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glu tkosn [kku foKku izlkj

foKku izlkj

fo"k; lwph

Hkwfedk

vii

izkDdFku

ix

1-

ioZr & vewY; fufèk

1

2

ioZrkas dh jpuk

14

3-

tyok;q ij izHkko

30

4-

ioZrkas dk ladV

39

5-

ioZrkas dh gkfu

53

6-

Hkkjr ds ioZr

70

7-

ioZrkas dh lqj{kk

83

lanHkZ

96

'kCnkFkZ&lwph

97

Hkwfedk

tgka rd ge tkurs gSa i`Foh gh ,dek=k ,slk xzg gS ftl ij thou gSA bl xzg ij tkuoj] ikSèks rFkk lw{e tho thou ds vusd :iksa ds lkFk uktqd larqyu cukrs gSa] ftUgsa ge tSo fofoèkrk dgrs gSaA gj iztkfr vius vfLrRo ds fy, vU; iztkfr ij fuHkZj jgrh gSA fuf'pr rkSj ij] tc ge i`Foh ij thou dh

ckr djrs gSa rks ge ekuo iztkfr dh ckr Hkh djrs gSaA ;fn ge vius i;kZoj.k

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dks le>uk vkSj mls lajf{kr j[kuk pkgrs gaS rks gesa iztkfr;ksa dh ,d&nwljs

ij fuHkZjrk rFkk thfor izkf.k;ksa ds fy, gok] ikuh vkSj feV~Vh tSls izkÑfrd lalkèkukas ds egRo dks le>uk gksxkA

bl èkjrh ij thou dks fodflr gksus rFkk cnyrs ifjos'k ds lkFk vuqdwfyr gksus eas yk[kka&djks sM+kas o"kZ yx x,A dsoy os iztkfr;ka gh cp ikb± tks cnyrs ifjos'k ds lkFk vuqdwfyr gks ikb±A gks ldrk gS fd ;g ifjorZu Hkwdai] Tokykeqf[k;kas ds QVus] pØokr bR;kfn izkÑfrd dkj.kkas ds pyrs iSnk gqvk gksA ysfdu] i;kZoj.k eas ;g ifjorZu mu iztkfr;kas }kjk Hkh yk;k tkrk gS tks fodkl dh lh<+h eas dkQh Åij gaAS os i;kZoj.k dks viuh t:jrkas vkSj fodkl ds fy, fu;af=kr djus dh dksf'k'k djrh gaAS ;gh dke ekuo iztkfr us gekjs bl uktqd xzg ds lkFk fd;k gS( vkSj ;g izfØ;k vc Hkh tkjh gSA

geas fodkl ds fy, ÅtkZ pkfg,] ftls ijaijkxr :i ls ge ydM+h] dks;yk rFkk isVªksfy;e tSls izkÑfrd lalkèkukas ds ngu }kjk izkIr djrs gaAS lfn;kas ls ge

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bu lalkèkukas dk ngu ÅtkZ lacaèkh viuh vko';drkvkas dh iwfrZ ds fy, dj jgs gaAS vkt bl ckjs eas rks ,d jk; gS fd thok'e b±èkukas dks tykus dh izo`fÙk rFkk mlds QyLo:i dkcZu MkbvkWDlkbM tSlh vU; xzhugkml xSlkas dks ok;qeaMy eas NksM+us tSlh ekuo xfrfofèk;ka gh i`Foh dks xeZ] vkSj vfèkd xeZ cuk nsus ds fy, dkQh gn rd ftEesnkj jgh gaAS tyok;q ifjorZu] i;kZoj.k dk Ðkl] iztkfr;kas ds foyksiu dh c<+rh nj] is;ty dh ?kVrh miyCèkrk] lkxj rd igqpua s ls igys gh ufn;kas ds lw[kus] e`nk dh xq.koÙkk dk Ðkl rFkk mlds pyrs ?kVrh mitkÅ tehu] ÅtkZ ds ?kVrs lzksr] flj mBkrs jksxkas rFkk rsth ls c<+rh tual[;k ds Hkj.k&iks"k.k dh pqukSrh ls mRiUu [krjs vkt gekjs xzg ij eaMjk jgs gaAS ekuo tula[;k vc bruh vfèkd gks xbZ gS fd mlds thou ;kiu ds fy, vko';d lalkèkukas dh ekax miyCèk lalkèkukas ls dgha vfèkd gks jgh gSA bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd vkt ge pknj ls vf/kd iSj ilkj jgs gaAS ge i`Foh ds larqyu dks cuk, j[kus ds fy, vko';d ek=kk ls vf/kd izkd`frd lalk/kukas dk nksgu dj jgs gaAS

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bl fn'kk esa fo'o dk /;ku vkdf"kZr djus vkSj ;g crkus ds fy, fd i;kZoj.k og gS tgka ge jgrs gSa vkSj fodkl dks ,d u, ifjizs{; esa ns[kus o le>us dh dksf'k'k djus ds fy, la;qDr jk"Vª la?k us o"kZ 2008 dks ^i`Foh xzg o"kZ* ds :i esa eukus dh ?kks"k.kk dh gSA ;g vk'kk dh tkrh gS fd ge lHkh ds lg;ksx ls bl xzg ij thou vkSj tSo fofo/krk cuh jgsxhA blh mís'; dks ysdj varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij vusd dk;ZØe o xfrfof/k;ksa dk vk;kstu fd;k tk jgk gSA bldk ,d egRoiw.kZ mís'; mifLFkr pqukSfr;ksa ds ckjs esa tuekul esa tkx:drk ykus rFkk bl xzg dks Hkkoh [krjkas ls cpkus ds fy, laHkkfor mik;ksa dks <aw<+us esa enn djuk gSA blh mís'; dks ysdj foKku izlkj us xfrfofèk;ksa ij vk/kkfjr dk;ZØe ^i`Foh xzg* vkjaHk fd;k gSA bl dk;ZØe ds varxZr ^i`Foh xzg* fo"k; ls lacafèkr fofoèk lkW¶Vos;jksa dk fodkl] Ldwyksa@dkWystksa ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa rFkk vke turk esa tkx:drk ds fy, jsfM;ks ,oa Vsyhfotu dk;ZØe rFkk ljdkjh ,oa xSj&ljdkjh ,tafl;ks a@ls aLFkkvkas ds lg;ksx ls lalkèku O;fDr;kas dk izf'k{k.k vkfn 'kkfey gSA

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dk

foKku lapkjdka]s foKku Dycka]s lalk/ku O;fDr;kas vkSj O;fDrxr Lrj ij Lokxr

gksdj bl uktqd fuokl LFky ;kuh i`Foh xzg dks

cpkus ds fy, dk;Z vkjEHk fd, tk,axsA

fd;k tk,xk ,oa muls isfjrz

ge ;g vk'kk djrs gaS fd ^i`Foh xzg* ls lacaf/kr izdk'kukas dh Üka[kyk`

fou;fou;fou;fou;fou; ch-ch-ch-ch-ch- dkEcydkEcydkEcysdkEcydkEcy funs'kd] foKku izlkj ubZ fnYyh

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izLrkouk

ioZr gj fdlh dks viuh vksj vkdf"kZr djrs gaAS Åaps ioZr izkÑfrd lqanjrk dk cks/k djkrs ga]S lkFk gh os lSj likVs o vkeksn&izeksn ds fy, je.khd LFky Hkh gaAS izR;sd o"kZ fgeikr dk lekpkj lqudj vklikl ds LFkkukas ls cM+h

la[;k eas yksx ioZrkas dh vksj vkÑ"V gksrs gaAS fgeikr dks ns[kuk] cQZ ls [ksyuk vkSj

cQZ ij fofHké [ksykas dk vk;kstu dj [ksyuk&dwnuk vius vki eas vkuannk;d o

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;knxkj {k.k gksrs gaAS

ioZrkas dh lqanjrk vlhfer gksrh gSA os ty] ÅtkZ rFkk tSo fofo/krk ds egRoiw.kZ Lkzksr gksrs gaAS fofHké izdkj ds vkd"kZd vkSj nqyHkZ izk.kh o ouLifr;ka dsoy ioZrkas eas gh feyrs gSAa os vusd izdkj ds jlk;uka]s [kfutka]s Ñf"k o ouksRiknkas ds Hkh Lkzksr gaAS lalkj dh 10 izfr'kr tula[;k ioZrkas ds Lkzksrkas ij gh fuHkZj djrh gSA blds vfrfjDr lSj&likVs] NqfV~V;ka fcrkus vkSj vU; izdkj ds euksjatu ds fy, ioZr vuks[ks vkuannk;d LFky gksrs gaAS gekjh i`Foh ds bl tfVy vkSj ijLij lacaf/kr izeq[k ikfjfLFkfrdh ra=k ds #i eas ioZrkas dk i;kZoj.k oSf'od ikfjfLFkfrd ra=k ds vfLrRo ds fy, vko';d gSA

ioZrkas dh vykSfdd rFkk uSlfxZd lqnjrka dks fudV ls >kadus ij vkidks mudk {kr&fo{kr :i fn[kkbZ nsxkA vkt ioZrkas dks ekuo ls xaHkhj [krjs dh vk'kadk gSA ioZrkas dk ikfjra=k fujarj cny jgk gSA vfu;af=kr i;ZVu ds dkj.k c<+rh tula[;k ds ncko] rsth ls cnyrh oSf'od tyok;q vkSj ioZr lEink ds vR;fèkd

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nksgu ls ioZrksa ds ikfjra=k ij cqjk izHkko iM+k gS] ftlds dkj.k Hkw&L[kyu] e`nk vijnu ds lkFk gh thoksa ds vkokl vkSj vkuqoaf'kd fofo/krk dk {kj.k gqvk gSA blds QyLo#i fo'o Hkj esa ioZrh; {ks=kksa ds i;kZoj.k dk Hkh fujarj Ðkl gks jgk gSA

vf/kdka'k ioZrh; yksx rduhd rFkk fo'ks"kKrk ds vHkko eas i;ZVu ls fo'ks"k ykHk ugha mBk ikrsA va/kk/kqa/k fodkl ds dkj.k ;s yksx nwj&njkt ioZrh; {ks=k eas tkus ds fy, etcwj gks tkrs gaAS lR; rks ;g gS fd lalkj ds yxHkx 80 djksM+ dqiksf"kr yksxkass eas vfèkdka'k ioZrkas ds gh fuoklh gSAa gkf'k, ij igqap tkus ds dkj.k ogka ds yksxkas dh LFkkuh; laLÑfr rFkk Kku dks Hkkjh {kfr igqaph gSA

izkFkfedrk ds lkFk ioZrkas ds fodkl ds fy, ,d larqfyr iz;kl dh vko';drk gSA dsoy fo'ks"kKkas dks gh ugha vfirq vke tu dks Hkh ioZrh; i;kZoj.k

ds gzkl ls lacaf/kr eqn~nkas dh tkudkjh gksuh t#jh gS rkfd os ioZrkas ds [kks, gq,

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lkan;S Z dks iqu% latks ldaAs

bl iqLrd eas iz;Ru fd;k x;k gS fd ikBdkas dks fofHké izdkj ds ioZrka]s muds fuekZ.k] ekuo tkfr dks muls feyus okys vla[; ykHkka]s ioZrkas ds i;kZoj.k dks ekuo dh xfrfof/k;kas ls gksus okys [krjka]s iwjh ekuork ij blds dqizHkko vkSj varr% bldks jksdus ds fy, D;k iz;kl fd, tk jgs gaS vkfn ds ckjs eas mfpr Kku ds lkFk&lkFk tkx#drk iSnk dh tk ldsA

glugluglugluglu tkosntkosntkosntkosntkosn [kku[kku[kku[kku[kku

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1 1 ioZr & vewY; fufèk iz Ñfr eas ioZrkas tSls vkd"kZd o n'kZuh; LFky

1

1

ioZr & vewY; fufèk

iz Ñfr eas ioZrkas tSls vkd"kZd o n'kZuh; LFky de gh gaAS rSjrs gq, cknykas ds chp cQZ ls <dh gqbZ Åaph&Åaph ioZrekyk,a eu dks eksg ysrh gaAS ioZrkas dk

vkd"kZ.k lnSo vnHkqr gksrk gSA nsoLo:i o iwtuh; ioZr foLe;dkjh o lkan;S Z ls

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Hkjiwj gksrs gaS vkSj lSj&likVs ds fy, vkdf"kZr djrs gaAS 29 ebZ 1953 dks U;wthyaMS

ds ,MoMZ fgysjh o usiky ds rsuftax uksjxs us loZizFke fgeky; dh pksVh ekmaV ,ojsLV ij fot; irkdk Qgjk;hA 29]028 QhV yach lalkj dh ;g lcls Åaph pksVh gS ftldh fot; fdlh ds fy, Hkh xoZ dk fo"k; gks ldrh gSA fgysjh us bls ßvfr lqanj le:i fge 'kadq** crk;kA

10 o"kk±s ds i'pkr~] 22 ebZ 1963 eas us'kuy ft;ksxzkQh ds Nk;kdkj o HkwfoKkuh csjh th- fo'ki vkSj muds ny ds lg;ksxh tks us'kuy ft;ksxzkfQd lkslk;Vh dh vksj ls vk;ksftr vfHk;ku ds varxZr bl ioZr f'k[kj ij igapuq s okys izFke vesfjdh ukxfjd FksA f'k[kj ij igqaps csjh fo'ki mRlkfgr rks Fks fdarq jkLrs eas feys dpjs ds <sj us mudks fu#Rlkfgr Hkh fd;kA mUgkaus s dgk] ß,ojsLV lalkj dk lcls Åapk dpjk x`g gS**A

ekmaV ,ojsLV ioZrkjksg.k ds nkSjku Qads s x, midj.kka]s Hkkstu ds [kkyh fMCcka]s nokb;ka] flfjat] IykfLVd fMCcs] diM+s] dkxt] vkWDlhtu dh cksrya]s fctyh

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2

2 ioZrksa ij ladV ds la;a=k vkSj ;gka rd fd ekuo 'kokas dk vPNk [kklk HkaMkj

ioZrksa ij ladV

ds la;a=k vkSj ;gka rd fd ekuo 'kokas dk vPNk [kklk HkaMkj gSA fdlh Hkh lQy vfHk;ku ds varxZr dksbZ Hkh ioZrkjksgh Vhe vuqekur% 500 fdyksxzke dpjk NksM+ vkrh gS ftldk cgqr FkksM+k&lk Hkkx gh lM+&xy ikrk gSA

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ioZr vusd ufn;kas dk mn~xe lzksr gSa

,MeaM fgysjh tks ekmaV ,ojsLV ds loZizFke fotsrk FksA mUgkaus s ,ojsLV ds fcxM+rs i;kZoj.k rFkk i;ZVu ls 'ksjikvkas ds thou o laLÑfr dks gksus okyh bl {kfr ij vius fopkj O;Dr fd,A

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ioZr & vewY; fufèk

ioZr & vewY; fufèk 3 lj fØl cksfuaxVu ftUgkaus lu~ 1975 eas ,ojsLV ds nf{k.k&if'peh Hkkx

3

lj fØl cksfuaxVu ftUgkaus lu~ 1975 eas ,ojsLV ds nf{k.k&if'peh Hkkx okys vfHk;ku dk usr`Ro fd;k Fkk] us dgk fd ;g vfr lqanj izkÑfrd lkSUn;Z dpjs ds dkj.k {kfrxzLr gks jgk gSA geas bl fLFkfr ls fuiVuk gksxkA

bl fo"k; eas ekmaV ,ojsLV gh viokn ugha gS cfYd vU; ioZrkas dh Hkh ;gh leL;k gSA mnkgj.k ds :i eas tkiku eas izfro"kZ yxHkx 2]00]000 yksx ekmaV Qwth ij dpjs dk <sj NksM+ vkrs gaAS ioZrkjksgh] VSdjª vkfn eq[; :i ls bl dpjs ds fy, yxHkx iwjh rjg ftEesnkj gaAS dsu ukWxqph 25 o"kZ dh vk;q eas lkrkas egk}hikas ds lokZPps ioZr f'k[kjkas ij fot; ikus okys lcls ;qok ioZrkjksgh FksA og ioZr Üka[kykvk` as ij p<+ dj lQkbZ vfHk;ku pykus eas lQy gq,A blh izdkj vusd vfHk;ku lalkj ds fofHké Hkkxkas eas pyk, tk jgs gaAS

ioZrh; i;ZVu dks gh dsoy ioZrkas dh ikfjfLFkfrdh ij nq"izHkko dk

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dkj.k ugha ekuk tk ldrk gSA fiNys dqN o"kks± esa ioZrksa dh ikfjfLFkfrdh esa

tks fo?kVu gqvk gS mlds fy, eq[; :i ls ekuoh; xfrfof/k;ka o va/kk/kqa/k fodkl gh mÙkjnk;h gSaA fo'o esa vusd jk"Vªksa dh ljdkjas ioZrh; i;ZVu ls gksus okyh vk; ij fopkj djds ioZrksa ds lhfer lalkèkuksa ij vfrfjDr ncko Mky jgh gaSA ,d vksj ouksa dks dkV dj gksVy vkfn cu jgs gSa rks nwljh vksj ou lEink ¼ydM+h vkfn½ dk i;ZVdksa dh lqfo/kk gsrq b±èku ds :i esa mi;ksx djus ls ioZrksa dk okrkoj.k nwf"kr gks jgk gSA

ioZrkas dk ikfjfLFkfrdh ra=k vR;ar uktqd gksrk gS rFkk rkieku eas cnyko Hkh mls dkQh izHkkfor djrk gSA thok'e b±/kukas ds va/kkèkaèkq mi;ksx ds dkj.k fo'o Hkj dh tyok;q eas ifjorZu gks jgk gS ftlls Xysf'k;j ;kuh fgeun rsth ls fi?ky jgs gaAS bl dkj.k yk[kkas yksxkas ds fy, 'kq) ty dh deh dk [krjk iSnk gks x;k gSA blh izdkj vU; ekuoh; fodkl dk;k±s tSls Ñf"k rFkk oukas ds fodkl gsrq lalkèkukas dk nksgu Hkh ok;qe.Myh; rki dks c<+krk gSA

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4

4 ioZrksa ij ladV ysfdu] ioZrkas ds ok;qe.My ij nq"izHkko dh ge D;kas vf/kd fpark dja\s

ioZrksa ij ladV

ysfdu] ioZrkas ds ok;qe.My ij nq"izHkko dh ge D;kas vf/kd fpark dja\s ekuo vusd 'krkfCn;kas ls ioZrkas dk nksgu dj jgk gS] fQj Hkh os ekStwn gaAS laHkor% ioZrkas eas Loa;&fuokjd gksus dh vikj {kerk gSA ysfdu] ioZrkas ds i;kZoj.k eas vc vR;fèkd cnyko dh fLFkfr eas vusd ioZrh; iztkfr;kas dks ifjfLFkfr;kas ds vuqlkj vuqdwy gksus dk le; gh ugha feyrk gaAS QyLo#i vusd ioZrh; iztkfr;ka u"V gks pqdh gSAa bls HkyhHkkafr le>us ds fy, igys geas ioZrkas dh vfu;fer vPNkb;kas ds izfr tkx:d gksuk pkfg,A

ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr ghghghghgh D;ksa\D;ksa\D;ksa\D;ksa\D;ksa\

ioZrkas dk ikfjfLFkfrdh ra=k oSf'od #i ls vR;ar egRoiw.kZ ekuk tkrk gSA /kjrh ds dqy {ks=kQy dk vkSlru ikapoka Hkkx ioZrkas ls f?kjk gSA ,f'k;k dk 54 izfr'kr] mÙkjh vesfjdk dk 36 izfr'kr] ;wjksi dk 25 izfr'kr] nf{k.kh vesfjdk dk 22 izfr'kr] vkLVsfy;kª dk 17 izfr'kr rFkk vÝhdk dk 3 izfr'kr HkwHkkx ioZrh; gSA

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dqy feyk dj i`Foh dk yxHkx 24 izfr'kr Hkkx ioZrh; gSA

ioZrkas ij fofHké ÅapkbZ;ka ikfjfLFkfrdh eas fofo/krk ykrh gSa tks ekuo rFkk vusd izkf.k;kas rFkk ouLifr;kas dh 'kj.kLFkyh Hkh curh gSAa vusd i'kq iztkfr;kas dk muds ewY;oku mRiknkas dks ikus gsrq f'kdkj fd;k tk jgk gSA blds lkFk gh vusd LFkkfud rFkk nqyZHk iztkfr;ka Hkh ioZrksa ij ikbZ tkrh gSa rFkk cgqewY; ouLifr;ka Hkh ioZrkas ij gksrh gSa ftudk mi;ksx [kk| o vkS"kfèk ds fy, gksrk gSA vuqekur% izR;sd 10 eas ls ,d ekuo ioZrksa ij jgrk gSA tks ekuo leqnk; ioZrkas eas cl x, ga]S mUgkaus s ogka ds fujarj cnyrs gq, i;kZoj.k eas vius thou dks vuqdwy cuk fy;k gSA

ioZr dsoy ioZrh; yksxkas vkSj ogka jgus okys fofo/k thoksa dh 'kj.kLFkyh gh ugha gS vfirq os vius vki eas vewY; izkÑfrd laink lesVs gq, gSAa muls feyus okys vusd [kfut inkFkZ] ydM+h rFkk ty uhps ds eSnkukas eas Hkh thou dh vko';drk iwjh djrs gSA pfy, ge fo'o Hkj ds ioZrkas }kjk geas nh tk jgh cgqewY; lsokvkas ij utj Mkyas vkSj tkuas fd D;kas ekuork ds fy, ioZr brus egRoiw.kZ gaAS

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ioZr & vewY; fufèk

ioZr & vewY; fufèk 5 tytytytyty lainklainklainklainklaink èkjrh dh lrg ij ik, tkus okys dqy ikuh

5

tytytytyty lainklainklainklainklaink

èkjrh dh lrg ij ik, tkus okys dqy ikuh dk 80 izfr'kr Hkkx ioZrkas eas gksrk gSA fo'o dh vusd ufn;ka ioZrkas ls fudyrh gSAa ioZrh; ty laink dsoy ogka ds LFkkuh; fuokfl;kas ds fy, gh ugha vfirq /kjrh dh vk/kh tula[;k dks Hkh ty miyC/k djkrh gSA

vfirq /kjrh dh vk/kh tula[;k dks Hkh ty miyC/k djkrh gSA www.ApniHindi.com fgeky; ioZr {ks=k esa

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fgeky; ioZr {ks=k esa f[kyk nqyHkZ czgedey

ioZrkas dk ty pØ eas fo'ks"k egRo gksrk gSA ioZr ok;qe.My ls vknZrkz dks lks[k ysrs gaS tks cQZ ;k fge ds :i eas cjlrh gSA ;gh fge] olar o xzh"e _rq eas ty eas ifjofrZr gksdj vkS|ksfxd o vU; dk;k±s ds fy;s ml le; miyCèk gksrk gS tc o"kkZ de gksrh gSA bl ;qx ftleas fd ty dh vkiwfrZ lhfer gS rFkk ty dh izkfIr ds fy;s ;q) dh Hkh laHkkouk gS] ioZr u dsoy i;kZoj.k lqj{kk cfYd HkwjktuSfrd n`f"V ls Hkh egRoiw.kZ gSAa

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6

6 ioZrksa ij ladV ÅtkZÅtkZÅtkZÅtkZÅtkZ ioZr LFkkuh; fuokfl;kas ds lkFk gh fupys eSnkuh {ks=kkas ds fy,

ioZrksa ij ladV

ÅtkZÅtkZÅtkZÅtkZÅtkZ

ioZr LFkkuh; fuokfl;kas ds lkFk gh fupys eSnkuh {ks=kkas ds fy, Hkh vikj ÅtkZ ds HkaMkj gaAS ioZrkas eas eq[; :i ls ty ÅtkZ] b±èku gsrq ydM+h] lkSj rFkk iou ÅtkZ izpqj ek=kk eas ikbZ tkrh gSA

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ioZr ty&fo|qr~~ ÅtkZ dk eq[; Lkzksr gS

ioZr ty&fo|qr~~ ÅtkZ dk eq[; Lkzksr gS ftldk mi;ksx eSnkuh Hkkxksa esa vf/kd gksrk gSA izkphu dky ls iupDdh dk mi;ksx ioZrh; {ks=kksa esa ÅtkZ izkfIr fo'ks"kdj vkVk ihlus ds fy, gksrk jgk gSA usiky ds xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa vuqekur% 25]000 iu pfDd;ka rFkk 900 ls vf/kd fo|qr~~ pkfyr iu pfDd;ksa dk mi;ksx Ñf"k laca/kh dk;ks± gsrq ÅtkZ iznku djus esa gksrk gSA ;g ty ÅtkZ mu fo'ks"k Hkkxksa esa ÅtkZ dk Lkzksr cu vFkZO;oLFkk dk fodkl djrh gS tgka iz;kZIr thok'e b±/ku miyCèk ugha gksrk gSA

ydMh b±èku] ioZrkas ij gh ugha vU; fupys LFkkukas o 'kgjkas esas Hkh vR;Ur mi;ksxh gSA tSob±/ku ¼eq[;r% ydM+h½ ioZrkas ds oukas ls gh izkIr gksrs gSAa ydM+h

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ioZr & vewY; fufèk

ioZr & vewY; fufèk 7 b±èku dk fujarj mi;ksx ioZrkas ds ouksUewyu dk dkj.k cu eq[;

7

b±èku dk fujarj mi;ksx ioZrkas ds ouksUewyu dk dkj.k cu eq[; :i ls fgeky; dh rjkbZ ds {ks=k eas ioZrkas ij e`nk dk dVko Hkh djrh gSA

/kkrq/kkrq/kkrq/kkrq/kkrq ooooo [kfut[kfut[kfut[kfut[kfut

izÑfr ds ftu dkj.kksa us ioZrksa dks yk[kksa o"kks± iwoZ LFkkfir fd;k mUgksaus gh ioZrksa esa /kkrq] [kfut rFkk vU; ewY;oku iRFkjksa dks Hkh ogka latks;kA vkt ioZr Ük`a[kyk,a vius xHkZ esa lalkj ds eq[; HkaMkj ds :i esa vusd [kfut rFkk /kkrq,a tSls Lo.kZ] rkack] yksgk] pkanh] tLrk vkfn dks lesVs gq, gSA rduhdh fodkl rFkk ekax ds vuqlkj vkSj vf/kd ek=kk esa ioZrkas ds xHkZ ls ;g cgqewY; HkaMkj fudkyk tk jgk gSA

tSotSotSotSotSo fofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krk

izk;% Åaph ioZr Üka[kykvk`

as dh tyok;q BaMh o ogka Hkkstu lhfer gksrk gSA blfy,

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ogka ij i'kqvkas rFkk ouLifr;kas dh de iztkfr;ka gh feyrh gaAS ioZr mPpLrjh;

rFkk ouLifr;kas dh de iztkfr;ka gh feyrh gaAS ioZr mPpLrjh; ioZr vkS"k/kh; ouLifr;ksa ls laiUu {ks=k

ioZr vkS"k/kh; ouLifr;ksa ls laiUu {ks=k gksrs gSa

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8

8 ioZrksa ij ladV tSo fofo/krk fy, vutku Vkiw dh rjg gksrs gaS ftueas ls vusd

ioZrksa ij ladV

tSo fofo/krk fy, vutku Vkiw dh rjg gksrs gaS ftueas ls vusd eas euq"; dh n[kyankth ugha gks ik;h gSA ioZr vusd i'kqvkas rFkk ouLifr;kas ds 'kj.kLFky cus gq, ga]S ftudk fupys {ks=k eas ekuo ds va/kkèkqaèk fodkl us u"V dj fn;k gSA

fdlh Hkh ioZrh; {ks=k ij ÅapkbZ vFkok rkieku ds vuqlkj fofHké ikfjfLFkfrdh {ks=k gksrs gSAa dgha ij ?kus taxy] dgha ij dqN gh fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij fge unh ik;h tkrh gSA fdlh Hkh ioZr ds uhps ls Åij dh vksj tkus ij fofHké izdkj dh ouLifr;ka feyrh gSAa fupys LFkkukas ij ouLifr dk ik;k tkuk ioZr dh Lrjh; tyok;q ij fuHkZj djrk gSA fupys {ks=k eas izk;% pkSM+h iÙkh ds o`{kkas ds ou

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ioZr vusd ouLifr;ksa vkSj thoksa dh lqjf{kr 'kj.kLFkyh gSaA

feyrs gaS tcfd FkksM+k Åij ds <ykukas ij lqbZ uqek iÙkh ds vkdkj ds o`{k ¼phM vkfn½ ik, tkrs gaAS vkSj vf/kd Åij tkus ij vR;f/kd BaMs tyok;q {ks=k eas dsoy dqN gh izdkj dh ?kkl gks ikrh gSA ioZrkas ds f'k[kj ij ouLifr ugha ik;h tkrh gS rFkk dksjs pV~Vkuh f'k[kj dsoy cQZ ls <ds jgrs gaAS

ioZrksa ij vusd nqyZHk i'kq&iztkfr;ka ns[kus dks feyrh gSaA mnkgj.k ds :i easa jokUMk rFkk ;qxkaMk ds Tokykeq[kh ioZrksa ij lalkj ds dqN cps gq,

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ioZr & vewY; fufèk

ioZr & vewY; fufèk 9 ¼yxHkx 300½ ioZrh; xkSfjYyk ik, tkrs gaSA foyqIrizk; fge rsanq, Hkh

9

¼yxHkx 300½ ioZrh; xkSfjYyk ik, tkrs gaSA foyqIrizk; fge rsanq, Hkh cQhZyh igkfM+;ksa esa vius f'kdkj vkbcsDl o Vkgj ds lkFk ik;s tkrs gSaA blh izdkj vusd 'kkunkj i{kh tSls fd lqugjh ckt] fx)] ,Yik;u fLo¶V] nk<+h okyk fx) vkfn Hkh ogka vius f'kdkj ihdk rFkk ekjeksV ds lkFk ik;s tkrs gSaA ogka ds LFkkuh; i'kqvksa us vius dks ;gka dh fo"ke ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuqdwy cuk fy;k gSA buesa ls vusd i'kqvksa dh jks,ankj [kky gksrh gSA ioZrh; HksaM+ o

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Åaps ioZr ij ik, tkus okyk fge rsanqvk

cdfj;ksa ds irys o QqrhZys ikao mudks fQlyu Hkjh p<+kb;ksa ij p<+us esa lgk;d gksrs gaSA

lfn;kas ls vyx&vyx jgus ds dkj.k fo'ks"k iztkfr ds i'kq ,d fo'ks"k ioZr

ds {ks=k eass gh jgrs gaAS ,slh dbZ iztkfr;ka gS tks ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh ds fy,

Üka[kyk`

LFkkfud gksrh gaAS

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10 tyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;q
10
tyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;q

ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZrksa esa ok;q rFkk ckny dks fofHké ÅapkbZ ds {ks=kksa esa igqapkus dh fof'k"V izo`fÙk gksrh gSA os fudVre eSnkuh {ks=kksa esa Hkh tyok;q dks izHkkfor djus esa l{ke gksrs gaSA fgeikr ds le; eSnkuh {ks=kksa esa 'khr ygj vk tkrh gSA ioZrksa dh tyok;q dks Å/okZ/kj :i esa fofHké mi&{ks=kksa esa ckaVk tk ldrk gSSA igkM+h ds uhps ds {ks=k esa m".k tyok;q gksrh gS tgka ?kus taxyksa dk lkezkT; gksrk gS rks pksfV;ksa ij flQZ cQZ gksrh gSA

dqN LFkkukas ij ioZr o"kkZ dks jksd nsrs gaS ftlds ifj.kkeLo#i ioZr ds ,d vksj o"kkZ gks ldrh gS vkSj ioZr ds nwljh vksj jsfxLrku tSlk o"kkZfoghu Hkkx gks ldrs gaAS lkekU; ioZrkas ij eSnkuh LFkkukas ds foijhr ueh;qDr tyok;q gksrh gSA ioZr fo'o Lrj ij Hkh tyok;q eas ifjorZu djus eas l{ke gksrs gSAa i`Foh ds fujUrj ?kweus rFkk dksfjvkWfyl cy ds dkj.k vf/kdrj ok;q iwoZ ls if'pe ds chp cgrh

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gSA ifj.kkeLo:i mÙkj&nf{k.kh; ioZr Üka[kyk,` a ok;q dk ekxZ cnyus eas l{ke gksrh

gSA lkekU;r% dqN ok;q ioZrkas ls Åij mBdj LFkkuh; _rq eas ifjorZu dj nsrh gS fdUrq mÙkj nf{k.k ioZrh; fLFkfr fu'p; gh iwokZÙkjs gokvkasa dk ekxZ cnyus eas lQy gksrh gSA

jkWdh ioZr Üka[kyk,` a tks mÙkjh vesfjdk ds if'pe eas fLFkr ga]S ok;q dks mÙkj a fn'kk eas eksM+ nsrh gS]a tks nf{k.k dh vksj vxzlj gksus ls igys /kqzo izns'k dks BaMk djrh gSAa mÙkj&if'peh BaMh gok,a vesfjdk o dukMk dh tyok;q ij izHkko Mkyrh gSa vkSj QyLo:i 'kjn _rq dks cgqr BaMk dj nsrh gSAa

lkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrd fofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krk

fo'o ioZrkas dh fo'ks"k HkwfLFkfr us lkaLÑfrd fofo/krk dks tUe fn;k gSA blds QyLo:i ioZrksa ij eSnkuh {k=kksas ls vyx gh ,d lH;rk fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA ioZrh; tu&tkfr;ksa us viuh ikSjkf.kd laLÑfr dks lqjf{kr j[kk gS vkSj blhfy;s ogka ij okLrq dyk] tutkrh; laLÑfr] LFkkuh; dykvkas o va/kfo'okl dks dksbZ Hkh ns[k ldrk gSA LFkkuh; yksxkas dks ogka dh ikfjfLFkfrdh dk vn~Hkqr Kku gksrk gSA

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ioZr & vewY; fufèk

ioZr & vewY; fufèk 11 vuqekur% lalkj dh tula[;k ds 12 izfr'kr yksx ioZrkas ij jgrs

11

vuqekur% lalkj dh tula[;k ds 12 izfr'kr yksx ioZrkas ij jgrs gSAa bleas ls yxHkx vk/kh ¼46 izfr'kr½ vkcknh ,f'k;k&iz'kkar {ks=k eas fLFkr ioZrh; Hkkxkas eas jgrs gaAS gky eas gq, vuqla/kkukas ds vuqlkj yxHkx 1-48 vjc yksx ¼lalkj dh tula[;k dk yxHkx 26 izfr'kr Hkkx½ ioZrkas ij vFkok muls cgqr fudV jgrk gSAa ioZrkas dh ÅapkbZ c<+us ds lkFk gh tula[;k dk ?kuRo Hkh de gksrk tkrk gSA fo'o ds vYila[;d Hkh cgqrk;r ls ioZrh; {ks=kkas eas jgrs gaAS

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ioZrh; {ks=kksa esa jgus okyh efgyk,a

i;ZVui;ZVui;ZVui;ZVui;ZVu ooooo euksjatueuksjatueuksjatueuksjatueuksjatu

geesa ls vusd ioZrksa ij NqfV~V;ka fcrkuk ilan djrs gSaA ioZrksa dh lqUnjrk] LoLFk tyok;q] vykSfdd n`';] LFkkuh; laLÑfr] lknxhHkjk thou] rFkk 'khr [ksyksa ds fy, mfpr LFkku o volj] ioZrksa dks i;ZVu o vkeksn&izeksn dk fo'ks"k LFkku cukrs gSaA Ldhbax] gkbfdax] cQZ o pV~Vkuksa ij lkgfld vfHk;ku] if{k;ksa dh vewY; iztkfr;ksa ds n'kZu vkfn ioZrksa ds vkdZ"k.k dks fo'ks"k :i ls c<+krs gaAS

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12

12 ioZrksa ij ladV ioZrh; i;ZVu fdlh Hkh jk"Vª dh vFkZO;oLFkk eas vge Hkwfedk j[krk gSA

ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZrh; i;ZVu fdlh Hkh jk"Vª dh vFkZO;oLFkk eas vge Hkwfedk j[krk gSA oSf'od i;ZVu m|ksx dk 15&20 izfr'kr ¼70&90 vjc vesfjdh Mkyj½ ioZrh; i;ZVu ls lacf/kr gksrk gSA lalkj esa yxHkx 6-5&7 djksM+ yksx 'khr [ksyksa esa Hkkx ysrs gSa ¼2 djksM+ vesfjdh] 1-4 djksM+ tkikuh] 2-5 djksM+ ;wjksih; blesa 'kkfey gSa½A fo'o i;ZVu laLFkku ds vuqlkj lu~ 2010 rd yxHkx 1 vjc yksx 'khr [ksykas eas Hkkx ysus ioZrkas ij igqpaxs s rFkk blls 1]500 vjc vesfjdh Mkyj dk jktLo izkIr gksxkA

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fgekPNkfnr ioZr

Hkkjr ds i;ZVu ij ,d n`f"V Mkyuk vko';d gSA xaxks=kh tks Hkkjr dk ,d egRoiw.kZ rhFkZ LFkku gaS ogka izfr o"kZ 3]000 ioZrkjksgh rFkk dqyh 30]000 iSny ;k=kk vfHk;ku djus okys rFkk 3]00]000 rhFkZ ;k=kh igqaprs gaAS

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ioZr & vewY; fufèk

ioZr & vewY; fufèk 13 egRoiw.kZegRoiw.kZegRoiw.kZegRoiw.kZegRoiw.kZ

13

egRoiw.kZegRoiw.kZegRoiw.kZegRoiw.kZegRoiw.kZ fo'ks"krk,afo'ks"krk,afo'ks"krk,afo'ks"krk,afo'ks"krk,a

lalkj dh dqy Hkwfe dk 27 izfr'kr Hkkx ioZrh; okrkoj.k okyk gksrk gS tks 22 izfr'kr tula[;k dks vkJ; nsrk gSA vla[; yksx tks uhps ds {ks=kkas eas jgrs ga]S ioZr mudks vizR;{k :i ls viuh vfojy lsok tSls ty] ÅtkZ] ydM+h] vkeksn&izeksn] euksjatu rFkk tSo fofo/krk ds laj{k.k dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA fuf'pr :i ls ;g lc ioZrkas dh lqnjrka o muds vkykSfdd n`';kas dh NVk dks vkSj vf/kd c<+krs gaS rFkk lSykfu;kas dks fujarj mRlkfgr djrs gaAS fge ls <dh gqbZ ioZrh; pksfV;ka lnSo fge [ksykas dks rFkk uhps ds {ks=k VªfdS ax dks mRlkfgr djrs gSAa tSlk fd geus tkuk gS fd ioZr Hkwe.Myh; ikfjfLFkfrdh dks larqfyr djus eas Hkh lgk;d gksrs gaAS

ysfdu bu egku ioZrkas dh jpuk fdl izdkj gksrh gS\ geus ioZrkas dk ekuork ds izfr ;ksxnku dks le> fy;k gS vc ;g tkuuk egRoiw.kZ gS fd bu fo'kky ioZrkas dh jpuk fdl izdkj gqbZ\

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14

14 ioZrksa ij ladV 2 ioZrksa dh jpuk l u~ 2004 eas rkbZoku eas rkbZisbZ&101] tks

ioZrksa ij ladV

2

ioZrksa dh jpuk

l u~ 2004 eas rkbZoku eas rkbZisbZ&101] tks rkbZisbZ foÙkh; dsUnz Hkh dgykrk gS] dh 101 eaftyk bekjr dk fuekZ.k gqvkA ;g bekjr rc rd dh lalkj dh

lcls Åaph bekjr isVªksukl Vkoj ls Hkh Åaph cuh FkhA bldh ÅapkbZ 1]671 QhV

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¼509 ehVj½ gS vkSj blds fuekZ.k eas 5 o"kZ dk le; yxkA ekmaV ,ojsLV ftldh

ÅapkbZ 29]028 QhV gS vkSj tgka rd ekuo us viuh igqap cukbZ gS] mls cuus eass fu'p; gh yk[kkas o"kZ dk le; yxk gksxkA

ioZrkas dk fuekZ.k vuUr dky ls py jgk gSA cM+s&cM+s ioZr lEHkor% ok;q vFkok ty }kjk tek dh xbZ feV~Vh] iRFkj ls vFkok /kjrh dh rg ds mRFkku dk gh ifj.kke gks ldrs gaAS vusd ioZr lkxj eas ls gh fufeZr gq, gaAS djksM+kas o"kZ igys ekmaV ,ojsLV ioZr Lo:i u gksdj lkxj ds vUnj gh lek;k gqvk FkkA ,sls Hkh ioZr gSa ftudks cuus easa FkksM+k gh le; yxrk gS tSls fd Tokykeq[kh ioZrkas dk fuekZ.k ;dk;d gks tkrk gSA

ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr D;kD;kD;kD;kD;k gS\gS\gS\gS\gS\

ioZr Hkwfe dk ikapoka Hkkx ?ksjrs gaS vkSj ;s izR;sd egk}hi eas mifLFkr gaAS ioZrkas ds fcuk lalkj dh dYiuk fu'p; gh vkd"kZ.k o lEeksgu ls foghu gksrh gSA ysfdu ioZr D;k gS vkSj bldh ifjHkk"kk D;k gS\

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ioZrksa dh jpuk

ioZrksa dh jpuk 15 ioZr fdlh Hkh igkM+h ls Åapk o lh/kh p<+kbZ okyk feV~Vh o

15

ioZr fdlh Hkh igkM+h ls Åapk o lh/kh p<+kbZ okyk feV~Vh o pV~Vkuksa dk <kapk gksrk gSA lkekU;r% ioZr /kjrh ds ,d fuf'pr LFkku ij yxHkx 600 ehVj Åapk /kjrh dk mHkkj gksrk gSA ioZrksa dh ifjHkk"kk ;g gks ldrh gS fd og [kM+h o lhèkh <yku] Åijh piVk Hkkx rFkk xksykbZ fy;s gq, ;k uqdhyh pksfV;ksa okys mHkkj gksrs gSA HkwfoKkuh fdlh lh/ks [kM+s {ks=k dks rHkh ioZr ekurs gS tc ogka fofHké ÅapkbZ;kas ij nks ;k vf/kd izdkj dh tyok;q rFkk ouLifr dh fofoèkrk gksA

vusd ioZrkas dh ikjLifjd fudVre fLFkfr ioZr Üka[kyk` dk fuekZ.k djrh gSA ,slh gh vusd lekukUrj ioZr Üka[kyk,` a vkSj cMh ioZr Üka[kykvk` as dk fuekZ.k djrh gaAS mÙkjh vesjhdh dkMhysjk] fgeky;] ,YIl vkfn fo'kky ioZrh; Üka[kykvk` as ds mnkgj.k gSAa

xfr'khyxfr'khyxfr'khyxfr'khyxfr'khy i`Fohi`Fohi`Fohi`Fohi`Foh

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ioZr dSls curs ga\S ioZr /kjrh dh lajpuk o foU;kl eas vge Hkwfedk j[krs gaAS

xfr'khy cy /kjrh dh lrg ds leku blds vkarfjd Hkkx ij Hkh izHkko Mkydj ioZrkas dh cukoV eas egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gaAS ioZrkas dh Üka[kyk` tkuus ls igys

geas ;g tkuuk gksxk fd /kjrh ds vUnj D;k gS\ /kjrh dh cukoV D;k gS rFkk mlds vanj rFkk mldh lrg ij dkSu&dkSu lh fLFkj o xfreku 'kfDr;ka dk;Z dj jgh gS\a

i`Foh dh ckgjh lrg ls mlds dsUnz rd dk fo'ys"k.k djus ij Kkr gksrk gS fd ckgjh lrg eas Bksl flyhdsV dh eksVh rg gksrh gS mlds i'pkr ,d xk<+h rjy inkFkZ dh rg fQj nzO; rjy inkFkZ dh ijr vkSj var eas dsUnzh; Hkkx Bksl inkFkZ }kjk fufeZr gksrk gSA

/kjrh dk dsUnz ;kuh ØksM eq[;r% yksgk o fufdy /kkrqvkas ls cuk gksrk gSA tks i`Foh ds dqy Hkkj dk djhc 30 ¼31-5½ izfr'kr gksrk gSA ckgjh ØksM] tks vfèkdka'k nzO; ds :i eas gksrh gS] dh eksVkbZ yxHkx 2]200 fdyksehVj tcfd vkarfjd ØksM 1]270 fdyksehVj eksVh Bksl ijr gksrh gSA

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16

16 ioZrksa ij ladV /kjrh dh ckgjh ijr rFkk mlls lVk gqvk vkoj.k] tks 2]800 fdyksehVj

ioZrksa ij ladV

/kjrh dh ckgjh ijr rFkk mlls lVk gqvk vkoj.k] tks 2]800 fdyksehVj ls vf/kd dh eksVkbZ fy;s gksrk gS] /kjrh ds Hkkj dk djhc 70 izfr'kr ¼68-1»½ gksrk gSA ;g eq[; :i ls flfydu] ,Y;wfefu;e] yksgk rFkk vkWDlhtu ls fufeZr gksrk gSA Åijh lrg ¼HkwiVy½ i`Foh ds Hkkj dk yxHkx 1 izfr'kr ls Hkh de ¼0- 4»½ gksrk gS rFkk bldh xgjkbZ 5&70 fdyksehVj gksrh gSA HkwiVy eas ,Y;wfefu;e] yksgk] flfydku vkSj vkWDlhtu ds vfrfjDr dSfY'k;e] lksfM;e] iksVSf'k;e rFkk

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www.ApniHindi.com

i`Foh esa fofHkUUk irksZa dh fLFkfr

yksgk Hkh lewfpr ek=kk eas mifLFkr jgrk gSA izkokj ds ckgjh vkoj.k eas HkwiVy ds uhps dk Hkkx BaMk gksrk gS vkSj mleas etcwr pV~Vkusa gksrh gSAa /kjrh ds bl ckgjh vkoj.k ¼HkwiVy ds uhps dk vkoj.k½ dks LFkyeaMy ;kuh fyFkksfLQ;j dgrs gS

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ioZrksa dh jpuk

ioZrksa dh jpuk 17 ftldh eksVkbZ fofHké LFkkukas ij vyx&vyx gksrh gSA ;g lk/kkj.kr% 100 fdyksehVj

17

ftldh eksVkbZ fofHké LFkkukas ij vyx&vyx gksrh gSA ;g lk/kkj.kr% 100 fdyksehVj ;k FkksM+k vf/kd eksVh gksrh gSA fyFkksfLQ;j ds uhps ds vkoj.k dks nqcZyrkeaMy ;kuh ,sLFksuksfLQ;js dgrs gaS tks fd ckgjh vkoj.k ls vf/kd nzoh; voLFkk es gksrk gSA

LFkyeaMy ¼ckgjh vkoj.k½ nqcZyrkeaMy ds Åij yxHkx rSjrh gqbZ voLFkk eas jgrk gSA LFkyeaMy gh og vkoj.k gS tks egk}hikas rFkk egklkxjkas dks lgkjk nsrk gSA bl vkoj.k dh egk}hi eas eksVkbZ yxHkx 35 fdyksehVj rFkk leqnzry ij 7 fdyksehVj rd gksrh gSA LFkyeaMy dh cukoV eas vusd 'kfDr'kkyh pV~Vkuh Hkkx

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www.ApniHindi.com

HkwiVy vkSj eSaVy dk Åijh fgLlk lfEefyr :i ls LFkyeaMy dgykrk gS

gksrs gS] tks xfre; Hkh gks tkrs gaAS mUgas foorZfud ;kuh VSDVksfud IysV dgrs gSAa blds QyLo:i ftu egk}hikas eas ;g IysVas gksrh ga]S og fujUrj xfr'khy jgrs gaAS bu LFkyeaMyh; IysVkas dh xfrfof/k;kas dks IysV foorZfudh dgrs gSAa

egk}hi ds f[kldus vFkok egk}hih; foLFkkiu ds ewy fl)kar ¼dkaVhusUVy

ds :i eas LFkkfir

fMª¶V fFk;ksjh½ ds vuqlkj vkt ds vusd }hi ,d cMs+ }hi iaft;ks

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18

18 ioZrksa ij ladV Fks rFkk djhc 20 djksM+ o"kZ igys VwV dj dbZ Hkkxkas eas

ioZrksa ij ladV

Fks rFkk djhc 20 djksM+ o"kZ igys VwV dj dbZ Hkkxkas eas vyx&vyx }hikas eas cny x,A lEHkor% ;g cM+s }hi /kjrh ds vUnj dh Hkh"k.k xehZ dk gh ifj.kke FksA lkxj ds ty eas bu NksVs NksVs cus vusd egk}hikas ds e/; LFkkfir gks] bu }hikas dk vyx gh vfLrRo cu x;kA vkt Hkh vusd egk}hi xfr'khy gks viuk LFkku ifjorZu djrs jgrs gaAS

IysV foorZfudh dk Li"V dkj.k vKkr gS ysfdu ,d ifjiDo fopkj/kkjk ds vuqlkj /kjrh ds xHkZ esa rki lapj.k dh fØ;k,a /kjrh ds vkoj.kkas ¼IysV½ dks

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www.ApniHindi.com

,sls cuk gksxk fgeky; ioZr

xfr'khy cukrh gaAS ,d vU; fopkj/kkjk ds vuqlkj xgjs egklkxj dk ry] gyds egklkxj ry ds fo:) BaMh o iqjkuh rSyh; irk±s dks xq#Rokd"kZ.k ds dkj.k uhps dh vksj [khap dj xfr'khyrk mRié djrk gSA

ysfdu tks Hkh dkj.k gks ;g fuf'pr gh gS fd vkt Hkh ßfoorZfud IysVaÞs fujUrj xfr'khy gks ,d nwljs ls Vdjkrh jgrh gaAS blh dkj.k bu IysVkas ds

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ioZrksa dh jpuk

ioZrksa dh jpuk 19 fudVre HkwHkkx eas HkwdEi tSlh vkink,a vkrh jgrh gaAS blh izdkj bu

19

fudVre HkwHkkx eas HkwdEi tSlh vkink,a vkrh jgrh gaAS blh izdkj bu {ks=kkas eas fo'ks"k vkÑfr;kas tSls ioZr] Tokykeq[kh vFkok leqnz dh [kkbZ;ka vkfn dh lajpuk fufeZr gksrh jgrh gSA lalkj ds vfèkdre Tokykeq[kh bUgha IysVkas ds utnhdh HkwHkkxkas eas vf/kdrj ns[ks tkrs gaAS bueas ls iz'kkar IysV dh ^vfXu oy;* ;kuh ^fjax vkQ Qk;j* lcls lfØ; LFky gSA

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www.ApniHindi.com

iz'kkar egklkxj ds vklikl lrr~ ioZr Ük`a[kyk ds :i esa QSyk vfXu oy; {ks=kA fp=k esa yky fcanq Hkwdai vkSj Tokykeq[kh {ks=kksa dks iznf'kZr dj jgs gSaA

foorZfud IysVkas dh xfr'khyrk ds dkj.k eq[; :i ls rhu fofHké izdkj dh lhekvkas ds vfLrRo] tks fofHkUu izdkj dh lrgh ifj?kVukvkas ls lacaf)r gksrh ga]S ds dkj.k gksrk gSA;g rhu eq[; lhek,a gSa %

¼1½ :ikarfjr lhek dk fuekZ.k :ikarfjr Hka'kkz as ij gYds ls Vdjkus ;k jxM+us ds dkj.k gksrk gSA IysVkas ds ,d nwljs ls jxM+us vFkok Vdjkus ls vlhfer ruko dh fLFkfr mRiUu gks ldrh gS] tks fdlh Hkh le; Hkh"k.k >Vdkas ds lkFk ruko dks lkekIr dj nsrh gSA ,sls gh le; Hkwdai iSnk gksrk gSA

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20

20 ioZrksa ij ladV www.ApniHindi.com orZeku ds lHkh egk}hiksa dk fuekZ.k ykjsf'k;k vkSj xkSaMokukySaM ds VqVus

ioZrksa ij ladV

www.ApniHindi.com orZeku ds lHkh egk}hiksa dk fuekZ.k ykjsf'k;k vkSj xkSaMokukySaM ds VqVus ls gqvk gS
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orZeku ds lHkh egk}hiksa dk fuekZ.k ykjsf'k;k vkSj xkSaMokukySaM ds VqVus ls gqvk gS

¼2½

;fn IysVas ,d nwljs ls nwj gVrh gaS tSls fd e/; egklkxjh; dVd o egklkxj eas fdlh 'kh"kZ LFkku dk mHkjus ij fn[kkbZ nsrh gS] rks bl izdkj vilkjh lhek dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSa ¼mnkgj.k ds fy, iwohZ&vÝhdk dk mHkkj½A

¼3½

;fn IysVsa ,d nwljs dh vksj f[klds vFkok vius LFkku ls Åij uhpss xfr'khy gksdj ,d lkFk vk tk;as rks og vfHklkjh lhek dk fuekZ.k djrh gaSA

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ioZrksa dh jpuk

ioZrksa dh jpuk 21 ioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksa dhdhdhdhdh lajpuklajpuklajpuklajpuklajpuk ioZrkas dh lajpuk ds ckjs

21

ioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksa dhdhdhdhdh lajpuklajpuklajpuklajpuklajpuk

ioZrkas dh lajpuk ds ckjs eas dksbZ fuf'pr fof/k ekU; ugha gSA ;g Hkh Kkr ugha gS fd ioZr dh jpuk eas fdruk le; yxrk gSA i`Foh ds xHkZ eas vusd cy gh ioZrkas dk fuekZ.k djus eas eq[; Hkwfedk vnk djrs gaAS ioZr cuus eas yEck le; yxrk gS vkSj bl izfØ;k dks ßvksjkstsuhÞ dgrs gaS ftldk ßxzhdÞ Hkk"kk eas vFkZ mij mBus dh izfØ;k gksrk gSA

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www.ApniHindi.com

i`Foh dh foorZfud IysVsa

yEcs le; ls ioZr cuus dh izfØ;k esa vusd fof/k;ka tqM+rh xbZ gSaA foforZfud izfØ;k ds vfrfjDr Hkh vusd dkj.k gksrs gSa tks ioZrksa dk vkdkj r; djrs gSaA ioZrksa dh mRifÙk ds vuqlkj mudk fuEu oxhZdj.k fd;k tk ldrk gSA

1-

Tokykeq[kh;

2-

/kjrh ds vkoj.k ds xfr Lo:i

3-

/kjrh ds Åijh lrg ds dVko ¼e`nk vijnu½

4-

volknh fu{ksi

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22

22 ioZrksa ij ladV foorZfudfoorZfudfoorZfudfoorZfudfoorZfud IysVksaIysVksaIysVksaIysVksaIysVksa dhdhdhdhdh

ioZrksa ij ladV

foorZfudfoorZfudfoorZfudfoorZfudfoorZfud IysVksaIysVksaIysVksaIysVksaIysVksa dhdhdhdhdh xfrfof/k;kaxfrfof/k;kaxfrfof/k;kaxfrfof/k;kaxfrfof/k;ka Tokykeq[khTokykeq[khTokykeq[khTokykeq[khTokykeq[kh ioZr%ioZr%ioZr%ioZr%ioZr%

/kjrh ds xHkZ eas tc vR;f/kd rki ds dkj.k pV~Vkukas ds fi?kyus ls ykok Åij dh vksj rsth ls mBrk gS rks Tokykeq[kh ioZr dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA vf/kdrj ;g Tokykeq[kh fØ;k,a lkxj dh lrg ds uhps gksrh gaS vkSj dHkh&dHkh dqN lkxj dh lrg ds uhps ds Tokykeq[kh Åij dh lrg ij vk tkrs gaAS vesfjdk eas ekmUV jsfu;j vkSj ekmUV laV]s gsyUl] fQyhikbUl dk ekmUV fiukVwcks] bVyh dk ekmUV folqfo;l rFkk tkiku dk ekmUV Qwth] Tokykeq[kh ioZrkas ds Li"V mnkgj.k ekus tkrs gaAS

,d fopkj ds vuqlkj Tokykeq[kh ioZrkas dh jpuk lkxj rFkk egk}hi ds

ckgjh vkoj.k lrgkas ds mFky iqFky rFkk Vdjko ds gh dkj.k gqbZ gaAS lkekU;r% egk}hikas dh /kjrh dh vkoj.k lrg de ?kuRo okyh gksus ds dkj.k lkxj dh

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vkoj.k lrg ij vkÑ"V gksdj tk feyrh gS] bls lcMD'ku ;kuh vojksg.k dgrs

gaAS blds QyLo:i lkxj dh lrgh irZ rFkk egk}hikas ds uhps Åijh izkokj LFkyeaMy] egk}hikas vkSj lkxj ds e/; Hkkx eas xgjkbZ rd igqap dj] rki vkSj ncko ds dkj.k fi?kyrh gSA fi?kyk gqvk ykok Åijh lrg ij QVrk gS vkSj tc BaMk gksrk gS rks pV~Vku mHkj dj Li"V #i ys ysrh gSA ,sls gh vusd Tokykeq[kh BaMs gksdj cM+h pV~Vkusa cu ioZr dk fuekZ.k djrh gaAS

lEHkor% bl fof/k ds vuqlkj gh cM+h&cM+h ioZr Üka[kykvk` as dk /kjrh ij vFkok lkxj eas mn; gqvk gksxkA tgka&tgka lkxj vFkok /kjrh ds vUnj ykok dk HkaMkj gksrk gS og xeZ gksdj Tokykeq[kh ioZrkas dk fuekZ.k djrk gSA mnkgj.k ds :i eas lkxj ds xeZ LFkykas ij vusd Tokykeq[kh ioZrkas dh jpuk ds QyLo:i gokbZ }hi dh LFkkiuk gqbZA

blh izdkj iz'kkar egklkxj eas nf{k.kh vesfjdk ds NksVs ls dSldsM ioZrkas rFkk vykLdk ds ,Y;wf'k;u }hikas ls tkiku ds nf{k.kh Hkkx ls gksrs gq, nf{k.k iwohZ

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ioZrksa dh jpuk

ioZrksa dh jpuk 23 ,f'k;k rFkk U;wthyaMS ds nf{k.kh {ks=k eas pØkdkj #i eas ioZrkas dh

23

,f'k;k rFkk U;wthyaMS ds nf{k.kh {ks=k eas pØkdkj #i eas ioZrkas dh jpuk gqbZ ftls ^fjax vkQj Qk;j* dgk x;kA

i`Foh dh lcls cMh Tokykeq[kh Ük`a[kyk,a rFkk lcls yach ioZrh; Ük`a[kyk,a e/; egklkxjh; dVd gSaA leqnz dh lrg ds vUnj VsDVksfud IysVksa

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www.ApniHindi.com

dksVksisDlh Tokykeq[kh

ds Hkh"k.k vyxko ls yEch njkjsa vkSj fQj ykok ds xeZ gksdj mHkjus ds QyLo:i ;s yEch Ük`a[kyk,a fufeZr gqbZ gSaA bl izfØ;k dks ^lh ¶yksj LizsfMax* ;kuh ^leqnzh v/kLry QSyko* dgrs gSaA

HkwiVyHkwiVyHkwiVyHkwiVyHkwiVy lapyulapyulapyulapyulapyu

egk}hih; HkwiVy rFkk leqnzh HkwiVy ds chp tc Vdjko ls ?k"kZ.k gksrk gS rks Tokykeq[kh ioZr curs gSAa ysfdu ;fn egk}hih; HkwiVy dk egk}hih; HkwiVy ls Vdjko o ?k"kZ.k gks rFkk nksukas ds ?kuRo Hkh leku gkas rks foorZfud IysVkas ds ijLij Vdjko o ,d nwljs ds Åij p<+ tkus dh izfØ;k ls Åaps&Åpas ioZrkas dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA

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24

24 ioZrksa ij ladV izk;% ,sls ioZr leqnz ds cgqr Åaps mB tkrs gaS vkSj vusd

ioZrksa ij ladV

izk;% ,sls ioZr leqnz ds cgqr Åaps mB tkrs gaS vkSj vusd voljkas ij bu ioZrh; pksfV;kas ij leqnh thokas ds vo'ks"kkas dk ik;k tkuk bu ioZrkas dk leqnz ds xHkZ ls fudyuk n'kkZrk gSA ekmUV ,ojsLV dh pksfV;kas ij Hkh leqnzh lhi ¼tho dk vkoj.k½ dk feyuk blh rF; dh iq"Vh djrk gSA fgeky; ioZr dh lajpuk

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www.ApniHindi.com

HkwiVy vkSj Åijh eSaVy dh lajpuk

egk}hih;&egk}hih; lrg ds gh Vdjko dk vf}rh; mnkgj.k gSA bf.M;u IysV rFkk ;wjsf'k;u IysV ds Vdjko ls mRié ncko ls fgeky; dk fuekZ.k gqvk gS vkSj blh izdkj ;wjksi ds ,YIl ioZr rFkk twjk ioZrkas dh jpuk Hkh vÝhdu rFkk ;wjsf'k;u IysV ds Vdjkus ls gqbZA

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ioZrksa dh jpuk

ioZrksa dh jpuk 25 egk}hih; IysVkas ds Vdjko ls mRié ioZrkas dk oxhZdj.k IysV ds Vdjko

