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SPSS

22

CreatingCharts

37

57

82

113

Prof Elabbssi


SPSS
.1


.
) (
.


.

.
:
.
: .
: .
: ) (Coding

.

) - (
.

-1
.
-2 .
-3 )
(.

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

-4
.
:


)
(

.
:
.

Type of Data :


:
-1 Qualitative or Categorical Data :
) (



:
)( Nominal Scale


. 1 0
1
1 0
.
: ) -( )
( .
.

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

)( Ordinal Scale


: ) ) (1 ) (2
) (3) (4) (5) ((6 ) ) (5
) (4) (3) (2) ((1
) ) (5 ) (4) (3 ) (2 )((1
.
-2 Quantitative or Numerical Data



.....
:
:
-1 :

...


.
-2 :

.

Non-random sampling




.
Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi


:
.1 Accidental samples


.
.2 : Quota sampling

.
.
.3 : Purposive sampling

.
Random sampling


25 500

25
500

= %5

:
.

:
-1 Sample random sampling

) (

.
-2 Systematic sampling :

.
.
:
) ( .
)( .
Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

: n=200
N = 3000 .
:
.15= 3000 1
200

15 .8
8 15 8 23
15 23 38 ....
.2993

.
-3 Stratified random sampling

. :
:

.

= ) (
: :

280
400
500


220
200

150 .
: = 1600 = 220 +200 +280 +400 + 500
160
=
1600
160
40 = 400
=
1600
50 = 500

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

160
=
1600
160
20 = 200
=
1600
160
22 = 220
=
1600
28 = 280

: Collecting Data :
:
Personal Interview
-1



.
-2 Direct Observation




.
-3 Questionnaire


:
. I
.
:
...
:
12 ..
.II .

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

:

.

. III .
: ....
5 ...
...
.IV
.
. V
.
.VI
.
.VIII
.

.SPSS
: ) ( SPSS
.

.
SPSS ) (
) (Cases ) (
) ( Variable ) (
).( Values of Variables
:
( :
:

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

" " 1
" " 2 " " N" " Y
SPSS

SPSS
.
:

5 " " 4
" " 3 " " 2
" " 1 " ".
( :
:


.
/ 1 " " 0 " "
: .

6
5 .1
( :

.
:

.....

) (
) (

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

:
: 1 N
N
.
: 5 " "

.

.
:
. . . - .

SPSS
SPSS
" " " "Start " " Programs
" " SPSS for windows " "SPSS
): (Data Editor

. )(Case

....

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

)(Variable
. ).(Cell

) (Data View
) ( Variable View
) ( ...
.

) ( Data Editor :

Prof Elabbasi

10

Prof Elabbssi

open

Save

Print
Dialog Recall

Redo

Goto Chart

Goto Case

) (

Variable

Find

Insert Case

Insert Variable

Split File

Weight Cases

Select Cases

Value Labels

) ( ) (

Use Sets

Undo

SPSS

View
Prof Elabbasi

11

Prof Elabbssi

Toolbars
Data Editor
. Large Buttons

New Toolbar
barakat customize :
Categories
Items
Customizing Toolbar barakat
. barakat

Prof Elabbasi

12

Prof Elabbssi

:
:

10-5

1
2
3

: : :

::
5 10-5 10
3
2
1
: :

1
2
3
4
5
: q3, q2, q1
* Variable View
" .

Prof Elabbasi

13

Prof Elabbssi

Name Type
Lable
:

:
Name " "

:
Type
:

Numeric SPSS
Width 8 8 Decimal Places 2

Width Decimal

-:
Comma
Prof Elabbasi

14

Prof Elabbssi

) (1000 .
. 545,445,555.000
- Dot
) (1000
. 545.445.555,000
Scientific Notation
) (E )(10 4.51 10
4.51E2
2

Date

mm/ dd/ yy
mm dd yy . . 05/06/99
Dollar
$ ) (1000
.

Prof Elabbasi

15

Prof Elabbssi

$,505,487.14
: Custom Currencey

:

Prof Elabbasi

16

Prof Elabbssi

Edit Options Currency All Values


" Suffix " Negative Values " " -
Suffix .
454.000 - : .
: String
:
Characters
a . A

:
) (variable Label ) (Values
) (Value Labels Label
Variable View " ".
Values :
1 Value Value Label Add
2 Value " "
Value Label . Add

Prof Elabbasi

17

Prof Elabbssi

: Value (Value Label


Change .
:
Remove .

:

SPSS
:

"
) " (System Missing Values


.
"
" User Missing Values
Missing " "
:

Prof Elabbasi

18

Prof Elabbssi

:
No missing values
.
Discrete missing values

.
Range of missing values

.
.
Range plus one discrete missing value

.
.
:
) ( Column width
) (Text Format
. Column Align
.

Prof Elabbasi

19

Prof Elabbssi

:
Measure

. Nominal
:
10 . SPSS

:
:

10-5

1
2
3

:
: : :

::
5 10-5 10
3
2
1
: :

Prof Elabbasi

20

Prof Elabbssi

1
2
3
4
5
: q3, q2, q1

Prof Elabbasi

21

Prof Elabbssi

: q1, q2, q3

- Compute Transform :

Target Variable sum1 .

Numeric Expression q1+q2+q3


Prof Elabbasi

22

Prof Elabbssi


Expression
- Type&Lable

Numeric

Label Continue Ok :

:1

SUM

Functions Numeric
Prof Elabbasi

23

Prof Elabbssi

sum(q1,q2,q3) Expression ) sum(q1 to q3



.
9

:2

:
)sum.2(q1 to q3

.

:3 Compute Variable

.
:

<

>

=<

=>

**

) (

=~

&
and
| or

~ not

Prof Elabbasi

24

Prof Elabbssi

Transform

Compute

) .. (Compute Variable .. mean


Functions Numeric Expression

) mean(q1 to q3
Target Variable Ok

" "

5 If :

Include if case satisfied condition:

= 1 5
1 ....

Continue Compute Variable

If ... Ok ""

5 .

Prof Elabbasi

25

Prof Elabbssi

5 10
Compute Variable: if Cases :
= &1= 2 = and 1=2

and
* 5

10
:

= 1 = 2 = or 1=2

: 5

: 5
.

Prof Elabbasi

26

Prof Elabbssi

Data Select Cases

:
Select If condition is satisfied If

Prof Elabbasi

27

Prof Elabbssi

= 1 Continue

Select Cases Unselected Cases


Are

: Filtered

filter_$ ) 1 (Selected ) 0

(Not Selected "

" / .
All Cases . Select

:Deleted
.

Filtered Ok :

Prof Elabbasi

28

Prof Elabbssi

Deleted Unselected Cases :

- Data Select Cases Select Cases

Random sample of cases Select


Sample :

Approximately
60

%60 . Exactly

n 6

Prof Elabbasi

29

Prof Elabbssi

Exactly 10 6 10
.

.Exactly Continue Ok
:

Select Cases

Based on time or case range :

Prof Elabbasi

30

Prof Elabbssi

3 First Cases 7 Last Cases


.

Use Filter

Variable
Ok .

Templates

] ) (5 )(4

) (3) (2 ) [(1

.1
. Variable View

.2

q3

. Copy

.3 q3

Edit Past Variable


:

Prof Elabbasi

31

Prof Elabbssi

-4 4

Number of new variables New variable


names q
4

). 4 q4 Ok.

9 Saving Data
.1 Save As File

Prof Elabbasi

32

Prof Elabbssi

.2 Save In " "

" "

File Name

SPSS*.sav Save as type .

.Save

.4 SPSS Exit SPSS . File

.1 File Open Data .

.2 : .Open

Prof Elabbasi

33

Prof Elabbssi

Delete

Edit Copy
Edit . Past

)( Insert Variable

.1 .

.2 ) Insert Variable
( Var00001

) ( Insert Cases

.1 .

) Insert Case

( .

Go To Case

.1 Go To Case Data Go To

Case

Finding Values

.1 ) (q3
.q1

Prof Elabbasi

34

Prof Elabbssi

.2 Edit Find :

.3 4 Find what

Exporting and Importing

SPSS

Excel Access) ( .

Excel ) Access ( .
9

Exporting Data

.1 SPSS Excel Save As


File :

Prof Elabbasi

35

Prof Elabbssi

.2 Save as type Excel *.xls

Excel "" File


.name .Save

.3 Excel Open
"".

Importing Data

Excel SPSS
:

.1 SPSS Open File

File of Type
SPSS Excel*.xls

.2 .Ok

Prof Elabbasi

36

Prof Elabbssi


Creating charts

" _ " "

_ " Numeric :

.1
)(Summaries for groups of cases
: .
.1: Graphs Bar :

Prof Elabbasi

37

Prof Elabbssi

Simple .2

Summaries for groups of Data in Chart Are .3


cases
: Define .4

38

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

.5 Bars Represent Other summary function

.6 "_ "

Variable Mean

Change Summary .

.7 " "

Category Axis .
.8 Titles :

Prof Elabbasi

39

Prof Elabbssi

. Continue Ok

.9

Chart

Window
:

Prof Elabbasi

40

Prof Elabbssi

.10 ) T (Text

Text Styles

Arabic Transparent 12
. Apply .

.11
Center :

.12

.13 Close File :

Prof Elabbasi

41

Prof Elabbssi

: .

.1: ) Clustered (
Simple Summaries of separate variables .

Prof Elabbasi

42

Prof Elabbssi

.3

Define :

.4 " _ " " _ " Bars


Represent " " Category Axis .Ok

.5 .

