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NORME CEI

INTERNATIONALE IEC

71-1
INTERNATIONAL
Septieme edition

STANDARD Seventh edition

1993-12

Coordination de l ' i s o l e m e n t

Partie 1 :

D e f i n i t i o n s , principes et regles

I n s u l a t i o n co-ordination

Part 1 :

D e f i n i t i o n s , principles and rules

N u rn e r o d e reference

Reference n u m b e r

CEI/IEC 7 1 - 1 : 1993
V a l i d i t e de la presente p u b l i c a t i o n V a l i d i t y of t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n

Le contenu technique des publications de la CEI est cons­ T he technical content of IEC publications is kept under

tamment revu par la CEI afin qu'il reflete l'etat actuel de constant review by the IEC , thus ensuring that the content

la technique. reflects current technology.

Des renseignements relatifs a la date de reconfirmation de Information relating to the date of the reconfirmation of the

la publication sont disponibles aupres du Bureau Central de publication is available from th e IEC Central Off ice.

laCEI.

Les renseignements relatifs a ces revisions, a l'etablis­ Information on the revrsron w ork, the issue of revised

sement des editions revisees et aux amendements peuvent editions and amendments may be obtained from IEC

etre obtenus aupres des Comltes nationaux de la CEI et N ational Committees and from the following IEC

dans les documents ci-dessous: sources:

• B u l l e t i n de la CEI • IEC B u l l e t i n

• Annualre de la CEI • IEC Yearbook

Publle annuellement Published y earl y

• Catalogue des publications de la CEI • Catalogue of IEC publications

Publie annuellement et mis a jour regulierement Publis h ed y early w ith re g ular updates

Terminologie Terminology

En ce qui concerne la terminologie generale, le lecteur se F or general terminolo g y , readers are referred to I E C 50:

reportera a la CEI 50: Vocabulaire Electrotechnique Inter­ International Electrotechnical Vocabulary ( I E V ) , w hich is

national (VEI), qui se presents sous forme de chapitres issued in the form of separate chapters each dealing

separes traitant chacun d'un sujet definl. Des details w ith a specific field. F ull details of the IEV will be

complets sur le VEI peuvent etre obtenus sur demande. supplied on request. S ee also the IEC M ultilingual

Voir egalement le dictionnaire multilingue de la CEI. Dictiona ry .

Les termes et definitions figurant dans la presente publi­ Th e terms and definitions contained in the present publi­

cation ont ete soit tires du VEI, soil specinquement cation h ave either been taken from the IEV or have been

approuves aux fins de cette publication. specifically approved for the purpose of this publication.

Symboles g r a p h i q u e s et lltteraux G r a p h i c a l and letter symbols

Pour les symboles graphiques, les symboles litteraux et les F or graphical symbols, and letter symbols and signs

signes d'usage general approuvss par la CEI, le lecteur approved by the IEC for general use, readers are referred to

consultera: publications:

- la CEI 27: Symboles llttereux a utiliser en I E C 27: Letter symbols to be used in electrical

electro-technique; technology;

la CEI 417: Symboles graphiques utilisables IEC 417: Graphical symbols for use on

sur le materiel. Index, re/eve et compilation des equipment. Index, survey and compilation of the

feuilles individuelles; single sheets;

la CEI 6 1 7 : Symboles graphiques pour schemas; IEC 61 7: Graphical symbols for diagrams;

et pour les appareils electrornedicaux, and for medical electrical eq u ipment ,

la CEI 878: Symboles graphiques pour I E C 878: Graphical symbols for electromedical

equipements electriques en pratique medicate. equipment in medical practice.

Les symboles et signes contenus dans la presente publi­ Th e symbols and signs contained in the present publication

cation ont ete soil tires de la CEI 27, de la CEI 417, de la h ave either been taken from IEC 27, IEC 417, IEC 61 7

CEI 6 1 7 et/ou de la CEI 878, soil specitiquement approuves and/or IEC 878, or have been specifically approved for the

aux fins de cette publication. purpose of this publication.

P u b l i c a t i o n s de la CEI e t a b t l e s par le IEC p u b l i c a t i o n s prepared by the same

meme comlte d ' e t u d e s t e c h n i c a l committee

L'attention du lecteur est attlree sur Jes lisles figurant a la fin T he attention of readers is drawn to the end pages of this

de cette publication, qui snurnerent les publications de la publication w hich list the IEC publications issued by the

CEI preparees par le comite d'etudes qui a e tabli la technical committee wh ich has prepared the present

presente publication. publication.


NORME CEI

INTERNATIONALE I E C

71-1
INTERNATIONAL
sepneme edition

STANDARD Seventh edition

1993-12

Coordination de l ' i s o l e m e n t

Partie 1 :

D e f i n i t i o n s , principes et reqtes

I n s u l a t i o n co-ordination

Part 1 :

Definitions, principles and rules

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71-1 © IEC:1993 - 3 -

CONTENTS

Page

FOREWORD.............................................................................................................................. 7

Clause

1 Scope................................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references 9

3 Definitions.......................................................................................................................... 11

3.1 Insulation co-ordination .. .. . 11

3.2 External i n s u l a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3.3 Internal insulation . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 11

3.4 Self-restoring insulation .. .. 11

3.5 Non-self-restoring i n s u l a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3.6 Insulation configuration t e r m i n a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3.7 Insulation c o n f i g u r a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3.8 Nominal voltage of a s y s t e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.9 Highest voltage of a s y s t e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.10 Highest voltage for equipment (Um> . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . . . .. . . . 13

3.11 Isolated neutral s y s t e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.12 Solidly earthed neutral system .. .. .. .. . 13

3.13 Impedance earthed (neutral) s y s t e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.14 Resonant earthed (neutral) system 13

3.15 Earth fault factor . .. .. .. 13

3.16 Overvoltage :............................... 13

3.17 Classification of voltages and overvoltages .. . .. . .. 15

3.18 Standard voltage shapes . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. .. . .. . 15

3.19 Representative overvoltages ( Urp> . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 17

3.20 Overvoltage limiting d e v i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3.21 Lightning (or switching) impulse protective level 17

3.22 Performance criterion 17

3.23 Withstand voltage . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .. 17

3.24 Co-ordination withstand voltage ( Ucw>.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 17

3.25 Co-ordination factor ( K c ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.26 Standard reference atmospheric conditions 19

3.27 Required withstand voltage ( Urw) 19

3.28 Atmospheric correction factor (Ka) 19

3.29 Safety factor (Ks) 19

3.30 Standard withstand voltage ( Uw) .. . . . .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. 19

3.31 Test conversion f a ct o r ( � ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.32 Rated insulation level .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . . 19

3.33 Standard insulation level .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . 19

3.34 Standard withstand voltage t e s t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


71-1 © IEC:1993 - 5 -

Clause Page

4 P r o c e d u r e for i n s u l a t i o n c o - o r d i n a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

4.1 G e n e r a l o u t l i n e of t h e p r o c e d u r e 21

4.2 D e t e r m i n a t i o n of the representative overvoltages ( Urp> 21

4.3 Determination of the co-ordination withstand voltages ( Ucw> 23

4.4 D e t e r m i n a t i o n of the required withstand voltages (Urw) 23

4.5 Selection of t h e rated i n s u l a t i o n level 25

4.6 List of standard short-duration power frequency withstand voltages 25

4.7 List of standard i m p u l s e withstand v o l t a g e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.8 Ranges for highest voltage for e q u i p m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.9 Selection of the standard insulation levels 27