25

egk}hih; IysVkas ds Vdjko ls mRié ioZrkas dk oxhZdj.k IysV ds Vdjko dh fof/k rFkk mlds i'pkr gqbZ fLFkfr;kas ij fuHkZj djrk gSA bldk oxhZdj.k izk;% =kqVh; f'kyk[kaM ioZr] lh/ks Åaps ioZr] eqM+s gq, vfu;fer #ih] xqEcnkdkj vkÑfr vkfn ds :i eas fd;k tkrk gSA

oyuoyuoyuoyuoyu ;k;k;k;k;k eqM+okeqM+okeqM+okeqM+okeqM+ok ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr (Fold Mountian)

tc IysV ds ,d nwljs ls Vdjkus ls HkwiVy ofyr :i eas Åij mHkj dj ioZr ds vkdkj eas vk tkrh gS rks mls oyu ioZr dgrs gaAS IysVkas ds Vdjko dh fLFkfr ls mRié 'kfDrcy cM+h&cM+h pV~Vkukas dks vfu;fer :i ls eksM+ dj Åij mHkkj dj

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www.ApniHindi.com

ofyr ioZr

ioZr dk vkdkj nsrh gSA ,sls ioZr vf/kdrj fdlh egk}hi ds fdukjs ij gksrs gaS D;kafds lEHkor% /kjrh ds uhps volknh pV~Vkukas dk lewg egk}hi ds fdukjs ij gh fLFkr gksrk gSA ;fn fdlh est ij fLFkr fdlh estiks'k dks ,d rjQ <dsy fn;k tk;s rks fdukjkas ij estiks'k ls mRié tks vkÑfr curh gS yxHkx oSlh gh bu ioZrkas dh egk}hi ds fdukjs fufeZr gksrh gSA

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26

26 ioZrksa ij ladV oyu ioZr nks izdkj ds gksrs gSAa igys ;qok oyu ioZr ¼1

ioZrksa ij ladV

oyu ioZr nks izdkj ds gksrs gSAa igys ;qok oyu ioZr ¼1 ls 2-5 djksM+ o"kZ iqjkus ioZr] mnkgj.k ds fy, jkWdh rFkk fgeky; ioZr½ rFkk iqjkus ofyr ioZr ¼20 djksM+ o"kZ ls vf/kd iqjkus mnkgj.k ds fy, vesfjdk dh ;wjky rFkk viSykdkbZUl ioZr½A

Hkza'kHkza'kHkza'kHkza'kHkza'k [kaM[kaM[kaM[kaM[kaM ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr (Fault block Mountains)

/kjrh dh lrg esa tc cM+h&cM+h njkjsa cu tk,a vkSj fo'kky pV~Vkusa Hkh VwV dj Åij mHkjus ds ckn dVh&QVh js[kk esa LFkkfir gks ioZrkdkj gks tk;as] rks mUgsa Hkza'k [kaM ioZr dgrs gSaA mÙkjh vesfjdk ds lhjk fuoknk ioZr rFkk teZuh ds gtZ ioZr ,sls gh fufeZr Hkza'k [kaM ioZr Ük`a[kykvkas ds mnkgj.k gSaA if'peh

vesfjdk ds csflu rFkk jsat {ks=kksa esa eqMs+ gq, [kaM dkQh lkekU; gSA Hkza'k&[kaM ioZr Lrjh; [kaM }kjk Hkh cu ldrh gS tSlk fd mÙkjh ;wjksi ds gkWLVZ rFkk xzcu

{ks=kksa esa ns[kk tkrk gaSA ;g ,d lh/kh&Hkqtkvksa okys ioZr gS ftudk fuekZ.k nks

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lekUrj njkjksa ds Vdjkus ds dkj.k /kjrh dh lrg ds Åij dh vksj eqM+us ij

gqvkA

xqEcnkdkjxqEcnkdkjxqEcnkdkjxqEcnkdkjxqEcnkdkj ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr (Dome Mountains)

;fn foorZfud IysVksa ds Vdjkus ls /kjrh dh lrg fo'kky xqEcn ds :i esa Åij mB dj ioZr dk fuekZ.k djs rks mls xqEcnkdkj ioZr dgrs gSaA vesfjdk ds nf{k.kh MdkSVk esa fLFkr ßCySd fgyÞ bldk Li"V mnkgj.k gSA izk;% ;g fLFkfr rc vkrh gS tc /kjrh ds vUnj ykok] pV~Vkuksa dks Åij /kdsy dj Lo;a uhps gh cuk jgrk gSA ,sls xqEcnkdkj ioZrksa ij Hkkjh dVko ds dkj.k ?kkfV;ka o ioZr f'k[kj fufeZr gksrs gSaA oxhZdj.k ds vuqlkj ;g ioZr fuEu izdkj ds gksrs gSaA

ysdksfyFk& ykok ds /kjrh dh lrg ds uhps jg tkus ds dkj.k ;g e'k:e ds vkdkj ds gks tkrss gaAS

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ioZrksa dh jpuk

ioZrksa dh jpuk 27 cSFkksfyFk& cgqr fo'kky {ks=k eas ?kfVr izpaM Toyu ?kVukvkas ds ifj.kkeLo:i fufeZr

27

cSFkksfyFk& cgqr fo'kky {ks=k eas ?kfVr izpaM Toyu ?kVukvkas ds ifj.kkeLo:i fufeZr fo'kky ioZr {ks=k ;k Üka[kyk` cSFkksfyFk ioZr Üka[kyk` dgykrh gSA ;g 40 oxZ ehy ls Hkh vf/kd yEch gks ldrh gSA

yo.kh; xqEcn& lgr ds uhps vusd ehy yach ued dh eksVh vkSj fo'kky ijr] ftldh eksVkbZ dHkh&dHkh ,d fey rd vkSj {ks=kQy gtkjkas fey rd gks ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds :i eas Hkwe/; lkxj eas Hkkjh ek=kk eas ued dk teko gSA

xSjxSjxSjxSjxSj foorZfudfoorZfudfoorZfudfoorZfudfoorZfud lapyulapyulapyulapyulapyu

tSlk fd geus tkuk gS fd foorZfud IysVksa dh xfrfof/k;ka pV~Vkuksa dks

'kfDriwoZd nckdj Åij mBkrh gaS] eksM+rh gSa vkSj cyiwoZd >Vds nsdj cM+h&cM+h ioZr Ük`a[kykvksa dh jpuk djrh gSA ysfdu dqN vU; NksVs ioZrksa dh jpuk foorZfud xfrfof/k;ksa ds vfrfjDr Hkh gksrh gS tSlk fd /kjrh ds dVko

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o e`nk vijnu vFkok ok;q&ty }kjk yk;k x;k ryNV Hkh ioZr dk fuekZ.k

djus esa lgk;d gksrs gSaA

vijnuvijnuvijnuvijnuvijnu ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr (Erosion Mountains)

vijnu ioZr dks iBkj ioZr Hkh dgk tkrk gS D;ksafd okLro esa ;g iBkj gh gksrk gS tks fofHkUu vijnu dh fØ;kvksa ds dkj.k igkM+ksa dk vkdkj xzg.k dj ysrk gSA vijnu dh ?kVuk gok] ty vkSj cQZ ds dkj.k gks ldrh gSA U;w;kdZ fLFkr dsVfLdy ioZr ¼vesfjdk½ dh jpuk fo'kky volknh pV~Vkuksa ds vijnu ls gh gqbZ gSA tc ok;q] ty] fge] vFkok cgrh gqbZ ufn;ksa dh /kkjk,a vusd pj.kksa esa iBkjksa dk vijnu djrh gSa rks os igkM+h rFkk ?kkfV;ksa dk vkdkj ys ysrs gSaA

ioZrkas dh lajpuk ds lkFk gh vijnu dh Hkh fØ;k fujarj gksrh jgh gSA yk[kkas o"kk±s ds nkSjku fge] gok vFkok o"kkZ ds fujarj izHkko us ioZrkas dks rjk'kk] ftlls ?kkfV;kas rFkk pksfV;kas dh jpuk gqbZ gSA

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28

28 ioZrksa ij ladV volknhvolknhvolknhvolknhvolknh ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr (Sediment Mountains) volknh pV~Vkukas dh Øfed

ioZrksa ij ladV

volknhvolknhvolknhvolknhvolknh ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr (Sediment Mountains)

volknh pV~Vkukas dh Øfed irkZs ds teko ;k mFkys lkxj ds ry ;k fldqM+rs HkwHkkx ds pkSM+s xrZ ¼ftls Hkw vfHkufr ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gS½ ls mBus okys ioZr dks volknh ioZr dgrs gaAS iwohZ vesfjdk dk ,Iysfp;u ioZr volknh ioZr dk mnkjg.k gSA

ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr dhdhdhdhdh vk;qvk;qvk;qvk;qvk;q dkdkdkdkdk vkdyuvkdyuvkdyuvkdyuvkdyu

ioZrkas dh vk;q rFkk muds fuekZ.k dh fofHkUu le;kof/k dk vkdyu yxkus okyh dqN fof/k;ksas esa ls ,d fof/k dqN ioZrkas ij mifLFkr leqnzh thok'ekas ls lacaf/kr gSA ;s thok'e nh?kZdkyhu fodkl izfØ;k ds ifj.kke gksrs gaAS bu thok'ekas dk ik;k tkuk ioZrkas dh vk;q ds vkdyu eas lgk;d fl) gksrk gSA

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thok'ekas ls izkIr lwpuk ioZrkas dh la?kVd pV~Vkukas ds jsfM;ks,fDVo rRokas ds

fu/kkZj.k eas Hkh lgk;d gksrh gaAS pV~Vkukas eas mifLFkr vusd jsfM;ks lfØ; /kkrqvkas dh ,fDVfoVh ,d fu/kkZfjr le; lhek ds Hkhrj Bhd ,d HkwfoKkuh ?kM+h dh rjg fo?kfVr gksrh jgrh gS tks ioZrkas dh vk;q dh iqf"V djrk gSA

yk[kkas o"kk±s ds varjky eas ioZr dk fo?kVu vFkok VwV tkuk fu;fer izfØ;k gSA ok;q] ty] fge vkfn yxkrkj ioZrkas dk vijnu djrs jgrs gaAS QyLo:i cM+h&cM+h ioZr pksfV;ka xksykdkj gks tkrh ga]S ?kkfV;ka ladqfpr gks tkrh gSa rFkk ioZrkas ds <yku ifjofrZr gks tkrs gaAS ty Hkh vusd ?kqyu'khy inkFkk±s dks pV~Vkukas ls fudky dj mudk fo?kfVr dj nsrk gSA dqN pV~Vkukas ds vo'ks"k xksy&xksy iRFkj ds vkdkj eas cny tkrs gaS rks dgha iorhZ; pV~Vkukas ds vo'ks"k /kjrh] leqnz vFkok leqnzh rVkas ij jsr ds :i eas ifjofrZr gks tkrs gaAS

ysfdu tc rd fo'kky ioZrkas dk vfLrRo jgrk gS fu'p; gh ;g vius vki eas vusd thokas ,oa ouLifr;kas dh 'kj.k LFkyh cus jgrs gaAS lkFk gh vusd ioZrh;

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ioZrksa dh jpuk

ioZrksa dh jpuk 29 tutkfr;ka Hkh ioZrkas ij vkfJr jgrh gaS D;kafds ;g thou ds fy,

29

tutkfr;ka Hkh ioZrkas ij vkfJr jgrh gaS D;kafds ;g thou ds fy, vko';d lalkèkukas dk HkaMkj gksrs gaAS ioZr LFkkuh; rFkk HkweaMyh; tyok;q dks Hkh izHkkfor djrs gaAS

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30

30 ioZrksa ij ladV 3 tyok;q ij izHkko v iuh fof'k"V ÅapkbZ ds dkj.k ioZr viuh

ioZrksa ij ladV

3

tyok;q ij izHkko

v iuh fof'k"V ÅapkbZ ds dkj.k ioZr viuh tyok;q dk Lo;a fu/kkZj.k djrs gaS pkgs og dgha Hkh fLFkr gkaAs lkekU;r% ioZrh; tyok;q ,d fof'k"V ÅapkbZ

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ij yxHkx 3000 ehVj ¼10]000 QhV½] tgka fge dk LFkkf;Ro gksrk gS] ds ^ekSle*

dk gh ,d vLi"V lk uke gSA

LFkkf;Ro gksrk gS] ds ^ekSle* dk gh ,d vLi"V lk uke gSA ÅapkbZ ds lkFk ioZrksa

ÅapkbZ ds lkFk ioZrksa dh tyok;q cnyrh jgrh gS

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tyok;q ij izHkko

tyok;q ij izHkko 31 ekSfyd :i ls ioZrh; ekSle dh fo'ks"krk gS ok;q dk rhoz osx]

31

ekSfyd :i ls ioZrh; ekSle dh fo'ks"krk gS ok;q dk rhoz osx] fxjrk gqvk rkieku vkSj ÅapkbZ c<+us ds lkFk ikuh dk fge eas cny tkuk] lkFk gh 'khr _rq dk vf/kd BaMh rFkk xzh"e _rq dk de xeZ jguk gSA

_rq dk vf/kd BaMh rFkk xzh"e _rq dk de xeZ jguk gSA www.ApniHindi.com i`Foh dk ?kw.kZu

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i`Foh dk ?kw.kZu vkSj dkWfjvkWfyl cy

ioZrkas ij ekSle cgqr rsth ls] dHkh&dHkh ukVdh; :i ls cnyrk jgrk gSA dgk tkrk gS fd ioZrkas ij dHkh&dHkh ,d gh fnu eas o"kZ ds pkj fofHkUu ekSlekas dks ns[kk tk ldrk gaAS dHkh fueZy vkdk'k eas f[kyh /kwi pan {k.kkas esa BaMh gok] mM+rs gq, ckny] ?ku?kksj o"kkZ o dM+dM+krh BaM eas cny tkrh gSA ekSle dh vfuf'prrk ioZrkas dh fo'ks"krk gksrh gSA

ioZr ds fofHkUu Lrjkas ;kuh ÅapkbZ ij Hkkafr&Hkkafr dh tyok;q ikbZ tkrh gSA tgka fupys Hkkxkas eas xeZ tyok;q gksrh gS ogha Åij tkus ij rkieku yxkrkj fxjrk

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32

32 ioZrksa ij ladV tkrk gSA blh izdkj tyok;q dk ifjorZu ogka ds tho&tarq rFkk ouLifr;kas

ioZrksa ij ladV

tkrk gSA blh izdkj tyok;q dk ifjorZu ogka ds tho&tarq rFkk ouLifr;kas dh mifLFkfr ij Hkh O;kid izHkko Mkyrk gSA

HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh; tyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;q ijijijijij izHkkoizHkkoizHkkoizHkkoizHkko

ioZr LFkkuh; tyok;q ij gh ugha vfirq HkweaMyh; tyok;q dks Hkh izHkkfor djrs

gaAS ysfdu i`Foh dh ioZr Üka[kyk,` Mkyrh gaAS

a ukVdh; <ax ls HkweaMyh; tyok;q ij izHkko

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www.ApniHindi.com

ioZr vkSj o"kkZ

i`Foh ds ok;qeaMy eas gok dk vf/kdrj cgko i`Foh ds vius v{k ij ?kweus vkSj dksfjvkWfyl cy ds dkj.k iwoZ&if'pe izo`fRr dk gSA ifj.kker% mÙkj&nf{k.k eas fLFkr ioZr Üka[kyk,` a lkekU; ifjlapj.k dks izHkkfor dj ldrh gaAS ;|fi dqN gok cy ds lkFk ioZrkas ds Åij mBrh gaS tks Åij mBus ds dkj.k LFkkuh; ekSleh ifj?kVuk dks izHkkfor djrh gSA

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tyok;q ij izHkko

tyok;q ij izHkko 33 tyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;q dkdkdkdkdk LFkkuh;LFkkuh;LFkkuh;LFkkuh;LFkkuh;

33

tyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;q dkdkdkdkdk LFkkuh;LFkkuh;LFkkuh;LFkkuh;LFkkuh; izHkkoizHkkoizHkkoizHkkoizHkko

ioZr LFkkuh; tyok;q ij xgjk izHkko NksM+rs gaAS ioZrh; tyok;q eq[;r% rhu dkjdkass rkieku] ueh rFkk ok;q ds ncko ds varj ij fuHkZj djrh gSA ok;q dk ncko ioZr dh ÅapkbZ ds lkFk de gksrk tkrk gSA ok;q dk ncko ekSle ij Hkh fuHkZj djrk gS fdUrq lkekU; fu;ekuqlkj 2000&3000 ehVj rd izR;sd 8 ehVj dh ÅapkbZ ij ;g 1 feyhckj de gks tkrk gSA ysfdu mlls Åij cgqr de fxjkoV gksrh gS tSls fd ekmaV ,ojsLV ds f'k[kj ¼8]848 ehVj½ ij ;g 300 ls 360

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cknyksa dk fuekZ.k ,oa ioZrh; mRFkku ls o`f"V Nk;k {ks=k dk fuekZ.k

feyhckj gksrk gSA ;g tkuuk Hkh vko';d gS fd leqnz rV ij ok;q dk ncko 1013 feyhckj gksrk gSA

ok;q ds ncko esa deh gksus ds dkj.k ioZrksa dh fofHkUu Åapkb;ksa ij ueh dh ek=kk lehi ds fupys {ks=k ls vf/kd gksrh tkrh gSA leqnz ry ds vuqikr esa vfèkd ÅapkbZ gksus ds dkj.k ioZrksa ij rkieku BaMk gksrk gSA blds QyLo:i ogka o"kkZ Hkh vf/kd gksrh gS vkSj Åaph pksfV;ka rks lnSo fge ls <dh

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34

34 ioZrksa ij ladV jgrh gSaA leqnz lrg ls dksbZ LFkku ftruh vf/kd ÅapkbZ ij fLFkr

ioZrksa ij ladV

jgrh gSaA leqnz lrg ls dksbZ LFkku ftruh vf/kd ÅapkbZ ij fLFkr gksxk ogka BaM Hkh mruh gh vf/kd gksxhA

vf/kd ÅapkbZ ij ok;q dk ?kuRo de gksus ds dkj.k ok;q de Å"ek vo'kksf"kr dj ikrh gSA vr,o ok;q BaMh gks tkrh gSA de rkieku gksus ds dkj.k ogka ok"ihdj.k dh nj de gksus ls gok eas ueh vf/kd gksrh gSA tSls ;g ueh;qDr ok;q Åij mBrh gS rks vkSj vf/kd BaMh gksdj ok;q eas fLFkr ok"i ds d.kkas dks nzfor dj nsrh gSA bl izdkj cknykas dh jpuk gksrh gSA tc ok;q ioZr Üka[kyk` ds foijhr Åij mBrh gS rc ioZr ds cy ls gok Åij mBrh gSAS tc ok;q igkM+h <yku ij Åij dh vksj cgrh gS rc Åij mBrh gok BaMh gksrh gSA bl cy ds dkj.k ok;q

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o`f"VNk;k izHkko

eas mifLFkr tyok"i la?kfur gks tkrh gSA ;fn gok ioZr Üka[kyk` ds ioukfHkq[k Hkkx ¼og Hkkx tgka ls iouas pyrh ga½S ls Åij dh vksj cy yxkrh gS rc ckny curs gaS vkSj ;k rks o"kkZ gksrh gS ;k fgeikrA bls ^vkWjksxzkfQd fyf¶Vax* ;kuh ^ioZrh; mRFkku* dgrs gaS vkSj ;g crkrk gS fd la?kuu D;kas gksrk gS vFkok ioZrh; {ks=kkas eas ioZrh; izHkko cgqr ÅapkbZ ij vkSj ioukfHkeq[k Hkkx dh vksj fLFkr gksrs gaAS ;gh dkj.k gS fd ioZrkas ij fudV dh ?kkfV;kas dh vis{kk vf/kd fge tek gksrk gSA ioZrkas ij gksus okyh Hkkjh o"kkZ vdLekr ck<+ dk dkj.k curh gSA

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tyok;q ij izHkko

tyok;q ij izHkko 35 ioZrh; izHkko ds lkFk&lkFk ,d izHkko vkSj n`f"Vxkspj gksrk gSA ^ioZrh; izHkko*

35

ioZrh; izHkko ds lkFk&lkFk ,d izHkko vkSj n`f"Vxkspj gksrk gSA ^ioZrh; izHkko* tgka ok;q ds izokg dh fn'kk eas o"kkZ ;k fgeikr dk dkj.k curk gS ogha ioZr yhoMZ ;kuh izfriou fn'kk eas lw[ks dh fLFkfr ¼o"kkZ o fge foghu½ dks mRiUu djrk gSA ioZr ds ok;q izokg dh fn'kk eas ok;q dh ueh dk vf/kdka'k Hkkx nzohdj.k ¼o"kkZ o fge½ eas mi;ksx gks tkus ds dkj.k ok;q ioZr ds vU; Hkkx o nwljh vksj ls tc uhps dh vksj cgrh gS rks ncko mRiUu gksrk gS ftlds QyLo:i ok;q xje gks tkrh gS] vkisf{kr ?kuRo de gks tkrk gS vkSj cknykas ds fo?kVu ls vkdk'k lkQ gks tkrk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd ioZrkas ds ok;q izokg dh fn'kk eas o"kkZ ;k fgeikr gksrh gS tcfd ^izfriou fn'kk* eas o"kkZ ugha gksrhA bl lw[ks Hkkx dks ^jsu 'kSMks* ;kuh ^o`f"VNk;k* dgrs gaAS vr% bl izHkko dks o"kkZ dh Nk;k dk izHkko Hkh dgrs gaAS vusd ioZrkas dh izfriou fn'kk eas jsfxLrku ik, tkrs gaAS

ioZr Ük`[kyk,a a ueh okfgr gokvksa ds fy, vojks/kd dk dk;Z djrh gSaA

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Hkkjr ds ekSle dk mnkgj.k ysa rks ge ns[krs gSa fd fgeky; ioZr Ja`[kyk,a

xzh"edkyhu ekulwu dk eq[; dkj.k gaSA ;g fo'o dh lcls Åaph pksVh dks j[krh gSaA ;g Åaph pksVh ekSle dks ckf/kr djrh gSaA Hkkjr dh fgeky; ioZr Üka`[kyk,a nf{k.k&if'peh gokvksa ds izokg esa vojks/k mRiUu dj Hkkjr esa o"kkZ dk dkj.k curh gaS tcfd fgeky; ds iBkj ds vU; Hkkx fcYdqy lw[ks] jsfxLrku dh Hkkafr jg tkrs gSaA jkWdh ioZr Ük`a[kyk Hkh ekSle vojks/kd dk vPNk mnkgj.k gSA tgka okf'kaxVu jkT; dks iz;kZIr o"kkZ feyrh gS] ogha vesfjdk ds mÙkjh iBkj ds {ks=k lw[ks jg tkrs gSaA

ysfdu ,slk ges'kk ugha gksrk fd ioZrkas dh izfriou fn'kk jsfxLrku gh gksA ,slk gksuk vf/kdrj lehi ds {ks=k dh LFkykd`fr vkSj Lo;a ioZr dh HkkSxksfyd fLFkfr ij fuHkZj djrk gSA

vR;f/kd Åaps ioZrkas ij BaMh gok ds feyus dk vFkZ gS fd vkl&ikl ds rjkbZ {ks=kkas dh rqyuk eas vR;f/kd ÅapkbZ ds QyLo#i Hkwe/; js[kk ij Hkh cQZ ikbZ

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36

36 ioZrksa ij ladV tk ldrh gS] mnkgj.k ds fy, dsU;k fLFkr dsU;k ioZr ¼5]199 ehVj½]

ioZrksa ij ladV

tk ldrh gS] mnkgj.k ds fy, dsU;k fLFkr dsU;k ioZr ¼5]199 ehVj½] ratkfu;k esa fdfyeutkjks ioZr ¼5]895 ehVj½] rFkk bDokMkV esa dksVkikDlh ¼6]310 ehVj½A

¼5]895 ehVj½] rFkk bDokMkV esa dksVkikDlh ¼6]310 ehVj½A www.ApniHindi.com tsV izokg rhozrhozrhozrhozrhoz

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tsV izokg

rhozrhozrhozrhozrhoz osxosxosxosxosx lslslslsls cgrhcgrhcgrhcgrhcgrh gok,agok,agok,agok,agok,a

ioZrh; tyok;q eas lkekU;r% rst xfr ls gok,a pyrh gaAS ioZr ij lkekU; osx ls cgrh gok,a tc ioZr f'k[kj dh vksj vxzlj gksrh gSa rks Åij pyrh gok,a uhps ls Åij dh vksj vkus okyh ok;q dks uhps dh vksj /kdsyus dk iz;Ru djrh gaAS ,slh fLFkfr eas i;kZIr fudklh u gksus ds dkj.k ok;q dk rhoz osx gh mls Åij mBkus eas lgk;d gksrk gSA ;g rhoz osx Åij ls uhps vxzlj gksdj ioZr ds vf/kdka'k Hkkxkas eas gok ds izHkko dks rst djrk gSA bldh rqyuk unh eas ty ds cgko ls dh tk

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tyok;q ij izHkko

tyok;q ij izHkko 37 ldrh gSA tc ty dh /kkjk pkSM+h gksrh gS rks cgko ean

37

ldrh gSA tc ty dh /kkjk pkSM+h gksrh gS rks cgko ean xfr ls gksrk gS ysfdu tc unh ladjh gksrh gS rks /kkjk dk izokg rst gks tkrk gSA HkkSfrdh ds rjy xfrdh ds fl)kar ds vuqlkj ioZrkas ij vfr 'khry o rst gok,a cQhZys rwQku dk dkj.k curh gSAa

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www.ApniHindi.com

ÅapkbZ ds lkFk ioZrksa dh tyok;q cnyrh jgrh gS

ysfdu ioZrksa }kjk mRi=k fofHkUu gokvkas dks vusd ukekas ls tkuk tkrk gSA ,slh gokvkas dks ,TIl ioZr ij QkWu] vesfjdk ds dksyWjkMks eas fpuwd rFkk ykWl ,atsfyl eas ßlaVks ,ukÞ rFkk vkLVªfy;ks ds flMuh eas ^fczdQhYMj* dgrs gaAS tc ok;q ioZrkas ds <ykukas eas Åij ls uhps dh vksj cgrh gS rks ncko ds QyLo:i xeZ gks tkrh gS ysfdu fQj Hkh ftl ok;q dks gVkdj mldk LFkku ysrh gS] mlls dbZ

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38

38 ioZrksa ij ladV vf/kd daidaikrh BaM dk vuqHko djkrh gSA tc BaMh] l?ku o ue

ioZrksa ij ladV

vf/kd daidaikrh BaM dk vuqHko djkrh gSA tc BaMh] l?ku o ue gok,a ioZrkas ds <yku ij Åij ls uhps dh vksj vFkok ?kkVh eas vkrh gSa rks mUgas ^vojksgh gok,a* dgrs gaAS Ýkal eas bUgas ^feLVªy* o ,fMª;kfVd leqnz rV ij ^cksjk* dgrs gaAS

feLVªy dh mRifRr dk dkj.k gokvkas ij ioZrkas dk Quy izHkko gSA ;g mRrj dh BaMh gok gS tks Ýkal dh jkWu ?kkVh eas vklikl dh gokvkas ls vuqisf"krz gksrh gSA ,slk ioZrkas ij mPp nkc ;k fofdj.kh BaMkbZ ds dkj.k gksrk gSA feLVªy ds ekeys eas gok eSfld lsUVªy] tks Ýkal dk lsUVªy iBkj gS] vkSj ,YIl ds Åij BaMh gksrh gSA D;kafds budk ?kuRo vklikl dh gok ls vf/kd gksrk gS blfy, ogka ls ;g jkWu ?kkVh ds uhps dh vksj cgrh gSA jkWu ?kkVh dh mifLFkfr Quy izHkko mRiUu djrh gS ftlls dkj.k ;s xYQ dh vksj Rofjr gksrh gaAS blds ifj.kkeLo:i bldh xfr 100 ehy izfr ?kaVs rd igqpa tkrh gS tks igys 20 ls 30 ehy izfr ?kaVs FkhA

leqnz ry ls 5 ls 10 ehy chp dh ÅapkbZ ij cgqr rst gok,a pyrh gaS

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ftudh j¶rkj 310 ehy izfr ?kaVk rd gksrh gSA bu gokvkas dks tSV izokg dgrs gaAS

;g vf/kd ÅapkbZ ij pyrh gaAS lkekU;r% tSV izokg ioZr f'k[kjkas ij igqpua s dh ;kstuk cukus okykas dh fy, ;s egRoiw.kZ gksrh gSA ,slk lkekU;r% rc gksrk gS tc ,f'k;kbZ ekulwu mÙkj eas caxky dh [kkM+h dh vksj c<+rk gS ftlls tSV ij mÙkj dh vksj tkus dk ncko iM+rk gSA Åaps ioZrkas ij ioZrkjksgh ny rHkh vius vfHk;ku vkxs c<+kus eas lQy gks ikrs gaS tc ;g gok,a dqN 'kkar gks tkrh gaAS fgeky; {ks=k eas ok;q dh xfr vkSlru 75 ehy izfr ?kaVs gksrk gS] tks dbZ ckj 100 ehy izfr ?kaVs ls Hkh T;knk igqap tkrh gSA

vuk;kl gksrs ekSle ds cnyko] ljljkrh rst gok,a] vpkud gks tkus okyh daidaikrh BaM] ?kqeM+rs gq, es?k rFkk Hkkjh o"kkZ] fgeikr vkfn ioZrkjksgh nykas dks vFkok lSykfu;kas dks vo'; gh vleatl dh fLFkfr eas Mkyrs gaS vkSj lko/kku Hkh djrs gaAS ysfdu tyok;q dh vFkok LFkkuh; ekSle dh fofoèkrk ;k vuk;kl cnyrs ekSle ds fet+kt ds vfrfjDr vusd fo"ke ifjfLFkfr;ka vkSj Hkh gksrh gaS tks fd ioZr dh vksj tkus okykas dks lko/kku djrh gaAS

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39 4 ioZrksa dk ladV l u~ 1923 esa tkWtZ eWykjh tks fd ,d fo[;kr

39

4

ioZrksa dk ladV

l u~ 1923 esa tkWtZ eWykjh tks fd ,d fo[;kr ioZrkjksgh Fks] muds ,ojsLV ij p<+us ds lkglh vfHk;ku ls igys fdlh us muls iwNk fd vki D;ksa

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ekmaV ,ojsLV ij tkuk pkgrs gSa rks tkWtZ eWykjh us dgk Fkk ßD;ksafd ekmaV

,ojsLV dk vfLrRo gSA**

vla[; yksx izfr o"kZ ioZrkas ds f'k[kj ij igqapus dk iz;Ru djrs gaAS mueas ls vusd foinkvkas rFkk fo"ke ifjfLFkfr;kas ds dkj.k okil ykSV vkrs gaAS dqN viuh NqfV~V;ka fcrkdj ykSV vkrs ga]S dqN vius vfHk;ku dks lQy cuk nsrs gaAS izfr o"kZ nqfu;k Hkj ds vusd yksx dky ds xzkl cu tkrs gaAS

ioZr vusd izkÑfrd foinkvkas ls vk'kafdr jgrs gSAa vkdfLed :i ls ekSle eas ukVdh; ifjorZu ds vfrfjDr vU; foink,a tSls Hkwdai vFkok vkx mxyrs Tokykeq[kh ioZrkas dh ifjfLFkfr;kas dks fu'p; gh izfrdwy cukrs gaAS ioZrkas ds f'k[kj rFkk <ykukas ij BaMh ok;q dk nzohdj.k vFkok fgeikr ,oa vR;f/kd vkdfLed foink dk dkj.k cu ldrs gaAS ioZrkas ds lh/ks <yku ls pV~Vkua]s feV~Vh vkfn uhps fxjdj Hk;adj {kfr igqapkrh gSAa ,slk dHkh&dHkh ekuo ds ioZrh; vfHk;ku vFkok [ksy&dwn ds vk;kstukas ds dkj.k Hkh gks tkrk gSA

