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Freezing time predictions for regular shaped foods: a simplified

graphical method

V. O. Salvadori, R. O. Reynoso, A. de Michelis and R. H. Mascheroni


Centro de Investigacidn y Dessarrollo en Criotecnologla de Alimentos (CIDCA), Facultad de
Ciencias Exactas 47 y 116 (1900), La Plata, Argentina
Received 21 November 1986: revised 6 March 1987

A graphical method is proposed for the estimation of freezing times of foods with a high water content. It has
been developed from the predictions of a numerical model which solves the heat balance for a food
undergoing freezing. The method is valid for foods with different shapes (fiat plate, cylinder and sphere) and
covers a wide range of working conditions for industrial freezers. It also enables the prediction to be made for
any given end temperature in the thermal centre of the food. Freezing times predicted by this method have
been compared with published experimental data, giving an average error in the predicted values of only 4 9/0.
(Keyworfls:freezing;freezingtimes; foodproducts)

Prbvisions du temps de congblation pour les aliments de forme


r guli re: mbthode graphique simplifire
On propose une mdthode graphique pour I'estimation des temps de conodlation des aliments d forte teneur en eau.
Cette mdthode est obtenue d partir d'un moddle num~rique donnant le bilan thermique du produit en coms de
congdlation. On peut appliquer cette mdthode d des aliments de diffdrentes formes (plaque plane, cylindre et
sphbre). Elle se rapporte ~ diverses conditions du fonctionnement des congblateurs du shiels et permet de prbvoir
une temperature finale donnde au centre thermique. En outre, on a compard les temps calculds avec les temps
exp~rimentaux publies, et on a trouv~ une difference moyenne de 4 % seulement.
(Mots clds: congdlation;temps de congdlation;aliments)

Nomenclature radius of sphere or cylinder) (m)


m, n Constants in the definition of X
t Time (s)
Bi Biot number (= hL/ko) tf Freezing time (s)
C Constant in the definition of X T Temperature (C)
Cpo Heat capacity of unfrozen food (J kg- ~ C- 1) Tc Temperature of the thermal centre (C)
e Percentage error of predicted tf (9/o) Tcr Initial freezing temperature (C)
Fo Fourier number ( = tCtoL- 2) Ti Initial food temperature (C)
h Heat transfer coefficient (W m - 2 C- ~) T~ Cooling medium temperature (C)
ko Thermal conductivity of unfrozen food X Characteristic variable (-)
(Wm-1 of-1 ) ~to Thermal diffusivity of unfrozen food (m2s- l)
L Food dimension (half thickness of slab, Po Density of unfrozen food (kg m - 3)

During the last few years there has been a notable increase calculate freezing times in a relatively simple way, whilst
in published literature referring to freezing time accounting for the influence of working conditions (initial
predictions for foods. The following two different and final food temperature, heat transfer coefficients,
approaches have been used: refrigerant temperature, composition, size and shape of
1. numerical methods: these are based on the solution of the food). In general these methods are expressed as a
the differential thermal balance for the food to be frozen. combination of graphs and mathematical formulae or as a
They also allow for variations in the thermophysical series of formulae required to achieve good precision 1-22.
properties of the food with temperature. In general they It has been adequately proved and accepted 17 that,
require complex calculations and a powerful computer. even using the most precise and detailed modelling, the
With these methods freezing time, tf, as well as accuracy of prediction is limited due to the lack of precise
temperature profiles as functions of time can be predicted. experimental data or prediction equations for the
It is also possible to study the influence of each individual thermophysical properties over the required temperature
process parameter on freezing timer-9; and range. Thus, standard deviations from 2.6 to 5 . 6 ~
2. approximate methods: these are developed to between calculated and experimental freezing times are

0140-7007/87/060357-05503.00
1987 Butterworth & Co (Publishers)Ltd and IIR Rev. Int. Froid 1987 Vol 10 Novembre 357
Freezing time predictions. V. O. Salvadori et al.

obtained, depending on the food shape and calculation with much less calculation. In this Paper, a method is
method used. proposed to estimate freezing times for any practical
As will be shown in the present work, a good condition in industrial freezing. It is based on a
approximate model can give results of similar accuracy generalized graph which gives temperature variation in
the food as a function of only one dimensionless variable
X. The method also accounts for process conditions and
25t'~ physical properties of the unfrozen product.

