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Nguyn xun ho Trng THPT V Quang

GII TON V AMIN AMINO PROTIT.


1. Khi t chy hon ton 0,1 mol X thu c 1,12 lt N2 ; 6,72 lt CO2 v
6,3g H2O v MX = 89. CTPT ca X l:
A. C3H5O2N B. C3H7O2N C. C3H7O2N2 D. C4H9O2N.
Gii.
Do sn phm chy gm CO2, H2O, N2 nn X cha C, H, N v c th c O
Gi CTPT ca X l: XxHyOzNt
y z y
CxHyOzNt + (x+ - ) O2 xCO2 + H2O + t N2.
4 2 2
0,1 mol 0,1x 0,05y 0,05t
Theo bi ra:
6,72
n CO 2 = 0,1x = 0,3 x 3
22,4
6,3
n H2 O = 0,05y = 18 0,35 y 7
1,12
n N2= 0,05t = 22,4 0,05 t 1
Vi MX = 89 z = 2.
CTPT ca X l: C3H7O2N.
2. Hp cht X gm cc nguyn t C, H, O, N vi t l khi lng tng ng l
24: 5: 16: 14. Bit phn t X c hai nguyn t N. CTPT ca X l:
A. CH4ON2 B. C3H8ON2 C. C3H8O2N2 D. C4H10O2N2.
Gii.
CTPT ca X l: CxHyOzNt.
Ta c:
24 5 16 14
x:y:z:t= 2 : 5 :1:1
12 1 16 14
CTGN l C2H5ON CTTN : (C2H5ON)n.
Do phn t cha hai nghuyn t N nn n = 2.
CTPT l C4H10O2N2.
3. X l mt amin n chc bc nht cha 23,73% nit. CTPT ca X l:
A. C3H5NH2 B. C4H7NH2 C. C3H7NH2 D. C5H9NH2.
Gii.
Gi CTPT ca amin l CxHyN.
Ta c:
mN 14 23,73
12 x y 45
mC m H 12 x y 76,27

x 1 2 3
y 33 21 9
Cp nghim tho mn l: x = 3; y = 9.
CTPT ca amnin n gin: C3H7NH2.
4. Cho 0,1 mol cht X ( C 2H8O3N2, M = 108) tc dng vi dung dch cha 0,2
mol NaOH un nng thu c cht kh lm xanh giy qu m v dung dch Y.
C cn dung dch Y thu c m gam cht rn khan. Gi tr ca m l:
A. 5,7g B. 12,5g C. 15g D.
21,8g.
Gii.
C2H5NH3NO3 + NaOH C2H5NH2 + NaNO3.
0,1 0,1 0,1
Cht kh lm xanh qu m l: CH3CH2NH2.

Trc nghim amin aminoaxit.


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Nguyn xun ho Trng THPT V Quang
Cht rn gm 0,1 mol NaNO3 v 0,1 mol NaOH d.
m rn = 0,1. 85 + 0,1.40 = 12,5g.

5. Mt amino axit cha 46,6% C; 8,74% H; 13,59% N cn li l O. CTGN


trng vi CTPT. CTPT ca amino axit l:
A. C3H7O2N B. C4H9O2N C. C4H7O2N D. C5H9O2N.
Gii.
%O = 100 (46,6 + 8,74 + 13,59) = 31,07%.
Gi CTPT ca amino axit l: CxHyOzNt.
Ta c:
46,6 8,74 31,07 13,59
x:y:z:t= 3,88 : 8,74 : 1,94 : 0,97
12 1 16 14
= 4 : 9 : 2 : 1.
CTPT trng vi CTGN nn CTPT l: C4H9O2N.

