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Clutches and Brakes

 A clutch differs from a brake in the fact that a


brake connects a moving member to a
stationary frame whereas a clutch connects one
moving member to another.

 The driver and the driven parts are connected


or disconnected by clutch they are at rest or at
motion.
Friction-based machines

 Issues of concern in engineering of these


devices:
Force, Torque, Energy loss and Δtemperature

 Practical design/performance criteria:


Torque, Friction, Wear

Failure criteria:
Maximum temperature and Maximum pressure
Classification
They are classified as follows :

Friction clutch:

 Disc clutch
 Multi disk clutch
 Cone clutch
The Parameters involved in the rating of
Clutches & Brakes

1- Torque required to accelerate or decelerate the system.


2- Time required to accomplish the system change.
3- The cycling rate: No. of on/off.
4- The environment of the system, temp, pressure, cooling.
5- The inertia of the system.
6- Energy dissipated.
7- Physical size configuration.
8- Actuating means (mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic).
9- Life & reliability & availability.
10- Cost.
Time required to accelerate a load

 T = 𝑰𝜽
 I : Moment of inertia
 𝜃 : Angular acceleration
𝐼
 K= 𝑀
then I=MK2
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 M : mass (W/g)
 W : weight (kg)
 g : acceleration gravity
 K : radius of gyration
 I = M K2 = W K2 /g
𝑊 𝐾2 ∆𝑛
 T = 𝐼𝜃 = 𝑔 𝑡
 W K2 : inertia of the load
1
 K2 = (R12 + R22)
2
 V = π (R12 – R22) L
 W=ρV
𝜋𝜌𝐿
 Inertia = W K2 =ρV K2 = (R14 – R24)
2
 ρ Steel = 7800 kg/m3
 ρ cast iron = 7200 kg/m3
 ρ asbestos = 1600 kg/m3
Inertia of system required to
clutch shaft
clutch

𝑊 𝐾2 ∆𝑛
 T = 𝐼𝜃 = 𝑔 𝑡
 Inertia of a system
referred to the clutch shaft
speed
𝑛 2
 W Ke = W
2 K2 ( 𝑛𝑐
)
 n : speed of the interest part
 nc : speed of the clutch
 WK2: inertia of the part
 WKe2: inertia of the clutch
clutch

 Inertia of clutch 1-2 W K2


 Inertia of pulley A W K2
 Inertia of shaft 1-2 W K2
 Inertia of pulley B W K2 e
 Inertia of shaft 3-4 W K2 e
 Inertia of gear C W K2 e
 Inertia of gear D W K2 e
 Inertia of shaft 5-6 W K2 e

 The total effective inertia as seen by the clutch =Σ of the


system inertias
 Heat dissipation
1 1
 Energy = ΔK.E = I ω 2 = M K2ω2
2 2
Σ(𝑊 𝐾2 ) 𝜔𝑐2
 Energy =
𝑔
𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦
 ΔT = 𝐶𝑀
 C : specific heat = 500 J/kgCo
 M : mass
Σ(𝑊 𝐾2 )∆ 𝑛
 Time =
308 𝑇
Clutches
 Purpose of the Clutch
Purpose of the Clutch
 Allows engine to be disengaged from
transmission for shifting gears and
coming to a stop
 Allows smooth engagement of engine to
transmission
Clutches
 Construction of
the Clutch

Coil spring or diaphragm spring to pressure plate


(cover and pressure plate)
Splines to input shaft
Clutches Of transmission

 Construction of
the Clutch

Clutch Disk or
Friction Disk

READ ON
Friction disks

 Torsional springs
 Can be spring or rubber
 Dampen power impulses from crankshaft
Clutch disks
Friction material isn’t very thick.
Minimum thickness around .012”
Pilot Bushing or bearing

READ ON
Throw out T/O Bearing (release bearing)

 Slides on transmission input shaft


bearing retainer

READ ON
Throw out T/O bearings
 Most need clearance between fingers of
pressure plate so it isn’t spinning all the time
(free play)
 Riding the clutch (foot resting on pedal)
 Pushes T/O bearing into pressure plate fingers
 Causes it spin constantly
 Wearing it out too soon
 Releases some of clutch spring pressure
 Causing clutch to slip
What would
Clutch fork cause this?

T/O bearing
hooks here

Fulcrum point
Pressure plate & cover
bolt to flywheel
Clutches
 Construction of
the Clutch

Flywheel bolts
to crankshaft
When
If there
unbolting
is a chance
pressure
you will
plate
be reusing
from the
pressure plate,
flywheel, removemake
bolts
alignment
evenly asmarks
not to
to flywheel
bend the cover.
to maintain
REMEMBER,
properthis
balance
is
BEFORE
under high
removal
spring pressure.
Flywheels
 Add weight to crank for non-power strokes
 Has ring-gear for cranking engine (usually replaceable)
Flywheels

Hot spots
Pressure Plate

Sometimes too
light weight
Clutches
 Operation of the Clutch
Pilot bushing or bearing in center
of flywheel or crankshaft, supports
Clutches the end of input shaft

