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CONSPIRATORSOF19THCENT. 8 7
a v e r y r e m a r k a b l e p a s s a g e o f a b o o k f r o m
whichwe ha v e a l r e a dy quo te d,the Ab b e
J o s e p hL e m a n n ' s L ' En tr e e de s Is r a e l ite s da n s
l a So cie te f r a n f a is e ,
whichwa s p ub l is he d
in 18 8 6 . The r e is a p l a n ,s a y s L e m a n n -
a p l a n " d' e n f e r " -
" to dis o r g a n is e a to n e b l o wChr is tia n s o cie ty
a n dthe b e l ie f s a n dcus to m s o f the J e ws ,
the n withthis do ub l e o r g a n is a tio n to b r in g
a b o uta s ta te o f thin g s whe r e ,r e l ig io us l y
s p e a k in g ,the r e wil l b e n e ithe r Chr is tia n
n o r J e w,b uto n l y m e n s tr ip p e do f div in ity ,
a n dwhe r e ,p o l itica l l y s p e a k in g ,the Chr is tia n
wil l b e co m e , if n o tthe s l a v e , a tl e a s tthe
in f e r io r o f the J e w,the m a s te r . . . . Atthe
ho ur in whichwe ho l dthe p e n we s e e this
p l a n un r o l l in g its e l f in s o m b r e ho r iz o n s a n d
g r e a tf un e r e a l l in e s .
No wwha tdo e s this p a s s a g e s ug g e s t ?
Its ug g e s ts tha tthe r e is s o m e f o r m ida b l e
s e cr e to r g a n is a tio n ,s o m e te r r ib l e s e ct,co n -
tr o l l e da n ddir e cte db y J e ws f o r the de s tr uc-
tio n o f o ur p r e s e n ts o cia l o r de r . Its ug g e s ts
a l s o tha tthe s e J e ws a r e n o to r tho do x
J e ws ,b utJ e ws who ha v e f r e e dthe m s e l v e s
f r o m the f a itho f the ir a n ce s to r s . An dit
s ug g e s ts f ur the r tha tthe de s ig n o f the s e
p e o p l e is n o tm e r e l y a n a r chy b utto cr e a te
a wo r l ddo m in a tio n in whichthe s e in f ide l
J e ws a r e m a s te r s ,a n din whichthe Chr is tia n
p e o p l e s a r e ,if n o tthe ir s l a v e s ,a tl e a s t
the ir in f e r io r s .
He r e ,a g a in , -ho we v e r ,we a r e m o v in g in
8 8 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
a wo r l do f s ha do ws ,hin ts a n ds ur m is e s ,o f
" s o m b r e ho r iz o n s a n df un e r e a l l in e s . "
The
m a n o f the wo r l d,who b e l ie v e s in n o thin g
e xce p twha the f in ds p r o v e d,a n dwho
r e f us e s to co n s ide r a n y thin g b uta cl e a r a n d
p r e cis e s ta te m e n t,m a y b e in cl in e dto dis m is s
this -p a s s a g e a s m e r e m o o n s hin e .
B utn o wwe a r e to e m e r g e s udde n l y f r o m
s ha do ws a n dm o o n s hin e in to a f ie r ce b l a z e
o f l ig ht . Fo r we ha v e n o wto co n s ide r a
do cum e n twhichp r o f e s s e s to s e tf o r thf ul l y
a n dp l a in l y the p l a n o f ca m p a ig n o f this
" f o r m ida b l e s e ct " f o r the de s tr uctio n o f
the s o cia l o r de r . B utl e tus f ir s tco n s ide r
wha tthis do cum e n tis .
In the y e a r 190 3 a Rus s ia n ,Se r g e Nil us ,
p ub l is he da b o o k e n titl e d The G r e a tin L ittl e .
The s e co n de ditio n ,whichwa s p ub l is he d
a tTs a r s k o e Se l o in 190 5 ,ha da n a dditio n a l
cha p te r ,the twe l f th,un de r the he a din g
" An ti-Chr is ta s a Ne a r Po l itica l Po s s ib il ity . "
This cha p te r co n s is te do f s o m e twe n ty p a g e s
o f in tr o ductio n f o l l o we db y the te xto f
twe n ty -f o ur "
Pr o to co l s o f M e e tin g s o f the
L e a r n e dEl de r s o f Z io n ," a n dthe b o o k e n ds
withs o m e twe n ty p a g e s o f co m m e n ta r ie s
o n the s e p r o to co l s b y Nil us .
Dir e ctl y a f te r the p r o to co l s co m e s a s ta te -
m e n tb y Nil us tha tthe y a r e "
s ig n e db y
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f Z io n o f the thir ty -thir d
de g r e e . The s e p r o to co l s we r e s e cr e tl y e x-
tr a cte d( o r we r e s to l e n ) f r o m a who l e v o l um e
o f p r o to co l s . Al l this wa s g o tb y m y co r r e -
CONSPIRATORSOF19THCENT. 8 9
s p o n de n to uto f the s e cr e tde p o s ito r ie s o f the
He a dCha n ce l l e r y o f Z io n . This Cha n -
ce l l e r y is a tp r e s e n to n Fr e n chte r r ito r y . "
An En g l is htr a n s l a tio n o f the s e p r o to co l s
ha s n o wb e e n p ub l is he d( Ey r e a n dSp o ttis -
wo o de ,2 s . 6 d . n e t) . This tr a n s l a tio n ,which
we ha v e co m p a r e dwiththe Rus s ia n 190 5
e ditio n in the B r itis hM us e um ,is s ub s ta n tia l l y
co r r e ct,b utin a wo r k o f s uchim p o r ta n ce we
ha v e p r e f e r r e dto us e o ur o wn tr a n s l a tio n .
No wthe co n te n tio n o f Nil us is tha tthe s e
p r o to co l s a r e the p l a n s o f a s e cr e to r g a n is a -
tio n o r g o v e r n m e n to f J e wr y f o r the r e tur n
o f this o r g a n is a tio n o r g o v e r n m e n tto Z io n ,
a n df o r the g o v e r n m e n to f the who l e wo r l d
b y J e wis hdis p e n s a tio n . This p l a n ,Nil us a
a s s e r ts ,is n o to f y e s te r da y b utha s b e e n
de v e l o p e dthr o ug hm a n y a g e s . Wha tis
us ua l l y un de r s to o db y the Z io n is tm o v e -
m e n t,in itia te da tB a s l e in 18 97 ,wa s n o t,it
is s a id,a m o de r n de v e l o p m e n to f J e wr y ,
b uta n in dis cr e e tr e v e l a tio n o f p a r to f a
p l a n l o n g e n te r ta in e d . Fo r tha tr e a s o n -
i . e
. , tha tthe Z io n is tm o v e m e n twa s
a
r e v e l a tio n to the wo r l do f s e cr e tde s ig n s -
itwa s n o tr e g a r de dwithf a v o ur b y the
r e a l l e a de r s n o r b y ce r ta in g r e a tJ e wis h
ca p ita l is ts . Tha tin dis cr e tio n wa s co m m itte d
b y the im p e tuo us Dr
. The o do r He r tz l ,a
V ie n n a j o ur n a l is ta n ddr a m a ticcr itic,who
e n e r g e tica l l y b r o ug ht,f o r wa r dto a wo r l d-
wide p ub l icce r ta in a g e -o l d,p l a n s o f the s e
s e cr e tl e a de r s o f J e wr y .
90 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
The s y m b o l is m o f the s n a k e ,s a y s Nil us ,
ty p if ie s a co il in g a n de n cir cl in g m o v e m e n t
b y which "
a l l Eur o p e ,a n dthr o ug hEur o p e
a l l the r e s to f the wo r l d,b y the us e o f a l l
f o r m s o f f o r ce ,b y wa r s o f co n que s t,a n d
b y e co n o m icp r e s s ur e ,wil l b e s ub j e cte dto
the in f l ue n ce o f J e wr y . " " Al l the Sta te s ,"
s a y s Nil us , " p a s s e do v e r b y the s y m b o l ic
s n a k e ,n o te xcl udin g G e r m a n y ,withhe r
a p p a r e n tm ig ht,a r e in r e a l ity un de r m in e d
b y co n s titutio n a l L ib e r a l is m a n de co n o m ic
de r a n g e m e n t
. On the e co n o m ics ide En g l a n d
a n dG e r m a n y a r e s til l s p a r e d,b uto n l y
un til s uchtim e a s the ir r e v o ca b l e co n que s t
o f Rus s ia ,to wa r ds whicha l l e n e r g ie s a r e
n o wco n ce n tr a te d,ha s b e e n a cco m p l is he d .
. . . Co n s ta n tin o p l e is the e ig htha n dl a s t
s ta g e to wa r ds J e r us a l e m . "
We ha v e s a idtha tthis do cum e n tf l a s he s
a b l a z e o f l ig ht,a n ds o itdo e s ,b utwhe the r
this do cum e n tis g e n uin e o r n o t,whe the r
the b l a z e o f l ig htis tr ue o r f a l s e ,ca n o n l y
b e j udg e db y in te r n a l e v ide n ce a n dp r o b a -
b il itie s . We m a y s a y a to n ce tha tNil us
a dv a n ce s n o thin g in the n a tur e o f r e a l
e v ide n ce to p r o v e the do cum e n t,a n dtha t
his a cco un to f ho witca m e in to his ha n ds
co n s is ts o f a s s e r tio n o n l y ,witho ute v ide n ce
to s up p o r tit . We ca n o n l y s a y tha tif the
do cum e n tis n o tg e n uin e itis a v e r y e xtr a -
o r din a r y f o r g e r y ,s in ce itp r e dicts with
ce r ta in ty n o to n l y the f a ctb utthe m a n n e r
a n dm e cha n is m o f a g r e a tr e v o l utio n b e f o r e
CONSPIRATORSOF19THCENT
. 91
the e v e n t .
M o r e o v e r ,its a y s b e f o r e the
e v e n ttha tthis de s tr uctio n wil l b e ca r r ie d
o utb y a J e wis ho r g a n is a tio n -a f o r m ida b l e
s e ct-a n ds uche v ide n ce a s we ha v e o f the
Rus s ia n Re v o l utio n co n f ir m s this p r e dictio n .
Thus ,f o r e xa m p l e ,
L ie ute n a n t-Co l o n e l
M a l o n e ,the M e m b e r o f Pa r l ia m e n twho
we n to n a f r ie n dl y v is itto the B o l s he v ik s
a n dr e tur n e din the l a tte r p a r to f 1919
to En g l a n d,s ta te din the Ho us e o f Co m -
m o n s o n No v e m b e r 5 th : " Itis s a id
o p e n l y tha tthe So v ie tG o v e r n m e n tis a
G o v e r n m e n to f the J e ws
. Why ,the r e a r e
n o tin L e n in ' s Ca b in e ta s m a n y J e ws o r
cr y p to -J e ws a s the r e a r e in a n y o the r
Ca b in e tin Eur o p e . The r e is o n l y o n e -
Tr o ts k y . Of co ur s e , the r e a r e J e ws in co n tr o l
in Rus s ia . The r e a r e J e ws b e hin dthe co m -
m is s a r s , a n dthe r e is n o do ub tin Rus s ia
n o wthe J e ws a r e n o ts ub j e ctto tho s e ho r r ib l e
p e r s e cutio n s whichthe y ha v e e n dur e df o r
co un tl e s s a g e s . " An dthis is s up p o r te db y
n um e r o us Chr is tia n r e f ug e e s f r o m Rus s ia ,
who a l l a s s e r ttha tthe chie f a cto r s in the
Re v o l utio n a r e J e wis h,a n dtha tthe J e wis h
b o ur g e o is ie ha v e b e e n s p a r e db y the r e v o l u-
tio n a r ie s .
He r e ,the n ,a r e two v e r y r e m a r k a b l e
p ie ce s o f co r r o b o r a tiv e e v ide n ce ,f ir s t,tha t
the ,do cum e n twa s p ub l is he db e f o r e the
e v e n twhichitp r e dicte d,a n d,s e co n d,tha t
tho s e who m its ta te s to b e the co n s p ir a to r s
a r e a f te r wa r ds f o un dto b e the p r in cip a l
i
92
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
a g e n ts
o f the Re v o l utio n . We s ha l l n o t
b e g in the e xa m in a tio n o f the do cum e n t
its e l f a tthis s ta g e o f o ur in quir y ,b ut
we s ha l l co n te n to ur s e l v e s m e r e l y with
a quo ta tio n f r o m Dis r a e l i' s n o v e l
Co n in g s b y ,
whichis we l l
-wo r th
r e a din g o v e r a g a in
in the l ig hto f r e ce n tha p p e n in g s . Tho s e
who k n o wthe n o v e l wil l r e m e m b e r the
m y s te r io us cha r a cte r Sido n ia ,who de s cr ib e s
him s e l f a s a Sp a n is hJ e wa n da n in te r n a -
tio n a l p o we r
. He te l l s Co n in g s b y ho whis
a n ce s to r s ha ds e ttl e din Ar a g o n b e f o r e the
M o o r is hin v a s io n ,ho wthe y ha db e e n p e r s e -
cute da n dha da do p te dthe v e il o f Chr is -
tia n ity ,r e m a in in g J e ws in s e cr e t,ho wthe y
ha db e tr a y e dSp a in to the M o o r s ,a n dho w
the y ha da g a in b e e n p e r s e cute dwhe n Fe r di-
n a n da n dIs a b e l l a r e -e s ta b l is he dChr is tia n
do m in a tio n ,ho wthe y ha da g a in dis g uis e d
the m s e l v e s a s Chr is tia n s ,b utho wa s s o o n
a s the ir de s ce n da n tha dr e a che dEn g l a n d
he ha ds e tup the M o s a ica l ta r
. He r e f e r s
to his tuto r ,Re b e l l o -" a J e s uitb e f o r e the
Re v o l utio n ,s in ce the n a n e xil e dL ib e r a l
l e a de r ,n o wa m e m b e r o f the Sp a n is hCo r te s ,
Re b e l l o wa s a l wa y s a J e w
. " He r e f e r s a l s o
to "
the s ub te r r a n e a n a g e n cy o f whichthe
wo r l din g e n e r a l k n o ws s o l ittl e ,b utwhich
e xe r cis e s s o g r e a ta n in f l ue n ce o n p ub l ic
e v e n ts . " An dhe p r o ce e ds ," Yo un e v e r
o b s e r v e a g r e a tin te l l e ctua l m o v e m e n tin
Eur o p e in whichthe J e ws do n o tg r e a tl y
p a r ticip a te .
The f ir s tJ e s uits we r e J e ws ;
CONSPIRATORSOF19THCENT . 93
tha tm y s te r io us Rus s ia n dip l o m a cy which
s o a l a r m s We s te r n Eur o p e is o r g a n is e da n d
p r a ctica l l y ca r r ie do n b y J e ws ; tha tm ig hty
Re v o l utio n whichis a tthis m o m e n tp r e p a r in g
in G e r m a n y ,a n dwhichwil l b e in f a cta
s e co n da n dg r e a te r Re f o r m a tio n ,a n do f
whichs o l ittl e is y e tk n o wn in En g l a n d,
is e n tir e l y de v e l o p in g un de r the a us p ice s
o f J e ws . "
CHAPTER V I
THEB OL SHEV ISTB IB L E
The In v is ib l e Fo r ce -AFin a l Re v o l utio n a n dthe Co n -
s um m a tio n o f M a s o n r y -The Po we r o f G o l d-Fin a n cia l
a n dIn dus tr ia l Cr is e s -AFe ig n e dSo l icitude f o r the
Wo r k in g Cl a s s e s -Po l itics a n dM o r a l ity -ACy n ica l
Phil o s o p hy .
WE ha v e g iv e n s o m e a cco un to f the e xtr a -
o r din a r y do cum e n tp r in te db y the Rus s ia n
Nil us in the y e a r 190 5 a s a n a p p e n dixto his
b o o k . Tha tdo cum e n tco n s is ts o f twe n ty -
f o ur p r o to co l s ,r un n in g to a b o ut3 0 ,0 0 0
wo r ds . In f o r m ,a s we ha v e s a id,itta k e s
the s ha p e o f a s e r ie s o f l e ctur e s " a tthe
m e e tin g s o f the l e a r n e de l de r s o f Z io n . "
The l e ctur e r s p e a k s s o m e tim e s a s if the
in itia te s who m he wa s a ddr e s s in g we r e the
s e cr e tg o v e r n m e n to f the J e ws a n ds o m e -
tim e s a s if the y we r e the he a ds o f a J e wis h
M a s o n icOr g a n is a tio n
. The g e n e r a l o b j e cto f
the co n s p ir a cy whichthe p r o to co l s dis cus s e d
is the g o v e r n m e n to f the wo r l db y a k in g o f
the b l o o do f Da v id . Ho wtha te n dis to
b e s e cur e dwe s ha l l s e e a s we p r o ce e d,a n dwe
g a the r tha tM a s o n r y is us e db y the o r g a n i-
s a tio n a s a cl o a k a n da v e il
. Thus ,f o r
e xa m p l e ,in Pr o to co l 4 we f in dthe p a s s a g e
" Who a n dwha tis in a p o s itio n to o v e r -
thr o wa n in v is ib l e f o r ce
? An dthis is p r e -
cis e l y wha to ur f o r ce is
. Exte r io r M a s o n r y
94
THEB OL SHEV ISTB IB L E 95
b l in dl y s e r v e s a s a s cr e e n f o r us a n do ur
o b j e cts ,b utthe p l a n o f a ctio n o f o ur f o r ce ,
e v e n its v e r y a b idin g -p l a ce ,r e m a in f o r the
who l e p e o p l e a n un k n o wn m y s te r y . "
B uthe r e we co m e to a v e r y cl e a r dis -
tin ctio n . The s p e a k e r co n s ta n tl y r e f e r s with
in f in ite co n te m p tto wha the ca l l s the g o y im
o r G e n til e s ,the Chr is tia n a n dn o n -J e wis h
p e o p l e s o f the wo r l d
; a n dhe m e n tio n s a n
in n e r o r J e wis hM a s o n r y ,the tr ue g o v e r n in g
p o we r ,a n da n o ute r o r G e n til e M a s o n r y ,
whichb l in dl y f o l l o ws the l e a do f a dir e ctio n
itdo e s n o ts us p e ct . Thus ,f o r e xa m p l e ,in
Pr o to co l 11
" Fo r wha tp ur p o s e ,the n ,ha v e we in -
v e n te dthis who l e p o l icy a n din s in ua te dit
in to the m in ds o f the g o y im ( G e n til e s )
witho utg iv in g the m a n y cha n ce to e xa m in e
its un de r l y in g m e a n in g ? Fo r wha t,in de e d,
if n o tto o b ta in in a r o un da b o utwa y wha t
is f o r o ur s ca tte r e dtr ib e s un a tta in a b l e b y a
dir e ctr o a d? Itis this whichha s s e r v e d
a s the b a s is f o r o ur o r g a n is a tio n o f s e cr e t
M a s o n r y ,whichis un k n o wn to ,a n dha s
a im s whicha r e n o te v e n s o m ucha s s us p e cte d
b y ,the s e
g o y im
ca ttl e ,a ttr a cte db y us in to
the ` s ho w' a r m y o f M a s o n icL o dg e s in o r de r
to thr o wdus tin to the e y e s o f the ir f e l l o ws . "
Whe n a tl a s tthe f in a l Re v o l utio n co m e s
M a s o n r y is to b e b r o ug htto a n e n da s
ha v in g s e r v e dits p ur p o s e . " Tho s e G e n til e
M a s o n s who k n o wto o m uch " a r e e ithe r to
b e b a n is he do r k e p tun de r co n s ta n tf e a r o f
96 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
e xil e . In the m e a n tim e M a s o n r y is to b e
o r g a n is e da n ddir e cte da s a we a p o n a g a in s t
Chur cha n dSta te in a cco r da n ce withthe ir
p l a n
.
This p l a n is n o tn e w . Itis f o l l o we df r o m
g e n e r a tio n to g e n e r a tio n
. Thus ,f o r e xa m p l e ,
in Pr o to co l No . 1 . we f in d
" B e f o r e us is a p l a n in whichis l a iddo wn
s tr a te g ica l l y the l in e f r o m whichwe ca n n o t
de v ia te witho utr un n in g the r is k o f s e e in g
the l a b o ur o f m a n y ce n tur ie s b r o ug htto
n o ug ht . "
In p ur s ua n ce o f this p l a n the y b r o ug ht
a b o utthe Fr e n chRe v o l utio n
. " Fa r b a ck
in a n cie n ttim e s ," s a y s the f ir s tp r o to co l ,
" we we r e the f ir s tto cr y a m o n g the
m a s s e s o f the p e o p l e the wo r ds ` L ib e r ty ,
Equa l ity ,Fr a te r n ity . ' "
" In a l l co r n e r s o f the e a r ththe wo r ds
` L ib e r ty ,Equa l ity ,Fr a te r n ity ' b r o ug htto
o ur r a n k s ,tha n k s to o ur b l in da g e n ts ,who l e
l e g io n s who b o r e o ur b a n n e r s withe n thu-
s ia s m . An da l l the tim e the s e wo r ds we r e
ca n k e r -wo r m s a two r k b o r in g in to the we l l -
b e in g o f the g o y im ,p uttin g a n e n de v e r y -
whe r e to p e a ce ,quie t,s o l ida r ity ,a n dde s -
tr o y in g a l l the f o un da tio n s o f the g o y im
Sta te s . As y o uwil l s e e l a te r ,this he l p e d
us to o ur tr ium p h : itg a v e us s the p o s s ib il ity ,
a m o n g o the r thin g s ,o f g e ttin g in to o ur
ha n ds the m a s te r ca r d-the de s tr uctio n o f
the p r iv il e g e s ,o r ,in o the r wo r ds ,o f the
v e r y e xis te n ce o f the a r is to cr a cy o f the
THEB OL SHEV ISTB IB L E 97
g o y im , tha tcl a s s whichwa s the o n l y de f e n ce
p e o p l e s a n dco un tr ie s ha da g a in s tus
. On
the r uin s o f the n a tur a l a n dg e n e a l o g ica l
a r is to cr a cy o f the g o y im , we ha v e s e tup the
a r is to cr a cy o f o ur e duca te dcl a s s ,he a de db y
the a r is to cr a cy o f m o n e y . The qua l if ica tio n s
f o r this a r is to cr a cy we ha v e e s ta b l is he din
we a l th,whichis de p e n de n tup o n us ,a n din
k n o wl e dg e ,f o r whicho ur l e a r n e de l de r s
p r o v ide the m o tiv e f o r ce . "
An d,a g a in ,we f in din Pr o to co l 3 a de f in ite
cl a im
Re m e m b e r the Fr e n chRe v o l utio n ,to
whichitwa s we who g a v e the n a m e o f
` G r e a t . ' The s e cr e ts o f its p r e p a r a tio n a r e
we l l k n o wn to us ,f o r itwa s who l l y the wo r k
o f o ur ha n ds . "
B utn o to n l y do e s the s p e a k e r cl a im f o r
his o r g a n is a tio n the a utho r s hip o f the Fr e n ch
Re v o l utio n . He s ta te s a l s o tha tthe l ib e r a l
a n dco n s titutio n a l m o v e m e n ts whichha v e
a g ita te dEur o p e a n dha v e we a k e n e dthe
a utho r ity o f g o v e r n m e n tha v e b e e n s e tg o in g
in the s a m e wa y a n df o r the s a m e p ur p o s e .
" The wo r d ` L ib e r ty ' b r in g s o utthe
co m m un itie s o f m e n to f ig hta g a in s te v e r y
k in do f f o r ce ,a g a in s te v e r y k in do f a utho r ity ,
e v e n a g a in s tG o da n dthe l a ws o f n a tur e
.
Fo r this r e a s o n we ,whe n we co m e in to o ur
k in g do m ,s ha l l ha v e to e r a s e this wo r df r o m
the l e xico n o f l if e a s im p l y in g a p r in cip l e o f
b r ute f o r ce whichtur n e dm o b s in to b l o o d-
thir s ty b e a s ts . "
a
i
98 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
He b o a s ts tha tb y m e a n s o f L ib e r a l is m a n d
Co n s titutio n a l is m the y ha dde s tr o y e dthe
p o we r o f K in g s ,a n de s p e cia l l y o f the a r is -
to cr a cy ,to p r o te ctthe p e o p l e . " The p e o p l e ,"
he s a y s ," un de r o ur g uida n ce ,ha v e a n n i-
hil a te dthe a r is to cr a cy ,who we r e the ir o n e
a n do n l y de f e n ce a n df o s te r -m o the r ,f o r the
a dv a n ta g e o f the a r is to cr a cy is in s e p a r a b l y
b o un dup withthe we l l -b e in g o f the p e o p l e . "
The r e s ul to f the de s tr uctio n o f the a r is to -
cr a cy is tha tthe p e o p l e ha v e f a l l e n in to the
g r ip o f m e r cil e s s m o n e y -g e tt' n g s co un dr e l s
who ha v e l a ic* ia p itil e s s y o k e up o n the n e ck
o f the wo r k e r s .
Ha v in g e f f e cte ds o m uchb y L ib e r a l is m
the y the n co m e f o r wa r da s " s a v io ur s o f
the wo r k e r ," a n dp r o p o s e to the wo r k e r s
tha tthe y s ho ul d " e n te r the r a n k s o f o ur
f ig htin g f o r ce s -So cia l is ts ,An a r chis ts ,Co m -
m un is ts ,to who m we a l wa y s g iv e s up p o r t . "
B e s ide s the s e s e cr e tp o we r s ,the o r g a n i-
s a tio n ha s a n o the r p o we r ,the p o we r o f
g o l d .
" In o ur ha n ds is the g r e a te s tp o we r
o f o ur da y -g o l d . In two da y s we ca n
p r o cur e f r o m o ur s to r e ho us e s a n y qua n tity
we p l e a s e . "
Withco m m a n do f ca p ita l the o r g a n is a -
tio n ha s the p o we r to cr e a te f in a n cia l a n d
in dus tr ia l cr is e s ,a n da s a m e a n s o f b r in g in g
o f f the l a s ta n dg r e a te s tr e v o l utio n the r e is to
b e a g r e a tf in a n cia l cr is is whichwil l r e duce
the wo r k e r s to the v e r g e o f s ta r v a tio n a n d
m a k e the m r ip e f o r the m o s tde s p e r a te a cts .
THEB OL SHEV ISTB IB L E 99

We s ha l l r a is e the r a te o f wa g e s ,which,
ho we v e r ,wil l n o tb r in g a n y a dv a n ta g e to
the wo r k e r s ,f o r a tthe s a m e tim e we s ha l l
p r o duce a r is e in p r ice s o f the f ir s tn e ce s s a r ie s
o f l if e . "

In o r de r tha tthe tr ue m e a n in g o f thin g s


m a y n o ts tr ik e the G e n til e s b e f o r e the
p r o p e r tim e ,we s ha l l m a s k itun de r a n
a l l e g e da r de n tde s ir e to s e r v e the wo r k in g
cl a s s e s ,a n dthe g r e a tp r in cip l e s o f p o l itica l
e co n o m y a b o utwhicho ur e co n o m icthe o r is ts
a r e ca r r y in g o n a n e n e r g e ticp r o p a g a n da . "
We ha v e n o wg iv e n a g e n e r a l a cco un to f
the s e p r o to co l s p ub l is he db y Nil us in 190 5 .
L e tus n o we xa m in e the m m o r e in de ta il .
The f ir s tp r o to co l b e g in s ,a s itwe r e ,in the
m iddl e o f a s e n te n ce
. . Puttin g a s ide f in e p hr a s e s ,we s ha l l
s p e a k o f the s ig n if ica n ce o f e a chtho ug ht
b y co m p a r is o n s a n dde ductio n s we s ha l l
thr o wl ig htup o n s ur r o un din g f a cts . . . It
m us tb e n o te dtha tm e n withb a din s tin cts
a r e m o r e in n um b e r tha n the g o o d,a n d
the r e f o r e the b e s tr e s ul ts in g o v e r n in g the m
a r e a tta in e db y v io l e n ce a n dte r r o r ,a n dn o t
b y a ca de m icdis cus s io n s . "
Af te r the a s s e r tio n tha te v e r y m a n a im s
a tp o we r a n dm o s two ul ds a cr if ice the
g e n e r a l g o o df o r the ir o wn we l f a r e ,the r e
f o l l o ws the s ta te m e n t
Po l itica l f r e e do m is a n ide a b utn o ta
f a ct
. This ide a o n e m us tk n o who wto us e
a s a b a itto a ttr a ctthe m a s s e s o f the p e o p l e
10 0 THECAUSE OFWORL DUNREST
s o a s to cr us htho s e in a utho r ity
. This
ta s k is the e a s ie r if the o p p o n e n thim s e l f
ha s b e e n in f e cte dwiththe ide a o f L ib e r ty o r
L ib e r a l is m ,a n df o r the s a k e o f a n ide a is
wil l in g to y ie l ds o m e o f his p o we r . Itis
p r e cis e l y he r e tha tthe tr ium p ho f o ur the o r y
a p p e a r s
: the s l a ck e n e dr e in s o f g o v e r n m e n t
a r e im m e dia te l y ,b y the l a wo f l if e ,ca ug ht
up a n dg a the r e dto g e the r b y a n e wha n d,
b e ca us e the b l in dm ig hto f the n a tio n
ca n n o tf o r a s in g l e da y e xis twitho utg uid-
a n ce a n dthe n e wa utho r ity m e r e l y f its in to
the p l a ce o f the o l da l r e a dy we a k e n e db y
L ib e r a l is m . "
The l e ctur e r p o in ts o uttha tthis do ctr in e
is n o m o r e im m o r a l tha n the do ctr in e o f
f o r e ig n wa r ,tha t " the p o l itica l ha s n o thin g
in co m m o n withthe m o r a l ," tha tf r a n k n e s s
a n dho n e s ty a r e v ice s in p o l itics , f o r the y
b r in g do wn r ul e r s f r o m the ir thr o n e s m o r e
ce r ta in l y tha n the m o s tp o we r f ul e n e m y ,"
a n dtha tr ig htl ie s in f o r ce .
" In a n y s ta te in whichthe r e is a b a d
o r g a n is a tio n o f a utho r ity ,a n im p e r s o n a l ity
o f l a ws a n do f r ul e r s who ha v e l o s tthe ir
p e r s o n a l ity a m idthe f l o o do f r ig hts tha ta r e
m ul tip l y in g o uto f L ib e r a l is m If in da n e w
r ig ht-to a tta ck b y the r ig hto f the s tr o n g
a n dto s ca tte r to the win ds a l l e xis tin g f o r ce s
o f o r de r a n dr e g ul a tio n ,to r e co n s tr ucta l l
in s titutio n s ,a n dto b e co m e the s o v e r e ig n
l o r do f tho s e who ha v e l e f tto us the r ig hts o f
the ir p o we r b y l a y in g the m do wn v o l un ta r il y
THEB OL SHEV ISTB IB L E
10 1
in the ir L ib e r a l is m . Our p o we r in the p r e s e n t
to tte r in g o f a l l f o r m s o f p o we r wil l b e m o r e
in v in cib l e tha n a n y o the r ,b e ca us e itwil l
r e m a in in v is ib l e un til the m o m e n twhe n it
ha s g a in e ds uchs tr e n g ththa tn o cun n in g
ca n a n y l o n g e r un de r m in e it . "
The r e f o l l o ws a j us tif ica tio n o f " the p r o -
g r a m m e o f v io l e n ce a n dm a k e -b e l ie v e ," a n d
o f the us e o f " b r ib e r y ,de ce ita n dtr e a che r y "
to a tta in g o o de n ds . We r e a do f the a b s ur -
dity o f the cr y o f Equa l ity ,s in ce " Na tur e
he r s e l f ha s e s ta b l is he din e qua l ity o f m in ds ,
o f cha r a cte r s ,a n do f ca p a citie s ,j us ta s
im m uta b l y a s s he ha s e s ta b l is he ds ub o r di-
n a tio n to he r l a ws
. "
The tr ue s tr e n g tho f the dy n a s ticr ul e ,it
is a r g ue d,wa s "
tha tthe f a the r p a s s e do n
to the s o n a k n o wl e dg e o f the co ur s e o f
p o l itica l a f f a ir s in s uchwis e tha tn o n e
s ho ul dk n o witb utm e m b e r s o f the dy n a s ty ,
a n dn o n e co ul db e tr a y itto the g o v e r n e d . "
This s e cr e t"
o f the p o l itica l "
wa s l o s t,a n d
this l o s s " a ide dthe s ucce s s o f o ur ca us e . "
" The a b s tr a ctio n o f l ib e r ty ha s e n a b l e d
us to p e r s ua de the m o b in a l l co un tr ie s tha t
the ir g o v e r n m e n tis n o thin g b uta s te wa r d
o f the p e o p l e ,who a r e the o wn e r s o f the
co un tr y ,a n dtha tthe s te wa r dm a y b e
r e p l a ce dl ik e a wo r n -o utg l o v e . "
" Itis this p o s s ib il ity o f r e p l a cin g the
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f the p e o p l e whichha s p l a ce d
the m a to ur dis p o s a l ,a n d,a s itwe r e ,g iv e n
us the p o we r o f a p p o in tm e n t . "
10 2
THECAUSE OFWORL DUNREST
Suchis the cy n ica l p hil o s o p hy p r o p o un de d
in the f ir s tp r o to co l . The s e co n dp r o to co l
b e g in s witha r e f e r e n ce to the v a l ue o f
e co n o m icwa r s ,whichp l a ce the G e n til e s in
the co n s p ir a to r s ' ha n ds . Its p e a k s a l s o o f
the ir in te r n a tio n a l a g e n ts withthe ir " m il l io n s
o f e y e s e v e r o n the wa tch " ; itb o a s ts tha t
" we s ha l l cho o s e f r o m a m o n g the p ub l ic
a dm in is tr a to r s withs tr ictr e g a r dto the ir
ca p a citie s f o r s e r v il e o b e die n ce " ; tha tthe s e
p e r s o n s wil l n o tb e tr a in e din the a r ts o f
g o v e r n m e n t,a n dtha tthe r e f o r e the y wil l
e a s il y b e co m e " p a wn s in o ur g a m e -in the
ha n ds o f o ur m e n o f l e a r n in g a n dg e n ius ,
b r e da n dr e a r e df r o m e a r l y chil dho o dto
r ul e the a f f a ir s o f the who l e wo r l d . "
The s e co n dp r o to co l e n ds withthe b o a s t
tha t "
the Pr e s s ha s f a l l e n in to o ur ha n ds " ;
a n da g a in ," thr o ug hthe Pr e s s we ha v e
g a in e da p o we r to in f l ue n ce whil e r e m a in in g
o ur s e l v e s in the s ha de . "
Thus the s e two o p e n in g p r o to co l s e xp r e s s
a p hil o s o p hy o f g o v e r n m e n tm o r e cy n ica l
tha n M a chia v e l l i' s ,a n dthe y m a k e a l s o the
dis tur b in g cl a im tha tL ib e r a l is m a n dM o de r n -
is m ,if n o tcr e a te db y the J e ws ,ha v e b e e n
us e db y the m a s the m e a n s o f m is l e a din g
Chr is tia n n a tio n s a n dde s tr o y in g the ir p o we r
o f s e l f -de f e n ce .
CHAPTERV II
" EL DERSOFZ ION-"
AL e a g ue o f Na tio n s in Em b r y o -An a r chy a s a M e a n s to
a n En d-AUn iv e r s a l J e wis hFa ith-Da te o f the
Pr o to co l s -The ir Co n n e ctio n withthe Rus s ia n Re v o -
l utio n .
THE thir dp r o to co l o p e n s withthe s e v e r y
r e m a r k a b l e wo r ds : " To -da y Im a y te l l y o u
tha to ur g o a l is n o wo n l y a f e ws te p s o f f .
The r e r e m a in s a s m a l l s p a ce to cr o s s ,a n d
the l o n g p a thwe ha v e tr o dde n is r e a dy to
cl o s e in the cir cl e o f the Sn a k e b y whichwe
s y m b o l is e o ur p e o p l e . Whe n this r in g cl o s e s
a l l the Sta te s o f Eur o p e wil l b e l o ck e din its
co il s a s in a v ice .
" The co n s titutio n a l s ca l e s o f the s e da y s
wil l s ho r tl y b r e a k do wn ,f o r we ha v e g iv e n
the m a ce r ta in l a ck o f a ccur a te b a l a n ce in
o r de r tha tthe y m a y o s cil l a te in ce s s a n tl y
un til the y we a r thr o ug hthe p iv o to n which
the y tur n . The g o y im b e l ie v e tha tthe y
ha v e m a de the m s uf f icie n tl y s tr o n g ,a n d
k e e p o n e xp e ctin g tha tthe s ca l e s wil l co m e
in to e quil ib r ium .
B utthe p iv o t,the k in g s
o n the ir thr o n e s ,a r e he m m e din b y the ir
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s ,who p l a y the f o o l ,dis tr a ug ht
withthe ir o wn un co n tr o l l e da n dir r e s p o n -
s ib l e p o we r . This p o we r the y o we to the
te r r o r whichha s b r e a the din to the p a l a ce s .
. . .
We ha v e m a de a g ul f b e twe e n the f a r -
10 3
10 4 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
s e e in g So v e r e ig n Po we r a n dthe b l in df o r ce
o f the p e o p l e ,s o tha tb o thha v e l o s ta l l
m e a n in g ,f o r ,l ik e the b l in dm a n a n dthe
s tick ,b o tha r e p o we r l e s s a p a r t
. "
Af te r b o a s tin g o f the m e a n s b y whichthe
4 4
e l de r s o f Z io n " ha v e in s til l e dcl a s s ha tr e d
in to the p e o p l e ,the p r o to co l co n tin ue s
" This ha tr e dwil l b e s til l f ur the r m a g n i-
f ie db y the e f f e cto f a n e co n o m iccr is is ,which
wil l s to p de a l in g s o n the e xcha n g e s a n d
b r in g in dus tr y to a s ta n ds til l . We s ha l l
cr e a te b y a l l the s e cr e ts ub te r r a n e a n m e tho ds
o p e n to us ,a n dwiththe a ido f g o l d,which
is a l l in o ur ha n ds ,a un iv e r s a l e co n o m ic
cr is is ,whe r e b y ; we s ha l l thr o wup o n the
s tr e e ts who l e m o b s o f wo r k e r s s im ul ta n e o us l y
in a l l the co un tr ie s o f Eur o p e . The s e m o b s
wil l r us hwithde l ig hta n ds he dthe b l o o do f
tho s e who m ,in the s im p l icity o f the ir
ig n o r a n ce ,the y ha v e e n v ie df r o m the ir
cr a dl e s ,a n dwho s e p r o p e r ty the y wil l the n
b e a b l e to l o o t .
" Our s the y wil l n o tto uch,b e ca us e the
m o m e n to f a tta ck wil l b e k n o wn to us ,a n d
we s ha l l ta k e m e a s ur e s to p r o te cto ur o wn . "
Such,the n ,is the p l a n o f the " e l de r s o f
Z io n ," a n din the s ucce e din g p r o to co l s the y
e l a b o r a te the m e a n s b y whichitis to b e
b r o ug hta b o ut . Thus ,f o r e xa m p l e ,b y a t-
ta ck up o n r e l ig io n
" It is in dis p e n s a b l e f o r us to un de r m in e
a l l f a ith,te a r o uto f the m in ds o f the g o y im
the v e r y p r in cip l e o f G o dhe a da n dthe Sp ir it,
" EL DERSOFZ ION "

10 5
a n dto p utin its p l a ce a r ithm e tica l ca l cul a -
tio n s a n dm a te r ia l n e e ds . "
The r e a r e s e v e r a l p a s s a g e s whichs e e m
to s ug g e s tthe L e a g ue o f Na tio n s ,a s ,f o r
e xa m p l e
" B y a l l the s e m e a n s we s ha l l s o we a r
do wn the g o y im tha tthe y wil l b e co m p e l l e d
to o f f e r us in te r n a tio n a l p o we r o f s ucha
n a tur e a s wil l e n a b l e us witho uta n y v io l e n ce
g r a dua l l y to a b s o r b a l l the g r e a tf o r ce s o f
the wo r l da n dto f o r m a s up e r -g o v e r n m e n t .
In p l a ce o f the r ul e r s o f to -da y we s ha l l s e t
up a b o g e y whichwil l b e ca l l e dthe Sup e r -
G o v e r n m e n tAdm in is tr a tio n . Its te n ta cl e s
wil l r e a cho utin a l l dir e ctio n s a n dits o r g a n i-
s a tio n wil l b e s o co l o s s a l a s to s ub due a l l the
n a tio n s o f the wo r l d . "
Educa tio n ,p o l itics ,l a w,the the a tr e ,a r e
a l l dis cus s e da s m e a n s o f cr e a tin g r e v o l u-
tio n s ,a n dthr o ug ho utthe r e b r e a the s a s p ir it
o f a l m o s tin de s cr ib a b l e ha te f o r the Chr is tia n
n a tio n s ,a s ,f o r e xa m p l e ,in s ucha s e n te n ce
a s this ,f r o m Pr o to co l 11 : -" The
g o y im a r e
a f l o ck o f s he e p a n dwe a r e the ir wo l v e s
. "
B utitis o n l y f a ir to s a y o f this e xtr a -
o r din a r y do cum e n ttha twhil e ha l f o f itis
de v o te dto the de s tr uctio n o f the p r e s e n t
o r de r ,the l a tte r ha l f o f the do cum e n tg iv e s
a n o utl in e o f a n e wo r de r ,a n o r de r o f wo r l d
g o v e r n m e n tin the ha n ds o f the s e ct .
The s e " e l de r s o f Z io n " a r e b y n o m e a n s
a n a r chis ts . On the co n tr a r y ,the y m a k e it
quite cl e a r tha tthe y o n l y us e a n a r chy a s a
10 6
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
m e a n s to a n e n d,a n dtha tthe y tho r o ug hl y
b e l ie v e in the n a tur a l div is io n s o f s o cie ty
in to cl a s s e s a n din the b e n e f its o f a s tr o n g
G o v e r n m e n t . The G o v e r n m e n tis n o tto b e
a f r e e G o v e r n m e n t-the y p r o p o s e ,in de e d,to
e r a s e the v e r y wo r do f l ib e r ty f r o m the l a n -
g ua g e s o f the wo r l d-n o r wil l itp e r m it
e qua l ity o f r a ce s . The G e n til e " ca ttl e "
a r e to wo r k f o r the ir J e wis hm a s te r s witho ut
a n y ho p e o f l ib e r a tio n . B utitis to b e a
j us ta n do r de r l y G o v e r n m e n t . G r e a ta tte n -
tio n is g iv e n to the r e f o r m o f the l a wa n do f
the j udicia r y . The K in g is to b e v e r y ca r e -
f ul l y cho s e n f r o m a m o n g the de s ce n da n ts o f
the Ro y a l Ho us e o f Da v id . If he s ho ws
we a k n e s s o r v ice he is to b e r e p l a ce db y
a n o the r ,a n de v e r y thin g is to b e do n e to
m a k e him p o p ul a r withthe p e o p l e . Of the
v a l ue o f p r e s tig e the l e ctur e r m a k e s a
s p e cia l s tudy ,a n dthe r e a r e de ta il e din s tr uc-
tio n s a s to the us e o f the Pr e s s a n dthe
o r g a n is a tio n o f the p o l ice .
The s y s te m o f e duca tio n is ca l cul a te dto
wip e o uto f the m in ds o f the g o y im a n y
r e co l l e ctio n s o f the ir f o r m e r s ta te . In r e l ig io n
a the is m is o n l y to b e to l e r a te ddur in g the
tim e o f r e v o l utio n
;
whe n itha s do n e its
wo r k the J e wis hr e l ig io n is to b e e s ta b l is he d
a s the un iv e r s a l f a ith . B y s uchm e a n s the
s p e a k e r b e l ie v e s tha tthe y wil l b e a b l e to
p r o duce a tr a n quil wo r l d
" The e r r o r s o f the G e n til e G o v e r n m e n ts
wil l b e de p icte db y us in the m o s tv iv idhue s .
" EL DERSOFZ ION "

10 7
We s ha l l im p l a n ts ucha n a b ho r r e n ce o f
the m tha tthe p e o p l e s wil l p r e f e r tr a n quil l ity
in a s ta te o f s e r f do m to tho s e r ig hts o f
v a un te df r e e do m whichha v e to r tur e dhu-
m a n ity a n de xha us te dthe v e r y s o ur ce s o f
hum a n e xis te n ce . . . us e l e s s cha n g e s o f
f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n tto whichwe in s tig a te d
the g o y im
whe n we we r e un de r m in in g the ir
Sta te s tr uctur e s wil l ha v e s o we a r ie dthe
p e o p l e s b y tha ttim e tha tthe y wil l p r e f e r to
s uf f e r a n y thin g un de r us r a the r tha n r un the
r is k o f e n dur in g a g a in a l l the a g ita tio n s a n d
m is e r ie s the y ha v e g o n e thr o ug h . " ( Pr o -
to co l No . 14 . )
The f in a l p r o to co l s b e co m e e cs ta ticin
the ir e n thus ia s m f o r the n e wo r de r
. B e f o r e
itco m e s the y a r e to s we e p a wa y a l l tho s e
f o r ce s o f a n a r chy a n dr e v o l utio n a r y M a s o n r y
b y whichthe y ha v e p r e p a r e dits e n tr a n ce ,
s o tha tin its p a thb e l e f t "
n o k n o t,n o
s p l in te r . " An da g a in
"
The n wil l itb e p o s s ib l e f o r us to s a y to
the p e o p l e s o f the wo r l d
: G iv e tha n k s to
G o da n db o wthe k n e e b e f o r e him who
b e a r s o n his f r o n tthe s e a l o f the p r e de s tin a -
tio n o f m a n ,to who m G o dhim s e l f ha s l e d
His s ta r tha tn o n e o the r e xce p thim m ig ht
f r e e us f r o m a l l the b e f o r e -m e n tio n e df o r ce s
a n de v il s . "
The f o l l o win g in te r n a l e v ide n ce is a v a il -
a b l e a s to the a uthe n ticity o f the p r o to co l s
.
We k n o wa b o utSe r g e Nil us ,who g a v e the m
to the wo r l d,l ittl e m o r e tha n tha the wa s
10 8 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
a Rus s ia n o f g o o df a m il y a n dr e p ute
.
He
m a y b e a l iv e o r he m a y b e de a d
. As to his
co m m e n ts o n the p r o to co l s a n dhis a cco un t
o f ho whe ca m e to p r in tthe m ,we ha v e n o
e v ide n ce b e y o n dhis o wn wo r dtha the is
te l l in g the tr uth .
The r e is ,ho we v e r ,o n e un do ub te df a ct
up o n whichto b uil d,a n dtha tis the da te
a twhichthe s e p r o to co l s we r e g iv e n to the
wo r l d . Fo r tun a te l y tha tis s e tb e y o n ddo ub t
b y the e xis te n ce o f a co p y o f the 190 5
e ditio n in the B r itis hM us e um .
Fr o m wha twe c= tn g a the r f r o m Rus s ia n s
who ha v e s o ug htr e f ug e in this co un tr y ,the
b o o k m a de l ittl e o r n o im p r e s s io n whe n it
a p p e a r e d . So m e o f the m a l l e g e tha tthe
who l e e ditio n e xce p ta f e wco p ie s wa s
b o ug htup b y the Rus s ia n J e ws ,b utitis ,
o f co ur s e ,im p o s s ib l e to p r o v e s uch a n
a l l e g a tio n
.
Itis ce r ta in tha tthe wa r n in g
co n ta in e din the s e p r o to co l s wa s dis r e g a r de d
-the ir s ig n if ica n ce wa s n o ts us p e cte d . It
wa s o n l y whe n the Re v o l utio n f ul f il l e dthe m
in s p ir ita n din l e tte r tha tthe ir im p o r ta n ce
wa s r e a l is e d .
An dn o wthe y a r e in the
m o utho f e v e r y Rus s ia n . The y a l l b e l ie v e
the m g e n uin e ,b y e v ide n ce whichthe y a t
l e a s tr e g a r da s un a s s a il a b l e . " The p r o o f o f
the p uddin g l ie s in the e a tin g . "
As to the da te o n whichthe p r o to co l s
we r e de l iv e r e dwe ha v e the a s s e r tio n o f
Nil us tha tthe y we r e k n o wn to the Z io n is t
Co n g r e s s a tB a s l e . Tha tCo n g r e s s b r in g s
EL DERSOFZ ION "

10 9
us to the da te 18 97 . B utthe r e is n o e v ide n ce
in the do cum e n ttha tits a utho r s ha v e a n y
co n ce r n withthe Z io n is tm o v e m e n t ; in de e d,
the ir p r o j e cto f a un iv e r s a l do m in a tio n m ig ht
a p p e a r to r e n de r Z io n is m un n e ce s s a r y .
Fr o m o n e b o m b a s ticr e f e r e n ce to the
p o s s ib il ity o f b l o win g up the ca p ita l s o f
Eur o p e b y l a y in g m in e s in the un de r g r o un d
r a il wa y s we s e e tha tthe do cum e n tis ,a ta l l
e v e n ts ,m o de r n
. The r e is b e s ide s o n e r e -
f e r e n ce to a l iv in g Eur o p e a n s ta te s m a n ,a
s ta te s m a n p r o m in e n tl y co n ce r n e dwithFr e e -
m a s o n r y ,s e cul a r e duca tio n ,a n dthe L e a g ue
o f Na tio n s ,who is de s cr ib e da s " o n e o f o ur
b e s ta g e n ts . " The r e is a l s o this cur io us
r e f e r e n ce
" In o r de r tha to ur s che m e m a y p r o duce
this r e s ul twe s ha l l a r r a n g e e l e ctio n s in
f a v o ur o f s uchp r e s ide n ts a s ha v e in the ir
p a s ts o m e da r k un dis co v e r e ds ta in ,s o m e
' Pa n a m a ' o r o the r . . . the n the y wil l b e
tr us two r thy a g e n ts f o r the a cco m p l is hm e n t
o f o ur p l a n s o uto f f e a r o f r e v e l a tio n s
. "
The f ir s tPa n a m a Co m p a n y ,itm a y b e
r e m e m b e r e d,b e ca m e b a n k r up tin 18 8 9,a n d
the s ca n da l o ccup ie dthe Fr e n chp ub l icin
the de ca de whichf o l l o we d .
The r e is n o r e f e r e n ce to En g l a n din the
p r o to co l s ,the n e a r e s ta p p r o a chb e in g a
s ta te m e n tb y Nil us him s e l f tha tthe p r o to -
co l s we r e s ho wn ,a m o n g o the r s ,to a v e r y
we a l thy a n din f l ue n tia l B r itis hJ e w,n o w
de a d . B utf o r this s ta te m e n tthe r e is ,o f
110 THE CAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
co ur s e ,n o e v ide n ce in the p r o to co l s the m -
s e l v e s .
So m uchthe n f o r the da te
.
The p r o to co l s
m us tha v e b e e n de l iv e r e do r wr itte n a ts o m e
tim e b e twe e n 18 8 9a n d190 5 .
No witm us tb e co n s ide r e de v ide n ce -n o t
co n cl us iv e ,ce r ta in l y ,b utv e r y s tr o n g tha t
a ttha tda te the r e wa s f o r e k n o wl e dg e o r
p r e dictio n o f the g r e a tr e v o l utio n a r y m o v e -
m e n twhichis n o wta k in g p l a ce . The
m e a n s b y whichitwa s to b e b r o ug hta b o ut,
wa r s ,the r is e in p r ice s ,the co r r up tio n o f
g o v e r n m e n ts ,a n dthe us e o f J e wis ha g e n ts ,
a l l a p p l y to the r e v o l utio n in Rus s ia ,a n d
to the a tte m p te dr e v o l utio n s in G e r m a n y
a n dHun g a r y . Itis k n o wn ,f o r e xa m p l e ,
tha tthe two Sp a r ta cis tl e a de r s in G e r m a n y
we r e J e ws ,tha tB e l a K un ,Sz a m ue l l y ,a n d
in f a ctn e a r l y e v e r y o n e o f the Hun g a r ia n
r e v o l utio n a r ie s ,we r e J e ws ,a n dthe r e is
un iv e r s a l te s tim o n y b y a l l Chr is tia n r e f ug e e s
f r o m Rus s ia tha tthe So v ie tCo m m is s a r e s ,
a l m o s tto a m a n ,a r e J e ws
.
L e n in is o n e o f
the f e wp r o m in e n tf ig ur e s n o tJ e wis h,b ut
e v e n L e n in is s a idto b e m a r r ie dto a J e we s s .
In a n y e v e n titis p l a in f r o m the p r o to co l s
tha tthe l e a de r o f a n a r chy is n o tthe K in g
o f Z io n to who m the y r e f e r . He o n l y l e a ds
the wa y a n dm us thim s e l f b e s we p ta s ide
s o tha tthe r e m a y b e n o ta s p l in te r in the
p a tho f the K in g o f the Ho us e o f Da v id .
In the f o ur thp r o to co l the co ur s e o f a r e v o -
l utio n is v e r y a ccur a te l y de s cr ib e d : " In
EL DERSOFZ ION "

111
the e a r l y da y s m a dr a g in g b y the b l in d
m o b . . . the s e co n dde m a g o g y ,f r o m which
is b o r n a n a r chy ,a n dtha tl e a ds in e v ita b l y
to de s p o tis m . "
Ap p a r e n tl y n o to n l y Rus s ia b utthe who l e
wo r l dm us tp a s s thr o ug hthe s e s ta g e s b e f o r e
the K in g o f Z io n is p r o cl a im e d
.
In the m e a n tim e itis a tl e a s tcl e a r ,a s
Co l o n e l M a l o n e a dm itte d,tha tJ e ws a r e
b e hin dthe Re v o l utio n in Rus s ia ,a n dtha t
is wha t,a f te r a l l ,the p r o to co l s cl a im .
As to the s e v e r a l r e f e r e n ce s to " o ur
in te r n a tio n a l s up e r -g o v e r n m e n t," the s e m a y
o r m a y n o tr e f e r to the L e a g ue o f Na tio n s ,
b utitis a l r e a dy cl e a r tha ts ucha g o v e r n -
m e n twil l p l a y in to the ha n ds o f the in te r -
n a tio n a l J e ws ,a n dwil l we a k e n the s o v e r e ig n ty
o f n a tio n s .
The b o a s tf ul a n db o m b a s ticcha r a cte r o f
the p r o to co l s r e m in dus r a the r s tr ik in g l y o f
tho s e p a s s a g e s in Dis r a e l i' s
Co n in g s b y
whichcl a im f o r the J e ws the co n tr o l o f
Eur o p e a n a f f a ir s ,b o tho n the r e v o l utio n a r y
a n dco n s e r v a tiv e s ide . If the s e do cum e n ts
a r e g e n uin e this b o a s tf ul n e s s is a cr um b o f
co m f o r tto the Chr is tia n p e o p l e s ,s in ce p r ide
p r o v e r b ia l l y g o e thb e f o r e a f a l l .
g
The r e is n o do ub t,ho we v e r ,tha tthe J e ws
ha v e a r ig htto cl a im a v e r y co n s ide r a b l e
in f l ue n ce in the m o v e m e n to f tho ug ht
e n e r a l l y ca l l e d " M o de r n is m ," o r in p o l itics
` L ib e r a l is m . " We ha v e s e e n ho wL e m a n n
a s s e r te dtha tthe J e ws who wo r k e df o r this
112 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
m o v e m e n tin G e r m a n y b e f o r e the Re v o l utio n
we r e the m s e l v e s f a ithf ul to the n a tio n a l o r
tr ib a l p r in cip l e o f J uda is m
. We m us t,
the r e f o r e ,s up p o s e tha tthe s e J e ws e m b r a ce d
M o de r n is m ,n o tf o r its e l f ,b uta s a m e a n s o f
we a k e n in g Chr is tia n n a tio n s .
In this co n n e ctio n itis n o te wo r thy tha t
a tthe un iv e r s a l co n f e r e n ce o f the J e ws he l d
a tL e ip z ig in 18 6 9,whe n the Al l ia n ce Is r a e -
l ite Un iv e r s e l l e
wa s f o un de d,the f o l l o win g
r e s o l utio n wa s p r o p o s e db y
Dr . Phil ip p s o n ,
o f B o n n ,s e co n de db y As tr up ,Chie f Ra b b i
o f B e l g ium ,a n da do p te dwitha ccl a m a tio n
" The Sy n o dr e co g n is e s tha tthe de v e l o p -
m e n ta n dr e a l is a tio n o f m o de r n p r in cip l e s
a r e the m o s tce r ta in g ua r a n te e s o f the
p r e s e n ta n dthe f utur e o f J uda is m a n dits
m e m b e r s
.
The y a r e the m o s te n e r g e tica l l y
v ita l co n ditio n s f o r the e xp a n s iv e e xis te n ce
a n dthe m o s thig hde v e l o p m e n to f J uda is m . "
Its e e m e dto s o m e de m o cr a ts the n a l ittl e
hum il ia tin g tha tthe ir un iv e r s a l m o v e m e n t
s ho ul db e cl a im e da s s e r v in g the ca us e o f a
p a r ticul a r n a tio n a l is m ,b utif the a p p a r e n tl y
in n o ce n tr e s o l utio n o f 18 6 9ha s b e e n tr a n s -
l a te din to the s e te r r ib l e p r o to co l s o f wo r l d
r e v o l utio n ,the m o de r n wo r l dm us tf e e l n o t
m e r e l y hum il ia tio n ,b utho r r o r .
So m uchthe n f o r the in te r n a l e v ide n ce o n
its b r o a dl in e s ,the co r r e s p o n de n ce ,tha tis
to s a y ,b e twe e n the k n o wn a ctiv itie s o f
p o l itica l a n dr e v o l utio n a r y J e wr y a n dthe
cl a im s o f the s e p r o to co l s
.
We m ig hts um
" EL DERSOFZ ION "

