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M AGIC SQUAR E

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By

Harvey D. Heinz

&

John R. Hendricks

By HDH

Second print run July 2005

by HDH

as demand indicates

ISBN 0-9687985-0-0

Binding courtesy of Pacific Bindery Services Ltd.

Two ladies with patience and forbearance,

while their men are

playing with numbers.

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By permission, Carlos Rivera, http://www.primepuzzles.net/

Contents

iii

Preface 1

xi

Preface 2

xiii

1 to 174

References

175

The Authors

81

A1-1 to A1-15

A2-1 to A2-3

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1 - Two types of almost magic stars ..................................................... 2

2 - The Alphamagic square of order-3 .................................................. 3

3 - An order-4 and an order-5 anti-magic square.................................. 4

4 - Number of anti-magic squares......................................................... 4

5 - Two order-5 anti-magic stars........................................................... 5

6 - The 8 aspects of a magic square. ..................................................... 6

7 - One of four order-3 magic cubes, all associated. ............................ 7

8 - Three associated magic squares....................................................... 8

9 - An order-9 associated, pandiagonal, 32 ply magic square............. 9

10 - One of 4 basic magic cubes .........................................................11

11 - An order-4 Basic magic square ...................................................12

12 - A basic order-6 magic star...........................................................13

13 - Basic tesseract MT# 9 shown in the standard position ................14

14 - A disguised version of MT# 9 (previous figure...........................15

15 - The 58 basic tesseracts of order-3 in indexed order ....................16

16 - An order-8 bent-diagonal magic square ......................................17

17 - An order-9 bimagic square with unusual features .......................19

18 - An order-5 and an order-6 bordered square.................................21

19 -The continuous nature of a pandiagonal magic square.................21

20 -Two order-3 magic squares and their complements .....................23

21 - An order-6 magic square and its complement .............................24

22 - An order-5 pandiagonal and its complement. pair pattern...........24

23 - An order-4 complete cube of binary digits ..................................25

24 - 12 order-3 magic squares form an order-12 composition ...........27

25 - Two order-4 magic squares formed from the above....................27

iii

26 - 2 order-5 magic square that dont obey the rule for Bordered....28

27 - A hypercube of order-3 (a cube) showing the coordinates. .........30

28 - Crosmagic Quadrant pattern for order-9 and order-13 ................32

29 - Diamagic Quadrant pattern for order-9 and order-13..................34

30 - Diametrically equidistant pairs in even and odd orders...............35

31 - A magic square in ternary, decimal 0-8 and decimal 1 to 9.........36

32 - Digital-root magic squares with digital roots of 3, 6 and 9. ........36

33 - Divide magic square from a multiply magic square. ...................37

34 - An order-4 domino magic square. ...............................................37

35 - An order-7 magic square using a complete set of dominoes. ......38

36 - Six doubly-even magic squares in one. ......................................39

37 - The 12 Dudeney groups. .............................................................40

38 - An order-7 magic square with embedded orders 3 and 4. ..........41

39 - Table Summary of magic squares count...................................42

40 - Table Summary of magic stars count. ......................................43

41 - Index # 6 of the 36 essentially different pandiagonals. ...............44

42 - An order-4, doubly-even, within a singly-even order-6. .............45

43 - An order-3 magic square with 2 expansion bands. ......................46

44 - Franklins order-8 magic square..................................................49

45 - Some Franklin order-8 patterns. ..................................................50

46 - Two magic Generalized parts. .....................................................52

47 - Exponential geometric magic square. .........................................53

48 - Ratio geometric magic square. ...................................................53

49 - Order-4 Latin, Greek and Graeco-Latin squares. ........................54

50 - A bipartite anti-magic graph........................................................54

iv

51 - A bipartite super-magic graph. ....................................................55

52 - An order-4 supermagic graph and magic square .........................55

53 - An order-5 star and two isomorphic tree-planting graphs. ..........56

54 - Orders 3 and 4 Heterosquare. ......................................................57

55 - Horizontal and vertical steps in an order-3 magic square............58

56 - This non-normal order-4 magic square does not use integers. ....59

57 - The first 3 order-4 magic squares. ...............................................60

58 - Star A shows the name of the cells, Star B is solution # 1. .........60

59 - The first six order-6 magic stars in tabular form. ........................61

60 - An order-5 with inlaid diamond and even corner numbers. ........62

61 - Comparison of order-4 Inlaid and Bordered magic squares. .......62

62 - The primary intermediate square for order-5...............................63

63 - Pandiagonal order-5 and solution set...........................................64

64 - An order-9 iso-like magic star. ....................................................66

65 - The order-9 diamagic square for the above star. .........................67

66 - An order-8 magic star isomorphic to an order-5 square. .............68

67 - Four aspects of the IXOHOXI magic square...............................69

68 - An order-8 with two half-board re-entrant Knight Tours. ...........71

69 - The two re-entrant knight tour paths for the above square. .........72

70 - Variations of a numerical Latin square........................................73

71 - Bergholts general form for order-4. ...........................................74

72 - A solution set and the resulting magic square. ............................75

73 - An order-7 Lozenge magic square. .............................................76

74 - Lringmagic Quadrant pattern for order-9 and order-13...............76

75 - An order-6 multiply magic square is 22 ply and 32 ply. .......77

77 - An order-3 basic normal magic cube...........................................79

78 - Number of lower hyperplanes within a given hypercube. ...........80

79 - An order-4 semi-pandiagonal and its magic line diagram. ..........81

80 - A 3 x 9 magic rectangle with correct diagonals...........................82

81 - An order-5 pandiagonal square with special numbers.................83

82 - An order-9 pandiagonal magic square that is also 32-ply............83

83 - An order-12 pattern b normal magic star.....................................84

84 - An order-11 pattern b normal magic star.....................................85

85 - A summary of some magic star facts...........................................86

86 - Order-10 magic stars, Type S and Type T...................................87

87 - The 3-D order-3 magic star. ........................................................89

88 - Comparison of magic squares cubes and tesseracts. ...................90

89 - A magic tesseract shown with Hendricks projection...................91

90 - The above magic tesseract in tabular form. .................................92

91 - Order-3 hypercube comparison. ..................................................93

92 - Magic triangular regions, orders 4 and 6. ....................................94

93 - Transforming a 2-d magic star to 3-D cube and octahedron. ......95

94 - An order-4 magic square mapped to a tetrahedron.....................95

95 - An order-8 most-perfect magic square. .......................................97

96 - An order-4 multiplication magic square and its reverse. .............98

97 - # of segments in n-agonals for dimensions 2, 3, and 4 ................99

98 - Table - Hypercube has both a general and a specific meaning. 100

99 - Four different types of number squares .................................... 101

100 - This bordered magic square consists of two odd orders ......... 102

vi

101 - Two order-3 number squares and magic squares....................104

102 - An add magic square with an inlaid multiply magic square105

103 - A pentagram of five magic diamonds.....................................106

104 - This ornamental magic star consists of two interlocked stars.107

105 - An order-3 cube showing coordinates and line paths. ............108

106 - L. S. Frierson overlapping square, orders 3, 5, 7 and 9. .........109

107 - A. W. Johnson, Jr. bordered palindromic magic square. ........110

108 - An essentially different pandiagonal and a derivative. ...........112

109 - An order-7 pan-magic star. ....................................................113

110 - The order-7 pandiagonal square used for the above star. .......114

111 - A pan-3-agonal magic cube of order 4. ..................................116

112 - Order-5 pandiagonal magic square showing parity pattern. ...117

113 - An order-4 square partitioned into cells. ................................117

114 - Collisons order-14 patchwork magic square. .......................118

115 - An Order-7 with inlaid order-5 pandiagonal magic square. ...120

116 - Values of the corner cells of the order-16 perfect tesseract...121

117 - Order-5 and order-11 perfect prime squares...........................123

118 - Two of 18 order-4 perimeter-magic triangles.........................124

119 - A perimeter-magic order-5 pentagon and order-3 septagon. 124

120 - Three of the 5 anti-magic Octahedrons. .................................125

121 - Plusmagic Quadrant pattern for order-9 and order-13............126

122 - Minimum starting prime for consecutive primes squares.......127

123 - A. W. Johnson, Jr.s bordered, order-8 prime number square.127

124 - Two order-5 prime stars, minimal and consecutive primes. ...128

125 - Pythagorean magic squares, all order-4, Sc2 = sa2 + Sb2.....130

vii

126 - Pythagorean magic squares, orders 3, 4, 5; Sc = sa + Sb.......130

127 - The eight opposite corner pairs of a magic tesseract. .............131

128 - Eight order-13 quadrant magic patterns ................................132.

129 - Even order crosmagic and lringmagic patterns, order 8, 12 ...133.

130 - This order-13 quadrant square is 14 times quadrant magic ....134.

131 - Some patterns of the order-13 quadrant magic square............135.

132 - A regular order-4 magic square from a Graeco-Latin square .137.

133 - Three representations of an order-4 magic square..................138.

134 - Continuous and separate patterns for Order-8 magic stars .....139.

135 - First four solutions, orders 8A and 8B....................................140.

136 - Two traditional tesseract projections. .....................................141

137 - The modern Hendricks projection.........................................141

138 - Order-4 reverse magic square pair..........................................142

139 - A principal reversible square with 2 of its 16 variations. .......143

140 - The 3 principal reversible squares of order-4. ........................144

141 - Number of Most-perfect magic squares .................................145

142 - The Sagrada magic square sums to 33....................................147

143 - The Sator word magic square. ................................................148

144 - An order-7 associated, and thus self-similar, magic square. ..149

145 - An order-4 self-similar magic square that is not associated. ..149

146 - An order-7 semi-magic square of squares. .............................150

147 - Two semi-pandiagonal magic squares....................................151

148 - An order-9 serrated magic square...........................................152

149 - Patterns for the above serrated magic square..........................153

150 - 2 pandiagonal squares contained in the above square. ...........153

viii

151 - An order-6 simple, normal, singly-even magic square. ..........155

152 - An algebraic pattern for an order-6 pandiagonal. ...................156

153 - The order-6 pandiagonal in base 7 and base-10 .....................157

154 - Even and odd number placement in a square and cube. .........158

155 - Species # 1 of the order-3 magic tesseract..............................159

156 - Square of primes make a semi-magic square..........................160

157 - The smallest orthomagic arrangement of distinct squares. .....161

158 - Sringmagic quadrant pattern for order-9 and order-13. ..........161

159 - Order-4, standard position, and two disguises........................162

160 - An order-6 magic star and a disguised version of it. .............163

161 - Subtraction magic square. ......................................................164

162 - Hypercubes number of correct summations. .......................165

163 - Symmetrical cells in even and odd order magic squares. .......166

164 - Two Kravitz Talisman squares. ..............................................167

165 - Transforming an associated magic square to a pandiagonal...168

166 - # of parallel segmented triagonals for orders 3 to 10..............170

167 -Collisons order-5 pandiagonal upside-down magic square. ...171

168 - The smallest possible consecutive primes order-3..................172

169 - The smallest possible consecutive primes type-2 order-3 ......172

170 - An order-8A weakly magic star..............................................173

171 - An unorthodox use of wrap-around........................................174

ix

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PREFACE 1.

With the increasing popularity of the World Wide Web has come an

explosive increase in published material on magic squares and cubes.

As I look at this material, I can appreciate how it is expanding our

knowledge of this fascinating subject. However, frequently an author

comes up with a new idea (or what he thinks is a new idea) and defines

it using a term that has been in other use, in some cases, for hundreds of

years.

On the other hand, because the subject is growing so fast, it is

important that new words and phrases be defined and publicized as

quickly as possible. For these reasons, in the winter of 1999 I decided

to research this subject and publish a glossary on my Web page.

While this book is an attempt to standardize definitions, unfortunately

not all magic square hobbyists will have a copy of this book at hand.

Therefore, I suggest that when using a term not too well known, an

attempt be made to clarify its meaning.

