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PIANC E-Magazine

Cruise Shipping Policy-2008,

an Initiative of the Government of India
for Recreational Navigation
Sensitivity of PIANC Ship Squat
Formulas in Unrestricted Channels
Simulation of the Dredged Sediments Release
with a Two-Phase Flow Model

News from the Navigation Community

The World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure

Association Mondiale pour les infrastructures de Transport Maritimes et Fluviales

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


Setting the Course

Garder le cap


PIANC E-Magazine




Responsible Editor / Editeur responsable :

Boulevard du Roi Albert II 20, B 3
B-1000 Bruxelles

ISBN: 978-2-87223-170-6
All copyrights reserved

EAN: 9782872231706

Tous droits de reproduction rservs

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

E-MAGAZINE N 142 - 2011


Message of the President

Message du Prsident

Rakesh Srivastava, Cruise Shipping Policy-2008, an

Initiative of the Government of India for Recreational

Rakesh Srivastava, La croisire en Inde - 2008,

une initiative du gouvernement de lInde
concernant la navigation de plaisance

Michael J. Briggs, Sensitivity of PIANC Ship Squat

Formulas in Unrestricted Channels.


Michael J. Briggs, Sensibilit des formules

de lAIPCN de surenfoncement de navires
dans les chenaux non restreints.

Sylvain Guillou, Julien Chauchat,

Damien Pham Van Bang, Duc Hau Nguyen,
Kim Dan Nguyen, Simulation of the Dredged
Sediments Release with a Two-Phase Flow Model


Sylvain Guillou, Julien Chauchat,

Damien Pham Van Bang, Duc Hau Nguyen,
Kim Dan Nguyen, Simulation du clapage de
sdiment avec un modle deux phases

News from the navigation community


Des nouvelles du monde de la navigation

Cover picture: A Houseboat in the Backwaters of the

Virgin Islands of Kerala
Photo de couverture: Un bateau-maison dans les
eaux intrieures des Iles Vierges de Kerala

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


Dear Member,

First of all, on behalf of PIANC HQ and management, I wish you and your
loved ones a very happy and successful New Year!
2011 will be undoubtedly become a remarkable year in PIANCs 126-year history. To start with: when
you are reading this message, you will be looking at a screen, as from now on, PIANC is publishing
100% digital publications. The new hardware, such as iPad and the like, are allowing us to read documents whenever and wherever we prefer to do so in the most convenient way. I hope you will appreciate this change in policy, which for a technical association that pretends to be leading the way, is
defi nitely not inappropriate.
This years AGA will be the stage for the fi rst presidential elections in PIANCs history. Four candidates,
presented by Belgium, France, the UK and the USA, will be competing to become the new President.
I am confi dent that the First Delegates of our Qualifying Members will make the best choice after all
candidates will have presented their policy plans to the AGA.
To ensure continuity in the management, Louis Van Schel has offered to continue as Secretary-General
for a new mandate until a full-time employed Secretary-General will be recruited. We will continue our
endeavours to attract new Qualifying Members and we hope that the club of Platinum Partners will be
enlarged in the near future.
Looking at the programme for this year, I would like to highlight some events:

We will participate in the International Transport Forum in Leipzig in May to promote IWT as an
environment-friendly mode of transport.

In September, New Orleans will be the scene for another Smart Rivers Conference.

The preparation of our contribution to next years World Water Forum in Marseille, in which our
French Section is taking the lead.

The preparation of PIANC-COPEDEC VIII, to be held in Chennai, India in February 2012.

Once again, I wish all of you a marvellous 2011.

Sincerely yours,

Eric Van den Eede


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

Cher membre,

Tout dabord, de la part du secrtariat gnral et de la direction de lAIPCN, je souhaite une bonne anne
vous et vos chers!
Lanne 2011 deviendra sans aucun doute une anne remarquable dans lhistoire de 126 ans de lAIPCN. En
premier lieu: vous lisez ce message sur un cran, comme dsormais, lAIPCN ne publie que des publications
digitales. Le nouveau hardware, comme iPad et consorts, nous permet de lire des documents o et quand
nous prfrons dune manire le plus confortable. Jespre que vous apprciez ce changement en politique,
ce qui cadre bien dans la philosophie dune association technique qui prtend faire autorit.
LAGA de cette anne servira de scne o se droulera la premire lection prsidentielle dans lhistoire
de lAIPCN. Quatre candidats, avancs par la Belgique, la France, le Royaume-Uni et les Etats-Unis, concourront pour devenir le nouveau prsident. Je suis convaincu que les premiers dlgus de nos membres
qualifis feront le meilleur choix aprs que les candidats auront prsent leurs plans stipulant la politique
suivre lAGA.
Afin de garantir la continuit sur le plan de la direction, Louis Van Schel a propos de prolonger son mandat
de secrtaire gnral jusqu ce quun secrtaire gnral plein temps soit engag. Nous poursuivrons nos
efforts pour attirer de nouveaux membres qualifis et nous esprons que le club des Partenaires Platinum
stendra dans un proche avenir.
En jetant un coup dil au programme pour cette anne, jaimerais mettre laccent sur les vnements suivants:

Au mois de mai, nous participerons l International Transport Forum Leipzig, afin de promouvoir
le transport par voie navigable intrieure en tant que moyen de transport cologique.

En septembre, la Nouvelle-Orlans sera hte dune nouvelle dition de la Confrence Smart Rivers.

La prparation de notre contribution au prochain Forum Mondial de lEau Marseille, auquel la section
franaise reprsentera notre association.

La prparation de PIANC-COPEDEC VIII, qui aura lieu Chennai, en Inde en fvrier 2012.

De nouveau, je vous souhaite une merveilleuse anne 2011.

Bien vous,

Eric Van den Eede


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


Joint Secretary (Ports), Government of India
First Delegate of India & Vice-President of PIANC
R. No. 411, Ministry of Shipping
Transport Bhavan, Parliament Street
New Delhi-110001
Tel.: +91 11 23711873
Fax: +91 11 23328549
E-mail: js-ports@nic.in

cruise shipping, infrastructure for cruise shipping,
marina, berth, rail and road connectivity

croisire, infrastructure pour la croisire, marina,
accostage, connections par rail et route

Cruise shipping is one of the most dynamic and
fastest growing components of the leisure industry
worldwide. It is fast emerging as a new marketable commodity/product, growing at the rate of
12 % per annum globally, however still marginal
in India.


India with its vast and beautiful coastline (7,500
km), virgin forests and undisturbed idyllic islands,
rich historical and cultural heritage, can be a fabulous tourist destination for cruise tourists. With the
Indian economy developing at a steady pace of
around 8 %, its middle class growing in number

and increasingly possessing disposable incomes,

which could be spent on leisure activities, the Indians could also take on cruise shipping in a big way.
India has 13 major ports and 178 minor ports along
the coastline, spread over 7,500 km. The major
ports are under the administrative control of the
Central Government, the minor ports under the control of State Governments. The major ports handle
70 % of the total cargo of the country. These ports
are Kolkata, Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Ennore,
Chennai, Tuticorin on the East Coast and Kandla,
Mormugao, Mumbai, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, New
Mangalore, Cochin on the West Coast and the new
major port, Port Blair Port, is located in the Andaman and Nicobar islands in the Bay of Bengal.

Cruise shipping is an international industry and its
contribution to the countrys economy is governed
by the industry structure infrastructure and policy
package in place. Various relevant components

The stated policy on cruise shipping covering various aspects

Well-developed port infrastructure, cruise
terminals, etc.

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

Fig. 1: Schematic Map of the Indian Coastline with its Major Ports

Availability of cruise liners

Conducive fiscal regime
Hassle free immigration and transit facilities
Marketing strategy
Connectivity to onshore destinations by various modes (road, rail, air and IWT)
(viii) Duty-free bunkering
(ix) Institutional framework for a holistic development of cruise shipping
The objectives of the Indian Cruise Shipping Policy formulated in 2008 were:




To develop India as a destination, as well as

a source market with state-of-the-art infrastructure and appropriate marketing strata.
To increase the number of cruise ship calls
and passenger arrivals in a sustainable
To achieve a target of at least one million
cruise passengers landings per year.
To strengthen inter-sectorial linkages, whereby cruise liners source the requisite supplies of goods and services from local Indian
To consolidate existing ports of call, explore
other ports and suitable anchoring sites on
the Indian coast with a view to making additional cruise ship calls to other areas of the

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

To put into operation appropriate promotional programmes that would effectively convert cruise passengers to long stay visitors.
(vii) To maximise the benefits from the cruise industry consistent with the protection of the
(viii) To ensure that the cruise shipping industry
in India becomes internationally competitive
with other destinations and contributes to
the economy in terms of generation of foreign exchange, income, employment and
business opportunities.
(ix) To attract the right segment of foreign tourists to cruise shipping in India.
(x) To popularise cruise shipping with Indian
(xi) To enhance an absorptive capacity of the
country by developing existing and new visitor attractions, including event attractions in
line with Indias efforts to improve the tourism product.

The Government of India has proposed to take

the following initiatives under the Cruise Shipping

Well-developed port infrastructure and connectivity.







Phased programmes will be evolved for the

development of facilities at ports for cruise
The ports will avail of the financial assistance, which is available under the scheme
of the Department of Tourism for the funding
of tourism projects, wherein assistance up
to 25 % of the project cost, subject to a ceiling of Rs. 50 million (approximately USD 11
million) is provided by the Ministry.
Notwithstanding the above, if any major/non
major port is able to attract a BOT operator
to invest in infrastructure facilities, the port is
encouraged to develop such facility.
Necessary infrastructure like rail and road
connectivity, IWT connectivity, air connectivity and metro connectivity will be developed.
Individual ports identified in this policy will
plan to develop suitable infrastructure. However, the cruise shipping policy will provide
comfort to future investors for committing resources, etc.
Ports shall raise financial resources to develop cruise terminals/infrastructure, in order to have more calls from cruise liners.
Private agencies interested in developing
cruise terminals shall also be encouraged to
do so at cruise destinations. Central Government/State Government/UT Administrations
shall provide financial resources and other
incentives for promoting cruise tourism.
Efforts shall be made for the development of
marinas for yachts and small boats at all important coastal tourist destinations like Goa,
Cochin, Chennai, etc., based on a BOT/
PPP-model wherever possible.