6. A l - amino axit cha mt nhm NH 2 v mt nhm - COOH. Cho


8,9g A tc dng vi dung dch HCl d thu c 12,55g mui. CTCT ca A l:
A. CH3 - CH - COOH B. CH2 - CH2 - COOH
NH2 NH2
C. CH3 - CH2 - CH - COOH D. CH3 - CH - CH2 - COOH
NH2 NH2
Gii.
CTPT ca aminoaxit l: HOOC R NH2.
HOOC R NH2 + HCl HOOC R NH3Cl.
Ta c:
R 61 R 97,5
R 28
8,9 12,55
R c th l: -- CH2 CH2 hoc CH3 CH
V l - aminoaxit nn R: CH3 CH --.
CTCT: CH3 - CH - COOH
NH2

7. Amino axit X cha 1 nhm - COOH v 2 nhm NH 2 . Cho 1 mol X tc


dng ht vi dung dch NaOH thu c 154g mui. CTPT v CTCT c th c
ca X l:
A. C4H10N2O2 : CH2 - CH - CH2 - COOH B. C5H12N2O2 : CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - CH - COOH
NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2
D. C5H10N2O2 : CH2 - CH = CH - CH - COOH
C. C6H14N2O2 : CH2 - (CH2)3 - CH - COOH
NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2
Gii.
Gi CTPT ca X l: CxHy(NH2)2COOH.
Ptp:
CxHy(NH2)2COOH + NaOH CxHy(NH2)2COONa + H2O.
1 mol 1 mol.
Ta c:
12x + y + 16.2 + 67 = 154 12x + y = 55.
Nghim ng: x = 4; y = 7.
CTPT: C5H12N2O2.

Trc nghim amin aminoaxit.


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Nguyn xun ho Trng THPT V Quang

8. X l - amino axit cha mt nhm NH 2 v mt nhm - COOH. Cho


8,9g X tc dng vi 200 ml dung dch HCl 1M thu c dung dch Y. phn
ng ht vi cc cht trong dung dch Y cn dng 300 ml dung dch NaOH
1M. Cng thc ng ca X l:

A. CH3 - CH - COOH B. CH3 - CH2 - CH - COOH


NH2
CH3 NH2
C. CH2 - CH2 - COOH D. CH3 - C - COOH
NH2 NH2
Gii.
CTCT X : R - CH - COOH
NH2
Ptp :
R - CH - COOH + HCl R - CH - COOH (1)
NH2 NH3Cl
R - CH - COOH +2 NaOH R - CH - COOH + NaCl + H2O (2)
NH3Cl NH2
HCl d +NaOH NaCl + H2O (3)

n NaOH = 0,3 mol. n HCl = 0,2 mol.


T (1), (2) ta thy: HCl d v nu HCl va hoc thiu th n NaOH
2.0,2 = 0,4 mol.
Gi x l s mol ca X. t (1), (2), (3) ta c:
x + (0,2 x ) = 0,3 x = 0,1 mol.
8,9
M X = R + 74 = 89 R = 15 R: CH3 -
0,1
CTPT ca X l: CH3CH(NH2)COOH.
9. Mt aminoaxit Y cha 1 nhm COOH v 2 nhm - NH 2. Cho 1 mol Y tc
dng ht vi dung dch HCl thu c 205g mui khan. CTPT ca Y l:
A. C4H10N2O2 B. C5H12N2O2 C. C6H14N2O2
D. C5H10N2O2.
Gii.
Gi CTPT ca Y l: CxHy2COOH(NH2).
Ptp:
CxHyCOOH(NH2)2 + HCl CxHyCOOH(NH3Cl)2 .
1 mol 1 mol.
Ta c:
12x + y + 45 + 2.52,5 = 205 12x + y = 55.
Nghim ng: x = 4; y = 7.
CTPT: C5H12N2O2.
10. t chy hon ton hn hp 2 amin bc I, mch h, no n chc k tip
nhau trong dy ng ng thu c CO2 v H2O vi t l s mol n CO 2 : nH 2 O
= 1:2. Hai amin c CTPT ln lt l:
A. CH3NH2 v C2H5NH2 B. C2H5NH2 v C3H7NH2
C. C3H7NH2 v C4H9NH2 D. C4H9NH2 v C5H11NH2.
Gii.
Gi cng thc phn t ca hai amin n chc , no l: C n H 2 n 1 NH2.

Trc nghim amin aminoaxit.