After posting the result to my site, I also printed it as a booklet for my

personal reference. Because John Hendricks has been a good source of

information for me, I sent him a copy of the booklet as a courtesy

gesture. He then suggested I publish an expanded version of this in

book form. I was immediately interested, and when he graciously

accepted the request to serve as co-author, I decided, with his

knowledge and experience to support me, I could do it.

What definitions have been included in this book is arbitrary. We have

tried to include the more popular terms by drawing on a wide range of

resources. Inevitably, with a book of this nature, personal preferences

enter the picture. I am sure that every person reading this book will say

to himself at some point why did he bother putting that item in, or why

that illustration, or what about.

In any case I have worked on the assumption that a picture is worth a

thousand words, and so have kept the descriptive text to a minimum. I

have tried, when picking the illustrations, to find items of additional

interest besides just referring to the particular term being defined.

Hopefully, this will encourage the use of the book for browsing as well

as for reference.

xi

reference. Where a definition appears or is used in a variety of sources,

no mention is made of the source unless one particular location is

especially informative. Where a term or definition is primarily (or

solely) the work of one author, his work is cited as the source.

To add to the usefulness of this reference, I have in many cases,

included relevant facts or tables of comparisons.

In the definitions text, bold type indicates a term that has its own

definition.

This book uses m to indicate order (of magic squares, cubes, etc) and n

to indicate dimension. This is the terminology used by Hendricks in his

writings where so much of the work involves dimensions greater then

2. For magic stars, because all work is in two dimensions, the

traditional n will continue to be used for the order.

Unless I specifically indicate otherwise, all references to magic squares

mean normal (pure) magic squares composed of the natural numbers

from 1 to m2. Likewise for cubes, tesseracts, etc. Normal magic stars

use the numbers from 1 to 2n.

A special thanks to John Hendricks for the support and encouragement

he has given me on this project.

Writing and publishing this book is a first venture for me. My hope is

that it will prove to be an informative and a worthy reference on this

fascinating subject.

Harvey D. Heinz

July 2005

It is now time to print a second run of this book.

I have corrected the mistakes I am aware of that appeared in the first

run.

The only other changes are minor variations in wording, or slight

elaborations where space permitted.

H.D.H

xii

PREFACE 2.

The analogy with squares and cubes is not complete,

for rows of numbers can be arranged side-by-side to

represent a visible square, squares can be piled one

upon another to make a visible cube, but cubes cannot

be so combined in drawing as to picture to the eye their

higher relations.

Magic Squares and Cubes, by W.S. Andrews, Dover Publication.

teach the wrong model of the tesseract The problem has to do with

partitioning the tesseract into cells, so that numbers can be assigned to

various cells & coordinate positions.

In 1950, I sketched the first magic tesseract.. Nobody would look at it.

Andrews had said it was impossible. I did not have a chance to look

into it again for about five years and was on Gimli Airforce Station

during a cold winter with not much else to do. So, I managed to make a

5- and 6-dimensional magic hypercube of order 3. I reasoned that if the

establishment would not look at the magic tesseract, then they might

look at the higher dimensional hypercubes. However, it was not until I

was in Montreal before a mathematician from Seattle, home for

Christmas, heard about me and wished to see my magic hypercubes. As

he looked over it all, he said, This stuff has got to be published.

He phoned a friend at McGill University. The next thing I knew, I got a

reprint order form for my article The Five- and Six-Dimensional Magic

Hypercubes of Order 3 which was published in the Canadian

Mathematical Bulletin, May 1962..

There were many hurdles to overcome with terminology and

symbolism. A simple concept such as a row of numbers is not so

simple in six-dimensional space. One runs out of names row, column,

pillar, post, file, rank,then what? So, the customary practice for

higher dimensional spaces is to number the coordinate axes x1, x2,

xixn . Thus, I coined 1-row, 2-row, 3-row, ,,,, n-row.. There were

both dimension and order to be taken into account now, so I used n for

dimension and m for order. This was to be n-dimensional magic

hypercubes of order m.

xiii

The old guard , adept in cubes, had just finished coining long

diagonal and space diagonal and here I had to put a halt to that

because for 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 dimensions you could not very well have short

diagonal, long diagonal and longer than that diagonal. I noticed

that when one traversed the square that 2 coordinates always changed

on a diagonal as you moved along it. Three coordinates changed for the

space diagonals of the cube, while only two coordinates changed for

the facial diagonals. Therefore, it was clearly in order to talk in terms of

2-agonal, 3-agonal, 4-agonal, , n-agonal depending upon how many

coordinates change as you move along one of them. This means that

triagonal, quadragonal, etc. were born and were a most logical solution

to the problem..

One of the greatest challenges of all, was the concept of a perfect

cube. As a boy, I learned that the four-space diagonals of a cube were

required as well as all rows, columns and pillars to sum a constant

magic sum. It was accepted that facial diagonals alone would be the

requirement for a perfect cube. Eventually, Benson and Jacoby made a

magic cube that had all broken triagonals and all broken diagonals

summing the magic sum in every cross-section of the cube. It was both

pandiagonal and pantriagonal. Thus, it was perfect.

Not until I made the perfect tesseract of order 16 and the 5-dimensional

perfect magic hypercube of order 32 did I realize that perfect means all

planar cross-sections are pandiagonal magic squares and all hypercubes

have everything summing the magic sum

Planck had shown that the order of the hypercube had to be 2n or more

before one could have pandiagonal squares with every cross-section.

However, not until I actually made one did the point become clear. So

the definition of perfect is upgraded. Through every cell on the

hypercube there are (3n-1)/2 different routes that must sum the magic

sum.

Over the years, it has been my pleasure to participate in the

development of mathematics and to offer what I can on the subject.

John R. Hendricks

xiv

Algorithm 1

A

Algorithm

A step-by step procedure for solving a problem by hand or by

using a computer.

Algebraic pattern

A generalized magic square, cube, tesseract, hypercube, or

border, etc. using algebraic digits for the numbers. A pattern is

used extensively for making inlays. See Solution Set.

Almost-magic Stars

A magic pentagram (5-pointed star), we now know, must have 5

lines summing to an equal value.

However, such a figure cannot be constructed using consecutive

integers.

Charles Trigg calls a pentagram with only 4 lines with equal

sums but constructed with the consecutive numbers from 1 to 10,

an almost-magic pentagram.

C. W. Trigg, J. Recreational Mathematics, 29:1, 1998, pp.8-11, Almost Magic

Pentagams

independently coined the phrase almost-magic, but generalizes it

for all orders of stars.

His definition: If there are numbers 1, 2, , 2n located in a star

Sn (or Tn) so that the sum on m 2 lines is 4n + 2, on the others

4n + 1 and 4n + 3, we call it an almost-magic star.

See Magic stars type T for information on Sn and Tn.

Marin Trenkler, Magicke Hviezdy (Magic stars), Obsory Matematiky, Fyziky a

Informatiky, 51(1998).

.. Almost-magic Stars

NOTE that by Trenklers definition, the order-5 almost-magic

star has only 3 lines summing correctly. Triggs order-5 (the

only order he defines) requires 4 lines summing the same.

Neither author has defined almost-magic for higher order stars.

NOTE2: This book will retain the customary n as the order for

magic stars but use m to indicate the order of magic squares,

cubes, etc, leaving n free to indicate dimension.

1

10

4

10

2

7

Trigg

6

8

SA5

Trenkler

This Trigg Almost-magic order-5 star has 4 lines which sum to

24, and 1 line to 14.

This Trenkler Almost-magic order-5 star has 3 lines which sum

to 22,

1 line to 21 and 1 line to 23.

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/trenkler.htm

C. W. Trigg, J. Recreational Mathematics, 29:1, 1998, pp.8-11, Almost Magic

Pentagams

Alphamagic square 3

Alphamagic square

22

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15

11

12

25

10

Five

Twent y- eight

Twelve

t went y- t wo

f if t een

eight

eight een

t wo

t went y- f ive

Spell out the numbers in the first magic square. Count the letters

in each number word and make a second magic square with

these integers. Lee Sallows discovered this magic square oddity

in 1986.

Lee Sallows, Abacus 4, 1986, pp28-45 & 1987 pp20-29

Anti-magic graphs

See Graphs anti-magic

Anti-magic squares

An array of consecutive numbers, from 1 to m2, where the rows,

columns and two main diagonals sum to a set of 2(m + 1)

consecutive integers.

Anti-magic squares are a sub-set of heterosquares.

Joseph S. Madachy, Mathemaics On Vacation, pp 101-110. (Also JRM 15:4, p.302)

.. Anti-magic squares

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24

61

11

10

31

12

14

17

16

63

33

30

37

36

29

68

69

60

62

66

71

Note that in each case, the sums of the lines form a consecutive

series.

In 1999, John Cormie, a graduate mathematics student at the

University of Winnipeg, did a research project on this subject.

He developed several methods of constructing these squares for

both odd and even orders.

Order

(m)

Magic

squares

Antimagic

squares

880

299,710

275,305,224

Cormie & Lineks anti-magic square page is at

http://www.uwinnipeg.ca/~vlinek/jcormie/index.html

Anti-magic stars 5

Anti-magic stars

A normal magic star diagram, but instead of each line of 4

numbers summing to a constant, each line has a different sum. If

the sums consist of consecutive numbers, the star is anti-magic;

if the sums are not consecutive, the star is a heterostar.

The illustration shows two of the 2208 possible order-5 antimagic stars. Note that there can be no normal magic stars of

order-5, that is those using the integers 1 to 10. The smallest

series possible is 1 to 12 with no 7 or 11.

1

10

10

6

5

C. Trigg, J. Recreational Mathematics, 10:3, 1977, pp 169-173, Anti-magic

pentagrams.

Sometimes used to refer to squares that have a magic sum,

especially to differentiate from geometric magic squares

(Andrews).

Arrays

An array is an orderly arrangement of a set of cardinal numbers,

algebraic symbols, or other elements into rows, columns, files, or

any other lines.

.. Arrays

NOTE. For these purposes, the arrays used for magic squares,

cubes and hypercubes would be narrowed down to square and

rectangular ones like matrices and their cubic and higher

dimensional equivalents.

An array may also be a variable in a computer program. For

these purposes, it would be the storage location for the magic

square, cube, etc.

Aspect

An apparently different but in reality only a disguised version of

the magic square, cube, tesseract, star, etc. It is obtained by

rotations and/or reflections of the basic figure.

Once one has a hypercube of any dimension, through mirror

images and rotations one can view the hypercube in many ways.

There are:

A = (2n) n! ways of viewing a hypercube of dimension n.

Dimension (n)

2

3

4

5

Name

square

cube

tesseract

hypercube

Aspects

8

48

384

3840

count all, including the aspects (the long count); or only the basic

ones.

2 7 6

9 5 1

4 3 8

Original

4 3 8

9 5 1

2 7 6

4 9 2

3 5 7

8 1 6

Rotate 90

8 1 6

3 5 7

4 9 2

8 3 4

1 5 9

6 7 2

Rotate 180

6 7 2

1 5 9

8 3 4

6 1 8

7 5 3

2 9 4

Rotate 270

2 9 4

7 5 3

6 1 8

.. Aspect 7

.. Aspect

Where n is the order (number of points) of a magic star there are

2n aspects for each star. NOTE that with rectilinear magic

arrays, the number of aspects is determined by the dimension.

With magic stars (which are normally only 2 dimensions) the

number of aspects is determined by the order.

See Isomorphisms.

Just as the one order-3 magic square is associated, so to are the 4

order-3 magic cubes and the 58 order-3 magic tesseracts. In fact,

all order-3 magic hypercubes are associated.

All associated magic objects can be converted to another aspect

by complementing each number (the self-similar feature). This

figure is another aspect of the cube shown in basic magic cube.

15

19

26

10

6

23

16

14

12

21

5

25

18

22

20

4

24

17

9

11

13

27

associated.

Notice that the two numbers on each side of the center number

sum to 28 which is 33 + 1.

Go to Tesseract to see an order-3 associated 4-dimensional

hypercube.

J. R. Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, Self-published 1999,

0-9684700-0-9, p 59.

