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{\info{\author emid}}
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\pard\li3480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li3480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3480\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3480\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li3480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li3480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3480\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3480\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3480\ri0\sl333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN}\b0 \i0 \pa
r\pard\li4746\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4746\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li4746\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4746\ri0\sl-306\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Carlos Saiz}\b0 \par\pard\li2186\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2186\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {Departamento de Psicologa Bsica, Psicobiologa y Metodologa}\par\pard\li5146\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li5146\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
5146\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li5146\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {En:}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx3813\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {M.A. Verdugo (en prensa
).}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {La evaluacin curricular. Una gua para la int
ervencin}\i0 \par\pard\li1213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1213\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {psicopedaggica.}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {Madrid: Siglo XXI.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn1
6840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn666\pard\li4333\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4333\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
4333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li4333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4333\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i {CON
TENIDO}\b0 \i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {I. INTRODUCCIN ............................................................
................................................. 2}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-360\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {II. PENSAMIENTO .............................
................................................................................
. 3}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {III. INSTRUCC
IN ..............................................................................
................................ 6}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {IV. UN ENFOQUE DE LA INSTRUCCIN................................
....................................... 11}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \f
s22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {V. FUNDAMENTOS DE LA INSTRUCCIN. ......................
............................................ 15}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-360\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1. NATURALEZA DE UN PROBLEMA....................
............................................. 16}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-360\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {2. COMPRENSIN DE UN PROBLEMA....................
........................................... 23}\par\pard\li2080\ri0\sl-360\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {A. Atencin y memoria..............................
.................................................... 25}\par\pard\li2080\ri0\sl360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {B. La importancia de una buena represent
acin............................................ 28}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-360\s
lmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {3. ESTRATEGIAS DE SOLUCIN DE PROBLEMAS........
.................................. 35}\par\pard\li2080\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {A. Anlisis medio-fin.......................................
.............................................. 37}\par\pard\li2080\ri0\sl-360\sl
mult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {B. Bsqueda hacia atrs...........................

...................................................... 41}\par\pard\li2080\ri0\s
l-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {C. Analogas ...........................
....................................................................... 42}\par\
pard\li2080\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {D. Simplificacin......
................................................................................
..... 46}\par\pard\li2080\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {E. Divi
dir por la mitad................................................................
................... 47}\par\pard\li2080\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {F. No Contradiccin........................................................
............................... 47}\par\pard\li2080\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {G. Identificacin de regularidades.............................
.................................... 48}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {4. COMPRENSIN Y SOLUCIN DE PROBLEMAS POR EXPERTOS ........
.... 49}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {5. DIFIC
ULTADES EN LA SOLUCIN DE PROBLEMAS ................................. 51}\par\pard
\li1360\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {6. NATURALEZA DEL \uc1\u8
220XINSIGHT\uc1\u8221X (IDEA FELIZ).............................................
. 55}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {7. PENSAMIE
NTO CREATIVO....................................................................
.......... 61}\par\pard\li2080\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {A.
Ideas sobre la creatividad.....................................................
..................... 61}\par\pard\li2080\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {B. Un enfoque de la creatividad .......................................
............................. 65}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {VI. EVALUACIN E INSTRUCCIN .......................................
........................................ 68}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-360\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1. Evaluacin conceptual..............................
............................................................. 70}\par\pard\li136
0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {2. Evaluacin emprica ............
................................................................................
.. 73}\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {3. Problem
as de la evaluacin ..............................................................
..................... 79}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {VII. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES............................................
..................................... 81}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {VIII. BIBLIOGRAFA........................................
.................................................................. 83}\par\pard\
sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\m
argbsxn666\cols2\colno1\colw6360\colsr-0\colno2\colw4733\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-413\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {I. INTRODUCCIN}\b0 \
par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIEN
TO E INSTRUCCIN 3}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn
666\margrsxn133\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El pensamiento es nuestra actividad ment
al ms importante, pero tambin la ms}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desconocida. La inst
ruccin como iniciativa que busca mejorar la capacidad de pensar es una de}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {las empresas socialmente ms deseables. Para desarrollarla y o
ptimizarla necesitamos aplicar el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conocimiento que po
seemos sobre el pensamiento. Este es el propsito esencial del captulo:}\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {describir los fundamentos del pensamiento con el fin de enriquec
erlo. Para lograr este objetivo,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {llevaremos a cabo el

siguiente anlisis.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373


\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Primero, analizaremos algunas id
eas sobre el concepto mismo de pensamiento y de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {instr
uccin, que despus relacionaremos dentro de un enfoque de la instruccin. Despus, nos}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ocuparemos de describir las caractersticas fundamental
es del pensamiento. Este ser definido}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {como toda activi
dad implicada en la solucin de problemas. Solucionar un problema supone}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {comprenderlo y tomar las iniciativas de solucin ms adecuadas. Po
r lo tanto, dedicaremos un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {espacio al proceso de comp
rensin, en el que describiremos de qu modo se logra una buena}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {representacin de un problema. A continuacin, trataremos de extraer las prin
cipales estrategias}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de pensamiento, que hacen que nue
stra conducta sea eficiente.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una vez analizados los
procesos fundamentales de pensamiento, nos ocuparemos de las}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {causas que nos impiden pensar con eficacia, para pasar a describir la f
orma de pensamiento ms}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {atractiva, el pensamiento creat
ivo. Con el anlisis de la creatividad, terminamos el desarrollo de}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {lo que consideramos los fundamentos de la instruccin. Despus menciona
remos algunas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {iniciativas de intervencin y comentaremo
s su grado de eficacia. Terminaremos este trabajo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ana
lizando con cierto detenimiento los elementos de la evaluacin, es decir, la maner
a de estimar}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la eficacia de una iniciativa de instruc
cin Qu debemos considerar para saber que un programa}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de
instruccin es o no eficaz?}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Comencemos por reflexiona
r sobre qu es el pensamiento.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn1684
0\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\margls
xn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn440\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0
\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {4 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-400\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {II. PENSAMIENTO}\b0 \par\pard\li189
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1893\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1893\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Mucha gente prefier
e morir antes que pensar. Y de hecho lo consiguen}\i0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 { \uc1\u8211XBertrand Russell.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-280\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El concepto de pensamiento est relacionado con otros
como el razonamiento, la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {inteligencia, el conocimien
to, o la comprensin. Dicha relacin nos indica que el pensamiento es}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {un proceso de orden superior dentro de los diferentes tipos de meca
nismos o actividades que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l

i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {realiza nuestra mente, es de


cir nuestro sistema cognitivo o de procesamiento. Con el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {procesamiento de la informacin, esto es, de los estmulos, se consigue conoce
r la realidad de un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {modo que garantice una adecuada a
daptacin al mundo. Tal conocimiento se logra mediante la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {actividad de pensar. Por esta razn, se podra decir que esta actividad es la ms v
aliosa de ser}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {humano.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En
el concepto de pensamiento entran todos los factores que hacen posible que nos}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {representemos}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la r
ealidad, que la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {construyamos,}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 { y que}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {actuemos}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 { en ella. Nuestra conducta y sus}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cons
ecuencias condicionan nuestra visin de la realidad, de igual modo que la imagen q
ue}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tenemos del mundo condiciona nuestra actuacin en l.
Algunos autores se refieren a la misma}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {idea sealando q
ue el pensamiento es todo lo que sucede entre la percepcin y al accin}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {(Johnson-Laird, 1993). De la percepcin pasamos a representar menta
lmente la realidad, para}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {seleccionar los comportamien
tos con los que podamos responder a las demandas de la vida.}\par\pard\li1373\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {En la interaccin persona-medio, las iniciativas tomadas producen unos r
esultados que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \*\tx6813\*\tx9493\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {condicionarn las condu
ctas futuras. Los resultados son el}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {conocimie
nto }\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {del mundo,}\i0 \tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {realidad; los mecanismos son}{ }\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\i {los procesos de pensamiento.}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {El conocimiento es la materia prima}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del pensar
, y ste el que la moldea; ambos son inseparables. El conocer como producto del}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pensamiento nos llama la atencin sobre otro concepto no
menos importante,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {aprendizaje o}\i0 \par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx2093\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {adquisicin. }\i0 \tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El r
esultado de la actividad de pensar es lo que se aprende o adquiere. El}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {pensamiento produce o crea otros conocimientos, conocimientos
nuevos, siempre a partir de los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que ya existen (Rumel
hart y Norman, 1988). Por esta razn, podramos afirmar que el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {pensamiento es un mecanismo de adquisicin del conocimiento, por supuesto, e
l ms importante}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\
margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn320\pard\li6360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li6360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6360\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs
20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 5}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0

\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de todos. Por lo tanto, los procesos


de pensamiento son procesos de adquisicin, o procesos de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {aprendizaje.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx6613\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Otro concepto que es nece
sario mencionar es el de}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {comprensin.}\i0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Podemos decir que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conocimient
o y comprensin son trminos intercambiables. No se comprende lo que no se}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {conoce y no se conoce lo que no se comprende.}\par\pard\li137
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {El pensamiento es esencial para la vida humana. Como seres vivos p
adecemos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {determinadas carencias o necesidades que deb
emos satisfacer. \uc1\u8220XUna necesidad no es tal a menos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {que exista algo que la satisfaga (un vaso de agua, una calificacin de sobr
esaliente, una}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sonrisa\uc1\u8230X). Nuestro repertori
o variable de necesidades describe un repertorio variable de}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {situaciones que estamos motivados para provocar. Si\uc1\u8230X vivimos y
actuamos a travs de un mapa}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(representacin) de la real
idad, \uc1\u8230X nuestra funcin en la vida, lo que nos orienta y proporciona un}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {objetivo (una meta), es la discrepancia entre el punt
o en el que nos encontramos en el mapa y el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {punto en
el que, segn nuestra biologa o educacin deberamos (desearamos) estar\uc1\u8221X (Clax
ton,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1984/1987, p. 40).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Podramos decir (probablemente con menos lucidez que Guy Claxton) que nuestra vida
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es una continua lucha contra esa discrepancia, o pro
blema vital. Y esta lucha la realizamos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esencialmente
con una de nuestras armas ms valiosas, el pensamiento. Dicho de otro modo, el}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pensamiento es lo que acontece cuando resolvemos un pro
blema, cuando intentamos alcanzar}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una meta (Mayer, 19
92b). Ms explcitos son an Newell & Simon (1972) en su importante}\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {libro \uc1\u8220XHuman Problem Solving\uc1\u8221X, cuando dicen: \uc1\
u8220XEl propsito de este libro es progresar en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nuestr
a comprensin de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {cmo piensan}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 { los humanos. En este se propone una teora de solucin de}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {problemas\uc1\u8230X\uc1\u8221X (p. 1). En nuestra vida diaria reso
lvemos problemas constantemente, problemas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {profesiona
les, familiares, personales\uc1\u8230X Los mecanismos de pensamiento son las ope
raciones}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fundamentales implicadas en cualquier intent
o de superar una dificultad o un obstculo. Estos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estn d

irigidos a la consecucin de una meta que no est inmediatamente disponible. \uc1\u8


220XNosotros}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pensamos cuando no sabemos cmo actuar, qu
creer o qu querer. En estas circunstancias, el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pensami
ento nos ayuda a resolver nuestras dudas: es }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {propos
itivo\uc1\u8221X }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(Baron, 1988, p. 3). El}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {pensamiento posee un carcter esencialmente}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\i {propositivo.}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Pensamos para solucio
nar problemas.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La actividad de solucin de problemas es
la actividad humana vitalmente ms importante. Esta}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\
pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn320\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {6 Carlos Saiz}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {actividad movil
iza a todo el sistema cognitivo, a toda nuestra mente, y supone la puesta en}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {funcionamiento de la mayora de nuestras capacidades de or
den superior: deductivas, inductivas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y creativas, est
o es, las clases fundamentales de pensamiento (Johnson-Laird, 1993).}\par\pard\l
i1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {Los rasgos esenciales descritos nos permiten definir el pensami
ento? Sinceramente, no.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {No hay acuerdo sobre los meca
nismos o procesos implicados en el mismo (Mayer, 1992b). Esta}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {situacin es, por otra parte, claramente comprensible, ya que es una cons
ecuencia lgica de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ausencia de una teora de la mente.
No disponemos en un sentido estricto, de una teora sobre el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {funcionamiento mental, sobre \uc1\u8220Xcmo piensa nuestra mente\uc1\u8221
X (Johnson-Laird, 1993). El estado}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {actual del conocim
iento nos obliga a ser pacientes y asumir la incertidumbre y la duda sin que}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {paralice nuestro deseo de saber ms. Para ello es menester
que le saquemos el mayor provecho a}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las buenas ideas
e intuiciones existentes, utilizando un criterio menos riguroso, como es el de}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aceptar todo planteamiento o idea como bueno si funci
ona, sirve o es til.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li137
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una idea que ha resultado serlo
en la comprensin de los procesos de pensamiento es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {id
entificarlos con los mecanismos implicados en toda situacin de solucin de problema
s. Varios}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {autores ya sealaban la importancia de esta i
dea (muy representativos son Bloom & Broder,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1950; Du
ncan, 1959 \uc1\u8211Xrevisa los autores de la Gestalt que asumen esta idea\uc1\
u8211X; Polya, 1945). Pero}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es a partir del influyente
libro \uc1\u8220XHuman Problem Solving\uc1\u8221X de Newell & Simon (1972) cuan
do}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult

0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esta idea se convierte en un paradigma de investig


acin de los procesos de pensamiento. Esto}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sucede, entr
e otras razones, porque Newell y Simon nos ofrecen un metfora clara y poderosa}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del pensamiento humano. En opinin de algunos autores est
a metfora es hoy da el marco de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {referencia fundamental
en la investigacin del pensamiento humano (}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Anderson,
1993; }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Baron,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1988; Gree
no & Simon, 1988; Lesgold, 1988; Mayer, 1992b; VanLehn, 1989). Qu razones}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {justifican esta enorme influencia? Vamos a detenernos en algu
nas.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La metfora de solucin de problemas, primero, es
enormemente transparente (Anderson,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1993, es muy explc
ito en este sentido al denominarla concepcin cannica); como veremos ms}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {adelante, sus componentes son simples (el estado\uc1\u8211Xinicia
l e }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {intermedio\uc1\u8211X, la }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {meta \uc1\u8211Xfinal y las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {submetas\uc1\u821
1X, }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los operadores, y el espacio problema). En seg
undo lugar, es flexible porque es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {susceptible de apli
carse a cualquier situacin\uc1\u8211Xproblema. Y tercero, es til porque como metfor
a}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {permite comprender la interdependencia que existe e
ntre diferentes ideas o conceptos, entre}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn1189
3\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn333\pard\li6360\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
360\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 7}\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {algunos de
los mecanismos de nuestra mente Qu se acepta que hace nuestra mente cuando}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {soluciona un problema? Se supone que solucionar un problema
implica tomar decisiones,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {generar soluciones satisfa
ctorias (mediante mecanismos de razonamiento o procedimientos}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {heursticos), que normalmente requieren una considerable dosis de creativ
idad. Obsrvese cmo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esta metfora nos permite vincular act
ividades tan importantes como las de decidir, razonar}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{(formal o informalmente \uc1\u8211Xheursticamente\uc1\u8211X) y pensar creativam
ente.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {I
II. INSTRUCCIN}\b0 \par\pard\li880\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li880\ri
0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {La mano desasistida y el entendim
iento por s solos apenas tienen fuerza. Los efectos se producen por}\i0 \par\pard
\li1720\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {medio de instrumentos y
auxilios, de los que el entendimiento no precisa menos que la mano.}\i0 \par\pa
rd\li8520\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8211XFrancis Baco
n\uc1\u8211X}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {En el apartado anterior, me he detenido en aquellos rasgos del pensamient

o que son}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266


\slmult0 \*\tx7600\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {especialmente importantes para los
objetivos de este captulo. La}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {instruccin}\i0 {
}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8211Xun tipo de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {i
ntervencin educativa\uc1\u8211X es uno de ellos, y el ms importante. Decamos que pe
nsamiento se}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {puede entender como un mecanismo de adq
uisicin de conocimiento, como un proceso que crea}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cono
cimiento a partir del que existe. El pensamiento tambin implica ciertas capacidad
es o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {habilidades que se utilizan o aplican con el fin
de lograr ciertos propsitos o solucionar}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {determinados
problemas.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pero Utiliza o aplica la gente suficient
emente estas habilidades? Se desarrollan todo lo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {posib
le tales capacidades? Estas cuestiones son de enorme importancia social. Algunas
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {instituciones u organismos realizan estudios dirigid
os a evaluar el nivel intelectual y el uso de las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cap
acidades intelectuales de sus ciudadanos, particularmente de la poblacin estudian
til.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Investigaciones realizadas en Estados Unidos (su
pongamos que estos datos son aplicables a los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pases eu
ropeos como el nuestro) constatan que ha descendido el porcentaje de alumnos que
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {llega a adquirir un cierto nivel de desarrollo intel
ectual (citado por Baron y Sternberg, 1987}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u821
1Xprefacio\uc1\u8211X). Steen (1987) indicaba, en la misma direccin, que la capac
idad de razonamiento}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {matemtico de los estudiantes ha d
isminuido en los ltimos 15 aos.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Estos datos pueden se
r chocantes para la lectora/lector que reflexione en el siguiente}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {sentido: Vivimos en una sociedad cada vez ms sofisticada, donde los
desarrollos tecnolgicos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estn rompiendo barreras impensa
bles hasta hace pocos aos; los medios de comunicacin ponen}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sb
kpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn320\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {8 Carlos Saiz}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a nuestra
disposicin todos los bancos de datos imaginables, y logran que sucesos o}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {descubrimientos que ocurren a miles de kilmetros sean conocid
os en pocos segundos, o que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esas distancias se recorr
an en pocas horas No es una contradiccin que paralelamente a este}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {desarrollo vertiginoso, constatemos una evolucin lenta, incluso un ret
roceso, en nuestras}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {capacidades intelectuales? Posibl

emente. Pero enfoquemos el problema de la siguiente forma.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\s


l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {Quizs los programas educativos no han cambiado sustancialmente en las ltimas
dcadas y la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sociedad s. Pudiera ser que ese mismo desa
rrollo tecnolgico fuera un arma de doble filo, ya}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que
exige menos de los individuos, todo est ms hecho, pero a la vez nos presiona hacia
un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {continuo reciclaje, y tambin se nos ofrecen muchas
posibilidades de ocio. La duracin del}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tiempo no parec
e la misma. Hay muchas razones para esta paradoja.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
En un punto parecen estar de acuerdo muchos profesionales de la educacin: En las}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ltimas dcadas la enseanza se ha esforzado en conocer cmo
aprender o adquirir}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conocimiento, no en conocer cmo pe
nsar o construir conocimiento. Si los cambios sociales y la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {evolucin tecnolgica parecen ir a ms y la esperanza de vida sigue en aumento,
debemos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aceptar que no podemos imaginar lo que nos d
eparar el futuro, ni siquiera alcanzamos a ver la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mult
itud de profesiones nuevas a las que se dedicarn los nios de la dcada de los novent
a Qu}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {poltica educativa seguir? Qu debemos ensear? Compartim
os el punto de vista que insiste en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que la enseanza se
debe fundamentar en el conocimiento sobre cmo aprender y en el}\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {conocimiento sobre cmo pensar. El problema ahora y para el futuro es qu h
acer con tanta}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {informacin, con tantos datos? La inform
acin debe ser interpretada, elaborada, asimilada y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {uti
lizada. No podemos realizar esto si no desarrollamos y empleamos al mximo nuestra
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {capacidad de pensar, de pensar crticamente y creativa
mente. Pero este es un problema ms}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hondo de lo que en
un principio se pudiera imaginar. La mayor parte de los profesionales de la}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {enseanza pedimos a nuestros alumnos que aprendan, recuerde
n o reflexionen, pero no les}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {enseamos cmo hacerlo, cmo a
prender o recordar mejor, o cmo pensar. Existe la creencia de}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {que las capacidades son innatas, que el adulto \uc1\u8220Xsabe pensar\uc
1\u8221X. Vamos a citar un dato: slo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aproximadamente e
l 25% de los alumnos del primer curso de universidad poseen habilidades de}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pensamiento abstracto y lgico (McKinnon & Renner, 1971). Es
posible, pues, que el desarrollo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {intelectual no sea
el idneo. Tambin es probable que los cambios en el futuro y el cmulo de}\par\pard\s
ect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\ma

rgbsxn320\pard\li6360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6360\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6360\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {P
ENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 9}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {informacin sean considerables. El esfuerzo por mejorar los proc
esos de pensamiento debe ser el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {objetivo de la interv
encin instruccional.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li137
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Este esfuerzo debemos intensifi
carlo, pues no es nuevo. Lo podemos encontrar en los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
comienzos de la psicologa, si nos quedamos en la historia contempornea, pues en la
Grecia}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {presocrtica encontramos esfuerzos loables en l
a misma direccin. En la era contempornea, el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {funcionali
smo americano de W. James, manifiesta una enorme sensibilidad hacia los problema
s}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {educativos. J. Dewey realiza el desarrollo sustanci
al de esta sensibilidad en importantes trabajos,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {muy
actuales hoy da, como nos muestra Mayer (1992a).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En
nuestro continente, un gran olvidado y pionero en el desarrollo de programas de}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {instruccin es Binet (1909). El desarrolla uno de los p
rimeros programas de esta naturaleza que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {denomina \uc
1\u8220Xortopedia mental\uc1\u8221X. Otra referencia obligada es Thorndike (1924
), el cual dedica ms}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de veinte aos a la investigacin sob
re la transferencia del adiestramiento en determinadas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{tareas. El conductismo contribuye especialmente a la psicologa de la educacin, y
curiosamente}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de la mano de su representante ms radica
l, Skinner, a pesar de que el tipo de intervencin que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
defienden sea la que menos nos interese aqu (para una revisin de esta tradicin, con
sltese}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Skinner, 1968; y los artculos de Johnson & Layng
, 1992, y Pennypacker, 1992, en el nmero}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {monogrfico sob
re Skinner de la revista}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {American Psychologist}
\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El desarrollo
ms importante de la instruccin ha sido paralelo a los logros alcanzados}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {por la psicologa cognitiva (o los ms recientes de la ciencia cog
nitiva). Esta rama de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {psicologa busca entender el f
uncionamiento de la mente humana. Se han dirigido los esfuerzos}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {hacia los procesos de conocimiento (percepcin, aprendizaje, memoria y
pensamiento). La}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {psicologa de la instruccin los aplica
para conseguir mejorar el funcionamiento mental. La}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {i
ntervencin se basa en cmo utilizar el conocimiento sobre los mecanismos de pensam
iento}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm

ult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {para conseguir que la gente piense mejor, para


ensear a pensar (para una revisin, consltese la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {primera
parte \uc1\u8220XEl Desafo de Ensear a Pensar\uc1\u8221X del excelente libro de Ni
ckerson, Perkins &}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Smith, 1985/1987). El propsito de l
a instruccin es que las personas piensen ms y mejor.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Lo
grar mejorar los procesos de adquisicin de conocimiento, en su sentido ms amplio,
esto es,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {construir o crear conocimiento. Estos proces
os, sin embargo, no se entienden siempre de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {misma
forma.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn
133\margtsxn666\margbsxn320\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {10 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Mayer (1992a) seala tres}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{visiones o metforas sobre el aprendizaje o adquisicin}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 { que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \*\tx9826\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {han determinado y determinan la i
nvestigacin educativa y la prctica instruccional:}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\
i {el}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {aprendizaje como adquisicin de respuestas,
el aprendizaje como adquisicin de conocimiento,}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{y el aprendizaje como construccin del conocimiento. El aprendizaje como adquisic
in de}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {respuestas}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ dominaba la prctica educativa hasta la dcada de los 50. Este consista en la}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aplicacin de los principios conductistas, donde el repertor
io de conductas est determinado por}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {refuerzos y castig
os contingentes. El objetivo de la instruccin es incrementar el nmero (o la}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {fuerza) de conductas correctas. Para alcanzar dicho objetiv
o la intervencin educativa se centra}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en la manipulacin
del material empleado (forma de presentacin, espaciamiento temporal,}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {ordenacin por complejidad\uc1\u8230X). Son, pues, los factores ext
ernos los que aumentan el repertorio}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de respuesta.}\p
ar\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Con el predominio de la era cognitiva a partir de los
60, la metfora pasa a ser el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx5920\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {aprendizaje c
omo adquisicin de conocimiento.}\i0 \tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Aqu el profes
or es un dispensador de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {informacin, y el objetivo de l
a instruccin incrementar la cantidad de conocimiento. Con}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {posterioridad, aproximadamente a la mitad de la dcada de los 70, la insistenc
ia es en el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {aprendizaje como construccin del conocim
iento,}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { un alumno autnomo con habilidades}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {metacognitivas para dirigir, regular, y controlar sus proces

os cognitivos durante el aprendizaje.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c


f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El objetivo de
la instruccin es, pues, ayudar al desarrollo de estrategias de aprendizaje y}\par
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l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {De esta descripcin que Mayer (1992a) realiza, podemos observar cmo se ha id
o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {produciendo una progresiva interiorizacin de los obj
etivos de la instruccin: incremento del}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {repertorio de
respuestas, despus aumento de la cantidad de conocimiento y, ms recientemente,}\pa
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4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {el desarrollo del metaconocimiento. Como Mayer nos indic
a, hoy da podemos encontrar los tres}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tipos de interven
cin educativa. De hecho, una instruccin completa no debe eludir ninguna de}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
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truccin del conocimiento, al}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
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os mecanismos fundamentales. Si se aceptase que la adquisicin}\par\pard\li653\ri0
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a memoria permanente,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {realizada sta por un procesador
pasivo, entonces la distincin sera fcil. Sin embargo, debemos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
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0\charscalex100\i {interpretacin}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de la informacin
o}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\
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arscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 11}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
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ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estimulacin (\uc1\u8220Xinput\uc1\u8221X) a part
ir del conocimiento existente, es decir, interpretar lo nuevo a partir}\par\pard
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f0\charscalex100 {de lo viejo (Rumelhart y Norman, 1988). Resnick (1989) es tamb
in muy claro en este sentido}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8220Xel aprendizaje
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a cita al referirse a la construccin del }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conocimient
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na o integracin de la informacin, lo que producira una adquisicin cualitativamente}\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
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ogro de un almacenamiento ptimo, de aquellas otras orientadas al}\par\pard\li653\
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ir, si la recuperacin contribuye a la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
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5824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft1893\shptop10813\shpright4053\shpbottom11573\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2043\shpz0\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 2160}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 760}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;81;(2160,386);(2160,413);(2146,440);(2133,466);(2106,
506);(2080,533);(2040,560);(2000,586);(1946,600);(1893,626);(1840,653);(1786,666
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8333\shptop6186\shpright10493\shpbottom6946\shpfhdr0\shp
wr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2044\shpz0\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 2160}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 760}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;81;(2160,386);(2160,413);(2146,440);(2133,466);(2106,
506);(2080,533);(2040,560);(2000,586);(1946,600);(1893,626);(1840,653);(1786,666
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(2133,293);(2146,320);(2160,346);(2160,386);}}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7226\shptop7586\shpright9386\shpbottom8346\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2045\shpz0\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 2160}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 760}}

{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}


{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;83;(2160,386);(2160,413);(2146,440);(2133,466);(2106,
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7253\shptop9333\shpright9413\shpbottom10093\shpfhdr0\shp
wr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2046\shpz0\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 2160}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 760}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;81;(2160,386);(2160,413);(2146,440);(2133,466);(2106,
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}


{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7253\shptop10866\shpright9413\shpbottom11626\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2047\shpz0\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 2160}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 760}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;81;(2160,386);(2160,413);(2146,440);(2133,466);(2106,
506);(2080,533);(2040,560);(2000,586);(1946,600);(1893,626);(1840,653);(1786,666
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5824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft2853\shptop10546\shpright3066\shpbottom10800\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2048\shpz1\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 213}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 254}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;44;(106,266);(0,26);(0,26);(13,13);(13,13);(26,13);(2
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(80,0);(93,0);(93,0);(106,0);(106,0);(106,0);(120,0);(120,0);(133,0);(133,0);(13
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);(186,13);(200,13);(200,13);(200,26);(213,26);(106,266);(106,266);}}
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}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft2973\shptop6946\shpright2973\shpbottom10706\shpfhdr0\shp
wr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2049\shpz2\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 3760}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,3760);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7440\shptop6946\shpright7680\shpbottom7186\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;24;(0,0);(240,93);(240,106);(240,120);(226,120);(226,
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40);(0,0);(0,0);}}
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824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7853\shptop7360\shpright8106\shpbottom7600\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2051\shpz4\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 253}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 240}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;24;(240,240);(0,146);(0,133);(13,133);(13,120);(13,10
6);(26,106);(26,93);(40,80);(40,80);(53,66);(53,53);(66,53);(80,40);(80,40);(93,
26);(106,26);(106,13);(120,13);(133,13);(133,0);(146,0);(240,240);(240,240);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;50;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7520\shptop7026\shpright8040\shpbottom7546\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2052\shpz5\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 520}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 520}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(26,0);(520,506);(520,520);(506,520);(0,26);(
0,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8960\shptop6960\shpright9200\shpbottom7200\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2053\shpz6\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 240}}
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{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;24;(240,0);(146,240);(133,240);(133,226);(120,226);(1
06,226);(93,213);(93,213);(80,200);(66,200);(66,186);(53,186);(53,173);(40,160);
(40,160);(26,146);(26,133);(13,133);(13,120);(13,106);(0,93);(0,93);(240,0);(240

,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;50;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8560\shptop7333\shpright8800\shpbottom7586\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 240}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 253}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;24;(0,240);(93,0);(106,0);(120,13);(133,13);(133,13);
(146,26);(160,26);(160,40);(173,40);(173,53);(186,66);(200,66);(200,80);(213,80)
;(213,93);(226,106);(226,106);(226,120);(240,133);(240,146);(240,146);(0,240);(0
,240);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;50;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8640\shptop7040\shpright9146\shpbottom7520\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2055\shpz8\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 506}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 480}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(480,0);(506,0);(506,26);(26,480);(0,480);(0,466);(
480,0);(480,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8240\shptop9066\shpright8440\shpbottom9320\shpfhdr0\shpw

r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2056\shpz9\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;44;(106,266);(0,26);(0,26);(13,13);(13,13);(26,13);(2
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(80,0);(93,0);(93,0);(106,0);(106,0);(106,0);(120,0);(120,0);(133,0);(133,0);(13
3,0);(146,0);(146,0);(160,0);(160,0);(160,13);(173,13);(173,13);(186,13);(186,13
);(186,13);(200,13);(200,13);(200,26);(213,26);(106,266);(106,266);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8346\shptop8346\shpright8346\shpbottom9226\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2057\shpz10\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 880}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,880);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8240\shptop10626\shpright8440\shpbottom10880\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 200}}
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{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;44;(106,266);(0,26);(0,26);(13,13);(13,13);(26,13);(2
6,13);(26,13);(40,13);(40,13);(40,13);(53,0);(53,0);(66,0);(66,0);(66,0);(80,0);
(80,0);(93,0);(93,0);(106,0);(106,0);(106,0);(120,0);(120,0);(133,0);(133,0);(13

3,0);(146,0);(146,0);(160,0);(160,0);(160,13);(173,13);(173,13);(186,13);(186,13
);(186,13);(200,13);(200,13);(200,26);(213,26);(106,266);(106,266);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8346\shptop10080\shpright8346\shpbottom10786\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2059\shpz12\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 706}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,706);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\margtsxn666\margbsxn413\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li62
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 13}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {integra con el adecuado (que tenga relacin) co
nocimiento existente. Estos tres procesos de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aprendiz
aje nos indica que son semejantes a los componentes de codificacin selectiva,}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {combinacin selectiva y comparacin selectiva de la teora trir
quica de la inteligencia de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Sternberg (1985/1990, p.
129). Estos son los componentes generales de este marco de referencia}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {instruccional. Es necesario indicar otros ms especficos y ms impor
tantes desde un punto de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {vista aplicado. Estos son el
aborados pormenorizadamente en Mayer (1987). Aqu, Mayer}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{compara dos enfoques de instruccin muy diferentes, que se resumen en la figura
2.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\
cols2\colno1\colw6573\colsr-0\colno2\colw4520\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-213\s

lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1360\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b


{Enfoque conductual}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Enfoque cognitivo
}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\cols3\colno1\colw5840\colsr-0\colno2\colw1253\colsr-0\colno3\colw4000\pard\li1
693\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1693\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {Manipulacin}\par\pard\li1720\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {instruccional}\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li180
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li1800\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rendimiento}\par
\pard\li1933\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ejecucin}\par\column\
pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {Manipulacin}\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {instruccional}\par\column\pard\li1040\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li1040\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Caractersticas}\par\
pard\li960\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {del que aprende}\par\p
ard\li80\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li80\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li80\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li80\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li80\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Procesos de}
\par\pard\li120\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {aprendizaje}\par\
pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Resultado de
l}\par\pard\li106\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {aprendizaje}\pa
r\pard\li66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li66\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li66\ri0\sl-280\sl
mult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Rendimiento}\par\pard\li200\ri0\sl-240\slmult0
\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ejecucin}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pg
hsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li2760\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li2760\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2760\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \*\tx
3693\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Figura 2.}\i0 \tab \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Dos enfoques de instruccin. (Mayer, 1987, p. 5).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {El enfoque conductual contempla como elementos de la instruccin: la}{ }\f
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{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft3533\shptop7786\shpright3533\shpbottom8680\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 894}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}

{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,906);}}


{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;44;(106,266);(0,26);(0,26);(13,13);(13,13);(26,13);(2
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft3546\shptop9346\shpright3546\shpbottom10240\shpfhdr0\shp
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 894}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,906);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
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{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}


{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft3413\shptop11626\shpright3626\shpbottom11880\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft3533\shptop10880\shpright3533\shpbottom11786\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 906}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,906);}}
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft4400\shptop7533\shpright5626\shpbottom7533\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(1226,0);}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5440\shptop8960\shpright5706\shpbottom9160\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft4386\shptop9066\shpright5600\shpbottom9066\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft4400\shptop10626\shpright5626\shpbottom10626\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(1226,0);}}
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{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\margtsxn666\margbsxn320\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li62
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 15}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {un aminocido, un fosfato, una protena o un nucl
etido) o no es capaz de recordarlos \uc1\u8211Xo no}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pu
ede consultarlos\uc1\u8211X, no comprender la naturaleza del ADN, porque el conoc
imiento necesario}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {no est}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\i {disponible}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(habr buena retencin pero transf
erencia pobre). Si, por el contrario, posee}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ese conoc
imiento contextual puede comprender, si se cumple la ltima condicin necesaria para
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que se d la comprensin, que se produzca la}{ }\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100\i {activacin,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que la person
a sea capaz de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {organizar}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {la informacin del ADN y de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {integrarla}\
i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { con los conocimientos bsicos sobre biologa molecul
ar,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de elaborar en profundidad, en definitiva, de}{ }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {comprender}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (tendr
emos aqu, buena retencin y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {buena transferencia). Por co
nsiguiente, la comprensin puede fracasar porque no se consolide el}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {aprendizaje o bien porque fracasan los mecanismos de disponibilidad
(o de recuperacin) o de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {activacin (organizacin e integr
acin). En la figura 3 se resume este anlisis.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn1
1893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\cols3\colno1\colw4080\colsr-0\colno2\co
lw1000\colsr-0\colno3\colw6013\pard\li2373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li2373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li2373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2373\ri0\sl-360\slmult
0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Recepcin}\par\pard\li2920\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li2920\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2920\ri0\sl-240\slmu
lt0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {S}\par\pard\li2200\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li2200\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2200\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2200\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Disponib
ilidad}\par\pard\li2960\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2960\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2960\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100

{S}\par\pard\li2400\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2400\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2400\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2400\ri0\sl
-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Activacin}\par\pard\li2933\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2933\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {S}
\par\pard\li2333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2333\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Compre
nde}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\s
l-346\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {No}\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri
0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {No}\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13
\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {No}\par\column\pard\li13\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li13\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {No aprende}\par\pard\li13\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {No comprende}\par
\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {No comprend
e}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\p
ard\li1933\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1933\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1933\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1933\ri0\sl-320\slm
ult0 \*\tx2853\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Figura 3.}\i0 \tab \fs20\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {Algunas condiciones del aprendizaje significativo. (Mayer, 1987, p. 1
3).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\
sl-346\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Mayer (1987) seala que la recepcin, dis
ponibilidad y activacin son condiciones}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fundamentales
para el aprendizaje significativo. Cuando se logra la comprensin, se adquiere,}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {construye o crea conocimiento, se consigue un aprendiza
je significativo. Pensemos adems en la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {utilidad de est
as condiciones de comprensin, desde un punto de vista aplicado. Si el fracaso es}
\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\par
d\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666
\margbsxn400\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {1
6 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {de recepcin, la instruccin debe comenzar por tcnicas de seleccin. Si el fraca
so es de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disponibilidad, la instruccin debe dirigirse
al desarrollo de estrategias de aprendizaje, de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {facil
itacin de los mecanismos de recuperacin. Si el fracaso es de activacin, la instrucc
in}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {debe dirigirse al desarrollo de estrategias de repr
esentacin o bsqueda de analogas que faciliten}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f

s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la integra


cin.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-3
33\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {V. FUNDAMENTOS DE LA INSTRUCCIN.}\b0 \pa
r\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \f
s20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Solucionar problemas puede ser considerado como la a
ctividad ms caractersticamente humana}\i0 \par\pard\li9400\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs2
0\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8211XPolya}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
Las investigaciones y referencias a la solucin de problemas estn, tanto histrica co
mo}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {conceptualmen
te, ligadas al sistema simblico en que los problemas se presentan y se}\par\pard\
li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {intentan resolver. Scrates,
en el dilogo Menn, antes de preguntar, para mostrar que}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-3
60\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {preguntando se resuelven problemas, averi
gua si el nio esclavo sabe griego. Y desde}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \f
s20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {entonces y antes de entonces son innumerables los ejem
plos, documentados o no, en}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {que la dificultad semntica enmascara la buena lgica, tanto como la mal
a lgica vuelve}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {el
mejor discurrir irrelevante (Rimoldi, 1991, p. 349).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {En las pginas anteriores, describamos los conceptos de pensamiento e instruccin
y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {proponamos un enfoque de trabajo en el que se anota
ban los elementos ms importantes en los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que se fundame
nta un determinado tipo de intervencin. Y todo esto lo realizamos a un nivel}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {general, que nos proporcionara un marco de referencia amp
lio. Ahora debemos pasar a}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {especificar algunos de los
elementos de ese marco. Los enfoques generales, a pesar de ser}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {necesarios, no son muy tiles a la hora de aplicarse instruccionalmente
. James ya sealaba esta}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dificultad al indicar que la \
uc1\u8220Xdescripcin de la psicologa de los elementos de la mquina}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {mental\uc1\u8230X y su actividad\uc1\u8221X no se traducen directamen
te en prescripciones educativas especficas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(James,1899
; citado por Mayer, 1992a). El desarrollo que vamos a realizar en este apartado
es el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de aquellos elementos que puedan ser directamen
te considerados en la intervencin educativa.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Estos ele
mentos son todos los implicados en la actividad de solucin de problemas. Los proc
esos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {implicados en la comprensin y solucin de problemas
son susceptibles de incorporarse en la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mayora de los
programas de instruccin, de los que nos ocuparemos en el siguiente apartado.}\par
\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsx
n666\margbsxn346\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 17}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Ah veremos que dichos programas slo incorporan una parte

de estas actividades de solucin de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\


par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas, una de
las razones, como veremos, de la modestia de sus logros.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\b {1. NATURALEZA DE UN PROBLEMA}\b0 \par\pard\li3960\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3960\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3960\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3960\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\i {\uc1\u8220XLos problemas son nuestro producto ms importantes\uc1\u8221X}\
i0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8212XBeardsley.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {\uc1\u8220XUna persona se enfrenta a un}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\i {problema}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { cuando quiere algo y no conoce in
mediatamente}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {qu secuencia de acciones puede realizar p
ara lograrlo. El objeto deseado puede ser tangible (una}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {manzana para comer) o abstracto (una prueba elegante para un teorema). El obj
eto puede ser}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {especfico (una manzana concreta) o muy g
eneral (algo para quitar el hambre). Puede ser un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {obj
eto fsico (una manzana) o un conjunto de smbolos (la prueba del teorema). Las acci
ones}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dirigidas a obtener el objeto deseado incluyen a
ctividades fsicas (andar, indagar, escribir),}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {activida
des perceptivas (mirar, escuchar) y actividades puramente mentales (evaluar la s
imilitud}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de dos smbolos, recordar una situacin , etc.)\
uc1\u8221X \uc1\u8211XNewell & Simon, 1972, p. 72\uc1\u8211X. Estos autores}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conceptualizan todos los problemas como ostentando la}{ }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {misma estructura,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {o los mismos aspectos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fundamentales: el}{ }\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\i {estado inicial}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { o de part
ida, el de llegada o}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {meta}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 { y las}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {operaciones}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 { necesarias}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {para conseguir la meta de
seada.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El concepto de estado seala el lugar, el punt
o o el momento en el que se encuentra la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {persona que
resuelve un problema. El estado inicial seala el comienzo, lo dado en un problema
.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Los estados intermedios, los avances que se han pro
ducido respecto al estado de llegada o meta,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que es e
l momento en el que se soluciona el problema. Las operaciones son acciones que}\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*
\tx4200\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {transforman un estado en otro. El}\tab \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {espacio del problema}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
es otro concepto importante que se}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {define a partir de
los dos anteriores, es decir, el concepto de estado y el de operaciones. En tod
o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estado hay un nmero posible de operaciones que se pu

eden realizar; cada una de ellas produce}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1


