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Anglais grammaire S2 Le verbe introduction

I. Deux catgories de verbes les verbes ordinaires (avec contenu smantique, un sens) les auxiliaires (outils / oprateurs grammaticaux)

1. Construire les temps composs be + Ving have + Ved be + Ved (passif)

2. Construire certaines formes syntaxiques a. La forme ngative On ajoute not lauxiliaire Ex: I havent seen this film b. La forme interrogative Inversion: auxiliaire + sujet + verbe Ex: Have you seen this film? c. Les tags et reprises par auxiliaire - Nest ce pas : reprise de lauxiliaire la forme inverse + sujet ex : she has seen this film, hasnt she ? She has a sweet voice, doesnt she? Moi si, lui non, eux jamais, nous souvent : pronom sujet + (adverbe) + auxiliaire

ex : He doesnt like music, but his wife does. We often go to the cinema, but they never do. I would like to go there, but he wouldnt. Moi aussi, toi non plus: so + auxiliaire + sujet or neither + auxiliaire + pronom sujet ex : We will go to London for X-mas, so will our neighbours. I must hurry up, so must you. They arent hungry, neither am I. Laugmentation des prix va ralentir, et terme, linflation aussi. The rise in prices is going to slow down, and eventualy (finaly), so is inflation.

d. La forme emphatique Mise en relief de lauxiliaire, forme dinsistance. Ex : Yes I do like it (jaime vrament), Yes I like it (jaime bien). He does the ironing (je tassure cest lui qui repasse). I did go there, there was nobody. avec limpratif cela devient une forme de politesse. Ex : Take a sit (asseyez vous), Do take a sit (je vous en prie asseyez vous). Do come again. II. Le mcanisme du groupe verbal : temps et aspect 2 temps en Anglais : le prsent et le prtrit (faits objectifs). 2 aspects en Anglais (introduit la subjectivit) : le perfectif (have + Vpp) et le progresif (be + Ving). Progressif (inaccompli) action dans son droulement ex : The cat is drinking the milk (objectivement) agacement de lnonciateur ex: He is always calling me (subjectivement) Perfectif laction a eu lieu, mais elle a des consquences par rapport au moment de lnonciation ex : Bob has washed the car (subjectif rsultat). Tomorrow, Bob will have washed the car (il laura lave) importance du rsultat la voiture est / sera propre. I have seen this film a hundred times consquences: I dont want to see it again. Someone has been looking through my paper. Perfect Progressif present perfect progressif Modalit: 2 types:

- modalit de laction < permission: can, could, may < obligation: must < capacit: can, could - modalit du savoir < probabilit: must < lventuel: may, might < limpossible: cant Voix: 2 types: - active - passive Tense + (modality) + (perfect) + (progressif) + (passive) + verb. Preterit progressif passif avec do: was being done Preterit perfect progressif passif: will have been being done

Have et Be
I. Have 1. Valeur auxiliaire pure a. Aspect perfectif Auxiliaire have + participe pass / verbe (conjugu au temps voulu). b. Dans lexpression had better + infinitif ex : You had better go with her, hadnt you ? You had better not do it. You had better not tell him. Hadnt you better tell him? 2. Valeur pleine (verbe ordinaire) a. Expression de la possession ex: He has two brothers

He has two brothers. He doesnt have any brothers. Does he have any brothers? He has two brothers, doesnt he? jamais have got au perfectif.

He has got two brothers He hasnt got any brothers Has he got any brothers? He has got two brothers, hasnt he?

b. Expression de lobligation : have to ex : Do you really have to go. You have to go, dont you? have to ne se met pas au progressif et au perfectif. c. To have something done To have + nom / objet + pp ex: I had my hair cut. He had his car washed. I dont have my hair cut, I cut it myself. They are having a house built. To have somebody done ex: I had my cousin invited to this party. They had him jailed (emprisonner). d. To have somebody do something ex: I had my assitant check the firms accounts. I had him dig away the snow (enlever la neige). To make somebody do something forte contrainte ex: We have the means to make you talk. I made him learn his irregular verbs. He made us laugh (He had us laugh il nous a demand de rire). To make oneself + pp ex: I cant make myself heard / understood I dropped my pen jai fait tomber mon stylo. Faire chanter quelquun to blackmailed e. To have peut avoir le sens de To take

ex : to have the dinner / a bath. To spend: ex: We had a lovely time To ex: We are having a friend for the week end II. Be 1. Valeur auxiliaire pure a. Aspect progressif Auxiliaire be + ing (conjugu au temps voulu) b. Voix passive Auxiliaire be + pp (conjugu au temps voulu) ex: He would have been surprised. 2. Valeur pleine a. Pour indiquer des tats - ge ex: I am 22. How old are you? - Taille (personne) ex : He is 6 foot 3 (1m90) - Dimension: to be + mesure + adjectif ex: This room is three meters wide. This swimming pool is 4 meters deep (profondeur). How deep is this swimming pool? - Sensations ex: Im cold, Im hot, Im angry, Im afraid b. Toutes formes de il y a: there + be

ex: There are many pubs in San Katherine street. There had been very few people (past perfect de be). There would have been more people if we had advertising it better (conditionnel). There seems to be a problem (il semble quil y ait un problme). There should be a meeting. How many people were there at the metting? Would there have been more people if we had advertising it better? 2 cas o il y a ne se traduit pas par there + be: - avec ago ex: I meet him to days ago - avec une distance: it is ex: It is 3km from here to the university. How far is it from here to the university? 3. Les diffrentes valeurs de to be + infinitif (= en gnral devoir mais pas dobligation) a. Pour une action projete, convenue, prvue ex: We are to see them tomorrow. They are to get married in June. He was to go to Paris, but I dont know whether he finally did. b. Une action quil convient de faire ex: If he calls, what am I to tell him? What is to be done? c. Le caractre peu probable dune hypothse ex: If he were to call (sil devait appeler) tell him Ill be back tonight. If we are to believe him, he has travelled all over the world. d. Lide de destin ex: He was to die at the age of 33. He didnt know they were never to see each other again. e. un ordre (trs formel) ex: You are not allowed to smoke in this room.