A magic square where all pairs of cells diametrically equidistant from

the center of the square equal the sum of the first and last terms of the

series, or m2 + 1 for a pure magic square. These number pairs are said

to be complementary. This type of magic square is often referred to as a

symmetrical magic square.

The center cell of odd order associated magic squares is always equal

to the middle number of the series. Therefore the sum of each pair is

equal to 2 times the center cell. In an order-5 magic square, the sum of

the 2 symmetrical pairs plus the center cell is equal to the constant, and

any two symmetrical pairs plus the center cell sum to the constant. i.e.

the two pairs do not have to be symmetrical to each other.

In an even order magic square the sum of any m/2 symmetrical pairs

will equal the constant (the sum of the 2 members of a symmetrical pair

is equal to the sum of the first and last terms of the series).

1

15

24

17

16

23

16

14

10

15

20

13

22

11

14

12

21

10

19

13

12

18

11

25

The order-3 associated magic square with each pair symmetrical

summing to 32 + 1.

The order-4 associated magic square with each pair symmetrical

summing to 42 + 1

The order-5 associated magic square with each pair symmetrical

summing to 52 + 1 .

aspects due to rotations and reflections. any associated magic

square can be converted to another aspect by complementing

each number (the self-similar feature).

.. Associated magic square

There are NO singly-even Associated pure magic squares.

The one order-3 magic square is associative.

There are 48 order-4 associative magic squares.

Order-5 is the smallest order having associated magic squares

that are also pandiagonal.

42

80

64

24

35

46

60

17

50

61

12

43

75

68

25

30

72

20

31

54

56

13

38

76

37

78

71

19

33

53

55

15

48

59

16

41

79

66

23

34

67

27

29

49

63

11

45

74

44

73

69

26

28

51

62

10

52

57

14

39

77

70

21

32

65

22

36

47

58

18

40

81

square.

Associated magic squares are occasionally referred to as regular.

All associated magic squares are semi-pandiagonal but not all

semi-pandiagonal magic squares are associated.

Note that while an associated magic square is also referred to as

symmetrical, it should properly be called center symmetrical.

There are magic squares (rare) that are symmetrical across a line.

W. S. Andrews, Magic squares & Cubes, 1917, p.266

Benson & Jacoby, Magic squares & Cubes, Dover 1976, 0-486-23236-0

Auxiliary square

See Intermediate square.

10

B

Base

Also called the radix. The number of distinct single-digit numbers,

including zero in a counting system.

When the radix. exceeds ten, then more symbols then the familiar 0, 1,

2, 3,...,9 are required. Sometimes Greek symbols are used. More

common is a, b, c, etc.

It is often convenient to use a number base equal to the order of the

magic figure. The number of digits making up the number in each cell

are then equal to the dimension of the magic figure. When the magic

square (or other figure) is completely designed, the numbers are then

converted to base 10 (decimal) and 1 is added to each to make the

series range from 1 to mn. where m = the order and n = the dimension.

There are 4 basic magic cubes of order-3. All four are associated (as is

the single basic magic square). The squares in the three center planes of

these four cubes is magic. Each of the four may be disguised to make

48 other (apparently) different magic cubes by means of rotations and

reflections. These variations are NOT normally considered as new

cubes by the magic square researcher for the purposes of enumeration.

They may become important to use in determining degree of rarity by a

statistician. See Relative frequency.

Which of the 48 aspects is considered to be the basic cube? Normally

that is of no importance. However, if listing all the magic cube

solutions of a given order, it is necessary to have a standard position.

The basic cube is determined in this case by three conditions.

The value of the second cell of the bottom row is

smaller then the first cell of the second row.

The value of the first cell of the second row is smaller

then the second cell of the first pillar.

This definition is modeled after Frnicles (1693) definition for

the basic magic square, but with one important difference.

Frnicle considered the starting point for the magic square to be

the top left corner. We have set the starting point for the cube

(and higher dimensions) to be the bottom left corner. This is

consistent with the modern coordinate system in geometry.

While this term will not get the same frequency of use that the

equivalent term for magic squares does, it is presented here in

the interest of completeness.

2

13

22

11

18

20

21

16

5

25

14

3

23

12

7

24

17

1

27

10

6

19

15

26

This diagram is the same magic cube illustrated in Fig. 7.

However, this one is normalized to the basic position. The other

is a disguised version of this.

Point of interest. There are 58 basic magic tesseracts of order-3.

Each may be disguised to make 384 other (apparently) different

magic tesseracts by means of rotations and reflections.

There is only 1 basic magic square of order-3.

See Aspects and Basic magic square.

12

There is 1 basic magic square of order-3 and 880 of order-4,

each with 7 variations due to rotations and reflections. These

variations are called aspects or disguised versions.

In fact, any magic square may be disguised to make 7 other

(apparently) different magic squares by means of rotations and

reflections. These variations are NOT considered new magic

squares for purposes of enumeration.

Any of the eight variations may be considered the basic one

except for enumerating and listing them. Normally, which one

you consider the basic one has no importance. However, for

purposes of listing and counting, a standard must be defined.

Refer to Aspect, Index and Standard Position for a more in-depth

discussion of this subject.

Basic magic squares are also known as Fundamental magic

squares.

14

15

12

16

11

10

13

This order-4 is basic because

The cell in the top left corner has the lowest value of any

corner cell.

The cell to the right of this corner cell has a lower value then

the first cell of row two.

It is now possible to put this magic square in an ordered list

where it appears as # 695 of 880.

Bensen & Jacoby, New Recreations with Magic Squares, Dover, 1976,

0-486-23236-0, p. 123

Basic magic star

All normal magic stars have n lines of 4 numbers that total to the magic

sum.

A magic star may be disguised to make 2n-1 apparently different magic

stars where n is the order (number of points) of the magic star.

These variations are NOT considered new magic stars for purposes of

enumeration. This is also referred to as a fundamental magic star.

Any of these 2n variations may be considered the fundamental one.

However, see Standard position, magic star and Index.

Figure 12 is a basic magic star because:

The value of the top right valley cell is lower then the top

left one.

stars.

Note: One of the authors (Heinz) has found all basic solutions for

magic stars of order 5 to 11 (and some for higher orders).

11

12

10

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/magicstar_def.htm

14

23

37

63

34

78

11

66

65

53

29

79

15

9

50

um

28

81

co

l

38

61

69

fi

le

12

67

row

47

20

43

60

51

24

35

76

32

73

18

27

41

55

64

21

44

58

54

42

56

22

39

62

25

36

77

10

80

13

68

49

pillar

70

30

31

75

17

72

5

46

26

40

57

71

14

33

74

16

4

48

19

45

2

52

59

position.

One of the authors (Hendricks) has found and listed all 58 basic

magic tesseracts of order-3. He lists and displays them in his

book All Third-Order magic Tesseracts using the following

indexing method:

Take the adjacent number to this corner in each of the

four lines. Rearrange these four numbers (if necessary)

in ascending order and write them after the corner

number.

numbers adjacent to it are 52, 61,62, and 76. Taking them in

order; row, column, pillar and file they are already in ascending

order, and, because the lowest corner is in the bottom left

position we realize this tesseract is in the standard position. This

definition is consistent with that of the Basic magic cube.

.. Basic magic tesseract

The following table is from page 3 of All Third Order Magic

Tesseracts. Column C shows the lowest corner number.

Although 7. 8, and 9 sometimes serve as corners, they never

serve as minimum corners.

In the table, Column # is for Magic Tesseract # (the order that

Hendricks found the tesseract).

Column S is for species (based on arrangement of even and odd

numbers).

Simply sorting the four numbers adjacent to the lowest corner

insures that the tesseracts appear in index order (which is the

order listed here).

For order-3 magic tesseracts, there are three species. For each of

the 58 basic tesseracts, there are 384 aspects or disguised

versions.

See Basic magic cube, Basic magic square, Index, Magic

tesseract, Species and Standard position.

64

67

23

24

28

27

68

65

34

22

66

81

37

38

7

78

74

80

43

79

42

63

61

75

44

45

50

10

5

57

53

13

73

16

60

47

48

14

51

11

41

55

17

54

58

59

46

52

15

49

39

62

31

21

32

9

77

70

71

19

72

40

12

30

69

29

25

35

76

33

20

26

36

56

18

16

C Adjacent axis # S

C Adjacent axis

Numbers

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

45, 69, 71, 72

51, 69, 77, 78

53, 71, 77, 80

54, 72, 78, 80

43, 51, 52, 54

43, 69, 70, 72

45, 49. 52, 54

46, 67, 70, 72

49, 69, 76, 78

51, 67, 76, 78

52, 70, 78, 81

52, 72, 76, 81

52, 72, 78, 79

54, 70, 76, 81

54, 70, 78, 79

54, 72, 76, 79

43, 49, 52, 53

43, 67, 70, 71

52, 70, 76, 80

53, 71, 77, 80

45, 47, 48, 54

45, 65, 66, 72

47, 71, 74, 80

48, 66, 80, 81

48, 72, 74, 81

48, 72, 75, 80

53, 65, 74, 80

54, 66, 74, 81

53

55

51

43

45

39

19

21

20

6

28

29

10

30

27

49

47

48

42

40

5

7

17

22

9

41

2

18

8

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

3

3

2

2

3

Numbers

38

46

54

34

1

12

11

26

16

15

25

35

36

31

37

32

33

44

50

4

3

13

23

24

56

58

52

14

57

3

3

3

3

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

1

3

2

2

2

3

3

3

2

3

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

6

6

6

10

10

10

10

10

11

11

11

11

11

12

12

13

13

13

14

54, 72, 74, 75

43, 46, 48, 54

43, 64, 66, 72

45, 46, 48, 52

45, 64, 66, 70

48, 72, 73, 79

52, 72, 73, 75

54, 66, 73, 79

54, 70, 73, 75

43, 46, 47, 52

43, 64, 65, 70

52, 70, 73, 74

51, 59, 60, 78

53, 59, 62, 80

54, 60, 62, 81

54, 60, 63, 80

54, 62, 63, 78

49, 58, 60, 78

51, 58, 60, 76

52, 61, 63, 78

54, 60, 61, 79

54, 61, 63, 76

49, 58, 59, 76

52, 61, 62, 76

53, 56, 62, 74

54, 57, 62, 75

54, 57, 63, 74

54, 57, 61, 73

(C = corner #, # = order discovered, S = species)

J. R. Hendricks, All Third Order Magic Tesseracts, self-published 1999,

0-9684700-2-5

Bent diagonals 17

Bent diagonals

Diagonals that proceed only to the center of the magic square

and then change direction by 90 degrees. For example, with an

order-8 magic square, starting from the top left corner, one bent

diagonal would consist of the first 4 cells down to the right, then

the next 4 cells would go up to the right, ending in the top right

corner.

Bent diagonals are the prominent feature of Franklin magic

squares (which are actually only semi-magic because the main

diagonals do not sum correctly).

Most bent-diagonal magic squares (and all order-4) have the

bent-diagonals starting and ending only in the corners. However,

some (including the order-8 example shown here) may use wraparound but must be symmetric around either the horizontal or the

vertical axis of the magic square.

For example: In the following magic square, line;

1 + 55 + 64 +10 + 47 + 25 + 18 + 40 is correct.

58 + 9 + 7 +52 + 21 + 34 + 48 + 31 is correct.

4 + 54+ 57 +15 + 42 + 32 + 19 + 37 is correct.

40 + 58 + 9 + 7 +10 + 24 + 39 + 41 is incorrect (

because it is not centered horizontally).

1

16

57

56

17

32

41

40

58

55

15

42

39

18

31

64

49

24

25

48

33

63

50

10

47

34

23

26

12

61

52

21

28

45

36

62

51

11

46

35

22

27

13

60

53

20

29

44

37

59

54

14

43

38

19

30

This remarkable bent-diagonal pandiagonal magic square has

many combinations of 8 numbers that sum correctly to 260.