Prof Elabbasi

43

Prof Elabbssi
600

500

Mean

400

300

:
: Bar Chart Simple Dada

in chart are Summaries of separate variable Define


:

Prof Elabbasi

44

Prof Elabbssi

" _ " " _

Bars Represent Ok
:

540

529
520

500

Mean
480

460

452
440

)(Clustered Bar Charts

" "

) (category Variable
" "

Prof Elabbasi

45

Prof Elabbssi

: Bar Graphs

.1

Data in Chart Are Clustered .2

Define Summaries for groups of cases

46

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

.3 " _ " Variable " "

Category Axis " " Define

Clustered by Ok (Chart
) Carousel Chart Window

600

507
493

400

400

385

10 -5

Mean

500

350

10

300

:
:

10

Prof Elabbasi

47

Prof Elabbssi

.1 ) (Data Editor "


_ " " " " " " "
.

.2 Graphs Bar :

.3 Simple Data in Chart Are Values of

Prof Elabbasi

48

Prof Elabbssi

individual cases Define :

.4 : " Bar Represent

Gategory Lables Variable "

_ " Variable Ok

.5 Chart Carousel
Chart Windows .

Chart Windows . Chart Carousel

11

10

10

5
4

: :
.1 Graph Pie :
Prof Elabbasi

49

Value

Prof Elabbssi

Define Values of individual cases .3


:

50

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

.4 " " Slices Represent

Variable Slice Labels "


_ " Variable Ok

.

.5
Chart Window
:

Prof Elabbasi

51

Prof Elabbssi

.6 ) (Value
Percents .

.7 Format :

.8 Position Outside

Continue Ok

5.00 / 22.7%

00 / 45.5%

7.00 / 31.8%

Prof Elabbasi

52

Prof Elabbssi

:
.
:
.1

.2

Graph Scatter :

Simple Define :

Prof Elabbasi

53

Prof Elabbssi

.3

"_ " Y Axis

_" X Axis Ok :
700

600

400

300
700

500

600

400

Prof Elabbasi

54

500

Prof Elabbssi

.4 :

- Chart Options

.5 Total File Options


:

Prof Elabbasi

55

Prof Elabbssi

.6 Linear regression Continue OK


:

700

600

500

300
700

500

600

400

Prof Elabbasi

56

400

Prof Elabbssi

5
5 10

.1 Analyze Report OLAP Cubes

Prof Elabbasi

57

Prof Elabbssi

.2 ) Summary Variable(s " _"

" _ " )Grouping Variable (s

" " " " .

.4 Statistics... :

Mean

Standard Deviation Minimum

Prof Elabbasi

58

Prof Elabbssi

Maximum Sum Number of Cases

Cell Statistics Continue


. OLAPS Cubes

.5 Title :

Continue Ok

:
OLAP Cubes
Case Processing Summary

Total
Percent

Cases
Excluded
N
Percent

Included
N
Percent

100.0%

10

.0%

100.0%

10

100.0%

10

.0%

100.0%

10

Prof Elabbasi

59


*

*

Prof Elabbssi

OLAP Cubes
: Total
: Total
N
10
10

Sum
$4,520
$5,290

Mean Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum


$452.00
$75.836
$350
$600
$529.00
$66.072
$440
$650

.6 $450
$529 .

:

.7 " " :

$380.00

Prof Elabbasi

60

Prof Elabbssi

.8

" 5 " :

" " " 5 "

. $385

Crosstabulations

) (

) ( Categorical Variables
.

) . (two-way crostabulation
)( multi-way crostabulation
9
.1

Analyze Descriptive Statistics

Crosstabs Crosstabs

Prof Elabbasi

61

Prof Elabbssi

.2 " " ) Row(s " "

) Column(s Display clustered bar

charts Cells :

Prof Elabbasi

62

Prof Elabbssi

.3 Row Column

. Percentage Continue Ok :

Crosstabs
Case Processing Summary

Crosstabulation *

Cases
Valid
Missing
Total
N
5N Percent
Percent
Percent
N10 10-5
Total
10
100.0%
.0%1
10 1 100.0% 4
Count
20

100.0%
40.0%
6
100.0%
60.0%
10
100.0%
100.0%

25.0%
25.0%
3
50.0%
75.0%
4
40.0%
100.0%

25.0%
25.0%
3
50.0%
75.0%
4
40.0%
100.0%

50.0% % within
% within
100.0%
Count
% within
% within
Total
Count
2
20.0% % within
% within
100.0%

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

5
10-5

1.0

10

.5

.4
" " " 5" 2
Prof Elabbasi

63

Prof Elabbssi

5 %50
5 %50
%100
5 %100
.
.5 .
9

" " :

) (Multi-way crosstabulation

.1 Descriptive statistics Analyze


Crosstabs :

Prof Elabbasi

64

Prof Elabbssi

.2 :
Crosstabs
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Missing
N
Percent
0
.0%

Total
N
Percent
10 100.0%

Valid
N
Percent
10 100.0%

* *

Crosstabulation * *

Total
1
100.0%
16.7%
5
100.0%
83.3%
6
100.0%
100.0%
3
100.0%
75.0%
1
100.0%
25.0%
4
100.0%
100.0%

10 10-5 5

Count
1
100.0% % within
% within
100.0%
Count
3
2
% within
60.0%
40.0%
% within
100.0%
100.0%
Count
1
3
2
% within
16.7%
50.0%
33.3%
% within
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

Count
1
1
1
% within
33.3%
33.3%
33.3%
% within
100.0%
100.0%
50.0%
Count
1
% within
100.0%
% within
50.0%
Count
1
1
2
% within
25.0%
25.0%
50.0%
% within
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

Total

Total

3.5

1.1

3.0

1.0

2.5

.9

2.0

.7

1.5

10 -5

.6

10 -5

1.0

.5

10

10

Prof Elabbasi

.5

65

.8

Prof Elabbssi



.1 )(Central Tendency
9 mean .
9 Median %50 .
9 Mode .

.2 Dispersion
9
9
9
9
9
9

Slandered Deviation
.
Variance
Range .
Minimum
Maximum
S.E.mean
.

.3 Distribution
9 : Skew ness


.
.
.
: Kurtosis
.


.
9 Quartiles
9 ) Percentile(s


:
Prof Elabbasi

66

Prof Elabbssi

Frequencies

.1 Analyze Descriptive Statistics

Frequencies :

.2 Statistics :

Prof Elabbasi

67

Prof Elabbssi

.3 Continue
: Charts :

.4 Histograms With normal carve


Continue Frequency Ok
:

Prof Elabbasi

68

Prof Elabbssi

Frequencies
Statistics
N


10
10
0
0
$452.00
$529.00
$23.981
$20.894
$455.00
$520.00
$400
$500
$75.836
$66.072
$5,751.111
$4,365.556
.567
.435
.687
.687
.113
-.351
1.334
1.334
$250
$210
$350
$440
$600
$650
$4,520
$5,290
$352.00
$441.00
$376.00
$458.00
$392.50
$480.00
$400.00
$493.00
$420.00
$500.00
$455.00
$520.00
$466.00
$546.00
$491.00
$564.00
$505.00
$577.50
$516.00
$594.00
$592.00
$645.00

Valid
Missing

Mean
Std. Error of Mean
Median
Mode
Std. Deviation
Variance
Skewness
Std. Error of Skewness
Kurtosis
Std. Error of Kurtosis
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Percentiles

10
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
75
80
90

Frequency Table

Valid

$350
$370
$400
$450
$460
$470
$500
$520
$600
Total

Frequency
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
10

Percent
10.0
10.0
20.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
100.0

69

Valid Percent
10.0
10.0
20.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
10.0
20.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

Valid

$440
$450
$490
$500
$540
$550
$570
$600
$650
Total

Frequency
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
10

Percent
10.0
10.0
10.0
20.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
100.0

Valid Percent
10.0
10.0
10.0
20.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
10.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0

Histogram


3.5
3.0

Frequency

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
Std. Dev = 75.84

.5

Mean = 452.0
N = 10.00

0.0
350.0

400.0

450.0

500.0

550.0

600.0

70

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi


3.5
3.0
2.5

1.5

Frequency

2.0

1.0
Std. Dev = 66.07

.5

Mean = 529.0
N = 10.00

0.0
650.0

600.0
625.0

550.0
575.0

500.0
525.0

450.0
475.0

Descriptive


.1 Analyze Descriptive Statistics
Descriptives :

Prof Elabbasi

71

Prof Elabbssi

.2 " _" " _" ). Variable(s


.3 Option :

.5 Continue
. Descriptives
.6 Save standardized values as variables
) ( Ok :
Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics
Skewness
Statistic Std. Error
.567
.687
.435
.687

Prof Elabbasi

Std.
Statistic
$75.836
$66.072

Mean
Statistic
$452.00
$529.00

72

N
Statistic

10

10
)Valid N (listwise
10

Prof Elabbssi

.7

= z x

x x

:

) Explore (



:
.1 Analyze Descriptive Statistics
Explore :

Prof Elabbasi

73

Prof Elabbssi

.2 " _ " Dependent List


" " ) Factor List
Display Both Statistics Plots
(Both
Statistics :

.3 ) Descriptive ( ) M-Estimators
( Outliers
)

) Percentiles ( Continue
.Explore
.4 Plots :

Prof Elabbasi

74

Prof Elabbssi

.5 Factor level together Descriptive


Stem-and-leaf Histogram Continue
Explore Ok :
Explore

:
:
.

