consider a poor handling of the negotiations from famous pedestrianised zones such as
with the EU in 2015, which led to a third bailout the Old Town Square and parts of
loan, with more austerity terms for Greece. Wenceslas Square, between 10am and 5pm.
“In a pedestrian zone, priority should be
to launch to start, create / pan-European at European given to pedestrians, not cyclists,”
level / by before, no later than / to overturn to reverse, legislators said. Pro-bike groups and some
here, to take over / establishment the system, ruling of the city’s other administrative districts
class / to release here, to liberate, set free / debt money
owed / bondage slavery, servitude / to blame sb for
have denounced this step.
sth to hold sb responsible for sth / poor here, bad /
ban prohibition / to implement to put into action /
handling management, dealing / to lead, led, led to to
in order to to / pedestrianised reserved for
cause, result in / bailout financial rescue / loan here
pedestrians only, prohibited to cars / such as like (for
amount of money lent / terms conditions.

example) / square large open public area / step here,

decision, measure.

16 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018


Vocabulaire, expressions et astuces pour parler comme un Anglais…


Le 1er mai
Si offrir un brin de muguet le jour du 1er mai reste une tradition
bien française, la lutte pour les conditions de travail s’inscrit,
quant à elle, dans un mouvement international. Voici quelques
mots et expressions qui complèteront votre vocabulaire.

Vocabulaire clé
anarchist anarchiste megaphone, loud hailer
anger, wrath colère porte-voix, mégaphone
armband brassard mob foule
bank holiday (GB), holiday negotiation négociation

(US) jour férié, jour chômé protest protestation
banner banderole reform réforme
boss patron representative
capitalism capitalisme représentant Retrouvez cette fiche de vocabulaire lue sur le CD
CEO PDG rest repos lecture et son commentaire sur la partie basique
du CD conversation.
closed fermé riot émeute
CD audio ou téléchargement MP3
communism communisme riot police CRS
day-off jour de repos sprig brin
demand, claim
strike grève
struggle lutte
Expressions à retenir
demonstration trade union syndicat The employees have been on strike for days. Les employés
manifestation trade-unionist sont en grève depuis plusieurs jours.
employee employé(e) syndicaliste The negotiations might lead to an agreement. Les
employment law droit du unemployment chômage négociations pourraient mener à un accord.
travail violence violence The demonstration gathered thousands of people. La
leader dirigeant wage, salary, pay salaire
manifestation a rassemblé des milliers de personnes.
lilly of the valley muguet whistle sifflet
The reform has made many trade-unionists angry. La
lucky charm porte-
réforme a causé la colère de nombreux syndicalistes.
worker ouvrier, travailleur
bonheur Violence erupted during the march. Des violences sont
working conditions survenues lors du défilé.
march marche, défilé (n), conditions de travail
défiler (v)

Bon à savoir
Trouvez l’intrus dans chacune des listes
Egalement connu sous le nom de International Workers’ Day suivantes :
ou Labour Day, la date du premier mai a été choisie pour
commémorer l’action lancée le 1er mai 1884 par les syndicalistes 1) a- demonstration b- rest c- riot d- march
américains pour obtenir la limitation de la journée de travail à
huit heures. La grève qui s’ensuivit fut d’ampleur nationale. 2) a- agreement b- struggle c- claim d- demand
Cependant, le 1er mai n’est pas un jour férié aux États-Unis. Au 3) a- violence b- fight c- charge d- peaceful gathering
Royaume-Uni, c’est le premier lundi de mai qui est férié.
4) a- tear gas b- banner c- baton d- stun gun
La manifestation syndicale n’est pas aussi présente dans la
culture anglo-saxonne que dans la culture française. Les 5) a- luck b- union c- employement law d- conditions
grandes manifestations de ce type aux États-Unis et au
Royaume-Uni sont plutôt rares. SOLUTIONS : 1-b ; 2-a ; 3-d ; 4-b ; 5-a.

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 17

PRATIC’ABLE  / Grammaire


Les comparatifs
Piqûre de rappel
 Adjectifs
1 Formulez des comparaisons en complétant
d’une syllabe  ajoutez “er” les phrases à l’aide des mots entre
qui se terminent en “y”  remplacer “y” par “i” et ajouter “er”
de 2 syllabes ou plus  utilisez “more” 1. T
 he Opening of Parliament is one of ........... .....................
 Comparatifs irréguliers : ceremonies in Britain. (old)
bad/worse/the worst 2. I am not paid ........... ..................... ........... you. (much)
much/more/the most
3. This is ........... ................... ......................... place I’ve ever seen.
far/farther ou further/the farthest ou the furthest, (beautiful)
good/better/the best
4. M
 y sister is ........... ..................... cook in the world. (not good)
 Pour faire des comparaisons, utilisez :
“than”, “as...as”, “not as ...as” 5. If you work ..................... you’ll finish ..................... . (hard / fast)
 Utilisez “more” devant les adverbes 6. T
 his one is ........... ................... ......................... of the three.
7. How much ......................... do we have to go? (far)
2 Trouvez des comparaisons en replaçant au sein 8. Abbey Road claims to be .................... ..................... .................
any other recording studio in the world. (known)
de chaque groupe les mots dans le bon ordre.
9. T
 he ........... .............. ..................... classical composer of his day,
2 Sir Edward Elgar, recorded there. (famous)
1 London 10. I t has been used to record music for some of the screen’s
famous than ............. ..................... films. (successful)
other 5
a 9. the most famous 10. most successful

no one each
5. harder / faster 6. the most expensive 7. further ou farther 8. better known than
SOLUTIONS : 1. the oldest 2. as much as 3. the most beautiful 4. the worst

is it people
murderer is more
as world’s take
Jack the Ripper of million
as the tours

explore year
Ripper 4
foot than
to has
cities more
on grisly
popular crimes

more than its share of grisly crimes. 5. It is one of the world’s best cities to explore on foot.
take London tours each year. 3. The Ripper tour is more popular with women. 4. London has
SOLUTIONS : 1. No other murderer is as famous as Jack the Ripper. 2. More than a million people
Retrouvez Yves Cotten sur et-compagnie.blogspot.fr

18 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018

 / Prononciation & Orthographe Retrouvez plus d’infos sur www.vocable.fr

Soignez votre orthographe !

Le saviez-vous ?
1 Trouvez les erreurs. L’expression
Quels sont les quatre mots qui se terminent en “-efy” et non en “-ify” ?
“knocked for six”
crucify pacify exemplify liquify glorify (voir l’expression idiomatique
page 7) est une expression
putrify petrify rarify
empruntée à l’un des sports
stupify solidify modify rectify préférés des Anglais – le
SOLUTIONS : liquefy, putrefy, rarefy, stupefy
cricket !

Ce sport nous donne

également :
2 Tendez l’oreille
a sticky wicket une situation
Dans cet exercice, chaque mot contient le son “aw” comme dans “saw”.

  (wicket = les guichets et le

  terrain entre les deux
2         5 guichets)
(sticky = difficile)
    7 11
4         6         to be stumped sécher, ne
      pas avoir de réponse
(the stump = le piquet)
1. W
 atch the weather ……………………….
to see if it’s going to rain   (to stump = éliminer le joueur
2. He’s very rich. 9         12 en faisant tomber le piquet)
He’s not ……………….
3. Remember     it’s not cricket cela ne se fait
4. M ake a sketch with a pencil     pas, ce n’est pas correct
5. To enforce …………… and order 10            
6. T he opposite of peace ... le summum de l’étiquette
7. Oil is one of the world’s natural …………………… britannique !!
8. Not interesting
9. L ock the ................ before you leave
10. t o spread out
11. I always have …………………..flakes for breakfast
12. H  it the ……………. over the net
sur www.vocable.fr
Retrouvez beaucoup plus d'exercices de
grammaire, d'orthographe et de culture
12. ball
SOLUTIONS :1. forecast, 2. poor, 3. recall, 4. draw, 5. law, 6. war, 7. resources, 8. boring, 9. door, 10. sprawl, 11. corn, générale sur notre site internet !