Le prsent
I. Le prsent simple 1. Pour noncer des vrits permanentes ou universelles ex : The earth revolves around the sun. The English drink tea. She plays guitar. She teaches Englih 2. Pour exprimer une action habituelle rptitive (valeur frquentative) ex: They play bridge every other week. He goes swimming twice a week. We have tea at 4 p.m on Sundays. 3. Dans les subordonnes de temps, pour traduire un futur simple en franais ex : When it stops raining, well go for a walk. When they come, well go to the cinema. When well go to the cinema? I wonder when they will come. What do I wonder? II. Le prsent progressif 1. Formation Auxiliaire be au prsent + verbe ing Le participe prsent (valable au pass et tous les temps) Le -e saute au participe prsent ex: to cause = causing, to argue = arguing to age = ageing, to dye (teinter) = dyeing, to agree = agreeing, to see = seeing Le y ou ie y + ing ex: to carry = carrying, to obey = obeying, to die = dying, to lie = lying Redoublement consonne finale

- verbe dune syllabe avec une voyelle et une consonne redoublement to run = running, to put = putting, to cut = cutting verbes suprieur deux syllabes avec une voyelle et une consonne accent sur la dernire syllabe ex: to refer = refering, to admit = admitting, to occur = occuring, to begin = beginning - autre syllabe accentue = pas de redoublement to enter = entering, to develop = developing - consonne finale l ou voyelle seule ex : to travel = travelling 2. Emplois a. Emplois principaux Action en train de se drouler au moment o lon parle ex : Somebody is waiting for you. What are you looking at? My husband is working a lot at the moment. Dans les descriptions ex: Look, he is slepping. Its rainning. She is wearing a blue hat and red boots. Arent you smoking to much? To be sitting / lying / standing / bending / leaning / kneeling Be au prsent progressif ex: Dont pay attention. He is being stupid (il fait lidiot). Whats the matter? Youre being nice today! (tu es bien gentil aujourdhui) b. Particularits de lemploi Pour exprimer un futur proche ex : I moving in tomorrow. Were leaving tomorrow! Avec always: pour exprimer une nuance dirritation ex : Hes always complaining (il faut toujours quil se plaigne).

3. Verbes ne prenant pas le progressif a. Verbes de perception involontaire ex : Can you see the bird in that tree ? (= Est-ce que tu vois loiseau dans larbre?) I cant hear you (je ne tentends pas). I can smell gas (a sent le gaz) Are you listenning ? volontaire (Est-ce que vous mcoutez?) b. Verbes de description statique To see / to look / to involve / to contain / to include ex: He seems / looks / sounds ill-at-ease (mal laise) c. Verbes de possession To own / to possess / to belong d. Verbes dopinion et activit mentale To remember / to believe / to expect / to know Think = avoir une opinion, pas de ing ex : I think hes wrong. Im going to call him. What do you think about it? I think its an excelent idea. Think = rflchir ou envisager, -ing ex: What are you thinking of? I thinking of the holidays. / Im thinking of resigning (jenvisage de dmissionner) e. Verbes de gots et de souhait To hate / to like / to love / to want

Le prtrit
I. Le preterit simple 1. Emplois principaux

a. Action ponctuelle : Laction est finie termine date ex: I met him yesterday. Pasteur died in 1895. I met him 10 minutes ago. On demande une date, une heure ex : When did you get up ? When did you arrive? Il ny a pas de date mais une coupure avec le prsent ex : The train was 10 minutes late. I didnt like this film. I was born in Paris. b. Action habituelle / rpte ex: Peter often travalled on business Remarque 1: used to habitude qui na plus cause aujourdhui = autrefois/ avant + imparfait ex : I used to smoke a lot (but today I dont smoke anymore). He drinks less beer than he used to (moins quavant) diffrent de to be used to + Ving ex: I am used to getting up early. I didnt mind taking him to the airport early, because I was used to getting up early I used to get up early (but I dont anymore). You will get used to getting up early. Remarque 2: would action caractristique du sujet ex : When I was a child, my grandmother would tell me bedtime stories (elle me racontait des histoires pour mendormir). I remember he would always refuse to answer the phone. c. Action ayant dur dans le pass ex : He worked for four years (pass compos: il a travaill). She lived in Rome for a long time / from 1990 to 2005. 2. Emplois particuliers Dans des subordonnes de temps pour traduire un conditionnel prsent en franais ex : When it stops raining, well go for a walk (quand il sarretera de pleuvoir, nous irons nous promener) She said that when it stopped raining, we would

