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f5\fs36 UNIT 11
BRAND V/S PRIVATE LABEL \par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult
0 \par\pard\ql\li720\sb244\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nos
upersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Structure \par\pard\li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0\par\pard\li720\
sb0\sl-276\slmult0\par\pard\li720\sb105\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 11.0\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex1
00 Objectives\par\pard\li720\sb184\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\cha
rscalex100 11.1\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Introduction\par\pard\li720\sb
183\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11.2\tab \up0 \expnd
tw-3\charscalex100 Concept of Brand\par\pard\li720\sb185\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx14
40 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11.3\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Global B
rand\par\pard\li720\sb203\sl-253\slmult0\fi720 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul
0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs22 11.3.1 Benefits of Global Branding\par\pard\li720\sb20
6\sl-253\slmult0\fi720 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11.3.2 Global Brand Varia
bles\par\pard\li720\sb189\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex10
0 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 11.4\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Local Brand
\par\pard\li720\sb185\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11
.5\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Ambient Brand\par\pard\li720\sb182\sl-276\s
lmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11.6\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca
lex100 Brand Name\par\pard\li720\sb185\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3
\charscalex100 11.7\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Brand Identity\par\pard\li
720\sb204\sl-253\slmult0\fi720 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf6
\f7\fs22 11.7.1 Visual Brand Identity\par\pard\li720\sb145\sl-253\slmult0\fi720

\up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 11.7.2 Brand Parity\par\pard\li720\sb148\sl-253\s


lmult0\fi720 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 11.7.3 Expanding Role of Brand\par\p
ard\li720\sb189\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nos
upersub\cf1\f2\fs24 11.8\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Brand Extension & Bra
nd Dilution\par\pard\li720\sb182\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\chars
calex100 11.9\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Multi-Brands\par\pard\li720\sb18
6\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11.10\tab \up0 \expndt
w-3\charscalex100 Private Labels\par\pard\li720\sb203\sl-253\slmult0\fi720\tx252
0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs22 11.10.1\tab \up0 \ex
pndtw-3\charscalex100 Why should a Retailer have Private Labels ?\par\pard\li720
\sb146\sl-253\slmult0\fi720\tx2520 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11.10.2\tab \up
0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Challenges faced by Private Labels\par\pard\li720\sb1
48\sl-253\slmult0\fi720\tx2520 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11.10.3\tab \up0 \e
xpndtw-3\charscalex100 Evolution of Private Labels in Developing Countries\par\p
ard\li720\sb148\sl-253\slmult0\fi720\tx2520 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11.10.
4\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Future of Private Labels\par\pard\li720\sb18
6\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2
\fs24 11.11\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Branding By ITC a Case Study\par\p
ard\li720\sb185\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11.12\ta
b \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Let Us Sum Up\par\pard\li720\sb185\sl-276\slmult
0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11.13\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex1
00 Key Words\par\pard\li720\sb183\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\char
scalex100 11.14\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Answers to Check Your Progress
\par\pard\li720\sb187\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 11
.15\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Terminal Questions\par\pard\li720\sb0\sl-3
22\slmult0\par\pard\li720\sb26\sl-322\slmult0\fi0\tx1440 \up0 \expndtw-4\charsca
lex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.0\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 OBJECT
IVES\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li720\sb221\sl-276\slmul
t0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 After studying this
unit, you should be able to: \par\pard\ql \li720\sb184\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-3\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f
2\fs24 explain the meaning and history of Branding; \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb6
2\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs20 145
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par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \pa
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\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\q

l \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql


\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
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l-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-23
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slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\sl
mult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult
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\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \p
ar\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par
\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
ard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\
ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb21\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
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24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 discuss t
he merits of Brands V/s Private label; \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul
0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 describe the challenges
in marketing a Private Label; \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 discuss the evolution and growt
h of Private Labels; and \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\c
f9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 explain the future of Private labels.
\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb114\sl-322\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.1 INTRODUCTION\par
\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-376\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\ri556\sb69\sl-376\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Private labels are br
ands that are not owned by a manufacturer or producer but by \line \up0 \expndtw
-2\charscalex100 a Retailer or Supplier who gets its goods made by a contract ma
nufacturer under \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 its own label. Private la
bel goods and services are available in a wide range of \line \up0 \expndtw-2\ch
arscalex100 industries from food to cosmetics to Apparels. They are often positi
oned as lower \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cost alternatives to regional,
national or international brands, although recently \line \up0 \expndtw-2\chars
calex100 some private label brands have been positioned as "premium" brands to c
ompete \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 with existing "name" brands. In the
unit, you will learn about the concept of\par\pard\qj \li20\ri871\sb1\sl-376\slm
ult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Brand, its types and other aspects. You will
also learn about the private labels \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 and the chall
enges faced by them.\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\s
b190\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11
.2 CONCEPT OF BRAND\par\pard\qj \li3271\sb0\sl-376\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\r
i780\sb98\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs
24 A brand is the identity of a specific product, service, or business. A brand
can \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 take many forms, including a name, sign,
symbol, color combination or slogan.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri508\sb2\sl-375\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 The word \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 brand\ul0\no
supersub\cf1\f2\fs24 began simply as a way to tell one person's cattle from ano
ther by \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 means of a hot iron stamp. A legally prote
cted \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 brand name\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 is calle
d a trademark. \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 The word brand has continued to evo
lve to encompass identity - it affects the\par\pard\ql \li20\sb84\sl-276\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 personality of a product, Company or service.\par
\pard\qj \li3271\sb0\sl-375\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri505\sb19\sl-375\slmult0

\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 A \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 concept brand\ul0\n


osupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, l
ike breast \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cancer awareness or environmental
ism, rather than a specific product, service, or \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscale
x100 business. A \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 commodity brand\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\
f2\fs24 is a brand associated with a commodity. AMUL\par\pard\ql \li80\sb84\sl276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 is an example of a commodity brand.\pa
r\pard\qj \li3271\sb0\sl-376\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri661\sb18\sl-376\slmult
0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Brand is the personality \ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f1
1\fs24 that identifies \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 a product, or Company (name,
term, sign, \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 symbol, or design, or combination of t
hem) and how it relates to key\par\pard\ql \li20\sb83\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
tw-3\charscalex100 constituencies: Customers, Staff, Partners, and Investors etc
.\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-375\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\ri674\sb20\sl-375\sl
mult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Some people distinguish the psychological as
pect, brand associations like \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 thoughts, feelings,
perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 that become linked to the brand, of a brand from the experiential
aspect.
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no2\colw2535\colsr160\qj \li720\ri472\sb301\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\chars
calex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 The experiential aspect consists of the sum
of all points of contact with the brand \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 and is kn
own as the \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 brand experience\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs
24 . The psychological aspect, sometimes\par\pard\qj \li720\ri522\sb2\sl-375\slm
ult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 referred to as the\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24
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n the minds \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 of people, consisting of all the infor
mation and expectations associated with a \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 product,
service or the Company providing them.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \p
ar\pard\ql \li720\sb183\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf5\f6\fs24 Attractive Qualities or Characteristics of Brand\par\pard\ql \l
i720\sb0\sl-376\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\ri467\sb19\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 Brand Recognitions:\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 People engag
ed in branding seek to develop or align the \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 expect
ations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand \up0 \e
xpndtw-2\charscalex100 associated with a product or service has certain qualitie
s or characteristics that \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 make it special or uniqu
e. A brand is therefore one of the most valuable elements \up0 \expndtw-2\charsc
alex100 in an advertising theme, as it demonstrates what the brand owner is able
to offer \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 in the marketplace. The art of creating
and maintaining a brand is called brand \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 management
. Orientation of the whole organization towards its brand is\par\pard\ql \li720\
sb81\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 called brand orientation.\par\
pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-375\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri643\sb22\sl-375\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Careful brand management seeks to make the product
or services relevant to \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the target audience
. Brands should be seen as more than the difference between \line \up0 \expndtw2\charscalex100 the actual cost of a product and its selling price - they repres
ent the sum of all \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 valuable qualities of a p
roduct to the consumer. There are many intangibles\par\pard\ql \li720\ri420\sb0\
sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 involved in business, intangibles l
eft wholly from the income statement and \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 bal
ance sheet which determine how a business is perceived. The learned skill of a \
line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 knowledge worker, the type of mental working,
the type of stitch: all may be \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 without an '
accounting cost' but for those who truly know the product, for it is \line \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 these people the company should wish to find and keep,
the difference is \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 incomparable.\par\pard\qj
\li720\ri472\sb375\sl-375\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 A brand which is