Case Processing Summary

Total
N
Percent
6 100.0%
4 100.0%

Cases
Missing
N
Percent
0
.0%
0
.0%

Valid
N
Percent
6 100.0%
4 100.0%

: .
95% Confidence interval for mean
%95
.
5% Trimmed Mean
%5 %5
.
Interquartile Range
.
.

Prof Elabbasi

75

Prof Elabbssi
Descriptives

Mean
95% Confidence
Interval for Mean

Statistic
$488.33
$416.11

Lower Bound
Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean
Median
Variance
Std. Deviation
Minimum
Maximum
Range
Interquartile Range
Skewness
Kurtosis
Mean
95% Confidence
Interval for Mean

Std. Error
$28.097

$560.56
$487.04
$480.00
4736.667
$68.823
$400
$600
$200
$102.50
.605
.620
$397.50
$313.93

Lower Bound
Upper Bound

.845
1.741
$26.260

$481.07

5% Trimmed Mean
Median
Variance
Std. Deviation
Minimum
Maximum
Range
Interquartile Range
Skewness
Kurtosis

$396.11
$385.00
2758.333
$52.520
$350
$470
$120
$97.50
1.165
1.085

1.014
2.619

:
.
M-Estimators

Huber's
a
M-Estimator
$482.01
$385.00

Tukey's
b
Biweight
$475.72
$380.06

Hampel's
c
M-Estimator
$481.85
$387.45

Andrews'
d
Wave
$475.63
$380.00

a. The weighting constant is 1.339.


b. The weighting constant is 4.685.
c. The weighting constants are 1.700, 3.400, and 8.500
d. The weighting constant is 1.340*pi.

76

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

:
Percentiles
Percentiles

5
10
25
50
75
Weighted
$400.00 $400.00 $437.50 $480.00 $540.00
Average(Definition
$350.00 $350.00 $355.00 $385.00 $452.50
Tukey's Hinges

$450.00 $480.00 $520.00

$360.00 $385.00 $435.00

90

95
.
.

.
.

:
Extreme Values

Highest

Case Number
10
9
5
1
6
7
8
4
2
3

1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
1
2

Lowest

Highest
Lowest

Value
$600
$520
$500
$400
$450
$460
$470
$400
$350
$370

a. The requested number of extreme values exceeds the number of


data points. A smaller number of extremes is displayed.


:

Histogram
For =
2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

Std. Dev = 68.82

.5

Mean = 488.3
N = 6.00

0.0
400.0

450.0

500.0

550.0

600.0

77

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

Histogram
= For
1.2
1.0
.8

.6
.4
Std. Dev = 52.52

.2

Mean = 397.5
N = 4.00

0.0
475.0

450.0

425.0

400.0

375.0

350.0



.

Stem-and-Leaf Plots
Stem-and-Leaf Plot for
=
Leaf
056
02
0

& Stem
4 .
5 .
6 .
100

)1 case(s

Prof Elabbasi

78

Frequency
3.00
2.00
1.00
Stem width:
Each leaf:

Prof Elabbssi

Stem-and-Leaf Plot for


=
Leaf
57
0
7

& Stem
.
.
.
.

3
3
4
4
100

)1 case(s

Frequency
.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
Stem width:
Each leaf:

:
stem Leaf
. Stem width
:
0 4
5 .9
.
= ) 0.1 + (
: 3 5 :
100 :
= )350 = 100 (5 0.1 + 3

Prof Elabbasi

79

Prof Elabbssi

9 Box Plot

:

700
680
660
640
620
600
580
560
540
520
500
480
460
440
420
400
380
360
340
320
300

=N

.1 ) (
.2) 25 ( )
(.
.3 ) 75 ( )
(.
%50
.
.4

.5

.6

Prof Elabbasi

80

Prof Elabbssi

) :(extremes
) 3 (
) * (.
) :(outliers
) 1.5 (
) .( o
:
:
.1 .
.2
.
.3
.

.1 470$
.2 350$
.3 355%
.4 ) ( 385$
.5 452$
.6 .
.7 .

Prof Elabbasi

81

Prof Elabbssi


Correlation



...
r
1 . 1
9 1
9 1-
9 .
9 .
9 .

.1
.2

.3
.4
.5

:
) :(Pearson

) : (Spearman
) (
) 8 5 8
5(
.
) : (Kandell,s tau
.
) : (Phi
) ( ) (.
) : (Cramers
)
( ) (


_ :
Prof Elabbasi

82

Prof Elabbssi


File Info Utilities
:
:

File Information
List of variables on the working file
Position

Name

Measurement Level: Nominal


Column Width: 8 Alignment: Center
Print Format: F8
Write Format: F8

83

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi
Value
1
2

Label


2
Measurement Level: Nominal
Column Width: 8 Alignment: Center
Print Format: F8
Write Format: F8
Value

Label

1
2

3
Measurement Level: Scale
Column Width: 8 Alignment: Center
Print Format: F8
Write Format: F8

Measurement Level: Scale


Column Width: 8 Alignment: Center
Print Format: F8
Write Format: F8

Measurement Level: Scale


Column Width: 8 Alignment: Center
Print Format: F8
Write Format: F8

6
Measurement Level: Scale
Column Width: 8 Alignment: Center
Print Format: F8
Write Format: F8

7
Measurement Level: Scale
Column Width: 8 Alignment: Center
Print Format: F8
Write Format: F8

84

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi




"

:
.1 Analyze
Correlate
Bivariate
:
:

.2 " " " " Variables


.3

Flag significant correlations
""
.
.4 Ok :

Prof Elabbasi

85

Prof Elabbssi

Correlations
Correlations

**.959
.000
10
1
.
10

1
.
10
**.959
.000
10

Pearson Correlation
)Sig. (2-tailed
N
Pearson Correlation
)Sig. (2-tailed
N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level


)(2 il d

.5
2.tailed Significance = 0.000 = .05
r = 0.959
.
9


Variables
Bivariate Correlations :

Prof Elabbasi

86

Prof Elabbssi

Ok :
Correlations
Correlations

**.833
.003
10
**.811
.004
10
**.890
.001
10
1
.
10

**.780
.008
10
*.746
.013
10
1
.
10
**.890
.001
10

**.959
.000
10
1
.
10
*.746
.013
10
**.811
.004
10

1
.
10
**.959
.000
10
**.780
.008
10
**.833
.003
10

Pearson Correlation
)Sig. (2-tailed
N
Pearson Correlation
)Sig. (2-tailed
N
Pearson Correlation
)Sig. (2-tailed
N
Pearson Correlation
)Sig. (2-tailed
N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).


*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).


= 0.01 = 0.05
Scatter Plot
:
.1 Graphs Scatter Scatterplot
:

.2

Mtrix Define Mtrix :

Prof Elabbasi

87

Prof Elabbssi

.3 Matrix Variables Ok
:

Prof Elabbasi

88

Prof Elabbssi

: :
"

"

Analyze Correlate
Partial :
" " " " Variables "
" . Controlling for: Ok
:

C O E F F I C I

C O R R E L A T I O N
E N T S - -

Partial Correlation
- - - P A R T I A L

Controlling for..

1.0000

0.9588

P= .000
P= .
1.0000
0.9588

p=0.000
p=.
)(Coefficient / (D.F.) / 2-tailed Significance
" . " is printed if a coefficient cannot be computed
Prof Elabbasi

89

Prof Elabbssi


2- tailed significance = 0.000 0.05
.
:
:
- Graph Scatter Scatterplot :

Simple Define : " " Y Axis " " X Axis " " Set Markers by Ok
:

Prof Elabbasi

90

Prof Elabbssi

100

90

80

70

60
100

90

80

70

60



:
Y = a x + bz + cw+.. . +d +
Y x, z, w, .. .
a,b,c,..,d .


.
: :
:
:

Prof Elabbasi

91

Prof Elabbssi

.1 Analyze Regression Linear


:

.2 " " ) Independent (s "


" . Dependent Statistics
:

Prof Elabbasi

92

Prof Elabbssi

.4 Estimates, Model fit, Descriptives


Continue . Linear Regression
.5 Plots Scatterplot Residuals
Predicted values Linear
Regression: Plots:

.6 ZRESID Y ZPRED X
Continue Ok
:
:
.
Regression
Descriptive Statistics
N
10
10

Std. Deviation
2.014
9.443

Mean
4.50
78.50


0.949 .

Prof Elabbasi

93

Prof Elabbssi

Correlations

.949
1.000
.000
.
10
10


1.000
.949
.
.000
10
10

Pearson Correlation
)Sig. (1-tailed
N

Enter

Variables Entered/Removedb
Method
Enter

Variables
Entered
a

Variables
Removed
.