go for a walk (elle a dit que quand il sarreterait de pleuvoir, nous irions nous promener). He said he would come and see us when the weather was nicer (conditionnel) Le prtrit modal: pour exprimer un souhait ou une supposition par rapport au prsent - dans les subordonnes de temps introduites par if ex : If I had more time, I would read more. If I were rich, I would stop working. aprs quelques expressions pour exprimer un souhait/ regret dans le prsent : ex : He gives me orders as if / as though I were his employee. If only + sujet + prtrit modal ex: If only I knew where he was. If only he were here. I wish + sujet + prtrit modal ex: I wish I knew his address (je regrette de ne pas connaitre / jaimerai connaitre son adresse). I wish he called more often (je regrette quil nappelle pas plus souvent). I wish he werent here (je regrette quil soit l). I wish I didnt know him (je regrette de le connaitre). Id rather + sujet (sil y a changement) + prtrit modal ex : Id rather you paid cash. /Id rather pay cash. Id rather she didnt tell him about it. / Id rather not tell him about it. Id rather she were here at the meeting. / Id rather be here. - aprs it is time ex: Its high time we left. Its high time you were an adult. II. Le preterit progressif 1. Emplois principaux a. Action qui tait en train de se drouler Sans indication de temps

ex : It was getting darker. It was getting harder and harder talk to him (cela devenait ) It became harder to talk to him (cela est devenu) Avec une indication temporelle ex: At eight a.m, he was having breakfast (il prenait son petit djeuner). At eigth a.m, he had breakfast (il a pris son petit djeuner). En parallle avec une action plus ponctuelle ex : When I arrived, Tom was talking to somebody on the phone (il parlait au tlphone). When I arrived, Tom put the reciever down (il a raccroch). When the fire broke out, they were playing cards. b. Description dans le pass ex: She was wearing a red hat. The cat was sleeping in front of the fire. 2. Particularits demploi a. Futur proche dans le pass ex : He told me he was taking an exam in June. I knew he was taking the 6.30 p.m train. b. Irritation par rapport une action rpte dans le pass ex : He was call me every evening (constatation) . He was always calling me at the dinner time (agacement). He was always asking me fool question.

Le prsent perfect
I. Le prsent perfect simple Auxiliaire have au prsent + verbe au participe pass 1. Pour voquer une action termine mais qui a des consquences dans le prsent

ex : It has rained. The road is all mudy (boueuse). It rained last week. She has forgotten her school bag on the bus. She cannot do her homework tonight. May I see Mr Martin? No Im sorry. He has gone to Paris. He has gone to Paris = he isnt here for the moment He has been to Paris = he knows Paris 2. Avec certains complments de temps qui marquent un rapport avec le prsent a. Avec des complments de temps faisant rfrence une priode non termine (today, this week, this month, this year) ex : We have seen them twice this year. (bilan provisoire) We saw them twice last year. 11 a.m: I have tried to call Tom three times this morning. 3 p.m: I tried to call Tom 3 times this morning. 11 a.m : Have you had breakfast this morning? Would you like some coffee and toast? 11 a.m: Did you have some breakfast this morning Youll eat better for lunch I havent seen him lately / recently b. Avec les complments de temps suivants lorsquils se dfinissent par rapport au prsent Already, before, yet, always, so far, never / ever, lately, recently ex: He hasnt decided yet.

Has he already left?

Have you ever heard J. Dutronc sing?

Did you ever hear S. Gainsbourg sing?

I have always trusted him.

I always trusted him until one day he deceived me.

Its the first / second time ex: Its the first time I have travelled by plane. It is the fourth time she has tried to cheat. avec just pour traduire venir de ex : He has just left (He left 2 minutes ago). 3. Pour un tat qui dure ex: He has been ill for a week.

He has been ill since the beginning of the week

I have this car for 10 years / since 2001

I have this job for 20 years

I had this job for 10 years

4. Cas particulier: dans les subordonnes de temps pour traduire un futur antrieur en franais ex : When I have finished my studies, Ill go to the US. Once you have typed this report, please make 10 copies of it. II. Le present perfect progressif Auxiliaire be au prsent perfect + participe prsent /vb Donc have been + participe prsent / vb 1. Action commence dans le pass qui continue dans le prsent a. Attention certains verbes sont incompatibles avec le progressif

ex : I have known him for many years. b. Les verbes pouvant sutiliser la forme progressive Complment de temps exprim ex : I have been living / have lived in Lyons for 10 years

I have waited / have been waiting for an hour how he still isnt here. Rptition rgulire ex: Ive been trying to repair this TV set for months.

They have been going out a lot lately / recently.

Pas de complment de temps

ex: I have written to him (Im expecting an answer now) I have been writing to him (cela fait plusieurs fois) I have typed your report (rapport fini). Can you bring it to me please.

I have been typing your report (elle a pass des heures le faire). You must be tired.

2. Action termine qui a des consquences dans le prsent + nuance dirritation. ex : You are late. What have you been doing ? Someone has been using my phone Look at my phone Bill!

Past Perfect (plu-perfect)

I. Le past perfect simple Auxiliaire have au pass + participe pass / vb Donc had + participe pass / vb 1. Emplois parallles ceux du prtrit (coupure pass / pass antrieur) a. Action ponctuelle She left for Austrlia yesterday

I called her yesterday but she had left for Australia the day before.

b. Action rpte

ex: When I came back from work, my husband told me that my mother had called 3 times.

c. Une action qui avait dur ex : She was moved when she came back to Paris last year. She had lived there 2 years during the war.