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 19

PRATIC’ABLE  / Vocabulaire www.vocable.fr

Jeux de mots
A retenir
1 U
 tilisez les mots ou terminaisons de l’encadré jaune pour 5 mots à mémoriser
compléter chaque mot.
dans ce numéro
itiveness vacuum cleaner aspirateur
killer remote-control
itively télécommande
ful laptop PC portable
pain…………... compet…………... itor hair clippers tondeuse
pain…………... compet…………... ness kettle bouilloire
pain…………... compet…………... felt
pain…………... compet…………... itive
L'expression idiomatique
kind…………… heart…………… heartedness “Virginal Therese is
kind…………… heart…………… less
knocked for six and falls
kind…………… heart…………… staking
in love”
kind…………… heart…………… hearted
(page 7 § 3)
to be knocked for six recevoir
un choc brutal
D’autres expressions
comportant des chiffres :
painstaking competitively kindheartedness heartbreaking
painkiller competitiveness kindly heartfelt

to be all sixes and sevens être

painless competitive kindness heartily
painful competitor kind-hearted heartless
dans tous ses états
six of one and half a dozen of
2 Complétez ce texte avec le vocabulaire proposé. the other blanc bonnet et
bonnet blanc
subservient in-laws childhood be quiet
to be on cloud nine être au
conditioned classes dowries septième ciel
hold back argues customs to dress up to the nines se
mettre sur son trente et un
Traditional practices still ................... Indian women ................... . The problem is
he talks nineteen to the
not just specific …………....………, such as the payment of ……....………….or living
dozen c’est un vrai moulin à
with ……………....….. . Deepa Narayan, a development consultant, ................... in paroles
a new book titled Chup—meaning “.... ............... ” in Hindi—that women across two wrongs don’t make a
social ...................are still ................... from early ................... to be ................... . right on ne répare pas une
injustice par une autre
SOLUTIONS : hold ... back, customs, dowries, in-laws, argues, be quiet, classes, conditioned, childhood,

Ne manquez pas dans le prochain numéro la nouvelle page PRATIC’ABLE : Les sucreries

20 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018

Enjeux I Politique I NOUVELLE-ZÉLANDE I  B2-C1
SUPPLÉMENT SONORE Pourquoi Jacinda Ardern a-t-elle
Les Néo-Zélandais Nikki Slade Robinson et Jim interdit aux spéculateurs étrangers
Robinson nous parlent de l'amour et des espoirs d'acheter une maison en Nouvelle-
qu'ils ont pour leur pays. Zélande? Découvrez le reportage sur
CD audio ou téléchargement MP3 (sur abonnement) www.vocable.fr/videos-anglais


Enthusiasm in New Zealand for new Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern
Jacinda Ardern has been making headlines since she first took over the Labour Party, and then since becoming Prime Minister of
New Zealand on 26 October. She is not only the youngest leader of the country since 1856, she is also the first leader in New
Zealand to have a baby while in office. This article focuses on the unprecedented enthusiasm surrounding this political figure.

W ELLINGTON, New Zealand

— New Zealanders call their
seat of power the Beehive, a sparkle of Kiwi
humor for a spiralling concrete building that
looks exactly as it sounds. On the ninth floor,
the country’s leader greets visitors in an
unassuming office with posters of women
in wartime and a view of the Wellington
harbor. “I’m Jacinda,” she says, extending her

2. The calm belies a movie-worthy first 100
days for Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern,
who in October, at 37, became the world’s
youngest female leader. Ardern took control
after jumping into the race seven weeks
before the vote. She formed a coalition gov-
ernment of rivals, akin to Bernie Sanders
sharing power with Ted Cruz. Then, in
January, Ardern announced her pregnancy Jacinda Ardern takes a selfie with school children during a visit to Christchurch, a couple of months before
the general election. (Mark Baker/AP/SIPA)
— which means this year she’ll become the
only elected world leader besides the late Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto to Ardern offers a vision of hope for liberal democ-
give birth in office.  racy in a region where those values face a re-
surgent threat and America’s role is shrinking. 
1. seat of power Parliament buildings / beehive natural 3. She rose to power on a platform of positivity
habitation for bees, busy place full of people / sparkle
here, touch, soupçon / Kiwi nickname for an inhabitant of
and optimism, more in line with Canadian PRECARIOUS TIMES
New Zealand / spiralling going up in the form of a spiral / Prime Minister Justin Trudeau than President 4. Ardern begins her tenure at a precarious
concrete cement / to greet to welcome / unassuming Donald Trump. It’s not just her age or preg- time for the Asia-Pacific region, and the world.
modest, simple / wartime during a war / harbor (US) = nancy that has sparked the rush of adulation China — New Zealand’s largest trading part-
harbour (GB) port / to extend here, to offer, to reach out. >>>
known as “Jacindamania.” It’s her message.
2. movie-worthy which could be a film scenario / rise
progressive elevation in importance and status / to belie to
give a false impression of sth, to conceal / to jump into to to face to be confronted by / resurgent renascent /
leap, here, to suddenly become involved in / race competition, in office in power. threat menace / to shrink, shrank, shrunk to diminish.
here, election / akin similar to / pregnancy state of being 3. platform here, political programme / in line with in 4. tenure period of time in an official position / trading
pregnant (having a baby developing inside your body) / accordance with, in alignment with / to spark to set off, to partner nation with which one country buys/sells goods /
besides except, apart from / late deceased, dead / provoke, to create / rush here, sudden feeling of euphoria / term here, period of time in power /

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 21

Enjeux I Politique I NOUVELLE-ZÉLANDE I  B2-C1

>>> ner — just announced it would abolish term 7. Neither side won enough seats for a major-
limits, setting up President Xi Jinping to stay ity government, so the decision about the SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
in power indefinitely and wield greater con- country’s future came down to the grouchy,
trol. Strongman leaders in the Philippines and anti-immigration leader of the New Zealand
"New Zealanders call
Cambodia threaten to unravel fledgling de- First party, Winston Peters. (He became dep-
mocracies. Trump has pulled the U.S. out of a uty prime minister and foreign minister as
their seat of power the
global climate change agreement and the part of the deal.) Ardern, whose partner is Beehive" (§ 1) la ruche.
massive trade deal known as the Trans-Pacif- fishing show host Clarke Gayford, discovered On peut supposer que le nom a été
ic Partnership.  she was pregnant six days before learning she choisi, non seulement à cause de la
structure architecturale, mais
would become New Zealand’s third female également en raison de l'activité qui
5. When Trump met Ardern at a summit in prime minister.  s’y passe :
Vietnam in November, he noted that her surprise to be as busy as a bee débordant
win caused “a lot of upset in her country.” She 8. “I certainly didn’t set out to necessarily do d'activité
chuckled and replied: “No one marched when I any of these things in this order,” said Ardern, ou bien encore :
was elected.” Ardern has helped flashing one of her wide, trade- she's the queen bee c'est elle qui
craft a new version of the trade mark smiles. “But I’m deter- commande
it's the bee's knees c'est extra, c'est
deal. She trumpets the need to
combat climate change and is
Her new role mined that people see that the
trade-offs that women have
reinforcing the country’s com- has drawn been asked to make in the past D’autres expressions un peu plus
mitment to reduce nuclear weap- global don’t have to be.” Her new role
imagées :
to have a bee in one's bonnet avoir
ons internationally. “We feel has drawn global attention to
quite proud that she is leading us, attention to this former British colony: a
une idée fixe
like bees round a honeypot comme
in comparison to the rest of the this former congratulatory letter from des mouches sur un pot de confiture
world,” said Ruby Topzand, 22, a
communications student at Mas-
British Hillary Clinton, a Vogue photo
shoot, an Australian interview-
he thinks he's the bee's knees il se
croit sorti de la cuisse de Jupiter
sey University’s Wellington cam- colony. er who wanted to discuss her
pus. “She’s the rebellion.”  baby’s conception. 