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40

40 ioZrksa ij ladV vusd yksx ioZrkas dh fo"ke ifjfLFkfr;kas eas vius vki dks vuqdwy u

ioZrksa ij ladV

vusd yksx ioZrkas dh fo"ke ifjfLFkfr;kas eas vius vki dks vuqdwy u cukus ds dkj.k dky dk xzkl cu tkrs gaAS ioZrkas ij vusd yksx fctyh ds fxjus ls ;k pV~Vkukas ds vkdfLed :i ls uhps fxjus ls ej tkrs gaAS izfrdwy ekSle] lk/kukas rFkk vU; O;oLFkkvkas dk vHkko NksVh&ls&NksVh nq?kZukvkas dks cM+k cuk nsrh gaAS vusd

www.ApniHindi.com Hkkjr dk Hkwdaih vkink uD'kk (www.seismo.ethz.ch/gshap/ict/fig3.gif)
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Hkkjr dk Hkwdaih vkink uD'kk (www.seismo.ethz.ch/gshap/ict/fig3.gif)

voljkas ij ,slh gh NksVh&NksVh nq?kZVuk,a o chekjh Hkh e`R;q dk dkj.k cu tkrh gaS ;fn rqjar bykt dh O;oLFkk u gks ik,A ;fn vko';d lko/kkuh u cjrh tk, rks ioZrkas dh vfo'oluh; lhek rd dh foijhr ifjfLFkfr;ka ogka ds fuokfl;kas ds fy, gh ugha vfirq lSykfu;kas vkSj ioZrkjksgh nykas ds fy, Hkh ?kkrd gks tkrh gSa A

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ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZrksa ij ladV 41 ioZrkas ds fu"Bqj {ks=k ogka fuokl djus okys yksxkas dks tksf[ke eas

41

ioZrkas ds fu"Bqj {ks=k ogka fuokl djus okys yksxkas dks tksf[ke eas Mkyrs gaAS psrkouh ladsrkas dks ikyu ugha djus okys ioZrh; i;ZVdkas dh tjk lh vlok/kkuh ls tku Hkh tk ldrh gSA

ioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksa dhdhdhdhdh ÅapkbZÅapkbZÅapkbZÅapkbZÅapkbZ vkSjvkSjvkSjvkSjvkSj gegegegege

ÅapkbZ ij gok ds fojy gksus ij ogka vkWDlhtu dh ek=kk de gksus ds dkj.k lkal ysus esa dfBukbZ gksrh gSA vH;Lr ioZrkjksgh gkas vFkok izFke ckj vfHk;ku

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Åaps ioZrksa ij mfpr vuqdwyu vfr vko';d gS

ij tkus okys gks] izR;sd dks ubZ ifjfLFkfr ds vuqlkj vius vki dks vuqdwy cukuk gksrk gSA lk/kkj.kr% 7]000 ehVj ls Åaps ioZrh; vfHk;ku ds fy, Ñf=ke vkWDlhtu dk mi;ksx vko';d gks tkrk gSA gkykafd dqN ioZrkjksgh fcuk vkWDlhtu mi;ksx ds gh ekmaV ,ojsLV tSls vfHk;ku dks lQyrkiwoZd

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42

42 ioZrksa ij ladV iwjk dj vk,] ysfdu fQj Hkh mUgsa ;kstukuqlkj vius vki dks izfrdwy

ioZrksa ij ladV

iwjk dj vk,] ysfdu fQj Hkh mUgsa ;kstukuqlkj vius vki dks izfrdwy ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa <kyuk iM+kA

2]400 ehVj dh ÅapkbZ ij p<+us ls igys] Bhd ls vius vki dks vuqdwy

u cukus ij rhoz ioZrh; chekfj;kas ds y{k.k mRiUu gks tkrs gaAS fljnnZ] feryh vkuk] Fkdku] pDdj vkuk] lkal Qwyuk] Hkw[k de yxuk] ikpu fØ;k dk fcxM+

tkuk vkSj dHkh&dHkh vpkud e`R;q gks tkuk vkfn dqN mnkgj.k gaAS ioZrh; jksxkas

ds vusd :ikas eas dqN vfr ?kkrd jksx Hkh gaS tSls ^gkbZ ,fYVV;qM lsjsczy ,Mhek*

vkSj ^gkbZ ,fYVV;qM iYeksujh ,Mhek* bu nksukas voLFkkvkass eas jksxh 24 ?kaVkas eas gh ej ldrk gSA nnZuk'kd vkS"kf/k vFkok ^LVsjks;M* dk mi;ksx bu jksxkas eas ykHkizn gks ldrk gSA

fdj.kkas dk

izHkko Hkh vf/kd vf/kd gksrk gSA ifj.kkeLo#i rst /kwi ls Ropk dk ty tkuk rFkk

ioZrkas dh ÅapkbZ ij gok dk ?kuRo de gksus ds dkj.k ijkcSxuha

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vU; peZ jksxkas dk gks tkuk dksbZ vk'p;Z ugha gSA cnyh Nk;h jgus ij Hkh Hkkjh fge

ls fdj.kas ifjofrZr gks dj Ropk dks tyk ldrh gaAS

vR;f/kd le; cQZ esa fcrkus ls cQZ ls ijkofrZr fdj.kas va/ksiu dk Hkh dkj.k cu ldrh gSAa vka[kas lwt tkrh gS]a flj eas nnZ jgrk gS vkSj pDdj vkus yxrs gaAS blh dkj.k ioZrkjksgh ds fy, /kwi ds p'es dk mi;ksx vfr vko';d gks tkrk gSA lu~ 2005 essa ioZrkjksgh o vuqla/kkudehZ tksu lsfEiy us crk;k fd frCcr ds iBkj ij vkst+ksu xSl dh vR;fèkd ek=kk ioZrkjksfg;kas ds LokLF; ds fy;s gkfudkjd gSA

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; tyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;qtyok;q

ioZrkas ij ?kfVr gksus okyh vusd nq?kZVuk,a izfrdwy ekSle ls gh lEcaf/kr jgrh gSAa ;g rks fuf'pr gh gS fd ioZrkas dk ekSle vkdfLed #i ls cnyrk jgrk gS tks dHkh&dHkh vR;Ur izp.M gks ldrk gSA vk'p;Z rks rc gksrk gS tc rkieku 'kwU;

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ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZrksa ij ladV 43 fMxzh lsfYl;l ls uhps ysfdu [kqyk vkdk'k] rst /kwi rFkk vU; fLFkfr;kas

43

fMxzh lsfYl;l ls uhps ysfdu [kqyk vkdk'k] rst /kwi rFkk vU; fLFkfr;kas eas tc rkieku FkksM+k vf/kd ysfdu BaMh gokvkas ds dkj.k daidikrh BaM iM+rh gS tks fd 'kkjhfjd foÑfr;ka tSls ^foaM cuZ* vFkok 'kjhj Årdkas dk ty Lrj de gks tkuk

¼fMgkbMs'ku½ª

vkfn dks iSnk djrh gSA

ioZrksa ij dkQh foLe;dkjh ?kVuk,a gksrh jgrh gSa] tSls 'kwU; ls Hkh de rkieku ij ioZrksa esa rkieku vkisf{kd :i ls dqN xeZ gksrk gSA vxj

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ioZrh; ekSle cgqr vfuf'pr gksrk gS

vkleku lkQ gks vkSj lwjt rsth ls ped jgk gksA blds foijhr Åaps rkieku ij Hkh gesa BaM eglwl gks ldrh gS] vxj BaMh gok,a py jgh gkasA ijarq ,slk gksus ij rst gokvksa ls vkidh Ropk >qyl ldrh gS] ftls ^foaM cuZ* dgrs gSa ;k fQj 'kjhj esa ty dh deh gks ldrh gS] ftls ^fMgkbMsªs'ku* ;kuh futZyhdj.k dgrs gaAS

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44

44 ioZrksa ij ladV ioZrkjksfg;ksa dks fMgkbMªs'ku ls cpus ds fy, i;kZIr ek=kk esa is;ty j[kuk

ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZrkjksfg;ksa dks fMgkbMªs'ku ls cpus ds fy, i;kZIr ek=kk esa is;ty j[kuk vko';d gksrk gSA dHkh&dHkh vkdfLed fLFkfr;ksa esa 'kjhj rFkk mlds Årdksa ds ty dh gkfu jksdus gsrq ioZrkjksgh ¼1½ foJke djrs gSaA ¼2½ xeZ tehu ij u cSB Nk;k esa gh jgus dk iz;kl djrs gaSA ¼3½ de ls de Hkkstu ysrs gSaA ¼4½ /kweziku @efnjk iku ugha djrs vkSj ¼5½ ukd ls lkal ysrs gSa] ckrphr de ls de djds viuh 'kfDr dk lap; djrs gSaA

fgeikr vFkok Hkkjh o"kkZ ds dkj.k igpkus@ifjfpr jkgkas ds HkVdus ls Mj ls dqrqcuqek ¼dEikl½ dk mi;ksx ioZr vfHk;ku ds fy;s vko';d gksrk gSA blfy, dqrqcuqek ioZrkjksfg;kas dk ,d vPNk nksLr lkfcr gksrk gSA

fge@cQZfge@cQZfge@cQZfge@cQZfge@cQZ dkdkdkdkdk 'kjhj'kjhj'kjhj'kjhj'kjhj ijijijijij nq"izHkkonq"izHkkonq"izHkkonq"izHkkonq"izHkko

vfHk;ku ds le; ;fn 'kjhj ds ckgjh Hkkx tSls fd maxfy;ka vkfn dks ;Fkk lEHko

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:i ls xeZ u j[kk tk;s rks xgu 'khr ds dkj.k ÝkWLVckbV ;kuh rq"kkj mi?kkr

uked chekjh ds QyLo#i foÑr Hkkx uhyk iM+ tkrk gS vkSj ;fn le; ij mipkj u gks rks foÑr Hkkx lM+&xy ldrk gS rFkk 'kjhj dk og Hkkx dVokuk Hkh iM+ ldrk gSA bl laHkkfor foÑfr ls cpus ds fy;s vko';d xeZ diM+s dk mi;ksx t:jh gSA

,d laHkkfor foÑfr ^gkbiksFkfeZ;k* ¼'kjhj dk rkieku vpkud de gks tkuk½ gSA ,slk gksus ij 'kjhj te lk tkrk gS] jDr dk izokg Hkh f'kfFky iM+ tkrk gS vkSj dHkh&dHkh e`R;q rd gks ldrh gSA

blh dkj.k ioZrkjksfg;kas dks vko';d xeZ o Å"ekjks/kh ¼bUlwysVsM½ oL=kkas dk lewfpr mi;ksx djuk pkfg;sA blds lkFk gh ty#) iks'kkdkas dk Hkh leqfpr izcU/k djuk pkfg;sA xhys diMs+ rst gokvkas eas djhc 90 izfr'kr viuh Å"ekjksfèkrk {kerk [kks nsrs gaAS

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ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZrksa ij ladV 45 izdk'kh;izdk'kh;izdk'kh;izdk'kh;izdk'kh; fo|qr~fo|qr~fo|qr~fo|qr~fo|qr~ lslslslsls

45

izdk'kh;izdk'kh;izdk'kh;izdk'kh;izdk'kh; fo|qr~fo|qr~fo|qr~fo|qr~fo|qr~ lslslslsls mRiémRiémRiémRiémRié ladVladVladVladVladV

vkdk'kh; fo|qr~ vf/kdrj ioZrkas ij viuk ?kkrd izgkj dj vusd yksxkas rFkk i'kqvkas dks ?kk;y djrh gS vFkok gj o"kZ lSdM+kas yksxkas dh e`R;q dk Hkh dkj.k curh gSA fo|qr~ dh rjaxas viuk izkÑfrd jkLrk viukrh gSa rFkk pV~Vkukas dh njkj vFkok cM+s o`{k ds jkLrs /kjrh ds vUnj pyh tkrh gSAa ,slh fLFkfr eas ioZrkjksgh fo|qr~ ds lapkj ds jkLrs eas vk tkus ds dkj.k xaHkhj :i ls ?kk;y gks ldrk gS vFkok ej Hkh ldrk gSA ;g fo|qr~ dh rjaxsa 'kjhj ds ftl Hkkx ls izos'k djrh gS vkSj tgka ls

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www.ApniHindi.com

ioZrksa ij rfM+r dk [krjk vf/kd jgrk gS

ckgj fudyrh ga]S ogka vlhfer ÅtkZ ds dkj.k Årdkas dks tyk nsrh gSAa efLr"d rFkk ân; ij xgjk vk?kkr gksrk gS vkSj ;fn izfØ;k vfr rhoz gks rks rqjUr e`R;q Hkh gks ldrh gSA

fo|qr~ ls {kfr jksdus dk lgt mik; ;g gS fd tc ioZrkas ij fctyh dM+ds vkSj rwQku vkus dh laHkkouk gks rks ioZrkjksgh dks rqjUr fdlh Åaph txg ¼tSls fd

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46

46 ioZrksa ij ladV ioZr dh pksVh] Åaph pV~Vkus]a vdsyk isM+ vkfn½ ls cp dj [kqys

ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZr dh pksVh] Åaph pV~Vkus]a vdsyk isM+ vkfn½ ls cp dj [kqys eas vk tkuk pkfg;s tc rd fd rwQku dh vk'kadk lekIr u gks tk;sA ,sls le; esa fdlh Hkh ty L=kksr vFkok /kkrq dh oLrq ls nwj jguk pkfg;sA

vpkudvpkudvpkudvpkudvpkud ck<+ck<+ck<+ck<+ck<+ dkdkdkdkdk vkvkvkvkvk tkuktkuktkuktkuktkuk

dHkh&dHkh vpkud ck<+ vk tkus ls Hk;adj {kfr gks ldrh gSA dHkh&dHkh o"kkZ fdlh vU; LFkku ij gksrh gS ysfdu <yku ds dkj.k o"kkZ dk ikuh rhoz osx ls iRFkjksa rFkk isM+ksa ls Vdjkdj mUgsa m[kkM+ nsrk gS vkSj uqdlku dk dkj.k cu tkrk gSA blh dkj.k lw[kh unh esa ioZrkjksfg;ksa dks dHkh Msjk ugha Mkyuk pkfg;s rFkk fdlh Hkh unh dks ikj djus ls igys mldk Hkyh&Hkkafr fujh{k.k dj ysuk pkfg;sA

HkwL[kyuHkwL[kyuHkwL[kyuHkwL[kyuHkwL[kyu

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pV~Vkukas ds fxjus dks HkwL[kyu dgrs gaAS Hkw{kj.k vFkok e`nk vijnu dh izfØ;k ds dkj.k ioZrkas dk fujUrj fo?kVu gksrk jgrk gSA pV~Vkukas dh cukoV rFkk ,d fcUnq

fo?kVu gksrk jgrk gSA pV~Vkukas dh cukoV rFkk ,d fcUnq ;g ladsr pV~Vkuksa ds fxjus ds

;g ladsr pV~Vkuksa ds fxjus ds [krjksa ls vkxkg djrk gS

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ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZrksa ij ladV 47 fo'ks"k ij ekSle ds izHkko ds vuqlkj pV~Vkusa VwV dj uhps dh

47

fo'ks"k ij ekSle ds izHkko ds vuqlkj pV~Vkusa VwV dj uhps dh vksj fxjrh gaAS uhps fxjrh pV~Vkuas vius lkFk ouLifr;ka] o`{k rFkk feV~Vh dks Hkh uhps fxjkrh gSAa dHkh rks gkFk vFkok iSj ds ncko ls gh Hkxqaj fdLe dh pV~Vkusa VwV tkrh gSAa blh dkj.k ioZrkjksgh ds fy;s vko';d gS fd vius dne j[kus ls igys pV~Vkukas dk Hkyh&Hkkafr fujh{k.k dj yaAs ewy fl)kar ds vuqlkj ioZrkjksgh p<+kbZ lh/kh u djds frjNh p<kbZ djrs gaS rkfd fxjus okys iRFkj ny ds vU; yksxkas ij u iM+sAa vf/kdrj fxjrh gqbZ pV~Vkuas vius lkFk cQZ@ty@feV~Vh Hkh lkFk ysdj fxjrh gS rFkk ioZrkjkfg;kas ds vfHk;ku ds le{k fodV pqukSrh mRi=k djrh gaAS ;g fgeky; {ks=k eas ,d lkekU; ?kVuk gS A

vR;f/kdvR;f/kdvR;f/kdvR;f/kdvR;f/kd ;k;k;k;k;k fge/kkofge/kkofge/kkofge/kkofge/kko ¼,osyka'k½¼,osyka'k½¼,osyka'k½¼,osyka'k½¼,osyka'k½

izfro"kZ vusd ioZrkjksgh fge L[kyu ds dkj.k dky dk xzkl cu tkrs gaAS ;g eq[;

#i ls nks izdkj dk gksrk gS%

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ds dkj.k dky dk xzkl cu tkrs gaAS ;g eq[; #i ls nks izdkj dk gksrk

fge/kko

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48

48 ioZrksa ij ladV ¼1½ tc cQZ@fge dh fo'kky pV~Vkusa f[kld dj <yku ls uhps fxjrh

ioZrksa ij ladV

¼1½

tc cQZ@fge dh fo'kky pV~Vkusa f[kld dj <yku ls uhps fxjrh gSa rks cgqr {kfr djrh gSaA bUgsa Lyso ,osyka'k ;kuh f'kykiV~V fgeL[kyu dgrs gSaA dHkh&dHkh rks fo'kky Lysc fxj dj ioZrkjksgh@i;ZVdksa dks nck nsrh gSaA

¼2½

;g fge ds cMs+ VqdM+s tks fd eqyk;e gksrs gSa] fxj dj ioZrksa ij p<+us okyksa dh vlqfo/kk dk dkj.k curs gSaA lkekU;r% NksVs&NksVs fge ds VqdM+s fey dj cM+s vkSj Bksl cQZ dh f'kykvksa esa cny tkrs gSa vkSj blds L[kyu ls Hkkjh {kfr Hkh laHko gks tkrh gSA bUgs ^osV LykbZM ;k IokbaV fjyht* dgrs gSaA

vfXuvfXuvfXuvfXuvfXu

ioZrksa ij vkx yxus dh ?kVuk ds dkj.k ikfjfLFkfrdh ra=k ds {kfrxzLr gksus ds

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lkFk vusd ekSrsa gks ldrh gSaA dHkh&dHkh ioZrksa ij vkx Hkh yx tkrh gS tks fd lw[kh gqbZ ifÙk;ksa o vU; ouLifr;ksa rFkk rst gokvksa ds dkj.k fodjky #i èkkj.k dj Hk;adj {kfr djrh gSA ioZrksa ds fupys LFkkuksa dh rqyuk esa Åaps LFkkuksa ij vkx dh laHkkouk vfèkd jgrh gSA

tehtehtehtehteh cQZcQZcQZcQZcQZ dkdkdkdkdk fxjukfxjukfxjukfxjukfxjuk

teh gqbZ fxjrh cQZ ls Hkh fxjrh pV~Vkuksa dh rjg cpuk pkfg,A lh/kh pV~Vkuksa ij cQZ te dj dBksj vkSj cM+s vkdkj dh gks tkrh gS ;g BaMs vkSj rwQkuh fnuksa esa fujarj fxjrh jgrh gSA yVdrs gq, Xysf'k;jksa ls Hkh lko/kku jguk pkfg,] D;ksafd mudh pksap ;k pksVh dqN&dqN varjky ij fxjrh jgrh gaSA bldh igpku uhps iM+s cQZ ds VqdM+ksa ds }kjk dh tk ldrh gSA bu jkLrksa ls cpdj jguk Js;Ldj gksrk gSA

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ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZrksa ij ladV 49 fØoklfØoklfØoklfØoklfØokl ¼cQZ¼cQZ¼cQZ¼cQZ¼cQZ dddddhhhhh

49

fØoklfØoklfØoklfØoklfØokl ¼cQZ¼cQZ¼cQZ¼cQZ¼cQZ dddddhhhhh pV~VkuksapV~VkuksapV~VkuksapV~VkuksapV~Vkuksa esaesaesaesaesa njkjsa½njkjsa½njkjsa½njkjsa½njkjsa½

fge unh dh njkjas cuuk lkekU; lh ckr gSA teh gqbZ fge unh ¼Xysf'k;j½ ds fupys Hkkxksa esa ,slh njkjas cu tkrh gaSA vf/kdrj ;g Li"V fn[kkbZ nsrh gSa ysfdu ;fn bu njkjksa ij fgeikr gks tk;s rks njkjsa fn[kkbZ ugha nsrh vkSj blfy, ?kkrd Hkh gks ldrh gaSA ioZrkjksgh dks bu fNih gqbZ njkjksa ls lko/kku gksus dh vko';drk gksrh gSA

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; foinkvksafoinkvksafoinkvksafoinkvksafoinkvksa lslslslsls cpkocpkocpkocpkocpko

vU; izkÑfrd vkinkvksa esa Hkwdai] Tokykeq[kh dk QVuk] lw[kk iM+uk vkfn Hkh lfEefyr gSa tks fd ioZrkjksfg;ksa ds vfHk;ku dks dfBu cuk nsrh gaSA bu leLr vkinkvksa ;k ladVksa dks iwjh rjg jksd ikuk vlaHko gSA fQj Hkh ;fn

lkoèkkuhiwoZd dne mBk;s tk;as rks bu ioZrh; vkinkvksa dks FkksM+k de vo';

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fd;k tk ldrk gSA

lhfer fodkl tgka ij ioZrh; vkinkvkas dh laHkkouk vf/kd jgrh gS] mu LFkkukas ij fodkl dk;Z djus ls igys Hkyh&Hkkafr foospuk djuk vko';d gSA vR;f/kd fodkl dk;k±s dks mRlkfgr ugha djuk pkfg;sA foxr eas gqbZ ?kVukvkas ds vk/kkj ij HkkSxksfyd lwpukvkas dk dEI;wVj iz.kkyh }kjk lapkyu rFkk blh vk'k; ls ladVkas dk HkkSxksfyd fp=k o uD'ks }kjk izn'kZu djuk ioZrkjksgh vfHk;ku dks mfpr ekxZn'kZu nsxkA bl izdkj dk izn'kZu laosnu'khy LFkkukas ij mfpr fu.kZ; ysus eas vo'; gh lgk;d gksxkA

Hkkjr esa mixzg ls izkIr vkadM+s rFkk Åij ls fy, x, fp=kksa ds vk/kkj ij uD'ks@HkkSxksfyd lwpuk,a ^ioZrh; ladV* dks Li"V #i ls fpf=kr dj fgeky; ds x<+oky {ks=k] nf{k.k Hkkjr esa uhyfxfj ioZr rFkk flfDde ds ouh; {ks=kksa ds vusd Hkkxksa esa ioZrkjksgh vfHk;ku dks lgk;rk iznku djrh gSA

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50

50 ioZrksa ij ladV fVgjh cka/k ds vkl&ikl ds Hkkxksa esa ,sls 71 laosnu'khy {ks=kksa dks

ioZrksa ij ladV

fVgjh cka/k ds vkl&ikl ds Hkkxksa esa ,sls 71 laosnu'khy {ks=kksa dks bafxr fd;k x;k gS tgka ij HkwL[kyu dh vf/kd laHkkouk,a gSaaA bl izdkj bl iz.kkyh us uhyfxfj {ks=k esa vusd LFkkuksa dks lqjf{kr crk;k gS rFkk ogka ds LFkkuksa dks fuekZ.k dk;Z ds fy;s mfpr Bgjk;k gSA

HkwL[kyu ladVh; {ks=kksa dk fp=k.k ^ySMLykbM gstkMZ tksus'ku* ¼LHZ½ 1]700 fdyksehVj ds ekxks± ij fd;k x;k gSA ;g yksxksaa dks rFkk laLFkkuksa dks bl {ks=k ds fofHké LFkkuksa ij HkwL[kyu ls lko/kku djrk gSA fo'ks"k #i ls ;g fp=k.k vkdfLed lapkyuksa@izcU/kuksa] LFkkuh; vf/kdkjh oxZ] vfHk;arkvksa] ;kstuk vfèkdkjh rFkk chek dEifu;ksa ds fy;s ykHknk;d gSA th vkbZ ,l vkèkkfjr LFkkf;Ro ekWMy laHkkfor HkwL[kyu {ks=kksa] ,sls {ks=kksa dk fu/kkZj.k tgka Hkwfe&mi;ksx ;k vkoklh; iquokZl xfrfof/k;ka vkfn dsfUnzr gksa] rFkk izkFkfed

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vkink&{ks=kksa dks fpfUgr djus okys ekufp=kksa dks fodflr djus okys izcaèkdksa

ds fy, dkQh mi;ksxh jgsxkA

lapkjlapkjlapkjlapkjlapkj O;oLFkkO;oLFkkO;oLFkkO;oLFkkO;oLFkk

vkdfLed ladV dh mfpr ?kks"k.kk gh nq?kZVuk izca/ku dk vko';d vax gS rkfd le; jgrs ladV ds ckjs eas mfpr o iz;kZIr tkudkjh fey ik, rFkk vko';d fuokj.k Hkh fd;k tk ldsA mfpr ?kks"k.kk ra=k ls yksxkas dks viuk cpko djus dk leqfpr volj fey tkrk gSA fo'ks"k #i ls ioZrkas ds mu Hkkxkas eas tgka ;krk;kr vFkok lapkj ekè;e dk vHkko gksA lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ds vkStkj ekStwnk lapkj iz.kkyh dks vf/kd izHkkoh cukus ds fy, iz;ksx eas yk;k tk ldrk gSA

tytytytyty dhdhdhdhdh leqfprleqfprleqfprleqfprleqfpr fudklhfudklhfudklhfudklhfudklh

o"kkZ ds ty dh leqfpr fudklh ty ds vko';d ncko dks de dj HkwL[kyu dh laHkkoukvkas dks de djrh gSA

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ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZrksa ij ladV 51 vko';dvko';dvko';dvko';dvko';d ouhdj.kouhdj.kouhdj.kouhdj.kouhdj.k oukas dh fujUrj

51

vko';dvko';dvko';dvko';dvko';d ouhdj.kouhdj.kouhdj.kouhdj.kouhdj.k

oukas dh fujUrj dVkbZ o oukas dk yqIr gks tkuk i;kZoj.k ij nq"izHkko rks Mkyrk gh gS] lkFk gh Hkw{kj.k] feV~Vh dk f[klduk rFkk ck<+ dh lEHkkouk dks Hkh izcy

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www.ApniHindi.com

ouLifr ls vkPNkfnr gksus ij ioZrh; <ky tSls vfr laosnu'khy lrgksa dk fLFkjhdj.k gks ldrk gSA

djrk gSA oukas dk vfLrRo dk;e j[kuk gksxk vkSj u, fljs ls o`{kkjksi.k djuk gksxk] D;kafds oukas dh mifLFkfr ty ds cgko o feV~Vh dks f[kldus ls jksdrh gSA o"kkZ ds ty] feV~Vh vkSj pV~Vkukas dks o`{k ,d cka/k dh rjg jksdrs gSAa ogh ty dks jksds j[kus eas Hkh leFkZ gksrh gSA

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52

52 ioZrksa ij ladV ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; nq?kZVukvksanq?kZVukvksanq?kZVukvksanq?kZVukvksanq?kZVukvksa dhdhdhdhdh

ioZrksa ij ladV

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; nq?kZVukvksanq?kZVukvksanq?kZVukvksanq?kZVukvksanq?kZVukvksa dhdhdhdhdh tkudkjhtkudkjhtkudkjhtkudkjhtkudkjh

vko';drk bl ckr dh gS fd ioZrksa ds LFkkuh; yksxksa dks nq?kZVukvkas ds ckjs eas vkSj mudk le; jgrs fuokj.k djus eas mfpr f'k{kk nh tk,A leqfpr izf'k{k.k fØ;k ogka ds yksxkas dk thou lq/kkjus eas lgk;d gksxhA

fØ;k ogka ds yksxkas dk thou lq/kkjus eas lgk;d gksxhA bl fo"k; eas iz;kl djus ioZrh;

bl fo"k; eas iz;kl djus

ioZrh; {ks=kksa esa Hkwdai ds dkj.k gqbZ rckgh dk ,d n`';

ij mi;ksxh ifj.kke feyus dh laHkkouk gSA ysfdu fpUrk dk fo"k; ;g Hkh gS fd ekuork ls gh ioZrkas dh

ikfjfLFkfrdh dks cgqr cM+k [krjk jgrk gSA

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ikfjfLFkfrdh dks cgqr cM+k [krjk jgrk gSA www.ApniHindi.com ioZrh; {ks=kksa esa cls yksx dksa mfpr izf'k{k.k

ioZrh; {ks=kksa esa cls yksx dksa mfpr izf'k{k.k nsus ,oa vkink U;wuhdj.k uhfr;ksa }kjk ioZrh; vkinkvksa ds izHkko dks de fd;k tk ldrk gS

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53 5 ioZrksa dh gkfu g eus ;g le> gh fy;k gS fd fdl izdkj

53

5

ioZrksa dh gkfu

g eus ;g le> gh fy;k gS fd fdl izdkj ioZr dk vfLrRo gekjs thou ds fy, vko';d gSA vius eas ;g vikj tSo fofo/krk lesVs jgrs gaS vkSj laHkor%

fo'o dh fdlh Hkh ikfjfLFkfrdh dh rqyuk eas ;g vf/kd tfVy] ysfdu thou

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ds fy, furkar vko';d Hkh gSA budk fo'ks"k ikfjfLFkfrdh tho&tUrqvkas rFkk

ouLifr;kas dh fo'ks"k iztkfr;kas dks 'kj.k nsrk gS ftudk dgha vU; txg ik;k tkuk yxHkx vlaHko gaAS ikaMk] fge rsna q,] ioZrh; xkSfjYyk vkSj p'ek igus gq, dk vkHkkl nsus okyk Hkkyw & bu lc i'kqvkas dh cgqewY; tkfr;ka ioZrkas dh nsu gS rFkk gekjh i`Foh dh vewY; /kjksgj gSA

lalkj dh vf/kdka'k ty vkiwfrZ dk eq[; lzksr ioZr gh gaAS ioZr cgrh gqbZ gokvkas dk fn'kk ifjorZu rks djrs gaS lkFk gh mfpr ncko LFkkfir dj gokvkas dks Åij dh vksj /kdsyrs ga]S tgka os cknykas eas ifjofrZr gksrh gSa vkSj o"kkZ@fgeikr djus eas lQy jgrh gaAS fo'o dh eq[; ty /kkjk,a ioZrkas ls gh fudyrh gaAS lalkj ds yxHkx 3 vjc yksx ioZrkas ds ty lzksrkas ij gh fuHkZj gaAS

geus ;g Hkh ns[kk gS fd ioZr fofHkUu yo.k&[kfut] ydM+h] ou dh vU; oLrq,a] vkS"kf/k;ka o vusd Ñf"k mi;ksxh mRiknkas dk lzksr gSAa blds vfrfjDr ioZr vius eas vusd o"kk±s ls tutkfr;kas dh fofHkUu lH;rk,a lesVs gq, gaS tks fd fu'p;