8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {un nuevo est
ado, desde el cual se pueden realizar otras que producirn nuevos estados, y as}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sucesivamente. Unos problemas poseen un espacio-problema
con un nmero finito de estados}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {alcanzables y de opera
ciones realizables, mientras que en otros el nmero es muy grande o}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {ilimitado. Asociado al concepto de espacio del problema, se encuent
ra el de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {bsqueda,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {es decir,}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\
margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn386\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {18 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {encontrar alguna secuencia de operaciones que perm
itan llegar a la meta. El modo que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {utilicemos para bu
scar y seleccionar las operaciones aplicables a un estado del problema}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {determinado definen el}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mtodo d
e solucin de problemas,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esto es, los principio
s utilizados para}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {buscar y seleccionar operaciones qu
e nos aproximen o lleven a la meta o estado final. Represe}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {en este punto en el hecho de que el mtodo puede ir desde la utilizacin de un
procedimiento de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bsqueda aleatorio a la de un algoritm
o que garantice alcanzar la solucin con un mnimo de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pas
os u operaciones. Consideremos el siguiente problema de \uc1\u8220Xlos monstruos
de las cinco manos\uc1\u8221X}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(utilizado por Simon &
Hayes, 1976 en varios estudios, y que despus volveremos a comentar),}\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {para ilustrar los conceptos de la estructura del problema enunc
iados anteriormente. Antes de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {continuar, intente res
olver el problema:}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1773
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {1. Tres monstruos extraterrestres de cinco manos sostenan sendas esf
eras de cristal.}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{2. Como consecuencia de las peculiaridades de mecnica cuntica de su vecindad, tan
to}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {los monstruos
como las esferas tenan exactamente tres tamaos: pequeo, mediano y}\par\pard\li2053
\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {grande.}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {3. El monstruo de tamao mediano sostena la
esfera pequea; el de tamao pequeo, la}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {grande; y el de tamao grande, la mediana.}\par\pard\li1773\ri
0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {4. Como esta situacin atentaba contr
a su sentido de la simetra, extremadamente}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \f
s20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {desarrollado, se intercambiaban las esferas de uno a o
tro, hasta que el tamao de cada}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {una correspondiera al suyo.}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \
fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {5. La etiqueta de monstruo complicaba la solucin del p
roblema: slo una esfera poda ser}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {intercambiada a la vez; si un monstruo sostena dos, slo se poda inte
rcambiar la}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mayo

r; y una esfera no se poda intercambiar con la de otro monstruo que tuviera una}\
par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mayor.}\par\pard\
li1773\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {6. Con qu secuencia de inter
cambios resolvieron los monstruos el problema?}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl
-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En este problema, el estado inicial o e
l punto de partida sera la posesin de una esfera}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {por ca
da uno de los monstruos, donde la correspondencia de tamao entre monstruo y esfer
a no}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {existe; la meta \uc1\u8211Xel estado de llegada\
uc1\u8211X sera la posesin de una esfera del mismo tamao por cada}\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {monstruo, donde haya una total correspondencia de tamao. El espacio del
problema lo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {formaran las operaciones posibles para lo
grar la meta. En la tabla 1 de ms adelante podemos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ver
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n los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {posibles intercambios que se pueden realizar, d
adas las restricciones de la situacin. En cada}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
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{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\margtsxn666\margbsxn413\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li62
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 19}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estado \uc1\u8211Xinicial, intermedios y fina
l\uc1\u8211X habra una secuencia posible de operaciones aplicables. La}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {seleccin de la ms adecuada en cada estado posibilita que el probl
ema se resuelva eficazmente,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con el menor nmero de pas
os posibles. El mtodo de solucionar el problema, es decir, la}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {bsqueda y seleccin de operaciones, en este ejemplo es simple porque el esp
acio del problema}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es pequeo. Bastara con}{ }\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\i {reducir la distancia o diferencia}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {entre el estado inicial y la meta con}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una}{ }
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {estrategia de anlisis medio fin.}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {Con esta estrategia lo que hacemos es dividir la situacin en}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {subproblemas o submetas}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {que nos vayan aproximando a la meta, es decir que vayan reduciendo}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {la distancia entre el estado inicial y el final del problema
(la solucin). El \uc1\u8220Xfin\uc1\u8221X inmediato (la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {submeta) es conseguir, por ejemplo, que el monstruo pequeo tenga la esfera peq
uea (paso 1 de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la tabla 1). La seleccin del cambio adec
uado de esfera con las restricciones dadas ser el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1
\u8220Xmedio\uc1\u8221X de conseguir este \uc1\u8220Xfin\uc1\u8221X (anlisis medi
o-fin).}\par\pard\li1573\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1573\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1573\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1573\
ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i {Tabla 1. Secuencia de pasos
en el problema de los monstruos de cinco manos.}\b0 \i0 \par\pard\li4960\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li4960\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li49
60\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {TAMAO DE LOS MONSTRUOS}\par\par
d\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\cols4\colno
1\colw3733\colsr-0\colno2\colw2026\colsr-0\colno3\colw1973\colsr-0\colno4\colw33
60\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PASOS}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \*\
tx1773\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Esferas.}\tab \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {In
icio}\b0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \*\tx1773\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Esferas.}\tab \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Paso 1}\b0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \*\tx1773\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Esferas.}\tab \fs20\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\b {Paso 2}\b0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \*\tx1773\fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Esferas.}\tab \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Meta}\b0 \par\column\
pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Pequeo}\i0 \par\par
d\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {Grande}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {Grande, Pequea}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Gr
ande, Pequea}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pequea}\
par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Mediano

}\i0 \par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-240\slmult0


\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Pequea}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {------------}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {Mediana}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Me
diana}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {
Grande}\i0 \par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-240\sl
mult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mediana}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Mediana}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {------------}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Grande}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\ma
rgrsxn133\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0
\sl-293\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Este problema es sencillo debido al
reducido espacio del problema y a la existencia de un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{algoritmo (una secuencia fija de pasos) que siempre nos garantiza la solucin. Es
te problema}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \*\tx2693\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sera un ejemplo de}\tab \fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\i {problema bien definido.}\i0 { }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Nos encontramos ante un problema bien definido}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cuando
todos los elementos del mismo son dados o estn claros (el estado inicial, la met
a y las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {operaciones para alcanzarla) \uc1\u8211XReitm
an, 1965, citado por Voss & Means, 1989\uc1\u8211X Imaginemos otro}\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {problema bien diferente, del campo del arte, se nos pide que dibuj
emos un cuadro bonito Qu es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {un cuadro bonito? En este p
roblema, la meta (cuadro bonito) est mal definida. Un cuadro ser}\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {bonito para unos y no para otros. Vayamos al mundo de la poltica. Imagi
nemos que somos el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Presidente de Gobierno y que nos p
roponemos solucionar el paro. En este problema, la meta est}\par\pard\sect\sectd\
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{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\margtsxn666\margbsxn320\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\cha

rscalex100 {20 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa


rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {bien definida, conseguir que todos los parados tengan trabaj
o. Lo que no esta bien definido es lo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dado, la inform
acin disponible (el punto de partida) es incierta, no se conoce los suficiente}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sobre economa, y por consiguiente las decisiones y accio
nes tambin lo sern. Estos dos ltimos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx4960\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas
son}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { problemas mal definidos.}\i0 \tab \fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {En ellos, algn aspecto o varios son imprecisos.}\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {Cuando esto sucede el resultado final es incierto, bien porque no
se sabe si se ha alcanzado la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {meta (cuadro bonito) o
bien porque es poco probable conseguirla (dar trabajo a tanta gente) y,}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {por consiguiente, el problema es difcil.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {Greeno & Simon (1988) establecen una taxonoma ms detallada que la anterior
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {distincin genrica entre problemas bien o mal definidos
. Esta clasificacin es interesante porque}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {profundiza a
lgo ms en la naturaleza de las actividades cognitivas implicadas en la solucin}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1680\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1.}\tab
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Problemas bien especificados o problemas de trans
formacin:}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { son \uc1\u8220X\uc1\u8230Xsituaciones}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {relativamente bien estructuradas en las que la meta e
st especificada\uc1\u8221X (Greeno & Simon, 1988,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {p. 5
92). Como en el problema de los monstruos de cinco manos, el punto de partida, l
a meta y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las operaciones posibles son dados de modo
explcito. La tarea, pues, consiste en encontrar una}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {se
cuencia de acciones limitada a los operadores dados (el cambio de esferas entre
los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {monstruos). El conocido problema de la Torre de H
anoi}\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { es otro ejemplo
de problemas de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {transformacin (para un anlisis del mism
o y de su curiosa leyenda ver Raphael, 1976/1984).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
2.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Problemas de diseo o problemas de ordenacin:}\
i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { los elementos necesarios para}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {alcanzar la meta son dados o son conocidos para quien resuelve el probl
ema. La tarea del}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema consiste en ordenar conven
ientemente los elementos dados de modo que satisfagan un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {determinado criterio. En un problema de anagramas (un ejemplo simple) se pro
porciona una}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {serie de letras (elementos) con las que
se debe construir una palabra. Otros problemas menos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\

slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {


sencillos seran escribir un libro o un captulo de un libro. Greeno & Simon (1988)
incluyen}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { El p
roblema de la Torre de Hanoi consiste en pasar tres discos de diferente tamao}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(pequeo, mediano y gr
ande) de un pivote de partida a un tercero de llegada. No se}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {puede mover ms de un disco a la vez y
no podemos colocar un disco de mayor}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tamano encima de otro menor. El problema se resuelve en po
cos movimientos. Pero el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {problema original consistia en utilizar 64 discos. Al buen monje no le l
legara el fin del}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
mundo, pero casi, necesitara, siempre que realizara los movimientos correctos y a
2}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {segundos por m
ovimiento, un trilln de aos para resolverlo (Raphael, 1976/1984).}\par\pard\sect\s
ectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsx
n320\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAM
IENTO E INSTRUCCIN 21}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {dentro de esta clase muchos de los problemas de \uc1\u8220Xinsight
\uc1\u8221X y problemas ms complejos, entre}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ellos la m
ayora de los que podramos denominar como creativos.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {3
.}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Problemas de induccin:}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 { se proporciona algn material, ejemplos o elementos y se}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {debe \uc1\u8220Xintentar encontrar un principio general o estructura
que sea consistente con ese}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {material\uc1\u8221X\uc1\
u8211Xo informacin dada\uc1\u8211X\uc1\u8221X (Greeno & Simon, 1988, p. 639). Los
problemas de induccin}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {presentan un espacio del proble
ma doble: el espacio de los datos (informacin proporcionada) y}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {el espacio de las estructuras posibles, tales como reglas, principios o
patrones de relaciones. El}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema consiste en busc
ar dentro del espacio de estructuras una que satisfaga el criterio de}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {correspondencia con la informacin dada. Imaginemos a un estudian
te de nuestro idioma al que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {se le da una informacin co
mo: la casa, el perro, la cepa y el cuello, y despus le pedimos que}\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {coloque el artculo delante de las palabras: ___boca, ___mesa, ___pa
to, y ___pico. El estudiante}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {debe descubrir el princi
pio de concordancia o relacin entre \uc1\u8220Xel\uc1\u8221X y las palabras termi
nadas en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8220Xo\uc1\u8221X, y \uc1\u8220Xla\uc1
\u8221X y las terminadas en \uc1\u8220Xa\uc1\u8221X. La investigacin cientfica, la
adquisicin de conceptos o del}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lenguaje y los problema
s de diagnstico en el mbito de la clnica son tareas de este tipo.}\par\pard\li1373\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1680\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {4.}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Problemas de evaluacin

de argumentos deductivos:}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {son probablemente


el tipo de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas ms familiar por razones culturale
s; algunas creencias identifican el pensamiento y el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
razonamiento con la deduccin, la silogstica o la lgica formal. A diferencia de los
problemas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de induccin, en los que es necesario descubr
ir un principio o regla y despus aplicarlo, en las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tar
eas de deduccin se necesita aplicar un principio o estructura de argumentacin}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {supuestamente conocida: Todos los hombres son mortales, J
uan es hombre, luego\uc1\u8230X Es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {necesario conocer
un principio muy elemental como el \uc1\u8220Xmodus ponens\uc1\u8221X para obten
er la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-506\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conclusin (p
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u10132X}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {q, y p, lu
ego q).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-240
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Observemos que en la clasificacin anterior s
e recogen las formas de pensamiento}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fundamentales (de
duccin, induccin y creatividad) o las actividades cognitivas humanamente}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {ms importantes (Johnson-Laird, 1993) como ya indicbamos. Subraye
mos adems que entre los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas bien especificados o
de transformacin y de diseo/ordenacin se seala la separacin}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {entre problemas bien y mal definidos, separacin que pone de manifiesto la}{ }\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {naturaleza continua}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{de la actividad de pensar.}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Esta continuidad p
one de manifiesto demandas de solucin de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas cua
litativamente distintas frente a problema donde la meta es precisa en comparacin}
\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\mar
gtsxn666\margbsxn320\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {22 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {con problemas donde no lo es. En el primer caso, puede bastar una
simple combinacin de los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {elementos de la situacin-prob
lemas (esferas y monstruos), mientras que en el segundo caso, se}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {necesita una actividad intelectual elaborada y creativa (escribir un
libro). El pensamiento}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {creativo es una actividad dir
igida a la solucin de problemas mal definidos, es decir, toda}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {actividad encaminada a resolver situaciones en las que alguna parte o as
pectos no estn claros,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {son ambiguos o borrosos. Entend
ida as la actividad creativa, podemos considerarla una parte}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {muy importante de ese continuo del pensamiento o solucin de problemas (Vos
s & Means,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1989). Anteriormente, sealbamos que la activ
idad de solucin de problemas depende muchas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f

s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {veces de e


lecciones o decisiones acertadas, de buscar (o inventar) vas de solucin que}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {normalmente son fruto de una considerable creatividad. Ms a
delante volveremos sobre esta}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {idea.}\par\pard\li1373\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {La estructura y tipos de problemas nos ayudan a comprender lo que ms
nos importa}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aqu: el proceso de solucin de problemas y l
a forma de conseguir que sea ms eficiente. Para}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lograr
este objetivo debemos detenernos ahora brevemente en las}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\i {fases o etapas en la solucin}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {de un pr
oblema,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con el propsito, no de realizar ejerci
cios clasificatorios, sino de utilizar estas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ideas co
mo esquema en la descripcin de la actividad de solucin de problemas.}\par\pard\li1
373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {Desde el trabajo de introspeccin sobre personas creativas, realiz
ado por Wallas (1926,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {citado por Medin & Ross, 1992)
se acostumbra a utilizar las fases propuestas por l en solucin}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {de problemas, con alguna modificacin:}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {la
fase de preparacin,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {la}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\i {fase de produccin,}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { y}\fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\i { la fase}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {de verificacin.}\i0
{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En la fase de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {p
reparacin,}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { el que resuelve un problema se famili
ariza con l e}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {intentan comprender su naturaleza. Esta
fase es esencial porque la solucin de un problema no es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{posible sin su comprensin. En la fase de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {produ
ccin}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { se intenta lograr o descubrir vas de}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {solucin satisfactorias. Con problemas mal definidos (problema
s de diseo u ordenacin, segn}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Greeno y Simon), la persona
puede entrar en una fase de aparente improductividad, durante la}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {cual se est dedicando a otras actividades, por ejemplo descansar, pe
ro su mente sigue con el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema. Esta fase recibe e
l nombre de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { incubacin.}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {Con posterioridad a la incubacin, en esta}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {clas
e de problemas, las posibles soluciones parecen conseguirse de manera sbita, de u
n modo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {espontneo. Aqu, la fase de produccin recibe el no
mbre de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {iluminacin o insight.}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {En la fase de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {verificacin}\i0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { se evalan las diferentes vas de solucin alcanzadas en la fa
se de produccin.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666
\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn440\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \f

s20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 23}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-2


13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li137
3\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El proceso de solucin de problem
as en s (sus diferentes fases o etapas) puede ser}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cons
iderado como}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {una actividad de planificacin de la
solucin.}\i0 { }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En general, la planificacin de}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {la resolucin de un problema incluye la identificacin y compre
nsin del problema, la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {exploracin de posibles soluciones
, la seleccin y aplicacin de las ms idneas y la valoracin}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
de los resultados o logros. Bransford & Stein (1984/1986) proponen estos cinco c
omponentes}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {como un mtodo de gran ayuda al adquirir ms c
onciencia sobre el propio proceso de solucin}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de proble
mas. Una mayor conciencia de lo que conocemos y de lo que ignoramos (un mayor}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {metaconocimiento) contribuye sustancialmente a la efica
cia en la actividad de solucin de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas. La planif
icacin de esta actividad es, pues, enormemente til. Bransford & Stein}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {(1984/1986) nos ofrecen un mtodo de planificacin para la solucin de
problemas que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {denominan el mtodo IDEAL, no, como nos s
ealan, porque sea \uc1\u8220Xperfecto\uc1\u8221X, sino porque nos}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {ayuda a identificar y reconocer las distintas partes o elementos que
se deben de considerar a la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hora de resolver un prob
lema. Estos elementos son:}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {I}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {dentificacin del problema,}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {D}\b0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {efinicin y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx3680\*\tx7440\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{representacin del problema,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {E}\b0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {xploracin de posibles estrategias,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\b {A}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ctuacin guiada por las}\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {estrategias, y}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {L}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {ogros o evaluacin de los resultados de nuestra actuacin.}\par\pard\li1
373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {Bransford y Stein llaman la atencin, y con razn, sobre la omisin de
fase de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {identificacin de problemas en la mayora de los
programas y cursos sobre solucin de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas . El re
conocimiento, deteccin o identificacin de un problema puede ser tan decisivo}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en una empresa que permita pasar de la obtencin de cuantios
as prdidas al logro de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx6733\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sustanciosos beneficio
s. \uc1\u8220XEn su libro}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Getting Things Done,}
\i0 \tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Bliss analiza las experiencias de}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {Marks & Spencer, una prspera cadena de tiendas minoritarias del
Reino Unido. Los miembros}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de esa organizacin descubri

eron un problema que estaba exigiendo un papeleo excesivo. Por}\par\pard\li653\r


i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {ejemplo, para el control de inventario, la compaa utilizaba un sistema c
onsistente en ir}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cubriendo fichas relativas a las mer
cancas vendidas; cada ao se cubran ms de un milln de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tales
fichas. Anlogamente, cada empleado tena que cubrir diariamente una ficha que haca}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {constar el nmero de horas que haba trabajado; ello supo
na, nuevamente, otro milln de fichas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {anuales. Al ao de s
er descubierto el problema del excesivo papeleo, se habran suprimido 26}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {millones de fichas y hojas de papel, unas 120 toneladas\uc1\u8
221X (Bransford y Stein, 1984/1986, p. 14).}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn1
1893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {24 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El da en que alguien \
uc1\u8220Xidentifique los puntos innecesarios\uc1\u8221X de la maquinaria burocrt
ica del}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estado, deberamos hacer algo ms que erigirle un
monumento.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {No es necesario recurrir a ms ejemplos p
ara convencerse de la importancia que tiene la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {identi
ficacin o reconocimiento de un problema. Sin embargo, paradjicamente, no ha recibi
do}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una atencin especial, como los mismos Bransford y S
tein nos apuntaban. Una explicacin se}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {encuentra en el
hecho de que este paso en la planificacin de la solucin de un problema es el}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ms creativo, el que requiere una mayor imaginacin e inventiv
a. Todos sabemos que son menos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {frecuentes las buenas
preguntas que las buenas respuestas. Al fin y al cabo, identificar un}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {problema no es otra cosa que descubrirlo o inventarlo. Como suc
ede con el pensamiento creativo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en general es muy difc
il conseguir algo ms que una conciencia cada vez mayor de su}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {importancia. Las iniciativas de estimulacin y mejora del mismo han fracasa
do en muchas ms}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ocasiones que otras iniciativas ms mode
stas. A pesar de esto, muchos programas para la mejora}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{del pensamiento insisten en que su objetivo fundamental es estimular el pensam
iento creativo.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {De los diferentes momentos que se p
ueden considerar en la compleja actividad de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {solucin d
e problemas, hay dos en los que quizs recaiga el peso mayor de todo el proceso, l
os}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {momentos en los que nos centramos en la}{ }\fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {comprensin}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { del problema
y los que dedicamos a}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65

3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {buscar}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars


calex100 { vas de solucin o de estrategias de enfrentamiento al problema. En reali
dad, en la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {comprensin del problema es donde tiene luga
r toda la actividad que la sigue, hasta alcanzar la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s
olucin del mismo. Dado lo representativo de estos dos momentos o fases, pasemos a
hora a}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {considerar los factores que ayudan en la compr
ensin y solucin de problemas. Los primeros}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tienen que v
er fundamentalmente con la}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { representacin del probl
ema,}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { y los segundos con las}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\i {estrategias de solucin.}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {2. COM
PRENSIN DE UN PROBLEMA.}\b0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Sealbamos al comienzo de e
ste trabajo que conocimiento y comprensin son trminos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {i
ntercambiables. Sobre la comprensin, pues, podemos decir que tiene lugar cuando n
os}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {representamos la realidad. La construccin de la rea
lidad, la interpretacin de la misma a partir}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de nuestr
o conocimiento es lo que hace posible que se d la comprensin. El conocimiento, o l
a}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {comprensin, se logra cuando somos capaces de interpr
etar la realidad. Pero esto se realiza a}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn1189
3\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn666\pard\li6253\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 25}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {partir de
algo, a partir del conocimiento existente. Nos representamos la realidad a part
ir de otras}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {representaciones disponibles en nuestra m
emoria. Conocemos la realidad o adquirimos nuevos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con
ocimientos a partir de los ya existentes. Y esto tiene lugar cuando interpretamo
s la realidad,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dando lugar a una representacin de la m
isma. \uc1\u8220XParece claro que el aspecto principal de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {comprensin es la interpretacin de lo que ha de comprenderse en funcin de lo
que ya se}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conoce\uc1\u8221X (Sanford, 1987, p. 26-27
). \uc1\u8220XComprensin consiste en la construccin de modelos que}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {puedan relacionarse con el mundo\uc1\u8221X (Johnson-Laird, 1993, p.
55). Cuando la informacin que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {entra en el sistema se
interpreta a partir de otra que existe dentro de l, da como resultado una}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {representacin o modelo de esa informacin que se incorpora a la
s que ya existen en nuestra}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mente.}\par\pard\li1373\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {Qu condiciones son necesarias para que se d una buena comprensin? Qu hace q

ue}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {elaboremos o construyamos una buena representacin d
e la realidad? En nuestro caso, qu}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {quiere decir compren
der un problema? Quiere decir, como sealbamos antes al hablar del}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {fracaso en la comprensin, que: a) tiene que darse una buena recepcin (a
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que disponerse (recuperacin) de un conocimiento}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {relaci
onado con el problema, y c) tiene que darse una buena relacin (integracin) de ste c
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3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Vol.}\par\pard\li106\ri0\sl-24
0\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {I I}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn118
93\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-37
3\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Un espa desea ocultar un rollo de pelcula se
creta, que l ha conseguido reducir hasta 3}\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \f
s20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mm de dimetro y 55 mm de largo. Al mirar hacia su libre
ra, se fija en los dos tomos de}\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {una enciclopedia, como los de la figura 4, de arriba. Con auxilio
de una broca de 3 mm}\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {de dimetro, el espa comienza a taladrar un orificio que va en lnea recta desd
e la}\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pgina 1 del
volumen I hasta la ltima del volumen II. Supongamos que, en cada}\par\pard\li2093
\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {volumen, las cubiertas tengan co
njuntamente 5 mm de espesor, y que cada libro, sin}\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-360\s
lmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {cubierta, tenga 25 mm de grosor Tendr el orific
o longitud suficiente para alojar el rollo}\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \

fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {de pelcula en l? Qu longitud tiene el agujero? (Tomado de