Model
1

a. All requested variables entered.


b. Dependent Variable:

R R2 0.902
.
Model Summaryb
Std. Error of
the Estimate
.670

Adjusted
R Square
.889

R
R Square
a
.949
.902

Model
1

a. Predictors: (Constant),
b. Dependent Variable:


Sig. = 0.000 0.05

ANOVAb
Sig.
.000a

F
73.224

Mean Square
32.905
.449

df

1
8
9

Sum of
Squares
32.905
3.595
36.500

Regression
Residual
Total

Model
1

a. Predictors: (Constant),
b. Dependent Variable:

Prof Elabbasi

94

Prof Elabbssi

:
. B .Std.Error Standardization Beta
t
Beta Sig. Beta 0.05
.
:
= 0.202 11.396
Coefficients a

Sig.
.000
.000

Standardized
Coefficients
Beta

t
-6.095
8.557

.949

Unstandardized
Coefficients
B
Std. Error
-11.396
1.870
.202
.024

)(Constant

Model
1

a. Dependent Variable:

) ( Predicted values Residual values




.
Charts
Scatterplot
Dependent Variable:
2.0
1.5
1.0
.5
0.0
-.5
-1.0
-1.5
2.0

1.5

1.0

.5

0.0

-.5

-1.0

Regression Standardized Predicted Value

Prof Elabbasi

95

-1.5

Regression Standardized Residual

Prof Elabbssi

multiple Linear Regression


:
: "
" " " " " " " " :
:
.1 Analyze Regression
Linear :

:" Dependent " " "


" " " " " ) Independent(s
Statistics :

Prof Elabbasi

96

Prof Elabbssi

.2 Estimates Model fit R squared change


Descriptive Continue Linear Regression
.4
Method :
: Enter

.
:Stepwise

)
(


) (


.
: Remove
Block
.
Prof Elabbasi

97

Prof Elabbssi

: Backward

) (
/
.
: Forward
)
(






.
.3

Enter Ok :
Regression


:
Descriptive Statistics
N
10
10
10
10
10

Std. Deviation
2.014
9.443
7.412
14.491
13.683

Mean
4.50
78.50
82.60
79.00
79.90

Prof Elabbasi

98

Prof Elabbssi
Correlations

.845
.833
.811
.890
1.000
.001
.001
.002
.000
.
10
10
10
10
10

.819
.780
.746
1.000
.890
.002
.004
.007
.
.000
10
10
10
10
10

.949
1.000
.959
.780
.833
.000
.
.000
.004
.001
10
10
10
10
10

.923
.959
1.000
.746
.811
.000
.000
.
.007
.002
10
10
10
10
10


1.000
.949
.923
.819
.845
.
.000
.000
.002
.001
10
10
10
10
10

Pearson Correlation

)Sig. (1-tailed

R
R2 0.919
F .14.25
b
Model Summary

Change Statistics
Sig. F Change
.006

df2
5

df1
4

Adjusted Std. Error of R Square


R
R Square R Square the Estimate Change F Change
.959a
.919
.855
.767
.919
14.250

Model
1

, , , a. Predictors: (Constant),
b. Dependent Variable:

R2
Sig. = 0.006 0.05
Sig. 0.05

.

Prof Elabbasi

99

Prof Elabbssi

ANOVAb
Sig.
.006a

Mean Square
8.389
.589

F
14.250

Sum of
Squares
33.556
2.944
36.500

df

4
5
9

Regression
Residual
Total

Model
1

, , , a. Predictors: (Constant),
b. Dependent Variable:

B

= 0.135 2-104.26+
2-10 2.594 + 3-10 46-3.35 +
.4 Stepwise :
.
Regression
Descriptive Statistics
N
10
10
10
10
10

Prof Elabbasi

Std. Deviation
2.014
9.443
7.412
14.491
13.683

Mean
4.50
78.50
82.60
79.00
79.90

100

Prof Elabbssi
Correlations

Pearson Correlation
1.000
.949

.949
1.000

.923
.959

.819
.780

.845
.833
Sig. (1-tailed)

.
.000

.000
.

.000
.000

.002
.004

.001
.001
N

10
10

10
10

10
10

10
10

10
10

.923
.959
1.000
.746
.811
.000
.000
.
.007
.002
10
10
10
10
10

.819
.780
.746
1.000
.890
.002
.004
.007
.
.000
10
10
10
10
10

.845
.833
.811
.890
1.000
.001
.001
.002
.000
.
10
10
10
10
10

b
Model Summary

Model
1

Change Statistics
Adjusted Std. Error of R Square
R
R Square R Square the Estimate Change F Change
df1
df2
Sig. F Change
.949a
.902
.889
.670
.902
73.224
1
8
.000

a. Predictors: (Constant),
b. Dependent Variable:

ANOVAb
Sum of
Model
Squares
1
Regression 32.905
Residual
3.595
Total
36.500

df

Mean Square
1
32.905
8
.449
9

F
73.224

Sig.
.000a

a. Predictors: (Constant),
b. Dependent Variable:


0.202 + 11.396- =

101

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi
Coefficientsa

Model
1

(Constant)

Unstandardized
Coefficients
B
Std. Error
-11.396
1.870
.202
.024

Standardized
Coefficients
Beta
.949

t
-6.095
8.557

Sig.
.000
.000

a. Dependent Variable:



. Sig B
b
Excluded Variables

Model
1

Beta In
.157a
.200a
.176a

t
.379
1.152
.865

Sig.
.716
.287
.416

Collinearity
Statistics
Tolerance
8.050E-02
.392
.306

Partial
Correlation
.142
.399
.311

a. Predictors in the Model: (Constant),


b. Dependent Variable:

: Remove .5
Regression
Descriptive Statistics

Mean
4.50
78.50
82.60
79.00
79.90

Std. Deviation
2.014
9.443
7.412
14.491
13.683

102

N
10
10
10
10
10

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi
Correlations

Pearson Correlation
1.000

.949

.923

.819

.845
Sig. (1-tailed)

.

.000

.000

.002

.001
N

10

10

10

10

10

.949
1.000
.959
.780
.833
.000
.
.000
.004
.001
10
10
10
10
10

.923
.959
1.000
.746
.811
.000
.000
.
.007
.002
10
10
10
10
10

.819
.780
.746
1.000
.890
.002
.004
.007
.
.000
10
10
10
10
10

.845
.833
.811
.890
1.000
.001
.001
.002
.000
.
10
10
10
10
10

Variables Entered/Removedc
Model
1

Variables
Entered
,
,
,
a

Variables
Removed

Method
.

,
b,,

Enter

Remove

a. All requested variables entered.


b. All requested variables removed.
c. Dependent Variable:
Model Summary

Model
1
2

Change Statistics
Adjusted Std. Error of R Square
R
R Square R Square the Estimate Change F Change df1
df2 Sig. F Change
.959a
.919
.855
.767
.919 14.250
4
5
.006
b
.000
.000
.000
2.014
-.919 14.250
4
13
.006

a. Predictors: (Constant), , , ,
b. Predictor: (constant)

103

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi
ANOVAc
Model
1
Regression
Residual
Total
2
Regression
Residual
Total

Sum of
Squares
33.556
2.944
36.500
.000
36.500
36.500

df

Mean Square
4
8.389
5
.589
9
0
.000
9
4.056
9

F
14.250

Sig.
.006a

.b

a. Predictors: (Constant), , , ,
b. Predictor: (constant)
c. Dependent Variable:

Coefficientsa
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
B
Std. Error
1
(Constant) -11.961
3.651

.135
.102

4.260E-02
.123

2.594E-02
.039

3.346E-03
.047
2
(Constant)
4.500
.637

Standardized
Coefficients
Beta
.635
.157
.187
.023

t
-3.276
1.323
.348
.658
.071
7.066

Sig.
.022
.243
.742
.539
.946
.000

a. Dependent Variable:
b
Excluded Variables

Model

Beta In
.949a
.923a
.819a
.845a

t
8.557
6.788
4.031
4.465

Sig.
.000
.000
.004
.002

Partial
Correlation
.949
.923
.819
.845

Collinearity
Statistics
Tolerance
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000

a. Predictor: (constant)
b. Dependent Variable:

104

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

.6 Backward :
Regression
Descriptive Statistics
N
10
10
10
10
10

Std. Deviation
2.014
9.443
7.412
14.491
13.683

Mean
4.50
78.50
82.60
79.00
79.90

Correlations

.845
.833
.811
.890
1.000
.001
.001
.002
.000
.
10
10
10
10
10

Prof Elabbasi

.819
.780
.746
1.000
.890
.002
.004
.007
.
.000
10
10
10
10
10

.923
.959
1.000
.746
.811
.000
.000
.
.007
.002
10
10
10
10
10

.949
1.000
.959
.780
.833
.000
.
.000
.004
.001
10
10
10
10
10


Pearson Correlation
1.000

.949

.923

.819

.845
)Sig. (1-tailed

.

.000

.000

.002

.001
N

10

10

10

10

10

105

Prof Elabbssi
Variables Entered/Removed
Model
1

Variables
Entered
,
,
,
a

Variables
Removed

Method
.