widely known in the marketplace acquires \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 brand reco


gnition\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 . \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 When brand re
cognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass \up0 \expndt
w-2\charscalex100 of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have a
chieved \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 brand\par\pard\qj \li720\ri573\sb1\sl-376\sl
mult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 franchise\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 . One g
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ccessful at \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 branding with their particular script
font (originally created for Walt Disney's \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 "signat
ure" logo), which it used in the logo for go.com.\par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-375\
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certain attractive quality or characteristic \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 (see also brand promise). From the perspective of brand owners, branded produc
ts \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 or services also command higher prices. W
here two products resemble each other,\par\pard\column \ql \li9225\sb0\sl-230\sl
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3\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11
193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li
11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \
li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
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\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \p
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d\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\
ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb21\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
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4 but one of the products has no associated branding (such as a generic, store-\
line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 branded product), people may often select the
more expensive branded product on \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the basis of th
e quality of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner.\par\pard\qj \li3271
\sb0\sl-375\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri714\sb1\sl-375\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Brand Awareness: \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f
2\fs24 Brand awareness refers to customers' ability to recall and \up0 \expndtw2\charscalex100 recognize the brand under different conditions and link to the b
rand name, logo, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 jingles and so on to certain asso
ciations in memory. It helps the customers to\par\pard\ql \li20\ri614\sb1\sl-375
\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 understand to which product or service ca
tegory the particular brand belongs and \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 what produ
cts and services are sold under the brand name. It also ensures that \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 customers know which of their needs are satisfied by the bran
d through its\par\pard\qj \li20\ri625\sb1\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charsca
lex100 products (Keller). Brand awareness is of critical importance since custom
ers will \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 not consider your brand if they are not a

ware of it.\par\pard\qj \li3271\sb0\sl-375\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri534\sb2\


sl-375\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 'Brand love', or love of a brand, i
s an emerging term encompassing the perceived \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 valu
e of the brand image. Brand love levels are measured through social media \up0 \
expndtw-2\charscalex100 posts about a brand, or tweets on sites such as Twitter.
Becoming a Face book fan \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 of a particular brand is
also a measurement of the level of 'brand love'.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri748\sb376\
sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs24 Brand
Promise: \ul0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\fs22 The marketer and owner of the brand has
a vision of what the brand \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 must be and do for the
consumers.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri502\sb375\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscal
ex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Brand promise is what a particular brand stand
s for (and has stood for in the past). \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 It has its
roots from the identity that it gains over a period of time. Usually, brand \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 promise is an attribute common to 'Parent' brands. Her
ein, the brand may broadly \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 stand for Quality, Perf
ormance, Trust, or False promises. However, the\par\pard\qj \li20\ri550\sb2\sl-3
75\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 extensions, or the brands under the par
ent brand umbrella, may stand individually \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 for a p
articular trait which it has delivered over the years, for example, 'the best \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sparkling teeth', or 'the trusted bank to bank with
for centuries', et al.\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20
\sb191\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 1
1.3 GLOBAL BRAND\par\pard\qj \li3271\sb0\sl-377\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri65
4\sb96\sl-377\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24
A global brand is one which is perceived to reflect the same set of values aroun
d \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the world. Global brands transcend their origins
and create strong enduring\par\pard\qj \li20\ri639\sb0\sl-375\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 relationships with consumers across countries and cultures.
They are brands sold \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 in international markets. Ex
amples of global brands include: Face book,\par\pard\qj \li20\ri887\sb3\sl-374\s
lmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Apple, Coca-Cola, McDonald's, MasterCard, G
ap and Sony. These brands are \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 used to sell t
he same product across multiple markets and could be considered\par\pard\qj \li2
0\ri544\sb2\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 successful to the exten
t that the associated products are easily recognizable by the \up0 \expndtw-3\ch
arscalex100 diverse set of consumer.
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g5}{\bkmkend Pg5}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw9065\colsr160\col
no2\colw2535\colsr160\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb95\sl-2
76\slmult0\tx1795 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 11.3
.1\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Benefits of Global Branding\par\pard\qj \li
720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri1000\sb114\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 In addition to taking advantage
of the outstanding growth opportunities, the \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 foll
owing drives the increasing interest in taking brands global:\par\pard\qj \li720
\ri3198\sb21\sl-458\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersu
b\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Economies of scale (production and
distribution) \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs2
4 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Lower marketing costs\par\pard\qj \li720\ri2496
\sb2\sl-460\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f1
0\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Laying the groundwork for future extension
s worldwide \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24
\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Maintaining consistent brand imagery\par\pard\qj \
li720\ri490\sb0\sl-461\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Quicker identification and inte
gration of innovations (discovered worldwide) \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u-3
913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Preempting inter
national competitors from entering domestic markets or\par\pard\ql \li1080\sb50\
sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 locking you out of other geographic
markets\par\pard\qj \li720\ri852\sb122\sl-357\slmult0\tx1080 \up0 \expndtw-2\ch
arscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24
Increasing international media reach (especially with the explosion of the \line
\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Internet) is an enabler\par\pard\ql \li720\sb
169\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10
\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Increases in international business and tou
rism are also enabler\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\
sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb93\sl-276\slmult0\tx1795 \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 11.3.2\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscale
x100 Global Brand Variables\par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-460\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \
li720\ri2489\sb32\sl-460\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\c
f1\f2\fs24 The following elements may differ from country to country: \up0 \expn
dtw-4\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2
\fs24 Corporate slogan\par\pard\qj \li720\ri5818\sb0\sl-460\slmult0 \up0 \expn
dtw-4\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2
\fs24 Products and services \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosuper
sub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Product names\par\pard\qj \li720
\ri6331\sb2\sl-458\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub
\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Product features \up0 \expndtw-4\ch
arscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24
Positioning\par\pard\qj \li720\ri1013\sb89\sl-357\slmult0\tx1080 \up0 \expndtw-2
\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24
Marketing mixes (including pricing, distribution, media and advertising \line
\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 execution)\par\pard\qj \li720\ri4765\sb21\sl458\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 These differences will depend upon: \u