113
up the ca s e f o r the ir g e n uin e n e s s in the
s hr e wdwo r ds o f Ab r a ha m L in co l n : " Whe n
we s e e a l o to f f r a m e tim b e r dif f e r e n tp o r -
tio n s o f whichwe k n o wha v e b e e n g o tte n
o uta tdif f e r e n ttim e s a n dp l a ce s ,b y dif f e r e n t
wo r k m e n -Ste p he n ,Fr a n k l in ,Ro g e r ,a n d
J a m e s ,f o r in s ta n ce -a n dwhe n we s e e the s e
tim b e r s f r a m e dto g e the r ,a n ds e e the y e x-
a ctl y m a k e the f r a m e o f a ho us e o r a m il l
-o r if a s in g l e p ie ce b e l a ck in g ,we s e e the
p ie ce in the f r a m e e xa ctl y f itte da n dp r e -
p a r e d,y e tto b r in g s uchp ie ce in -in s ucha
ca s e we f in ditim p o s s ib l e n o tto b e l ie v e tha t
Ste p he n a n dFr a n k l in a n dRo g e r a n dJ a m e s
a l l un de r s to o do n e a n o the r f r o m the b e g in -
n in g ,a n da l l wo r k e dup o n a co m m o n p l a n
o r dr a f tdr a wn up b e f o r e the f ir s tb l o wwa s
s tr uck
. "
Atthe s a m e tim e ,we m us tin f a ir n e s s s ta te
o ur b e l ie f tha tif the do cum e n tb e g e n uin e ,
ito ug htn o tto b e r e g a r de da s a n in dictm e n t
o f a l l J e ws ,b uto f tha ts e ctio n which,un de r
a v e il o f M a s o n r y a n dthr o ug hthe r e v o l u-
tio n a r y p a r tie s a m o n g the G e n til e s ,wo r k s
f o r e n ds n o do ub tk e p ts e cr e tf r o m the
m a j o r ity o f J e ws the m s e l v e s .
a
CHAPTERV III
WORL DREV OL UTION
Fr e e m a s o n r y in the Pr o to co l s -Co -M a s o n r y a n dits Aim s -
Pr e dis p o s in g Ca us e s o f Re v o l utio n -The Exa m p l e o f
Fr a n ce a n dRus s ia -G r e a tB r ita in ' s Hig hl y Sp e cia l is e d
In dus tr ia l M a chin e .
WE ha v e n o w p a s s e d the s e p r o to co l s in
g e n e r a l r e v ie w . We ha v e s um m a r is e dthe ir
co n te n ts . We ha v e p o in te do uttha tthe
do cum e n t,a s f a r a s we k n o w,ca n n o tb e
" p r o v e d " in the l e g a l s e n s e . Fo r the
m a n n e r in whichitwa s o b ta in e da n df o r
its a utho r s hip a l ik e the r e is o n l y the te s ti-
m o n y o f o n e m a n the Rus s ia n Nil us .
An dif we co n s ide r the in te r n a l e v ide n ce
f a ir l y ita m o un ts to this : tha tthe do cum e n t
p r e dicts a wo r l dr e v o l utio n ,a n da wo r l d
r e v o l utio n ca r r ie do utb y a J e wis ho r g a n i-
s a tio n ,a n dtha tthe r e v o l utio n n o win
p r o g r e s s -the B o l s he v is tRe v o l utio n -is in
f a ctca r r ie do n m a in l y b y J e ws ,a n dis a n
a tte m p ta ta wo r l dr e v o l utio n .
The r e we m us tl e a v e it . If o ur r e a de r s
b e l ie v e tha ts ucha p r o p he cy co ul dha v e b e e n
m a de witho utf o r e k n o wl e dg e b y s o m e a n ti-
Se m iticf a n a tic,the n ,o f co ur s e ,the y wil l
n o ta cce p tthe do cum e n ta s g e n uin e . If ,
o n the o the r ha n d,the y b e l ie v e tha ts ucha
hy p o the s is is un te n a b l e ,the n the r e is o n l y
the a l te r n a tiv e tha tthe do cum e n tis g e n uin e .
114
WORL DREV OL UTION

115
If the y b e l ie v e the f o r m e r the y m a y s l e e p
co m f o r ta b l y in the ir b e ds ; if the y b e l ie v e
the l a tte r the n the y m us tr e g a r dthe do cu-
m e n ta s a v e r y s e r io us wa r n in g o f a v e r y
te r r ib l e m e n a ce . The y wil l ,ho we v e r ,ha v e
this co m f o r t-to b e f o r e wa r n e dis to b e
f o r e a r m e d .
B utb e f o r e we l e a v e this s ub j e ctthe r e is
o n e s ide o f the que s tio n whichwe m us t
co n s ide r m o r e f ul l y ,a n dtha tis the p a s s a g e s
in the s e p r o to co l s whichr e f e r to Fr e e -
m a s o n r y . The m a in p a s s a g e o ccur s in Pr o -
to co l 15
" We s ha l l cr e a te a n dm ul tip l y Fr e e m a s o n ic
l o dg e s in a l l the co un tr ie s o f the wo r l d,
a b s o r b in the m a l l who a r e o r who m a y
b e co m e p r o m in e n tin p ub l ica ctiv ity ,f o r in
the s e l o dg e s we s ha l l f in do ur p r in cip a l
in te l l ig e n ce o f f ice a n dm e a n s o f in f l ue n ce .
Al l the s e l o dg e s we s ha l l b r in g un de r o n e
ce n tr a l a dm in is tr a tio n k n o wn to us a l o n e a n d
to a l l o the r s a b s o l ute l y un k n o wn ,whichwil l
b e co m p o s e do f o ur L e a r n e dEl de r s . The
l o dg e s wil l ha v e the ir r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s ,who
wil l s e r v e to s cr e e n this ce n tr a l a dm in is tr a -
tio n ,a n df r o m who m wil l is s ue the wa tch-
wo r da n dp r o g r a m m e . In the s e l o dg e s we
s ha l l tie the k n o twhichb in ds to g e the r a l l
r e v o l utio n a r y a n dl ib e r a l e l e m e n ts . "
No w,the a tte n tiv e r e a de r wil l co n n e ct
this p a s s a g e withce r ta in o the r p a s s a g e s
cur io us l y s im il a r whichwe ha v e quo te din
the co ur s e o f the s e p a g e s . The r e wa s ,f o r
I
116 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
e xa m p l e ,the p a s s a g e f r o m L o uis B l a n e ' s
His to r y o f the Fr e n chRe v o l utio n
" The y cr e a te do ccul tl o dg e s r e s e r v e df o r
a r de n ts o ul s . . . s ha do wy s a n ctua r ie s who s e
do o r s we r e o n l y o p e n to the a de p ta f te r a
l o n g s e r ie s o f p r o o f s ca l cul a te dto te s tthe
p r o g r e s s o f the ir r e v o l utio n a r y e duca tio n . "
The y wil l r e m e m b e r ,a l s o ,tha tr e m a r k -
a b l e p a s s a g e f r o m Al b e r tPik e ' s M a s o n ic
Ritua l
"
M a s o n r y ha s n o to n l y b e e n p r o f a n e d,
b utitha s e v e n s e r v e da s a v e il a n dp r e te xt
f o r the p l o ttin g s o f a n a r chy ,b y the s e cr e t
in f l ue n ce o f the a v e n g e r s o f J a cque s de M o l a i
. "
The y wil l r e m e m b e r ,a l s o ,the p a s s a g e
quo te df r o m the s a m e a utho r ' s
Ritua l o f the
So uthe r n J ur is dictio n o f the Un ite dSta te s
" M y b r o the r ,y o ude s ir e to un ite y o ur s e l f
to a n Or de r whichha s l a b o ur e din s il e n ce
a n ds e cr e cy f o r m o r e tha n f iv e hun dr e d
y e a r s witha s in g l e e n din v ie w,a n dhithe r to
witho n l y p a r tia l s ucce s s -tha twha ty o u
a r e n o we n g a g e din . . . wil l e xp o s e y o uto
da n g e r ,a n dtha tthis Or de r m e a n s to de a l
withthe a f f a ir s o f n a tio n s a n db e o n ce m o r e
a p o we r in the wo r l d . "
The s e wo r ds ,l e titb e r e m e m b e r e d,a r e
p a r to f the r itua l o f a n Or de r o f Fr e e m a s o n r y
k n o wn to ha v e b e e n chie f l y f o un de db y
J e ws ,a n ds us p e cte do f b e in g s til l l a r g e l y
un de r J e wis hin f l ue n ce
.
We m ig htca r r y o ur quo ta tio n s f a r the r .
The G r a n dOr ie n to f Fr a n ce is g e n e r a l l y
WORL DREV OL UTION 117
b e l ie v e dto b e un de r He b r a icin f l ue n ce .
On Ap r il 2 n d,18 8 9,the G r a n dOr ie n tis s ue d
a cir cul a r whichco n ta in e dthe s e wo r ds
"
M a s o n r y ,whichp r e p a r e dthe Re v o l utio n
o f 17 8 9,ha s the duty to co n tin ue its wo r k
. "
Ag a in ,the s e p r o to co l s s p e a k o f the de -
s tr uctio n o f r e l ig io n a s a m e a n s o f un de r -
m in in g s o cie ty . L e tus s e e wha tthe G r a n d
Or ie n ts a y s o f r e l ig io n
" The tr ium p ho f the G a l il e a n ," s a y s the
Pr e s ide n to f the G r a n dOr ie n t,Se n a to r
De l p e ch,o n Se p te m b e r 2 0 th,190 2 , " ha s
l a s te dtwe n ty ce n tur ie s . B utn o wHe die s in
His tur n . The m y s te r io us v o ice a n n o un cin g
( J ul ia n the Ap o s ta te ) the de a tho f Pa n
to -da y a n n o un ce s the de a tho f the im p o s to r
G o d,Who p r o m is e da n e r a o f j us tice a n d
p e a ce to tho s e who b e l ie v e din Him
. M a s o n s ,
we r e j o ice to s ta te tha twe a r e n o twitho ut
o ur s ha r e in this o v e r thr o wo f the f a l s e
p r o p he ts . "
Of the s e p a s s a g e s a tl e a s tthe r e is n o
do ub ta ta l l ,f o r the y a r e ta k e n f r o m the
o f f icia l l ite r a tur e o f the G r a n dOr ie n t . L e t
the r e a de r de cide f o r him s e l f whe the r the y
a r e the m e r e v a p o ur in g s o f f a n a tica l a the is ts
o r a p a r to f the de s ig n o f wo r l dr e v o l utio n
o utl in e din the p r o to co l s .
B utthe p r o to co l s a s s e r te dtha tthe y
in te n de dto m ul tip l y Fr e e m a s o n icl o dg e s a s
a p r e l im in a r y to r e v o l utio n . Wha tis a ctua l l y
b e in g do n e ? We k n o wtha tEn g l is hM a s o n r y
g e n e r a l l y is n o n -p o l itica l a n dl o y a l to B r itis h
i
118 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
in s titutio n s . If the r e f o r e the s e co n s p ir a to r s
a r e ca r r y in g o utthe ir p l a n in this co un tr y
itm us tb e b y the in tr o ductio n in to En g l a n d
o f the Or ie n ta l o r Sco ttis hOr de r s o f M a s o n r y ,
tha tis to s a y ,M a s o n r y o f the r e v o l utio n a r y
ty p e .
No win the y e a r 18 93 a Fr e n chl o dg e
ca l l e d L e s L ib r e s Pe n s e ur s co n s titute dits e l f
in to L a G r a n de L o g e Sy m b o l ique Eco s s a is e
de Fr a n ce ,L e Dr o itHum a in . On e o f the
p e cul ia r itie s o f this Or de r wa s tha tita dm itte d
wo m e n a s we l l a s m e n ,a n dthe m o v e m e n t
ha s co m e to b e k n o wn a s Co -M a s o n r y . An d
withthis Co -M a s o n r y wa s cur io us l y m in g l e d
the cul to f The o s o p hy
. Tho s e who ha v e
s tudie dthe m o v e m e n tf in dtha tthe l e a din g
l ig hts o f The o s o p hy a r e us ua l l y m e m b e r s o f
the Co -M a s o n icl o dg e s
.
B utto p r o ce e d . In 190 0 this n e wG r a n d
L o dg e tr a n s f o r m e dits e l f in to a Sup r e m e
Co un cil o f the An cie n tAcce p te dSco ttis h
Rite .
The r e a r e n o wa hun dr e dl o dg e s wo r k in g
un de r the Sup r e m e Co un cil ,a n dthe y a r e
to b e f o un din Fr a n ce ,B e l g ium ,En g l a n d,
Sco tl a n d,In dia ,Ho l l a n d,J a v a ,Switz e r l a n d,
No r wa y ,So uthAf r ica ,a n dSo uthAm e r ica
.
Tho s e l o dg e s o f this Or de r whichus e the
En g l is hl a n g ua g e ha v e a s ub s idia r y Co un cil
o f the ir o wn ,b uta r e n e v e r the l e s s a n in te g r a l
p a r to f the Co n tin e n ta l Or de r . On the
Co un cil o f the 3 3 r dDe g r e e the r e a r e the r e
En g l is hCo -M a s o n s o uto f the to ta l o f n in e ,
WORL DREV OL UTION

119
s o tha tthe B r itis hr e p r e s e n ta tiv e s a r e o ut-
n um b e r e db y two to o n e .
Itis ha r dl y n e ce s s a r y to s a y tha tthis
m o v e m e n tis n o tr e co g n is e db y the G r a n d
L o dg e o f En g l a n d,whichha s cuto f f a l l
r e l a tio n s withthe G r a n dOr ie n to f Fr a n ce
o n the g r o un do f its a the is m a n da l s o o f
its s ub v e r s iv e p o l itica l te n de n cie s . B utthe
o r ig in a l Fr e n chm e m b e r s o f the Co -M a s o n ic
m o v e m e n twe r e to o a dv a n ce de v e n f o r the
r e v o l utio n a r y G r a n dOr ie n to f Pa r is .
As we ha v e s a id,the B r itis hCo -M a s o n ic
l o dg e s ha v e a s p e cia l G r a n dCo un cil ,a n din
En g l a n dthe y ha v e r e s to r e dthe B ib l e a n d
the n a m e o f G o dto the ir r itua l .
B ut s ix
m e m b e r s o f the G r a n dCo un cil a r e ca r e -
f ul l y s e l e cte df r o m a b o v e ,a n dthe r e p r e -
s e n ta tiv e s o f the l o we r de g r e e s a r e in a
ho p e l e s s m in o r ity o n the Co un cil ,whil e the
Co un cil its e l f is s ub j e ctto the co n tr o l o f the
8 3 r dDe g r e e s ittin g in Pa r is . Tl i . us n o n e w
l o dg e s ca n b e f o un de dwitho utthe s a n ctio n
o f the Sup r e m e Co un cil o f Pa r is ,a n dthe
p e titio n m us tf ir s tb e e n do r s e db y
the
Co un cil o f En g l a n d .
Itwil l thus b e s e e n
tha tthis Co -M a s o n ico r g a n is a tio n ha s b e e n
v e r y ca r e f ul l y tho ug hto ut,a n dtha tits
a ctiv itie s a r e s ub j e ctto the co n tr o l o f a n
un s e e n ha n din Pa r is .
No w we do n o ta l l e g e tha t a l l the m e m b e r s
o f the Co -14 a s o n icm o v e m e n ta r e co n s p ir a -
to r s . On the co n tr a r y ,we b e l ie v e tha t
m a n y o f the m a r e e ithe r ho n e s te n thus ia s ts
12 0 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
o r " tho s e l ig ht-m in de dp e o p l e " to who m
the p r o to co l s s o co n te m p tuo us l y r e f e r . Wha t
we do s ug g e s tis tha tthe m o v e m e n twa s
p r o b a b l y in a ug ur a te da n dm a y p r o b a b l y b e
dir e cte dto r e v o l utio n a r y e n ds . *
We do n o tp r o p o s e f o r the m o m e n tto
s a y a n y thin g m o r e o f this Co -M a s o n icm o v e -
m e n te xce p tthis ,tha twhil e s o m e o f its
m e m b e r s s e e m to b e r e s p e cta b l e a n din n o ce n t
p e o p l e ,s o m e o the r s who a r e co n n e cte dwith
ita n dwho he l p to p r o m o te ita r e k n o wn
a l s o to b e co n n e cte dwiththe r e v o l utio n a r y
a n ds e ditio us m o v e m e n ts whichha v e r e ce n tl y
dis tur b e da n d,in de e d,e n da n g e r e dthe B r itis h
Em p ir e . Of tha twe p o s s e s s p r o o f s . In the
m e a n tim e we wo ul dco n f in e o ur s e l v e s to
wa r n in g the p ub l ico f b o ths e xe s to b e wa r e
o f s uchm o v e m e n ts . The y a r e p utb e f o r e
the m in a n a l l ur in g f o r m ,b uttho s e who
j o in the m m a y dis co v e r to o l a te tha tthe y
a r e " the s ha do wy s a n ctua r ie s o f r e v o l utio n . "
Itm a y n o wb e us e f ul to s um m a r is e wha t
ha s g o n e b e f o r e a n da l s o to m a k e s o m e
g e n e r a l r e m a r k s up o n the n a tur e a n de f f e cts
o f r e v o l utio n . Our s um m a r y ,the n ,is ,f ir s t,
tha tin a l l the r e v o l utio n a r y m o v e m e n ts we
ha v e e xa m in e dthe r e a r e p l a in tr a ce s o f
* M r s . St . J o hn , " G r a n dSe cr e ta r y f o r G r e a tB r ita in
a n dIts De p e n de n cie s " f o r Un iv e r s a l Co -M a s o n r y ,wr o te to
the M o r n in g Po s t o n J ul y 2 4 th,192 0 , " e m p ha tica l l y r e p udi-
a tin g a n y p o l itica l b ia s wha ts o e v e r " f o r the Or de r . " As
a b o dy ," s he e n de dhe r l e tte r , " we a r e n o tin te r e s te din
p o l itie s ,a s n o tb e in g in a n y o n e wa y o ur f ie l do f wo r k ,which
is p ur e l y s p e cul a tiv e a n dp hil o s o p hic . " The cur io us ca n
f in dhe r l e tte r in f ul l in the M o r n in g Po s to f J ul y 2 6 th .
WORL DREV OL UTION

12 1
de s ig n ,a n dthe r e is e v ide n ce a l s o tha tthis
de s ig n is co m m o n to a l l r e v o l utio n a r y m o v e -
m e n ts .
In the s e co n dp l a ce ,we ha v e s e e n
tha tce r ta in Or de r s o f Fr e e m a s o n r y ha v e
b e e n a ctiv e in this de s ig n ,a n dtha tthe y ha v e
a l wa y s b e e n in s p ir e db y the s a m e f e r o cio us
ha tr e d' o f Chr is tia n chur cha n dNa tio n a l
Sta te .
An din the thir dp l a ce we ha v e
o b s e r v e dtha ta ce r ta in ty p e o f "
a dv a n ce d "
o r p o l itica l J e ws ha v e b e e n a ctiv e ,b o thin
the M a s o n ico r g a n is a tio n s a n din the r e v o -
l utio n s the m s e l v e s
. The y ha v e n o t,itis
tr ue ,l e dthe f o r l o r n ho p e s
; the y a r e s e l do m
to b e s e e n e ithe r o n the b a r r ica de s o r o n the
s ca f f o l d,b utthe y l ur k b e hin d,a ctiv e a n d
e n e r g e ticin in tr ig ue ,a n dg iv in g the im p r e s -
s io n o f a p ur p o s e f ul a ctiv ity .
We ha v e s e e n ho wthe Ab b e L e m a n n ,
him s e l f b y r a ce a J e w,wa s ca r e f ul to dis -
tin g uis hb e twe e n the a dv a n ce d,o r p o l itica l ,
J e w,who n o ur is he dg r e a ta m b itio n s f o r
him s e l f a n df o r his r a ce ,b utwho ha d
l ib e r a te dhim s e l f f r o m his r e l ig io n ,a n dthe
m a s s o f J e ws who a r e co n te n tto r e m a in
g o o dcitiz e n s o f the co un tr y o f the ir a do p tio n
a n ds a tis f y the ide a l s ide o f the ir n a tur e
withthe r e l ig io n o f the ir a n ce s to r s .
We m a y ta k e it,the n ,tha tthe s e a r de n t
p o l itica l s p ir its dr e a m a p o l itica l dr e a m
whichis a m o de r n de v e l o p m e n to f the
M e s s ia n icp r o p he cie s ,a n dtha tthe y ha v e
a l s o in the ir b l o o da tr a ditio n a l a n dr a cia l
ha tr e df o r the Chr is tia n n a tio n s whichin
12 2 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
a g e s p a s tha v e n o ttr e a te dthe ir p e o p l e
to o we l l .
We s e e this ha tr e din the r e a l m
o f J e wis htho ug ht,in the r e v o l utio n a r y
s y s te m o f Al e xa n de r He r ce n ,the in te l l e c-
tua l f o un de r o f Rus s ia n a n a r chy ,in the
e xp l o s iv e e co n o m ics o f L a s s a l l e a n dK a r l
M a r x,a n din the p a s s io n a te dr e a m s o f
He in e . He in e g l o a ts o v e r the p r o s p e cto f
the " G e r m a n thun de r tha tis co m in g s l o wl y
b utwil l co m e -whe n y o uhe a r a n up r o a r
s ucha s the r e n e v e r wa s in his to r y ,k n o w
the n tha tthe G e r m a n thun de r b o l tha s s tr uck
its m a r k . . . the G e r m a n s wil l the n s ta g e
a p l a y in co m p a r is o n withwhichthe Fr e n ch
Re v o l utio n wa s b uta n idy l l . "
An d,a g a in ,
in his p r e dictio n o f the
: r o l e o f Rus s ia -" We
do n o tm in da l ittl e s l a v e r y m o r e o r l e s s ,f o r
thr o ug hRus s ia we s ha l l b e l ib e r a te df r o m
the r e m a in s o f f e uda l is m a n dcl e r ica l is m
. " *
An d,l a s tl y ,we ha v e f o un dtha ta l l the s e
e l e m e n ts co m e to g e the r in a r e v o l utio n a r y
p r o p a g a n da b o thSe m itica n dM a s o n ic,which
ha s b e e n ,a s a f a ct,b e hin dr e v o l utio n a r y
m o v e m e n ts b o thin the n in e te e n tha n dthe
twe n tie th' ce n tur ie s ,a n dp r o b a b l y a l s o in
the e ig hte e n thce n tur y .
We a r r iv e a tthe s e co n cl us io n s a l to g e the r
in de p e n de n tl y o f the Nil us b o o k ,a b o o k the
cr e dib il ity o f whichr e s ts ,a s we ha v e s a id,
e n tir e l y up o n in te r n a l e v ide n ce .
* The s e quo ta tio n s f r o m He in e a r e ta k e n f r o m a n
e xtr e m e l y in te r e s tin g a r ticl e b y the Co un tde So is s o n s o n
the J e ws a s a r e v o l utio n a r y l e a v e n in the
Q ua r te r l y Re v ie w
o f J a n ua r y ,192 0 .
WORL DREV OL UTION

12 8
If the s e co n cl us io n s a r e we l l f o un de da
r e v o l utio n is n o tthe r e s ul to f wha twe
m ig htca l l s p o n ta n e o us s o cia l co m b us tio n
b utthe r e s ul to f de s ig n . Ye tthe r e is this
ca utio n to b e m a de : a ho us e do e s n o t
s p o n ta n e o us l y ig n ite ,b utitwil l b ur n f ie r ce l y
if its m a te r ia l s a r e dr y ,co m b us tib l e ,a n d
r o tte n . Itwil l p r o b a b l y n o tca tchf ir e a t
a l l if itis b uil to f f ir e p r o o f m a te r ia l a n dis
in ha b ite db y p e o p l e who ta k e p r o p e r p r e -
ca utio n s a g a in s tf ir e . So witha n a tio n ,the
s o cia l o r g a n is a tio n ca n n o tb e f a n n e din to
the f l a m e s o f r e v o l utio n ,n o m a tte r wha t
s e cr e ts o cie tie s a r e a two r k ,un l e s s the co n -
ditio n s a r e f a v o ur a b l e to r e v o l utio n . The
co n ditio n s f a v o ur a b l e to r e v o l utio n ha v e
b e e n dia g n o s e db y s ta te s m e n a n db y his -
to r ia n s
. The y a r e n o t,p r o p e r l y s p e a k in g ,
the b us in e s s o f this b o o k ,whichwa s s im -
p l y to l o o k f o r the in ce n dia r y de s ig n ,
n o tto de v is e a f ir e p r o o f ho us e
. Ye tn e v e r -
the l e s s we m a y s ug g e s tb r ie f l y the ca us e s
whichp r e dis p o s e to r e v o l utio n in a l l a g e s
a n din a l l n a tio n s . Wa r s ce r ta in l y ,in p a r -
ticul a r un s ucce s s f ul wa r s ,whichl e a v e s o l die r s
un e m p l o y e d,a n dp r o duce in m e n a f itn e s s
f o r de s p e r a te de e ds ,a r e o n e ca us e
. B a d
tr a de ,whichthr o ws m e n up o n the s tr e e ts
a n dl e a v e s the m idl e a n dr ip e f o r m is chie f ,
whichm a k e s tho us a n ds o f m e n thin k tha t
a n y cha n g e is b e tte r tha n p r e s e n tco n ditio n s
-tha tis a n o the r ca us e . We s ha l l f in d
if we l o o k in to ittha tp r a ctica l l y e v e r y
12 4
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
r e v o l utio n is p r e ce de db y a p e r io do f b a d
tr a de a n dun e m p l o y m e n t . B a dha r v e s ts
a n ds ca r city o f f o o d,p r o ducin g hun g e r a n d
e n v y in the m a s s e s o f the p e o p l e ,a r e a n o the r
ca us e
. Pa r ty r iv a l r ie s a n df a ctio n s in the
Sta te ,p r o ducin g b a n ds o f m e n a te n m ity
withthe p r e s idin g G o v e r n m e n t,a n dwil l in g
to b r in g itdo wn f o r the ir o wn p ur p o s e s -
tha tce r ta in l y is a n o the r ca us e
. The cha r -
a cte r o f the G o v e r n m e n tits e l f ,whe the r it
s up p r e s s e s to o m uchthe co m m o n l ib e r tie s
o f the n a tio n ,o r ,o n the o the r s ide ,is to o
in dul g e n twithtr e a s o n a n dcr im e ,o r ,a g a in ,
is in s p ir e db y im p r a ctica b l e ide a l s which
b r in g the Sta te to dis a s te r -he r e we ha v e
s til l a n o the r ca us e o f r e v o l utio n . An de x-
tr a v a g a n tide a s in the m in ds o f the p e o p l e ,
whe the r o f l ib e r ty s o g r e a ttha titin j ur e s
o the r s ,o r o f we a l ths o e a s y tha titr e s e m b l e s
p l un de r ,the s e ,to o ,m a y in duce to r e v o l utio n
.
M o r e o v e r ,itha s ha p p e n e din his to r y tha t
a n a s tute a n dun s cr up ul o us r ul e r ,a s ,f o r
e xa m p l e ,Fr e de r ick the G r e a t,m a y p r o m o te
a r e v o l utio n in a n e ig hb o ur in g co un tr y f o r
his o wn p ur p o s e s ,b y p r o p a g a n da a n db y
wha twe n o wca l l p e a ce f ul p e n e tr a tio n
.
Ce r ta in l y a co un tr y we l l g o v e r n e db y
r e s p e cte dr ul e r s ,who s e in dus tr ie s a r e p r o s -
p e r o us ,a n dwho s e s ub j e cts a r e r e a s o n a b l y
ha p p y ,is the
s o r t
o f n a tio n a l ho us e tha t
do e s n o tr e a dil y ta k e f ir e . Itis f o r o ur
s ta te s m e n to co n s ide r if En g l a n dis in this
ca s e a tp r e s e n t
.
WORL DREV OL UTION

12 5
Whe n a l l o r a n y s uchdis tur b in g co n -
ditio n s e xis t,the n the wr e ck e r s wo r k ,the n
the s ha do wy s a n ctua r ie s o f r e v o l utio n b e co m e
b us y ,a n dthe p e o p l e r ip e f o r tr o ub l e a r e
p e r s ua de do n e v e r y ha n dtha tthe ir il l s ca n
b e r e dr e s s e db y the de s tr uctio n o f s o cie ty .
Itis a te r r ib l e f a l l a cy . An a tio n ,a n d
e s p e cia l l y a m o de r n n a tio n ,is a hig hl y
co m p l e xs y s te m o f l if e . Itha s g r o wn ,it
ha s de v e l o p e d,a n dite xis ts b y the in tr ica te
in te r a ctio n o f m il l io n s o f p a r ts o n e with
a n o the r . Rus s ia wa s a co un tr y whicho f
a l l co un tr ie s in Eur o p e co ul db e s ts ta n da
r e v o l utio n ,f o r its in dus tr ia l o r g a n is a tio n
wa s co m p a r a tiv e l y l o w . Nin e ty p e r ce n t .
o f the p e o p l e l iv e do n the l a n din a m a n n e r
a l m o s ts e l f -co n ta in e d . The y co ul dl iv e ,a l -
tho ug hthe m a chin e r y o f m o de r n in dus tr ia l -
is m wa s b r o ug htto a s ta n d
. Ye te v e n in
Rus s ia the in ha b ita n ts o f the g r e a tto wn s
a n dthe m iddl e a n dup p e r cl a s s e s ,a l l e s s e n tia l
to the n a tio n a l l if e ,ha v e b e e n a l m o s ta l to -
g e the r de s tr o y e d,e xce p ttho s e a l ie n s who
we r e a b l e to co m e to te r m s withthe " te r r ib l e
s e ct . " The p o p ul a tio n o f g r e a tcitie s ha s in
m a n y ca s e s a l m o s tdis a p p e a r e d . Who l e
cl a s s e s ha v e b e e n e ithe r de s tr o y e do r ha v e
f l e dthe co un tr y . B utco n s ide r the s itua tio n
o f s ucha co un tr y a s En g l a n din a r e v o l utio n ,
whe r e l e s s tha n ha l f the p e o p l e l iv e up o n the
l a n d,a n dm o r e tha n ha l f de p e n dup o n g r e a t
in tr ica te in dus tr ie s in whichthe y a r e a l l
s p e cia l is ts ,a n dthe p r o f its o f whichb uy f o r
12 6 THECAUSEOF
WORL DUNREST
the m a l l the ir n e ce s s itie s . L e tus co n s ide r ,
to o ,tha tin this co un tr y m o s to f o ur f o o d
do e s n o tco m e f r o m the f a r m in the co un tr y
ca r t,b utb y s hip a n dr a il wa y f r o m g r e a t
dis ta n ce s a n df r o m f o r e ig n co un tr ie s
. If
the in dus tr ia l m a chin e r y is b r o ug htto a
s to p ,if the ca r r y in g m a chin e r y is p a r a l y s e d
e v e n f o r a f o r tn ig ht,m o r e tha n ha l f the
n a tio n is de p r iv e do f the m e a n s o f e xis te n ce .
As in div idua l s the y a r e he l p l e s s ; the y m us t
s ta r v e . If the y r us hthe s ho p s a n dp l un de r
the wa r e ho us e s ,if the y r o b the ir r iche r
n e ig hb o ur s a n df o r a g e thr o ug hthe co un tr y
in p l un de r in g ho r de s ,the y m a y e xis ta l ittl e
whil e l o n g e r ,b utthe e n dis n o l e s s in e v ita b l e .
In a n y r e v o l utio n whichwa s r e a l l y s ucce s s f ul
f r o m the p o in to f v ie wo f the r e v o l utio n a r ie s ,
tha tis to s a y ,in a n y r e v o l utio n which
p a r a l y s e dwha tis ca l l e dthe ca p ita l is tic
o r g a n is a tio n b y whichwe l iv e ,a tl e a s tha l f
a n dp r o b a b l y ,thr e e -qua r te r s o f the p o p ul a -
tio n wo ul ddie o f s ta r v a tio n
. L e tus n o t
s a y tha titca n n o tha p p e n b e ca us e itha s
n o tha p p e n e ds o f a r . If a r e v o l utio n o ccur s
itm us tha p p e n .
Fr a n ce wa s co m p a r a tiv e l y f o r tun a te in
the Re ig n o f Te r r o r ,b e ca us e he r p o p ul a tio n
a ttha ttim e wa s chie f l y a g r icul tur a l ,y e t
itis ce r ta in tha ta l a r g e p a r to f the p o p ul a -
tio n die d,whe the r b y m a s s a cr e o r b y s ta r v a -
tio n . Pr udho m m e e s tim a te s tha tthe de a th-
r o l l in Fr a n ce dur in g the Te r r o r ,in cl udin g
l o s s e s thr o ug hciv il wa r ,wa s 1,0 2 5 ,7 11 . In
WORL DREV OL UTION

12 7
Na n cy a l o n e ,b y the g uil l o tin e ,s ho o tin g ,a n d
who l e s a l e dr o wn in g s a n db y p e s til e n ce ,
3 2 ,0 0 0 p e o p l e l o s tthe ir l iv e s . Ta in e s a y s
tha tthe r e we r e n e a r l y ha l f a m il l io n v ictim s
o f the Te r r o r in the e l e v e n p r o v in ce s o f the
we s ta l o n e . We n o wk n o wtha tthe r e v o -
l utio n a r ie s s a wcl e a r l y tha tthe p o p ul a tio n
co ul dn o tco n tin ue to e xis t,a n dwe r e de te r -
m in e dto r e duce it . Co ur to is ,in his r e p o r t
o n the p a p e r s s e iz e da tRo b e s p ie r r e ' s ho us e ,
s p e a k s o f a p l a n to a n n ihil a te twe l v e o r
f if te e n m il l io n s o f the Fr e n chp e o p l e . On e
o f the Il l um in a ti,G r a cchus B a b e uf ,s a id
tha tde p o p ul a tio n wa s in dis p e n s a b l e . Pr ud-
ho m m e a s s e r ts tha tthe Te r r o r wa s p a r to f a
p l a n o f de p o p ul a tio n co n ce iv e db y M a r a t
a n dRo b e s p ie r r e . Ca r r ie r ,o n e o f the in s tr u-
m e n ts o f the Te r r o r ,s a id : " L e tus m a k e a
ce m e te r y o f Fr a n ce r a the r tha n n o tr e g e n e -
r a te he r a f te r o ur -m a n n e r . " J e a n B o n
Sa in t-An dr e is r e p o r te d( b y L a r e v e l l ie r e -
L e p e a ux) to ha v e a s s e r te dtha tin o r de r to
e s ta b l is hthe Re p ub l ics e cur e l y in Fr a n ce ,
the p o p ul a tio n m us tb e r e duce db y m o r e
tha n o n e -ha l f .
An dthe s e m a s s a cr e s we r e in dis cr im in a te .
M o de r n a n a l y s e s o f the n a m e s o f the v ictim s
s ho wtha tthe y we r e n o tchie f l y a r is to cr a ts ,
b utwe r e dr a wn in the m a in f r o m a m o n g p o o r
a n do b s cur e p e o p l e ,s m a l l s ho p k e e p e r s . Of
the 1,3 6 6 v ictim s o f the G r e a tTe r r o r in
Pa r is ,the l a r g e s tp r o p o r tio n wa s e ithe r f r o m
the m iddl e o r the wo r k in g cl a s s e s . Hun dr e ds
12 8 THECAUSE OFWORL DUNREST
o f wo r k in g m e n a n dwo r k in g wo m e n we r e
g uil l o tin e df o r r e a s o n s tha tca n n o tn o wb e
a s ce r ta in e d . Itis p r o b a b l e tha tm a n y o f
the m we r e de n o un ce do uto f p a n ic,a n dm a n y
o the r s f o r r e a s o n s o f b l a ck m a il .
Pe o p l e
k il l e din o r de r ' n o tto b e k il l e d,a n dthe
tr ib un a l de m a n de dv ictim s a tthe r a te o f
s o m a n y a da y in o r de r to o v e r a we tho s e
who r e m a in e d
.
Suchthin g s ta k e p l a ce whe n the s o cia l
o r de r is in dis s o l utio n ,whe n cr im in a l s a n d
f a n a tics us ur p the p l a ce o f G o v e r n m e n t .
An dthe r e is a n o the r te r r o r a dde d. Fo r
the e n e m ie s o f a n a tio n in r e v o l utio n ta k e
the o p p o r tun ity o f a tta ck in g it,a n din v a s io n
a n din te r n a l wa r co m p l e te the de s tr uctio n
.
No n a tio n ca n witho uta te r r ib l e ca ta s tr o p he
de s tr o y its s o cia l a n din dus tr ia l o r de r a n d
its n a tio n a l dis cip l in e .
_CHAPTERIX
THEHUB OFTHECONSPIRACY
The M a r cho f Pr e s e n t-Da y Ev e n ts -Pe r s o n a l itie s in M o s -
co w-J e wr y ' s Ov e r whe l m in g Str e n g th-The Aim s o f
B o l s he v is m .
" WANT a n do p in io n a r e the two a g e n ts
whichm a k e a l l m e n a ct . Ca us e the wa n t,
g o v e r n o p in io n s ,a n dy o uwil l o v e r tur n
a l l the e xis tin g s y s te m s ,ho we v e r we l l co n -
s o l ida te dthe y m a y a p p e a r . " Tha tm a xim
o f r e v o l utio n a r y Fr e e m a s o n r y quo te db y
the Ab b e B a r r ue l in his M e m o ir s o f J a co b in -
is m to wa r ds the e n do f the e ig hte e n th
ce n tur y e p ito m is e s the s tr a n g e cr e e dwho s e
e v o l utio n ha s b e e n tr a ce d . The in f e r e n ce s
to b e dr a wn f r o m tho s e m y s te r io us p r o -
n o un ce m e n ts ,b e g in n in g withthe f o un da tio n
o f the Il l um in a tiin B a v a r ia in 17 7 6 ,do wn
to the p ub l ica tio n o f the n o wf a m o us Pr o -
to co l s o f M e e tin g s o f the " L e a r n e dEl de r s
o f Z io n " in 190 5 b y the Rus s ia n ,Se r g e Nil us ,
a r e tha tf o r a l o n g p e r io do f tim e a co n -
s p ir a cy ha s b e e n g r a dua l l y de v e l o p in g f o r
the o v e r thr o win g o f the e xis tin g Chr is tia n
f o r m o f civ il is a tio n ,tha tthe p r im e a g e n ts
o f tha tco n s p ir a cy we r e J e ws a n dr e v o l u-
tio n a r y Fr e e m a s o n s ,a n dtha tits o b j e ct,
whichitis cl a im e dis n o wn e a r f r uitio n ,is
to p a v e the wa y f o r the wo r l ds up r e m a cy o f
a cho s e n p e o p l e . We do n o tp r o f e s s to b e
12 9

1
18 0 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
a b l e to s ub s ta n tia te the s e in f e r e n ce s ; a l l
we ca n do is to dr a wa tte n tio n to s o m e o f
the g r e a tf o r ce s whichin r e ce n ty e a r s
ha v e b e e n m o ul din g g o v e r n m e n ta n do p in io n
a n dto s e e if the y b e a r a n y r e s e m b l a n ce
in the m s e l v e s a n din the ir e f f e cts to the
dr e a m s a n ds che m e s f a s hio n e db y the s e
e a g e r a n dde te r m in e df a n a tics .
No w,the f ir s tp o in twhichm us ts tr ik e
a n y s tude n to f wo r l dm o v e m e n ts a tthe
p r e s e n tm o m e n tis tha tm e n a r e ce r ta in l y
a ctin g
. In de e d,co m p a r e dwiththe ce a s e l e s s
a ctiv itie s b o thin tho ug hta n da ctio n o f
the m e n o f to -da y ,o ur f o r e f a the r s we r e
m e n who m e r e l y s l e p t . Da r in g r e v o l u-
tio n a r y ide a l s ,da r in g r e v o l utio n a r y m o v e -
m e n ts ,a r e s we e p in g the wo r l de ithe r to wa r ds
a n e whe a v e n o r to wa r ds the a b y s s -it
de p e n ds up o n o n e ' s p o in to f v ie w . M e n ,
in de e d,a r e a ctin g ,a n dthe f o r ce s which
a r e m o v in g the m a r e wa n ta n do p in io n I
Str ik e s f o l l o wo n e a n o the r a l l o v e r the
wo r l dwiththe r a p idity a n dco n ce r te da ctio n
o f wa v e s b e a tin g up o n a s ho r e ,a n dthe
s tr ik e r s p r o cl a im tha tdr iv e n b y wa n tthe y
a r e o utf o r l a r g e in cr e a s e s in wa g e s . In
tha tco n n e ctio n itis wo r thquo tin g a g a in
a s e n te n ce f r o m the Pr o to co l s : "
We s ha l l
r a is e the r a te o f wa g e s ,which,ho we v e r ,
wil l n o tb r in g a n y a dv a n ta g e to the wo r k e r s ,
f o r a tthe s a m e tim e we s ha l l p r o duce a
r is e in p r ice s o f the f ir s tn e ce s s a r ie s o f l if e . "
So m uchf o r wa n t
.
An da s f o r o p in io n ,
THEHUB OFTHECONSPIRACY18 1
g r e a tm a s s e s o f m e n o f dif f e r e n tn a tio n a l ity ,
r a ce ,r e l ig io n ,cl a s s ,a n dp r o f e s s io n a r e in
the s e da y s s wa y e da n ddr iv e n a n da l m o s t
co n s um e db y a n e wg o s p e l whichb o l dl y
b ids f o r the p l a ce he l dthr o ug ho utthe
Chr is tia n e r a b y the o l d . This g o s p e l is
B o l s he v is m . Itis de r iv e dp r im a r il y f r o m
the b e a titude s p r o n o un ce db y the J e w,
K a r l M a r x,a n dits p r e s e n tf o un ta in he a d
is M o s co w
.
B o l s he v is m is o p e n l y a n ti-
Chr is tia n a n dr e v o l utio n a r y . Its e e k s to
a b o l is hp r o p e r ty ,to f o un dthe dicta to r s hip
o f the p r o l e ta r ia t,to p l a ce the wo r l dun de r
a n in te r n a tio n a l co n tr o l . No wn e a r l y a l l
the B o l s he v ik s a r e J e ws . Tha tis a f a ct
o f tr e m e n do us s ig n if ica n ce . He r e is a l is t,
the r e s ul to f m uchl a b o ur ,a n dthe wo r k
o f s e v e r a l ha n ds ,whichg iv e s the p s e udo n y m s ,
the r e a l n a m e s ,a n dthe r a cia l o r ig in o f
f if ty p e r s o n s who e ithe r a r e the a ctua l
g o v e r n in g p o we r s in So v ie tRus s ia ,n o wo r
we r e r e s p o n s ib l e f o r the e s ta b l is hm e n to f
the p r e s e n t r e g im e the r e
Ps e udo n y m
.
Re a l
Na m e
.
Ra ce
.
1 . L e n in . . Oul ia n o v . . Rus s ia n
2 . Tr o ts k y . . . . B r o n s te in . . J e w
8 . Ste k l o v . . Na cha m k e s s . . J e w
4 . M a r to v Ts e de r b a um . . . . J e w
6 . Z in o v ie v Ap f e l b a um
. .
J e w
6 . G o us s ie v . . Dr a p k in . . J e w
7
. K a m e n e v Ro s e n f e l d . . . . J e w
8 . So uha n o v
G him m e r . . G e r m a n
9. Sa g e r s k y
K r a chm a n n . . J e w
10 . B o g da n o v
Sil b e r s te in . . J e w
11. G o r e v G o l dm a n . . J e w
13 2 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
Acco r din g to ce r ta in a utho r itie s
L e n in ' s
m o the r ( a s l ik e wis e the m o the r o f K e r e n s k i)
12 . Our itz k y
18 . V o l o da r s k y . .
14 . Sv e r dl o v

. .
Ra do m is l s k y
K o he n

. .
Sv e r dl o v

. . . .
J e w
J e w
( 2 ) J e w
15 . K a m k o v .
.
16 . G a n e tz k y
17 . Da n n
18 . M e s hk o v s k y
19. Pa r v us
2 0 . Ria z a n o v
2 1. M a r tin o v
2 2 . Tche r n o m o r s k y
2 3 . Pia tn itz k y . .
K a tz
Fur s te n b e r g . .
G o ur e v itch . .
G o l db e r g
He l p ha n dt . .
G o l de n b a ch . .
Z im b a r
Tch
. e r n o m o r dik
L e v in . .

. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
J e w
J e w
J e w
J e w
J e w
J e w
J e w
J e w
J e w
2 4 . Ab r a m o v itch,
2 5 . So l n tz e v

. .
2 6 . Z v e r z dl tch . .
2 7 . Ra de k
2 8 . L itv in o v , a l ia s Fin -
k e n s te in .
Re in
B l e ichm a n
Fo n s te in
So b e l s o n
Wa l l a ck
J e w
J e w
J e w
J e w
J e w
2 9. L o un a tcha r s k y
L o un a tcha r s k y Rus s ia n
8 0 . K o l o n ta i . . K o l o n ta i

. .
Rus s ia n
8 1. Pe te r s Pe te r s

. . L e tt
3 2 . M a k l a k o v s k y Ro s e n b l o o m . . J e w
8 3 . L a p in s k y L e v e n s o n . . J e w
3 4 . V o b r o v Na ta n s s o n J e w
8 5 . Or to do k s
Ak s e l r o de J e w
3 6 . G a r in G e r f e l dt J e w
3 7 . G l a z o un o v . .
Schul z e J e w
8 8
. L e b e die v a . . Sim s o n J e we s s
8 9. J o f f e . . J o f f e . .

. . J e w
4 0 . K a m e n s k y . . Ho f f m a n . . . .
J e w
4 1. Na o ut
G in z b ur g J e w
4 2 . Z a g o r s k y
K r a chm a l in k . . J e w
4 3 . Iz g o e v
G o l dm a n . . J e w
4 4 . V l a dim ir o v
. . Fe l dm a n J e w
4 5 . B o un s k o v . .
Fo un da m e n tz k y . . J e w
4 6 . M a n o uil s k y
. .

. . M a n o uil s k y . . . . J e w
4 7 . L a r in . . L o ur ie

. .
J e w
4 8 . K r a s s in . .