The following environmental issues to be addressed for sustainable development have been
identified for implementation:



Cochin Port is a major port under the administrative control of the Central Government, i.e. the
Federal Government of India. The port is located
in the coastal State of Kerala. Kerala, in Southern
India, is blessed with a natural beauty and undisturbed idyllic islands, as well as rich historical and
cultural heritage. Cochin Port has initiated the following steps for the development of cruise shipping in the port:



The cruise liners will be mandatorily asked to

comply with all requirements of the Marine Pollution (MARPOL) Convention and its annexes and
to follow the guidelines of the Indian Maritime Administration to ensure inter alia the following:


No waste (sewage waste, solid waste,

waste/contaminated water or used oil) will
be released or dumped into the sea or on
islands during the cruise ship tour in Indian
Any boat or smaller vessel taking tourists

to an island destination in India will ensure

that no litter or waste is thrown overboard or
left littering the island. All waste originating
from the mother ship will be disposed off in
a manner stipulated by the Maritime Administration.
No oily or contaminated bilge water will be
released in Indian territorial waters, except
in emergency situations where the vessel is
taking on water to the extent that the safety
of the vessel or those aboard will be threatened.


Cochin Port considers cruise as a major

business prospect. The port administration
is committed to make Cochin Port a leading
cruise destination on the Indian coast, offering services of international standards.
The Port has constituted a dedicated cruise
cell available round the clock to service the
exacting requirements of the cruise vessels. It offers a single window solution to
the needs of cruise operators and travellers
alike. A concessional tariff for cruise vessels
is also in force.
The proposal for locating an international
standard golf course within the port premises is on the anvil. The work related to the
Cochin International Transhipment Terminal
a world class transhipment hub would
be paving the way for international quality
service at the Port. The port premises reflect the true ambience of the coastal state
of Kerala.
While at Cochin, besides relishing the pristine, natural opulence of Gods own country
and savouring the traditional Kerala cuisine,
the travellers can also carry home a variety
of oriental exotica as mementos from the
shopping arcade in and around Cochin.

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

Fig. 2: A Houseboat in the Backwaters of the Virgin Islands of Kerala

Cochin Port has been receiving cruise vessels
from all over the world. Some of the cruise vessels that called at Cochin Port in the recent years

Queen Elizabeth II
Legend of Seas
Song of Flower
Renaissance VII
Renaissance VIII
Rotterdam Vi
Island Princess
Sea Godess
Maxim Gorky
Sage Ross
Crystal Symphony
Silver Cloud
Marco Polo
Royal Star
Star Flyer
Silver wind
Clilia II

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

The following major ports are potential ports for

the development of cruise shipping in India. It is
proposed to develop facilities for berthing of cruise
ships and to develop facilities for national and international tourists.


Port Blair
New Mangalore

Cruise shipping, the most dynamic and fastest
growing industry, is seen as a potential area for
development by India. The Government of India
has promulgated the Policy for promoting Cruise
Shipping on the coastline spread over 7,500 km.
The necessary infrastructure, such as the development of marinas and berthing facilities, road and
rail connectivity, etc. are taken up through Public

Private Partnership projects. The environmental

issues related to cruise shipping have also been
identified for implementation. The major ports under the Government of India, namely Cochin Port,
Chennai Port, Mumbai Port, Mormugao Port, New
Mangalore Port and Port Blair are developing facilities for cruise shipping, in order to attract domestic and foreign tourists.

La croisire tant lactivit la plus dynamique et
plus forte croissance est considre comme
une opportunit de dveloppement pour lInde. Le
gouvernement indien a promulgu une Politique
de promotion de la croisire sur la cte qui stend
sur 7500 km. Les infrastructures ncessaires comprenant le dveloppement de marinas, douvrages
daccostage, de connections par rail et route, etc.
sont entreprises sous la forme de projets de parte-

nariat Public Priv. Les enjeux environnementaux des activits de croisire ont t identifis
pour mise en uvre. Les ports principaux sous
lautorit du gouvernement indien, cest--dire les
ports de Cochin, de Chennai, de Mumbai, de Mormugao, le nouveau port de Mangalore et de Port
Blair dveloppent des quipements de croisire
pour attirer les touristes nationaux et trangers.

Da die Kreuzfahrtschifffahrt eine dynamische
und schnell wachsende Industrie ist, wird sie in
Indien als potenzielles Entwicklungsgebiet angesehen. Die indische Regierung hat die Politik zur
Frderung der Kreuzfahrtschifffahrt entlang der
ber 7.500 km langen Kstenlinie per Gesetz bekannt gegeben. Die notwendige Infrastruktur inklusive Entwicklung von Hfen, Anlegevorrichtungen,
Straen- und Schienen-Anschlussmglichkeiten
etc. wird durch Public Private-Partnership-Projekte

aufgebaut. Die Aspekte der Umweltvertrglichkeit,

die mit der Kreuzfahrtschifffahrt verbunden sind,
wurden ebenfalls zur Umsetzung festgelegt. Die
groen Hfen unter indischer Regierung, nmlich
der Hafen von Cochin, von Chennai, von Mumbai, von Mormugoa, von New Mangalore und von
Blair, bauen ihre Einrichtungen fr Kreuzfahrtschiffe aus, um einheimische und auslndische Touristen anzulocken.


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011



PhD, PE, D.CE, D.OE, Research Hydraulic Engineer
Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
3909 Halls Ferry Rd, CEERD-HN-HH
Vicksburg, MS 39180
E-mail: michael.j.briggs@usace.army.mil

ship squat, PIANC empirical formulas, under-keel
clearance, deep draft navigation, sensitivity study,
unrestricted entrance channels

surenfoncement de navire, formules empiriques
de lAIPCN, clair sous quille, navigation avec un
grand tirant deau, tude de sensibilit, chenaux
daccs non restreints

PIANC has many empirical formulas for predicting ship squat in entrance channels. Some of the
most widely used are by Barrass (2004), Eryuzlu
et al. (1994), Huuska (1976), Rmisch (1989) and
Yoshimura (1986). These formulas are based on
limited laboratory and fi eld measurements, but are
used for the newer generation of larger tankers,
containerships and bulk carriers. Most are functions of a limited number of ship and channel parameters in an effort to minimise the number of free
parameters and increase the ease of use. Typical
ship parameters include ship speed Vk (knots),
block coeffi cient CB and ship dimensions of length
between perpendiculars Lpp, beam B and draught
T. Ship speed is speed relative to the water and
is one of the most important parameters, as one
can usually slow down to reduce squat. Channel
parameters include water depth h, type of channel
cross-section Ac, side slope n and bottom channel width W. Channel types are unrestricted (U)

or open channels, restricted (R) or dredged with

a trench and canal (C) with sides that extend to
the surface. Symbols are defi ned in Appendix B.
No one formula works best for all types of vessels in all types of channels. Thus, it is necessary
to examine the squat predictions with more than
one formula and compare the results based on the
type of ship, channel and formula constraints.
When performing a design analysis for ship squat,
many ship and channel parameters are not known
with certainty. Channel cross-sections and dimensions can vary considerably along the length of
the channel and are usually not as simple as the
three idealised shapes. The CB is often just a best
estimate based on the ship displacement and dimensions, since ship builders do not usually release this proprietary information.
In this paper, a sensitivity analysis for the fi ve
PIANC squat formulas listed above is performed
on the effect of ship speed, draught, block coeffi cient and water depth for an unrestricted or open
channel cross-section. These squat results are
presented for full load conditions for the post-Panamax Susan Maersk containership in an entrance
channel similar to the Port of Savannah. Additional sensitivity comparisons for restricted and canal
channel types were presented by Briggs (2009).
The fi rst section in this paper describes the Port of
Savannah entrance channel and the Susan Maersk
containership. The next section describes the
PIANC empirical squat formulas. Details of these formulas are contained in Appendix A. The sensitivity


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

study organisation and constraints are described

in the next section. Finally, results and discussion
are presented in the last section.


2.1 Port of Savannah, Georgia
The Port of Savannah, Georgia, is planning for future accommodation of newer and larger design
vessels. The outer reach of this entrance channel
is subject to waves, has a length of 14 nm and a
width varying from 173 to 240 m. It is planned to
increase the existing depth from 13.4 m to 15.2 m
MLLW. Harbour pilots will continue to take advantage of the 1.1 m high tide and overdredge allowance, as necessary, to accommodate larger draft
ships. The offshore 5.8 nm section can be represented as an unrestricted channel cross-section.

2.2 Susan Maersk Containership

The design ship for this port is the post-Panamax
Susan Maersk containership (Figure 1). It was
completed in 1997 with a TEU capacity of 8,680
and a length overall LOA of 347 m. The fully-loaded
ship has an Lpp = 331.64 m, B = 42.8 m, T = 14.48
m and CB = 0.65. Typical ship speeds Vk can be as
fast as 14 kts in the outer channel. Design underkeel clearance (UKC) is 1.2 m in the outer channel. Note that UKC as used in this paper means
gross under-keel clearance and is equivalent to
the project depth minus the ship draught.