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00 {La mayor parte de la gente tiene dificultadas para resolver este problema po
rque fracasa}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en la identificacin de la informacin relev
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slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
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fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pgina del volumen I se encuentra justo al otro lado, a
la derecha segn miramos el volumen, y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
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par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {izquierda y que se
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1000 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ENCICLOPEDIA}}}}
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xpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2\shpz0
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lin0\itap0\fs16\cf0\f2\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033\insrsid
2000 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ENCICLOPEDIA}}}}\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsx
n11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn400\pard\li6253\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN
27}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {at
encin,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a los que nos hemos referido anteriorme
nte. Una de las operaciones fundamentales de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la atenc
in es la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {seleccin}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ de la informacin importante y el rechazo de la que no lo es.}\par\pard\li1373\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {Volvamos al problema de los monstruos de cinco ma nos, presentado ant
eriormente. En}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {este problema, Simon & Hayes (1976) le
s peda a los sujetos que anotaran las veces que lean}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ca
da uno de los 6 prrafos. Encontraban que los sujetos tenan que releer muchas veces
el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {prrafo 3 y el 5, tres y cuatro veces ms que el rest
o de los prrafos. Como los autores mismos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nos indicaba
n, los sujetos lgicamente dedican ms tiempo a la informacin que consideran}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\i {relevante}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { y a la informacin
que no consiguen}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {memorizar.}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 { En este problema, los prrafos 3 y 5}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {son
los que contienen la informacin importante para su solucin y adems son los ms difcil
es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de recordar, porque contienen ms datos de los que p
uede almacenar la memoria a corto plazo.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Por esto, lo
s sujetos leen una y otra vez esos prrafos. Deben recordar las restricciones del}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema y lo dado, es decir, qu esferas y de qu tamao p
osee cada uno de los monstruos. En}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {este ejemplo, al d
edicar ms tiempo conseguimos que la seleccin identifique la informacin}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {relevante y ayude a su almacenamiento. Pero en el ejemplo del espa
la atencin no logra}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {identificar la informacin relevant
e a pesar del esfuerzo que se realiza. Hay muchos factores,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {desgraciadamente, que juegan en nuestra contra. Vamos a comentar algunos.
}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Intente resolver el siguiente acertijo leyndolo sol
amente una vez:}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {Imagnese que es usted revisor de trenes. En uno de los recorridos, el t
ren lleva un total}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {de 12 vagones, la capacidad de cada vagn es de 47 pasajeros. En el origen, los
}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pasajeros del t
ren son 356. En la primera parada suben 12 pasajeros y se bajan 3. En la}\par\p
ard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {siguiente, se bajan 64
y suben 86. En las dos siguientes, en una bajan 16 y suben 23 y}\par\pard\li205
3\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {en la otra no se baja nadie y s
uben 2 personas Cul es el nombre del revisor?}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \

fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En este c


aso, el fracaso de la atencin es debido a las}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {ex
pectativas que genera el problema.}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Se}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {espera que nos pregunten por el nmero de pasajeros, no por el
nombre del conductor. Nuestro}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conocimiento nos induc
e en una determinada direccin. En este caso, el conocimiento es un}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {obstculo para la seleccin de la informacin, debido a que nos induce a
realizar una inferencias}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {o suposiciones equivocadas.}
\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La atencin, adems, puede fracasar como todos sabemos
por falta de motivacin o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desinters. Pero tambin por mied
os o temores, debido a ciertos prejuicios o falta de confianza.}\par\pard\sect\s
ectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsx
n346\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {28 Carl
os Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {B
ransford y Stein (1984/1986) pedan a estudiantes universitarios que solucionaran
problemas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {verbales de lgebra, como el siguiente:}\par\
pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dos estacio
nes de ferrocarril distan 100 km. A la una del medioda del domingo arranca}\par\p
ard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {de cada una de las est
aciones un tren, cada uno de los cuales se dirige hacia la otra. En}\par\pard\li
2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {el instante en que los trene
s arrancan, un halcn echa a volar en el sentido de la marcha}\par\pard\li2053\ri0
\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {del primer tren, hasta la mquina del
segundo tren. Cuando el halcn alcanza el segundo}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tren da media vuelta y vuela en direccin al prime
ro. El halcn prosigue de igual modo}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {hasta que los trenes se cruzan. Supongamos que ambos trenes v
iajen a la velocidad de}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {50 km/h., y que el halcn vuele a velocidad constante de 200 km/h. Cuando
los trenes se}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {cr
ucen cuntos km. habr recorrido el halcn?}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Se les peda que a
notaran sus pensamientos y sentimientos nada ms ver el problema que deban}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {responder. Los comentarios eran del tipo \uc1\u8220XVaya un pr
oblema de matemticas!\uc1\u8221X, \uc1\u8220XVoy a parecer}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {idiota! \uc1\u8230X\uc1\u8221X. Alguna gente padece lo que podramos denominar
cariosamente como \uc1\u8220Xalergia a los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nmeros\uc1\
u8221X. Siempre que se enfrentan a problemas de esta naturaleza, experimentan un
bloqueo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {intelectual injustificado en bastantes ocasi
ones. Esta ansiedad e incomodidad producida por esta}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
clase de situacin impide que la atencin sea eficiente, entre otras cosas, porque}{
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {se divide}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ent
re}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la tarea de matemticas y la necesidad de manejar y
controlar la ansiedad. Este reparto de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs

18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {atencin o de


las capacidades termina produciendo un rendimiento intelectual muy pobre.}\par\
pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Leamos el siguiente prrafo tomado de un texto de estadstic
a:}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc
1\u8220XPor definicin llamaremos funcin generatriz de momentos de la variable alea
toria X (o,}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mejo
r, de la funcin de probabilidad o de la funcin de densidad de probabilidad de la}\
par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {variable aleatori
a X) a E (e}\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tX}\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {). El nom
bre se debe a que sus derivadas primera, segunda,}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\sl
mult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {tercera\uc1\u8230X respecto a t (para t = 0) s
on iguales a los momentos respecto al origen de}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmu
lt0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {primero, segundo, tercer \uc1\u8230X orden respe
ctivamente\uc1\u8221X.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Para muchas personas, la impos
ibilidad de comprender este texto descansa en lo que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
normalmente entendemos por carecer de base. Segn la descripcin que hicimos con}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\t
x8453\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {anterioridad de la comprensin, ste sera un caso de
fracaso de los}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mecanismos de}\i0 \par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i {disponibilidad.}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Recordemos qu
e esto sucede cuando la persona es incapaz de recuperar desde su}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {memoria a largo plazo los conocimientos necesarios (relevantes) para
interpretar adecuadamente}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx7080\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la informacin que
est siendo analizada. El fracaso en los}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mecani
smos de recuperacin}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {imposibilita la comprensin, al
no disponer de un conocimiento de contexto que permita la}\par\pard\sect\sectd\s
bkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn373\p
ard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO
E INSTRUCCIN 29}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {interpretacin de la informacin que se pretende comprender. Bajo esta situa
cin, no se logra}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una representacin de dicha informacin,
esto es, no se comprende. En la definicin de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u
8220Xfuncin generatriz\uc1\u8221X de antes, en realidad no hay una dificultad de
recuperacin porque no hay}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nada que recuperar, no exist
e un conocimiento sobre ciertos conceptos de estadstica que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {permitan la comprensin de dicha funcin. Pero la situacin en esencia es idntica
, no se dispone}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de los conocimientos mnimos ( no hay
una base) para comprender ese concepto, porque no se}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
\uc1\u8220Xsaben\uc1\u8221X o porque uno no se \uc1\u8220Xacuerda\uc1\u8221X.}\p
ar\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una situacin difcil de ilustrar es aquella en la que fr
acasa la comprensin por el fracaso}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1360\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de los}\ta
b \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mecanismos de activacin o integracin.}\i0 { }\fs22

\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Como tambin indicbamos con anterioridad,}\par\pard\li653\ri


0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {an disponiendo de un conocimiento de contexto, es posible que no se logr
e la comprensin al}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {no establecerse las relaciones nece
sarias en toda integracin de informacin. En este caso, es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {posible que no se hayan desarrollado las habilidades o estrategias requeridas
, por ejemplo,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {descubrir o inducir un determinado pri
ncipio o una cierta relacin dentro de la informacin que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{se est comprendiendo.}\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1
013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\b \i {B. La importancia de una buena representacin}\b0 \i0 \par\pa
rd\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La identificacin de la informacin esencial en un problema es
uno de los condicionantes}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fundamentales de la compre
nsin. Los mecanismos de atencin son los mximos responsables}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {de tal identificacin. Pero estos necesitan de la participacin de otros para lo
grar la comprensin}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de cualquier problema. Los mecanism
os de recuperacin o de integracin contribuyen de un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mod
o esencial a que la comprensin se d. La pregunta que nos podemos hacer en este pun
to es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Cmo mejorar la comprensin? Qu hacer para conseguir i
dentificar la informacin esencial}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de un problema? Una
manera sencilla y muchas veces olvidada es representar lo dado en un}\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {problema de un modo formal, simblico o grfico. Utilizar un papel y
un lpiz para}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {representar}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100\i {un problema}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { siempre proporciona clar
idad porque libera a la memoria al no tener que retener la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {informacin slo mentalmente. No vamos a ocuparnos ahora de intentar convencer
a nadie de lo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que es obvio, que representar un probl
ema de algn modo es til porque proporciona claridad.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Po
r el contrario, vamos a tratar a continuacin de las}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{ diferentes formas de representacin}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y de la}\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {manera de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {elegir la ms
adecuada.}\i0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\
margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn413\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {30 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-333\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Para empezar, volvamos al problema de los monst
ruos de cinco manos y a los datos de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Simon & Hayes (1
976). Estos autores encontraban que ms de la mitad de las personas que}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {resolvan el problema utilizaban espontneamente}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\i {matrices}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { para representar el pro

blema. Una}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26


6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {matriz o tabla de doble o mltiple entrada r
ecoge con toda claridad el tamao de los monstruos y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la
esfera que posee cada uno. Adems, permite \uc1\u8220Xmover\uc1\u8221X las esfera
s de un modo muy eficiente,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de manera que rpidamente s
e descubre la secuencia de movimientos mnimos hasta lograr la}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {solucin. Una matriz como la de la tabla 1, comentada con anterioridad, pr
oporciona dicha}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {facilitacin de la solucin.}\par\pard\li
1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {Utilicemos ahora un problema algo ms difcil: el \uc1\u8220Xproble
ma del monje budista\uc1\u8221X (De Karl}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Duncker, cit
ado por Glass & Holyoak, 1986). Intente resolver el problema, antes de continuar
:}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-386\slmul
t0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Una maana, exactamente al amanecer, un monje budis
ta emprendi la ascensin de}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {una elevada montaa. El camino, un sendero de no ms de medio metro de anch
o, daba}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {vueltas
y revueltas en torno a la montaa, hasta un templo resplandeciente que haba en}\par
\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {la cima. El monje fu
e subiendo con velocidad variable, detenindose muchas veces a}\par\pard\li2053\ri
0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {descansar y a comer frutos secos qu
e llevaba consigo. Alcanz el templo poco antes de}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slm
ult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {la puesta del sol. Tras varios das de ayuno y me
ditacin, emprendi el viaje de regreso}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {por el mismo sendero, partiendo al amanecer, caminando nueva
mente con velocidad}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {variable y haciendo muchas pausas a lo largo del camino. Su velocidad media
en el}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {descenso f
ue, como era de esperar, mayor que la velocidad media en el ascenso.}\par\pard\l
i2093\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Demustrese que hay un punto
del camino por el que el monje pasa exactamente a la}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360
\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {misma hora del da en ambos recorridos.}\par\
pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Las persona
s que intentan resolver el problema verbalmente o algebraicamente no lo}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {consiguen , como sealan}{ }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Glass &
Holyoak (1986).}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Koestler (1964), un estudioso de
la creatividad,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {disfrutaba atormentando a sus amigos
con el problema del monje budista. Una de las amigas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{utiliz un modo de representarse el problema que su anfitrin nos relata:}\par\pard
\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Intentaba resol
ver el problema de una y otra forma, hasta sacarme de quicio, pero de}\par\pard\
li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {repente la imagen del monj
e con su hbito azafranado subiendo a la cima se impona en}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mi mente. Entonces, en ese momento, sorp
rendida por la imagen, veo otro monje, ms}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs
20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {transparente, descendiendo de la cima, y de sbito caigo
que las dos figuras deben}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {encontrarse en algn punto, independientemente de la velocidad a la que
ellas anden y}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {de
los altos que realicen en el camino. Por lo que ya conoca la respuesta: si el mo

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{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5226\shptop8306\shpright5320\shpbottom8386\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2099\shpz5\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,40);(106,80);(66,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5280\shptop8346\shpright5400\shpbottom8440\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(120,66);(120,106);(80,106);(0,40);(0,
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5360\shptop8400\shpright5466\shpbottom8480\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,40);(106,80);(66,80);(0,40);(0,0)
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5426\shptop8440\shpright5520\shpbottom8546\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 106}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,66);(106,106);(66,106);(0,40);(0,
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5480\shptop8506\shpright5560\shpbottom8586\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5520\shptop8560\shpright5586\shpbottom8560\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}


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{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(66,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}
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{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5546\shptop8546\shpright5600\shpbottom8626\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(66,40);(66,80);(26,80);(0,40);(0,0);(
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5560\shptop8586\shpright5680\shpbottom8706\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(120,80);(120,120);(80,120);(0,40);(0,
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5640\shptop8666\shpright5746\shpbottom8760\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5746\shptop8800\shpright5800\shpbottom8800\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(66,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
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{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}

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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,80);(80,120);(40,120);(0,40);(0,0)
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,80);(106,120);(66,120);(0,40);(0,
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,40);(80,80);(40,80);(0,40);(0,0);(
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45


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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6066\shptop9240\shpright6120\shpbottom9346\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6080\shptop9306\shpright6146\shpbottom9426\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}


{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(66,80);(66,120);(26,120);(0,40);(0,0)
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{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6120\shptop9386\shpright6120\shpbottom9440\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2119\shpz25\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,66);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6120\shptop9400\shpright6120\shpbottom9466\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2120\shpz25\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,66);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6106\shptop9426\shpright6160\shpbottom9506\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2121\shpz26\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(66,40);(66,80);(26,80);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6120\shptop9466\shpright6186\shpbottom9520\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2122\shpz27\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(66,26);(66,66);(26,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6146\shptop9480\shpright6200\shpbottom9546\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2123\shpz28\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(66,26);(66,66);(26,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6160\shptop9506\shpright6240\shpbottom9586\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2124\shpz29\shpbxpage\shpbypage

{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,40);(80,80);(40,80);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6200\shptop9546\shpright6306\shpbottom9626\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2125\shpz30\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,40);(106,80);(66,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6266\shptop9586\shpright6386\shpbottom9666\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2126\shpz31\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(120,40);(120,80);(80,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}

{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}


{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6346\shptop9626\shpright6466\shpbottom9706\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2127\shpz32\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(120,40);(120,80);(80,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6426\shptop9666\shpright6506\shpbottom9720\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,26);(80,66);(40,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6466\shptop9680\shpright6560\shpbottom9746\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2129\shpz34\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,26);(106,66);(66,66);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6520\shptop9706\shpright6666\shpbottom9760\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2130\shpz35\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 146}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(146,26);(146,66);(106,66);(0,40);(0,0
);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6626\shptop9720\shpright6746\shpbottom9800\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(120,40);(120,80);(80,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6706\shptop9760\shpright6786\shpbottom9826\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,26);(80,66);(40,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}

{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}


{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6746\shptop9786\shpright6866\shpbottom9840\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2133\shpz38\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(120,26);(120,66);(80,66);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6826\shptop9800\shpright6920\shpbottom9880\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2134\shpz39\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,40);(106,80);(66,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6880\shptop9840\shpright7000\shpbottom9906\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(120,26);(120,66);(80,66);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}

{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45


824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6960\shptop9866\shpright7040\shpbottom9920\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,26);(80,66);(40,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7000\shptop9906\shpright7066\shpbottom9906\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(66,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7026\shptop9880\shpright7106\shpbottom9946\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2138\shpz43\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}

{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}


{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,26);(80,66);(40,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7066\shptop9906\shpright7226\shpbottom9960\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2139\shpz44\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 160}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(160,26);(160,66);(120,66);(0,40);(0,0
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{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7186\shptop9946\shpright7306\shpbottom9946\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 160}}
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}


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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8346\shptop10560\shpright8346\shpbottom10640\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,80);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8320\shptop10600\shpright8386\shpbottom10666\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2161\shpz62\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(66,26);(66,66);(26,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8346\shptop10626\shpright8440\shpbottom10706\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2162\shpz63\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,40);(106,80);(66,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8400\shptop10666\shpright8506\shpbottom10746\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2163\shpz64\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,40);(106,80);(66,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8466\shptop10706\shpright8560\shpbottom10760\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2164\shpz65\shpbxpage\shpbypage

{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,26);(106,66);(66,66);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8520\shptop10720\shpright8626\shpbottom10786\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2165\shpz66\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,26);(106,66);(66,66);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8586\shptop10746\shpright8666\shpbottom10800\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2166\shpz67\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,26);(80,66);(40,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}

{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}


{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8626\shptop10760\shpright8720\shpbottom10840\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2167\shpz68\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,40);(106,80);(66,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8680\shptop10800\shpright8800\shpbottom10880\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2168\shpz69\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(120,40);(120,80);(80,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8760\shptop10840\shpright8880\shpbottom10920\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2169\shpz70\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(120,40);(120,80);(80,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8840\shptop10880\shpright8906\shpbottom10946\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2170\shpz71\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(66,26);(66,66);(26,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8880\shptop10906\shpright8880\shpbottom10960\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2171\shpz72\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,66);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8866\shptop10920\shpright8920\shpbottom10986\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2172\shpz73\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(66,26);(66,66);(26,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}

{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}


{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8880\shptop10946\shpright8986\shpbottom11026\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2173\shpz74\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,40);(106,80);(66,80);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8946\shptop10986\shpright9000\shpbottom11080\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2174\shpz75\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(66,66);(66,106);(26,106);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft8960\shptop11040\shpright9040\shpbottom11120\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2175\shpz76\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,40);(80,80);(40,80);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}

{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45


824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft9000\shptop11080\shpright9066\shpbottom11146\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2176\shpz77\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(66,26);(66,66);(26,66);(0,40);(0,0);(
0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft9026\shptop11106\shpright9106\shpbottom11200\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2177\shpz78\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,66);(80,106);(40,106);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft9066\shptop11160\shpright9160\shpbottom11280\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2178\shpz79\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 120}}

{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}


{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,80);(106,120);(66,120);(0,40);(0,
0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft9146\shptop11240\shpright9146\shpbottom11306\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2179\shpz80\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,66);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft9120\shptop11266\shpright9226\shpbottom11360\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2180\shpz81\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,66);(106,106);(66,106);(0,40);(0,
0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft9186\shptop11320\shpright9306\shpbottom11506\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2181\shpz82\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 186}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(120,146);(120,186);(80,186);(0,40);(0
,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft9266\shptop11466\shpright9360\shpbottom11600\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2182\shpz83\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 134}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,106);(106,146);(66,146);(0,40);(0
,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft9320\shptop11560\shpright9426\shpbottom11706\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2183\shpz84\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 146}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(106,106);(106,146);(66,146);(0,40);(0
,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft9386\shptop11666\shpright9466\shpbottom11760\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2184\shpz85\shpbxpage\shpbypage

{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(0,0);(40,0);(80,66);(80,106);(40,106);(0,40);(0,0)
;(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6026\shptop11826\shpright6080\shpbottom11946\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2185\shpz86\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(26,0);(66,0);(66,40);(40,120);(0,120);(0,80);(26,0
);(26,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6040\shptop11720\shpright6106\shpbottom11866\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2186\shpz87\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 146}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(26,0);(66,0);(66,40);(40,146);(0,146);(0,106);(26,
0);(26,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}

{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}


{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6066\shptop11600\shpright6120\shpbottom11760\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2187\shpz88\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 160}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(26,0);(66,0);(66,40);(40,160);(0,160);(0,120);(26,
0);(26,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6106\shptop11506\shpright6106\shpbottom11640\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2188\shpz89\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 134}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,146);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6106\shptop11466\shpright6106\shpbottom11546\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2189\shpz89\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,80);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6106\shptop11440\shpright6106\shpbottom11506\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2190\shpz89\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,66);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6080\shptop11400\shpright6146\shpbottom11480\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2191\shpz90\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(26,0);(66,0);(66,40);(40,80);(0,80);(0,40);(26,0);
(26,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6106\shptop11320\shpright6186\shpbottom11440\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2192\shpz91\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,120);(0,120);(0,80);(40,0
);(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}