. . K r a s s in

. .
Rus s ia n
4 9. Tchiche r in . . Tchiche r in . .
Rus s ia n
5 0 . G o uk o v s k y . . G o uk o v s k y . .
Rus s ia n
THEHUB OFTHECONSPIRACY18 3
wa s a J e we s s . M r . K r a s s in ' s wif e is a l s o
a J e we s s .
So m e o f the s e n a m e s a r e s o f a m il ia r
n o wto En g l is hr e a de r s tha titis un n e ce s s a r y
to g iv e the ir b io g r a p hie s ,b utthe f o l l o win g
b r ie f n o te s co n ce r n in g the l e s s k n o wn ,b ut
s til l p r o m in e n t,B o l s he v ik s m a y b e us e f ul
" M ARTOV ( 4 ) wa s the l e a de r o f the
M e n s he v ik f a ctio n a tthe f a m o us L o n do n
Co n f e r e n ce o f 18 93 whe n the wo r ds ' B o l -
s he v ik ' a n d` M e n s he v ik ' f ir s tca m e in to
us e . L e n in ,r e p r e s e n tin g the B o l s he v ik s ,
wa s his o p p o n e n ta ttha ttim e . He is the
o n l y p r o m in e n tM e n s he v ik who ha s ta k e n
a n a ctiv e p a r tin the B o l s he v is t r e g im e . He
ha s do n e s o de s p ite the f a cttha the ha s
n e v e r ce a s e dto p r e dictul tim a te dis a s te r
f o r the p r e s e n tG o v e r n m e n t .
" K AM ENEV ( 7 ) is Tr o ts k y ' s b r o the r -in -l a w
a n dthe chie f o r a to r ica l s up p o r to f the
B o l s he v is tca us e
.
He is a n y thin g b ut
de m o cr a ticin m a n n e r a n din s o m e r e s p e cts
is cul tiv a te d . He is o r wa s Pr e s ide n to f the
M o s co wSo v ie t .
" V OL ODARSK Y( 13 ) is n o wde a d . He wa s
a J e wis hta il o r f r o m L o n do n ,who j o in e d
the m o v e m e n ts o o n a f te r itto o k f o r m a n d
b e ca m e o n e o f the m o s tha te do f the o r ig in a l
Co m m is s a r s . Am o b o f wo r k m e n k il l e dhim ,
b uthe didm uchto wa r ds l a un chin g B o l -
s he v is m .
" G ANETZ K Y( 16 ) f o r a l o n g tim e a cte d
a s l ia is o n o f f ice r b e twe e n the G e r m a n G e n e r a l
i
13 4 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
Sta f f a n dthe B o l s he v is tl e a de r s ,m a k in g
in n um e r a b l e s e cr e ttr ip s b e twe e n B e r l in a n d
M o s co w .
Itwa s thr o ug hhis e f f o r ts tha t
G e r m a n m il ita r y a idwa s b r o ug htto the
Re dAr m y .
Al s o he a r r a n g e dthe r e ce n t
p a y m e n tto Es tho n ia o f 15 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 g o l d
r o ub l e s ,b r in g in g the m o n e y to Re v a l f r o m
a b a n k in Sto ck ho l m .
" L OUNATCHARSK Y( 2 9)
is o n e o f the f e w
ide a l is ts in the m o v e m e n ta n dthe m a n
thr o ug hwho s e in f l ue n ce the Re dTe r r o r
wa s m o de r a te d
.
" K OL ONTAI( 3 0 )
is the ' he r o in e ' o f the
B o l s he v is tm o v e m e n ta n dhe r m a r r ia g e to
Dy b e n k o ,l e a de r o f the s a il o r s in the up r is in g ,
whichp utthe B o l s he v ik s in p o we r ,ha s
b e e n te r m e dthe ` r o m a n ce o f the Re v o l u-
tio n
. ' Itto o k p l a ce s ho r tl y a f te r the e s ta b l is h-
m e n to f the p r e s e n tG o v e r n m e n t,a n d
. s he
a n dDy b e n k o we n to f f o n a k in do f ho n e y -
m o o n to p r e a ch,n o tCo m m un is m ,n o r B o l -
s he v is m ,b utAn a r chy in the Uk r a in e
. This
b r o ug hthe r in to the b a dg r a ce s o f the
So v ie t,b utl a te r s he m o dif ie dhe r v ie ws ,
a n dis n o w
. the So v ie tCo m m is s a r f o r Pub l ic
We l f a r e .
She is s a idto b e a m o s tv io l e n t
p e r s o n a l ity . He r f a m il y wa s n o b l e
.
"
AK SEL RODE( 3 5 )
is the m a n who ,a f te r
the Re v o l utio n ,cl o s e ddo wn a l l the n e ws -
p a p e r s a n ds e iz e dthe ir p r e s s e s
. Sin ce tha t
tim e o n l y B o l s he v is tn e ws p a p e r s ha v e b e e n
p ub l is he din Rus s ia
. He is n o wCo m m is s a r
o f the Pr e s s .
THEHUB OFTHECONSPIRACY13 5
"
G o uK o v s K Y( 5 0 ) wa s the he a do f the
B o l s he v is tm is s io n to Es tho n ia ,whichwa s
a l m o s te xcl us iv e l y J e wis h . "
Ev e r y b o dy ,f r ie n dl y o r un f r ie n dl y ,who
ha s co m e in co n ta ctwiththe B o l s he v ik s
a g r e e s tha tthe y a r e a l m o s te n tir e l y J e ws
.
On e o f the f ir s tto m e e tthe m in a n o f f icia l
ca p a city wa s Co un tCz e r n in ,the Fo r e ig n
M in is te r o f the Dua l M o n a r chy
. "
The ir
l e a de r s ," s a y s the Co un tin a l e tte r wr itte n
in No v e m b e r ,1917 ," a r e a l m o s ta l l o f
the m J e ws witha l to g e the r f a n ta s ticide a s ,
a n dIdo n o te n v y the co un tr y tha tis
g o v e r n e db y the m . " Of the B o l s he v ik s
who to o k p a r t, in the B r e s tL ito v s k n e g o -
tia tio n s Tr o ts k y wa s the o n e who m o s t
im p r e s s e dthe Co un t . " Tr o ts k y ," he s a y s ,
"
is un do ub te dl y a n in te r e s tin g ,cl e v e r f e l l o w
a n da v e r y da n g e r o us a dv e r s a r y .
He is
quite e xce p tio n a l l y g if te da s a s p e a k e r ,with
a s wif tn e s s a n da dr o itn e s s in r e to r twhich
Iha v e r a r e l y s e e n ,a n dha s ,m o r e o v e r ,a l l
the in s o l e n tb o l dn e s s o f his r a ce . " This
wa s in the hum il ia tin g da y s o f B r e s tL ito v s k .
Wha tm us tn o wb e the a r r o g a n ce o f Tr o ts k y ,
the co n que r o r o f K o l tcha k , J ude n itch,
De n ik in ,a n dthe Po l e s ,the o r g a n is e r o f
v icto r y ,a n dthe p r im e in s tr um e n tin b r in g in g
En g l a n da n dhe r a l l ie s n e a r e r a n dn e a r e r
to the p e a ce ta b l e I
He r e is a n o the r p ie ce o f e v ide n ce o n e
ta k e s a tr a n do m o uto f m a n y . In the
in quir y in to B o l s he v is tp r o p a g a n da b y the
18 6
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
Co m m itte e o f the J udicia r y o f the Un ite d
Sta te s e v ide n ce wa s g iv e n b y M r . R. B .
De n n is ,a te a che r in No r th-We s te r n Un i-
v e r s ity ,who ha dwo r k e din Rus s ia f r o m
No v e m b e r , 1917 , to Se p te m b e r , 1918 , f ir s t
f o r the Am e r ica n Y . M . C. A. , a n ds in ce Ap r il
in the Co n s ul a r Se r v ice . He ha db e e n a l l
o v e r Rus s ia ,in Ro s to v ,K ha r k o f f ,M o s co w,
Nij n iNo v g o r o d,a n dPe tr o g r a d . He s a y s
" Athin g tha tin te r e s te dm e v e r y m uch
wa s to dis co v e r a n um b e r o f m e n in p o s itio n s
o f p o we r ,Co m m is s a r ie s in the citie s he r e
a n dthe r e in Rus s ia ,who ha dl iv e din
Am e r ica . in the in dus tr ia l ce n tr e s . I
m e ta n um b e r o f the m ,a n dIs a ta r o un d
a n dl is te n e dto a tta ck s up o n Am e r ica tha t
Iwo ul dn o tta k e f r o m a n y m a n in this
co un tr y
.
" Se n a to r Wo l co tt-In the m a in ,o f wha t
n a tio n a l ity we r e the y ?
" M r . De n n is -Rus s ia n He b r e ws . "
B utp e r ha p s the m o s tim p r e s s iv e p ie ce
o f e v ide n ce co n ce r n in g the s up r e m a cy o f
the J e win the Rus s ia n Re v o l utio n is tha t
f ur n is he din a r e p o r tdr a wn up b y M r .
G e r a r dShe l l e y ,a n En g l is hm a n who wa s
p r e s e n tin Rus s ia in 1918 .
The Rus s ia n
An a r chis ts ,he p o in ts o ut,a r e e n tir e l y
dis tin ct f r o m the B o l s he v ik s , a n d in
the ir in div idua l is m ,whichr un s to e xtr a -
o r din a r y e xtr e m e s ,ha v e m uchm o r e in
co m m o n withthe Sl a v te m p e r a m e n ttha n
the hig hl y co n ce n tr a te ds y s te m o f g o v e r n -
THE' HUB OFTHECONSPIRACY13 7
m e n ta s s o cia te dwithTr o ts k y a n dhis b r e th-
r e n . The s e An a r chis ts to o k a n um b e r o f
b uil din g s ,b o thin M o s co wa n dPe tr o g r a d,
whichthe y us e df o r te a chin g a n do the r
p ur p o s e s . The ir p r in cip a l l e ctur e r wa s the
we l l -k n o wn An a r chis t,L e v Che r n y ,-a n dM r .
She l l e y a tte n de da s e r ie s o f l e ctur e s de l iv e r e d
b y him in the Of f ice r s ' Eco n o m icSo cie ty
in M o s co win Ap r il ,1918 . The s e l e ctur e s
ca us e dtr e m e n do us e xcite m e n t,p a r ticul a r l y
the l a s to f the m ,in whichthe l e ctur e r
de a l twiththe B o l s he v ik s . He p o in te do ut
tha tM a r xis m ,o n whichB o l s he v is m is
f o un de d,r e a l l y didn o te xp r e s s the p o l itica l
s ide o f the Rus s ia n cha r a cte r ,a n dtha tthe
B o l s he v ik s we r e n o ts in ce r e So cia l is ts o r
Co m m un is ts ,b utJ e ws ,wo r k in g f o r the
ul te r io r m o tiv e s o f J uda is m
. L e v Che r n y
div ide dthe s e J e ws in to thr e e m a in cl a s s e s
-f ir s tl y ,f in a n cia l J e ws ,who da b b l e din
m uddy in te r n a tio n a l wa te r s ; s e co n dl y ,Z io n -
is ts ,who s e a im s a r e ,o f co ur s e ,we l l k n o wn ;
a n d,thir dl y ,the B o l s he v ik s ,in cl udin g the
J e wis hB un d . The cr e e do f the s e B o l s he v ik s ,
a cco r din g to the l e ctur e r ,is b r ie f l y ,tha t
the p r o l e ta r ia to f a l l co un tr ie s a r e n o thin g
b utg e l a tin o us m a s s e s ,which,if the In te l l i-
g e n ts ia
we r e de s tr o y e din e a chco un tr y ,
wo ul dl e a v e the s e m a s s e s a tthe
- m e r cy o f
the J e ws .
No wco m e s the e xtr a o r din a r y s e que l . On
the v e r y n ig hto n whichthis l a s tl e ctur e
wa s de l iv e r e dthe B o l s he v ik s a tta ck e dwith
13 8
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
ca n n o n ,ca v a l r y ,a n dm a chin e -g un s a l l the
An a r chis the a dqua r te r s b o thin
M o s co w
a n dPe tr o g r a d,a n dm ur de r e da l l the m e n
the y co ul df in d, L e v Che r n y ,ho we v e r ,
e s ca p in g .
As r e g a r ds the p r o g r a m m e o f the s e B o l -
s he v is tJ e ws ,a v e r y in te r e s tin g do cum e n t
wa s p ub l is he db y the G a z e tte de Ho l l a n de
a tthe e n do f M a r ch, 1919. Itco n ta in e d
de ta il e din s tr uctio n s to B o l s he v is ta g e n ts
a b r o a ddr a wn up a ta Co un cil he l da tthe
K r e m l in in No v e m b e r ,
1918 , a twhichL e n in
p r e s ide d,a n dTr o ts k y ,Ra de k ,a n dTchiche r in
we r e p r e s e n t . Aco p y o f this do cum e n tf e l l
in to the ha n ds o f the Uk r a in ia n G e n e r a l
Sta f f ,a n dthe tr a n s l a tio n we ta k e f r o m
M . M il iuk o v ' s il l um in a tin g b o o k o n B o l -
s he v is m . In p a r a l l e l co l um n s we g iv e the
B o l s he v is tp r o p o s a l s f o r dir e cta ctio n ,dr a wn
up in 1918 , a n dthe r ul e s o f co n ductl a id
do wn b y the " El de r s o f Z io n " in 18 97
REV OL UTIONARYWORE
OF THEB OL SHEV IST
( COM M UNIST) PARTY.
The wo r k o f the B o l s he -
v is to r g a n is a tio n s in f o r e ig n
co un tr ie s is de f in e d a s
f o l l o ws .
1 . In the do m a in o f in te r -
n a tio n a l p o l itie s
( a ) To s up p o r tCha uv in is t
m o v e m e n ts a n dn a tio n a l
co n f l icts
.
PROTOCOL S
OF THE
~L EARNEDEL DERS OF
Z ION. "
Our in te r n a tio n a l m il l io n -
e y e d a g e n ts , who a r e
p o s s e s s e do f a b s o l ute l y un -
l im ite dm e a n s ( Pr o to co l 2 ) .
We m us tn o ts to p s ho r t
b e f o r e b r ib e r y ,de ce it,a n d
tr e a che r y ( Pr o to co l 1) .
The in te n s if ica tio n o f
a r m a m e n ts ,the in cr e a s e o f
p o l ice f o r ce s a r e a l l e s s e n tia l .
. . . Thr o ug ho uta l l Eur o p e ,
a n db y m e a n s o f r e l a tio n s
THEHUB OFTHECONSPIRACY13 9
( b ) To p r o v o k e a g ita tio n
in o r de r to b r in g a b o ut
n a tio n a l co n f l icts .
( c) To m a k e a tte m p ts o n
the r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f f o r e ig n
Po we r s .
B y the s e m e a n s in te r n a l
dis tur b a n ce s a n d co up s d' e ta t
wil l b e b r o ug hta b o ut,a n d
the r e wil l b e in cr e a s e dSo cia l
De m o cr a tica g ita tio n .
2 . In the do m a in o f
in te r -
n a l p o l itics
( a ) To co m p r o m is e b y a l l
p o s s ib l e m e a n s the in f l ue n -
tia l m e n in the co un tr y ,to
m a k e a tte m p ts o n the m e n
in p o we r ,a n dto p r o v o k e
a g ita tio n a g a in s tthe G o v -
e r n m e n t .
( b ) To p r o v o k e g e n e r a l
a n dp a r tia l s tr ik e s ,to da m -
a g e m a chin e r y a n db o il e r s ,
a n dto s p r e a dp r o p a g a n dis t
l ite r a tur e .
B y the s e m e a n s co up s
d' e ta t wil l b e f a cil ita te d,a n d
itwil l b e p o s s ib l e to s e iz e
the s up r e m e p o we r .
withEur o p e in o the r co n ti-
n e n ts a l s o ,we m us tcr e a te
f e r m e n ts ,dis co r ds ,a n dho s -
til ity . . . . We m us tb e in ,a
p o s itio n to r e s p o n dto e v r y
a cto f o p p o s itio n b y wa r
withthe n e ig hb o ur s o f tha t
co un tr y whichda r e s to o p -
p o s e us ; b utif the s e n e ig h-
b o ur s a l s o s ho ul dv e n tur e to
s ta n dco l l e ctiv e l y a g a in s tus ,
the n we m us to f f e r r e s is ta n ce
b y a un iv e r s a l wa r ( Pr o to co l
7 ) . We ha v e b r o k e n the
p r e s tig e o f the g o y im k in g s
b y f r e que n ta tte m p ts up o n
the ir l iv e s thr o ug h o ur
a g e n ts ( Pr o to co l 18 ) .
In o r de r tha to ur s che m e
m a y p r o duce this r e s ul t,we
s ha l l a r r a n g e e l e ctio n s in
f a v o ur o f s uchp r e s ide n ts a s
ha v e in the ir p a s ts o m e da r k
un dis co v e r e ds ta in ,s o m e
" Pa n a m a " o r o the r
.
the n the y wil l b e tr us two r thy
a g e n ts f o r the a cco m p l is h-
m e n to f o ur p l a n s o uto f f e a r
o f r e v e l a tio n s ( Pr o to co l 10 ) .
We a p p e a r o n the s ce n e
a s a l l e g e ds a v io ur s o f the
wo r k e r f r o m this o p p r e s s io n
whe n we p r o p o s e to him to
e n te r the r a n k s o f o ur f ig ht-
in g f o r ce s -So cia l is ts ,An a r .
chis ts ,Co m m un is ts . .
B y wa n ta n dthe e n v y a n d
ha tr e dwhichite n g e n de r s
we s ha l l m o v e the m o b s ,a n d
withthe ir ha n ds we s ha l l
wip e o uta l l tho s e who
hin de r us
. Whe n the ho ur
s tr ik e s f o r o ur s o v e r e ig n l o r d
14 0 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
o f a l l the wo r l dto b e
cr o wn e d,itis the s e s a m e
ha n ds whichwil l s we e p
a wa y e v e r y thin g tha tm ig ht
b e a hin dr a n ce the r e to ( Pr o -
to co l 3 ) .
3 . In the e co n o m ic do -

We s ha l l s o o n b e g in to
m a in :

e s ta b l is hhug e m o n o p o l ie s ,
( a ) To p r o v o k e a n ds up - r e s e r v o ir s o f co l o s s a l r iche s ,
p o r tr a il wa y s tr ik e s ,to b l o w
up o n whiche v e n l a r g e f o r -
up b r idg e s a n dr a il wa y l in e s , tun e s o f the g o y im wil l
a n ddo e v e r y thin g to dis -
de p e n dto s ucha n e xte n t
o r g a n is e tr a n s p o r t
.

tha tthe y wil l g o to the


( b ) To im p e de a n dp r e -
b o tto m to g e the r withthe
v e n tthe p r o v is io n in g o f the cr e dito f the Sta te s o n the
to wn s withco r n ,to cr e a te da y a f te r the p o l itica l s m a s h
f in a n cia l dif f icul tie s a n din - ( Pr o to co l 6 ) . We s ha l l r e -
un da te the m a r k e twith p l a ce the m o n e y m a r k e ts b y
f o r g e db a n k n o te s . Sp e cia l g r a n dio s e g o v e r n m e n tcr e dit
co m m itte e s s ho ul d
b e
in s titutio n s
. . . . The s e in s ti-
f o r m e d .

tutio n s wil l b e in a p o s itio n


In this wa y a n e co n o m icto f l in g up o n the m a r k e tf iv e
up he a v a l wil l b r in g a b o ut
hun dr e dm il l io n s o f in dus -
the in e v ita b l e co l l a p s e ,a n d tr ia l p a p e r in o n e da y
the co up d' e ta t wil l r e ce iv e ( Pr o to co l 2 2 ) .
the s y m p a thy o f the m a s s e s
.

We s ha l l cr e a te b y a l l the
s e cr e ts ub te r r a n e a n m e tho ds
o p e n to us ,a n dwiththe a id
o f g o l d,whichis a l l in o ur
ha n ds ,a un iv e r s a l e co n o m ic
cr is is whe r e b y we s ha l l thr o w
up o n the s tr e e ts who l e m o b s
o f wo r k e r s s im ul ta n e o us l y
in a l l the co un tr ie s o f Eur o p e
( Pr o to co l 8 ) .
The co m p l e te a n n ihil a tio n The s up r e m e l o r dwho wil l
o f the a r m y wil l b e e f f e cte d, r e p l a ce a l l n o we xis tin g r ul e s
a n dthe s o l die r s wil l a do p t dr a g g in g o n the ir e xis te n ce
the So cia l De m o cr a ticL a
a m o n g s o cie tie s de m o r a l is e d
b o ur p r o g r a m m e
.

b y
us . . . . wil l b e o b l ig e dto
k il l o f f the s e e xis tin g s o cie -
THEHUB OFTHECONSPIRACY 14 1
tie s , tho ug h
he
s ho ul d
dr e n chthe m withhis o wn
b l o o d,tha the m a y r e s ur r e ct
the m a g a in in the f o r m . o f
r e g ul a r l y o r g a n is e dtr o o p s
f ig htin g
co n s cio us l y with
e v e r y k in do f in f e ctio n tha t
m a y co v e r the b o dy o f the
Sta te withs o r e s .
So m uchf o r Rus s ia a n dthe p a r twhich
J e ws ha v e p l a y e din the de v e l o p m e n to f
B o l s he v is tdo ctr in e a n do r g a n is a tio n .
CHAPTERX
AM ENACETOAL L NATIONS
Re v o l utio n a r y M o v e m e n ts in Eur o p e -AM a s o n ic-J e wis h
Co n s p ir a cy in Tur k e y -The Co m m itte e o f Un io n a n d
Pr o g r e s s -M us ta f a K e m a l ' s Aim s -The Re v o l utio n o f
1910 in Po r tug a l .
THE Rus s ia n Re v o l utio n o v e r s ha do ws , o f
co ur s e , a l l o the r s o f m o de r n tim e s ,
a n d
e v ide n ce ha s a l r e a dy b e e n s ub m itte din
the s e p a g e s to s ho wtha tthe B o l s he v ik s who
e n g in e e r e dita r e in a n o v e r whe l m in g m a j o r ity
J e ws ,a n dtha tthe ir p l a n o f ca m p a ig n is to a
co n s ide r a b l e e xte n tb a s e dup o n the dir e ctio n s
l a iddo wn in the Pr o to co l s o f the " L e a r n e d
El de r s o f Z io n . " Itn o wr e m a in s to dis cus s
s o m e o the r r e v o l utio n a r y m o v e m e n ts in o ur
da y a n dto s e e wha tf e a tur e s a n da g e n ts
the y ha din co m m o n ,a n dho wf a r the y ca n
b e tr a ce dto the s a m e o r g a n is a tio n o r o r g a n i-
s a tio n s whichb r o ug htL e n in a n dTr o ts k y
to the K r e m l in a n dm a de M o s co wthe r e v o -
l utio n a r y s to r m ce n tr e o f the wo r l d . Pr io r
to a n df o l l o win g the wa r the r e ha v e b e e n
r e v o l utio n s o r s e r io us r e v o l utio n a r y o ut-
b r e a k s in Tur k e y ,Po r tug a l ,Pr us s ia ,B a v a r ia ,
a n dHun g a r y ,a n dthe r e ha v e b e e n s e r io us
co n s p ir a cie s in m a n y o the r co un tr ie s ,n o ta b l y
in Ho l l a n d,Switz e r l a n d,a n do n l y this y e a r
in Fr a n ce a n dDe n m a r k . In a l l o f the m
f o r e ig n in f l ue n ce s p l a y e da n o ta b l e p a r t,a n d
14 2
AM ENACETOAL L NATIONS
14 3
the que s tio n a r is e s whe the r if the s e f o r e ig n
in f l ue n ce s ha db e e n a b s e n tthe r e v o l utio n s
wo ul dha v e b e e n s ucce s s f ul o r n e ce s s a r y .
B e ca us e a r e v o l utio n o ccur s itdo e s n o t
f o l l o wtha titwa s e ithe r de s ir a b l e o r in -
e v ita b l e . The m e ta p ho r o f a b a cil l us a tta ck -
in g a " r un -do wn " b o dy s e e m s to f it . A
Sta te b e co m e s we a k ,co r r up t,in s e cur e ,a n d
im m e dia te l y the r e v o l utio n a r y b a cil l if l o ck
to the e n f e e b l e do r g a n is m a n db e g in the
p r o ce s s o f dis in te g r a tio n . In s o m e o f the s e
Sta te s ,n o ta b l y in B a v a r ia a n dHun g a r y ,the
r e v o l utio n s ha da s ho r tl if e ,a n dthe b a cil l i
we r e s o o n e xp e l l e d . B utin o the r s ,Tur k e y
a n dPo r tug a l ,the y ca m e to s ta y . As to
Po r tug a l ,itm a y b e a m o o tp o in tto s o m e
whe the r the ir in v a s io n ha s b e e n to the
b e n e f ito f the Sta te . B utin Tur k e y the r e
ca n b e n o do ub t
. The r e v o l utio n a r ie s who
s e iz e dCo n s ta n tin o p l e a n dde p o s e dAb dul
Ha m ids o l dthe ir co un tr y in b o n da g e to the
G e r m a n .
En v e r a n dTa l a a ta n dthe o the r s
we r e the wil l in g in s tr um e n ts o f B ie b e r s te in
a n dWa n g e n he im
. The Tur k is hRe v o l utio n
wa s the k n e l l o f the Tur k is hEm p ir e . The
e xa m p l e o f Tur k e y ,in a wo r d,s e e m s to
r e m in dus tha ta r e v o l utio n m a y n o tb e a
dr a s tictho ug hhe a l thf ul p r o ce s s b uta
s co ur g e .
The Tur k is hRe v o l utio n ,itca n b e s ta te d
e m p ha tica l l y ,wa s a l m o s te n tir e l y the wo r k
o f a M a s o n ic-J e wis hco n s p ir a cy
. The Yo un g
Tur k s ,who co n s is te dchie f l y o f J e ws ,G r e e k s ,
14 4 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
a n dAr m e n ia n s ,didn o tm e e tin the b e g in n in g
withm uchs ucce s s in the ir s che m e s ,a n dit
wa s n o tun til the y ca m e in co n ta ctwith
Co n tin e n ta l Fr e e m a s o n r y tha tthin g s b e g a n
to m o v e . The f o l l o win g quo ta tio n f r o m the
we l l -k n o wn Fr e n chM a s o n icr e v ie w
Aca cia
( Octo b e r ,190 8 ,No
. 7 0 ) e xp l a in s s uccin ctl y
wha twa s g o in g o n
"
As e cr e tYo un g Tur k Co m m itte e wa s
f o un de d,a n dthe who l e m o v e m e n twa s
dir e cte df r o m Sa l o n ik a ,a s the to wn which
ha s the g r e a te s tp e r ce n ta g e o f J e wis hp o p u-
l a tio n in Eur o p e -7 0 ,0 0 0 J e ws o uto f a
to ta l p o p ul a tio n o f 110 ,0 0 0 -wa s s p e cia l l y
qua l if ie df o r this p ur p o s e
. B e s ide s ,the r e
we r e m a n y Fr e e m a s o n l o dg e s in Sa l o n ik a
in whichthe r e v o l utio n a r ie s co ul dwo r k
un dis tur b e d .
The s e l o dg e s we r e un de r
the p r o te ctio n o f Eur o p e a n dip l o m a cy ,the
Sul ta n wa s de f e n ce l e s s a g a in s tthe m ,a n dhe
co ul dn o ta n y m o r e p r e v e n this o wn do wn -
f a l l . "
In de e d,o n e ca n g o s o f a r a s to s a y tha t
the Co m m itte e o f Un io n a n dPr o g r e s s wa s
p r a ctica l l y b o r n in the M a s o n icl o dg e ca l l e d
" M a ce do n ia Ris o r ta " e s ta b l is he db y the
Sa l o n ik a J e w,Em m a n ue l e Ca r a s s o . The s a m e
r e v ie wto whichwe ha v e r e f e r r e da b o v e
m e n tio n e din 190 7 tha ttho ug hFr e e m a s o n r y
wa s f o r b idde n in Tur k e y the r e we r e two
l o dg e s in Sa l o n ik a un de r the G r a n dOr ie n t
o f Ita l y ,the o n e we ha v e m e n tio n e da b o v e ,
a n dthe o the r the L o dg e
" L a b o r e tL ux . "
AM ENACETOAL L NATIONS 14 5
Itis in te r e s tin g to n o te tha tCa r a s s o a f te r -
wa r ds f o r m e dp a r to f the Co m m is s io n tha t
de p o s e dAb dul Ha m id .
Fur the r in f o r m a tio n co n ce r n in g the p a r t
tha tthe s e M a s o n icl o dg e s p l a y e din the
Re v o l utio n is g iv e n in a n in te r v ie wwhich
the Pa r is Te m p s o f Aug us t2 0 th,190 8 ,p ub -
l is he dwithRe f ik B e y ,o n e o f the l e a din g
m e m b e r s o f the Co m m itte e o f Un io n a n d
Pr o g r e s s . The co r r e s p o n de n to f the Te m p s
a s k e dhim a b o utthe p a r tp l a y e db y Fr e e -
m a s o n r y in the Re v o l utio n ,a n dhe r e p l ie d
" Itis tr ue tha twe f o un dm o r a l s up p o r t
in Fr e e m a s o n r y ,e s p e cia l l y in Ita l ia n Fr e e -
m a s o n r y . The two Ita l ia n l o dg e s ,' M a ce -
do n ia Ris o r ta ' a n d` L a b o r e tL ux,' r e n -
de r e dus r e a l s e r v ice a n do f f e r e dus a r e f ug e .
We m e tthe r e a s M a s o n s ,f o r m a n y o f us
a r e Fr e e m a s o n s ,b utin r e a l ity we m e tto
o r g a n is e o ur s e l v e s . B e s ide s ,we cho s e a
g r e a tp a r to f o ur co m r a de s f r o m the s e l o dg e s ,
whichs e r v e do ur Co m m itte e a s a s if tin g -
m a chin e b y r e a s o n o f the -ca r e withwhich
the y m a de the ir in quir ie s a b o utin div idua l s
.
AtCo n s ta n tin o p l e the s e cr e two r k tha twe n t
o n a tSa l o n ik a wa s v a g ue l y s us p e cte d,a n d
p o l ice a g e n ts . tr ie din v a in to o b ta in a n
e n tr a n ce . B e s ide s ,the s e l o dg e s a p p l ie dto
the G r a n dOr ie n to f Ita l y ,whichp r o m is e d
in ca s e o f n e e dto p r o cur e the in te r v e n tio n o f
the Ita l ia n Em b a s s y . "
The Co m m itte e o f Un io n a n dPr o g r e s s
r e ta in e dits M a s o n ica n dl a r g e l y J e wis h
S
14 6
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
cha r a cte r a f te r the Re v o l utio n . As a s tr ik in g
in s ta n ce o f its in f l ue n ce we m a y m e n tio n
tha tAhm e dRiz a B e y ,the Pr e s ide n to f the
Cha m b e r ,r e f us e dto us e the wo r d "
Al l a h
"
in ta k in g the o a thp r e s cr ib e db y the Co n s ti-
tutio n ,o n the g r o un dtha t,l ik e Se n ho r
M a cha do in Po r tug a l ,he wa s a Po s itiv is t .
He r e ,the n ,is a cur io us l in k
b e twe e n
r e v o l utio n a r y Po r tug a l a n d r e v o l utio n a r y
Tur k e y .
The n ca m e the co un te r -r e v o l utio n o f 190 9,
a n ditis in te r e s tin g to n o te tha tthe m utin o us
o utb r e a k o f Ap r il 13 tho f tha ty e a r ,which
wa s a ttr ib ute db y the Co m m itte e to Ab dul
Ha m id,wa s r e a l l y l e db y tr o o p s o f the
Sa l o n ik a Co m m itte e co m m a n de db y a Sa l o -
n ik a J e wa n dFr e e m a s o n ,Co l o n e l Re n z iB e y .
Ata n y r a te ,im m e dia te l y a f te r the cr us hin g
o f the co un te r -r e v o l utio n the J e wis he l e -
m e n ts o f the Co m m itte e o f Un io n a n d
Pr o g r e s s a cquir e dm o r e a n dm o r e im p o r ta n ce .
Dj a v idB e y ,the Fin a n ce M in is te r ; Ta l a a t
B e y ,the Pr e s ide n to f the Co m m itte e Pa r ty ,
who wa s p e r ha p s m o r e r e s p o n s ib l e tha n
a n y o n e e l s e f o r ha n din g o v e r Tur k e y to
G e r m a n y a n dthus e n co m p a s s in g he r r uin ;
Dj a hidB e y ,Edito r o f the Ta n in , we r e a l l
M a s o n s ,a n dthe f ir s tn a m e dwa s a J e w .
Po l itica l M a s o n icl o dg e s s p r a n g up l ik e
m us hr o o m s a l l o v e r Co n s ta n tin o p l e ,a n do n
Ap r il 1s to f tha ty e a r ( 190 9) r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s
o f 4 5 Tur k is hl o dg e s m e tin Co n s ta n tin o p l e
a n df o un de dthe "
G r a n dOr ie n tOtto m a n . "
AM ENACETOAL L NATIONS 14 7
M a ho m e dOr p hiPa s ha wa s e l e cte dG r a n d
M a s te r ,a n dthe f o l l o win g "
Tur k s
" we r e
e l e cte da m o n g the hig he s to f f icia l s : Da v id
Co he n ,Ra p ha e l o Ricci, Nicho l a s Fo r te ,
M a r chio n e ,J a co b So uha m i,G e o r g e Sur s o ck .
The J e wDj a v idB e y ,who ,l a te r b e ca m e
Tur k is hM in is te r o f Fin a n ce ,wa s e l e cte d
M a s te r o f o n e o f the Co n s ta n tin o p l e l o dg e s .
Te r r o r is m a n din tim ida tio n o f e v e r y k in d
f o l l o we d,a n dhe r e Co n s ta n tin o p l e l in k s its e l f
up withM o s co wa n dB uda p e s t . The M in is -
tr y o f Po l ice wa s a b o l is he da n dr e p l a ce db y
a "
Pub l icSe cur ity De p a r tm e n t " o n Fr e n ch
Re p ub l ica n l in e s ,a n dp utun de r the dir e ctio n
o f G ha l idB e y ,a Fr e e m a s o n
.
Itm a y b e
n o te dtha tthe im ita tio n o f the Fr e n ch
Re v o l utio n in m a n y wa y s b y the Yo un g
Tur k is a n o the r in te r e s tin g l in k in the
r e v o l utio n a r y cha in . Fo r e xa m p l e ,a Co m -
m itte e Se n a to r p r o p o s e dto a b o l is hthe wo r d

s ub j e ct" a n dr e p l a ce itb y the Fr e n ch

cito y e n ," whil e the f ir s t


" Yo un g Tur k e y "
is s ue o f co in s ha dthe m o tto " L ib e r te ,
Eg a l ite ,Fr a te r n ite " in s cr ib e do n the m .
An dhe r e we m a y a g a in quo te f r o m the
f ir s tPr o to co l
"
Fa r b a ck in a n cie n ttim e s we we r e the
f ir s tto cr y a m o n g the m a s s e s o f the p e o p l e
the wo r ds ` L ib e r ty ,Equa l ity ,Fr a te r n ity . '

.
In a l l co r n e r s o f the e a r ththe wo r ds
L ib e r ty ,Equa l ity ,Fr a te r n ity ' b r o ug htto
o ur r a n k s ,tha n k s to o ur b l in da g e n ts ,
who l e l e g io n s who b o r e o ur b a n n e r s with
14 8 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
e n thus ia s m .
An da l l the tim e the s e wo r ds
we r e ca n k e r -wo r m s a two r k b o r in g in to the
we l l -b e in g o f the g o y im ,
p uttin g a n e n d
e v e r y whe r e to p e a ce ,quie t,s o l ida r ity ,a n d
de s tr o y in g a l l the f o un da tio n s o f the g o y im
Sta te s
. As y o u wil l s e e l a te r ,this he l p e dus
to o ur tr ium p h
; itg a v e us the p o s s ib il ity ,
a m o n g o the r thin g s ,o f g e ttin g in to o ur ha n ds
the m a s te r ca r dthe de s tr uctio n o f the
p r iv il e g e s ,o r ,in o the r wo r ds ,o f the v e r y
e xis te n ce o f the a r is to cr a cy o f the
g o y im ,
tha tcl a s s whichwa s the o n l y de f e n ce
p e o p l e s a n dco un tr ie s b a da g a in s tus
. On
the r uin s o f the n a tur a l a n dg e n e a l o g ica l
a r is to cr a cy o f the
g o y im we ha v e s e tup the
a r is to cr a cy o f o ur e duca te dcl a s s ,he a de db y
the a r is to cr a cy o f m o n e y . The qua l if ica -
tio n s f o r this a r is to cr a cy we ha v e e s ta b l is he d
in we a l th,whichis de p e n de n tup o n us ,a n d
in k n o wl e dg e ,f o r whicho ur l e a r n e de l de r s
p r o v ide the m o tiv e f o r ce
. "
Fur the r m o r e ,the Pr e s s wa s p utun de r
the co n tr o l o f the
" Dir e cte ur de l a Pr e s s e
In te r ie ur e ," ca l l e dNe j ib Fa z il iB ui,whil e the
f o r e ig n Pr e s s wa s ha n de do v e r to a n o the r
J e w
. Dj a v idB e y ,the M in is te r o f Fin a n ce ,
ha da J e wis hM a s o n ,M e s s im Rus s o ,a s
che f
de Ca b in e t,
a n dthe Co m m itte e Pa r ty in the
Cha m b e r co n ta in e dn in e ty Fr e e m a s o n s who
v o te da s dir e cte db y Ta l a a t . Within the
Ca b in e tthe r e g r a dua l l y wa s f o r m e da n
in s ide M a s o n icCa b in e tco m p o s e do f Ta l a a t,
Dj a v id,the She ik -ul -Is l a m ,M o us s a ,K ia s im ,
A M ENACETO AL L NATIONS 14 9
a n dM a hm udM uk hta r B e y ,M in is te r o f
M a r in e . The Pr o to co l s s p e a k o f a n in n e r o r
a J e wis hM a s o n r y ,the tr ue g o v e r n in g p o we r ,
a n da n o ute r o r G e n til e M a s o n r y ,which
b l in dl y f o l l o ws the l e a do f a dir e ctio n itdo e s
n o ts us p e ct
. The G r a n dV iz ie r ,Hil m iPa s ha ,
who s ho we ds o m e s ig n s o f r e b e l l io n ,dis -
a p p e a r e da n dwa s r e p l a ce db y Ha k k iPa s ha
witha J e wis hp r iv a te s e cr e ta r y , who s e
b r o the r -in -l a w,J a cque s M e n a s he ,wa s the
g o -b e twe e n o f Dj a v idB e y ,the M in is te r o f
Fin a n ce ,in n e g o tia tio n s f o r the l o a n with
the B e r n ha r dDr e y f us g r o up in Pa r is ,a n din
o the r m a tte r s o f f in a n ce a n dco n ce s s io n . In
a wo r d,the Tur k is hSta te wa s he l din a
J uda e o -M a s o n icg r o up whiche xte n de dits
p o we r to the p r o v in ce s b y the cr e a tio n o f a
n e two r k o f l o dg e s a n dcl ub s .
On e o r two o the r p o in ts in co n n e ctio n
withthe Tur k is hRe v o l utio n a r e wo r thn o tin g .
Im m e dia te l y a f te r the de p o s itio n o f Ab dul
Ha m idtwo p a p e r s we r e s ta r te din
.
Co n s ta n -
tin o p l e ,the G e r m a n -J e wis ho r g a n ,the Os -
m a n is che r L l o y d, e dite db y a G e r m a n J e w,
Dr . M o r itz G r un wa l d,a n dthe J e un e Tur c,
who s e p r o p r ie to r wa s Sa m iHo chb e r g ,a n
As hk e n a z in Fr e e m a s o n icJ e w
. B o thp a p e r s
we r e up ho l de r s o f Tur k is hM a s o n r y a n d
Z io n is m ,a n dthe
J e un e Tur c ce r ta in l y a im e d
a tthe cr e a tio n o f a J uda e o -Tur k is hSta te
whichwo ul ds ub j ug a te the o the r p o p ul a -
tio n s in the Tur k is hEm p ir e .
Attha tp e r io d,to o ,a J e wn a m e dSa n to
15 0
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
Se m o ,who wa s a t o n e tim e o n Sir W.
Wil ico ck s ' s Ir r ig a tio n s ta f f ,g a v e co n f e r e n ce s
in Co n s ta n tin o p l e ,Sa l o n ik a ,a n do the r p l a ce s ,
a n ds tr o v e to p o is o n the Tur k is hm in d
a g a in s te v e r y thin g B r itis h-in M e s o p o ta m ia .
The " Ag e n ce Otto m a n e ," the " Tur k is h "
o f f icia l a g e n cy whichwa s m a n a g e db y a
B a g hda dJ e wn a m e dSa l ihG uir g i,wa s a t
the s a m e g a m e .
Itis un n e ce s s a r y to e m p ha s is e a g a in ho w
this co m b in a tio n j o in e dits e l f up withthe
G e r m a n s ,b uto n e quo ta tio n m a y b e g iv e n
f r o m the Sa l o n ik a co r r e s p o n de n to f the
M o r n in g Po s t
in a m e s s a g e f r o m him which
wa s p ub l is he do n M a y 19th,1911 . He s a id
" The Ar m y o f f ice r s a n dthe Tur k s ha v e
l o n g b e e n dis p l e a s e da tthe p r o m in e n ce
a cquir e db y in div idua l s who a r e n o tr e g a r de d
a s tr ue Tur k s ,a n dwho s e co n n e ctio n s with
the J e ws o f Eur o p e ha v e b e e n co n s ide r e da s
f a cil ita tin g Z io n is m . The Tur k s b e l ie v e Z io n -
is m to a im a tthe e s ta b l is hm e n to f a J e wis h
Sta te in As ia M in o r ,a n ds us p e cttha tthe
J e wis hco l o n ie s whichthe Z io n is ts a r e p l a n t-
in g in Sy r ia a r e de s tin e dto b e ce n tr e s o f
f o r e ig n a n de s p e cia l l y G e r m a n in f l ue n ce ,f o r
the Tur k s ha v e l o n g n o tice dthe cur io us f a ct
tha tthe J e ws ,p a r ticul a r l y the As hk e n a z im
o r Rus s o -Po l is h-G e r m a n J e ws ,a r e a l l p a r ti-
s a n s o f the G e r m a n Em p ir e . "
The s e ,in de e d,we r e p r o p he ticwo r ds ,a n d
r e a de r s o f the G e r m a n Pr e s s wil l f in da n y
n um b e r o f a r ticl e s co r dia l l y a p p r o v in g f r o m
AM ENACETOAL L NATIONS 15 1
a G e r m a n p o in to f v ie wthe cr e a tio n o f s uch
a Z io n is tSta te .
The r e j us tr e m a in s o n e m o r e de v e l o p -
m e n tto a dd . " Co n s ta n tin o p l e ," s a y s o n e
o f the p r o to co l s ," is the e ig htha n dl a s t
s ta g e to wa r ds J e r us a l e m . " No wo n e o f
the l a te s tis s ue s o f the M o s co w Pr a v da
r e ce iv e din L o n do n co n ta in s the r e p o r to f a
m e e tin g he l dr e ce n tl y in the G r e a tHa l l o f
the M o s co wPo l y te chn icM us e um ,dur in g
whichB uk ha r in ,s p e a k in g o n b e ha l f o f the
So v ie to f Pe o p l e ' s Co m m is s a r s ,de cl a r e d
tha tthe B o l s he v ik s a r e a im in g a tthe r e co n -
s tr uctio n o f a g r e a ta n dp o we r f ul So cia l is t
Rus s ia , whichca n n o te xis tif s he do e s n o tho l d
the Str a its o f Co n s ta n tin o p l e . A m e m b e r o f
the a udie n ce in te r r up te dthe s p e a k e r b y
cr y in g : " Tha tis M il iuk o v ' s p o l icy . " B uk -
ha r in ca l l e dthe in te r r up te r a b l a ck g ua r d
who didn o twis hto r e a l is e the in te r e s ts o f
p r o l e ta r ia n Rus s ia . " If M il iuk o v wo ul d
co n s e n tto wo r k withus we wo ul dg l a dl y
g iv e him a p l a ce o f ho n o ur in o ur r a n k s ,"
de cl a r e dB uk ha r in
.
Acco r din
g to the
Da il y Exp r e s s , M us ta f a
K e m a l Pa s ha is s ue df r o m An g o r a o n J ul y
8 th,192 0 ,a l o n g p r o cl a m a tio n a ddr e s s e d
to the " B r o the r s o f Is l a m a n dCo m m un is t
Co m r a de s . " He s a id
" Co m m un is tCo m r a de s ,a n a b o m in a b l e
cr im e is a b o utto b e
p e r p e tr a te d
. The
G r e a tPo we r s ha v e de cide dto e xte r m in a te a
f r e s hv ictim ,who s e b l o o d wil l
b e s uck e db y
15 2 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
the ca p ita l is ts o f Eur o p e . Our p e a s a n ts a r e
dy in g ,we a p o n in ha n d . The y ca n b e s ur e
tha tthe da y s a r e n e a r a tha n dwhe n
Is l a m ,the a l l y o f Co m m un is m ,wil l a v e n g e
the m . "
L a te r ,M us ta f a K e m a l is s ue dthis f ur the r
p r o cl a m a tio n
( M o r n in g Po s t,J ul y
2 0 th)
" We ha v e a r m ie s r e a dy to m a r chf r o m
Pe r s ia to An a to l ia . Af te r the B o l s he v is t
v icto r y in Po l a n dthe B o l s he v ik s wil l e n te r
Ro um a n ia . The Ro um a n ia n s wil l a n s we r
the ca l l to a r m s b y a g e n e r a l s tr ik e . The
B ul g a r s ,to o ,a r e r e a dy to un ite withthe
B o l s he v ik s . The a im o f o ur a r m ie s is to
g ua r do ur in de p e n de n ce a n dde l iv e r the
ca p ita l f r o m the B r itis h . "
In 1910 ca m e the tur n o f Po r tug a l . He r e ,
a g a in ,the r e is o v e r whe l m in g e v ide n ce tha t
the f o r ce a tthe b a ck o f the Re v o l utio n wa s
Co n tin e n ta l Fr e e m a s o n r y . Dr . Fr ie dr ich
Wichtl ,in his b o o k
We l tf r e im a ue r e i,We l t
Re v o l utio n ,We l t-r e p ub l ik ,
s a y s
" So m e r e a de r s m a y a s k us who we r e the n
tho s e cir cl e s whichco n tr ib ute dthe m o s tto
the do wn f a l l o f the Po r tug ue s e Ro y a l f a m il y ?
The y a r e the l e a din g f a m il ie s o f the Ca s tr o s ,
the Co s ta s ,Co he n s ,Pe ir e r a s ,Fe r r e ir a s ,
Te ixe r a s ,Fo us e s a s ,e tc
. The y ha v e m a n y
wide s p r e a db r a n che s b e s ide s Po r tug a l ,a l s o
in Sp a in ,Ho l l a n d,En g l a n d,e tc . ,a n din
Am e r ica ,whe r e the y o ccup y p r o m in e n t
p o s itio n s . The y a r e a l l r e l a te dto e a cho the r ,
the y a r e a l l un ite db y the m utua l tie s o f
AM ENACETOAL L NATIONS 15 8
Fr e e m a s o n r y a n d . . . the Al l ia n ce Is r a e l ite
Un iv e r s e l l e . "
This cl o s e co n n e ctio n b e twe e n Po r tug ue s e
Re p ub l ica n is m a n dCo n tin e n ta l Fr e e m a s o n r y
wa s in de e da p p a r e n tf r o m the o utb r e a k o f
the Re v o l utio n . Se n ho r M a g a l ha e s L im a ,a
M a s o n icG r a n dM a s te r ,wa s o n e o f the chie f s
o f the Po r tug ue s e Re p ub l ica n Pa r ty a n dits
de l e g a te in Fr a n ce . He wa s in Pa r is dur in g
the o utb r e a k o n Octo b e r 3 r d,1910 ,a n din
a p a m p hl e twhichhe p ub l is he da ttha ttim e ,
e n titl e d Re p ub l ica n Po r tug a l , he s a id
" This Re v o l utio n wil l b e a r f r uits ,f o r the
p r o cl a m a tio n o f the Re p ub l icin Po r tug a l
wil l n o tb e a n is o l a te dca s e . Itwil l ha v e a
wo r l d-wide e f f e ct,a n df ir s to f a l l in Sp a in . "
An o the r p r o m in e n tr e v o l utio n a r y wa s Se n -
ho r L ucia n o de Ca s tr o ,a r e p ute dM o n a r chis t,
who ,ho we v e r ,didm uchto b r in g dis cr e dit
to the M o n a r chy . We ha v e a l r e a dy r e f e r r e d
to Se n ho r B e r n a r din o M a cha do ,the Pr e s ide n t
o f the Re p ub l ica n da p r o m in e n tFr e e m a s o n . .
The v io l e n ta n ti-Chr is tia n cha r a cte r o f
the Re p ub l ic,p a r ticul a r l y in its e a r l y da y s ,
is to o we l l k n o wn to n e e dr e ca p itul a tio n .
Wha t,p e r ha p s ,is n o ts o f a m il ia r is the cl o s e
co n n e ctio n o f the G e r m a n s withthe who l e
m o v e m e n ta n dthe us e whichwa s m a de o f
itin the G e r m a n Pr e s s im m e dia te l y o n its
o utb r e a k f o r the p ur p o s e o f dis cr e ditin g
En g l a n d,the un tr us two r thy a l l y o f Po r tug a l ,
whichwa s un a b l e to s a v e its K in g . G e r m a n y
the n b e g a n to l a y its g r ip o n the Po r tug ue s e
15 4
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
co l o n ie s ,j us ta s s he b e g a n to s e iz e the
Tur k is ha dm in is tr a tio n im m e dia te l y a f te r
the tr ium p ho f the Yo un g Tur k s
. Re a de r s
o f the L ichn o ws k y Ap o l o g ia wil l r e ca l l ho w
the f o r m e r G e r m a n Am b a s s a do r in L o n do n ,
in a de a l whichdo e s n o tr e f l e ctm uchcr e dit
o n B r itis hdip l o m a cy a n do n l o y a l ty to a n
a l l y ,wa s a b l e ,e a r l y in 1914 ,to e f f e ctwith
G r e a tB r ita in a div is io n o f the Po r tug ue s e
co l o n ie s co n ditio n a l o n Po r tug a l ' s a cce p ta n ce .
Itwa s a da r in g m o v e ,to o ,f o r a m e m b e r o f
the En te n te Co r dia l e to p r o p o s e ,f o r the
p r o p o s e ddiv is io n wo ul dha v e s e r io us l y
j e o p a r dis e din f a v o ur o f G e r m a n y the Fr e n ch
Af r ica n p o s s e s s io n s ,a n ditis n o wa l m o s ta
m a tte r o f his to r y tha ts tr o n g r e p r e s e n ta tio n s
we r e m a de b y Pa r is to Sir Edwa r dG r e y ( a s
he the n wa s ) o n the s ub j e ct . Fo r tun a te l y ,
the p r o p o s e dde a l n e v e r ca m e o f f ,b e ca us e
the Wil he l m s tr a s s e ,o r ,r a the r ,the G e r m a n
G e n e r a l Sta f f ,f e a r in g tha ts ucha dip l o m a tic
a g r e e m e n tm ig htp o s tp o n e in de f in ite l y the
G r e a tDa y ,v e to e dthe n e g o tia tio n s . B ut
tho ug hG e r m a n y r e f us e dto a cce p tthe a g r e e -
m e n t,s he s til l k e p ta n e y e o n the co l o n ie s ,
a n dthr o ug hhe r f r ie n ds a tL is b o n ha d
b e g un a ca m p a ig n f o r the ir s e iz ur e b y the
f a v o ur ite de v ice o f s e n din g m is s io n s ,which
we r e a ctua l l y in Af r ica whe n the wa r b r o k e
o ut .
Thus in b o ththe s e r e v o l utio n s we s e e a n
a l ie n m o v e m e n ts e iz in g a utho r ity a n do v e r -
thr o win g the e s ta b l is he df o r m s o f G o v e r n -
AM ENACETOAL L NATIONS
15 5
m e n ta n dr e l ig io n a n dthe p r e da to r y G e r m a n
co m in g in to s e iz e the s p o il s .
In the r e v o l utio n s in
Pr us s ia ,B a v a r ia ,
a n dHun g a r y ,the in f l ue n ce o f the a l ie n
a utho r ity ,whichin this ca s e is o p e n l y tha t
o f the B o l s he v ik s ,wil l b e tr a ce d .
CHAPTERXI
L ENIN' SACTIV ITIES
Pr us s ia ,B a v a r ia a n dHun g a r y
L ie b k n e chta n dRo s a
L uxe m b o ur g -Div e r s e M e tho ds -An Ap p e a l to Na -
tio n a l is m in Hun g a r y The Ar to f Wa itin g .
WITH
the a dv e n t o f the B o l s he v ik s to
p o we r in Rus s ia a n e ws itua tio n wa s cr e a te d
in the in te r n a tio n a l co n s p ir a cy . In the
Tur k is ha n dPo r tug ue s e o utb r e a k s ,which
ha v e a l r e a dy b e e n dis cus s e d,the Co n tin e n ta l
Fr e e m a s o n s ,wo r k in g thr o ug hthe ir s e cr e t
o r g a n is a tio n s ,we r e the cho s e n in s tr um e n ts ;
withL e n in in s ta l l e d in M o s co w,a n dus in g
Rus s ia a s a p l a tf o r m ,B o l s he v is te m is s a r ie s
p ur e a n ds im p l e we r e the m e a n s f o r dis -
s e m in a tin g un r e s ta n dp r o v o k in g dis co r d
.
We wil l n o wde a l withthe ir a ctiv itie s in
Pr us s ia ,B a v a r ia ,a n dHun g a r y . Itis n o -
to r io us ,o f co ur s e ,tha tthe G e r m a n s us e d
B o l s he v is m a s a m e a n s to wa r ds the ir o wn
v icto r y ( witn e s s B r e s t-L ito v s k ) ,tho ug ha t
the s a m e tim e the y we r e e xce e din g l y un e a s y
a tthe co n s e que n ce s whichits p r o g r e s s m ig ht
ha v e in the ir o wn co un tr y . B utthe who l e
a ttitude o f G e r m a n y to wa r ds B o l s he v is m is
v e r y e n ig m a tic,a n din k e e p in g withthe ir
m e n ta l ity . J us ta s the y we r e p r e p a r e dto
us e the s ub m a r in e wa r f a r e a s a m e a n s o f
de f e a tin g the En te n te ( witho utco n s ide r in g
s e r io us l y the co n s e que n ce s whichm ig ht
15 6
L ENIN' SACTIV ITIES

15 7
f o l l o wf r o m Am e r ica ' s e n tr y in to the wa r ) ,
s o the y a r e wil l in g to to y withB o l s he v is m
f o r the p ur p o s e o f r e n de r in g n ug a to r y the
Tr e a ty o f V e r s a il l e s ( witho utwe ig hin g the
r e v o l utio n whichSo v ie tg o v e r n m e n tm ig ht
b r in g a b o utin the Fa the r l a n d) .
Ata n y
r a te the p o s s ib il ity o f a B o l s he v is e G e r m a n y
m us ta l wa y s b e co n s ide r e db y the Al l ie s .
Whe n a l l a l l o wa n ce is m a de f o r G e r m a n
dup l icity ,the p r e s e n ts itua tio n is s uf f icie n tl y
s e r io us ,f o r a l r e a dy the J e ws o f M o s co w,
wo r k in g thr o ug hthe ir e m is s a r ie s in G e r -
m a n y ,ha v e s ucce e de dto s o m e e xte n tin
s e ttin g Pr us s ia a g a in s tB a v a r ia a n dto wn
a g a in s tco un tr y .
Hun g a r y is in te r e s tin g b e ca us e m o r e tha n
a n y o the r co un tr y itthr o ws a v iv idl ig hto n
the in te r n a tio n a l cha r a cte r o f B o l s he v is m .
Al l the B o l s he v is tf o r ce s ( in cl udin g tho s e in
En g l a n d) a r e b e in g ca l l e do n to b r e a k do wn
the M a g y a r r a m p a r t,whichs ta n ds r e s o l ute ,
withs o m e thin g o f the s p ir ito f the in to l e r a n t
b utim p r e s s iv e Co un tTis z a ,a g a in s tthe
f l o o ds tha ta r e p o ur in g f o r thf r o m the Ea s t .
Re v o l utio n whe n itca m e in G e r m a n y
wa s n o ta n e wa n dis o l a te de v e n t . Wa r
cir cum s ta n ce s b r o ug ht a b o utr e v o l utio n
f ir s tin Rus s ia ,a n dL e n in ' s a chie v e m e n t
wa s to r e co g n is e the p s y cho l o g ica l m o m e n t
a twhichto s tr ik e f o r itthe r e .
He s uc-
ce e de d . B utthis s ucce s s in Rus s ia wa s ,in
his e y e s ,o n l y a f ir s ts te p to a wide r s ucce s s
thr o ug ho utthe wo r l d . Withthis e n din
15 8 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
v ie w,a n dr e v o l utio n in G e r m a n y e s p e cia l l y ,
he wa s r e a dy to co un te n a n ce a n y in co n -
s is te n cy in Rus s ia ,a n dto im p o s e o n he r a n y
f r e s hs a cr if ice s . He wa s wil l in g ,f o r e xa m p l e ,
to p o s tp o n e p e a ce a n dco n tin ue wa r ,a n d
diddo s o ,whe n the r e b y he co ul dp r o m o te
his l a r g e r p o l icy . On l y b y r e m e m b e r in g
this ca n we un de r s ta n dthe B o l s he v is tm a n -
o e uv r e s a tB r e s t-L ito v s k ,o r the ir l a te r
de s ig n s o n Ea s tPr us s ia .
On l y b y r e m e m b e r in g this ,to o ,ca n we
r e a l is e the f ul l s ig n if ica n ce o f the r e v o l u-
tio n a r y a tte m p ts in G e r m a n y . The f a ct
tha tin Rus s ia cir cum s ta n ce s p e r m itte dthe
Re v o l utio n to a p p r o xim a te a to n ce to the
who l e s a l e s che m e o f L e n in -a s che m e a l m o s t
ide n tica l ,a s we ha v e s ho wn ,withtha to f
the Pr o to co l s -a n dthe f a cttha t in G e r m a n y
r e v o l utio n s o ug htto m o v e b y p a r tia l s ta g e s
in a cco r dwiththe s tr ug g l e b e twe e n So cia l is t
a n dSp a r ta cis t,the s e f a cts m us tn o thide
the co n cl us io n tha t,in b o th,r e v o l utio n wa s
r e l a te dwitho n e a n dthe s a m e co n s p ir a cy .
In b o th,a s e v e r y whe r e e l s e ,L e n in is a n
o p p o r tun is to n b e ha l f o f his p r o j e cte din te r -
n a tio n a l up he a v a l .
Al r e a dy in M a y o f 1918 the So v ie tha d
a n a ccr e dite da g e n tin B e r l in . This wa s
the B o l s he v is tJ e w,J o f f e ,who wa s Re d
Am b a s s a do r the r e un til the b e g in n in g o f
No v e m b e r ,whe n he wa s r e tur n e da cr o s s
the f r o n tie r . The r e a s o n f o r his e xp ul s io n
wa s his n o to r io us a ctiv itie s in l e a g ue with
L ENIN' SACTIV ITIES

15 9
the Sp a r ta cis ts ,a s we l l a s withthe e xtr e -
m is ts a m o n g the In de p e n de n t So cia l is ts
who s e he l p the M a j o r ity So cia l is ts n o wf e l t
a b l e to do witho ut
.
The s e In de p e n de n ts ha v e n o tdis a v o we d
the ir tr a f f icwithJ o f f e ,a n dthr o ug hhim
withM o s co w,in p r e p a r in g f o r the Re v o -
l utio n in G e r m a n y . B a r th,who s e e m s to
ha v e b e e n the chie f m e dium f o r it,de n ie d
o n l y tha tM o s co wf in a n ce dit
.
B a r thha s
a dm itte de v e r y k in do f s up p o r ta n da s s is t-
a n ce f r o m the B o l s he v ik s in f ur the r in g the
Re v o l utio n e xce p tm o n e y .
This de n ia l o f
f in a n cia l he l p is n o tco r r o b o r a te db y J o f f e
.
The e xp e l l e dAm b a s s a do r ,o n the co n tr a r y ,
b o a s te do f ha v in g g iv e n B a r th " hun dr e ds
o f tho us a n ds o f m a r k s . " In a n y ca s e ,tha t
l a r g e s um s we r e p a s s e df r o m him to the
Sp a r ta cis ts is a s m uchb e y o n ddo ub ta s tha t
J o f f e ha dde e p r e s o ur ce s o f m o n e y f o r this
p a r ticul a r r e v o l utio n -f o s te r in g ca m p a ig n .
In L e n in ' s o wn wo r ds itwa s " a cha in o f
r e v o l utio n s " tha twa s b e in g f o r g e d,a n din
tha tcha in " the chie f l in k wa s the G e r m a n
o n e . " His a r tis a n J o f f e ,a two r k in B e r l in
o n the G e r m a n l in k dur in g the s um m e r o f
1918 ,is b e l ie v e dto ha v e ha df o ur m il l io n
m a r k s p l a ce da this dis p o s a l b y the So v ie t
f o r the j o b .
J o f f e ha ds ca r ce l y dis a p p e a r e df r o m B e r l in
whe n Ra de k ( So b e l s o n ) a r r iv e dthe r e . J e w
s ucce e de dJ e w . J o f f e ha db e e n s e n ta s
Am b a s s a do r to the G o v e r n m e n t o f the
16 0
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
K a is e r ,a n dhis s e cr e ttr a f f icwiththe Sp a r -
ta cis ts r e v e a l e dits e l f g r a dua l l y . Ra de k ,
o n the o the r ha n d,e n te r e dG e r m a n y b y
s te a l th,a n dwa s L e n in ' s r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s e n t
e xp l icitl y to n e g o tia te withthe Sp a r ta cis ts ,
a n dwiththe J e wis hL ie b k n e chtin p a r -
ticul a r . Fo r L ie b k n e chtha db y n o wb e e n
l ib e r a te df r o m p r is o n ,a n da s b e twe e n him
a n dthe r e v o l utio n a r y G o v e r n m e n t,o f which
No s k e wa s p r o v in g the s tr o n g m a n ,the g a m e
o f
"
p ul l De v il ,p ul l b a k e r ," ha db e g un
.
Ra de k im m e dia te l y to o k a ha n do n L ie b -
k n e cht' s e n do f the r o p e . On the l a s tda y s
o f 1918 the s e two we r e o p e n l y a dv o ca tin g a
" Re v o l utio n a r y Co m m un is ticL a b o ur Pa r ty
o f the G e r m a n Sp a r ta cus -b a n d . " On a n
e a r l y da y o f 1919,a cco r din g to g o o da utho -
r ity ,a do cum e n ts ig n e db y b o thcl in che dthe
co n n e ctio n b e twe e n the M o s co wa n dthe
B e r l in " co m r a de s ," L ie b k n e chtp uttin g his
n a m e to ita s p r o s p e ctiv e Pr e s ide n to f the
G e r m a n So v ie tRe p ub l ic,a n dRa de k a s
a ccr e dite dPl e n ip o te n tia r y o f the Rus s ia n
So v ie tRe p ub l ic .
The te r m s o f this a l l e g e dp a ct,whichis
b e l ie v e dto ha v e b e e n co n cl ude din the
a ttico f the J e we s s ,Ro s a L uxe m b o ur g ,in
B e r l in ,a r e g iv e n b y M
. Pa ul M il iuk o v .
L e n in o n his p a r tun de r to o k to
" 1 . Re co g n is e L ie b k n e chta s Pr e s ide n to f
the G e r m a n So v ie tRe p ub l ic ;
" 2 . Fur n is him p o r ta n tf un ds f o r Sp a r ta cis t
p r o p a g a n da ;
L ENIN' SACTIV ITIES