A SURPRISE VICTORY CAPTURING THE IMAGINATION Curtin, a University of Auckland professor

6. Ardern wasn’t even supposed to be in the OF WOMEN who researches women in politics. 
election — at least not this one. Last March, 9. Ardern is a Scotch lover, used to have a nose
she took over as deputy leader of the Labor piercing and occasionally DJs. She won fans PROBLEMS TO SOLVE
Party. By July, its head, Andrew Little, an- worldwide when, during the campaign, a radio 10. New Zealand, with a population under 5
nounced his resignation amid record-low poll show host asked whether she planned on hav- million and incredible natural beauty, is often
ratings. That left Ardern to dive in mid-race ing children. Ardern said she could respond, cast as paradise at the bottom of the world.
and duke out a victory for Labor against the but pointed a finger at him. “For other women, But Ardern faces a less serene reality. Housing
conservative, longtime incumbent National it is totally unacceptable in 2017 to say that prices rank among the highest in the world.
Party. Ardern’s slogan sprang from one of her women should have to answer that question Homelessness is the worst among developed
social media sign-offs: “Let’s do this.”  in the workplace,” she said. People started countries. Signs on farmhouses warn against
crafting tote bags and internet memes. Jacin- child abuse. Ardern named inequality and
damania had begun. “She’s captured the im- child poverty as priorities for her administra-
to set, set, set up here, to open up the possibility / to agination of a lot of women out there who tion. As one of her first deal-making moves,
wield to have, to exert / strongman here, political leader might have political ambitions,” said Jennifer Ardern outlined a plan to ban foreign home
who controls by force / to unravel to undo, to cause to fail, buyers. She said it followed through on a
to compromise / fledgling new, young / Trans-Pacific
Partnership (TTP) trade deal with countries around the promise to lower soaring property prices and
Pacific. equalize opportunity. l
5. to note to state, to remark / upset agitation, disquiet, 7. seat parliamentary position / to come, came, come
surprise / to chuckle to laugh quietly / to march to down to to depend on / grouchy irritable, grumpy /
demonstrate, to protest / to craft to create, to write / to partner here, husband / show TV programme / host to research to study.
trumpet to proclaim loudly and proudly / commitment presenter.
pledge, promise. 10. to be cast as to be presented as / to face to be
8. to set, set, set out to to intend to / to flash to display, confronted by / housing property, house / to rank to be
6. to take, took, taken over to assume responsibility / to exhibit, here, to suddenly smile / trademark classed / homelessness number of people who have
deputy leader vice- (leader) / Labor (US) = Labour characteristic / trade-off compromise / to draw, drew, nowhere to live / sign board with writing on it, notice /
(GB) Party socialist party / resignation notice to leave a drawn to attract / congratulatory expressing farmhouse place where a farmer lives / to warn against
job or position / amid here, in a context of / poll ratings congratulations / photo shoot photo session. sth to inform in advance of a potential danger / child
popularity score / to dive to plunge into the water head
9. scotch whisky made in Scotland / to DJ to work as a DJ abuse maltreatment (physically, sexually, emotionally) of a
first, here, to suddenly start doing sth / in mid-race in the
(disc jockey) / to point a finger at sb to hold up one’s child / administration government / deal-making
middle of the campaign / to duke out (US) to knock out,
finger and reprimand sb / to craft to create / tote bag negotiating / move initiative, action / to outline to present
to win a fight / longtime for many years / incumbent
bag made of material / meme short phrase or image that the principal elements of sth, to describe / to follow
here, in power / to spring, sprang, sprung from to come
are viral on the internet / through on to be a continuation of / soaring increasing
from / sign-off signature, final sentence at the end of a
very fast / property real estate, housing / to equalize to
give everyone the same rights and opportunities.

22 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018  facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Enjeux I Economie I CANADA I  B2-C1

The Canadian government will

financially help firms working
on food protein.
(Patrick Aventurier/SIPA)


Canada favours a policy
of slow growth for its
Canada’s most important trade partner, the United States, is currently renegotiating the free trade agreement and levying
prohibitive tariffs on steel and aluminium. The Canadian economy is struggling to manage in an unpredictable economic
environment. We take a look at the government’s strategy to keep the country's economy growing.

E VERYBODY thinks this is a 50-pound

sack of seeds,” says Steven Fabijan-
ski as he hefts a large white bag onto a table.
“Actually, it’s 8,000 litres of jet fuel.” That is
3. With Donald Trump in the White House,
Canadians worry that things will get worse.
No one knows what will come out of the
4. These gloomy expectations were in the air
when Bill Morneau, the finance minister,
presented the government’s budget in parlia- >>>
what Agrisoma Biosciences, the company Mr renegotiation demanded by Mr Trump of the
Fabijanski runs in Quebec, plans to make North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAF-
4. gloomy pessimistic / expectation prediction,
from the bagful of carinata, or Ethiopian TA) with the United States and Mexico, under prevision /
mustard seed.  which the trade in vehicles takes place. Busi-
nessmen also worry about the new American
2. Biofuel looks like an industry of the future tax law, which slashes the tax on corporate
in a country that depends on those of the profits from 35% to 21%, below the average
past. Oil and vehicles, Canada’s two biggest Canadian rate of 26.7%. Jack Mintz, an econ- SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
exports, are both declining, and may con- omist, has called it a “tax tsunami” for Can-
tinue to do so. Oil from Alberta’s tar sands is ada. This comes on top of other discourage- "Mind the gap !"
expensive to produce. The United States, by ments to growth. The workforce is shrinking (attention à la marche
far its biggest foreign customer, is fracking as ageing baby-boomers retire. Economists en descendant du
more and importing less. Car manufacturing worry that consumers, who have built up train).
has never fully recovered from a recession record levels of debt, will spend less as inter- Cette expression est bien connue de
in the United States in 2008.  est rates rise.  tous ceux qui circulent en métro à
Londres, le gap étant l'espace entre
le train et le quai.
3. threat menace / to get, got, got worse to become Mais on parle également de :
1. pound = 453.6 grams / to heft to lift (sth heavy) / more difficult / to come, came, come out of to result
from / to demand to ask for, insist on / NAFTA North pay gap (§ 5) les inégalités de salaires
actually in fact, in reality / jet fuel kerosene-type fuel
used for aviation / to run, ran, run to control, manage, American Free Trade Agreement / under which... takes gender gap (voir l'article India's
direct / to plan to to intend to / bagful sack (full). place which governs... / tax law fiscal law / to slash to gender gap) les inégalités entre
cut, to reduce significantly / corporate business, hommes et femmes
2. to look like to resemble, give the impression of / oil commercial / profit revenue, financial gain / below under, generation gap le conflit des
petroleum / export exportation, product to be sold to less than / average here mean, median level / rate here, générations
other countries / both each one, the two (of them) / so in percentage / to come, came, come to happen, occur / on
the same way / tar sands oil sands, a combination of clay, ou bien
top of in addition to / discouragement here, impediment
sand, water, and bitumen / by far by a long way, to a great / growth economic development / workforce working
a gap between teeth un écart entre
extent / foreign from another country, international / population / to shrink, shrank, shrunk to reduce / to les dents
customer client, here buyer / fracking hydraulic retire to stop working (because of old age) / consumer a gap in the clouds une trouée dans
fracturing / manufacturing production, construction / to user, customer, here, the general public / to build, built, les nuages
recover from to return to normal. built up to accumulate / debt money owed / to spend, a gap in one's timetable un trou
spent, spent to pay out, to use (money) / to rise, rose, dans son emploi du temps
risen to go up, increase.

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 23

Enjeux Améliorez votre prononciation en écoutant tous les articles sur le supplément audio de lecture.