10 '~
o :l
Proposed method
D In previous studies 4,8.~0 numerical models were
~.+~,~_.~_--:
J developed which allowed prediction of temperature
:+7. ~ ', profiles at any time, in addition to predicting freezing
\ times for different geometries. To evaluate tr it is necessary
-10 \\
~ ~ ', to know the variation with time of the temperature at the
\\\
-15 ~ ~ , thermal centre of the food, T~; this coincides with the
i i I 3 I /41 i
geometrical centre for regular shapes.
-20 1 The basis of the proposed model is to find a new
Fo independent variable which may adequately account for
the simultaneous influence of time, process parameters,
Tj, Tf, Bi, food properties, So, and dimensions, L, on the
variation in temperature of the thermal centre, T~. Thus,
20
t15 ........ ~... "="'=''=,= all possible working conditions (any Ti, T~, Bi, ~o or L)
must lead to similar curves of T~ versus X . This variable is
defined as:
oS ~c
3 N\ "'::".-~ .......... ' " , . . ",,=
" - ; . - . . . .......
Fo[(Tr- Tcr)/Tcr]"
X - (1/Bi + C)[(Tcr- Ti)/Tcr] n (l)
~. ,.... ,~

\ '~... ~,
where Tcr is the initial freezing temperature (which for
meat was estimated as T+r= - IC) and C, m and n are
,+
empirical constants whose values are dependent on the
food and its geometry. This definition of X arises from the
--2C I ZIo [ ~0 [ I0 I ~0 - -
existence of several regressions for the calculation of
X (dimensionless) freezing time of the following typel'22:
Figure 1 Temperatures during freezing at the centre of a slab of meat
cooled with heat flow perpendicular to fibres. (a) Independent variable: Fo=A(1/Bi+C)[(Tcr- Ti)/Tcr]n[(Tf - Tcr)/Tcr] -m (2)
dimensionless time, Fo. (b) Independent variable: characteristic
parameter, X. Freezing conditions:- - -, Bi = 1, Ti = 7, Tf = - 25; . . . . . ,
Bi=2, T~=7, 7 ~ = - 4 5 ; . . . . . , Bi=5, Ti=7, 7~=35; - - + - - + , which, when rearranged, lead to an equation similar to
Bi=13, 7]=25, T f = - 4 0 ; , Bi=13, 7]=15, T f = - 4 0 ; Equation (1).
- - o - - o - - , Bi=13, Ti=2 , 7~= - 4 0 ; ..... , Bi=35, ~ = 7 , 7~= - 3 5 The three constants were adjusted to give the lower
Figure 1 Evolution de la temp&ature au cours de la conqdlation d'une spread in the numerical values of T~ versus X (see Figure
plaque de viande refroidie avec flux thermique perpendiculaire aux fibres.
(a) Variable ind@endante: temps sans dimension, Fo. (b) Variable
lb), in the final freezing zone. The ranges of process
indbpendante: param&re caracteristique, X. Conditions de congblation: parameters, Bi, T~ and Tr, covered in the optimization of
, B i = l , T+=7, T y - ~ - 2 5 ; . . . . . , Bi=2, T~=7, T f = - 4 5 ; the method are shown in Table 1 for the geometries
..... , Bi=5, Ti=7, T f = - 3 5 , --+ + , Bi=13, Ti=25, studied. In all cases, thermal properties of beef were used
Ty=-40; ....... , B i - 1 3 , T~=15, T y = - 4 0 ; - - o o--, Bi=13,
for the food.
T~=2, T f = - 4 0 ; ..... , Bi=35, T~=7, Ty= - 3 5

Table 1 Extreme ranges of processing conditions used in the definition of the method and values of empirical constants used in the calculation of X
Tableau 1 Domaines extremes de conditions de traitement utilis~es dans la dbfinition de la re&bode et des valeurs des constantes empiriques utilisbes dans le
calcul de X

Value of
Range of freezing parameters constants in X formula

Geometry and type of food 7] (C) Tf (C) Bi m n C

Flat plate (lean beef, heat flow perpendicular to fibres) 2-25 - 25 - 45 1-50 1.04 0.09 0.18

Flat plate (lean beef, heat flow parallel to fibres) 2-20 - 25 - 45 1-60 1.03 0.10 0.16

Infinite cylinder (lean beef, heat flow perpendicular to fibres) 7 25 - 2(~- 40 1-30 1.00 0.09 0.17

Sphere (minced meat) 2-25 - 25- - 45 1-20 0.90 0.06 0.18

358 Int. J. Refrig. 1987 Vol 10 November


Freezing time predictions: V. O. Salvadori et al.