16 1
3
. Pl a ce s p e cia l l y tr a in e da g e n ts a tthe
dis p o s a l o f the Sp a r ta cis ts ; a n d
" 4 . Or de r So v ie ta r m ie s to ta k e the o f f e n -
s iv e a n dcr o s s the G e r m a n f r o n tie r in s up p o r t
o f a s im ul ta n e o us Sp a r ta cis tr is in g in B e r l in ; "
whil e L ie b k n e chtun de r to o k to
" 1. Es ta b l is ha So v ie tG o v e r n m e n tin
G e r m a n y im m e dia te l y up o n his a dv e n tto
p o we r
;
" 2 . Ob s e r v e f a ithf ul l y a n dp utin to p r a ctice
a l l the te a chin g s o f L e n in ' s do ctr in e s ;
a n d
" 3
. Ra is e a Re dAr m y o f 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 m e n to b e
p l a ce dun de r the s up r e m e co m m a n do f the
Co m m is s a r y f o r Wa r a tM o s co w . "
Eichho r n -who ,itis wo r thr e m e m b e r in g ,
ha db e e n in J o f f e ' s s e r v ice e a r l ie r -wa s in
this l e a g ue ,a n da f e wda y s l a te r the r is in g
un de r his dir e ctio n wa s s co tche db y No s k e ' s
tr o o p s ,a n dL ie b k n e chta n dRo s a L uxe m -
b o ur g we r e m ur de r e d . The ha n do f M o s co w
in this a tte m p twa s p r o cl a im e da b r o a db y
the M a j o r ity So cia l is tG o v e r n m e n tits e l f ,
whichthr e a te n e dr e p r is a l s a g a in s ts uch
Rus s ia n s a s s ho ul dha v e b e e n f o un dto ha v e
s ha r e din it
. Ra de k wa s a r r e s te d ; b ut
Ra de k b y this tim e ha dco n tr iv e dto e s ta -
b l is hs o m e thir ty B o l s he v is to r g a n is a tio n s
thr o ug ho utG e r m a n y ,a n ds o ,withhim a s
we l l a s f if ty o r a hun dr e dSp a r ta cis tl e a de r s
o f f the s ce n e ,the a tte m p te dn e wr e v o l utio n
o f M a r ch6 thto 13 thwa s s til l p o s s ib l e
. It,
to o ,f a il e d,e v e n withthe In de p e n de n ts '
z
16 2
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
he l p ,b utitb r o ug htin to the l ig hto n ce
m o r e the s tr e n g tho f the un io n b e twe e n
the G e r m a n a n dthe Rus s ia n B o l s he v ik s .
Al l L e n in ' s e g g s we r e n e v e r in o n e b a s k e t,
o r e v e n in ha l f a do z e n b a s k e ts . The
s m a s hin g o r cr a ck in g o f the m in o n e p l a ce
o r in s ixwa s r e g a r de db y him a s m e r e l y a
l o ca l r e v e r s e . His o b j e ctiv e wa s wo r l d-wide
r e v o l utio n ,a n dhe wa s p ur s uin g ite v e r y -
whe r e . Ra de k ' s a ctiv itie s ha ds p r e a df a r
b e y o n dB e r l in a n dRus s ia ,a s the M a r ch
r is in g s o n the Rhin e a n din Ha m b ur g a n d
e l s e whe r e p r o v e d,a n din B a v a r ia the y ha d
im p o r ta n tr e s ul ts
.
Im m e dia te l y f o l l o win g the m ur de r o f the
Pr im e M in is te r ,K ur tEis n e r ( him s e l f a J e w,
Sa l o m a n K us n o ws k y b y n a m e ) ,a n dthe
p r o cl a m a tio n o f a So v ie tRe p ub l icin B a v a r ia
b y the M un ichWo m e n ' s ,Pe a s a n ts ' ,a n d
So l die r s ' Co un cil , a Rus s ia n B o l s he v ik
a p p e a r s p r o m in e n tl y . M a xL iv ie n ,a J e w
o f M o s co w,wa s o n the s p o t,a wa itin g
e v e n ts a n dp r e p a r in g f o r the m . The r e wa s
a l wa y s s o m e e m is s a r y o f L e n in o n the a l e r t
a tp o in ts o f o utb r e a k . L iv ie n wa s a to n ce
e l e cte da m e m b e r o f the Exe cutiv e Co m -
m itte e ,a n dhe a to n ce de cl a r e da p o l icy
in a cco r dwiththa to f the Rus s ia n B o l s he v ik s .
The r e wa s to b e n o Die t,b uto n l y a p r o l e -
ta r ia n dicta to r s hip . B a v a r ia wa s to b e
a l l o we dto wo r k o utits o wn s che m e o f
g o v e r n m e n twitho utin te r f e r e n ce f r o m Pr us -
s ia . Al l o v e r G e r m a n y in de p e n de n tSo v ie t
L ENIN' SACTIV ITIES

16 3
Re p ub l ics we r e to b e s e tup . He r e ,in f a ct,
we r e a l l the s ig n s o f L e n in ' s wo r l d-r e v o l utio n
p o l icy -the dis in te g r a tio n o f the Sta te ,a
Co m m un is ts ub v e r s io n o f a utho r ity ,a n d
the r ul e o f M o s co ws up r e m e . The B a v a r ia n
p l a n wa s o n l y p a r tia l l y s ucce s s f ul f r o m the
b e g in n in g ,a n din the e n ditf a il e d,b utit
do v e ta il e din to the g e n e r a l co n s p ir a cy a n d
he l p e ditf o r wa r d
.
1Itis ,in f a ct,the g r e a ts tr e n g tho f L e n in ' s
m a n o e uv r e s tha te v e n whe n im m e dia te l y
un s ucce s s f ul the y do v e ta il in to the g e n e r a l
ca us e ,wo r k in g f o r its ul tim a te g o o d . G e r -
m a n y didn o tp r o v e r e a dy to j um p to the
So v ie tide a ,b utthe a tte m p ts to f o r ce he r
to it,e v e n whil e the y f a il e d,in cr e a s e dtha t
" a tte n ua tio n b y s uf f e r in g " thr o ug hwhich,
in L e n in ' s o wn de cl a r a tio n s ,the p e o p l e s
thr o ug ho utthe wo r l dco ul db e b r o ug htto
B o l s he v is the e l .
Thus ,a l tho ug hL ie b k n e chtha ddis a p -
p e a r e d,M o s co ws til l da l l ie dwiththe p r o j e ct,
s ig n e dwithhim ,o f o r de r in g So v ie ta r m ie s
to ta k e the o f f e n s iv e a g a in s tG e r m a n y .
Tha twa s o n l y o n e o f s e v e r a l o f f e n s iv e s
co n te m p l a te d,a n din a tte m p tin g the s e to -
g e the r the B o l s he v ik s b ito f f m o r e tha n the y
co ul dche w . B utif n o thin g ca m e o f this
p a r ticul a r m il ita r y e n te r p r is e ,itha s to b e
r e m e m b e r e dtha tthe o the r s in the p l a n -
a g a in s tthe Al l ie s in No r thRus s ia a n d
De n ik in a n dK o l tcha k in the So uth-ha v e
n o wa l l b e e n a cco m p l is he d,l a r g e l y n o do ub t
16 4
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
thr o ug hAl l ie dm is ta k e s . L e n in ha s a l wa y s
k n o wn ho wto wa it .
An dcir cum s ta n ce s ha v e a l wa y s e n a b l e d
him whe n p itte da g a in s to the r o p p o r tun is ts
to wa itl o n g e s t . He r e l e tus r e ca l l tha t
whil e itwa s G e r m a n y who g a v e L e n in s a f e
co n ductto Rus s ia ,itwa s o ur s e l v e s who
in tr o duce dTr o ts k y _to his s ide in tha t
un ha p p y co un tr y
. Ag a in s tthe s in g l e p ur p o s e
whichtho s e e r r o r s a ide d,ha n d-to -m o uth
p o l icie s ha dn o cha n ce ; a n dthe a idl e n tto
wo r l d-r e v o l utio n b y the e r r o r s wa s s o tim e l y
tha tthe s p e cul a tio n is un a v o ida b l e whe the r
the y we r e n o tde l ib e r a te l y dir e cte dto this
e n d . The que s tio n m a y we l l b e a s k e dho w
itca m e a b o uttha tL e n in a n dTr o ts k y we r e
a l l o we dto f o r e g a the r in Rus s ia j us tin the
n ick o f tim e f o r the ir g r a n dio s e de s ig n .
The G e r m a n G o v e r n m e n ts -b o ththe Im -
p e r ia l b e f o r e the Re v o l utio n a n dtho s e tha t
ca m e a f te r it-p l a y e da n o p p o r tun is tg a m e
withL e n in a s he withthe m ,b uthe p l a y e d
itb e tte r .
We ha v e Tr o ts k y ' s a cco un to f
B r e s t-L ito v s k ,a n dho wM o s co wb ide dits
tim e whil e tha ta p p a r e n tv icto r y f o r the
e x-K a is e r ' s p o l icy wo r k e do utto its un do in g .
His So cia l is ts ucce s s o r s ha v e s im il a r l y p l a y e d
f a s ta n dl o o s e withthe B o l s he v ik s ,a cco r din g
a s the Sp a r ta cis tf o r tun e s s e e m e dto a l l o w
the m to f l o utM o s co wo r to f a v o ur it. The
g a m e is n o tf in is he d . L e n in ' s chie f p a wn in
itis the Thir dIn te r n a tio n a l ,the cr e a tio n o f
which,thr o ug hthe de f e a to f its p r e de ce s s o r s ,
L ENIN' SACTIV ITIES

16 5
ha s b e e n his co n s ta n ta im thr o ug ho utthe
wa r a n ds in ce ; a n ditis s ig n if ica n ttha t
r e v o l utio n in G e r m a n y is s p e cif ica l l y s e t
b y the Thir dIn te r n a tio n a l in the f o r e f r o n t
o f the Re v o l utio n s whichitis p l e dg e dto
f o s te r . The B o l s he v is tha n dwa s de te cte d,
b y the m o s tco m p e te n to b s e r v e r s ,in the
K a p p
r is in g ,a n dthis M o n a r chis tf a il ur e
s tr e n g the n e dthe Sp a r ta cis tca us e in G e r -
m a n y
. We ca n tr a ce the s a m e de s ig n in
s til l m o r e r e ce n te v e n ts ,s ucha s the B o l s he -
v is to r de r whichha s g o n e f o r thf o r the
e xp ul s io n o f s o in f l ue n tia l a r iv a l a s K a uts k y
f r o m the r a n k s o f the G e r m a n In de p e n de n t
So cia l is ts . This is to b e in te r p r e te da s a
r e n e wa l o f co n f ide n ce in M o s co w,f o l l o win g o n
s ucce s s e s a g a in s tPo l a n d,to ta k e a dir e ctin g
ha n din G e r m a n r e v o l utio n a r y p o l itics .
The Re v o l utio n in Hun g a r y is p a r ticul a r l y
in s tr uctiv e . He r e the B o l s he v ik s m a de cl e v e r
us e o f the e xa s p e r a tio n a r o us e din a p r o ud
co un tr y b y p e a ce co n ditio n s whichp l a ce dit
in a p o s itio n o f in f e r io r ity to its a n cie n ta n d
de s p is e de n e m ie s . B o l s he v ik s m a k e us e o f
a n y we a p o n ,e v e n the n a tio n a l is m whichis
the ir m a in o b s ta cl e . If a p r in cip l e o r a
p r e j udice ha s p o s s ib il itie s the y us e it ; whe n
itha s s e r v e dits p ur p o s e the y thr o wita s ide .
This de xte r o us in co n s is te n cy is o n e o f the
s e cr e ts o f the ir p o we r .
The a p p e a l to
n a tio n a l is m wa s f o r the tim e b e in g s ucce s s -
f ul in Hun g a r y ,j us ta s n o do ub tL e n in ho p e s
he wil l ha v e a s im il a r r e s ul tf r o m the a p p e a l
16 6
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
he is a tp r e s e n tm a k in g to the r e v iv in g
n a tio n a l s p ir itin Rus s ia ,a s s ho wn in the ta l k
a b o utr e co v e r in g Rus s ia n te r r ito r ie s in Po -
l a n da n dthe r e v iv a l o f the cl a im s to Co n -
s ta n tin o p l e .
The " Na tio n a l Co un cil "
which,itwil l
b e r e m e m b e r e d,o v e r thr e wthe Hun g a r ia n
G o v e r n m e n twa s co m p o s e d,a cco r din g to
M r . As hm e a d-B a r tl e tt,the s p e cia l co r r e s p o n -
de n to f the Da il y Te l e g r a p h,o f the l e a de r s
o f the Ra dica l win g o f the Ol dIn de p e n de n t
Pa r ty ,the J e wis hM a f f ia a n dthe So cia l
De m o cr a ts
. The g r o un dha db e e n ca r e f ul l y
p r e p a r e db y J e wis h-B o l s he v is tp r o p a g a n da ,
a n da cco r din g to a n a cco un to f itwr itte n
b y a n Hun g a r ia n l a dy ,M l l e
. Cha r l o tte G e o cz e ,
who a tthe tim e o f wr itin g wa s o b v io us l y
un a wa r e o f the e xis te n ce o f the Pr o to co l s ,
itb e a r s a s tr ik in g r e s e m b l a n ce to the p l a n
o f ca m p a ig n o utl in e db y the " L e a r n e dEl de r s
o f Z io n . " In a s e r ie s o f a r ticl e s e dite db y
the f o r m e r Hun g a r ia n Pr im e M in is te r ,M .
Hus z a r ,the wr ite r o f o n e o f the m ,the e dito r
o f the Ne n z e tiUj s a g ,
e m p ha tica l l y de cl a r e s
in tha tco n n e ctio n tha tB o l s he v is m ca n n o t
b e e xp l a in e da l o n e b y the r e v o l utio n a r y
s p ir itin the a ir a n db y the e co n o m iccr is is
o cca s io n e db y the wa r un l e s s a tthe s a m e
tim e o n e a cce p ts the f a cttha tits m o v in g
f o r ce is the te n a cio us a n ds e cr e ts o l ida r ity
o f the J e ws .
Af ur the r p o in tm a de is the
co n tin uo us im m ig r a tio n o f Rus s ia n J e ws
in to Hun g a r y f r o m the Ea s t,whichp r o ce e de d
L ENIN' SACTIV ITIES

16 7
in a r e g ul a r r o ta tio n ;
J e ws s e ttl in g do wn
a m o n g the Ruthe n ia n s a s m o n e y -l e n de r s ,
r uin in g the p e a s a n ts a n dthe n r e tur n in g
ho m e . Ap a r ticul a r r a ce o f J e ws ,the K ho -
z a r ,to o k a p r o m in e n tp a r tin this m o v e m e n t
.
B e l a K un ,the l e a de r o f _the Hun g a r ia n
B o l s he v ik s ,wa s a J e w,a n dn e a r l y a l l his
m in is te r s , l ik e
Fr ie dl a n de r , We r the im ,
Do r s ca k ,a n dK o hn ,we r e a l s o J e ws
. K un
wa s in cl o s e to uchwithL e n in ,a n dwa s
dir e ctl y in s p ir e db y him in a l l his a cts
.
Wir e l e s s co m m un ica tio n wa s m a in ta in e db e -
twe e n M o s co wa n dB uda p e s t,a n ds o m e o f
the m e s s a g e s thus e xcha n g e dm a de e xce e d-
in g l y in te r e s tin g r e a din g
. In a we l l -k n o wn
m e s s a g e o f g r e e tin g L e n in wa s in f o r m e d
"
The Hun g a r ia n Pr o l e ta r ia t,whichy e s te r -
da y to o k the e n tir e Sta te p o we r in to its
ha n ds ,ha s in tr o duce dthe Dicta to r s hip o f
the Pr o l e ta r ia tin to the co un tr y ,
a n dg r e e ts
y o ua s the l e a de r o f the In te r n a tio n a l
Pr o l e -
ta r ia t . "
M a n y o f the s e m e s s a g e s a r e to b e f o un d
in the b o o k ,
Se cr e tDo cum e n ts o f the B o l s he v is t
Pr o p a g a n da ,
wr itte n b y Pr o f e s s o r Sz a b o ,o f
Hun g a r y ,a n dp ub l is he din B uda p e s to v e r
a y e a r a g o .
On e m e s s a g e f r o m Tchitche r in ,
the B o l s he v is tCo m m is s a r y o f Fo r e ig n Af f a ir s ,
to B e l a K un ,s e n tin cy p he r ,withr e f e r e n ce
to p r e p a r in g the s o il in L o n do n ,s a y s
"
Itwo ul db e us e f ul to g e tin to to uchwith
the Rus s ia n Pe o p l e ' s In f o r m a tio n B ur e a uin
L o n do n
. Yo uco ul db e s tdo this b y m e a n s
16 8
THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
o f Sy l v ia Pa n k hur s t,who m y o uca n a p p r o a ch
thr o ug hthe
Da il y He r a l d . "
In the
Da il y He r a l d the r e r e ce n tl y a p p e a r e d
the f o l l o win g
"
M r s . De s p a r d,Ro b e r tDe l l ,a n dHa r o l d
G r e n f e l l ,a s the ` Do n o r s ' Co m m itte e ' o f the
Pe o p l e ' s Rus s ia n In f o r m a tio n B ur e a u,a r e
a s k in g f o r 5 0 0 to cl e a r o f f o uts ta n din g
l ia b il itie s a n dthe e s tim a te dde f icito n the
n e xty e a r ' s wo r k o f the B ur e a u
. The B ur e a u,
a s m o s to f o ur r e a de r s k n o w,e xis ts to cir cu-
l a te ,co l l e ct,a n dta b ul a te in f o r m a tio n o n
the Rus s ia n s itua tio n . "
M r s
. De s p a r dis we l l k n o wn . M r . De l l
wa s f o r m e r l y Pa r is co r r e s p o n de n to f the
M a n che s te r G ua r dia n ,
a n dwa s r e que s te dto
l e a v e Pa r is dur in g the wa r b y the Fr e n ch
G o v e r n m e n t .
M r . G r e n f e l l wa s f o r m e r l y in
the Na v y a n da tta che dto the Em b a s s y in
Pe tr o g r a d . He wa s the s ub j e cto f a que s tio n
a ddr e s s e dto the Pr im e M in is te r b y M r
. Ra p e r
in the Ho us e o f Co m m o n s o n J ul y 1s t,192 0 .
M r
. Ra p e r s up p l e m e n te dhis que s tio n b y
a s k in g M r
. B o n a r L a wif he wa s a wa r e tha t
do cum e n ts ha dr e ce n tl y b e e n s e n tto L o n do n
b y the B r itis hM in is te r in Fin l a n dim p l ica tin g
G e n e r a l Sir Hub e r tG o ug h,he a do f the l a te
In te r -Al l ie dM il ita r y M is s io n to Fin l a n d,
a l s o Co m m a n de r G r e n f e l l ,a n dPr o f e s s o r
Co tte r , "
a s b e in g a s s o cia te dwitha n o to r io us
B o l s he v is ta g e n tin He l s in g f o r s
. " M r . B o n a r
L a wr e p l ie dtha the ha dn o the a r do f it,a n d
s ub s e que n tl y ,o n J ul y 13 th,in r e p l y to a
L ENIN' SACTIV ITIES