{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}


{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6146\shptop11306\shpright6200\shpbottom11360\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2193\shpz92\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(26,0);(66,0);(66,40);(40,66);(0,66);(0,26);(26,0);
(26,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6160\shptop11240\shpright6226\shpbottom11346\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2194\shpz93\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(26,0);(66,0);(66,40);(40,106);(0,106);(0,66);(26,0
);(26,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6186\shptop11186\shpright6266\shpbottom11280\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2195\shpz94\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,106);(0,106);(0,66);(40,0
);(40,0);}}

{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45


824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6226\shptop11106\shpright6306\shpbottom11226\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2196\shpz95\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,120);(0,120);(0,80);(40,0
);(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6266\shptop11040\shpright6360\shpbottom11146\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2197\shpz96\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(66,0);(106,0);(106,40);(40,106);(0,106);(0,66);(66
,0);(66,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6320\shptop11026\shpright6386\shpbottom11080\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2198\shpz97\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}

{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}


{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(26,0);(66,0);(66,40);(40,66);(0,66);(0,26);(26,0);
(26,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6346\shptop10960\shpright6426\shpbottom11066\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2199\shpz98\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,106);(0,106);(0,66);(40,0
);(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6386\shptop10840\shpright6546\shpbottom11000\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2200\shpz99\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 160}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 160}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(120,0);(160,0);(160,40);(40,160);(0,160);(0,120);(
120,0);(120,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6506\shptop10746\shpright6666\shpbottom10880\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2201\shpz100\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 160}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 134}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(120,0);(160,0);(160,40);(40,146);(0,146);(0,106);(
120,0);(120,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6626\shptop10666\shpright6760\shpbottom10786\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2202\shpz101\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 134}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(106,0);(146,0);(146,40);(40,120);(0,120);(0,80);(1
06,0);(106,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6720\shptop10640\shpright6840\shpbottom10706\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2203\shpz102\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(80,0);(120,0);(120,40);(40,66);(0,66);(0,26);(80,0
);(80,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6800\shptop10626\shpright6906\shpbottom10680\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2204\shpz103\shpbxpage\shpbypage

{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(66,0);(106,0);(106,40);(40,66);(0,66);(0,26);(66,0
);(66,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6866\shptop10600\shpright6946\shpbottom10666\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2205\shpz104\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,66);(0,66);(0,26);(40,0);
(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6906\shptop10560\shpright7026\shpbottom10640\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2206\shpz105\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(80,0);(120,0);(120,40);(40,80);(0,80);(0,40);(80,0
);(80,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}

{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}


{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6986\shptop10546\shpright7066\shpbottom10600\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2207\shpz106\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,66);(0,66);(0,26);(40,0);
(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7026\shptop10506\shpright7106\shpbottom10586\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2208\shpz107\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,80);(0,80);(0,40);(40,0);
(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7066\shptop10466\shpright7186\shpbottom10546\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2209\shpz108\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(80,0);(120,0);(120,40);(40,80);(0,80);(0,40);(80,0
);(80,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7146\shptop10440\shpright7200\shpbottom10506\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2210\shpz109\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(26,0);(66,0);(66,40);(40,66);(0,66);(0,26);(26,0);
(26,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7160\shptop10400\shpright7240\shpbottom10480\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2211\shpz110\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,80);(0,80);(0,40);(40,0);
(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7200\shptop10426\shpright7266\shpbottom10426\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2212\shpz111\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 66}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(66,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25400}}

{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7226\shptop10360\shpright7280\shpbottom10440\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2213\shpz112\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 54}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(26,0);(66,0);(66,40);(40,80);(0,80);(0,40);(26,0);
(26,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7240\shptop10280\shpright7360\shpbottom10400\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2214\shpz113\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(80,0);(120,0);(120,40);(40,120);(0,120);(0,80);(80
,0);(80,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7320\shptop10186\shpright7426\shpbottom10320\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2215\shpz114\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 134}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(66,0);(106,0);(106,40);(40,146);(0,146);(0,106);(6
6,0);(66,0);}}

{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45


824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7386\shptop10120\shpright7466\shpbottom10226\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2216\shpz115\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 106}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,106);(0,106);(0,66);(40,0
);(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7426\shptop10066\shpright7506\shpbottom10160\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2217\shpz116\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,106);(0,106);(0,66);(40,0
);(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7466\shptop10026\shpright7546\shpbottom10106\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2218\shpz117\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}}

{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}


{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,80);(0,80);(0,40);(40,0);
(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7506\shptop9920\shpright7600\shpbottom10066\shpfhdr0\shp
wr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2219\shpz118\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 94}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 146}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(66,0);(106,0);(106,40);(40,146);(0,146);(0,106);(6
6,0);(66,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7560\shptop9840\shpright7640\shpbottom9960\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2220\shpz119\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 80}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 120}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;8;(40,0);(80,0);(80,40);(40,120);(0,120);(0,80);(40,0
);(40,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;18;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7600\shptop9786\shpright7680\shpbottom9880\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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3\margtsxn666\margbsxn360\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li62
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 31}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-33
3\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {desciende dos o tres das despus, baja por el
mismo sitio de modo que, si el descenso}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs
20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {lo hiciera el mismo da otro monje, se vera claramente el
lugar del cruce (p. 184).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs22\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {Koestler comentaba que la imagen visual tiene la ventaja de
carecer de lmites, de todo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx4813\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tipo de barreras,
de poder ser}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {irracional.}\i0 \tab \fs22\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {Pero a la vez posee la gran virtud de ser concreta y}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {tangible. En la figura 5 se ofrece una representacin grfica del pro
blema, en la que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {inequvocamente se ve que siempre hay
un punto por el que pasar a la misma hora, con}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {indepen
dencia de la velocidad de ascenso o descenso del monje. Si trazramos otras dos lne
as}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que representen otros dos recorridos distintos, ap

reciaramos de nuevo que hay un punto por el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f


s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que el mon
je pasar a la misma hora. La}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {imagen visual o rep
resentacin grfica}\i0 { }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es enormemente}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {adecuada para determinado tipo de problemas. La peculiaridad que po
see la imagen o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {representacin visual de poder escapars
e a toda restriccin y, al mismo tiempo, ser inmediata y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{directa, la hace ser enormemente til para problemas mal definidos o problemas d
e \uc1\u8220Xinsight\uc1\u8221X.}\par\pard\li3600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li3600\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3600\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \
fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {2000}\par\pard\li3493\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li3493\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3493\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li3493\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3493\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3493\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{1500}\par\pard\li2573\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2573\ri0\sl-360\s
lmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ALTITUD}\par\pard\li3613\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3613\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3613\ri0\sl-320
\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {500}\par\pard\li6240\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li6240\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {el mismo
lugar y}\par\pard\li6320\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {a la m
isma hora}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margr
sxn133\cols5\colno1\colw5120\colsr-0\colno2\colw1173\colsr-0\colno3\colw1106\col
sr-0\colno4\colw1133\colsr-0\colno5\colw2560\pard\li3773\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li3773\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3773\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3773\ri0\sl-320\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {0
}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-306\s
lmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {6:00}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {9:00}\
par\pard\li186\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li186\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \f
s20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {HORAS}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {15:00}\par\col
umn\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \f
s20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {18:00}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn1
6840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li3853\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i3853\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3853\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \*\tx4773\
fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Figura 5.}\i0 \tab \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Solu
cin grfica al problema del monje budista.}\par\pard\li4773\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs2
0\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(Adaptado de Glass y Holyoak, 1986).}\par\pard\li1373\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {Intente resolver la lectora/lector el problema de las moneda
s (basado en Keren, 1984), un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema que puede repr
esentarse de varias formas.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840
\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn666\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \
fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {32 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053
\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Se distribuyen tres monedas entr
e dos nios segn el siguiente procedimiento: Se baraja}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {bien un mazo de 52 cartas, 26 rojas y 26 neg

ras, y se descubre una al azar. Si la carta}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0


\fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {es negra, Claudio obtiene una moneda; si sale roja,
es Puri quien la logra. Se introduce}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {la carta nuevamente en el mazo y se vuelve a barajar; la se
gunda moneda se asigna}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {segn la misma regla (negra para Claudio, roja para Puri). De nuevo, se int
roduce la}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {carta
en el mazo y se baraja, y la tercera moneda tambin se asigna mediante la misma}\p
ar\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {regla. Especifquens
e todas las posibilidades de la forma en la que las tres monedas}\par\pard\li205
3\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {pueden distribuirse entre los d
os nios. Y a continuacin, diga cul de las siguientes es}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360
\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ms probable que ocurra:}\par\pard\li2093\ri0
\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {a.}\b0 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {Un nio lograr 3 y el otro ninguna.}\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\b {b.}\b0 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Un nio lograr 2 y el
otro 1.}\par\pard\li2093\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {c.}\b0
{ }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Las dos posibilidades (a, b) son igualmente prob
ables.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Un
a forma de resolverlo, por ejemplo, es enumerar los cuatro resultados posibles:
Claudio 3,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \*\tx9293\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Puri 0; Claudio 0, Puri 3; Clau
dio 2, Puri 1; Claudio 1, Puri 2. Sin embargo, una}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {lista}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {engaos
a porque induce a creer que todas las posibilidades son igualmente probables. Un
a forma}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mejor de representar el problema es mediante
un}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {diagrama de rbol jerrquico,}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 { en el que se usa}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una estructura semeja
nte a la de un rbol para especificar cada uno de los resultados posibles.}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {Veamos el diagrama de la figura 6.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkp
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lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\

ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\chars


calex100 {R}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-1
86\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {P}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {R}\par\pard\li0\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0
\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {P}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0
\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {N}\par\pard\li40\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li40\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li40\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{C}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl
-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {N}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {C}\par\col
umn\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li26\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {R}\par\pard\li0\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {P}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\

par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\


cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {N}\par\pard\
li40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li40\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs20\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {C}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {N}\par\pard\li40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li40
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li40\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li40\ri0\sl-200\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {C}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbk
none\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\cols6\colno1\colw3333\colsr
-0\colno2\colw906\colsr-0\colno3\colw1440\colsr-0\colno4\colw1560\colsr-0\colno5
\colw1480\colsr-0\colno6\colw2373\pard\li1240\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li1240\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Resultados}\par\pard\l
i1360\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {posibles}\par\column\pard\l
i0\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {P=3/C=0}\par\column\pard\li533
\ri0\sl-346\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {P=2/C=1}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360
\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {P=2/C=1}\par\column\pard\li680\ri0\sl-346\s
lmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {P=2/C=1}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs2
0\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {P=1/C=2}\par\column\pard\li600\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\
cf0\f1\charscalex100 {P=1/C=2}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {P=1/C=2}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {P=0/C=3}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn
666\margrsxn133\pard\li2813\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2813\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2813\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li28
13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2813\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\i {Figura 6.}\i0 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { Diagrama de rbol j
errquico para el problema de las monedas.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Pod
emos observar que de los 8 resultados posibles, 2 son de 3-0 y 6 de 2-1. Por los
tanto, el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {resultado}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b
{a}\b0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(uno nio 3 y el otro 0) del problema tiene
una probabilidad del 0.25 (2/8 = 0.25), y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {el}{ }\fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {b}\b0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (uno nio 2 y el otro
1), una probabilidad del 0.75 (6/8 = 0.75). Keren (1984) encontraba, y}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {esto es al menos ilustrativo, que de los estudiantes que real
izaban en problema correctamente, el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {40% utilizaba li
stas para representarlo y el 80% diagramas de rbol jerrquico. No debemos}\par\pard
\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\se
ctd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn
346\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {34 Carlo

s Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {co
ncluir errneamente que el tipo de representacin produce la solucin, pero s pensar qu
e}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {puede facilitar la bsqueda de vas de solucin.}\par\par
d\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {La naturaleza del problema, por consiguiente, impone qu tipo
de representacin es la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ms idnea. As, problemas de matemti
cas y geometra se resolvern mejor utilizando}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ecuaciones
, aunque no siempre, como algunos psiclogos de la Gestalt nos han mostrado}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {(Wertheimer, 1945/1991).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Mayer
(1987), paradjicamente, encontraba que algunos problemas de matemticas}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {formulados mediante ecuaciones no se resolvan mejor que si se lo
s presentaba verbalmente. La}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {gente tiende a utilizar
diferentes estrategias segn se les formule el problema (verbalmente o}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {mediante ecuaciones). Tomemos un ejemplo del autor (Mayer, 1987
, p. 363-364):}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {H
allar un nmero tal que si 8 ms ese nmero multiplicado por 3 de divide entre 2, el}\
par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {resultado es igua
l a ese nmero multiplicado por 3 menos 11.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Un forma de
resolver este problema sera efectuar cualquier operacin posible lo ms rpido que}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {podamos, como \uc1\u8220Xdividir por dos\uc1\u8221X, dan
do:}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Hallar un nme
ro tal que sea 4 ms 3/2 del nmero, es igual a ese nmero multiplicado}\par\pard\li20
53\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {por 3 menos 11.}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {Mayer denomina esta operacin de \uc1\u8220Xhaz lo que puedas ya!\uc1\
u8221X estrategia de \uc1\u8220Xreducir\uc1\u8221X. Esta}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {estrategia era utilizada por el 81% de los sujetos que resolvan problemas de
matemticas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {presentados verbalmente. Como l mismo indic
a, es posible que el formato verbal sea tan}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {farragoso
que les obligue a reducir la informacin todo lo que se pueda.}\par\pard\li1373\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {Consideremos el mismo problemas expresado mediante una ecuacin:}\par\p
ard\li1373\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {(8 + 3X)/2 = 3X \uc1\u
8211X 11.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una forma de resolver este problema es \uc1
\u8220Xmover las Xs al lado izquierdo de la ecuacin y todos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {los nmeros al derecho\uc1\u8221X. Esta forma de reorganizar los elementos d
e la ecuacin, Mayer la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {denomina estrategia de \uc1\u82
20Xaislar\uc1\u8221X, y encontraba que la utilizaban el 95% de los sujetos a los
que se}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {les presentaba el problema mediante una ecuac
in.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El resultado principal de Mayer es, pues, que la
gente prefiere recurrir a la estrategia de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \

fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u822


0Xaislar\uc1\u8221X para problemas de ecuaciones y emplear la estrategia de \uc1
\u8220Xreducir\uc1\u8221X para los problemas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {verbales
. Estos datos ilustran cmo un mismo problema, presentado de forma distinta, puede
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desencadenar estrategias de enfrentamiento diferente
s.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\
margtsxn666\margbsxn666\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 35}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-333\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Debemos por lo tanto considerar cada situacin
o problema individualmente con el fin de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {elegir de l
a representacin ms adecuada. Esta eleccin se complica todava ms si consideramos}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la lnea de trabajos que proporcionan apoyo, no a un tipo de
representacin, sino a la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {combinacin de varias. Mayer &
Anderson (1991, 1992) han obtenido datos en favor de una}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {mejor comprensin inducida por la utilizacin de representaciones verbales y vi
suales}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conjuntamente. Utilizaban descripciones verbal
es y visuales sobre el funcionamiento de las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bombas d
e bicicleta y sobre un sistema de frenos de los coches. Las condiciones que util
izaban}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eran: presentacin verbal sola, visual sola, ve
rbal y visual, y control (sin ningn tipo de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {descripcin
complementaria como visual o verbal). El dato que nos interesa aqu es que las}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pruebas de retencin no eran influidas por la utilizacin co
njunta de esas representaciones. Por el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {contrario, la
s tareas de solucin de problemas mejoraban considerablemente con dicha}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {utilizacin (Mayer & Anderson, 1992).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Segn la naturaleza del problema, unas representaciones pueden ser ms adecuadas q
ue}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {otras (matrices en el problema de los monstruos),
o pueden ser incompatibles (ecuaciones en el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema
del monje budista). Pero tambin pueden ser complementarias, como en los estudio
s}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con descripciones verbales y visuales al mismo tiem
po. Necesitamos, por consiguiente, explorar}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las posib
les formas de representacin y decidir cul va a facilitar la identificacin, en el es
pacio}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del problema, de las vas de solucin ms adecuadas.
La ayuda que proporciona un buena}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {representacin del pr
oblema para su solucin es bien patente; en algunos casos, como en el}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {problema del monje budista, la representacin produce de manera inm
ediata la solucin. No}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653

\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {obstante, esto no es lo ms frecue


nte. Una vez que hemos conseguido representar un problema}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {adecuadamente, es cuando podemos buscar soluciones posibles en el espacio d
el problema,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \*\tx8960\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {seleccionar las mejor, y probar
las. Pasemos ahora a considerar de qu forma}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {bu
scamos}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {solucionar un problema, qu}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\i {estrategias}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { utilizamos.}\par\p
ard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn6
66\margbsxn586\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{36 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\b {3. ESTRATEGIAS DE SOLUCIN DE PROBLEMAS}\b0 \par\pard\li2440\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2440\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li2440\ri0\sl-293\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {La lgica de la ciencia e
s tambin la de los negocios y la de la vida}\i0 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { \
uc1\u8211XJohn Stuart Mill.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Al describir la naturaleza del problema, decamos que las}{
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {operaciones}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (u o
peradores) son}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {acciones que transforman un estado en
otro, y que el}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {espacio}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 { del problema es el conjunto de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {operaciones q
ue se pueden aplicar en un}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {estado}\i0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 { determinado. La dificultad, por lo tanto, al}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {solucionar un problema estriba en}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {b
uscar}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { una secuencia de operaciones que nos perm
itan llegar a}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la meta desde el estado inicial;}{ }\fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {seleccionar}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { una seri
e de operaciones que}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {reduzcan la diferencia}\i0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {entre estado inicial y meta. Las}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\i {estrategias o principios}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { seguidos
para seleccionar las acciones}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ms eficaces para lograr
la meta, el mtodo de solucin de problemas, pueden ir desde una}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {estrategia de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {bsqueda aleatoria}\i0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { o ciega, pasando por la aplicacin de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\i {heursticos}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { o \uc1\u8220Xatajos\uc
1\u8221X,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hasta la utilizacin de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100\i {algoritmos}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { que garanticen la solucin
con un nmero mnimo de pasos.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1746\*\tx5253\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La}\t
ab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {estrategia de bsqueda aleatoria}\i0 \tab \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {consiste en indagar de manera no sistemtica,}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {desordenada, pudiendo repetir respuestas; es como dar \uc1\u8220Xpal
os de ciego\uc1\u8221X. Es la estrategia menos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eficaz
de todas. Siendo precisos diramos que es la ausencia de estrategia, la \uc1\u822

0Xno estrategia\uc1\u8221X.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa


rd\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\i {estrategia de bsqueda sistemtica o bsqueda por ensayo y error}\i0 { }\
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es la estrategia ms}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {element
al, la primera estrategia propiamente dicha. Se trata de una bsqueda ordenada don
de se}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {anotan o registran los intentos o pruebas para
no volver a repetirlos. Se lleva a cabo una}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {bsqueda pl
anificada, no aleatoria, y se van observando los resultado obtenidos de cada va d
e}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {solucin elegida y aplicada; segn sean tales resultado
s, se van intentando nuevas soluciones o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {profundizand
o en la que haya funcionado. Esta estrategia es eficaz para problemas bien defin
idos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y con un espacio del problema reducido. Tambin es
enormemente til cuando no podemos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {utilizar otra estra
tegia, o no \uc1\u8220Xsabemos\uc1\u8221X.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Imaginem
os un problema sencillo como intentar formar una palabra con la siguiente serie}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de letras:}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {E T P R
O C U N A E P}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
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3\margtsxn666\margbsxn320\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li62
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 37}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-33
3\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una estrategia por ensayo y error consisti
ra en ir probando combinaciones que no se}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {repitan hast
a descubrir una que tuviera significado, que fuera una palabra. Con este mtodo}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {terminaremos dando con la solucin, pero a coste de emple
ar mucho tiempo.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La bsqueda sistemtica es la estrateg

ia ms elemental, como decamos, pero tambin es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f


s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {el algorit
mo ms simple. Un}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {algoritmo}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 { es todo mtodo que siempre proporciona la solucin a un}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {problema en ms o menos tiempo (Solso, 1991). Un algoritmo siempre gara
ntiza la solucin de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {un problema con un nmero finito de
pasos u operaciones. El matiz est en que para cierto tipo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {de problemas podemos haber envejecido o muerto antes de alcanzar la solucin Qu
otros}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mtodos de solucin distintos de los algoritmos pod
emos emplear? Si estos son lentos y, por lo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tanto, mu
chas veces costosos dispone nuestra mente de otros recursos? Evidentemente, s. Una
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de las ventajas de los algoritmos es que siempre nos
garantizan la solucin, pero}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {sin reducir}\i0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {espacio del problema; en
el ejemplo de la serie de letras, lo que hacemos es recorrer el espacio}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {del problema hasta dar con la solucin; recorrerlo, no reducir
lo.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Otros mtodos, por el contrario, lo que hacen es}
{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {reducir}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { el esp
acio del problema. Son}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mtodos ms complejos que los algo
ritmos, que tienen la ventaja de consumir poco tiempo y ser}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {enormemente eficaces. Su debilidad se encuentra en el hecho de que no gar
antizan la solucin}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del problema. Estos mtodos reciban el
calificativo de \uc1\u8220Xmtodos dbiles\uc1\u8221X}\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {2
}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (Newell, 1980), y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx5733\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {normalmente se conocen como heursticos. Los}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{heursticos}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { son \uc1\u8220Xatajos\uc1\u8221X, s
on bsquedas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {selectivas sobre partes del espacio del pr
oblema que se considera ms probable para producir la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {s
olucin. Son mtodos basados en la experiencia y en la prctica, en reglas empricas (So
lso,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {1991). En el ejemplo de la serie de letras, proc
ederamos heursticamente, imaginando palabras}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que contuv
ieran el mayor nmero de letras de la serie, hasta dar con una que las contuviera}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {todas. Utilizamos nuestra experiencia o conocimiento
para no recorrer todo el espacio del}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema, sino a
quella parte donde creemos que se encuentra la solucin, en el ejemplo, aquellas}\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {combinaciones ms factible; en nuestro idioma, aquellas
combinaciones que alternen una vocal}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con una consonan
te, porque no existen slabas de ms de dos consonantes seguidas.}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\

li653\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {2}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex10