18

.. Bent diagonals

The Following are all magic:

16 Diagonals and broken diagonal pairs

8 Bent diagonals in each of 4 directions = 32 total

Any 2 x 4 rectangle (including wrap-around)

Any 2 x 2 square = 130 (including wrap-around)

Corners of any 3 x 3, 4 x 4, 6 x 6 or 8 x 8 square = 130

(including wrap-around)

This magic square is from David H. Ahl Computers in Mathematics: A Sourcebook

of Ideas. Creative Computer Press,1979, 0-916688-16-X, P. 117

Bimagic cube

A magic cube that is still magic when all integers contained

within it are squared.

Hendricks announced the discovery of the worlds first bimagic

cube on June 9, 2000. It is order 25 so consists of the first 253

natural numbers. The magic sum in each row, column, pillar, and

the four main triagonals is 195,325. When each of the 15,625

numbers is squared, the magic sum is 2,034,700,525.

The numbers at the eight corners are; 3426, 14669, 6663, 14200,

9997, 5590,12584, and 4491.

J. R. Hendricks, A Bimagic Cube Order 25, self-published 1999, 0-9684700-6-8 and

& H. Danielsson, Printout of A Bimagic Cube Order 25, 2000

Bimagic square

If a certain magic square is still magic when each integer is

raised to the second power, it is called bimagic. If (in addition to

being bimagic) the integers in the square can be raised to the

third power and the resulting square is still magic, the square is

then called a trimagic square. These squares are also referred to

as doublemagic and triplemagic. To date the smallest bimagic

square seems to be order 8, and the smallest trimagic square

order 32.

Benson & Jacoby, New Recreations in Magic Squares, Dover, 1976, 0-486-23236-0,

pp 78-92

.. Bimagic square 19

.. Bimagic square

1

23 18 33 52 38 62 75 67

48 40 35 77 72 55 25 11

65 60 79 13

21 45 28 50

43 29 51 66 58 80 14

19

63 73 68

26 12

46 41 36 78 70 56

24 16 31 53 39

76 71 57 27 10

15

47 42 34

20 44 30 49 64 59 81

32 54 37 61 74 69

22 17

This special order-9 bimagic square was designed by John

Hendricks in 1999. Each row, column, both diagonals and the 9

numbers in each 3 x 3 square sum to 369. If each of the 81

numbers are squared, the above combinations all sum to 20,049.

Different versions of this bimagic square along with theory of

construction appear in Bimagic Squares.

Aale de Winkel reports, based on John Hendricks digital

equations, that there are 43,008 order-9 bimagic squares.

J. R. Hendricks, Bimagic Squares: Order 9 self-published 1999, 0-9684700-6-8

e-mail of May 14, 2000

It is possible to form a magic square (of any odd or even order)

and then put a border of cells around it so that you get a new

magic square of order m + 2 (and in fact keep doing this

indefinitely). Each element of the inside magic square (order-3

or 4) must be increased by 2m + 2, with the remaining numbers

(low and high) being placed in the border.

2

and their complements (the highest numbers) in the border where

m2 is the order of the square the border surrounds. This applies to

each border.

20

The outside border is called the first border and the borders are

numbered from the outside in.

When a border (or borders) is removed from a Bordered magic

square, the square is still magic (although no longer normal).

Any (or all) borders may be rotated and /or reflected and the

square will still be magic. The Bordered Magic Square is similar

but not identical to Concentric and Inlaid magic squares.

Orders 5 and 6 are the two smallest orders for which you can

have a bordered magic square.

Benson & Jacoby, Magic squares & Cubes, Dover 1976, 0-486-23236-0, pp 26-33

W. S. Andrews, Magic squares & Cubes, 1917

counting the 7 disguised versions of each).

There are 328,458,240 different basic order-6 bordered magic

squares.

See Enumeration for more on this and order-6.

J. R. Hendricks, Magic Square Course, 1991, unpublished, pp 85-98

M. Kraitchik, Mathematical Recreations., Dover Publ. , 1942, 53-9354, pp 166-170

between the sum of the numbers in each border and the value of

the center cell (or in the case of even order the sum of the center

4 cells.

Notice that here we number the borders from the inside out.

For the order-3 square below:

value of center cell = 13

sum of border 1 = 1 x 8 x 13 = 104

sum of border 2 = 2 x 8 x 13 = 208

next border if there was one would be 3 x 8 x center cell.

For the order-4 square below:

value of center 4 cells = 74

sum of border 1 = 3 x 74 = 222

sum of border 2 = 5 x 74 = 370

next border if there was one would be 7 x sum of center 4 cells.

consecutive, such as prime number magic squares

.. Bordered magic square

1

34

33

32

18

21

19

29

11

18

20

25

25

12

11

16

30

22

23

13

16

17

13

20

17

12

26

19

31

24

10

15

14

10

24

21

15

14

27

22

23

35

28

36

Two short diagonals that are parallel to but on opposite sides of a

main diagonal and together contain the same number of cells as

are contained in each row, column and main diagonal (i.e. the

order). These are sometimes referred to as pan-diagonals, and are

the prominent feature of Pandiagonal magic squares.

J. L. Fults, Magic Squares, 1974

10

2

24

16

13

10

2

24

16

13

19

11

8

5

22

19

11

8

5

22

3

25

17

14

6

3

25

17

14

6

12

9

1

23

20

12

9

1

23

20

21

18

15

7

4

21

18

15

7

4

10

2

24

16

13

10

2

24

16

13

19

11

8

5

22

19

11

8

5

22

3

25

17

14

6

3

25

17

14

6

12

9

1

23

20

12

9

1

23

20

21

18

15

7

4

21

18

15

7

4

10

2

24

16

13

10

2

24

16

13

19

11

8

5

22

19

11

8

5

22

3

25

17

14

6

3

25

17

14

6

square.

Notice how the two parts of the broken diagonal 24, 5, 6, 12, 18

of the center pandiagonal magic square may be considered

joined to make a complete line of m (in this case 5) numbers.

See Modular space where the broken diagonals become

continuous.

See Pandiagonal, Pantriagonal, etc., for more on n-dimensional.

22

C

Cell

The basic element of a magic square, magic cube, magic star,

etc. Each cell contains one number, usually an integer. However,

it can hold a symbol or the coordinates of its location.

There are m2 cells in a magic square of order m, m3 cells in a

magic cube, m4 cells in a magic tesseract, 2n cells in a normal

magic star, etc. (Note the use of n for order of the magic star.)

RouseBall & Coxeter, Mathematical Recreations and Essays, 1892, 13 Edition,

p.194

Column

Each vertical sequence of numbers. There are m columns of

height m in an order-m magic square.

See Orthogonals for a cube illustrating all the lines.

Complementary numbers

In a normal magic square, the first and last numbers in the series

are complementary numbers. Their sum forms the next number

in the series (m2 + 1). All other pairs of numbers which also sum

to m2 + 1 are also complementary.

If the numbers are not consecutive (the magic square is not

normal), the complement pair total is the sum of the first and the

last number.

Sets of two complementary numbers are sometimes called

complementary pairs.

Associated magic squares have the complementary pair numbers

symmetrical around the center of the magic square.

Please see Associated and Complementary magic squares.

Following are complementary magic squares. Because they are

associated, the middle number in the series is its own complement.

.. Complementary numbers 23

.. Complementary numbers

8

1669

199

1249

619

1039

1459

829

1879

409

409

1879

829

1459

1039

619

1249

199

1669

complementary magic squares.

Each number in the bottom magic square is the complement of

the number in the top magic square.

numbers of the series). Also, because the series consist

of 1 to m2 (this is a normal magic square), the sum is m2

+ 1.

Each pair in this prime number magic square sums to

2078 which is 199 + 1879 (the first and last numbers of

the series).

A well know method of transforming one magic square into

another of the same order, is to simply complement each

number. If the magic square is associated, the resulting square is

self-similar. That is, it is the same as the original but rotated 90.

If the complement pairs are symmetrical across either the

horizontal or vertical axis, the resulting complementary magic

square is also self-similar but reflected horizontally or vertically

respectively. Robert Sery refers to this process as

Complementary Pair Interchange (CPI).

Complimenting works even if the numbers are not consecutive.

See Complimentary numbers, figure 20B (above) and figure 21.

24

1

35

36

29

42

49

15

14

43

21

47

17

12

45

19

10

33

38

31

40

30

41

34

37

44

20

48

16

13

43

21

49

15

14

29

42

35

36

31

40

33

38

45

19

10

47

17

12

48

16

13

44

20

34

37

30

41

An order-6 pandiagonal magic square using 36 of the numbers

from1 to 49. (It is impossible to form an order-6 pandiagonal

magic square using consecutive numbers.)

It is transformed to another order-6 pandiagonal by subtracting

each number from 50 (the sum of the first and last numbers).

The two numbers that together sum to the next number in the

series are a complement pair. Join these two numbers with a line.

The resulting pattern may be used as a method of classifying the

magic squares of a given order. See Dudeney groups for more on

this.

There is only 1 pattern for order-3 and 12 patterns for order-4.

No one has yet figured out how many patterns there are for

order-5 or higher.

1 7 19 25 13

20 23 11

12

16 22 14

24 15

10 18 21

5

17

complementary pair pattern.

On the sci.math newsgroup Dec. 2, 1996 K. S. Brown asked the

following:

Do there exist 4x4x4 cubes of binary digits such that the

projection onto each face of the cube gives the decimal digits

from 0 to 15 (binary 0000 to 1111)?

To state it differently; can each of the four rows of each of the

four horizontal planes of an order-4 cube be filled with binary

digits such that when read in either direction, the decimal

integers 0 to 15 are obtained? And to make the cube complete,

can this be done so the result is valid for each of the other two

orthogonal sets of four planes?

The answer is yes! Dan Cass found such a cube (shown here),

and posted it on Dec. 10, 1996

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

K. S. Brown shows on his web site at

http://www.seanet.com/~ksbrown/kmath353.htm

that this solution is unique.

26

Components

A magic square, or cube, may be broken down into parts which are

called components. Some authors use the method of components to

build their magic squares. One of these methods which is most

meaningful is to show a magic square broken into two squares where

the various digits are separated, as shown below:

Magic

Square

Decimal

System

3s digit

ternary

number

system

Units

digit

ternary #

system

where the first square is a magic square in the decimal number system.

The second square is a Latin square in the ternary number system of the

3s digit. The third square, is a Latin square in the ternary number

system for the units digit and is a rotation of the second square, The

number one at the end balances the equation.

It is simple to construct magic squares of order mn (m times n) where m

and n are themselves orders of magic squares. For a normal magic

square of this type, the series used is from 1 to (mn)2. An order 9

composite magic square would consist of 9 order 3 magic squares

themselves arranged as an order 3 magic square and using the series

from 1 to 81.

An order 12 composite magic square could be made from nine order 4

magic squares by arranging the order 4 squares themselves as an order3 square, (or sixteen order 3 magic squares arranged as an order 4

magic square). In either case, the series used would be from 1 to 144.

The example order-12 composition magic square was constructed out

of 16 order-3 magic squares. They are arranged as per the numbers in

the order-4 pattern. Numbers used are consecutive from 1 to 144. The

magic sums of these order-3 squares in turn form another order-4 magic

square.

Composition magic square

8

125

118

123

62

55

60

107

100

105

120

122

124

57

59

61

102

104

106

121

126

119

58

63

56

103

108

101

134

127

132

35

28

33

80

73

78

53

46

51

129

131

133

30

32

34

75

77

79

48

50

52

130

135

128

31

36

29

76

81

74

49

54

47

89

82

87

44

37

42

143

136

141

26

19

24

84

86

88

39

41

43

138

140

142

21

23

25

85

90

83

40

45

38

139

144

137

22

27

20

71

64

69

98

91

96

17

10

15

116

109

114

66

68

70

93

95

97

12

14

16

111

113

115

67

72

65

94

99

92

13

18

11

112

117

110

composition magic square with a magic sum of 870.

14

12

15

15

393

96

10

16

69

11

13

204 285

339

A.

231 150

42

B.

composition magic square.

The order-4 pandiagonal magic square used as a pattern to place

the order-3 squares.

The magic sum of each of the order-3 squares form an order 4

pandiagonal magic square with the magic sum 870.

28

Traditionally this has been another name for Bordered magic

squares. It has also been used for Inlaid magic squares.

