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LEurope du vase antique: collectionneurs, savants, restaurateurs aux XVIIIe et XIXe sicles

Collectionner, tudier, restaurer: trop souvent dissocies dans les travaux consacrs au devenir moderne de lantique, ces trois pratiques troitement lies au cours du temps nont cess de sinuencer et de se fconder mutuellement, dans le cadre de rseaux europens particulirement actifs autour de lobjet de fascination qua reprsent le vase peint quil soit dorigine grecque ou trusque durant les XVIIIe et XIXe sicles. Promouvant une approche globale et interdisciplinaire de la problmatique, lINHA propose de faire le point sur les recherches menes depuis plusieurs annes au sein de linstitution et du C2RMF, comme sur celles dveloppes par des chercheurs trangers. Le colloque international qui se tiendra lINHA les 31 mai et 1er juin 2011 rassemblera ainsi plus dune vingtaine de participants, spcialistes de la cramologie antique, de lhistoire de lart moderne, de ltude scientique des uvres dart et de la conservation-restauration du patrimoine. Parmi les thmes abords gurera ltude de personnalits marquantes qui ont anim les rseaux du collectionnisme et de la restauration en Europe, aux XVIIIe et XIXesicles; on sattachera aussi clairer la diversit des approches dployes face la matrialit des objets. En analysant les stratgies et les contextes dans lesquels ces diffrents acteurs ont opr avec un intrt particulier port aux collections de vases formes en Italie et parvenues en Europe centrale et en Russie on espre aussi bien contribuer dnir les ncessits mthodologiques de ce champ dtudes qu projeter de nouveaux clairages sur lhistoire des uvres.

Mardi 31 mai 2011: histoire des collections 9h 9h30 9h45 10h15 10h45 11h15 11h45 12h15 14h 14h30 15h 15h30 16h 17h 18h Session 1- Le collectionnisme des vases antiques: stratgies et contextes accueil des participants Ouverture du colloque: Antoinette Le Normand-Romain, directeur gnral, INHA Introduction: Martine Denoyelle, Brigitte Bourgeois, INHA Prsident de sance: Alain Schnapp, Universit Paris I Panthon-Sorbonne Marcella De Paoli,Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Venise: Vero o falso ? Restauro, erudizione, mercato nel collezionismo veneziano di vasi antichi tra XVIII e XIX secolo . Salvatore Napolitano, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena: Pietro Vivenzio: Natural Philosophy, Collecting, and Strategies of Self-promotion in Naples between the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries . Susanna Sarti, Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Toscana, Florence: Vase Collecting in Florence before the Unication of Italy (1861): from the Gallerie to the Archaeological Museum . pause Paulette Pelletier-Hornby, Muse du Petit Palais, Paris: Les vases de la collection Dutuit: anticomanie et politique au XIXe sicle. Hildegard Wiegel, Berlin: Pour lamour de lantique: le cas de Guillaume Tischbein (1751-1829). Prsidente de sance: Anne Couli, dpartement des Antiquits Grecques, trusques et Romaines, Muse du Louvre Andrea Milanese, Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompei, Naples: Affaires de vases, affaires dtat. Lhistoire des achats de Friedrich Maler Naples pour le muse du Grand-duc de Bade . Alfred Bernhard-Walcher, Antikensammlung, Ephesos Museum, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne: Diplomat, Art Collector, and Archaeologist: Count Anton Franz de Paula Lamberg-Sprinzenstein and the Beginnings of the Viennese Collection of Greek Vases. Laureen Bardou, INHA, cole du Louvre: Collection des vases grecs de M. le Comte de Lamberg, dAlexandre de Laborde, 1813-1824: le regard dun Franais sur une collection autrichienne. pause Maria Dufkova, Narodni Muzeum, Prague: La collection de vases du muse de Prague. Session 2- Le vase de Lasimos: de lhistoire linterrogation de luvre, pour un parcours mthodologique Table ronde Martine Denoyelle; Maria Emilia Masci, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pise; Paolo Poccetti, Universit di Roma Tor Vergata ; Brigitte Bourgeois discussion

Mercredi 1er juin 2011: histoire de la restauration 9h15 9h45 10h15 10h45 11h15 11h45 12h15 14h30 15h 15h30 16h 16h30 17h Session 3 La diversit des approches matrielles: analyser, reproduire, restaurer, falsier Prsidente de sance: Marie Lavandier, directeur, C2RMF, UMR-CNRS 171 Maurizio Sannibale, Ulderico Santamaria, Musei Vaticani, Cit du Vatican: I vasi del Vaticano gi nel Muse Napolon e i loro restauri. Nathalie Balcar, Yannick Vandenberghe, C2RMF: Lagrene restaurateur et ses contemporains: autopsie dun savoir-faire. Brigitte Bourgeois: Un prodige de la conservation. Chimie et restauration du vase au temps de Lagrene(1780-1820) . pause Anne Bouquillon, C2RMF, Ccile Colonna, dpartement des Monnaies, mdailles et antiques, Bibliothque Nationale de France: Le duc de Luynes et sa dmarche de reproduction des vases grecs. Gianpaolo Nadalini, Institut national du patrimoine: Enrico Pennelli: la trajectoire dun restaurateur de vases trusques du XIXe sicle.. discussion Session 4- Matire et Histoire: des anciens rseaux du collectionnisme et de la restauration aux choix patrimoniaux actuels Prsidente de sance: Gabriella Prisco, Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro, Rome Marie-Amlie Bernard, INHA, Universit Paris I Panthon-Sorbonne: Francesco Depoletti (1779-1854), un homme de rseaux entre collectionnisme et restauration. Anastasia Bukina, Ksenia Chugunova, The State Hermitage Museum, Saint Ptersbourg: Vases of Antonio Pizzati in the State Hermitage Museum: scientic studies and perspectives. pause Bodil Bundgaard-Rasmussen, Nationalmuseet, Copenhague: Ancient Vases in the Christian VIIIs Vase Cabinet - of the Least Restored and yet the Best Restored Category. Anna Petrakova, Olga Shuvalova, The State Hermitage Museum, Saint Ptersbourg: Attic vases from the Campana collection in the State Hermitage Museum: Old Restorations and Present Attitude Regarding their Display, Study and Conservation. discussion nale

Vrai ou faux? Restauration, rudition, commerce et collectionnisme de vases vnitiens aux XVIIIe et XIXe sicles
Marcella De Paoli, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Venise

Vero o falso? Restauro, erudizione, mercato nel collezionismo veneziano di vasi antichi tra XVIII e XIX secolo
Il contributo che si vuol presentare prende avvio dalla vicenda di un vecchio restauro a una ceramica del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Venezia, gi parte della collezione Zulian, interessante raccolta della seconda met del XVIII secolo. Nei primi anni Sessanta del Novecento il piccolo vaso, un boccale apulo a vernice nera ricomposto da pi frammenti, fu oggetto di un intervento conservativo che lo priv di una decorazione sovra-dipinta in rosso, costituita da una civetta tra due rami di alloro, ritenuta spuria nella documentazione moderna del museo. La raccolta di antichit dellambasciatore Girolamo Zulian una delle due sole collezioni veneziane settecentesche superstiti, con quella di Girolamo Ascanio Molin, delle molte che avevano dato lustro alla citt lagunare e che rapidamente vennero disperse alla caduta della Serenissima entr nel fondo del Pubblico Statuario nel 1795 con un legato testamentario, assicurando allo Stato una considerevole raccolta di sculture dalle diverse provenienze (Roma, Tivoli, Costantinopoli e Alessandria dEgitto), gemme, bronzi e una selezione di ceramiche antiche, tra cui esemplari databili tra il IX-VIII secolo a.C. e il IV-V d.C., in gran parte acquistate sul mercato antiquario romano. Il vaso Zulian sar per il pretesto per indagare il conne, talvolta piuttosto incerto, tra contraffazione e interpretazione colta nel restauro della ceramica antica e per occuparsi dellintreccio esistente tra il restauro e le esigenze di mercato, tenendo sullo sfondo il panorama del collezionismo di antichit a Venezia tra XVIII e XIX secolo. Sar, inoltre, loccasione per far emergere altri casi curiosi, come quello di un vaso Molin dalliconograa sospetta e la provenienza sconosciuta, donato alla citt di Venezia con lintera raccolta di antichit di Girolamo Ascanio nel legato testamentario del 1813 e oggi al Museo Archeologico Nazionale in virt di un deposito dei Civici Musei Veneziani, o ancora come i casi delle imposture antiquarie presenti nelle raccolte Querini e Sanquirico, menzionate in alcuni carteggi dellepoca. Gli strumenti, a dire il vero scarni indizi, utilizzati per delineare questo mondo, popolato tra gli altri da collezionisti come Angelo Querini e Girolamo Ascanio Molin nonch da mercanti come Antonio Sanquirico, tutti a vario titolo interessati allacquisto o alla vendita di vasi antichi, saranno vecchie foto darchivio, incisioni, inventari e qualche notizia frammentaria strappata alla corrispondenza epistolare dei personaggi in questione.