16 9
f ur the r que s tio n b y M r . Ra p e r ,the L e a de r
o f the Ho us e s a idtha the ha dr e a dthe
l e tte r s r e f e r r e dto ,b utdidn o tthin k tha t
the y ca l l e df o r a n y a ctio n .
The o v e r thr o wo f B e l a K un wa s o n e o f
the s e v e r e s tb l o ws de a l ta tB o l s he v is m ,b ut
itis wo r thwhil e n o tin g tha tG e n e r a l Sm uts
wa s e n tr us te dwitho n e o f tho s e a m a z in g
Pr in k ip o m is s io n s f o r the p ur p o s e o f co m in g
to s o m e un de r s ta n din g withthe B o l s he v ik s
b e f o r e the Fr e n cha n dthe o the r Al l ie s we r e
a l l o we dto a dv a n ce o n a n do ccup y B uda p e s t .
The ca m p a ig n l e db y the B o l s he v ik s
a g a in s tHun g a r y e v e r s in ce the r e tur n o f
civ il is e dg o v e r n m e n tha s b e e n e xtr a o r di-
n a r il y m a l e v o l e n ta n dwide s p r e a d . B e l a
K un ' s J e ws im p o r te df r o m Rus s ia ca r r ie d
o uta p p a l l in g a tr o citie s dur in g the ir te n ur e
o f p o we r ,a n do n his e xp ul s io n the r e we r e
s o m e s p o r a dicm a s s a cr e s o r g a n is e db y in f u-
r ia te dHun g a r ia n o f f ice r s ,who s e wo m e n f o l k
ha db e e n s ha m e f ul l y m a l tr e a te d . B utthe
G o v e r n m e n tdid,a n dis do in g ,a l l in its
p o we r to che ck a n y s uche xce s s e s . No twith-
s ta n din g tha tf a ct,the p r o -B o l s he v ik p a p e r s
in Eur o p e ,in cl udin g tho s e in En g l a n d,we r e
de l ug e dwithl ur ida cco un ts o f a tr o citie s
co m m itte db y the a n ti-B o l s he v ik Hun g a r ia n s .
So p e r s is te n twe r e the s e r e p o r ts tha to f f icia l
in quir ie s we r e m a de b y the Al l ie dM is s io n s
in B uda p e s t,a n dthe ir co n cl us io n s ,which
we r e p ub l is he din a B r itis hWhite Pa p e r ,
we r e to the e f f e cttha tthe r e we r e p r a cti-
17 0 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
ca l l y n o a tr o citie s a ta l l ,a n dtha tin s te a d
o f tho us a n ds b e in g m a s s a cr e dn o tm o r e
tha n f if ty ha db e e n do n e to de a th
.
Ye tin
s p ite o f this e xp o s ur e in te r n a tio n a l l a b o ur
ha s de cide do n a b o y co tto f Hun g a r y ,tho ug h
in the s a m e b r e a thito b j e cts to a n y a n ti-
B o l s he v ik m e a s ur e s a g a in s tRus s ia o n the
g r o un dtha titwo ul db e in te r f e r in g in the
in te r n a l a f f a ir s o f a n o the r co un tr y .
In b o thG e r m a n y a n dHun g a r y the J e ws
o f M o s co wha v e s uf f e r e dche ck s ,b utthe
b a ttl e ha s n o ty e tb e e n f o ug htto a co n cl us io n
.
Re v o l utio n a r y m o v e m e n ts b o thp r io r a n d
s ub s e que n tto the wa r ha v e n o wb e e n
a n a l y s e d,a n de v ide n ce o f a co m m o n de s ig n ,
o f a un iv e r s a l co n s p ir a cy ,o p e r a tin g s e cr e tl y
thr o ug hFr e e m a s o n s a n do p e n l y thr o ug h
B o l s he v ik s ,ha s b e e n p utf o r wa r d .
CHAPTERXII
THE PEACECONFERENCE
J e wis hActiv itie s -The Te a chin g s o f Wa s hin g to n a n d
M o s co w-The L e a g ue o f Na tio n s a n dthe Thir dIn te r -
n a tio n a l e -Se l f -De te r m in a tio n -The p o is o n in Ir e l a n d,
Eg y p ta n dIn dia -Po l a n d' s Fa te -J e wis ha n dG e r m a n
In te r e s tin he r We a k n e s s .
To de s cr ib e the un o f f icia l a ctiv itie s o f the
J e ws in Pa r is wo ul db e to de s cr ib e the wo r k
o f the Co n f e r e n ce . M r . Wil s o n wa s s ur -
r o un de db y the m ; e v e n M . Cl e m e n ce a uha d
his wa tch-do g s ; a n da s f o r the B r itis h
de l e g a tio n ,o n e ha s o n l y to m e n tio n the
n a m e s o f L o r dRe a din g a n dM r . M o n ta g u
a n dthe cl o s e in te r e s tthe y to o k in the de -
l ib e r a tio n s . In de e d,itwil l b e r e m e m b e r e d
tha tthe r e wa s a s tr o n g m o v e m e n tto in cl ude
the L o r dChie f J us tice in the o r ig in a l de l e -
g a tio n ,b ut,o win g to the s tr o n g o p p o s itio n
a r o us e din this co un tr y ,n o thin g ca m e o f it .
No wthe s ta te s m e n o f Pa r is ,l ik e the
B o l s he v ik s ,we r e g uide db y g e n e r a l p r in -
cip l e s .
Tha tis the do m in a n t,the p e cul ia r
f e a tur e o f the Pe a ce Co n f e r e n ce a tPa r is .
An din tha tco n n e ctio n l e tus quo te f r o m
the
His to r y o f the Pe a ce Co n f e r e n ce , the
f ir s tv o l um e o f whichha s j us tb e e n is s ue d
un de r the a us p ice s o f the In s titute o f In te r -
n a tio n a l Af f a ir s
. The co n cl udin g p a r a g r a p h
o f a n in te r e s tin g cha p te r o n the B o l s he v is t
a ttitude a tB r e s t-L ito v s k is a s f o l l o ws
17 1
17 2 THECAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
" Thus b y the cl o s e o f the y e a r itwa s
e v ide n ttha tthe de m a n df o r e v a cua tio n a n d
the r ig hto f s e l f -de te r m in a tio n m e a n tf o r the
B o l s he v ik s n o thin g b utthe r ig hto f ` b o l s he -
v is in g ,' a n dthe a p p e a l o f the ir p e a ce f o r m ul a e
a tB r e s tha dl o n g s in ce l o s tits o r ig in a l f o r ce .
Ye t,in the ir a r g um e n ts withthe G e r m a n s ,
the y ha da p p l ie ds e l f -de te r m in a tio n in ' a
b o l da n df a r -r e a chin g wa y ,tha tr e m a in e d
n o twitho utin f l ue n ce in m a n y qua r te r s ;
Ir e l a n da n dB o s n ia ,Eg y p t,In dia ,a n dPe r s ia
a p p e a r e da l o n g withPo s e n a n dAl s a ce -
L o r r a in e a n dAr m e n ia . The Rus s ia n ca tch-
wo r do f ` p e a ce witho uta n n e xa tio n s o r
in de m n itie s ,' whichthe B o l s he v ik s ha d
ta k e n o v e r a n da m p l if ie d,ha dm a de a de e p ,
if in de f in ite ,im p r e s s io n . The de m a n df o r
n o e co n o m icb o y co tts f ig ur e da m o n g the wa r
a im s o f m a n y a n ti-B o l s he v is tb o die s o f
o p in io n ,a n dthe p r e ce de n to f the a tte m p t
to r e a l is e ` n o s e cr e tdip l o m a cy ' wa s n o t
f o r g o tte n . The e f f e cto f the s e ide a s wa s
co n f l ictin g ,a n dto a l a r g e e xte n tim p a l p a b l e ,
a n dthe y ha db e co m e in the m a in div e s te d
o f a n y s p e cif ica l l y B o l s he v is ts e ttin g ,b ut,in
co n j un ctio n withPr e s ide n tWil s o n ' s e n un -
cia tio n o f p r in cip l e s ,the y co l o ur e dthe m in ds
a n dim a g in a tio n s o f s uchn um b e r s tha tthe y
e xe r cis e da n im m e dia te a n dp r o f o un din -
f l ue n ce up o n the Pe a ce Co n f e r e n ce . "
Itis n o tb y a n y m e a n s the f ir s ttim e tha t
the p r in cip l e s e n un cia te db y Pr e s ide n tWil -
s o n ha v e b e e n l in k e dup withthe n e w
THEPEACECONFERENCE
17 8
g o s p e l whichis b e in g p r e a che da tM o s co w .
In de e d,the r e is r e a s o n to b e l ie v e tha ta
f a m o us Eur o p e a n s ta te s m a n ,s m a r tin g un de r
the in dif f e r e n ce o f the Pa r is M o un tSin a ito
the g r ie v a n ce s o f his co un tr y ,b l un tl y to l d
the Pr e s ide n ttha the a n dL e n in we r e p r e a ch-
in g the s a m e do ctr in e ,a n dtha tb e twe e n the
Fo ur te e n Po in ts a n dthe K r e m l in m a n i-
f e s to e s the r e wa s l ittl e to cho o s e . An d
r e a l l y if j udg e db y the ir dis in te g r a tin g f o r ce
the r e is l ittl e to cho o s e b e twe e n the o n e s e t
o f p o n tif ica l e xp l o s iv e s a n dthe o the r . A
Sin n Fe in e r o r a n Eg y p tia n Na tio n a l is tca n
j us tif y m ur de r f r o m e ithe r ,a n d " m a k in g
the wo r l ds a f e f o r de m o cr a cy " a n d " the
dicta to r s hip o f the p r o l e ta r ia t " s o un de qua l l y
s we e tin a r e b e l ' s e a r
. Co m m o n to b o th
Wa s hin g to n a n dM o s co wis the n e ce s s ity o f
a n in te r n a tio n a l co n tr o l o f the wo r l d ; to
o n e itis the L e a g ue o f Na tio n s ,to the o the r
itis the Thir dIn te r n a tio n a l e . The ide a is
the s a m e tho ug hthe in s tr um e n ts a r e dif f e r e n t .
An ditis dif f icul tto e s tim a te who s ho ute d
the l o ude r the cr y o f s e l f -de te r m in a tio n .
Tr o ts k y a n dhis J e ws we r e r e a dy to b a r te r
a wa y the who l e Rus s ia n Em p ir e f o r the
s a k e o f this ho l y p r in cip l e . Why 2 B e ca us e
l ik e the " L e a r n e dEl de r s o f Z io n " the y s a w
b e y o n dthe ig n o r a n tp r e s e n t . Atthe tim e
o f B r e s t-L ito v s k the a p p l ica tio n o f a n y
p r in cip l e to the Rus s ia n Em p ir e ,s ha tte r e d
b y wa r a n dun de r the m e n a ce o f Ho f f m a n ' s
whip ,r e a l l y didn o tm a tte r v e r y
m uch .
17 4 THE
CAUSEOFWORL DUNREST
B utwha ta b o utthe B r itis hEm p ir e ,a n dits
div e r s e n a tio n a l itie s a l l in dif f e r e n ts ta g e s
o f p o l itica l de v e l o p m e n t ? Sucha p r in cip l e
s k il f ul l y a p p l ie dm ig htha v e a l l the m y s -
te r io us e f f e cts o f a n a r s e n ica l do s e . The
n e e df o r s o m e s uchdo ctr in a l p o is o n wa s a l l
the m o r e n e ce s s a r y b e ca us e to the s ur p r is e
a n ddis a p p o in tm e n to f the B o l s he v ik s the
wa r didn o te n din a dr a w,b utin a n o v e r -
whe l m in g v icto r y f o r the En te n te Po we r s .
Acco r din g l y the p a r r o tcr y o f s e l f -de te r m in a -
tio n wa s us e df o r a l l itwa s wo r th,a n dto the
in te n s e g r a tif ica tio n o f M o s co wwa s ta k e n
up in Wa s hin g to n ,a n din m a n y a s o n o r o us
s e n te n ce wa s co m m e n de dto Fr e n chSe n a to r s
a n dB r itis hwo r k in g m e n .
Itwo r k e da n dis wo r k in g e xtr a o r din a r il y
we l l -in Ir e l a n d,Eg y p t,In dia ,a n d,who
k n o ws ,p e r ha p s s o o n in Ce n tr a l Af r ica .
The o n l y p l a ce whe r e a p p a r e n tl y itis n o t
a l l o we dto wo r k is Pa l e s tin e ,whe r e l e s s tha n
2 0 p e r ce n t . o f J e ws un de r Sir He r b e r t
Sa m ue l a r e p r o v idin g the m s e l v e s witha
n a tio n a l ho m e a tthe e xp e n s e o f 8 0 p e r ce n t .
o f Ar a b s . To s a cr if ice a n Em p ir e f o r a
p r in cip l e is s ur e l y a n e wthin g in p o l itica l
ide a l is m . Se l f -de te r m in a tio n ha s in de e d
p r o v e dthe cho ice s twe a p o n in the B o l s he v is t
a r m o ur y . Tr o ts k y co ul da f f o r dto b e g e n e -
r o us to Fin l a n dif itm e a n tin tim e the
g r a dua l b r e a k up o f the Un ite dK in g do m ;
he co ul ds ca tte r co n s titutio n s a m o n g the
B a l ticSta te s a n dthe Ta r ta r s o f the Ca uca s us
THEPEACECONFERENCE
17 5
if the n e ws o f this l a r g e s s e we r e to a wa k e n
the a p p e tite s o f the p o l itica l l y ha l f -b a k e d
co m m un itie s o f the B r itis hEm p ir e . Al l
Tr o ts k y ' s a n ticip a tio n s ha v e b e e n a m a z in g l y
r e a l is e da s the B r itis hta xp a y e r r ue f ul l y
a dm its whe n he thin k s o f the m il ita r y
b udg e ts o f Eg y p t,Ir e l a n d,M e s o p o ta m ia
;
wa r ca n b e f o ug htwithide a s a s we l l a s with
m in e n we r f e r
.
The B r itis hEm p ir e a tthis m o m e n tis in
the f ul l thr o e s o f the r e v o l utio n a r y tr o ub l e
b e que a the dto itb y the Pe a ce Co n f e r e n ce
withits cr ude v ie ws ,its m a n da te s a n d
p l e b is cite s ,a n da l l the p a r a p he r n a l ia o f
de m o cr a ticqua ck e r y .
Se l f -de te r m in a tio n is
p r o ducin g its m o n s tr o us b r o o da l l o v e r the
Em p ir e ,b utitis cur io us to n o te ho wquie s -
ce n titis a tp r e s e n tin the l a n ds whe r e
the B o l s he v is twr itr un s
. Itis n o wo n the
e b b ,a n dthe tide is r un n in g in f a v o ur o f
n a tio n a l is m ; witn e s s the r e ce n tde cl a r a tio n
o f B uk ha r in o n b e ha l f o f the So v ie to f
Pe o p l e ' s Co m m is s a r s f o r the r e co n s tr uctio n
o f a g r e a ta n dp o we r f ul So cia l is tRus s ia ,
" whichca n n o te xis t if
s he do e s n o tho l dthe
Str a its o f Co n s ta n tin o p l e . " He r e a g a in is
a n o the r il l us tr a tio n o f the wa y in whichthe
B o l s he v ik s wil l us e a we a p o n a n dthe n
dis ca r ditwhe n itha s s e r v e dits p ur p o s e .
Itis ,the n ,a cur io us co in cide n ce tha t,
a p a r tf r o m the ir div e r g e n tv ie ws o n the
s ub j e ct o f ca p ita l ,Wa s hin g to n a n dM o s co w
s ho ul dha v e s o m uchin co m m o n
. The
17 6 THECAUSEOF
WORL DUNREST
tr um p ca r do f b o this the s a m e -in te r -
n a tio n a l co n tr o l -a n dif L e n in a b o m in a te s
the L e a g ue o f Na tio n s ,he do e s s o b e ca us e
itis ca p ita l is tic,n o tb e ca us e itis in te r n a tio n a l .
Whe n ce ,the n ,didM r . Wil s o n de r iv e his
m a te r ia l ? Itwa s a s ub j e ctwhichg r e a tl y
in te r e s te dPa r is dur in g the Pe a ce Co n f e r e n ce ,
a n dm uchwa s wr itte n a b o utthe e m in e n t
J e ws who s ur r o un de dthe Pr e s ide n t . " Pe r -
tin a x," wr itin g in the Echo de Pa r is o n
Ap r il 2 8 th,192 0 ,s a y s
" M . M a xWa r b ur g is the chie f o f the
b a n k in g f ir m M a xWa r b ur g a n dCo . ,o f
Ha m b ur g . He is the p r in cip a l s ha r e ho l de r
in the Ha m b ur g -Am e r ica a n dG e r m a n -L l o y d
s te a m s hip l in e s . His two b r o the r s ,Pa ul a n d
Fe l ixWa r b ur g ,m a r r ie dr e s p e ctiv e l y to the
s is te r -in -l a wa n dthe da ug hte r o f J a co b
H. Schif f ( b o r n a tFr a n k f o r t) ,a r e the a s s o -
cia te s o f the l a tte r a tthe he a do f the K uhn
L o e b a n dCo . B a n k ,o f Ne wYo r k . He r e we
ha v e a f in a n cia l g r o up which,up to the
de cl a r a tio n o f wa r b y Am e r ica ,in Ap r il ,
1917 , wa s the m o s tp o we r f ul l in k b e twe e n
the p o l iticia n s o f Wa s hin g to n a n dtho s e o f
B e r l in . Fr o m 1914 to 1917
this p o we r f ul
s y n dica te s ho we dits e l f e xtr a o r din a r il y a ctiv e
a g a in s tthe En te n te . "
Acco r din g to the s a m e a utho r ity ,J a co b
Schif f wa s b o r n a t Fr a n k f o r t-o n -the -
M a in ,the ho m e o f the Al l g e m e in e r El e k -
tr icitdts G e s e l l s cha f t .
He wa s " the g r e a t
f in a n cia l s up p o r te r o f the
` M utua l So cie ty
THEPEACECONFERENCE 17 7
o f G e r m a n J e ws ,' whichwa s l in k e d,a n dis
s til l p r o b a b l y l in k e d,o n m a n y s ide s with
hig hG e r m a n cir cl e s . " Dur in g the wa r ,
b e f o r e Am e r ica in te r v e n e d,a dds " Pe r tin a x,"
M r . Schif f
" f o un de dthe Am e r ica n Ne utr a l
Co n f e r e n ce Co m m itte e ,whichto o k up o n
its e l f the ta s k o f b r in g in g a b o utp e a ce with
a v icto r io us G e r m a n y
.
The n a p p e a r e df o r
the f ir s ttim e a l l the f o r m ul a e o f the L e a g ue
o f Na tio n s ,the a n a the m a s l a un che da g a in s t
the ` o l ddip l o m a cy ,' whichwa s s a idto b e
r e s p o n s ib l e f o r b r in g in g a b o utthe wa r . On
this p o in tco n s ul tthe wo r k , Ho w the
Dip l o m a tis ts Ca us e dthe Wa r , wr itte n b y
M r . He ub s ch,the co l l e a g ue o f M r . Schif f o n
the Ne utr a l Co n f e r e n ce Co m m itte e . "
The b r il l ia n tFr e n chwr ite r ,M . Cha r l e s
M a ur r a s ,in his b o o k L e s Tr o is As p e cts du
Pr e s ide n t Wil s o n a l s o de a l s with this
s ub j e ct-" The de cis iv e in f l ue n ce e xe r cis e d
o n M r . Wil s o n b y a v e r y s m a l l co m p a n y ,
f in a n cie r s b y p r o f e s s io n ,do m icil e db e twe e n
Ha m b ur g ,
Fr a n k f o r t a n d Ne w Yo r k . "
" The y we r e ," he s a y s ," ide n tif ie dwiththe
As s o cia tio n f o r the L e a g ue o f Fr e e Na tio n s ,
withits s e a tin Am e r ica ,a n din cl udin g ,
a m o n g o the r p e o p l e ,M r . Fe l ixFr a n k f ur te r ,
Pr e s ide n to f the Wa r L a b o ur Po l icie s B o a r d,
a g r e a tb a n k e r ,J a co b H . Schif f ,the Co he n s ,
the B l um e n tha l s ,the Cha p ir o s ,n o tto s p e a k
o f M r s
. M a r y Sun k o v n ich . " M . M a ur r a s
g o e s o n to de cl a r e tha tM r . Wil s o n in tim e
f e l l co m p l e te l y un de r the ir in f l ue n ce ,a n d
M
17 8 THECAUSE OFWORL DUNREST
tha tthe r e is wr itte n e v ide n ce to tha te f f e ct,
a n dhe is in cl in e dto the o p in io n tha tFr e e -
m a s o n r y wa s us e da s the cha n n e l f o r the
dis s e m in a tio n o f the s e ide a s .
He r e ,the n ,the r e o p e n s up a m o s tf r uitf ul
f ie l do f s p e cul a tio n . B utl e tus ca r r y the
a r g um e n ta l ittl e f a r the r
. The p r in cip l e o f
s e l f -de te r m in a tio n ,a s we ha v e s e e n ,n o t
o n l y te n ds to a cta s a s o l v e n to f e xis tin g
Em p ir e s ,b utita l s o ha n dica p p e ds e r io us l y
the cr e a tio n o f the n e wSta te s whichwe r e
b r o ug htin to e xis te n ce b y the m a g icia n s o f
Pa r is . To im a g in e tha ta n a tio n co ul db e
cr e a te db y a p l e b is cite ,a n dtha ta Sta te
co ul db e co n s titute do n the p r in cip l e o f
n a tio n a l ity a l o n e ,witho uts e cur in g f o r it
a de qua te e co n o m ics a f e g ua r ds a n ds tr a te g ic
f r o n tie r s ,wa s a f a l l a cy e n te r ta in e da tPa r is
whichha s ha dm o s tun f o r tun a te co n s e que n ce s
f o r the p e a ce o f Eur o p e . In Tur k e y the
f a l l a cy r e a che dl udicr o us l e n g ths
. An in de -
p e n de n tAr m e n ia wa s cr e a te d,a n dthe
g ua r a n to r s o f its in de p e n de n ce a tp r e s e n t
a r e V is co un tB r y ce a n dthe hum a n ita r ia n s o f
the wo r l d ; n o b o dy e l s e wil l to uchit .
M o r e o v e r ,e v e n if itwe r e s a f e l y co n s ti-
tute d,o the r b e l ie v e r s in s e l f -de te r m in a tio n
-As s y r o -Cha l de a n s ,a n ds o o n -wo ul dr a is e
cl a im s a g a in s tit . The Ha p s b ur g M o n a r chy
ha s b e e n div ide din to Sta te s a l l b e a utif ul l y
co n s titute do n the s a m e wo n de r f ul p r in cip l e ,
b uta p p a r e n tl y in ca p a b l e o f s ta n din g o n
the ir o wn l e g s . In p l a in wo r ds ,the Pe a ce
THEPEACECONFERENCE 1 7 9
Co n f e r e n c e w a s u n a b l e t o r e a c h a p o l i t i c a l
s e t t l e m e n t , a n d b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s n o p o l i t i -
c a l s e t t l e m e n t w e n o w h a v e e c o n o m i c u n r e s t ,
h i g h p r i c e s , d e m a n d s f o r i n c r e a s e d w a g e s ,
s t r i k e s t o e n f o r c e t h e m , a n d g e n e r a l B o l -
s h e v i s m .Th e p r o t o c o l s s a y
W e w i l l c r e a t e a u n i v e r s a l e c o n o m i c a l
c r i s i s b ya l l p o s s i b l e u n d e r h a n d m e a n s , a n d
w i t h t h e h e l p o f g o l d w h i c h i s a l l i n o u r
h a n d s
."
No w , t h e s u p r e m e i n s t a n c e o f t h i s a t t e m p t
t o c r e a t e S t a t e s o n a n u n s u r e f o u n d a t i o n ,
a n d w i t h o u t p r o p e r e c o n o m i c a n d s t r a t e g i c
f r o n t i e r s , i s Po l a n d .L e t u s b r i e f l ys u m m a r -
i s e t h e c a s e f o r t h a t c o u n t r y .Th e p o l i c y
o f Fr a n c e t h r o u g h o u t h e r h i s t o r yh a d b e e n
t o s e e k s o m e a l l yi n t h e Ea s t w h o w o u l d a c t
a s a c h e c k o n a n ym o v e b yt h e Ge r m a n
S t a t e s a c r o s s t h e Rh i n e
.Tu r k e y, S w e d e n ,
Ru s s i a , a l l a c t e d a s t h a t c o u n t e r p o i s e , a n d
w i t h t h e f a l l o f Ru s s i a Fr e n c h s t a t e s m e n
l o o k e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a s t r o n g Po l a n d t o
s e r v e t h a t h i s t o r i c p u r p o s e .As t r o n g Po l a n d
w a s , t h e r e f o r e , a Fr e n c h i n t e r e s t , a n d , a s
Gr e a t B r i t a i n i s t h e a l l yo f Fr a n c e , p r e -
s u m a b l ya B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t a l s o
.I n d e e d , t o
j u d g e f r o m a r e c e n t q u o t a t i o n b yM r .L l o yd
Ge o r g e o f a s p e e c h o f D i s r a e l i , a s t r o n g Po l a n d
w o u l d , i n B r i t i s h e ye s , a c t a s a c h e c k n o t
o n l yo n Ge r m a n yb u t o n Ru s s i a .
No w , w h a t h a p p e n e d a t Pa r i s Y S t r a t e g i -
c a l l ya n d e c o n o m i c a l l yPo l a n d w a s c o m -
p e l l e d t o m a k e a b a d s t a r t . Th e Po l i s h
1 80
THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
Co m m i s s i o n t h r e e t i m e s r e p o r t e d i n f a v o u r
o f g i v i n g D a n t z i g t o Po l a n d , a n d t h r e e t i m e s
t h e i r r e p o r t w a s t u r n e d d o w n - b yM r .L l o yd
Ge o r g e . On t h e q u e s t i o n o f Up p e r S i l e s i a
t h e Co m m i s s i o n w a s a l s o f a v o u r a b l e t o
Po l a n d , a n d t h e r e i n i t w a s b a c k e d b y
Pr e s i d e n t W i l s o n
.
B u t o n e f i n e d a yt h e
Pr e s i d e n t v e e r e d r o u n d , a n d i n s i s t e d o n a
p l e b i s c i t e . Th a t c h a n g e o f m i n d w a s o n e o f
t h e m ys t e r i e s o f t h e Co n f e r e n c e w h i c h m a y
s o m e d a yb e r e v e a l e d . Th e s a m e s t o r yo f
a v a g u e , u n s e t t l e d c o n c l u s i o n a p p l i e s t o
Ea s t e r n Ga l i c i a . Th u s , i n s u c h v i t a l m a t t e r s
a s s e a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , c o a l a n d o i l s u p p l y,
Po l a n d w a s s e v e r e l yh a n d i c a p p e d f r o m t h e
v e r yb e g i n n i n g . W h y ? As t r o n g Po l a n d i s
n o t a J e w i s h i n t e r e s t . Fo r o n e t h i n g , h o w
m a n yEn g l i s h m e n a r e a w a r e o f t h e e n o r m o u s
J e w i s h p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h l i v e s w i t h i n t h e
e t h n o g r a p h i c a l b o u n d a r i e s o f Po l a n d
? I n
1 9 1 0 t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f J e w s i n t h e w o r l d
w a s , r o u g h l y, 1 2 , 5 06 , 2 3 8, a n d i n 1 9 00 a l m o s t
f i v e m i l l i o n J e w s l i v e d i n Po l i s h t e r r i t o r y
.
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , t o o , t o n o t e t h a t s i n c e t h e
Ru s s i a n Re v o l u t i o n o f 1 9 05 t h e r e w a s a
d i s t i n c t m o v e m e n t i n Po l a n d t o g e t r i d o f
t h e m o n o p o l ye x e r c i s e d b yt h e J e w s i n a l l
c o m m e r c i a l a n d f i n a n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Po l a n d
b yt h e c r e a t i o n o f Po l i s h Co - o p e r a t i v e S o -
c i e t i e s .I t i s p e r f e c t l yc l e a r t h a t a s t r o n g
n a t i o n a l Po l i s h Go v e r n m e n t w o u l d f u r t h e r
d e v e l o p t h a t p o l i c y, a n d m i g h t l e a d i n t i m e
t o m e a s u r e s w h i c h w o u l d b yn o m e a n s p r o v e
THEPEACECONFERENCE 1 81
w e l c o m e t o t h e e n o r m o u s J e w i s h p o p u l a t i o n
c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n i t s t e r r i t o r i e s .
No w , a s t r o n g Po l a n d i s a l s o n o t a Ge r m a n
i n t e r e s t , a n d h e r e t h e J e w s a n d t h e Ge r m a n s
w o r k h a n d i n h a n d .Th u s , t h e s e m i - o f f i c i a l
D e u t s c h e 4 l l g e m e i n e Z e i t u n g o f J a n u a r y3 0t h ,
1 9 1 9 , r e c o g n i s e s o p e n l yt h e s o l i d a r i t yo f
Ge r m a n a n d J e w i s h i n t e r e s t s .I t g o e s i n f o r
a s t u d yo f t h e p o s t u l a t e s , w h i c h a r e a l m o s t
i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e w e h a v e j u s t e n u m e r a t e d ,
a n d d r a w s t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s
" Co n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e m a j o r i t yo f t h e
J e w i s h p o p u l a t i o n k n o w s t h e Ge r m a n l a n -
g u a g e , a n d t h a t Ge r m a n c i v i l i s a t i o n i s f a m i -
l i a r t o t h e m , t h e J e w i s h e l e m e n t m a yb e
o f t h e g r e a t e s t u s e t o Ge r m a n yf o r t h e
r e o p e n i n g o f t h o s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s
w h i c h h a v e b e e n i n t e r r u p t e d b yt h e w a r .
Ge r m a n yw i l l n o t c e a s e t o i n t e r e s t h e r s e l f i n
Or i e n t a l q u e s t i o n s .Th e f o u n d a t i o n o f a
J e w i s h Pa l e s t i n e m u s t b e g r e e t e d w i t h a p -
p r o v a l .Th i s w i l l , f o r t h e r e a s o n s q u o t e d
a b o v e , h e l p Ge r m a n yi n a s c e r t a i n i n g e c o -
n o m i c a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l l i n k s w i t h t h e Ea s t .
" Th e J e w i s h q u e s t i o n w i l l b e o f i n t e r e s t t o
Ge r m a n yo n a c c o u n t o f h e r v i c i n i t yi n t h e
Ne a r Ea s t w i t h c o u n t r i e s i n h a b i t e d b y
J e w i s h m a s s e s .Th e a u t o n o m yo f t h e J e w s
i n t h e Ea s t i s o n e o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n - s t o n e s
o f o r d e r a n d t r a n q u i l l i t yi n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s .
" I t m a yb e s e e n ( s a ys t h i s n e w s p a p e r , i n
c o n c l u s i o n ) t h a t t h e r e i s n o c o n t r a d i c t i o n
b e t w e e n t h e d e s i d e r a t a o f t h e J e w s a n d
1 82 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
Ge r m a n i n t e r e s t s .Fo r t h i s r e a s o n Ge r m a n y
w i l l s u p p o r t J e w i s h d e m a n d s a t t h e Pe a c e
Co n f e r e n c e
."
I t w a s n o t o r i o u s d u r i n g t h e p r o c e e d i n g s
o f t h e Pe a c e Co n f e r e n c e t h a t w h e n e v e r a n y
d e c i s i o n f a v o u r a b l e t o Po l a n d w a s r e a c h e d
J e w i s h g e n t r yf r o m L o n d o n h u r r i e d l yc r o s s e d
t h e Ch a n n e l f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t r yi n g t o
r e v o k e i t .
Th u s , a s w e h a v e s a i d , Po l a n d a s c r e a t e d
b yt h e p u n d i t s o f Pa r i s s t a r t e d b a d l y .He r
s u b s e q u e n t h i s t o r yh a s b e e n e q u a l l yu n -
f o r t u n a t e
.Th e B o l s h e v i k s w e r e e x c e e d i n g l y
a n x i o u s t o s e c u r e t h e i r g r i p o n a S t a t e w h i c h
w i t h i t s Ch r i s t i a n f a i t h a n d W e s t e r n t r a d i -
t i o n s b a r r e d t h e i r m a r c h t o w a r d s t h e W e s t .
I n t h e l e t t e r w h i c h Tr o t s k ys e n t t o Fr e n c h
S o c i a l i s t s a s l o n g a g o a s Oc t o b e r , 1 9 1 9 , h e
m a d e i t c l e a r i n h i s b r a g g i n g w a yt h a t
Po l a n d 's t u r n w a s t o c o m e n e x t .
Th a t
B o l s h e v i s t o f f e n s i v e w a s l a u n c h e d i n M a r c h ,
1 9 2 0, a n d f a i l e d f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n
e x p l a i n e d b yM a j o r - Ge n e r a l M a u r i c e , t h e
m i l i t a r yc r i t i c o f t h e D a i l y Ne w s . To s a y,
t h e n , t h a t M a r s h a l Pi l s u d s k i a t t a c k e d Ru s s i a ,
w h i c h a l l t h e Pa c i f i s t s a n d B o l s h e v i k s i n
En g l a n d a r e t r u m p e t i n g f o r t h e v e r yd a y, i s
u n t r u e .M a r s h a l Pi l s u d s k i t r i e d t o d o w h a t
t h e S e r b i a n s w e r e p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g ,
t h a t i s t o s a y, t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e e n e m y's
o f f e n s i v e .Fr o m t h e v e r yb e g i n n i n g o f h i s
a t t a c k a v i o l e n t a n t i - Po l i s h c a m p a i g n w a s
s t a r t e d i n En g l a n d , a n d t h e En g l i s h d o c k e r s
THEPEACECONFERENCE
1 88
a n d r a i l w a ym e n w e r e c a l l e d u p o n t o p r e v e n t
t h e s e n d i n g o f m u n i t i o n s t o W a r s a w
.
At t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t Ru s s i a a n d Ge r -
m a n ya r e j o i n i n g - h a n d s o v e r t h e p r o s t r a t e
b o d yo f Po l a n d
.
I f Ru s s i a a n d Ge r m a n y
a r e a b l e t o o v e r w h e l m Po l a n d , t h e Tr e a t y
o f V e r s a i l l e s b e c o m e s a s c r a p o f p a p e r , a n d
t h e w a r h a s b e e n f o u g h t i n v a i n .
D r .D i l l o n , i n h i s b o o k o n t h e Pa r i s Pe a c e
Co n f e r e n c e , s a ys
" Of a l l t h e c o l l e c t i v i t i e s w h o s e i n t e r e s t s
w e r e f u r t h e r e d a t t h e Co n f e r e n c e t h e J e w s
h a d p e r h a p s t h e m o s t r e s o u r c e f u l a n d c e r -
t a i n l yt h e m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l e x p o n e n t s .Th e r e
w e r e J e w s f r o m Pa l e s t i n e , f r o m Po l a n d ,
Ru s s i a , t h e Uk r a i n e , Ro u m a n i a , Gr e e c e ,
B r i t a i n , Ho l l a n d , a n d B e l g i u m ; b u t t h e
l a r g e s t a n d m o s t b r i l l i a n t c o n t i n g e n t w a s
s e n t b yt h e Un i t e d S t a t e s ."
An d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h a t g r e a t a c h i e v e -
m e n t o f t h e J e w s a t Pa r i s , t h e M i n o r i t y
Tr e a t i e s , h e s a ys
" I t m a ys e e m a m a z i n g t o s o m e r e a d e r s ,
b u t i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s a f a c t t h a t a c o n -
s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r o f D e l e g a t e s b e l i e v e d t h a t
t h e r e a l i n f l u e n c e s b e h i n d t h e An g l o - S a x o n
p e o p l e s w e r e S e m i t i c
.Th e yc o n f r o n t e d t h e
Pr e s i d e n t 's p r o p o s a l o n t h e s u b j e c t o f r e -
l i g i o u s i n e q u a l i t y, a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e
o d d m o t i v e a l l e g e d f o r i t , w i t h t h e m e a s u r e s
f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f m i n o r i t i e s w h i c h h e
s u b s e q u e n t l yi m p o s e d o n t h e l e s s e r S t a t e s ,
a n d w h i c h h a d f o r t h e i r k e yn o t e t o s a t i s f y
1 84 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
t h e J e w i s h e l e m e n t s i n Ea s t e r n Eu r o p e .
An d t h e yc o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e q u e n c e o f
e x p e d i e n t s f r a m e d a n d e n f o r c e d i n t h i s
d i r e c t i o n w e r e i n s p i r e d b yt h e J e w s a s s e m b l e d
i n Pa r i s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f r e a l i s i n g t h e i r
c a r e f u l l yt h o u g h t - o u t p r o g r a m m e , w h i c h t h e y
s u c c e e d e d i n h a v i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l ye x e c u t e d .
Ho w e v e r r i g h t o r w r o n g t h e s e D e l e g a t e s m a y
h a v e b e e n i t w o u l d b e a d a n g e r o u s m i s t a k e
t o i g n o r e t h e i r v i e w s , s e e i n g t h a t t h e yh a v e
s i n c e b e c o m e o n e o f t h e p e r m a n e n t e l e m e n t s
o f t h e s i t u a t i o n .
Th e f o r m u l a i n t o w h i c h
t h i s p o l i c yw a s t h r o w n b yt h e m e m b e r s o f
t h e Co n f e r e n c e , w h o s e c o u n t r i e s i t a f f e c t e d ,
a n d w h o r e g a r d e d i t a s f a t a l t o t h e p e a c e o f
Ea s t e r n Eu r o p e , w a s t h i s : ` He n c e f o r t h t h e
w o r l d w i l l b e g o v e r n e d b yt h e An g l o - S a x o n
p e o p l e s , w h o , i n t u r n , a r e s w a ye d b yt h e i r
J e w i s h e l e m e n t s ." '
I t s h o u l d b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l
c l a i m s o f t h e J e w s w e n t m u c h f u r t h e r t h a n
t h o s e w h i c h w e r e e v e n t u a l l ys a n c t i o n e d b y
t h e Co n f e r e n c e . " Th e h e r o o f t h e M i n o r i t y
Tr e a t i e s , " t o q u o t e t h e p h r a s e o f t h e J e w i s h
Gu a r d i a n , t h e a b l e a n d m o d e r a t e o r g a n o f
An g l o - J e w r y, w a s M r .L u c i e n W o l f - t h e
s a m e g e n t l e m a n w h o h a s r e c e n t l yb e e n
a t t a c k i n g t h e Pr o t o c o l s .
As M r
.I s r a e l Z a n g -
w i l l s a i d , " Th e M i n o r i t yTr e a t i e s w e r e t h e
t o u c h s t o n e o f t h e L e a g u e o f Na t i o n s , t h a t
e s s e n t i a l l yJ e w i s h a s p i r a t i o n , a n d t h e m a n
b e h i n d t h e M i n o r i t yTr e a t i e s w a s L u c i e n
W o l f ."
THEPEACECONFERENCE 1 85
L e t u s i n c o n c l u s i o n b r i e f l ys u m m a r i s e t h e
a r g u m e n t w h i c h h a s b e e n p u t f o r w a r d a b o v e
.
B o l s h e v i s m a n d W i l s o n i s m h a v e m u c h i n
c o m m o n - i n c l u d i n g t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e o n i n t e r -
n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l a n d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f -
d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Th a t p r i n c i p l e t e n d s t o p r o -
m o t e r e b e l l i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e , a n d a t
t h e s a m e t i m e t o l e a d t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f
a r t i f i c i a l S t a t e s u n p r o v i d e d b ya d e q u a t e
e c o n o m i c a n d s t r a t e g i c s a f e g u a r d s . Po l a n d
i s a n i n s t a n c e o f s u c h a S t a t e , a n d Po l a n d
h a s h a d t o f a c e a n o p p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h J e w s ,
B o l s h e v i k s , Ge r m a n s , a n d p r o - B o l s h e v i k s i n
t h i s c o u n t r ya r e p l a yi n g a p a r t . Po l a n d a t
t h i s m o m e n t i s m e n a c e d w i t h a n n i h i l a t i o n ,
a n d i f i t s u c c u m b s t h e En t e n t e Po w e r s o f
t h e W e s t h a v e l o s t t h e w a r .
CHAPTERXI I I
THE EV I D ENCES OFCONS PI RACY
Ge r m a n y's D o w n f a l l - Pl a yi n g w i t h Fi r e - Re v o l u t i o n a r y
Ac t i v i t i e s i n t h e Or i e n t - Ea s t a g a i n s t W e s t - Re l i g i o n
a S u b s i d i a r yW e a p o n - Th e M u r d e r o f Co l o n e l Cu r z o n
W yl l i e .
PREV I OUS c h a p t e r s h a v e d e a l t w i t h p l o t s
t h a t h a v e c o m e t o f u l l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t
e i t h e r i n s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e
.Th e p r e s e n t
i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a c o n s p i r a c ys t i l l i n t h e
m a k i n g , w h i c h b i d s f a i r t o b e m o r e v a s t a n d
f r a u g h t w i t h m o r e t e r r i b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s
t h a n a n yt h a t p r e c e d e d i t .M o r e o v e r , i t
i n t i m a t e l yc o n c e r n s t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e ,
t h o u g h i t i s n o t e x c l u s i v e l yd i r e c t e d a g a i n s t
i t .I t i s o n l yn e c e s s a r yt o t a l k w i t h a n yo n e
w h o i s w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e Ea s t t o
l e a r n b e yo n d a l l s h a d o w o f d o u b t t h a t t h e r e
e x i s t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e Or i e n t a n o r g a n i s e d
i n t r i g u e a g a i n s t Eu r o p e a n a n d Ch r i s t i a n
s u p r e m a c y .I f t h e p e r s o n c o n s u l t e d h a s
m a d e a l o n g a n d c a r e f u l s t u d yo f t h e t o r t u o u s
p o l i t i c s a n d s e c r e t t e n d e n c i e s o f As i a , t h e
i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n w i l l b e c o m e s t a r t l i n g b y
i t s d e f i n i t e m e n a c e a n d b yt h e p r o o f o f t h e
e x i s t e n c e o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r yo r g a n i s a t i o n
t h a t s p r e a d s i t s t e n t a c l e s f r o m Eu r o p e a n d
Am e r i c a o v e r t h e w h o l e o f No r t h Af r i c a a n d
As i a .
B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e d a n g e r t h a t m u s t
b e f a c e d , i t m a yb e w e l l t o c o n s i d e r h o w f a r
Gr e a t B r i t a i n , t h e Po w e r m o s t s e r i o u s l y
1 86
EV I D ENCES OFCONS PI RACY 1 87
t h r e a t e n e d , i s i n a p o s i t i o n a t h o m e t o
o v e r c o m e t h i s s e r i o u s t h r e a t . Af t e r t h e
Ru s s i a n Re v o l u t i o n a s e c t i o n o f t h e J e w i s h
Pr e s s d i s p l a ye d a n a l a r m i n g a f f e c t i o n f o r
B o l s h e v i s t i d e a s , a n d o p e n l ye n c o u r a g e d
B o l s h e v i s t p r o p a g a n d a i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n .
Th e M o r n i n g Po s t h a d o c c a s i o n t o d r a w
a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s d a n g e r o u s c a m p a i g n , , w h i c h
w a s d i s a v o w e d b yt h e l e a d i n g p a t r i o t i c
J e w s , a s i s s h o w n b yt h e f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r
p u b l i s h e d i n i t s c o l u m n s ;
" S I R, - W e h a v e r e a d w i t h t h e d e e p e s t
c o n c e r n a n d w i t h s i n c e r e r e g r e t c e r t a i n
a r t i c l e s w h i c h h a v e r e c e n t l ya p p e a r e d i n
t w o c l o s e l ya s s o c i a t e d J e w i s h n e w s p a p e r s
i n t h i s c o u n t r yo n t h e t o p i c o f B o l s h e v i s m
a n d i t s ` i d e a l s .' I n o u r o p i n i o n , t h e p u b l i -
c a t i o n o f t h e s e a r t i c l e s c a n h a v e n o o t h e r
e f f e c t t h a n t o e n c o u r a g e t h e a d o p t i o n o f
t h e t h e o r e t i c p r i n c i p l e s o f Ru s s i a n B o l s h e -
v i k s a m o n g f o r e i g n J e w s w h o h a v e s o u g h t
a n d f o u n d a r e f u g e i n En g l a n d .W e w e l c o m e ,
a c c o r d i n g l y, yo u r s u g g e s t i o n t h a t B r i t i s h
J e w s s h o u l d ` d i s s o c i a t e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m a
c a u s e w h i c h i s d o i n g t h e J e w i s h p e o p l e
h a r m i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d .' Th i s i s
p r o f o u n d l yt r u e , a n d w e , o n o u r o w n b e h a l f
a n d o n b e h a l f o f n u m b e r s o f B r i t i s h J e w s
w i t h w h o m w e h a v e c o n f e r r e d , d e s i r e t o
d i s s o c i a t e o u r s e l v e s a b s o l u t e l ya n d u n r e s e r -
v e d l yf r o m t h e m i s c h i e v o u s a n d m i s l e a d i n g
d o c t r i n e w h i c h t h e s e a r t i c l e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d
t o d i s s e m i n a t e . W e r e p u d i a t e t h e m a s d a n -
1 88 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
g e r o u s i n t h e m s e l v e s a n d a s f a l s e t o t h e
t e n e t s a n d t e a c h i n g s o f J u d a i s m .
" Pa r t l yi n o r d e r t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e m i s -
t a k e n p o l i c yo f t h e n e w s p a p e r s r e f e r r e d t o ,
t h e L e a g u e o f B r i t i s h J e w s w a s f o u n d e d i n
No v e m b e r , 1 9 1 7 . Th e p r o c e e d i n g s a n d v i e w s
o f t h e L e a g u e a r e p u b l i s h e d i n a m o n t h l y
b u l l e t i n , e n t i t l e d J e w i s h Op i n i o n , w h i c h c a n
b e o b t a i n e d a t t h e o f f i c e s o f t h e L e a g u e ,
7 08- 7 09 , S a l i s b u r yHo u s e , E.C.2 , a n d w h i c h
m a ye v e n t u a l l yb e m e r g e d i n a l a r g e r
j o u r n a l a p p e a r i n g a t m o r e f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s .
Fo r w e t h o r o u g h l yc o n c u r w i t h yo u r c r i t i -
c i s m t h a t ` t h e B r i t i s h J e w i s h c o m m u n i t y,
m o s t o f w h o m , 'a s yo u r i g h t l ys a y, ` a r e b y
n o m e a n s i n s ym p a t h yw i t h t h i s ( Na t i o n a l i s t )
c r u s a d e , a r e b e i n g s e r v e d v e r yb a d l yb y
t h e i r n e w s p a p e r s .' M e a n w h i l e w e t a k e t h i s
o p p o r t u n i t yo f r e p u d i a t i n g i n p u b l i c t h e
p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e m e n t s i n t h o s e n e w s p a p e r s
t o w h i c h yo u h a v e f e l t i t yo u r d u t yt o c a l l
a t t e n t i o n .- Y o u r s , e t c .,
L I ONEL D EROTHS CHI L D .
S W AY THL I NG .
PHI L I PM AGNUS .
M ARCUS S AM UEL .
HARRY S .S AM UEL .
L EONARD L
.COHEN.
I .GOL L ANCZ
.
J OHNM ONAS H.
CL AUD EG .M ONTEFI ORE.
I S I D ORES PI EL M ANN.
Ap r i l 2 2 n d ,
1 9 1 9 ."
EV I D ENCES OFCONS PI RACY 1 89
Un f o r t u n a t e l y t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e s e
p a t r i o t s w a s n o t t h a t o f a l l B r i t i s h J e w s ,
a n d t h e yw e r e v i o l e n t l ya t t a c k e d f o r t h e i r
a c t i o n .No r c a n i t b e s a i d t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l
b e h a v i o u r o f t h o s e J e w s w h o h a v e t a k e n a
l e a d i n g p a r t i n t h e Go v e r n m e n t o f Gr e a t
B r i t a i n h a s b e e n r e a s s u r i n g
. I t c a n s c a r c e l y
b e s a i d t h a t S i r Al f r e d M o n d 's p o l i t i c a l
a c h i e v e m e n t s m e r i t h i s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e
M i n i s t r y . Th e c o n n e c t i o n o f L o r d Re a d i n g ,
o u r L o r d Ch i e f J u s t i c e , w i t h t h e M a r c o n i
a f f a i r w a s , t o s a yt h e l e a s t o f i t , b yn o m e a n s
i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f o u r
p u b l i c l i f e . M o r e s e r i o u s s t i l l i s t h e a p p o i n t -
m e n t o f S i r He r b e r t S a m u e l a s Go v e r n o r o f
Pa l e s t i n e , w h e r e a J e w w i l l b e c a l l e d u p o n
t o h o l d t h e b a l a n c e b e t w e e n a n Ar a b m a j o r i t y
a n d a J e w i s h m i n o r i t yi n a h o t - b e d o f
i n t r i g u e s . Th e n M r
.M o n t a g u , d e s p i t e h i s
f a m i l yr e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a f i r m w h i c h h a s
e s t a b l i s h e d s o m e t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g a m o n o p o l y
i n t h e s i l v e r m a r k e t , i s , S e c r e t a r yf o r I n d i a .
As f o r M r .M o n t a g - i 's a t t i t u d e , h e d i s -
c l o s e d i t i n a f i t o f i r r i t a t i o n i n h i s o p e n i n g
s p e e c h i n t h e D ye r d e b a t e i n t h e Ho u s e o f
Co m m o n s .
Hi s s p e e c h w a s n o t t h e c a l m
a d v o c a c yo f h i s Go v e r n m e n t 's p o l i c yw h i c h
o n e h a s t h e r i g h t t o e x p e c t f r o m a M i n i s t e r
o f S t a t e w h o s e c o n s c i e n c e i s u n t r o u b l e d .
I t w a s a n e l a b o r a t e e x t e n u a t i o n o f I n d i a n
s e d i t i o n b yo n e w h o h a s c o n f e s s e d h i m s e l f
p r o u d o f t h e f r i e n d s h i p o f t h a t l e a d e r o f
r e b e l l i o n , M r .Ga n d h i , a n d M r
.M o n t a g u 's
1 9 0 THECAUS E OFW ORL D UNRES T
e x c i t e d d e n u n c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h " t e r r o r i s m "
i n I n d i a m i g h t t a k e i t s p l a c e b e s i d e t h e
s t r i k i n g p o s t e r r e f e r r e d t o b yM r .Ru p e r t
Gw yn n e : "
Co n q u e r t h e En g l i s h m o n k e ys
w i t h b r a v e r y . Th i s i s t h e c o m m a n d o f
M a h a t m a Ga n d h i . Ge t r e a d ys o o n f o r t h e
w a r , a n d Go d w i l l g r a n t v i c t o r yt o I n d i a ."
Th e i d e a o f a w o r l d c o n s p i r a c yd i r e c t e d
a g a i n s t l a w a n d o r d e r , a n d i n d e e d a g a i n s t
Ch r i s t i a n c i v i l i s a t i o n i t s e l f , w o u l d b e f o r e
t h e w a r h a v e s e e m e d a b s u r d a n d i m p o s s i b l e
t o t h e a v e r a g e En g l i s h m a n . Th e i d e a t h a t
t h e r e c o u l d b e a n i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n , s a y,
b e t w e e n a r e v o l u t i o n i n Po r t u g a l , a s t r i k e
a t h o m e , a n d a m u r d e r i n I n d i a w o u l d
n e v e r h a v e o c c u r r e d t o a n yo r d i n a r ym a n
b e f o r e Au g u s t , 1 9 1 4 .
Th e w a r h a s p r o d u c e d
a c o m p l e t e c h a n g e o f m e n t a l i t y, b e c a u s e
w e h a v e h a d c o n c r e t e p r o o f o f c l o s e c o n n e c -
t i o n b e t w e e n r e b e l l i o n i n I r e l a n d , t r o u b l e i n
Eg yp t , d i s a f f e c t i o n i n I n d i a , r e v o l u t i o n i n
Ru s s i a , t o m e n t i o n o n l ya f e w o f t h e
d i s o r d e r s b r o u g h t a b o u t b yGe r m a n y
.
I t m i g h t h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d t h a t w h e n
t h e w a r w a s f i n i s h e d Ge r m a n p r o p a g a n d a
w o u l d h a v e c o m e t o a n e n d a n d e v e r y-
t h i n g r e t u r n e d t o i t s p r e v i o u s s t a t e o f
t r a n q u i l l i t y .
B u t i t i s b e c o m i n g e v e r yd a y
m o r e e v i d e n t t h a t t h e c o n s p i r a c ya g a i n s t
c i v i l i s a t i o n d i d n o t f i n i s h w i t h t h e d e f e a t
o f Ge r m a n y
. Th e Ge r m a n s c e r t a i n l yu s e d
v a r i o u s o r g a n i s a t i o n s a g a i n s t u s , b u t , a s
i t h a s b e e n o u r o b j e c t t o s h o w , t h e yn e v e r
EV I D ENCES OFCONS PI RACY 1 9 1
r e a l l yc o n t r o l l e d o r d i r e c t e d t h e m . B e h i n d
t h e s c e n e s w a s a " f o r m i d a b l e s e c t " u s i n g t h e
Ge r m a n s f o r t h e i r o w n e n d s i n s t e a d o f b e i n g
u s e d b yt h e m , a n d w h e n Ge r m a n yf e l l a n d
Ge r m a n m o n e yd i s a p p e a r e d , t h e c o n s p i r a c y
s t i l l w e n t o n u n i m p e d e d .
Th e Ge r m a n s w h e n t h e ys e n t L e n i n t o
Ru s s i a a v a i l e d t h e m s e l v e s o f t h o s e s e c r e t
f o r c e s o f w h i c h t h e yh a d a l r e a d ym a d e u s e
a g a i n s t Gr e a t B r i t a i n .Th e d i r e c t o r s o f
t h e s e c r e t c o n s p i r a c yw e r e q u i t e r e a d yt o
u s e t h e Ge r m a n s f o r t h e i r o w n e n d s o f
p o i s o n i n g Eu r o p e a n d e m o c r a c y . Y e t t h e
f i r s t r e s u l t o f L e n i n 's j o u r n e yt o Ru s s i a a f t e r
t h e c o l l a p s e o f Ru s s i a w a s , a s L u d e n d o r f f
a d m i t s , t h e d o w n f a l l o f Ge r m a n y .
Th o s e w h o w e r e w i t h t h e Al l i e d t r o o p s
a f t e r t h e Ar m i s t i c e i n t h e s e c t o r s o f t h e
f r o n t w h e r e t h e e n e m yh a d b e e n d e m o r a l i s e d
b yB o l s h e v i s t p r o p a g a n d a h a d c l e a r e v i d e n c e
o f t h e t e r r i b l e p o w e r o f t h e f o r c e s t h a t t h e
L o r d s o f Ge r m a n yh a d s o f o o l i s h l yl e t l o o s e .
W h e n t h e Fr e n c h t r o o p s f i r s t r e a c h e d t h e
Rh i n e a t Ne u - B r i s a c h , a n u m b e r o f m o t o r
l o r r i e s w e r e s u r r e n d e r e d . Ea c h l o r r yw a s
d r i v e n a c r o s s t h e r i v e r b yt w o c h a u f f e u r s ,
o n e o f w h o m w o r e t h e r e d r o s e t t e t h a t
m a r k e d h i m a s a m e m b e r o f t h e S o v i e t , a n d
t h e t r e m b l i n g o f f i c e r s w a t c h e d t h e m a s t h e y
s u n g s o n g s o f t r i u m p h , a n d d i d n o t d a r e t o
g i v e a n o r d e r . An u m b e r o f o f f i c e r s h a d
b e e n s h o t d o w n t h e n i g h t b e f o r e . M a n yo f
t h e l o r r i e s w e r e d e c o r a t e d i n c e l e b r a t i o n o f
1 9 2 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
d e f e a t , a n d i t w a s o n l yi n t h e Fr e n c h l i n e s
t h a t t h e o f f i c e r s c o u l d i n s i s t o n t h e s e d e c o -
r a t i o n s b e i n g r e m o v e d .
I t w a s n o s m a l l
l o c a l c o n s p i r a c yt h a t h a d t r i u m p h e d s o
c o m p l e t e l yo v e r t h e a r r o g a n t I m p e r i a l i s m
a n d i r o n d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e Ge r m a n Ar m y,
a n d t h e Fr e n c h s h o w e d t h e i r r e a l i s a t i o n o f
t h i s f a c t b ys t e r n l yu p h o l d i n g t h e Ge r m a n
o f f i c e r s a g a i n s t a n ys i g n o f i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n
a m o n g t h e t r o o p s , w h o w e r e p r o m p t l y
o r d e r e d t o r e m o v e t h e r e d r o s e t t e f r o m t h e i r
c a p s .
Ge r m a n yi n h e r l u s t f o r w o r l d r u l e c o -
q u e t t e d w i t h t h e h i d d e n p o w e r s t h a t w e r e
c o n s p i r i n g t o d e s t r o yn o t o n l yt h e B r i t i s h
Em p i r e a n d t h e Al l i e d Na t i o n s b u t t h e w h o l e
o f c i v i l i s a t i o n a n d Ch r i s t e n d o m .Th e r e c a n
b e n o d o u b t t h a t t h e e n e m ye m p l o ye d t h e
s e c r e t o r g a n i s a t i o n s w h i c h a r e t h e c a u s e o f
t h e w o r l d u n r e s t , a n d s p e n t m o n e yl i k e
w a t e r t o o b t a i n t h e i r s u p p o r t . Th e ` f o r -
m i d a b l e s e c t " w a s r e a d ye n o u g h t o t a k e
Ge r m a n m o n e ya n d c a u s e t r o u b l e a m o n g t h e
Al l i e s , b u t i t j e a l o u s l yg u a r d e d t h e c o n t r o l
o f i t s o r g a n i s a t i o n s , a n d w h e n t h e t i m e c a m e
i t l e f t Ge r m a n yt o i t s f a t e .
Ex p e r t s a r e a g r e e d i n s a yi n g t h a t t h e
c a u s e o f t h e e x i s t i n g u n r e s t i n I n d i a i s
m a i n l ya n o r g a n i s e d f o r m o f p r o p a g a n d a
w h i c h h a s b e e n a t w o r k f o r ye a r s , d i s t u r b i n g ,
a s M r .M o n t a g u w o u l d s a y, " t h e p l a c i d ,
p a t h e t i c c o n t e n t m e n t o f t h e m a s s e s , " a n d
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o w s t h a t t h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n ,
EV I D ENCES OFCONS PI RACY 1 9 3
w h i c h i s s t e a d i l yg a i n i n g s t r e n g t h , i s o f
a m a z i n g c o m p l e x i t y .
I n 1 9 1 2 a t t e n t i o n w a s
o f f i c i a l l yd r a w n t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c o n -
s p i r a c y, o r g a n i s e d w i t h e x t r a o r d i n a r yi n g e -
n u i t yb ys o m e c e n t r e w h i c h c o u l d n o t b e
d i s c o v e r e d , t h r o u g h o u t I n d i a i n t h e p r o -
c e e d i n g s o f t h e Co m m i s s i o n o n t h e I n d i a n
Ar m y, o f w h i c h Fi e l d - M a r s h a l L o r d Ni c h o l -
s o n w a s Pr e s i d e n t . I n d i a i s n o t t h e o n l y
c o u n t r ya f f e c t e d ; o n t h e c o n t r a r y, t h e
.n e w
g o s p e l i s p r e a c h e d i n e v e r yc o u n t r yo f t h e
Ea s t , w h e t h e r u n d e r Eu r o p e a n c o n t r o l , s e m i -
i n d e p e n d e n t o r i n d e p e n d e n t , t h r o u g h o u t
No r t h Af r i c a f r o m M o r o c c o t o Eg yp t , i n ,
Tu r k e y, Ar a b i a , a n d t h e w h o l e o f As i a
i n c l u d i n g J a p a n
. Th u s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d
a g e n t s p r e a c h i n g t h e s a m e d o c t r i n e s s l i g h t l y
a d a p t e d f o r l o c a l n e e d s i n a " d o u a r " i n
M o r o c c o , i n Te h e r a n , K a b u l , Co n s t a n t i n o p l e ,
o r Ca l c u t t a . Th e w h o l e o f t h i s v a s t a r e a i s
d i v i d e d u p i n t o z o n e s , e a c h w i t h i t s c o n -
t r o l l i n g c e n t r e , f r o m w h i c h d i r e c t i o n i s g i v e n ,
a n d w h i c h p a s s e s o n t h e w o r d r e c e i v e d f r o m
o t h e r c e n t r e s .
Th e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p r o p a g a n d a i s e v e n
m o r e s u r p r i s i n g t h a n t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e
o r g a n i s a t i o n . I t i s , g e n e r a l l ys p e a k i n g ,
n e i t h e r r e l i g i o u s n o r n a t i o n a l , a n d t h i s v e r y
p o i n t b r i n g s i t a t o n c e i n t o l i n e w i t h o u r
g e n e r a l i n q u i r y . On t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e i t i s
w h a t m a yb e c a l l e d d e m o c r a t i c , a n d o n t h e
m o r e d e f i n i t e n e g a t i v e s i d e a n t i - Eu r o p e a n
a n d a n t i - Ch r i s t i a n . I f t h e Pr o t o c o l s a r e t o
N
1 9 4
THE CAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
b e b e l i e v e d , t h e e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e u n i v e r s a l
c o n s p i r a c yi s f i r s t t h e u s e o f t h e w o r d
"
L i b e r t y, " w h i c h " b r i n g s s o c i e t yi n t o c o n -
f l i c t w i t h a l l t h e Po w e r s , e v e n w i t h t h a t o f
Na t u r e a n d Go d , " i n o r d e r t o s e t
"
a l l
Po w e r s o n e a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r b ye n c o u r a g i n g
t h e i r l i b e r a l t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d s i n d e p e n d -
e n c e .
El s e w h e r e t h e Pr o t o c o l s s t a t e t h a t
" t h e t r i u m p h o f o u r t h e o r yi s i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y
t o t h e t e m p e r a m e n t o f t h e n a t i o n s w i t h
w h i c h w e c o m e i n c o n t a c t ." I n t h e Ea s t ,
L i b e r t y, Eq u a l i t y, a n d Fr a t e r n i t y, t h e w a t c h -
w o r d s o f t h e Fr e n c h Re v o l u t i o n , h a v e b e e n
r e p l a c e d b yAm e r i c a n Re p u b l i c a n i s m . Re -
p u b l i c a n i s m i s p a r t i c u l a r l ys u i t e d f o r t h e
Ea s t ; s i n c e " Re p u b l i c a n r i g h t s a r e a n i r o n y
f o r t h e p a u p e r ." On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e
f u n d a m e n t a l n o t i o n o f t h e f o r m i d a b l e s e c t "
i s t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f Ch r i s t i a n i t ya n d a l l
r e l i g i o n e x c e p t t h e J e w i s h .
Th e r e i s c e r t a i n l ya g r e a t s i m i l a r i t yb e -
t w e e n t h e p r o p a g a n d a .n o w b e i n g c a r r i e d
o n i n As i a a n d
"
t h e p r o g r a m m e o f v i o l e n c e
a n d h yp o c r i s y " a d v o c a t e d b yt h e Pr o t o c o l s .
Re l i g i o n i s r e g a r d e d b yt h e As i a t i c i n t r i g u e r s
a s a u s e f u l w e a p o n , b u t t h e yd o n o t i n s i s t
u p o n i t e x c e p t w h e n a r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n
g i v e s t h e m a c h a n c e o f c a u s i n g s e d i t i o n a n d
f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r e n d s . Th e ya r e a i m i n g
d e f i n i t e l ya t s e t t i n g t h e Ea s t e r n w o r l d
a g a i n s t t h e W e s t e r n , a n d t h e r e f o r e i t i s
t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o u n i t e t h e Ea s t a n d b r i d g e
o v e r a l l r e l i g i o u s a n d n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s .
EV I D ENCES OFCONS PI RACY 1 9 5
Th e g o s p e l t h e ya r e s e c r e t l yp r e a c h i n g i s
Pa n - Or i e n t a l , a n d t h e i r d e s i r e i s t o s h a k e
a u t h o r i t yi n t h e S t a t e s u n d e r Ch r i s t i a n
t u t e l a g e a n d t o a r o u s e a n t i - Ch r i s t i a n s e n t i -
m e n t i n i n d e p e n d e n t Ea s t e r n S t a t e s
.As i a
a g a i n s t Eu r o p e i s t h e o b j e c t a t w h i c h t h e y
a r e a i m i n g , a n d n o d o u b t t h e p l o t t e r s h o p e
t o g a i n t h e i r e n d s i n t h e w o r l d - w i d e c o n f u s i o n
t h a t w o u l d a c c o m p a n ya w a r b e t w e e n W e s t
a n d Ea s t .
On e o f t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e s e c r e t c o n s p i r a c y
i s " w i t h t h e a i d o f Eu r o p e t o p r o m o t e o n
o t h e r c o n t i n e n t s s e d i t i o n , d i s s e n s i o n , a n d
m u t u a l h o s t i l i t y ." W i t h t h i s o b j e c t i n v i e w
t h e p r o m o t e r s o f d i s o r d e r , w h o h a v e o n e o f
t h e i r m o s t i m p o r t a n t h e a d q u a r t e r s i n S w i t -
z e r l a n d , h a v e p o r t i o n e d o u t t h e a r e a s o n
w h i c h t h e ya r e t o w o r k .S e d i t i o u s l i t e r a t u r e
a n d a g e n t s p a s s f r o m Eu r o p e t o Tu r k e y, a n d
t h e i r i n f l u e n c e s p r e a d s b yd e f i n i t e r o u t e s o v e r
As i a M i n o r t o Pe r s i a a n d Af g h a n i s t a n .Fr o m
t h e r e t h e yp a s s t o t h e t r i b e s o f t h e No r t h - W e s t
Fr o n t i e r , a n d t h e z o n e s o f i n f l u e n c e r a d i a t e
o u t s o t h a t n o t a v i l l a g e i s m i s s e d
.
B o o k s t h a t s e c r e t l yh i n t a t r e b e l l i o n ,
s p e e c h e s m a d e i n Eu r o p e , a n d a r t i c l e s f r o m
Eu r o p e a n p a p e r s c u n n i n g l yd i s t o r t e d a r e
d i s t r i b u t e d a m o n g t h o s e w h o c a n r e a d
.
Th e a g e n t s e e k s o u t e v e r yl o c a l g r i e v a n c e
t o e m b i t t e r i t a n d t u r n a m o l e h i l l i n t o a
m o u n t a i n , a l w a ys i n c u l c a t i n g t h e d o c t r i n e
o f h a t r e d o f t h e Ch r i s t i a n .Ab o v e a l l , h e
u s e s e v e r yw h e r e h e g o e s h i s p e r s o n a l i n f l u -
I
1 9 6
THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
e n c e t o p e r s u a d e t h o s e h e m e e t s t h a t t h e y
a r e h a r d l yt r e a t e d , c o n d o l i n g w i t h o n e m a n
o n h i s u n d e s e r v e d p o v e r t y, f l a t t e r i n g a n o t h e r
w i t h t a l e s o f t h e g r e a t p o w e r t h a t h i s
a b i l i t i e s m e r i t .
Th e r e i s n o s c a r c i t yo f s u c h , a g e n t s .Th e y
a r e p r o d u c e d i n t h o u s a n d s , t h e s e m i s s i o n -
a r i e s o f d i s c o n t e n t , a n d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i s
n o t t h e l e a s t o f t h e c a r e s o f t h e s e c r e t
c o n s p i r a c y .Th e r e a r e m e n t r a i n e d i n I n d i a ,
Eu r o p e , a n d Am e r i c a w h o h a v e d r u n k i n
w i t h t h e i r s t u d yo f Eu r o p e a n k n o w l e d g e
a n d c u l t u r e a h a t r e d o f Eu r o p e .Th e t e a c h e r s
o f Ea s t e r n r e l i g i o n s a n d t h e i r p r i e s t s a f f o r d
a u s e f u l r e c r u i t i n g g r o u n d f o r s u c h a g e n t s .
Na t u r a l l yt h e ya r e o p p o s e d t o Ch r i s t i a n i t y,
a n d a r e r e a d yt o p a s s o n t o t h e i r p u p i l s t h e
p o i s o n o f h a t r e d w h i c h i s a l l t h e m o r e
f o r m i d a b l e t h a t i t i s s e c r e t l yo r g a n i s e d .
Th e r e a r e m a n yEu r o p e a n a g e n t s , s o m e o f
t h e m m e r e f a d d i s t s , w h o p a s s o n t h e d a n -
g e r o u s d o c t r i n e s u n c o n s c i o u s l y, w h i l e o t h e r s
d e l i b e r a t e l yb e t r a yt h e i r o w n b l o o d .Fr o m
t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w Ea s t e r n Fr e e m a s o n r yw a s
e x t r e m e l yd a n g e r o u s w h e n t h e Ea s t e r n
l o d g e s s o u g h t t o e m u l a t e t h e s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s
o f t h e Fr e n c h Re v o l u t i o n , b u t t h e v i g o r o u s
a c t i o n t a k e n b yo u r a u t h o r i t i e s d u r i n g t h e
w a r , e s p e c i a l l yi n Eg yp t , h a s c o n s i d e r a b l y
r e s t r i c t e d i t s a c t i v i t y . Th e "
I n v i s i b l e
Fo r c e
" w h i c h i s a r r a yi n g i t s m i g h t a g a i n s t
Ch r i s t e n d o m h a s n e v e r d o u b t e d t h e i m p o r -
t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n .I t i s l a yi n g i t s h a n d
EV I D ENCES OFCONS PI RACY 1 9 7
i n t h e Ea s t o n t h e c o m i n g g e n e r a t i o n , f o r
w h e r e v e r t h e r e i s a n a t i v e s c h o o l w i t h i n t h e
l i m i t s o f i t s p r o p a g a n d a i t s g o s p e l i s b e i n g
p r e a c h e d , a n d t h e m o s t c e r t a i n p r o o f t h a t
t h e w h o l e m o v e m e n t i s b e i n g d i r e c t e d b y
a s i n g l e s e c r e t a g e n c yi s t h a t t h i s t e a c h i n g
i s i d e n t i c a l f r o m M o r o c c o t o t h e h e a r t o f
As i a .
Am o n g t h e a g e n t s e m p l o ye d i n t h e Ea s t
t h e r e a r e f e w J e w s
. I t m u s t b e r e m e m -
b e r e d t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f t h e Ea s t h a v e a n
i n s u p e r a b l e i f t o l e r a n t c o n t e m p t f o r t h e
J e w .Th i s a t t i t u d e i s n o t t h e l e a s t o f t h e
r e a s o n s w h yi t a p p e a r s s u p r e m e l yi m p o l i t i c
t o h a v e M r .M o n t a g u S e c r e t a r yf o r I n d i a
a n d S i r He r b e r t S a m u e l Go v e r n o r o f Pa l e s -
t i n e . I f t h e g r e a t c o n s p i r a c yi s t o b e o v e r -
c o m e t h e r e m u s t b e t h e s t r i c t e s t i m p a r t i a l i t y
o n t h e p a r t o f r u l e r s a n d g o v e r n o r s . I f
r e v o l u t i o n h a s n o t a l r e a d yb r o k e n o u t i t - - i s
t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l a m a s s o f m o d e r a t e a n d
i n d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n w h i c h i s r e f r a c t o r yt o
t h i s p r o p a g a n d a .
W h e t h e r t h i s g i g a n t i c p l o t o f t h r o w i n g
Ea s t a g a i n s t W e s t i s t o b e a t t r i b u t e d t o
t h e " f o r m i d a b l e s e c t " i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t
m u s t b e l e f t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l j u d g m e n t .
Al l t h a t c a n
.b
e s a i d i s t h a t t h e p u r p o s e
p u r s u e d a n d t h e m e t h o d s e m p l o ye d a r e
p r a c t i c a l l yi d e n t i c a l w i t h t h o s e w h i c h h a v e
b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s b o o k . Ac o n c r e t e
i n s t a n c e o f t h e w o r k i n g o f t h i s c o n s p i r a c y
a n d a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c e r t a i n d i s q u i e t i n g
1 9 8 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t a c c o m p a n i e d
i t m a y
t h r o w s o m e l i g h t o n t h e , q u e s t i o n .
I t m a yb e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t o n J u l y1 s t ,
1 9 09 , Co l o n e l S i r W .Cu r z o n W yl l i e , a n
I n d i a n o f f i c i a l r e s p e c t e d a n d a d m i r e d b y
b o t h n a t i v e s a n d Eu r o p e a n s , w a s m u r d e r e d
a t t h e I m p e r i a l I n s t i t u t e b ya n a t i v e n a m e d
D h i n g r a , w h o p a i d f o r t h e c r i m e w i t h h i s
l i f e
.Th e r e w e r e c e r t a i n f a c t s c o n n e c t e d
w i t h t h i s m u r d e r w h i c h w e r e n e v e r m a d e
p u b l i c .
Th e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t
s h o r t l yb e f o r e t h e c r i m e D h i n g r a h a d b e e n
i n Pa r i s , a n d i t w a s s a i d t h a t a Na t i o n a l i s t
m a n i f e s t o d a t e d f r o m Pa r i s w a s f o u n d a m o n g
h i s p a p e r s . I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t a w e e k b e f o r e
t h e An a r c h i s t s e c t i o n o f t h e Pa r i s p o l i c e
w a s i n f o r m e d t h a t a g r o u p o f I n d i a n c o n -
s p i r a t o r s i n Pa r i s w e r e d i s p l a yi n g g r e a t
a c t i v i t y, a n d t h a t t h e yw e r e p r e p a r i n g t o
b r i n g o f f a c o u p
e i t h e r i n Fr a n c e o r En g l a n d ,
p r o b a b l yt h e l a t t e r .
Un f o r t u n a t e l yt h i s i n -
f o r m a t i o n w a s n o t p a s s e d o n t o t h e En g l i s h
p o l i c e , a s p o s s i b l yf u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n m i g h t
h a v e p r e v e n t e d t h i s d a s t a r d l ym u r d e r .
Th i s Pa r i s g r o u p h a d b e e n w o r k i n g a g a i n s t
t h e Em p i r e f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d , a n d
i t s e x i s t e n c e w a s w e l l k n o w n t o t h e Fr e n c h
p o l i c e , w h o t o o k a l l n e c e s s a r yp r e c a u t i o n s
t h a t n o o u t r a g e s h o u l d b e c o m m i t t e d i n t h e
t e r r i t o r yf o r w h i c h t h e yw e r e r e s p o n s i b l e
.
M a n ym e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d i n a h o u s e
i n t h e
Ru e L a f f i t t e a n d e l s e w h e r e , a n d a v i g o r o u s
p r o p a g a n d a c a r r i e d o n .
Th e r e w e r e s o m e
EV I D ENCES OFCONS PI RACY 1 9 9
g e n u i n e n a t i v e f a n a t i c s a m o n g t h e c o n s p i r a -
t o r s , a n d s e v e r a l m e m b e r s o f t h e I n d i a n
c o l o n yw e r e t e r r o r i s e d i n t o s u p p o r t i n g t h e m
w i t h f u n d s a n d d e c l a r i n g a r e l u c t a n t s ym -
p a t h yw i t h a m o v e m e n t t h a t f i l l e d t h e m
w i t h a l a r m a n d r e p u l s i o n . I n p a r t i c u l a r ,
t h e p l o t t e r s s o u g h t a d h e r e n t s a m o n g t h e
yo u n g n a t i v e s w h o c a m e t o t h e Pa r i s Un i -
v e r s i t yt o s t u d y, a n d t h e i r t h r e a t s a n d
b l o o d t h i r s t yl a n g u a g e s c a r e d s o m e o f t h e s e
s t u d e n t s , w h o w e r e a n yt h i n g b u t w a r l i k e
b yn a t u r e , a l m o s t o u t o f t h e i r w i t s .
An i m p o r t a n t m e m b e r o f t h e g r o u p w a s
a w o m a n o f Ge r m a n e x t r a c t i o n , w h o a p -
p e a r e d t o b e t h e c h i e f c o n t r o l l e r o f i t s a c t i o n .
Th e r e w a s , h o w e v e r , a n o t h e r w o m a n , a
J e w e s s , w h o w a s i n f r i e n d l yr e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e
c o n s p i r a t o r s , t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o p 4 o o f t h a t s h e
t o o k a n yp a r t i n t h e i r p l o t s
.Th i s J e w e s s w a s
a v e r yr e m a r k a b l e p e r s o n
.Go o d l o o k i n g a n d
a m b i t i o u s , s h e f l a u n t e d a s t h e c o n f i d a n t e o f a
d i g n i t a r yo f t h e Th i r d Re p u b l i c , a n d i t w a s
p u b l i c r e p o r t t h a t w i t h t h e a i d o f h e r o w n
p e o p l e a n d t h e i n v a l u a b l e s u p p o r t o f t h e
Gr a n d Or i e n t s h e e x e r c i s e d b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s
a p o w e r e q u a l t o t h a t o f m a n ya M i n i s t e r .
I n t h o s e d a ys Fr e n c h Fr e e m a s o n r yw a s
s t i l l a g r e a t p o l i t i c a l p o w e r
. I t w a s n o
l o n g e r p r a c t i c a l l ys u p r e m e i n p o l i t i c s , s i n c e
i t s p o s i t i o n h a d b e e n b a d l ys h a k e n b yt h e
d i s c o v e r yo f t h e p a r t t h a t i t h a d 'b e e n
p l a yi n g i n t h e Ar m y .
Th e s c a n d a l t h a t
l e d t o t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f Ge n e r a l An d r e ,
2 00
THECAUS E OFW ORL D UNRES T
t h e M i n i s t e r o f W a r , s h o w e d t h a t s e c r e t
r e p o r t s d r a w n f r o m M a s o n i c s o u r c e s w e r e
b e i n g o f f i c i a l l yu s e d t o t h e p r e j u d i c e o f
o f f i c e r s w h o w e r e o p p o s e d t o t h e f o r m o f
Fr e e m a s o n r ye x i s t i n g i n Fr a n c e .At t e n d -
a n c e a t c h u r c h w a s r e p o r t e d t o t h e a u t h o -
r i t i e s a n d a c t u a l l ys e r v e d a s a b a r t o p r o m o -
t i o n .Th e p o p u l a r o u t c r yt h a t r e s u l t e d
f r o m t h e s e d i s c l o s u r e s s e r i o u s l yw e a k e n e d
t h e p o l i t i c a l p o w e r o f t h e Gr a n d Or i e n t ,
t h o u g h i n s e c r e t , t h a n k s t o i t s o r g a n i s a t i o n
a n d h o l d o n t h e Ra d i c a l D e p u t i e s a n d
S e n a t o r s , i t s t i l l p o s s e s s e d i m m e n s e i n f l u e n c e .
I t m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t i n Fr a n c e
t h e M a s o n i c m o v e m e n t w a s p e r m e a t e d w i t h
J e w s .Th e He b r a i c e l e m e n t w a s s t r o n g l y
r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e Ge n t i l e L o d g e s , a n d
t h e r e e x i s t e d J e w i s h L o d g e s t o w h i c h n o
Ge n t i l e m e m b e r s w e r e a d m i t t e d a n d i n
w h i c h n o l a n g u a g e o t h e r t h a n Y i d d i s h o r
Ge r m a n w a s s p o k e n .
Th e " f o r m i d a b l e s e c t " h a s n e v e r h e s i t a t e d
i n i t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f
" e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i d e a s o f o t h e r s a n d u s i n g
t h e m f o r i t s o w n p u r p o s e ." Fu r t h e r , t h e
Pr o t o c o l s a d m i t t h a t t h e i r p o l i c yi n c l u d e s
" a n u m b e r o f p r i v a t e a s s a s s i n a t i o n s a c c o m -
p l i s h e d b yo u r a g e n t s , t h e b l i n d s h e e p o f
o u r f l o c k , w h o c a n e a s i l yb e i n d u c e d t o
c o m m i t a c r i m e , s o l o n g a s s u c h a c r i m e i s o f
a p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r ." Th e s t u p i d m u r d e r
o f S i r Cu r z o n W yl l i e w a s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
m u r d e r e r , a p o l i t i c a l " r e m o v a l ."
CHAPTERXI V
I REL AND AND THECOL ONI ES
K a r l M a r x a n d I r i s h I n d e p e n d e n c e - D r
.He r m a n n Go r t e r 's
Ex p o s i t i o n - I n d e p e n d e n c e No t a n En d i n I t s e l f -
Th e W o r k o f J a m e s Co n n o l l y- Th e Ri b b o n Oa t h -
S i n n Fe i n a d o p t s t h e B o l s h e v i s t Pr o g r a m m e - B o l -
s h e v i s m i n S o u t h Af r i c a , Au s t r a l i a a n d Ca n a d a .
HAV I NG a l r e a d y g i v e n a n
o u t l i n e o f t h e
v a s t As i a t i c p l o t w h i c h i s a i m e d d i r e c t l ya t
t h e w h o l e o f Eu r o p e a s w e l l a s t h e B r i t i s h
Em p i r e , w e w i l l n o w d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o
t h e c o n s p i r a c yw h i c h , e a c h d a yg r o w i n g i n
v i o l e n c e , i s d i r e c t e d a t "
t h e Ac h i l l e s 'h e e l
o f En g l a n d , " I r e l a n d .
Th e i m m e d i a t e p u r -
p o s e s o f t h e s e i n t r i g u e s a r e c l e a r e n o u g h ,
a n d i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e yw o u l d f i t p e r -
f e c t l yi n t o " t h e p r o g r a m m e o f v i o l e n c e
a n d h yp o c r i s y " w h i c h h a s b e e n p u t f o r w a r d
i n t h i s b o o k a s t h e s e c r e t c a u s e o f w o r l d
u n r e s t .
Th e c r i m e s w h i c h a r e I r e l a n d 's d a i l y
h i s t o r yc a n n o t p l e a d t h e e x c u s e o f h o t -
h e a d e d i m p u l s e o r b l i n d r e v e n g e . Th e ya r e
c a r r i e d o u t i n a s p i r i t o f c o l d , c a l c u l a t i n g
b r u t a l i t y, a n d a s a Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c p r i e s t
w r o t e i n a l e t t e r t o t h e D u b l i n D a i l yEx p r e s s ,
t h e ya r e " t h e d i a b o l i c a l w o r k o f a n o r g a n i s a -
t i o n ." Th r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d t h e s t o r yi s
t h e s a m e - m u r d e r , o u t r a g e , a n d d i s o r d e r s
c o n t r i v e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d b ys o m e i n v i s i b l e
2 01
2 02 THE CAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
p o w e r o f e v i l . I n h i s Re d Pe r i l a n d Gr e e n ,
a b o o k w h i c h i s a m i n e o f i n f o r m a t i o n o n
t h e I r i s h q u e s t i o n , M r .D a w s o n r e m a r k s
t h a t d u r i n g t h e w a r "
n o t h i n g w a s m o r e
a s t o n i s h i n g o r n e r v e - r a c k i n g t h a n t h e c o b -
w e b o f i n t r i g u e , s p u n b ya h i d d e n h a n d , i n
w h i c h t h e n a t i o n w a s e n m e s h e d , a n d i n
w h i c h i t f e l t i t s e l f e n t a n g l e d a t e v e r yc r i s i s ."
Ev e n m o r e a s t o n i s h i n g a n d n e r v e - r a c k i n g
i s t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h i s c o b w e b a f t e r t h e
d e f e a t o f Ge r m a n y
. D u r i n g t h e w a r a t
l e a s t w e k n e w t h e i d e n t i t yo f t h e s p i d e r
w h i c h s p u n t h e w e b , b u t n o w t h e c a u s e o f
a l l t h e t r o u b l e i s o b s c u r e a n d m ys t e r i o u s ,
a n d t h e f o r c e s o f c i v i l i s a t i o n s e e m t o b e
f i g h t i n g i n t h e d a r k .
Th e s t a b i l i t yo f t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e i s
t h e c h i e f o b s t a c l e w h i c h t h o s e w h o a i m a t
t h e o v e r t h r o w o f Eu r o p e a n c i v i l i s a t i o n h a v e
t o o v e r c o m e , a n d I r e l a n d i s , a c c o r d i n g t o
K a r l M a r x a n d t h e m o d e r n B o l s h e v i k s ,
t h e Em p i r e 's w e a k e s t p o i n t . M r s .W e b s t e r ,
i n h e r l e t t e r t o t h e M o r n i n g Po s t p u b l i s h e d
o n J u l y1 8t h , 1 9 2 0, q u o t e d K a r l M a r x
o n I r e l a n d , a n d h i s p r o p o s a l t o t h e I n t e r -
n a t i o n a l t h a t t h e ys h o u l d ,
i n o r d e r t o
p r e p a r e t h e w a yf o r r e v o l u t i o n i n En g l a n d ,
s u p p o r t t h e I r i s h d e m a n d f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e .
Th i s M a r x i a n v i e w i s s t i l l a c c e p t e d b y
t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s , a n d t h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n
h a s r e c e n t l yb e e n d i s c u s s e d b yD r .He r m a n n
Go r t e r , a u t h o r o f Th e W o r l d 's Re v o l u t i o n ,
a n d d e s c r i b e d i n t h e B o l s h e v i s t Pr e s s a s a
I REL AND AND THECOL ONI ES 2 08
Pr o f e s s o r a t t h e M o s c o w Un i v e r s i t y
.
He
i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e D u t c h Co m m u n i s t s ,
a n d h e w r i t e s f r e q u e n t l yf o r t h e B o l s h e v i s t
p a p e r s o f t h i s c o u n t r y . W r i t i n g i n t h e
W o r k e r s ' D r e a d n o u g h t , M i s s S yl v i a Pa n k -
h u r s t 's p a p e r , o n " I r e l a n d : t h e Ac h i l l e s '
He e l o f En g l a n d , " D r .Go r t e r s t a t e s t h a t
t h e d e m a n d o f s m a l l n a t i o n s f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e
c a n n o w b e s u p p o r t e d b yB o l s h e v i k s , b e c a u s e
I m p e r i a l i s t i c Ca p i t a l i s m i s s h a k e n , a n d " t h i s
i n d e p e n d e n c e n o w b e c o m e s a m e a n s t o
w e a k e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f a l l t h e b i g c a p i t a l i s t i c .
n a t i o n s , a n d e v e n t o c a u s e t h e i r d o w n f a l l ."
D e v e l o p i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s i d e a ,
w h i c h i s o n e o f L e n i n 's , t h e B o l s h e v i s t
p r o f e s s o r w r i t e s
" Fo r n o c o u n t r yi s t h i s m o r e t r u e t h a n
f o r I r e l a n d . I f I r e l a n d s h o u l d b e c o m e
i n d e p e n d e n t , Gr e a t B r i t a i n w o u l d b e s t r u c k
t o t h e v e r yf o u n d a t i o n s .No w , t h e r e f o r e , i t
i s t h e d u t yo f a l l B r i t i s h Co m m u n i s t s t o
d e m a n d t h e c o m p l e t e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f I r e -
l a n d , a n d t o t a k e a l l t h e m e a s u r e s r e q u i r e d
t o b r i n g i t a b o u t , a n d f o r t h e e n t i r e Th i r d
I n t e r n a t i o n a l t h i s i s o f t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t -
a n c e . Ag a i n , En g l a n d i s t h e r o c k o n w h i c h
Ca p i t a l i s m i s f i r m l yr o o t e d , t h e b u l w a r k
o f w o r l d Ca p i t a l i s m , t h e h o p e o f a l l c o u n t e r -
r e v o l u t i o n a n d a l l r e a c t i o n .B u t I r e l a n d i s t h e
Ac h i l l e s 'He e l o f En g l a n d
.
Fo r t h e r e v o l u -
t i o n o n t h e Eu r o p e a n c o n t i n e n t , t h e r e f o r e f o r
t h e w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n , i t i s a v i t a l q u e s t i o n
t h a t B r i t i s h Ca p i t a l s h o u l d b e h i t t h e r e ."
2 04 THECAUS E OFW ORL D UNRES T
D r .Go r t e r s t a t e s t h a t " t h e g i g a n t i c
g e n i u s o f M a r x s a w a l l t h i s l o n g a g o , "
a n d h e q u o t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g f r o m M a r x ,
w h i c h s u p p l e m e n t s M r s .W e b s t e r 's q u o t a -
t i o n s
" Th a t c o u n t r yw h i c h m a k e s e n t i r e n a t i o n s
i n t o i t s p r o l e t a r i a n s , w h i c h e n c o m p a s s e s t h e
w h o l e w o r l d i n i t s g i g a n t i c a r m s , t h a t o n c e
a l r e a d yh a s d e f r a ye d o u t o f i t s o w n f u n d s
t h e c o s t o f a Eu r o p e a n r e s t o r a t i o n , i n t h e
v e r yh e a r t o f w h i c h t h e c l a s s - a n t i t h e s e s
h a v e d e v e l o p e d i n t o t h e m o s t p r o n o u n c e d
a n d s h a m e l e s s e x t r e m e : t h a t En g l a n d s e e m s
t o b e t h e r o c k a g a i n s t w h i c h a l l r e v o l u t i o n a r y
w a v e s a r e b r o k e n , a n d w h i c h s t a r v e s t h e
n e w s o c i e t ya l r e a d yi n t h e m a t e r n a l w o m b .
En g l a n d d o m i n a t e s t h e w o r l d 's m a r k e t
.A
s u b v e r s i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s
i n a n yc o u n t r yo f t h e Eu r o p e a n c o n t i n e n t , o r
i n t h e w h o l e o f t h e Eu r o p e a n c o n t i n e n t , w o u l d
b e w i t h o u t En g l a n d n o m o r e t h a n a s t o r m
i n a g l a s s o f w a t e r .Th e r e l a t i o n s o f i n d u s t r y
a n d c o m m e r c e w i t h i n e v e r yn a t i o n a r e d o m i -
n a t e d b yt h e i r i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n s ,
a n d d e p e n d o n t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d
m a r k e t .En g l a n d , h o w e v e r , d o m i n a t e s t h e
w o r l d m a r k e t , a n d t h e b o u r g e o i s i e d o m i n a t e s
En g l a n d ."
D r .Go r t e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e a b o v e
" a p p l i e s i n a l m o s t a m a g i c w a yt o o u r
o w n t i m e s ." En g l a n d 's " g i g a n t i c t r a n s p o r t
f l e e t " i s a m e n a c e t o t h e S o c i a l i s t o r d e r ,
a n d n o w t h a t Ge r m a n yi s d e f e a t e d En g l a n d
I REL AND AND THECOL ONI ES 2 05
p r a c t i c a l l yd o m i n a t e s t h e w o r l d m a r k e t s .
" No w a l s o Gr e a t B r i t a i n i s t h e r o c k o f
Ca p i t a l i s m i n Eu r o p e ." He t h e n q u o t e s
M a r x o n I r e l a n d . M a r x w r o t e
" I r e l a n d i s t h e s t r o n g h o l d o f En g l i s h
l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y .Th e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h i s
c o u n t r yi s n o t o n l y t h e m a i n s o u r c e o f t h e
n a t i o n a l w e a l t h , i t f o r m s l i k e w i s e En g l a n d 's
g r e a t e s t m o r a l s t r e n g t h . I t r e p r e s e n t s , i n
f a c t , t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f En g l a n d o v e r I r e l a n d .
I r e l a n d , t h e r e f o r e , i s t h e g r e a t e x p e d i e n t ,
b ym e a n s o f w h i c h t h e En g l i s h a r i s t o c r a c y
m a i n t a i n s i t s d o m i n a t i o n i n En g l a n d i t s e l f .
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , w i t h d r a w t h e En g l i s h
Ar m ya n d p o l i c e f r o m I r e l a n d t o - m o r r o w
a n d yo u w i l l s t r a i g h t w a yh a v e a n a g r a r i a n
r e v o l u t i o n i n I r e l a n d .Th e f a l l o f t h e En g l i s h
a r i s t o c r a c yi n I r e l a n d , h o w e v e r , n e e d s m u s t
i m p l ya n d i n e v i t a b l yl e a d s t o t h e i r o v e r -
t h r o w i n En g l a n d .Th r o u g h t h i s t h e p r i m a l
c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n i n
En g l a n d w o u l d b e f u l f i l l e d ."
Th e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e q u o t a t i o n g i v e n b y
He r m a n n Go r t e r f r o m M a r x i s t h e o n e
g i v e n b yM r s .W e b s t e r . Co m m e n t i n g o n
t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s o f M a r x , Go r t e r s a ys t h a t
w h i l e t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n I r e l a n d t o - d a yh a v e
c h a n g e d s i n c e M a r x w r o t e , w h a t h e s a i d
t o t h e Fi r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l
" a p p l i e s s t i l l ,
a n d a h u n d r e d t i m e s m o r e , t o t h e Th i r d .
Th e Th i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l m u s t s t r i v e b y
e v e r yp o s s i b l e m e a n s t o p r o m o t e t h e i n d e -
p e n d e n c e o f I r e l a n d ."
2 06 THECAUS E OFW ORL D UNRES T
" B u t i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e B r i t i s h w o r k e r s
l i e s t h e f a t e o f I r e l a n d ( c o n c l u d e s D r .Go r t e r ) .
Th e ym u s t f o l l o w t h e e x a m p l e g i v e n b y
L e n i n a n d t h e Ru s s i a n B o l s h e v i k s , w h o , i n
o r d e r t o m a k e t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e w h o l e
o f Ru s s i a , d e m a n d e d t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e s o f
Fi n l a n d a n d Po l a n d a n d t h e B a l t i c S t a t e s .
Th e a t t i t u d e o f t h e B r i t i s h w o r k e r s w i t h
r e g a r d t o I r e l a n d i s t h e b a r o m e t e r f o r t h e
B r i t i s h r e v o l u t i o n ." ( Fr o m t h e W o r k e r s '
D r e a d n o u g h t , M a y8t h , 1 9 2 0 .)
S i n c e Tr o t s k y, L e n i n a n d He r m a n n Go r t e r
h a v e p a i d s o m u c h a t t e n t i o n t o t h e n e e d
f o r b r e a k i n g u p t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e , t h e
o r g a n s o f B o l s h e v i s m a n d Re v o l u t i o n h a v e
f o l l o w e d t h i s l e a d
.Th e S o c i a l i s t ( Gl a s g o w ) ,
t h e o r g a n o f t h e S o c i a l i s t L a b o u r Pa r t y,
i n i t s l e a d i n g a r t i c l e o n J u n e 1 7 t h , 1 9 2 0,
d i s c u s s i n g t h e t r o u b l e i n I r e l a n d , r e m a r k s
" L 'a f f a i r e I r l a n d a i s e w i l l ye t p r o v e t h e
r o c k o n w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e , t h e
g r e a t e s t p a r t n e r s h i p o f w o r l d - r o b b e r ya n d
s l a u g h t e r i n h i s t o r y, w i l l p e r i s h .Th e d i s s o l u -
t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e , t h e c e n t r e a n d
s t r o n g h o l d o f w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s m , i s t h e n e c e s -
s a r yp r e l u d e t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e w o r l d
r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . W e o f t h e
S o c i a l i s t L a b o u r Pa r t yo f Gr e a t B r i t a i n a r e
e v e r yw h e r e a t t e m p t i n g t o t h e b e s t o f o u r
a b i l i t ya n d r e s o u r c e s t o a w a k e n B r i t i s h L a b o u r
t o a c t i o n i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s d u t i e s a n d
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o I r e l a n d . . . . Th e s u c c e s s
o f t h e I r i s h w o r k i n g c l a s s i s o u r s u c c e s s ."
I REL AND AND THECOL ONI ES
2 07
D u r i n g t h e l a s t d e c a d e a g r e a t a n d s t r i k i n g
c h a n g e h a s c o m e o v e r I r i s h a i m s a n d m e t h o d s .
Th e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e i s
b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d b yf a r m o r e d a n g e r o u s
a n d s u b t l e b r a i n s , a n d o n e i s f o r c e d t o t h e
c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e a l d i r e c t i n g f o r c e
r e g a r d s I r i s h i n d e p e n d e n c e n o t a s a n e n d
i n i t s e l f , b u t a s a m e a n s t o w a r d s t h e a c c o m -
p l i s h m e n t o f w o r l d - w i d e a n a r c h y . I n t h e
p a s t I r e l a n d c o m p l a i n e d o f En g l i s h m i s -
g o v e r n m e n t , a n d a t l e a s t a d m i t t e d a s o l u t i o n
o f t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h w o u l d h a v e l e f t i t
w i t h i n t h e Em p i r e . To - d a yI r e l a n d w i l l
h a v e n o p a r t o r p a r c e l i n t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e ,
a n d s e e k s i n t h e p u r s u i t o f i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e
t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r .
Th e
t i m e o f s p o r a d i c r e b e l l i o n h a s p a s s e d w i t h
t h e p e r i o d o f Pa r l i a m e n t a r ya g i t a t i o n .S i n n
Fe i n , o n c e a n i n t e l l e c t u a l m o v e m e n t , h a s
b e e n s w e
p t a w a ya n d f i n d s i t s e l f u n i t e d w i t h
o r g a n i s e d I r i s h L a b o u r a n d t h e S o c i a l Re v o -
l u t i o n a r i e s p l e d g e d t o t h e c a u s e o f B o l s h e v i s m
a n d An a r c h yt h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d .
I t i s a s u g g e s t i v e s t u d yt o t r a c e t h e m e a n s
b yw h i c h t h i s v i t a l c h a n g e w a s b r o u g h t
a b o u t . Th e p r i n c i p a l a g e n t w a s J a m e s
Co n n o l l y, w h o i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e p o l i t i c s
o f I r i s h d i s a f f e c t i o n t h e p h i l o s o p h yo f S o c i a l
Re v o l u t i o n . Fr o m 1 9 03 t o 1 9 1 0Co n n o l l y
w a s i n Am e r i c a , a n d t h e r e , a s M r .D a w s o n
p o i n t s o u t i n t h e b o o k q u o t e d a b o v e , h e
c a m e u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f L e o n , w h o
c o u n t e d L e n i n a m o n g h i s d i s c i p l e s .
I t w a s
i
2 08 THECAUS E OFW ORL D UNRES T
Co n n o l l y's w o r k t h a t e n a b l e d M r .d e B l a c a m
t o m a k e t h e p r o u d b o a s t t h a t B o l s h e v i s m
w a s b o r n i n I r e l a n d , a n d L e n i n h i m s e l f
a d m i t t e d t h a t h e o w e d m u c h t o t h e I r i s h
r e b e l w h o w a s e x e c u t e d a f t e r t h e r e b e l l i o n
o f 1 9 1 6 . He r e w e h a v e i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e p r o o f
o f t h e u n i t yo f c o n t r o l a n d d i r e c t i o n t h a t
u n d e r l i e s d i s o r d e r s i n e v e r yp a r t o f t h e
w o r l d . L o n g b e f o r e Ge r m a n yh a d f a l l e n
a n d c o u l d n o l o n g e r p r o v i d e I r e l a n d w i t h
t h e s i n e w s o f w a r t h e I r i s h m o v e m e n t h a d
c o m e i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Hi g h Pr i e s t o f
B o l s h e v i s m a n d w a s r e a d yt o p l a yi t s p a r t
i n t h e w o r l d c o n s p i r a c y . Co n n o l l yw a s o n e
o f t h e o r g a n i s e r s o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l W o r k e r s
o f t h e W o r l d i n Am e r i c a , a n d a s s u c h h a d
e v e r yr e a s o n t o b e c o m e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h
m a n y o f t h o s e w h o b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e Ru s s i a n
Re v o l u t i o n . Th e r e h e m u s t h a v e l e a r n t
t h e d o c t r i n e s t h a t t h e " f o r m i d a b l e s e c t " w a s
s p r e a d i n g t h r o u g h t h e w o r l d f o r i t s o w n
p u r p o s e s .
Ad i r e c t l i n k b e t w e e n t h e g r e a t As i a t i c
c o n s p i r a c ya n d t h e I r i s h p l o t i s a p p a r e n t l y
t o b e f o u n d i n t h e p e r s o n o f L i a m M e l l o w e s ,
w h o p l a ye d a l e a d i n g p a r t i n Am e r i c a i n
b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h e o p e n a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n
t h e S i n n Fe i n o r g a n i s a t i o n a n d Ru s s i a n
B o l s h e v i s m . I n t h e r e b e l l i o n o f 1 9 1 6 t h i s
M e l l o w e s c o m m a n d e d a r e b e l f o r c e i n Co u n t y
Ga l w a y, a n d a f t e r i t s c o l l a p s e h e e s c a p e d
f r o m I r e l a n d , p r o b a b l yt o Ge r m a n y . L a t e r
h e i s t o b e f o u n d i n
Ne w Y o r k w o r k i n g w i t h
I REL AND AND THECOL ONI ES
2 09
a Ge r m a n a g e n t
.
Hi s m a i n o b j e c t o n t h i s
o c c a s i o n w a s t o o r g a n i s e a n o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n
i n I r e l a n d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 1 8, a n a t t e m p t
t h a t f a i l e d , b u t a n o t h e r o f h i s e n t e r p r i s e s
w a s f r o m o u r p o i n t o f v i e w v e r ys i g n i f i c a n t ,
s i n c e i t c o n s i s t e d i n f o r w a r d i n g m o n e yt o
t h e Tu r k s a n d e s t a b l i s h i n g a m ys t e r i o u s
Tu r k i s h o r g a n i s a t i o n i n Am e r i c a . I t w o u l d
b e i n t e r e s t i n g t o k n o w i f t h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n
w h i c h t h u s c a m e i n t o e x i s t e n c e a f t e r t h e
Un i t e d S t a t e s h a d e n t e r e d t h e w a r h a s
d i s a p p e a r e d , o r i f i t i s i n a n yw a yr e s p o n s i b l e
f o r t h e p e r p e t u a l f l o w o f s u b v e r s i v e p r o p a -
g a n d a t h a t f i n d s i t s w a yi n t o As i a f r o m
Am e r i c a
.
Of t h e p a r t p l a ye d b yS i n n Fe i n d u r i n g
t h e w a r t h e r e i s n o n e e d t o s p e a k a t l e n g t h .
I t i s a m a t t e r o f p u b l i c k n o w l e d g e t h a t
Ge r m a n m o n e yw a s p o u r e d i n t o I r e l a n d t o
e n c o u r a g e r e b e l l i o n , a n d t h e s i n i s t e r f i g u r e
o f Ca s e m e n t s e r v e s a s a p e r p e t u a l r e m i n d e r
o f t h e t r e a c h e r yt h a t w a s a t w o r k . S o
f a r a s t h e w o r l d c o n s p i r a c yw a s c o n c e r n e d
I r e l a n d h a d l o n g a g o s h o w n t h a t i t p o s s e s s e d
g o o d m a t e r i a l o n w h i c h t h e p r o m o t e r s o f
d i s o r d e r c o u l d r e c k o n .
W h a t b e t t e r a l l y
c o u l d t h e " f o r m i d a b l e s e c t " d e s i r e t h a n t h e
Ri b b o n m e n o f 1 85 0, w h o w o r e a r i b b o n
o n t h e i r s l e e v e s a n d i n t h e i r h e a r t s c a r r i e d
t h e w o r d s o f t h e Ri b b o n Oa t h
"
I n
t h e p r e s e n c e o f Al m i g h t yGo d , a n d
t h i s m yb r o t h e r , I d o s w e a r t h a t I w i l l
s u f f e r m yr i g h t h a n d t o b e c u t f r o m m y
0
2 1 0 THE
CAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
b o d ya n d l a i d a t t h e g a o l d o o r b e f o r e I
w i l l w a yl a yo r b e t r a ya b r o t h e r , a n d I w i l l
p e r s e v e r e a n d n o t s p a r e f r o m t h e c r a d l e
t o t h e c r u t c h a n d t h e c r u t c h t o t h e c r a d l e
;
t h a t I w i l l n o t h e a r t h e m o a n s o r g r o a n s
o f i n f a n c yo r o l d a g e , b u t t h a t I w i l l w a d e
k n e e - d e e p i n Or a n g e m a n 's b l o o d a n d d o a s
K i n g J a m e s d i d ."
S u c h a n o a t h m i g h t w e l l f i n d i t s p l a c e
i n t h e Pr o t o c o l s o f t h e "
El d e r s o f Z i o n , " a n d
M r
.D a w s o n , w h e n h e d e s c r i b e s t h e Ri b b o n
S o c i e t ya s " u n r i v a l l e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f
s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , u n s c r u p u l o u s , m ys t e r i o u s ,
p i t i l e s s , ` d e a f t o t h e m o a n s o f i n f a n c yo r
a g e , '
" w r o t e a p h r a s e t h a t c o u l d e q u a l l y
w e l l b e a p p l i e d t o t h e w o r l d - w i d e s e c r e t
s o c i e t i e s w i t h w h i c h w e h a v e b e e n d e a l i n g
.
W h e n Ge r m a n yf e l l a n d r e b e l l i o u s I r e l a n d
c o u l d h o p e f o r n o m o r e a i d f r o m t h a t
q u a r t e r , i t w a s n a t u r a l t h a t S i n n Fe i n
s h o u l d s e e k a l l i a n c e w i t h B o l s h e v i s t Ru s s i a
.
Th e n e g o t i a t i o n s w e r e c a r r i e d o n i n Am e r i c a
b yM e l l o w e s , o f w h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w e h a v e
a l r e a d ys p o k e n , a n d D r
.M c Ca r t a n , S i n n
Fe i n " a m b a s s a d o r " t o t h e Un i t e d S t a t e s
.
Th e B o l s h e v i k s s e n t o v e r a M r .M a r t e n s , a n d
a n o f f e n s i v e a l l i a n c e w a s c o n c l u d e d . D r .
M c Ca r t a n p r o c l a i m e d t o t h e w o r l d
"
Th e f o u r m i l l i o n p e o p l e o f t h e Re p u b l i c
o f I r e l a n d , i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e t o f r e e t h e m -
s e l v e s f r o m m i l i t a r ys u b j u g a t i o n , w a n t a n d
w e l c o m e t h e a i d o f t h e f r e e m e n o f t h e
Ru s s i a n S o c i a l i s t Fe d e r a t e d S o v i e t Re p u b l i c
.
I REL AND AND THECOL ONI ES 2 1 1
B e t w e e n t h e Ru s s i a n s a n d t h e I r i s h , i s o l a t e d
i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t B r i t i s h a r m i e s o f
o c c u p a t i o n t o f o u n d s e c u r e l yt h e Re p u b l i c
o f
I r e l a n d , t h e r e c a n e x i s t o n l yt h e s e n s e
o f
b r o t h e r h o o d w h i c h a c o m m o n e x p e r i e n c e ,
e n d u r e d f o r a c o m m o n p u r p o s e , a l o n e c a n
i n d u c e ."
Th a t t h e p r o g r a m m e o f S i n n Fe i n a s a t
p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t e d i s p r a c t i c a l l yi d e n t i c a l
w i t h t h a t o f t h e M o s c o w I n t e r n a t i o n a l , f o u n -
d e d t o e n f o r c e t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e
p r o l e t a r i a t , t h e a b o l i t i o n o f a l l e x i s t i n g
f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h e e x p r o p r i a t i o n
o f a l l p r o p e r t y, i s s h o w n b yt h e f o l l o w i n g
p a r a l l e l p a s s a g e s q u o t e d b yt h e D u k e o f
No r t h u m b e r l a n d i n a s p e e c h m a d e a t a
m e e t i n g o f m e m b e r s
o f t h e Ho u s e s o f L o r d s
a n d Co m m o n s o n J u l y7 t h , 1 9 2 0
.
THETHI RD I NTERNATI ONAL .S I NNFEI N, 1 9 1 8AND 1 9 1 9 .*
I m m e d i a t e u n i v e r s a l d i c -
Th e e n r o l m e n t o f a l l
t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , w o r k e r s i n t h e Un i o n , t h e
i n v o l v i n g t h e s e i z u r e o f Tr a n s p o r t Un i o n f o r m i n g a n
g o v e r n m e n t a l p o w e r t o r e - o r g a n i s e d p r o l e t a r i a t .Th e
p l a c e i t b yt h e a p p a r a t u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f D a i l Ei r e -
o f p r o l e t a r i a n p o w e r .Th i s a n n , a c o u n c i l o f d u l ye l e c t e d
i m p l i e s t h e s e t t i n g u p o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e I r i s h
w o r k i n g - c l a s s i n s t i t u t i o n s a s p e o p l e t o c o n s t i t u t e d e
r u l i n g p o w e r , a n d t h e p r i n -
f a c t o a s w e l l a s d e j u r e
c i p l e o f a l l r i g h t s t o w o r k e r s a Na t i o n a l Go v e r n m e n t .
a n d n o r i g h t s t o a n yb u t Th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Re p u b -
w o r k e r s , a n d i s t o b e e f f e c t e d l i c a n Co u r t s a n d t h e c o m -
b yt h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f a l l p u l s o r yw i t h d r a w a l o f l i t i -
b o u r g e o i s j u d g e s a n d e s t a b - g a n t s f r o m B r i t i s h Co u r t s .
* Fr o m t h e Re p o r t s a n d M e m o r a n d a p r e s e n t e d t o t h e
I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r a n d S o c i a l i s t Co n f e r e n c e a t B e r n e ,
Fe b r u a r y, 1 9 1 9 .
2 1 2 THE
CAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
l i s h n i e n t o f a l l p r o l e t a r i a n
c o u r t s , t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f
c o n t r o l b y
Go v e r n m e n t
o f f i c i a l s , a n d s u b s t i t u t i o n o f
n e w o r g a n s o f m a n a g e m e n t
o f p r o l e t a r i a t .
Th e
d i s a r m i n g o f t h e
b o u r g e o i s i e a n d t h e g e n e r a l
a r m i n g o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t i n
o r d e r t o m a k e r e v o l u t i o n
s e c u r e .
Th e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e
p r o l e t a r i a t s h o u l d b e t h e
l e v e r o f t h e i m m e d i a t e e x -
p r o p r i a t i o n o f c a p i t a l a n d
t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e r i g h t
o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t yi n t h e
m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h
s h o u l d b e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o
t h e p r o p e r t yo f t h e w h o l e
n a t i o n .
Th e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e
i s t o s u b o r d i n a t e t h e i n t e r e s t
o f t h e m o v e m e n t i n e a c h
c o u n t r yt o t h e g e n e r a l i n -
t e r e s t s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l
r e v o l u t i o n a s a w h o l e .
Th e f o r m a t i o n ( p r o m i s e d
b u t n o t ye t a c c o m p l i s h e d )
o f a b o a r d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e t h e
p l a c e o f t h e L o c a l Go v e r n -
m e n t B o a r d
.
W i t h t h e I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s
a n d f o r m a t i o n o f t h e I r i s h
Re p u b l i c a n Ar m yt h e l a t t e r
p a r t o f t h i s o r d i n a n c e m a y
b e s a i d t o h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d
o u t i n I r e l a n d .
To r e c o v e r f o r t h e Na t i o n
c o m p l e t e p o s s e s s i o n o f a l l
t h e n a t u r a l p h ys i c a l s o u r c e s
o f w e a l t h o f t h e c o u n t r y
.
To w i n f o r w o r k e r s o f I r e l a n d
t h e o w n e r s h i p a n d c o n t r o l
o f t h e w h o l e p r o d u c e o f t h e i r
l a b o u r .To a b o l i s h a l l p o w e r s
a n d p r i v i l e g e s , s o c i a l a n d
p o l i t i c a l , b a s e d o n p r o p e r t y
n o t g r a n t e d o r c o n f i r m e d b y
t h e f r e e l ye x p r e s s e d w i l l o f
t h e I r i s h p e o p l e .
To a s s i s t i n t h e e f f o r t s o f
t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s o f a l l
Na t i o n s i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r
e m a n c i p a t i o n .
Th i s a d o p t i o n o f t h e B o l s h e v i s t p r o g r a m m e
h a s m e a n t w e a l t h f o r S i n n Fe i n
. S e v e n
ye a r s a g o i t w a s a l m o s t b a n k r u p t
; t o - d a y
i t r u n s n e w s p a p e r s , k e e p s u p a n a r m y, a n d
e v e n e q u i p s i t s a s s a s s i n s w i t h m o t o r - c a r s .
AHe l s i n g f o r s d e s p a t c h o f Ap r i l , 1 9 1 9 , g i v e s
t h e k e yt o t h i s s u d d e n a c c e s s i o n o f r i c h e s .
"
Th e Co u n c i l o f Pe o p l e 's Co m m i s s a r i e s
. . .
h a v e v o t e d t h e s u m o f
5 00, 000, 000 r o u b l e s
m o n t h l yf o r t h e b u r e a u o f f o r e i g n p r o p a -
g a n d a . Th e f i r s t p a ym e n t o f 5 00, 000, 000
I REL AND AND THECOL ONI ES 2 1 3
r o u b l e s f o r t h e m o n t h o f Fe b r u a r yw a s s e n t
t o t h e S i n n Fe i n e r s
i n
I r e l a n d ."
p
Na t u r a l l ye n o u g h , t h e B o l s h e v i k s i n En g -
l a n d s t r e t c h e d o u t a h e l p i n g h a n d a c r o s s
t h e I r i s h Ch a n n e l t o a i d a m o v e m e n t t h a t
i s a d m i r a b l yo r g a n i s e d , w e l l f u r n i s h e d w i t h
t h e s i n e w s o f w a r , a n d i n a l l r e s p e c t s c o n -
g e n i a l t o t h e m . M r .S m i l l i e , w h o w a s s o
h o n o u r a b l ym e n t i o n e d i n L e n i n 's d e s p a t c h e s ,
s o u g h t t o t e m p t S i n n Fe i n t o t h e " a c c u r s e d
r e a c t i o n a r yc h a m b e r " b yt h e b r i g h t p r o s p e c t
o f f i n d i n g t h e r e a n a r r a yo f L a b o u r m e m b e r s
l e d g e d , l i k e t h e m , t o t h e w o r l d c o n s p i r a c y,
a n d s u g g e s t e d : " Y o u r f i g h t i s o u r f i g h t ;
c o m e o v e r a n d h e l p u s ." Th e c r yw a s
p r o m p t l yt a k e n u p b yt h e B o l s h e v i s t Pr e s s
i n t h i s c o u n t r y, a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s
s h o w h o w c l o s e i s t h e a l l i a n c e s w o r n b e t w e e n
B r i t i s h B o l s h e v i k s a n d I r i s h S i n n Fe i n e r s
" I n t h e f i g h t o f t h e w o r l d p r o l e t a r i a t f o r
t h e o v e r t h r o w o f Ca p i t a l i s m , e v e r yc o n s c i o u s
s e c t i o n r e a l i s e s t h a t t h e B r i t i s h Go v e r n m e n t
t yp i f i e s r e a c t i o n i n i t s w o r s t f o r m . I t i s
B r i t a i n w h i c h f i g h t s t h e w a r a g a i n s t Ru s s i a ,
B r i t a i n i s b e h i n d Ho r t h yi n Hu n g a r y, B r i t a i n
i s b e h i n d t h e Ge r m a n J u n k e r s . Ge n e r a l l y
s p e a k i n g , t h e o v e r t h r o w i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h
Go v e r n m e n t w i l l b e a t r e m e n d o u s i m p e t u s
t o w o r l d r e v o l t , a n d a n yp e o p l e o r c l a s s
w h i c h i s h e l p i n g t o f i g h t B r i t i s h r e a c t i o n i s
d e s e r v i n g o f s u p p o r t .I r e l a n d , t h e n e a r e s t
c o u n t r yt o B r i t a i n , i s i n r e v o l t , a n d i n
s p i t e o f e v e r yc r u e l t ya n d r e p r e s s i o n , i s m o r e
F
2 1 4 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
t h a n h o l d i n g h e r o w n ." ( Th e S o c i a l i s t , o r g a n
o f t h e S o c i a l i s t L a b o u r Pa r t y, a n d a f f i l i a t e d
t o t h e M o s c o w I n t e r n a t i o n a l ,
J u l y8t h ,
1 9 2 0 .)
Th e B r i t i s h S o c i a l i s t Pa r t y( L o n d o n ) p u b -
l i s h e d i n t h e Ca l l o f Ap r i l 2 2 n d , 1 9 2 0, t h e
f o l l o w i n g m a n i f e s t o
Y o u w i s h t o s e t u p a n I r i s h Re p u b l i c
.
S o b e i t . Th e w o r k e r s o f B r i t a i n h a v e n o
r e a l q u a r r e l w i t h yo u r .d e m a n d . On l yt h e
B r i t i s h r u l i n g c a s t e , d r u n k w i t h i m p e r i a l i s m ,
a n d s o d d e n w i t h p r o s p e r i t y, d e n i e s yo u r
c l a i m - a s i t d e n i e s t h e s i m i l a r c l a i m s o f
t h e p e o p l e s o f Eg yp t a n d I n d i a .Th e B .S .P.
c o n d e m n s t h e b r u t a l m e t h o d s e m p l o ye d b y
t h e B r i t i s h Go v e r n m e n t i n I r e l a n d . . . a n d
p l e d g e s t h e B .S .P.t o a s s i s t b ya l l m e a n s
i n i t s p o w e r t h e e n d e a v o u r s o f t h e I r i s h
p e o p l e t o n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n
."
Th e W o r k e r , t h e o r g a n o f t h e S c o t t i s h
W o r k e r s 'Co m m i t t e e s , a l s o a f f i l i a t e d t o t h e
M o s c o w I n t e r n a t i o n a l , p r i n t e d o n J u l y1 7 t h ,
1 9 2 0, a n a p p e a l f r o m a S i n n Fe i n e r t o I r i s h
p e o p l e i n B r i t a i n
" I n t h e f u t u r e yo u m u s t v i e w t h e i n d u s t r i a l
c e n t r e s i n B r i t a i n a s i t w e r e f r o m a m i l i t a r y
p o i n t o f v i e w a n d t h e o u t p o s t s o f o u r
f i g h t i n g f r o n t . Re a l i s e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f
yo u r p o s i t i o n a n d yo u r p o w e r t o i t s f u l l
s i g n i f i c a n c e a s a c o g i n t h e m a c h i n e r yt h a t
p r o d u c e s a n d d i s t r i b u t e s t h e m e a n s o f e x i s t -
e n c e f o r B r i t a i n .Y o u c a n h e l p i n c h a n g i n g
t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e m a c h i n e r y, o r , i f n e e d s b e ,
I REL AND
I
AND THECOL ONI ES 2 1 5
d e s t r o y
i t - - T4 i g g i n Th u . Th e r e f o r e , yo u r
p l a c e i s i n t h e W o r k e r s 'Co m m i t t e e s ."
Th e Ca l l , J u n e 1 0t h , 1 9 2 0, i n a l e a d i n g
a r t i c l e o n M r .J .H.Th o m a s a n d t h e I r i s h
r a i l w a ym e n , s a ys
" Co n s i d e r t h e I r i s h s i t u a t i o n ! Th e v i l e s t
a n d m o s t d e s p i c a b l e t yr a n n yo f m o d e r n
t i m e s - h a s d r i v e n t h e I r i s h p e o p l e i n t o o p e n
r e b e l l i o n . Th e yh o l d I r e l a n d a g a i n s t t h e i r
En g l i s h m a s t e r s . Th e ya r e ' d e s p e r a t e l y
r e c k l e s s , u n s c r u p u l o u s , i f yo u w i l l , i n t h e i r
f i g h t f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h h a s b e e n
t h e i r d r e a m f o r c e n t u r i e s
.
B u t t h e ya r e
r i g h t . . . .Al l t h a t Au s t r i a , Ru s s i a , S p a i n ,
t h e t yr a n n i e s o f t h e p a s t s t o o d f o r , En g l a n d
s t a n d s f o r n o w .B yt h e s w o r d , a n d b yt h e
s w o r d a l o n e , s h e h o l d s I r e l a n d . Th e I r i s h
r a i l w a ym e n a r e b o u n d t o r e f u s e t o c a x r y
t r o o p s , e t c ., Th e yw o u l d b e c r a v e n c u r s i f
t h e yd i d l e s s , a n d i t i s t h e d u t yo f e v e r y
d e c e n t En g l i s h m a n t o s u p p o r t t h e m t o t h e
u t m o s t l i m i t o f h i s p o w e r ."
Eq u a l l ye x p l i c i t i s a l e a d i n g a r t i c l e i n
t h e W o r k e r o f Ap r i l 2 4 t h , 1 9 2 0
"
Co m e , f e l l o w w o r k e r s , s t i r yo u r s e l v e s .
W e h a v e t o g o t h r o u g h i t ye t , f o r u n t i l w e
d o I r e l a n d c a n n o t b e f r e e , n o r c a n w e
o u r s e l v e s b e f r e e .No t u n t i l w e h a v e a t t e m p -
t e d t o c l e a n s e t h e e a r t h o f t h i s f o u l g a r b a g e
o f Ca p i t a l i s t M i l i t a r i s m c a n w e b e c a l l e d
m e n .
S o l o n g a s w e m a k e n o m o v e t o
p r e v e n t t h e s e a t r o c i t i e s , w e o u r s e l v e s a r e
p a r t i c i p a n t s 'i n
t h e m .
D o w n t o o l s a n d l e t
2 1 6 THECAUS E OFW ORL D UNRES T
B r i t a i n r o t u n t i l I r e l a n d 's w r o n g s a r e r e -
m o v e d ."
To m Qu e l c h , o f t h e B .S .P.Ex e c u t i v e ,
w r i t i n g a n o p e n l e t t e r t o a yo u n g c o m r a d e
i n t h e Ca l l o f Ap r i l 2 9 t h , 1 9 2 0, b i d s h i m
" Th i n k o f t h e m e n o f '4 8 ; t h i n k o f t h e
Co m m u n a r d s , t h i n k o f t h e Ch i c a g o m a r t yr s ,
t h i n k o f M a r x , o f B e b e l , o f J a u r e s , o f
W i l l i a m L i e b k n e c h t , o f W i l l i a m M o r r i s , o f
J i m Co n n o l l y, o f D e b s , o f L e n i n , o f K a r l
L i e b k n e c h t , o f Ro s a L u x e m b o u r g , o f B e l a
K u n - t h i n k o f a l l w h o h a v e g i v e n s o m u c h
f o r t h e s o l i d a r i t ya n d h a p p i n e s s o f t h e
h u m a n r a c e - a n d w o r k , a n d s t r i v e , a n d , i f
n e e d s b e , f i g h t i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e W o r l d
S o c i a l i s t Re p u b l i c ."
S p a c e w i l l n o t p e r m i t m o r e t h a n a b r i e f
o u t l i n e o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e B o l s h e v i s t
c o n s p i r a t o r s i n S o u t h Af r i c a , Au s t r a l i a , a n d
Ca n a d a . I n J o h a n n e s b u r g a n d Ca p e t o w n
t w o Ru s s i a n s p r e a c h e d t h e w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n ,
a n d a s t h e ys p o k e i n Ru s s i a n t o t h e i r o w n
c o m p a t r i o t s t h e , m e a n i n g o f t h e i r p r o p a -
g a n d a w a s n o t a t f i r s t r e a l i s e d b y, t h e
a u t h o r i t i e s . Th e r e s u l t o f t h e i r e f f o r t s w a s
d i s p l a ye d i n a s t r i k e a t J o h a n n e s b u r g , w h i c h
t h e l e a d e r s p r o c l a i m e d a s t h e h e r a l d o f
g e n e r a l r e v o l u t i o n
.
M .M i l i u k o v , i n h i s
B o l s h e v i s m , An I n t e r n a t i o n a l D a n g e r , t e l l s
h o w w h e n t h e yw e r e s a i l i n g f r o m M o z a m -
b i q u e a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s ,
w h o h a d d i s c o v e r e d t h e i r m i s s i o n , o n e o f
t h e m , n a m e d L a p i n s k y, t o l d t h e r e v o l u -
I REL AND AND THECOL ONI ES
2 1 7
t i o n a r i e s w h o h a d c o m e t o s e e t h e m o f f
t h a t t h e Ru s s i a n B o l s h e v i k s w e r e t h e a d v a n c e
g u a r d o f t h e w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n ,
a n d t h a t
s o m e d a yh e w o u l d r e t u r n i n t r i u m p h
.
V e r yc h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e w o r l d c o n -
s p i r a c yw e r e t h e m e a n s u s e d f o r s p r e a d i n g
r e v o l u t i o n a r yi d e a s i n
: Au s t r a l i a .
As e c r e t
s o c i e t yo r g a n i s e d i n s m a l l g r o u p s w a s a t
w o r k p r e a c h i n g t h e B o l s h e v i s t d o c t r i n e
.
I t
w i l l
h a v e b e e n n o t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a n i n -
v a r i a b l e t e n d e n c yi n t h i s c o n s p i r a c y
i n
e v e r yp a r t o f t h e w o r l d t o u s e p s e u d o n ym s ,
p a r t l yn o d o u b t f o r s e c u r i t y's s a k e , b u t
a l s o t o e n h a n c e t h e m ys t e r yt h a t i s n o t
w i t h o u t i t s e f f e c t o n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e
p u b l i c a n d t o c o n c e a l t o o o b v i o u s t r a c e s
o f r a c i a l o r i g i n .
Th u s , a s w e h a v e s h o w n ,
m a n yo f t h e s e c r e t l e a d e r s o f t h e Fr e n c h
Re v o l u t i o n c h o s e t h e i r o w n n a m e s ,
, a n d i t
i s t h e e x c e p t i o n t o f i n d a Ru s s i a n B o l s h e v i k
w h o i s n o t k n o w n b ya n a m e t h a t i s i n t e n d e d
n o t t o d e f i n e , b u t t o h i d e h i s f a m i l ya n d
r a c e .I n Au s t r a l i a w e f i n d t h e s a m e s ys t e m
.
Th e m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c r e t s o c i e t yc o n c e a l e d
t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s u n d e r f a l s e n a m e s , a n d c a r -
r i e d o n t h e i r p r o p a g a n d a b yu n s i g n e d t yp e -
w r i t t e n p a m p h l e t s
.Th e i r a c t i v i t i e s r e s u l t e d
i n a v i o l e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n a t B r i s b a n e ,
w h i c h e v e n t u a l l ye n d e d i n t h e d i s c o m f i t u r e
o f t h e B o l s h e v i k s a t t h e h a n d s o f r e t u r n e d
s o l d i e r s , a n d i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s e e t h e i r
h a n d i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l u n r e s t t h a t f o l l o w e d
t h i s a f f a i r .
2 1 8 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
B e t t e r k n o w n t o t h e p u b l i c a r e t h e r e s u l t s
o f " t h e p r o g r a m m e o f v i o l e n c e a n d h yp o -
c r i s y " i n Ca n a d a , w h e r e t h e m o v e m e n t
i s v e r yc l o s e l yc o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p o w e r f u l
r e v o l u t i o n a r yo r g a n i s a t i o n s o f t h e Un i t e d
S t a t e s .To r o n t o c o u l d b o a s t t h r e e B o l s h e v i s t
s o c i e t i e s , o f w h i c h t h e m e m b e r s w e r e 9 0p e r
c e n t .f o r e i g n a n d 7 5 p e r c e n t .Ru s s i a n .
Th e r i o t s a t W i n n i p e g , w h i c h w e r e e n d e d b y
t h e v i g o r o u s a c t i o n o f t h e No r t h - W e s t
M o u n t e d Po l i c e , a f o r c e t h a t k n o w s h o w t o
u s e f o r c e w h e n f o r c e i s n e c e s s a r y, a n d b y
t h e a r m i n g o f l o ya l c i t i z e n s , p r o v e d t h a t
B o l s h e v i s t p r o p a g a n d a h a d m a d e i t s i m p r e s -
s i o n i n t h e W e s t , t h o u g h t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s
w o u l d n e v e r h a v e a t t a i n e d t h e t e m p o r a r y
s u c c e s s t h e ye n j o ye d h a d i t n o t b e e n t h a t
t h e w a r v e t e r a n s w e r e c a r r yi n g o n a d e m o n -
s t r a t i o n o f t h e i r o w n f o r a n e n t i r e l yd i f f e r e n t
p u r p o s e . Am o n g t h e Ca n a d i a n B o l s h e v i s t
l e a d e r s t h e r e a r e m a n yRu s s i a n a n d J e w i s h
n a m e s , a n d t h e g o s p e l p r e a c h e d i s t h e n o w
f a m i l i a r d e m a n d f o r t h e o v e r t h r o w o f t h e
" d a m n a b l e t r i n i t yo f Re l i g i o n , Go v e r n m e n t ,
a n d Ca p i t a l i s m
."
I t w o u l d b e d i f f i c u l t t o
f i n d a b e t t e r s u m m a r yo f t h e d o c t r i n e s s e t
o u t i n t h e Pr o t o c o l s , t o b e p r e a c h e d t o a l l
p e o p l e s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e
" f o r m i d a b l e s e c t "
m a y, w h e n t h e m o m e n t c o m e s , g r a s p f r o m
t h e m i d s t o f w o r l d a n a r c h yu n i v e r s a l
d o m i n i o n
.
CHAPTERXV
THE UPHEAV AL I NGREATB RI TAI N
Pr e p a r i n g t h e Gr o u n d - Ed u c a t i o n o f t h e L a b o u r M o v e -
m e n t - Th e S t u d yo f M a r x i a n i s m - Th e " I n t e r n a t i o n a l e
o f Y o u n g Pr o l e t a r i a n S t u d e n t s , " a n d t h e " Y o u n g
S o c i a l i s t L e a g u e " - - Cr e a t i n g a Re v o l u t i o n a r yS i t u a -
t i o n - M o s c o w 's I n s t r u c t i o n s .
THE m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d c o n s p i r a c y
h a v e n o t a f f e c t e d r e a l l yc l o s e l yt h e d a i l y
l i f e o f t h e a v e r a g e B r i t i s h r e a d e r .Re v o -
l u t i o n s i n Ru s s i a o r Tu r k e y, t h e f a i l u r e o f
t h e Pe a c e Co n f e r e n c e , o r e v e n d i s o r d e r
a n d b l o o d s h e d i n I r e l a n d , h a v e l e s s i m m e -
d i a t e r e s u l t o n e v e r yd a ye x i s t e n c e t h a n
t h e m e n a c e o f a Ge r m a n a i r r a i d .Th e
s u b j e c t n o w t o b e d i s c u s s e d i s o f i n t i m a t e
c o n c e r n t o t h e p o c k e t a n d a m b i t i o n o f
e v e r yc i t i z e n o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s.S i n c e
t h e Ar m i s t i c e t h e c l a s h b e t w e e n Ca p i t a l
a n d L a b o u r , t h e i n c r e a s i n g d e m a n d s f o r
m o r e m o n e ya n d l e s s w o r k o n t h e p a r t o f
t h e l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s , h a v e h a d a d e f i n i t e
a n d c o n c r e t e e f f e c t o n e v e r yEn g l i s h m a n 's
p l e a s u r e a n d b u s i n e s s .Th e m a i n p i l l a r
o f B r i t i s h s u p r e m a c yh a s b e e n o u r i n d u s -
t r i a l p r e d o m i n a n c e , a n d i t i s t h e o b j e c t o f
t h i s c h a p t e r t o a s c e r t a i n h o w f a r t h e a t t a c k s
n o w b e i n g d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h a t p r e d o m i n -
a n c e a r e d u e t o e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e a n d t o
" t h e p r o g r a m m e o f v i o l e n c e a n d h yp o c r i s y
"
2 1 9
2 2 0 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
p r e a c h e d u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e " f o r m i d -
a b l e s e c t
."
Th e B r i t i s h w o r k i n g m a n i s n a t u r a l l y
" i n s u l a r " i n h i s o u t l o o k , a n d i t i s o n l y
t h r o u g h f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e t h a t t h e " f o r -
m i d a b l e s e c t " c o u l d b r i n g h i m i n t o l i n e
w i t h t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s o f t h e Co n t i -
n e n t .S u c h i n f l u e n c e i s m a i n l yc o n c e a l e d ,
t h o u g h s o m e t i m e s t h e a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n
B r i t i s h L a b o u r l e a d e r s a n d Ru s s i a n B o l -
s h e v i k s i s f l a u n t e d b e f o r e t h e w o r l d . No
m o r e c o m i c a l e x a m p l e o f t h i s a l l i a n c e c o u l d
b e d i s c o v e r e d t h a n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f
t h e S o v i e t M i l i t a r yM e d a l t o M r .Ro b e r t
W i l l i a m s , S e c r e t a r yo f t h e Tr a n s p o r t W o r k -
e r s 'Fe d e r a t i o n . I t w a s t o b e e x p e c t e d
t h a t t h e M o s c o w a u t h o r i t i e s s h o u l d b e v e r y
a n x i o u s t o c o n f e r t h e s a m e m e d a l o n M r .
S m i l l i e , w h o h a s f o u g h t s o n o b l yi n t h e c a u s e
o f B o l s h e v i s m .
Th r o u g h o u t Gr e a t B r i t a i n a n a t t e m p t
i s b e i n g m a d e t o c r e a t e w h a t L e n i n w o u l d
d e s c r i b e a s " a r e v o l u t i o n a r ys i t u a t i o n ."
I t h a s b e e n s h o w n h o w c o n t i n u o u s b e n e a t h
t h e s u r f a c e a r e t h e s e c r e t i n f l u e n c e s t h a t
c o n t r o l a l l r e v o l u t i o n s
. Th i s f a c t i s o f t e n
i g n o r e d b yt h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I t r e g a r d s
e a c h o u t b r e a k o f r e v o l u t i o n a s a p e c u l i a r
p h e n o m e n o n d u e t o c o n d i t i o n s o f c o n t e m -
p o r a r ys o c i e t y, a n d q u i t e u n c o n n e c t e d w i t h
s i m i l a r o u t b r e a k s i n t h e p a s t . Th e d e m a n d s
a n d m e t h o d s o f o u r p r e s e n t d a yr e v o l u t i o n -
a r i e s a r e r e g a r d e d a s q u i t e m o d e r n , a n d a s
UPHEAV AL I NGREAT'B RI TAI N2 2 1
a n e v i d e n c e o f a d v a n c e d t h o u g h t , i f n o t
e x a c t l ya n i n d i c a t i o n o f m o r a l a n d s o c i a l
p r o g r e s s .
Th e B o l s h e v i k s i n Ru s s i a a n d
t h e L e f t W i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h L a b o u r m o v e -
m e n t a r e n o t t h e a d v o c a t e s o f n e w a n d u p -
t o - d a t e d o c t r i n e s , t h e r e s u l t o f t h e b e t t e r
e d u c a t i o n , a n d , i n t h e w o r d s o f M r
.Fr a n k
Ho d g e s ,
" t h e a w a k e n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s "
o f
t h e w o r k e r s , b u t t h e ya r e p u t t i n g b e f o r e
t h e p r o l e t a r i a t
a r e h a s h o f s h i b b o l e t h s
t h a t h a v e b e e n t h e s t o c k - i n - t r a d e o f t h e
I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s a n d w o r l d - r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s
f o r w e l l o v e r a c e n t u r y .
To u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r ym o v e -
m e n t i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y
t o e x p l a i n t h a t t h e S o c i a l i s t s o c i e t i e s i n
t h i s c o u n t r ya r e , w i t h o n e o r t w o e x c e p t i o n s ,
I n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s
; a n d t h a t t h e i r
a i m s a n d m e t h o d s a n d p h r a s e o l o g ya r e
d e r i v e d f r o m f o r e i g n s o u r c e s - m a i n l yf r o m
t h e J e w s o f Ce n t r a l a n d Ea s t e r n Eu r o p e .
W e s h a l l n e v e r r e a l l yu n d e r s t a n d s o - c a l l e d
B r i t i s h S o c i a l i s m i f w e f a i l t o g r a s p t h i s
i m p o r t a n t f a c t . I t i s t h e k e yt o m u c h t h a t
i s o t h e r w i s e i n e x p l i c a b l e . I t i s , o f c o u r s e ,
e x c e e d i n g l yd i f f i c u l t f o r t h o s e w h o a r e n o t
f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f I n t e r -
n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m t o p e r c e i v e t h i s a l i e n
i n f l u e n c e i n m o v e m e n t s t h a t a r e a p p a r e n t l y
o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n . Th i s d i f f i c u l t yi s i n c r e a s e d
b yt h e f a c t t h a t i n t h i s c o u n t r yt h e k n o w n
l e a d e r s o f r e v o l u t i o n a r yo r g a n i s a t i o n s a r e
g e n e r a l l yo f B r i t i s h b i r t h . Th e I n t e r n a -
2 2 2
THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
t i o n a l J e w d o e s n o t u s u a l l ya p p e a r a s
t h e l e a d e r , a s h e s o f r e q u e n t l yd o e s o n t h e
Co n t i n e n t , a n d e v e n i n t h e L a b o u r m o v e -
m e n t o f Am e r i c a . Th e B r i t i s h w o r k m a n
w i l l n o t , a s a r u l e , k n o w i n g l yb e l e d b y
m e n o f a n a l i e n r a c e . Th e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e ,
e x c e p t i o n s , a s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e Cl yd e
s t r i k e i n J a n u a r y, 1 9 1 9 , w h e n , t h e c h a i r -
m a n o f t h e S t r i k e Co m m i t t e e w a s a Po l i s h
J e w t a i l o r , a n d c l o s e s t u d ys h o w s t h a t t h e
L e f t W i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h L a b o u r a n d S o c i a l i s t
m o v e m e n t i s c o m p l e t e l yd o m i n a t e d b ya n t i -
B r i t i s h s e n t i m e n t s
; a n d t h e o r i g i n o f t h e s e
s e n t i m e n t s i s t o b e f o u n d i n t h e f o r e i g n
i n f l u e n c e s o p e r a t i n g o n t h e Co n t i n e n t a n d
i n Am e r i c a .
An e s s e n t i a l p o i n t i n t h e s t u d yo f t h e
p l a n s f o r a r e v o l u t i o n i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n
a n d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e Em p i r e i s t h e
c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t h e o r i e s a n d d o c -
t r i n e s o f t h e Ge r m a n J e w , K a r l M a r x ,
a n d t h e m e t h o d s o f o u r r e v o l u t i o n a r y
S o c i a l i s t s a n d S yn d i c a l i s t s . Th e B r i t i s h
l e a d e r s o f S o c i a l i s m i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f
t h e n i n e t e e n t h a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e
p r e s e n t c e n t u r yw e r e i n f l u e n c e d v e r yl i t t l e
i n d e e d b yt h e w r i t i n g s o f M a r x . M r .Ro b e r t
B l a t c h f o r d , f o r i n s t a n c e , h a s o f t e n a d m i t t e d
t h a t h e h a s n e v e r e v e n r e a d M a r x 's
Ca p i t a l .
M r .H.M
.Hyn d m a n w a s t h e b e s t e x p o n e n t
o f M a r x i s m , b u t h e i s g e n e r a l l yr e g a r d e d
b yt h e m o d e r n M a r x i a n s a s " u n s o u n d , "
b e c a u s e h e i s a " S o c i a l p a t r i o t ." Un t i l
UPHEAV AL I NGREATB RI TAI N2 2 3
r e c e n t l y, t h e n , S o c i a l i s m
i n En g l a n d w a s
m o r e En g l i s h i n i t s a i m s a n d m e t h o d s t h a n
I n t e r n a t i o n a l o r M a r x i a n S o c i a l i s m . B u t
j u s t b e f o r e t h e o u t b r e a k o f w a r t h e r e w a s
a n o t i c e a b l e d r i f t o f t h e yo u n g m e n i n t h e
L a b o u r m o v e m e n t t o w a r d s M a r x i a n S o c i a l -
i s m , w i t h t h e c o n s e q u e n t t e n d e n c yt o w a r d s
I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m a n d r e v o l u t i o n . S i n c e t h e
Ar m i s t i c e t h i s L e f t W i n g m o v e m e n t h a s
g r o w n c o n s i d e r a b l y, a n d M a r x i a n e c o n o m i c
c l a s s e s h a v e b e e n c o n s t a n t l yi n c r e a s i n g i n
n u m b e r s .
Hu n d r e d s o f w o r k e r s n o w a t t e n d
t h e s e c l a s s e s , w h e r e t h e ya r e t a u g h t t h e
e t h i c s o f t h e " c l a s s w a r
" a n d t h e n e e d
f o r r e v o l u t i o n .
I t w a s t h e d e m a n d o f t h e M a r x i s t s f o r
t h i s t yp e o f "
e d u c a t i o n " f o r t h e w a g e -
e a r n e r s t h a t c a u s e d t h e s p l i t i n Ru s k i n -
Co l l e g e a n d l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e
L a b o u r Co l l e g e , n o w f i n a n c e d
b yt h e
Na t i o n a l Un i o n o f Ra i l w a ym e n a n d S o u t h
W a l e s M i n e r s 'Fe d e r a t i o n , a n d b yt h e r e -
c e n t l yf o r m e d Po s t a l W o r k e r s 'Un i o n . Th i s
s o - c a l l e d e d u c a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t i s o n e o f
t h e m o s t a c t i v e B o l s h e v i s t o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n
t h i s c o u n t r y . Th e s t a f f s o f t h e c o l l e g e s ,
e s p e c i a l l yi n t h e No r t h , a r e a l m o s t e n t i r e l y
c o m p o s e d o f a v o w e d B o l s h e v i k s a n d o f f i c i a l
m e m b e r s o f s o c i e t i e s a f f i l i a t e d t o t h e Th i r d
I n t e r n a t i o n a l a t M o s c o w
.
Th e L a b o u r Co l l e g e s a n d t h e l o c a l e c o -
n o m i c c l a s s e s r u n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s e
Co l l e g e s a r e m a i n l yc o n c e r n e d w i t h
t h e
2 2 4
THE CAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
p r o m u l g a t i o n o f M a r x i s m a n d t h e p e c u l i a r
I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , o r a n t i - p a t r i o t i s m , t h a t
i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r ym o v e -
m e n t i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n
.J u s t p r i o r t o t h e
o u t b r e a k o f w a r n e g o t i a t i o n s w e r e t a k i n g
p l a c e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n
"
I n t e r -
n a t i o n a l o f Y o u n g Pr o l e t a r i a n S t u d e n t s
."
Th e p e o p l e m o s t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e f o r m a -
t i o n o f t h i s I n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n w e r e
t h e Ge r m a n s .Th e Ge r m a n S o c i a l D e m o -
c r a t s w e r e t o b e m a i n l yr e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e
f i n a n c i n g o f t h e w h o l e s c h e m e
.He r e i n
En g l a n d t h e p e r s o n s c h i e f l yc o n c e r n e d w i t h
t h e p l a n w e r e t h e M a r x i s t s , i n c l u d i n g Ge r -
m a n a n d Ru s s i a n J e w s
.Th e s c h e m e s h o u l d
h a v e b e e n l a u n c h e d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l
Co n g r e s s w h i c h w a s f i x e d f o r Au g u s t , 1 9 1 4
.
Th e w a r p r e v e n t e d t h e Co n g r e s s b e i n g h e l d
.
I t i s n o t w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t t h e p e r s o n s
i n t h i s c o u n t r yw h o w e r e c o n d u c t i n g t h e
n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e Ge r m a n s b e c a m e , o n
t h e o u t b r e a k o f w a r , a c t i v e l ya s s o c i a t e d
w i t h v a r i o u s p r o - Ge r m a n a n d D e f e a t i s t s o c i e -
t i e s , a n d s o m e o f t h e m g o t i n t o t r o u b l e
w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t i e s i n c o n s e q u e n c e
.
Th i s
Ge r m a n - i n s p i r e d s c h e m e f o r t h e
I n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t
o f e v e r yc o u n t r yc o n t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g
p r o p o s a l s
"
( 1 ) An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Fe d e r a t i o n o f s u c h
S o c i a l i s t a n d L a b o u r Co l l e g e s a s a r e p r o -
v i d e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d b yw o r k i n g - c l a s s o r g a n i -
s a t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y
a n d n o t i n c o - p a r t n e r -
UPHEAV AL I NGREATB RI TAI N2 2 5
s h i p
w i t h t h o s e b u l w a r k s o f Ca p i t a l i s m -
t h e Ch u r c h a n d t h e Un i v e r s i t i e s .
( 2 ) An I n t e r n a t i o n a l W o r k i n g - c l a s s S t u -
d e n t s 'Un i o n , i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e t h e r a n k
a n d f i l e c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s u n i o n , t h e u n i t
t o b e n o t t h e L a b o u r 'L e a d e r ' o r t h e
Gr e a t Co m m i t t e e o f s u c h 'L e a d e r s 'b u t
t h e c l a s s ( c o n t r o l l e d b yt h e w o r k e r s ) f o r
t h e s t u d yo f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l
S o c i a l i s m .
"
( 3 ) As ys t e m o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Tr a v e l l i n g
S c h o l a r s h i p s t o f a c i l i t a t e a n i n t e r c h a n g e
b e t w e e n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s o f l e c t u r e s o n
I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m , a n d a l s o t o m a k e i t .
p o s s i b l e f o r w o r k i n g - c l a s s s t u d e n t s ( m e n
a n d w o m e n ) t o v i s i t a n d s t u d yt h e c o n -
d i t i o n s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t h a n t h e i r o w n ,
a n d t o r e p o r t t o t h e i r o r g a n i s a t i o n s .
" ( 4 ) An I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t L i b r a r y, i n
o r d e r t o b r i n g w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f w o r k i n g -
c l a s s s t u d e n t s t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e b e s t w o r k s
o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m p u b l i s h e d i n
v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s , a n d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
t h i s l i b r a r ya n I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f
Ed u c a t i o n s h o w i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n
e d u c a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s ."
Th e w a r p r e v e n t e d t h e r e a l i s a t i o n
o f
t h i s p l a n , a n d n o w t h a t Ge r m a n yi s s c a r c e l y
i n a p o s i t i o n t o f i n a n c e t h e s c h e m e , e f f o r t s
a r e b e i n g m a d e t o
-
l i n k i t w i t h t h e Th i r d
I n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d t o m a k e t h e S o v i e t Go v -
e r n m e n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s d i r e c t i o n a n d
c o n t r o l .
Th e L a b o u r d e l e g a t e s t o Ru s s i a
P
2 2 6 THECAUS E OFW ORL D UNRES T
b r o u g h t b a c k a l e t t e r f r o m Ch i c h e r i n o n
t h i s m a t t e r , i n w h i c h h e p r o m i s e s t o c o n -
s i d e r h o w t h i s s c h e m e c a n b e p u t i n t o o p e r -
a t i o n .Th e r e c i p i e n t o f t h i s l e t t e r , M r s .
B r i d g e s Ad a m s , w r i t i n g t o a B o l s h e v i s t
p a p e r , t h e S o c i a l i s t , o f f i c i a l o r g a n o f t h e
S o c i a l i s t L a b o u r Pa r t y, s t a t e s t h a t s o m e
m o n t h s a g o , i f p e a c e h a d b e e n m a d e w i t h
Ru s s i a , i t w a s p r o p o s e d t o s e n d f r o m B r i t a i n
t h i s s u m m e r a p a r t yo f s t u d e n t s o f t h e m a n y
c l a s s e s n o w b e i n g h e l d f o r t h e s t u d yo f
M a r x i a n e c o n o m i c s a n d i n d u s t r i a l h i s t o r y=
a b o u t 2 00, i n c l u d i n g a c o n t i n g e n t f r o m t h e
J a m e s Co n n o l l yL a b o u r Co l l e g e i n D u b l i n , t o
Ru s s i a , t h e o t h e r s t o I t a l y, Ge r m a n y, a n d
S w i t z e r l a n d
.
M r s
.Ad a m s a d d s t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e ,
i n o r d e r t o m e e t t h e c o s t o f t h i s M i s s i o n ,
M r s .Et h e l Ca r n i e Ho l d s w o r t h , t h e e x - m i l l -
g i r l a u t h o r e s s , i s a p p e a l i n g f o r 2 , 000 .
" Ho w e v e r , i f t h e m o n e yi s n o t f o r t h -
c o m i n g i n B r i t a i n , a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a p p e a l
w i l l b e i s s u e d .Fr o m Ru s s i a , w h e n o n c e
t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f w h i c h Ch i c h e r i n h a s w r i t t e n
m e a r e r e m o v e d , t h e r e s p o n s e w i l l b e g e n e r -
o u s , e v e n t o t h e e x t e n t , i f n e c e s s a r y, o f
s e n d i n g a s h i p f o r t h e s t u d e n t s a n d d e f r a y-
i n g t h e c o s t o f t h e M i s s i o n
.Co m r a d e s w i l l
s e e t h e g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h i s m o v e -
m e n t ."
M r s .Ad a m s e x p r e s s e s t h e h o p e t h a t t h i s
I n t e r n a t i o n a l o f Y o u n g Pr o l e t a r i a n S t u d e n t s
w i l l w o r k " w i t h i n a n d a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f
UPHEAV AL I NGREATB RI TAI N2 2 7
t h e M o s c o w o r Th i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l
."
S h e
d e s i r e s s u p p o r t
f o r Ch i c h e r i n 's p o l i c y
" t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r o u r S o c i a l i s t L a b o u r
s t u d e n t s a n d Ru s s i a n s t u d e n t s ; t o s u p p o r t
h i m b ya n e a r n e s t p r o p a g a n d a o n t h e m o v e -
m e n t h e r e o u t l i n e d i n t h e f a c t o r i e s a n d i n t h e
m i n e s , a n d i n t h e b r a n c h e s o f w o r k i n g - c l a s s
o r g a n i s a t i o n s . No m i s s i o n f r o m B r i t a i n
w o u l d b e m o r e w e l c o m e i n Ru s s i a t h a n a
p r o l e t a r i a n s t u d e n t s 'm i s s i o n .Th e Ru s s i a n
S o c i a l i s t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e a n i n g o f I n t e r -
n a t i o n a l L a b o u r s o l i d a r i t y, a n d w i l l n o t v i s i t
u p o n yo u n g B r i t i s h w o r k e r s t h e h e l l i s h
c r i m e s o f B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l i s m a g a i n s t S o v i e t
Ru s s i a
. .
. . L o n g l i v e t h e yo u t h o f t h e Re d
I n t e r n a t i o n a l ."
Fr o m t h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t i t s e e m s t h a t
t h e S o v i e t Go v e r n m e n t , w i t h i t s o v e r w h e l m -
i n g J e w i s h i n f l u e n c e , i s n o w l i k e l yt o t a k e
t h e p l a c e o r i g i n a l l ya s s i g n e d t o t h e Ge r m a n
S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s f o r t h e c o n t r o l a n d d i -
r e c t i o n o f t h e " e d u c a t i o n " o f t h e L a b o u r
m o v e m e n t i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n a n d o t h e r c o u n -
t r i e s
.I n e i t h e r c a s e , h o w e v e r , t h e I n t e r -
n a t i o n a l J e w s w o u l d b e t h e c o n t r o l l i n g p o w e r ,
a n d w e k n o w t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p r o v i d e d
f o r t h e w a g e - e a r n e r s a t t h e e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s
a n d a t t h e L a b o u r Co l l e g e s i s b a s e d o n t h e
w r i t i n g s a n d t h e o r i e s o f J e w i s h a u t h o r i t i e s
i n t h e w o r l d o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m .
Th e "
Y o u n g S o c i a l i s t s 'I n t e r n a t i o n a l "
i s a m o v e m e n t t o c a p t u r e f o r B o l s h e v i s m
t h e b o ys a n d g i r l s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s
.
2 2 8
THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
At a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Co n f e r e n c e h e l d a t
B e r l i n l a s t D e c e m b e r i t w a s d e c i d e d t o c a l l
i t t h e " Y o u n g Co m m u n i s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l , "
a n d t o a f f i l i a t e t o t h e M o s c o w I n t e r n a t i o n a l .
Th e B r i t i s h S e c t i o n i s t h e " Y o u n g S o c i a l i s t
L e a g u e , " a n d i t s o f f i c i a l o r g a n , f i r s t i s s u e d
i n M a yl a s t , i s t h e
Re d Fl a g
. Th e e d i t o r i s
Na t h a n B .W h yc e r . Th e l e a d e r s i n L o n d o n
a r e p e r s o n s w i t h s u c h B r i t i s h n a m e s a s
S a p h i r e , Z e i t a l a n d Tr o u b m a n .I n t h e f i r s t
i s s u e o f t h e Re d Fl a g t h e r e i s a n a r t i c l e o n
t h e B e r l i n Co n f e r e n c e o f yo u n g S o c i a l i s t s ,
w r i t t e n b yA.Fi n e b e r g . Th i s a r t i c l e i s
f o l l o w e d b ya l e t t e r f r o m t h e " Ex e c u t i v e
Co m m i t t e e o f t h e Y o u n g Co m m u n i s t I n t e r -
n a t i o n a l , " d a t e d B e r l i n , Fe b r u a r y, 1 9 2 0 .
Th e l e t t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g
s t a t e m e n t
" J u s t a s t h e Ru s s i a n yo u t h i n Ru s s i a
a r e d e f e n d i n g t h e S o c i a l i s t Re p u b l i c i n t h e ,
f r o n t r a n k o f t h e Re d a r m y, j u s t a s i n Ge r -
m a n yt h e S o c i a l i s t yo u t h a r e t h e s t a n d a r d
b e a r e r s o f r e v o l u t i o n a r yS o c i a l i s m , s o t h e
p r o l e t a r i a n yo u t h i n t h e c o u n t r i e s o f t h e
En t e n t e w i l l e n t e r t h e s t r u g g l e f o r t h e o v e r -
t h r o w o f t h e b o u r g e o i s Go v e r n m e n t s a n d t h e
d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Ca p i t a l i s t S t a t e s , a n d f o r
t h e v i c t o r yo f c o m m u n i s m t h r o u g h t h e d i c -
t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t ."
B e f o r e a r e v o l u t i o n c a n t a k e p l a c e i n a n y
c o u n t r ym u c h p r e p a r a t o r yw o r k m u s t b e
d o n e .Ar e v o l u t i o n a r ys i t u a t i o n m u s t f i r s t
b e c r e a t e d , a n d i f t h e n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s
UPHEAV AL I NGREATB RI TAI N2 2 9
o f s o c i e t yd o n o t t e n d i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n ,
e f f o r t s m u s t b e m a d e t o f o r c e t h e m i n t o t h e
r i g h t c h a n n e l f o r r e v o l u t i o n
.Th i s i s t h e
p u r p o s e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r yS o c i a l i s t s a n d
S yn d i c a l i s t s i n t h i s c o u n t r y .Ou r r e v o l u -
t i o n a r i e s , w o r k i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h f o r -
e i g n r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , w h o a r e m a i n l yI n t e r -
n a t i o n a l J e w s , h a v e t o f i n d w a ys a n d m e a n s
o f c r e a t i n g i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n a n i n d u s t r i a l
c r i s i s o f s u c h a m a g n i t u d e t h a t a r e v o l u t i o n
w i l l b e p r a c t i c a l l yi n e v i t a b l e .Th i s i s t h e
i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y
m o v e m e n t h e r e .Ho w w i l l t h i s c r i s i s b e
b r o u g h t a b o u t ?
Av e r ys i g n i f i c a n t q u o t a t i o n h a s a l r e a d y
b e e n g i v e n
" W a n t a n d o p i n i o n a r e t h e t w o a g e n t s
w h i c h m a k e a l l m e n a c t
.Ca u s e t h e w a n t ,
g o v e r n o p i n i o n s , a n d yo u w i l l o v e r t u r n a l l
t h e e x i s t i n g s ys t e m s , h o w e v e r w e l l c o n -
s o l i d a t e d t h e ym a ya p p e a r ."
Th i s i s s o u n d r e v o l u t i o n a r yd o c t r i n e .
No w , t h e w h o l e c a s e f o r M a r x i s m r e s t s o n
t h e e n t i r e b r e a k - u p o f t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l
o r d e r .M a r x h i m s e l f b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s w o u l d
b e b r o u g h t a b o u t b yh u n g e r a n d w a n t
d r i v i n g t h e m a s s e s i n t o a v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n .
Th e t h e o r yw a s t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f
t h e c a p i t a l i s t s ys t e m w o u l d b e i n t h e d i r e c -
t i o n o f a n e v e r - w i d e n i n g g u l f b e t w e e n t h e
r i c h a n d t h e p o o r .He w r o t e t h a t " t h e
r i c h a r e g e t t i n g r i c h e r , t h e p o o r p o o r e r , t h e
m i d d l e c l a s s i s b e i n g c r u s h e d o u t , " a n d h e
2 3 0 THECAUS E
OFW ORL D UNRES T
p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e w o r k e r s
w o u l d b e c o m e w o r s e u n t i l t h e yw e r e d r i v e n
b ys h e e r d e s p e r a t i o n t o r e v o l u t i o n . " Th e n
t h e k n e l l o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t i c s ys t e m w i l l h a v e
s o u n d e d . Th e p r o d u c e r s w i l l a s s e r t t h e m -
s e l v e s u n d e r t h e p r e s s u r e o f a n i r r e s i s t i b l e
i m p u l s e ; t h e yw i l l r e p o s s e s s t h e m s e l v e s o f
t h e i m p l e m e n t s o f p r o d u c t i o n o f w h i c h t h e y
h a v e b e e n s o l o n g d e p r i v e d ."
Th e s e p r e d i c t i o n s o f M a r x h a v e b e e n
f a l s i f i e d b ye v e n t s
.
Th e e x t r e m e p o v e r t y
a n d s u f f e r i n g s o f t h e w o r k e r s , o n w h i c h
h i s a n t i c i p a t i o n s w e r e b a s e d , h a v e n o t b e e n
e x p e r i e n c e d , 'l e a s t o f a l l i n t h i s c o u n t r y .
Th e B r i t i s h w o r k e r h a s , o n t h e w h o l e ,
g r e a t l yi m p r o v e d h i s e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n s i n c e
M a r x m a d e h i s p r e d i c t i o n s . An d t h i s c o m -
p a r a t i v e p r o s p e r i t yo f t h e B r i t i s h w o r k e r
i s t h e g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e , n o t o n l yt o a r e v o -
l u t i o n i n t h i s c o u n t r y, b u t t o t h e w o r l d
r e v o l u t i o n p l a n n e d b yt h e f o r e i g n r e v o l u -
t i o n a r i e s . I t i s a d m i t t e d b yTr o t s k ya n d
b yD r .He r m a n n Go r t e r , a u t h o r o f
Th e
W o r l d Re v o l u t i o n , t h a t t h e i r p l a n s f o r a
w o r l d - w i d e r e v o l u t i o n c a n n o t b e s u c c e s s f u l
s o l o n g a s t h e r e i s a u n i t e d B r i t i s h Em p i r e .
Th i s w a s a l s o t h e o p i n i o n o f K a r l M a r x .
Th e p r o b l e m o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n -
i s e r s o f r e v o l u t i o n c o n s i s t s o f ( 1 ) h o w t o
d e s t r o yB r i t a i n 's i n d u s t r i a l p r o s p e r i t y, a n d
( 2 ) h o w t o b r e a k u p t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e .
Th e f i r s t o f t h e s e o b j e c t s i s t o b e r e a l i s e d b y
s t r i k e s , t h e r e d u c t i o n o f o u t p u t , a n d b y
UPHEAV AL I NGREATB RI TAI N2 3 1
c o n s t a n t d e m a n d s f o r h i g h e r w a g e s u n t i l
t h e p r o f i t s o f e a c h i n d u s t r ya r e a b s o r b e d b y
L a b o u r .Th e s e c o n d o b j e c t i s
t o b e a t t a i n e d
b ys u p p o r t i n g a n d o r g a n i s i n g r e b e l l i o n s a n d
i n s u r r e c t i o n s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e Em p i r e .
Th e c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t o f t h i s p o l i c y, i f s u c -
c e s s f u l , w o u l d c e r t a i n l yb e e x t r e m e p o v e r t y
a n d s u f f e r i n g f o r t h e m a s s e s , a n d a " r e v o -
l u t i o n a r ys i t u a t i o n "
w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y
e x i s t . I f a t t h e s a m e t i m e o p i n i o n w e r e
p r o p e r l yc o n t r o l l e d i t w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e t o
o v e r t h r o w t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r , a n d t o
s e t u p a D i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e k i n d a d v o c a t e d
b yt h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s . I n t h e I n -
t e r n a t i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e B o l s h e v i k s ,
w h i c h a r e w i d e l yc i r c u l a t e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y,
w i l l b e f o u n d p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n
o f o u r i n d u s t r i e s , t h e b r e a k - u p o f t h e Em p i r e ,
a n d f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f o p i n i o n b ya M i n o r i t y
a c t i n g a s a D i c t a t o r s h i p
.
I n t h i s e f f o r t
t o b r i n g a b o u t a r e v o l u t i o n a l l s o r t s o f
m e t h o d s a r e p r o p o s e d
. Aw r i t e r i n t h e
W o r k e r , t h e o r g a n o f t h e S c o t t i s h W o r k e r s '
Co m m i t t e e s , s t a t e s
- I t m u s t n o t b e s u p p o s e d t h a t , t h o u g h
w e p i n g r e a t f a i t h i n i m p r o v e d i n d u s t r i a l
o r g a n i s a t i o n , t h a t w e a r e i n d u s t r i a l a b s o -
l u t i s t s , r e l yi n g o n i n d u s t r i a l a c t i o n a l o n e
t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e w o r k e r s 'e m a n c i p a t i o n
.
As K a r l Ra d e k s o f i n e l yp u t s i t : ` V i c t o r y
h a s g o t t o b e e a r n e d b ya d a i l yc o m b a t w i t h
t h e b o u r g e o i s i e o n a l l t h e d o m a i n s o f s o c i a l
l i f e , a c o m b a t i s s u i n g f i n a l l yi n t o d i r e c t
2 3 2 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
r e v o l u t i o n a r ys t r i f e , c l a s s a g a i n s t c l a s s .'
Th e i n d u s t r i a l w e a p o n w i l l h a v e t o b e s u p p l e -
m e n t e d b yo t h e r w e a p o n s e v o l v e d b yt h e
w o r k e r s a s t h e s t r u g g l e i n c r e a s e s i n i n t e n s i t y .
Th e s t r i k e , s u p p l e m e n t e d b yt h e o t h e r
w e a p o n s , w i l l h a v e t o b e u s e d a g a i n s t t h e
S t a t e , a s w e l l a s a g a i n s t t h e e m p l o ye r s ,
u n t i l t h e Ca p i t a l i s t S t a t e h a s b e e n b r o u g h t
t o t h e g r o u n d a n d t h e w o r k e r s , u n d e r t h e
s h i e l d o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a n d i c t a t o r s h i p , a r e
b u i l d i n g u p t h e n e w Co m m u n i s t Re p u b l i c ."
( Th e W o r k e r , J u n e 1 2 t h , 1 9 2 0 .)
W h a t t h e J e w , K a r l Ra d e k , m e a n s i s
i n d i c a t e d i n a n a r t i c l e h e h a s r e c e n t l y
w r i t t e n f o r t h e Ca l l , t h e o r g a n o f t h e B r i t i s h
S o c i a l i s t Pa r t y- a p a r t yo f w h i c h t h e m e m -
b e r s i n L o n d o n a r e m a i n l yf o r e i g n J e w s ,
a s a n yo n e c a n s e e w h o a t t e n d s a L o n d o n
m e e t i n g o f t h e p a r t y . I n t h i s a r t i c l e Ra d e k
s t a t e s t h a t i f Gr e a t B r i t a i n d o e s n o t c o m e
t o t e r m s w i t h t h e S o v i e t Go v e r n m e n t t h e
B r i t i s h Em p i r e w i l l b e a t t a c k e d b yt h e B o l -
s h e v i k s a t i t s m o s t v u l n e r a b l e p o i n t - - I n d i a .
Th e q u o t a t i o n t h e W o r k e r g i v e s f r o m Ra d e k
r e c a l l s t h e b o a s t o f t h e " El d e r s o f Z i o n "
t h a t t h e yh a v e i n s t i l l e d c l a s s h a t r e d i n t o t h e
p e o p l e s .
Th e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n , a c t i n g
o n i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l a t
M o s c o w , p r o f e s s t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c a p i t a l i s t
s ys t e m c a n n o t r e c o v e r f r o m t h e e c o n o m i c
e f f e c t s o f t h e w a r , a n d q u o t e i n s u p p o r t o f
t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a b o o k , Ca p i t a l i s m To - d a y,
UPHEAV AL I N GREATB RI TAI N2 3 3
b yEr n s t K a h n , a n Am e r i c a n M a r x i s t
. Th i s
b o o k i s v e r yp o p u l a r w i t h t h e M a r x i a n
e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s , a n d a c h e a p e d i t i o n i s
s h o r t l yt o b e p u b l i s h e d b yCh a r l e s K e r r ,
t h e S o c i a l i s t s 'p u b l i s h e r s , o f Am e r i c a
. Un d e r
t h e e c o n o m i c c r i s i s t h a t i s d e v e l o p i n g , t h e
w o r k e r s w i l l b e d r i v e n " t o r e b e l a g a i n s t
t h e w h o l e r e g i m e , a n d s u b s t i t u t e t h e i r o w n
p o w e r . I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e
Co m m u n i s t a r i s e s . Th e w o r k e r s , a s a w h o l e ,
r e b e l a g a i n s t a r e g i m e o f w h i c h t h e yf e e l
t h e p r i c k s , w i t h o u t a n yp r e c o n c e i v e d d o c -
t r i n a i r e t h e o r y . I t i s t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e
Co m m u n i s t t o g u i d e t h e i r m o v e m e n t s i n t o
i t s r e a l i s a t i o n i n t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e
p r o l e t a r i a t
."
Th i s a d v i c e i s , w e f i n d , g e n e r a l l ya c t e d
u p o n i n L a b o u r d i s p u t e s i n t h i s c o u n t r y .
Fo r i n s t a n c e , i n a n a r t i c l e o n t h e g a s s t r i k e
a t M a n c h e s t e r , i n t h e W o r k e r s 'D r e a d n o u g h t ,
J u l y1 7 t h , 1 9 2 0, i t i s s t a t e d t h a t " Co m -
m u n i s t s o u g h t t o b e o n t h e s p o t w h e r e v e r
s u c h s p o n t a n e o u s r e v o l t s o c c u r , d o i n g v i t a l
p r o p a g a n d a , e n d e a v o u r i n g t o c o m m u n i s t i c -
a l l ye d u c a t e d i s c o n t e n t ."
Th e w r i t e r g o e s o n t o e x p r e s s s a t i s f a c t i o n
w i t h t h i s s t r i k e , a n d s t a t e s t h a t t h i s w o r k i n g -
c l a s s p o w e r " i f u s e d i n t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e
w o u l d b r i n g , n o t m e r e l ya w a g e i n c r e a s e f o r
a f e w , o r a l l , b u t c r e a t e i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l
w o r l d r i g h t a n d r i p e c o n d i t i o n s f o r f u l l p r o -
l e t a r i a n c o n t r o l ."
CHAPTERXV I
THE W ARNI NG OF CENTURI ES
Re v o l u t i o n a r yPr o p a g a n d a a n d Or g a n i s a t i o n - Th e B o l -
s h e v i s t Pr e s s i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n - Ev i d e n c e s o f a Co n -
t i n u o u s Co n s p i r a c y- Ch r i s t i a n i t y : t h e S t u m b l i n g - b l o c k
o f B o l s h e v i s m .
I N e v e r yp a r t o f t h e c o u n t r yw e f i n d t h a t
t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Re v o l u t i o n a r i e s d e s i r e t o
c o n t r o l a n d d i r e c t L a b o u r u n r e s t a n d d i s -
c o n t e n t
.
Th e yh a v e a g e n e r a l c o n t e m p t
f o r t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e m a s s e s , a n d
a s s u m e t h a t t h e yw i l l n e v e r g o i n t h e r i g h t
d i r e c t i o n w i t h o u t t h e i r g u i d a n c e . Th i s c o n -
t e m p t f o r p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s f u l l ye x p r e s s e d
b yM r . G.D .H. Co l e i n h i s b o o k ,
Th e W o r l d
o f L a b o u r , p .3 4 .
" Fo r i f t h e r e c a n b e g r e a t e r d i s h o n e s t y
i n e n v i s a g i n g t h e p r o b l e m , a g r e a t e r r e f u s a l
t o f a c e t h e f a c t s , t h a n t h a t w h i c h t h e
a s p i r i n g p o l i t i c i a n h a s t o l e a r n , i t i s a s s u r e d l y
t o b e f o u n d i n t h e n a r r o w n e s s , e g o i s m , a n d
i n t e l l e c t u a l i n d o l e n c e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e t h e
g r e a t B r i t i s h p u b l i c .I f t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o -
l u t i o n h a s t u r n e d t h e w o r k e r i n t o a m e r e
p r o d u c i n g m a c h i n e , i t h a s q u i t e e q u a l l y
t u r n e d t h e p u b l i c i n t o a m a s s o f m e r e
c o n s u m e r s , w i t h c o n s c i e n c e s a l w a ys i n t h e i r
p o c k e t s a n d b r a i n s n o w h e r e o r d i r e c t e d t o
a n yt h i n g r a t h e r t h a n t h e s o c i a l q u e s t i o n
.I n
t h i s c o u n t r y, a t l e a s t , i t i s u s e l e s s t o i n v o k e
2 84
THEW ARNI NGOFCENTURI ES 2 3 5
p u b l i c o p i n i o n , b e c a u s e i t i s s e l f i s h , u n e n -
l i g h t e n e d , a n d v i n d i c t i v e ."
Ho w t h i s d i r e c t i o n o f t h e w o r k e r s t o w a r d s
r e v o l u t i o n i s t o b e s e c u r e d i s e x p l a i n e d i n
t h e Ca l l o f M a y2 0t h , 1 9 2 0, i n a n a r t i c l e o n
Co m m u n i s t Or g a n i s a t i o n ."
Th e Ca l l i s
t h e o f f i c i a l o r g a n o f t h e B r i t i s h S o c i a l i s t
Pa r t y( L o n d o n ) , a n d Ch i c h e r i n , L i t v i n o f f ,
Fi n e b e r g , a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e S o v i e t
Go v e r n m e n t w e r e a c t i v e m e m b e r s o f t h e
B .S .P
.w h e n l i v i n g i n L o n d o n . K a r l Ra d e k ,
Cl a r a Z e t k i n ( Ge r m a n S p a r t a c i s t s ) , N.Os i n -
s k y, a n d m a n yo t h e r J e w i s h r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s
o f t h e Co n t i n e n t a r e f r e q u e n t c o n t r i b u t o r s
t o i t
.Th e p a r t yi s a f f i l i a t e d t o t h e Th i r d
I n t e r n a t i o n a l , a n d t h e l e t t e r f r o m L e n i n t o
t h e B r i t i s h W o r k e r s , b r o u g h t b yM e s s r s .
S h a w a n d Tu r n e r , w a s d i r e c t e d t o t h e
B .S .P.,
a n d c o n t a i n e d a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r o n b e h a l f o f
L e n i n , s i g n e d b yM a r c e l Ro s e n b e r g
.
Th e a r t i c l e r e f e r r e d t o o u t l i n e s t h e m e t h o d s
t o b e a d o p t e d b yt h e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s t o
p r e p a r e t h e L a b o u r m o v e m e n t f o r t h e c o m i n g
r e v o l u t i o n
.Th e w r i t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e w o r k i n g -
c l a s s o r g a n i s a t i o n s a s i n t h e m a i n
" l i k e
r u d d e r l e s s c r a f t i n c o n f l i c t i n g c u r r e n t s
. Th e
m i s s i o n o f t h e Co m m u n i s t i s t o s u p p l yt h e
r u d d e r ."
"
D u r i n g t h e s t o r m yp e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n
f r o m Ca p i t a l i s m t o S o c i a l i s m w e s h a l l r e -
q u i r e n e w m a c h i n e r yo f g o v e r n m e n t a n d
p r o d u c t i o n .
M a yi t n o t b e t h a t w e c a n u s e
t h e Tr a d e Un i o n s a s o u r m a c h i n e r yo f
2 3 6 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
p r o d u c t i o n , a n d t h e Co - o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t
a s t h e f r a m e w o r k o f o u r m a c h i n e r yo f
d i s t r i b u t i o n ?
"
W e n e e d a r e v o l u t i o n a r yCo m m u n i s t
g r o u p i n e v e r yTr a d e Un i o n b r a n c h , i n e v e r y
l o c a l L a b o u r Pa r t y, o n e v e r yc o m m i t t e e o f
m a n a g e m e n t o f
a
Co - o p e r a t i v e S o c i e t y ;
r e s p o n s i b l e d i r e c t l yt o t h e b r a n c h o f t h e
Pa r t yi n t h a t l o c a l i t y, g u i d i n g t h e m a s s o f
t h e w o r k e r s i n t o t h e Co m m u n i s t p a t h , p r e -
p a r i n g f o r t h e d a yw h e n t h e e x i s t i n g m a -
c h i n e r yo f s o c i e t yi s n o l o n g e r a d e q u a t e t o
c a r r yo u t t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e p e o p l e .
" B yt h e s e m e a n s t h e e x i s t i n g w o r k i n g -
c l a s s o r g a n i s a t i o n s c a n b e m a d e t o s e r v e t h e
p u r p o s e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r yp r o l e t a r i a t .
Ea c h b r a n c h o f t h e Pa r t ys h o u l d c o - o r d i n a t e
t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n i t s
a r e a a n d r e n d e r p e r i o d i c a l r e p o r t s t o Pa r t y
h e a d q u a r t e r s . He a d q u a r t e r s w o u l d t h u s b e -
c o m e t h e r e a l n e r v e - c e n t r e o f Co m m u n i s t
p r o p a g a n d a . B yt h i s m e a n s , i n a s h o r t t i m e
i t w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e t o e n s u r e t h e e l e c t i o n
o f Co m m u n i s t s t o a l l e x e c u t i v e a n d o r g a n i s i n g
p o s t s i n t h e Tr a d e Un i o n s a n d t h e L a b o u r
Pa r t y .
" At t h e s a m e t i m e , r e c r u i t i n g s h o u l d b e
p r o c e e d e d w i t h f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f
a t t r a c t i n g t o o u r Pa r t yt h e f l o w e r o f t h e
p r o l e t a r i a t . I f a yo u n g m a n o f p r o m i s e i s
e l e c t e d a s b r a n c h s e c r e t a r yo r s h o p - s t e w a r d
i n a Tr a d e Un i o n , h e s h o u l d b e c o m e t h e
o b j e c t i v e o f i n t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l p r o p a g a n d a
THEW ARNI NGOFCENTURI ES 2 3 7
t o c o n v e r t h i m t o o u r i d e a l s . B yt h u s
s u p p l yi n g t h e b u l k o f t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d
l e a d e r s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s , i t w o u l d f o l l o w
t h a t t h e l e a d o f t h e Co m m u n i s t Pa r t yw o u l d
b e i n s t i n c t i v e l yf o l l o w e d i n a t i m e o f c r i s i s
.
W h e r e v e r w o r k e r s m e e t t o d i s c u s s w a g e s o r
t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f e x i s t e n c e , t h e r e s h o u l d b e
f o u n d a g r o u p o f c o m r a d e s r e a d yt o h e l p
t h e m i n t h e i r i m m e d i a t e a i m s a n d a t t h e
s a m e t i m e p o i n t t o t h e r o o t c a u s e o f a l l
t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s a n d s u f f e r i n g i n o r d e r t o
m a k e t h e m r e a l i s e t h a t o n l yw i t h t h e o v e r -
t h r o w o f Ca p i t a l i s m c a n t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s b e
p e r m a n e n t l yb e t t e r e d
. . . .
I t i s a t l e a s t c e r t a i n , h o w e v e r , t h a t o n l y
b yb e c o m i n g t h e l e a d e r s a n d g u i d i n g f o r c e
o f s u c h o r g a n i s a t i o n s a s e x i s t t o - d a yc a n
t h e Co m m u n i s t a n d t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r yt o -
m o r r o w h o p e t o c a r r yw i t h t h e m t h e m a s s
o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t
.
" Cl o s e u p t h e r a n k s , c o m r a d e s ! "
I n t h e s a m e i s s u e i s a n a r t i c l e b yOt t o
M a s c h l , r e p r o d u c e d
f r o m L e B u l l e t i n Co m
m u n i s t e ,
o n t h e f u n c t i o n o f W o r k e r s 'Co u n -
c i l s , i n w h i c h h e d e s c r i b e s t h e m a s "
r e v o -
l u t i o n a r y a n t e - c h a m b e r s ." " Th e ya r e t h e
t o u c h s t o n e s , w h i c h c o n s t a n t l ye x c i t e t h e
h a t r e d o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e , e v e n i f t h e ya r e
n o t a t a l l i n s p i r e d w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r ys e n t i -
m e n t s
. Fo r t h e ya r e t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e
i n s t r u m e n t s f o r k e e p i n g a l i v e t h e c l a s s w a r
."
Th e a i m s o f t h e s e o r g a n i s e r s o f r e v o l u t i o n
a r e r e v e a l e d i n a n a r t i c l e b yCl a r a Z e t k i n ,
2 3 8
THECAUS E OFW ORL D UNRES T
s p e c i a l l yw r i t t e n f o r t h e
Ca l l o f Ap r i l 2 9 t h ,
1 9 2 0.
Th i s w r i t e r i s a J e w e s s , a n d h a s
t a k e n t h e
p
l a c e o f Ro s a L u x e m b o u r g a s a
l e a d e r o f t h e Ge r m a n Co m m u n i s t s
. I n t h i s
a r t i c l e s h e d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o g r e s s t h e I n t e r -
n a t i o n a l Re v o l u t i o n a r i e s a r e n o w m a k i n g .
" Ov e r I t a l yr o a r t h e t h u n d e r s o f t h e
c o m i n g s t o r m ; i n Fr a n c e t h e r e i s s h e e t -
l i g h t n i n g ; s t o r m s r a g e t h r o u g h t h e p r o u d
Em p i r e o f Gr e a t B r i t a i n .I n En g l a n d a n d
S c o t l a n d g r o w i n g m a s s e s o f w o r k e r s u n i t e
r o u n d t h e S o c i a l i s t , t h e Co m m u n i s t , f l a g .
I r e l a n d , Eg yp t , a n d I n d i a a r e i n r e v o l t .Th e
w a g e s l a v e s i n t h e Un i t e d S t a t e s m u s t e r f o r
t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e ; t h e i r s t r i k e s b e c o m e
g r e a t e r a n d g r e a t e r i n e x t e n t , m o r e i m p o r t a n t
a n d t a k e a r e v o l u t i o n a r yc h a r a c t e r . Th e
i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e
d i p l o m a t i c s q u a b b l i n g a m o n g t h e Al l i e d
Po w e r s f o r t h e b o o t yo f t h e w o r l d w a r , i s
r i c h i n c o n f l i c t s , p r e g n a n t w i t h f u t u r e w a r s .
He r e , t o o , t h e e c o n o m i c b a s i s o f Ca p i t a l i s t
o r d e r , c l a s s a n t a g o n i s m , a n d c l a s s s t r u g g l e s ,
g r o w i n i n t e n s i t ya n d b i t t e r n e s s . Fr o m
b e n e a t h t h e v o l c a n i c d e p t h s o f S o c i e t yr i s e s
S o c i a l i s m , Co m m u n i s m ."
S h e g o e s o n t o c a l l n o t f o r r e s o l u t i o n s b u t
f o r m a s s a c t i o n .
" No w t h e b a t t l e b e t w e e n w o r k e r s a n d
b o u r g e o i s i s n o l o n g e r o n e f o r r e f o r m s i n t h e
Ca p i t a l i s t o r d e r , i t s a i m i s t o o v e r t h r o w , t o
s u b d u e t h i s o r d e r .Ca p i t a l i s m o r S o c i a l i s m
a n d Co m m u n i s m i s t h e b a t t l e - c r y . No r e s o -
THEW ARNI NGOFCENTURI ES
2 3 9
l u t i o n s o n p a p e r m u s t b e t h e a i m , b u t t h e
l i v i n g , p o w e r f u l a c t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g
m a s s e s ."
S h e c o n c l u d e s b ya p p e a l i n g t o t h e B r i t i s h
w o r k e r s t o r a l l y " t o t h e r e d b a n n e r o f t h e
Th i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l , " a n d s e n d s t h e m g r e e t -
i n g s f r o m t h e Co m m u n i s t s o f " Ge r m a n yi n
r e v o l u t i o n ."
I n t h e S o c i a l i s t , t h e o r g a n o f t h e S o c i a l i s t
L a b o u r Pa r t y( Gl a s g o w ) , w h i c h i s a f f i l i a t e d
t o t h e Th i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d p r o v i d e s
n e a r l ya l l t h e s t r i k e l e a d e r s o n t h e Cl yd e ,
t h e r e a p p e a r e d o n Ap r i l 2 2 n d , 1 9 2 0, a
s t a t e m e n t f r o m t h e Co m m u n i s t B u r e a u a t
Am s t e r d a m u r g i n g t h e w o r k e r s i n Gr e a t
B r i t a i n t o s t r i k e o n M a yD a y . Th e a p p e a l
i s s i g n e d b yH.Ro l a n d Ho l s t . I n t h e c o u r s e
o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t i t i s d e c l a r e d t h a t a r e a l
p e a c e " w i t h t h e S o v i e t Re p u b l i c o f Ru s s i a
i s i m p o s s i b l e u n d e r Ca p i t a l i s m ." " Ar e a l
p e a c e f o r Ru s s i a m e a n s t h e v i c t o r yo f t h e
W o r l d Re v o l u t i o n , a n d n o t h i n g l e s s ." He
a d v i s e s o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o s t r i v e t o w a r d s
S o v i e t Re p u b l i c s .
" Th i s i n s p i r i n g a i m w e m u s t a l w a ys h a v e
i n m i n d i n a l l o u r d e e d s , i n a l l o u r a c t i o n s .
W e m u s t f i l l o u r h e a d s w i t h Re v o l u t i o n a r y
t h o u g h t s , w e
m u s t
t b e w i l l i n g t o d e s t r o yt h e
w e a p o n s o f o u r e n e m i e s . . . . Al l t h i s w e
c a n o n l ya c h i e v e i n a c o n s t a n t f i g h t w i t h o u r
e x p l o i t e r s , b yg i v i n g t h i s f i g h t a g e n e r a l
r e v o l u t i o n a r yc h a r a c t e r .I t m e a n s a c o m -
p l e t e b r e a k w i t h b o u r g e o i s c i v i l i s a t i o n , b o u r -
2 4 0
THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
g e o i s m o r a l s , b o u r g e o i s s u p r e m a c y .I t m e a n s
L a b o u r a s t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f s o c i a l a n d
m o r a l l i f e . . . .Th e o u t w a r d f a c a d e o f t h e
b o u r g e o i s s t a t e o f s o c i e t ys t i l l e x i s t s , b u t i t
m a yf a l l t o p i e c e s a t a n ym o m e n t , a l t h o u g h
a l o n g a n d s e v e r e s t r u g g l e w i l l d o u b t l e s s b e
n e c e s s a r y, a s m u c h t o f i n a l l yc r u s h t h e
b o u r g e o i s i e a s t o a f f e c t i n t h e m a s s o f t h e
p e o p l e t h e m o r a l a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a n s f o r -
m a t i o n t h a t w i l l m a k e t h e m a b l e t o i n s t i t u t e
t h e Co m m u n i s t Co m m o n w e a l t h , a n d r e n d e r
t h e m f i t t o l i v e i n i t . W e m a yb e c o n v i n c e d
t h a t a n yl i t t l e t h i n g , a n i n d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m -
s t a n c e , m a yn o w a t a n ym o m e n t , b yc a u s i n g
t h e c o u n t l e s s e l e m e n t s o f t h e n e w r e v o l u -
t i o n a r yc o n s c i o u s n e s s f l o a t i n g a l l o v e r t h e
w o r l d t o u n i t e i n t o a n e w b o d ya n d m a n i f e s t
t h e m s e l v e s w i t h u n e x p e c t e d
b o d y
f o r c e , b e t h e
i n s t i g a t o r o f r e n e w e d s t r i f e a n d p r o m i s e f u l
u p h e a v a l . . . . Th e t i m e s f o r t h e p a s s i n g
o f Ca p i t a l i s m a r e r i p e , a n d a n yd e a d c a l m
m a yb e t h e f o r e b o d e r o f n e w s o c i a l s t o r m s
u n e x p e c t e d l yr i s i n g ."
" Pr o m p t e d b yt h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , " t h e
Am s t e r d a m B u r e a u u r g e s t h e w o r k e r s 'o r -
g a n i s a t i o n s t o b e p r e p a r e d f o r a c t i o n a n d
t o s t r i k e o n M a yD a y, 1 9 2 0, " i n f a v o u r o f
S o v i e t Ru s s i a ."
Th e Ex e c u t i v e o f t h e Am s t e r d a m S u b -
B u r e a u o f t h e Th i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s o n e o f
t h e c h i e f f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s t h a t a f f e c t o u r
r e v o l u t i o n a r ys o c i e t i e s . Th e m a n i f e s t o e s o f
t h i s B u r e a u a r e s i g n e d b y D .J . W yn k o o p ,
THEW ARNI NGOFCENTURI ES 2 4 1
He n r i e t t a Ro l a n d Ho l s t , a n d G.J . Ru t g e r s .
I n t h e B .S .P.o r g a n , t h e Ca l l , o f Ap r i l 1 s t ,
1 9 2 0, t h e r e i s a l o n g m a n i f e s t o f r o m t h i s
B u r e a u e n t i t l e d " Ge r m a n Re v o l u t i o n : An
Ap p e a l t o t h e B r i t i s h , Fr e n c h , a n d B e l g i a n
Pr o l e t a r i a t ." Af t e r c o n d e m n i n g t h e Al l i e s
f o r t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f Ge r m a n y, i t b u r s t s
i n t o e x h o r t a t i o n s .
" W o r k e r s o f t h e En t e n t e 1 L o u d l yp r o -
c l a i m yo u r s o l i d a r i t yw i t h t h e Ge r m a n r e v o -
l u t i o n 1 Co m p e l yo u r Go v e r n m e n t s t o w i t h -
d r a w t h e t r o o p s f r o m t h e o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r y .
Ra i l w a ym e n 1 Re f u s e t o a l l o w t h e t r a n s p o r t
o f a n yt r o o p s o r a n ya r m s o r m u n i t i o n s t o
Ge r m a n y .Al l o f yo u a n s w e r a n ya t t e m p t
o n t h e p a r t o f yo u r Go v e r n m e n t s t o s t r a n g l e
t h e Ge r m a n r e v o l u t i o n b ye x t e n d i n g a n d
i n t e n s i f yi n g yo u r o w n r e v o l u t i o n a r ya c t i -
v i t y ."
Th e w r i t e r s o f t h i s m a n i f e s t o c o m p l i m e n t
t h e B r i t i s h Pr o l e t a r i a t o n t h e m a g n i f i c e n t
m e e t i n g s o f t h e Ha n d s o f f Ru s s i a Co m -
m i t t e e , a n d t h e ys t a t e t h a t t h e r e v o l u t i o n s
i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s a r e p a r t o f o n e r e v o l u -
t i o n , t h e S o c i a l Re v o l u t i o n .Th e " f a t e o f
t h e Eu r o p e a n Re v o l u t i o n d e p e n d s o n yo u , "
t h e yw r i t e , a n d c o n c l u d e w i t h "
Hu r r a h f o r
t h e Co m m u n i s t Re v o l u t i o n i n Ge r m a n y
!
Hu r r a h f o r t h e W o r l d Re v o l u t i o n , t h e
Un i v e r s a l S o v i e t Re p u b l i c 1
"
I n a n a r t i c l e b yD r .He r m a n n Go r t e r
w r i t t e n f o r D a t a ( Fe b r u a r y, 1 9 2 0) , t h e " o r g a n
o f t h e S o c i a l i s t I n f o r m a t i o n a n d Re s e a r c h
x
2 4 2 THE CAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
B u r e a u " ( S c o t l a n d ) , h e s p e c i a l l ya p p e a l s
t o t h e B r i t i s h w o r k e r s t o l e a d t h e Eu r o p e a n
Re v o l u t i o n - t h e En g l i s h p r o l e t a r i a t
" m u s t
p l a c e i t s e l f a t t h e h e a d o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t i n
W e s t e r n Eu r o p e ." " Th e f a t e o f t h e w o r l d
r e v o l u t i o n , t h e f a t e o f h u m a n i t y, l i e s i n t h e
h a n d s o f t h e En g l i s h w o r k e r s ."
Am o n g , t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h i s B o l s h e v i s t
c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e i s
M r . E.D . M o r e l , o f t h e n o t o r i o u s Un i o n
o f D e m o c r a t i c Co n t r o l .W r i t i n g i n Fo r e i g n
Af f a i r s ,
t h e o r g a n o f t h e U
.D
.C., f o r J u n e ,
1 9 2 0, M r .M o r e l d i s c u s s e s " Th e W h ya n d t h e
W h e r e f o r e o f t h e W a r a g a i n s t Ru s s i a ." Th e
B r i t i s h a t t a c k o n t h e B o l s h e v i k s i s , a c c o r d i n g
t o M r .M o r e l , i n s p i r e d b yf e a r o f t h e r e s u l t
o f a s t r o n g S o c i a l i s t S t a t e i n Ru s s i a .
" Th e a d v e n t o f a g r e a t S o c i a l i s t S t a t e i n
Eu r o p e i s a s o l v e n t o f Em p i r e .Em p i r e - t h e
d o m i n i o n o v e r m a n yn a t i o n a l l yc o n s c i o u s
p e o p l e s b ya s i n g l e a l i e n p e o p l e - a n d S o c i a l -
i s m a r e i r r e c o n c i l a b l e f a c t o r s .Th e ya r e
m u t u a l l yd e s t r u c t i v e : Th e I m p e r i a l i s t s w h o
p r e s e n t l yg o v e r n t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e a n d w h o
c o n t e m p l a t e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e t r i u m -
p h a n t e m e r g e n c e o f a g r e a t S o c i a l i s t S t a t e
i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n o f Ru s s i a - h a l f
Eu r o p e a n , h a l f As i a t i c - a r e n o t t h i n k i n g i n
t e r m s o f B r i t a i n w h e n t h e s e e k t o p r e v e n t
s u c h a c o n s u m m a t i o n .Th e ya r e t h i n k i n g
i n t e r m s o f t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e ."
Af t e r s t a t i n g t h a t B r i t i s h c a p i t a l h a s
n o t h i n g " t o f e a r f r o m t h e g r o w t h t o a d o l e s -
THEW ARNI NGOFCENTURI ES
2 4 .3
c e n c e o f a Ru s s i a n S o c i a l i s t S t a t e , " b e c a u s e
L e n i n i s w i l l i n g t o g i v e u s t r a d i n g c o n c e s s i o n s
i f w e w i l l m a k e p e a c e w i t h h i m , h e s a ys
" B u t B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l i s m h a s e v e r yt h i n g
t o f e a r f r o m t h e s u r v i v a l o f S o v i e t Ru s s i a
."
"
Th e h e a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e b e a t s
i n As i a - I s p e a k , n o t o f t h e Co m m o n w e a l t h ,
b u t o f t h e Em p i r e . . .
.Th e Ru s s i a n m i n d
k n o w s h o w t o r e a d t h e As i a t i c m i n d
.
Pi c t u r e Ru s s i a a S o c i a l i s t S t a t e , f r e e d f r o m
h e r e x t e r n a l f o e s , f l a n k e d b ya s e r i e s o f
r a c i a l l ya l i e n o r p o l i t i c a l l ya l l i e d - s o m e -
t i m e s b o t h - l e s s e r S t a t e s , n o t i n Eu r o p e o n l y
b u t i n As i a , S t a t e s e n j o yi n g f u l l a u t o n o m y,
p e r m e a t e d w i t h S o c i a l i s t i d e a l s a n d p r e c e p t s
a n d p r a c t i c e s r a d i a t i n g f r o m a c e n t r e w h e r e
e d u c a t i o n a n d s c i e n c e h a v e b e e n e l e v a t e d
i n t o f i n e a r t s , w h e r e t h e t r e a s u r e s o f k n o w -
l e d g e , t h e a c c u m u l a t e d l e a r n i n g o f t h e a g e s
a r e t h r o w n o p e n t o a l l , m a d e a c c e s s i b l e t o
t h e h u m b l e s t c i t i z e n
.Pi c t u r e Ru s s i a t h u s
- t h e n l o o k a t I n d i a , Pe r s i a , Af g h a n i s t a n ,
B u r m a , u n d e r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s .Ne e d yo u
a s k w h yB r i t i s h I m p e r i a l i s m s h r i n k s a t t h e
p r o s p e c t , a n d f e a r s ;
f e a r s u n u t t e r a b l ya s i t
s c a n s t h e f u t u r e
? "
M r
.M o r e l g o e s o n t o d e c l a r e t h a t B r i t i s h
I m p e r i a l i s m i s t o - d a ym o r e u n yi e l d i n g a n d
i n t o l e r a n t i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e
" v e r y
m a g n i t u d e o f i t s s u c c e s s e s i n t h e w a r , "
w h i c h h a v e i n t o x i c a t e d i t ."
I t h a s b e c o m e
a m i l i t a r i s t I m p e r i a l i s m a s i t n e v e r w a s
b e f o r e ."
L e n i n a n d Tr o t s k yh a v e d i s -
2 4 4 THE CAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
c r e d i t e d W e s t e r n d i p l o m a c y,
a n d "
t h e
d a n g e r s t o b e a p p r e h e n d e d f r o m t h e f u t u r e
a r e s o e n o r m o u s f o r t h e e x i s t i n g Or d e r t h a t
t h e Ru s s i a n w r e c k e r s o f t h e o c c u l t p o w e r
w h i c h r u l e s t h e p e o p l e 's l i v e s m u s t b e
b r o k e n ." M o r e l t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s t h a t
B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l i s m i s f i g h t i n g t h e B o l s h e v i k s
b e c a u s e i t " k n o w s i t s v e r ye x i s t e n c e i s a t
s t a k e ."
Th e s e s t a t e m e n t s f r o m M o r e l r e s e m b l e
t h o s e o f Tr o t s k ya n d Ra d e k o n a t t a c k i n g
t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e i n As i a .
Th e " El d e r s o f Z i o n " u s e d " a n a r c h y
a s a m e a n s t o a n e n d ." Th i s v i e w i s s u p -
p o r t e d b yt h e m a n i f e s t o o f t h e Ex e c u t i v e
Co m m i t t e e o f t h e Th i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l , p u b -
l i s h e d i n t h e Ca l l o f Ap r i l 2 2 n d , 1 9 2 0, a n d
s i g n e d b yG .Z i n o v i e v .Th i s m a n i f e s t o s t a t e s
t h a t t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r yf o r c e s i n Fr a n c e ,
Am e r i c a , En g l a n d , a n d Ge r m a n ya r e g r o w i n g ,
a n d " An a r c h o - S o c i a l i s t b o d i e s a n d t h o s e
i n d i v i d u a l s w h o t i l l n o w c l a i m e d t o b e
o r t h o d o x a n a r c h i s t s , m i x t h e m s e l v e s u p
w i t h t h e o t h e r s i n t h e g e n e r a l c u r r e n t . Th e
Ex e c u t i v e Co m m i t t e e o f t h e Th i r d I n t e r -
n a t i o n a l w e l c o m e s t h i s m o s t c o r d i a l l y ."
Af t e r e x p l a i n i n g h o w , S yn d i c a l i s t s a n d An a r -
c h i s t s , b e i n g o p p o s e d t o Pa r l i a m e n t s , m a y
h e l p o n t h e w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n , t h e Co m m i t t e e
d e c l a r e t h a t " t h e b o u r g e o i s S t a t e , i t s K i n g s ,
Pr e s i d e n t s , Pa r l i a m e n t s , Co n s t i t u e n t As s e m -
b l i e s , e t c ., a r e o u r d e a d l ye n e m i e s a n d m u s t
b e c r u s h e d ." Th e yp o i n t o u t t h a t i t i s
THEW ARNI NGOFCENTURI ES 2 4 5
p o s s i b l e a t t i m e s t o f u r t h e r t h e r e v o l u t i o n
i n a c o u n t r yb yp a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p o l i t i c a l
a c t i o n , a n d t h e yi n s t a n c e L i e b k n e c h t i n
Ge r m a n ya n d Ho g l u n d i n S w e d e n
. Th e
l a t t e r , " u t i l i s i n g Pa r l i a m e n t , p r e c i p i t a t e d
t h e c o l l a p s e o f Pa r l i a m e n t i s m . No b o d y
h a s e v e r d o n e m o r e i n S w e d e n f o r t h e
r e v o l u t i o n t h a n h e ." Th e s a m e a g a i n i n
B u l g a r i a , w h e r e t h e " Co m m u n i s t s a l s o u s e d
t h e p u l p i t o f Pa r l i a m e n t f o r t h e p r o p a g a t i o n
o f t h e i d e a s o f t h e Co m m u n i s t Re v o l u t i o n
."
Th e s e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a r e t o e n t e r Pa r l i a m e n t
w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f g e t t i n g "
i n t o c l o s e s t
t o u c h w i t h i t s m a c h i n e r y, a n d t h e n p u t
s p o k e s i n i t s w h e e l s ."
Co n d i t i o n s i n En g l a n d , Fr a n c e , a n d
Am e r i c a a r e n o t ye t r i p e f o r t h e o v e r t h r o w
o f t h e S t a t e . I n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s " t h e r e
h a v e b e e n v e r yf e w i n d i v i d u a l s w h o c o u l d
b e s a i d t o r e s e m b l e t h e Ru s s i a n B o l s h e v i k s
o r t h e Ge r m a n S p a r t a c i s t s ." S o t h e Co m -
m i t t e e a t M o s c o w a d v i s e t h a t
" I f s u c h e l e m e n t s ( B o l s h e v i k s a n d S p a r t a -
c i s t s ) i n c r e a s e i n n u m b e r s a n d s t r e n g t h ,
e v e r yt h i n g m a yg e t c h a n g e d . At f i r s t i t i s
n e c e s s a r y : ( 1 ) Th e c e n t r e o f g r a v i t yo f t h e
s t r u g g l e m u s t b e o u t s i d e o f Pa r l i a m e n t s
( s t r i k e s , r e v o l t s , i n s u r r e c t i o n s , e t c .) ; ( 2 ) t h e
s t r u g g l e i n s i d e t h e Pa r l i a m e n t s m u s t b e
c l o s e l yc o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s t r u g g l e o u t s i d e ;
( 8) t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s m u s t t a k e p a r t i n
g e n e r a l o r g a n i s a t i o n w o r k ; ( 4 ) t h e r e p r e s e n -
t a t i v e s m u s t a c t b yd i r e c t i o n s o f t h e Ce n t r a l
i
2 4 6 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
Co m m i t t e e a n d b e r e s p o n s i b l e t o i t
; ( 5 ) t h e y
m u s t n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e Pa r l i a m e n t a r y
m a n n e r s a n d c u s t o m s ."
Th e m a n i f e s t o c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e f o l l o w -
i n g i n t e r e s t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s
"
W e h a v e t o s t a t e a g a i n t h a t t h e m o s t
v i t a l p a r t o f t h e s t r u g g l e m u s t b e o u t s i d e o f
Pa r l i a m e n t - o n t h e s t r e e t
. I t i s c l e a r t h a t
t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e w e a p o n s o f t h e w o r k e r s
a g a i n s t Ca p i t a l i s m a r e
: Th e s t r i k e , t h e
r e v o l t , a r m e d i n s u r r e c t i o n .Co m r a d e s h a v e
t o k e e p i n m i n d t h e f o l l o w i n g : Or g a n i s a t i o n
o f t h e Pa r t y, i n s t a l m e n t o f t h e Pa r t yg r o u p s
i n t h e Tr a d e Un i o n s , l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e m a s s e s ,
e t c .
Pa r l i a m e n t a r ya c t i v i t i e s a n d p a r t i c i -
p a t i o n i n e l e c t i o n s m u s t b e u s e d o n l ya s a
s e c o n d a r ym e a s u r e - n o m o r e
."
( Ca l l ,
Ap r i l 2 2 n d , 1 9 2 0 .)
Th i s m a n i f e s t o
a l s o a p p e a r e d i n t h e
S o c i a l i s t ( Gl a s g o w ) a n d o t h e r B o l s h e v i s t
p a p e r s i n t h i s c o u n t r y
.Th e Na t i o n a l Co u n c i l
o f S h o p S t e w a r d s 'a n d W o r k e r s 'Co m m i t t e e s ,
a b o d ya f f i l i a t e d t o t h e M o s c o w I n t e r n a t i o n a l ,
i s c a r r yi n g o u t t h e s e M o s c o w I n s t r u c t i o n s
o n t h e i n d u s t r i a l s i d e .
Co n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e a n t i - Ch r i s t i a n n a t u r e
o f t h e J e w i s h s e c r e t o r g a n i s a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d
e a r l i e r i n t h i s b o o k i s f o u n d i n a n a r t i c l e i n
t h e Ca l l o f Ap r i l 1 s t , 1 9 2 0 .
An a r t i c l e
e n t i t l e d " M a n h a s Ar i s e n ! "
b yJ o h n B r ya n ,
d e s c r i b i n g t h e n e w
" l i g h t i n t h e Ea s t
" -
B o l s h e v i s m , s a ys
" Th e p a g a n w o r l d c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n
THEW ARNI NGOFCENTURI ES 2 4 7
w o r s e t h a n t h i s w o r l d o f Ch r i s t i a n i t y
.On l y
i t h a d n o b i s h o p s t o p r e a c h f r o m t h e p u l p i t s
t h e Ea s t e r l i e , a n d t o a d m i n i s t e r 'o p i u m '
t o t h e m a s s e s , a s t h e B o l s h e v i k i n s c r i p t i o n
o n o n e o f M o s c o w 's c h u r c h g a t e s b o l d l y
p u t s i t ."
B u t " a n e w l i g h t h a s a r i s e n i n t h e Ea s t ,
a n d n o t a w i l l o 't h e w i s p , a l i g h t t h a t
r e v e a l s t h e t r u t h , a n d s h o w s t h e r o a d , t h a t
i n s p i r e s h o p e a n d c o n f i d e n c e , t h a t w a r m s
a n d e n c o u r a g e s , t h a t a d d s t o t h e s t r e n g t h
o f t h e b o d ya n d t h e s o u l . .
.
Ru s s i a l e d
b yt h e B o l s h e v i k s , Ru s s i a g u i d e d b yt h e
t r a n s c e n d e n t g e n i u s o f L e n i n , a n d a s s i s t e d
b ya h o s t o f w o r k e r s w i t h Tr o t s k y, t h e
i n c o m p a r a b l e o r g a n i s e r , a t t h e i r h e a d - t h i s
Ru s s i a h a s b e e n t h e s a v i o u r o f t h e w o r l d ,
i t s r e d e e m e r f r o m c yn i c i s m , s c e p t i c i s m , a n d
d e m o r a l i s a t i o n w h i c h h a d b e e n g n a w i n g a t
i t s v e r yv i t a l s , t h r e a t e n i n g d e s t r u c t i o n a n d
d e a t h ." Fo r t h i s p a r t Ru s s i a h a s b e e n
" c r u c i f i e d b yt h e c a p i t a l i s t Po w e r s , " a n d
s h e i s b l e e d i n g f r o m e v e r yp o r e
. "
B u t ,
u n l i k e Ch r i s t , s h e d i d n o t w e e p b l o o d y
t e a r s o u t o f p i t yf o r h e r s e l f w h e n m a k i n g
u p h e r m i n d r a t h e r t o b e c r u c i f i e d t h a n t o
b e t r a yt h e t r u s t w h i c h h i s t o r yh a d p l a c e d
i n h e r h a n d s ;
n o r i s s h e l i k e l yt o d i e o n t h e
c r o s s b e f o r e s h e a c c o m p l i s h e s h e r m i s s i o n .
s h e l i v e s , a n d g i v e s l i f e , a n d , s o o n ,
s h e w i l l d e s c e n d f r o m t h e c r o s s a n d c r yo u t
t o t h e w o r l d : '
M a n h a s r i s e n ! '"
I n t h e s t u d yo f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r ym o v e -
2 4 8 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
m e n t i n t h i s c o u n t r yi t i s i m p o r t a n t t o
n o t e h o w i t i s g u i d e d b yt h e w r i t i n g s o f
f o r e i g n r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , m a i n l yJ e w s
. Th e
f o l l o w i n g a r e o n l ya f e w o f t h e m o r e p r o m i -
n e n t a n d f r e q u e n t f o r e i g n c o n t r i b u t o r s t o
t h e B o l s h e v i s t Pr e s s i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n , w h o s e
b o o k s a n d a r t i c l e s a r e l a r g e l yc i r c u l a t e d
i n t h i s c o u n t r yi n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e
M a r x i a n e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s a n d f o r t h e p u r p o s e
o f r e v o l u t i o n a r yp r o p a g a n d a . Th e w o r k s
o f M a r x a n d En g e l s a r e , o f c o u r s e , t e x t -
b o o k s i n a l l c l a s s e s r u n b yt h e L a b o u r
Co l l e g e M o v e m e n t a n d b yt h e B o l s h e v i s t
S o c i e t i e s .
Th e a r t i c l e s o f L e n i n a n d Tr o t s k ya r e
p u b l i s h e d r e g u l a r l yi n t h e Ca l l , t h e S o c i a l i s t ,
t h e W o r k e r s 'D r e a d n o u g h t , t h e W o r k e r , a n d
o t h e r B o l s h e v i s t p a p e r s . B e l a K u n i s a l s o
a n o t h e r f r e q u e n t c o n t r i b u t o r t o B r i t i s h B o l -
s h e v i s m , a n d h e w r i t e s t o t h e c u r r e n t i s s u e
o f t h e W o r k e r s 'D r e a d n o u g h t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t
t h e " Ha n d s o f f Ru s s i a " Co m m i t t e e " s h o u l d
b e u s e d f o r B o l s h e v i s t e n d s i n t h e h o m e
m o v e m e n t ." D r .He r m a n n Go r t e r a l s o
w r i t e s r e g u l a r l yf o r p a p e r s i n L o n d o n a n d
Gl a s g o w , a n d h i s b o o k , Th e W o r l d Re v o l u -
t i o n , p u b l i s h e d b yt h e S o c i a l i s t I n f o r m a t i o n
a n d Re s e a r c h B u r e a u ( Gl a s g o w ) , i s o n s a l e
a t m o s t r e v o l u t i o n a r ym e e t i n g s i n L o n d o n
a n d t h e p r o v i n c e s . Th e f o l l o w i n g m a yb e
m e n t i o n e d a s I n t e r n a t i o n a l Re v o l u t i o n a r y
l e a d e r s w h o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e m o v e m e n t
i n t h i s c o u n t r y
THEW ARNI NGOFCENTURI ES 2 4 9
N.Ho g l u n d , o f S w e d e n ;
L u c i e n D e s l i -
n i c r e s , o f Fr a n c e ; N.B u c h a r i n , o f M o s c o w ,
a u t h o r o f t h e
Pr o g r a m m e o f t h e W o r l d
Re v o l u t i o n ; Cl a r a Z e t k i n , J e w e s s a n d l e a d e r
o f t h e Ge r m a n Co m m u n i s t Pa r t y ; M
.I .
K a l i n i n , c h a i r m a n o f Al l - Ru s s i a n Ce n t r a l
Ex e c u t i v e o f Co m m i t t e e o f S o v i e t s ; K a r l
Ra d e k , o f M o s c o w ; S a d o u l , S o u v a r i n e ,
S h u m i a t z k i , I .M a r c h l e v s k i ( K a r s k i ) , Al e x -
a n d r e K o l o n t a y, Ru s s i a n S o v i e t Co m m i s s a r y
f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e .
W e h a v e n o w c o n c l u d e d o u r e n q u i r yi n t o
t h e c a u s e o f w o r l d u n r e s t , a n d i t i s f o r o u r
r e a d e r s t o j u d g e h o w f a r i t p r o v i d e s a n
e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r ym o v e m e n t s
w h i c h a r e d i s t u r b i n g a l i k e t h e f a i t h o f
Ch r i s t i a n m e n a n d w o m e n a n d t h e w h o l e
s ys t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t o n w h i c h W e s t e r n
c i v i l i s a t i o n h a s b e e n b u i l t u p . Th e f a m o u s
p r o t o c o l s m a yo r m a yn o t b e g e n u i n e , b u t
e v e n t h e m o s t s c e p t i c a l m u s t a d m i t t h a t
t h e ya r e t h e a b s t r a c t o f a p h i l o s o p h yw h i c h
m a yb e d e v i l i s h , b u t i s c e r t a i n l yc o h e r e n t ,
a n d t h a t i n m a n yi m p o r t a n t p o i n t s t h e yn o t
o n l ya n t i c i p a t e , b u t e x p l a i n , s o m e o f t h e
i l l s f r o m w h i c h t h e w o r l d i s a t p r e s e n t
s u f f e r i n g . I t i s t h e e l e m e n t o f t i m e w h i c h
i s i n c l i n e d t o .p r e j u d i c e t h e W e s t e r n , p a r -
t i c u l a r l yt h e En g l i s h , r e a d e r a g a i n s t t h e m .
Ca n i t b e p o s s i b l e t h a t a n yb o d yo f m e n
c a n s e r i o u s l yc o m m i t t h e m s e l v e s t o a p l o t
w h i c h i s t o b e w o r k e d o u t n o t i n ye a r s
b u t i n c e n t u r i e s , a n d t h e f r u i t s o f w h i c h
2 5 0 THECAUS EOFW ORL D UNRES T
t h e yt h e m s e l v e s c a n n e v e r g a t h e r ? B u t i t ,
m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e w h o l e i d e a i s
Ea s t e r n , a n d i n t h e Ea s t t h e ys t i l l t h i n k
i n c e n t u r i e s . Ac h i l d w i t h d i f f i c u l t yc a n
s p a n t h e p e r i o d o f a w e e k , t h e o r d i n a r y
En g l i s h m a n t h a t o f a d e c a d e . B u t a n
En g l i s h m a n w h o h a s l i v e d l o n g i n t h e Ea s t
h a s q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n o f t i m e , a n d
w o u l d n o t f i n d t h e l o n g r o l l o f ye a r s b e t w e e n
t h e p r o p h e c ya n d i t s f r u i t i o n a b a n t o b e l i e f .
Th e r e f o r e , l e t t h e 's c o f f e r s r e m e m b e r t h a t
a l l p e r i o d s o f t i m e a r e r e l a t i v e , a n d t h a t t o
s o m e a t h o u s a n d ye a r s m a yb e a s a d a y .
I n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s b o o k t h e d o c t r i n e s
a n d p r o g r a m m e o f r e v o l u t i o n a r yFr e e m a s o n -
r yw e r e d e s c r i b e d a n d t h e l i a i s o n b e t w e e n
t h e m a n d t h e p r o t o c o l s e x a m i n e d . I n l a t e r
c h a p t e r s m o d e r n r e v o l u t i o n a r yp h e n o m e n a
w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p l o t
r e v e a l e d e a r l i e r
.Ca n w e t r a c e a c o n n e c t i o n
b e t w e e n t h e t w o ? Ou r r e a d e r s m u s t d e c i d e
f o r t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e e v i d e n c e s u b m i t t e d
t o t h e m . I t h a s b e e n s h o w n t h a t t h e
Co n t i n e n t a l Fr e e m a s o n s w e r e p r i m a r i l yr e -
s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r e v o l u t i o n s i n Tu r k e ya n d
Po r t u g a l a n d t h a t i n t h e f o r m e r a t l e a s t t h e
J e w s h a d a p r o m i n e n t s h a r e i n t h i s M a s o n i c
c o n s p i r a c y . W h e n t h e B o l s h e v i k s s e i z e d
p o w e r i n M o s c o w - a n d w e g a v e a t a b l e
s h o w i n g t h a t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t yo f t h e m w e r e
J e w s - t h e p r o p a g a n d a o f L i t v i n o f f , Ra d e k ,
a n d c o m p a n yt o o k t h e p l a c e t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e
e x t e n t o f t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n M a s o n i c a c t i -
THEW ARNI NGOFCENTURI ES 2 5 1
v i t i e s a n d t h e t h r e a d s o f t h e p l o t w e r e
t h e r e f o r e e a s i e r t o t r a c e . Fo r e x a m p l e , w e
s h o w e d h o w t h i s B o l s h e v i s t - J e w i s h g a n g
t r i e d t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t s o f
Pr u s s i a , B a v a r i a , a n d Hu n g a r y .
W e a l s o d r e w a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e c r e t
i n f l u e n c e s w o r k i n g i n Pa r i s d u r i n g t h e Pe a c e
Co n f e r e n c e , t o t h e c u r i o u s f a c t t h a t t h e
p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , s o d a n g e r o u s
a t p r e s e n t t o t h e a u t h o r i t yo f t h e B r i t i s h
Em p i r e , w a s c o m m o n t o b o t h W i l s o n i s m
a n d L e n i n i s m , , a n d t h a t Po l a n d , w h i c h b o t h
J e w s a n d Ge r m a n s f e a r , w a s l e f t e c o n o m i -
c a l l ya n d s t r a t e g i c a l l yw e a k b yt h e Co n -
f e r e n c e a n d , a l o n g w i t h Hu n g a r y, h a s b e e n
m a l e v o l e n t l ya t t a c k e d b yt h e f o r c e s o f I n t e r -
n a t i o n a l L a b o u r w o r k i n g u n d e r B o l s h e v i s t
d i r e c t i o n . Fi n a l l y, w e s o u g h t t o t r a c e a
l i n k b e t w e e n t h e c o n s p i r a c ya n d s o m e o f
t h e a g i t a t i o n s w h i c h a r e a t p r e s e n t g r a v e l y
t h r e a t e n i n g t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h
Em p i r e .
Th r o u g h o u t t h i s b o o k w e h a v e r e f e r r e d t o
t h e m e n a c e w h i c h t h i s c o n s p i r a c yc o n s t i t u t e s
n o t o n l yt o c i v i l i s e d g o v e r n m e n t b u t t o t h e
Ch r i s t i a n f a i t h . I t i s i n d e e d c l e a r t h a t n e v e r
i n i t s h i s t o r yh a s t h a t f a i t h h a d t o u n d e r g o
s o o r g a n i s e d a n d s u s t a i n e d a n a t t a c k .M e n 's
t h o u g h t s a r e c o n t i n u a l l yb e i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d
o n t h i n g s m a t e r i a l , o n t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s o f
w e a l t h , o n m e a n a n d t r i v i a l p l e a s u r e s , a n d
a r e b e i n g t o l d t h a t t h e c u r e f o r a l l t h e i r i l l s
l i e s n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s b u t i n a p e c u l i a r f o r m
2 5 2 THECAUS E OFW ORL D UNRES T
o f g o v e r n m e n t . Th e B o l s h e v i k s k n o w p e r -
f e c t l yw e l l t h a t t h e i r c a u s e c a n m a k e n o
l a s t i n g p r o g r e s s u n l e s s i t f i r s t g e t s r i d o f
Ch r i s t i a n i t y- w i t h i t s s u p e r b i n d i f f e r e n c e t o
t h e t h i n g s o n w h i c h t h e w o r l d s e t s s u c h
s t o r e . Th e r e f o r e i t m a yb e t a k e n a s c e r t a i n
t h a t t h e s e a t t a c k s w i l l b e r e d o u b l e d . An d
t h e r e i n p e r h a p s l i e s t h e s u r e s t p r o o f o f t h e
u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e o f B o l s h e v i s m . Fo r t o t h e
p e o p l e s o f W e s t e r n Eu r o p e , w h e t h e r t h e y
a r e c o n s c i o u s o f i t o r n o t , Ch r i s t i a n i t yi s s t i l l
t h e b e a c o n t h a t w i l l g u i d e t h e m o u t o f t h e
s l o u g h o f d e s p o n d i n w h i c h t h e yn o w g r o a n .
I f t h a t l i g h t w e r e e x t i n g u i s h e d t h e ym i g h t
w e l l s a yo f t h e w o r l d w h a t M o n t a i g n e t h o u g h t
o f i t w h e n h e l o s t h i s f r i e n d : " Ce n 'e s t q u e
f u m e e , c e n 'e s t q u 'u n e n u i t o b s c u r e e t e n n u y-
e u s e ." D o t h e B o l s h e v i k s h o n e s t l yb e l i e v e
t h a t t h e yc a n c o n q u e r t w o w o r l d s ?
APPEND I X
To t h e Ed i t o r o f "
Th e M o r n i n g Po s t ."
S I R, - W i l l
yo u a l l o w m e t o a d d a n o t h e r
l i n k t o t h e v e r yv a l u a b l e c h a i n o f e v i d e n c e
s e t f o r t h i n yo u r c o l u m n s o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f
S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s a n d W o r l d Re v o l u t i o n
?
Th i s i s t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n k n o w n a s t h e Al t a
V e n d i t a o r Ha u t e V e n t e Ro m a i n e , w h i c h
o r i g i n a t e d w i t h t h e Ca r b o n a r i e a r l yi n t h e
n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .M o n s e i g n e u r D i l l o n , i n
h i s r e m a r k a b l e s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s d e l i v e r e d i n
Ed i n b u r g h
i n 1 884 , t r a c e d t h e o r i g i n o f t h e
Ca r b o n a r i b a c k t o t h e I l l u m i n a t i o f B a v a r i a .
Th e Ca r b o n a r i , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t b e g i n a s a
r e v o l u t i o n a r yb o d y ; i t s f o u n d e r s w e r e
Ro ya l i s t s a n d Ca t h o l i c s w h o , d e l u d e d a s
t o t h e r e a l a i m s o f I l l u m i n i s m , f o l l o w e d t h e
p r e c e d e n t l a i d d o w n b yW e i s h a u p t o f t a k i n g
Ch r i s t a s t h e i r Gr a n d M a s t e r .B u t b e f o r e
l o n g t h e a d e p t s o f r e v o l u t i o n a r ym a s o n r y
i n v a d e d t h e i r r a n k s a n d o b t a i n e d t h e m a s t e r y
o v e r t h e w h o l e _ a s s o c i a t i o n .
" As s o o n a s , p e r h a p s s o o n e r t h a n , W e i s -
h a u p t h a d p a s s e d a w a yt h e s u p r e m e g o v e r n -
m e n t o f a l l t h e s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s o f t h e w o r l d
w a s e x e r c i s e d b yt h e Al t a V e n d i t a o r h i g h e s t
l o d g e o f t h e I t a l i a n Ca r b o n a r i . . . .Th e p e r -
m a n e n t i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s b o d yt o i t s a d e p t s
c o n s i s t s m a i n l yi n w a r o n t h e p a p a c y, b u t
i t a l s o a d m i t s :
` Ou r f i n a l e n d i s t h a t o f
2 5 3
2 5 4