I lived in Paris for 2 years

2. Emplois parallles ceux du present perfect a. Avec des complments de temps marquant un rapport avec un certain moment du pass That day, that week, that year ex: He had worked a lot that year. She had seen twice the precious year / the year before. He had called the police because he had received 3 anonymous calls in the past 3 weeks.

always, never, yet, before ex: She died yesterday. Had you ever met her?

He asked for the report but the secretary hadnt taped it yet. it was the first time ex: It was the first time I had travelled by plane. It was the second time I had been to this restaurant (temps franais: imparfait) avec just ex: He had just left the office. b. Pour un tat de fait non termin un point du pass pris comme rfrence ex : He went into hospital last week. He had been ill for several months.

When they got married, they had known each other for years.

When she resigned in 1990, M. Thatcher had been Prime Minister since 1979.

II. Le past perfect progressif

Auxiliaire be au past perfect + vb ing Had been + vb ing ex : It was 6 p.m and he was tired because, he had been working since dawn.

When the phone rang, I had been sleeping for half-an-hour.

I had slept for hours

III. Le past perfect modal 1. Dans les subordonnes introduites par if ex : If I had known him earlier I wouldnt have accepted. If he had resigned, he would have regretted it all his life. He talks about about him as if / as though he had already met him. a. If only + sujet + past perfect modal ex: If only I hadnt spent all my money! b. I wish + sujet + past perfect modal

ex: I wish you had written to him (Je reggrette que tu ne lui ai pas crit). I wish I had made this decision earlier (Je regrette de ne pas avoir pris cette dcision plus tt) c. Id rather + sujet + past perfect modal ex : Je prfrerais que tu y ailles seul : Id rather you went there alone. Jaurais prfr que tu y ailles seul : Id rather you had gone there alone. Jaurais prfr quelle lui parle: Id rather she had told him. Je prfrerais le rencontrer avant: Id rather meet him before. Jaurais prfr le rencontrer avant: Id rather had met him before.

Formes emphatiques
Il y a / Cela fait dix ans que ex ; It is / It has been ten years since Il y avait / Cela faisait dix ans que ex : It was / It had been 1. Action ponctuelle Prsent : [Forme neutre ex: Ils lont renvoy il y a dix ans : They fired him 10 years ago] ex : Cela fait 10 ans quils lont renvoy : It is ten years since they fired him Pass : [Forme neutre ex: Ils lavaient renvoy il y a dix ans : They had fired him 10 years ago] ex : Cela fait 10 ans quils lavaient renvoy : It is ten years since they had fired him

2. Action qui dure Prsent: [Forme neutre: ex: Il travaille ici depuis 3 mois: He has been working here for 3 months] ex: Cela fait 3 mois quil travaille ici: It is three months since he started working here. Pass: [Forme neutre: ex: Il travaillait ici depuis 3 mois: He had been working here for 3 months] ex: Cela faisait 3 mois quil travaillait ici: It was three months since he had started working there. 3. Action ponctuelle ngative Prsent: [Forme neutre: Je ne lai pas vu depuis deux ans: I havent seen him for two years] ex: Cela fait deux ans que je ne lai pas vu : It is two years since I last saw him. Pass [Forme neutre: Je ne lavais pas vu depuis deux ans: I hadnt seen him for two years] ex: Cela faisait deux ans que je ne lavais pas vu : It was two years since I had last seen him.

Past perfect : synthse des temps

Regarde, il pleut ! -> Look, it is raining! Il pleut depuis trois jours -> it has been raining for 3 days En hiver il pleut -> in winter, it rains Il a plu pendant 3 jours -> it rained for 3 days Quand ils sont arrivs au refuge, il pleuvait -> When they arrived at the refuge, it was raining Il pleuvait depuis 3 jours quand ils ont dcid dannuler le festival -> It had been raining when they decided to cancel the festival. Il avait plu pendant 3 jours la semaine prcdente -> It rained for 3 days the previous week Il regrette que les investisseurs, naient pas t audacieux. Sils lavaient t, il aurait pu gagner du temps. -> He wishes investors had been more daring. Had they been, he could have saved time. Cela fait cinq ans quil na pas pris de vacances. -> It is five years since he last took a holiday.

Valeurs modales de Will et Shall, expression du futur

I. Valeurs modales : will et shall

1. Will a. Il exprime la volont Forme affirmative We will go on holidays in August. If you will wait outside, Mr Smith will be with you in a minute. (si vous voulez bien attendre dehors, Mr Smith sera vous dans une minute) He will have me say that I was wrong. (il veut tout prix me faire dire que javais tort) Forme ngative I give him good advice but he wont listen to me. My car wont start this morning. Forme interrogative Faire une offre/proposition Will you stop for a drink? Will you have some more? Faire une requte Will you help me? Will you lend me your car? b. Il a une valeur frquentative. Caractre prvisible dune action This crossroads is dangerous, accidents will happen Nuance dobstination He will burst into my office without knocking. (Il sobstine rentrer dans mon bureau sans frapper) 2. Shall

a. Pour demander un avis, des instructions What shall I do with your mail? Shall I write him to confirm? (Est-ce que vous voulez que je lui crive pour confirmer?) b. Pour soumettre une proposition aux autres personnes concernes Shall we go to the cinema? Lets go to the cinema, shall we? Shall I call you now? c. Commandements (contraintes ou interdictions) You shall not open this door. You shall not kill. d. Promesse If you dont cry, you shall have a sweet. (Je te promets que tu auras un bonbon si tu ne pleures pas)