Cette contribution sappuie sur lhistoire dune ancienne restauration faite sur un vase du Muse archologique national de Venise provenant dune intressante collection de la seconde moiti du XVIIIe sicle, la collection Zulian. Peu aprs 1860, ce petit vase, une tasse apulienne vernis noir recompose partir de plusieurs fragments, subit une intervention qui le priva dune dcoration en peinture superpose rouge, consistant en une chouette entre deux rameaux de laurier. La collection dantiquits de lambassadeur Girolamo Zulian lune des seules prserves, avec celle de G. A. Molin, parmi les nombreuses collections vnitiennes qui avaient illustr la cit et furent rapidement disperses sa chute intgra par legs testamentaire le fonds du Pubblico Statuario en 1795. Elle apportait ltat un ensemble considrable de sculptures de diverses provenances (Rome, Tivoli, Constantinople et Alexandrie), des gemmes, des bronzes et une slection de cramiques antiques, acquis en grande partie sur le march antiquaire romain. Le vase Zulian permettra dexaminer la frontire, souvent incertaine, entre contrefaon et interprtation savante en matire de restauration de la cramique antique, en abordant la question des relations entre la restauration et les exigences du march, dans le cadre du collectionnisme des antiquits Venise entre le XVIII e et le XIX e sicle. Ce sera en outre loccasion dtudier dautres cas curieux, comme celui dun vase Molin liconographie douteuse et la provenance inconnue, donn la cit de Venise avec la collection dantiquits de Girolamo Ascanio en 1813 et aujourdhui conserv au Muse archologique national de Venise, ou comme les cas dimpostures antiquaires prsents dans les collections Querini et Sanquirico. Les outils utiliss pour dnir cet univers de collectionneurs tels quAngelo Querini et Girolamo Ascanio Molin, et de marchands comme Antonio Sanquirico, tous intresss des titres varis acqurir ou vendre des vases antiques, seront de vieilles photos darchives, des gravures, des inventaires et quelques informations fragmentaires extraites dchanges pistolaires.

Pietro Vivenzio: philosophie naturelle, collecte et stratgies dautopromotion Naples entre le XVIIIe et le XIXe sicle
Salvatore Napolitano, dpartement des Sciences humaines et sociales, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

the capital of Naples. Grounded in a global cultural history approach, this paper investigates this particular moment in its multiple aspects: the cultural movements, the artistic orientations, the preferences in collecting, and the aesthetic and philosophical speculations of the time. Concurrent with this multifaceted approach, we hope to demonstrate that the Neapolitan collector Pietro Vivenzios experience provides an important paradigm for the interpretation of this peculiar moment of Southern Italian cultural history. In fact, Pietro, along with his brother Nicola, was able to assemble one of the most celebrated collections of ancient vases in Europe, which they used to promote themselves both culturally and socially in the contemporary Rpublique des Lettres. Particularly in the unpublished Sepolcri Nolani, originally commissioned by Sir William Hamilton but revised after a long exile in Rome following French domination of the Kingdom of Naples, Pietro garnered new attention for archaeological evidence and techniques of excavation, profoundly inuenced by new trends in Natural Philosophy. Through his ardent collecting of antiquities, Pietro Vivenzio exhibited a profound personal engagement with the ancient world, which led him nally, through the study of these objects, to dene a new history of ancient art, perfectly aligned with Winckelmanns and Lanzis theories on connoisseurship in ancient and modern art , Vicos historical vision, and the new German historiography proposed by Heyne.

Au cours des XVIIIe et XIXe sicles, le sud de lItalie connat lune des priodes les plus dynamiques de son histoire. Les bouleversements politiques incessants provoquent des changements culturels, particulirement Naples. Sappuyant sur une approche culturelle globale, cette communication examine les multiples aspects de ce moment spcique : les mouvements culturels, les orientations artistiques, le collectionnisme, et les hypothses esthtiques et philosophiques de cette poque. Paralllement ces approches, il sagira de dmontrer que lexprience du collectionneur napolitain Pietro Vivenzio fournit un important paradigme pour lanalyse de ce moment particulier de lhistoire culturelle de lItalie du sud. De fait, Pietro, avec son frre Nicola, russit runir lune des plus clbres collections de vases antiques en Europe, dont lun et lautre se servaient pour tre reconnus dans la Rpublique des Lettres de lpoque. Cest notamment dans un texte non publi, Sepolcri Nolani (commenc dabord pour Sir William Hamilton, mais corrig aprs un long exil Rome conscutif la domination franaise sur la province de Naples), que Pietro Vivenzio porte son attention sur le travail archologique et les techniques de fouilles, profondment inuenc par la nouvelle mode de la philosophie naturelle. Cette passionnante collecte dantiquits tmoigne de lintrt profond que porte Vivenzio au monde antique, un intrt qui le conduit, par ltude des objets, dnir une nouvelle histoire de lart antique, accorde aux thories de Winckelmann et de Lanzi sur leconnoisseurship, ainsi qu la vision historique de Vico et la nouvelle historiographie propose par Heyne.

Natural Philosophy, Collecting, and Strategies of Self-promotion in Naples between the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the South of Italy experienced one of the most dynamic periods of its history. The continuous political upheavals produced constant cultural changes as well, particularly in

La collecte de vases Florence avant lunication de lItalie (1861): de la Galerie au Muse archologique
Susanna Sarti, Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Toscana, Florence

La majeure partie du Muse archologique de Florence provient des collections des familles de Mdicis et de Lorraine, avec dimportants transferts, jusquen 1890, provenant de la Galerie des Ofces. partir du XVe sicle, les Mdicis collectent des objets antiques, beaucoup de pierres prcieuses, des monnaies, des bronzes et des marbres. En 1532, le Grand Duc de Toscane, Cme Ier, qui porte le titre de Magnus Etruriae dux, commence associer lhistoire biblique et antique (plus particulirement trusque), dans une propagande visant dmontrer la supriorit toscane. Des chefs-duvre comme la Chimre, lArringatore et la Minerve ainsi que dextraordinaires collections de marbres furent runis. Ces derniers sont aujourdhui rpartis entre les Ofces et la Villa Corsini. Si les pierres prcieuses, les cames et le Mdaillier ont t rassembls, les vases ont gnralement t ngligs, ou bien acquis seulement parce que dcouverts parmi dautres objets prcieux. Le Grand Duc de Toscane a toujours soutenu lintrt croissant pour lart trusque. partir de 1616, Thomas Dempster trouve refuge et soutien auprs de Cme II, qui lui commande un travail sur les trusques, De Etruria Regali Libri Septem, publi en 1723. Un autre ouvrage important, le Museum Florentinum dAnton Francesco Gori, publi entre 1731 et 1762, tait initialement ddicac Gian Gastone de Mdicis et peut-tre Francesco Stefano Lorraine. En 1737, le Grand Duch de Toscane passe aux mains de la Maison de Lorraine, qui met en place une lgislation svre an de contrler la dcouverte des antiquits. Conue par Leopold et organise par Luigi Lanzi partir de 1775, la nouvelle exposition aux Galeries Royales prsente aussi bien un Gabinetto delle guline que des terres cuites et des vases. Lanzi publie galement Dei vasi antichi dipinti volgarmente chiamati Etruschi qui tmoigne dun intrt grandissant pour la poterie antique, qui devient manifeste dans le Catalogo generale della R. Galleria di Firenze datant de 1825. La description faite par le voyageur anglais Dennis en 1848 propose une vision contraste de ltat de la collection:

Les vases sont tous regroups dans une petite chambre. Le gouvernement toscan na pas pris conscience de lopportunit quil avait de former la plus belle collection dantiquits trusques au monde. La majorit des objets trouvs dans le Duch partent vers dautres pays peu dentre eux trouvent leur place Florence. Face cette indiffrence de la part du gouvernement, on ne peut pas sattendre ce que la collection de vases soit complte ou mise en valeur. Jusquici, cette tendance est caractristique. La plupart des sites trusques de la Toscane sont reprsents par leurs poteries, et il y a mme de beaux vases provenant dautres rgions de lItalie, en partie collects, je crois, par ces mcnes princiers: les Mdicis. En 1855, Michele Arcangelo Migliarini, conservateur des Antiquits aux Galeries Royales, est charg dorganiser le nouveau muse gyptien dans un immeuble de la rue Faenza. Quelques annes plus tard, en 1871, le Muse trusque est ouvert sur le mme emplacement, alors que les Savoia, la famille royale du nouveau royaume dItalie, quitte Florence (capitale de lItalie de 1865 1870) pour rejoindre Rome. En dpit des difcults nancires qui sensuivent pour Florence, le Muse darchologie souvre dans un nouveau grand btiment en 1881, le palais Crocetta, o la collection de vases est expose selon de nouveaux critres.

Vase Collecting in Florence before the Unication of Italy (1861): from the Gallerie to the Archaeological Museum
The nucleus of the Archaeological Museum of Florence derives from the family collections of the Medici and Lorraine, with several transfers from the Ufzi Gallery up to 1890. Beginning in the 15th century, the Medici family collected antiquities, mainly gems, coins, bronzes and marbles. In 1532 the Grand Duke of Tuscany Cosimo I, who assumed the title of Magnus Etruriae dux, began to combine biblical and classical (more specically Etruscan) history into a propagandistic display of Tuscan superiority. Masterpieces such as the Chimera, the Arringatore and the Minerva were acquired, and extraordinary collections of marble today shared between the Ufzi and Villa Corsini , gems and cameos, as well as the Medagliere, were formed, while vases were generally neglected or acquired only because discovered together with other precious objects.