APPEND I X
V o l t a i r e a n d t h e Fr e n c h Re v o l u t i o n ,
t h e
d e s t r u c t i o n o f Ca t h o l i c i s m , a n d e v e n o f t h e
Ch r i s t i a n i d e a .'
Th e Al t a V e n d i t a w a s t h u s a d i r e c t c o n -
t i n u a t i o n o f t h e I l l u m i n a t i , a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e
w i t h t h e c u s t o m o f t h e i r Ge r m a n p r e d e c e s s o r s
i t s m e m b e r s a l l e l e c t e d t o b e k n o w n b y
p s e u d o n ym s .Th u s a s W e i s h a u p t h a d t a k e n
t h e n a m e o f S p a r t a c u s , Cl o o t z t h a t o f
An a c h a r s i s , a n d B a b e u f t h a t o f Gr a c c h u s ,
t h e h e a d o f t h e Or d e r , a c o r r u p t I t a l i a n
n o b l e m a n , i s o n l yk n o w n t o u s a s Nu b i u s .
Th i s yo u n g m a n , r i c h , h a n d s o m e , e l o q u e n t
a n d a b s o l u t e l yr e c k l e s s , w a s " a v i s i o n a r y
w i t h a n i d e e f i x e , t h a t o f e l e v a t i n g a p e d e s t a l
t o h i s o w n v a n i t y ." B u t i t w a s n o t i n t h e
b a n d o f d i s s o l u t e yo u n g I t a l i a n s h e g a t h e r e d
a r o u n d h i m , b u t i n h i s J e w i s h a l l i e s t h a t
Nu b i u s f o u n d h i s p r i n c i p a l s u p p o r t
.
Th e d o c u m e n t s o f t h e Al t a V e n d i t a , a f t e r -
w a r d s b r o u g h t t o l i g h t , r e v e a l e d , s a ys M o n -
s e i g n e u r D i l l o n , t h a t
" h i s f u n d s f o r c a r r yi n g o n t h e d e e p a n d
d a r k c o n s p i r a c yi n w h i c h h e a n d h i s c o n -
f e d e r a t e s w e r e e n g a g e d c a m e c h i e f l yf r o m
r i c h Ge r m a n J e w s .J e w s , i n f a c t , f r o m t h e
c o m m e n c e m e n t p l a ye d a l w a ys a p r o m i n e n t
p a r t i n t h e c o n s p i r a c i e s o f At h e i s m .Th e y
d o s o s t i l l .Pi c c o l o Ti g r e , w h o s e e m s t o
h a v e b e e n t h e m o s t a c t i v e a g e n t o f Nu b i u s ,
w a s a J e w .He t r a v e l l e d u n d e r t h e a p p e a r -
a n c e o f a n i t i n e r a n t b a n k e r a n d j e w e l l e r .
Th i s c h a r a c t e r o f m o n e y- l e n d e r d i s a r m e d s u s -
APPEND I X