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Nguyn xun ho Trng THPT V Quang
4n 3 2n 3
C n H 2 n 1 NH2 + ( )O2 n CO2 + H2O.
2 2
mol 1 2.
2n 3
Ta c: n CO 2 :n H2 O = n: 1: 2 n = 1,5.
2
Hai amin cn tm l: CH3NH2 v CH3CH2NH2.
11. t chy hon ton m gam mt amin bc I X bng lng khng kh va
thu c 17,6g CO2; 12,6g H2O v 69,44 lt kh N2 (ktc). X c CTPT l:
A. C2H5NH2 B. C3H7NH2 C. CH3NH2 D. C4H9NH2.
Gii.
Gi CTPT ca X l CxHyNt.
y y t
CxHyNt + ( x + ) xCO2 + H2O + N2 . (*)
4 2 2
y y t
a mol a( x+ ) ax a a .
4 2 2
17,6 y
n CO 2 = ax = 44 0,4 mol. (1) n H2 O = a 2 =
12,6
0,7 ay 1,4 mol. (2)
18
y 1,4
n O 2 = ax + 4 = 0,4 + 4 0,75 mol.
t
n N2 = n N 2 khng kh +n N 2 (*)
4.n O 2 + at/2 = 4.0,075 + a. =
2
69,44
3,1.
22,4
at = 0,2. (3).
T (1), (2), (3) ta c:
x : y : t = 0,4 : 1,4 : 0,2 = 2 : 7 : 1.
CTGN : C2H7N. CTN: (C2H7N)n . Nghim thch hp l: n = 1. V amin
bc I nn CPT l: CH3CH2NH2.

12. t chy mt amin no, n chc bc hai X thu c CO2 v H2O c t l


s mol
n :nH 2 O = 2: 3. Tn ca X l:
CO 2
A. Etylamin B. Etylmetylamin C. trietylamin D.
imetylamin.
Gii.
CTPT amin no, c chc: CnH2n+3N.
4n 3 2n 3 1
CnH2n+3N + O2 n CO2 + H2O + N2 .
2 2 2
mol 2 3.
2n 3
n CO 2 : nH 2 O =n: = 2 : 3 n = 3.
2
CTPT: C3H9N. V amin bc hai nn c CTCT: CH3CH2 NH CH3: etyl
metyl amin.

13. t chy a mol 1 aminoaxit c 2a mol CO2 v a/2 mol N2. CTCT ca
aminoaxit l:

Trc nghim amin aminoaxit.


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Nguyn xun ho Trng THPT V Quang
A. H2NCH2COOH B. H2N[CH2]2COOH C. H2N[CH2]3COOH D.
H2NCH[COOH]2.
Gii.
CTPT ca amino axit: CxHyOzNt.
y t
CxHyOzNt
O xCO2 +
2
H2O + N2 .
2 2
n CO 2 = ax = 2a x = 2 X c hai nguyn t C.
t 1
n H2 O = a. = .a t = 1 X c mt nguyn t N.
2 2
X : H2NCH2COOH.

14. A l mt - amino axit no, c mch cacbon khng phn nhnh, cha 1
nhm NH2 v 2 nhm COOH. Khi t chy hon ton mt mol A th thu
c hn hp kh trong
4,5 mol < nCO 2 < 6 mol. CTCT ca A l:
COOH NH2
A. H2N - CH - CH - CH3 B. HOOC - CH - CH2 - COOH
COOH
NH2
C. CH2 - CH - CH2 - COOH D. H2N - CH - CH2 - CH2 - COOH
COOH COOH
Gii.
Gi CTPT ca amino axit trn l: CnH2n 1 (NH2)(COOH)2.
CnH2n 1 (NH2)(COOH)2
O
(n + 2) CO2
2

1 mol (n + 2) mol.
Theo bi ra ta c:
4,5 < n + 2 < 6 n = 3.
CTPT ca amino axit l: C3H5(NH2)(COOH)2.
CTCT ca amino axit no, mch thng khng phn nhnh l:
HOOC - CH - CH2 - CH2 - COOH
NH2
A khng hp l v mch cacbon phn nhnh.