The Grand Dukes of Tuscany always supported the growing interest in Etruscan Art. Beginning in 1616 Thomas Dempster found refuge and patronage under Cosimo II, who commissioned a work on the Etruscans, De Etruria Regali Libri Septem, published in 1723 by Thomas Coke. Another inuential work, the Museum Florentinum by Anton Francesco Gori, published in 12 volumes between 1731 and 1762, was originally dedicated to Gian Gastone de Medici, and eventually to Francesco Stefano Lorraine. In 1737, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany passed to the French House of Lorraine, which promoted severe legislation aimed at controlling the discovery of antiquities. The new exhibition in the Royal Galleries promoted by Leopold and organized by Luigi Lanzi from 1775 aiuto antiquario also included a Gabinetto delle guline, containing terracottas and vases, as we read in the Guida della Real Galleria di Firenze of 1782. Lanzi also published Dei vasi antichi dipinti volgarmente chiamati Etruschi, showing the increasing interest in ancient pottery, which becomes obvious in the Catalogo Generale della R. Galleria di Firenze dating from 1825. However, the description made by the English traveler Dennis in 1848 provides us with a contrasting image of the state of the collection: The Vases are all contained in one small chamber. The Tuscan Government has not availed itself of the opportunity it possesses of forming the nest collection of Etruscan antiquities in the world. Most of the articles discovered in the Duchy pass into foreign countries, little or nothing nds its way to Florence. With this apathy on the part of the Government, the collection of vases cannot be expected to be extensive or remarkably choice. Yet it is characteristic. Most of the Etruscan sites within the limits of Tuscany are here represented by their pottery; and there are even some good vases from other districts of Italy; partly, I believe, collected, of old, by those princely patrons of art, the Medici. In 1855 Michele Arcangelo Migliarini, keeper of antiquities in the Royal Galleries, was charged of the organization of the new Egyptian Museum in a building in via Faenza. A few years later, the Etruscan Museum was opened at the same location on the 12th of March 1871, while the Savoia, the Royal family of the new Kingdom of Italy, was about to leave Florence (capital of Italy from 1865 to 1870) in order to reach Rome. Despite the difcult nancial situation that followed for the city of Florence, in 1881 the Archaeological Museum was opened in a new larger building, the Crocetta Palace, where the vase collection was exhibited according to new criteria.

Les vases de la collection Dutuit: anticomanie et politique au XIXe sicle


Paulette Pelletier-Hornby, Muse du Petit Palais, Paris

Les frres Dutuit occupent une place minente dans le cercle troit des grands collectionneurs du XIXe sicle. Ils se partagent entre lItalie et la France. Les relations privilgies quils entretiennent avec les grands marchands des tats italiens Sambon ou Barone Naples, Martinetti Rome , les Castellani en Italie et en France, Feuardent Paris, et leurs contemporains collectionneurs et experts, servent leur dessein: runir des pices dexception qui ne se trouvent ni Londres ni au Louvre. Leur rle actif dans les expositions nationales et universelles, les publications quils commanditent, les lettres enn se rapportant leurs achats, nous clairent sur leurs buts. Dans leur cabinet dAntiques, les vases tiennent une place de choix. Dans le droit l des collections humanistes du XVIIIe sicle, les Dutuit retiennent des pices dune conservation parfaite et selon des critres esthtiques. Leur vision volue avec les temps forts de leur sicle, la rvolution industrielle suivie dune rvolution scientique, et leurs critres sont cumulatifs. Actifs dans la reconnaissance des arts appliqus lindustrie, ils sont attentifs la varit et la raret des techniques dcoratives: chaque vase, choisi pour sa raret, est retenu pour sa valeur exemplaire. Limportance dvolue aux vases plastiques, attiques et italiotes, dcoule de leur complexit technique. Ils ont vocation susciter la cration dans les mtiers dart. la singularit des uvres, sajoute lintrt quelles offrent pour ltude dune socit, dune civilisation. Muse priv destin devenir public, la collection sadresse avant tout aux artisans et lUnion centrale des arts dcoratifs, devenue ensuite muse des Arts dcoratifs, doit en tre bnciaire et recevoir la dotation permettant de poursuivre les acquisitions. partir de 1898, Dutuit lui substitue la Ville de Paris. Auguste Dutuit a pass la plus grande partie de sa vie Rome. Il a vcu lunication de lItalie, dans laquelle nombre de ses proches, avec qui il partageait la passion de lAntiquit et une vision progressiste de la socit, ont jou un rle actif les Castellani notamment. Il nest donc pas surprenant quAuguste Dutuit ait prvu, en cas de refus franais, de coner lavenir de sa collection, dabord au Museo artistico e industriale de Rome, quAugusto Castellani avait contribu fonder pour assurer la formation des artisans dart, puis lAccademia dei Lincei.

Auguste Dutuit est mort en 1902. Selon ses vux, la collection sest accrue et quelques vases se sont ajouts, toujours dans lesprit de la collection, ceux publis par Nicolas Plaoutine en 1941.

Vases from the Dutuit Collection: Anticomania and Politics in the 19th century
The Dutuit brothers feature prominently in the narrow circle of great 19 thcentury art collectors. Dividing their time between Italy and France, they cultivated privileged relationships with major dealers in the Italian States (the Castellani, Sambon and Barone in Naples, Martinetti in Rome) and France (Feuardent in Paris), together with their fellow collectors and contemporary experts, to further their ultimate aim: the amassing of a collection of exceptional pieces found neither in London, nor in the Louvre. Their active role in the great national and international exhibitions of the day, the publications they commissioned, and the correspondence relating to their many acquisitions, tell us a great deal about their aims and intentions. Vases were a choice feature of their cabinet of Antiquities. In the best tradition of the great humanist collections of the 18 th century, the Dutuit brothers selected perfectly preserved pieces, according to strict aesthetic criteria. Their approach evolved and their criteria accumulated over time, reecting the major changes afoot during the 19th century: the industrial revolution, and the scientic revolution. Active in the movement to promote wider recognition of the industrial and applied arts, they paid close attention to the variety and rarity of decorative techniques: each vase in the collection was selected for its rarity and representative, exemplary value. Technically complex plastic, Attic and South Italian vases form an important group, serving the Dutuits vocation to inspire creativity in the applied arts of their day. In addition to their rarity and aesthetic distinction, the vases are highly interesting as objects through which to study the society and civilization that created them. Aimed above all at artisans working in the applied arts, the collection was a private museum destined to become public. The Union centrale des arts dcoratifs (later the muse des Arts dcoratifs) was named as its ultimate beneciary. The Union was also to receive funds enabling it to make further acquisitions. After 1898, Dutuit substituted the City of Paris, however, and

the collection entered the muse des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris at the Petit Palais, in 1902. Auguste Dutuit spent most of his life in Rome. He witnessed the unication of Italy, in which many of his close associates played an active role, notably the Castellani passionate lovers of Antiquity, like him, and proponents of a progressive social vision. It comes as no surprise, then, that in the event of the collections refusal in France, Auguste Dutuit had plans to entrust it rst to the Museo artistico e industriale in Rome (co-founded by Augusto Castellani to provide training for artisans in the applied arts) and later to the Accademia dei Lincei. Auguste Dutuit died in 1902. In accordance with his wishes the collection has continued to grow, and a number of vases selected in strict accordance with the Dutuits original criteria have been added to those published by Nicolas Plaoutine in 1941.

A Passion for the Antique: the Case of Johann Heinrich Tischbein (1751-1829)
Descendant of a well-known German family of artists, Johann Heinrich Tischbein (1751-1829) is today perhaps best known for his emblematic portrait of the German poet Johann Wolfgang Goethe (Stdel Museum, Frankfurt), with whom he shared his lodgings in Rome. Their close relationship suffered a severe rift when Tischbein decided to accept an offer as head of the newly-founded Academy of Fine Arts in Naples. In the capital of the Kingdom of Naples, which offered him above all access to the recently excavated remains of the Vesuvian cities such as Pompeii and Herculaneum, Tischbein continued to expand his deep interest in the excavated artefacts from antiquity. His two major antiquarian publications, the Collection of Engravings from Ancient Vases (1795-1803) and Homer nach Antiken gezeichnet (1801-05 and 1821-23) as well as Figures dHomre dessines daprs lantique (1801-02), testify in particular to Tischbeins appropriation of antiquity. This paper presents various examples of Tischbeins role as excavator, curator, and collector as well as his ample use of ancient works as sources of inspiration for his own artistic production.

Pour lamour de lantique: le cas de Johann Heinrich Tischbein (1751-1829)


Hildegard Wiegel, Berlin

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N dans une grande famille dartistes allemands, Johann Heinrich Tischbein (1751-1829) est peut-tre plus connu aujourdhui pour son portrait de Johann Wolfgang Goethe (muse Stdel, Francfort). Les deux hommes furent colocataires Rome, mais leur amiti subit un accroc svre quand Tischbein dcida daccepter de prendre la direction de la nouvelle Acadmie des Beaux-Arts, Naples. Dans cette capitale du royaume de Naples, cette poque le centre de la recherche antiquaire grce aux dcouvertes rcentes des villes vsuviennes de Pompi et dHerculanum, Tischbein put accrotre son intrt pour les vestiges de lAntiquit. Les deux riches publications antiquaires de Tischbein, Collection of Engravings from Ancient Vases (1795-1803) et Homer nach Antiken gezeichnet (1801-1805 et 18211823), ainsi que Figures dHomre dessines daprs lantique (1801-1802), tmoignent de manire loquente de son appropriation de lAntiquit. Cette intervention prsente plusieurs exemples du rle important que Tischbein a eu comme fouilleur, conservateur et collectionneur, ainsi que de son utilisation des uvres dart de lAntiquit comme sources dinspiration pour sa propre production artistique.

Affaires de vases, affaires dtat. Lhistoire des achats de Friedrich Maler Naples pour le muse du Grand-duc de Bade
Andrea Milanese, Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompei, Naples

Le capitaine Friedrich Maler, charg daffaires du Grand-duc de Bade auprs du Saint-Sige, effectua dans le Royaume de Naples, entre 1837 et 1838, une importante campagne dacquisitions non seulement de vases antiques, mais aussi de bronzes et de terres cuites, pour les collections du Grand Duch (Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe). La mission de Maler est encore aujourdhui considre comme une grande russite et comme une des tapes principales dans lhistoire de la formation du muse de Karlsruhe qui, cette occasion, senrichit de quelques chefs-duvre, comme le clbre cratre apulien des Enfers. Derrire ces heureuses acquisitions, cependant, se cache lhistoire complexe et peu connue dun affrontement politico-diplomatique pour la possession dun groupe de

vases importants provenant des Pouilles, la terre des vases comme la dnit Maler, et plus prcisment de Ruvo. Une histoire qui, outre Maler, eut comme protagonistes des ministres et des responsables de muses, des souverains et des collectionneurs, des marchands et dillustres archologues. Et qui vit sopposer les lois du march, les lois de la diplomatie, et celles de la tutelle qui, dans le Royaume de Naples, rglaient lexportation des uvres dart. Une histoire qui dmontre comment, dans lEurope de la premire moiti du XIX e sicle, la mode des vases pouvait facilement se transformer en une affaire dtat.