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54

54 ioZrksa ij ladV gh ekuork dh vewY; /kjksgj gSA lkjka'k eas ioZr viuh fo'ks"k ikfjrkaf=kdh]a

ioZrksa ij ladV

gh ekuork dh vewY; /kjksgj gSA lkjka'k eas ioZr viuh fo'ks"k ikfjrkaf=kdh]a

tUrq rFkk ouLifr dk laxzgky; rFkk ekuork dh fo'ks"k lkaLÑfrd fofo/krk ds dkj.k vfr egRoiw.kZ gSA

tho

ioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksa dkdkdkdkdk uktqd]uktqd]uktqd]uktqd]uktqd] HkaxqjHkaxqjHkaxqjHkaxqjHkaxqj ooooo detksjdetksjdetksjdetksjdetksj fetktfetktfetktfetktfetkt

ioZr fu'p; gh pV~Vkuh 'kfDr dk izrhd gS vkSj blh dkj.k mldh fo'kkyrk

o 'kfDr lalkj dh fdlh Hkh laLÑfr o Hkk"kk esa mnkgj.k ds :i esa izLrqr dh tkrh gSA

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www.ApniHindi.com

ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh dks vk/kkjHkwr lajpukRed dk;ksZa ls eq[; [krjk gS

ioZrkas dh fofHkUu tu&tkfr;ka] i'kq&i{kh] ouLifr vkfn ogka dh fofp=k rFkk fodV ifjfLFkfr;kasa tSls fd pV~Vkukas dk fxjuk] HkwL[kyu] vR;f/kd] vkdk'kh; fo|qr~ dh rhozrk] tyok;q dh pje fLFkfr;ka] vR;f/kd rkieku o ueh vkfn ls vius vfLrRo ds fy, fujarj le>kSrk fd, gq, gaAS

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ioZrksa dh gkfu

ioZrksa dh gkfu 55 dSls dgk tk, fd ioZrksa dk ikfjfLFkfrdh csgn uktqd o Hkaxqj gksrk

55

dSls dgk tk, fd ioZrksa dk ikfjfLFkfrdh csgn uktqd o Hkaxqj gksrk gSA fdlh Hkh ra=k vFkok laLFkku dk fodkl mldh bdkbZ;kas }kjk izfrfØ;k o mRiknu 'kfDr ij fuHkZj djrk gSA bl fo"k; esa ioZr detksj jgrs gSaA muesa fLFkr thoksa esa rhoz izfrfØ;k dk vHkko rks gksrk gh gS lkFk gh ogka mRiknu {kerk Hkh cgqr lhfer gksrh gSA bldk izHkko ioZrksa dks vfr Hkaxqj o uktqd cukrk gSA blds vfrfjDr ogka dh fofHkUu Åapkb;ka o Hkkafr&Hkkafr dh tyok;q Hkh thoksa dh izfrfØ;k o fodkl lhfer gh j[krh gSA ioZrksa dks tyok;q ifjorZu dh izkjafHkd psrkouh iz.kkyh Hkh dgrs gSa] D;ksafd buesa ÅapkbZ ds dkj.k fofHké tyok;q dh iV~Vh gksrh gSA

ioZrh; ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuqdwy iztkfr;ksa us dbZ 'krkfCn;ksa rd vius dks lQyrkiwoZd <kyk gSA ijUrq vkt ge vHkwriwoZ #i ls gks jgs rhoz cnyko dks ns[k jgs gSaA ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh ra=k ij rsth ls eaMjkrs tksf[ke blh

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rhozrk rFkk vHkwriwoZ cnykoksa dk urhtk gaS] ftldh xfr ls ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh

vius dks <kyus esa vleFkZ gSaA ;g rhoz cnyko izR;{k #i ls ekuoh; xfrfofèk;ksa dk gh ifj.kke gSA

ekuo ds vR;f/kd gLr{ksi ls ioZr dk ifjra=k Hkh vizR;kf{kr :i ls izHkkfor gqvk gS] tks fd vc rd ,d larqyu cuk, gq, FkkA ekuo dh vlhfer bPNk,a] fo'ks"k :i ls vk/kqfudhdj.k o vkS|ksxhdj.k us ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh dks xgjh {kfr igqapkbZ gSA

la;qDr jk"Vª ds i;kZoj.k dk;ZØe ¼;wusi½ ds vuqlkj ,f'k;k fLFkr ioZrh; {ks=k dk yxHkx vk/kk Hkkx ekuo fodkl }kjk izHkkfor gqvk gS vkSj lu~ 2030 rd vuqekur% 70 izfr'kr Hkkx ds izHkkfor gksus dh laHkkouk gSA ;g fLFkfr ikfdLrku] mÙkjh Hkkjr] ckaXykns'k] E;akekj rFkk nf{k.k&iwohZ ,f'k;k fLFkr ioZrkas ij rks vfr Hk;kog gks xbZ gSA c<+rh gqbZ tula[;k dk ncko rFkk vR;f/kd fodkl] vlhfer fuekZ.k dk;Z rFkk ouksUewyu dh izfØ;k i;kZoj.k dh tSo fofo/krk ij fo'ks"k izHkko

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56

56 ioZrksa ij ladV Mkyrh gSA lkFk gh ekulwuh o"kkZ ij Hkh foijhr ifjfLFkfr;ka mRiUu gksrh

ioZrksa ij ladV

Mkyrh gSA lkFk gh ekulwuh o"kkZ ij Hkh foijhr ifjfLFkfr;ka mRiUu gksrh gaAS bu fofHkUu ns'kkas eas yxHkx 80 izfr'kr HkwHkkx dk mRiknu ;ksX; {ks=k lu~ 2030 rd ekuo fuekZ.k dk;Z vFkok fodkl dk;Z dh HksVa p<+ tk,xkA

,slh vusd {kfr;ka gaS ftueas ls dqN dk Kku rks geas gS ysfdu dqN dk ughaA mnkgj.k ds :i eas /kjrh ds ewy mi;ksx eas ifjorZu] ouksUewyu] yqIr gksrh tSo fofo/krk,a] ty dk vHkko] ^Xykscy okfe±x* rFkk mlls izHkkfor fi?kyrs Xysf'k;j vkSj ioZr ds LFkkuh; fuokfl;kas dh foyqIr gksrh laLÑfr vkfnA

/kjrh/kjrh/kjrh/kjrh/kjrh dsdsdsdsds mi;ksxmi;ksxmi;ksxmi;ksxmi;ksx esaesaesaesaesa ifjorZuifjorZuifjorZuifjorZuifjorZu

/kjrh ds ijaijkxr mi;ksx dh fof/k;kas eas ifjorZu gks jgs gaAS oukas dk rsth ls dVko] nks ufn;kas ds chp ds LFkku ls o`{kkas dk fujarj dVku] Ñf"k rFkk taxykas ds ijaijkxr mi;ksx ds LFkku ij ubZ Qlykas dk mRiknu tSls fd e/; ,f'k;k ls ysdj nf{k.kh

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tSls fd e/; ,f'k;k ls ysdj nf{k.kh www.ApniHindi.com vkS"k/kh; ,oa udnh Qlyksa dh l?ku [ksrh ds

vkS"k/kh; ,oa udnh Qlyksa dh l?ku [ksrh ds pyrs ikjaifjd d``f"k ,oa okfudh dk rsth ls ál gqvk gS

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ioZrksa dh gkfu

ioZrksa dh gkfu 57 vesfjdh {ks=kkas eas vkS"kf/k ds mRiknu ls lacaf/kr iSnkokj bR;kfn /kjrh ds

57

vesfjdh {ks=kkas eas vkS"kf/k ds mRiknu ls lacaf/kr iSnkokj bR;kfn /kjrh ds mi;ksx eas ifjorZu dk lwpd gSA

vusd ioZrh; yksxksa us viuh ijaijkxr [ksrh dks R;kx vk/kqfud 'kSyh esa udnh Qly ¼tks rqjar vFkZ ykHk djk lds½ yxkuk vkjaHk fd;k] ysfdu foØ; dh tkudkjh ds vHkko rFkk cktkj dh vuqHkoghurk ds dkj.k vius iz;kl esa lQyrk vftZr u dj ik,A vusd yksxksa }kjk ioZrksa ds <ky ij cuh pkSjl Hkwfe ij ijaijkxr [ksrh NksM+ nsus ls e`nk vijnu vf/kd gksus yxk rFkk mit Hkh de gks xbZA

rsth ls fodflr ;krk;kr gsrq lM+dkas ds tky us Hkh ioZrkas dk nksgu gh fd;k

gSA ;krk;kr ds vHkko eas lqnwj {ks=k ds ioZrh; Hkkx viuk vfLrRo rks cuk, gq, Fks ysfdu Hkkjh fodkl dk;Z us nwfj;ka rks fu'p; gh de dj nh fdUrq ioZr dk

vfLrRo Hkh nkao ij yxk fn;kA cM+h&cM+h vkS|ksfxd bdkb;ka] dkj[kkus] cka/k]

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ty&fo|qr~~ ifj;kstukvkas us ,d rjQ tgka Li"V ykHk igqapk;k rks nwljh vksj ioZrkas

dk izkÑfrd lEeksgu rFkk tSo fofo/krkvkas dks xgjh {kfr Hkh igqapkbZ gSA

ouksUewyuouksUewyuouksUewyuouksUewyuouksUewyu

[kk| rFkk Ñf"k laxBu ¼,Q,vks½ ds vuqlkj m".kdfVca/kh; ioZrh; {ks=kkas ¼Hkwe/; js[kk ds ikl½ eas oukas dk dVku vU; thokse dh vis{kk rhoz xfr ls gqvk gSA i;ZVu {ks=k dk fodkl rFkk i;ZVukas dh fujarj ;k=kkvkas ls mRiUu iznw"k.k us ioZrkas dh vuNqbZ lqanjrk dks fu'p; gh {kfr igqapkbZ gSA vkadM+s xokg gaS fd ftruh {kfr iznw"k.k us ioZrkas dks igqapkbZ gS mruh laHkor% fdlh vU; us ughaA mnkgj.k ds fy, iznw"k.k ds c<+rs Lrj ds dkj.k e/; ;wjksi ds egk ioZr ls ysdj vesfjdk ds ,fMjkWuMsDl ds taxy [kRe gks pqds gaAS [kfutkas dh izkfIr ds fy, gksrh va/kk/kq/k [kqnkbZ us Hkh vusd ioZrh; Hkkxkas dk fouk'k fd;k gSA fiNys dqN le; ls vusd ;q) Hkh ioZrkas ds gh {ks=k eas yM+s x, gaS ftlus ioZrkas ds LFkkuh; okrkoj.k rFkk ifjraf=kdha ij xgjk izHkko NksM+k gSA

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58

58 ioZrksa ij ladV ioZr ,oa ouksa dh dVkbZ www.ApniHindi.com ,slk le>k tkrk gS fd ouksUewyu

ioZrksa ij ladV

58 ioZrksa ij ladV ioZr ,oa ouksa dh dVkbZ www.ApniHindi.com ,slk le>k tkrk gS fd ouksUewyu

ioZr ,oa ouksa dh dVkbZ

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,slk le>k tkrk gS fd ouksUewyu ds QyLo:i vusd vkink,a tSls ck<+ vFkok lw[ks dh fLFkfr ls ioZrh; {ks=k ds vusd Hkkx izHkkfor gkaxs sA blds lkFk gh ;g fLFkfr ekuo ds LokLF; ds fgr eas Hkh ugha gS D;kafds ck<+ o lw[kk vusd vkfFkZd rFkk LokLF; ijs'kkfu;ka iSnk djrs gaAS

tytytytyty miyC/krkmiyC/krkmiyC/krkmiyC/krkmiyC/krk ijijijijij ladVladVladVladVladV

ouksUewyu rFkk /kjrh ds nq#i;ksx us ioZr {ks=k ls ty dh miyC/krk ij Hkkjh ladV iSnk dj fn;k gSA va/kk/kqaèk fodkl dh izfØ;k us ouksUewyu] iznw"k.k] e`nk vijnu tSlh fodV fLFkfr;kas dks mRiUu fd;k gSA c<+rh vkcknh ds fy, flapkbZ dh vko';drk iwjh djus ls ufn;ka lw[kuh 'kq: gks xbZ gSAa ,sls eas ou ds tho&tUrq Hkh izHkkfor gks jgs gaAS

varjkZ"Vªh; laxBu vkbZ-;w-lh-,u- ,oa ;w-,u-bZ-ih- us viuh fjiksVZ ^ty dh deh* eas dgk gS fd fo'ks"k :i ls fgeky; {ks=k eas ekulwuh o"kkZ dk vHkko rFkk

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ioZrksa dh gkfu

ioZrksa dh gkfu 59 Xysf'k;j ds fldqM+us ds dkj.k ty dh vkiwfrZ ij foijhr izHkko iM+sxkA

59

Xysf'k;j ds fldqM+us ds dkj.k ty dh vkiwfrZ ij foijhr izHkko iM+sxkA bl dkj.k

,f'k;k eas djksM+kas yksx izHkkfor gkaxs sA ;g {ks=k fo'o dh tula[;k ds yxHkx 50 izfr'kr Hkkx dks ty dh vkiwfrZ djrk gS ijUrq ;gka 3 izfr'kr ls Hkh de ty Hkwfe

eas

lajf{kr gS rks fu'p; gh cM+h la[;k eas ekuo rFkk i'kq ty dh ?kVrh gqbZ vkiwfrZ

ls

izHkkfor gkaxs s D;kafds gj fnu Hkkjh ek=kk eas ty dk mi;ksx fo|qr~~ ifj;kstukvka]s

vkS|ksfxd {ks=k rFkk vk/kqfud flapkbZ ds :i eas gks jgk gSA

mixzgkas ls izkIr fp=kkas ds vuqlkj ouksUewyu rFkk /kjrh ds vR;f/kd nksgu

us ufn;kas dk ikuh rks de fd;k gh gS lkFk gh lkFk ufn;kas eas Hkkjh ek=kk eas ryNV

o jsr Hkh tek gks x;k gSA blds vfrfjDr ty eas ?kqyu'khy inkFkk±s dh ek=kk Hkh vU; {ks=kkas dh rqyuk eas vf/kd gks xbZ gSA

ioZr ds Åijh Hkkxkas eas tykiwfrZ ij iM+s vR;f/kd ncko ds dkj.k ioZr {ks=k

uhps ds LFkkukas ij ty dh deh gks tkrh gS tks i'kqvkas ds pkjkxkg] oU;thou

eas

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o

i;ZVu dks Hkh izHkkfor djrh gSA tula[;k ds c<+us ij fu'p; gh ty dh vkiwfrZ

ds fy, Hkh"k.k la?k"kZ gksus dh laHkkouk gSA

foyqIrfoyqIrfoyqIrfoyqIrfoyqIr gksrhgksrhgksrhgksrhgksrh tSotSotSotSotSo fofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krk

ekuo ds vR;f/kd fodkl vkSj ouksUewyu dk gh izHkko gS fd ioZrkas dh tSo fofoèkrk ij Hkkjh ladV Nk;k gSA vuqeku gS fd vkxkeh 10 o"kk±s eas ioZrkas ij i'kqvkas o ouLifr;kas dh la[;kk eas Hkkjh izHkko iM+sxkA vusd iztkfr;ka yqIr gks

ldrh gaAS ftu {ks=kkas eas bu iztkfr;kas ds foyqIr gksus dk ladV gS mueas ls vf/kdka'k ioZrh; {ks=k gh gaAS 25 ls 16 iztkfr;kas ds foyqIrrk okys gkWV LikV ;kfu og {ks=k ftueas vR;f/kd tSo fofo/krk ikbZ tkrh gS] ioZrkas ij gh fLFkr gSAa mnkgj.k ds :i

eas eSMkxkLdj dh igkfM+;ka] if'peh ,est+ksfu;k ds ioZrh; {ks=k] iwohZ fgeky; ds

vusd {ks=k] fQyhihUl ds ioZrh; {ks=k] ratkfu;k ds eksVkus ds ouh; {ks=k] rFkk czkthy o vesfjdh ioZrh; {ks=kkas ls vusd tho&tUrq o ouLifr;kas dh iztkfr;ka foyqIr gks jgh gaAS

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60

60 ioZrksa ij ladV ;w-,u-bZ-ih- ¼;wusi½ ds vuqlkj ;fn vk/kqfudhdj.k vkSj fuekZ.k dk;ks± dh xfr blh

ioZrksa ij ladV

;w-,u-bZ-ih- ¼;wusi½ ds vuqlkj ;fn vk/kqfudhdj.k vkSj fuekZ.k dk;ks± dh xfr blh izdkj jgrh gS rks dkjkdksje] ikfdLrku] fgeky; dh Hkkjrh; lhek] nf{k.k&iwohZ frCcr rFkk nf{k.k&if'peh phu ds flpwvku {ks=kksa esa vkxeh 3 n'kdksa esa oU; thou ij Hkkjh izHkko n`f"Vxkspj gksxkA dqN jk"Vªksa esa oU; thou ij fo'ks"k izHkko iM+us dh vk'kadk gSA dtkfdLrku vkSj HkwVku tSls ns'kksa esa oU; thou dh Hkwfe dk 20 izfr'kr Hkkx fuekZ.k dk;Z rFkk fodkl dk;ks± ds dCts eas ys fy;k x;k gS] ftldh lu~ 2030 rd 30 rFkk 2060 rd 40 izfr'kr rd gks tkus dh laHkkouk gSA

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www.ApniHindi.com

ioZrh; ouksa dk O;kid :i ls lQk;k gqvk gS

ioZrh; {ks=kksa rFkk ÅapkbZ ij fLFkr vusd Hkkxksa esa oU; thoksa }kjk ?ksjh xbZ Hkwfe esa 20&40 izfr'kr deh gksus dh laHkkouk gS tcfd fupys Hkkxksa esa ;g 80 izfr'kr rd gks ldrk gSA dqN fo'ks"k iztkfr;kas dk vfLrRo fuLlansg ladV esa gS tSls fd fge rsanq,] dkyh xnZu okys lkjl rFkk fgju dh fo'ks"k iztkfr ftls fd ^i'kkofyLdh fgju* dgrs gSaA ty Hkjko ds vfèkdka'k Hkkxksa esa

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ioZrksa dh gkfu

ioZrksa dh gkfu 61 tkuojksa cgqrk;r ds dkj.k cÙk[k fo'ks"k :i ls ^cksyus okyh cÙk[k* Hkh

61

tkuojksa cgqrk;r ds dkj.k cÙk[k fo'ks"k :i ls ^cksyus okyh cÙk[k* Hkh yqIr gks jgh gSA

ekuo clko dh c<+rh gqbZ nj ds dkj.k vusd {ks=k pkjkxkg eas ifjofrZr gks pqds gaS vkSj bl izdkj ioZrkas dk ouh; {ks=k fo?kfVr gks jgk gSA vÝhdk ds ioZrh; {ks=kkas ds vf/kdka'k Hkkxkas eas [ksrh ds fy, gy py pqds gaAS blh izdkj nf{k.kh vesfjdk ioZrh; {ks=k Hkh ihNs ugha gaAS

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ioZrh; {ks=k esa vusd nqyZHk vkS"k/kh; ikS/kksa iuirs gSa

;w-,u-bZ-ih- ds vuqlkj dkWdsll ds Hkkx vkSj mÙkjh if'peh ,aMhl ds eq[;r% dsfyQksfuZ;k ds e/; dksyafc;k ds dqN ioZrh; {ks=kkas dk ikfjfLFkfrdh] fuLlansg ladV dh fLFkfr eas gSA

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; [knku[knku[knku[knku[knkusssssaaaaa

ioZrh; {ks=k dh pV~Vkuas vius xHkZ eas cgqewY; /kkrq,a rFkk [kfut inkFkk±s dk HkaMkj latks, gq, gaS tSls lksuk] pkanh] rkack] yksgk vkSj tLrk vkfnA ekuo dh bUgas ikus dh

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62

62 ioZrksa ij ladV yyd us ioZrkas dks Nyuh dj fn;k gSA vk/kqfudhdj.k ds va/kkèkqaèk vuqdj.k

ioZrksa ij ladV

yyd us ioZrkas dks Nyuh dj fn;k gSA vk/kqfudhdj.k ds va/kkèkqaèk vuqdj.k rFkk vk/kqfud dk;Z 'kSyh ds dkj.k bu /kkrqvkas dh Hkkjh ek=kk eas ekax us lqnwj ioZrh; {ks=kkas dh Hkh [kqnkbZ dj ioZrkas ds vfLrRo dks feVk;k gSA

/kkrq rFkk [kfutkas dh [kqnkbZ fo'ks"k :i ls fodkl'khy ns'kkas eas vf/kd gks jgh gS] fdarq fodflr ns'k gh bu /kkrqvkas rFkk cgqewY; [kfutkas dk vk;kr vf/kd djrs gaAS Hkkjr eas fgeky; izns'k ds [kfu;kjk {ks=k eas LysV dh yxHkx 1]000 NksVh&cM+h [knkukas ls [kqnkbZ ds dkj.k ou dk 60 izfr'kr Hkkx lekIr gks pqdk gSA ifj.kkeLo:i HkwL[kyu tSlh vkinkvkas dk Hkh izdksi c<+k gSA mRÑ"V LVhy cukus eas VaxLVu /kkrq ds Hkkjh mi;ksx ds dkj.k lalkj ds VaxLVu dh yxHkx vkèkh ek=kk nf{k.kh phu ds ioZrh; {ks=kkas ls [kqnkbZ dj fudkyh tkrh gSA vesfjdk eas Hkkjh vkS|ksxhdj.k ds QyLo#i fufdy] Øksfe;e rFkk fVu tSlh /kkrqvkas dk 70 izfr'kr Hkkx vk;kr fd;k tkrk gSA

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bl [kqnkbZ ds dkj.k ioZrh; f'k[kj ds vusd Hkkx /oLr gks pqds gaS rFkk ty

/kkjk,a iznwf"kr gksdj ioZrh; rFkk fupys {ks=kkas eass ihus ds ikuh rFkk Ñf"k ds fy,

Hkkjh ladV iSnk dj jgh gaAS bu [kkukas ls fu"dkflr ty izk;% Hkkjh èkkrqvkas rFkk vEy ls ;qDr gksrk gS] tks tho&tarqvkas rFkk ouLifr ds fy, vR;ar gkfudkjd gSA vÝhdk ds ioZrh; {ks=kkas dh [kkukas ls fu"dkflr ty eas vklZfuds /kkrq dh ek=kk ekin.M }kjk ekU; ek=kk ls 1000 xquk vf/kd ik;h xbZ gSA vesfjdk eas Hkh ufn;kas

o ty/kkjkvkas ds vusd Hkkxkas eas [kkukas }kjk fu"dkflr vEyh; ty dh ek=kk vfèkd ik;h xbZ gSA

[knkukas ls tho&tUrqvkas o ouLifr;kas dks Hkh Hkkjh {kfr gksrh gSA ftl Hkkx

eas [kqnkbZ dk;Z pyrk gS ogka ij isM+kas dh dVkbZ gksrh gh gS] tks e`nk vijnu rFkk

ck<+ tSlh vkinkvkas dks vkeaf=kr djrk gSA [knkukas ls ck#nh lqjaxs cukus eas QSyh /kwy okrkoj.k dks iznwf"kr djrh gSA ioZrh; {ks=kkas dh [knkukas eas dk;kZfUor izfØ;k,a

ekuo ds fy;s Hkh gkfudkjd gaAS ,d vksj ckgj ls vk, Jfed ioZr dh LFkkuh; laLÑfr dks vlarqfyr djrs gaS rks nwljh rjQ [knkukas dk ue rFkk BaMk okrkoj.k

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ioZrksa dh gkfu

ioZrksa dh gkfu 63 vkSj lkFk gh /kkrq [kfutkas dk fujarj QsQMkas eas vfrØe.k 'kjhj dks

63

vkSj lkFk gh /kkrq [kfutkas dk fujarj QsQMkas eas vfrØe.k 'kjhj dks xgjh gkfu igqapkrk gSA ;wusLdks }kjk ntZu ls Hkh T;knk ,slh fo'o /kjksgjkas dks fpfUgr fd;k x;k gS ftu ij [kuu ds pyrs ladV eaMjk jgk gS

HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh; rkihdj.krkihdj.krkihdj.krkihdj.krkihdj.k

/kjrh dk c<rk rkieku vkt igys ls vf/kd rFkk izcy [krjs ds #i eas mHkjk gSA

ok;qeaMy eas dqN xSlkas dh vf/kd ek=kk eas mifLFkr lw;Z dh xehZ dks ifjofrZr gksus ls jksdrh gSA QyLo#i /kjrh vf/kd xeZ gks tkrh gSA blds vusd nq"izHkko gaS ftldk eq[; :i ls izHkko i;kZoj.k@ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh ij iM+rk gSA rsy] dks;yk rFkk vU; thok'e b±/ku dks tykus ls ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh ds vkSj fcxM+us dh laHkkouk gSA blls ekSle dk pØ cny tkrk gS] Xysf'k;j fi?kyrs ga]S ekulwuh o"kkZ izHkkfor gksrh gS vkSj Qlykas rFkk vU; iSnkokj dks {kfr gksrh gS rFkk c<+rk

rkieku ekuo o vU; tUrqvkas ds thou pØ dks Hkh izHkkfor djrk gSA

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Xysf'k;j tks i;kZoj.k rFkk ikfjfLFkfrdh eas vnHkqr larqyu cuk, j[krs gSa rFkk ty dk LFkk;h HkaMkj latks, jgrs ga]S bl rkihdj.k ls fi?kyus yxs gSA fiNys ,d n'kd eas 3&30 ehVj izfr o"kZ Xysf'k;j dh cQZ fi?kyus ls larqyu fcxM+ x;k gSA ifj.kkeLo:i ,d djksM+ yksxkas dh ty vkiwfrZ izHkkfor gqbZ gSA lalkj ds vusd Hkkxkas eas Xysf'k;j fldqM+ jgs gaS tks fd xgu fpUrk dk fo"k; gSA bDokMkV] osusTkq,yk] ;wjksih; ,YIl] U;w fxuh vesfjdk ds ioZrh; {ks=kkas rFkk Hkkjr eas fgeky; ioZrkas ds Xysf'k;j fo'ks"k :i ls izHkkfor gks fldqM+ jgs gaAS

Xysf'k;j ds fi?kyus o fldqM+us ls ty dk izHkko izHkkfor gks jgk gSA vusd ufn;ka o ty /kkjk,a vusd o"kks± ls ekuo dks [kq'kgkyh o Ñf"k laink iznku djrh pyh vk jgh gaS] vc larqyu pØ fcxM+us ds dkj.k ekuo dh vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ dj ikus esa vleFkZ gks jgh gaSA Hkkjr dh yxHkx vkèkh tula[;k tks fd tykiwfrZ fy;s bMal rFkk xaxk ij fuHkZj Fkh vc ty ds vHkko ds dkj.k ladV eas vk x;h gSA

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64

64 ioZrksa ij ladV Xysf'k;j ds fi?kyus ls ioZrh; >hykas ij Hkh ncko iM+rk gS vkSj

ioZrksa ij ladV

Xysf'k;j ds fi?kyus ls ioZrh; >hykas ij Hkh ncko iM+rk gS vkSj dHkh&dHkh rks vR;f/kd Hkjko ds dkj.k ;g ty uhps ds {ks=kkas eas ck<+ dk :i /kkj.k dj fouk'k dk dkj.k cu tkrk gSA lu~ 1985 eas usiky dh ßfMxk 'kks Xysf'k;y >hy** ds vfrHkjko ls uhps ds {ks=kkas eas mRié ck<+ us fo|qr~ ty&ÅtkZ x`g ifj;kstuk rFkk iqykas dk fouk'k fd;kA blds 6 o"kZ ckn ,d vkSj fge>hy us rckgh epkbZ ;w-,u-bZ-ih- ¼;wusi½ ds vuqlkj usiky vkSj HkwVku {ks=k eas Xysf'k;jkas ds fi?kyus ls yxHkx 50 ubZ

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ykscy okfeZax ds dkj.k XySf'k;j fi?ky jgs gSa

>hyas cu xbZ gSAa fo'ks"kKkas ds vuqlkj ;g >hyas tks iRFkj o feV~Vh ds lgkjs fVdh gqbZ ga]S ;fn /oLr gks xbZa rks uhps ds {ks=kkas eas ck<+ ds :i eas fouk'k yhyk dj tku rFkk eky dh gkfu dj ldrh gaAS

tyok;q cnyko ij vUrjkZ"Vªh; iSuy ¼vkbZihlhlh½ us crk;k gS fd ,YIl ioZr ij fdl izdkj c<+rk rkieku fge ij izHkko Mkyrk gS vkSj mldk nqjxkeh izHkko i;ZVu] ty vkiwfrZ] ouLifr o oU; thokas ij Li"V ns[kk tk ldrk gSA bl

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ioZrksa dh gkfu

ioZrksa dh gkfu 65 iSuy us vkxs dgk gS fd lu~ 2015 rd rkiØe eas 0-07

65

iSuy us vkxs dgk gS fd lu~ 2015 rd rkiØe eas 0-07 fMxzh lsfYl;l dh c<+ksrjhs ls fLol ds 19 izfr'kr ,Yikbu Xysf'k;j fi?ky tk,axs vkSj lu 2080 rd vk'p;Ztud :i ls uqdlku eas rsth vk,xhA

viuh ubZ x.kuk ds vuqlkj phu foKku ,dsMeh us dgk gS fd ioZrksa ij Xysf'k;j ftruk fldqM+ jgs gSa mlh vuqikr esa ^ihyh unh* esa ikuh Hkh fujarj de gks jgk gSA ,dsMeh ds vuqlkj phu ds Xysf'k;j izfr o"kZ 7 izfr'kr fldqM+ jgs gSaA vuqeku gS fd lu~ 2050 rd ogka ds 64 izfr'kr Xysf'k;j foyqIr gks tk,axsA bls Xysf'k;j ysd vkmVcLZV ¶yM Hkh dgrs gSaA bl lanHkZ esa ;g tkuuk vko';d gS fd phu esa yxHkx 30 djksM+ yksx Xysf'k;j ls izkIr ty ij gh vkfJr gSaA