But Collison found several order-5 magic squares (2 are shown

below) by computer search. They depend upon being able to

carry over to the next column excess from the units column,

which is not normally taken into account in constructing

bordered or inlaid magic squares.

24

22

12

24

15

12

19

15

18

21

22

16

13

17

23

13

19

23

10

11

21

16

17

10

25

20

25

14

18

11

14

20

for Bordered or Inlaid magic squares.

See Bordered and Inlaid magic squares.

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, p 88

See Modular Arithmetic.

Constant (S)

The sum produced by each row, column, and main diagonal (and

possibly other arrangements). This value is also called the magic

sum.

The constant (S) of a normal magic square is (m3+m)/2

If the magic square consists of consecutive numbers, but not

starting at 1, the constant is (m3+m)/2+m(a-1) where a equals

the starting number and m is the order. If the magic square

consists of numbers with a fixed increment, then S = am +

b(m/2)(m2-1) where a = starting number and b = increment.

See Series.

.. Constant (S) 29

.. Constant (S)

For a normal magic square, S = m(m2+1)/2.

For a normal magic cube, S = m(m3+1)/2.

For a tesseract

S = m(m4+1)/2.

For a normal magic star, when n is the order, S = 4n + 2.

NOTE:Hendricks always uses m to indicate the order and

reserves n to indicate the dimension of the magic object.

See Magic sum and Summations for more information and

comparison tables.

See Pandiagonal magic square.

Coordinates

A set of numbers that determine the location of a point (cell) in a

space of a given dimension..

A coordinate system is normally not required for most work in

magic squares. But, for 3-dimensions, or higher, a coordinate

system is essential. Customarily, (x, y, z) are the coordinates for

3-dimensional space and (w, x, y, z) for 4-dimensional space.

Coordinates have been handled by Hendricks in a slightly

different manner. For dimensions less then ten, only one digit is

required per dimension, so the brackets and commas are not

required, thus permitting a more concise and space saving

notation.

For 2-dimensional space, the x-axis is in its customary position

left-to-right. The y-axis is also in its usual position but is

reversed. This is because of the way Frnicle defined the Basic

magic square.

The origin is considered as being at the top-left, rather than the

bottom left of the square.

Rows are parallel to the x-axis and columns are parallel to the yaxis. Pillars are parallel to the z-axis,

30

.. Coordinates

For three dimensions and higher a customary left-to-right x-axis;

a front-to-back y-axis; and, a bottom to top z-axis is used. Then,

the cube is ready to be presented in its usual presentation from

the top layer down to the bottom layer.

When working in 5- and 6-dimensional space and higher, it

becomes more expedient to use numbered axes and the

coordinates become:

(x1, x2, x3,,xi,.., xn)

for an n-dimensional magic hypercube. All xi must lie between 1

and m inclusive which is the order of the hypercube. There really

is no origin, or coordinate axes in Modular space. So, we simply

define them as passing through the coordinate (1,1,1,,1). A

row would be parallel to the x1 axis, a column parallel to the x2

axis, a pillar parallel to the x3 axis , a file parallel to the x4 axis

and we run out of names. Hence, we number the various kinds of

rows according to which axis they are parallel to and say that an

i-row lies parallel to the xi axis.

See modular space and orthogonal.

See Journal of Recreational Mathematics, Vol.6, No. 3, 1973 pp.193-201. Magic

Tesseracts and n-Dimensional Magic Hypercubes.

of a variable array in a computer program used to store a magic

square, cube, etc., being generated or displayed.

233

133

123

313

213

132

332

232

122

322

222

212

312

131

231

331

221

121

111

323

223

113

112

333

211

321

311

Coordinate iteration 31

Coordinate iteration

Coordinate iteration is a systematic process of moving at unit

intervals from 1 coordinate location to the next coordinate

location along a line in modular space.

Moving along any orthogonal line requires changing only one

coordinate digit, but moving along an n-agonal requires

changing all n coordinate digits. See orthogonal for an

illustration.

Coordinates could also be considered as the indices (subscripts)

of a variable array in a computer program used to store a magic

square, cube, etc., being generated or displayed. In this case,

iterating one subscript at a time would permit storing (or

retrieving) the value of the cells, as you move along the line.

See Pathfinder.

Corners

The corners are those cells where the lines that form the edges of

the hypercube meet. They have coordinates which are either 1 or

m, where m is the order of the hypercube. See Coordinates and

Magic tesseract for illustrations.

There are 2n corners in a hypercube of dimension n.

Counting

How many magic squares, cubes, tesseracts, etc. are there?

There is a long count and a short count. Seasoned researchers in

magic squares and cubes feel there is a duplication involved

when you count rotations and reflections of a known square.

Statisticians wishing to study the probability of a magic square,

require to know them all.

The number of variations, called aspects, due to rotations and

reflections varies with the dimension of the object. For a magic

square (dimension 2) there are 8 aspects. So, for example, the

researcher says there are 880 order-4 magic squares and the

statistician claims there are 7040.Close attention must be paid to

which number is being referred to. Normally, the count of magic

squares considers the basic squares only.

32

.. Counting

Then there are unique magic squares that can be transformed to a

range of magic squares. For example, order-5 has 3600 basic

pandiagonal magic squares. They are derived from 36 essentially

different squares that form 100 squares each by simple

transformations. Furthermore, these 36 squares in turn can be

formed from one square, using more complicated component

substitution methods.

Bensen & Jacoby, New Recreations with Magic Squares, Dover, 1976,

0-486-23236-0, p. 125

the number of aspects changes with the order of the star and is

equal to 2n.

When talking about the number of magic objects, say magic

squares, normally what is meant is the number of basic magic

squares. However, keep the above considerations in mind and

determine what is meant by the context.

Crosmagic

An array of m cells in the shape of an X that appears in each

quadrant of an order-m quadrant magic square.

See Quadrant magic patterns and Quadrant magic square.

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/quadrant.htm

This is another, though seldom used, term for regular

pandiagonal magic squares. See Regular and Irregular

Cyclical permutations 33

Cyclical permutations

A pandiagonal magic square may be converted to another by

simply moving one row or column to the opposite side of the

square. For example, an order-5 pandiagonal magic square may

be converted to 24 other pandiagonal magic squares. Any of the

25 numbers in the square may be brought to the top left corner

(or any other position) by this method.

In 3-dimensional space, there can be cyclical permutations of a

plane face of a cube to the other side of the cube. Pantriagonal

magic cubes remain magic when this is done. In 4-dimensional

space, entire cubes may be permuted. The Panquadragonal magic

tesseract has this feature.

See also Transformations and Transposition.

J. R. Hendricks, American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 75, No.4, p.384.

4

1

12

11

2

7

13

3

5

10

34

D

Degree (of a magic square.)

The power, or exponent to which the numbers must be raised, in

order to achieve a magic square. The term is used in Bimagic

and Trimagic squares.

See Pandiagonal magic square.

Diagonal

Occasionally called a 2-agonal. See n-agonal. Also see Broken,

Leading, Long, Main, Right, Opposite Short, Short.

A Latin square with the extra condition that both the diagonals

also contain one of each symbol. See Latin square.

Diamagic

An array of m cells in the shape of a diamond that

appears in each quadrant of an order-m quadrant

magic square. For order-5 diamagic and crosmagic

are the same.

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/quadrant.htm

Diametrically equidistant 35

Diametrically equidistant

A pair of cells the same distance from but on opposite sides of

the center of the magic square. Other terms meaning the same

thing are skew related and symmetrical cells. The two members

of a complementary pair in an associated (symmetrical) magic

square are diametrically equidistant.

Y

Y

an even and an odd order array.

Digital equations

One uses modular arithmetic in finding the various digits that

comprise a number at a specific location in a magic square, or

cube.

If the digits of a number can be expressed as a function of their

coordinate location, then the equation(s) describing the

relationship can be called the digital equations. They are

sometimes referred to as congruence equations or modular

equations.

For example:

If at coordinate location (1, 3) we wish to find the number and it

is known that:

D2 x + y

(mod 3)

AndD1 2x + y + 1 (mod 3

then the two digits D2 and D1 can be found.

D2 1 + 3 4 1 (mod 3)

AndD1 2 + 3 + 1 6 0 (mod 3)

So the number 10 is located at (1, 3).

36

.. Digital equations

10 is in the ternary number system because the modulus is 3.

If the coordinate system is shown by:

(1,3), (2,3), (3,3)

(1,2), (2,2), (3,2)

(1,1), (2,1), (3,1)

and the numbers are all calculated as assigned to their respective

locations, then one achieves the magic square below in the

ternary number system which is then converted to decimal and

finally 1 is added to each number.

10

22

01

02

11

20

21

00

12

1 to 9.

J. R. Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, Self-published 1998, 09684700-0-9

A digital root magic square is a number square consisting of

sequential integers starting from 1 to m2 and with each line sum

equal to the same digit when reduced to its digital root. This

type of magic square was investigated by C. W. Trigg in 1984.

He found that there are 27 basic squares of this type for order-3,

nine each of digital root 3, 6, and 9.

1

and 9.

C. W. Trigg, J. Recreational Mathematics, 17:2, 1978-79, pp.112-118, Nine-digit

Digit-root Magic Squares.

Disguised magic square

See Aspect and Basic magic square.

Construct an order-3 multiply magic square, then interchange

diagonal opposite corners. Now, by multiplying the outside

numbers of each line, and dividing by the middle number, the

constant is obtained.

See Geometric magic square for information and illustrations on

multiply magic squares.

12

18

36

18

36

12

resulting divide magic square. RB = 5

It is possible to arrange in the form of magic squares, any set of

objects that contain number representations. Playing cards and

dominos are two types that are often used.

This order-4 requires duplicate dominoes and duplicate numbers

but has four different numbers on each line.

38

Here is an order-7 magic square that uses using a complete set of

dominoes from double-0 to double-6.

dominoes.

RouseBall & Coxeter, Mathematical Recreations and Essays, 1892, 13 Edition,

p.214.

See bimagic magic square.

Doubly-even

The order (side) of the magic square is evenly divisible by 4. i.e.

4, 8, 12, etc. It is probably the easiest to construct.

The order-8 normal pandiagonal magic square shown here

contains an order-4 pandiagonal (not normal) magic square in

each quadrant and also an order-4 semi-pandiagonal magic

square in the center.

.. Doubly-even 39

.. Doubly-even

1

58

15

56

17

42

31

40

16

55

57

32

39

18

41

50

64

34

25

48

23

63

49

10

47

24

33

26

60

13

54

19

44

29

38

14

53

59

30

37

20

43

52

11

62

36

27

46

21

61

51

12

45

22

35

28

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, p 205

When each pair of complementary numbers in a magic square

are joined by a line, the resulting combination of lines forms a

distinct pattern which may be called a complementary pair

pattern.

H. E.Dudeney introduced this set of 12 patterns to classify the

880 order 4 magic squares. There are 48 group I, which are all

pandiagonal. The 48 group III are associated All of groups II, III,

IV and V are semi-pandiagonal, as are 96 of the 304 group VI.

The other 448 order-4 magic squares are all simple.

Patterns I to III are fully symmetrical around the center point of

the square. However, be aware that patterns IV to X also appear

rotated 90for some of the basic magic squares. Pattern XI also

appears rotated 180 and 270 while pattern 12 appears rotated

90 and 180.

40

II

III

IV

VI

VII

VIII

IX

XI

XII

Jim Moran Magic Squares, 1981, 0-394-74798-4 (lots of material)

Bensen & Jacoby, New Recreations with Magic Squares, 1976, 0-486-23236-0

E

Embedded magic square

37

48

38

26

16

49

10

23

47

18

24

15

22

36

11

29

42

20

33

44

25

43

17

35

46

14

21

27

30

19

32

28

40

45

41

31

13

39

12

34

and 4.

A magic square (or other magic object) that has another magic

square contained in it.

The order-7 is a simple, normal magic square. The order-4

(square cells) is simple and the order-3 (round cells) is

associated. Neither of these two squares are normal.

This square was designed by David Collison.