Diplomate, collectionneur et archologue: le comte Anton Franz de Paula Lamberg-Sprinzenstein et les dbuts de la collection viennoise de vases grecs
Alfred Bernhard-Walcher, Antikensammlung, Ephesos Museum, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne

Vase Collecting and the Affairs of State: the Story of Friedrich Malers Acquisitions in Naples, for the Museum of the Grand Duke of Baden
In 1837 and 1838 Captain Friedrich Maler the Grand Duke of Badens Charg daffaires to the Holy See undertook an important campaign of acquisitions in Naples, buying Antique vases, bronzes and terracottas for the collections of the Grand Duchy (the Badisches Landesmuseum, in Karlsruhe). Malers mission is still widely acknowledged today as a remarkable success, and an important episode in the history of the collections of the museum in Karlsruhe, which subsequently received a number of masterpieces, including the celebrated Apulian Underworld krater. But beyond these splendid acquisitions lies the complex, little-known story of a political and diplomatic confrontation over the possession of an important group of vases from Apulia (the land of vases as Maler described it), and from Ruvo in particular. A story involving not only Maler but a cast of ministers and museums, sovereigns and collectors, dealers and eminent archaeologists. A story that saw the laws of the market clash with the laws of diplomacy and tutelage (which regulated the export of works of art in the Kingdom of Naples). A story that shows how, in the Europe of the rst half of the 19 th century, the affairs of vase collectors could very easily become affairs of State.

Aujourdhui, les collections de vases grecs et dantiquits romaines du Kunsthistorisches Museum regroupent deux importantes collections publiques de vases grecs assembles au cours du XIXe sicle: le K.K. Mnz- und Antikenkabinett (collection impriale et royale des Monnaies et Antiquits) fond au dbut du XIXe sicle, et le K.K. Oesterreichisches Museum fr Kunst und Industrie (muse imprial et royal autrichien dArt et dIndustrie). La plus ancienne des deux collections date du dbut du XIXe sicle, priode o les principes de base de la collection de vases grecs furent poss en lespace de quelques annes. Plusieurs collections prives furent alors achetes, et dabord, en 1803, celle rassemble par le peintre Michael Wutky, connu pour ses paysages italiens. Il avait sjourn Rome et Naples de 1771 1801, o il fut lami du comte de Lamberg-Sprinzenstein. La collection dobjets acquis principalement Rome et Naples cota environ 9000 orins; elle se composait de ptes de verre, de bijoux, dobjets en terre cuite, de bronzes, de sculptures romaines et, surtout, de plus de cent vingt vases. La mme anne, une collection de soixante vases peints (rassembls initialement par le peintre J.H.W. Tischbein, Naples) et de soixante-et-un panneaux peints daprs des gravures de Tischbein, est acquise pour 1400 orins. La collection Rainer prsente galement dimportants vases. Elle a t rassemble dans le royaume de Naples et de Sicile par Vincenz von Rainer Maria zu Harbach, le secrtaire priv de la reine Maria Karolina, une lle de limpratrice Marie-Thrse, qui avait pous le roi Ferdinand IV. Son secrtaire particulier acquit une impressionnante collection denviron 250 antiquits grecques, appeles galement vases en terre cuite trusques. Ils furent achets pour la collection impriale en 1804 pour la somme de 2500 orins. La plus importante acquisition est toutefois celle de la collection de vases du clbre comte Lamberg acquise par lempereur Franois I er en 1815. Cette collection comprenait 712 vases que le comte Anton von Lamberg-Sprinzenstein, ambassadeur dAutriche la cour de Naples (depuis 1784), avait dcouverts lui-mme ou quil avait achets ou reus comme prsents; 670 furent acquis par la collection impriale pour 125 000 orins.

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of mainly Italian landscapes. He spent the years between 1771 to 1801 in Rome and Naples, where he became a close acquaintance of Count LambergSprinzenstein. The collection of objects acquired mainly in Rome and Naples cost over 9000 Guilders and comprised glass pastes, jewellery, terracotta objects, bronzes, Roman sculpture and, most importantly, over 120 vases. In the same year, a collection of 60 painted vessels (allegedly formerly in the possession of the painter J.H.W. Tischbein, in Naples) and 61 panels painted in opaque colours after engravings by Tischbein was acquired for 1400 Guilders. The Rainer Collection also included important vases. It was amassed in the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily by Vincenz Maria von Rainer zu Harbach, the private secretary of Queen Maria Karolina, herself daughter of Empress Maria Theresia, who had married King Ferdinand IV. Her private secretary amassed an impressive collection, among them 250 ancient Greek, socalled Etruscan terracotta vessels that were included among the antiquities sold to the imperial collection in 1804 for an annuity of 2500 Guilders. The most important acquisition in the history of the collection, however, was that of Count Lambergs celebrated collection of vases, to which Emperor Francis I agreed on January 21, 1815. It comprised a total of 712 vases that Count Anton von Lamberg-Sprinzenstein, the Austrian Ambassador to the court at Naples (until 1784), had either excavated himself, bought, or received as gifts. Of these, around 670 were received into the imperial collection in return for 125,000 Guilders. The oldest inventory of the K.K. Mnz- und Antiquittenkabinett dates from 1821 and contains a summary inventory of ancient pottery: Etruscan vessels 1299 pieces, among them 99 ancient Greek, 884 painted, l89 black, 27 Roman, 52 Roman of the more common kind, 29 so-called buccari, 3 fakes, 16 amphorae.

Linventaire le plus ancien du K.K. Mnz- und Antikenkabinettdate de 1821 et prsente un inventaire sommaire des poteries antiques: Vases trusques1299 pices, parmi eux 99 antiques grecs, 884 peints, 189 noirs, 27 romains, 52 romains du type le plus commun, 29 soi-disant buccari, 3 faux, 16 amphores .

Diplomat, Art Collector, and Archaeologist: Count Anton Franz de Paula Lamberg-Sprinzenstein and the Beginnings of the Viennese Collection of Greek Vases
Today the Kunsthistorisches Museums Collection of Greek and Roman Antiquities conates two large public collections of Greek vases assembled over the course of the 19th century: the K.K. Mnz- und Antikenkabinett (Imperial and Royal Collection of Coins and Antiquities) founded in the early 19th century and the K.K. Oesterreichisches Museum fr Kunst und Industrie (Imperial and Royal Austrian Museum of Art and Industry). The elder of the two collections dates back to the early 19th century, when the foundation of the collection of Greek vases was laid in the course of only a few years with the acquisition of a number of important private collections: in 1803, an extensive collection of antiquities assembled by the painter Michael Wutky was acquired. A member of the Vienna Academy, he was a well-known painter

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Collection des vases grecs de M. le Comte de Lamberg, dAlexandre de Laborde, 1813-1824: le regard dun Franais sur une collection autrichienne
Laureen Bardou, INHA, cole du Louvre

Collection des vases grecs de M. le Comte de Lamberg est le titre donn par Alexandre de Laborde son muse de papier. Cet ouvrage, du premier

Alexandre Louis Joseph de Laborde (1773-1842) endossa de multiples identits sociales et assuma avec conviction la pluralit de ses carrires. Homme public, homme de lettres et homme desprit, ce personnage est anim dune curiosit permanente. Au regard de sa production littraire, il se passionne pour les monumens de lart tels que les vases antiques du Comte de Lamberg. Anton Franz de Paula Lamberg-Sprinzenstein (1740-1822), lui, entreprit une brillante carrire diplomatique et fait gure dminent collectionneur Vienne la n du XVIIIe sicle. Il runit lune des plus importantes collections de vases grecs de lpoque. Louvrage dAlexandre de Laborde mrite une considration particulire parmi les grands recueils gravs. Souvent il faut expliquer les peintres par les potes comme on explique quelque fois les potes par les peintres: ainsi sexprime Alexandre de Laborde propos de sa mthode danalyse des vases.

Alexandre de Labordes Collection des vases grecs de M. le Comte de Lamberg, 1813-1824: a French View of an Austrian Collection
Collection des vases grecs de M. le Comte de Lamberg is the title given by Alexandre de Laborde to his muse de papier. The book, dating from the rst quarter of the 19th century, is the work of a Frenchman with an encyclopedic cast of mind, presenting a selection of antique vases owned by the Austrian diplomat Count Lamberg, in the form of an engraved collection. What view did Alexandre de Laborde take of this eminent Austrian collection? Why and how did the French author and Austrian collector decide to publish a work of this kind? What was the context surrounding its publication? This highly original work raises numerous questions which the present study aims to answer. Both men were inveterate travellers who combined their political careers with their love of art. Nothing predisposed them to meet but the contemporary background of political and cultural rivalry between France and Austria decided otherwise. Alexandre Louis Joseph de Laborde (1773-1842) took on many public roles and embraced a wide range of careers with ability and integrity. Laborde was a public gure, man of letters and thinker, who possessed of an endlessly inquiring mind. As a writer, he was fascinated by what he called monumens of art, including Count Lambergs collection of ancient vases. Anton Franz de Paula Lamberg-Sprinzenstein (1740-1822) pursued a brilliant diplomatic career, and was a leading collector in Vienna, towards the end of

quart du XIXe sicle, constitue luvre dun Franais, desprit encyclopdique, et rassemble, sous la forme dune collection grave , une slection des vases antiques du comte de Lamberg, diplomate autrichien. Quel regard porte Alexandre de Laborde sur cette minente collection autrichienne? Comment lauteur franais et le collectionneur autrichien dcident-ils de la publication dun tel ouvrage ? Dans quel contexte ce recueil voit-il le jour ? Multiples sont les interrogations qui planent autour de cet ouvrage original et que cette communication tente de rsoudre. Les deux hommes, voyageurs invtrs, allient carrire politique et amour de lart. Mais rien ne les amenait se rencontrer. Cependant, le contexte politicoculturel contemporain opposant la France et lAutriche en dcida autrement.