Results and discussion T h e c u r v e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s is s h o w n ; t h i s w a s


used to average the variation range of X for each
Figure l a s h o w s predicted time-temperature curves,
temperature. It should be noted that this method allows
calculated with the numerical model, for the thermal
o n e t o e s t i m a t e tt f o r a n y f i n a l To, w h e n m o s t o f t h e
c e n t r e o f a f l a t p l a t e o f b e e f w h i c h is f r o z e n w i t h h e a t f l o w
approximate methods are only valid for a set final
in a direction perpendicular to the fibres. Each curve
temperature, generally - 10 or - 18C.
represents the output of one run of the computer program
I n Table 2 e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l ( n u m e r i c a l )
of the model. These thermal histories correspond to very
v a l u e s o f tr a r e c o m p a r e d t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n m a d e w i t h t h e
different freezing conditions, calculated using the most
proposed method for different foods with flat plate
e x t r e m e v a l u e s o f Ti, Tf a n d Bi f o u n d i n i n d u s t r i a l f r e e z i n g
geometry. The average percentage error for all the
p r o c e s s e s . Figure l b s h o w s t h e s a m e c u r v e s p l o t t e d i n
p u b l i s h e d T y l o s e 11 r e s u l t s is 6 . 9 ~ o , w h i l s t f o r t h o s e
terms of the new variable, X. In the temperature range in
p u b l i s h e d i n R e f e r e n c e 19 t h e e r r o r is 2 . 9 ~o. A s c a n b e
which the product can be considered as partially or
o b s e r v e d p r e d i c t i o n is v e r y g o o d , e v e n f o r n o n - b e e f
wholly frozen, the maximum separation between curves
p r o d u c t s . T h e s a m e c u r v e is v a l i d f o r s u b s t a n c e s w i t h h i g h
(in t e r m s o f X ) is o n l y 1 2 ~ .
water content and structures which are not very regular in
I n Figure 2 t h e r e g i o n f r o m - 2 t o - 1 8 C is s h o w n f o r
t h e d i r e c t i o n o f h e a t f l u x (for e x a m p l e , m i n c e d m e a t s ,
t h e s a m ~ p r o d u c t a n d w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s a s i n Figure 1.

Table 2 Comparison of published freezing times with those predicted by this work for a flat plate with heat flow perpendicular to the fibres
Tableau 2 Comparaison des temps de congblation publibs avec ceux prbvus d' aprbs cette &ude pour une plaque plane avec flux thermique perpendiculaire
aux fibres

L h ~ 7~ Tc tf,exp tf, pred Error


Material (m) (W m - 2 C - ' ) Bi (C) (C) (C) (h) (h) (%)