15. S gam axit metacrylic X v metanol Y dng iu ch 150g


metylmetacrylat vi hiu sut 60% l:
A. 86g axit metacrylic v 32g metanol. B. 215g axit metacrylic v
80g metanol.
C. 172g axit metacrylic v 48g metanol. D. 129g axit metacrylic v
64g metanol.
Gii.
Phng trnh phn ng:
CH2 = C - COOH + CH3OH CH2 = C - COOCH3 + H2O
CH3 CH3

Trc nghim amin aminoaxit.


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Nguyn xun ho Trng THPT V Quang
86g 32g 100g
100
xg yg 150. g
60
Khi lng axit metacrylic l:
86.150 100
x = . 215 (g).
100 60
Khi lng ca metanol l:
150.32 100
y= . 80 (g).
100 60
16. Mt on t capron (nilon - 6) c khi lng l 2,494g. S mt xch ca
on t l:
A. 133. B. 1,743.10 20 . C. 0,133.10 23 . D.
0,133.1019.
Gii.
Mch capron c dng: [ - NH (CH2)5 CO ] n.
Phn t khi ca mt mt xich t: M = 113 vC.
Khi lng ca on mch t l: m = 113.n. vC = 113.n. (0,166.10
23
) g.
1 1
[ 1 vC = ( 6. mp + 6. mn) = (6.0,6726.10-- 23 + 6. 0,6748.1023)
12 12
= 0,166.1023(g)].
Theo bi ra ta c:
m = 113n.0,166.1023 (g) = 2,494 (g)
n = 0,133.1023 mt xch.

17. Cho 100 ml dung dch amino axit A 0,2M tc dng va vi 80 ml


dung dch NaOH 0,25M. Mt khc, 100 ml dung dch A trn tc dng va
vi 80 ml dung dch HCl 0,5M. Bit A c t khi vi H 2 l 52. CTPT ca A
l:
A. (H2N)2C2H3COOH . B . H2NC2H3(COOH)2.
C. (H2N)2C2H2(COOH)2. D. H2NC3H5(COOH)2.
Gii.
n A = 0,02 mol; n NaOH = 0,08.0,25 = 0,02 mol; n HCl =
0,08.0,5 = 0,04 mol.
Do nA = nNaOH A c cha 1 nhm COOH.
n HCl = 2nNaOH A c cha hai nhm - NH2.
CTPT ca A: R(NH2)2(COOH)2.
MA = 52.2 = 104 R = 27 R: C2H3.
CTCT: NH2C2H3(COOH)2.

18. Mt amino axit no X tn ti trong t nhin (cha 1 nhm NH 2 v 1


nhm COOH). Cho 0,89g X phn ng va vi HCl to ra 1,255g mui.
CTCT ca X l:
A. H2NCH2COOH B. CH3CH(NH2)COOH
C. H2NCH2CH2COOH D. B v C ng.
Gii.
CTPT X: CnH2n(NH2)(COOH).
CnH2n(NH2)(COOH)2 + HCl CnH2n(NH3Cl)(COOH).
0,89g 1,255.
14n 60 14n 96,5
n2.
0,89 1,255

Trc nghim amin aminoaxit.


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Nguyn xun ho Trng THPT V Quang
CTPT X: C2H4(NH2)(COOH).
Cch khc:
C 1 mol X chuyn thnh mui khi lng tng 36,5 g.
C x mol . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1,255 0,89 = 0,365
g.
0,365
nA = 0,01 mol.
36,5
0,89
MA = 89 n = 2.
0,01
CTPT X: C2H4(NH2)(COOH).

19. Cho X 0,01 mol amino axit X tc dng va ht 80 ml dung dch HCl
0,125M v thu c 1,835g mui khan. Mt khc, 0,01 mol X tc dng va
vi 25g dung dch NaOH 3,2% . CTCT ca X l:
A. H2NC3H6COOH B. H2NC2H5COOH
C. H2NC3H5(COOH)2. D. (H2N)2C3H4(COOH)2.
Gii.
25.3,2
n HCl = 0,125.0,08 = 0,01 mol; n NaOH = 0,02 mol.
100.40
n HCl = n X X c cha 1 nhm NH2.
n NaOH = 2.n X X c cha hai nhm - COOH.
CTPT ca X: R(NH2)(COOH)2.
R(NH2)(COOH)2 + HCl R(NH3Cl)(COOH)2 + H2O.
1,835
Mmui = R + 52,5 + 2. 45 = = 183,5 R = 41 R: C3H5.
0,01
CTCT X: NH2C3H5(COOH)2.