PS. There is a bonus serrated magic diamond contained in this

square! Can you see it? Rotate the square 45 to the right. The

first 2 lines (of 6) of the diamond formation are 49, 1 and 7,

22,23, 48. Lines of two sum 50, lines of 3 = 75, of 4 = 100 and

lines of 6 = 150.

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, pp 46-47

42

This summary is concerned only with the basic number of each

order. To determine the long count,. multiply the number

shown here by the aspects. See Relative frequency.

Order

Square

Cube

Tesseract

5-D

6-D

58

2992

543328

880

275305224

Aspects

48

384

3840

46080

For Bordered magic squares of order-6 there are 81 different

borders for the order-4 nucleus. There are 4! (factorial) different

ways of permuting non-corner elements along a row edge. The

same with a column edge. And there are 8 ways of rotating and

reflecting the borders. So there are 81 x 4! x 4! x 8 borders and

880 basic order-4 nucleus. So there are 328,458,240 different

order-6 basic bordered magic squares.

For order-5, the total is much smaller because there are only 10

different borders, the variations are (3!)2 and there is only one

nucleus order-3 magic square, making only 2880 basic bordered

magic squares.

J. R. Hendricks, All Third Order Magic Tesseracts, self-published 1999,

0-9684700-2-5, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, pp. 85-98.

This summary is concerned only with the basic number of each

order. The basic count will always be an even number because

all magic stars appear as a complement pair. To determine the

long count. Multiply the number shown here by the aspects.

For magic stars, the order is the same as the number of points.

Unlike magic squares, cubes, etc., regardless of the order of a

normal magic star, there is always four numbers in a line. As the

order increases, the variety of patterns increases. I have

identified these patterns arbitrarily as A, B, C and D, which

covers up to order-12.

The total counts arrived at was obtained by exhaustive computer

search. The validity of Heinzs algorithm was confirmed by the

counts for orders 6, 7 and 8 matching those obtained by other

researchers in 1965. Also, all solutions found were successfully

matched in complementary pairs.

Order Aspects

12

80

--

--

--

14

72

72

--

--

16

112

112

--

--

18

3014

1676

1676

--

10

20

115552

10882

10882

--

11

22

53528

75940

75940

53528

12

24

>500000

826112

>500000

>500000

There are 12 basic magic stars of order-5 using integers from 1

to 12 with no 7 and 11. There are no normal magic stars of

order-5.

There are 168 Trigg type almost-magic stars (order-5) in 14

groups of 12. (Trigg). JRM 29(1), 1998

There are 2208 anti-magic stars order-5 (Trigg). JRM 10(3), 1977

Martin Gardner, Mathematical Carnival, Alfred A. Knoff, 1975, 0-394-49406-7

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/magicstar_def.htm

Essentially different

There are 36 basic essentially different order-5 pandiagonal

magic squares each of which have 99 variations by permutations

of the rows, columns and diagonals. Rotations and reflections are

not included in this count, so the total number of order-5

pandiagonal magic squares is 3600 time 8 rotations and

reflections..

A magic square is essentially different from any other when it

cannot be generated from another essentially different magic

square by:

the interchange of rows/columns with diagonals,

and/or cyclical permutations.

44

.. Essentially different

Which of the set of 100 in each case is the essentially different

one, is determined by

The number in the top left-hand corner is 1,

The number in the cell next to the 1 in the top row is less then

any other number in the top row, in the left hand column or in

the diagonal containing the 1, and

The number in the left-hand column of the second row is less

then the number in the left-hand column of the last row.

There are 3 essentially different pandiagonal magic squares of

order-4 each of which produces 16 variations..

There are 129,600 essentially different pandiagonal magic

squares of order-7 each of which produces 294 variations (there

are no normal pandiagonal magic squares of order-6).

14

20

23

15

18

21

22

10

13

16

11

17

24

19

25

12

magic squares of order-5.

Bensen & Jacoby, New Recreations with Magic Squares, 1976, 0-486-23236-0,

p 129 & 139.

Eulerian square

See Graeco-Latin square.

Even-order 45

Even-order

The order (side) of the magic square is evenly divisible by two.

See Doubly-even, Singly-even, Odd order.

This order-6 bordered magic square shown here is singly-even,

the inside order-4 magic square is doubly-even.

4

2

7

34

36

28

27

11

22

23

18

10

8

25

16

13

20

29

31

14

19

26

15

6

32

24

17

12

21

5

9

35

30

3

1

33

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, p 32

Exhaustive search

How do you find all magic squares of a given order?

There are many different methods that may be used to generate

magic squares. However, none will produce all magic squares. In

this age of computers, the alternative is to do a search using an

algorithm that is guaranteed to exhaust all possibilities i.e. to find

all the possible magic squares (of the desired order).

The number of possibilities to be investigated grow very rapidly.

Even lowly order-4 has 20,922,789,888,000 combinations of the

numbers 1 to 16 (42 factorial). Because of this, it is a practical

necessity to use shortcuts to eliminate impossible branches.

While all possible magic squares, including rotations and

reflections will normally be found in an exhaustive search, it is

simple to put conditions in the program to reject these disguised

versions.

46

.. Exhaustive search

As a point of interest, a simple program Heinz wrote to produce

a list of the 880 basic magic squares of order-4 took only 20

minutes on his 450 Mhz machine to search for and find all 880

basic solutions. It simply steps through the values for the

variables A to P assigned to the cells in row order starting with

the upper left cell. It has the following main features

A steps from 1 to 7

shortcut

B steps from 1 to 15

E steps from B + 1 to 16condition for basic magic square

D, M and P step from A + 1 to 16condition for basic square

Each line is tested when completed, program backtracks if line is

not correct shortcut

First column is tested when completed, program backtracks if

not correctshortcut

Expansion band

A band of cells that surround an inlaid or framed magic square.

See Framed magic square.

26

21

33

45

15

32

18

34

10

19

30

38

26

38

27

14

37

39

12

47

27

41

44

11

30

22

49

48

20

29

14

43

28

36

21

19

41

25

43

31

17

37

49

25

13

33

10

44

46

28

40

22

46

42

45

34

11

36

13

42

23

16

35

39

48

23

15

18

47

29

17

35

24

24

16

40

31

20

12

32

A.

B.

S3 = 75, S5 = 125, S7 = 175.

.. Expansion band 47

.. Expansion band

This illustration demonstrates a feature of framed magic squares

(and bordered magic squares). Each band may be independently

rotated and/or reflected. B. shows the inner order-3 (of fig. A) is

rotated 90 left, the first expansion band is reflected across the

lead diagonal and the outside band is rotated 90 right.

If used in an Inlaid magic cube, Hendricks refers to the

expansion band as an expansion shell.

J.R.Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, 1999, 0-9684700-1-7, pp35-48

87 80 85 57 24 17 22 57 69 62 67

82 84 86 57 19 21 23 57 64 66 68

83 88 81 57 20 25 18 57 65 70 63

57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57

42 35 40 57 60 53 58 57 78 71 76

37 39 41 57 55 57 59 57 73 75 77

38 43 36 57 56 61 54 57 74 79 72

57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57

51 44 49 57 96 89 94 57 33 26 31

46 48 50 57 91 93 95 57 28 30 32

47 52 45 57 92 97 90 57 29 34 27

48 File

F

File

The fourth dimension orthogonal line of numbers in a tesseract,

or higher order hypercube. Analogous to rows and columns, the

x and y direction lines of numbers in a magic square or cube, and

pillars, the z direction in a magic cube.

J.R.Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, 1998, 0-9684700-0-9

A subset of Inlaid magic square where an expansion band of

numbers is placed around the inlaid magic square. Or the frame

may be designed first, leaving room for the inlaid squares. The

frame may be one, two, or even more rows and columns thick.

Framed and Bordered magic squares have many features in

common.

When a frame is removed from a Framed magic square, the

square is still magic.

Any (or all) frames may be rotated and /or reflected and the

square will still be magic.

There is a consistent relationship between the sum of all the cells

in each expansion band and the center cell of the square.

However, unlike a Bordered magic square, the interior square

may be a Normal magic square. It is not required that the (m21)/2 lowest and highest numbers of the series be in the expansion

band.

See Bordered magic square and Expansion bands.

J.R.Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, 1999, 0-9684700-1-7

Franklin magic square

This magic square was one of several created by Benjamin

Franklin (1706 1790). It is not a true magic square because the

main diagonals do not sum correctly. It is known mostly for its

bent diagonals and the fact that he considered it the most

magical of all magic squares.

It has many other patterns that are also magic as shown in the

illustration below. Because the square is continuous (it wraps

around), each pattern shown can start on any of the 64 squares.

Franklin created a similar one of order-16 that has even more

patterns.

52 61

14

62 51 46 35 30 19

13 20 29 36 45

53 60

11

59 54 43 38 27 22

12 21 28 37 44

55 58

57 56 41 40 25 24

10 23 26 39 42

50 63

16

64 49 48 33 32 17

15 18 31 34 47

On the next page as some of the patterns that are in this magic

square. Each appears 64 times (using wrap-around). The 8 cell

patterns all sum to 260, the 4 cell patterns to 130.

See also Bent diagonals

50

The bent

diagonals

Fundamental Magic square, cube, tesseract, etc

The basic hypercube from which the other disguised versions are

obtained. More commonly referred to as basic magic square, etc.

For more information see aspect, basic and standard position.

The basic magic star from which 2n-1 other disguised versions

are obtained. More commonly referred to as basic magic star.

For more information see aspect, basic and standard position.

21

15

1

7

25

2

11

10

6

18

12

4

14

13

52

G

Generalized parts

Generalized Parts is a term coined by the late David Collison for

formations used in his patchwork magic squares. The parts may be any

size of magic square, rectangle, cross, elbow, tee, etc. The magic sum

for each line is determined by the number of cells in the line.

The examples shown here use consecutive numbers (pure), but in

context in a magic square, the numbers in the part will usually be nonconsecutive.

1 16

14 3

1 12

11 2

5

9

4

8

10

3

7

6

4

13

9

8

Small elbow

7 5 11 15

12 10 6 2

Tee

See Patchwork magic squares for an example using large elbows

and a cross.

J. R. Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, Self-published 1999,

0-9684700-1-7,Appendix

Instead of using numbers in arithmetic progression as in a Normal

Magic Square , a geometric progression is used. These progressions

may be exponential or ratio.

In the exponent type the numbers in the cells consist of a base value

and an exponent. The base value is the same in each cell. The

exponents are the numbers in a regular magic square.

.. Geometric magic square

The ratio type uses a horizontal ratio and a vertical ratio.

The constant is obtained by multiplying the cell contents.

Geometric magic squares are the most common type of multiply

magic squares.

210

21

27

2

2

11

1024

128

64

512

32

2048

A. Here a base of 2 is used. The exponents form a magic square with

SA = 18.

B. The final Exponential geometric magic square with PB = 262,144.

C.

1

50

20

10

20

10

25

25

50

100

100

A. Number square showing ratios; horizontal =2, vertical = 5.

B. Final ratio geometric magic square, PB = 1000

W.S.Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes, 1917, pp283-294.

When two Latin squares are constructed, one with Latin letters

and one with Greek letters, in such a way that when superposed,

each Latin letter appears once and only once with each Greek

letter, the resulting square is called a Graeco-Latin square. This

type of square is sometimes referred to as a Eulerian square.

Instead of using Greek letters, it is more common nowadays to

use upper and lower case Latin letters.

See Latin Square and Components.

54

a

a b c d

c d a b

d c b a

b a d c

Latin square

Greek square

Graeco-Latin

Graph anti-magic

A graph with q edges is said to be anti-magic if it is possible to

label the edges with the numbers 1, 2, 3, , q in such a way that

at each vertex v the sum of the labels on the edges incident with

v is different.

Many anti-magic graphs are isomorphic to magic squares, as the

following example illustrates. This graph is isomorphic to the

order-4 anti-magic square shown in Anti-magic squares. Solid

vertices in this graph represent the rows of the magic square.,

hollow vertices the columns.