5 Requirements for standard withstand voltage tests 29

5.1 General r e q u i r e m e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

5.2 Standard short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage tests 31

5.3 Standard i m p u l s e withstand voltage tests 31

5.4 Alternative test situation 33

5.5 Phase-to-phase and longitudinal insulation standard withstand voltage

tests for equipment in range I .. .. .. .. 33

5.6 Phase-to-phase and l o n g i t u d i n a l i n s u l a t i o n standard withstand voltage

tests for equipment in range I I 35

Figure 39

Tables 41

Annex A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
71-1 © IEC:1993 - 7 -

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL C O M M I S S I O N

INSULATION CO-ORDINATION

Part 1 : D e f i n i t i o n s , p r i n c i p l e s and r u l e s

FOREWORD

1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization

comprising all national electrotechnical committees ( I E C National Committees). The object of the IEC is to

promote international cooperation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and

electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, the I E C publishes International Standards.

Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in

the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and

non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC

collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with

conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of the I E C on technical matters, prepared by technical committees on

which all the National Committees having a special interest therein are represented, express, as nearly as

possible, an international consensus of opinion on the subjects dealt with.

3) They have the form of recommendations for international use p u b l i s h e d in the form of standards, technical

reports or guides and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense.

4) In order to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International

Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Any

divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly

indicated in the latter.

International Standard IEC 71-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 28:

I n s u l a t i o n co-ordination.

This seventh e d i t i o n cancels and replaces the sixth e d i t i o n p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 7 6 which dealt

only with insulation co-ordination between phase and earth, and the first part of the

first edition - published in 1982 - of IEC Publication 71-3 which dealt with insulation

co-ordination between p h a s e s .

This standard constitutes a t e c h n i c a l r e v i s i o n and forms Part 1 of I E C P u b l i c a t i o n 7 1 .

I E C Publication 7 1 - 2 (in preparation) w i l l constitute t h e Application G u i d e for the i n s u l a t i o n

c o - o r d i n a t i o n of electrical e q u i p m e n t .

The text of t h i s standard is based o n the f o l l o w i n g d o c u m e n t s :

DIS Report on voting

28(C0)58 28(C0)60

Full information on the voting for the approval of t h i s standard can be found in the report

on voting i n d i c a t e d in the above t a b l e .

A n n e x A is for i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y .
71-1 © IEC:1993 - 9 -

INSULATION CO-ORDINATION

Part 1 : D e f i n i t i o n s , p r i n c i p l e s a n d r u l e s

1 Scope

This part of International Standard IEC 71 applies to three-phase a.c. systems having a

highest voltage for equipment above 1 kV. It specifies the procedure for the selection of

the standard withstand voltages for the phase-to-earth, phase-to-phase and longitudinal

insulation of the e q u i p m e n t and the i n s t a l l a t i o n s of t h e s e systems. It also gives the lists of

the standardized values from which the standard withstand voltages s h a l l be selected.

This part recommends that the selected withstand voltages s h o u l d be associated with the

highest voltage for equipment. This association is for insulation co-ordination purposes

only. The requirements for h u m a n safety are not covered by this Standard.

Although the principles of t h i s part also apply to transmission line i n s u l a t i o n , the values of

the withstand voltages may be different from the standard withstand voltages.

The apparatus committees are responsible for specifying the withstand voltages and the

test procedures suitable for the relevant equipment taking into consideration the

recommendations of t h i s Standard.

NOTE - In I E C 7 1 - 2 Application G u i d e , ( u n d e r revision), all rules for insulation co-ordination given in this

Standard are justified in detail, in particular the association of the standard withstand voltages with the

highest voltage for equipment. When more than one set of standard withstand voltages is associated with

the same highest voltage for e q u i p m e n t , guidance is provided for the selection of the most suitable set.

2 Normative references

The following normat i ve documents contain provrsions which, through refe re n c e in this

text, constitute p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s part of I EC 71-1. At the t i m e of p u b l i c a t i o n , the editions

indicated were valid. All normative documents are subject to revision, and p a rt i e s to

agreements based on t h i s part of I E C 7 1 - 1 are encouraged to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y of

applying the most recent e d i t i o n s of the normative d o c u m e n t s indicated below. Members

of I E C and I S O m a i n t a i n registers of c urr e n t ly valid I n t e r n a t i o n a l Standards.

IEC 38: 1 9 8 3 , !EC standard voltages

I EC 60-1 : 1989, High-voltage test techniques - Part 1: General definitions and test

requirements
71-1 © IEC:1993 - 11 -

3 Definitions

For the purposes of t h i s I n t e r n a t i o n a l Standard, the following d e f i n i t i o n s a p p l y .

3.1 insulation co-ordination: The selection of the dielectric strength of equipment in

relation to the voltages which can appear on the system for which the equipment is

intended and taking into account the service environment and the characteristics of the

available protective d e v i c e s . [ I E V 604-03-08, modified)

NOTE - By "dielectric strength" of the e q u i p m e n t , is meant here its rated or its standard i n s u l a t i o n level

as defined in 3.32 and 3 . 3 3 respectively.

3.2 external Insulation: The distances in atmospheric air, and the surfaces in contact

with atmospheric air of solid insulation of the equipment which are subject to dielectric

stresses and to the effects of atmospheric and other external c o n d i t i o n s , such as pollution,

humidity, v e r m i n , etc. ( I E V 604-03-02, modified]

NOTE - External insulation is either weather-protected or non-weather-protected, designed to operate

inside or outside closed shelters respectively.

3.3 Internal Insulation: The internal solid, liquid, or g a s e o u s parts of the insulation of

equipment which are protected from the effects of atmospheric and other external

c o n d i t i o n s . [ I E V 604-03-03)

3.4 self-restoring insulation: Insulation which completely recovers its insulating

properties after a disruptive d i s c h a r g e . [ I E V 604-03-04)

3.5 non-self-restoring Insulation: Insulation which loses its insulating properties, or

does not recover t h e m c o m p l e t e l y , after a disruptive d i s c h a r g e . [ I E V 604-03-05)

NOTE - The definitions of 3.4 and 3.5 apply only when the discharge is caused by the application of a

test voltage during a dielectric test. However, discharges occurring in service may cause a self-restoring

insulation to lose partially or completely its original i n s u l a t i n g properties.

3.6 i n s u l a t i o n c o n f i g u r a t i o n t e r m i n a l : Any of t h e electrodes between any two of which

a voltage that stresses the i n s u l a t i o n can be a p p l i e d . The types of t e r m i n a l a r e :

a) phase t e r m i n a l , between which and the neutral is a p p l i e d in service the phase-to­

neutral voltage of t h e s y s t e m ;

b) neutral terminal, representing, or connected to, the neutral point of the system

( n e u t r a l t e r m i n a l of t r a n s f o r m e r s , e t c . ) ;

c) earth t e r m i n a l , always s o l i d l y connected to earth in service (tank of t r a n s f o r m e r s ,

base of d i s c o n n e c t o r s , s t r u c t u r e s of towers, g r o u n d p l a n e , e t c . ) .