II. Expression du futur avec will 1. Futur simple : will + infinitif sans to The meeting will start at 10a.m. He will turn 30 this month. (il aura 30 ans ce mois-ci) 2. Futur progressif: will be +v-ing a. Valeur habituelle du progressif: action qui sera en train de se drouler

This time next week, Ill be skiing in the Alps. b. Pour exprimer le futur sans intention (=forme la plus neutre en anglais) Mrs Delesalle will not be going her class next week. (ce nest pas quelle ne veut pas, mais elle ne le pourra pas). I will be seeing Tom tomorrow. (on se voit tous les jours, il a son bureau en face du mien donc on se verra de toute faon). I will see Tom tomorrow. (cest moi qui veut voir Tom demain I want to see Tom ). Im seeing Tom tomorrow. (on a prvu de se voir demain, les deux sont au courant). He wont be coming with us. (il ne viendra pas) He wont come with us. (il ne viendra pas parce quil ne veut pas) Will you be staying with us for the week-end? (juste pour savoir si tu seras l ou non) Will you stay with us for the week-end? (invitation: vous allez bien rester avec nous pour le week-end) 3. Le futur perfect : will have + participe pass du verbe If you call back tomorrow, I will have contacted him. By the end of the year, we will have spent 2000 in medicines. III. Autres expressions du futur 1. Rappel: le prsent progressif I am meeting Tom at station at 6p.m. (Cest prvu, Tom le sait) 2. to be going to a. Expression dune intention prmdite

I am going to buy a new car. (ce nest pas un achat impulsif, cest prmdit) ( its a lovely jumpers, Ill buy it : intention spontane) Im going to stop smoking. (futur proche + intention prmdite) Im not going to apologize. I cant pay my taxes. Im going to ask them to postpone the payment. Im lost. Ill ask a policeman the way. (je nai pas prvu de me perdre) Ill have the 50 euro menu. b. Expression dune prdiction Look at the sky. Its going to rain. Stop swaying youre going to break the chain. 3. to be about to: future trs proche (= tre sur le point de) They are about to leave. (ils sont sur le point de partir)

Le conditionnel : valeurs modales Would et Should

I. Le conditionnel 1. Le conditionnel prsent Formation: would + V / would + Ving (prsent progressif)

a. Dans une principale dont la subordonne

If I had more time, I would read more. If I were you, I wouldnt do that. b. Pour exprimer un souhait dans le prsent They would like to leave before dark. I would love to visit Rome. Would you prefer to stay at home? Would you like a cup of tea? Id rather you stayed home. (preterit modal) I would prefer you to stay a home. 2. Le conditionnel pass Formation : would have + Ved a. Dans une principale dont la subordonne If you hadnt come I would have been disappointed. If they had followed (preterit modal) my instructions, they wouldnt have lost their way. b. Pour exprimer un regret I would have loved to visit Rome. I would have liked him to answer my letter. I would have preferred to spend more time in England. = I would rather have spent more time in England. I would have preferred him to arrive earlier. (jaurai prfr quil arrive plus tt) =I would rather he had arrived earlier. (past perfect modal) 3. Cas particulier a. Une nouvelle par rapport au moment prsent

Verbes dtat The Prime Minister is said to be seriously ill. (le premier minister serait gravement malade. On dit que le premier ministre est malade) He is thought to be in town. (il serait en ville. On pense quil est en ville) Verbes daction: to be said + infinitif prsent progressif To be + v-ing He is said to be hiding in South America. They are thought to be building new nuclear weapons. b. Une nouvelle par rapport au moment pass To be said + infinitif pass Have + participe pass du verbe The Prime Minister is said to have resigned. The plot is reported to have failed. II. Valeurs modales de WOULD 1. Insister sur la volont du pass a. La forme affirmative : intention, dtermination He would leave his job, it was no use trying to make him change his mind. (il voulait absolument quitter son travail ) I tried to help him, but he would do it by himself. (jai essay de laider mais il a voulu le faire de lui-mme/tout seul) b. Forme ngative : refus I tried to show him that he was wrong but he wouldnt listen to me. (jai essay de lui montrer quil avait tort mais il na pas voulu mcouter, il a refus de mcouter)

She wouldnt hear of it. (elle na pas voulu en entendre parler) 2. Forme de politesse a. Requte Would you come this way, please? (si vous voulez bien me suivre) Would you please remind me your name. Would you be kind enough to/so kind as to send me a haflet? If you would sign me the register. (si vous voulez bien signer) b. Invitation, offre Would you come for dinner tonight? (pour un patron par exemple, extrmement poli) c. Valeur frquentative Caractre prvisible dans le pass He would always stop by on his way back from work. (il sarrtait toujours en rentrant du travail) When I was a child, we would go to the countryside every Saturday. Nuance dobstination We all tried to stop him smoking in bed but he would do it. (il sobstinait le faire) -We went to the cinema yesterday and Bill had forgotten his purse. - oh, he would! (chaque fois , cest prvisible quil loublie) -Bill objected - He would. (quoi quon fasse, Bill nest jamais daccord avec nous, il a toujours une objection faire) III. Valeurs modales de SHOULD 1. Des subordonnes introduites par if , pour