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the 18th century, amassing one of the periods largest and most important collections of Greek vases. Among the most famous engraved albums of the period, Alexandre de Labordes work deserves particular attention. Often, he wrote, describing his methodological approach to the analysis of vases, we must explain painters through the work of poets, as we sometimes explain poets through the work of painters.

Vases in the Collection of the Narodni Muzeum, Prague


The National Museum in Prague owns the largest collection of ancient vases in the Czech Republic, including representative Geometric, Corinthian, Boeotian, and eastern Greek vases. The greater part of the collection consists of black-gure and red-gure Attic ceramics, South Italian and Etruscan vases. Black-glazed vases from various schools are also well represented. The National Museums collection of vases from classical Antiquity dates back to the 19 th century. Most items in the heritage collection were presented to the museum as gifts, and do not include indications of provenance from their donors. After the First World War, the museum acquired a collection of classical Antiquities from Brandys castle, on the river Elbe, formed under the Habsburgs by Ludwig Salvator, an amateur archaeologist. Before and after the Second World War, a number of vases were bought from a Moravian antiques dealer, Mehudi ben Zapletal. Most of these vases come from Turkey or Greece. After the Second World War, small provincial collections entered the museum, considerably extending its holdings. Throughout this period, signicant and smaller private collections from Czech castles in Prague also entered the museum (the Metternich museum, Kynvart castle, Libochovice castle). Other acquisitions included vases belonging to H. Palme, the owner of a crystalware factory in Kamenick enov, and numerous works owned by retired public servants posted abroad during their careers, who had amassed private collections in the inter-war years. The museums collection of ancient vases has also been extended by a number of recent acquisitions.

La collection de vases du Muse de Prague


Marie Dufkov, dpartement des Antiquits classiques, Narodni Muzeum, Prague

Le Muse national de Prague possde la plus grande collection de vases antiques de la Rpublique tchque: il conserve des vases gomtriques, corinthiens, botiens et de Grce orientale. La plus grande partie de cet ensemble est compose de cramique attique gures noires et gures rouges, de vases italiotes et trusques ; les vases vernis noir dcoles diverses sont tout aussi nombreux. La formation de la collection dantiquits classiques du Muse national de Prague remonte au XIXe sicle. La plupart des anciens fonds, entrs au muse par donation, nont pas t accompagns dindications de provenance. Aprs la premire guerre mondiale, lemuse a pu acqurir les antiquits classiques du chteau Brandys, sur lElbe. Il sagit dune collection habsbourgeoise forme par un amateur darchologie, Ludwig Salvator. Avant et aprs la seconde guerre mondiale, quelques vases ont t achets un antiquaire dorigine morave,Mehudi ben Zapletal. La plupart de ces vases proviennent de Turquie et de Grce. Aprs la seconde guerre mondiale, la collecte de petites collections de province a considrablement accru la collection du muse. Durant cette priode ont galement t transfres quelques collections plus ou moins importantes provenant de divers chteaux tchques situs Prague (muse Metternich, chteau de Kynvart, chteau Libochovice). Il faut mentionner aussi les vases de H. Palme, propritaire dune cristallerie Kamenick enov. Beaucoup dacquisitions ont pu tre faites grce aux exfonctionnaires en mission ltranger qui avaient constitu des collections prives entre les deux guerres. La collection de vases antiques duMuse national de Prague a galement t enrichie dacquisitions rcentes.

Les vases du Vatican passs par le muse Napolon et leurs restaurations


Maurizio Sannibale et Ulderico Santamaria, Musei Vaticani, Cit du Vatican

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la suite du trait de Tolentino, sign Rome le 19 fvrier 1797, diverses uvres dart antique des muses du Capitole et des muses du Vatican furent emportes Paris ; parmi elles se trouvaient seize vases gurs de la Bibliothque Vaticane, qui parvinrent au muse Napolon entre 1799 et 1801. la n du Premier Empire, neuf vases seulement

retournrent Rome, en 1815 et 1816, pour tre rintgrs dans les collections de la Bibliothque Vaticane, o ils demeurrent jusquen 1900. cette date, ils sont transfrs avec le reste des vases qui y taient conservs dans la section collection de vases du Museo Gregoriano Etrusco, o ils rent lobjet durant le XX e sicle de nombreuses tudes qui les rent connatre universellement. Tous les vases restitus, que lon considrait gnriquement lpoque comme trusques, couvrent chronologiquement lensemble du IVe sicle avant J.-C. et sont en ralit dorigine apulienne, illustrant la production des peintres suivants: Peintre de Tarporley (400-380), Peintre de lIlioupersis (370350), Peintre de Varrese (360-340), manire du Peintre de Darius (340-320), Peintre de Perrone (330-310), cole des Peintres de la Patre et de Baltimore (330-310), Groupe de Tarente 7013 (320-300). Paris restrent sept vases : quatre vases attiques gures rouges et trois vases apuliens, parmi lesquels le cratre de Lasimos (K 66). Les vases passs par le muse Napolon Paris entre 1799 et 1816, qui se trouvent aujourdhui au Museo Gregoriano Etrusco, ont t soumis une campagne de prlvements destine caractriser les matriaux employs durant les oprations de restauration ventuellement menes pendant leur sjour en France. Les recherches ont t effectues au Laboratoire de Diagnostic pour la Conservation et la Restauration des muses du Vatican, dirig par Ulderico Santamaria, avec lassistance de Fabio Morresi et la collaboration de Francesca Romana Cibin, Krystyna Mlynarska et Andrea Pernella.

I vasi del Vaticano gi nel Muse Napolon e i loro restauri


A seguito del trattato di Tolentino, siglato a Roma il 19 febbraio 1797, vennero inviate a Parigi diverse opere darte antica dei Musei Capitolini e dei Musei Vaticani, tra cui sedici vasi gurati della Biblioteca Vaticana, che giunsero al Muse Napolon tra il 1799 e il 1801. Al termine del periodo napoleonico, solamente nove vasi faranno ritorno a Roma tra il 1815 e il 1816, per essere ricollocati nei Musei della Biblioteca in Vaticano, dove resteranno sino allanno 1900. Da allora infatti, insieme a tutti i vasi originariamente presenti nella Biblioteca Vaticana, essi sono stati trasferiti nel settore della Collezione dei Vasi del Museo Gregoriano Etrusco (Musei Vaticani), divenendo universalmente noti secondo questa nuova collocazione, grazie agli studi che si sono succeduti nel corso del XX secolo.

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Tutti i vasi restituiti, ritenuti allepoca genericamente etruschi, sono in realt di produzione apula e coprono lintero larco del IV sec. a.C., attraverso i seguenti ceramogra: Pittore di Tarporley (400-380), Pittore dellIlioupersis (370-350), Pittore di Varrese (360-340), maniera del Pittore di Dario (340320), Pittore di Perrone (330-310), scuola dei Pittori della Patera e di Baltimora (330-310), Gruppo di Taranto 7013 (320-300). A Parigi restarono sette vasi: quattro attici a gure rosse e tre apuli, tra i quali spicca il vaso di Lasimos (K 66). I vasi transitati nel Muse Napoleon di Parigi (1799-1816), e oggi nel Museo Gregoriano Etrusco, sono stati sottoposti a una campagna di campionamenti mirata alla caratterizzazione dei materiali impiegati durante le operazioni di restauro effettuate presumibilmente durante la loro permanenza in Francia. La scelta dei punti di prelievo si basata sui risultati delle indagini preliminari di tipo non distruttivo - XRF, uorescenza in luce UV - condotte in situ sullintero gruppo: MGE 17163 (X 6), 17200 (AA 1), 17948 (T 9), 18071 (V 38), 18105 (X 5), 18106 (X 7), 18275 (AC 1), 37000. Come termine di paragone, stato analizzato il cratere a volute del Pittore dellIlioupersis MGE 18255 (AA 2), che non fu inviato a Parigi ma che costituisce uno dei vasi con la pi antica storia collezionistica, essendo tra quelli gi presenti nella raccolta del giureconsulto napoletano Giuseppe Valletta nel XVII secolo, poi conuita in quella del Cardinale Filippo Antonio Gualtieri nel 1688. La stessa storia collezionistica condivisa dai vasi MGE 17200 e MGE 18106, ex Muse Napolon. In totale sono stati analizzati 23 campioni prelevati da quattro dei nove vasi. La caratterizzazione morfologica ed elementale dei materiali stata realizzata mediante lallestimento di sezioni lucide, osservate in microscopia ottica ed analizzate mediante microscopia SEM-EDS. Data la complessit stratigraca dei campioni, lintegrazione dei dati analitici si avvalsa dellausilio delle tecniche di Microscopia Infrarossa. Lanalisi della componente organica stata ulteriormente approfondite mediante il ricorso ad indagini cromatograche Py-GC-MS e GC-MS. Le indagini sono state effettuate dal Laboratorio di Diagnostica per la Conservazione ed il Restauro, Musei Vaticani, diretto da Ulderico Santamaria, con lassistenza di Fabio Morresi e loperato di Francesca Romana Cibin, Krystyna Mlynarska, Andrea Pernella.