3.7 insulation configuration: The complete g e o m e t r i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the i n s u l a t i o n in

s e rv i c e , c o n s i s t i n g of the i n s u l a t i o n and of all t e r m i n a l s . It i n c l u d e s all e l e m e n t s ( i n s u l a t i n g

and conducting) which influence its die l ectric behaviour. T he following insulation

c o n f i g u r a t i o n s are i d e n t i f i e d :

- three-phase: having three p hase terminals, one neutral terminal and one e a rt h

terminal.

- phase-to-earth: a three-phase insulation configuration w h e r e two p hase terminals

are d i s r e g a r d e d a n d , e x cept in p a rt i c u l a r c a s e s , the n e u t r a l t e r m i n a l is e a r t h e d .


71-1 © IEC:1993 - 1 3 -

- phase-to-phase: a three-phase insulation configuration where one phase terminal

is disregarded. In p a rti cul a r cases. the neutral and the e a rt h terminals are also

disregarded.

- longitudinal, having two phase terminals and one earth terminal. The phase

t e r m i n a l s belong to the same phase of a three-phase system temporarily separated into

two independently energized parts (open switching devices). The four te r min als

b e l o n g i n g to the other two p h a s e s are disregarded or e a rt h e d . In particular cases o n e

of the two phase t e r m i n a l s considered is e a rt h e d .

3.8 nominal voltage of a system: A suitable approximate value of voltage used to

desi g na t e or identify a system. [ I E V 6 0 1 - 0 1 - 2 1 ]

3.9 h i g h e s t v o l t a g e of a system: The h i g h e s t value of operating voltage which occurs

under normal operating conditions at any time and at any point in the system.

[IEV 601-01-23]

3.10 highest voltage for equi pment (Um): The highest r.m.s. value of phase-to-phase

voltage for which the equipment is designed in respect of its insulation as w e l l as other

characteristics which relate to this voltage in the relevant equipment Standards.

[IEV 6 0 4 - 0 3 - 0 1 ]

3.11 isolated neutral system: A system where the neutral point is not intentionally

connected to e a rt h , except for high impedance connections for protection or measurement

purposes. [ I E V 6 0 1 - 0 2 - 2 4 ]

3.12 solidly earthed neutral system: A system whose neutral point(s) is(are) earthed

directly. [ I E V 6 0 1 - 0 2 - 2 5 )

3.13 impedance earthed (neutral) system: A system whose neutral point(s) is(are)

e a rt h e d through impedances to l i m i t earth fault currents. [ I E V 6 0 1 - 0 2 - 2 6 ]

3.14 resonant earthed ( n e utral) s y s t e m : A system in which one or more neutral points

are connected to e a rt h through reactances which approximately compensate the

capacitive c o m p o n e n t of a s i n g l e - p h a s e - t o - e a rt h f a u l t c u r r e n t . ( I E V 6 0 1 - 0 2 - 2 7 ]

NOTE - With resonant earthing of a system, the residual current in the fault is limited to such an extent

that an arcing fault in air is usually s e l f - e x t i n g u i s h i n g .

3.15 e a rt h fault factor: At a given location of a three-phase system. and for a given

system configuration, the ratio of the highest r.m.s. phase-to-earth power frequency

voltage on a healthy phase during a fault to e a rt h affecting one or more phases at any

point on the system to the r.m.s. p h a s e - t o - e a r t h power frequency voltage which would be

o b t a i n e d at the g i v e n location in the a b s e n c e of any s u c h f a u l t . ( I E V 6 0 4 - 0 3 - 0 6 ]

3.16 overvoltage: Any voltage between one phase conductor and earth or between

phase conductors having a peak v a l u e exceeding the corresponding p e a k of the highest

voltage for e q u i p m e n t . [ I E V 6 0 4 - 0 3 - 0 9 , m o d i f i e d ]
71-1 © IEC:1993 - 1 5 -

NOTES

1 Unless otherwise clearly indicated, such as for s u r g e arresters, overvoltage values expressed in p.u.

shall be referred to Um x {27{3.

2 For any insulation configuration, an overvoltage is any voltage across its terminals higher than the

peak of the power-frequency voltage existing between them when all phase terminals of the equipment are

energized with the highest voltage for equipment.

3.17 Classification of voltages and overvoltages

According to their shape and duration, voltages and overvoltages are divided in the

following classes (see also table 1 ) :

a) continuous (power frequency) voltage: Power-frequency voltage, considered

having constant r.m.s. value, continuously applied to any pair of terminals of an

insulation configuration.

b) temporary o v e rv o l t a g e : Power frequency overvoltage of relatively long duration.

[ I E V 6 0 4 - 0 3 - 1 2 , modified]

NOTE - The overvoltage may be undamped or weakly damped. In some cases its frequency may be

several times smaller or higher than power frequency.

c) transient overvoltage: Short-duration overvoltage of few milliseconds or less,

oscillatory or non-oscillatory, u s u a l l y h i g h l y damped. [ I E V 6 0 4 - 0 3 - 1 3 ]

NOTE - Transient overvoltages may be immediately followed by temporary overvoltages. In such cases

the two overvoltages are considered as separate events.

Transient overvoltages are divided into:

- slow-front overvoltage: Transient overvoltage, u s u a l l y unidirectional, with time

to peak 20 µs < TP::; 5 000 µs, and tail duration T 20 ms.


2 ::;

- fast-front overvoltage: Transient o v e rv o l t a g e , usually unidirectional, with time

to peak O, 1 µs < T ::; 20 µs, and tail duration T < 300 µs.
1 2

- very-fast-front overvoltage: Transient overvoltage, usually unidirectional with

time to peak T s 0, 1 us, total d u r a t i o n < 3 m s , and with superimposed oscillations


1

at f r e q u e n c y 30 kHz < f < 1 0 0 M H z .

d) combined (temporary, slow-front, fast-front, very-fast-front) overvoltage,

c o n s i s t i n g of two voltage c o m p o n e n t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a p p l i e d b e t w e e n each of the two

phase terminals of a phase-to-phase (or longitudinal) insulation and e a rt h . It is classified

by the component of h i g h e r peak v a l u e .

3.18 Standard voltage shapes

The f o l l o w i n g voltage s h a p e s are s t a n d a r d i z e d :

a) The standard s h o rt - d u r a t i o n p o w e r - f r e q u e n c y v o l t a g e : a s i n u s o i d a l voltage with

f r e q u e n c y between 48 Hz and 62 H z , and d u r a t i o n of 60 s .

b) The standard switching impulse: an impulse voltage having a time to peak of

250 µs and a time to h a l f - v a l u e of 2 5 0 0 µs.

c) The standard lightning Impulse: an i m p u l s e voltage h a v i n g a front t i m e of 1 , 2 µs

and a t i m e to half-value of 50 µs.