0 { Newell habla de mtodos de solucin de problemas}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{dbiles}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { como opuestos a}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\i {fuertes.}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {Estos son mtodos especficos de un dominio, mientras que los mtodos dbiles, no.
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Estos son estrat
egias o heursticos generales de solucin de problemas como los que}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {describiremos en este apartado.}\
par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\marg
tsxn666\margbsxn373\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {38 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {Los algoritmos, decamos, consumen mucho tiempo, pero con ellos s
iempre alcanzamos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la solucin. Los heursticos, por el co
ntrario, consumen poco tiempo, pero no nos garantizan la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {solucin. Los esfuerzos en investigacin claramente se han dirigido hacia los he
ursticos.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Algunas razones pueden justificar este sesgo
(Matlin, 1989). Una razn es que para la mayora}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de los
problemas humanos no hay algoritmos. La mayor parte de ellos entraran en la categ
ora}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de mal definidos, y por consiguiente, sin una secu
encia fija de pasos para solucionarlos. Otra}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {razn es q
ue la gente utiliza espontneamente heursticos para solucionar los problemas. Dado}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que por lo general no disponemos de todo el tiempo de
l mundo, necesitamos resolver los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas con mtodos
relativamente eficaces que necesiten poca inversin de tiempo. Tenemos}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {que acortar la bsqueda de soluciones porque los problemas son mu
chos. Y una ltima razn, es}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que los heursticos son ms inte
resantes porque son el procedimiento que utilizamos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {h
abitualmente. Esto hace que nos permitan conocer el funcionamiento mental.}\par\
pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
2\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Por estas razones nos ocuparemos de los heursticos que no
rmalmente empleamos a la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hora de solucionar problemas
. Describamos a continuacin los mtodos heursticos o estrategias}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {de solucin de problemas ms estudiados y los ms aplicados en la instruccin.}\
par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i {A.
Anlisis medio-fin}\b0 \i0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La forma ms frecuente de}{
}\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {reducir la distancia o diferencia}\i0 { }\fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {entre el estado inicial y la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx2880\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {meta es utilizar una}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {estrategia de anlis
is medio-fin.}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Como sealbamos anteriormente al}\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*
\tx7746\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {describir la naturaleza de todo problema, est
a estrategia consiste en}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {dividir}\i0 \fs22\cf

0\f0\charscalex100 { la situacin en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\


par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {subproblemas o s
ubmetas}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que nos vayan aproximando a la meta,
es decir, que vayan}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {reduciendo}\i0 \par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\i {la distancia}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { entre el estado i
nicial y el final del problema (la solucin). El \uc1\u8220Xfin\uc1\u8221X inmedia
to (la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {submeta) en el problema de los monstruos de la
s cinco manos, decamos, es conseguir, por}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ejemplo, que
el monstruo pequeo tenga la esfera pequea (paso 1 de la tabla 1). La seleccin}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del cambio adecuado de esfera con las restricciones dadas
ser el \uc1\u8220Xmedio\uc1\u8221X de conseguir este}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
\uc1\u8220Xfin\uc1\u8221X (por eso esta estrategia recibe el nombre de anlisis me
dio-fin).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Anderson (1993) apunta algunas ideas inte
resantes sobre la estrategia de anlisis medio-}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fin que
comentamos a continuacin. Seala que la reduccin de la diferencia entre estado inic
ial}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y meta (o entre estados intermedios) se consigue
realizando acciones (o imaginndolas) que}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893
\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn666\pard\li6253\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li62
53\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 39}\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {produzcan
estados cada vez}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {ms similares}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {a la meta. Los humanos manifestamos una enorme}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {confianza en la similitud, que parece nica de la especie humana (es di
fcil encontrar en otras}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {especies). Esta confianza en l
a similitud es adaptativa porque muchos problemas se solucionan}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {precisamente \uc1\u8220Xmovindose\uc1\u8221X en direccin a la meta (And
erson, 1990, desarrolla este interesante}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {anlisis en su
libro \uc1\u8220XEl carcter adaptativo del pensamiento\uc1\u8221X). Ilustremos l
a lgica de este}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mtodo ayudndonos con el \uc1\u8220Xprobl
ema de los misioneros y los canbales\uc1\u8221X (Tomado de Kahney,}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {1986). Intente resolverlo:}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-186\sl
mult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Tres misioneros y tres canbales quieren cruzar
de una orilla a otra de un ro. Tienen una}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs
20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {barca que no puede transportar ms de dos personas a la v
ez. En ningn momento}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {puede quedar un misionero con dos o tres canbales, porque se lo comeran. Halla
r el}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {modo de cru
zar el ro realizando el menor nmero de viajes.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-2
53\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El problema puede resolverse en 11 movimi
entos, pero normalmente nos empeamos en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conseguirlo co
n menos. Analicemos por qu sucede esto con ayuda del cuadro 1 de ms}\par\pard\li65

3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch


arscalex100 {adelante. La dificultad est en que para lograr la meta es necesario
perder temporalmente las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ganancias conseguidas. Debem
os retroceder, alejarnos de la meta. Como se puede observar en el}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {cuadro 1 y en el estado 6, despus de haber conseguido la posicin MM,
CC, tenemos que volver}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hacia atrs (M, C), es decir, de
bemos}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {alejarnos}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ de la meta para alcanzarla. La enorme confianza}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que
tenemos en la similitud nos hace ser muy resistentes a incrementar las diferenc
ias entre el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estado inicial y meta. Esta resistencia
que manifestamos a alejarnos de la meta proporciona}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a
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l:}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Estado 1:}\pa
r\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Estado 2:}\par\pard

\li1773\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Estado 3:}\par\pard\li177


3\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Estado 4:}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\
sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Estado 5:}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-386
\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Estado 6:}\b0 \par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-373
\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Estado 7:}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-386\slmul
t0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Estado 8:}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs
20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Estado 9:}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0
\f1\charscalex100 {Estado 10:}\par\pard\li1773\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {Meta 11:}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {MMM, CCC}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{MMM, C}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MMM, CC}\pa
r\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MMM}\par\pard\li0\ri0\
sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MMM, C}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmul
t0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {M, C}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f
0\charscalex100\b {MM, CC}\b0 \par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {CC}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {CCC}\
par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {C}\par\pard\li0\ri0\
sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {CC}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \
fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {------------------}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\sl
mult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {B}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {B }\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8594X}\fs24\cf0\f2\chars
calex100 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {CC}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \f
s20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {C }{ }\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8592X}\fs24\c
f0\f2\charscalex100 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {B}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\s
lmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {B }\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8594X}
\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {CC}\par\pard\li0\ri0
\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {C }\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc
1\u8592X}\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {B}\par\pard\
li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {B }\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex10
0 {\uc1\u8594X}\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MM}\pa
r\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {MC }\b0 { }\fs24\cf
0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8592X}\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 { }\fs20\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\b {B}\b0 \par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {
B }\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8594X}\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 { }\fs20
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MM}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {C }{ }\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8592X}\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100
{ }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {B}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {B }\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8594X}\fs24\cf0\f2\charsca
lex100 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {CC}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {C }{ }\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8592X}\fs24\cf0\
f2\charscalex100 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {B}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmu
lt0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {B }\fs24\cf0\f2\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8594X}\fs2
4\cf0\f2\charscalex100 { }\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {CC}\par\column\pard\li0\r
i0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {------------------}\par\pard\li0\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {CC}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult
0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {C}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {CCC}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {CC
}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MM, CC}\par\pard\l
i0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {M, C}\b0 \par\pard\li0\ri0\s
l-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MMM, C}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult
0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MMM}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\
charscalex100 {MMM, CC}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {MMM, C}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {MMM, CCC
}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pa
rd\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-346\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Anderson (1993) proporciona una descripcin pormen
orizada del ciclo bsico de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reduccin de las diferenci
as en la estrategia de anlisis medio-fin. Veamos la figura 7, la cual}\par\pard\l

i653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0


\charscalex100 {ilustra la lgica del ciclo. El que resuelve un problema observa l
a diferencia entre estado inicial y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {meta, e intenta r
educirla. Para ello, fija una submeta de eliminacin de esa diferencia (en el}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema de los misioneros y los canbales, el que estos se
encuentren en la orilla izquierda).}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una vez que ha f
ijado una submeta, busca una operacin (un operador, una accin) relevante que}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {elimine la diferencia. Si el operador se puede aplicar, la
solucin va estando ms prxima (la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {distancia entre estado
actual y meta se acorta). Si no se puede aplicar, como en el estado 6 del}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cuadro 1 (los canbales comeran al misionero), se fija la sub
meta de dar un rodeo para eliminar}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la dificultad. De
este modo, va alcanzando submetas hasta lograr la ltima.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbk
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{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6453\shptop10506\shpright6666\shpbottom10760\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2396\shpz7\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 213}}


{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 254}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;44;(106,266);(0,26);(0,26);(13,13);(13,13);(26,13);(2
6,13);(26,13);(40,13);(40,13);(40,13);(53,0);(53,0);(66,0);(66,0);(66,0);(80,0);
(80,0);(93,0);(93,0);(106,0);(106,0);(106,0);(120,0);(120,0);(133,0);(133,0);(13
3,0);(146,0);(146,0);(160,0);(160,0);(160,13);(173,13);(173,13);(186,13);(186,13
);(186,13);(200,13);(200,13);(200,26);(213,26);(106,266);(106,266);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6573\shptop9600\shpright6573\shpbottom10666\shpfhdr0\shp
wr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2397\shpz8\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 1066}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,1066);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6373\shptop7760\shpright6586\shpbottom8026\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2398\shpz9\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 213}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 266}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;44;(106,266);(0,26);(0,26);(13,13);(13,13);(26,13);(2
6,13);(26,13);(40,13);(40,13);(40,13);(53,0);(53,0);(66,0);(66,0);(66,0);(80,0);
(80,0);(93,0);(93,0);(106,0);(106,0);(106,0);(120,0);(120,0);(133,0);(133,0);(13
3,0);(146,0);(146,0);(160,0);(160,0);(160,13);(173,13);(173,13);(186,13);(186,13
);(186,13);(200,13);(200,13);(200,26);(213,26);(106,266);(106,266);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45

824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6493\shptop7626\shpright6493\shpbottom7920\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2399\shpz10\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 294}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,306);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6480\shptop7626\shpright9586\shpbottom7626\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2400\shpz10\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 3106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(3106,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft10266\shptop8746\shpright10546\shpbottom8746\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2401\shpz10\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 280}}

{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(280,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft10533\shptop7240\shpright10533\shpbottom8760\shpfhdr0\sh
pwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2402\shpz10\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 1520}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,1520);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft2480\shptop7226\shpright10546\shpbottom7226\shpfhdr0\shp
wr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2403\shpz10\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 8066}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(8066,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft2373\shptop8026\shpright2586\shpbottom8280\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2404\shpz11\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 213}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 254}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;44;(106,266);(0,26);(0,26);(13,13);(13,13);(26,13);(2
6,13);(26,13);(40,13);(40,13);(40,13);(53,0);(53,0);(66,0);(66,0);(66,0);(80,0);
(80,0);(93,0);(93,0);(106,0);(106,0);(106,0);(120,0);(120,0);(133,0);(133,0);(13
3,0);(146,0);(146,0);(160,0);(160,0);(160,13);(173,13);(173,13);(186,13);(186,13
);(186,13);(200,13);(200,13);(200,26);(213,26);(106,266);(106,266);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft2493\shptop7226\shpright2493\shpbottom8186\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2405\shpz12\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 960}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,960);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft9573\shptop7626\shpright9573\shpbottom8266\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2406\shpz12\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 640}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,640);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft1493\shptop3293\shpright4226\shpbottom4506\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2407\shpz13\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 2733}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 1213}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(2746,0);(2746,1226);(0,1226);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;12;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457
7;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5946\shptop3293\shpright7866\shpbottom4466\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2408\shpz13\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 1920}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 1173}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(1920,0);(1920,1186);(0,1186);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;12;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457
7;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5680\shptop3733\shpright5946\shpbottom3946\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2409\shpz14\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 266}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 213}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;44;(266,106);(26,213);(26,200);(13,200);(13,200);(13,

186);(13,186);(13,186);(13,173);(13,173);(13,160);(0,160);(0,160);(0,146);(0,146
);(0,133);(0,133);(0,133);(0,120);(0,120);(0,106);(0,106);(0,106);(0,93);(0,93);
(0,80);(0,80);(0,66);(0,66);(0,66);(0,53);(0,53);(13,40);(13,40);(13,40);(13,26)
;(13,26);(13,26);(13,13);(13,13);(26,0);(26,0);(266,106);(266,106);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft4226\shptop3853\shpright5840\shpbottom3853\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2410\shpz15\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 1614}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(1626,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft2613\shptop4946\shpright2826\shpbottom5200\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2411\shpz16\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 213}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 254}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;44;(106,266);(0,26);(0,26);(13,13);(13,13);(26,13);(2
6,13);(26,13);(40,13);(40,13);(40,13);(53,0);(53,0);(66,0);(66,0);(66,0);(80,0);
(80,0);(93,0);(93,0);(106,0);(106,0);(106,0);(120,0);(120,0);(133,0);(133,0);(13
3,0);(146,0);(146,0);(160,0);(160,0);(160,13);(173,13);(173,13);(186,13);(186,13
);(186,13);(200,13);(200,13);(200,26);(213,26);(106,266);(106,266);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;90;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45
824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}

{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}


{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft2733\shptop4520\shpright2733\shpbottom5106\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2412\shpz17\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
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arscalex100 {encontrar la diferencia}\par\pard\li1560\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\c
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par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-400\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Diferencia}\p
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r\pard\li426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li426\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
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lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {Empareja la condicin}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl
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0 {LOGRO}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-386\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {FRACASO}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn66

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t0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Buscar un operador}\par\pard\li920\ri0\sl-240\slm
ult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {relevante que reduzca}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-2
40\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {la diferencia}\par\column\pard\li80\ri0\s
l-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Operador}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {encont
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perador con el}\par\pard\li360\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {es
tado actual para}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {en
contrar ms diferencias}\par\pard\li613\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {importantes}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {Diferencia}\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl
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0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Eliminar la}\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs2
0\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {diferencia}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghs
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rd\li1920\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1920\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li1920\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {NO ENCONTRADO
}\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1173\ri0\sl240\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {FRACASO}\par\column\pard\li1093\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1093\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li109
3\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {SIN DIFERENCIAS}\par\pard\li0\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {APLICA EL OPERADOR}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16
840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li880\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li8
80\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li880\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {Nota. Diagrama I: divide un problema en un conjunto de diferencias
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ex100 {
Diagrama II: busca un operador relevante para eliminar una d
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harscalex100\i {Figura 7.}\i0 \tab \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Aplicacin del anlis
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\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {42 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {estrategia fundamental de actuacin del ser humano. Algunos au
tores lo consideran como parte}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {innata de la \uc1\u822
0Xmaquinaria\uc1\u8221X cognitiva humana (Anderson, 1993). Lo cierto es que su i
mportancia}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adaptativa es ampliamente reconocida.}\par
\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i {B. Bsq
ueda hacia atrs}\b0 \i0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una caracterstica fundamental
ya sealada del heurstico anlisis medio-fin es que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {consi
ste en una}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {bsqueda hacia adelante,}\i0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 { es decir, que toda accin va dirigida a aproximarse a la}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {submeta fijada o a la meta final. Pero como veamos en el pr
oblema de los misioneros y los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx6013\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {canbales, a ve
ces es necesario retroceder, es decir,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {buscar
hacia atrs.}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Este no es slo un}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {mtodo ocasional. Es una estrategia general que consiste en ir desde la m
eta al estado inicial o de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx8560\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {partida. La bsqued
a hacia atrs es muy til en determinados problemas de}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {matemticas o}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {lgica,}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 { donde se aprende partiendo de la solucin del problema, o de la conclusin
del teorema,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {y dirigindose hacia el planteamiento o t
eorema. De este modo podemos ir comprendiendo cmo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {se l
lega de un paso al siguiente, de forma que despus se puedan aplicar a otros probl
emas o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {demostraciones anlogas.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {Una experiencia muy simple y comn de lo til que resulta este heurstico es la
que la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mayora de nosotros hemos tenido con los laberin
tos de las secciones de pasatiempo de los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {peridicos o
revistas de informacin general o \uc1\u8220Xsocial\uc1\u8221X, o de las revistas
exclusivamente de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri

0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pasatiempo como los \uc1\u8220XQuiz


\uc1\u8221X. Los}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {laberintos}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 { ilustran muy bien este heurstico porque posee la}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {estructura ideal para su aplicacin, esto es, muchas rutas alternativas y
una nica vlida que lleva}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a la meta. Los problemas, pue
s, con menos rutas desde la meta que desde el estado de partida se}\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {solucionan bien con esta estrategia de bsqueda hacia atrs. Ilustremo
s la importancia de este}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mtodo con un ejemplo extremo.
Intente resolver el siguiente problema del estanque y los lirios:}\par\pard\li2
053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Los lirios cuando e
stn en el agua se duplican en extensin cada 24 horas. Desde el mo-}\par\pard\li205
3\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {mento en el que el primer lirio
aparece en el agua hasta que el estanque se cubre por}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-3
60\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {completo pasan 60 das Cuantos das pasan hast
a que la mitad del lago se cubre?}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {(Fixx, 1978, p. 50)}\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {3}\fs20\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {3}\fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 { Se im
aginan los millones de lirios que resultaran de: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, \uc1\u8230X
hasta 60}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {veces? Qu
estanque necesitaramos? Aparte de estos pequeos detalles, alguien}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {puede decir que el problema no ti
ene sulucin porque los lirios, crecen en las orillas, no}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
40\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {en el agua. El que por sus conocimientos
de botnica se pare aqu, que se imagine que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {en lugar de lirios son nenfares.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbk
page\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn506\par
d\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E
INSTRUCCIN 43}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {Como habr comprobado el lector este problema slo tiene una forma de
resolverse, mediante}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una estrategias de bsqueda hacia
atrs. Veamos cmo. Si el estanque se cubre por completo a}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{los 60 das y el rea cubierta por los lirios se duplica cada da qu parte del estanqu
e estaba}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cubierta el da anterior? La mitad. Por lo tan
to los das que tarda en cubrirse la mitad del}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estanque
son 59.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Como decamos este es un buen mtodo para prob
lemas de matemticas y lgica, en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {general, para problemas
formales, problemas bien definidos, o al menos problemas con la meta}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {clara. Es recomendable que para estos problemas se combinen est
rategias \uc1\u8220Xbidireccionales\uc1\u8221X, que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {c
ompaginen estrategias de bsqueda hacia adelante (anlisis medio-fin) con bsquedas ha
cia}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {atrs. Estas estrategias son, normalmente, las ms ad
ecuadas para}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {problemas bien especificados}\i0 \

par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {o problemas de transformacin}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {(ver el apartado anterior).}\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-306\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i {C. Analogas}\b0 \i0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {Decamos al hablar de los problemas de matemticas o de lgica que podamos}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {comprender mejor los procesos de demostracin recorriendo sta
en sentido inverso, de modo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que despus se puede aplica
r a problemas anlogos. El uso de soluciones}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {simi
lares}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en otros}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {probl
emas o situaciones es una de las estrategias ms tiles en solucin de problemas. Es}\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {razonable pensar que es enormemente adaptativo aplicar
a otras situaciones soluciones que han}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {funcionado en
otra El utilizar formas anlogas de actuacin normalmente supone no invertir}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {tiempo en buscar otras vas de solucin, implica una importante
economa cognitiva, economa}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de recursos o de procesamie
nto.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Sin embargo, el uso de experiencias previas en
problemas semejantes es menos frecuente}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de lo que ca
bra esperar, entre otras razones porque depende al menos, en primer lugar, de que
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {accedamos}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { a esas
experiencias o conocimientos y, en segundo, de que las}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\i {apliquemos}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { a otros}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {problemas semejantes (Medin & Ross, 1992). La}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {aplicacin}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de los conocimientos o experienc
ias}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {a otros mbitos es lo esencial del razonamiento ana
lgico, en el que no nos vamos a detener}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {(para una revi
sin, consltese Vosniadou & Ortony, 1989). Consideremos la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\i {accesibilidad}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { a los}\par\pard\sect\sec
td\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn3
20\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {44 Carlos
Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con
ocimientos o a las experiencias con problemas resueltos con anterioridad, y la i
nfluencia de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estas en el que se desea resolver en un
momento dado.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Algunos estudios son claramente pesim
istas sobre la frecuencia en la identificacin de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {simil
itudes o analogas. Reed, Ernst & Banerji (1974) partan de la idea de que el resolv
er}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas debe mejorar el rendimiento en los poste
riores. Para probar esta idea, utiliza dos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas
semejantes: el de los misioneros y los canbales, y el de los maridos celosos. El}