p0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersu


b\cf1\f2\fs24 Language differences\par\pard\qj \li720\ri4597\sb1\sl-461\slmult
0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosup
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100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Other cu
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charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24
Differences in category and brand development \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u
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arscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24
Different competitive sets and marketplace conditions \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex
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\expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\
cf1\f2\fs24 Different national approaches to marketing (media, pricing, distri
bution, etc.)\par\pard\column \ql \li9225\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\
sb76\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs20 Br
and V/S Private Label\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11
193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li
11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \
li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\
ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
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\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult
0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\sl
mult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\
slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-23
0\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\s
l-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0
\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\s
b0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193
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93\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1
1193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
i11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\q
l \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard
\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pa
rd\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\
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r\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \
par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmul
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mult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs20 149
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lmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slm
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\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \
par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \pa
r\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\
pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pa
rd\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard
\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\q
l \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
i900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li9
00\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900
\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\s
b0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0
\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\s
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0\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\
slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\sl
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lt0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult
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\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \p
ar\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par
\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
ard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\
ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb21\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs20 150\par\pard\column \ql \li3271\s
b0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb93\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca
lex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Check Your Progress A\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0
\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb201\sl-276\slmult0\tx385 \up0 \expndtw-3\ch
arscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 1.\tab \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 Def
ine \u8215?Brand\u8216?.\par\pard\ql \li20\ri589\sb124\sl-414\slmult0\fi360\tx39
0\tx390 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8
230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230? \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8
230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\char
scalex100 2. \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Explain the advantage of using a Bran
d.\par\pard\ql \li20\ri589\sb100\sl-413\slmult0\fi360\tx390\tx390 \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line\

tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82


30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8
230?\u8230? \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 3. \up0 \exp
ndtw-3\charscalex100 What do you mean by Brand Promise?\par\pard\ql \li20\ri588\
sb104\sl-413\slmult0\fi360\tx390\tx390\tx390 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\c
harscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \ta
b \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230? \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 4. \up0 \expnd
tw-3\charscalex100 List the advantages of Global Branding.\par\pard\ql \li20\ri5
89\sb103\sl-413\slmult0\fi360\tx390\tx390\tx390 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line\tab \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line
\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8
230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230? \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 5. \up0 \ex
pndtw-3\charscalex100 Describe the variables in the Global Branding.\par\pard\qj
\li380\ri589\sb103\sl-413\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\c
harscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up
0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8
230?\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb246\sl-322\slmu
lt0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.4\ul0\nosupersub
\cf13\f14\fs28 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 LOCAL BRAND\par\pard\qj \li3271\sb0
\sl-379\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri613\sb71\sl-379\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\cha
rscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Local brand is one sold and marketed (dis
tributed and promoted) in a relatively \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 small and r
estricted geographical area. A local brand is a brand that can be found \up0 \ex
pndtw-2\charscalex100 in only one country or region. It may be called a regional
brand if the area\par\pard\qj \li20\ri548\sb3\sl-379\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\ch

arscalex100 encompasses more than one metropolitan market. It may also be a bran
d that is \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 developed for a specific national market
; however an interesting thing about local \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 brand i
s that the local branding is more often done by consumers than by the\par\pard\q
j \li20\ri1291\sb3\sl-379\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 producers. Examp
les of local brands in India are: Nandini brand milk in \line \up0 \expndtw-3\ch
arscalex100 Karnataka, Aeray Milk in Maharashtra & Vijaya Milk in Andhra Pradesh
.
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 7977}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}}
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p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s
p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw11900\paperh16820\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g7}{\bkmkend Pg7}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw9065\colsr160\col
no2\colw2535\colsr160\ql \li720\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb74\sl-3
22\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.5 AMBIEN
T BRAND\par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri366\sb86\sl360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 An ambient
brand is a movement, where the brand is organized around values and \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 social needs instead of promoting a specific product. It is a
virtual space, defined \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 by values and occupied by
a community of like minded people. Whereas a\par\pard\qj \li720\ri480\sb1\sl-359
\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 traditional brand is entirely dependent o
n products and their parent Corporations, \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 an ambie
nt brand is an independent social movement that Companies can\par\pard\qj \li720
\ri362\sb1\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 participate in. They are
not selling products, they are allowing their Company to \up0 \expndtw-2\charsc
alex100 participate in a social movement and allow their brand to be identified
with this. It \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 exists as a shared values space wher

e consumers gather, converse and ultimately \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 transa


ct with organizations that appear to be in alignment with the values\par\pard\qj
\li720\ri396\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 associated with t
hat community. Corporations do not create ambient brands. They \up0 \expndtw-2\c
harscalex100 must qualify for inclusion within them by demonstrating that they s
hare the\par\pard\qj \li720\ri551\sb2\sl-359\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 values and will service the interests of their associated communities. The br
ands \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 develop organically as a result of emerging s
ocial and cultural codes and are\par\pard\qj \li720\ri440\sb1\sl-360\slmult0 \up
0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 materialized through people\u8216?s ability to organi
ze around them through the use of \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mainly virtual c
ommunities on the web. The term as it is defined here was coined \up0 \expndtw-3
\charscalex100 by Sara Batterby, a brand strategist in San Francisco and was use
d in\par\pard\qj \li720\ri700\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 a
n interview on the importance of successful destination branding with Bjorn \lin
e \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Frode Moen. In India Hindustan Lever pledged 1%
of its national sales of Surf\par\pard\ql \li720\sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 Excel brand towards scholarship for students from rural India
for higher learning.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\
sb146\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11
.6\ul0\nosupersub\cf13\f14\fs28 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 BRAND NAME\par\par
d\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb242\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \ex
pndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Relationship between trade mar
ks and brand\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\ri371\sb1
5\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 The b
rand name is quite often used interchangeably with "brand", although it is \line
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 more correctly used to specifically denote writte
n or spoken linguistic elements of \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 any produ
ct. In this context a "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark, if the \line
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner
as the commercial source of \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 products or ser
vices. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in\par\pard\ql \li72
0\ri449\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 relation to a brand nam
e through trademark registration. Advertising \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 spokespersons have also become part of some brands, for example: Dhoni & Saif
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Ali Khan for LAYS Chips. Local branding is usually
done by the consumers \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 rather than the producers.\
par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb196\sl-253\slmult0 \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs22 Types of Brand Names\pa
r\pard\ql \li720\ri2832\sb165\sl-518\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\
nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Brand names come in many styles. A few include: \line \up
0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Acronym\ul0\nosupersub\cf
1\f2\fs24 : A name made of initials such as UPS or IBM\par\pard\column \ql \li92
25\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb76\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\cha
rscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs20 Brand V/S Private Label\par\pard\ql \li11
193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li
11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \
li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\
ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
ard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par
\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \p
ar\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult
0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\sl
mult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\
slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-23
0\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-