Enter
Backward
(criterion:
Probabilit
y of
F-to-remo
ve >=
.100).
Backward
(criterion:
Probabilit
y of
F-to-remo
ve >=
.100).
Backward
(criterion:
Probabilit
y of
F-to-remo
ve >=
.100).

a. All requested variables entered.


b. Dependent Variable:

Model Summary
Change Statistics

Mode
1
2
3
4

AdjustedStd. Error oRf Square


R R SquareR Squarehe EstimateChangeF Change df1
.959a .919
.855
.767
.919 14.250
4
b
.959
.919
.879
.701
.000
.005
1
c
.958
.917
.894
.657
-.002
.154
1
.949d .902
.889
.670
-.016 1.326
1

df2

5
7
8
9

ig. F Chang
.006
.946
.708
.287

a.Predictors: (Constant), , , ,
b.Predictors: (Constant), , ,
c.Predictors: (Constant), ,
d.Predictors: (Constant),

106

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi
ANOVAe
Model
1

Regression
Residual
Total
Regression
Residual
Total
Regression
Residual
Total
Regression
Residual
Total

Sum of
Squares
33.556
2.944
36.500
33.553
2.947
36.500
33.478
3.022
36.500
32.905
3.595
36.500

df
4
5
9
3
6
9
2
7
9
1
8
9

Mean Square
8.389
.589

F
14.250

Sig.
.006a

11.184
.491

22.775

.001b

16.739
.432

38.768

.000c

32.905
.449

73.224

.000d

a. Predictors: (Constant), , , ,
b. Predictors: (Constant), , ,
c. Predictors: (Constant), ,
d. Predictors: (Constant),
e. Dependent Variable:

Coefficientsa

Model
1

(Constant)

(Constant)

(Constant)

(Constant)

Unstandardized
Coefficients
B
Std. Error
-11.961
3.651
.135
.102
4.260E-02
.123
2.594E-02
.039
3.346E-03
.047
-12.007
3.282
.136
.093
4.366E-02
.111
2.788E-02
.026
-10.981
1.868
.169
.037
2.779E-02
.024
-11.396
1.870
.202
.024

Standardized
Coefficients
Beta
.635
.157
.187
.023
.639
.161
.201
.794
.200
.949

t
-3.276
1.323
.348
.658
.071
-3.658
1.470
.393
1.083
-5.880
4.571
1.152
-6.095
8.557

Sig.
.022
.243
.742
.539
.946
.011
.192
.708
.320
.001
.003
.287
.000
.000

a. Dependent Variable:

107

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi
Excluded Variablesd
Collinearity
Statistics
Tolerance
.156
.158
8.050E-02
.306
8.050E-02
.392

Partial
Correlation
.032
.050
.158
.311
.142
.399

Sig.
.946
.906
.708
.416
.716
.287

.071
.123
.393
.865
.379
1.152

Beta In
.023a
.036b
.161b
.176c
.157c
.200c

Model
2
3
4

, , a. Predictors in the Model: (Constant),


, b. Predictors in the Model: (Constant),
c. Predictors in the Model: (Constant),
d. Dependent Variable:

.7 Forward :
Regression
Descriptive Statistics
N
10
10
10
10
10

Std. Deviation
2.014
9.443
7.412
14.491
13.683

Mean
4.50
78.50
82.60
79.00
79.90

Correlations

.845
.833
.811
.890
1.000
.001
.001
.002
.000
.
10
10
10
10
10

Prof Elabbasi

.819
.780
.746
1.000
.890
.002
.004
.007
.
.000
10
10
10
10
10

.923
.959
1.000
.746
.811
.000
.000
.
.007
.002
10
10
10
10
10

.949
1.000
.959
.780
.833
.000
.
.000
.004
.001
10
10
10
10
10


Pearson Correlation
1.000

.949

.923

.819

.845
)Sig. (1-tailed

.

.000

.000

.002

.001
N

10

10

10

10

10

108

Prof Elabbssi
Variables Entered/Removeda
Model
1

Variables
Entered

Variables
Removed

Method
Forward
(Criterion:
Probabilit
y-of-F-to-e
nter <=
.050)

a. Dependent Variable:

Model Summary
Change Statistics

Adjusted
Std. Error R
o Square
Mode R R SquarR
e Squarh
ee EstimatChangeF Change df1
a
1
.949
.902
.889
.670
.902 73.224
1

df2

g. F Chang
8
.000

a.Predictors: (Constant),
ANOVAb
Sum of
Model
Squares
Regression 32.905
1
Residual
3.595
Total
36.500

df

1
8
9

Mean Square
32.905
.449

F
73.224

Sig.
.000a

t
-6.095
8.557

Sig.
.000
.000

a. Predictors: (Constant),
b. Dependent Variable:
a
Coefficients

Model
(Constant)
1

Unstandardized
Standardized
Coefficients
Coefficients
B
Std. Error
Beta
-11.396
1.870
.202
.024
.949

a. Dependent Variable:
Excluded Variables

Model
1

Beta In
.157a
.200a
.176a

Sig.
.716
.287
.416

.379
1.152
.865

Partial
Correlation
.142
.399
.311

Collinearity
Statistics
Tolerance
8.050E-02
.392
.306

a. Predictors in the Model: (Constant),


b. Dependent Variable:

109

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi



:
.
:
.1 Analyze Regression Curve
Estimation :

.2 " " ) Dependent(s " "


Variable "
" . Ok :
Curve Fit
MOD_2.

MODEL:

Independent:

Upper
b3

Prof Elabbasi

b2

b1

b0

.1138

-4.4868

bound

Sigf

d.f.

Rsq

.004

16.25

.670

110

Dependent Mth
LIN

Prof Elabbssi
.0028
-.0013 1.9E-05

-29.430 7.7965
11.2259 -511.64
9.5323 -.2880
2.9925
.4092 1.0295
.0006 2.0273
3.1829 -135.09
-.8935
.0291
.4092
.0291
2.4437
.9713

.006
.010
.010
.009
.001
.001
.002
.001
.001
.001

13.57
11.11
9.69
9.81
28.85
25.11
20.83
28.85
28.85
28.85

8
8
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8

.629
.581
.735
.737
.783
.758
.723
.783
.783
.783

LOG
INV
QUA
CUB
COM
POW
S
GRO
EXP
LGS

Notes:
9 Tolerance limits reached; some dependent variables were not entered.
Observed

Linear

Logarithmic

8
Inverse

Quadratic

Cubic

Compound
Power

Growth

Exponential

Logistic

0
100

90

70

80

60

50

40

.3
Exponential Y = LN(b0) + b1 t

= ) 0.0291 + ln(0.4092

Exponential Curve Estimation Ok
:
Prof Elabbasi

111

Prof Elabbssi


9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
100

90

80

60

70

50

40

Prof Elabbasi

112

Prof Elabbssi


:
:Hypothesis :
. ) ( HO
. Ha
: (Null Hypothesis) HO


.
Nul
) (.

): Alternative Hypothesis (Ha



.

:
%90 %95 %99
Significance Levels

1- ) %95
( %5

.
:

.

Prof Elabbasi

113

Prof Elabbssi

) (:

.
: Employee
data SPSS
:

Prof Elabbasi

114

Prof Elabbssi

Utilities Variables
:


. (variable information)
Utilities File Info
:
File Information
List of variables on the working file
Name

Position

ID

Employee Code
Measurement Level: Scale
Column Width: 5 Alignment: Right
Print Format: F4
Write Format: F4

GENDER

Gender
Measurement Level: Nominal
Column Width: 1 Alignment: Left
Print Format: A1

115

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

Write Format: A1
Value

Label

f
m

Female
Male

BDATE

Date of Birth
Measurement Level: Scale
Column Width: 8 Alignment: Right
Print Format: ADATE8
Write Format: ADATE8

EDUC

Educational Level (years)


Measurement Level: Ordinal
Column Width: 6 Alignment: Right
Print Format: F2
Write Format: F2
Missing Values: 0

JOBCAT

Employment Category
Measurement Level: Ordinal
Column Width: 8 Alignment: Right
Print Format: F1
Write Format: F1
Missing Values: 0
Value
1
2
3

Label
Clerical
Custodial
Manager

SALARY

Current Salary
Measurement Level: Scale
Column Width: 8 Alignment: Right
Print Format: DOLLAR8
Write Format: DOLLAR8
Missing Values: 0

SALBEGIN

Beginning Salary
Measurement Level: Scale
Column Width: 8 Alignment: Right
116

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

Print Format: DOLLAR8


Write Format: DOLLAR8
Missing Values: 0
JOBTIME

Months since Hire


Measurement Level: Scale
Column Width: 6 Alignment: Right
Print Format: F2
Write Format: F2
Missing Values: 0

PREVEXP

Previous Experience (months)


Measurement Level: Scale
Column Width: 6 Alignment: Right
Print Format: F6
Write Format: F6

MINORITY

Minority Classification
Measurement Level: Ordinal
Column Width: 8 Alignment: Right
Print Format: F1
Write Format: F1
Missing Values: 9
Value
0
1

10

Label
No
Yes

) Gender ( ) Id
(f=female, m= (
Educ
Bdate male)
Jobcat

(1 Clerical, 2 Custodial, 3 Manager)
Salbegin Salary
Jobtime
Minority Prevexp
. ( 0 No, 1 Yes)

117

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

)( Comparing Mean

: .
.1 Analyze Compare Means
Means :

:
.2 Salary Dependent List Gender
. Independent List:

Prof Elabbasi

118

Prof Elabbssi

.3 Options :

.4 Statistics Cell
Statistics Anova table and eta
Continue
.5 :
Means


Case Processing Summary

Total
N
Percent
474 100.0%

Prof Elabbasi

Cases
Excluded
N
Percent
0
.0%

Included
N
Percent
474 100.0%

119

Current Salary * Gen

Prof Elabbssi

Report
Current Salary
N
Std. Deviation Skewness
216 $7,558.021
1.863
258 $19,499.214
1.639
474 $17,075.661
2.125

Gender
Mean
Female $26,031.92
Male $41,441.78
Total $34,419.57

9
= 0.05 Sig. = 0
.
ANOVA Table
Mean
Square
df
F
Sig.
1 792E+10 19.798 .000
472 3046531
473

Sum of
Squares
Current Salary * GBetween Gro(Combined79E+10
Within Groups
10E+11
Total
38E+11

Measures of Association
Eta Squared
.202

Eta
.450

Current Salary * Gender

) Jobcat (
Next Independent List :

Prof Elabbasi

120

Prof Elabbssi

Ok :
Report
Current Salary
Skewness
1.421
-.019
1.863
2.346
-.368
1.193
1.639
1.905
-.368
1.181
2.125

Std. Deviation
$5,812.838
$8,501.253
$7,558.021
$7,997.978
$2,114.616
$18,051.570
$19,499.214
$7,567.995
$2,114.616
$18,244.776
$17,075.661

N
206
10
216
157
27
74
258
363
27
84
474

Mean
$25,003.69
$47,213.50
$26,031.92
$31,558.15
$30,938.89
$66,243.24
$41,441.78
$27,838.54
$30,938.89
$63,977.80
$34,419.57

Employment Category
Clerical
Manager
Total
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total

Gender
Female

Male

Total




.
- Kolmogrove-Smirov
Prof Elabbasi

121

Prof Elabbssi

: " :
. "0.05

:
.1 Analyze Nonparametric Tests
1-Sample K-S :

.2 salary salbegin Test Variable List


Normal " ."3
.3 Ok :
One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test
Beginning
Salary
474
$17,016.09
$7,870.638
.252
.252
-.170
5.484
.000

Current Salary
474
$34,419.57
$17,075.662
.208
.208
-.143
4.525
.000

Mean
Std. Deviation
Absolute
Positive
Negative

N
Normal Parameters a,b
Most Extreme
Differences
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z
)Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed

a. Test distribution is Normal.


b. Calculated from data.