>>> ment on February 27th. Business-people were TRADING WITH MORE COUN-
hoping he would give the economy a quick TRIES
boost, perhaps by reducing taxes to match 6. More appealing to the Liberal government
Mr Trump’s corporate cut or with a dose of is the idea of trading more with countries NAFTA
deregulation. Mr Morneau disappointed besides the United States. The value of for-
them. The budget con- eign trade is equivalent NAFTA is a trade agreement that was
tinues the govern- to 64% of Canada’s GDP. signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United
ment’s methodical ap- Tomorrow’s winners The United States buys States in 1994. The goal was to eliminate
barriers to trade and investment between
proach to fixing the will come from adding three-quarters of its
the three countries. With NAFTA, tariffs on
economy’s problems. exports. Apart from
Mr Morneau and the
technology to threatening NAFTA,
most of the goods traded between these
prime minister, Justin yesterday’s successes. the Trump administra-
countries were progressively eliminated.
Thanks to NAFTA, Canada has seen strong
Tr udeau, prefer to tion has slapped tariffs gains in cross-border investment: since
plant patiently rather on Canadian softwood 1993, US and Mexican investments in
than to drill aggressively. That was evident and newsprint, and may impose them on Canada have tripled.
in the “equality and growth” budget’s big steel and aluminium. Canada needs friend- trade agreement commercial accord / tariff tax
idea: putting more women to work. Just over lier partners.  on imports / goods products, articles,
61% of working-age women have a job or are merchandise / thanks to due to, because of / to
see, saw, seen to enjoy, experience / cross-
looking for one, compared with around 70% 7. It is making progress. An economic and border going both ways at each border.
of men. If female participation in the labour trade deal with the European Union, negoti-
force rose to that of men, an unlikely sce- ated by the previous government, took effect
nario, the economy would be 4% larger, ac- last September. Canada signed a deal with
cording to the bank RBC.  ten Pacific countries, including Japan and
Vietnam, on March 8th. But its quest for Industry Development Centre, a non-profit
A WOMAN’S PLACE IS IN THE further agreements has faltered. Mr Trudeau lab in Saskatoon, is working with growers
OFFICE failed to launch trade talks with China on a of pulses, wheat and soya beans to produce
5. Mr Morneau quoted that prediction to visit there in December. His recent trip to meat substitutes. James Cameron, a Holly-
justify a range of female-friendly policies. India, with which Canada has been conduct- wood director, has invested in a plant in
He will raise the child benefit, which parents ing fruitless talks since 2010, was a disap- Vanscoy, Saskatchewan, to make new foods
can spend on day care, and improve incen- pointment. Mr Morneau did not mention from peas. 
tives for new fathers to take time off work. India when he listed “new markets” Canada
There will be extra money for female entre- hopes to enter.  9. In January, BlackBerry, a Canadian tech-
preneurs and to fight sexual harassment. The nology company, announced a partnership
federal government will close its own pay NEW INDUSTRIES with Baidu, a big Chinese Internet firm, to
gap, Mr Morneau promised. Female-friend- 8. Canada is unlikely to make much impres- work on ways to use artificial intelligence in
liness is fashionable, but it also fits with the sion on those markets with the same old cars. Last month the government said that it
strategy of removing economic roadblocks industries. That is where companies like would spend nearly C$1bn over five years to
advocated by Mr Barton, a Canadian who Agrisoma come in. It exemplifies the idea, help groups of firms and research institutes
leads a panel that advises the government on promoted by Mr Barton among others, that working on artificial intelligence, food pro-
how to promote growth.  tomorrow’s winners will come from adding tein, marine vehicles, advanced manufactur-
technology to yesterday’s successes, espe- ing and digital technology. It hopes that these
cially agriculture. The Saskatchewan Food projects will lead to the development of Sili-
to match to equal, correspond (to) / cut reduction / con Valley-like “superclusters”. The govern-
deregulation not being regulated any more / to ment’s patient planting strategy makes
disappoint to leave unhappy / to fix to resolve, find a sense, as long as a storm does not ruin the
solution to / rather than instead of / to drill to make a
hole in the ground (to find oil etc), here to act / just over 6. to trade to do business / appealing attractive / harvest. l
slightly more than / around about, approximately / besides apart from / GDP = gross domestic product /
labour force workforce / unlikely improbable / to slap to apply, impose / tariff cost of importing or
according to as stated by, reported by. exporting goods / softwood non-profit organisation not aiming to make money / lab
wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers / = laboratory / pulse legume that is grown and harvested
5. to quote to cite, make reference to / range series / newsprint paper used for printing newspapers etc / steel
female-friendly in favour of women / policy political for its dry seed as food / wheat grain from which flour for
hard metal made of iron and carbon. bread etc is made / soya beans Glycene max, species of
measure / to raise to increase / child benefit financial
support for children / day care child care, service of looking 7. deal agreement / previous former, preceding / to legume native to East Asia / director filmmaker / plant
after other people’s children / to improve to enhance, take, took, taken effect to be in operation / to be due factory / pea small round green vegetable.
develop / incentive encouragement, financial motivation / to to be programmed (to) / quest search, pursuit / 9. partnership association of two companies,
new here, young / time off a break from work (here, further other, additional / to falter to fail, experience collaboration / way method, technique / nearly almost /
paternity leave) / harassment persistent torment / to close difficulties / to fail to not to be successful in / to launch bn = billion (one thousand million) / over over the course
to reduce, eliminate / own here, regarding government here, to initiate, set in motion / talks negotiations / to of, for / manufacturing industrial production of goods /
employees / pay gap differential between men and women’s conduct to carry out / fruitless in vain, not producing the digital numeric / cluster here, centre / to make, made,
salaries / to fit with to correspond to / to remove to desired result. made sense to be logical, seem reasonable / as long as
eliminate / roadblock here, obstacle / to advocate to 8. to come, came, come in to intervene / among here, on condition that / storm tempest / harvest collection of
defend, plead in favour of / to advise to counsel. along with / especially particularly / food from the land.

24 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018  facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Brèves de culture
Retrouvez plus d’infos sur www.vocable.fr

(Todd Heisler/The New York Times)

Taking on
Australian actress Margot Robbie will create
a new television series based on
Shakespeare’s works. Each of the 10
standalone episodes will be based on a
different play by Shakespeare, updated to
comment on modern society. An all-female
creative team will work on the series, and

the stories will be told from female points of
view. Margot Robbie’s production company

Art over barbarity will team up with several other Australian

production companies for this project.
The new sculpture that will decorate the famous Fourth Plinth in London's Tra- to take, took, taken on to tackle, to deal with /
standalone independent / play drama performed
falgar Square has been unveiled. Michael Rakowitz’s installation, entitled “The on stage at a theatre / to update to bring up to
Invisible Enemy Should Not Exist”, is the recreation of an ancient statue repre- date, modernise, renew / to comment to provide a
senting a lamassu – a winged bull creature with the head of a man. The original commentary on, opinion concerning / all-female
100% women / to team up with to work with /
lamassu statue stood at the Nergal Gate of Nineveh, in Iraq, from 700 BC until several a number of.
February 2015, when it was destroyed by Isis. Iraqi-American artist Michael Ra-
kowitz constructed his sculpture from 10,500 empty cans of date syrup. Dates
were one of Iraq's most important exports before the two Gulf Wars. The Fourth
Plinth has featured temporary contemporary artworks since 1999.
over here, triumphing over, vanquishing / (the) Fourth Plinth plinth architectural support or base (as for a column
or statue), here, pedestal in the northwest corner of Trafalgar Square, which, instead of supporting the planned statue of
William lV, instead supports commissions on a rolling programme of temporary artworks / to unveil to reveal, uncover,
present to the public / entitled with the title / winged with wings for flying / bull male cow / to stand, stood, stood to

(Universal Pictures)
be located / gate entrance way, access point / BC = Before Christ / empty with nothing inside, holding nothing / can tin,
metal container for food or liquid / to feature to include, comprise / artwork work of art.

English heritage
Coventry monastery, founded in Back to the Jurassic
1385 by Richard II, will be open
to the public for the first time in Steven Spielberg has confirmed that Colin
80 years. With Coventry being Trevorrow will direct the third instalment
named the UK's city of culture of the Jurassic World trilogy. Trevorrow
for 2021, the Charterhouse, a will return to the franchise after directing
complex of medieval and later its first film, which was released in 2015
Grade I listed buildings that and grossed over $1.5bn at the box office
includes Coventry monastery, will worldwide. The second instalment, Jurassic
be restored to reopen in 2020. World: Fallen Kingdom, directed by J.A.
Bayona, is set to open in June.
heritage patrimony, historic, cultural
/ monastery residence of a religious to direct to make a film / instalment episode / to
community / to found to create, release (of film) to come out / to gross to earn in
establish / Grade I protected building sales receipts before tax / bn = billion (one thousand
of the highest category of importance million) / worldwide internationally / to be set to

/ listed classified as of historical or to be scheduled/planned to / to open here to start

cultural importance. showing at cinemas.