\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {primero lo hemos descrito con anterioridad, y el segu
ndo, en lugar de misioneros y canbales,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {consta de tres
mujeres y sus respectivos maridos \uc1\u8220Xcelosos\uc1\u8221X; la restriccin e
n este problema}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {consista en que, debido a que los mari
dos eran muy celosos, una mujer no poda estar sola en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
una orilla con otro marido a no ser que estuviera su mujer. Al ser mayor la rest
riccin aqu que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en el de los misioneros y los canbales, h
ace que se mucho ms difcil.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {A pesar de la semejanza e
ntre los dos problemas, los resultados son francamente}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{decepcionantes. Los dos datos que nos llaman la atencin son: 1) cuando el probl
ema de los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {maridos celosos preceda al de los misionero
s y los canbales, mejoraba el rendimiento de ste si}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {el
experimentador les revelaba la relacin que haba entre ellos; 2) cuando el problema
de los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {misioneros y los canbales preceda al de los mar
idos celosos, el rendimiento de ste no}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mejoraba, aunqu
e se hiciera una indicacin acerca del parecido entre ambos. El efecto de la}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {similitud parece ocurrir slo cuando: a) se dan pistas sobre
la misma, y b) el segundo problema}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es ms fcil que el p
rimero. En relacin con estos resultados, Reed (1977) afirmaba que la}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {identificacin de analogas es poco frecuente, y se puede aplicar si
se dan las siguientes}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {condiciones: 1) que las persona
s}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {descubran}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la
analoga entre problemas, 2) que}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {recuerden}\i0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { cmo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx7986\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {resolvieron e
l problema anlogo precedente, y 3) que sean capaces de}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100\i {traducir}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { la solucin}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {anterior en pasos aplicables al problema actual.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {Gick & Holyoak (1980, 1983) obtienen datos muy parecidos. En varios estudi
os, utilizan}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dos problemas semejantes con formas de s
olucin idnticas. Emplean el ya clsico \uc1\u8220Xproblema}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{del tumor\uc1\u8221X de Duncker y otro sobre \uc1\u8220Xel asedio de un castil
lo\uc1\u8221X (ellos lo llaman historio general).}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Est
ructuralmente son idnticos, y sin embargo, la solucin espontnea del primero, despus
de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {haber ledo y resumido la \uc1\u8220Xhistoria genera
l\uc1\u8221X, slo la consiguen el 30% de los sujetos. Cuando se}\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {les sugiere que utilicen la historia general, entonces consiguen soluc
ionarlo el 80%.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666

\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn320\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \f
s20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 45}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Nuevamente, slo se percatan de la a
naloga cuando se les indica. Muy pocos son los que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esp
ontneamente la detectan.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Por qu es tan difcil descubrir
analogas? En los estudios de Gick y Holyoak, los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {suje
tos resolvan el problema del tumor a continuacin de la lectura y resumen de la his
toria}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {general, es decir, sin demora de tiempo. El int
ers sobre la dificultad en descubrir analogas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {espontneam
ente ha estimulado muchas lneas de investigacin dada su importancia terica y}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {aplicada. Recojamos a continuacin algunas reflexiones intere
santes de Medin & Ross (1992)}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sobre esta cuestin. Reco
rdemos la tarea de Gick y Holyoak, los sujetos leen una historia sobre}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {el asedio de un castillo y despus resuelven el problema del tum
or. Si tenemos en cuenta los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {contenidos tan diferente
s de la historia y el problema por qu pensar en utilizar la historia,}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {cuando uno puede recurrir mejor, por ejemplo, a sus conocimientos
sobre los rayos X y otros}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {procedimientos mdicos? Esto
s conocimientos se pueden ver como ms pertinentes que la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {historia previa, y por consiguiente, centrarse en ellos para aplicarlos.}\par
\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {De este modo, una dificultad importante en la identific
acin de analogas (en realidad, la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {identificacin de semej
anzas estructurales o profundas, no superficiales) puede encontrarse en}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {las diferencias superficiales entre los dos problemas. Las di
ferencias de contenidos puede desviar}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la bsqueda de co
nocimiento relevante hacia dominios afines, esto es, al decidir qu}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {conocimiento es relevante para problema, la bsqueda la dirigimos hac
ia conocimientos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mdicos, no militares. Medin y Ross pr
oponen, pues, una explicacin de la dificultad en funcin}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1013\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {de}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {mecanismos de accesibilidad.}\i0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { Se activan conocimientos}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\i {dependientes del contenido}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { del}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {problema. Alguien podra argumentar que no se dispone de otros
contenidos porque los sujetos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {no resuelven el problem
a militar, slo lo resumen. Si recordamos los datos de Reed, Ernst y}\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {Banerji debemos decir que sustentan esta posibilidad.}\par\pard\li

1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f


0\charscalex100 {Los datos todava son ms decepcionantes, porque como nos indican M
edin y Ross, uno}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {puede pensar que cuando los contenid
os son semejantes, o del mismo mbito o dominio, la gente}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {s descubra semejanzas. Se ha visto que cuando se resuelven problemas de probab
ilidad en los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que se utilizan ejemplos semejantes a l
os que se empleaban para ilustrar los principios}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {prev
iamente enseados, los sujetos resuelven el 77% de los problemas. Pero si esos eje
mplos son}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {semejantes a los utilizados para ilustrar o
tros principios no aplicables en esos problemas, el}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn440\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {46 Carlos Saiz}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {rendimiento d
esciende hasta el 23%. Claramente, tanto en esta situacin como en las anteriores,
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {identificamos slo las semejanzas superficiales, no es
tructurales.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La pregunta que debemos contestar a co
ntinuacin es de qu modo podemos eliminar}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estas dificulta
des de accesos a conocimientos semejantes estructuralmente? Hemos sealado que}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una de las dificultades de acceso es la dependencia de l
os contenidos, que impide abstraer la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {similitud ms pro
funda o estructural. Otra razn puede ser que parte de la dificultad se encuentre}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en el hecho de que an en el caso de disponer del conoc
imiento no sabemos}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {cundo}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 { es relevante.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Esto se puede observar frecue
ntemente con problemas formales, de matemticas o de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pr
ogramacin. En estos se explica cmo realizar un clculo o una subrutina y cmo aplicar
un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {principio o regla, pero}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\i {se omite}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {cundo}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 { dicho clculo o subrutina se debe realizar o}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex
100\i {cundo}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {princ
ipio se debe aplicar.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1
373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Cmo mejora pues el problema de
la accesibilidad? Un modo es incrementar las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {semejanz
as entre problemas, ya que esto hace ms probable evocar problemas anteriores y}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {utilizarlos para solucionar los actuales. Otra forma co
nsiste en procurar que el problema que se}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {est intentan
do resolver con ayuda de otro previo, se procese y represente del mismo modo que
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ste. Si el procesamiento de ambos es similar, las rep
resentaciones de ambos tambin lo sern, y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\

cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la accesibilid


ad de una de ellas, consiguientemente, ser mayor. Este planteamiento se inspira e
n}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la idea de la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {espe
cificidad de la codificacin.}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Aplicada a nuestr
o anlisis, cuanto ms semejante}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {es la codificacin (proces
amiento) de varios problemas, ms indicios compartirn, lo que facilita}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {desde cualquiera de ellos el acceso a los dems.}\par\pard\li1373\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {Otro medio de mejorar la accesibilidad consistira en facilitar la iden
tificacin de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {semejanzas estructurales. Si las dificult
ades de acceso, como sealbamos, pueden provenir de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {e
xcesiva dependencia del contenido y de la falta de conocimiento sobre los aspect
os relevantes,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {entonces abstraerse de contenido y mej
orar est comprensin debera aumentar la accesibilidad.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Un
modo de facilitar la abstraccin, consistira en comparar el mayor nmero de ejemplos
o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {casos con la misma estructura en cada problema, de
forma que se produzca la generalizacin}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desde ellos. E
sto, adems, tiene como consecuencia el ayudar a saber qu cursos de accin o}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {soluciones tomar. Al relacionar ejemplos o aspectos en una si
tuacin se clarifica cules son ms}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn168
40\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn373\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCCIN 47}\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {revelantes y cules lo
son menos, de modo que se puede estimar mejor qu solucin es ms}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {conveniente y cul lo es menos.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La desventaja
de abstraer o generalizar a partir de muchas comparaciones de casos es que}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {requiere mucho esfuerzo, por parte de quien resuelve un p
roblema. Otra forma menos costosa de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {incrementar la a
ccesibilidad de determinado conocimiento en otras situaciones consiste en hacer}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {explcitos todos los pasos que se siguen en la solucin d
e un problema que con posterioridad}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {podemos utilizar.
Algunos datos han revelado que si quien resuelve un problema tiene una clara}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {comprensin del mismo y de por qu elige un determinado cur
so de accin en cada estado del}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema, entonces este
conocimiento se manifiesta mucho ms accesible en el momento de}\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {resolver problemas posteriores. Por lo tanto, la forma de incrementar
la accesibilidad de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {determinados conocimientos, consi
stira en hacer el esfuerzo de explicar cada paso que se da al}\par\pard\li653\ri0

\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsca


lex100 {solucionar un problema, en la forma de indicar qu submeta o meta se prete
nde alcanzar y cmo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ese paso permite conseguirla. El es
tablecer esta relacin entre meta y accin que la logra}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {p
roporciona una comprensin de la estructura del problema que se generaliza con cie
rta}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {independencia del contenido del mismo.}\par\pard\
li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {En resumen, el pr oblema de la accesibilidad de determinados
conocimientos por la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dependencia tan grande de los co
ntenidos, puede obviarse si se logra identificar y almacenar la}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {estructura de los mismos. Tanto la generalizacin a partir de las compa
raciones de caso o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {ejemplos, como el hacer explcito cmo
y por qu se da cada paso en la solucin de un problema,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{ayuda a acceder a estas experiencias en ocasiones posteriores.}\par\pard\li1013
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li1013\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i {D. Simplificacin}\
b0 \i0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\
slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una estrategia que depende ms que otras de la
representacin de un problema es la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {simplificacin.}\i
0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Cuando nos enfrentamos a problemas abstractos o
complejos, el sentido comn}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nos indica que la mejor fo
rma de solucionarlos es reformularlos en ejemplos concretos o}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {ilustrarlos con estos, y reducirlos a sus aspectos ms simples. Una buena
representacin logra}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {precisamente este objetivo, ilust
rar o reducir el problema a sus elementos ms simples.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
Recordemos el problema del monje budista y cmo la representacin grfica del mismo pe
rmita}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {el descubrimiento instantneo de la solucin.}\par\p
ard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn6
66\margbsxn386\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{48 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li1013\ri0\sl-373\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i {E. Dividir por la
mitad}\b0 \i0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\
sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La estrategia de}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\i {dividir por la mitad}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { es enormement
e til cuando no hay razones para}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {buscar selectivamente
vas de solucin, porque todas son potencialmente probables. La esencia}\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {de este heurstico de bsqueda descansa en lo que podramos llamar col
oquialmente la tcnica}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx2013\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100\i {descarte,}\i0 \tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del descarte de la
mitad de las posibilidades. Recordemos un juego muy popular}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {\uc1\u8220Xadivinar un personaje famoso\uc1\u8221X. La manera de descubri

rlo es utilizar la tcnica del descarte o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18


\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {dividir por l
a mitad: mujer u hombre? est vivo o muerto? mayor o menor de 50 aos?\uc1\u8230X De}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {este modo, se eliminan la mitad de las opciones.}\par\p
ard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i {F. No C
ontradiccin}\b0 \i0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373
\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Otra estrategia enormemente til,
cuando las soluciones posibles son divisibles en grupos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {mutuamente excluyentes, es utilizar el}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {princ
ipio de no contradiccin.}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Por lo que se refiere
a la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {consecucin de submetas, esta estrategia es muy s
emejante a la anterior. Utilicemos una de las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mltiples
versiones que existen del problema del mentiroso e intente resolverlo:}\par\par
d\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Imagnese que es
t en la crcel y que le dan la oportunidad de conseguir la libertad.}\par\pard\li20
53\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Para ello, debe averiguar qu pu
erta de dos es la que conduce a la libertad. Pero}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\sl
mult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {cuidado! la otra puerta conduce a la muerte. De
lante de cada puerta se encuentra un}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\c
f0\f1\charscalex100 {guardia, uno dice siempre la verdad y otro dice siempre la
mentira. Usted slo puede}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charsca
lex100 {realizar una pregunta a uno de ellos, que le permita saber cul es la puer
ta de la libertad}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{Qu pregunta hara usted?}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {Si utiliza el principio de no contradiccin, resolvera el problema
preguntando: Qu}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {puerta me dira el otro que es la de la
libertad? Si le preguntamos al guardia mentiroso, nos dir}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {que el guardia sincero dira que es la puerta de la muerte. Si le preguntamos
al guardia sincero,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {nos dir que el guardia mentiroso d
ira que es la puerta de la muerte. Por consiguiente, la puerta}\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {de la libertad siempre ser la contraria de la que nos digan.}\par\pard\l
i1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {Existe una cierta dificultad para utilizar este principio debi
do a que nuestra mente}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {normalmente busca confirmar hi
ptesis o ideas, y en pocas ocasiones intenta desconfirmarlas.}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {Normalmente, lo que hacemos es limitarnos a comprobar la presencia de da
tos o regularidades}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que confirmen nuestra ideas o sup
osiciones. Debido a esta tendencia sistemtica hacia la}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpa
ge\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn493\pard\
li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E IN
STRUCCIN 49}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 {confirmacin, es muy recomendable intentar confirmar las ideas o hiptesis contr
arias, para tener}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri
0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mayores garantas de dar con la soluc

in ms adecuada.}\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1013\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b \i {G. Identificacin de regularidades}\b0 \i0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {La investigacin a todos lo niveles, en nuestra vida diaria y en el laboratorio
, logra el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {avance cuando identifica y resuelve contra
diccin (conceptuales y emprica), utiliza}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sistemticamente
el principio de no contradiccin. Pero los avances tambin se obtienen cuando}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {identificamos regularidades, constantes}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {a travs de situaciones. Hace algn tiempo que }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {John}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Stuart Mill estableci la lgica elementa
l de la investigacin: dos sucesos estn relacionados o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {u
no puede ser la causa del otro cuando ambos estn presentes y ausentes a la vez, e
s decir,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cuando la causa est presente debe estarlo tam
bin el efecto, y cuando aquella est ausente}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tambin lo de
be estar ste. Es esencial, pues, identificar qu permanece bajo las mismas}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {condiciones, y qu vara. Esta lgica es la que sustente la leyes c
ientficas, en ellas se expresan}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {relaciones constantes
(invariantes) entre variables.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La bsqueda de regular
idades es uno de los heursticos fundamentales en el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de
scubrimiento cientfico (Langley, Simon, Bradshaw & Zytkow, 1987), en problemas, p
or lo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tanto, mal definidos o creativos. Una de las di
ficultades mayores en problemas mal definidos y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en lo
s de \uc1\u8220Xinsight\uc1\u8221X (ver ms adelante, la naturaleza del \uc1\u8220
Xinsight\uc1\u8221X ) es lograr una representacin}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {del
mismo (comprenderlo). Al buscar regularidades conseguimos una mejor representacin
y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {posterior solucin del mismo. Este heurstico es poder
osamente eficaz en problemas difciles de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u8220Xin
sight\uc1\u8221X (ver Kaplan & Simon, 1990). Es muy probable que la identificacin
de las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {regularidades ayude en la abstraccin de las re
laciones ms profundas (estructurales), lo que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {producir
una bsqueda y seleccin de vas de solucin eficaces.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Hemo
s descrito algunas de las estrategias de solucin de problemas, a nuestro juicio,
ms}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {generales y tiles. Existen otras menos representativ
as en las que no nos vamos a detener.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Adems no debemos
olvidar que las estrategias son procedimientos heursticos, y como tales no}\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100 {son fijos, no existen nicamente las que nosotros conocemos.
Es probable que la lectora/lector a}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf

0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lo largo de su e


xperiencia tenga conocimiento de otros que le son de enorme utilidad. Lo que}\pa
r\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margts
xn666\margbsxn346\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex1
00 {50 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {pretendamos era revisar los fundamentos de los que normalmente utiliz
amos con el fin de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {hacerlos aplicables a un mayor nmer
o de situaciones.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Es posible que alguien se pregunt
e: \uc1\u8220XPero cmo}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {seleccionar}\i0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 { el ms adecuado?\uc1\u8221X Lo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {prime
ro que debemos enfatizar es que estas estrategias no son excluyentes entre s, sin
o todo lo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {contrario, normalmente son complementarias,
esto es, siempre es mejor combinarlas. Lo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {segundo, q
ue una o varias estrategias sern ms adecuadas dependiendo de la naturaleza del}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {4. COMPRE
NSIN Y SOLUCIN DE PROBLEMAS POR EXPERTOS}\b0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Lograr u
n buena representacin del problema y elegir las estrategias de solucin}\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {adecuadas depende de muchos factores y requiere que se den unas
condiciones mnimas para que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esta actividad sea eficaz.
Hemos descrito los ms importantes de unos y otras. Otra forma de}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {mejorar la comprensin y solucin de problemas es aprendiendo del modo cm
o actan las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \*\tx3013\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {personas expertas. Un}\tab \fs24\
cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {experto}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { es alguien que
posee un amplio conocimiento en un campo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {determinado.
La gente experta es altamente eficiente en la solucin de problemas del mbito que}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conoce en profundidad. Si comparramos la forma de reso
lver problemas de la gente experta y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de la que no lo
es posiblemente descubriramos diferencias importantes en la forma de}\par\pard\li
653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {representacin del problema y de bsqueda y seleccin de estrategias de
solucin.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {El anlisis de las diferencias en solucin de
problemas entre expertos y novatos es una}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lnea importa
nte de investigacin que posee ya una cierta tradicin. Comienza con dos trabajos}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de gran inters sobre el estudio de los jugadores de ajed
rez, en el que observaban a jugadores}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {normales y a ma
estros. En estos primeros estudios de deGroot (1966) y en otros ms amplios}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {desarrollados por Chase & Simon (1973), se observa que los

maestros de ajedrez eran capaces de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0


\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {recordar la mayora
de las posiciones de las piezas en varias partidas a la vez, con una simple}\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs2
4\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mirada. Los jugadores normales (\uc1\u8220Xnovatos\uc1\u
8221X) no podan recordar ms que unas pocas posiciones}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {d
e esa partidas. Curiosamente, cuando las piezas de colocaban en los tableros de
ajedrez}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aleatoriamente, el recuerdo de maestros y jug
adores normales era muy semejante.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Una interpretacin
de estos interesantes resultados es que los maestros (expertos) agrupan}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {las piezas de las partidas en unidades (\uc1\u8220Xchunks\uc
1\u8221X) significativas muy grandes, lo cual les}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\p
gwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn440\pard\li62
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRU
CCIN 51}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
permitira ampliar la capacidad de su memoria a corto plazo. Cuando tales agrupaci
ones}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {significativas no se podan realizar, al presentar
les las piezas colocadas al azar su recuerdo era}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {seme
jante al de los jugadores normales (Newell & Simon, 1972). La destreza para agru
par la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {informacin en unidades con significado nos perm
ite ampliar la capacidad de nuestra memoria.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Esta es
una diferencia fundamental entre personas expertas y personas que no lo son.}\pa
r\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Cmo se adquiere esta habilidad? A costa de qu se logra? Al
estudiar a los maestros}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de ajedrez se calculaba que
empleaban entre 10.000 y 20.000 horas estudiando posiciones de}\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {partidas. Hagamos un clculo: un alumno que estudie 40 horas a la semana
(hay alguno?)}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {durante 33 semanas a lo largo de todo e
l curso, estudia 1320 en un ao. Imaginemos que este}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {al
umno dedica ms de 10 aos al estudio de una materia, o al juego del ajedrez. Desde
esta}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {perspectiva podemos comprender mejor por qu los e
xpertos como los maestros de ajedrez son}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {capaces de a
lmacenar entre 10.000 y 100.000 posiciones (jugadas) diferentes (Posner, 1988).}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {As, puede reconocer y recordar en muy poco tiempo much
as posiciones con una simple mirada.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La investigacin
sobre expertos realiza este tipo de anlisis: identificar las diferencias en}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la organizacin y acceso al conocimiento por parte de los
expertos que determina su mayor}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eficacia en solucin de
problemas (Glaser, 1987). Pero, concretamente en qu consisten estas}\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c

harscalex100 {diferencias? Este autor nos seala las ms importantes. Por ejemplo, e
l conocimiento de los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx1600\*\tx7360\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {expertos}\tab
\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {est organizado en principios y en esquemas amplios
,}\i0 \tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mientras que el novato lo}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {organiza de una forma literal. Esta manera de tener organizado el co
nocimiento le permite al}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {experto confiar y utilizar c
on frecuencia juicios y representaciones intuitivas. Algo que slo}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {puede hacer despus de aos de experiencia.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx6826\fs24\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {Las personas expertas practican y, por consiguiente,}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0
\charscalex100\i {desarrollan continuamente sus}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\s
lmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i
{habilidades.}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Pero slo en un dominio o mbito co
ncreto. Esto les permite adquirir}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {estructuras}\
i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \*\tx6160\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {significativas amplias.}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 { Tal esfuerzo continuo hace que}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
\i {su conocimiento sea fundamentalmente}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {proced
imental y orientado a una meta,}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { a lograr una ma
yor destreza en su dominio. El poseer un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx7506\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con
ocimiento almacenado en esquemas amplios, permite al experto}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\i {una rpida capacidad de}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {acceso}\i
0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { al mismo. Esto le permite representarse mejor y e
n menos tiempo cualquier problema. La}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {comprensin, pues
, ser mucho ms completa.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marg
lsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult
0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {52 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl
-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Esta es una de las razones, por ejemplo
, de que los expertos sean capaces de aplicar con}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {muc
ha frecuencia analogas a problemas nuevos. Su completa comprensin consiste en un}\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \f
s24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reconocimiento claro de los aspectos estructurales de
cualquier problema, es decir, abstrae lo}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {esencial, de
forma que le resulta fcil establecer similitudes con otros problemas o con otras
}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {situaciones. Desarrolla, pues, una}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100\i {gran capacidad de abstraccin y generalizacin.}\i0 \par\pard\li137
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {Los expertos, cuando resuelven un problema, proceden de un modo mu
y diferente a}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl
-266\slmult0 \*\tx5920\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {como lo hacen los que no son e
xpertos. Aquellos}\tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {planifican la tarea globalm
ente,}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { utilizan}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {pro
cedimientos de autorregulacin,}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { como distribuir l
a atencin en funcin de las demandas de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {situacin, y se
r particularmente sensible a los resultados que va obteniendo (a la}\par\pard\li