If you meet Mr Jones, tell him I want to see him. If you should meet Mr Jones, tell him I want to see him. Should you meet Mr Jones, tell him If the goods should arrive in a damaged condition, let us know at once. If you should be interested, Ill send you a copy. Should you be interested, Ill send you a copy. /!\ In case + should : take your umbrella in case it should rain For fear/ lest (de peur que) + should He didn't dare leave the house for fear/ lest (that) he should be recognized Il n'osait pas quitter la maison de peur qu'on le reconnaisse 2. Dans les subordonnes exprimant un but avec They locked the dog in so that it shouldnt escape. (ils ont enferm le chien pour quil ne schappe pas.) He cancelled the Press Conference so that no one should ask him embarrassing questions. (il a annul la confrence de presse pour que personne ne lui pose de questions embarrassantes.) 3. Aprs les verbes exprimant une suggestion, un ordre He suggested that working hours (should) be reduced. He was determined that nobody (should) arrive there before him. Quand il est obligatoire, on peut enlever le should car il est sous-entendu. 4. Aprs certains adjectifs Les adjectifs exprimant une prise de position ferme, urgence (=> should est obligatoire) It is essential that you (should) be present at the meeting. It is advisable that everybody (should) have a map. Les adjectifs exprimant un jugement sur une action It is surprising that he should say such things.

It is amazing that the car should always break down at the same place. 5. Aprs certaines expressions I see no reason why. I cant think why I cant see why he should have said I was wrong.

Les modaux : Introduction

I. Modaux et tournures de susbstitution Modal : must subs. : have to Modal attitude d'esprit du locuteur : You must read this book (c'est moi qui le dis) He may come tonight (Il se peut qu'il vienne ce soir) c'est moi qui le crois Tournure de susbstitution Etat de fait objectif : you have to read this book. He is allowed to come with us. II. Rgles de base 1. Verbes dfectifs a. Pas de -s la 3me personne du singulier

b. Isl ne peuvent pas se mettre... A l'infinitif (avec ou sans to) I would like to be able to speak Italian Au participe prsent (forme -ing) Being able to leave means a lot to him

Au part.pass (forme -ed) He had been able to escape an hour before 2. Verbes ... Base verbale = infinitif sans to Infinitif prsent simple : may/must ... do Prsent progressif : may/must + be + V-ing may/must + be doing Infinitif pass : may/must + have + part.pass may/must + have done Infinitif pass progressif : may/must + have been + Ving may/must + have been doing III. Deux types de modalits 1. La modalit de l'action La capacit can/could He can run 20 kms La permission may/could/can You may go L'obligation must/should He must leave at once

2. La modalit du savoir Le certitude absolue will That will be John La forte probabilit/ la quasi certitude must He must be about 40

L'ventuel may/might John may come tomorrow L'impossible cant He is so young he can't be your father

Modalit de l'action
I. La capacit Modal : can/could T. de Substitution : to be able to 1. Prsent : can a. La capacit physique He can lift (soulever) 2000 pounds all by himself I can't reach the top shelf I'm too short b. La capacit intellectuelle He can speak several foreign languages Can you drive ? (est ce que tu sais conduire ?) c. Rappel : avec le verbes de perception volontaire Ne se traduit pas I can smell something burning. I can hear somebody screaming upstairs. (J'entends quelqu'un crier...) Verbes de processus mental I can understand your feeling. Can you remember his phone number? When he was a boy, he could climb any tree Il le faisait tout le temps quand il voulait Imparfait = traduction : Il pouvait grimper n'importe quel arbre

Last year, we were able to climb Mont Blanc Nous l'avons fait une fois, moment prcis Pass Compos = traduction : L'anne dernire nous avons pu monter au Mont Blanc Could capacit permanente, possibilit virtuelle When she was a child, she could speak Russian was/ were able to capacit effective, ralise un moment prcis. They were able to deliver the goods before deadline (date butoire). /!\ He was so drunk that he wasn't able to get home He was so drunk that he couldn't get home A la forme ngative, les diffrences s'estompent 2. Autres temps : to be able to conjugu comme un verbe normal He has been able to swim since he was 5 I won't be able to come with you He apologized for not being able to come with us can futur Can you come tomorrow? I'll do everything I can to help you (je ferai tout ce que je peux pour vous aider) Conditionnel If I asked you to replace him could you do it/ would you be able to do it? Si tu ne m'avais pas aid, je naurais pas pu finir mon travail If you hadn't helped (past perfect modal) me, I wouldn't have been (conditionnel pass) able to finish my work/ I couldn't have finished my work. /!\ He was able to warn them (Il a pu les avertir) diffrent de He could have warned them (Il aurait pu les avertir) et de He had been able to warn them (il avait pu les avertir) II. La permission Modal : may/can/would

Tournure de sub. : to be allowed to 1. Prsent a. Demande de permission May I smoke ? (la plus poli) Could I use your pen? Could I come with you ? Couldn't I come with you? Influenc (vraiment tu es sre que je puisse pas venir?) b. Expression de permission 2e et 3e personne : may/can/ to be allowed to You may park your car under that tree. You are allowed to park your car on this side of the street 1ere personne I can choose my own... I'm allowed to choose... 2. Pass a. Could : permission permanente On saturday night we could stay up late b. Was/were allowed to : permission ponctuelle I had a visa, so I was allowed to cross the border 3. Autre temps to be allowed to Had they arrived on time they would have been allowed to speak with him for a few minutes