Lagrene restaurateur et ses contemporains: autopsie dun savoir-faire


Nathalie Balcar et Yannick Vandenberghe, C2RMF

Depuis une dizaine dannes, des recherches historiques conduites au C2RMF et lINHA sur la restauration du vase grec ont t accompagnes de ltude scientique des anciennes interventions. En travaillant sur un corpus dune centaine dobjets, on a pu retracer certaines pratiques oublies, lies de grands foyers italiens (Naples, Rome) et franais (Paris), la n du XVIII e sicle et durant la premire moiti du XIX e sicle. Dernirement, les recherches se sont concentres sur trois acteurs particulirement importants : Jean-Jacques Lagrene (1739-1821), Johann Wilhelm Tischbein (1751-1829) et Luigi Brocchi (1770-1839). Tischbein, directeur de lAcadmie des Beaux-Arts de Naples, et certains de ses lves ont collabor la fin du X VIII e sicle la publication des vases de la seconde collection Hamilton; cest dans ce contexte que des restaurations et des copies de vases antiques ont aussi t ralises. Lagrene et Brocchi ont, pour leur part, restaur des vases saisis en Italie et entrs au Louvre. De ce fait, lenqute a t tendue, en collaboration avec les muses du Vatican, certains vases restitus par le muse Napolon en 1815. Lexpos montrera comment les analyses scientiques clairent, par ltude de la matire, les manires de faire de ces protagonistes. Quoique diffrentes les unes des autres, elles mettent en uvre des techniques picturales labores et dune remarquable rsistance aux altrations au service de restaurations plus ou moins illusionnistes. Par contraste avec cette sorte d ge dor , des interventions plus anciennes, ralises vraisemblablement dans la premire moiti du XVIII e sicle, paraissent constitues dune matire plus grossire, maintenant dgrade, tandis que dautres, plus proches de nous (n du XIX e et XX esicle), savrent dpourvues de soin et de qualits dintgration. Ce nouveau volet dtudes en cours, dont on prsentera les premiers rsultats, permettra de prciser si Lagrene et ses contemporains ont perfectionn un travail entam par leurs prdcesseurs, ou bien sils sont les instigateurs de nouvelles techniques dont leurs successeurs ont ensuite fait table rase.

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The Restorer Lagrene and his Contemporaries: Autopsy of a Body of Expertise


For the past ten years, historical research into Greek vase restoration, carried out by the C2RMF and the INHA, has complemented the scientic study of early repairs. Working on a corpus of one hundred objects, the team has retraced a number of forgotten techniques connected with the major Italian and French restoration centres (Naples, Rome, Paris) in the late 18 th century and the rst half of the 19 th century. Recent research has concentrated on three particularly important gures: Jean-Jacques Lagrene (1739-1821), Johann Wilhelm Tischbein (1751-1829) and Luigi Brocchi (1770-1839). Tischbein (director of the Naples Academy of Fine Arts) collaborated with some of his pupils on a project to publish vases in the second Hamilton collection, at the end of the 18 th century; in this context, restoration work and copies of ancient vases were also undertaken. In Paris, Lagrene and Brocchi restored vases seized during the Napoleonic campaigns in Italy and placed in the collections of the Louvre. From here, the investigation was extended with the collaboration of the Vatican Museums to a number of vases returned there from the Muse Napolon in 1815. The presentation will show how scientic analysis can shed new light on the early restorers various materials and methods, and their collective use of remarkably resilient painterly techniques, developed in support of more or less illusionistic restoration practices. In contrast to this golden age, earlier restorations apparently dating from the rst half of the 18 th century seem to use coarser materials which have deteriorated subsequently, while other more recent work (in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries) seems careless and unconcerned with the need for seamless invisibility. We present the rst ndings from this new, ongoing eld of investigation, enabling us to determine whether Lagrene and his contemporaries were perfecting approaches initiated by their predecessors, or instigating new techniques which their own successors later disregarded.

Un prodige de la conservation. Chimie et restauration du vase au temps de Lagrene (1780-1820 environ)


Brigitte Bourgeois, INHA

La matrialit du vase grec a longtemps recl une part de mystre, en raison de loubli total dans lequel sont tombes les techniques de fabrication antiques; ce nest que par tapes successives, jalonnes derreurs, que la science moderne a russi, au XXe sicle, vraiment rsoudre lnigme. Au tournant des XVIII e et XIX e sicles, la rencontre sensible des amateurs et des savants avec cette nouvelle classe dantiques suscite des ractions varies, mles dtonnement, devant un objet dune austrit chromatique frappante, porteur dinscriptions souvent incomprhensibles et dont la nature physique demeure controverse. De quoi est donc fait ce vase qui a si bien rsist lensevelissement, ce prodige de la conservation comme le dira plus tard Alexandre de Laborde ? Noffre-t-il pas un curieux paradoxe? Un produit cramique, dont le corps sapparente une vulgaire poterie commune, prsente une couverte la brillance, semble-t-il, inaltrable, sous la forme de ce vernis noir dont la composition et les proprits dent le savoir des premiers chimistes.

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Ds la seconde moiti du XVIIIe sicle, en effet, des hommes de science soumettent les vases aux mthodes de la chimie et de la minralogie naissantes. Parmi ces pres fondateurs dune archomtrie des vases, moins connus quAlexandre Brongniart, gurent Jean dArcet, Jean-Antoine Chaptal et Nicolas Vauquelin. Des gures importantes, lies aux mouvements des arts et de lindustrie, de la science et de la politique. Quels taient leurs objectifs, quelles interprtations ont-ils propos, et quel a pu tre limpact de leurs thories sur le devenir, matriel et savant, du vase grec? Dans quelle mesure enn la dmarche de restauration alors pratique est-elle en rapport ou non avec cette culture scientique ? Lexpos prsentera quelques pistes de rexion sur ce thme, en privilgiant la priode 1780-1820, moment fondateur durant lequel des protagonistes majeurs tels que Jean-Jacques Lagrene, dit le Jeune (1739-1821), et Luigi Brocchi (1770-1837), implantent la restauration des vases peints antiques, Svres et au Louvre.

and mineralogy. Among the founding fathers of the archaeometry of ancient vases (and less well-known than Alexandre Brongniart) were Jean dArcet, Jean-Antoine Chaptal and Nicolas Vauquelin: important gures involved in industrial and applied arts, science and politics. What were their aims, what interpretations did they suggest, and what was the impact of their theories? Finally, to what extent were current restoration practices related to this early scientic culture? The presentation will explore these various avenues, focusing on the period from 1780 to 1820, during which key protagonists such as Jean-Jacques Lagrene (known as le Jeune) (1739-1821) and Luigi Brocchi (1770-1837) restored vases at the Svres porcelain factory and the Louvre.

Le duc de Luynes et sa dmarche de reproduction des vases grecs


Anne Bouquillon, C2RMF, et Ccile Colonna, dpartement des Monnaies, mdailles et antiques, Bibliothque nationale de France

A Miracle of Conservation: Chemistry and Vase Restoration in the Time of Lagrene (c. 1780-1820)
The material composition of ancient Greek vases was, for many centuries, something of a mystery, due to our complete ignorance of ancient manufacturing techniques. Only recently and gradually have the successive discoveries and errors of modern science truly enabled us to solve the riddle during the 20th century. At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, this new class of antiquities with their striking, austere color, often incomprehensible inscriptions and much-disputed physical nature provoked wide-ranging reactions and astonishment, in amateurs and experts alike. What were these vases made of, to survive centuries of burial unscathed this miracle of conservation as Alexandre de Laborde was later to describe it? Was it not, indeed, a curious paradox? While its body looked like a plain ware, the Greek vase presented a coating (the so-called black glaze) whose shine seemed virtually indestructible, and whose composition deed the expertise of the rst modern chemists. Beginning in the second half of the 18th century, scientists subjected the vases to methodical investigation in light of the new sciences of chemistry

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Le duc de Luynes (1802-1867), riche aristocrate et grand mcne, sest intress trs tt larchologie grecque, publiant tudes et monographies, et rassemblant une belle collection de monnaies et darchologie. Son intrt pour les uvres du pass sest demble accompagn dun dsir de comprendre et de retrouver les techniques de cration des uvres antiques, en mtal ou en terre cuite. La question de la nature du fameux vernis noir a tt attir son attention, et il sest attach percer le mystre de sa composition dans le laboratoire quil avait fait installer dans le chteau de Dampierre. De ces essais nous restent quelques archives, un article publi en 1832, et deux vases gures rouges fabriqus par ses soins: lamphore quil a donne au muse de Cramique, Svres, en 1834, et une coupe conserve au Cabinet des mdailles de la BnF (donne avec le reste de sa collection en 1862). Ltude de ces indices permet dapprocher la dmarche pragmatique et novatrice mise luvre par ce grand chercheur pour approcher au plus prs la matrialit du vase grec. En complment des recherches historiques, ltude scientique des deux vases a t ralise au C2RMF, selon des techniques entirement non destructives (diffraction des rayons X et techniques par faisceaux dions (PIXE/PIGE) mises en uvre sur AGLAE, lacclrateur de particules du C2RMF).

Si la pte cramique rentre dans les compositions traditionnelles des terres cuites (terre argileuse, modrment calcique et ferrifre), le vernis noir correspond ici une glaure siliceuse, alcaline ou alcalino-plombifre selon lobjet considr, dont la coloration noire est obtenue par la prsence de trs fortes quantits de cuivre (prs de 20% CuO) sous forme de tnorite (CuO) cristallise. De manire paradoxale, ces compositions ne correspondent en rien aux rsultats des analyses menes par le duc de Luynes comme par le laboratoire de Svres sous la direction dAlexandre Brongniart; celles-ci montraient dj que le vernis noir contenait de la silice, de lalumine, du potassium et que le noir tait d la prsence doxyde de fer sous forme rduite. Comment concilier ce que nous apprennent les sources crites et ltude matrielle des vases ? Les divergences observes traduisent-elles une impossibilit technique de ralisation, ou bien clairent-elles diffrentes facettes dune dmarche archologique?