NOTE - More detailed definitions of these standard voltage shapes are given in IEC 60-1 (see also

table 1 ) .
71-1 © IEC:1993 - 1 7 -

d) The standard combined switching impulse: Combined impulse voltage having

two c o m p o n e n t s of equal peak v a l u e and opposite polarity. The positive component is a

standard s w i t c h i n g i m p u l s e and the negative one is a switching i m p u l s e whose t i m e s to

peak and half value should not be less than those of the positive impulse. Both

impulses should reach their peak value at the same instant. The peak value of the

c o m b i n e d v o l t a g e i s , t h e r e f o r e , the s u m of the peak values of the c o m p o n e n t s .

3.19 representative overvoltages ( u,p): Overvoltages assumed to produce the same

dielectric effect on the i n s u l a t i o n as overvoltages of a given class occurring in service due

to various o r i g i n s . They consist of voltages with t h e standard shape of the c l a s s , and may

be defined by one value or a set of values or a frequency distribution of values that

characterize the service c o n d i t i o n s .

NOTE - This definition also applies to the continuous power frequency voltage representing the effect of

the service voltage on the i n s u l a t i o n .

3.20 overvoltage limiting device: Device which limits the peak values of the

overvoltages or t h e i r durations or both. They are classified as preventing devices ( e . g . , a

preinsertion resistor) or as protective devices ( e . g . , a surge arrester).

3.21 l i g h t n i n g (or s w i t c h i n g ) i m p u l s e protective l e v e l : The m a x i m u m p e r m i s s i b l e peak

voltage value on the terminals of a protective device subjected to lightning (or switching)

i m p u l s e s u n d e r specific c o n d i t i o n s . [ I E V 604-03-56 and 604-03-57]

3.22 performance criterion: The basis on which the insulation is selected so as to

reduce to an economically and operationally acceptable level the probability that the

resulting voltage stresses imposed on the equipment will cause damage to equipment

i n s u l a t i o n or affect continuity of s e rv i c e . This criterion is u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d in terms of an

acceptable f a i l u r e rate ( n u m b e r of f a i l u r e s per year, years between f a i l u r e s , risk of f a i l u r e ,

etc.) of the i n s u l a t i o n c o n f i g u r a t i o n .

3.23 withstand voltage: The value of the test voltage to be applied under specified

conditions in a withstand test, during which a specified n u m b e r of d i s r u p t i v e d i s c h a r g e s is

t o l e r a t e d . The withstand voltage is d e s i g n a t e d a s :

a) conventional assumed withstand voltage, when the number of disruptive

discharges tolerated is zero. It is deemed to correspond to a withstand probability

Pw=100%;

b) statistical withstand voltage, w h e n the n u m b e r of d i s r u p t i v e discharges tolerated

is related to a specified withstand probability. I n t h i s Standard the s p e c i f i e d probability

is Pw = 90 %.

NOTE - In this Standard, for non-self-restoring insulation are specified conventional assumed withstand

voltages, and for self-restoring i n s u l a t i o n are specified statistical withstand v o l t a g e s .

3.24 c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h s t a n d v o l t a g e (Ucw>= For each class of v o l t a g e , t h e v a l u e of t h e

withstand voltage of the insulation configuration, in actual s e rv i c e conditions, that meets

the p e rf o r m a n c e c r i t e r i o n .
71-1 © I E C : 1 9 9 3 - 1 9 -

3.25 co-ordination factor (Kc): The factor by which the value of the representative

o v e rv o l t a g e must be multiplied in order to obtain the value of the co-ordination withstand

voltage.

3.26 Standard reference atmospheric conditions

The standard reference atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s are:

- temperature t = 20 °C
0

- pressure b = 1 0 1 , 3 kPa ( 1 0 1 3 mbar)


0

3
- absolute humidity hao = 1 1 g/m

3.27 required withstand voltage (Urw>= The test voltage that the insulation must

withstand in a standard withstand test to ensure that the insulation will meet the

performance criterion when subjected to a given class of overvoltages in actual service

conditions and for the whole service duration. The required withstand voltage has the

shape of the co-ordination withstand voltage, and is specified with reference to all the

conditions of t h e standard withstand test selected to verify it.

3.28 atmospheric correction factor (K The factor to be applied to the co-ordination


8):

withstand voltage to account for the difference between the average atmospheric

conditions in service and the standard reference atmospheric conditions. It applies to

external insulation o n l y .

3.29 safety factor (K The overall factor to be applied to the co-ordination withstand
5):

voltage, after the application of the atmospheric correction factor (if required), to obtain

the required withstand voltage, accounting for all other differences between the conditions

in service and those in the standard withstand test.

3.30 standard withstand voltage (Uw): The standard value of the test voltage applied in

a standard withstand test. It is a rated value of the insulation and proves that the

i n s u l a t i o n c o m p l i e s with o n e o r more required withstand v o l t a g e s .

3.31 test c o n v e r s i o n factor (K The factor a p p l i e d to the required w i t h s t a n d voltage, in


1):

the case where the standard withstand voltage is selected of different shape, so as to

obtain the l o w e r limit of the standard w i t h s t a n d test v o l t a g e that can be a s s u m e d to prove

it.

3.32 rated insulation l e v e l : A set of standard withstand voltages which characterize the

d i e l e c t r i c strength of the insulation.

3.33 standard insulation l e v e l : A rated i n s u l a t i o n l e v e l , the s t a n d a r d w i t h s t a n d voltages

of w h i c h are a s s o c i a t e d to Um as r e c o m m e n d e d in t a b l e s 2 and 3 .

3.34 standard withstand voltage tests: A dielectric test p e rf o r m e d in specified

conditions to prove that the insulation complies with a standard withstand voltage. This

standard c o v e r s :

- s h o rt - d u r a t i o n power-frequency t e s t s ;

- switching impulse tests;

- lightning impulse tests;

- c o m b i n e d voltage t e s t s .
71-1 © IEC:1993 -21 -

NOTES

More detailed information on the standard withstand voltage tests are given in IEC 60-1 (see also

table 1 for the test voltage shapes).

2 The very-fast i m p u l s e standard withstand voltage tests should be specified by the relevant apparatus

committees, if required.

4 Procedure for I n s u l a t i o n co-ordination

4. 1 General outline of the procedure

The procedure for insulation co-ordination consists of the selection of a set of standard

withstand voltages which characterize the i n s u l a t i o n of the e q u i p m e n t within the scope of

this standard. This procedure is outlined in figure 1 and its steps are described in 4.2

to 4 . 5 . The optimization of the procedure may require reconsideration of some input data

and repetition of part of the procedure.

The standard withstand voltages s h a l l be selected from the lists of 4 . 6 and 4 . 7 . The set of

selected standard voltages constitutes a rated insulation level. If the standard withstand

voltages are also associated with the same Um according to 4.9, this set constitutes a

standard insulation level.

4.2 Determination of the representative overvoltages (Urp)

The voltages and the overvoltages that stress the insulation shall be determined in

amplitude, shape and duration by means of a system a n a l y s i s which includes the selection

and location of the overvoltage l i m i t i n g devices.