HkweaMyh; rkihdj.k dk izHkko vÝhdk ds lcls Åaps ioZr ^fdyheutkjks*

ij ns[kk tk jgk gS vkSj vuqeku gS fd 20 o"kZ ls de ds varjky ij ogka dh

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iwjh fge ifV~Vdk,a lekIr gks tk,axh vkSj ;g foHkhf"kdk ogka ds fdlkuksa dks

xgjs ladV esa Mky ldrh gaS tks vusd 'krkfCn;ksa ls mu ioZrksa ds <yku ij jg jgs gSaA

oSKkfudkas ds vuqlkj ;fn ioZrkas dh fge laink lekIr gksrh gS rks gks ldrk gS fd fudV Hkfo"; eas yksxkas dks ck<+ dh vkink dk lkeuk djuk iM+s fdUrq nwjxkeh izHkko fuf'pr #i ls lw[ks dh fLFkfr dk gh gSA c<+rk rkiØe jksxkas rFkk chekfj;ka dks QSykus eas lgk;d gksxk D;kafds rc ioZrkas dh ÅapkbZ ij Hkh jksx ds dhVk.kq thfor jg ldaxs sA

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; i;ZVui;ZVui;ZVui;ZVui;ZVu

ioZrh; {ks=kkas eas i;ZVu fuf'pr #i ls ml ns'k dh vFkZO;oLFkk eas Hkkjh ;ksxnku djrk gS fdUrq ;g Hkh lR; gS fd ;fn i;ZVu dh lhek dks r; ugha fd;k x;k rks ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh ij nq"izHkko iM+axs sA ioZrh; i;ZVu rsth ls c<+rh ,d

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66

66 ioZrksa ij ladV vk|kSfxd bdkbZ dk #i ys jgh gS ¼djhc 15 ls 20 izfr'kr

ioZrksa ij ladV

vk|kSfxd bdkbZ dk #i ys jgh gS ¼djhc 15 ls 20 izfr'kr dh nj ls½ vkSj vuqekur% fo'o Lrj ij i;ZVu ls yxHkx 70&90 vjc vejhdh Mkyj dh vk; gksrh gSA

fo'o i;ZVu laxBu ¼MCY;wVvks½ ds vuqeku ds vuqlkj lu~ 2010 rd ,d vjc i;ZVdkas ls izfro"kZ 1]500 vjc vejhdh Mkyj dh vk; gksxhA

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www.ApniHindi.com

My >hy iznw"k.k ds pyrs tgjhyh gks jgh gS

ioZrh; i;ZVu eas fujUrj o`f) HkweaMyh; vFkok LFkkuh; Lrj ij ogka ds okrkoj.k] vFkZO;oLFkk o lkekftd ,oa lkaLÑfrd thou ij fo'ks"k izHkko Mkyrs gaAS ioZrh; jkLrkas ij dwM+k&djdV ds <sj ;gh n'kkZrs gaAS BaMk rkiØe gksus ds dkj.k dwMk&djdV dkQh ek=kk eas lM+ ugha ikrkA lu~ 1999 eas lqizfl) ioZrkjksgh dsu uxwph us vius 4 lky ds ekmaV ,ojsLV ds lQkbZ vfHk;ku eas 7-7 Vu dwM+k gVk;k ftleas eq[; :i ls VwVs gq, rEcw] lhf<+;ka] Hkkstu lap; djus ds fMCcs rFkk 423 vkWDlhtu dh cksryas FkhaA

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ioZrksa dh gkfu

ioZrksa dh gkfu 67 i;ZVu ds dkj.k ioZrksa dh lkaLÑfrd fojklr] mldh igpku o fofoèkrkvksa dks

67

i;ZVu ds dkj.k ioZrksa dh lkaLÑfrd fojklr] mldh igpku o fofoèkrkvksa dks xgu {kfr igqaprh gSA ioZrh; i;ZVu ds c<+rs izHkko o ekax ds dkj.k u,&u, vkjkenk;d gksVyksa ds fuekZ.k gq,] nwj&nwj ls Jfed ogka vk, vkSj mldk fuf'fpr #i ls ioZrksa dh LFkk;h lH;rk ij xgjk izHkko iM+kA vusd O;lu tSls fd tqvk [ksyuk] u'khyh nokvksa dk lsou] efnjk iku bR;kfn us ogka dh ekU;rk,a] LoLFk ijEijk,a rFkk /kkfeZd vkLFkk,a ftUgksaus

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www.ApniHindi.com

mPN`a[ky i;ZVu }kjk ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh esa O;kid :i ls cnyko vk;k gS

LFkkuh; lekt dks cka/k ds ,dtqV j[kk Fkk] mUgsa xgjh {kfr igqapkbZA blds vykok igkM+ ds vyx&Fkyx iM+s yksx rFkk lhfer igqap gksus ds dkj.k ioZrh; fuokfl;ksa dks i;ZVu dk ykHk iwjh rjg ugha fey ikrkA

vusd ns'kkas eas vkt i;kZoj.k&fe=k i;ZVu dk nkSj izkjEHk gks pqdk gSA bldk eq[; mn~ns'; i;ZVu dks mRlkfgr djuk gS ysfdu blds lkFk gh LFkkuh; tkfr;kas dks ykHk gks vkSj i;kZoj.k ij dksbZ nq"izHkko u gks] ;g Hkh lqfuf'pr djuk gSA vesfjdk fLFkr vUrjkZ"Vªh; bdksVwfjTe lkslk;Vh ds vuqlkj vesfjdk] fczVsu o

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68

68 ioZrksa ij ladV vkLVsfy;kª ds 90 izfr'kr yksx i;kZoj.k dh j{kk djus rFkk LFkkuh; yksxkas

ioZrksa ij ladV

vkLVsfy;kª ds 90 izfr'kr yksx i;kZoj.k dh j{kk djus rFkk LFkkuh; yksxkas dh lgk;rk djus ds fy;s dfVc) gSAa fiNys ,d n'kd eas i;kZoj.k eas Hkh i;ZVu dk foLrkj vk'p;Ztud :i ls vf/kd gqvk gS ¼djhc 34 izfr'kr ls Hkh T;knk½ tks ekuo dk i;kZoj.k ds izfr lEeku dk lwpd gSA

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; lkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrd fofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krk ijijijijij vk?kkrvk?kkrvk?kkrvk?kkrvk?kkr

ioZrh; tkfr;kas dk ioZrkas ij fuokl] mldh [kk| ,oa Ñf"k laca/kh lqfo/kk,a] i'kqvkas dk pkjkxkg vkfn ty ds lzksrkas ij fuHkZj djrk gSA mudh okLrqdyk rFkk laLÑfr

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ioZrh; laLd`fr

iwoZtkas ls pyh vk jgh gS vkSj ;gh mudh /kjksgj gksrh gSA /keZ lEcUèkh fu;e] muds thou eas egRoiw.kZ gksrs gaAS mudks LFkkuh; okrkoj.k o i;kZoj.k tks HkweaMyh; ikfjfLFkfrdh ds fy;s vfr vko';d gS] bldk mUgsa vn~Hkqr Kku gksrk gS tks muds thou ds fy, vfr vko';d gSA

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ioZrksa dh gkfu

ioZrksa dh gkfu 69 i;ZVu ds fodkl ds dkj.k ioZr ds LFkkuh; tuthou ij vusd izHkko

69

i;ZVu ds fodkl ds dkj.k ioZr ds LFkkuh; tuthou ij vusd izHkko iM+s gaAS mudk lknxh Hkjk thou vc cnyko ds jkLrs ij gSA 'kgjh thou dh cnyrh thou'kSyh] cktkj dh xgu tkudkjh] udnhdj.k vk/kkfjr Ñf"k dh vFkZO;oLFkk vkfn us Hkh ioZr ds yksxkas dks izHkkfor fd;k gS vkSj ifj.kkeLo:i mudh /kkfeZd] lkaLÑfrd o vk/;kfRed thou'kSyh ij izHkko Li"V :i ls ns[kk tk ldrk gSA muds thou ;kiu ds L=kksr Hkh /khjs&/khjs de gks jgs gaAS

i;kZoj.k ds fcxM+us ds QyLo:i ioZrh; {ks=k tks dHkh [kk|] ty vkfn ds Hkjiwj L=kksr Fks vc /khjs&/khjs futhZo gk pys gaAS ;g Hkh lR; gS fd lalkj ds yxHkx 80 djksM+ yksx ioZrh; {ks=kkas eas fuokl djrs gaAS

{kfr{kfr{kfr{kfr{kfr dhdhdhdhdh dherdherdherdherdher

ioZr ds ikfjfLFkfrdh eas tks cnyko vk jgs gaS mudh dher dsoy ioZrokfl;kas dks

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gh ugha vfirq ge lcdks Hkh pqdkuh iM+sxhA geeas ls vusd tks ioZrkas ij ugha jgrs]

fQj Hkh dgha u dgha ioZr ds lzksrkas ij fuHkZj jgrs gaAS ioZrkas dh ou lEink] pkjkxkg] vFkok ty lzksr tks gekjh ufn;ka]s >hykas vkfn dks ty dh iwfrZ djrs gaS ges fu'p; gh ioZrkas ls tksM+rs gaAS ioZrkas ds Xysf'k;j gekjh ufn;kas ds ty ds lzksr gaS rFkk gekjh is;ty vkiwfrZ rFkk Ñf"k laca/kh vko';drkvkas dks iwjk djrs gaAS ogka ds oukas ls geas cs'kdherh vkS"kf/k;ka] Qykas o ouLifr;kas ls ysdj vkyw dh fo'ks"k iztkfr ls ysdj bFkksfi;k ds dkWQh dh Qlys feyrh gaAS

va/kk/kqa/k ekuoh; fodkl us nqHkkZX;o'k ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh dks Hkkjh {kfr igapkbq Z gSA c<+rh tula[;k rFkk vFkZO;oLFkk dks lqn`<+ djus dh pkgr ioZrh; yksxkas dks Ñf"k rFkk i'kqikyu ls fuokZg djus ds fy;s vkSj Åij ds {ks=kkas rFkk nwjLFk Hkkxksa eas ys tk jgh gSA bldk lh/kk vFkZ ;g gqvk fd oukas dk mUewyu] e`nk vijnu vkfn ikfjfLFkfrdh ds larqyu ds fy;s ladVizn fLFkfr gSA Hkkjr ds ioZr Hkh bu izHkkokas ls vNwrs ugha gaAS

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70

70 6 ioZrksa ij ladV Hkkjr ds ioZr Hkk jr esa vusd ioZr Ük`a[kyk,a gSaA ioZr

6

ioZrksa ij ladV

Hkkjr ds ioZr

Hkk jr esa vusd ioZr Ük`a[kyk,a gSaA ioZr HkkSxksfyd fofo/krk ds lkFk&lkFk vrqyuh; tSo fofo/krk ds Hkh egRoiw.kZ lzksr gSaA Hkkjr fo'o ds 12

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egk oa'kk.kq dsUnz dk fgLlk rks gS gh] blds vykok lalkj ds tSo fofo/krk ds

25 egRoiw.kZ LFkkuksa esa ls 2 vfr egRoiw.kZ LFkku Hkkjr esa gh gSa tSls ^iwohZ fgeky; rFkk if'peh ?kkV*A Hkkjr ds ioZr vkS"k/kh; isM+&ikS/kkas o [kfutkas dh vlhfer ek=kk ds HkaMkj gaAS blds vfrfjDr ;g ioZr ns'k dh tyok;q dks Hkh

fuèkkZfjr djrs gaAS

Hkkjr eas mÙkjh fljs ij nks ioZr Üka[kyk,` a ga]S dkjkdksje ioZr Üka[kyk,` a vkSj fgeky;A Hkkjr ds e/; Hkkx eas fos/;kapy dh igkfM+;ka gaS ftUgkaus s Hkkjr dks nks Hkkxkas eas foHkkftr fd;k gSA Hkkjr ds nf{k.kh rV ij nks ioZr Üka[kyk,` a gS ftUgsa Hkkjr ds iwohZ ?kkV o if'peh ?kkV dgrs gaAS

fgeky;fgeky;fgeky;fgeky;fgeky;

fgeky; ioZr Üka[kykvk` as dh fo'kkyrk mls ,d ra=k ds :i igpku nsrh gSA ;g lalkj dk fo'kky ra=k gS tks fd 160&320 fdyksehVj rd pkSM+k o 2]400 fdyksehVj yEckbZ eas Hkkjr dh mÙkjh lhek ls iwohZ lhek rd QSyk gqvk gSA mÙkjh lhek ij

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Hkkjr ds ioZr

Hkkjr ds ioZr 71 fgeky; cgqr fo'kky {ks=k lesVs gq, gS vkSj mlds varxZr if'pe ls

71

fgeky; cgqr fo'kky {ks=k lesVs gq, gS vkSj mlds varxZr if'pe ls iwoZ dh vksj 5 eq[; izns'k vkrs gaS tSls fd tEew vkSj d'ehj] fgekpy izns'k] mÙkj izns'k] flfDde o v#.kkpy izns'kA

fgeky; ioZr Hkkjr dks ,f'k;k ds vf/kdka'k Hkkx o phu ls vyx djrk gSA ;g e/; ,f'k;k ls vkrh BaMh gokvksa dks jksdrk gS rFkk Hkkjr dh tyok;q dks izHkkfor djrk gSA ;g ioZr Ük`a[kyk,a ekulwuh o"kkZ dks eq[; :i ls izHkkfor djrh gaSA

fgeky; ds ioZr lalkj eas lcls Åaps ioZr gaAS Hkkjr eas lcls Åapk ioZr f'k[kj daputa?kk ¼28]208 QhV½ gSA uaxk ioZr ¼26]657 QhV½] uUnk nsoh ¼25]646 QhV½] jkdk iks'kh ¼25]551 QhV½ o dfer ¼25]446 QhV½ dqN izeq[k ioZr pksfV;ka gaAS fgeky; dh 3 eq[; lekUrj Üka[kyk,` a ga%S

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1-

fo'kky fgeky;

2-

e/; fgeky;

3-

v/kksfgeky; izns'k

fo'kky fgeky; dh ioZr Üka[kykvk` as dh Åaph pksfV;ka cQZ ls <dh jgrh gSa vkSj mudh vkSlr ÅapkbZ 20]000 QhV ¼6]100 eh-½ gksrh gSA nf{k.k dh vksj ;g fo'kky Üka[kyk,` a vfu;fer :i ls foHkkftr gksdj e/; fgeky; Üka[kykvk` as dk fuekZ.k djrh gSAa fo'kky fgeky; dh usiky rFkk flfDde {ks=k eas vusd Åaph pksfV;ka gSA fo'kky fgeky; ds mÙkj eas vusd Üka[kyk,` a gaS tSls taLdkj] yík[k o dSyk'kA fo'kky fgeky; ds frCcr dh vksj dkjkdksje Üka[kyk,` a viuk eLrd Åapk fd, [kM+h gSA

fo'kky fgeky; ds nf{k.k eas e/; fgeky; gS ftldh dqN egRoiw.kZ Üka[kyk,` a ukx fVck] /kkSyk/kkj vkSj ihj iatky gaAS e/; fgeky; Üka[kykvk` as dh yxHkx ,d leku ÅapkbZ gS tks fd 6]000&10]000 QhV rd gSA

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72

72 ioZrksa ij ladV v/kks fgeky; eas eq[; :i ls f'kokfyd ioZr Üka[kyk,` a] rjkbZ {ks=k

ioZrksa ij ladV

v/kks fgeky; eas eq[; :i ls f'kokfyd ioZr Üka[kyk,` a] rjkbZ {ks=k o Mqekj ihMekWV ¼ioZr ds uhps dk lery HkwHkkx½ vkrs gaAS v/kks fgeky; {ks=k dh fo'ks"krk ;g gS fd blds varxZr vusd yEch o lery ?kkfV;ka gksrh gS ftuds ry ij jsrhyh feV~Vh] dadM+ o ctjh dh Hkkjh ek=kk feyrh gSA

f'kokfyd] fo'kky fgeky; ds nf{k.kh fljs ij ysfdu lekUrj Üka[kyk,` a gaS tks HkwxHkZ foKku ds vuqlkj lcls de mez dh gSA bldh ÅapkbZ yxHkx

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fgeky; ioZr

5000&6500 QhV gksrh gS vkSj ;g Üka[kyk,`

mÙkjk[kaM gksrh gqbZ tEew d'kehj rd QSyh gqbZ gSA

a flfDde dh frLVk unh ls usiky rd

f'kokfyd ds mÙkj eas ^egkHkkjr ys[k* ioZr Üka[kyk,` a gS ftUgas fd ^yslj fgeky;* Hkh dgrs gaAS dgha&dgha ij rks f'kokfyd o egkHkkjr ys[k dks 10&20 fdyksehVj pkSM+h ?kkfV;ka ,d nwljs dks vyx djrh gSAa ou ?kkfV;kas dks nwu dgrs gaS vkSj lEHkor% blh dkj.k nsgjknwu 'kgj dk ukedj.k gqvkA

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Hkkjr ds ioZr

Hkkjr ds ioZr 73 fgeky;fgeky;fgeky;fgeky;fgeky; dhdhdhdhdh mRifÙkmRifÙkmRifÙkmRifÙkmRifÙk fgeky; dh lajpuk yxHkx 4-5

73

fgeky;fgeky;fgeky;fgeky;fgeky; dhdhdhdhdh mRifÙkmRifÙkmRifÙkmRifÙkmRifÙk

fgeky; dh lajpuk yxHkx 4-5 djksM+ o"kZ igys gqbZ Fkh vkSj fu'p; gh ;g izÑfr dh ,d vuwBh jpuk gS ftlds dkj.k ekuo rFkk vla[; tho&tUrq rFkk ouLifr;kas dks thou;kiu dk volj feykA Hkkjr rFkk ;wjsf'k;k uked nks fo'kky HkwHkkxkas ds Vdjkus ls fgeky; dk tUe gqvkA bu nks fo'kky HkwHkkxkas ds Vdjkus ds ckn ;g HkwHkkx vfu;af=kr gks x, vkSj okil iqjkuh rFkk fLFkfr eas vkuk vlaHko ikdj Åij dks mBrs pys x, vkSj bl izfØ;k us fgeky; dks tUe fn;kA

yxHkx 8 djksM+ o"kZ igys Hkkjr ,f'k;k egk}hi ls 6]400 fdyksehVj dh

nwjh ij nf{k.k eas fLFkr Fkk rFkk /khjs&/khjs ¼100 o"kZ eas 9 ehVj dh nj ls½ mÙkj dh vksj f[kld jgk FkkA tc Hkkjr ,f'k;k ls Vdjk;k rks mldk mÙkj dh vksj f[klduk yxHkx vk/kk jg x;k vkSj lkFk gh foorZfud IysVkas dh xfr Hkh ean gks xbZA QyLo#i Vdjko us ÅapkbZ izkIr dj yh tks fgeky; dh Åaph mBrh ioZr

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Üka[kykvk` as dk dkj.k cukA

HkwxHkZ'kkL=k ds vuqlkj fgeky; dk tUe cgqr iqjkuk ugha gSA fu'p; gh ;g cgqr rhozrk ls gqvk gSA 5 djksM+ o"kk±s eas ekmaV ,ojsLV tSlh pksfV;ka 9 fdyksehVj ls Hkh T;knk dh ÅapkbZ rd mB xbZAa Üka[kyk,` a Åaph gaS D;kafds vHkh os cgqr iqjkuh ugha gqbZ gSAa Hkw{kj.k@e`nk vijnu vFkok HkwL[kyu tSlh izfØ;k,a ugha ds cjkcj gqbaZ tks ioZrkas dh ÅapkbZ dks de dj ldrh FkhaA

Hkkjr fujarj ,f'k;u egk}hi ij ncko Mkyrk jgrk gS vkSj ifj.kkeLo#i fgeky; dh ÅapkbZ Hkh c<+rh jgrh gS ¼1 o"kZ esa 1 lsaVhehVj dh nj ls½ tks vuqeku ds vuqlkj 10 yk[k o"kks± esa 10 fdyksehVj gqbZA ;g fujUrj ncko dh izfØ;k /kjrh ds vUnj Hkh mFky&iqFky djrh jgrh gS tks HkwdEi ds :i esa ;nk&dnk mtkxj gks tkrh gSA lalkj ds vusd fouk'kdkjh HkwdEiksa dh mRifÙk Hkkjr rFkk ;wjsf'k;u egk}hi ds 5 djksM+ o"kZ igys Vdjko ds dkj.k gqbZ le>h tkrh gSA

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74

74 ioZrksa ij ladV vvvvvU;U;U;U;U; ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr Ük`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,a vusd NksVh

ioZrksa ij ladV

vvvvvU;U;U;U;U; ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr Ük`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,a

vusd NksVh ioZr Üka[kyk,` gqbZ gSAa

a o igkfM+;ka Hkh gSa tks fd ns'k ds vusd Hkkxkas eas fc[kjh

vjkoyhvjkoyhvjkoyhvjkoyhvjkoyh Ük`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,a

;g Üka[kyk,`

a if'pe Hkkjr esa fLFkr gSa vkSj vuqekur% cM+s Hka'kz [kaM vkdkj ds ioZrkas

ds fo?kVu ls mRié gqbZ gaAS ;g Üka[kyk,`

a jktLFkku ds mÙkj&iwoZ rFkk nf{k.k&if'peh

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ekmaV ,ojsLV dk fogaxe n`';

fdukjs ij yxHkx 480 fdyksehVj dh nwjh rd QSyh gqbZ gSAa budk mÙkjh fdukjk NksVh&eksVh iFkjhyh igkfM+;kas ds #i eas gfj;k.kk rFkk fnYyh {ks=k eas fLFkr gSA lcls Åaph pksVh ^xq# f'k[kj* ekmaV vkcw eas fLFkr gSA

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Hkkjr ds ioZr

foa/;foa/;foa/;foa/;foa/; ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr Ük`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,a

Ük`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,a 75 ;g Üka[kyk,` a e/; Hkkjr eas fLFkr gaS tks Hkkjr dks

75

;g Üka[kyk,` a e/; Hkkjr eas fLFkr gaS tks Hkkjr dks mÙkjh rFkk nf{k.kh {ks=k eas foHkkftr djrh gaAS bu Üka[kykvk` as dk if'peh fdukjk iwohZ xqtjkr eas e/; izns'k dh lhek ds lkFk fLFkr gSA bu ioZrkas ds nf{k.k fLFkr <ykukas ij ueZnk unh cgrh gS tks fd foa/; ioZr vkSj lriqM+k ioZr Üka[kykvk` as ds chp ls xqtj dj vjc lkxj eas tk feyrh gaAS bu ioZr Üka[kykvk` as ds mÙkjh Hkkx eas xaxk unh cgrh gSA

lriqM+klriqM+klriqM+klriqM+klriqM+k ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr Ük`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,aÜk`a[kyk,a

lriqM+k ioZr foa/; ioZr Üka[kykvk` as ds yxHkx lekUrj pyrs gaS tks iwohZ xqtjkr ds vjc lkxj ds rV ls 'kq# gksdj iwoZ eas egkjk"Vª] e/; izns'k rFkk NÙkhlx<+ rd

QSyh gqbZ gSAa fdlh le; bu ioZrkas ij ?kus ou Fks ysfdu vc vf/kdka'k {ks=kkas eas oukas dk mUewyu gks pqdk gSA ysfdu fQj Hkh cps gq, taxyh {ks=kkas eas oU; thou lqjf{kr

gS vkSj ck?k] xkSM+] taxyh dqÙks] dkys fgju rFkk taxyh lwvj vkfn fopj.k djrs gaAS

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if'pehif'pehif'pehif'pehif'peh ?kkV?kkV?kkV?kkV?kkV

xqtjkr rFkk egkjk"Vª dh lhek ds ikl rkIrh unh ds nf{k.k ls ysdj egkjk"V]ª xksok] dukZVd] dsjy ds ekykckj {ks=k rfeyukMq rFkk dU;kdqekjh rd 1]600 fdyksehVj {ks=k eas ;g Üka[kyk,` a QSyh gqbZ gaAS bu ioZrkas dh lkekU; ÅapkbZ 1500 QhV gSA bu ioZr Üka[kykvk` as dks egkjk"Vª rFkk dukZVd eas ^lg;knzh ioZr* Hkh dgrs gaAS

if'peh ?kkV ioZr Üka[kyk,` a if'peh ekulwu dks vius if'peh Hkkxkas eas Hkkjh o"kkZ ds fy, lfØ; djrh gSAa bu ioZrkas ij ?kus ou Hkh o"kkZ dks ykus eas lgk;d gksrs gaAS

blds vfrfjDr NksVh&NksVh Ük`a[kyk,a tSls fd mÙkj&if'pe rfeyukMw dh uhyfxjh ioZr rFkk dukZVd ds eSlwj ls nf{k.k iwoZ fLFkr fcyfxfjjxau Ük`a[kyk,a] lfojk;u rFk f=keqyk igkfM+;ksa ls feydj if'peh ?kkV rFkk iwohZ

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76

76 ioZrksa ij ladV if'peh ?kkV dk lqanj n`'; www.ApniHindi.com ?kkV dh Ük`a[kykvksa dks tksM+rh gSaA

ioZrksa ij ladV

76 ioZrksa ij ladV if'peh ?kkV dk lqanj n`'; www.ApniHindi.com ?kkV dh Ük`a[kykvksa dks tksM+rh gSaA

if'peh ?kkV dk lqanj n`';

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?kkV dh Ük`a[kykvksa dks tksM+rh gSaA bu NksVh Ük`a[kykvkas ij oU; thou lqjf{kr

gS rFkk gkFkh tSls cM+s tkuoj vyx&vyx ekSle esa ,d igkM+h ls nwljh dh vksj tk ldus esa leFkZ gksrs gSaA

iwohZiwohZiwohZiwohZiwohZ ?kkV?kkV?kkV?kkV?kkV

;g ioZr Üka`[kyk,a Hkkjr esa iwohZ leqnz rV ds fdukjs mÙkj esa nf{k.k caxky ls ysdj mM+hlk] vka/kzizns'k rFkk nf{k.k esa dsjy {ks=k rd QSyh gqbZ gSaA viuh nf{k.kh lhek ij ;g Ük`a[kyk,a vusd NksVh&NksVh igkfM+;ksa esa foHkDr gSaA rfeyukMq esa fl#eykbZ o djaFkeykbZ ioZr iwohZ ?kkV Ük`a[kyk dk gh nf{k.kh foLrkj gSA dkyheykbZ] ikpheykbZ] lokZjks;u] dkyjk;u] fNrsjh] ikykeykbZ rFkk eSlwj igkfM+;ka tks mÙkjh rfeyukMq esa fLFkr gSa] iwohZ ?kkV dk gh foLrkj gSA fcyfxjh igkfM+;ka tks dkosjh unh ls iwoZ ls if'peh ?kkV dh vksj tkrh gSAa ;g igkfM+;ka iwohZ o if'peh ?kkV ds chp eas oukas dk ,d 'kkunkj xfy;kjk cukrh gaS ftlesa taxyh gkFkh fopjrs gaAS

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Hkkjr ds ioZr

uhyfxjhuhyfxjhuhyfxjhuhyfxjhuhyfxjh ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr

uhyfxjhuhyfxjhuhyfxjhuhyfxjhuhyfxjh ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr 77 bu ioZrkas dks uhys ioZr Hkh dgrs gaAS ;g rfeyukMq ls

77

bu ioZrkas dks uhys ioZr Hkh dgrs gaAS ;g rfeyukMq ls dsjy rd QSyh gqbZ Üka[kyk,` a gaAS uhyfxjh ioZr okLro eas if'peh ?kkV Üka[kykvk` as dk og Hkkx gS tks nf{k.k ds iBkj dk if'peh fdukjk curs gSAa bu ioZrkas dh lcls Åaph pksVh dh ÅapkbZ 2]637 ehVj gS vkSj mls ^MksMkcsVk* dgrs gaAS

vukeykbZvukeykbZvukeykbZvukeykbZvukeykbZ ioZrioZrioZrioZrioZr

;g igkfM+;ka if'pe ?kkV rFkk iwohZ ?kkV ds ioZrkas dks tksM+rh gaS rFkk dsjy vkSj rfeyukMq eas fLFkr gSAa lcls Åaph pksVh dh ÅapkbZ djhc 4]377 QhV gS vkSj mls ^vubZ* dgrs gaAS ;g dsjy ds bZMqDdh ftyas eas fLFkr gSA

dkfMeksedkfMeksedkfMeksedkfMeksedkfMekse igkfM+;kaigkfM+;kaigkfM+;kaigkfM+;kaigkfM+;ka

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;g igkfM+;k nf{k.k&e/; dsjy eas fLFkr gSAa mudk ukedj.k ogka dh BaMs Hkkxkas esa

byk;ph dh mit ds dkj.k gqvk gSA bu igkfM+;kas ij dkyh fepZ rFkk dkWQh dh Hkh iSnkokj gksrh gSA

xkjks[kklhxkjks[kklhxkjks[kklhxkjks[kklhxkjks[kklh igkfM+;kaigkfM+;kaigkfM+;kaigkfM+;kaigkfM+;ka

;g es?kky; eas fLFkr gS vkSj bu ij eq[; :i ls es?kky; dh tutkfr;ka fuokl

tks lalkj eas

djrh gaAS ioZrkas ds lkFk gh ?kus m".kdfVcU/kh; ou Hkh gaAS psjkiathw

lcls vf/kd o"kkZ okys {ks=k ds :i eas tkuk tkrk jgk gS] ;gha ij fLFkr gSA

ukxkukxkukxkukxkukxk igkfM+;kaigkfM+;kaigkfM+;kaigkfM+;kaigkfM+;ka

Hkkjr rFkk E;kaekj dh lhekvkas ij ukxk ioZr dh igkfM+;ka fLFkr gaS ftudh lcls

Åaph pksVh djhc 6]120 QhV dh gSA bu ioZr Üka[kykvk` eas fLFkr gS] mls ukxk ioZr dgrs gaAS

as dk og Hkkx tks ukxkyaMs

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78

78 ioZrksa ij ladV fo?kfVrfo?kfVrfo?kfVrfo?kfVrfo?kfVr gksrhgksrhgksrhgksrhgksrh ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;

ioZrksa ij ladV

fo?kfVrfo?kfVrfo?kfVrfo?kfVrfo?kfVr gksrhgksrhgksrhgksrhgksrh ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; ra=kra=kra=kra=kra=k

lalkj ds vusd ioZrh; {ks=kkas dh gh Hkkafr Hkkjr ds ioZrkas dk i;kZoj.k Hkh fujUrj fcxM+ jgk gS vkSj c<+rh tula[;k ds lkFk vkfFkZd o lkekftd cnyko Hkkjr ds ioZrkas ds ikfjfLFkfrdh ij Hkh leqfpr izHkko Mky jgs gaAS ioZrkas ds i;kZoj.k dh fujarj fo?kfVr gksrh izfØ;k fu'p; gh fpUrk dk fo"k; gS vkSj ;fn le; jgrs bls jksdk u x;k rks u dsoy ioZrh; LFkkuh; yksxkas ds fy;s vfirq mu lc ds fy;s Hkh gkfudkjd gS tks dgha u dgha ioZrkas ij vkfJr gSAa

va/kk/kqa/kva/kk/kqa/kva/kk/kqa/kva/kk/kqa/kva/kk/kqa/k ouksUewyuouksUewyuouksUewyuouksUewyuouksUewyu

fdlh le; v/kks fgeky; ioZr Ük`a[kykvksa ds vussd {ks=kksa esa m".kdfVca/kh;

taxy Fks vkSj iwjk {ks=k vknzZ ir>M+h ouksa ls iVk gqvk Fkk] ftuesa izfro"kZ ir>M+ gqvk djrk FkkA ysfdu buesa ls vusd {ks=kksa dk taxy Ñf"k Hkwfe ds

fy;s vFkok vU; O;kolkf;d fuekZ.k dk;Z gsrq lkQ gks pqdk gSA e/;