2 5 5
p i c i o n . . .
.Of c o u r s e h e h a d t h e p r o t e c t i o n
o f t h e M a s o n i c l o d g e s e v e r yw h e r e . Th e
m o s t d e s p e r a t e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s w e r e g e n e r a l l y
t h e m o s t d e s p e r a t e s c o u n d r e l s o t h e r w i s e ,
t h e yw e r e g a m b l e r s , s p e n d t h r i f t s , a n d t h e
v e r yc l a s s w i t h w h i c h a u s u r i o u s J e w w o u l d
b e e x p e c t e d t o h a v e m o n e yd e a l i n g s
.Pi c c o l o
Ti g r e t h u s t r a v e l l e d s a f e l ya n d b r o u g h t
s a f e l yt o t h e l o d g e s o f t h e Ca r b o n a r i s u c h
i n s t r u c t i o n s a s t h e Al t a V e n d i t a t h o u g h t
p r o p e r t o g i v e ."
Pi c c o l o Ti g r e w a s o n l yo n e o f m a n yJ e w s
e m p l o ye d b yt h e Ha u t e V e n t e
; o t h e r s o f
h i s r a c e w o r k e d f o r t h e c o n s p i r a c yi n Ge r -
m a n y, Hu n g a r y, Po r t u g a l , a n d k e p t u p a
r e g u l a r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h Nu b i u s . Ho w
f a r w e r e t h e s e m e n a c t i n g m e r e l ya s t h e
a g e n t s o f t h e i r I t a l i a n c h i e f ? Or w e r e
t h e ya n i m a t e d b ys o m e u l t e r i o r a i m ? Th e
a u t h o r o f t h e a r t i c l e s n o w a p p e a r i n g i n
t h e M o r n i n g Po s t h a s i n d i c a t e d t h e p o s s i -
b i l i t yo f a J e w i s h c o n s p i r a c yr u n n i n g t h r o u g h
Fr e e m a s o n r y, a n d M o n s e i g n e u r D i l l o n p r o -
p o u n d s t h e s a m e h yp o t h e s i s .
" M o n s e i g n e u r d e S e g u r , " h e w r i t e s , " c o n -
n e c t s m o d e r n Fr e e m a s o n r yw i t h J e w s a n d
Te m p l a r s
. . . Th e r e a r e r e a s o n s w h i c h l e a d
m e t o t h i n k h e m a yb e r i g h t i n d o i n g s o .
Th e J e w s f o r m a n yc e n t u r i e s b e f o r e t h e
Re f o r m a t i o n h a d f o r m e d s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s f o r
t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n a n d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f Ch r i s -
t i a n i t yw h i c h p e r s e c u t e d t h e m a n d w h i c h
t h e ys o m u c h h a t e d
. Th e r e b u i l d i n g o f t h e
2 5 6