Figure 1: Susan Maersk containership


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


In 1997, PIANC Working Group 30 (WG30) included eleven empirical squat formulas in their
design guidance for deep draft channels. In 2005,
PIANC WG49 was formed to update the WG30
report on Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions of
Fairways. WG49 consists of representatives from
twelve countries and is in the process of updating this guidance. Current thinking is to reduce the
number of these squat formulas to seven that are
the most user friendly and popular in the deep
draft navigation community. Five of these squat
formulas are evaluated in this paper. They include
those of Barrass (2004), Eryuzlu et al. (1994),
Huuska (1976), Rmisch (1989) and Yoshimura
(1986). Briggs (2006) programmed these formulas
in a FORTRAN program and Briggs et al. (2010)
provided updates based on the WG49 recommendations.
Historically, maximum squat SMax occurred at the
bow (Sb), especially for full-form ships such as
tankers. For newer, more slender fine-form ships,
such as containerships and passenger liners,
SMax sometimes occurs at the stern (Ss). All of the
PIANC formulas give predictions of SMax at the
bow or stern, but only the Rmisch method gives
predictions for Ss for all channel types. Barrass
gives Ss for unrestricted channels and for canals
and restricted channels, depending on the value
of CB. According to Barrass, the value of CB determines whether the maximum squat is at the bow
or stern. Barrass notes that full-form ships with
CB > 0.7 tend to squat by the bow and fine-form
ships with CB < 0.7 tend to squat by the stern. The
CB = 0.7 is an even-keel situation with maximum
squat the same at both bow and stern. Rmisch
has an equivalent rule of thumb on the location of
maximum squat, since he proposes that a ship will
squat by the bow if CB > 0.1 Lpp/B. For the Susan
Maersk, this would occur for CB > 0.77. Therefore,
one might expect the Susan Maersk to squat by
the stern since her CB is less than 0.70 to 0.77
in these sensitivity comparisons. Of course, for
channel design, one is mainly interested in the
maximum squat and not necessarily whether it is
at the bow or stern. Thus, researchers often use
all of the formulas and report maximum squat.
The formulas for an unrestricted channel application are contained in Appendix A. Barrass is on his


fourth iteration of ship squat formulas. The one in

this paper [Barrass 2004 ; Barrass 2002] is considered his third version and is called B3 for simplicity. His formulas are relatively straight-forward
and easy to use. Stocks et al. (2002) found that
the B3-formulas gave the best results for New and
Traditional Lakers in the unrestricted portions of
the St Lawrence Seaway. The Eryuzlu et al. (1994)
squat formula is based on laboratory experiments.
Although it has some serious constraints (i.e. CB >
0.8), it is used exclusively by the Canadian Coast
Guard (2001). Therefore, it is included here even
though the CB constraint is technically exceeded.
It is referred to as E2. The Huuska (1976) and
Guliev (1971) squat formula is referred to as the
HG formula. The HG is identical to the ICORELS
formula in unrestricted channels and is used exclusively in German waterways of this type. The
Spanish Recommendations for Maritime Works
[Puertos del Estado, 1999] and the Finnish Maritime Administration [FMA 2005, Sirkia 2007] use
the HG for all three channel types. Rmisch (1989)
developed his squat formulas from physical model
experiments. His empirical formulas (referred to
as R1) are some of the most difficult to use, but
seem to give good predictions for bow and stern
squat. Finally, the Yoshimura formula [Yoshimura,
1986 ; Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute, 2002] was developed as part of Japans Design Standard for Fairways in Japan. It was later
enhanced by Ohtsu et al. (2006) to include predictions for R and C channels.

The goal of the sensitivity analysis was to quantify the effect of significant input parameters on
the squat predictions for the PIANC empirical
formulas in an unrestricted channel. Table 1 lists
the ship and channel parameters that are in the
PIANC formulas. An interesting observation is
what is not explicitly included in some of the formulas, even though they are used for all ship and
channel types. For instance, (a) B3 has no dependence on Lpp, (b) E2 has no dependence on Lpp
or CB, (c) R1 has no dependence on CB for stern
squat and (d) Y2 has no dependence on B. All but
B3 are functions of gravity g.
Based on ship, channel and squat formulas, three
sensitivity analysis parameters were selected for
study. Table 2 on the next page lists these parameters and ranges. The U channel is one of the
simplest and is applicable for all of the PIANC formulas. A channel can be modelled as a U channel
even if it is not ideally an unrestricted channel. If
trench height hT is small enough (i.e. hT /h ~ 0.0)
and channel width W (i.e. W/B > 8 to 10) and side
slope n (i.e. n > 20 to 50) are large enough, then
a U channel is appropriate for this channel reach.
The Base Case values are used as the standard
for comparison since they match many of the ship
and channel characteristics.

Table 1: Relevant Input Parameters in PIANC Squat Formulas


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

the bow predictions and were used in this study in

comparison with the other three formulas.


Table 2: Sensitivity Analysis Parameters

The range of CB was selected to match typical
standard deviations of CB for containerships [Ohtsu et al., 2006]. The CB = 0.05 is equivalent to
an 8 % change in CB. Since it is known that most
containerships squat by the stern, the maximum
value of CB = 0.70 was selected to stay within the
Barrass threshold. The depth-to-draught ratios
h/T represent typical values of UKC for entrance
channels, with h/T = 1.20 an accepted value for
efficient navigation. Note that the h/T = 1.1, 1.2
and 1.3 correspond with UKC = 1.5, 2.9 and 4.3 m
respectively. The h/T = 0.10 is equivalent to an
8 % change in h/T. The range of ship speeds Vk
includes typical containership speeds in entrance
channels. The Vk = 5 kts represents a 50 %
change in ship speed from the Base Case.
As stated previously according to Barrass and
Rmisch, ships with CB < 0.7 to 0.77 will tend to
squat by the stern. Therefore, the stern Ss squat
predictions of B3 and R1 were always larger than

The results section is divided into presentations

and discussions of predicted maximum squat SMax
for each of the five PIANC formulas. Results in
this section are for analysis of CB, h/T and Vk in a
U channel. Figure 2 shows the range of SMax for
each of the Base Case predictions (CB = 0.65 and
h/T = 1.20) as a function of Vk. Although Vk = 5
kts, a finer increment of 1 kt was used in the plots
to show the finer detail and resolution due to ship
speed although some plots only show symbols
for every other point to minimise clutter. The Barrass predictions were the largest and Rmisch the
smallest, with the other three in the middle. The
SMax varies from a low of about 0.1 m to a high
value of almost 1.5 m. This example is typical of
the squat formulas as there is usually a lot of variation in the predictions. Thus, it is recommended
to examine the squat predictions with more than
one formula and compare the results based on the
type of ship and formula constraints.

5.1 Barrass (B3)

Figure 3 shows the effect of CB on the Barrass
stern squat Ss,B3 at h/T = 1.20 for the range of ship

Figure 2: Base Case Maximum Squat for Susan Maersk Containership

in Unrestricted Channel, CB = 0.65, h/T = 1.2

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


speeds. Even though shown at h/T = 1.20, the B3

predictions are not affected by h/T, as they are the
same for all h/T (see Appendix A). This is due to
the fact that the h/T ratio is not explicitly included
in the B3 formula. Both h and T are included in the
S blockage factor, but the values of S are not allowed to exceed the threshold values of 0.1 S
0.25. Table 3 lists the percentage variation in Ss,B3
from the Base Case value at CB = 0.65 for each
ship speed.

5.2 Eryuzlu (E2)

Figure 4 shows the effect of h/T on the Eryuzlu
squat SE2 at CB = 0.65 for the range of ship speeds.
Again, although shown for CB = 0.65, the E2 is not
dependent on CB so it is the same for any CB. This
is due to the fact that it is not explicitly included in
the E2 formula (see Appendix A). The percentage
variation in SE2 from the Base Case value at h/T =
1.2 is again listed in Table 3.

Figure 3: Effect of CB on Barrass Stern Squat in Unrestricted Channel, all h/T

Figure 4: Effect of h/T on Eryuzlu Squat in Unrestricted Channel, all CB


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

5.3 Huuska (HG)

Unlike the B3 and E2 predictions, the Huuska/
Guliev squat SHG predictions are functions of both
CB and h/T. Figure 5 has five curves that illustrate these effects on the SHG for the range of ship
speeds. The inner three curves 2, 3 and 4 show

the influence of CB for a fixed h/T = 1.2 (red lines

and square symbols). The outer three curves 1,
3 and 5 (solid lines and symbols) illustrate the effect of h/T at a fixed CB = 0.65. Table 3 lists the
percentage variation in SHG predictions for all ship
speeds relative to the Base Case values at CB =
0.65 and h/T = 1.2.

Table 3: Sensitivity Results for Unrestricted Channel

Figure 5: Effect of CB and h/T on Huuska Squat in Unrestricted Channel

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


5.4 Rmisch

5.5 Yoshimura (Y2)

Rmisch stern squat Ss,R1 is a function of h/T only

and is shown in Figure 6. This figure is similar to
Figure 4 for Eryuzlu, with three curves shown for
CB = 0.65. The percentage vari-ation in Ss,R1 predictions for all ship speeds relative to the Base
Case values at CB = 0.65 are listed in Table 3.

The Yoshimura squat SY2 is a function of both CB

and h/T, same as Huuska/Guliev. Figure 7 is similar to Figure 5, with 5 curves for SY2. Curves 2, 3
and 4 show the variation in SY2 as a function of CB
for a fixed h/T = 1.2. The effect of h/T is again illustrated by curves 1, 3 and 5 with the solid lines and
symbols. Table 3 lists the percentage variation in
SY2 relative to the Base Case values at CB=0.65
for all three ship speeds.