230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\s


l-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0
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b0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193
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93\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1
1193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
i11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\q
l \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard
\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pa
rd\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\
pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \pa
r\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \
par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmul
t0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li1988\sb222\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul
0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs20 151
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ard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\
ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb21\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
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65\sb168\sl-537\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs2
4 Descriptive\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 : Names that describe a product benefit
or function like Airbus \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5
\f6\fs24 Alliteration and rhyme\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 : Names that are fun
to say and stick in the mind like\par\pard\qj \li20\ri651\sb0\sl-362\slmult0 \up
0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Coca-Cola, Head and Shoulders, Krispy Kreme, Bed and
Bath, Crunch n Munch \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 etc.\par\pard\qj \li20\
ri1230\sb3\sl-374\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\f
s24 Evocative\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 : Names that evoke a relevant vivid ima
ge like Amazon or Crest \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs2
4 Neologisms\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 : Completely made-up words like Wifi or
Kodak\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1415\sb1\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Foreign word\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 : Adoption o
f a word from another language like Volvo or \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Samsu
ng\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1125\sb0\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul
0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Founders' names\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 : Using the
names of real people, and founder's name like \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Hewl
ett-Packard or Disney\par\pard\qj \li20\ri800\sb2\sl-374\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2
\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Geography\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24
: Many brands are named for regions and landmarks like Cisco and \up0 \expndtw-3
\charscalex100 Fuji Film\par\pard\qj \li20\ri658\sb2\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndt
w-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Personification\ul0\nosupersub\cf1
\f2\fs24 : Many brands take their names from myth like Nike or from the \up0 \ex
pndtw-3\charscalex100 minds of ad execs like Betty Crocker\par\pard\qj \li3271\s
b0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri770\sb161\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 The act of associating a product or service with a brand has becom
e part of pop \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 culture. Most products have some kin
d of brand identity, from common table\par\pard\qj \li20\ri487\sb0\sl-360\slmult
0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 salt to designer jeans. A brandnomer is a brand

name that has colloquially become \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 a generic term f


or a product or service, such as Band-Aid or Kleenex, which are \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 often used to describe any brand of adhesive bandage or any brand
of facial tissue \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 respectively.\par\pard\ql \li3271
\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb133\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\chars
calex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.7 BRAND IDENTITY\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb
0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\ri494\sb2\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\cha
rscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 The outward expression of a brand include
s its name, trademark, \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 communications, and v
isual appearance. Because the identity is assembled by the \line \up0 \expndtw-2
\charscalex100 brand owner, it reflects how the owner \ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\f
s24 wants\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 the consumer to perceive the brand -\line
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 and by extension the branded Company, Organization
, product or service. This is \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 in contrast to
the brand image, which is a customer's mental picture of a brand. \line \up0 \e
xpndtw-2\charscalex100 The brand owner will seek to bridge the gap between the b
rand image and the \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 brand identity.\par\pard\
ql \li3271\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\ri632\sb1\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \
expndtw-2\charscalex100 Effective brand names build a connection between the bra
nd personalities as it is \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 perceived by the target
audience and the actual product/service. The brand name \up0 \expndtw-2\charscal
ex100 should be conceptually on target with the product/service (what the Compan
y \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 stands for). Furthermore, the brand name should
be on target with the\par\pard\qj \li20\ri575\sb1\sl-359\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2
\charscalex100 brand demographic. Typically, sustainable brand names are easy to
remember, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 transcend trends and have positive conn
otations. Brand identity is fundamental to \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 consume
r recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation from\par\pard\ql \li20\
sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 competitors.
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no2\colw2535\colsr160\ql \li720\ri369\sb302\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\chars
calex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Brand identity is what the owner wants to c
ommunicate to its potential \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 consumers. Howev
er, over time, a product's brand identity may acquire (evolve), \line \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 gaining new attributes from consumer perspective but not nec
essarily from the \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 marketing communications a
n owner percolates to targeted consumers. Therefore, \line \up0 \expndtw-2\chars
calex100 brand associations become handy to check the consumer's perception of t
he \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 brand.\par\pard\qj \li720\ri618\sb360\sl360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Brand identity needs to focus on authe
ntic qualities - real characteristics of the \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 value
and brand promise being provided and sustained by organizational and/or \up0 \e
xpndtw-3\charscalex100 production characteristics.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276
\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb154\sl-276\slmult0\tx1795 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca
lex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 11.7.1\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Visu
al Brand Identity\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\ri61
0\sb15\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24
The visual brand identity manual for Mobil Oil developed by Chermayeff & \line \
up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Geismar is one of the first visual identities to in
tegrate logotype, icon, alphabet,\par\pard\qj \li720\ri549\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 color palette, and station architecture to create a
comprehensive consumer brand \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 experience.\par\pard\
ql \li720\ri454\sb360\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 The recogniti
on and perception of a brand is highly influenced by its visual \line \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 presentation. A brand\u8216?s visual identity is the overall
look of its communications. \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Effective visua
l brand identity is achieved by the consistent use of particular \line \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 visual elements to create distinction, such as specific fon
ts, colours, and graphic \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 elements. At the co
re of every brand identity is a brand mark, or logo. In the \line \up0 \expndtw2\charscalex100 United States, brand identity and logo design naturally grew out
of the Modernist \line \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 movement in the 1950s and
greatly drew on the principles of that movement -\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscale
x100 simplicity (Mies van der Rohe\u8216?s principle of "Less is more") and geom
etric \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 abstraction. These principles can be o
bserved in the work of the pioneers of the \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 p
ractice of visual brand identity design, such as Paul Rand, Chermayeff & \line \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Geismar and Saul Bass.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-27
6\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb154\sl-276\slmult0\tx1795 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsc
alex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 11.7.2\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Bra
nd Parity\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\ri644\sb15\s
l-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Brand pa
rity is the perception of the customers that some brands are \line \up0 \expndtw
-2\charscalex100 equivalent. This means that shoppers will purchase within a gro
up of accepted \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 brands rather than choosing one spe
cific brand. When brand parity is present, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 quality
is often not a major concern because consumers believe that only minor \up0 \ex
pndtw-3\charscalex100 quality differences exist.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\s
lmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb154\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul
0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 11.7.3.1\ul0\nosupersub\cf15\f16\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\
cf5\f6\fs24 Expanding Role of Brand\par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par
\pard\qj \li720\ri750\sb15\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nos
upersub\cf1\f2\fs24 When the technique of branding first started, it was meant t
o make identifying \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 and differentiating a product

easier. Over time, brands came to embrace a\par\pard\column \ql \li9225\sb0\sl-2


30\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb76\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs20 Brand V/S Private Label\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\s
l-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0
\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\s
b0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193
\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li111
93\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1
1193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
i11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\q
l \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard
\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pa
rd\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\
pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \pa
r\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \
par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmul
t0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\s
lmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230
\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-2
30\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl
-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\
sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb
0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\
sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1119
3\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11
193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li
11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \
li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\
ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
ard\ql \li1988\sb222\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersu
b\cf2\f3\fs20 153
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g10}{\bkmkend Pg10}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw3111\colsr160\c
olno2\colw8489\colsr160\ql \li751\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li751\sb78\sl
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d Merchandising\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl
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30\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230
\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\s
lmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmul
t0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \
par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \pa
r\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\
pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pa
rd\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard
\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\q
l \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
i900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li9
00\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900
\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\s
b0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0
\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\s
l-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-23
0\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\
slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\sl
mult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult
0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \p
ar\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par
\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
ard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb21\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs20 154\par\pard\column \qj \li20\r
i579\sb302\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\f
s24 performance or benefit promise, for the product, certainly, but eventually a
lso for \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the Company behind the brand. Today, brand
plays a much bigger role. Brands \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 have been co-opt
ed as powerful symbols in larger debates about economics,\par\pard\ql \li20\ri87
4\sb1\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 social issues, and politics.
The power of brands to communicate a complex \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
message quickly and with emotional impact and the ability of brands to attract\
par\pard\ql \li20\sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 media attent
ion, make them ideal tools in the hands of activists--and hacktivists.\par\pard\
ql \li3271\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb168\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expn

dtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Check Your Progress B\par\pard\q


l \li3271\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb168\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
tw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 1. What do you mean by Local Bra
nd?\par\pard\qj \li380\ri588\sb2\sl-413\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\ch
arscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0
\expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\par\pard\ql \li20\sb186\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca
lex100 2. Explain the concept of the Ambient Brand.\par\pard\qj \li380\ri589\sb
3\sl-412\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\par\pard\ql \li20\sb186\sl276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 3. Give one example of each of the fo
llowing types of brands:\par\pard\ql \li380\sb84\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\
charscalex100 a. Acronym\par\pard\qj \li380\ri589\sb15\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8
230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \
line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8
230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\par\pard\ql \li380\sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex10
0 b. Descriptive\par\pard\qj \li380\ri589\sb15\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\ch
arscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0
\expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\par\pard\ql \li380\sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 c. Evoc
ative\par\pard\qj \li380\ri589\sb15\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3
\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\par\par
d\ql \li380\sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 d. Founders\u8216?
name\par\pard\qj \li380\ri589\sb15\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3
\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823

0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\par\par
d\ql \li380\sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 e. Geography\par\p
ard\qj \li380\ri589\sb16\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8
230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex
100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\par\pard\ql \li20\
sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 4. What is meant by Brand Ide
ntity?\par\pard\qj \li380\ri589\sb2\sl-413\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3
\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
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}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw11900\paperh16820\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g11}{\bkmkend Pg11}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw9065\colsr160\c
olno2\colw2535\colsr160\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb95\sl
-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 5. Expla
in Brand Parity.\par\pard\qj \li1080\ri455\sb1\sl-414\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\ch
arscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0
\expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\
sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb79\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscale
x100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.8\ul0\nosupersub\cf13\f14\fs28 \ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf7\f8\fs28 BRAND EXTENSION AND BRAND DILUTION\par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-36
0\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri684\sb86\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscal
ex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 The existing strong brand name can be used as
a vehicle for new or modified \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 products; for
example, many fashion and designer Companies extended brands \line \up0 \expndtw
-2\charscalex100 into fragrances, shoes and accessories, home textile, home deco
r, luggage, sun\par\pard\qj \li720\ri404\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\char
scalex100 glasses, furniture, hotels, etc. Brands like Adidas and Puma extended

their brand \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 name to personal hygiene by introducin


g body spray and Deo\u8216?s. Dunlop extended \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 its
brand from tires to other rubber products such as shoes, golf balls, tennis\par\
pard\ql \li720\sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 racquets and ad
hesives.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\ri348\sb15\sl
-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 There is a difference between brand e
xtension and line extension. A line \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 extensio
n is when a current brand name is used to enter a new market segment in \line \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the existing product class, with new varieties or fl
avours or sizes. When Coca-\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Cola launched "Di
et Coke" and "Cherry Coke" they stayed within the originating \line \up0 \expndt
w-2\charscalex100 product category: non-alcoholic carbonated beverages. Procter
(P&G) did \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 likewise extending its strong line
s (such as Ariel) into neighboring products (Ariel \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca
lex100 Liquid & Ariel bar) within the same category, washing detergents. Amul \l
ine \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 succeeded in its brand extension from milk to
milk products like chocolates, \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 butter etc.\p
ar\pard\qj \li720\ri908\sb360\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 The r
isk of over-extension is brand dilution where the brand looses its brand \line \
up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 associations with a market segment, product area, o
r quality, price or cachet.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \
li720\sb132\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\f
s28 11.9 MULTI-BRANDS\par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720
\ri1040\sb86\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2
\fs24 Alternatively, in a market that is fragmented amongst a number of brands a
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 supplier can choose deliberately to launch totall
y new brands in apparent\par\pard\ql \li720\ri449\sb2\sl-359\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 competition with its own existing strong brand (and often wit
h identical product \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 characteristics); simply
to soak up some of the share of the market which will in \line \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 any case go to minor brands. The rationale is that having 3 out of
12 brands in \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 such a market will give a grea
ter overall share than having 1 out of 10 (even if \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charsca
lex100 much of the share of these new brands is taken from the existing one). In
its most \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 extreme manifestation, a supplier
pioneering a new market which it believes will \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 be particularly attractive may choose immediately to launch a second brand in
\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 competition with its first, in order to pre
-empt others entering the market.\par\pard\column \ql \li9225\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li20\sb76\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosup
ersub\cf3\f4\fs20 Brand V/S Private Label\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult
0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\sl
mult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\
slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-23
0\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\s
l-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0
\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\s
b0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193
\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li111
93\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1
1193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
i11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\q
l \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard
\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pa
rd\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\
pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \pa
r\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \

par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0


\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmul
t0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\s
lmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230
\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-2
30\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl
-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\
sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb
0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\
sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1119
3\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11
193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li
1988\sb222\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\f
s20 155
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d Merchandising\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl
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\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\s
lmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmul
t0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \
par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \pa
r\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\
pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pa
rd\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard
\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\q
l \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
i900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li9
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b0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0
\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\s
l-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-23
0\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\
slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\sl
mult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult
0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \p
ar\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par
\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
ard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb21\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs20 156\par\pard\column \qj \li20\r
i637\sb302\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\f
s24 Individual brand names naturally allow greater flexibility by permitting a v
ariety \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 of different products, of differing quality
, to be sold without confusing the\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1039\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \
up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 consumer's perception of what business the Company
is in or diluting higher \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 quality products.\par\par
d\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-359\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\ri538\sb2\sl-359\slmult0 \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 Once again, Procter & Gamble is a leading exponent of
this philosophy, running \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 as many as ten detergent