(x-ray diffraction, and ion-beam analysis techniques (PIXE/PIGE) available on the particle accelerator AGLAE). The clay body used for both vases corresponds to the composition of traditional terracotta wares (a moderately calcic and ferruginous clay). However, the Dukes black gloss is a siliceous (respectively) alkaline or lead-alkaline glaze, whose black colour is obtained thanks to the presence of high quantities of copper (almost 20 per cent CuO) in the form of crystallized tenorite or black copper oxide. Paradoxically, these compositions in no way correspond to the analyses of ancient vases carried out and recorded by the Duke of Luynes, or the laboratories at Svres under the direction of Alexandre Brongniart. These early investigations identied the presence of silica in the ancient glaze, but also aluminium and potassium, while the black coloration was attributed to the presence of ferrous oxide. How can we reconcile what we have learned from the written sources, and the material study of the Dukes vases? Do the differing results reect the impossibility of reproducing ancient techniques, or shed new light on different facets of a particular archaeological approach?

The Duke of Luynes and his Approach to the Reproduction of Greek Vases
The Duke of Luynes (1802-1867) a wealthy aristocrat and noted patron of the arts took an early interest in Greek archaeology, publishing studies and monographs, and amassing a ne collection of coins and archaeological artefacts. His interest in ancient artworks and objects went hand-in-hand with a desire to understand and rediscover their creative techniques, in metal and terracotta alike. His attention was quickly drawn to the question of the precise nature of the celebrated black glaze; in his private laboratory at the Chteau de Dampierre, the Duke set about penetrating the mystery of its chemical composition. His trials produced a handful of archives, an article published in 1832, and two red-gure vases made by the Duke himself: an amphora presented to the Svres ceramics museum in 1834, and a cup preserved in the Cabinet des Mdailles (presented to the French national library with the rest of his collection in 1862). Studying these clues enables us to reconstruct the pragmatic, innovative approach of this important investigative scholar and scientist, and to arrive at a closer denition of the material composition of Greek vases. Complementing this historical research, the C2RMF has carried out a scientic study of the Dukes two self-made vases using non-destructive techniques

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Enrico Pennelli: la trajectoire dun restaurateur de vases trusques du XIXe sicle


Gianpaolo Nadalini, Institut national du patrimoine

Francesco Depoletti (1779-1854), un homme de rseaux entre collectionnisme et restauration


Marie-Amlie Bernard, INHA, Universit de Paris - I Panthon-Sorbonne

, cest la signature que lon peut lire sur un vase de forme attique conserv au muse Hbert, Paris. Cadeau amusant dEnrico Pennelli au peintre Ernest Hbert? Des investigations sont menes au C2RMF. Elles rvleront la technologie de fabrication. Au del de cette falsication assume, cest le contexte, la vie, la carrire et les activits dEnrico Pennelli (1832-1890) qui seront reconstitus. Celui qui est considr, tort ou raison, comme une gure emblmatique de la restauration de vases grecs du XIXe sicle, a en effet vcu pendant quarante quatre ans lombre du muse Campana o il sest form et quil suivra de Rome Paris.

Enrico Pennelli: the Career of a 19th-Century Etruscan Vase Restorer


: the signature appears on a vase of Attic shape preserved at the muse Hbert in Paris. A witty gift, perhaps, from Enrico Pennelli to the painter Ernest Hbert? Investigations carried out by the C2RMF have revealed the technology used in the vases manufacture. The presentation examines the story behind this deliberate, avowed forgery, and the historical context, life, career and activities of Enrico Pennelli (1832-1890). Hailed rightly or wrongly as an iconic gure in the history of Greek vase restoration in the 19th century, Pennelli spent forty-four years working in the shadow of Romes Campana museum, where he was trained, and whose collections he followed from Rome to Paris.

Francesco Depoletti, peintre et micromosaste, fut form la restauration des vases grecs Naples vers 1825. Il rentra Rome la n des annes 1820, au moment o la dcouverte des ncropoles trusques allait entraner le dplacement du centre du commerce des vases peints de Naples Rome: le quartier de la Trinit des Monts devint le cur europen de ce march, entre les mains de personnages cumulant les activits de marchand, de restaurateur, darchologue, dexpert et drudit. Depoletti, marchand et restaurateur de vases, fut lune de ces gures polymorphes. Par son ancrage dans ce quartier et par ses dplacements en Italie et ltranger, il noua des relations avec des collectionneurs de toute lEurope et sinscrivit au cur dun rseau international o activits savantes et commerantes se nourrissaient mutuellement et o les mmes acteurs conjuguaient des savoirs et savoir-faire aujourdhui acadmiquement distincts. Il collaborait de manire rgulire avec lInstitut de Correspondance Archologique, le Muse grgorien trusque, et comptait parmi ses clients des collectionneurs italiens, franais, britanniques, mais aussi russes et hongrois. La communication montrera comment Francesco Depoletti servit de rouage entre le march, lrudition et la restauration. Les cas de Ferenc Pulszky, collectionneur et homme politique hongrois, et du comte Gouriev, ambassadeur de Russie Rome et Naples, illustreront la fascination de la haute socit europenne pour les vases peints. Les liens de Depoletti avec le prince de Canino, quon examinera ensuite, sont rvlateurs dune autre conception de lantique, considr comme objet dtude et de ngoce. Les activits darchologue, de collectionneur et dcrivain de Lucien Bonaparte sont dsormais bien connues; ce sont donc ses rapports avec les marchands et restaurateurs, ce quils rvlent de sa manire de conjuguer collection, tude et restauration, quon cherchera mettre en lumire.

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Francesco Depoletti (1779-1854) and the Networks of Vase Collecting and Restoring
The painter and micro-mosaicist Francesco Depoletti was trained in the restoration of Greek vases in Naples, c. 1825. He returned to Rome at the

end of the 1820s, just as the discovery of the Etruscan necropoles shifted the focus of contemporary dealership in painted vases from Naples to Rome. The citys Trinit dei Monti district became the centre of the European market in painted vases, steered by polymorphous characters who were at once dealers, restorers, archaeologists, experts and scholars. The vase dealer and restorer Depoletti was one such: based in Trinit dei Monti, but travelling widely throughout Italy and abroad, he forged close links with collectors from all over Europe and established himself as a pivotal gure at the heart of an international network in which scholarly research and commerce functioned as mutually enriching sources of knowledge and new discoveries, and where key individuals pursued spheres of expertise which have become academically distinct today. Depoletti collaborated regularly with the Istituto di corrispondenza archeologica and the Gregorian Etruscan museum in Rome; his clients included mostly Italian, French and British collectors, together with a handful of Russians and Hungarians. The presentation will show how Francesco Depoletti played a key role in between the art market, scholarship and restoration. Two case studies, dealing with the Hungarian collector and politician Ferenc Pulszky, and Count Gouriev (Russias ambassador to Rome and Naples), will illustrate European high societys fascination with painted vases. Depolettis links to the Prince of Canino reveal another concept of Antiquity, as an object of scholarly study and commercial transactions. Lucien Bonapartes activities as an archaeologist, collector and writer are well known to modern scholars: the presentation will look at his less-documented links with dealers and restorers, and what they can tell us about the way he too combined collecting, scholarship and restoration.

Les vases dAntonio Pizzati au muse de lErmitage: tudes scientiques et perspectives


Anastasia Bukina et Ksenia Chugunova, dpartement des Antiquits classiques, The State Hermitage Museum, Saint Ptersbourg

En 1834, le Cabinet de lEmpereur de Russie acquit pour lAcadmie impriale des Arts la collection dantiquits runie par le Cavaliere Dottore Antonio Pizzati. Il sagit du premier ensemble de ce genre import en Russie. Dans le catalogue de la collection Pizzati, qui a t conserv, lauteur, Raffaele Gargiulo, dcrit avec force dtails environ 1400 objets, dont 700 vases grecs et italiotes. Il indique ltat de conservation des pices, les restaurations existantes, et donne des informations sur leur provenance. La plupart des vases ont t trouvs dans le Royaume des Deux-Siciles; au moins quatre-vingts dentre eux proviennent de Corneto et Canino, et une pice a fait partie de la collection du prince de Canino. Depuis 1851, la collection Pizzati appartient au muse de lErmitage, et un grand nombre de ces vases ont t conservs dans leur tat initial. Nous sommes donc confronts la question suivante: faut-il restaurer nouveau les objets ou bien les conserver dans cet tat historique? cela sajoutent des problmes lis la publication des vases comportant des restaurations anciennes dans le Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum (CVA). Les scientiques et les conservateurs tablissent ensemble les descriptions techniques dtailles des objets exposs, ils sondent leur tat matriel an de mettre en vidence les cassures, les comblements en terre cuite ou en pltre ainsi que les repeints modernes. En pratique, la priorit est donne des mthodes dinvestigation non destructives telles que la radiographie, lexamen sous lumire UV ou lanalyse par uorescence de rayons X. Selon les rsultats obtenus, la dcision est prise de conserver ou non les anciennes restaurations. Le plus souvent, les petits lments repeints ainsi que les vernis modernes sont conservs, moins que le vase ne ncessite dtre lav, en raison de limprgnation des sels. En revanche, le problme pos par les zones largement repeintes mne la recherche dun compromis entre lintrt que prsente lhistoire de la musologie et les objectifs musologiques modernes. Lexpos analysera cette problmatique laide de plusieurs tudes de cas (vases attiques et corinthiens).