III. L'Obligation (must/have to et have got to = must)

1. Forme affirmative a. Prsent Les 2 formes sont possibles - I'm afraid, I have to go to london every week for my work - I must go now - I must wear a tie for this interview if I want to be taken seriously (ponctuel + interne) - I have to wear a tie at the office (habituel + externe) - Janet, you must stop smoking to much! (obligation interne au locuteur) - You have to stop smoking before entering the theatre (obligation externe reglement) If you drive through lyon, you must come and see us office manager : staff must be at their desks by 9a.m Rglement crit : candidates must not have left the room until the end of the exam In the office, the staff have to be at their desks by 9a.m b. Prtrit 1 seule possibilit had to They had to lay off 50 employees last year. I had to work harder if I wanted to keep my job If the crisis had continued / continued, they would have had to / have to lay off some employees c. Autres temps Remarque gnrale devoir to be + infinitif = action prvue we are to go in the USA next month I was to stay in london. He had to stop in london. His car broke down Should

infinitif prsent simple = conseil you should take this exam. It would be useful for you. Infinitif prsent progressif = reproche you should/ ought to be studying for this exam I shouldn't be telling you this we should be wearing our seat belts you ought to/ should have stopped at the trafic lights she shouldn't have opened the letter 2. Forme ngative L'absence d'obligation Attention : pas mustn't (Nein) needn't (do) / don't need to (do) / don't have to (do) a. Prsent You needn't come. I'll answer the phone for you You don't need to come they have found to replace you /!\ you needn't bring your book (I'll lend you mine = modal [locuteur] ) diffrent de You don't have to / don't need to bring your book (the school provides them = tournure de susbstitution = extrieur au locuteur) b. Pass : faire la diffrence entre : didn't need to do et needn't have done We didn't need to wait. They were just on time (on n'a pas attendu fait objectif : l'action d'attendre n'a pas eu lieu) We needn't have waited they've never come (l'action a eu lieu mais elle a t inutile) You needn't have brought your umbrella, we are going by car (vous l'avez emmen mais ce n'tait pas la peine) J'ai besoin de m'acheter un ticket = I didn't need/have to buy a ticket. The controllers were on strike. You won't need/have to stay till the end 3. Forme interrogative

a. Prsent : forme courante : avec have to do you have to go? Must I Must I attend (assister) this class? Need I attend... ? b. Pass Did (you/he)... have to ? Did he have to inform the staff ? Was he to inform the staff? (devait-il [qqchose de prcis] ) c. Autres temps : avec have to Would he have to cancel the concert if there were a storm...

La modalit du savoir
I. La certitude absolue : will It's no use to asking Tom, he won't know (I'm sure he doesn't) II. La forte probabilit Must/certainly 1. Must + infinitif sans to prsent a. Essentiellement avec des verbes comme You had a journey. You must be exhausted. He must felt proud of him. b. Aussi avec des verbes d'action lors d'une action habituelle He must travel first class His experience must help him a lot

2. Must + infinitif prsent progressif sans to + be + vb-ing They must be waiting for us. They must be working 3. Must + infinitif pass sans to + have + pp du vb He must have missed his train. A mon avis il a d venir en avion he must have come by plane Il a d venir en avion parce qu'il y avait grve des trains He had to come by plane because there was a railway strike. Remarque: should + infinitif prsent sans to prsent: he should be at home now futur: he should be at home tomorrow He should have plenty of time to get to the station (I'm sure, he will have) Must PAS futur /!\ The letter should have arrived by now (I'm sure it has arrived [ou sinon c'est un reproche sans le by now]) III. L'ventuel, le possible 1. May/might (mme sens : peut tre que...) a. May/might They may be wrong (il se peut qu'il ait tort) She may/might come tonight perhaps she will It may/might rain this afternoon b. May/might + infinitif prsent progressif sans to Be careful somebody may/might be listenning to us May + infinitif pass = incertitude/ ventualit He may have come while we were out (Il se peut qu'il soit venu pendant que nous tions...)

Might + infinitif pass : on envisage une ventualit dans le pass en sachant qu'elle n'a pas eu lieu Why didn't you invite them? They might have come. She may have revealed everything to him (perhaps she did) il se peut qu'elle ait tout revel Why did you tell her? She might revealed everything to him. (I know she didn't) elle aurait pu tout lui reveler May + infinitif pass est diffrent de might + infinitif pass Peter might have left the bedroom by now Remarque : - Forme ngative = may + not + Vb prsent He may not be intelligent, but he's kind (perhaps he isn't) She may not believe your story (perhaps she won't) - May + not + vb pass She may not have heard you 2. Could Could + infinitif prsent sans to : I wonder where tom is. He could be in the library. Could + infinitif pass sans to : I don't know how he learnt about it Il se peut qu'il en est entendu parler par john he may/ could have heard it from john He might/ could have broken his leg. IV. L'impossible Can't. I must be true / It can't be true Can't + infinitif prsent sans to = tat -I'm hungry -Oh no, you can't be hungry. We've just had lunch Can't + infinitif prsent progressif sans to = action She can't be working for them. I know she signed a contract with another firm.