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fuekZ.k dk;Z gsrq lkQ gks pqdk gSA e/; www.ApniHindi.com >we d`f"k i)fr ds pyrs ouksa dk

>we d`f"k i)fr ds pyrs ouksa dk O;kid fouk'k gqvk gS

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Hkkjr ds ioZr

Hkkjr ds ioZr 79 fgeky; {ks=k esa Hkh ikbu] nsonkj] iksiyj] v[kjksV] vksd] iyk'k vkfn ds

79

fgeky; {ks=k esa Hkh ikbu] nsonkj] iksiyj] v[kjksV] vksd] iyk'k vkfn ds o`{k ouksUewyu dh HksaV p<+ pqds gSaA vusd ouLifr;ka i'kqvkas dk vkgkj cu yqIr gks pqdh gaSA

mu

{ks=kkas esa c<+rh gqbZ b±/ku dh ekax] i'kq vkgkj dh ekax taxykas ds lhek {ks=kkas eas fudV lM+dksa

dk c<+rk tky] HkwL[kyu vkfn ioZr okrkoj.k ij xgjk v?kkr djrs gaAS

ouksUewyu fo'ks"k :i ls if'peh fgeky; {ks=k eas fpark dk fo"k; gS D;kafds

ouksUewyu us uhyfxjh rFkk if'peh ?kkV dh ioZr Ük`a[kykvkas dh fofHké ouLifr;ksa rFkk tho&tUrqvkas dk Hkh fouk'k fd;k gSA ouksUewyu ds dkj.k 'kksy ?kkl Hkh foyqIr gks jgh gS tks fd m".kdfVca/kh; ouksa dks lnSo gjk&Hkjk j[krh gSA vusd LFkkuksa ij 'kksy ?kkl ds {ks=kksa dks lkQ dj o`{k yxk fn;s x,

gSaA

'kksy ?kkl ds eSnkuh {ks=k if'peh ioZr Ük`a[kykvksa dks ,d fo'ks"k ikfjfLFkfrdh

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iznku djrs gSaA

fo'ks"k :i ls es?kky; {ks=k eas oukas ij ,d nwljk ladV ^>we [ksrh* ds :i eas iSnk gqvk gSA >we [ksrh vFkok iSnkokj djus gsrq /kjrh dks cnyrs jgus ds vuqlkj

ogka

ds yksx vYidky ds fy;s /kjrh ds fdlh lkQ djds Qly ysrs gaS vkSj tc

ml

Hkkx dh mitkÅ 'kfDr de gks tkrh gS rks nwljs LFkku lkQ djds fQj ls Qly

ysus

dh izfØ;k 'kq# dj nsras gaAS bl Øe esa fujUrj ouksUewyu gksrk jgrk gS vkSj

;g

es?kky; dh igkfM+;kas ds ouksUewyu dk eq[; dkj.k gSA ^>we [ksrh* rc ykHkdkjh

gqvk djrh Fkh tc tula[;k dk ncko de Fkk rFkk bl izfØ;k dk pØ 20&25 o"kk±s eas iwjk gksrk FkkA ysfdu vkt dh ifjLFkfr;kas eas ;g pØ dsoy 5&6 o"kk±s dk gh gksrk gS vkSj /kjrh dh moZjrk ikus ds fy;s 25&30 o"kk±s dk le; vo'; gh pkfg,A bl dkj.k es?kky; ds ou foyqIr gksus ds dxkj ij gSAa blh izdkj ls f'kokfyd ioZrkas ij Hkh Hkkjh i'kqikyu m|ksx rFkk tutkfr;kas dk nwjLFk {ks=kkas eas cl tkus ls ogka Hkh

oukas dk mUewyu gks jgk gSA

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80

80 ioZrksa ij ladV foyqIrfoyqIrfoyqIrfoyqIrfoyqIr gksrkgksrkgksrkgksrkgksrk oU;oU;oU;oU;oU; thouthouthouthouthou ouksUewyu

ioZrksa ij ladV

foyqIrfoyqIrfoyqIrfoyqIrfoyqIr gksrkgksrkgksrkgksrkgksrk oU;oU;oU;oU;oU; thouthouthouthouthou

ouksUewyu ls gqbZ vusd {kfr;kas eas oU; thou ij ladV Hkh fo'ks"k egRo j[krk gSA v/kks fgeky; ds rjkbZ ds oukas ls vusd i'kq tSls ck?k] rans q,] xaMS +k vkSj vusd izdkj ds fgju tks Hkkjr ds oukas dh laink gksrs Fks] /khjs&/khjs de gksrs tk jgs gaAS ;g i'kqvkas dh fo'ks"k tkfr ,d LFkku ij gh jgrh gSA bl izdkj e/; fgeky; ds {ks=k ls Hkh ouksUewyu ds dkj.k bu taxyh tkuojkas dh la[;k eas fujarj deh vk jgh gSA fgeky; dh fo'kky ioZr

dh la[;k eas fujarj deh vk jgh gSA fgeky; dh fo'kky ioZr www.ApniHindi.com uhyfxjh Fkkgj foyqIrh

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uhyfxjh Fkkgj foyqIrh dh dxkj ij gS

Üka[kykvk` as eas vc Hkh taxyh cdjs] HksM+] dLrwjh e`x] fge rans q, o HksfM+, cgqrk;r ls feyrs gaS ysfdu f'kdkfj;kas ds bu tkuojkas ds 'kjhj ds fofHké vaxkas dks ikus ds ykyp us bu tkuojkas ds vfLrRo dks Hkkjh ladV eas igqapk fn;k gSA

^uhyfxjh Vkgj* if'peh ?kkV {ks=k dk nqyZHk taxyh cdjk gS] ysfdu f'kdkfj;kas dh vuSfrd míaMrk ds dkj.k cdjs dh bl nqyZHk iztkfr dk Hkh vfLrRo ladV esa iM+ x;k gSA

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Hkkjr ds ioZr

Hkkjr ds ioZr 81 lkekftdlkekftdlkekftdlkekftdlkekftd ooooo lkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrd

81

lkekftdlkekftdlkekftdlkekftdlkekftd ooooo lkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrdlkaLÑfrd ladVladVladVladVladV

;krk;kr o lapkj O;oLFkk eas Hkkjh iSekus ij lq/kkj us fu'p; gh ioZrkas dk tuthou lqfo/kktud cuk;k gS fdUrq blds lkFk gh ;g lqfo/kk,a ogka dh ijEijkxr thou 'kSyh rFkk laLÑfr dks Hkh {kfr igqapk jgh gSAa fgeky; {ks=k eas vkfFkZd fodkl dh nj c<+rh gqbZ tula[;k ds vuqikr eas lnSo de jgh gS] ftlds dkj.k izfr O;fDr jk"Vªh; mRiknu {kerk Hkh izHkkfor gks jgh gSA tula[;k ds vuqikr eas [kk| lkexzh dk mRiknu Li"V :i ls dkQh de gSA blh dkj.k vfèkdrj ioZrh; {ks=kkas eas yksx dqiks"k.k ls xzLr ga]S muds ihus ds 'kq) ty dk vkHkko gS] LokLF; rFkk f'k{kk laca/kh lqfo/kk,a Hkh lhfer gSA

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; i;ZVui;ZVui;ZVui;ZVui;ZVu

fgeky; {ks=k eas i;ZVu dk fodkl rsth ls gqvk gSA yxHkx 10 yk[k O;fDr izfro"kZ

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bl {ks=k esas oU; thou dh >yd ikus] VªfdS ax] ioZrkjksg.k vFkok rhFkZ LFkku dh

;k=kk djus vkrs gaAS bl lanHkZ eas ;g tkuuk vko';d gS fd Hkkjr eas fgeky; ioZrh; {ks=kkas eas vusd eafnja gaS tks cM+h la[;k eas yksxkas dks vkeaf=kr djrh gSAa fiNys

dqN o"kk±s ls cQZ ij Vsfdª ax o [ksy dwn dh mRÑ"V O;oLFkk vkSj fu;fer jkLrs cuk, x, ga]S ftlds QyLo:i fons'kh lSykfu;kas dks Hkh fgeky; dh ;k=kk,a vkdf"kZr djrh gaAS fu%lansg i;ZVu ls LFkkuh; yksxkas dks vkfFkZd :i ls ykHk feyk gSA mudk thou Lrj Hkh dqN lhek rd lq/kjk g]S fdUrq i;ZVdkas dk vR;f/kd tekoM+k LFkkuh; yksxkas dks vusd {ks=kkas eas gkfu Hkh igqapkrk gSA

i;kZoj.kh;i;kZoj.kh;i;kZoj.kh;i;kZoj.kh;i;kZoj.kh; eqn~nseqn~nseqn~nseqn~nseqn~ns

ouksUewyu rFkk i'kq vkgkj ds :i eas vfrfjDr ncko ds dkj.k Hkw{kj.k] HkwL[kyu tSlh {kfr;ka rks gqbZ gaAS lkFk gh c<+rh tula[;k us iznw"k.k Hkh c<+k;k gS rFkk ty ds eq[; lzksr tSls >jus] >hy vkfn dks dwMs+&djdV o vU; xanxh ls iznwf"kr fd;k gSA d'ehj dh My >hy rFkk uSuhrky dh uSuh >hy dk ty ogka ds LFkkuh; yksxkas

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82

82 ioZrksa ij ladV dh ty vkiwfrZ djrk jgk gSA fdarq iznw"k.k ds dkj.k bl ty

ioZrksa ij ladV

dh ty vkiwfrZ djrk jgk gSA fdarq iznw"k.k ds dkj.k bl ty dks ihus ls yksxkas dks nLr] gStk] rFkk Vk;Qk;M tSls jksxkas dk lkeuk djuk iM+ jgk gSA

ioZrkas ij pwus dh [kqyh gqbZ [kkuas rFkk dks;ys dh [knkukas ls fujarj fudklh us ifjfLFkfrdh fo'ks"kKkas dks fpark eas Mky fn;k gSA es?kky; eas pwus ds vjckas Vu dk HkaMkj lheaVs dkj[kkukas eas dke vkrk gSA izns'k eas nf{k.kh lhek ij yxHkx 200 fdyksehVj yach mÙke pwus dh [kkuas gaS ftuls Hkkjh ek=kk eas fudklh gks jgh gSA blh izdkj dks;ys dh [knkuas Hkh ioZrkas ds i;kZoj.k rFkk lqj{kk dks vk?kkr igqapkrh gSAa

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83 7 ioZrksa dh lqj{kk i oZrkas dks i`Foh dh tyok;q dk cSjksehVj ¼ok;qncko dks

83

7

ioZrksa dh lqj{kk

i oZrkas dks i`Foh dh tyok;q dk cSjksehVj ¼ok;qncko dks vkadus dk ;a=k½ dgrs gaAS fcxM+rs i;kZoj.k rFkk tyok;q ifjorZu dk izHkko Li"V :i ls ioZrh;

ikfjfLFkfrdh eas ns[kk tk ldrk gSA fo'ks"kKkas ds vuqlkj ioZr dh ikfjfLFkfrdh

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uktqd rFkk vfr Hkaxqj gksrh gS D;kafds ioZr izkÑfrd lalk/ku rFkk ekuo lalk/ku ds Hkh lzksr gaAS

;g rks fofnr gh gS fd ekuo }kjk ioZrkas ds lalk/kukas dk va/kk/kqa/k nksgu] ouksUewyu] [kfutkas dh vR;f/kd [kqnkbZ] ty dk nq#i;ksx] vR;f/kd i;ZVu vkfn us ogka ds i;kZoj.k dks rks {kfr igqapkbZ gh gS lkFk gh ogka dh {ks=k&fo'ks"k dh ouLifr;ka vkfn Hkh yqIr gksus ds dxkj ij tk igqap xbZ gSA

vkdfLed rFkk Hk;adj #i ls gksrs tyok;q ifjorZu vo'; /;ku vkdf"kZr djrs gaAS nqyZHk tho&tUrq] ouLifr ds yqIr gks tkus ls ysdj Xysf'k;j ds fi?kyus rd ds ewy ifjorZu Åij rFkk uhps ds Hkkxkas esa ty ds HkaMkjkas dks fu'p; gh izHkkfor djrs gaAS tyok;q eas ifjorZu ekuo }kjk ioZrkas ds vfrnksgu dk gh ifj.kke gS tks ioZrkas dh ikfjfLFkfrdh ij Hkh nq"izHkko Mkyrk gSA ty ds lalk/ku ij fdlh Hkh izdkj dk izHkko fuf'pr :i ls ihus vFkok Ñf"k dk;Z gsrq ty dh miyC/krk rFkk xq.koÙkk ij vk?kkr djrk gSA ty dh ;g deh ioZrh; {ks=k eas LFkkuh;

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84

84 ioZrksa ij ladV fuokfl;ksa ds chp Li/kkZ dk dkj.k cu tkrh gSA LFkkuh; yksx vius

ioZrksa ij ladV

fuokfl;ksa ds chp Li/kkZ dk dkj.k cu tkrh gSA LFkkuh; yksx vius vU; lalk/kukas ds vHkko ds dkj.k ty dh vkiwfrZ ls ,d lhek rd oafpr jg tkrs gaS vkSj lalkèkukas ds fodkl dh nkSM+ eas ihNs jg tkrs gaAS

ioZrh; {ks=k /kjrh dh lrg dk yxHkx 24 izfr'kr Hkkx gksrk gS] tcfd lalkj dh ,d pkSFkkbZ tula[;k ioZrh; {ks=kkas ¼ioZr rFkk vkl&ikl½ eas jgrh gSA ;g fopkj ;ksX; gS fd iwjs fo'o ds ioZrh; {ks=kkas eas yxHkx 50 djksM+ yksx xjhch

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ioZrksa ds fuoklh gh ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh dks vPNs ls O;ofLFkr j[k ldrs gSa

js[kk ds uhps jgrs gaS ¼tks ioZrh; {ks=kkas ds fuokfl;kas dh vkcknh dh 80 izfr'kr gS½A lalkj ds vusd jk"Vª ioZrkas eas cls yksxkas dh 'kkspuh; n'kk ls fpafrr gSa vkSj bl lEcU/k esa fpUrk dk eq[; fo"k; ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh gh gSA tSlk fd igys Hkh dgk tk pqdk gS fd LFkkuh; yksx ikfjfLFkfrdh ij fu;a=k.k j[kus eas fuiq.k Fks ysfdu mudh lkekftd] lkaLÑfrd rFkk vkfFkZd fLFkfr;ka ds fcxM+us ls mUgkaus s viuh ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh ij gh fu;a=k.k [kks fn;k gSA

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ioZrksa dh lqj{kk

ioZrksa dh lqj{kk 85 i;kZoj.k eas ftl rhozrk ls ifjorZu gks jgs gaS mlds vuqlkj ioZr

85

i;kZoj.k eas ftl rhozrk ls ifjorZu gks jgs gaS mlds vuqlkj ioZr Hkh vius vki dks vuqdwy ugha cuk ikrs gaAS ioZrh; lalk/kukas dk vkSj vf/kd nksgu dsoy ioZrkas ds fy;s gh ugha vfirq lewps fo'o ds fy, Hkh Hkkjh {kfr gSA ;fn ioZrkas dk vfLrRo cuk, j[kuk gS vkSj muds vFkkg lalk/kuksa dk nh?kZdky rd mi;ksx djuk gS rks fu'p; gh dqN Bksl fu.kZ; ysus gkaxs sA

ftl foosdghurk ls ioZrkas dks fujko`r fd;k tk jgk gS rFkk ftlds QyLo#i ,d vfr lqUnj ikfjfLFkfrdh dk fo?kVu gks jgk gS] mls vfr egRoiw.kZ ekurs gq, nqfu;k ds vusd laLFkku o laxBu jksdus ds fy, iz;Ru'khy gSAa fiNys dqN o"kk±s eas dqN ,sls vusd dne mBk, x;s gaS tks ioZrkas ds fo?kVu dks jksdus rFkk mlds ewy :i dks fQj ls okil ykus eas lgk;d gkaxs sA bueas ls dqN laLFkkukas ds iz;Ru o dk;ZØeksa dh :ijs[kk dh ;gka ppkZ dh xbZ gSA

,Yikbu,Yikbu,Yikbu,Yikbu,Yikbu le>kSrkle>kSrkle>kSrkle>kSrkle>kSrk

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;g lkr fofHké ;wjksfi;u ,Yikbu jk"Vªksa fLoVtjySaM] Ýkal] bVyh] teZuh] vkfLVª;k] fypsVuLVsu] Lyksosfu;k ,oa ;wjksfi;u ;wfu;u ds la;ksx ls ,YIl ioZr Üka[kykvk` as dh j{kk gsrq ,d lkewfgd iz;Ru gSA blds vuqlkj ,YIl ioZr dk vfLrRo o mldh v[kaMrk fdlh fo'ks"k jkT; dh lhek eas fu/kkZfjr u gksdj vusd jkT;kas dk gh lkewfgd {ks=k gSA bl le>kSrs ij lu~ 1991 eas gLrk{kj gq, o 6 ekpZ 1995 eas ;g dk;kZfUor gqvkA bl le>kSrs ds vuqlkj ,d ,slk vk;ke ryk'kuk gksxk tks ikjaifjd rFkk vk/kqfud fo'o ds chp lkeatL; j[kdj ,YIl ioZrkas ds vfLrRo dh j{kk dj ldsA ;g le>kSrk ikjaifjd jhfr;kas rFkk vk/kqfud fo'o dh cnyrh gqbZ vkfFkZd] lkekftd] lkaLÑfrd o i;kZoj.k dh fLFkfr ds chp larqyu cuk, j[kus gsrq egRoiw.kZ iz;kl gSA

;wusi;wusi;wusi;wusi;wusi ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; ;kstuk;kstuk;kstuk;kstuk;kstuk ¼la;qDr¼la;qDr¼la;qDr¼la;qDr¼la;qDr jk"Vªjk"Vªjk"Vªjk"Vªjk"Vª i;kZoj.ki;kZoj.ki;kZoj.ki;kZoj.ki;kZoj.k ;kstuk½;kstuk½;kstuk½;kstuk½;kstuk½

la;qDr jk"Vª i;kZoj.k ;kstuk ds vuqlkj ioZrkas ds laj{k.k ds fy, ,d ioZrh; ;kstuk dh lajpuk ;wusi dh ,d lfefr] oYMZ dUtoZ'kus eksuhVfjs ax laVjs ¼UNEP-

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86

86 ioZrksa ij ladV WCMC ½ }kjk fu/kkZfjr dh xbZ gS] ftldk dk;Z i;kZoj.k ls lacafèkr

ioZrksa ij ladV

WCMC½ }kjk fu/kkZfjr dh xbZ gS] ftldk dk;Z i;kZoj.k ls lacafèkr vusd tkudkfj;ka izkIr djuk] mudk fo'ys"k.k djuk rFkk mfpr ijke'kZ nsuk gSA ;wjksi

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ioZr ,oa ogka dh ikfjfLFkfrdh ds laj{k.k esa yxh fofHkUu laLFkkvksa ,oa laxBuksa ds osc ist

rFkk e/; ,f'k;k dh jkT; ljdkjkas ds izkFkZuk ij ^;wjksfi;u ioZrh; dk;Z ;kstuk*

dh LFkkiuk dh xbZA ;g dk;Z ;kstuk dkiZfFk;u]s

as dh j{kk gsrq ukekafdr dh xbZ gSA

ioZr Üka[kykvk`

dksdkll rFkk eè; ,f'k;k dh

;wusi fo'o laj{k.k fuxjkuh dsUnz vius vU; lg;ksfx;kas ds lkFk dk;Z dj jgk gS ftlls ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh ds fo"k; eas lHkh laHkkfor tkudkfj;ka miyCèk

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ioZrksa dh lqj{kk

ioZrksa dh lqj{kk 87 gks ik,aA bl dsUnz us ioZrkas rFkk muds oukas dk ,d fo'o

87

gks ik,aA bl dsUnz us ioZrkas rFkk muds oukas dk ,d fo'o ekufp=k rS;kj fd;k gS tks izLrkfor ioZrkas dh fo'o ,Vyl ds fy, vk/kkjHkwr lkexzh miyC/k djk,xkA ;g dsUnz vc ^ioZr fuxjkuh* fodflr djus dh fn'kk eas vxzlj gS tks ,d ekufp=k vk/kkfjr ioZrkas dh tSo fofo/krk rFkk izca/ku dh izkFkfedrk dk oSf'od flagkoyksdu gksxkA ioZr fuxjkuh rFkk ioZr ,Vyl izfØ;kvkas ds QyLo#i mRlftZr lkexzh dks ;wusi dh osclkbZV UNEP. net ij Mkyk tk,xkA

;wusi dh ;kstuk lfefr ¼UNEP-WCMC½ usiky eas izÑfr laj{k.k gsrq ^fdax egsUnz VªLV QkWj uspj datoZ'kus vkWQ usiky* ds lkFk dk;Z dj jgh gS vkSj bl mn~ns'; eas ogka dh LFkkuh; tkfr;ka Hkh lqjf{kr {ks=kkas ds izca/ku eas lg;ksx dj jgh gaAS bl ifj;kstuk ls izkIr ykHkdkjh lwpuk,a vU; ioZrh; {ks=kkas ds dY;k.k ds fy;s mi;ksx eas ykbZ tk,axhA

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; eqn~nseqn~nseqn~nseqn~nseqn~ns vkSjvkSjvkSjvkSjvkSj fVdkÅfVdkÅfVdkÅfVdkÅfVdkÅ [ksrh[ksrh[ksrh[ksrh[ksrh ooooo xzkeh.kxzkeh.kxzkeh.kxzkeh.kxzkeh.k fodklfodklfodklfodklfodkl

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;g ifj;kstuk [kk| ,oa Ñf"k laxBu }kjk xfBr gS rFkk bldk mn~ns'; fVdkÅ Ñf"k

,oa xzkeh.k fodkl ¼lkMZ½ ds lkFk ioZrh; fodkl ds vfLrRo dh j{kk djuk gSA bl ifj;kstuk }kjk ioZrh; {ks=k ds Ñf"k rFkk xzkeh.k fodkl dh vusd leL;kvkas dk fuokj.k lqlaxfBr uhfr;ka]s vusd ;a=kkas rFkk ;kstukvkas }kjk djuk fuokZfpr gqvk gSA fVdkÅ Ñf"k ,oa xzkeh.k fodkl vkSj ioZrh; eqn~nkas ds dk;Z dj jgh fy, la;qDr jk"Vª dh vxz.kh laLFkk [kk| rFkk Ñf"k laxBu ¼,Q,vks½ us fLoVtjyaMS ljdkj ds lg;ksx ls ioZrh; {ks=kkas eas fVdkÅ Ñf"k ,oa xzkeh.k fodkl ds fy, pkj o"khZ; cgq&nkrk ;kstuk ¼lkMZ&,e½ rS;kj dh gSA

lkMZ&,e ifj;kstuk eas Ñf"k rFkk xzkeh.k fodkl ds vfLrRo ds fy;s uhfr;kas dh #ijs[kk cukuk] dk;kZfUor djuk rFkk lkFk gh mldk ewY;kadu djuk 'kkfey gSA bl dk;ZØe ds varxZr fpfUgr {ks=kkas ds xzkeh.kkas dh thfodk dks lq/kkjus ds fy;s laxfBr uhfr;ka]s fof/k&fo/kku rFkk laLFkkukas dh vko';drk gSA ;g uhfr;ka ioZr {ks=k rFkk fupys Hkkxkas ds yksxkas dh Ñf"k] vkfFkZd] lkekftd rFkk lkaLÑfrd {ks=k dh fo'ks"k leL;kvksa ij fopkj djrh gSAa

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88 ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; QksjeQksjeQksjeQksjeQksje
88
ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; QksjeQksjeQksjeQksjeQksje

ioZrksa ij ladV

;g ,d izdkj dk HkweaMyh; Lrj dk eap gS ftleas 100 ls vf/kd jk"Vªkas ls yk[kkas yksx] vusd laxBu] fofHké is'kkas ls tqM+s gq, yksx ,d fuf'pr mn~ns'; ds fy;s dk;Z djrs gaAS blds vUrxZr fo|qr~ lapkj iz.kkyh }kjk ioZr laj{k.k dh lwpuk,a izkIr djrs gaS rFkk viuh leL;k,a j[krs gaAS bl eap ls tqM+s gq, laxBu ioZrh; {ks=k dh leL;kvkas dks vUrjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij fuokj.k ds fy;s izLrqr djrs gaAS ioZr Qksje ds bl ra=k dk vkjaHk] dqN lefiZr ioZrh; fo}kukas }kjk lu~ 1970 eas fd;k x;k FkkA bl lewg dks ^ioZrh; dk;Z fuokj.k* ¼ekmaVsu ,taMk½s uke ls tkuk x;k gS] vkSj 1992 ds fo'o f'k[kj lEesyu ds vUrZxr ^fj;ks Mh tsujks* eas bl fo"k; ij ppkZ gsrq vusd laxBukas ds izfl) oDrk Hkh 'kkfey gq, FksA blds i'pkr~ vusd xSj&ljdkjh laxBu Hkh bl dk;Z eas lfEefyr gks x,A bl izdkj bl eap dk ,d Li"V mn~ns'; ds fy;s fodkl gksrk x;kA

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ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; dk;ZØedk;ZØedk;ZØedk;ZØedk;ZØe ,tsaMk,tsaMk,tsaMk,tsaMk,tsaMk

bl izdkj ,d dk;ZØe ;k ,taMks vkSipkfjd :i ls vusd ns'kkas ds dqN fo}kukas rFkk ioZrh; fe=kkas }kjk izkjEHk gqvk] vc og HkweaMyh; Lrj ij LohÑr uhfr ds :i eas mtkxj gksdj ioZrh; {ks=k dh j{kk ,oa ioZr ds i;kZoj.k dks vkSj fcxM+us ls jksdus ds fy;s dfVc) gSA ;g lewg HkweaMyh; fodkl vkSj i;kZoj.k dk;ZØe ds lkFk ioZrkas dh fLFkfr dks lq/kkjus ds fy, vk;ksftr fj;ks i`Foh lEesyu ¼1992 eas i;kZoj.k vkSj fodkl ds vk;ksftr la;qDr jk"Vª lEesyu½ ls igys cuk;k x;k FkkA bl lewg dk mn~ns'k; LoPNrk vkSj ioZrkas ds fodkl ds fy, leFkZu tqVkuk FkkA bl dk;ZØe dks ioZrh; Kku cadS Hkh dgk x;kA

ioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksa dsdsdsdsds lesfdrlesfdrlesfdrlesfdrlesfdr fodklfodklfodklfodklfodkl dsdsdsdsds fy,fy,fy,fy,fy, vUrjkZ"Vªh;vUrjkZ"Vªh;vUrjkZ"Vªh;vUrjkZ"Vªh;vUrjkZ"Vªh; dsUnzdsUnzdsUnzdsUnzdsUnz

(International centre for integrated mountain development)

;g dsUnz ioZrh; {ks=k dh foLr`r tkudkjh] Kkuo/kZu rFkk fgeky; dh ioZrh; tutkfr;kas dh thfodk ds vfLrRo dks cuk, j[kus ds fy;s cuk gSA ;g vUrjkZ"Vªh;

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ioZrksa dh lqj{kk

ioZrksa dh lqj{kk 89 dsUnz fgUnw dq'k&fgeky; {ks=k ds 8 fofHké jk"Vªkas vQxkfuLRkku] ckaXykns'k] HkwVku]

89

dsUnz fgUnw dq'k&fgeky; {ks=k ds 8 fofHké jk"Vªkas vQxkfuLRkku] ckaXykns'k] HkwVku] phu] Hkkjr E;kaekj] usiky] ikfdLrku rFkk fo'o ds leLr ioZrh; tkfr;kas ds fgr eas dk;Z djrk gSA lu~ 1983 eas LFkkfir bl dsUnz dk lapkyu vius jk"Vª fe=kkas ds lg;ksx ls usiky ds dkBekaMw 'kgj ls gksrk gSA ;g dsUnz vius {ks=kh; lnL; jk"Vª] laxBukas rFkk vkfFkZd lgk;rk nsus okys laLFkkukas ds lg;ksx ls ioZr ds yksxkas rFkk ogka ds i;kZoj.k dks lq[kn Hkfo"; nsus ds fy;s dfVc) gSA

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; vuqla/kkuvuqla/kkuvuqla/kkuvuqla/kkuvuqla/kku igyigyigyigyigy ¼¼¼¼¼Mountain Research Initiative½½½½½

bldh LFkkiuk tqykbZ 2001 eas oSf'od rFkk ioZrh; {ks=k eas gksus okys ifjorZukas ds vko';d vuqla/kku gsrq dh xbZA bldk vk'k; oSf'od ifjorZu fo'ks"k :i ls

ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh] lkekftd rFkk vkfFkZd {ks=k ij gksus okys izHkkokas dk cgqeq[kh vkdyu rFkk vuqla/kku djuk gSA bl vuqla/kku igy dk fuEu mn~ns'; gS%

¼1½ ioZrkas ij oSf'od i;kZoj.k ifjorZukas ds izHkko ds ladsr xzg.k djus dh

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¼2½

¼3½

;kstuk fodflr djuk gSA

i;kZoj.kh; cnyko ds ioZrkas rFkk fupys LFkkukas ij gksus okys nq"izHkko] tks ioZrh; {ks=k ds lzksrkas dks izHkkfor djrs gaS mudks ifjHkkf"kr djukA

ioZrh; {ks=k dh Hkwfe] ty ,oa lalk/ku izcU/ku ds ckjs eas mfpr izLrko o ijke'kZ nsukA

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; es?k&ou&igyes?k&ou&igyes?k&ou&igyes?k&ou&igyes?k&ou&igy

ioZrkas ds es?k oukas eas vf}rh; isM+&ikS/ks rFkk vusd nqyZHk i'kqvkas dh iztkfr;ka feyrh gaAS bu oukas ds laj{k.k gsrs q vusd vUrjkZ"Vªh; laxBukas us vkbZ ;w lh ,u] ;wusi rFkk mlds fo'o laj{k.k fuxjkuh dsUnz rFkk ;wusLdks dh lk>snkjh eas ioZrh; es?k&oukas dks laj{k.k nsus ds fy;s ,d igy dh gS ftlls ioZr rFkk fupys Hkkxkas eas jgus okys LFkkuh; yksx es?k ou] nqyZHk ikS/kkas rFkk tUrqvkas dh fo'ks"k iztkfr;kasa dks laj{k.k nsus rFkk ty dh vkiwfrZ dks Hkyh&Hkkafr le> ldsA ;g i;kZoj.kh; cnyko ds vfr laosnu'khy lwpd gaS A