APPEND I X
Te m p l e o f S o l o m o n w a s t h e d r e a m o f t h e i r
l i v e s . . . .I t i s t h e r e f o r e n o t i m p r o b a b l e
t h a t t h e ya d m i t t e d i n t o t h e i r s e c r e t c o n c l a v e s
s o m e a t l e a s t o f t h e , d i s c o n t e n t e d Te m p l a r s
b u r n i n g f o r r e v e n g e u p o n t h o s e w h o d i s -
p o s s e s s e d a n d s u p p r e s s e d t h e Or d e r . Th a t
f a c t w o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e c u r i o u s c o m b i n a -
t i o n o f J e w i s h a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l a l l u s i o n s
t o b e f o u n d i n m o d e r n M a s o n r y . .
" Th e J e w i s h f o r m u l a s e m p l o ye d b yM a s o n r y,
t h e J e w i s h t r a d i t i o n s w h i c h r u n t h r o u g h i t s - -
c e r e m o n i a l , p o i n t t o a J e w i s h o r i g i n o r t o t h e
w o r k o f J e w i s h c o n t r i v e r s . I t i s e a s yt o
c o n c e i v e h o w s u c h a s o c i e t yc o u l d b e t h o u g h t
n e c e s s a r yt o p r o t e c t t h e m f r o m Ch r i s t i a n i t y
i n p o w e r . I t i s e a s ya l s o t o u n d e r s t a n d h o w
t h e o n e d a r l i n g o b j e c t o f t h e i r l i v e s i s t h e
r e b u i l d i n g o f t h e Te m p l e . W h o k n o w s b u t
b e h i n d t h e At h e i s m a n d d e s i r e o f g a i n w h i c h
i m p e l s t h e m t o u r g e o n Ch r i s t i a n s t o p e r s e -
c u t e t h e Ch u r c h a n d d e s t r o yi t , t h e r e l i e s a
h i d d e n h o p e t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e i r Te m p l e , a n d
a t t h e d a r k e s t d e p t h s o f s e c r e t s o c i e t y
p l o t t i n g t h e r e l u r k s a d e e p e r s o c i e t ys t i l l
w h i c h l o o k s t o a r e t u r n t o t h e l a n d o f J u d a
a n d t o t h e r e b u i l d i n g o f t h e Te m p l e o f
J e r u s a l e m 1 "
W h e t h e r , t h e r e f o r e , a s M .Cr e t i n e a u J o l y
s u g g e s t s , Nu b i u s m a d e u s e o f J u d a i c h a t r e d
o f Ch r i s t i a n i t yf o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e Ha u t e
V e n t e , o r w h e t h e r t h e J e w s m a d e u s e o f t h e
Ha u t e V e n t e t o f u r t h e r t h e i r o w n c a u s e , i t
c a n n o t b e d e n i e d t h a t J e w s p l a ye d a n
APPEND I X

2 5 7
i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s a t t h i s
r i o d
.Pi c c o l o Ti g r e a t a n yr a t e s e e m s t o
a v e o c c u p i e d a p o s i t i o n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e
a u t h o r i t y, f o r o n J a n u a r y1 8, 1 82 2 , w e f i n d
h i m i s s u i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e Ha u t e V e n t e
Pi e d m o n t a i s e i n t h e s e w o r d s
"
Al l I t a l yi s c o v e r e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s c o n -
f r a t e r n i t i e s a n d w i t h p e n i t e n t s o f d i v e r s e
c o l o u r s
.D o n o t f e a r t o s l i p s o m e o f yo u r
p e o p l e i n t o t h e v e r ym i d s t o f t h e s e f l o c k s ,
l e d , a s t h e ya r e , b ya s t u p i d d e v o t i o n . . .
Ga t h e r t o g e t h e r i n o n e p l a c e o r a n o t h e r - - i n
t h e s a c r i s t i e s o r c h a p e l s e v e n - - t h e s e t r i b e s
o f yo u r s , a s ye t i g n o r a n t ; p u t t h e m u n d e r
t h e p a s t o r a l s t a f f o f s o m e v i r t u o u s p r i e s t ,
w e l l k n o w n b u t c r e d u l o u s , a n d e a s yt o b e
d e c e i v e d .Th e n i n f i l t r a t e t h e p o i s o n i n t o
t h o s e c h o s e n h e a r t s ; i n f i l t r a t e i t i n l i t t l e
d o s e s a n d a s i f b yc h a n c e .Af t e r w a r d s ,
u p o n r e f l e c t i o n , yo u w i l l yo u r s e l v e s b e a s -
t o n i s h e d a t yo u r s u c c e s s .
" Th e e s s e n t i a l t h i n g i s t o i s o l a t e a m a n
f r o m h i s f a m i l y, t o c a u s e h i m t o l o s e h i s
m o r a l s .He i s s u f f i c i e n t l yd i s p o s e d b yt h e
b e n t o f h i s c h a r a c t e r t o f l e e f r o m h o u s e h o l d
c a r e s a n d t o r u n a f t e r e a s yp l e a s u r e s a n d
f o r b i d d e n j o ys .He l i k e s l o n g t a l k s i n t h e
c a f e s , t h e i d l e n e s s o f s p e c t a c l e s .L e a d h i m
a l o n g , s u s t a i n h i m , g i v e h i m a n i m p o r t a n c e
o f s o m e k i n d , t e a c h h i m d i s c r e e t l yt o w e a r y
o f h i s d a i l yl a b o u r s , a n d b yt h i s m a n o e u v r e ,
a f t e r h a v i n g s e p a r a t e d h i m f r o m h i s w i f e a n d
c h i l d r e n , a n d h a v i n g s h o w n h i m h o w p a i n f u l
5
2 5 8

APPEND I X
a r e a l l d u t i e s , yo u w i l l i n c u l c a t e i n
h i m t h e
d e s i r e o f a n o t h e r e x i s t e n c e . M a n i s a b o r n
r e b e l .S t i r u p t h e d e s i r e o f r e b e l l i o n u n t i l
i t b e c o m e s a c o n f l a g r a t i o n , b u t i n s u c h a
m a n n e r t h a t t h e c o n f l a g r a t i o n d o e s n o t
b r e a k o u t . Th i s i s a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e
g r e a t w o r k t h a t yo u h a v e t o b e g i n .
" W h e n yo u h a v e i n s i n u a t e d i n t o a f e w
s o u l s d i s g u s t f o r f a m i l ya n d f o r r e l i g i o n ( t h e
o n e n e a r l ya l w a ys f o l l o w s i n t h e w a k e o f t h e
o t h e r ) , l e t f a l l c e r t a i n w o r d s w h i c h w i l l
p r o v o k e t h e d e s i r e o f b e i n g a f f i l i a t e d t o t h e
n e a r e s t l o d g e . Th i s v a n i t yo f t h e c i t i z e n o r
o f t h e
b o u r g e o i s f o r b e i n g e n r o l l e d i n Fr e e -
m a s o n r yi s s o m e t h i n g s o
b a n a l
a n d s o u n i -
v e r s a l t h a t I a m a l w a ys f u l l o f a d m i r a t i o n
f o r h u m a n s t u p i d i t y . I a m n o t s u r p r i s e d t o
s e e t h e w h o l e w o r l d k n o c k i n g a t t h e d o o r o f
a l l t h e V e n e r a b l e s a n d a s k i n g t h e s e g e n t l e m e n
f o r t h e h o n o u r o f b e i n g o n e o f t h e w o r k m e n
c h o s e n f o r t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Te m p l e
o f S o l o m o n . .To f i n d yo u r s e l f a m e m b e r
o f a l o d g e , t o f e e l yo u r s e l f , a p a r t f r o m yo u r
w i f e a n d c h i l d r e n , c a l l e d u p o n t o g u a r d a
s e c r e t w h i c h i s n e v e r c o n f i d e d t o yo u , i s f o r
c e r t a i n n a t u r e s a d e l i g h t a n d a n a m b i t i o n
.
. I t i s u p o n t h e l o d g e s t h a t w e c o u n t t o
d o u b l e o u r r a n k s .Th e yf o r m w i t h o u t k n o w -
i n g i t o u r p r e p a r a t o r yn o v i t i a t e . Th e yd i s -
c o u r s e 'w i t h o u t e n d u p o n t h e d a n g e r s o f
f a n a t i c i s m , u p o n t h e h a p p i n e s s o f s o c i a l
e q u a l i t y, a n d u p o n t h e g r a n d p r i n c i p l e s o f
r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t y . Th e yl a u n c h a m i d s t t h e i r
APPEND I X 2 5 9
f e a s t i n g s t h u n d e r i n g a n a t h e m a s a g a i n s t i n -
t o l e r a n c e a n d p e r s e c u t i o n . Th i s i s p o s i t i v e l y
m o r e t h a n w e r e q u i r e t o m a k e a d e p t s ."
I t w a s t h u s t h a t i n 1 82 2 a s i n 1 7 89 t h e
c o n s p i r a t o r s f o u n d t h e i r d u p e s i n t h e r a n k s
o f M a s o n r y, b u t , a s M o n s e i g n e u r D i l l o n
o i n t s o u t
` b e yo n d t h e M a s o n s , t h o u g h g e n e r a l l yf o r m e d
f r o m t h e m , l a yt h e d e a d l ys e c r e t c o n c l a v e
w h i c h . . .
u s e d a n d d i r e c t e d t h e m f o r t h e
r u i n o f t h e w o r l d a n d t h e i r o w n s e l v e s
."
Th i s , t h e n , w a s t h e s e c r e t f o r c e a t w o r k
b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d u s u a l l y
r e p r e s e n t e d t o u s a s t h e d a w n o f S o c i a l i s m
.
M a n yo f t h e m e n w h o h a v e g o n e d o w n t o
h i s t o r ya s t h e e a r l yS o c i a l i s t s , "
c h a m p i o n s
o f l i b e r t y, " a n d s o f o r t h , w e n t t o t h e Ha u t e
V e n t e f o r g u i d a n c e
;
S a i n t S i m o n , B a z a r d ,
B u o n a r o t t i c o n s u l t e d Nu b i u s " a f t e r t h e
m a n n e r o f a D e l p h i c o r a c l e ." Fr o m Ru s s i a
Co l o n e l Pe s t e l , o n e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l l e a d e r s
o f t h e D e k a b r i s t o u t b r e a k i n 1 82 5 , s e n t t o h i m
f o r o r d e r s
.L a t e r w e f i n d M a z z i n i , a l r e a d ya
Ca r b o n a r o , a s p i r i n g t o b e c o m e a m e m b e r o f
t h e Ha u t e V e n t e - a s u g g e s t i o n d i s m i s s e d
w i t h s c o r n b yNu b i u s . Fo r t h e m e t h o d s o f
t h e Ca r b o n a r i w e r e n o t t h o s e o f t h e Ha u t e
V e n t e , w h i c h h e l d t h a t t h e m i n d r a t h e r t h a n
t h e b o d ys h o u l d b e t h e p o i n t o f a t t a c k .
" Th e m u r d e r s o f w h i c h o u r p e o p l e r e n d e r
t h e m s e l v e s g u i l t y . ."
w r i t e s V i n d e x t o
Nu b i u s , " a r e f o r u s a s h a m e a n d a r e m o r s e
. . . w e a r e t o o a d v a n c e d t o c o n t e n t o u r -
2 6 0
APPEND I X
s e l v e s w i t h s u c h m e a n s . . . .Ou r p r e d e c e s -
s o r s i n Ca r b o n a r i s m d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r
p o w e r .
I t i s n o t i n t h e b l o o d o f a n i s o l a t e d
m a n o r e v e n o f a t r a i t o r t h a t i t m u s t b e
e x e r c i s e d ; i t i s o n t h e m a s s e s
. . . d o n o t l e t
u s m a k e m a r t yr s , b u t l e t u s p o p u l a r i s e v i c e
a m o n g s t t h e m u l t i t u d e s . L e t t h e m b r e a t h e
i t i n b yt h e i r f i v e s e n s e s , l e t t h e m d r i n k i t , l e t
t h e m b e s a t u r a t e d i n i t
. . . . I t i s c o r r u p -
t i o n e n m a s s e
t h a t w e h a v e u n d e r t a k e n ; t h e
c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e b yt h e c l e r g ya n d
t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e c l e r g yb yo u r s e l v e s , t h e
c o r r u p t i o n t h a t o u g h t o n e d a yt o p u t t h e
Ch u r c h i n h e r t o m b
. Th e b e s t d a g g e r w i t h
w h i c h t o s t r i k e t h e Ch u r c h i s c o r r u p t i o n .
To t h e w o r k , t h e n , e v e n t o t h e v e r ye n d ."
I t w a s t h u s t h a t M a z z i n i e x c i t e d t h e d e -
r i s i o n o f t h e Ha u t e V e n t e , f o r , a s Nu b i u s
o b s e r v e d t o B e p p o , a l l h i s d e c l a m a t i o n s o n
h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m , a n d s o o n -
" r e d u c e t h e m s e l v e s t o a f e w m i s e r a b l e
d e f e a t s o r t o a s s a s s i n a t i o n s s o v u l g a r t h a t I
s h o u l d s e n d a w a yo n e o f m yl a c q u e ys i f h e
p e r m i t t e d h i m s e l f t o g e t r i d o f o n e o f m y
e n e m i e s b ys u c h s h a m e f u l m e a n s . M a z z i n i
i s a d e m i - g o d t o f o o l s b yw h o m h e t r i e s t o
g e t h i m s e l f p r o c l a i m e d t h e p r o p h e t o f f r a -
t e r n i t y . . . .
I n t h e s p h e r e w h e r e h e a c t s
p o o r J o s e p h i s o n l yr i d i c u l o u s
; i n o r d e r t o
b e a c o m p l e t e w i l d b e a s t h e w i l l a l w a ys w a n t
f o r c l a w s . He i s t h e
b o u r g e o i s g e n t i l h o m m e
o f t h e s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s
."
M a z z i n i o n h i s p a r t S u s p e c t e d t h a t s e c r e t s
APPEND I X

2 6 1
w e r e b e i n g k e p t f r o m h i m b yt h e c h i e f s o f
t h e Ha u t e V e n t e , a n d M a l e g a r i , a s s a i l e d b y
t h e s a m e f e a r s , w r o t e f r o m L o n d o n t o D r .
B r e i d e n s t e i n t h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t w o r d s
" W e f o r m a n a s s o c i a t i o n o f b r o t h e r s i n a l l
- p o i n t s o f t h e g l o b e , w e h a v e d e s i r e s a n d
i n t e r e s t s i n c o m m o n , w e a i m a t t h e e m a n c i -
p a t i o n o f h u m a n i t y, w e w i s h t o b r e a k e v e r y
k i n d o f yo k e , ye t t h e r e i s o n e t h a t i s u n s e e n ,
t h a t c a n h a r d l yb e f e l t , ye t t h a t w e i g h s o n
u s .W h e n c e c o m e s i t ?
W h e r e i s i t ? No
o n e k n o w s , o r a t l e a s t n o o n e t e l l s
. Th e
a s s o c i a t i o n i s s e c r e t , e v e n f o r u s , t h e v e t e r a n s
o f s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s ."
He r e , t h e n , w e c a t c h a g l i m p s e o f t h e
m e c h a n i s m o f r e v o l u t i o n - t h e S o c i a l i s t s a n d
An a r c h i s t s l i k e a n i m a t e d m a r i o n e t t e s w a v i n g
t h e i r a r m s , d e c l a i m i n g , a n d a l l t h e w h i l e
p u l l e d b yw i r e s f r o m b e h i n d , h e l d i n t h e
h a n d s o f t h e i r s i n i s t e r d i r e c t o r s .
D o u b t l e s s
t h e S o c i a l i s t s i m a g i n e d t h a t t h e ym a d e t h e
r e v o l u t i o n o f 1 84 8 . Pi c c o l o Ti g r e c a n e n -
l i g h t e n u s f u r t h e r o n t h i s p o i n t
. On J a n -
u a r y5 t h , 1 84 6 , h e w r i t e s t o Nu b i u s
" Th e j o u r n e yI h a v e j u s t a c c o m p l i s h e d i n
Eu r o p e h a s b e e n a s f o r t u n a t e a n d a s p r o -
d u c t i v e a s I h a d h o p e d . He n c e f o r t h n o t h i n g
r e m a i n s b u t t o p u t o u r h a n d t o t h e t a s k i n
o r d e r t o r e a c h t h e d e n o u e m e n t o f t h e c o m e d y
.
.Th e h a r v e s t I h a v e r e a p e d h a s b e e n
a b u n d a n t . . . a n d i f I c a n b e l i e v e t h e n e w s
c o m m u n i c a t e d t o m e h e r e ( a t L i v o r n o ) w e
a r e a p p r o a c h i n g t h e e p o c h w e s o m u c h d e s i r e
.
2 6 2

APPEND I X
Th e f a l l o f t h r o n e s i s n o
l o n g e r a m a t t e r o f
d o u b t t o m e n o w t h a t I h a v e j u s t s t u d i e d
t h e w o r k o f o u r s o c i e t i e s i n Fr a n c e , i n
S w i t z e r l a n d , i n Ge r m a n y, a n d a s f a r a s
Ru s s i a .
Th e a s s a u l t w h i c h i n a f e w ye a r s ,
a n d p e r h a p s e v e n i n a f e w m o n t h s f r o m n o w ,
w i l l b e m a d e o n t h e p r i n c e s o f t h e e a r t h w i l l
b u r yt h e m b e n e a t h t h e w r e c k a g e o f t h e i r
i m p o t e n t a r m i e s a n d t h e i r d e c r e p i t t h r o n e s .
.
W h a t h a v e w e a s k e d i n r e t u r n f o r o u r
l a b o u r s a n d s a c r i f i c e s ? I t i s n o t a r e v o l u -
t i o n i n o n e c o u n t r yo r a n o t h e r
. Th a t c a n
a l w a ys b e m a n a g e d i f o n e w i s h e s i t
. I n
o r d e r t o k i l l t h e o l d w o r l d s u r e l y, w e h a v e
h e l d t h a t w e m u s t s t i f l e t h e Ca t h o l i c a n d
Ch r i s t i a n g e r m , a n d yo u w i t h t h e a u d a c i t y
o f g e n i u s h a v e o f f e r e d yo u r s e l f w i t h t h e
s l i n g o f a n e w D a v i d t o h i t o n t h e h e a d t h e
p o n t i f i c a l Go l i a t h ."
Tw o ye a r s l a t e r t h e r e v o l u t i o n b r o k e o u t
i n Pa r i s , a n d a s e v e r yb o o k o f h i s t o r yw i l l
t e l l u s , w a s o p e n l yd i r e c t e d b yt h e s e c r e t
s o c i e t i e s .
Th e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e
u n d e r g r o u n d c o n s p i r a c i e s a n d t h e s e c o n d
g r e a t o u t b r e a k o f w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n i s t h e r e -
f o r e n o t a m a t t e r o f s u r m i s e b u t o f h i s t o r i c a l
f a c t .- Y o u r s , e t c
., .
NES TA H. W EB S TER.
P.S .- Th e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f t h e Ha u t e
V e n t e q u o t e d a b o v e i s t a k e n f r o m
L 'Eg l i s e
Ro m a i n e e n f a c e d e l a Re v o l u t i o n ,
b yJ .
Cr e t i n e a u J o l y, w h o p u b l i s h e d t h e m f r o m
t h e a r c h i v e s o f t h e Ha u t e V e n t e .
APPEND I X

2 6 3
To t h e Ed i t o r o f 1 1 Th e M o r n i n g Po s t ."
S i R, - I n t h e f i f t h a r t i c l e o f t h e s e r i e s
" B e h i n d t h e Re d Cu r t a i n " t h e a u t h o r
s t a t e s t h a t M a r x f o u n d e d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l
W o r k i n g M e n 's As s o c i a t i o n
.M a yI b e a l -
l o w e d t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h i s i s p a yi n g t o o
m u c h h o n o u r t o M a r x ? Th e i d e a o f a n
I n t e r n a t i o n a l c o a l i t i o n o f l a b o u r o r i g i n a t e d
w i t h r e a l w o r k i n g m e n a n i m a t e d b yn o
d e s i r e f o r b l o o d yr e v o l u t i o n , a n d i t w a s n o t
u n t i l a f t e r t h e f a m o u s m e e t i n g a t S t .M a r t i n 's
Ha l l t h a t M a r x o b t a i n e d c o n t r o l o f t h e
m o v e m e n t .On t h i s p o i n t w e h a v e t h e
e v i d e n c e o f J a m e s Gu i l l a u m e , t h e c h r o n i c l e r
o f t h e As s o c i a t i o n , w h o w a s i n t i m a t e l y
a c q u a i n t e d w i t h i t s w o r k i n g s . " I t i s n o t
t r u e , " h e w r i t e s ,
"
t h a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e
w a s t h e c r e a t i o n o f K a r l M a r x .He r e m a i n e d
c o m p l e t e l yo u t s i d e t h e p r e p a r a t o r yw o r k
t h a t t o o k p l a c e f r o m 1 86 2 t o 1 86 4
.He
j o i n e d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e a t t h e m o m e n t
w h e n t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e En g l i s h a n d
Fr e n c h w o r k m e n h a d j u s t c r e a t e d i t .L i k e
t h e c u c k o o , h e c a m e a n d l a i d h i s e g g i n a
n e s t w h i c h ` w a s n o t h i s .Hi s p l a n f r o m t h e
f i r s t d a yw a s t o m a k e t h e g r e a t w o r k i n g -
m e n 's o r g a n i s a t i o n t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f h i s
p e r s o n a l v i e w s ."
( K a r l M a r x ,
Pa n - Ge r -
m a n i s t e , p .2 .) W h a t w e r e t h e s e v i e w s ?
Ac c o r d i n g t o M .Gu i l l a u m e t h e yw e r e Pa n -
Ge r m a n i s t , a n d yo u r c o r r e s p o n d e n t h a s
c l e a r l yi n d i c a t e d t h e s u p p o r t g i v e n b yM a r x
i
2 6 4

APPEND I X
t o Ge r m a n I m p e r i a l i s m .B u t h e a l s o g o e s
o n t o i n q u i r e w h e t h e r J e w i s h i n t e r e s t s m a y
n o t h a v e p l a ye d a p a r t i n M a r x 's p o l i c y, a n d
i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e f e u d b e t w e e n
M a r x a n d B a k u n i n . " Ca n i t b e , " h e a s k s ,
" t h a t t h e f i g h t - b e t w e e n S o c i a l i s t a n d An a r -
h i s t v e i l e d a n d _ c o v e r e d a n o t h e r f i g h t m o r e
e r c e a n d i n s t i n c t i v e - b e t w e e n S l a v a n d
J e w ? " No w - w e
k n o w t h a t B a k u n i n w a s
s t r o n g l ya n t i - Ge r m a n , a n d t h a t i t w a s t h e
Ge r m a n i s m o f I m p e r i a l Ru s s i a w h i c h i n -
s p i r e d m a n yo f h i s d i a t r i b e s a g a i n s t i t s
g o v e r n m e n t .'I t m i g h t t h e r e f o r e h a v e b e e n
o n t h i s a c c o u n t t h a t h e i n c u r r e d t h e h o s t i l i t y
o f M a r x
.Hi s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e J e w s ,
h o w e v e r , i s c l e a r l yd e f i n e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t
p a s s a g e .Th e l e t t e r i n w h i c h t h i s m a yb e
f o u n d i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n B a k u n i n 's c o r r e -
s p o n d e n c e , a n d w a s o n l yp u b l i s h e d f o r t h e
f i r s t t i m e i n 1 9 1 1 , s o t h a t I t h i n k i t m a yh a v e
e s c a p e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f yo u r c o r r e s p o n d e n t .
I t a p p e a r s t h a t B a k u n i n h a d b e e n a t t a c k e d
i n t h e Pa r i s p a p e r , L e Re v e i l , b y a Ge r m a n
J e w n a m e d M a u r i c e He s s , a n d i t w a s i n
r e p l yt o t h i s t h a t h e w r o t e h i s _ " p o l e m i q u e
c o n t r e l e s j u i f s " i n Oc t o b e r , 1 86 9 . B u t
B a k u n i n h a d e v i d e n t l yn o t o v e r e s t i m a t e d
t h e p o w e r o f t h e "
f o r m i d a b l e s e c t " t o w h i c h
h e r e f e r r e d , f o r h i s l e t t e r n e v e r s a w t h e l i g h t
u n t i l u n e a r t h e d b yt h e p u b l i s h e r s o f h i s
w o r k s f o r t y- t w o ye a r s l a t e r .Th i s i s t h e
p a s s a g e t o w h i c h I , r e f e r
" I b e g i n b yb e g g i n g yo u t o b e l i e v e t h a t
APPEND I X 2 6 5
I a m - i n n o w a yt h e e n e m yn o r t h e d e t r a c t o r
o f t h e J e w s
.Al t h o u g h I m a yb e c o n s i d e r e d
a c a n n i b a l , I d o n o t c a r r ys a v a g e r yt o t h a t
p o i n t , a n d I a s s u r e yo u t h a t i n m ye ye s a l l
n a t i o n s h a v e t h e i r w o r t h .Ea c h i s , m o r e o v e r ,
a n e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l yh i s t o r i c p r o d u c t , a n d i s
c o n s e q u e n t l yr e s p o n s i b l e n e i t h e r f o r i t s f a u l t s
n o r i t s m e r i t s .I t i s t h u s t h a t w e m a yo b -
s e r v e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e m o d e r n J e w s
t h a t t h e i r n a t u r e l e n d s i t s e l f l i t t l e t o f r a n k
S o c i a l i s m .Th e i r h i s t o r y, l o n g b e f o r e t h e
Ch r i s t i a n e r a , i m p l a n t e d i n t h e m a n e s s e n -
t i a l l ym e r c a n t i l e a n d b o u r g e o i s
t e n d e n c y,
w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t , c o n s i d e r e d a s a n a t i o n ,
t h e ya r e p a r e x c e l l e n c e t h e e x p l o i t e r s o f o t h e r
m e n 's w o r k , a n d t h e yh a v e a n a t u r a l h o r r o r
a n d f e a r o f t h e p o p u l a r m a s s e s , w h o m t h e y
d e s p i s e m o r e o v e r , w h e t h e r o p e n l yo r i n
s e c r e t .Th e h a b i t o f e x p l o i t a t i o n , w h i l s t
d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e e x p l o i t e r s ,
g i v e s i t a n e x c l u s i v e a n d d i s a s t r o u s b e n t a n d
q u i t e c o n t r a r yt o t h e i n t e r e s t s a s w e l l a s t o
t h e i n s t i n c t s o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t .I k n o w
t h a t i n e x p r e s s i n g w i t h t h i s f r a n k n e s s m y
i n t i m a t e o p i n i o n o n t h e J e w s I e x p o s e
m ys e l f t o e n o r m o u s d a n g e r s .M a n yp e o p l e
s h a r e i t , b u t v e r yf e w d a r e p u b l i c l yt o
e x p r e s s i t , f o r t h e J e w i s h s e c t , v e r ym u c h
m o r e f o r m i d a b l e t h a n t h a t o f t h e J e s u i t s ,
Ca t h o l i c o r Pr o t e s t a n t , c o n s t i t u t e s t o - d a ya
v e r i t a b l e p o w e r i n Eu r o p e .I t r e i g n s d e s -
p o t i c a l l yi n c o m m e r c e , i n t h e b a n k s , a n d i t
h a s i n v a d e d t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f Ge r m a n j o u r -
2 6 6

APPEND I X
n a l i s m a n d a v e r yc o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e
j o u r n a l i s m o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .W o e , t h e n , t o
h i m w h o h a s t h e c l u m s i n e s s t o d i s p l e a s e i t ! "
I n t h e s e w o r d s B a k u n i n e x p r e s s e s a p r o -
f o u n d t r u t h .Fe w , i f a n y, e d u c a t e d J e w s
b e l i e v e i n S o c i a l i s m .To s a yt h i s i s m e r e l y
t o p a ya t r i b u t e t o t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e .Th e
J e w i s e s s e n t i a l l ya r i s t o c r a t i c i n h i s o u t l o o k
- t h a t i s t o s a y, h e b e l i e v e s i n g o v e r n m e n t
b yt h e b e s t m e n ; h e k n o w s t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y
o f m o b r u l e , a n d h e h a s l e a r n t t h e l e s s o n o f
p a s t r e v o l u t i o n s a s w e , a l a s ! h a v e n e v e r
l e a r n t t h e m
.I t i s t h e r e f o r e p r o b a b l e t h a t
M a r x n e v e r b e l i e v e d a w o r d h e w r o t e o n t h e
" d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t " a n d t h e
o t h e r s h i b b o l e t h s h e h a d f i l c h e d f r o m e a r l i e r
r e v o l u t i o n a r yw r i t e r s a n d w h i c h h e u s e d t o
s t i r u p t h e w o r k e r s o f w h o m h e m a d e h i s
t o o l s
.I t i s t r u e t h a t i n t h e a b o v e q u o t e d
l e t t e r B a k u n i n s p e c i f i e s o n l y
" t h e c r o w d o f
J e w i s h p yg m i e s " a s t h e e x p l o i t e r s o f t h e
p e o p l e a n d e x e m p t s f r o m h i s s t r i c t u r e s " t h e
t w o J e w i s h g i a n t s , M a r x a n d L a s s a l l e ." B u t
B a k u n i n d i d n o t ye t k n o w M a r x . I t
w a s n o t u n t i l t h r e e ye a r s l a t e r , w h e n t h e
c l i q u e h e r e f e r s t o a s " t h e Ge r m a n J e w
c o m p a n y "
h a d t u r n e d h i m o u t o f t h e
I n t e r n a t i o n a l e ,
t h a t h e d i m l yr e a l i s e d t h e
d e p t h s o f M a r x 's p e r f i d y
.I n t h e w o r d s h e
t h e n w r o t e w e s e e h o w c o m p l e t e l yh e h a d
b e e n t h e d u p e o f t h i s s u b t l e r b r a i n
.Af t e r
p a yi n g t r i b u t e t o M a r x 's i n t e l l e c t , B a k u n i n
g o e s o n t o s a y
APPEND I X

2 6 7
" Th e r e w a s n e v e r a n y f r a n k i n t i m a c y
b e t w e e n u s .
Ou r t e m p e r a m e n t s
d i d
n o t
p e r m i t o f i t
.He c a l l e d m e a s e n t i m e n t a l
i d e a l i s t , a n d h e w a s r i g h t ; I c a l l e d h i m
v a i n , p e r f i d i o u s a n d c r a f t y, a n d I w a s r i g h t
t o o ." Al t h o u g h B a k u n i n s t i l l e n d e a v o u r s
t o b e l i e v e i n M a r x 's e n t i r e d e v o t i o n t o t h e
c a u s e o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t w h i c h " h e n e v e r
b e t r a ye d k n o w i n g l y, " h e i s o b l i g e d n e v e r -
t h e l e s s t o a d d , " ye t h e c o m p r o m i s e s i t
i m m e n s e l yt o - d a yb yh i s f o r m i d a b l e v a n i t y,
b yh i s m a l i g n a n t c h a r a c t e r , a n d b yh i s
t e n d e n c yt o d i c t a t o r s h i p e v e n i n t h e m i d s t
o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r yS o c i a l i s t Pa r t y
."
W h e t h e r , t h e r e f o r e , M a r x w a s a n a g e n t o f
t h e Ge r m a n Go v e r n m e n t o r o f t h e " f o r m i d -
a b l e s e c t " r e f e r r e d t o b yB a k u n i n , h e w a s
c e r t a i n l yn e v e r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e
w o r k e r s w h o h a d s t a r t e d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e .
I t w a s M a r x a n d n o t t h e w o r k e r s w h o
t r i u m p h e d .Th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e p e r i s h e d , b u t
M a r x 's p r o g r a m m e s u r v i v e d , a n d h a s s i n c e
t h e n b e e n c a r r i e d o u t " a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n ."
Th e Ru s s i a n Re v o l u t i o n w a s n o t t h e o u t c o m e
o f t h e Ru s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n a r ym o v e m e n t , o f
w h i c h t h e p r i n c i p a l l e a d e r s w e r e t h r o u g h o u t
t h e An a r c h i s t s , d i s c i p l e s o f B a k u n i n , o n
w h o m t h e B o l s h e v i k s t u r n e d t h e i r m a c h i n e
g u n s a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e i r r e i g n .Th e I r i s h
Re v o l u t i o n n o w i n p r o g r e s s i s n o t t h e r e s u l t
o f t h e I r i s h n a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t ; S i n n Fe i n
i s m e r e l yt h e t o o l o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l
o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r c a r r yi n g o u t t h e p l a n l a i d
2 6 8

APPEND I X
d o w n b yM a r x .As l o n g a g o a s 1 87 0t h i s
s e c r e t m e s s a g e w a s s e n t b yM a r x f r o m L o n d o n
t o t h e
I n t e r n a t i o n a l e i n Ge n e v a
1
.En g l a n d i s t h e o n l yc o u n t r yi n w h i c h a
r e a l S o c i a l i s t i c r e v o l u t i o n c a n b e m a d e .
2 .
Th e En g l i s h p e o p l e c a n n o t
m a k e t h i s
r e v o l u t i o n .
3
.Fo r e i g n e r s m u s t m a k e i t f o r t h e m .
4
.Th e f o r e i g n m e m b e r s , t h e r e f o r e , m u s t
r e t a i n t h e i r s e a t s a t t h e L o n d o n b o a r d .
5 .Th e p o i n t t o s t r i k e a t f i r s t i s I r e l a n d , a n d
i n I r e l a n d t h e ya r e r e a d yt o b e g i n t h e i r w o r k .
Th i s i s w h a t i s h a p p e n i n g t o - d a y .Th e
c h a o s n o w r e i g n i n g i n I r e l a n d i s s i m p l yt h e
p r e l u d e t o t h e s a m e c o n d i t i o n o f a f f a i r s i n
t h i s c o u n t r y .To c a u s e r e v o l u t i o n i n En g -
l a n d i s t h e f i r s t a n d m o s t e s s e n t i a l p o i n t i n
t h e p r o g r a m m e o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u -
t i o n a r i e s ." Ev e r yr e v o l u t i o n o n t h e Co n t i -
n e n t , " s a i d M a r x ,
" t h a t d o e s n o t s p r e a d t o
En g l a n d i s a s t o r m i n a t e a c u p ." I n o t h e r
w o r d s , En g l a n d i s t h e p i v o t o f t h e w o r l d 's
c i v i l i s a t i o n .I f En g l a n d g o e s t h e w h o l e
w o r l d g o e s w i t h h e r .M a r x w a s r i g h t i n h i s
s u r m i s e ; h e w a s r i g h t , t o o , i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t
En g l i s h w o r k i n g m e n w i l l n e v e r m a k e t h i s
r e v o l u t i o n .
" Fo r e i g n e r s m u s t m a k e i t f o r
t h e m ." Th e ya r e m a k i n g i t n o w .S h a l l
w e a l l o w t h e m t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r w o r k ?
I t s e e m s t o m e , t h e n , t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n
r e s o l v e s i t s e l f i n t o t h i s
.An i m m e n s e r e v o -
l u t i o n a r ym a c h i n e e x i s t s , a n d h a s l o n g e x -
i s t e d , b u t n o w a l l " t h e p a r t s h a v e b e e n
APPEND I X

2 6 9
p e r f e c t e d , e v e r y c o g i s
c o m p l e t e . Y o u r
c o r r e s p o n d e n t h a s ;
a d m i r a b l yd e s c r i b e d t h e
p r o c e s s o f i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n
.Y e t I d o n o t
t h i n k i t c a n b e a s c r i b e d t o o n e r a c e o n l y ;
m a n yh a n d s h a v e w o r k e d a t i t - Fr e n c h ,
I t a l i a n , Ru s s i a n , v e r yf e w En g l i s h , b u t m a n y
Ge r m a n a n d J e w i s h - a n d a l l t h e s e i n t u r n
h a v e t a k e n p a r t i n i t s m a n i p u l a t i o n .B u t
f r o m 1 87 2 o n w a r d s t h i s f o r m i d a b l e e n g i n e o f
d e s t r u c t i o n h a s b e e n m a i n l yi n t h e h a n d s o f
a s e c t i o n o f Ge r m a n s a n d J e w s , a n d i t i s
t h e yw h o n o w c o n t r o l i t s w o r k i n g s .Th e
e s s e n t i a l t h i n g t h e r e f o r e i s n o t m e r e l yt o
i n d i c a t e t h e m e c h a n i c i a n s , b u t t o s m a s h t h e
m a c h i n e i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e w h o l e h u m a n
r a c e .Fo r t h i s m a c h i n e w i l l d e s t r o yn o t
o n l yt h o s e a g a i n s t w h o m i t i s d i r e c t e d , b u t
t h o s e b yw h o m i t i s h a n d l e d ; n o p r o v i s i o n
h a s b e e n m a d e f o r t h e r e c o i l , a n d " t h e i r o n
b a t t a l i o n s o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , " f i n d i n g t h e m -
s e l v e s d u p e d , w i l l t u r n i n f u r yo n t h e m e n
w h o d r o v e t h e m f o r w a r d t o d e s t r u c t i o n
.I n
w a r n i n g t h e w o r l d o f t h e c o n s p i r a c ya t w o r k
t h e
M o r n i n g Po s t i s r e n d e r i n g a n i m m e n s e
s e r v i c e t o c i v i l i s a t i o n , a n d t h o s e w h o t u r n a
d e a f e a r m a yl i v e t o r e p e n t t h e i r f o l l yw h e n
t h e yf i n d t h e m s e l v e s
e n g u l p h e d .i n t h e c h a o s
o f w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n
.- Y o u r s , e t c .,
NES TAH.W EB S TER
.
J u l y1 7 t h , 1 9 2 0
.
W .H.S M I TH& S ON
S TAM FORD S TREET
L OND ON, S .E .1
Th e f u l l t e x t o f t h e . Pr o t o c o l s w h i c h a r e s o
o f t e n q u o t e d i n t h i s b o o k i s p u b l i s h e d u n d e r
t h e t i t l e o f " Th e J e w i s h Pe r i l " b yTh e B r i t o n s ,
6 2 Ox f o r d S t r e e t , L o n d o n , W
.
Pr i c e 3 s .n e t .
I
1
i