653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\


charscalex100 {retroalimentacin). Estos procesos de autorregulacin, adems, le permi
ten al experto}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\s
l-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {automatizar con mayor rapidez determin
adas operaciones, lo que libera una cantidad}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {consider
able de atencin. Pero todo esto resulta muy determinado por las}\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\i { demandas concretas de}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {las tarea.}
\i0 { }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En unos casos podrn utilizar los}{ }\fs22\cf0\
f0\charscalex100\i {esquemas especializados}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { que
han desarrollado y en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {otros no.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {Estas diferencias son las que se emplean en la elaboracin de programas p
ara la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {formacin de expertos. Los primeros trabajos de
instruccin en solucin de problemas como los}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de Polya (1
945) y Bloom & Broder (1950), eran en parte iniciativas de esta naturaleza, ya q
ue la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {tcnica bsica de instruccin que utilizaban consista
en utilizar \uc1\u8220Xmodelos\uc1\u8221X, es decir, observar a}\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {los ms capacitados y seguir sus pasos.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {La
investigacin sobre formacin de expertos ha dado y sigue dando resultados muy}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {importantes (vanse las revisiones de Chi, Glaser & Farr, 1
988; y Hoffman, 1992). El conocer}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {las caractersticas d
e los expertos nos ayuda a comprender mejor los mecanismos fundamentales}\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 {en la resolucin de problemas.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\b {5. DIFICULTADES EN LA SOLUCIN DE PROBLEMAS}\b0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Cuando uno intenta solucionar un problema se encuentra con dificultades a lo la
rgo de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {todo el proceso, dificultades a la hora de com
prenderlo, y dificultades a la hora de buscar y}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {selec
cionar acciones que nos permitan lograr la meta o la solucin, es decir, dificulta
des en la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {eleccin de la estrategia o estrategias idneas
. El origen de stas puede ser la complejidad del}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgw
sxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li6253
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAMIENTO E INSTRUCC
IN 53}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pr
oblema, la ambigedad o poca claridad del mismo, o la falta de informacin, de conoc
imiento.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-26
6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Otra clase de obstculos se encuentra en nos
otros mismos, en las rutinas de nuestro}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pensamiento y
en las predisposiciones derivadas de nuestro conocimiento. Esta clase de}\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {obstculos o problemas son lo que se denomina disposicin menta

l. La}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {disposicin mental}\i0 { }\fs22\cf0\f0\char


scalex100 {es un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {estado caracterizado por predisposic
iones, estereotipamientos o mecanizacin de nuestro}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pen
samiento. Cuando se resuelve un problema, la disposicin mental siempre es un bloq
ueo en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la bsqueda de soluciones. Intenten resolver el
problema clsico de \uc1\u8220Xlos nueve puntos\uc1\u8221X (tomado}\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {de Weisberg, 1986/1987):}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pg
hsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\cols4\colno1\colw2026\colsr-0\colno2\colw880\c
olsr-0\colno3\colw826\colsr-0\colno4\colw7360\pard\li1213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li1213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1213\ri0\sl-466\s
lmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u9679X}\par\pard\li1213\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1213\ri0\sl-506\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1
\u9679X}\par\pard\li1213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1213\ri0\sl-506
\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u9679X}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl
-466\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u9679X}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-506\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1
\u9679X}\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-506\slm
ult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u9679X}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slm
ult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-466
\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u9679X}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-506\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u96
79X}\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li13\ri0\sl-506\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {\uc1\u9679X}\par\column\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li26\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li26\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Conecte estos nueve puntos
mediante cuatro lneas rectas}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\chars
calex100 {sin levantar el lpiz del papel.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn1189
3\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Como sucede con todos los problemas de \uc1\u8220Xins
ight o idea feliz\uc1\u8221X, son difciles de resolver}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{porque la meta no est dada, son problemas mal definidos. En el caso del conocido
problema de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los nueve puntos, la dificultad se encue
ntra en nuestra}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {fijacin}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {para resolverlo siguiendo la figura}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult
0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {imagin
aria de un cuadrado. Pretendemos ayudarnos con una disposicin perceptiva equivoca
da.}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Seguimos una suposicin injustificada. Mientras uti
licemos esta fijacin nunca resolveremos el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema. E
s importante, por lo tanto, eliminar las suposiciones inadecuadas para suprimir
el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {bloqueo}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en la bs
queda de soluciones. Algunos autores creen que la eliminacin de las}\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\c
harscalex100 {suposiciones injustificadas o los bloqueos es suficiente para que
se encuentre la solucin. La}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {lectora/lector que no cono
zca la solucin, intente hacerlo, pero sin apoyarse en formas}\par\pard\li653\ri0\

sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal


ex100 {cuadradas.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\
ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Trate de resolver el siguiente pr
oblema numrico, antes de continuar:}\par\pard\li3373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li3373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3373\ri0\sl-186\slmult0
\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Imagine por qu los siguientes nmeros estn en ese orden
.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\c
ols10\colno1\colw2813\colsr-0\colno2\colw720\colsr-0\colno3\colw720\colsr-0\coln
o4\colw720\colsr-0\colno5\colw720\colsr-0\colno6\colw720\colsr-0\colno7\colw720\
colsr-0\colno8\colw720\colsr-0\colno9\colw720\colsr-0\colno10\colw2520\pard\li20
93\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {0,}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl
-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {5,}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmu
lt0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {4,}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20
\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {2,}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\c
harscalex100 {9,}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex
100 {8,}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {6,}\
par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {7,}\par\colum
n\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {3,}\par\column\pard\li
0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {1.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone
\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-28
0\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Nuestro conocimiento, que es esencial fren
te a cualquier problema, con frecuencia nos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {traiciona
, ya que nos gua por vas equivocadas o nos impide adoptar otra perspectiva como en
el}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133
\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsx
n666\margbsxn666\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex10
0 {54 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\char
scalex100 {problema de los nueve puntos de antes. Cuando nos enfrentamos a probl
emas numricos como el}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de arriba, lo primero que hacemo
s es buscar relacin o descubrir algn principio que se base en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\
sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {los valores de cada uno o en los valores que resultan de efectuar operaci
ones entre ellos. Son}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {muy pocos los que adoptan otra
perspectiva para solucionarlo. Y si no eliminamos esa fijacin}\par\pard\li653\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {no lo resolveremos. Cambiemos de perspectiva:}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0\b {ce}\b0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ro,}{ }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {ci}
\b0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {nco,}{ }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {cu}\b0 \fs
20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {atro,}{ }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {d}\b0 \fs20\cf0\
f1\charscalex100 {os,}{ }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {n}\b0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {ueve,}{ }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {o}\b0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{cho,}{ }\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {se}\b0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {is,}{
}\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {si}\b0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {ete,}{ }\fs20
\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {tr}\b0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {es,}{ }\fs20\cf0\f0\
charscalex100\b {u}\b0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {no}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213
\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{Los nmeros estn ordenados alfabticamente. En este problema caemos en lo que se con
oce}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {como}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {fijeza func
ional,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {una especie de disposicin o bloqueo men
tal. Nos empeamos en trabajar}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {con los nmeros como norma
lmente lo hacemos, realizando operaciones o clculos. Utilizamos}\par\pard\li653\r

i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\chars


calex100 {la}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {funcin}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00 { que normalmente poseen.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Otra dificultad import
ante a la hora de solucionar un problema consiste en ser incapaces}\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx6026\fs24
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de}\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { identificar o detectar
la informacin relevante,}\i0 \tab \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {debido a determinad
as disposiciones o}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {fijaciones mentales. Recuerden el
problema del revisor de tren que les plantebamos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {anter
iormente. En l, durante todo el tiempo nos estn indicando que bajan tantos, suben
tantos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\sl
mult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pasajeros, que nos convencemos de que el probl
ema va a consistir en calcular el nmero de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {viajeros en
un momento dado. La informacin aparentemente relevante se impone sobre la que}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {realmente lo es.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Todos sab
emos lo gratificante que es lograr superar cualquier obstculo o solucionar los}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problemas. Para determinados tipos de problemas, cuando
descubrimos un algoritmo que}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {funciona, lo seguimos a
plicando de forma automtica siempre que no falle. Ilustremos esta idea}\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f
0\charscalex100 {con otro problema clsico, el problema de las jarras de Luchins (
1942) pero antes intente}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {resolverlo:}\par\pard\sect\s
ectd\sbkpage\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsx
n666\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6253\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {PENSAM
IENTO E INSTRUCCIN 55}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \
fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Dispone de tres jarras (A,B,C) y tanta agua como dese
e. Utilizando adecuadamente las}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1
\charscalex100 {tres jarras, intente lograr la cantidad que se le especifica en
la columna META, para ello,}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\cha
rscalex100 {puede quitar o aadir agua de las jarras en la forma que quiera. La ca
ntidad de agua no}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100
{pueden ser calculada a ojo, sino que ha de hacerse llenando las jarras hasta e
l borde.}\par\pard\li2053\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {Ahora,
intente solucionar los 7 problemas de abajo.}\par\pard\li2013\ri0\sl-240\slmult0
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i {______________________________________________
________}\b0 \i0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn66
6\margrsxn133\cols5\colno1\colw4400\colsr-0\colno2\colw1133\colsr-0\colno3\colw1
186\colsr-0\colno4\colw893\colsr-0\colno5\colw3480\pard\li2453\ri0\sl-360\slmult
0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Problema}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slm
ult0 \fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {A}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0
\fs20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {B}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs
20\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {C}\b0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\b {Meta}\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn1
6840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\li2013\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100\b \i {______________________________________________________}\b0 \i0 \par
\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\cols5\c
olno1\colw4373\colsr-0\colno2\colw1000\colsr-0\colno3\colw1280\colsr-0\colno4\co
lw1026\colsr-0\colno5\colw3413\pard\li2800\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\chars

calex100 {1}\par\pard\li2800\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {2}\p


ar\pard\li2800\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {3}\par\pard\li2800
\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {4}\par\pard\li2800\ri0\sl-360\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {5}\par\pard\li2800\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {6}\par\pard\li2800\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscale
x100 {7}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {24}\
par\pard\li106\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {9}\par\pard\li0\ri
0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {21}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0
\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {12}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {19}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {23}
\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {18}\par\column\pard
\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {130}\par\pard\li120\ri0\sl-3
60\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {44}\par\pard\li120\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {58}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charsc
alex100 {160}\par\pard\li120\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {75}\
par\pard\li120\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {49}\par\pard\li120
\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {48}\par\column\pard\li106\ri0\sl
-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {3}\par\pard\li106\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \f
s20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {7}\par\pard\li106\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\char
scalex100 {4}\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {25}\pa
r\pard\li106\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {5}\par\pard\li106\ri
0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {3}\par\pard\li106\ri0\sl-360\slmult
0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {4}\par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf
0\f1\charscalex100 {100}\par\pard\li120\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscal
ex100 {21}\par\pard\li120\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {29}\par
\pard\li120\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {98}\par\pard\li120\ri
0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {46}\par\pard\li120\ri0\sl-360\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {20}\par\pard\li120\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f
1\charscalex100 {22}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\pard\li2013\ri0\sl-360\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b \i
{______________________________________________________}\b0 \i0 \par\pard\li1373
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Seguramente se habr dad
o cuenta de que todos los problemas se resuelven con la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
13\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {frmula: B \uc1\u8211X A \uc1\u8211X C \uc1\u8211X C. Es decir, quitar una cant
idad de lquido equivalente al contenido de la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {jarra A,
y dos del equivalente a la C, del contenido de la B. Con este algoritmo, obtend
remos la}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cantidad indicada en la meta para cada probl
ema. Cuando nos enfrentamos a esta tarea, nada ms}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmu
lt0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {desc
ubrir el algoritmo para el problema 1, intentamos aplicarlo al 2, y como funcion
a, seguimos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {aplicndolo al resto. Miremos el problema 6
y 7, si los observamos de nuevo veremos que el 6 se}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
soluciona simplemente vaciando parte del contenido de la jarra A en C (A \uc1\u8
211X C). Y el problema}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li6
53\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {siete lo solucionamos, aadiendo
el contenido de C en A (C + A).}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En ocasiones como
la anterior, procedemos de manera}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {automtica o me
cnica}\i0 { }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {utilizando}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pr
ocedimientos ms largos y costosos, porque el logro de uno nos lleva a seguir util
izndolo y de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-2
66\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {este modo nos impide dar con vas de solucin
ms simples. Una vez ms somos presa de las}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1

8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {rutinas}\i


0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de nuestro pensamiento.}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkn
one\pgwsxn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage\pgws
xn11893\pghsxn16840\marglsxn666\margrsxn133\margtsxn666\margbsxn346\pard\li653\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {56 Carlos Saiz}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\
par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-280\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {6. NATUR
ALEZA DEL \uc1\u8220XINSIGHT\uc1\u8221X (IDEA FELIZ)}\b0 \par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100 {Recordemos el problema de los nueve puntos de antes. Decamos que es un prob
lema mal}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\
slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {definido. Quienes lo hayan resuelto habrn exp
erimentado que la solucin ha aparecido}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {de sbito}\
i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult
0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {en nuestra mente, una sensacin semejante al \uc1\u8
220Xeureka\uc1\u8221X, \uc1\u8220Xya lo tengo\uc1\u8221X, aj! Quien no lo haya}\par
\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22
\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {resuelto habr experimentado un}{ }\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {bloqueo}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { de toda iniciativa de solucin que
no fuera \uc1\u8220Xfijarse al}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\
pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {cuadrado\uc1\u8221X. L
a naturaleza del insight ha sido ampliamente estudiada en la tradicin gestaltista
, en}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmu
lt0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {la cual se defiende que la solucin de problemas s
e produce en fogonazos de inspiracin,}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {sbitamente \uc1\u
8220Xvemos\uc1\u8221X la solucin (Weisberg, 1986/1987). Desde esta misma posicin,
se dice}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\s
lmult0 \*\tx1440\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que el}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex1
00\i {bloqueo}\i0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en los problemas de insight se pr
oduce porque normalmente no podemos}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx4440\fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reestruc
turar el problema, debido a}\tab \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {fijaciones}\i0 \f
s22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { en determinadas formas de estructurarlo -el}\par\pard
\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\
f0\charscalex100 {cuadrado, en el problema de los nueve puntos- (Weisberg, 1992)
.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-266\slmul
t0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {En este anlisis de la Gestalt se defiende que la s
olucin de problemas de este tipo sucede}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\
cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {por una reestr
ucturacin sbita, la cual es independiente de la experiencia pasada y de la prctica}
\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \
fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reciente con problemas de la misma clase. Se supone q
ue la solucin se alcanza por una especie}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18
\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de}{ }\fs24\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\i {proceso todo o nada,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {n
o gradual, por insight. Por el contrario, una solucin que no se logre de}\par\par
d\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \*\tx4920
\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {manera todo o nada, se alcanzar por un}\tab \fs24\cf0
\f0\charscalex100\i {proceso gradual,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {que se
apoye en las experiencias}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {pasadas; este proceso se co
nsidera crucial en el pensamiento creativo (Weisberg, 1986/1987).}\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {Dentro de esta visin gradual, el mismo Weisberg propone que solucion
ar un problema es un}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {proceso cclico,}\i0 { }\fs24\cf
0\f0\charscalex100 { en el que se recupera informacin desde la memoria y despus se

aplica al}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-26


6\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {problema. Si no se logra la solucin, el cic
lo de bsqueda comienza de nuevo. Una visin}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs1
8\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {semejante, t
ambin gradual, es la de Simon, Newell & Shaw (1962/1979), en la que el proceso}\p
ar\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs
24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {de bsqueda en el espacio del problema es el mecanismo fu
ndamental de resolucin.}\par\pard\li1373\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li
1373\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Es evidente la diferencia su
stancial entre el \uc1\u8220Xproceso sbito\uc1\u8221X en el \uc1\u8220Xinsight\uc
1\u8221X y el proceso}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li65
3\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {gradual en solucin de problemas.
No es nuestro inters aqu contrastar teoras, sino extraer}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{algunas ideas sobre el anlisis que se hace del bloqueo del \uc1\u8220Xinsight\u
c1\u8221X. Retornemos al problema de}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf
0\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {los nueve puntos
. Desde la Gestalt se propone que el bloqueo se debe a}{ }\fs24\cf0\f0\charscale
x100\i {presunciones tcitas o}\i0 \par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li653\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {suposiciones injus
tificadas}\i0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (en el problema de los nueve puntos,
fracasamos porque no}\par\pard\li653\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li653
\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs24\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {conseguimos \uc1\u8220Xdespegar\
uc1\u8221X del cuadrado). Si se consiguen eliminar esas suposiciones, el problem
a}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(66,0);}}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft3720\shptop10093\shpright3826\shpbottom10093\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft3760\shptop9906\shpright3826\shpbottom9906\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}


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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft3720\shptop9733\shpright3826\shpbottom9733\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(106,0);}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft3760\shptop9546\shpright3826\shpbottom9546\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft3720\shptop9373\shpright3826\shpbottom9373\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft3760\shptop9213\shpright3826\shpbottom9213\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(66,0);}}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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\absh16840\absw11893{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn pibFlags}{\sv 2}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fEditedWrap}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict
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}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6440\shptop9920\shpright6920\shpbottom10413\shpfhdr0\shp
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 480}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 493}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(0,493);(493,493);(493,0);(0,0);}}
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{\*\shpinst
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\absh16840\absw11893{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pibFlags}{\sv 2}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fEditedWrap}{\sv 0}}
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}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5453\shptop10413\shpright5946\shpbottom10906\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 493}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 493}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
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{\*\shpinst
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\absh16840\absw11893{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
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{\sp{\sn pibFlags}{\sv 2}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5946\shptop10413\shpright6440\shpbottom10906\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 493}}


{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(0,493);(493,493);(493,0);(0,0);}}
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{\*\shpinst
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\absh16840\absw11893{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6440\shptop10413\shpright6920\shpbottom10906\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 480}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 493}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(0,493);(493,493);(493,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;12;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}


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{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 16777215}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
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{\*\shpinst
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\absh16840\absw11893{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
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{\sp{\sn pibFlags}{\sv 2}}
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{\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5453\shptop10906\shpright5946\shpbottom11386\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 493}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 480}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(0,493);(493,493);(493,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;12;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 16777215}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}

{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}{\shp
{\*\shpinst
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\absh16840\absw11893{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn pibFlags}{\sv 2}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fEditedWrap}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict
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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5946\shptop10906\shpright6440\shpbottom11386\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(0,493);(493,493);(493,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;12;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 16777215}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}{\shp
{\*\shpinst
\shpleft5946\shptop10906\shpright6440\shpbottom11386

\shpfhdr0\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2516\shpz17\shpbxpage\shpbypage
\absh16840\absw11893{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn pibFlags}{\sv 2}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fEditedWrap}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict
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}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6440\shptop10906\shpright6920\shpbottom11386\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 480}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 480}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(0,493);(493,493);(493,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;12;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 16777215}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}{\shp
{\*\shpinst
\shpleft6440\shptop10906\shpright6920\shpbottom11386
\shpfhdr0\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2517\shpz19\shpbxpage\shpbypage
\absh16840\absw11893{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn pibFlags}{\sv 2}}

{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fEditedWrap}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict
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}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5493\shptop10386\shpright5493\shpbottom11146\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 760}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,760);}}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
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{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5480\shptop10386\shpright6586\shpbottom10386\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 1106}}
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(1106,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}

{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}


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{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
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{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6573\shptop10386\shpright6573\shpbottom11146\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 760}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(0,760);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft5480\shptop11133\shpright6586\shpbottom11133\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 1106}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;2;(0,0);(1106,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;5;16384;45824;1;45824;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 12700}}
{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft6920\shptop8946\shpright7413\shpbottom9426\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 493}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 480}}

{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}


{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(0,493);(493,493);(493,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;12;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
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{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 16777215}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
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{\*\shpinst
\shpleft6920\shptop8946\shpright7413\shpbottom9426
\shpfhdr0\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2518\shpz22\shpbxpage\shpbypage
\absh16840\absw11893{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 75}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn pibFlags}{\sv 2}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fEditedWrap}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn pib}{\sv {\pict
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}}}}
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft7413\shptop8946\shpright7906\shpbottom9426\shpfhdr0\shpw
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
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{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 480}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(0,493);(493,493);(493,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;12;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}

{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}


{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 16777215}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
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