20. Cho 0,1 mol - amino axit A c dng H2NRCOOH phn ng ht vi HCl to ra 11,15g
mui. A l:
A. glyxin. B. alanin. C. phenyl alanin. D. valin.
Gii.
NH2RCOOH + HCl (NH3Cl)RCOOH .
11,15
n Mui =n A = 0,1 mol M mui = R + + 45 = 111,5 R = 14
0,1
R : - CH2
A l H2NCH2COOH (glyxin).
21. Cho lng d anilin phn ng hon ton vi lng d dung dch long cha 0,05 mol
H2SO4. Lng mui thu c l:
A. 7,1g B. 14,2g C. 19,1g D. 28,4g.
Gii.
2C6H5NH2 + H2SO4 (C6H5NH3)SO4.
n Mui = n H 2 SO 4 = 0,05 mol.
m Mui = 0,05. 284 = 14,2 g.
22. Cho 500g benzen phn ng vi hn hp gm HNO 3 dc v H2SO4 c. Lng
nitrobenzen to thnh c kh thnh anilin. Bit rng hiu sut phn ng u bng
78%. Khi lng anilin thu c l:
A. 1010,848g B. 615g C. 596,154g D. 362,7g.
Gii.
C6H6 + HONO2 H2 SO4 C6H5NO2 + H2O (1).
C6H5NO2 + 6H C6H5NH2 + 2H2O (2).

Trc nghim amin aminoaxit.


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Nguyn xun ho Trng THPT V Quang
500.123
Theo (1): m C
6
H
5
NO 2 = 615 kg.
78
615.93
Theo (2): mC 6 H 5 NH 2 = 465 kg.
123
Khi lng anilin thc t thu c l:
78
m = 465. 362,7 kg.
100
23. Mt on t nilon 6,6 c khi lng l 7,5 mg. S mt xch ca on t l:
A. 6,02.1023 B. 2.196 C. 2.1020 D. 2.1019.
Gii.
on t nilon 6,6 : [ - NH (CH2)5 NH (CH2)4 CO ] n.
Khi lng mt mt xch: m1 = 226 vC.
Khi lng on t: m2 = 226n vC = 226.n.0,166.1023 g = 0,0075 g.
n = 2.10 19.
24. Mt amino axit A c cha 40,4% C; 7,9% H; 15,7% N v M A = 89. CTPT ca A l:
A. C3H5O2N. B. C3H7O2N. C. C2H5O2N. D. C4H9O2N.
Gii.
%O = 100 (40,4 + 15,7 + 7,9) = 36%.
Gi CTPT l: CxHyOzNt. Ta c:
89 12 x y 16 z 14t
x = 3; y = 7; z = 2; t = 1.
100 40,4 7,9 36 15,7
CTPT l: C3H7O2N.
25. Cho 0,01 mol amino axit A tc dng va vi 80 ml dung dch HCl 0,125M. C
cn dung dch thu c 1,835g mui. Khi lng phn t ca A l:
A. 147 B. 150 C. 97 D. 120.
Gii.
n HCl = 0,125.0,08 = 0,01 mol.
Ap dng nh lut bo ton khi lng, ta c:
m Amin + m HCl = m mui m Amin = 1,835 0,01.36,5 = 1,47 g.
1,47
M amin = 147 vC.
0,01
27. Cho 0,1 mol amino axit A phn ng va vi 0,1 mol NaOH v 0,2 mol
HCl. Khi lng mui Na thu c khi tc dng vi NaOH l 13,9g. Khi lng
mui clorua khi cho tc dng vi HCl v CTCT ca A l:
A. 19,2g; HOOC (CH2)3 - NH2. B. 18,4g; HOOC CH(NH2)
CH2 COOH.
C. 19g; HOOC CH(NH2) (CH2)2 NH2. D. 19,4g; HOOC CH
(NH2)CH3.

Trc nghim amin aminoaxit.


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