Lean beef 16 0.03 168.5 10.53 18.3 -38.7 -18 1.30 1.29 -0.86
ko =0.48 W m -1 C-1 0.03 146.9 9.18 18.0 -33.3 -18 1.52 1.59 4.50
~o= 1.311 x 10-7m2 s - t 0.03 88.1 5.51 17.8 -39.9 -18 1.57 1.64 4.22
0.03 72.2 4.51 22.0 - 27.3 - 18 2.47 2.78 12.63
0.047 120.5 11.80 8.0 - 36.5 - 18 2.83 3.03 6.97
M u t t o n 1 0.03 79.5 4.82 10.6 - 37.0 - 18 1.90 1.92 1.28
ko = 0.495 W m -1 C -1 0.03 99.58 6.04 9.6 -40.15 -18 1.47 1.56 6.13
cto= 1.24 x 10-7 m2 s - I 0.03 120.53 7.30 10.3 -33.15 -18 1.92 1.77 -7.98
0.03 102.89 6.24 9.4 - 39.9 - 18 1.65 1.54 -6.43
Minced meat 11 0.02425 21.6 1.19 3.0 -28.4 -10 3.30 3.42 3.80
ko=0.44 W m -1 C -1 0.036" 220.0 18.00 28.0 -25.0 -10 2.32 2.38 2.65
~o = 1.302 x 10- ~ m z s - 1 0.036 a 51.9 4.25 3.0 - 23.9 - 10 3.84 3.69 - 3.94
0.02425" 90.0 4.96 30.0 - 25.4 - 10 1.68 1.73 3.05
0.0125" 30.6 0.87 28.6 - 25.7 - 10 1.54 1.58 2.31
0.0125 a 16.7 0.47 16.5 - 28.8 - 10 2.34 2.31 - 1.42
Mashed potato 11'1 0.02425 90.0 4.12 18.3 -26.7 -10 1.58 1.57 -0.54
ko = 0.53 W m - 1 oC - 1 0.02425 21.6 0.99 15.0 - 25.0 - 10 4.48 4.67 4.26
~ = 1.448 x 1 0 - 7 m 2 s -1 0.022 106.0 4.4 16.8 -25.5 -18 1.47 1.44 -1.73
0.023 69.0 2.99 4.0 - 30.6 - 18 1.50 1.46 - 2.57
0.036" 90.0 6.11 28.0 -24.3 -10 3.12 3.22 3.27
0.036 a 51.9 3.53 11.8 - 24.9 - 10 3.72 3.93 5.64
0.0125" 30.6 0.72 28.4 - 25.9 - 10 1.76 1.66 - 5.85
0.0125" 13.6 0.32 4.7 - 25.9 - 10 3.02 3.01 - 0.28
Tylose tl (selected values) 0.036 51.9 3.06 10.0 - 40.0 - 10 2.22 2.25 1.49
ko=0.61 W m - I C -x 0.036" 410.0 24.20 3.0 -22.0 -10 1.92 1.70 -11.27
= 1.644 x 10- 7 m 2 s - ~ 0.036" 51.9 3.06 30.0 - 20.0 - 10 4.80 5.20 8.44
0.036" 21.6 1.27 10.0 - 40.0 - 10 4.02 4.28 6.58
0.02425 a 410.0 16.30 11.0 -21.0 -10 1.00 0.98 -2.10
0.02425" 30.6 1.22 20.0 - 30.0 - 10 2.74 2.90 5.76
0.02425" 30.6 1.22 20.0 - 30.0 - 10 2.66 2.90 9.02
0.0125 a 430.0 8.81 3.0 - 19.0 - 10 0.34 0.32 - 5.96
0.0125 a 51.9 1.06 30.0 -40.0 -10 0.64 0.66 2.89
0.0125" 21.6 0.44 30.0 -40.0 -10 1.42 1.44 1.24
0.0125" 16.7 0.34 28.7 -26.0 -10 2.68 2.89 7.99
Carp 19 0.024 68.5 3.43 3.9 -28.7 -18 1.65 1.68 2.18
ko=0.48 W m - 1 oC-1
cto=1.341 x 10 - ~ m 2 s -1
Tylose 19 (selected values) 0.0145 108.0 2.85 3.5 -29.3 -18 0.55 0.61 10.50
ko=0.55 W m -1 C -1 0.006 108.0 1.18 16.8 -30.9 -18 0.22 0.22 0.00
= 1.482 x 10-7 m 2 s - 1 0.0055 106.0 1.06 4.4 - 25.7 - 18 0.21 0.22 3.20
0.0135 68.0 1.67 17.4 - 25.2 - 18 1.00 1.03 3.25
Numerical method 0.036 14.25 1.0 7.0 -25.0 - 18 12.63 12.17 -3.66
Extreme values of process conditions 0.036 14.25 1.0 7.0 -45.0 -18 6.29 6.48 2.99
ko=0.513 W i n - 1 C -1 0.036 185.96 13.05 2.0 -40.0 -18 1.47 1.46 -0.53
= 1.268 x 10- 7 m 2 s - 1 0.036 185.96 13.05 25.0 - 40.0 - 18 1.76 1.78 0.90
0.036 490.91 34.45 7.0 - 35.0 - 18 1.44 1.5 4.20

Parameters outside the range given in Table 1

Rev. Int. Froid 1987 Vol 10 Novembre 359


Freezing time predictions." V. O. Salvadori et al.