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Vases of Antonio Pizzati in the State Hermitage Museum: Scientic Studies and Perspectives
In 1834, the Russian Emperors Cabinet purchased, for the Imperial Academy of Arts, the collection of classical antiquities assembled by Cavaliere Dottore Antonio Pizzati. It represented the rst important ensemble of this kind to be imported into Russia. The catalogue of Pizzatis collection has been preserved: the author Raffaele Gargiulo described about 1400 objects, among which 700 Greek and South Italian vases are considered in the most detailed manner. Gargiulo described their condition and existing restorations, as well as the provenance data. Most vases had been found in the Regno delle Due Sicilie: at least 80 of them came from Corneto and Canino, and one piece was earlier possessed by the Principio di Canino. Since 1851, the Pizzatis collection belongs to the Hermitage Museum, and a considerable part of these vases have been kept in their initial condition. We therefore have to face the issue of whether to re-treat or preserve this historical state. There are also specic problems concerning publication requirements in the CVA of vases with old restorations. Thus our scientists and keepers are working together on the detailed technical descriptions of displayed objects, investigating their physical integrity in order to reveal break lines, terracotta or plaster lls, as well as modern overpaint. Priority is given to nondestructive methods such as radiography, examination under ultraviolet light, and X-ray uorescence analysis. According to what we nd, we elaborate an approach on whether or not to keep the old restorations. Most often we preserve small overpainted elements as well as varnishes, unless the vase needs to be washed because of salt impregnation. The problem of large overpainted elements leads us to seek a compromise between the interests of the history of museology and modern museological goals.

As an example, considerable losses in the original painting have been observed on a Pizzatis Tyrrhenian amphora that exhibits a heavily repainted surface. Areas with a well-preserved ancient dcor were cleaned, while the overall aspect of the object was maintained. A Corinthian globular red-grounded oinochoe bears only limited overpaint on the gured part, but its black-glazed parts are covered with plaster and solid paint. In that case, we chose to clean the gures and one area below the handle (to demonstrate preserved added red). A special case is an Athenian black-gure amphora assembled from shards, presumably burnt in Antiquity, and from modern terracotta lls, tinted with gray inclusions in order to imitate the color of the original fragments. Gargiulo reported that the vase is un poco ristaurato and guessed that it was used during an ancient burial ceremony. The examination under ultraviolet light gave us an idea of joins, additions and modern painted elements, but due to the heavy overpaint, attribution to an ancient vase painter was impossible. We decided to clean all the ancient fragments, without disassembling the vase, and to investigate the micro-sampling by FTIR spectroscopy. Some of the Pizzatis vases should be thoroughly investigated, using all methods including thermoluminescence analysis. A case-study is a Corinthian atticizing lekythos with comasts (a type of iconography unique for this class). We have found out that the vase is assembled from parts of an ancient vessel. It seems that some of the original decor is kept on the body but covered with a solid plaster layer and repainted. The quality of the modern overpaint is so high that it looks exactly like the ancient one. In addition, the limits between modern elements (gures and background) and ancient ones (such as a rosette) are indistinguishable. The Italian restorers work of the 19th century seems to have more value this time than what has been observed so far on Late Corinthian vases that have been already cleaned and published.

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Les vases antiques du cabinet des vases du roi Christian VIII de Danemark: de la catgorie la moins et cependant la mieux restaure
Bodil Bundgaard-Rasmussen, Nationalmuseet, Copenhague

Cest par cette apprciation que le diplomate et archologue danois P. O. Broendsted appuya auprs du prince Christian Frederick de Danemark

lacquisition dune amphore attique, en 1820. Lors de son sjour de quelques mois Naples, le prince avait fait la connaissance de lancien archevque Giuseppe Capece Latro. Ce dernier conservait dans sa villa de Portici Capece une collection assez considrable dantiquits compose de bronzes, de sculptures, de terre cuites et plus particulirement de vases provenant dItalie du sud et de Grce, parmi lesquels lamphore prcite, trs peu et trs bien restaure . Il tait dsireux de tout vendre et Christian Frederick, collectionnant dj les monnaies et les minraux, acquit la collection, crant ainsi ce qui fut ensuite appel le Cabinet royal des vases. La plupart de ces vases forment actuellement le cur de la collection de cramiques du dpartement des Antiquits classiques du muse national du Danemark. La communication retracera les grandes lignes de lhistoire de cette acquisition en prtant une attention particulire lamphore et sa restauration ainsi qu des questions analogues poses par dautres pices de la collection.

Les vases attiques de la collection Campana du muse de lErmitage: restaurations anciennes et choix actuels concernant leur exposition, leur tude et leur conservation
Anna Petrakova et Olga Shuvalova, dpartement des Antiquits classiques, The State Hermitage Museum, Saint Ptersbourg

Acquis par le muse de lErmitage en 1861-62, les vases de la collection Campana sont mieux connus et estims que ceux provenant dautres collections. Trs sollicits tout au long du XXe sicle, beaucoup dentre eux nont pu bncier dune restauration approprie, dune part parce quil tait impossible de les remplacer dans les salles dexposition, dautre part par crainte de dtruire un objet qui tait premire vue prsentable. Lexposition actuelle est donc rduite un faible nombre duvres, en raison du mauvais tat dune majeure partie de la collection. La publication des collections de lErmitage dans le Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum (CVA) et louverture prochaine de nouvelles salles dexposition rendent donc particulirement aigu le problme de la restauration. De nombreux vases de la collection Campana avaient dj t restaurs au moment de la vente. Ils avaient t assembls partir de fragments, les

Ancient Vases in the Christian VIIIs Vase Cabinet - of the Least Restored and yet the Best Restored Category
Using this evaluation, the Danish diplomat and archaeologist P.O. Broendsted recommended the acquisition of an Attic amphora to Prince Christian Frederik of Denmark in 1820. The Prince had been in Naples for several months and had made the acquaintance of the former archbishop, Guiseppe Capece Latro. In his country house at Portici Capece, Capece Latro had a fairly large collection of antiquities, including bronzes, sculptures and terracottas, and especially vases mostly South Italian and a few Greek, among them the least restored yet best restored amphora. He was eager to sell everything, and the Prince, who was already a collector of coins and minerals, acquired the collection and thus created what was later termed The Royal Vase Cabinet. The many vases now form the core of the pottery collection in the Collection of Classical Antiquities at the National Museum of Denmark. The paper will outline the story of the acquisition with special regard to the amphora and its restoration as well as to other similar aspects of the collection.

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parties manquantes avaient t combles et un repeint moderne, imitant la peinture ancienne, avait t ajout. Au dbut du XX e sicle certains dentre eux ont commenc se dtriorer. Or, selon la conception dominante de lpoque, seuls les lments antiques devaient tre prservs. De la sorte, on ne garda que deux fragments du cratre B.1843, pourtant acquis ltat de vase entier. la suite de telles expriences de dmantlement produisant des fragments dobjets impossibles prsenter, le principe conserver plutt que restaurer a dsormais prvalu. Au cours du XX e sicle, les vases ont donc t consolids lintrieur laide de gaze et de mastic, tandis que de la colophane tait applique lextrieur. Cependant, comme aucune limination des sels navait t pratique avant le travail dassemblage du XIX e sicle puis lors des mesures conservatoires du XX e sicle, le processus de destruction a perdur sous le maquillage de la restauration. Aujourdhui, on privilgie une approche spcique pour chaque vase de la collection Campana. Alors que certains dentre eux peuvent tre superciellement nettoys ou conservs en ltat, dautres, dans un tat critique, ncessitent une restauration complte avec dmontage. Ce travail doit tre effectu aprs quont t menes toutes les tudes physiques et chimiques sur les matriaux des restaurations antrieures, et pris en considration tous les lments connus sur celles-ci. Plusieurs dossiers (cratre B.1525, olp B.1395, amphore B.1389) seront prsents pour clairer les choix actuels.

Many vases from the Campana collection had been already restored by the time of the sale: they had been reassembled from fragments, missing parts had been lled in, and modern overpaint, imitating the ancient painting, had been added. At the beginning of the 20th century, some of them started to fall apart. According to the prevailing attitude of the time, only original ancient parts used to be saved. Thus, only two fragments of krater B.1843, bought as a whole shape, have been preserved. After some unsuccessful experiments, which lead to the destruction of the object and the loss of a full museum exhibit, the attitude throughout the 20th century was: conservation instead of restoration. Vases used to be consolidated from inside with gauze and mastic, while colophony was applied on the outside. Both the 19thcentury assembly work and the 20thcentury conservation effort were performed without preliminary removal of salts, and the process of destruction thus continued under the cosmetic restoration. Todays attitude towards the Campana vases is to treat each according to an individual approach. While some can be just cosmetically cleaned or conserved, vases in critical condition require full restoration with disassembling. The work has to be done after carrying out all possible physical and chemical studies of materials used in previous restorations, after documenting all the stages in the process and keeping all the elements left from previous restorations. Such was the case in 2009 with the restored krater B.1525. The body of olpe B.1395 complete but much worn, was repainted in the 19thcentury. After physical and chemical studies, it was decided to wash away all the overpaints, as they obscured the overall understanding of the object, while the original painting was preserved enough to ensure that the olpe after de-restoration would still be an object of museum value. There are also cases when it is difcult to disassemble or to clean the object, because it will lead to irreversible losses. The amphora B.1389 was not cleaned and received a 20thcentury conservation treatment over a 19thcentury repainted surface. There is a danger that salts may destroy the object from inside, but there is also a danger that cleaning the object may damage it, because a painting consolidation treatment performed in the 20 th century cannot be cleaned now without harm to the original surface. Physical and chemical studies allow us to understand the condition of the object and to precisely identify what is ancient and what is not, but the object, sparingly cleaned and conserved, should not be disassembled until new methods are found.

Attic Vases from the Campana Collection in the State Hermitage Museum: Old Restorations and Present Attitude Regarding their Display, Study and Conservation
Vases from the Campana collection, purchased by the Hermitage in 1861-62, became better-known and more valuable than vases bought from other collections. Sought after throughout the whole 20 th century, many of them could not be properly restored because it was impossible to replace them in exhibition galleries and because of the fear of destroying an item that was good-looking at rst glance. The present exhibition is therefore reduced to a rather small number of objects, due to the bad condition of the major part of the collection. Under these circumstances, the current publication of the Hermitage CVAs and the upcoming opening of new exhibition halls make the problem of restoration especially relevant.