Note that unlike anti-magic squares, it is not required that antimagic graphs have the sums form a consecutive series. In fact,

for normal anti-magic squares, at least 1 of the two diagonals

must sum to a value in the middle of the series. In the case of this

graph, the sums form a series from 30 to 38 but with 34 missing.

2

3

15

12

10

8 14

11

1

16

6

13

Hartsfield & Ringel, Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 21:2, 1989, pp107-115

Graph supermagic 55

Graph super-magic

A graph with q edges is said to be super-magic if it is possible to

label the edges with the numbers 1, 2, 3, , q in such a way that

at each vertex v the sum of the labels on the edges incident with

v is the same.

Many super-magic graphs are isomorphic to magic squares, as

the following example illustrates. Solid vertices in this graph

represent the rows of the magic square., hollow vertices the

columns. This graph is bipartite because no two like vertices are

directly connected by an edge.

7

2

9

4

3

6

Hartsfield & Ringel, Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 21:2, 1989, pp107-115

15 14 4

12 6

10 11

13

2 16

15

1

4

14

10

13

3

16

5

12

6

11

56

A popular classification of recreational mathematics problems

are known as tree-planting problems. The problem specifies how

many trees, how many trees per row, and how many rows.

A magic star may be considered such a graph, with the trees

represented by numbers. For order-5, there are six such graphs

with five lines of four numbers and all being isomorphic.

Ten of the numbers 1 to 12 are used. Leaving out the 7 and the

11 gives 12 solutions with the 5 lines each summing to 24, the

minimal solution.

If the 2 and 8 are left out and the 7 and 11 used, there are 12

solutions with the magic sum of 28.

6

5

3

2

2

4

9

1

10

12

4

10

3 12

10

3

6 12

8 10

12

1

3

4

10

8 8

9

4

3

6

2 12

10

8 5

12

8

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/order5.htm

Heterosquare 57

H

Heterosquare

Similar to a magic square except all rows, columns, and main

diagonals sum to different (not necessarily consecutive) integers.

A simple method of generating any order heterosquare is to write

the natural numbers from 1 to 9 in a spiral, starting from a corner

and moving inward, or starting from the center and moving out.

Another method that works for order-4 is to simply write the

numbers in turn line by line, then interchange the 15 and 16 in

the last two cells. A subset of heterosquare is the anti-magic

square.

34

19

10

26

21

10

11

12

42

18

13

14

16

15

58

16

17

12

15

28

32

37

39

33

A. order-3, spirol

B. Order-4, in line

Joseph S. Madachy, Mathemaics On Vacation, 1966, pp 101-110. (Also JRM 15:4,

p.302)

Hexadecimant.

The 4-dimensional equivalent to the 2-dimensional quadrant and

the 3-dimensional octant. These terms are generally more

meaningful with magic squares, cubes and tesseracts of even

order. A magic tesseract may be partitioned into 16 zones which

are each called a hexadecimant.

58

Horizontal step

A magic square may consist of m series of numbers (m = order

of the magic square).

This term refers to the difference between adjacent numbers in

each of the m series. It is not a reference to the columns of the

magic square. The difference between the last number of a series

and the next number of the following series is called the vertical

step.

In a normal magic square, the horizontal step and vertical step

are both equal to 1.

10

10

11

11

See Order-3, Type 2, where the vertical step is a negative number.

Vertical step also has more information and examples.

A is a number square showing horizontal step = 1, vertical step = 2;

B is the resulting magic square.

If the numbers in each series are multiples of the first number in the

series, the resulting square is multiply magic.

J. L. Fults, Magic Squares, 1974

Horizontally paired

Two cells in the same row and the same distance from the center of the

magic square.

Hypercube

A geometric figure consisting of all angles right and all sides

equal. Normally applied to figures of five or more dimensions.

However, a square, cube and tesseract may be considered

hypercubes of two, three and four dimensions. See magic

hypercube.

i-row 59

I

i-row

An i-row is a row, column, pillar, file, etc., of an n-dimensional

hypercube of order-m. Some authors refer to these as the

orthogonals because they are all mutually perpendicular to each

other.

Customarily, a row runs from left to right; a column from front

to back; a pillar runs up and down and a file runs obliquely to the

other three in the projection of a tesseract. There are n(mn-1) irows in an n-dimensional hypercube of order-m. See orthogonals

for an illustration.

The numbers composing the magic square are not integers or are

not in the range from 1 to m2.i.e. are not consecutive or the series

does not start at 1.

It may contain m series of m numbers where the horizontal

and/or vertical steps are not 1, or it may contain numbers with

random spacing between them.

524.25 482.25 489.25 503.25

496.25 510.25 517.25 475.25

531.25 461.25 454.25 552.25

56 - This non-normal order-4 magic square does not

use integers.

This magic square with S = 1999 (for the year) is not normal,

because the number series is not consecutive and it does not start

with the number 1. Prime number magic squares are a class that

obviously is not normal.

See pandiagonal magic square

60

Index

The position in a list of magic squares of a given order where a given

magic square fits, after it has been converted to the standard position.

The correct placement or index of magic squares is determined by

comparing each cell of two magic square of the same order starting

with the top leftmost cell and proceeding across the top row, then

across the second row, etc. until the two corresponding cells differ. The

magic square with the smallest value in this cell is then given the lower

index number. See also basic and normalized position.

The concept of indexing is important because it permits direct

comparison of lists of solutions compiled by different researchers.

The index was designed by Bernard Frnicle de Bessy in 1693 when he

published the 880 basic solutions for the order-4 magic square.

Magic stars may be indexed in a similar fashion.

Only normal magic squares and magic stars may be indexed because

non-normal types of these cannot be ordered.

Index # 1

Index # 2

Index # 3

15

16

15

16

16

15

12

14

13

14

13

14

13

10

12

10

12

11

11

11

10

1

A.

10

11

3

5

B.

12

1.

.. Index 61

.. Index

#

1

2

3

4

5

6

A

1

1

1

1

1

1

b

2

2

2

2

3

3

c

11

11

12

12

10

10

79

80

5 3 7

6 1 9

D

12

12

11

11

12

12

e

3

4

3

4

2

2

f

5

3

4

5

4

7

G

6

7

8

6

8

5

h

10

8

7

10

6

9

i

9

10

10

9

11

11

J

8

5

5

7

5

8

K

4

6

6

3

9

6

L

7

9

9

8

7

4

11 1 4 10 2 9 6 12 8

10 2 3 11 4 5 8 7 12

See Standard position, magic squares and Standard position,

magic stars.

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/magicstar_def.htm

Benson & Jacoby New Recreations with Magic Squares, 1976, p.123-124.

A normal magic cube containing within itself a inlaid magic

cube of lower order. There may also be or instead, inlaid magic

squares within a cube. The worlds first magic cubes of this sort

are in Hendricks book Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, 2nd

edition.

J. R. Hendricks, Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 25:4, 1993, pp 286-288, An

Inlaid Magic Cube

A magic diamond is a magic square rotated 45 degrees.

There are 8 possible basic order-5 magic squares that can contain

an order-3 magic diamond. Each may be shown in 8 aspects due

to rotations and/or reflections, making 64 in total.

The inlaid diamond may consist of all odd numbers or a mixture

of odd and even numbers.

62

10 19 14 20

22 3 21 11 8

2

17 25 13

18 15

6 12

23 4

16 24

5

7

numbers.

This is one of two order-5 magic squares with inlaid diamonds that

have even numbers at the corners (the other one is on the cover). The

other six possible for this order have four odd numbers in the four

corners and both even and odd numbers in the diamond.

J. R. Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, 1999, 0-9684700-1-7, pp 49-50.

A magic square that contains within it other magic squares. However,

unlike a bordered magic square, which must contain the lowest and

highest numbers in the series, there is no such restriction on the inlaid

magic square. It may even be a normal magic square. Inlays are often

placed in the quadrants of a magic square, and the inlays may

themselves contain inlays. Overlapping magic squares are a form of

Inlaid and Patchwork magic squares. See also Concentric.

14

10

17

18

24

25

11

25

24

12

17

10

23

19

13

21

18

11

13

15

22

23

15

20

16

14

16

20

12

19

22

21

A. Inlaid

B. Bordered

squares.

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, p 32

J.R.Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, 1999, 0-9684700-1-7

Inlaid magic tesseract

A normal magic tesseract containing within itself an inlaid magic

tesseract of lower order.

There may also be, or instead, inlaid magic squares and/or cubes.

The worlds first of this sort is a magic tesseract of order-6 with

an inlaid magic tesseract of order-3, devised by Hendricks.

Hendricks supplies a copy of this tesseract with books ordered

from him.

Intermediate square

An array formed with upper and lower case letters. By suitable

arrangement of these letters and then assigning values to them, a magic

square may be produced

For order-5, normally the values 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 are assigned to the

capital letters, and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 to the lower case letters in various

combinations. If the letters are arranged so that one upper case and one

lower case letter appears in each row, column and diagonal, the square

is referred to as regular.

Note: Hendricks refers to this type of square as analytical. However, he

uses base m, where m is the order or the magic square. The letters then

represent the digits (i.e. the value are not added together). See

representation.

Generally speaking, an intermediate square may be considered a square

designed as an intermediate step in the construction of a magic square.

A+a

C+d

E+b

B+e

D+c

B+b

D+e

A+c

C+a

E+d

C+c

E+a

B+d

D+b

A+e

D+d

A+b

C+e

E+c

B+a

E+e

B+c

D+a

A+d

C+b

All 3600 order-5 pandiagonal magic squares may be generated

from this one basic intermediate square. Benson and Jacoby

provide a concise table (see reference) to produce the 36

essentially different magic squares.

64

.. Intermediate square

Solution Set

1

13 19 25

14 20 21 2

22 3

15 16

A=0

B=5

a=1

b=2

C = 10 c = 3

10 11 17 23 4

D = 15

18 24 5

E = 20 e = 5

12

d=4

This is number 1 of the 36 essentially different pandiagonal

squares of order-5. It is generated from the above intermediate

square by assigning the values shown. See Solution set.

6 basic intermediate squares will generate all 38,102,400 regular

pandiagonal magic squares of order-7.

W. Benson & O. Jacoby, New Recreations with Magic Squares, Dover Publ., 1976,

0-486-23236-0

Irregular

See Regular & Irregular

An order-8A type magic star can be constructed by a systematic

transformation of magic squares of certain orders. If the

generating square is a plusmagic or diamagic square of order

8n+1 or 8n + 5 and the resulting magic star has 12 lines that sum

correctly, it is an Iso-like magic star.

The name iso-like is derived from the fact that these stars are not

quite isomorphic to the magic square because all the numbers

contained in the square cannot be utilized in the star. See

isomorphic magic stars and pan-magic stars which are closely

related to Iso-like magic stars.

The name pan-magic stars was coined by Aale de Winkel in

1999 when he started investigating their relationship with

pandiagonal magic squares.

.. Iso-like magic star

One of us (Heinz) subsequently investigated the relationship to

quadrant magic squares and redefined into three separate terms.

Comparison of features: Iso-like, Isomorphic and Pan-magic

stars.

In all cases the star is referred to as order-n where n is the order

of the generating magic square.

Iso-like

Generating magic square is quadrant magic and order 8n + 1 or

8n + 3.

Resulting star is of pattern 8A with 12 lines of m numbers

summing correctly.

Magic square is plusmagic (required to form main diagonals).

If magic square is diamagic, only 10 lines of m numbers sum

correctly and it is called incomplete.

No numbers are duplicated but not all numbers are used.

Isomorphic

Generating magic square is order-4, any type, or order-5

plusmagic only.

Order-4; the star will be type 8A normal with 8 lines of 4

numbers (mapping will vary).

Order-5; the star will be type 8A with 12 lines of 5 numbers.

In both cases, all numbers are used with no duplicates.

Pan-magic

Generating magic square is pandiagonal odd order greater then

five.

Resulting star is of pattern 8A with 10 or 12 lines of m numbers

summing correctly.

Not all numbers are used and there will be either 4 or 8 numbers

duplicated.

A variation is the butterfly, a 12 pointed star with 20 lines of 9

numbers summing correctly.