(friction disk) splined to transmission


Input shaft

(throw-out bearing
T/O bearing) allows
to push on rotating
clutch fingers

Bolted to Crank

Bolted to flywheel - Applies


the spring force to clamp the (clutch fork) pushes
friction disk to the flywheel T/O bearing to release
rotating clutch
Pressure Plate
Releases friction disk
from flywheel

Moves pressure
Plate right
T/O bearing
Pivots
Clutch terms
 Clutch disengaged
 Clutch pedal is in or down
 Clutch engaged
 Clutch pedal is out or up
What would it mean if someone said the clutch pedal
Is engaged?
Make sure you know if you are talking about
the clutch or the clutch pedal !!!
Clutches

READ ON
Hydraulic clutch
 Uses master cylinder
 Uses brake fluid
 Must be bleed
Diaphragm-Spring Clutches
Checking Flywheel for Run-out
Checking pressure plate for
warpage
1-Disc Clutch or Plate Clutch
 The amount of torque transmitted depends upon
the axial pressure, the radius of the friction surfaces and
the coefficient of friction.
 Multiple plate clutch is used whenever heavy loads are to
be transmitted.
 Analysis of the torque in single plate clutch:
 Let R = outer radius of the plate,
 r = inner radius of the plate,
 p = intensity of pressure,
 Fa = total axial load.
Uniform wear vs. uniform
pressure
 Uniform wear → p v = constant? → Longevity
 p (ωr1 ) =pa (ωar)

In clutch ω=ωa
Then: p r1 = pa r
 p r = Constant
 Uniform pressure? → Performance
 p =pa
 Consider an elemental ring of radius r1 and thickness 𝜕𝑟1 .
 Area of the element ring = 2r r 1 1

 Force on the ring = 2r1r1  p


R

 Total force on the ring = F  


r
2pr1dr1

 Friction torque on the ring = r1 2pr1r1  2pr12r1


R

  2
 Total friction torque = T = 2 pr1 dr1
r
Assuming uniform pressure p=pa
R
F   r
2pa r1dr1

 2pa
1 2
2
R r 2
 


F  pa R  r
2 2
 4
pa ( Do2  Di2 )
R
T  p 2r1 dr1
2
a
r

2
 1

T  pa R  r  pa ( Do3  Di3 )
3
3 3

12
Assuming uniform wear pr = constant

R R
F  
r
pr 2dr1  2pa r  dr1
r

F  2pa r R  r   pa Di ( Do  Di )
1
2
R R
T    1 dr1  2p a r  r1 dr1
2
2 pr
r r


T  rpa R  r 2 2
 1
 pa Di ( Do  Di )
8
2 2
Table Properties of Friction Materials
Materials in contact Friction coefficient Max. temp. Co Max. Pressure
Dry Greasy Oiled kg/cm2


1.Cast iron on cast iron 0.2-0.15 0.1- 0.06 0.1- 0.05 320 10.5 – 17.5
2.Bronze on cast iron 0.2 0.1- 0.05 0.1-0.05 160 5.6 – 8.4
3.Wood on cast iron 0.35 – 0.25 0.12- 0.07 0.1-0.06 260 8.4 – 14
4. Wood on cast iron 0.35-0.2 0.12-0.08 --------- 160 4.2 - 6.3

5.Fiber on metal --------- 0.2-0.10 --------- 90 0.7 - 2.8

6. Leather on metal 0.5 - 0.35 0.2- 0.15 0.15-0.12 90 0.7 – 2.8

7. Cork on metal 0.35 0.3- 0.25 0.25 - 0.22 90 0.56 – 1.05

8. Wired asbestos on metal 0.5-0.35 0.3- 0.26 0.25- 0.2 180-260 2.1 – 5.6

9. Wired asbestos on metal (short --------- --------- 0.25 – 0.2 260 14 -12
frequent engagement)
10.Steel on cast iron or cast iron on --------- --------- 0.1-0.05 260 14 - 21
cast iron (short frequent
engagements)
Disk Clutch Design Steps
A) Preliminary Design

 1- By Power and speed get T`


 2- T = T` Ks ………..Ks = 2.5 – 5
 3-From table get µ & Pmax
 4- Take the number of disks = 1 or 3,5,7
 5- Assume Di/Do = 0.6 – 0.8
𝝅
 6- T = n µ Pmax (Do3 – Di3) …… get Do & Di
𝟖
 7- Check Do ≥ 6d
Disk Clutch Design Steps
B) Detailed Design
 1- By Power and speed get T`
 2- Td = T` Kstart Kservice
 Kstart = 1.5 – 2 Kservice = 1 – 1.25
 3- Assume
uniform wear
𝝅
Tf = n µ Pmax Di (Do2 – Di2)
𝟒
 Or
uniform pressure
𝝅
 Tf = n µ Pmax (Do3 – Di3)
𝟏𝟐
 4- Check Tf ≥ Td
Disk Clutch Design Steps
B) Detailed Design

 5- get actuating force


Uniform wear
𝑫𝒊
Fa = 𝜋 Pmax (Do – Di)
𝟐
Uniform pressure
𝝅
Fa = Pmax (Do2 – Di2)
𝟒

 6- Determine Time , Energy , ΔT by known


the inertia