brands in the US market. This also increases the total \up0 \expndtw-2\charscale
x100 number of "facings" it receives on Supermarket shelves. Sara Lee, on the ot
her \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 hand, uses it to keep the very different parts
of the business separate \u8212? from Sara \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Lee ca
kes through Kiwi polishes to L\u8216?eggs pantyhose. In the hotel\par\pard\ql \l
i20\ri577\sb1\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 business, Marriott us
es the name Fairfield Inns for its budget chain \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex
100 (and Ramada uses Rodeway for its own cheaper hotels). Cannibalization is a
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 particular problem of a "multibrand" approach, in
which the new brand takes \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 business away from an e
stablished one which the organization also owns. This \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex
100 may be acceptable (indeed to be expected) if there is a net gain overall. \l
ine \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Alternatively, it may be the price the organiz
ation is willing to pay for shifting its \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 position
in the market; the new product being one stage in this process.\par\pard\ql \li3
271\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb133\sl-322\slmult0\tx1106 \up0 \expn
dtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.10\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charsc
alex100 PRIVATE LABELS\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li2
0\ri517\sb2\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\
fs24 With the emergence of strong Retailers, private label brands, also called o
wn \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 brands, or Store brands, also emerged as a majo
r factor in the marketplace. Where \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the Retailer ha
s a particularly strong identity (such as Marks & Spencer in \up0 \expndtw-2\cha
rscalex100 the UK clothing sector and STOP brand of Shoppers Stop ) this "own br
and" may \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 be able to compete against even the stron
gest brand leaders, and may outperform \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 those produ
cts that are not otherwise strongly branded.\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-276\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb154\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\n
osupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Individual and organizational brands\par\pard\ql \li3271\s
b0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\ri1058\sb15\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 There are kinds of branding that treat
individuals and organizations as the \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 produc
ts to be branded. Personal branding treats persons and their careers as \line \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 brands. The term is thought to have been first used
in a 1997 article by Tom \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Peters. Faith brand
ing treats religious figures and organizations as brands.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri93
3\sb1\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Religious media expert Phil C
ooke has written that faith branding handles the \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 q
uestion of how to express faith in a media-dominated culture. Nation\par\pard\ql
\li20\sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 branding works with the
perception and reputation of countries as brands.\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-27
6\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb168\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Croudsource Branding\par\pard\qj \li3271\sb0\sl-371\
slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri517\sb4\sl-371\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 These are brands that are created by the people fo
r the business, which is opposite \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 to the tra
ditional method where the business creates a brand. This type of method
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p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s
p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw11900\paperh16820\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g13}{\bkmkend Pg13}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw9065\colsr160\c
olno2\colw2535\colsr160\qj \li720\ri427\sb305\sl-369\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\cha
rscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 minimizes the risk of brand failure, sinc
e the people that might reject the brand in \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
the traditional method are the ones who are participating in the branding proces
s.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb174\sl-276\slmult
0\tx1795 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 11.10.1\tab \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Why should a Retailer have Private Labels?\par\pard
\ql \li720\sb0\sl-370\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\ri388\sb17\sl-370\slmult0 \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Department stores clearly
have an incentive to expand private labels across \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscal
ex100 categories because Private Label margins run between 6 percent and 10 perc
ent \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 higher, on average, than the national brands.
Also, Private Labels address \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 consumer dem
and for differentiation, as the Private Label would be exclusively \up0 \expndtw
-2\charscalex100 available only with that Store and not anywhere else in the mar
ket. This offers a \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 major competitive advantage. Re
tailers are constantly looking at their Vendor \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mat
rix and ensuring that each Vendor on that matrix is performing up to the \line \
up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 standards that have been established for it. If a B
rand or Vendor does not measure \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 up, the Retailer s
ees it as an opportunity to replace it with a Private Brand or \line \up0 \expnd
tw-3\charscalex100 another national brand that has more potential.\par\pard\ql \
li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb172\sl-276\slmult0\tx1795 \up0 \e
xpndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 11.10.2\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\c
harscalex100 Challenges faced by Private Labels\par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-370\sl
mult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri493\sb16\sl-370\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Much depends on each chain's ability to design and
source Private Label product \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 efficiently. The dec
ision process for all chains involves a painstaking analysis of \up0 \expndtw-3\
charscalex100 sell-through and profitability at each category level.\par\pard\ql
\li720\sb78\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Some of the Challenges
faced by Private Labels are:\par\pard\qj \li720\ri545\sb113\sl-372\slmult0\tx10
80 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosu
persub\cf1\f2\fs24 Brands are nationally advertised and have the perception of
quality and style \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 that it takes years f
or Private Labels to reach.\par\pard\qj \li720\ri949\sb241\sl-369\slmult0\tx1080

\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupe


rsub\cf1\f2\fs24 Retailers usually do not market their Private Labels external
ly , so it is a \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 challenge to establish t
he positioning of the brand and build up adequate\par\pard\ql \li1080\sb77\sl-27
6\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 brand awareness.\par\pard\qj \li720\ri81
2\sb255\sl-372\slmult0\tx1080 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosuper
sub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Retailers contract the manufactu
ring of these products to a third party and \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex
100 much depends on the abilities of the Suppliers to supply the right quality\p
ar\pard\ql \li1080\sb77\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 product at
the right time and at right cost.\par\pard\qj \li720\ri577\sb259\sl-369\slmult0\
tx1080 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\
nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Private Labels would not work by just keeping the produ
cts cheap. Retailers \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 must look at develo
ping good quality and value-added products\par\pard\qj \li720\ri640\sb241\sl-369
\slmult0\tx1080 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs
24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 As the Private Labels are exclusively manufact
ured for consumption within \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the Retailer
s\u8216? Stores and not distributed elsewhere, it is a challenge for the\par\par
d\qj \li1080\ri526\sb3\sl-369\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Retailers to
achieve the required volumes to benefit from economies of scale \up0 \expndtw-2
\charscalex100 which is critical for cost efficiency.\ul0\nosupersub\cf16\f17\fs
24 Besides developing a good quality brand \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 has a
high development and innovation cost attached to it. To be able to\par\pard\ql \
li1080\sb77\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 absorb such costs, Reta
il chains will need to scale up.\par\pard\column \ql \li9225\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li20\sb76\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf3\f4\fs20 Brand V/S Private Label\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmul
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lmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230
\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-2
30\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl
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sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb
0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\
sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1119
3\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11
193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li
11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \
li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\
ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
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\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult
0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\sl
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slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-23
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20 157
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\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\s
lmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmul
t0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
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l-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-23
0\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\
slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\sl
mult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult
0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \p
ar\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par
\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
ard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb21\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs20 158\par\pard\column \qj \li20\r
i589\sb302\sl-360\slmult0\tx390 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf
1\f2\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 As
the Retailer is solely responsible for the product , it is critical that they g
et \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the product and the buys right , else
it poses a real problem . Line failures or\par\pard\qj \li380\ri542\sb0\sl-360\
slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 excess inventory could prove very expensiv
e due to high markdown liabilities \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 and write offs.
\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1055\sb240\sl-360\slmult0\tx390 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 In fashio
n products the risks are even higher as their shelf lives are low . \line\tab \u

p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Department store chains do not have the ability to c