Figure 6: Effect of h/T on Rmisch Stern Squat in Unrestricted Channel, all CB

Figure 7: Effect of CB and h/T on Yoshimura Squat in Unrestricted Channel


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

The Barrass predictions are not affected by h/T
since this parameter is not explicitly included in his
formula. The effect of changes in CB on predicted
stern squat is approximately 1 to 1. The predicted
stern squat increased or decreased by 8 % as CB
increased or decreased by 8 % (i.e. CB = 0.05).
The Eryuzlu squat predictions are not dependent
on CB. The effect of 8 % changes in h/T (i.e. h/T
= 0.1) is approximately 1 to 1 on the squat predictions. A decrease of 8 % in h/T results in an increase in squat of approximately 8 % and a similar
decrease in squat for an increase in h/T.
The Huuska/Guliev squat predictions are functions
of CB and h/T. Again, changes in CB result in near
1 to 1 changes in predictions. An 8 % decrease or
increase in CB decreases or increases squat predictions by approximately 8 % for all three ship
speeds. Changes in h/T are slightly larger for fixed
CB = 0.65. A decrease in h/T to 1.1 for shallower
depths causes an increase in predicted squat of
8 to 12 % for the three ship speeds. Similarly, an
increase in h/T to 1.3 for deeper channels gives
a decrease in squat of 8 to 10 % as a function of
ship speed.
The Rmisch stern squat predictions are not affected by CB, since CB is not included in his stern
formula. Decreases in channel depth to h/T = 1.1
results in 0 to 14 % increases in stern squat predictions as ship speed increases from 5 to 15 kts.
Increasing UKC to h/T = 1.3 results in decreases
in stern squat of 3 to 11 %.
The Yoshimura squat predictions are affected by
both CB and h/T. Again, changes in CB pro-duce
nearly identical changes (i.e. 1:1) in squat predictions. A decrease of 8 % in CB from 0.65 to 0.60
results in decreases of 8 to 9 %. Similarly, an increase of 8 % to CB = 0.70, causes an increase in
predicted squat of 8 to 9 %. Decreasing the channel depth by 8 % to h/T = 1.1 causes an increase
in squat predictions of approximately 7 % for the
three ship speeds. Likewise, increases in depth
to h/T = 1.3 leads to reductions of 4 to 8 % for all
ship speeds.
In summary, all five squat formulas give reasonable predictions, but the user needs to be aware

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


of the effects of uncertainties in the input variables.

No one formula seems to give consistently better
estimates than the other. Many countries and researchers have favourites that they are comfortable with using. My recommendation is to use an
average of all five with knowledge of maximum
squat predictions and possible constraint violations due to type of channel or ship.

The author wishes to acknowledge the Headquarters and the US Army Corps of Engineers
for authorising the publication of this paper. The
squat formulas in this paper are updates from the
PIANC WG30 report that will be reported and
documented in the new WG49 report. Particular
thanks go to Wilbur Wiggins (CESAW) and Capt
Steven Carmel (Maersk Shipping) for supplying
information on the Savannah entrance channel
and Susan Maersk containership.

Barrass, C. B. (2002): Ship Squat A Guide for
Masters, Private report, www.ship-squat.com.
Barrass, C.B. (2004): Thirty-Two Years of Research into Ship Squat, Squat Workshop 2004,
Elsfleth/Oldenburg, Germany.
Barrass, C. B. (2007): Ship Squat and Interaction
for Masters, Private Report, www.ship-squat.com.
Briggs, M.J. (2006): Ship Squat Predictions for
Ship/Tow Simulator, Coastal and Hydrau-lics Engineering Technical Note CHETN-I-72, U.S. Army
Engineer Research and Develop-ment Center,
Vicksburg, MS, http://chl.wes.army.mil/library/
Briggs, M.J. (2009): Sensitivity Study of PIANC
Ship Squat Formulas, International Conference on
Ship Manoeuvring in Shallow and Confined Water:
Bank Effects, Antwerp, Belgium, May 13-15, 57-67.
Briggs, M.J., Vantorre, M., Uliczka, K. and Debaillon, P. (2010): Chapter 26: Prediction of Squat for
Underkeel Clearance, Handbook of Coastal and
Ocean Engineering, World Scientific Publishers,
Singapore, 723-774.

Canadian Coast Guard (2001): Safe Waterways

(A Users Guide to the Design, Maintenance and
Safe Use of Waterways), Part 1(a) Guidelines for
the Safe Design of Commercial Shipping Channels, Software User Manual Version 3.0, Waterways Development Division, Fisheries and
Oceans Canada.
Eryzlu, N.E., Cao, Y.L. and DAgnolo, F. (1994):
Underkeel Requirements for Large Vessels in
Shallow Waterways, Proceedings of the 28th International Navigation Congress, PIANC, Paper S
II-2, Sevilla, Spain, 17-25.
FMA (Finnish Maritime Administration) (2005):
The Channel Depth Practice in Finland, Bulletin,
Waterways Division, Helsinki, Finland.
Guliev, U.M. (1971): On Squat Calculations for
Vessels Going in Shallow Water and Through
Channels, PIANC Bulletin 1971, Vol. 1, No. 7, 1720.
Huuska, O. (1976): On the Evaluation of Underkeel Clearances in Finnish Waterways, Helsinki
University of Technology, Ship Hydrodynamics
Laboratory, Otaniemi, Report No. 9.

Rmisch, K. (1989): Empfehlungen zur Bemessung von Hafeneinfahrten, Wasserbauliche Mitteilungen der Technischen Universitt Dresden,
Heft 1, 39-63.
Srkia, E. (2007): Economical Efficiency to be
Achieved with a Regulatory Change Only with
Consideration for Navigational Risks, PIANC
Magazine, 129, 23-34.
Stocks, D.T., Dagget, L.L. and Page, Y. (2002):
Maximization of Ship Draft in the St. Lawrence
Seaway Volume I: Squat Study, Prepared for
Transportation Development Centre, Transport
Uliczka, K. and Kondziella, B. (2006): Dynamic
Response of Very Large Containerships in Extremely Shallow Water, Proceedings 31st PIANC
Congress, Estoril, Spain.
Yoshimura, Y. (1986): Mathematical Model for
the Manoeuvring Ship Motion in Shallow Water,
Journal of the Kansai Society of Naval Architects,
Japan, No. 200.

ICORELS (International Commission for the Reception of Large Ships) (1980): Report of Working
Group IV, PIANC Bulletin No. 35, Supplement.
Ohtsu, K., Yoshimura, Y., Hirano, M., Tsugane,
M. and Takahashi, H. (2006): Design Standard
for Fairway in Next Generation, Asia Navigation
Conference, No. 26.
Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of
Japan (2002): Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan.
PIANC (1997): Approach Channels: A Guide for
Design, Final Report of the Joint PIANC-IAPH
Working Group II-30 in cooperation with IMPA and
IALA, Supplement to Bulletin No. 95.
Puertos del Estado (1999): Recommendations for
Maritime Works (Spain) ROM 3.1-99: De-signing
Maritime Configuration of Ports, Approach Channels and Floatation Areas, CEDEX, Spain.


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

This appendix describes the five PIANC empirical
squat formulas of Barrass, Eryuzlu, Huuska/Guliev, Rmisch and Yoshimura. Symbols are listed
and defined in Appendix B. More detailed descriptions with constraints for channel and ship parameters are described in PIANC (1997), Briggs
(2006), Briggs (2009) and Briggs et al. (2010).
The new PIANC WG49 report is planned for publication in 2011.

A1. Barrass (B3)

Barrasss formula for maximum squat SMax,B3 in an
unrestricted channel is a function of the block coefficient CB, ship speed Vk in knots and channel
blockage coefficient K. It is defined as
If CB > 0.7, it is equal to the bow squat Sb,B3. If CB
0.7, it is equal to the stern squat Ss,B3. His channel
coefficient K is based on analysis of over 600 laboratory and prototype measurements for all three
channel types [Barrass, 2007] and is defined as

The limits on K are designed so that K = 1 for U

channels. The blockage factor S is a measure of
the cross-sectional areas of the ship As and channel Ac and is defined as

A2. Eryuzlu et al. (E2)

The Eryuzlu et al. formula for squat SE2 in an unrestricted channel is defined as

The value of the channel width correction factor Kb

= 1 for unrestricted channels.

A3. Huuska/Guliev (HG)

The Huuska/Guliev squat SHG is given by

The dimensionless Depth Froude Number Fnh is

defined in Appendix B. The dimensionless correction factor Ks is used for restricted channels and
canals to quantify ship blockage. It goes to Ks = 1
for unrestricted channels. The Huuska/Guliev formula is identical to the ICORELS (1980) formula
for unrestricted channels.

A4. Rmisch (R1)

The Rmisch squat formulas for bow Sb,R1 and
stern squat Ss,R1 in an unrestricted channel are
given by

The factors in this equation are correction factors

for ship speed CV, ship shape CF and squat at critical speed KT defined as

If S < 0.1 for U channels, the value of K is set to

1.0. This insures the limits required above for K.
Finally, Barrass defined the squat at the other end
of the ship for unrestricted channels when the ship
is initially at even keel at zero speed as



PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


Finally, critical ship speed Vcr is a function of channel configuration defined as


A5. Yoshimura (Y2)

The Yoshimura maximum squat SY2 is defined as

The following symbols are used in this paper:


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

A sensitivity analysis on the effect of input parameters on PIANC empirical squat predictions was
conducted. Five of the most popular PIANC formulas, including Barrass, Eryuzlu, Huuska/Guliev,
Rmisch and Yoshimura were investigated for
unrestricted or open channels. Input parameters
included ship speed Vk, block coefficient CB and
channel depth to ship draught h/T. The fully-loaded post-Panamax Susan Maersk containership
was used as the example ship. Channel parameters were selected based on reasonable ranges
that would occur in the entrance channel of the

Port of Savannah, Georgia. A total of 27 cases

were run in this sensitivity study. All five squat formulas give reasonable predictions, but the user
should be aware of the effects of uncertainties
in the input variables. No one formula seems to
give consistently better estimates than the others.
Many countries and researchers have favourites
that they are more comfortable using. The authors preference is to use an average of all five
with knowledge of maximum squat predictions
and possible constraint violations due to type of
channel or ship.