Sig. = 0.0 0.05



.
Prof Elabbasi

122

Prof Elabbssi

(T-Test) T

T )(One Sample T-Test


:
.1
30.
.2

: " 14"
:
Analyzes Compare Mean
One Sample T Test :

.2 Educ ) Test Variable(s Test


Value 14 Ok :
T-Test

13.49
-0.51
One-Sample Statistics
Std. Error
Prof Elabbasi
Mean
.133

Std. Deviation
2.885

Mean
13.49

123

N
474

)Educational Level (years

Prof Elabbssi

One-Sample Test Sig. = 0.00 0.05


14

14 t = -3.837
14.
One-Sample Test
Test Value = 14
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper
-.77
-.25

Mean
df
Sig. (2-tailed) Difference
473
.000
-.51

t
-3.837

Educational Level (year

) SIGN TEST (


Sign Test
:
.1 Analyze Parametric Tests
Binomial :

Prof Elabbasi

124

Prof Elabbssi

.2 educ Test Variable List 14


Cut point Define Dichotomy Ok
:
NPar Tests
Binomial Test
Observed
Asymp. Sig.
)Prop. Test Prop. (2-tailed
.53
.50
.291a
.47
1.00

N
249
225
474

Category
Educational Level (ye Group 1 <= 14
Group 2 > 14
Total
a. Based on Z Approximation.

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) = 0.291


0.05
14.

T Paired Sample T-Test


.
:
:

H 0 : 1 = 2

H a : 1 2

1 2
:
.1
30.
.2
.
Prof Elabbasi

125

Prof Elabbssi

: " :
"
:

.1 Analyzes Compare Mean


Paired Sample T Test :

.3 salary, salbegin
Variables Ok :

Paired

T-Test


Paired Samples Statistics
Std. Error
Mean
$784.311
$361.510

Std. Deviation
$17,075.661
$7,870.638

N
474
474

Mean
$34,419.57
$17,016.09

Current Salary
Beginning Salary

Pair
1

0.88

Prof Elabbasi

126

Prof Elabbssi
Paired Samples Correlations
Sig.

.000

Correlation

.880

& Current Salary


Beginning Salary

474

Pair
1

9 Sig. (2- tailed) = 0.00 0.05



.

Paired Samples Test

Sig.
)df (2-tailed
.000

Paired Differences
5% Confidence Interva
Std. Std. Error of the Difference
Deviation Mean
Lower
Upper
t

Mean

Current Salary
7,403.48 10814.62 496.732 6,427.41 18,379.56 35.036 473
Beginning Sala

Pair
1


2 Related Samples


:
.1 Analyze Nonparametric tests
2 related samples :

Prof Elabbasi

127

Prof Elabbssi

Test Pair(s) salbegin salary .2


. Ok Sign Wilcoxon List

Ranks
N
Beginning Salary
- Current Salary

Negative Ranks
Positive Ranks
Ties
Total

474a
0b
0c
474

Mean Rank
237.50
.00

Sum of Ranks
112575.00
.00

a. Beginning Salary < Current Salary


b. Beginning Salary > Current Salary
c. Current Salary = Beginning Salary

Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test

Sig. = 0.0
.
Sign Test
Test Statisticsb

Z
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

Beginning
Salary Current Salary
-18.865a
.000

a. Based on positive ranks.


b. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test

128

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi
Frequencies
N
474
0
0
474

Negative Differencesa
Positive Differencesb
Ties c
Total

Beginning Salary
- Current Salary

a. Beginning Salary < Current Salary


b. Beginning Salary > Current Salary
c. Current Salary = Beginning Salary

Test Statisticsa
Beginning
SalaryCurrent Salary
-21.726
.000

Z
)Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed
a. Sign Test

Sign Test Sig.= 0.0


T Independent sample T test



.

) (Grouping Variable or Factor

. (Test
) Variable
) (
) ( .

T :
.1
Prof Elabbasi

129

Prof Elabbssi

.2
T
T .
.3
.

: "
"

:
.1 Analyze Compare Means
Independent Sample T Test :

.2 Salary ) Test Variable(s


gender Grouping Variable
Define Groups :

Prof Elabbasi

130

Prof Elabbssi

. Group 2 m Group 1 f .3
. Continue
: Ok .4
Group Statistics
Std. Error
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Mean
216 $26,031.92
$7,558.021
$514.258
258 $41,441.78 $19,499.214 $1,213.968

Gender
Current Salary Female
Male

T-Test
Independent Samples Test
evene's Test fo
uality of Varianc

F
Current S Equal varia
19.669
assumed
Equal varia
not assume

Sig.

.000 10.945

df

t-test for Equality of Means


Confidence Interv
Mean Std. Error the Difference
g. (2-tailed
Difference
DifferenceLower Upper

472

.000 5,409.86407.906 8176.40 2643.32

11.688344.262

.000 5,409.86318.400 8003.00 2816.73

F= 9.669 ( Leven,s test) .5


T Sig = 0.0
t= 1.688
Sig=0.000
.

131

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

-) Mann-Whitney test (U- Test





.

: " "
:
.1 Analyze Nonparametric tests
2 independent samples :

.2 Salary Test Variable List


Jobcat Grouping Variable
Prof Elabbasi

132

Prof Elabbssi

1 Define Groups .3
Group 2 " 2" Group 1
:

Ok Continue .4
:
NPar Tests
Mann-Whitney Test
Ranks
Employment Category
Current Salary Clerical
Custodial
Total

N
363
27
390

Mean Rank Sum of Ranks


189.30
68715.50
278.87
7529.50

Test Statisticsa
Mann-Whitney U
Wilcoxon W
Z
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

Current Salary
2649.500
68715.500
-3.984
.000

a. Grouping Variable: Employment Category

Sig. = 0.0
= 0.05

133

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

One Way ANOVA


Factor
Independent Variable Nominal
Ordinal
.
Dependent Variable

.

Factor


Post Hoc



.

(Between
) Group
(Within
) Group
Residuals . Error
:
) (
) ( F
F
F
F )
( Sig ) ( 0.05
Sig = 0.05
Sig. = 0.05 .

Prof Elabbasi

134

Prof Elabbssi

: "
"0.05

:
.1 Analyze Compare Means
One-Way ANOVA :

.2 salary
Jobcat . Factor
.3 Post Hoc :

Prof Elabbasi

135

List

Dependent

Prof Elabbssi

.4 Bonferroni Dunnetts c
. . Continue
.5 Options :
Homogeneity of variance test Continue
:

.6 Ok :
Oneway

= ,59.733 Sig. = 0.0



Test of Homogeneity of Variances
Current Salary
Sig.
.000

Prof Elabbasi

df2
471

136

df1
2

Levene
Statistic
59.733

Prof Elabbssi

Sig.= 0.0 F=434.481



= 0.05
ANOVA
Current Salary

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Sum of
Squares
8.94E+10
4.85E+10
1.38E+11

df
2
471
473

Mean Square
4.472E+10
102925714.5

F
434.481

Sig.
.000



= 0.05
Post Hoc Tests
Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable: Current Salary
Mean
Difference
(I) Employment Categ (J) Employment Categ (I-J)
Std. Error
Bonferron Clerical
Custodial
-$3,100.35 2,023.760
Manager
$36,139.26* 1,228.352
Custodial
Clerical
$3,100.35 2,023.760
Manager
$33,038.91* 2,244.409
Manager
Clerical
$36,139.26* 1,228.352
Custodial
$33,038.91* 2,244.409
Dunnett C Clerical
Custodial
-$3,100.35* $568.679
Manager
$36,139.26* 2,029.912
Custodial
Clerical
$3,100.35* $568.679
Manager
$33,038.91* 2,031.840
Manager
Clerical
$36,139.26* 2,029.912
Custodial
$33,038.91* 2,031.840

Sig.
.379
.000
.379
.000
.000
.000

95% Confidence Interval


Lower BoundUpper Bound
-$7,962.56 $1,761.86
-$39,090.45 -$33,188.07
-$1,761.86 $7,962.56
-$38,431.24 -$27,646.58
$33,188.07 $39,090.45
$27,646.58 $38,431.24
-$4,476.97 -$1,723.73
-$40,981.02 -$31,297.50
$1,723.73 $4,476.97
-$37,895.87 -$28,181.95
$31,297.50 $40,981.02
$28,181.95 $37,895.87

*. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.