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 25

Culture I Industrie du livre I ETATS-UNIS I  B2-C1
Argosy Book Store est la plus vieille librairie indépendante
New York
de New York, et elle se porte très bien. Découvrez le
reportage vidéo et testez votre compréhension sur


The bookstore is back in the Big Apple
The bookstore, Shakespeare & Co., operating on New York’s West Side since 1983, was a beacon in this an area where
independent bookstores were flourishing. It was obliged, however, to close its doors in 1996 when Barnes & Noble, the biggest
bookstore chain in the United States, opened a store in the area. Does its re-opening mark a renaissance for independent

booksellers in New York?

hatever way that people read booksellers in New York City. Shakespeare and in the area including Word Up, Books of Wonder,
books, I’m going to get them into Company is opening two new stores this year, in Bank Street Bookstore and several branches of
my store — I don’t care if I have to stock contact Greenwich Village and on the Upper West Side. Book Culture. 
lenses that let the words scroll across your eyes.” The latter is considered a homecoming for the
Let’s hope it doesn’t come to that for Noëlle Santos, original Shakespeare and Company, which was 2. Maybe, just maybe, the late great Nora Ephron
who will open The Lit Bar in the Bronx this spring an institution in that neighborhood from 1982 to was wrong. Twenty years ago, her film You’ve Got
— part of a continuing resurgence of independent 1996, and it will be joining a robust range of indies
area district, part of a city / several a number of.
1. way method, technique / to get, got, got sb into to the latter the second of two things just mentioned /
persuade sb to enter / contact lens small round curved homecoming return to one’s home / neighborhood 2. late deceased, dead / to be wrong to be mistaken /
piece of plastic worn on the surface of the eye to correct area, district, part of a city / to join to add to, to become You’ve Got Mail Vous avez un message /
vision / to let, let, let to make / to scroll to move across part of / robust in good health / range group / indie here,
(a computer screen) / across in front of / independent (book)store /

26 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018  facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Téléchargez l’appli Vocable offerte à nos abonnés ! www.vocable.fr/applimobile

Mail seemed to punctuate the death sentence of

independent bookstores. Between 1995 and 2000,
the number of indies in the United States declined
by 43 percent, according to the American Booksell-
ers Association, a trade organization for indepen-
dently owned bookstores. Over the past two
decades, New York City institutions such as St.
Mark’s Bookshop, Coliseum Books and Murder
Ink bit the dust. Big boxes — really big boxes —
seemed to be winning. E-books entered the mar-
ket. And then there was Amazon. 


3. “We’re never going to beat Amazon at Amazon’s Barnes and Noble employs 30,000 people. (Istock)
game, but I think there is a craving for going back 5. “The popular presumption was that independ- 8. Another is curation: They’re not just offering
to the old New York,” said Dane Neller, chief ex- ent booksellers were a thing of the past, some best-sellers but diamonds in the rough. They’ve
ecutive of Shakespeare and Company. Multiple vestige of a different time and place,” said Oren taken back a sense of pride in what they can
branches and plans for a national presence (with Teicher, chief executive of the A.B.A. “It was inac- provide: a deeper and ongoing relationship with
a Philadelphia store opening this summer) put curate as a depiction then as now, but it’s pretty their customers. In high-rent districts, because
Shakespeare and Company in the small chain difficult to convince people otherwise.”  profit margins are relatively thin, success must
category, but Mr. Neller wants to create “the big- come from multiple repeat customers, so that the
gest little bookshop in the world,” intimate and 6. “In New York, it was never about attracting the customer can’t imagine not visiting as part of his
localized, with a high level of service.  customers but about the landlords who kept rais- or her monthly routine. They’re also flirting with
ing the rent,” Mr. Teicher said. “Independent adapting newer forms of technology.” 
4. Any New Yorker knows that indies in many bookstores play a vital role in communities.
fields have struggled in recent years. But when There’s a passion and a knowledge about putting EMBRACING NEW TECHNOLOGIES
the product is books, the losses feel particularly the right book into the customer’s hand, and it’s 9. That’s what Mr. Neller is banking on. Each of
egregious.  something we do far better than anyone else.”  the planned new Shakespeare and Company
stores will have an Espresso Book Machine (Mr.
REINVENTING ONESELF Neller is also head of the manufacturer, On De-
to seem to appear / to punctuate the death sentence of
to signal the death warrant of / by here, to the amount of / 7. There is an opportunity for certain industries mand Books) that has the potential to print and
according to as stated/reported by... / trade organization to reinvent themselves after a large shock in their bind any book not on the shelves while you’re
trade association founded and funded by businesses of a business model or in technology, according to having a cappuccino at the store’s cafe. 
specific industry / to own to possess, to be the proprietor of /
over during / decade period of ten years / such as like (for Ryan L. Raffaelli, assistant professor at Harvard
example) / to bite, bit, bit the dust to be killed, here, to Business School, who has been studying inde- 10. “It’s really a renaissance,” he said, “a new per-
disappear, to fail / big box (store) large chain store. pendent bookstores for about five years. (He even mutation that will have elements of the mom-and-
3. craving strong desire / chief executive company took a course in how to open one.) “What I’ve pop blended with technology, allowing a store to
director / plan project.
found is that the indies are able to compete on have a practically infinite selection in a small
4. field sector, domain / to struggle to have difficulties /
to feel, felt, felt to produce an impression / egregious
several dimensions,” he said. “One is community. setting. We’ll take a digital file and convert it into
intolerable. They championed the notion of ‘shop local’ and an analog product, putting the warehouse inside
‘Small Business Saturday.’  a small footprint. That’s transformative.” It’s al-
most like a new happy ending to You’ve Got Mail.
Somewhere, Nora is smiling. l
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE 5. time era, period / place locality / inaccurate incorrect, 8. curation organisation, here, selection / to offer to propose /
inexact, imprecise / depiction representation / then at diamond in the rough object with exceptional qualities
the time / pretty quite, rather / to convince to persuade / without a polished surface appearance / to take, took, taken
"let the words scroll otherwise differently. back to regain / sense feeling / pride feeling of honour / deep
across your eyes" (§ 1) 6. customer client / landlord property owner / to keep, profound / ongoing continuing, long-term / profit margin
to scroll défiler kept, kept (+ ger.) to continue / to raise to increase, to profits, financial gain / thin small, low / to visit to come / to
put up / rent regular (usually monthly) payment to live in a flirt with to think about.
A l’origine, scroll était un rouleau de property / far much. 9. to embrace to adopt/accept enthusiastically / to bank on
parchemin qu’il fallait dérouler pour to count on / manufacturer company which makes a product
pouvoir le lire ou un manuscrit comme 7. about approximately / even also / to take, took,
taken to follow, to do / course series of lessons, training / / potential here, possibility / to bind, bound, bound to put
the Dead Sea Scrolls les manuscrits together / on the shelves here, in the shop.
to find, found, found to discover, to conclude / to
de la Mer Morte. compete to be in competition / dimension level, aspect / 10. permutation transformation / element here, aspect /
A l'ère de l'informatique, on peut to champion to defend, to support, to promote / Small mom-and-pop small family-run business / to blend with to
utiliser le scroll bar (barre de Business Saturday shopping event on Saturday combine with / setting place / digital here, online, computer /
défilement) to scroll up or down the after Thanksgiving and Black Friday/Cyber Monday file collection of information on a computer / warehouse
page (faire défiler vers le haut ou vers encouraging shoppers to go to small, local shops instead of depot, place where goods are stored / footprint mark left on
le bas). shopping online. the ground by a foot, here, impact (also on the environment) /
transformative revolutionary / almost practically.

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 27

Découverte I Epidémie I BRÉSIL I  B2-C1



Rio de Janeiro cases of Zika in Brazil in 2016.


Research for a Zika vaccine starts in the UK
(to set, set, set to work to start working)
The Zika virus has been classified as one of the top ten “priority” illnesses by the
World Health Organisation since 2015. The virus is spread by one particular species of
mosquito and the areas principally affected are in the north-east of Brazil, where it
has caused a significant number of cases of microcephaly. British researchers have
been studying the virus for the Brazilian government in the hope of creating an
effective vaccine.