Une analyse de sensibilit sur leffet des paramtres dentre sur les prdictions empiriques de
surenfoncement de lAIPCN a t ralise. Cinq
des formules de lAIPCN les plus populaires incluant Barrass, Eryuzlu, Huuska/Guliev, Rmisch
et Yoshimura ont t testes pour des chenaux
non restreints ou ouverts. Les paramtres
dentre comprenant la vitesse du navire Vk, le
coefficient de bloc CB et le rapport profondeur
du chenal sur le tirant deau du navire h/T. Le
porte-conteneurs post-Panamax Susan Maersk
pleine charge a t pris comme navire exemple.
Les paramtres du chenal ont t retenus dans
des gammes de valeurs raisonnables reprsentatives du chenal daccs du port de Savannah

en Gorgie. 27 configurations au total ont t appliques dans ltude de sensibilit. Toutes les
cinq formules de surenfoncement donnent des
prdictions raisonnables, mais lutilisateur devrait
tre conscient des effets des incertitudes dans
les variables dentre. Aucune formule ne semble
donner coup sr une meilleure estimation que
les autres. De nombreux pays et chercheurs ont
leurs favorites quils utilisent plus aisment. La
pratique prfrentielle de lauteur est de calculer
une moyenne des cinq, en gardant conscience
des prdictions de surenfoncement maximum
et des possibles en-torses leurs contraintes
dapplication dues au type de chenal ou de navire.

Eine Sensitivittsanalyse ber den Einfluss der
Eingangsparameter auf die empirischen SquatVorhersagen gem der PIANC wurde durchgefhrt. Fnf der beliebtesten PIANC Formeln
einschlielich der von Barrass, Eryuzlu, Huuska/
Guliev, Romisch und Yoshimura wurden fr unbegrenzte oder offene Kanle untersucht. Die
Eingangsparameter beinhalteten die Schiffs-geschwindigkeit Vk, den Blockkoeffizienten CB sowie
das Verhltnis von Kanaltiefe zum Tiefgang des
Schiffes h/T. Das voll beladene Post-Panamax
Containerschiff Susan Maersk wurde als Schiffsbeispiel verwendet. Die Kanalparameter wurden
basierend auf Bereichen, die im Zufahrtskanal
zum Hafen von Savannah, Georgia, auftreten

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


wrden, ausgewhlt. Inge-samt wurden 27 Flle

in dieser Sensitivittsstudie behandelt. Alle fnf
Squat-Formeln ergaben vernnftige Vorhersagen, allerdings sollten Anwender sich ber den
Einfluss der Eingangsparameter bewusst sein.
Es gibt keine einzelne Formel, die durchgngig
bessere Vorhersagen liefert als die anderen. Viele
Lnder und Forscher haben Favoriten, bei deren
Verwendung sie sich am wohlsten fhlen. Der
Autor zieht es vor, einen Durchschnitt aller fnf
Formeln zu verwenden, mit dem Wissen ber die
Maximum-Squat-Vorhersagen und die mglichen
Verletzungen der Gltigkeitsbereiche, verursacht
durch den Kanal- oder Schiffstyp.




Laboratoire Universitaire des

Sciences Appliques de
Cherbourg (LUSAC) EA 4253,
Universit de Caen, Site universitaire,
BP78, 50130 Cherbourg - Octeville,
Tel.: +,
Fax: +,
E-mail: sylvain.guillou@unicaen.fr

Universit Paris-Est, LSHV

(Joint Research Unit EDF
6 quai Watier, BP 49,
F-78401 Chatou,
E-mail: damien.pham-van-bang@

Corresponding author


Universit de Grenoble,
BP 53,
F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9,
E-mail : julien.chauchat@hmg.inpg.fr

Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences

Appliques de Cherbourg
(LUSAC) EA 4253,
Universit de Caen, Site universitaire,
50130 Cherbourg - Octeville,
E-mail: duc-hau.nguyen@unicaen.fr


Universit Paris-Est, LSHV
(Joint Research Unit EDF
6 quai Watier,
BP 49,
F-78401 Chatou,
E-mail: dan.nguyen@saint-venant-lab.fr

clapage, transport sdimentaire, modlisation numrique, modle deux phases, sable fi n

dredged sediment release, sediment transport,
numerical simulation, two-phase fl ow model, fi ne

La gestion des clapages (ou rejets en mer des
produits de dragage) constitue une problmatique

environnementale et conomique importante pour

les gestionnaires des voies navigables et des infrastructures portuaires. Moins coteuses quun
stockage terre, ces oprations peuvent induire
des nuisances sur lenvironnement notamment en
provoquant un accroissement local de la turbidit
et en ensevelissant les habitats de la faune aquatique.
Le phnomne de clapage comporte principalement trois phases [Boutin, 2000]: la phase de
chute (soumise aux courants) ; limpact sur le fond
et la gnration dun courant de densit ; la propagation des courants de densit et la dcantation
des sdiments.


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

Lobjet de ce travail est ltude du phnomne de

clapage par la simulation numrique. Des travaux
antrieurs ont montr les limites lutilisation de
codes bass sur lhypothse du scalaire passif
dans cette configuration [Garapon et al., 2002].
Ceci est li aux trs fortes concentrations du rejet.
Dans des travaux plus rcents, Freson (2004) a
prsent un modle bi-espce pour le problme
du clapage. Ce modle est bas sur une dgnrescence du modle bi-phasique deux fluides. Il considre le mlange eau-sdiment dans
son ensemble et ne tient pas compte de la rhologie des sdiments cohsifs [Farout-Freson et al.,
2006]. Si des rsultats satisfaisants ont t obtenus pour la phase de chute, lapproche bi-espce
semble inapproprie pour dcrire limpact sur le
fond, la gnration et la propagation des courants
de densit.

tions de conservation de la masse et de la quantit de mouvements. Nous rappelons ici quelques

lments concernant le modle utilis, mais le
lecteur pourra trouver une description complte
du modle dans les rfrences suivantes: Barbry
et al. (2000), Chauchat et Guillou (2008), Nguyen
et al. (2009).

2.1 Les quations de bases

En notant k, lindice dsignant la phase fluide ou
la phase solide, les quations de conservation
sont donnes:

Lutilisation de lapproche deux phases pour
traiter la problmatique hydrosdimentaire est apparue dans les annes 90 [Teisson et al., 1992 ;
Nguyen et al., 2009 ; et rfrences incluses].
Dans cette approche, le mlange eau/sdiment
est dfini comme constitu de deux phases: une
phase continue, leau, et une phase disperse,
les sdiments. Des quations de conservation de
la masse et de la quantit de mouvements sont
crites pour chaque phase. Le domaine dtude
stend du fond non rodable jusqu la surface
libre. Cest--dire que les processus de transport
des particules en suspension, de sdimentation, de tassement et de consolidation sont pris
en compte de manire continue sans avoir
considrer lrosion dune couche ou le remplissage dune autre. Le modle deux phases de
transport sdimentaire que nous avons dvelopp [Barbry et al., 2000 ; Nguyen et al., 2009 ;
Chauchat et al., 2008] est un modle deux fluides de ce type. Il est adapt aux milieux denses en diffrentiant les deux constituants et il inclut les effets de la turbulence. Dans ce travail,
ce modle est appliqu au cas du clapage. La
configuration exprimentale utilise par Villaret
et al. (1997) et Villaret et al. (1998) a t retenu.


Dans lapproche deux phases Eulrienne-Eulrienne (fluide - particule solide) ou deux fluides,
on considre que les mouvements de chaque
phase sont rgis respectivement par des qua-

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


o ak, uk, et rk, reprsentent respectivement la

fraction volumique, le vecteur vitesse et la masse
volumique de la phase k (k = f pour le fluide, k = s
pour le solide). g est le vecteur acclration de la
pesanteur et Mk reprsente le transfert de quantit
de mouvement entre les phases. pk est la pression
de la phase k, tk et tk reprsentent respectivement
le tenseur des contraintes visqueuses et le tenseur des contraintes de Reynolds pour la phase
k. La somme des fractions volumiques est gale
1. Le tenseur des contraintes visqueuses est modlis en fonction des tenseurs des taux de dformation de chacune des phases (Df et Ds) par la
relation (2) [Lundgren, 1972] avec les coefficients
de viscosit mff, mfs, msf and mss donns par (3). Le
caractre non Newtonien est pris en compte par
lintroduction du facteur damplification b, qui est
li la distance interparticulaire x, et d le diamtre
des particules. Plus la distance interparticulaire
est faible, plus le milieu est dense, et plus les frictions sont importantes. Nous utilisons la formulation (4) propose par Graham (1981), qui couvre
les coulements de suspensions dilues denses. La distance interparticulaire est donne par la
relation (5) en fonction de la fraction volumique de
la phase solide et sa valeur maximale as,max (Pour
des particules non cohsives as,max = 0.625 ).



sexprime en fonction de ugr , la vitesse relative entre le fluide et les particules, et de tfs , le temps de
relaxation de la particule. Ce dernier terme correspond au temps dexistence dune diffrence de
vitesse entre la particule solide et le fluide. Le coefficient CD est le coefficient de trane moyen. Il
dpend du nombre de Reynolds sdimentaire Res
et de la fonction de forme de la particule solide.
Nous utilisons la formule de Haider et Levenspiel




Le terme de transfert de quantit de mouvements

entre les phases est valu par la relation (6) en
fonction de la pression et de la contrainte interfag
ciale pki et tki et de Mk qui reprsente les diffrentes forces agissant sur la phase k dont la force
de trane. pfi et tki sont respectivement la pression et le tenseur de contrainte de cisaillement de
la phase k linterface. Les pressions interfaciales
des deux phases ainsi que les tenseurs interfaciaux de contrainte tangentielle sont donnes par
la relation (7). La pression de la phase solide est
prise gale la pression interfaciale de la mme


Le terme dchange entre les phases Mf = Ms

est la somme des forces sexerant sur la particule solide. Ici seule la force volumique de trane
(relation (8)) est retenue (Hsu et al., 2003). Elle


La vitesse relative est dfinie comme ugr = ugs - ugf- ugd

est la vitesse de drive qui reprsente
o ugd = u
f s
la corrlation entre les fluctuations de vitesse de la
phase fluide et la distribution spatiale instantane
des particules. Cette vitesse reprsente une manifestation des effets de la turbulence. Plusieurs
modles de turbulence ont t dvelopps dans
le code de calcul. Ceux-ci ne sont pas dtaills ici,
mais le lecteur trouvera une prsentation dtaill
dans Chauchat et Guillou (2008).