For each class of overvoltage, this analysis shall then determine a representative

overvoltage, taking into account the characteristics of the i n s u l a t i o n .

The representative overvoltage may be characterized e i t h e r by:

an assumed maximum, or

a set of peak values. or

a complete statistical distribution of peak v a l u e s .

NOTE 1 - I n the last case additional characteristics of the overvoltage s h a p e s may have to be considered.

When the adoption of an assumed maximum is c o n s i d e r e d adequate, the representative

overvoltage of the v a r i o u s classes s h a l l b e :

- for the continuous power-frequency voltage: a power-frequency voltage with

r . m . s . value e q u a l to t h e h i g h e s t voltage of the s y s t e m , and with d u r a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g

to the lifetime of the e q u i p m e n t .

- for t h e tem porary o v e r v o l t a g e : a standard power-frequency s h o rt - d u r a t i o n voltage

with an r.m.s. value equal to the assumed maximum of the te mporary overvoltages

d i v i d e d by ff.

- for the slow-front o v e r v o l t a g e : a s t a n d a r d s w i t c h i n g i m p u l s e with peak v a l u e e q u a l

to the peak v a l u e of the a s s u m e d m a x i m u m of the slow-front o v e r v o l t a g e s .

- for the fast-front o v e r v o l t a g e : a standard lightning impulse with peak value equal

to the peak v a l u e of the a s s u m e d m a x i m u m of t h e fast-front o v e r v o 1 t a g e s .


71-1 © IEC:1993 -23-

- for the very-fast-front o v e r v o l t a g e : the characteristics for t h i s class of overvoltage

are s p e c i f i e d by the relevant apparatus c o m m i t t e e s .

- for the slow-front phase-to-phase overvoltage: a standard combined switching

impulse with peak value equal to the peak value of the assumed maximum of the

slow-front phase-to-phase overvoltages.

NOTE 2 - An useful characteristic is the actual ratio, o:, in service of the peak value of the negative

component, u-. to the peak value, U+ + U-, of the assumed maximum phase-to-phase overvoltage:

o: = u-1( U" + u-).

- for the slow-front [or fast-front] longitudinal overvoltage: a combined voltage

consisting of a standard switching [or lightning] impulse and of a power-frequency

voltage, each with peak value equal to the two relevant assumed maximum peak

values, and with the instant of impulse peak coinciding with the peak of the

power-frequency of opposite p o l a r i t y .

4.3 Determination of the co-ordination withstand voltages (Ucw)

The determination of t h e · co-ordination withstand voltages consists of determining the

lowest values of the withstand voltages of the i n s u l a t i o n meeting the performance criterion

when subjected to the representative overvoltages u n d e r service conditions.

The co-ordination withstand voltages of the insulation have the shape of the

representative overvoltages of the relevant class and their values are obtained by

multiplying the values of the representative overvoltages by a co-ordination factor. The

value of the co-ordination factor depends on the accuracy of the evaluation of the

representative overvoltages and on an empirical, or on a statistical, appraisal of the

distribution of the overvoltages and of the i n s u l a t i o n characteristics.

The co-ordination withstand voltages can be d e t e r m i n e d as e i t h e r c o n v e n t i o n a l assumed

withstand voltages or statistical withstand voltages. This affects the determination

procedure and the v a l u e s of the co-ordination factor.

S i m u l a t i o n s of overvoltage events c o m b i n e d with the s i m u l t a n e o u s e v a l u a t i o n of the risk of

f a i l u r e , using the relevant i n s u l a t i o n characteristics, permit the direct determination of the

statistical co-ordination withstand voltages without the intermediate step of determining

the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o v e r v o l t a g e s .

4.4 Determination of the required withstand voltages (Urw)

The determination of the required withstand voltages of the insulation consists of

c o n v e rt i n g the co-ordination withstand voltages to appropriate standard test conditions.

This is accomplished by multiplying the coordination withstand voltages by factors w h i c h

compensate for t h e differences between the actual in-service conditions of the insulation

and t h o s e in the standard w i t h s t a n d t e s t s .

The factors to be a p p l i e d s h a l l c o m p e n s a t e f o r :

- the d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e e q u i p m e n t a s s e m b l y ;

- the d i s p e r s i o n in t h e product q u a l i t y ;

- t h e q u a l i t y of i n s t a l l a t i o n ;

- the a g e i n g of the i n s u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e expected l i f e t i m e ;

- other unknown i n f l u e n c e s .
71-1 © IEC:1993 -25-

If, however. these factors cannot be evaluated individually. an overall safety factor.

derived from experience, shall be adopted.

For external insulation only, an additional factor shall be applied to account for the

differences between the standard reference atmospheric conditions and those expected in

service.

4.5 Selection of the rated insulation level

The selection of the rated insulation level consists of the selection of the most economical

set of standard withstand voltages ( Uw) of the insulation sufficient to prove that all the

required withstand voltages are met.

The continuous power-frequency withstand voltage of the insulation, that is its highest

voltage for equipment, is then chosen as the next standard value of Um equal to or higher

than the required continuous power-frequency withstand voltage.

Standardization of tests, as well as the selection of the relevant test voltages, to prove the

compliance with Um, are p e rf o r m e d by the relevant apparatus committees (e.g. pollution

tests or p a rt i a l discharge inception voltage tests).

The withstand voltages to prove that the required temporary, slow-front and fast-front

withstand voltages are met, for p h a s e - t o - e a rt h , phase-to-phase and longitudinal

insulation, may be selected with the same shape as the required withstand voltage, or

with a different shape, exploiting, for this last selection, the intrinsic characteristics of the

insulation.

The value of the withstand voltage is then selected in the list of the standard withstand

voltages reported in 4.6 and 4.7, as the next value equal to or higher than:

- the required withstand voltage in the case of the same shape;

- the required withstand voltage multiplied by the relevant test conversion factor in

the case of a different shape.

NOTE - This may allow the adoption of a single standard withstand voltage to prove compliance with

more than one required withstand voltage, thus giving the possibility of reducing the number of standard

withstand voltages that would define a rated i n s u l a t i o n level (see 4 . 9 , for e x a m p l e ) .

The selection of the standard withstand voltage to prove the compliance with the very-fast­

front required withstand voltage shall be considered by the relevant apparatus

committees.

4.6 List of standard short-duration power frequency withstand voltages

The following r.m.s. values, expressed in kV, are standardized:

10 20 28 38 50 70 95 140

185 230 275 325 360 395 460 510

570 630 680


71-1 © IEC:1993 - 2 7 -

4. 7 List of standard impulse withstand voltages

The following peak values, expressed in kV, are standardized:

20 40 60 75 95 125 145 170

250 325 450 550 650 750 850 950

1 050 1 175 1 300 1 425 1 550 1 675 1 800 1 950

2 100 2 250 2 400

4.8 Ranges for highest voltage for equipment

The standard highest voltages for equipment are divided in to two ranges:

Range I: Above 1 kV to 245 kV included. This range covers both transmission and

distribution systems. The different operational aspects, therefore, shall be

taken into account in the selection of the rated insulation level of the

equipment.

Range I I : Above 245 kV. This range covers mainly transmission systems.