--.... ,,~ , ,~,,7, fibres transversal to heat flow, gels and mashed potatoes,
etc.).
"- (.. ', '2, In F i g u r e 3 similar graphs are presented for beef with
flat plate (heat flow parallel to the fibres, high k), infinite
t cylinder and sphere geometries, showing both the selected
curve and the extreme ranges of variation. The variation
did not exceed 15 % in any of the cases studied.
In Table 3, published data are c o m p a r e d with tf values
predicted by this method for flat plates with heat flow
parallel to the fibres; the agreement obtained is similar to
-;5
that in Table 2. F o r both infinite cylinders and spheres, all
"',.X',', the published points for Tylose ~3 were calculated using
this method; the average errors of approximately 30
i i I i
points were 5.4 and 3.3 %, respectively.
-ZOo 50 0 70 80 9o It should be noted that the errors revealed in the
X (dimensionless) comparisons with the numerical model correspond to
Figure 2 Reduced curves for the temperature of a slab (same as for extreme values of the process parameters, that is, in
Fioure lb) in the zone of interest for freezing time predictions., normal situations of industrial freezing the prediction
Proposed method; other symbols represent same conditions as in would be more precise. Also, all experimental data in the
Figure 1 bibliography were checked for any product, but only
Figure 2 Courbes reduites pour la temperature d'une plaque (comme those whose freezing conditions were within the validity
Figure lb) dans la zone drint~r~t pour les prdvisions du temps de
cong~lation. , M~thode proposde; les autres symbols reprdsentent les ranges of each curve were considered in the calculation of
mdmes conditions que pour le Figure 1 the error limits in the predicted tr. This implies that data

b
-2

-6

-1( ",,, ,,
A
U -lz
o

t_

-18 I I Xl \ x I M I \ \l'~
n 28 32 36 40 d 60 70 80 90

b-
-2 I
t I
l I
l I
l I

'\i
-6 l
l
I
!
l I
I I

-10
\ ", \ \

\ '\ X "

-1L
')
\~ X \\

-1 __1 I

14 1{3 18 20 60 70 80 90
X (dimensiontess)
Figure 3 Reducedcurves for the temperature of the centre of different shaped foods. , Proposed criterion; - - -, extreme ranges of variation of the
numerical method. (a) Cylinder; (b) flat plate with heat flow parallel to fibres; (c) sphere; (d) flat plate with heat flow perpendicular to fibres
Figure 3 Courbes reduites pour la tempbrature centrale d'aliments de formes differentes. , Critbre propose; - - -, domaines extrbnes de variation de la
mbthode numbrique. (a) Cylindre; (b) plaque plane avec flux thermique parallble aux fibres; (c) sphbre; (d) plaque plane avec flux thermique perpendiculaire
aux fibres

360 Int. J. Refrig. 1 9 8 7 Vol 10 N o v e m b e r


Freezing time predictions." V. O. Salvadori et al.
Table 3 Comparison of published freezing times with those predicted by this work for a flat plate with heat flow parallel to the fibres
Tableau 3 Comparaison des temps de congklation publibs avec ceux prbvus d'aprbs cette btude pour une plaque plane avec flux thermique parallble aux
fibres

L h Ti Tff Tc tf,exp tf,pred Error


Material (m) (W m - 2 C- ~) Bi (C) (C) (C) (h) (h) (%)

Lean beef19 0.024 106.0 4.99 17.4 - 25.2 - 18 1.81 1.65 - 8.99
ko=0.51Wm 1 oC-1 0.0235 69.0 3.18 4.3 -27.6 - 18 1.75 1.67 -4.84
~o = 1 . 3 9 7 x 1 0 - 7 m 2 s -1

Numerical method 0.036 15.56 1.00 7.0 -25 - 18 11.55 11.19 -3.12
Extreme values of process conditions 0.036 777.78 50.00 7.0 - 25 - 18 1.77 1.74 - 1.91
0.036 535.89 34.45 7.0 - 45 - 18 0.94 0.98 3.89
0.036 535.89 34.45 2.0 - 40 - 18 1.02 1.00 - 1.72
0.036 77.78 5.00 20.0 - 45 - 18 2.01 2.05 1.90

c o r r e s p o n d i n g to p r o d u c t s w i t h differences in w a t e r 4 Mascheroni, R. H. Transferencia de calor con simult/meo cambio