< >

2.2 Technique de rsolution numrique

Nous utilisons les techniques dveloppes par
Guillou et al. (2000) pour rsolution du systme
dquations (1). Le modle est bidimensionnel vertical surface libre. La technique de maillage en
coordonne est utilise pour suivre lvolution
de la surface libre chaque instant. Les oprateurs de drivs spatiaux sont discrtiss par la
technique des diffrences finies. Une technique
de projection est utilise pour le dcouplage du
calcul de la vitesse de la phase fluide et de la pression. Les quations du modle sont discrtises
de manire implicite sur la verticale et explicite
sur lhorizontale. La mthode GMRES est utilise
pour linversion du systme matriciel de pression.
Un positionnement dcal et entrelac des inconnues sur la grille de calcul est employ afin
dviter les oscillations numriques qui risquent
de se produire lors de lutilisation de le technique
de projection [Guillou & Nguyen, 1999].


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

De nombreux essais de clapage ont t raliss
dans le canal n 5 du LNHE-EDF (80 m x 1.5 m x
1.5 m) par Boutin (2000), Villaret et al. (1997) et
Villaret et al. (1998). Le but tait dtudier la phase
de chute du rejet ainsi que la phase de courant
de densit sur le fond, dans un fluide au repos ou
en mouvement. Les tests ont t raliss avec du
sable, de la vase et des mlanges sablo-vaseux.
Nous nous limitons ici au cas du sable. Nous
prsentons succinctement les conditions exprimentales utilises par Villaret et al. (1997) et Villaret et al. (1998) sur lesquelles les simulations

3.1 Configuration exprimentale

de rfrence
Le montage exprimental est constitu dun canal
quip dun dispositif dinjection de sdiment plac
15 cm sous la surface libre et pilot par un PC. A
t = 0, un volume initial de mlange eau-sdiment
une concentration dsire est lch dans leau.
Une camra synchronise prend des clichs du
panache turbide gnr, pendant quun systme
enregistre la concentration en plusieurs points du
canal. Le sable inject est de densit 2650 kg/m3,
et de diamtre (Dp) 90 ou 160 mm. La concentration du rejet (Cr) varie de 350 450 g/l pour un
volume initial (Vr) de sdiments de 45 ou 60 litres.
Les paramtres cls sont le temps de chute du rejet (temps pour que le nuage de sdiment atteigne
le fond), le diamtre du rejet pendant la phase de
chute, la hauteur du front pendant la phase de
transport sur le fond. Lincertitude sur le temps de
chute est de 0.5 seconde, tandis que celle pour le
diamtre du rejet est de 5 cm.

3.2 Paramtrage du modle et

mthode danalyse
Le domaine dtude couvre une zone de 4 mtres

horizontalement centre sur le rejet et de 1 mtre

en hauteur. Un maillage rgulier de 401 nuds
sur lhorizontale et de 41 nuds sur la verticale
est utilis. Le pas de temps est fix t=0,001
s tandis que la concentration du rejet initial (Cr)
est donne par le tableau 1. Un schma UPWIND
premier ordre est utilis pour les termes de convection. Les frontires latrales sont considres
ouvertes pour permettre au rejet de se propager
et de ne pas gnrer de rflexions. La surface libre est fige dans ces simulations. En conformit
avec les conditions exprimentales, linjection
du mlange eau-sdiment est effectue 15 cm
sous la surface libre et pour un diamtre de 10
cm. La concentration y est impose ainsi quun
profil parabolique de vitesse de type Poiseuille
dont la vitesse maximale (Winj) est donne par le
modle analytique de Krishnappan (1975). Les
valeurs sont donnes dans le tableau 1. On note
que les rsultats sont sensibles la manire de
raliser linjection.

La figure 1 prsente les rsultats de simulation
diffrents instants pour lessai e6. Le rejet du mlange eau - sdiment forte concentration induit
la naissance de deux tourbillons contrarotatifs de
part et dautre de laxe du rejet. Leau environnante se mlange au rejet. Lorsque le jet et les
deux tourbillons entre en contact avec le fond
la phase de chute se termine pour laisser place
une phase de transport sur le fond. Les phnomnes observs exprimentalement sont bien
reprsent qualitativement par le modle deux
phases. La conservation de la masse dans le domaine en cours de calcul est trs bonne puisque
lerreur relative est de lordre de 0,05 %.
Les expriences ont permis de sortir les paramtres
suivants: diamtre du rejet (Dr), hauteur ou
cote du rejet par rapport au fond (Hr), temps de
chute (Tc), vitesse (Ufr) et hauteur (Hfr) du front

Tableau 1. Caractristiques des essais 100% sable sans courant ambiant

[Villaret et al., 1997 ; Villaret et al., 1998].

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


Figure 1. Isocontours de la concentration en sable et champs de vitesse simuls (cas de lessai e6)
diffrents instants. Le temps de chute Tc = 1.8 s correspond linstant o lisocontour 0,5 g/l
atteint le fond. On y observe la phase de chute (t = 1.10 s) et la phase de transport sur le fond
(t = 3.92 s et t = 5.93 s).
de concentration lors de la phase de progression
sur le fond. Comme Freson (2004) nous avons
choisi de considrer le rejet comme les zones
de concentrations suprieures ou gales Cc
= 0,5 g/l. Les paramtres prcdents sont donc
calculs en considrant cette concentration de
coupure. Afin de tenir compte de lincertitude de
mesure, les rsultats exprimentaux sont tracs
en min et max. La figure 2 montre lvolution de Hr
et Dr durant la phase de chute pour les essais e6,
e11 et e12. On constate que pour lessai e6, les
rsultats sont en bon accord avec lexprience.

Pour les essais e11 et e12, une lgre survaluation de Hr apparat tandis que Dr est lgrement sous-valu. La diminution du temps de
chute et laugmentation du diamtre du rejet avec
laugmentation du volume et de la concentration
du rejet sont bien reproduits (e6/e11). La diminution du temps de chute et une trs faible augmentation du diamtre du rejet avec laugmentation du
diamtre des particules sont galement reproduits
(e11/e12). Le tableau 2 montre que les rsultats
de simulation sont proches des donnes exprimentales. Lerreur relative sur le diamtre de


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

rejet est de lordre de 17 %. Le temps de chute

semble surestim pour les essais e11 et e12.
Concernant la phase de transport sur le fond, la
vitesse de propagation est assez bien estime.
Comme sur lexprience, la vitesse du front augmente avec le volume et la concentration initiale
(e6/e11). En revanche, linfluence du diamtre des
particules nest pas bien reproduit (e11/e12). Les
carts sont plus importants sur lpaisseur du front
(Hfr). Ceci montre que la dynamique engendre
dans la phase de transport est trop importante. Le
dpt dans la zone dimpact reste faible. La modlisation des contraintes de cisaillement pourrait
tre une cause probable de ce dfaut.

Cette tude a montr que lapplication dun
modle diphasique deux fluides au cas du cla-

page en eau calme de matriaux non-cohsif

(sable) reproduisait de manire satisfaisante les
rsultats exprimentaux. Certains biais (structure
verticale du courant de turbidit) restent encore
amliorer avant de passer ltape suivante du
clapage en prsence dun courant ambiant (La
figure 3 prsente des rsultats de calculs prliminaires dans ce cas) et surtout le clapage de
matriaux sablo-vaseux. Une tude particulire
du courant de densit devrait permettre de lever
ces biais.

Les auteurs remercient le CETMEF pour le financement de cette tude (contrat N 05 510006000-228-6034) et le CRIHAN pour les moyens de

Figure 2. Evolution temporelle de la position infrieure (Hr) et du diamtre (Dr) de rejet durant
la phase de chute pour lessai e6 (gauche), lessai e11 (centre) et lessai e12 (droite) :
simulation numrique ;
exprience de Villaret et al. (1997)
en intgrant la barre derreur.

Tableau 2. Temps de chute (Tc) et diamtre de rejet (Dr) en fin de chute, et Vitesse (Ufr)
et hauteur (Hfr) du front du courant de densit durant la phase de transport sur le fond :
rsultats des simulations (num) et valeurs exprimentales [Villaret et al., 1997].

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


Figure 3. Isocontours de la concentration en sable et champs de vitesse simuls dans

la configuration de lessai 11 avec un courant de 10 cm/s (essai e13) 1 s (a), 2,1 s (b) et 4 s (c).
Limpact du courant sur la phase de chute est notable.