4.9 Selection of the standard insulation levels

The association of standard withstand voltages with the highest voltage for equipment has

been standardized to benefit from the experience gained from the operation of systems

designed according to IEC standards and to enhance standardization.

The standard withstand voltages are associated with the highest voltage for equipment

according to table 2 for range I and table 3 for range I I . The associations obtained by

connecting standard withstand voltages of all columns without crossing horizontal marked

lines are defined as standard insulation levels.

NOTES

In some countries other values of Um and of rated withstand voltages are still in use for range I.

Table A.1 of annex A r e p o rt s these values as well as the relevant associations, which, however, do not

constitute standard insulation levels.

2 If, for the switching impulse withstand voltage test, the apparatus committees specify a positive

component lower than the negative, the required withstand voltage of the external insulation is not proven

unless a suitable test conversion factor is introduced.

F u rt h e r m o r e , the following associations are standardized for phase-to-phase and

longitudinal insulation:

For phase-to-phase insulation, range I, the standard s h o rt - d u r a t i o n power-frequency

and lightning impulse phase-to-phase withstand voltages are equal to the relevant

phase-to-earth withstand voltages (table 2). The values in brackets, however, may be

insufficient to prove that the required withstand voltages are met and additional

phase-to-phase withstand tests may be needed.

For phase-to-phase insulation, range II, the standard lightning impulse withstand

voltage phase-to-phase is equal to the lightning impulse phase-to-earth.


71-1 © IEC:1993 - 2 9 -

- For longitudinal insulation, range I, the standard s h o rt - d u r a t i o n power-frequency

and lightning impulse withstand voltages are equal to the relevant phase-to-earth

withstand voltages (table 2 ) .

- For longitudinal insulation, range II, the standard switching impulse component of

the combined withstand voltage is given in table 3, while the peak value of the

power-frequency component of opposite polarity is Um x -f2!{3 , and the standard

lightning impulse component of the c o m b i n e d withstand voltage is e q u a l to the relevant

phase-to-earth withstand voltage (table 3 ) , while the peak value of the power-frequency

component of opposite polarity is 0,7 x Um x ....J2/{3.

More than one preferred association is foreseen for most of the highest voltages for

equipment to allow for the application of different performance criteria or overvoltage

patterns.

For the preferred associations, only two standard withstand voltages are sufficient to

define the standard insulation level of the e q u i p m e n t :

- For e q u i p m e n t in range I:

a) the standard lightning impulse withstand voltage, and

b) the standard short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage.

- For equipment in range II:

a) the standard switching impulse withstand voltage, and

b) the standard lightning impulse withstand voltage.

If technically and economically justified, other associations may be adopted. The

recommendations of 4.2 to 4.8 shall be followed in every case. The resulting set of

standard withstand voltages shall be termed, therefore, rated insulation level. Part icu l ar

examples are:

- For external insulation, for the higher values of Um in range I, it may be more

economical to specify a standard switching impulse withstand voltage instead of a

standard s h o rt - d u r a t i o n power-frequency withstand voltage.

- For internal insulation in range II, high temporary overvoltages may require the

specification of a standard short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage.

5 R e q u i r e m e n t s for standard wit h stand voltage tests

5.1 General requirements

Standard withstand v o l t a g e tests are p e rf o r m e d to d e m o n s t r a t e , with s u i t a b l e c o n f i d e n c e ,

that the actual withstand voltage of the insulation is not lower than the corresponding

specified withstand voltage. The voltages applied in withstand voltage tests are standard

withstand voltages u n l e s s o t h e rw i s e s p e c i f i e d by t h e relevant apparatus committees.

In general, withst a nd voltage tests consist of d r y t e s t s pe rformed in a standard situation

(test a r r a n g e m e n t s p e c i f i e d by t h e r e l e v a n t apparatus c o m m i t t e e s and standard reference

atmospheric conditions). However, for non-weather-protected external insulation, the

standard s h o rt - d u r a t i o n power-frequency and switc h in g i m p u l s e w i t h s t a n d tests consist of

wet tests p e rf o r m e d u n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s s p e c i f i e d in I E C 6 0 - 1 .
71-1 © IEC:1993 - 31 -

D u r i n g wet tests, t h e r a i n s h a l l be a p p l i e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on a l l a i r and surface i n s u l a t i o n

under voltage.

If the a t m o s p h e r i c c o n d i t i o n s i n the test laboratory differ from standard c o n d i t i o n s , the test

voltages s h a l l be corrected a c c o r d i n g to I E C 6 0 - 1 .

All impulse withstand voltages shall be verified for both polarities. unless the relevant

apparatus c o m m i t t e e s specify one p o l a r i t y o n l y .

When it has been demonstrated that one condition (dry or wet) or one polarity or a

combination of t h e s e produces the lowest withstand v o l t a g e , then it is s u f f i c i e n t to verify

t h e w i t h s t a n d v o l t a g e for this p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n .

The insulation failures that occur during the test are the basis for the acceptance or

rejection of the test specimen. The relevant apparatus committees or IEC technical

committee 42 s h a l l d e f i n e the occurrence of a f a i l u r e and the m e t h o d to detect it.

When the standard withstand voltage of phase-to-phase (or longitudinal) insulation is

equal to that of phase-to-earth insulation, it is recommended that phase-to-phase (or

longitudinal) insulation tests and phase-to-earth tests be performed together by

c o n n e c t i n g o n e of the two phase t e r m i n a l s to earth.

5.2 Standard short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage tests

A standard short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage test consists of one

application of the relevant standard withstand voltage to the terminals of the insulation

configuration.

Unless o t h e rw i s e specified by the relevant apparatus committees, the insulation is

considered to have passed the test if no disruptive discharge occurs. However, if one

disruptive discharge occurs o n the self-restoring i n s u l a t i o n d u r i n g a wet test, the test may

be repeated once and the equipment is c o n s i d e r e d to have passed t h e test if no f u rt h e r

disruptive discharge occurs.

W h e n t h e test cannot be p e rf o r m e d ( s u c h as for t r a n s f o r m e r s with n o n - u n i f o r m i n s u l a t i o n ) .

the r e l e v a n t apparatus c o m m i t t e e s may s p e c i f y f r e q u e n c i e s up to a few h u n d r e d h e rt z and

durations shorter than one minute. Unless o t h e rw i s e justified, the test voltages shall be

the s a m e .

5.3 Standard impulse withstand voltage tests

A standard i m p u l s e withstand v o l t a g e test c o n s i s t s of a s p e c i f i e d n u m b e r of a p p l i c a t i o n s of

the relevant standard withstand voltage to the terminals of the insulation configuration.

D i f f e r e n t test procedures may be selected to d e m o n s t r a t e that t h e w i t h s t a n d voltages are

met with a d e g r e e of c o n f i d e n c e that e x p e r i e n c e has s h o w n to be acceptable.

The test procedure s h a l l be s e l e c t e d by the a p p a r a t u s c o m m i t t e e s from t h e f o l l q w i n g test

procedures which are standardized and fully described in I E C 6 0 - 1 :

- T h r e e - i m p u l s e w i t h s t a n d test i n w h i c h no d i s r u p t i v e d i s c h a r g e is t o l e r a t e d .