S cientists in the UK have started work

on developing a vaccine to protect
women against the Zika virus. The £4.7m
project, involving the universities of Manches-
cases were concentrated in Brazil’s impover-
ished, dry north-east. Two and a half years
later, they still don’t. 
Scientists in the UK are trying
to develop a vaccine to protect
women against the Zika virus.
(Allison V. Smith/The New York Times)

ter and Liverpool, and Public Health England, OUTBREAK IN BRAZIL have been confirmed across the whole of the
aims to have trials on humans up and running 3. The Brazilian government quickly blamed rest of the Americas, according to the Pan
within the next three years.  Zika – an obscure, mosquito-borne virus, American Health Organization. And nobody
previously unknown in the Americas. The can explain the discrepancy. “We were braced
2. The news comes two and a half years after World Health Organization declared a public for a large epidemic of microcephaly. We
the Zika virus, which can lead to foetal abnor- health emergency, and panic grew as Zika didn’t see that,” said Albert Ko, professor of
malities, began to appear in Brazil. When spread across the region. Then the outbreak epidemiology and medicine at the Yale School
cases of babies born with abnormally small petered out, leaving Brazil with more than of Public Health, who has studied the epi-
heads were first reported in late 2015, Brazil- 3,000 babies affected by what its government demic. 
ians were frightened and bewildered. Few had calls “developmental and growth alterations
heard of the rare birth defect microcephaly, or possibly related to Zika virus infection”.  TRANSMISSION CHAINS
were aware that it restricts growth of the skull 5. Zika was first discovered in Uganda in 1947,
and can cause learning, cognitive and motor 4. Two-thirds of those children are here in the and spread quietly through Asia. An outbreak
difficulties. Nor did scientists know why north-east. As of December, 438 were in the in French Polynesia in 2013-14 caused a notice-
state of Pernambuco. Yet just 700-odd cases of able upswing in microcephaly cases. A 2016
what is now called congenital Zika syndrome study concluded that Zika arrived in the Amer-
1. to develop to create / to involve to include / health
icas between May-December 2013, when air
medical care / to aim to to have as an objective / trial travel from Zika-infected countries to Brazil
clinical test / up and running in place / within in the impoverished very poor / dry arid. was increasing. 
space of. 3. outbreak sudden appearance of a disease, epidemic /
2. to come, came, come to happen / to lead, led, led to to blame to say sth is responsible for sth / obscure not
to cause, to result in / abnormality malformation / to clearly understood / mosquito-borne carried and the whole of the entirety / according to as stated/
report to declare / in late... towards the end of... / transmitted by mosquitoes / previously before, until then reported by... / Pan-American representing the countries
bewildered confused, perplexed / defect anomaly, / World Health Organization Organisation mondiale de of North, South and Central America / discrepancy
malformation / aware conscious, informed / to restrict to la santé (OMS) / emergency urgent medical situation / to difference / to brace for to prepare for.
limit / growth development / skull bone structure of the spread, spread, spread across to propagate / to peter
head, cranium / to cause to result in, to lead to, to provoke out to gradually disappear / related to linked to, 5. quietly discreetly / through across / noticeable
/ nor did [they] know... they did not know either... / connected to. significant / upswing increase, rise / to increase to go up,
to rise.
4. as of from / yet however / -odd about /

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the cooler, drier winter. The north-east had ASSUMPTIONS

more cases.  12. Some scientists have hypothesised that
dengue, another mosquito-spread disease
CRITICAL THRESHOLD present in Brazil, could increase the risk of Zika
8. As one dose of Zika is believed to give im- infection. And a new sibling study from re-
munity, when a second, less intense Zika searchers at the University of São Paulo, pub-
outbreak followed in 2016, north-eastern cities lished in February, provided intriguing evi-
like Recife and Salvador – capital of Bahia state, dence that genetics could make some babies
which had the most microcephaly cases, at 509 more susceptible to congenital Zika syndrome
– had reached “critical threshold”. “That’s the than others. 
proportion of people that need to be infected
for the disease to die out,” Brady said.  13. In Recife, the city government reduced
the density of mosquitoes
9. Ernesto Marques, a profes- by cleaning areas where the
sor of infectious diseases and insects were intensely con-
vaccines at the University of Investigating centrated, educating citi-
Pittsburgh, said investigating zens, and even monitoring
hypotheses is hampered by a hypotheses is water containers without
lack of reliable data on how hampered by lids from traffic control
many people caught Zika. It is
tricky to diagnose: in most
a lack of cameras, city health secre-
tary Jailson Correia said.
cases, the virus is asympto- reliable data. Now they are planning to
matic, retrospective tests are release sterile mosquitoes.
not conclusive, and it is easily But as officials from the UN
confused with viruses like and World Health Organi-
dengue. “There are a lot of unknowns in this zation argued in 2016, improving Brazil’s
story,” Marques said.  woeful sanitation is also vital to stopping
Zika. l
10. Marques is also a researcher at Brazilian
government research institute Fiocruz in Re- 12. assumption hypothesis, supposition / sibling
cife, which set up a microcephaly epidemic brother/sister / to provide to produce / evidence (inv.)
6. By 2015, the virus was infecting huge num- research group to study the outbreak. Last proof / to make, made, made to render.
bers in Brazil’s north-east, said Ko, including December, the group published a study con- 13. to clean to disinfect / citizen resident of a country,
person / even as well as / to monitor to observe, to check
up to 60% of all pregnant women. “It’s this firming the association between microceph- / lid cover / to plan to to intend to / to release to free, to
proverbial perfect storm-type situation,” Ko aly and congenital Zika virus infection.  emit / official representative / to argue to affirm, to say /
said. “There are some transmission chains that to improve to make better / woeful deplorable /
sanitation hygiene measures to protect public health.
create large epidemics and others that just 11. A further study this year found higher levels
burn out and die.” Zika reached much more of microcephaly associated with precarious
populous states in Brazil’s south-east, like Rio living conditions, with poor or open sewage
de Janeiro. But Rio has almost half the con- and irregular water supplies favouring the
genital Zika cases of Pernambuco, and twice proliferation of the Aedes aegypti mosquito
the population.  that spreads Zika. In Pernambuco, 11% of peo-
ple don’t have a fresh water supply and only SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
7. Oliver Brady is an assistant professor in ar- 32% get their sewage treated. 
boviral epidemiology at the London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who is study- "It had reached critical
ing the virus for the Brazilian government. He threshold” (§ 8)
said Zika’s spread was much patchier in Rio, 8. threshold level, point at which a new situation starts / threshold = seuil , pas de la porte
dose here, exposure / at here, with / disease illness.
where mosquitoes are also much less active in Exemples :
9. to investigate to study, to research / to hamper to to cross the threshold franchir le
make difficult, to prevent the progress of / lack absence /
reliable dependable, trustworthy / data information / seuil
6. by here, in / huge very large / pregnant expecting a tricky difficult / conclusive decisive / to confuse with to on the threshold of ... (figurative
baby / perfect storm disaster produced by a chance mix up with, to mistake for. use) au bord ou au seuil de ...
combination of factors / to burn, burned or burnt, below the threshold of
10. to set, set, set up to create, to establish.
burned or burnt out to lose strength and disappear / to
11. further additional, new / poor bad, insufficient / open consciousness subliminaire
die here, to disappear / to reach to arrive at / populous
highly populated / almost nearly. not enclosed (or here, underground) / sewage evacuation to have a high/low pain threshold
of waste matter and water / water supply source and avoir un seuil de tolérance à la douleur
7. patchy unequal, uneven, irregular.
delivery system of water / fresh water water that is not élevé/peu élevé
salt water.

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 29

Découverte I Technologie I ETATS-UNIS I  B2-C1


A GM Chevrolet Bolt electric

vehicle, operated with
self-driving technology.
(Jim Wilson/The New York Times)


The first mortality from a self-driving car calls the issue of safety into
question (to cast a pall on here, to raise doubts about)
In March, one of Uber’s self-driving cars was responsible for the death of a cyclist in Tempe, Arizona. Up this this point, Arizona
was one of a few American states that allowed testing of driverless cars on its public roads. This dramatic accident has re-
launched the debate about the safety of these vehicles, previously thought to be relatively safe in using the roads with a back-up
driver in case of an emergency. Is the technology really ready and safe?