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

Barbry, N., Guillou, S. et Nguyen, K.D. (2000):
Une approche diphasique pour le calcul du transport sdimentaire en milieux estuariens , C.R.
Acad. Sci., IIb, 328, pp 793799. doi:10.1016/
Boutin, R. (2000): Dragage et rejets en mer.
Les produits de type vase , Presses de lENPC.
2000, 307 p.
Chauchat, J. et Guillou, S. (2008): On turbulence closures for two-phase sediment-laden
flow models , J. Geophys. Res., 113, C11017.
Chauchat, J., Guilou, S. et Nguyen, K.D. (2008):
Utilisation des mesures rhomtriques pour la
modlisation diphasique du transport sdimentaire , Rapport de contract N H054, Universit
de Caen-CETMEF, 62 p.
Freson, F.I. (2004): Simulation numrique du
clapage en mer : Etude du champ proche-Chute et
Transport sur le fond , Thse, Universit Techn.
de Compigne, 316 p.
Farout-Freson, I., Sergent, P., Lefranois, E. et
Dhatt, G. (2006): Modle numrique de clapage
phase de chute , IXmes JNGCGC, Brest, pp
179-186. doi:10.5150/jngcgc.2006.018-F
Garapon, A., Villaret, C. et Boutin, R. (2002): 3D
numerical modelling of sediment disposal , Proceedings of the Physics of Estuarine. PECS, 13 p.
Guillou, S. et Nguyen, K.D. (1999): An improved
technique for solving two-dimensional shallow
water problems , Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids,
29, pp 465483. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0363(19990228)29:4<465::AID-FLD797>3.0.CO;2-H
Guillou, S., Barbry, N. et Nguyen, K.D. (2000):
Calcul numrique des ondes de surface par une
mthode de projection et un maillage eulrien adaptatif , C.R. Acad. Sci., IIb, 328, pp 875 881.
Graham, A.L. (1981): On the viscosity of suspensions of solid spheres , Appl. Sci. Res., 37,
pp 275286. doi:10.1007/BF00951252

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


Haider, A. et Levenspiel, O. (1989): Drag coefficient and terminal velocity of spherical and
non-spherical particles , Powder Technol., 58, pp
6370. doi:10.1016/0032 5910(89)80008-7
Hsu, T., Jenkins, J.T. et Liu, P.L.-F. (2003): On twophase sediment transport: Dilute flow , J. Geophys.
Res., 108(C3), 3057. doi:10.1029/2001JC001276
Krishnappan, B.G. (1975): Dispersion of granular material dumped in deep water , in Scientific
series, Environment Canada, 55, 113 p.
Lundgren, T. (1972): Slow flow through stationary random beds and suspensions of spheres
, J. Fluid Mech., 51, pp 273-299. doi:10.1017/
Nguyen, K.D., Guillou, S., Chauchat, J. et Barbry, N. (2009): A two-phase numerical model
for suspended-sediment transport in estuaries ,
Advances in Water Resources, 32, pp 1187-1196.
Teisson, C., Simonin, O., Galland, J.C. et Laurence, D. (1992): Turbulence and mud sedimentation: A Reynolds stress model and a two-phase
flow model , in Proceedings of 23rd ICCE, ASCE,
pp 2853-2866.
Villaret, C., Lekien, M., Claude, B. et Vinet, V.
(1997): Etude exprimentale de la dispersion
des rejets par clapage dun mlange de sable et
de vase , He-42/97/072/a, LNHE, EDF.
Villaret, C., Claude, B. et Du Rivau, J.D. (1998):
Etude exprimentale de la dispersion des rejets
par clapage , He-42/98/065/a, LNHE, EDF.

La maintenance des chenaux de navigation
et des zones portuaires implique la ralisation
doprations de dragage pour garantir une profondeur deau suffisante. Les produits de dragages
sont dposs en mer (opration de clapage) si
les conditions dimmersion fixes par la convention dOslo sont satisfaites. Toutefois, le clapage
de sdiments peut induire des nuisances sur
lenvironnement. Nous utilisons un modle de

transport sdimentaire deux phases que nous

avons dvelopp [Barbry et al., 2000 ; Nguyen et
al., 2009 ; Chauchat et al., 2008] pour simuler le
phnomne de clapage de sdiment fin. La comparaison des simulations aux rsultats exprimentaux raliss en canal par Boutin (2000) et Villaret
et al. (1997, 1998) montre le bon comportement
du modle pour dcrire les diffrentes phases dynamiques de ce phnomne.

The port structures are often established in areas
where water levels are fairly low, especially in estuaries. It is then necessary to perform dredging to
allow ships accessing to the docks. The dredged
sediment is released over a predefined deposit
zone. Because of the concentration of the sediment cloud appearing during the release, more
than 350 g/l at the beginning, there is an impact
on the environment. The chemical composition of
water is affected directly.
After the release, the sediments settle under a
cloud of very high concentration. This settling step

is followed after impact on the bed by the formation

of turbidity current. The purpose of this work is to
study the phenomenon via numerical simulations
by using a two-phase model of sediment transport [Barbry et al., 2000 ; Chauchat et al., 2008 ;
Nguyen et al., 2009]. It is based on the solving of
conservation and momentum equations for each
phase (water and particles) and then integrates
the interaction between the particles and the water. A comparison with the experimental configuration of Villaret et al. (1997, 1998), without current,
shows that the different steps of the phenomenon
are quite reproduce without turbulence modelling.

Hafenanlagen werden oft in Gebieten errichtet,
wo die Wassertiefen gering sind, insbesondere in
stuaren. Es ist dann notwendig, Ausbaggerungsarbeiten durchzufhren, um Schiffen die Zufahrt
zu ermglichen. Das ausgebaggerte Sediment
wird in einer vorher definierten Deponierungszone freigesetzt. Wegen der Konzentration der
Sedimentwolke, die sich whrend der Freisetzung
bildet (zu Beginn mehr als 350g/l) entsteht ein
Einfluss auf die Umwelt. Die chemische Zusammensetzung des Wassers wird direkt beeinflusst.
Nach der Freisetzung schlagen sich die Sedimente unter einer sehr hoch konzentrierten Wolke
nieder. Auf diesen Schritt des Niederschlags folgt
ein Einfluss auf die Sohle durch Bildung eines


Der Zweck dieses Beitrags ist das Studium dieses Phnomens mittels numerischer Simulationen
unter Verwendung eines Zwei-Phasen-Modells
fr den Sedimenttransport (Barbry et al., 2000 ;
Chauchat et al., 2008 ; Nguyen et al., 2009). Es
basiert auf der Lsung der Erhaltungs- und Impuls-Gleichungen fr jede Phase (Wasser und
Partikel) und integriert dann die Interaktion zwischen Partikeln und Wasser. Ein Vergleich mit
den experimentellen Konfigurationen von Villaret
et al. (1997, 1998), ohne Strmung, zeigt, dass
die verschiedenen Schritte des Phnomens recht
gut ohne Modellierung der Turbulenz reproduziert
werden knnen.

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011



inland waterway transport, took place
from November 30 until December 1, 2010 at Square in Brussels.

Barge to Business
Full Steam Ahead for Inland Waterways
(Press Release)
Barge to Business, an exciting European event about logistics and supply chain management, focussed on

This is the first time inland navigation has showcased itself to the
public in such a way, said Hilde
Bollen of Promotie Binnenvaart
Vlaanderen (Promotion of Inland
Navigation Flanders), who led the
conference organising team of European partners involved in PLATINA

(the platform for the implementation of NAIADES). Inland waterway

transportation provides integrated
solutions and this conference was
just such an integrated solution. We
successfully showcased the fact that
we are the perfect mode for all kind
of products and goods, offer cutting
edge technology, are cost efficient
and play an effective role in integrated logistics networks and supply

General view on the audience

Siim Kallas, Etienne Schouppe and Karin De Schepper


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


Siim Kallas at the Opening Ceremony

Barge to Business was opened by
European Commission Vice-President Siim Kallas, who reiterated the
immense possibilities inland waterway transport in Europe offers for
sustainable supply chain management. He outlined his vision for a future transport network in Europe in
which transport is a fully integrated
and seamless system composed of
safe and secure transport modes,
high-quality services and infrastructure, promoting innovation and the
competence of our industry and
caring for its passengers, customers and employed professionals.
I am convinced that inland waterway transport can be a valuable
partner in logistics and supply chains
and make an environmental difference. This conference is a unique
opportunity to demonstrate exactly
how. I look forward to the exchange
of experiences and ideas on innovative solutions, technologies and
services. I hope to see more events
like Barge to Business in the future. I strongly believe that they can
contribute to raising the image and
awareness of the inland shipping
sector, said Kallas.
Kallas also reflected on the success
of the NAIADES action plan and its
implementation platform PLATINA.

NAIADES has been in operation

for five years and will guide European inland shipping policy for the
next three years. Kallas announced
at the conference that his office is
working on a proposal for a possible continuation programme.
The unique event brought together
some of the leading opinion makers
in Europe both on the supply and
demand side to lead more than 30
presentations and panel discussion
showcasing all that inland waterway transport has to offer logistics
and supply chain managers. Topics covered were wide ranging and
visionary, including innovative logistics techniques, green fuels and
vessels, population, commerce and
culture, climate change, achieving
sustainable logistics chains and information technology.
Emphasis was placed on the practical, with existing waterway users
sharing their experiences, challenges and successes on the hot
topics of logistics and green innovation. The speakers demonstrated
that the keys to driving growth and
decarbonisation are already available. These recommendations from
the field provide indispensable input
to inland navigation development
policy in Europe and will ensure our

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


success, said Karin De Schepper,

General Secretary of Inland Navigation Europe, organiser of the information market pillar.
Simultaneously to the information pillar of Barge to Business, a
unique business to business pillar
called Riverdating was organised
under the auspices of Voies navigables de France. This concept
offered an opportunity for one-onone meetings between the supply
and demand side, with the inland
navigation community and logistics service providers showcasing
their network to logistics and supply chain managers. Suppliers and
shippers were able to take advantage of pre-arranged appointments
to get and offer tailor-made solutions to individual queries.
Offering a combination of group
sessions and individual meetings
ensured that attendants at the event
were able to learn as much as they
wanted to about inland navigation
and its possibilities and develop
useful partnerships in favor of modal shift over the two days sessions,
said Philip Maug, Director of Development at Voies Navigables de
France, organiser of the Riverdating pillar.


More than 600 delegates from 22
countries attended Barge to Business. Delegates included executive managers, logistics managers,
inland navigation experts, government policy makers and waterway
service providers. Rivers and canals do much more than transport
goods and people. They are cata-

lysts for regional and environmental development, they are actors

in green energy production, water supply and flood defence and
they foster leisure and tourism.
The water transport sector is part
of ensuring a safe combination of
all of these functions, to create optimized profits for society through

waterways. All presentations and

speeches are available in podcast
format on www.bargetobusiness.eu
since December 2010.
Caroline Smith
Inland Navigation Europe (INE)

Panel discussion on Multi-modal door to door: now or never.

From left to right: Dario Aggio (Chairman Fluviomar), Guy Pasmans (Managing Director Euroports
Containers), Robert-Jan Zimmerman (General Manager Mercurius Shipping), Kris Verhulst (Senior Logistics
Manager Procter & Gamble Western Europe), Panel discussion moderated byTheo Notteboom (Professor
Maritime Transport and Logistics of the University of Antwerp)

Panel discussion on North-South infrastructure development.