Fifteen-impulse withstand test in which up to two disruptive discharges on the

s e l f - r e s t o r i n g i n s u l a t i o n are t o l e r a t e d .
71-1 © IEC:1993 -33-

- T h r e e - i m p u l s e withstand test in w h i c h o n e disruptive d i s c h a r g e on the self-restoring

insulation is t o l e r a t e d . If t h i s o c c u r s , nine additional i m p u l s e s are a p p l i e d d u r i n g which

no d i s r u p t i v e d i s c h a r g e is t o l e r a t e d .

- The up-and-down withstand test w i t h seven impulses per level in which disruptive

d i s c h a r g e s on s e l f - r e s t o r i n g i n s u l a t i o n are t o l e r a t e d .

- The u p - a n d - d o w n test with o n e i m p u l s e per level, which is r e c o m m e n d e d o n l y if the

conventional deviation, z, defined in IEC 60-1 is known. The values suggested t h e r e ,

z = 6 % for switching and z = 3 % for l i g h t n i n g impulses, s h a l l be u s e d if, and o n l y if, it

is known that z � 6 % and z s 3 % respectively. O t h e rw i s e other methods s h a l l be used.

In all the test procedures described above no disruptive discharge is tolerated on the

non-self-restoring i n s u l a t i o n .

No statistical meaning can be given to the three-impulse withstand test in which no

disruptive discharge is tolerated (Pw is a s s u m e d to be 1 0 0 % ) . Its u s e is l i m i t e d to cases in

which the non-self-restoring insulation may be damaged by a large number of voltage

applications.

When selecting a test for equipment in which non-self-restoring insulation is in parallel

with self-restoring insulation, serious consideration should be given to the fact that in

some test procedures voltages h i g h e r t h a n t h e rated withstand voltage may be applied and

many disruptive discharges may occur.

5.4 Alternative test situation

When it is too expensive or too difficult or e v e n i m p o s s i b l e , to perform the withstand tests

in standard test situations, the apparatus committees, or I E C t e c h n i c a l c o m m i t t e e 42, s h a l l

specify the best solution to prove the relevant standard withstand v o l t a g e s . One possibility

is to perform the test in an alternative test s i t u a t i o n .

An alternative test situation consists of one or more different test conditions (test

arrangements, values or types of test voltages. etc.). It is necessary, therefore, to

demonstrate that the physical conditions for the disruptive discharge development,

relevant to the s t a n d a r d s i t u a t i o n , are not c h a n g e d .

NOTE - A typical example is the use of a single voltage source for the tests of longitudinal insulation.

while insulating the base, instead of a combined voltage test. In this case, the de m o ns t rat i on mentioned

above concerning the disruptive discharge development is a very stringent condition for the acceptance of

the alternative.

5.5 Phase-to-phase and longitudinal insulation standard withstand voltage tests

for equipment in range I

a) Power-frequency tests

For s o m e e q u i p m e n t with 123 kV � Um � 245 kV, t h e p h a s e - t o - p h a s e (or l o n g i t u d i n a l )

insulation may require a power-frequency withstand voltage higher than the phase-to­

earth power-frequency withstand voltage as shown in table 2. In such cases the test

shall preferably be performed with two voltage sources. One terminal shall be energized

with the phase-to-earth power-frequency withstand voltage and the other with the

difference between the phase-to-phase (or longitudinal) and the phase-to-earth

power-frequency w i t h s t a n d v o l t a g e s . The earth t e r m i n a l s h a l l be e a rt h e d .


71-1 © IEC:1993 -35-

Alternatively the test may be p e r f o r m e d :

- with two equal power-frequency voltage sources in phase opposition, each

energizing one phase t e r m i n a l with half of the phase-to-phase (or l o n g i t u d i n a l ) insulation

power-frequency w i t h s t a n d v o l t a g e . The earth t e r m i n a l s h a l l be e a r t h e d .

- with one power-frequency voltage source. The earth terminal may be allowed to

assume a voltage to earth sufficient to avoid disruptive discharges to earth or to the

earth t e r m i n a l .

NOTE - If the voltage that the terminal, which is earthed in service, assumes to earth in the test

influences the electrical stresses on the phase terminal (as occurs in compressed gas longitudinal

insulation having Um � 7 2 , 5 kV), means shall be adopted to maintain this voltage as close as possible to

the difference between the test voltage of the phase-to-phase (or longitudinal) insulation and that of the

phase-to-earth i n s u l a t i o n .

b) Phase-to-phase (or longitudinal) insulation lightning impulse tests

The phase-to-phase (or longitudinal) insulation may require a lightning impulse

withstand voltage h i g h e r than the standard phase-to-earth withstand voltage as shown

in table 2. In such cases, the relevant tests shall be performed immediately after the

phase-to-earth insulation tests increasing the voltage without changing the test

arrangement. In evaluating t h e test r e s u l t s , t h e i m p u l s e s l e a d i n g to disruptive discharge

to earth are c o n s i d e r e d as n o n - e v e n t s .

When the number of discharges to earth does not allow the test to be performed, a

combined test s h a l l be adopted with an i m p u l s e component e q u a l to the phase-to-earth

lightning impulse withstand voltage and a power-frequency component with the peak

value of opposite polarity equal to the difference between the phase-to-phase (or

longitudinal) and the p h a s e - t o - e a rt h l i g h t n i n g i m p u l s e withstand v o l t a g e s . Alternatively,

for external insulation, the relevant apparatus committees may specify that the phase-to­

earth i n s u l a t i o n be i n c r e a s e d .

5.6 Phase-to-phase and longitudinal insulation standard withstand voltage tests

for equipment in range II

The combined voltage withstand test shall be p e rf o r m e d meeting the following

requirements:

- the test configuration shall suitably duplicate the service configuration, especially

with reference to the i n f l u e n c e of the e a rt h p l a n e ;

- each c o m p o n e n t of t h e test v o l t a g e s h a l l have t h e v a l u e s p e c i f i e d in 4 . 9 ;

- the e a rt h t e r m i n a l s h a l l be c o n n e c t e d to e a rt h ;

- in p h a s e - t o - p h a s e tests the terminal of the third phase shall be either removed or

earthed;

- in longitudinal insulation tests the terminals of the o t h e r two phases shall be either

removed or e a rt h e d .

The test shall be repeated for all possible combinations of the phase terminals, unless

proved u n n e c e s s a r y by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of electrical s y m m e t r y .

The longitudinal insulation lightning impulse withstand test of equipment in range II also

proves the p h a s e - t o - e a rt h l i g h t n i n g i m p u l s e w i t h s t a n d in the o p e n p o s i t i o n .


71-1 © IEC:1993 - 37 -

In the evaluation of the test results, any disruptive discharge is counted. More detailed

r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for the tests are g i v e n by a p p a r a t u s c o m m i t t e e s and I E C 6 0 - 1 .