hange the assortment\par\pard\ql \li380\sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\char
scalex100 quickly the way the speciality chains do.\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-2
76\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb48\sl-276\slmult0\tx1106 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca
lex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 11.10.3\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Evo
lution of Private Labels in Developing Countries\par\pard\qj \li3271\sb0\sl-360\
slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri491\sb15\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 \ul0\nosupersub\cf16\f17\fs24 Private labels have come a long way over the la
st three decades. They started with \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Retailers want
ing to offer cheaper substitutes. This was for two reasons. One,\par\pard\qj \li
20\ri676\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 having a Private Label
meant that Retailers could negotiate a better margin from \up0 \expndtw-2\chars
calex100 the manufacturer. And the other, when they had Private Labels they had
a\par\pard\ql \li20\ri550\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 diffe
rentiator. While every shop sold a Coca-Cola and Pepsi, a Private Label \up0 \ex
pndtw-2\charscalex100 meant that the Store now had something that other Stores d
id not. In India several \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Private Label brands were
launched to compete with Coca-Cola such as Thums \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100
up, Duke\u8216?s Cola, Campa Cola etc.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri546\sb360\sl-360\slmu
lt0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 The biggest change in the last decade or so ha
s been the entry of premium Private \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Labels. They a
re no longer saying \u8213?buy us because we are cheap\u8214?, instead today, \u
p0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 they are saying \u8213?buy us because we are the bes
t\u8214?. By offering high quality\par\pard\qj \li20\ri1593\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 products, many Private Labels have started charging
more than regular \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 manufacturers.\par\pard\qj \li2
0\ri652\sb360\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Today, Retailers have
realised that by having top quality Private Labels they can \up0 \expndtw-3\cha
rscalex100 differentiate themselves from other Stores and be a destination Store
.\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb154\sl-276\slmult0
\tx1106 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 11.10.4\tab \u
p0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Future of Private Labels\par\pard\qj \li20\ri621\sb2
91\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf16\f17\fs24 Pr
ivate Retailers will occupy 50 per cent of the market the world over. At 50 per
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cent, they begin to saturate. If they try to occup
y more than this, then consumers \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 feel that there a
re not enough choices. In countries such as Switzerland and the \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 UK, Private Labels have reached this limit and these markets have
saturated. But \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 they will continue grow in the othe
r countries till they reach the same level. And \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 th
is will happen very soon in India, too.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri799\sb360\sl-360\slm
ult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Overall in India
Private Labels constitute 10-12 percent of the organized Retail \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 product mix. Among the major Indian players, the degree of Private
Label\par\pard\qj \li20\ri802\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
penetration is the highest in Trent with 90 percent, followed by Reliance Retail
\up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 (80 percent), Pantaloon at (75 percent), Shopper
s Stop ( 20 percent).
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}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw11900\paperh16820\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P

g15}{\bkmkend Pg15}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw9065\colsr160\c
olno2\colw2535\colsr160\qj \li720\ri520\sb302\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\cha
rscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 In comparison, international Retailers li
ke the US-based Wal-Mart and Tesco of \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the UK have
40 per cent and 55 per cent own label brands representation in their \up0 \expnd
tw-3\charscalex100 Stores, respectively.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \
par\pard\ql \li720\sb133\sl-322\slmult0\tx1795 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul
0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.11\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 BRANDING BY ITC
A CASE STUDY\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb239\sl
-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 John Play
ers\par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri491\sb15\sl-360\
slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 ITC's John Pla
yers offers a complete and vibrant wardrobe of Casual wear, Party \up0 \expndtw2\charscalex100 wear, Work wear, Denims, Outer wear and Suits & Jackets, incorpo
rating the\par\pard\ql \li720\ri578\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscale
x100 most contemporary trends, an exciting mix of colours, playful styling, tren
dy \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 textures and comfortable fits. With a dis
tinctive presence across segments at the \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 pre
mium end, ITC has also established John Players as a brand at its \ul0\nosupersu
b\cf5\f6\fs24 Wills Life\par\pard\qj \li720\ri508\sb2\sl-359\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 Style.\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Stores that offers a compl
ete fashion wardrobe to the male youth of today. \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 W
ith its brands, ITC is committed to build a dominant presence in the apparel \up
0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 market through a robust portfolio of offerings.\par\p
ard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri438\sb1\sl-360\slmult0 \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ITC forayed into the youth fashion segment with the
launch of \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 John Players\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 i
n \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 December 2002 and \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Jo
hn Players\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 is committed to be the No. 1 fashion bran
d for \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 the youth. This foray leverages ITC\u8216?s
proven competencies in understanding\par\pard\qj \li720\ri473\sb0\sl-360\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 consumer insights, brand building and design capa
bilities. \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 John Players\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 o
ffers a \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 complete and vibrant wardrobe of Casual we
ar, Party wear, Work wear, Denims, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Outer wear and
Suits & Jackets, incorporating the most contemporary trends, an \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 exciting mix of colours, playful styling, trendy textures and comf
ortable fits. The \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 brand is available across the co
untry through a nation-wide network of over 220 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ex
clusive Stores and over 1500 Multi-brand Outlets.\par\pard\ql \li720\ri560\sb360
\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 At the Images Fashion Awards 2005,
\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 John Players was declar
ed \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 'The Most \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Admired S
hirt Brand of the Year'\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 . At the Images Fashion Award
s 2007\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 , \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 John \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 Players was awarded the '\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 The Most
Admired Fashion Campaign of the Year\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 ' \up0 \expndtw
-2\charscalex100 award. With Celebration Gift Certificates, \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\
f6\fs24 John Players\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 presents a new way of \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 festive gifting. John Players offers a complete and vibrant
wardrobe of Casual \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 wear, Party wear, Work wear, D
enims, Outer wear and Suits & Jackets, \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 incor
porating the most contemporary trends, an exciting mix of colors, playful \up0 \
expndtw-3\charscalex100 styling, trendy textures and comfortable fits.\par\pard\
ql \li720\sb228\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5
\f6\fs24 Check Your Progress C\par\pard\ql \li720\sb247\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 1. What do you mean by Private
Labels?\par\pard\qj \li1080\ri455\sb4\sl-412\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex1
00 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8

230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw


-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8
230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line
\up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8
230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\par\pard\column \ql \li9225\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb76\
sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs20 Brand V
/S Private Label\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\s
b0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193
\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li111
93\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1
1193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
i11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\q
l \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard
\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pa
rd\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\
pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \pa
r\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \
par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmul
t0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\s
lmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230
\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-2
30\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl
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li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\
ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
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\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs20 159
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\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
i900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li9
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l-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-23
0\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\
slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\sl
mult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult
0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0
\par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \p
ar\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par
\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\p
ard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\par
d\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li900\sb21\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \exp
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i853\sb302\sl-360\slmult0\tx390 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf
1\f2\fs24 2. Describe briefly the concept of brand extension. When does it cha
nge into \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 brand dilution?\par\pard\qj \l
i380\ri589\sb0\sl-410\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u