S AN FRANCISCO — Arizona officials

saw opportunity when Uber and other
companies began testing driverless cars a few
years ago. Promising to keep oversight light,
self-driving technology. The company quickly
suspended testing in Tempe as well as in Pitts-
burgh, San Francisco and Toronto. 
in cities around the country. The companies
say the cars will be safer than regular cars
simply because they take easily distracted
humans out of the driving equation. But the
they invited the companies to test their ro- A YOUNG TECHNOLOGY technology is still only about a decade old, and
botic vehicles on the state’s roads. Then on 2. The accident was a reminder that self-driving just now starting to experience the unpredict-
Sunday night, an autonomous car operated by technology is still in the experimental stage, able situations that drivers can face. 
Uber — and with an emergency backup driver and governments are still trying to figure out
behind the wheel — struck and killed a woman how to regulate it. Uber, Waymo and a long list ATTRACTING TESTING
on a street in Tempe, Arizona. It was believed of tech companies and automakers have begun OPERATIONS
to be the first pedestrian death associated with to expand testing of their self-driving vehicles 3. Much of the testing of autonomous cars has
taken place in a piecemeal regulatory environ-
1. official high-ranking employee / driverless without a self-driving driver-less, without a driver / to suspend to
driver / oversight supervision, control / to operate to run, interrupt, here to prohibit (temporarily).
put in circulation / emergency safety, relief / backup 2. reminder sth that makes one remember sth / stage regular normal, conventional / distracted concentrating
safety, support / wheel steering wheel / to strike, here, phase / to figure out to determine, work out / to on something else, not focused / unpredictable
struck, struck to hit, collide with / pedestrian person on regulate to control, impose regulations on / tech unforeseeable / to face to be confronted by.
foot / = technology / automaker (US) = car manufacturer 3. operation activity / piecemeal fragmentary, done bit
(GB) company that makes cars / by bit /

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ment. Some states, like Arizona, have taken a forced to take over for the autonomous vehicle,
lenient approach to regulation. Arizona officials called “disengagements.” Between December SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
wanted to lure companies working on self- 2016 and November 2017, Waymo’s self-driving
driving technology out of neighboring Califor- cars drove about 350,000 miles and human "to pre-empt states
nia, where regulators had been less receptive. drivers retook the wheel 63 times — an average from creating their own
But regulators in California and elsewhere have of about 5,600 miles between every disengage- vehicle safety laws" (§ 3)
become more accommodating lately. Federal ment. 
to pre-empt = anticiper, devancer
policymakers have also considered a lighter
Exemples :
touch. A Senate bill, if passed, would free au- TEACHING THE SYSTEM TO you can pre-empt pain by taking a
tonomous-car makers from some existing ADJUST painkiller vous pouvez prévenir la
safety standards and pre-empt states from 7. Researchers working on autonomous tech- douleur en prenant un calmant
creating their own vehicle safety laws.  nology have struggled with how to teach the the government pre-empted a
systems to adjust for unpredictable human threatened strike le gouvernement a
4. The Uber car, a Volvo XC90 SUV outfitted driving or behavior. Still, most researchers pris les devants pour empêcher la grève
with the company’s sensing system, was in believe self-driving cars will ultimately be annoncée.
autonomous mode with a human safety driver safer than their human counterparts. 
at the wheel but carrying no passengers when
it struck Elaine Herzberg, a 49-year-old woman. 8. In 2016, a man driving his Tesla using Auto-
Tempe, with its dry weather and wide roads, pilot, the car company’s self-driving feature, 9. But the crash in Tempe will draw attention
was considered an ideal place to test autono- died on a state highway in Florida when his car among the general public to self-driving cars,
mous vehicles. In 2015, Arizona officials de- crashed into a tractor-trailer that was crossing said Michael Bennett, an associate research
clared the state a regulation-free zone in order the road. Federal regulators later ruled there professor at Arizona State University who has
to attract testing operations from companies were no defects in the system to cause the ac- been looking into how people respond to driv-
like Uber, Waymo and Lyft. “We needed our cident.  erless cars and artificial intelligence. “We’ve
message to Uber, Lyft and other entrepreneurs imagined an event like this as a huge inflection
in Silicon Valley to be that Arizona was open point for the technology and the companies
to new ideas,” Doug Ducey, Arizona’s governor, average approximate medium number. advocating for it,” he said. “They’re going to
said in an interview in June 2017.  7. researcher scientist who investigates a subject / to have to do a lot to prove that the technology is
struggle with to have difficulties with / ultimately in the
end, finally / counterpart equivalent. safe.” l
WITH OR WITHOUT DRIVERS 8. feature function / highway (US) = motorway (GB)
5. Since late last year, Waymo, the self-driving major road, motorway / to crash into to collide with, run
car unit of Google’s parent company Alphabet, into sth / tractor-trailer (US) = articulated lorry (GB)
9. crash accident, collision / general public ordinary
articulated truck / regulator organisation that officially
has been using cars without a human in the controls an area of business or industry / to rule to decide, citizens / to respond to to react to / inflection point
driver’s seat to pick up and drop off passengers decree / defect anomaly. turning point / to advocate for to argue for.
in Arizona. Most testing of driverless cars oc-
curs with a safety driver in the front seat who
is available to take over if something goes
wrong. It can be challenging, however, to take
control of a fast-moving vehicle. 
6. California requires companies to report the LINGUISTIQUES
number of instances when human drivers are
lenient relaxed, easy going, here, without too many JEUNES
restrictions imposed / to lure out of to persuade to leave /
accommodating obliging / lately recently /
policymaker person who formulates a plan of action for a
government / a lighter touch here, fewer regulatory
obligations / bill proposed law / to pass to adopt, vote /
to free to liberate, here, to exempt / safety standard
security norms / to pre-empt sb from doing sthg to
stop sb from doing sth.

4. SUV = sport utility vehicle 4x4 / to be outfitted

with to be equipped with / sensing system detection 05 65 77 10 47
system. www.verdiehello.com
5. parent company holding company / to pick up to go
and collect sb in a car / to drop off to take sb to a
destination / to take, took, taken over here, to take
control, intervene / challenging difficult / fast-moving destinations
here, at full speed. humaines
6. to report to declare / instance example, case, here
occurrence /

VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 31

Bons plans I Langues



Si votre enfant souhaite partir à l’étranger pour apprendre l’anglais, sachez qu’il existe de nombreux séjours proposés par les
organismes linguistiques. Outre des programmes dits classiques « cours avec multi-activités », chez l’habitant ou en résidence
internationale, les organismes labellisés Unosel proposent de nombreuses formules thématiques. Voici une sélection adaptée à
chaque personnalité.

POUR (surf, vélo, kayak, etc.) conduite durant une quinzaine de jours par EF dans un pensionnat en
LES SPORTIFS en anglais, dont les premiers à partir de 1820€ voyage inclus. Angleterre, propose du sport,
prix débutent à 3650€ pour une Toujours pour les 14/17 ans, EF des jeux d’aventure, des excur-
Des séjours langues et sports vingtaine de jours en pension propose des séjours en Irlande, sions et quelques cours pour re-
sont proposés par de nombreux complète incluant le voyage. ou en Grande-Bretagne s’ils venir sur le vocabulaire abordé
organismes labellisés Unosel. Si vos enfants ont entre 14 et sont amateurs d’équitation. lors des activités. Le tarif est de
Football, tennis, basket, danse, 17 ans, sont passionnés d’acti- www.nacel.fr 2510€ pour 2 semaines (incluant
golf, handball, rugby, équitation, vités nautiques et souhaitent www.cei-sejour-linguistique.fr transports, transferts, encadre-
sports nautiques, surf, karting… rester en Europe, le CEI a mis www.ef.fr/ ment, activités, cours, héber-
Parmi les plus originaux, Nacel en place à Paignton, une station gement, pension, etc.). Pour
propose aux jeunes entre 14 et balnéaire en Angleterre, un pro- POUR ceux qui cherchent davantage
19 ans une formule Anglais et gramme regroupant 15 heures LES AVENTURIERS d’aventure, le CEI propose un
Sport à San Diego en Califor- de cours d’anglais par semaine Summer Camp au Canada (une
nie sans cours en classe mais et des activités comme le surf, Pour les 10/14 ans, la formule à cinq semaines) avec activités
avec 20h de leur activité favorite le kayak, le beach-volley, le tout « Summer Camp » organisée sportives et excursions dans