137

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

- )Wallis Kruskal (H-Test



: "
" = 0.05
:
.1 Analyze Nonparametric Tests K
Independent Samples :

.2 Salary Test Variable List


Jobcat . Grouping Variable
.3 Define Variable :

Prof Elabbasi

138

Prof Elabbssi

.4 1 Minimum 3 Maximum
Continue .
.5 Krouskal-Wallis H Ok :
NPar Tests
Ranks
Mean Rank
190.37
278.98
427.85

N
363
27
84
474

Employment Category
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total

Current Salary

Kruskal-Wallis Test

2 = 207.68



Sig. = 0.000 0.05
0.05

Friedman test


.
: " "
"

"0.05

:
.1 Analyze Nonparametric Tests
K Related Samples :

Prof Elabbasi

139

Prof Elabbssi

.2 " " " " " " " "


Test Variables Friedman
Ok :
Friedman Test

Ranks
Mean Rank
1.95
2.95
2.60
2.50

Test Statisticsa,b
Current Salary
207.680
2
.000

Chi-Square
df
Asymp. Sig.

a. Kruskal Wallis Test


b. Grouping Variable: Employment Category

=
0.0

= 0.05

Prof Elabbasi

140

Asymp. Sig

Prof Elabbssi

Crosstabs Test

Crosstabs
:
: Employee data
" .
:

"

.1 Analyze Descriptive Statistics


Crosstabs :

.2 Gender Row Jobcat


). Column(s
.3 Statistics :

Prof Elabbasi

141

Prof Elabbssi

.4 Chi-square Contingency coefficient


. Gamma

Nominal Data
Ordinal Data Continue
.
.5 . Ok :
Crosstabs
Case Processing Summary

Total
Percent
100.0%

Prof Elabbasi

N
474

Cases
Missing
N
Percent
.0%

Valid
Percent
100.0%

142

N
474

Gender * Employment
Category

Prof Elabbssi

Gender * Employment Category Crosstabulation


Count

Gender
Total

Female
Male

Employment Category
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
206
10
157
27
74
363
27
84

Total
216
258
474

Chi-Square Tests

Pearson Chi-Square
Likelihood Ratio
N of Valid Cases

Value
79.277a
95.463
474

df

2
2

Asymp. Sig.
(2-sided)
.000
.000

a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The


minimum expected count is 12.30.

Symmetric Measures
Asymp.
a
b
Value Std. Error Approx. T Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nomin Contingency Coeffici
.379
.000
Ordinal by Ordinal Gamma
.837
.051
9.999
.000
N of Valid Cases
474

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.


b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

Sig. = 0.0
.

143

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

Two Way Analysis of Variance

) (
.



.
Two Way ANOVA
) (
) (.
:
) ( main effect
.
) (main effect
.
) (Interaction .

.1

9
.
15 )(

.
.2

Prof Elabbasi

144

Prof Elabbssi

.
.
.3
.
.

: " Employee data


" 0.05


" "
" "
" "
:
.1 Analyze General Linear Model
Univariate :

Prof Elabbasi

145

Prof Elabbssi

.2 Salary Dependent Variable


Gender Jobcat ). Fixed Factor(s
.3 Model :

.4 Custom Main effects ) Build Term (s


Gender Jobcat Model
Interaction Build Term Gender ,
Jobcat Model Continue
.
.5 Options Descriptive
atatistics Homogeneity tests Continue
.

Prof Elabbasi

146

Prof Elabbssi

: Post Hoc .6

147

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

Scheffe .7
. Equal Variance Assumed
Dunnett,s C .8
Equal Variance Not Assumed
Post Hoc Tests For Jobcat .9
Gender
.
. Continue .10
Univariate Analysis of Variance

.
Between-Subjects Factors
Gender
Employment
Category

Value Label
Female
Male
Clerical
Custodial

f
m
1
2
3

Manager

216
258
363
27
84

Descriptive Statistics
Dependent Variable: Current Salary
Gender
Female

Male

Total

Employment Category
Clerical
Manager
Total
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total

Mean
$25,003.69
$47,213.50
$26,031.92
$31,558.15
$30,938.89
$66,243.24
$41,441.78
$27,838.54
$30,938.89
$63,977.80
$34,419.57

148

Std. Deviation
$5,812.838
$8,501.253
$7,558.021
$7,997.978
$2,114.616
$18,051.570
$19,499.214
$7,567.995
$2,114.616
$18,244.776
$17,075.661

N
206
10
216
157
27
74
258
363
27
84
474

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

Test of Homogeneity of
Sig. =0.0 Variances
. 0.05
a
Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances

Dependent Variable: Current Salary


F
33.383

df1

df2
469

Sig.
.000

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the


dependent variable is equal across groups.
a. Design: Intercept+GENDER+JOBCAT+GENDER
* JOBCAT

Gender
. 0.05 Sig. = 0.0
Jobcat
. 0.05 Sig. = 0.0
Sig. = 0.0
.0.05
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: Current Salary
Source
Corrected Model
Intercept
GENDER
JOBCAT
GENDER * JOBCAT
Error
Total
Corrected Total

Type III Sum


of Squares
9.646E+10a
1.773E+11
5247440732
3.232E+10
1247682867
4.146E+10
6.995E+11
1.379E+11

df
4
1
1
2
1
469
474
473

Mean Square
2.411E+10
1.773E+11
5247440732
1.616E+10
1247682867
88401147.44

F
272.780
2005.313
59.359
182.782
14.114

Sig.
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000

a. R Squared = .699 (Adjusted R Squared = .697)

Jobcat

.

149

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

Post Hoc Tests


Employment Category
Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable: Current Salary

Std. Error
$1,875.539
$1,138.387
$1,875.539
$2,080.027
$1,138.387
$2,080.027
$568.679
$2,029.912
$568.679
$2,031.840
$2,029.912
$2,031.840

Sig.
.256
.000
.256
.000
.000
.000

Mean
Difference
(J) Employment Category
)(I-J
Custodial
-$3,100.35
Manager
*-$36,139.26
Clerical
$3,100.35
Manager
*-$33,038.91
Clerical
*$36,139.26
Custodial
*$33,038.91
Custodial
*-$3,100.35
Manager
*-$36,139.26
Clerical
*$3,100.35
Manager
*-$33,038.91
Clerical
*$36,139.26
Custodial
*$33,038.91

(I) Employment Category


Clerical

Scheffe

Custodial
Manager
Clerical

Dunnett C

Custodial
Manager

Based on observed means.


*. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.

Three Way ANOVA



.

:
: Employee data :

"
" 0.05
:

Prof Elabbasi

150

Prof Elabbssi

.1 Analyze General Linear Model


Univariate :

.2 Salary Dependent Variable


Gender id Jobcat ). Fixed Factor(s
.3 Model :

Prof Elabbasi

151

Prof Elabbssi

.4 Custom Main effects ) Build Term (s


Gender Jobcat id Model
Interaction Build Term
Model Continue
.
.5 Options Descriptive
atatistics Homogeneity tests
Display Means for Continue
.

.6 Post Hoc :

Prof Elabbasi

152

Prof Elabbssi

.7 Scheffe
. Equal Variance Assumed
.8 Dunnett,s C
Equal Variance Not Assumed
.9 Jobcat Post Hoc Tests For

.
.10 Continue . Ok :
Univariate Analysis of Variance
Between-Subjects Factors
N
370
104
216
258
363
27
84

Prof Elabbasi

Value Label
No
Yes
Female
Male
Clerical
Custodial
Manager

0
1
f
m
1
2
3

153

Minority Classification
Gender
Employment
Category

Prof Elabbssi
Descriptive Statistics
Dependent Variable: Current Salary
Minority Classification
No

Gender
Female

Male

Total

Yes

Female
Male

Total

Total

Female

Male

Total

Employment Category
Clerical
Manager
Total
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total
Clerical
Total
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total
Clerical
Manager
Total
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total
Clerical
Custodial
Manager
Total

Mean
$25,471.45
$47,213.50
$26,706.79
$32,671.64
$31,178.57
$65,683.57
$44,475.41
$28,341.09
$31,178.57
$63,374.81
$36,023.31
$23,062.50
$23,062.50
$28,952.13
$30,680.77
$76,037.50
$32,246.09
$26,244.25
$30,680.77
$76,037.50
$28,713.94
$25,003.69
$47,213.50
$26,031.92
$31,558.15
$30,938.89
$66,243.24
$41,441.78
$27,838.54
$30,938.89
$63,977.80
$34,419.57

Std. Deviation
$6,092.372
$8,501.253
$8,011.894
$8,578.999
$1,658.743
$18,029.451
$20,330.662
$7,994.659
$1,658.743
$18,164.043
$18,044.096
$3,972.369
$3,972.369
$5,712.419
$2,562.920
$17,821.961
$13,059.881
$5,772.874
$2,562.920
$17,821.961
$11,421.638
$5,812.838
$8,501.253
$7,558.021
$7,997.978
$2,114.616
$18,051.570
$19,499.214
$7,567.995
$2,114.616
$18,244.776
$17,075.661