8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charsc
alex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\par\pard\ql \l
i20\sb181\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 3. Write the challenges f
aced by Private Labels.\par\pard\qj \li380\ri589\sb2\sl-413\slmult0 \up0 \expndt
w-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \lin
e \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230
?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u
8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u823
0?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\par\pard\ql \li20\sb184\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\c
harscalex100 4. How do Private Labels help the retailer?\par\pard\qj \li380\ri58
9\sb1\sl-414\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8230?\u8230?\
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230? \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \
u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u82
30?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?
\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\u8230?\par\pard\ql \li20\sb184
\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 5. Which of the following statemen
ts are \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 True \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 or\ul0\nosup
ersub\cf5\f6\fs24 False?\par\pard\ql \li320\sb183\sl-276\slmult0\tx746 \up0 \ex
pndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 i)\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca
lex100 Coca-Cola is a local brand.\par\pard\ql \li260\sb182\sl-276\slmult0\tx746
\up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ii)\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Global bran
ding lowers market costs.\par\pard\ql \li200\ri4187\sb35\sl-458\slmult0\tx746 \u
p0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 iii)\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Aeray Milk is
a global brand. \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 iv)
Marks & Spencer is a
Private Label.\par\pard\ql \li260\sb157\sl-276\slmult0\tx746 \up0 \expndtw-3\ch
arscalex100 v)\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u8213?Buy us because we are th
e best\u8214? has been coined by some companies\par\pard\ql \li741\sb81\sl-276\s
lmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 using their Private Label.\par\pard\ql \li3
271\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li2
0\sb27\sl-322\slmult0\tx1106 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f
8\fs28 11.12\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 LET US SUM UP\par\pard\qj \li3271
\sb0\sl-376\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri496\sb69\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2
\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Brand is the personality that identif
ies a product, service or company (name, term, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sig
n, symbol, or design, or combination of them) and how does it relate to key\par\
pard\ql \li20\sb84\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 constituencies:
Customers, Staff, Partners, and Investors etc.\par\pard\qj \li3271\sb0\sl-375\sl
mult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri607\sb19\sl-375\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition. \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 When brand recognition builds up to a point where a
brand enjoys a critical mass \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 of positive sentiment
in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand\par\pard\qj \li20\ri712\s
b2\sl-376\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 franchise. One goal in brand re
cognition is the identification of a brand without \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100

the name of the Company present.\par\pard\qj \li3271\sb0\sl-375\slmult0 \par\pa


rd\qj \li20\ri739\sb1\sl-375\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Brand awarene
ss refers to customers\u8216? ability to recall and recognize the brand \up0 \ex
pndtw-2\charscalex100 under different conditions and link to the brand name, log
o, jingles and so on to \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 certain associations in me
mory.
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rscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Brand promise is what a particular brand
stands for (and has stood for in the past). \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 It has
its roots from the identity that it gains over a period of time.\par\pard\qj \l
i720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri520\sb1\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 A global brand is one which is perceived to reflect the same
set of values around \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 the world.\par\pard\qj \li720
\ri418\sb360\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Besides taking advanta
ge of the outstanding growth opportunities, there are many \up0 \expndtw-2\chars
calex100 other advantages of brands global. However, there are many elements th
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.\par\pard\qj \li720\ri511\sb360\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Br
and names come in many styles, such as acronym, descriptive, alliteration and \u
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s\u8216? names, geography,\par\pard\ql \li720\sb70\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 personification, etc.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par
\pard\ql \li720\ri828\sb15\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 With the

emergence of strong Retailers, Private Label Brand, also called own \line \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 brands, or Store brands, also emerged as a major factor
in the marketplace. \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 However, much depends o
n each chain\u8216?s ability to design and source Private\par\pard\ql \li720\sb7
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are many challenges faced by Private Labels.\par\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-322\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb147\sl-322\slmult0\tx1795 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex10
0 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.13\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 KEY WORDS\
par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri841\sb86\sl-360\slmu
lt0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Accounting Cost:\u
l0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 The actual outlays or expenses incurred in production
that \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 shows up a firm\u8216?s accounting statemen
ts or records.\par\pard\ql \li720\ri638\sb360\sl-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\cha
rscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Brand Franchise:\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs
24 Arrangement between a brand name manufacturer and a \up0 \expndtw-2\charscal
ex100 wholesaler, or retailer that gives the wholesaler or retailer the exclusiv
e right to \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 sell the brand manufacturer\u8216?s pr
oduct in a specific territory.\par\pard\qj \li720\ri375\sb360\sl-360\slmult0 \up
0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Contract Manufacturer:\ul
0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 An organization that makes products under contract for
\up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 other companies.\par\pard\qj \li720\ri496\sb360\s
l-360\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Cosmetic
s:\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 A preparation, such as powder or a skin cream, d
esigned to beautify \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 the body by direct application
.\par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri830\sb1\sl-360\slm
ult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Intangibles:\ul0\
nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Something of value that cannot be physically touched, su
ch as a \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 brand, franchise, trademark or patent.\par
\pard\ql \li720\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li720\sb154\sl-276\slmult0 \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Logo:\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f
2\fs24 A name, symbol, or trademark designed for easy and definite recognition
.\par\pard\qj \li720\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li720\ri462\sb15\sl-360\sl
mult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Trademark:\ul0\n
osupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 A word, a name, a symbol, a device, or a combination of
them that \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 indicates the source of goods or service
s.\par\pard\column \ql \li9225\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb76\sl-230
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l-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0
\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\s
b0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193
\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li111
93\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li11193\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1
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\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg18}{\bkmkend Pg18}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\col


s2\colno1\colw3111\colsr160\colno2\colw8489\colsr160\ql \li751\sb0\sl-230\slmult
0 \par\pard\ql \li751\sb78\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nos
upersub\cf3\f4\fs20 Buying and Merchandising\par\pard\column \ql \li3271\sb0\sl224\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-224\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb29\sl-2
24\slmult0\tx1106 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.1
4\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS \par\pard\sec
t\sectd\sbknone \li3271\sb0\sl-276\slmult0\par\pard\li3271\sb257\sl-276\slmult0\
fi0\tx5432\tx6872\tx8312\tx9753 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1
\f2\fs24 C 5 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24
\ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 i)
False\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ii) True\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex1
00 iii) False\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 iv) True\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\cha
rscalex100 v) True\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone \li3271\sb0\sl-322\slmult0\par\pa
rd\li3271\sb147\sl-322\slmult0\fi0\tx4352 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nos
upersub\cf7\f8\fs28 11.15\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 TERMINAL QUESTIONS\p
ar\pard\ql \li3271\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li3271\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \pa
r\pard\ql\li3271\sb59\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupers
ub\cf1\f2\fs24 1.\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Expl
ain briefly the concept of \u8215?Brand\u8216? and advantages of using a brand.
\par\pard\ql \li3271\sb184\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 2.\ul0\n
osupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Giving suitable examples, d
escribe Global Brand and its advantages. \par\pard\ql \li3271\sb184\sl-276\slmul
t0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 3.\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub
\cf1\f2\fs24 What is a private label? What are the major challenges faced by i
t. \par\pard\ql \li3271\ri700\sb115\sl-360\slmult0\tx3631 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsc
alex100 4.\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 Giving suit
able examples, describe the significance of Private label in Indian \line\tab \u
p0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 context. \par\pard\ql \li3271\sb170\sl-276\slmult0 \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 5.\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs24 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1
\f2\fs24 What is meant by Brand Identity? Explain the extending role of brandi
ng. \par\pard\ql \li6572\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li6572\sb268\sl-276\slm
ult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 Activities \par\p
ard\ql \li3631\sb0\sl-360\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li3631\ri1522\sb115\sl-360\slmult
0\tx3992 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs24 1. Identify
the global brand of a category in a Mall and compare its \line\tab \up0 \expndtw
-4\charscalex100 performance in relation to a Private Label. \par\pard\ql \li36
31\sb170\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 2. List out Private Label
s offered by the nearby Mall. \par\pard\ql \li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\q
l\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li
900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\
sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\
sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-2
30\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\s
lmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmul
t0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \
par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\
pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard
\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\
li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li90
0\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb
0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl
-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230
\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li900\sb62\sl-230\sl
mult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs20 162 \par\pard\se
ct\sectd\fs24}