c o n t e n t , h o m o g e n e i t y , s t r u c t u r e , etc., w e r e used. T h e de fase en la congelacibn de productos cb.rneos PhD Thesis
Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina (1977)
m a x i m u m e r r o r in t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f tf was 13 %, t h e
5 Hsieh, R. C., Lerew, L. E~ Heldman, D. R. Prediction of freezing
o v e r a l l m e a n e r r o r w a s 4 . 1 % , a n d 90 % o f t h e p o i n t s lay times for foods as influenced by product properties J Food Proc
w i t h i n an e r r o r o f - 8.0 to + 8.2 %. T h e s e results i n d i c a t e Eng (1977) 1 183-197
t h a t this m e t h o d has a v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y p r e c i s i o n . 6 Schwartzberg, H. G., Rosenau, J. R., Height, J. R. The prediction
T h e f o l l o w i n g is a p r a c t i c a l g u i d e to the steps r e q u i r e d of freezing and thawing temperatures versus time behaviour
through the use of effective heat capacity equation IIR
t o use this m e t h o d : Commissions C1 and C2 Karlsruhe, FRG (1977) 311-318
1. t h e p r o d u c t is d e f i n e d a n d its t h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s in 7 Rebellato, L., Del Giudice, S., Cnmini, G. Finite element analysis
of freezing processes in foodstuffs J Food Sci (1978) 43 239-243
t h e u n f r o z e n s t a t e a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e o r by 8 Mascheroni, R. H., Caivelo, A. Relationship between heat
measurement; transfer parameters and the characteristic damage variables for
2. o n c e the g e o m e t r y is given, t h e d e s i r e d final the freezing of beef Meat Science (1980) 4 267-285
t e m p e r a t u r e is selected for t h e t h e r m a l c e n t r e ; 9 Purwadaria, H. K., Heldman, D. R. A finite element model for
prediction of freezing rates in food products with anomalous
3. w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e defined (T~, Tf a n d Bi);
shapes ASAE Trans (1982) 25 827-832
4. t h e X v a l u e is o b t a i n e d f r o m the c o r r e s p o n d i n g 10 Bazim, H. C., Mascheroni, R. H. Heat transfer with simultaneous
curve; and change of phase in freezing boned mutton Latin American J Heat
5. tf is c a l c u l a t e d , r e a r r a n g i n g E q u a t i o n (1) t o o b t a i n : Mass Transfer (1984) 8 55-76
11 Cleland, A. C., Earle, R. L. A comparison of analytical and
numerical methods for predicting freezing times of foods J Food
tf = X(1/Bi + C)[(Tcr- Ti)/Tcr]n[(Tf - Tcr)/Tcr] -m0~o 1L2 Sci (1977) 42 1390-1395
(3) 12 Cleland, A. C., Earle, R. L. Predicting freezing times of foods in
rectangular packages J Food Sci (1979) 44 964-970
13 Cleland, A. C., Earle, R. L. A comparison of methods for
T h u s , it c a n be seen t h a t this m e t h o d c o m b i n e s predicting the freezing times of cylindrical and spherical
s i m p l i c i t y w i t h a d e g r e e o f p r e c i s i o n c o m p a r a b l e to t h a t of foodstuffs J Food Sci (1979) 44 958-963
much more involved approximate or even numerical 14 Cleland, A. C., Earle, R. L. Freezing time prediction for foods - a
simplified procedure Int J Refrig (1982) 5 134-140
m e t h o d s . I n a d d i t i o n , o n l y o n e g r a p h is n e c e s s a r y for a 15 Mascheroni, R. H., Calvelo, A. A simplified model for freezing
w i d e v a r i e t y o f f o o d s h a v i n g t h e s a m e g e o m e t r y o r for a n y time calculations in foods J Food Sci (1982) 47 1201-1207
final t e m p e r a t u r e . 16 de Michelis, A., Calvelo, A. Mathematical models for non-
F i n a l l y , it s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h v a l u e s o f m, n symmetric freezing of beef J Food Sci (1982) 47 1211-1217
a n d C w e r e o b t a i n e d for t h e r a n g e s o f p r o c e s s p a r a m e t e r s 17 Cieland, A. C., Earle, R. L., Cleland, D. J. The effect of freezing
rate on the accuracy of numerical freezing time predictions Int J
specified in Table 1, w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h o s e limits will n o t Refrig (1982) 5 294-301
l e a d to h i g h e r e r r o r s in t h e e s t i m a t i o n of tf, as s h o w n by 18 de Michelis, A., Calvelo, A. Freezing time predictions for brick
s o m e of t h e d a t a ( m a r k e d a) in Table 2. and cylindrical-shaped foods J Food Sci (1983) 48 909-913
19 Hung, Y. C., Thompson, D. R. Freezing time prediction for slab
shape foodstuffs by an improved analytical method J Food Sci
References (1983) 48 555-560
20 Pham, Q. T. Extension to Plank's equation for predicting
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Rev. Int. Froid 1987 Vol 10 Novembre 361