32 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018

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des paysages époustouflants, mise en scène : improvisation, de ces sessions animées, des des professeurs anglophones
et possibilité de prendre 15h de interprétation de textes, cho- excursions ont lieu à Londres. et une journée d’excursion.
cours d’anglais par semaine. régraphie, etc. Cette formule L’hébergement se fait en cam- Les cours de coding sont axés
Le coût de cette formule s’élève qui se déroule en Grande-Bre- pus universitaire. Le tarif pour autour de trois sujets : dévelop-
à 2680€ pour deux semaines tagne s’adresse aux 12/16 ans la formule « Studios » débute à pement d’applications iOS avec
(voyage non inclus) et 165€ et s’élève à 1299€ voyage inclus. 2400€ pour 15 jours. Toujours Swift et Xcode, d’applications
supplémentaires pour l’option Dans un univers assez proche, dans le cadre de cette formule Android avec App Inventor et de
cours d’anglais. Nacel a mis en place un séjour un programme s’adresse aux jeux avec Java. L’hébergement
www.cei-sejour-linguistique.fr « Production Cinéma » avec jeunes à partir de 7 ans et mêle est prévu en famille sur une
www.ef.fr/ 8 journées de tournage sur la ateliers interactifs LEGO Edu- période de 14 jours. La formule
presqu’île de Wirral, à l’ouest de cation et cours d’anglais. « Pour destinée aux 14/17 ans est pro-
POUR Manchester (à partir de 1750€). les 14/18 ans, il existe aussi une posée à partir de 2595€.
LES CINÉPHILES www.clc.fr thématique intitulée : gagner www.nacel.fr
www.nacel.fr en leadership », indique Quen-
Votre enfant est fan d’Harry tin Levert, directeur des Pro- POUR
Potter ? Le CLC propose pour POUR grammes Séjours Linguistiques LES SCIENTIFIQUES
les 11-16 ans, un séjour composé LES ARTISTES chez EF. Enfin, pour ceux qui
de 12h de cours d’anglais dis- rêvent de devenir vlogger, EF Les matheux auront leur place
pensés par des professeurs bri- Pour les créatifs et les enfants propose à vos enfants de ren- à Ocala aux Etats-Unis. Nacel
tanniques et de visites des sites passionnés de mode, d’activités contrer des blogueurs vidéos organise en effet en Floride un
de tournage de la saga Harry artistiques et culturelles, la for- connus, une visite du studio programme d’apprentissage de
Potter (St Pancras, Leadenhall mule « Studios » proposée par Youtube à Londres et des ses- l’anglais à travers l’étude des
Market, le Millenium Bridge EF saura s’adapter à toutes les sions pour apprendre comment sciences, technologie et mathé-
à Londres, la cathédrale d’Ox- personnalités. Ces activités sont promouvoir sa propre chaîne matiques (STEM program). Pas
ford…). Cette formule débute proposées au Royaume-Uni et sur le net. de cours d’anglais en revanche,
à 799€, voyage inclus pour six aux Etats-Unis. La formule www.ef.fr/ tout est basé sur la réalisation
nuits en pension complète. Le « Londres Studio » propose des d’expériences, comme par
CLC a également mis en place leçons de musique (deux leçons POUR exemple l’élaboration de plans
une formule originale « Anglais en classe et deux sessions par LES GEEKS de fusées, de programmation
et Comédie musicale ». Le but : jour pour apprendre à composer de robots, etc. Il faut compter au
s’initier au rôle d’acteur ou de et mixer la musique), de mode Faire du coding à Londres, c’est minimum 3195€ hébergement
metteur en scène par le biais pour apprendre à créer des vê- désormais possible. La nou- et billets d’avion inclus pour
d’une comédie musicale. Les tements, d’art (photographie, velle formule du groupe NACEL deux semaines.
24h de cours sont focalisées techniques de mode avec un propose 45H de coding, 15h de www.nacel.fr
sur les différentes étapes de la défilé en fin de séjour). En plus cours d’anglais dispensés par

Séjours linguistiques
Séjours linguistiques Séjours Linguistiques sur
en famille
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l Étudiants l Etats-Unis 03 20 63 11 00
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VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 33

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Des entrées pour des films et des expositions, des CD et des DVD, des romans, des voyages…


de Peter Mackie Burns
Daphné est une jeune femme à la vie plutôt ordinaire : elle
travaille comme chef dans un pub londonien, sort beaucoup
et se dispute souvent avec sa mère, atteinte d’un cancer.
Jusqu’au jour où elle assiste à un braquage qui tourne mal
dans une petite épicerie… Elle commence alors à remettre en
question tout ce qu’elle croyait savoir. Ce premier film du
réalisateur écossais Peter Mackie Burns met en scène un
personnage flamboyant et attachant, c’est une véritable
bouffée d’air frais. C’est aussi un bel hommage à la ville de
Londres et à ses habitants – non pas le Londres de carte
postale mais le Londres populaire où les communautés se
mélangent dans la joie de vivre. Un film d’une authenticité
Avec Emily Beecham, Tom Vaughan-Lawlor, DVD
Des places à gagner ! Nathaniel Martello-White THE FLORIDA PROJECT
sur www.vocable.fr En salles le 2 mai. de Sean Baker
Moonee, six ans, vit avec sa mère
dans un motel de la banlieue
LIVRE DVD d’Orlando, à côté de Disney World.
Elle y fait les 400 coups avec ses
SOS BAC ANGLAIS LE GRAND JEU deux acolytes Jancey et Scooty,
De Anne-Isabelle Pinéda De Aaron Sorkin Halley, sa jeune mère, étant trop
Si l’anglais est votre LV1 ou votre L’ancienne championne de ski Molly Bloom occupée à mettre au point de
LV2 et que vous vous apprêtez à a tout juste 23 ans lorsqu’elle débarque à petites combines financières pour la
passer l’épreuve écrite du Bac, pas Los Angeles. Elle y devient l’assistante du surveiller. Le gérant du motel,
de panique, l’ouvrage SOS Bac propriétaire de la célèbre boîte de nuit interprété par un Willem Dafoe
Anglais vous permettra de réviser Viper Room, qui la charge d’organiser des splendide et extrêmement
de façon efficace, et, nous soirées de poker clandestines. Lorsqu’elle attachant, veille comme il le peut
l’espérons, de passer l’épreuve se fait virer sans ménagement, elle décide sur ces enfants laissés en liberté. Ce
haut la main ! Chaque chapitre est de monter son propre club de poker film à l’esthétique soignée –
dédié à un type de sujet, allant du clandestin. Le succès est très vite au couleurs pastels et iconographie
type narratif au type dialogue. Des rendez-vous, mais les choses prennent une Walt Disney sont de rigueur – met
copies d’élèves sont aussi tournure dangereuse… Ce film, basé sur une au premier plan le point de vue des
analysées et corrigées dans une histoire vraie et réalisé par Aaron Sorkin enfants, et décrit avec une profonde
démarche interactive. –  le scénariste de Steve Jobs –, nous tient humanité l’Amérique des déclassés.
Editions Ophrys - 16€ en haleine du début à la fin tout en étant magnifiquement interprété. Avec Brooklynn Prince, Bria Vinaite,
Avec Jessica Chastain, Idris Elba et Kevin Costner Willem Dafoe
M6 Vidéo - 19€99 Le Pacte - 19€99

De Tony Ayres et Amanda Higgs
Ce thriller psychologique australien met en scène
le kidnapping avorté d’un enfant. Pourquoi Simon
Heywood a-t-il tenté d’enlever le fils de son amour
de jeunesse ? Les six épisodes de la série donnent
à voir différentes perspectives sur cet événement.
On y retrouve l’acteur australien Alex Dimitriades,
révélé au grand public dans les années 1990 avec
la série Hartley, cœurs à vif.
A voir sur Arte à partir du 10 mai, à 20h55.

34 • VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018

I Décryptage I ETATS-UNIS

border frontier, boundary (here, with Mexico) / to march to walk in a procession.


à savoir Holidays During a conference with leaders of three Baltic nations, US President Donald
In the United Trump said that he would send military forces to guard the border with Mexico
States, Veterans
Day on November 11, is an from what he called a growing threat of illegal immigrants, drugs and crime, until
annual holiday that honours all the wall he promised is built. For the time being, it is unclear if the plan will go
the military veterans that have ahead. In interviews, several military officials said Trump’s announcement came
served in the US military. The
Fourth of July, also referred to as a surprise. In February, Donald Trump said that he was inspired by the Bastille
as Independence Day, is a Day Parade in France and that he would like a military parade to take place on
holiday that commemorates
the adoption of the Declaration Veterans Day or the Fourth of July in Washington. It would be “something great
of Independence on July 4, 1776. for the spirit of the country,” he said.
holiday day when people do not go to growing increasing, developing / threat danger, menace / for the time being for the moment / to go, went, gone ahead here, to put
work or school. into action, start, proceed / several a number of / official representative / to come, came, come as a surprise to surprise, be
unexpected / to take, took, taken place to happen, here, to be organised / spirit enjoyment, here, morale.

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VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 35

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