From left to right: Gilbert Bredel (Managing Director Contargo France), Emmanuel Maes (General Manager
Group De Cloedt), Gert Van Gestel (Logistics Manager Holcim Belgium), Bruno de Keyser (Panel
Moderator), Eric van den Eede (General Manager Waterwegen en Zeekanaal and PIANC President),
Patrick Lambert (Deputy Director General Voies Navigables de France) and Yvon Loyaerts (Director General
Mobility and Waterways, Wallonian Ministry of Transport)


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


The 9th International Conference on
Coasts, Ports and Marine Structures
(ICOPMAS) took place in Tehran,
Iran from November 29, 2010 to December 1, 2010. Louis Van Schel,
Secretary-General of PIANC, attended this event on behalf of the

With some 700 participants, the

Conference was a big success. Besides plenary sessions with international keynote speakers (amongst
them Louis Van Schel), there were
also three parallel sessions and a
session with workshops. The overall
theme of the Conference was Effects of Climate Change and Global Warming on Coasts, Ports and
Marine Structures. Other themes
included Hydrodynamic and Marine Engineering, Port and Coastal

Management, Marine Structures,

as well as Safety and Marine Environment. The sessions could also
be followed on-line on the website
and even through Bluetooth!
For more information on ICOPMAS
2010, please visit http://icopmas.
Louis Van Schel
Secretary-General PIANC

The ICOPMAS Conference room

PIANC Secretary-General
Louis Van Schel

PIANC got its own stand at the Conference

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011



Call for Sponsors
The 8th PIANC-COPEDEC Conference will take place in Chennai, India
on February 20-24, 2012. The event
is expected to attract more than 400
delegates from around the globe, including port operators, development
and investment companies, harbour
agencies, port and terminal equipment suppliers, consulting firms, marine contractors, dredging organisations, environmental specialists and
research laboratories. Besides the
Conference, an Exhibition will take
place, which will form a central part
of this prestigious event.
Find out more information about the
event on the Conference website at
or on the PIANC website at
http://www.pianc.org/calendarcopedec.php, in order to learn more about

Embraport Container
Dubai Ports World, Odebrecht and
Coimex will start the construction of
the New Container Terminal in Santos early 2011. The Port of Santos is
the largest port in South America and
the new terminal is expected to move

1.5 million containers a year.

The project consists of 1,100 m quay
equipped with STS cranes. The storage and handling container areas will
be constructed on swampy areas.
Part of the yard area is supported on
The quay is a deck on piles structure
using pre-cast concrete piles up to 54
m length. The complex also includes


gates, road and rail reception, reefers

containers area, customs and all necessary installations for the terminal.
Odebrecht will be in charge of all
construction and EXE Engenharia
will develop the detailed design and
construction methods.
Rubens da Costa Sabino Filho
EXE Engenharia

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


Port of Itaja Itaja,
Santa Catarina
The container terminal of the Port of
Itaja, operated by APM Terminals
was seriously affected in November 2008 by a flood that destroyed
berths 1 and 2, along an extension
of 365 m.
The Brazilian Government awarded
the contract for the reconstruction in
February 2009 to the Joint Venture
TSCC (Triunfo/Serveng/Constremac), who finished the works in October 2010.
For the supervision of the reconstruction activities, APM Terminals
hired EXE Engenharia, who performed the task, with a site resident
engineer together with weekly visits
by a specialist engineer.
Leandro Sabino &
Rafael T. Santos
EXE Engenharia

New edition of Dredging
for Development
Since its first edition in 1983, Dredging for Development has been recognised as the standard work for a
clear, non-technical introduction to
the complex field of dredging. This
newly updated sixth edition is edited

by Nick Bray (HR Wallingford /DRL)

and Marsha Cohen (editor Terra
et Aqua) and was jointly published
by the International Association of
Dredging Companies (IADC) and International Association of Ports and
Harbors (IAPH).
As the fifth edition was sold out and
still being requested, it was decided
that an update was appropriate, one
which presented the most recent
technological advances and ongoing

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


innovations in the dredging industry.

In the original concept, the primary
aim was to provide public officials in
developing nations with an introduction to dredging, with the basic information and main elements involved
in achieving a successfully executed
project. But, with each new edition,
the book has proven useful for anyone interested in the fundamental
processes and purposes of dredging
the public, stakeholders, consultants in related industries.


Whilst the publication cannot be, nor
is it meant to be exhaustive, it does
explain the applications of dredging,
the various types of dredged materials and the wide range of dedicated
dredging equipment. It discusses
the need for sustainable development and environmental monitoring, the use of dredged material as
a resource, as well as the socioecological aspects of dredging, R&D
and training programmes related to
dredging. It indicates the various financing sources for infrastructure
development projects and the forms
of dredging contracts including public-private partnerships, with a special focus on global, regional and
national lending agencies, and treaties and conventions. The book is 80
pages, illustrated in full colour. It is
now available and can be ordered
on-line in hard copy or as PDF at
www.iadc-dredging.com or you can
send an e-mail to info@iadcdredging.com.

Ro-Ro Shipping Conference
The Ro-Ro Shipping Conference will
take place in Copenhagen, Denmark
on March 9-10, 2011, which will be
an event dedicated solely to ro-ro
shipping. It will provide a key forum
for ro-ro owners and operators to
discuss the dynamic changes and
new challenges that the industry faces. Promising the usual cutting-edge
debate, the Ro-Ro Shipping Conference 2011 will offer unparalleled networking opportunities making it the
event of choice for everyone working
in the ro-ro industry.
The Conference will provide vital industry insights into ro-ro stakeholders planning their business strategy
for 2011 and beyond. Highlighted
sessions this year include:

leaders speculate on regulation,

competition and consolidation
how are they planning for survival?
Ro-ro shipping funding strategies:
examine how the global financial
crisis has impacted funding and
understand the implications for
obtaining financing for new projects.
LNG powered ro-ro case studies:
analyse the potential for LNG as
an alternative fuel for short sea
shipping and the impact on costs
and regulatory compliance.
Cost-efficient sustainable ferry
design: discuss designs of future
ro-pax vessels aimed at optimising fuel efficiency and environmental performance.
To secure your place at this Conference, call +44 (0)20 7017 5511,
e-mail maritimecustserv@informa.
com, or visit www.informamaritimeevents.com/RORO2011.

High profile ro-ro shipowner & operator panel: hear ro-ro industry

Frans-Herman Cammel
Project Manager IADC


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


World Canals Conference
2011 Save the date!

Following the World Canals Conference 2010, which was held in September 2010 in Rochester, USA, the
next edition of this event will take
place in Groningen, The Netherlands
on September 19-24, 2011. Save the
date and find out more details soon
on the Conference website at http://

reasons why rivers are valuable

the economics and ecoservices, the
cultural and spiritual values, use of
rivers in industry, the environmental
values of wild rivers and keeping environmental flows adequate. We will
have a wetland focus including the
value of healthy wetlands (and rivers) to human health.
The Call for Abstracts and the full
list of proposed themes is available
on the Conference website at http://

World Canals Conference is the

Conference that brings canal and
waterway enthusiasts, professionals
and scholars from around the world,
together to learn about a variety of
topics related to canals, including
the protection of historic canals or
features, revitalisation of canal systems, harbour sites, canal trails and
amenities; the presentation or interpretation of canals and corridors
their history and various elements;
canals as a means to promote tourism, spur economic development
and urban renewal and environmental sustainability.
The Conference is an opportunity for
the conference canal or organisation
to showcase their canal or waterway
and its many achievements.

14th International
Save the date!
Following the 13th edition of October
11-14, 2010 in Perth, Australia, the
14th International Riversymposium
will take place on September 26-29,
2011 in Brisbane, Queensland. This
Conference will explore the multiple

PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011


Dredging 2012
The Conference Dredging 2012
Dredging in the 21st Century 40
Years of Dredging and Environmental Innovation will take place in San
Diego, USA in the fall of 2012. This
three-day Conference is organised
More information will be available
soon at the PIANC USA website at


HYDRO 2011 Practical
Solutions for a Sustainable
The next HYDRO Conference and
Exhibition will take place in Prague,
Czech Republic on October 1719, 2011. The Call for Papers has
been published and can be found
com/d/d_Hydro_2011.pdf. Following previous HYDRO events in this
series, more than 1,300 participants are expected from about 90
countries to attend HYDRO 2011,
including delegates from all those
countries with active programmes
of hydropower development. An
important emphasis, once again,
will be on helping less developed
countries with major hydro potential to achieve their development
goals. Conference themes will include global needs and challenges,
technology, security/safety, synergy with other renewables, financing, environmental/social aspects,
project management, and plant life
extension. International organisations, such as ICOLD, ICID, IEA
and IWRA, will bring their expertise
to the discussions.

800 words) is February 18, 2011.

Please note that you should only
submit an abstract if the author (or
his/her representative) is able to attend the Conference. Speakers will
be eligible for a reduced registration
fee. In the case of speakers from
less developed countries, in some
exceptional circumstances we may
be able to secure financial support
to cover fees, but it is essential that
we know this at the time when the
abstract is submitted. Abstracts
should be sent to Mrs. Margaret
Bourke (Hydro2011@hydropowerdams.com). Finally, all information
can be found at www.hydropowerdams.com.

A major technical Exhibition will run

alongside the Conference, giving
all leading companies in the fields
of hydropower and multipurpose
dam engineering the opportunity to
display their products and services.
If you would like to take part in the
Exhibition, or require further details
about it, please contact Gal Bozec
(Tel.: +44 20 8773 7250).
Next to a choice of two post-Conference technical study tours, a full
social programme is planned for all,
offering all participants the opportunity for networking in a relaxed atmosphere.
If you would like to present a paper at HYDRO 2011, the deadline
for submitting an abstract (of up to


PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011

PIANC General Secretariat

Boulevard du Roi Albert II 20, B 3
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PIANC E-Magazine n 142, January/janvier 2011