(I'm sure she doesn't) /!\ Diffrent de She can't work for them. (She's not allowed to work for them) Can't + infinitif pass sans to A man answered the phone. It must have been her husband. He's been dead for month (il est mort depuis des mois) (I'm sure it wasn't) V. Deux expressions modales 1. To be likely to (env. Must) They are likely to quit if we don't rain wages soon Il y a de fortes chances Tourn vers l'avenir. 2. To be bound to She's bound to think we did it on purpose (elle va certainement penser que/ elle ne peut que penser que...) It's bound to be a failure (c'est vou tre un echec) 3. To be sure to The boys are sure to show up when they smell the cakes in the oven (four) (I'm sure the boys will show up)

Le passif
I. Formation 1. Les diffrents temps We are being followed (prsent progressif + Ved) The samples were being analyzed (les chantillons sont en train d'tre analyss) The meeting had been cancelled (...avait t annul) It must have been erased (a a d tre effac)

2. Particularits de formation a. Les verbes bi-transitif (COI + COD / COI + sujet) He gave me a book I (COI/sujet) was given a book (COD) A book (COD/sujet) was given to me (COI) She told me a story. I was told a story/ A story was told to me They sent the candidates letters of reminder. The candidates were sent letters of reminder He hates being laughed at. b. Le problme des prpositions He was operated on last night. The children were well looked after. c. Les verbes sont suivis d'un infinitif complet She made the children sing The children were made to sing Someone saw you take the money you were seen to take the money II. Emplois 1. Les 3 emplois de base a. Agent inconnu ou peu important He was murdered in his bathroom (inconnu) The gates will be opened at 3pm (peu important) b. Traduction de on I was asked to show my passport. I was told to mind my own business. c. Pour traduire des verbes pronominaux en franais

Les liens logiques de la phrase

I. Contraste et similarit 1. Similarit (traduction de comme) a. Like semploie suivi dune forme nominale (nom, grondif, pronom personnel complment, pronom possessif ou dmonstratif) ex : He works in Paris, like my brother (groupe nominal) He works in Paris, like me (pronom personnel) A flat like yours would be ideal (pronom possessif) A flat like this one would be ideal (pronom dmonstratif) Aprs les verbes to consider, to regard, to look upon, on emploie as ex: they consider / regard / look upon us as their rivals Pour introduire des exemples on emploie like ou such as ex : Several firms, such as IBM and General Motors, are cutting jobs b. As exprime aussi la similarit, mais est suivit : Dune forme verbale ex : As you know, I dont agree with him Why dont you wak at the office, as I do? Dun groupe prpositionnel Ex : You cant deal with foreign customers as with French ones. As + nom permet de traduire comme / en tant que. Ne pas confondre : He works as an accountant : il travaille en tant que comptable He works as a slave : il travaille comme un forat. 2. Contraste a. Traduction de contrairement : 2 possibilits Unlike + forme nominale ex : Unlike John, she is not very efficient

Your flat is very clean, unlike mine / unlike this one contrary to + what ex : contrary to what they had announced b. Traduction de alors que: on emploie whereas ou while ex : He is self-employed, whereas his brother is a civil servant. II. Simultanit temporelle On emploie while pour traduire pendant que et as pour traduire alors que / tandis que / comme / au moment o ex : While she was doing her homework, I went shopping As I was jogging, it began to rain I saw him as he was coming out III. Cause et consquence 1. La cause a. Parce que = because b. Car = for ex: I dont send it, for it wil be too late c. Dans la mesure o = insofar as ou inasmuch as ex : Insofar as everyone is concerned, we should be warned d. Etant donn que / comme = since / as ex : Since / as Im under 18, I cannot vote 2. La consequence a. Ainsi = thus

ex: Tell him the truth; thus, he wont say he didnt know b. Si bien que = so that ex: It rained all the afternoon, so that they hed to cancel the match IV. Le but 1. Si on a le mme sujet dans les deux propositions, on emploie linfinitif complet ou in order to , ou encore so as to ex : I did that to surprise her I did that so as to surprise her I did that in order to surprise her Pour exprimer un ngatif on utilise so as not to ou in order not to ex: They decided to cut production so as not to hire new employees They decided to cut production in order not to hire new employees 2. Sil y a changement de sujet entre les deux propositions : so that + modal a. So that + may / might (valeur positive: faciliter , rendre possible) So that + can / could Ex: I stayed home with the baby so that my wife could / might go to the cinema b. So that + should (valeur ngative: contraindre, empcher) ex: I locked the phone so that he shouldnt use it I warned him so that he should be careful Ces deux phrases ont un sens diffrent: - the doctor talked in medical terms, so that I didnt fully understand (= as a result) - the doctor talked in medical terms so that I shouldnt fully understand (= he didnt want me to understand. He did it on purpose)

V. Supposition / condition 1. If vs Whether (whehter suppose une notion de choix) ex: If the weather is fine, well go for a walk Do you know whether he placed the order (or not)? 2. Pour une condition ncessaire on emploie a. A condition que = provided / providing ex: You can go tonight provided that you come back before midnight b. A moins que / sauf si = unless ex : He will do nothing unless you ask him You wont catch your train, unless you leave immediately VI. La concession 1. Malgr + nom se traduit par in spite of / despite + nom ex : In spite of / Despite the drop in sales, we have made profits 2. Bien que + verbe = although + verbe ex: Althoug sales have dropped, we have made profits 3. Deux propositions indpendantes peuvent tre lies par cependant / pourtant / nanmoins = however / and / yet / netherless ex : There has been a drop in sales ; and yet / however, we have made profits VII. Traduction de en + participe prsent 1. Si cette structure exprime la manire = by + ing ex : He earns his living by giving private lessons 2. Si elle exprime la simultanit = while + ing

ex : She often irons while watching TV 3. Si cette structure exprime la simultanit courte (+ cause) = on + ing ex : On hearing the news, he fainted