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90 ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; laLFkkulaLFkkulaLFkkulaLFkkulaLFkku
90
ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; laLFkkulaLFkkulaLFkkulaLFkkulaLFkku

ioZrksa ij ladV

bl laLFkku dk tUe lu~ 1972 eas vesfjdk ds okf'kaXkVu Mh-lh- eas gqvkA blds ioZrh; tkfr;kas ds fgrkas ls lEcfU/kr dk;ZØe gsrq fofHké dk;Z'kkyk,a ,UMhu] ,Yisfp;u rFkk fgeky; ioZrh; {ks=kkas eas LFkkfir fd;s x, gaAS ;g laLFkku LFkkuh; ioZrkas ds tutkfr;kas ds lg;ksx ls mudh lkaLÑfrd fojklr] mudh fof'k"V igpku o muds izkÑfrd L=kksrkas dks laj{k.k nsus ,oa lqn`<+ cukus ds fy;s dk;Z djrk gSA

HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh;HkweaMyh; ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; tSotSotSotSotSo fofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krk dkdkdkdkdk ewY;kaduewY;kaduewY;kaduewY;kaduewY;kadu

;g ,d HkweaMyh; usVodZ gS tks varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij ioZrkas dh tSo fofo/krk ij vuqla/kku djrh gSA ;g Ýkal jk"Vª ds isfjl 'kgj eas dk;Zjr gSA ;g usVodZ ioZrkas dh tSfod /kjksgj dh [kkst djrk gSA ;g laLFkk ioZrh; /kjrh ds fodkl gsrq dk;Z djrh gS rFkk uhfr fo'ks"ksKkas dks ioZrh; tSo fofo/krk dks cuk, j[kus rFkk laj{k.k nsus ds fy;s ijke'kZ nsrh gSA

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ioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksa dkdkdkdkdk vUrjkZ"Vªh;vUrjkZ"Vªh;vUrjkZ"Vªh;vUrjkZ"Vªh;vUrjkZ"Vªh; o"kZo"kZo"kZo"kZo"kZ

la;qDr jk"Vª la?k dh lk/kkj.k lHkk us lu~ 2002 dks ioZrkas dk vUrjkZ"Vªh; o"kZ ?kksf"kr fd;k FkkA blds vUrxZr ioZr rFkk mlds fupys {ks=kksa dh tutkfr;ksa dks ioZrksa dh /kjksgj ds egRo dks le>kuk] ogka ds fodkl dks xfr nsuk rFkk lalkèkuksa dks laj{k.k nsuk lfEefyr gSA lkFk gh lkFk ioZrksa ds ikfjfLFkfrdh ds ckjs esa vUrjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij lEiw.kZ tkudkjh nsuk Hkh lfEefyr gSA bl iwjs dk;ZØe&o"kZ ds vUrxZr vusd jk"Vªksa us Hkkx fy;k o vius lq>ko fn;sA bl nkSjku fo'o ds ioZrksa dh fo'ks"krkvksa dh vksj /;ku vkdf"kZr djus ds fy, vusd dk;ZØe Hkh fd, x,A

djfxLr x.kra=k }kjk 29 vDVwcj ls 1 uoEcj] 2002 dks vk;ksftr ^fc'kdsd oSf'od ioZr f'k[kj lEesyu* ioZrkas dk vUrjkZ"Vªh; o"kZ vfHk;ku dh lQyre ijkdk"Bk jghA fc'kdsd lEesyu esa vusd ljdkjh o xSj&ljdkjh laxBuksa] vUrjkZ"Vªh; laLFkkukas rFkk vusd fo}kukas us Hkkx fy;k rFkk ioZrkas ds laj{k.k ds fo"k;

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ioZrksa dh lqj{kk

ioZrksa dh lqj{kk 91 eas tkudkjh tqVkbZA bl lEesyu ds eap ls fofHké jk"Vªkas dh ljdkjkas

91

eas tkudkjh tqVkbZA bl lEesyu ds eap ls fofHké jk"Vªkas dh ljdkjkas rFkk vU; fo}kukas }kjk ioZr ds yksxkas dh thfodk esa lq/kkj] ikfjfLFkfrdh dh lqj{kk rFkk ioZrh; lalk/kukas dk mfpr mi;ksx ds ckjs esa mfpr tkudkjh izkIr dh xbZA ioZrh; o"kZ&2002 ds lekiu ij vusd nLrkost rFkk fVIif.k;kas dks vkxkeh o"kk±s eas ioZrkas ij laj{k.k gsrq dk;Z djus dk ekxZn'kZd ekuk x;kA

ioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksa ijijijijij dk;Zdk;Zdk;Zdk;Zdk;Z gsrqgsrqgsrqgsrqgsrq oSf'odoSf'odoSf'odoSf'odoSf'od dk;ZØedk;ZØedk;ZØedk;ZØedk;ZØe

;wusi] la;qDr jk"Vª dh ioZrh; lfefr rFkk [kk| Ñf"k laxBu ,d vUrjkZ"Vªh; lk>snkjh@HkweaMyh; dk;ZØe dh lajpuk ds fy;s iz;Ru'khy gS tks ioZrh; fodkl ds fy;s dk;Z djsxhA teZuh us bl Hkkxhnkjh eas lkFk nsdj ,d egRoiw.kZ dne c<+k;k gSA

dk;Zdk;Zdk;Zdk;Zdk;Z JeJeJeJeJe dkdkdkdkdk ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; tSotSotSotSotSo fofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krkfofo/krk dk;ZØedk;ZØedk;ZØedk;ZØedk;ZØe

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viuh lkroha xks"Vh eas fofHké Hkkxhnkjh esa tSo fofo/krk dk;ZØe dks dk;kZfUor

djus dk fu'p; fd;k x;k FkkA bl dk;ZØe eas tSo fofo/krk ds lanHkZ eas rhu eq[; fo"k; izLrz qr fd;s x, ftuds vuqlkj lu~ 2010 rd LFkkuh;] {ks=kh; rFkk HkweaMyh; Lrj ij tSo fofo/krk dh {kfr dks de fd;k tk;sxkA bl dk;ZØe ds vUrxZr ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh dh lqj{kk vkSj ioZr rFkk fupys LFkkukas ij jgus okys yksxkas ds lalk/kukas dks lqn`<+ djuk gSA fuf'pr #i ls lalk/kukas dh lqn`<+rk ioZr dh LoLFk ikfjfLFkfrdh ij fuHkZj djrh gSA ;g dk;ZØe tSo fofoèkrk ls lEcaf/kr vusd leL;kvkas ij izdk'k Mkyrk gSA

tSo fofo/krk ds ioZrh; {ks=k eas egRoiw.kZ LFkku] ikfjfLFkfrdh fofo/krk] LFkku fo'ks"k dh iztkfr;ka] ikS/ks] i'kq rFkk mudh ouh; vuqokaf'kd fofo/krk,a] tutkfr;kas dh lkaLÑfrd fofo/krk,a] ogka ds LFkkuh; yksxkas dk tSo fofo/krk dks laj{k.k nsus eas ;ksxnku rFkk ekuo rFkk izÑfr }kjk ioZrh; ikfjfLFkfrdh dh Hkaxqjrk] fofHké mi;ksxkas ds fy;s /kjrh dk ckj&ckj nksgu djuk] Xysf'k;j dk fldqM+uk] tehu dk Ålj cu tkuk] ioZr ds Åijh rFkk uhps ds {ks=kkas eas ikfjfLFkfrdh ij

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92

92 ioZrksa ij ladV izHkko fo'ks"k :i ls Åijh {ks=k dk] tks [kk|kUu] ty rFkk vU;

ioZrksa ij ladV

izHkko fo'ks"k :i ls Åijh {ks=k dk] tks [kk|kUu] ty rFkk vU; lalk/kukas dh iwfrZ djus eas l{ke gaAS

ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh;ioZrh; lk>snkjhlk>snkjhlk>snkjhlk>snkjhlk>snkjh

ioZrh; lk>snkjh ,d LosPNk ls fy;k x;k eS=khiw.kZ lkgp;Z gS tks ioZrkas ds i;kZoj.k dh lqj{kk rFkk ogka ds fuokfl;kas ds thou&Lrj lq/kkjus ds fy;s fujarj iz;Ru'khy gSA bl lkgp;Z dh LFkkiuk lu~ 2002 ds ioZrh; fodkl ds vfLrRo dh j{kk gsrq vk;ksftr f'k[kj lEesyu eas gqbZ Fkh rFkk mldk eq[; mn~ns'; ioZr ds ckjs eas egRoiw.kZ lwpukvkas dks ,df=kr djuk] lek/kku] ioZrh; lalk/kukas dk vkdyu rFkk mudh fofo/krk ds ckjs eass vius lk>snkjkas dks voxr djkuk rFkk muds bl dk;Z dks djus ds fy;s izksRlkfgr djuk gSA ekStwnk le; eas bl lk>snkjh eas 47 fofHké jk"Vª] 15 vUrjkZ"Vªh; laxBu rFkk 76 vU; lg;ksxh lfEefyr gaS ¼mnkgj.k ds fy, ukxfjd laLFkk,a] xSj ljdkjh laxBu rFkk futh {ks=k½ A

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ioZr ds fo"k; dks HkweaMy Lrj ij izkFkfedrk nsrs gq, bl lk>snkjh us mUgha

lc fo"k;kas dks vkxs c<+k;k gS ftldh leh{kk 1992 eas ^fj;ks* eas gq, ^i`Foh f'k[kj lEesyu* eas gqbZ FkhA bl lk>snkjh us ioZr ds varjkZ"Vªh; o"kZ 2002 eas ioZr i;kZoj.k rFkk ogka ds yksxkas ds thou ;kiu lEcU/kh fo"k;kas ij f'k[kj lEesyukas eas izLrqr dh xbZ tkudkfj;ka] leL;kvkas rFkk muds lek/kkukas dks lq/kkj gsrq vkxs c<k+us eas ,d ubZ fn'kk nh gSA

ioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksaioZrksa dkdkdkdkdk #nu#nu#nu#nu#nu

ioZrkas eas tSfod fofo/krk eas gksrh fujarj deh rFkk ogka dh ikfjfLFkfrdh eas vk, ifjorZukas us lewps fo'o ds oSKkfud rFkk fo}kukas dks bu leL;kvkas ds izfr fof'k"V nkf;Ro fuHkkus ds fy;s izksRlkfgr fd;k gS rFkk ;g Hkh lqfuf'pr dj fn;k gS fd fudV Hkfo"; eas ikfjfLFkfrdh eas voufr u gksA

varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij ioZrkas ds lalk/kuks dh lqj{kk] fVdkÅ fodkl] laj{k.k rFkk muls gqbZ ykHkdkjh dk;Z;kstukvkas dk mfpr vkoaVu ,d pqukSrh cu pqdk gSA

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ioZrksa dh lqj{kk

ioZrksa dh lqj{kk 93 ioZrkas dh tSo fofo/krk rFkk ikfjfLFkfrdh dk fujarj gksrs Ðkl ij fu;a=k.k

93

ioZrkas dh tSo fofo/krk rFkk ikfjfLFkfrdh dk fujarj gksrs Ðkl ij fu;a=k.k j[kus ds fy;s varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij izkFkfedrk nsuh gksxhA geas Hkh ioZrh; {ks=kkas ds LFkkuh; leqnk;kas ,oa muds rkSj&rjhdkas o ikjaifjd Kku dks lEeku] laj{k.k nsrs jguk gksxkA

vk/kqfudhdj.k rFkk fodkl dh va/kk/kqa/k izfØ;k,a] ioZrkas ds lalk/kukas dk mi;ksx ;k dgsa fd nq#i;ksx tSls i;ZVu] [kfut inkFkk±s dh [kqnkbZ ds fy;s ykblals

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www.ApniHindi.com

ioZrksa dh lqnajrk vn~Hkwr gS

vkfn xfrfof/k;kas ls ioZr ds LFkkuh; yksxkas dks dksbZ fo'ks"k ykHk feyrk ugha rFkk ,slh ?kVukvkas ls mudh laLÑfr dk Hkh Ðkl gks pyk gSA

varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij vusd ljdkja]s xSj&ljdkjh laxBu rFkk vU; laLFkkvkas dks ,dtqV gks dj ioZrkas eas jgus okys LFkkuh; yksxkas ds fgr eas NksVh&NksVh fodkl'khy bdkb;kas dh LFkkiuk djuh gksxh ftldk eq[; mn~ns'; LFkkuh; tkfr;kas dks laj{k.k] mudh izxfr rFkk mudk vkfFkZd lao/kZu djuk gksxkA ioZrh; i;ZVu

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94

94 ioZrksa ij ladV vkfn ls lacaf/kr ,slh uhfr;ka cukuh gksxh ftlls lalk/kuksa ls gqbZ vk;

ioZrksa ij ladV

vkfn ls lacaf/kr ,slh uhfr;ka cukuh gksxh ftlls lalk/kuksa ls gqbZ vk; dks lalkèkukas dks gh vf/kd l'kDr cukus gsrq mi;ksx eas yk;k tk ldsA

ioZrksa dks iznw"k.k ls cpkus ds fy, ogka ij xUnxh o dwMs dks QSyus ls jksduk gksxkA tks dwMk&djdV u"V gks ldrk gS mls ogha ij u"V djuk mi;ksxh gksxk rFkk tks u"V ugha gks ldrk tSls 'kh'kk] Vhu] cSVªjh vkfn mls ogka ls gVkuk gh fgrdj gksxkA

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gesa ioZrksa ij vkSj ncko ugha Mkyuk pkfg,

blds vfrfjDr c<+rs HkweaMyh; rkieku ij Hkh fopkj djuk gksxkA oSKkfudkas ds vuqlkj vka/kh&rwQku] lw[kk rFkk vU; ekSle lEcU/kh vkink,a HkweaMyh; rkihdj.k dk gh ifj.kke gSAa bl fo"k; ij tyok;q&ifjorZu dh fof'k"V tkudkjh o vkadM+s rFkk nwjxkeh Hkfo";okf.k;ka uhfr fo'ks"kKkas dk mfpr ekxZn'kZu dj ldrh gSA

geas ;g lqfuf'pr djuk gksxk fd ioZrkas dh vR;ar uktqd o Hkaxqj ikfjfLFkfrdh tks fu'p; gh {kh.k gks dj VwVus ds dxkj ij gS] vkxs fu;af=kr jgs o fQj ls viuh

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ioZrksa dh lqj{kk

ioZrksa dh lqj{kk 95 lqn`<+ fLFkfr eas igqap ldsA ioZr geas Ñf"k ds fy;s o ty&fo|qr~

95

lqn`<+ fLFkfr eas igqap ldsA ioZr geas Ñf"k ds fy;s o ty&fo|qr~ ifj;kstukvkas dh LFkkiuk ds fy, i;kZIr ty miyC/krk ds lkFk is;ty dh vkiwfrZ esa lgk;d gksus ds lkFk nqyZHk fdLe dh Qlyksa] vU; [kk| lkexzh dh iSnkokj] nqyZHk vkS"kf/k;ka dh [ksrh gsrq vuqdwy ekgkSy miyC/k djkus ds lkFk [ksy&dwn o vkeksn&izeksn ds fy, vkus okys i;ZVdksa dks izkd`frd lkSUn;Z ls vkuafnr djus tSls vusd migkj ns ldrs gaAS

ysfdu vkt ioZr fu'p; gh vkgr gaAS mudk opZLo ladV eas gSA ;g 'kfDr Lo:i ioZr vius viwoZ lkSUn;Z ds lkFk fu'p; gh viuk lhuk rkus viuh fo'kkyrk dk ifjp; nsrs gq, gekjs le{k [kM+s gaS & ysfdu dgha vanj rd detksj] vkgr vkSj gekjh vksj ns[k jgs gaS & vius vfLrRo dh j{kk ds fy;s D;k ge vius gh fouk'k ds fy;s mudh mis{kk djaxs s \

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lanHkZ

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountain

2. http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals

3. http://www.unep.org

4. www.ipcc.ch

5. www.world-tourism.org

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6.

www.ecotourism.org

7. http://www.convenzionedellealpi.org/page1_en.htm

8. www.fao.org

9. www.mtnforum.org

10. www.icimod.org

11. www.mountain.org

12. www.mountainpartnership.org

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ikfjHkkf"kd 'kCnkoyh

dksfjvkWfyldksfjvkWfyldkdksfjvkWfyldksfjvkWfylsfjvkWfyl cy%cy%cy%cy%cy% iFoh` ds vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu ds dkj.k i`Foh ds lkis{k xfr'khy fdlh fiaM ij yxus okyk cyA ;g mRrjh xksyk)Z eas nkfguh vksj ,oa nf{k.kh xksyk)Z eas ck;ha vksj fopyu ds :i eas izdV gksrk gSA

egk}hih;egk}hih;egk}hih;egk}hih;egk}hih; foLFkkiufoLFkkiufoLFkkiufoLFkkiufoLFkkiu fl)kar%fl)kar%fl)kfl)kar%fl)kar%ar% bl fl)kar dks loZizFke vYÝsM oSxuj us

1912 eas izLrkfor fd;kA ;g fl)kar i`Foh ds egk}hikas ds ,d&nwljs ds lkis{k xfr

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ls lacaf/kr gSA bl fl)kar ds vuqlkj igys lHkh egk}hi vkil eas iaft;kS dgykus

okys ,d vfr fo'kky egk}hi ls tqM+s Fks ckn eas dqN cykas ds dkj.k ;g egk}hi ,d&nwljs ls nwj gksrs x,A

vojksg.k%vojksg.k%vojkvojksg.k%vojksg.k%sg.k% i`Foh dh ,d HkwiVy IysV ds nwljh HkwiVy IysV ds uhps ;k Åij ljdus ij HkwiVy IysVkas ds Vdjkus dh izfØ;k] tks laf/k ¼vojksg.k {ks=k½ ij lhfer jgrh gS] dks vojksg.k dgk tkrk gSA

leqnzleqnzleqnzleqnzleqnz v/kLryv/kLryv/kLryv/kLryv/kLry foLrkj.k%foLrkj.k%foLrkj.k%foLrkj.k%foLrkj.k% leqnz v/kLry foLrkj.k eas nks foorZfud IysVas ,d&nwljs ls nwj tkrh gS ftlds ifj.kkeLo:i u;h egklkxjh; HkwiVy vkSj e/; egklkxjh; dVd dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA

HkwL[kyuHkwL[kyuHkHkwL[kyuHkwL[kyuwL[kyu vkinkvkinkvkinkvkinkvkink vuq{ks=kvuq{ks=kvuvuq{ks=kvuq{ks=kq{ks=k oxhZdj.koxhZdj.koxhoxhZdj.koxhZdj.kZdj.k uD'kk%uD'kk%uD'kk%uD'kk%uD'kk% ,slk uD'kk ftleas {ks=kkas dks vfLFkjrk lEHkkO; ds vk/kkj ij O;ofLFkr fd;k x;k gksA bl izdkj dk uD'kk O;oLFkkidkas dks vf/kd uqdlku laHkkO; {ks=kkas dks crkrk gSA ;g uD'kk ;kstuk]

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98

98 ioZrksa ij ladV fuekZ.k vkSj j[k&j[kko ds dk;Z ds le; ds lkFk gh igys ls

ioZrksa ij ladV

fuekZ.k vkSj j[k&j[kko ds dk;Z ds le; ds lkFk gh igys ls mifLFkr <ykukas ds U;wuhdj.k ds fy, Hkh mi;ksxh lkfcr gksrk gSA

fgeunfgeunfgeunfgeunfgeun >hy>hy>hy>hy>hy lglksnHksnlglksnHksnlglklglksnHksnlglksnHksnsnHksn ¼vkmV~cLV½¼vkmV~cLV½¼vkmV¼vkmV~cLV½¼vkmV~cLV½~cLV½ ck<+%ck<+%ck<ck<+%ck<+%+% Tokykeq[kh foLQksV ds le; vkus okyh izy;dkjh ck<+] tks vpkud vkrh gS ysfdu bls fgeun ck<+ dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy, Hkh mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA fgeun ck<+] fgeunkas ls vo#) >hy ;k cka/kkas ds QwVus ls Hkh vk ldrh gSA tc vpkud vijnu] ikuh ds ncko] pV~Vkukas ;k cQZ ds fgeL[kyu] Hkwdai ;k fQj fgeun dk fo'kky fgLlk VwV dj >hy eas fxj tkrk gS tc >hy ds ikuh ds foLFkkfir gksus ls ck<+ vkrh gSA

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99 vuqØef.kdk /kkSyk/kkj] 71 :ikarfjr lhek] 19 ;wjsf'k;k] 73 ;wjsf'k;u IysV] 24 ;wusi] 55] 60]

99

vuqØef.kdk

/kkSyk/kkj] 71 :ikarfjr lhek] 19 ;wjsf'k;k] 73

;wjsf'k;u IysV] 24 ;wusi] 55] 60] 64] 85] 86] 87] 89] 91 ;wusLdks] 63] 89 >jus] 81 >we [ksrh] 79

dqrqcuqek] 44 dsu uxwph] 66 dU;kdqekjh] 75 e/; egklkxjh; dVd] 20] 23] 97

e`nk vijnu] 21] 27] 46] 57] 58] 62] 69]

73

egk oa'kk.kq dsUnz] 70 egk}hi] 14] 17] 18] 22] 25] 73] 97

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[kfut] 4] 7] 53] 57] 61] 62] 63] 93

[kkbZ;ka] 19

Å"ekjks/kh] 44 Å"ekjksfèkrk] 44 Ård] 45 bdksVwfjTe] 67 bf.M;u IysV] 24 ck#nh lqjaxs] 62 ck<+] 34] 46] 51] 58] 62] 64] 65] 98 ck?k] 75] 80 cSFkksfyFk ioZr] 27 cSjksehVj] 83 CySd fgy] 26 daputa?kk] 71 dEI;wVj iz.kkyh] 49 dhVk.kq] 65 dkjkdksje Ük`a[kyk,] 71 dksfj;ksfyl cy] 10 dksfjvkWfyl cy] 10] 32] 97 dqiks"k.k] 81

egk}hih; foLFkkiu] 17] 97

egk}hih; HkwiVy] 23

egkHkkjr ys[k] 72 ekmaV ,ojsLV] 1] 2] 3] 14] 33] 39] 41] 66] 73] 74 ekmUV ,ojsLV] 24 ekmUV Qwth] 22 ekSle] 30] 31] 33] 35] 38] 39] 42] 43] 47] 76] 94 ekulwu] 35] 38] 75 ekulwuh o"kkZ] 56] 58] 63] 71 es?k ouksa] 89 fczdQhYMj] 37 feLVªy] 38 fge L[kyu] 47 fge rsanq,] 9] 53] 60] 80 fge unh] 8] 49 fge/kko] 47 fgeikr] 10] 35] 38] 39] 44] 49] 53 fgeky] 71

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100

100 ioZrksa ij ladV fgeky;] 1] 7] 15] 18] 24] 26] 35] 38] 47] 49] 58]

ioZrksa ij ladV

fgeky;] 1] 7] 15] 18] 24] 26] 35] 38] 47] 49] 58] 59] 60] 62] 63] 70] 71] 72] 73 fj;ks Mh tsujks] 88 f'kyk[kaM ioZr] 25 f'kykiV~V fgeL[kyu] 48 fo|qr~ ty&ÅtkZ] 64 foaM cuZ] 43 foforZfud izfØ;k] 21 fo'ki] 1

fo'o /kjksgjksa] 63 fØokl] 49 foorZfud IysVksa] 19] 22] 23] 26] 27] 73 foorZfud xfrfof/k;ksa] 27 foyqIrizk;] 9 foyqIrrk] 59 fpuwd] 37

Hkza'k [kaM ioZr] 26

i;kZoj.k] 2] 4] 5] 51] 55] 63] 67] 68] 69] 78] 82] 83] 85] 86] 88] 89]

92

i;kZoj.kh; cnyko] 89 i;ZVu m|ksx] 12 i`Foh f'k[kj lEesyu] 92 i`Foh lEesyu] 88 iBkj ioZr] 27

ifjlapj.k] 32 ikaMk] 53 ikfjfLFkfrdh] 3] 4] 8] 9] 10] 48] 52] 53] 55] 63] 65] 69] 78] 79] 83] 84] 85] 91] 92] 93] 94 ikfjfLFkfrdh fofo/krk] 91 ikfjrkaaf=kdh] 54 ioukfHkeq[k Hkkx] 34

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ft;ksxkzQh] 1

futZyhdj.k] 43

fVdkÅ fodkl] 92 fVgjh cka/k] 50 fyFkksfLQ;j] 16] 17 gkbfdax] 11 gkWV LikV] 59 gokbZ }hi] 22 HkkSfrdh] 37 HkkSxksfyd fofo/krk] 70 Hkw{kj.k] 46] 51] 73] 81 Hkwdai] 19] 39] 49] 52] 73] 98 Hkwe/; js[kk] 35] 57 HkweaMyh; ikfjfLFkfrdh] 68 HkweaMyh; rkihdj.k] 63] 65 HkweaMyh; rkiØe] 94 HkweaMyh; tyok;q] 29] 32 HkwfoKkuh] 1] 15] 28 HkwL[kyu] 46] 50] 54] 62] 73] 79] 81] 97 HkwxHkZ'kkL=k] 73

ioZr Ük`a[kyk] 7] 9] 10] 15] 27] 34] 35

ioZr Ük`a[kyk,] 75

ioZrh; lalk/kuksa] 92 ioZrh; lk>snkjh] 92 ioZrh; tyok;q] 30] 33] 36 ioZrh; vkinkvksa] 49 ioZrh; xkSfjYyk] 53 ioZrkjksg.k] 81 ioZrkjksgh] 2] 3] 40] 41] 42] 44] 45] 47] 49] 66 ioZrksa dk vUrjkZ"Vªh; o"k] 90 iquokZl] 50 ir>M+h ou] 78 isaft;k] 17 isVªksukl Vkoj] 14 iupDdh] 6 iyk'k] 79 IysV foorZfudh] 17] 18 izfriou fn'kk] 35 izkÑfrd foinkvksa] 39

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vuqØef.kdk

vuqØef.kdk 101 izkÑfrd laink] 4 izkÑfrd lalk/ku] 83 iznw"k.k] 57] 58] 81] 94 jkWdh ioZr] 35

101

izkÑfrd laink] 4 izkÑfrd lalk/ku] 83 iznw"k.k] 57] 58] 81] 94 jkWdh ioZr] 35 jkWu ?kkVh] 38 jsfM;ks ,fDVo] 28 jsfxLrku] 10] 35 lapkj O;oLFkk] 81 laxzgky;] 54 Ldhbax] 11 leqnzh HkwiVy] 23 leqnzh v/kLry QSyko] 23 LFkkfud] 4 LFkkuh; tyok;q] 32] 33 LFkyeaMy] 16] 17] 22

lkaLÑfrd fofo/krk] 10] 54] 91 lkaLÑfrd fofo/krk,] 91

nqyZHk vkS"kf/k;ka] 95 nzohdj.k] 39 o`{kkjksi.k] 51 o`f"VNk;k] 35 ,ojsLV] 1 ok;qe.My] 4] 5 ok;qe.Myh; rki] 3 ok;qeaMy] 63 okf'kaXkVu Mh-lh-] 90

oSf'od rkihdj.k] 94 oU; thou] 76] 80] 81 ouksUewyu] 7] 58] 59] 79] 80] 81] 83 oYMZ dUtosZ'ku ekssuhVfjax lsaVj] 85 oyu ioZr] 26 psjkiwath] 77 QkWu] 37 ,Q,vk] 57

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lkaLÑfrd fojklr] 67

lkMZ] 87

Loa;&fuokjd] 4 lqugjh ckt] 9 lsaVk ,uk] 37 LVsjks;M] 42 lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh] 50 m".kdfVca/kh;] 57] 79 m".kdfVca/kh; ouksa] 79 ,MeaM fgysjh] 2 mixzgksa] 59 MksMkcsVk] 77 ,MoMZ fgysjh] 1 My >hy] 81 Ñf=ke vkWDlhtu] 41 nnZuk'kd vkS"kf/k] 42 nqcZyrkeaMy] 17 nqyZHk iztkfr] 80 nqyZHk iztkfr;ka] 4 nqyZHk tho&tUrq] 83

,Q,vks] 87

rkbZisbZ&101] 14

rsuftax uksjxs] 1 rwQku] 46 thok'e] 28 thok'e b±/ku] 3] 6] 63 tkWtZ eWykjh] 39 Tokykeq[kh] 8] 19] 22] 23] 49 Tokykeq[kh ioZr] 22 Tokykeq[kh ioZrksa] 8] 39 Tokykeq[kh Ük`a[kyk,a] 23 tSfod /kjksgj] 90 tSo fofo/krk] 59 tSo fofo/krk] 7] 8] 13] 53] 56] 59] 70] 90] 91] 93 tSo fofoèkrk] 91 tSob±/ku] 6 tSV izokg] 38 tutkrh; laLÑfr] 10 ty Hkjko] 60

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102 ty&fo|qr~] 95 ty&fo|qr~~] 57 ty&fo|qr~~ Åtk] 6 ty&fo|qr~~ ÅtkZ] 6
102
ty&fo|qr~] 95
ty&fo|qr~~] 57
ty&fo|qr~~ Åtk] 6
ty&fo|qr~~ ÅtkZ] 6

tyok;q] 10] 30] 32] 38] 54] 83 tyok;q&ifjorZu] 94 udnh Qly] 57 uhyfxjh ioZr] 49] 75] 77 uhyfxjh Vkgj] 80 us'kuy ft;ksxzkQh] 1 uSuhrky] 81 v/kks fgeky;] 72] 78 v[kjksV] 79 va/kfo'okl] 10 VaxLVu] 62 vEyh; ty] 62 vfHklkjh lhek] 20

vkdk'kh; fo|qr~] 45] 54 vkink,a] 58 vknzZrk] 5 vksjkstsuh] 21 vkWjksxzkfQd fyf¶Vax] 34 vojksg.k] 22] 97 vojksgh gok,] 38 volknh ioZr] 28 volknh pV~Vku] 25] 27 VSªfdax] 13] 81 VSDVksfud IysV] 17] 23 vubZ] 77 xaxk] 63] 75 xaxks=kh] 12 xq# f'k[kj] 74 xq#Rokd"kZ.k] 18 xqEcnkdkj ioZr] 26

ioZrksa ij ladV

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vfXu oy;] 19

vijnu] 27] 28

vijnu ioZr] 27 vilkjh lhek] 20 vk/kqfudhdj.k] 62] 93

vkbZihlhlh] 64 vkdfLed foink] 39 vkdfLed ladV] 50

xSj&ljdkjh laxBu] 88] 90] 93

Xykscy okfe±x] 56

XySf'k;j] 64 Xysf'k;j] 3] 48] 56] 59] 63] 64] 65] 69] 83] 91

ykWl ,atsfyl] 37 yo.kh; xqEcn] 27

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