N
166
10
176
110
14
70
194
276
14
80
370
40
40
47
13
4
64
87
13
4
104
206
10
216
157
27
74
258
363
27
84
474

a
Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances

Dependent Variable: Current Salary


F
17.696

df1
8

df2
465

Sig.
.000

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the


dependent variable is equal across groups.
a. Design:
Intercept+MINORITY+GENDER+JOBCAT+MINORITY *
GENDER+GENDER * JOBCAT+MINORITY *
JOBCAT+MINORITY * GENDER * JOBCAT

154

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: Current Salary
Source
Corrected Model
Intercept
MINORITY
GENDER
JOBCAT
MINORITY * GENDER
GENDER * JOBCAT
MINORITY * JOBCAT
MINORITY * GENDER
* JOBCAT
Error
Total
Corrected Total

Type III Sum


of Squares
9.751E+10a
1.444E+11
61989119.7
4756876310
2.006E+10
27977363.9
981526336
690053398

df
8
1
1
1
2
1
1
2

Mean Square
1.219E+10
1.444E+11
61989119.66
4756876310
1.003E+10
27977363.93
981526335.9
345026699.0

F
140.251
1661.526
.713
54.737
115.420
.322
11.294
3.970

Sig.
.000
.000
.399
.000
.000
.571
.001
.020

.000

4.041E+10
6.995E+11
1.379E+11

465
474
473

86903667.84

a. R Squared = .707 (Adjusted R Squared = .702)

Estimated Marginal Means


1. Minority Classification
Dependent Variable: Current Salary
Minority Classification
Mean
Std. Error
No
40443.745a
835.531
Yes
39683.224a 1423.737

95% Confidence Interval


Lower Bound Upper Bound
38801.861
42085.629
36885.469
42480.979

a. Based on modified population marginal mean.

2. Employment Category
Dependent Variable: Current Salary
Employment Category
Mean
Std. Error
Clerical
27539.427
577.449
Custodial
30929.670a 1795.293
Manager
62978.190a 1875.508

95% Confidence Interval


Lower Bound Upper Bound
26404.695
28674.160
27401.779
34457.562
59292.670
66663.711

a. Based on modified population marginal mean.

155

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

Post Hoc Tests


Employment Category
Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable: Current Salary

Scheffe

(I) Employment Category


Clerical
Custodial
Manager

Dunnett C

Clerical
Custodial
Manager

Mean
Difference
(J) Employment Category
(I-J)
Custodial
-$3,100.35
Manager
-$36,139.26*
Clerical
$3,100.35
Manager
-$33,038.91*
Clerical
$36,139.26*
Custodial
$33,038.91*
Custodial
-$3,100.35*
Manager
-$36,139.26*
Clerical
$3,100.35*
Manager
-$33,038.91*
Clerical
$36,139.26*
Custodial
$33,038.91*

Std. Error
$1,859.586
$1,128.703
$1,859.586
$2,062.334
$1,128.703
$2,062.334
$568.679
$2,029.912
$568.679
$2,031.840
$2,029.912
$2,031.840

Sig.
.250
.000
.250
.000
.000
.000

Based on observed means.


*. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.

156

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

Reliability Coefficient


9
:

:



.
:

) ( r

:
2r
=1 +r

Reliability Coefficient

SPSS

9

.
:


.
.

.
.
Prof Elabbasi

157

Prof Elabbssi


:
/ :
...

) (
)

(.

Prof Elabbasi

158

Prof Elabbssi

)(5

)(4

)(3

)(2

)(1

:
.1

.2
.3

:
.1
.2
.3

.
.

: ) (
.1
.2
.3

.
.
.

: ) (
.1
.2
.3

.
.
.
7 3 :

(1 SPSS
" " .
(2
(3
:

a1, a2, a3 ) ( b1, b2, b3


) ( c1, c2, c3 ) ( d1, d2,d3
) ( :

Prof Elabbasi

159

Prof Elabbssi

av_ a, av_b, av_c, av_d av_total


" " av_odd " . av_even
:

9
av_even , av_odd :
Correlations
AV_TOTAL AV_ODD
1
**.835
.
.003
10
10
**.835
1
.003
.
10
10

AV_TOTAL Pearson Correlation


)Sig. (2-tailed
N
AV_ODD
Pearson Correlation
)Sig. (2-tailed
N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Prof Elabbasi

160

Prof Elabbssi

0.835

2 0.835
=
=0.91
1+ 0.835
.
9

: :

Analyze Scale Reliability


Analysis :

Items
12 ). ( d3a1,a2,
Model
. Alpha
Statistics :

Prof Elabbasi

161

Prof Elabbssi

Scale if item deleted


.
Continue .
Ok :
Reliability
****** ****** Method 1 (space saver) will be used for this analysis
S C A L E

A N A L Y S I S

R E L I A B I L I T Y
Item-total Statistics

Alpha
if Item
Deleted

Corrected
ItemTotal
Correlation

Scale
Variance
if Item
Deleted

Scale
Mean
if Item
Deleted

.7036
.7428
.7128
.6561
.7812
.7542
.7117
.7166
.7016
.6816
.6467
.6723

.4322
-.0936
.3496
.7099
-.3996
.0226
.3614
.3424
.4296
.5555
.7480
.6850

53.1556
62.1000
53.1556
45.1556
67.1222
59.3444
54.2667
50.7222
50.7667
47.8778
43.6556
49.1222

40.6000
39.9000
40.6000
40.4000
40.3000
40.7000
40.6000
41.5000
40.9000
41.1000
41.1000
40.7000

A1
A2
A3
B1
B2
B3
C1
C2
C3
D1
D2
D3

Reliability Coefficients
10.0

N of Items = 12

= N of Cases
.7288

= Alpha

Alpha 0.7288
.
) ( Corrected item- total Correlation
0.19

a2, b2, b3

0.8198

Prof Elabbasi

162

Prof Elabbssi

Reliability
****** Method 1 (space saver) will be used for this analysis ******
R E L I A B I L I T Y
A N A L Y S I S
S C A L E
(A L P H A)
Item-total Statistics
Scale
Mean
if Item
Deleted
28.3000
28.3000
28.1000
28.3000
29.2000
28.6000
28.8000
28.8000
28.4000

A1
A3
B1
C1
C2
C3
D1
D2
D3

Scale
Variance
if Item
Deleted
56.4556
55.5667
49.2111
55.1222
53.9556
50.4889
48.8444
45.2889
51.1556

Corrected
ItemTotal
Correlation
.3725
.3464
.6056
.4561
.3019
.5672
.6234
.7755
.6994

Reliability Coefficients
N of Cases =
10.0
Alpha =

N of Items =

Alpha
if Item
Deleted
.8169
.8209
.7906
.8091
.8331
.7958
.7882
.7660
.7844

.8198

9
:
Correlations
Correlations
AV_A
AV_A

Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
AV_B
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
AV_C
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
AV_D
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
AV_TOTAL Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N

1
.
10
.442
.201
10
.137
.706
10
.350
.322
10
.603
.065
10

AV_B
.442
.201
10
1
.
10
.023
.949
10
.259
.470
10
.526
.118
10

AV_C
.137
.706
10
.023
.949
10
1
.
10
.658*
.039
10
.735*
.015
10

AV_D
AV_TOTAL
.350
.603
.322
.065
10
10
.259
.526
.470
.118
10
10
.658*
.735*
.039
.015
10
10
1
.882**
.
.001
10
10
.882**
1
.001
.
10
10

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).


**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

.

.

163

Prof Elabbasi

Prof Elabbssi

)" :(1965 " .


) :(1993 " .
)" :(2008 - "SPSSWIN
.

)":(1985 : "
.

)" :(2010 "SPSS FOR BEGINNER -.


)" :(2009 " -.
) " :(2008 "AMOS -.
)" :(2002 "SPSS
.
) " :(1994 " -.
)" :(1996 :
.

Aitkin, M., Anderson, D. A., Francis, B. and Hinde, J. P. (1989). Statistical Modeling
in GLIM, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Anderson, T.W, (1984), An Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis (2nd) New
York John Wiley.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1989). On the use of structural equation models in experimental
design. Journal of Marketing Research , 26 , 271-284.
Cronbach, L. J. (2004). My current thoughts on Coefficient Alpha and successor
procedures. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 391-418.
Dobson, A. J. (1990). An Introduction to Generalized Linear Models, Chapman and Hall,
London.
Draper, N.R. and H. Smith (1981). Applied Regression Analysis, Second Edition, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Johnson, Richard A. and W. Wichern, (1996). Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis
(4th), New York Partice-Hel international.
Ostle, B., & Malone, L. C. (1988). Statistics in research: Basic concepts and techniques
for research workers (4th ed.). Ames, IA: Iowa State Press.
Stevens, J. (1986). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Hillsdale, NJ:
Erlbaum.
Prof Elabbasi

94

Statistical Functions
)]CFVAR(numexpr,numexpr[,...
) (
.
) LAG(variable
.
)]MAX(value,value[,...
.
)]MIN(value,value[,...
.
] )]MEAN(numexpr,numexpr[,...

.
] )]SD(numexpr,numexpr[,...

.
)]SUM(numexpr,numexpr[,...

.
] )]VARIANCE(numexpr,numexpr[,...

.

Missing Value Functions

)]NMISS(variable[,...

] )MISSING(variable

:

.
)SYSMIS(numvar
:

.
)VALUE(variable


Arithmetic Functions
)ABS(numexpr
.

)ARSIN(numexpr

)
1.(1+

)ARTAN(numexpr

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.
)EXP(numexpr
e ) e
(.

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)SQRT(numexpr

)TRUNC(numexpr

Prof Elabbssi

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95

Prof Elabbasi