For special applications, the relevant apparatus committees may extend to longitudinal

i n s u l a t i o n l i g h t n i n g i m p u l s e w i t h s t a n d tests of r a n g e I I t h e same test p r o c e d u r e a p p l i c a b l e

to e q u i p m e n t of r a n g e I .
71-1 © IEC:1993 - 3 9 -

Origin and classification of

System analysis (see 4.2)


stressing voltages (see3.16)

I I

Protective level of overvoltage

l i m i t i n g devices (see 3 . 2 1 )

,,
Insulation characteristics

Representative voltages

and overvoltages, Urp (see3.19)

Insulation characteristics

Performance criterion (see 3 . 2 2 )

Statistical distribution ( +)

Inaccuracy of i n p u t data ( +) Selection of the insulation meeting


::-
the performance criterion (see 4.3)
(+) Effects combined in a coordination

factor Kc (see 3 . 2 5 )

Co-ordination withstand
Atmospheric correction
voltages, Ucw (see 3.24)
factor, Ka (see 3 . 2 8 )

Equipment test a s s e m b l y * )

Dispersion in p r o d u c t i o n * ) i
Quality of installation *)
Application of factors to account for the

Ageing in service *) differences between type test conditions

and actual service conditions (see 4 . 4 )


Other unknown factors *)

*) Effects combined in a

safety factor, Ks (see 3 . 2 9 )

Required withstand voltages, Urw

Test conditions (see 5) (see 3 . 2 7 )

Test conversion factor, Kt

(see3.31)
i
Standard withstand voltages

(see 4 . 6 a n d 4 . 7 ) Selection of standard w i t h s t a n d


-
voltages, Uw (see 4 . 5 and 4 . 9 )
Ranges of Um

(see 4 . 8 )

Rated or standard i n s u l a t i o n level: set of Uw ( s e e 3 . 3 2 and 3 . 3 3 )

NOTE - I n brackets the subclauses reporting the d e f i n i t i o n of the term or the description of the action.

sided b o x e s refer to r e q u i r e d i n p u t .

sided boxes refer to performed a c t i o n s .

sided boxes refer to o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s .

Figure 1 - Flow chart for the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of rated or s t a n d a r d i n s u l a t i o n l e v e l


71-1 © IEC:1993 -41 -

-c
(I)
ci
(/)

::1.
(/)

::1.
(/)

::1. g> (I)


(/)

(I)
·;;; I\ 0
0 ·- ....
(/)

c ._..... 0 l() .5 s (/)


O> (')
.c a. (I)
Ill
cu
:!::! .= /\I
VI
. � E

_J ·-
-

0 (/) ...,'."
::1.
e
(I)
0
C\I
>
0

-0
c
cu
(/)
(/)
::!.
(I)

0
O> (/)
C\I
cu (/)
(/)
::1.
..... I\ ::1.
c E 0
0 0 0
I-c.
>
_g 0 l() l()
C\I C\I
/\I ('\J
O> VI

c (/)
II

.fn ::!. 1-
N
1-
N
(/) 0
0

...
(I)

.....
0

l()
(/)

0
(/)

(I)

(/)
0.
N
cu (') N >,
I
s: 0 I C O
(/) >, 0 O C
0 ('\J
0 Cl)
<O -
� �
"O
l() /\I

0
c 0 v
VI
-
:::,
o- -
(I) (/)
......... <D
cu a. "'O �

-O -Q) -
(I)
II
E /\I VI .
(/) v
'
(I)
(I)
(/) N .........
N
I-
(/) I .c ;;::,
I 0
(/) 0 (/) 0
co
cu >, 0 <O v
a.
0
(')
c
o (I)

::,

O"

1
(I)
;;::,
.D 0
N N
_J
cu I I
I- (/)
0 0
(/)
<D <O
::,
0
0 �
0
::,
0 <D 0

c N eo N

-� I
/\I
I c
Ill
0 0 0
It) ......... l()
>
0 (I)

II

(I)

-=
>,
.s:::,

"'O

·o

(I) (I) (I)

(/) C) a. a.
(/)
(/)
!!! Ill
Ill - .c (I)

0
g (/) .a
0

I-
71-1 © IEC:1993 -43-

Table 2 - S t a n d a r d i n s u l a t i o n l e v e l s for r a n g e I

(1 xv , Um� 245 kV)

H i g h e s t voltage Standard short-duration Standard

for e q u i p m e n t power-frequency lightning impulse

withstand voltage withstand voltage


um

kV kV kV

( r . m . s . value) (r.m.s. value) (peak value)

3,6 10 20

40

7,2 20 40

60

12 28 60

75

95

17,5 38 75

95

24 50 95

125

145

36 70 145

170

52 95 250

72,5 140 325

123 (185) 450

230 550

145 (185) (450)

230 550

275 650

170 (230) (550)

275 650

325 750

245 (275) (650)

(325) (750)

360 850

395 950

460 1 050

NOTE - If values in brackets are considered insufficient to prove that the

required phase-to-phase withstand voltages are met, additional phase-to-

phase withstand tests are n e e d e d .


71-1 © IEC:1993 -45-

Table 3 - S t a n d a r d i n s u l a t i o n levels for r a n g e I I

( U m > 245 kV)

Highest Standard switching i m p u l s e withstand voltage Standard

voltage for lightning i m p u l s e

withstand
equipment Longitudinal Phase-to-earth Phase-to-phase
voltage
insulation (ratio to the
um
(note 1) phase-to-earth

peak value)
kV kV kV kV

( r . m . s . value) (peak value) (peak value) (peak value)

300 750 750 1,50 850

950

750 850 1,50 950

1 050

362 850 850 1,50 950

1 050

850 950 1,50 1 050

1 175

420 850 850 1,60 1 050

1 175

950 950 1,50 1 175

1 300

950 1 050 1,50 1 300

1 425

525 950 950 1,70 1 175

1 300

950 1 050 1,60 1 300

1 425

950 1 175 1,50 1 425

1 550

765 1 175 1 300 1,70 1 675

1 800

1 175 1 425 1,70 1 800

1 950

1 175 1 550 1,60 1 950

2 100

NOTES

1 V a l u e of the i m p u l s e c o m p o n e n t of the relevant c o m b i n e d t e s t .

2 The introduction of Um = 550 kV (instead of 525 kV), 800 kV (instead of 765 kV),

1 200 kV, of a v a l u e between 765 kV and 1 200 kV, and of the associated standard

withstand v o l t a g e s , is under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
71-1 © IEC:1993 -47-

Annex A

(informative)

Table A . 1 - Values of rated i n s u l a t i o n levels for 1 kV < U m � 245 kV for h i g h e s t

voltages for e q u i p m e n t Um not standardized by I E C based on

current practice in some countries

H i g h e s t voltage Rated short-duration Rated

for equipment power-frequency lightning i m p u l s e

um withstand voltage withstand voltage

kV kV kV

( r . m . s . value) ( r . m . s . value) (peak value)

2,75 15 30

45

60

5,5 19 45

60

75

8,25 27 60

75

95

15,5 35 75

85

110

27,0 50 95

125

150

30,0 70 160

38,0 70 125

150

200

40,5 80 190

48,3 105 150

200

250

82,5 150 380

100 150 380

185 450

204 275 650

325 750