Note that pan-magic stars do not require that the generating

square be quadrant magic, only pandiagonal.

Because this family of magic stars is always of pattern 8A, the

order refers to the number of cells per line.

66

5

49

39

16

14

40

78

64

69

30

56

79

10

27

51

35

61

44

11

36

20

19

75

57

67

50

45

28

24

80

1

25

15

66

58

41

54

81

12

34

71

47

17

55

33

74

26

52

18

37

42

73

21

68

31

29

72

59

22

order-9 diamagic quadrant magic square.

This iso-like pattern has 10 lines of 9 numbers all summing

correctly to 369. It is an order-8A star but in this case is referred

to as order-9, the same as the generating square because all isolike star patterns are the same, regardless of the order or the

magic square. It is constructed from the order-9 diamagic magic

square shown below and contains 65 numbers with no

duplicates. If there are any plusmagic squares of order-9 (none

have been found yet) a complete iso-like magic star (with 12

correct lines) can be obtained. Otherwise, the smallest complete

iso-like star is be order-13.

.. Iso-like magic star

14 40 64 30 56 8 79 27 51

9 78 23 49 10 39 65 35 61

44 70 36 60 5 76 19 48 11

75 20 53 16 45 69 32 58

67 28 57

80 25 54 15 41

24 50 13 37 66 29 62 7 81

34 63 6 77 22 46 12 38 71

47 17 43 72 33 59 4 73 21

55 3 74 26 52 18 42 68 31

65 - The order-9 diamagic square used to generate the

isolike magic star (above).

NOTE that we have used m to indicate the order of the magic

squares but the traditional n for the order of the magic star.

See more on this subject at http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/panmagic.htm

and http://www.adworks.myweb.nl/Magic/

Isomorphisms.

A one-to-one correspondence between the elements of two or

more sets that preserves the structural properties of the domain.

Aale de Winkel of the Netherlands who studies these things in ndimensional space, points out that there are four basic

isomorphisms which leave the numbers on the lines, (i-rows),

parallel to the hypercube axes, merely reordered.

1.

2.

3.

4.

The reflection

The transposition: This is a reflection of a square across its main

diagonal. For a cube, this might be a rotation around its main

triagonal.

The pan(re)location: For a magic square see Cyclical

Permutation.

The hyperagonal permutation.

68

An order-8A type magic star constructed by a systematic

transformation using all the numbers of an order 4 or 5 magic

square.

If the magic square is order-4 then the resulting magic star is

normal because it has 8 lines of 4 numbers that sum correctly.

If the originating magic square is order-5, it must be a plusmagic

quadrant magic square and the resulting star has 12 lines of 5

numbers summing correctly. Because it contains five numbers

per line, this star is not normal. Note that all pandiagonal magic

squares are plusmagic quadrant magic squares but all plusmagic

magic squares are not pandiagonal.

In both cases all the numbers in the magic square are used to

form the Isomorphic magic star.

See Iso-like magic stars and Pan-magic stars. Also my web page

on Iso-like Magic Stars.

16

7

14

25

18

2

23

15

4

9

10

17

21

5

8

19

11

24

20

3

22

12

13

14

25 18

15 23 16

17

13 21

11 22 19

24

20

12

10

quadrant magic square.

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/panmagic.htm

Ixohoxi magic square

This novelty magic square is known as the IXOHOXI magic

square. It is magic in all four of the above orientations. It is pandiagonal so 4 rows, 4 columns, 2 main diagonals, 6

complementary diagonal pairs and 16 2 x 2 squares all sum to

19998.

Check this out with a mirror! All numbers in the reflection will

read correct because both the one and the eight are symmetric

about both the horizontal and the vertical axis. Note also that the

name IXOHOXI has the same characteristics. See the Upsidedown magic square which also relies on symmetrical digits 0, 6

and 9.

Original

Reflected horizontal

Reflected vertical

70

J

Jaina magic square

Named for the first type of this square found as a Jaina

inscription from the 12th or 13th century found in the City of

Khajuraho, India.

Now commonly called pandiagonal magic squares.

W. S. Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes, Dover, Publ., 1960, pp124-125

1

4

16

27

35

11

18

34

37

14

12

31

13

25

10

29

15

2

6

K

Knights tour magic square

The numbers are placed in the cells by following moves of a

chess knight. Many such tours are possible and many of these

symmetrically beautiful. If there is one knight move from the last

move on the board back to the first move, the tour is said to be

re-entrant. The problem is to end up with a square that is magic.

It seems that no such magic square can exist for order-8, the size

of a chess board. The best that can be hoped for is a semi-magic

square with rows and columns, but not diagonals, summing

correctly to 260.

order-16 and magic squares of orders 4m greater then 16.

15

20

17

36

13

64

61

34

18

37

14

21

60

35

12

63

25

16

19

44

62

33

56

38

45

26

59

22

55

11

27

24

39

43

10

57

54

40

49

46

23

58

32

47

28

51

42

30

53

50

41

48

29

52

31

72

magic square.

RouseBall & Coxeter, Mathematical Recreations and Essays, 1892, 13 Edition,

2 8 9

10

7

1

11

3

10

8

2

11

S=

19

5

6

S=

21

1

1 9 10

6

4

12

3

12

4

5

7

9

11

8

7

S=

20

4

6

2

5 3 12

6 4 12

9

2

S=

7

8

22

5

3

10 1 11

Latin square 73

L

Latin square

A Latin square is an m x m array of m symbols in which each

symbol appears exactly once in each row and each column of the

array. It is not required that the same condition apply to the

diagonal. If they do, the square is called a diagonal Latin square.

Latin squares are frequently used for generating magic squares.

In this case, usually, but not always, they are diagonal Latin

squares. The traditional literal symbols are used when algebraic

digits are required. When numerical symbols are required, they

are specifically 0, 1, 2, , m-1.

1

3

0

2

1

3

0

2

0

2

1

3

0

2

1

3

3

1

2

0

1

3

0

2

2

0

3

1

0

2

1

3

1

3

0

2

0

2

1

3

3

1

2

0

2

0

3

1

1 of each symbol, but do sum correctly

0

2

1

3

3

1

2

0

2

0

3

1

1

3

0

2

also contain one of each symbol.

74

.. Latin square

The sum of a numerical Latin square

is

S =

m ( m 1)

2

J. R. Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, Self-published 1999,

0-9684700-0-9, p4

Leading diagonal

Also called left diagonal. It is the line of numbers from the upper

left corner of the magic square to the lower right corner.

See Main Diagonals.

Lines of numbers

In a magic square, cube or hypercube these are more specifically

referred to as rows, columns, diagonals, pillars, files, triagonals,

quadragonals, etc. Each line contains m numbers where m is the

order of the magic array. See also, orthogonals.

In a magic star they are the set of numbers forming a line

between two points.

In a normal magic star there is always four of these numbers per

line, regardless of the order of the star. An ornamental magic star

may have a set of any size.

Literal square

In 1910 Bergholt published a general form square that works

with appropriate solution sets to generate any order-4 magic

square.

Aa

C+a+c

B+bc

D-b

D+ad

Aa+d

Cbd

B+bd

B+b

Dac

Ab+c

C+a

.. Literal square 75

.. Literal square

A = 15

a = 12

10

16

B=8

b=4

13

11

C=2

c = -4

15

D=9

d=8

12

14

If a = b = d-c = (A B C + D)/2 the resulting square will be

pandiagonal. If a + c = d = b c and A + C = B + D the magic

square will be associated.

Therefore, the square cannot be both associated and pandiagonal

because in that case A a = B. In fact, the first associated,

pandiagonal magic squares appear in order-5.

See Solution set.

RouseBall & Coxeter, Mathematical Recreations and Essays, 1892, 13 Edition,

p.211

Long diagonal

Used by many authors on magic cubes to mean the diagonals

which run from a corner of the cube, through the center to the

opposite corner.

Hendricks uses triagonal, or 3-agonal instead.

See Triagonal and Short diagonal.

14

1

18

17

13

19

13

16

17

15

6

9

12

18

14

9 3

5

12

10

19

6

11

16

15

11

7

5

10

76

An odd order magic square where all the odd numbers are

arranged sequentially to occupy a 45 degree rotated square in the

center of the complete magic square. Unlike an Inlaid magic

diamond, the lozenge (diamond) is not magic. The (m2-1)/8 cells

in each of the corner areas contain the even numbers.

The lozenge magic square is a prime example of a parity pattern

because its main feature is the fact that the even and odd

numbers are separated. See also Inlaid diamond.

18 10 2 43 42 34 26

12 4 45 37 29 28 20

6 47 39 31 23 15 14

49 41 33 25 17 9

36 35 27 19 11 3 44

30 22 21 13 5 46 38

24 16 8

7 48 40 32

Lringmagic

An array of n cells in the shape of a large ring that appears in

each quadrant of an order-n quadrant magic square. For order-5

lringmagic and crosmagic are the same.

See Quadrant magic patterns and Quadrant magic square.

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/quadrant.htm

M 77

M

M

M indicates the order or number of cells per side of a magic

hypercube of dimension n.

Many authors use n for this purpose. Hendricks (and this book)

use m for this purpose and reserve n for specifying the

dimension.

However, the more traditional n will be used to indicate the order

of magic stars because normally they are only 2 dimensional (but

see Magic star .. 3-D).

M2 ply

A square is said to be m2 ply when the number in any m x m

group of cells give a constant sum in an arithmetic magic square

, or a constant product in a geometric magic square.

The illustration shows an order-6 pandiagonal geometric magic

square that is 22 ply and 32 ply. The magic product of any 2 x

2 square is 2,176,782,336 and any 3 x 3 squares is

1,023,490,369,077,469,249,536. The magic product of any of the

24 rows, columns or diagonals of the order-6 square is

101,559,956,668,416.

729

16

23328

11664

32

576

324

18

5184

36

162

3888

96

243

48

7776

46656

1458

64

2916

1296

288

81

144

2592

192

972

15552

12

486

22 ply and 32 ply.

W. S. Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes, Dover, Publ., 1960 ,p 292.

78

Various arrangements of numbers, usually the first n integers,

where all lines or points add up to the same constant value. See

Generalized parts.

This magic circle demonstrates some of the characteristics of

Order-4, Group II magic squares. The first figure has four

numbers in the big circle, each of the four medium circles, and

each of the five small circles, sum to 34. The second figure

shows two other arrangements of four numbers.

Note that the sixteen cells are arranged as a magic square.

2

15

11

13

14

12

16

10

11

6

15

14

16

13

12

10

Magic cube

An m x m x m array of cells with each cell containing a number,

usually an integer. These numbers are arranged so that the sum

for each row, each column, each pillar, and the four main

triagonals are all the same. Note that it is not required that the

squares in the 3m planes of the cube have correct diagonals.

If the number series used is consecutive from 1 to m3., the cube

is normal (see next entry). If you added 2 to each number of the

cube in the next illustration, the result would be a non-normal

(impure) magic cube Another example of an impure magic cube

is one constructed only of prime numbers.

Magic cube, normal

Similar to a magic square but 3 dimensional instead of two. It

contains the integers from 1 to m3. There are 3m2 + 4 lines that

sum correctly. All rows, columns, pillars, and the four triagonals

must sum to 1/2m(m3+1) (the constant). See Orthogonals. The

minor diagonals do not sum correctly although it is possible that

those in only one plane do.

There are 4 basic magic cubes of order-3, each of which can be

shown in 48 aspects due to rotations and/or reflections.

Following is one of them. See another at Basic magic cube.

Signatures for the four basic cubes are:

1, 15, 17, 23; 2, 15, 18, 24; 4, 17, 18, 26; 6, 16, 17, 26

11

7

23

10

12

22

25

15

14

1

26

27

13

3

20

16

6

19

18

24

17

5

21

Example lines: row; 4, 17, 21; column; 4, 18, 20; pillar; 4 26, 12;

and triagonal; 4, 14, 24. All these lines must sum correctly for

the cube to be magic. See Magic sum and Summations.

J.R.Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, 1999

J.R.Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, 1998

Benson & Jacoby, Magic Cubes:New Recreations, 1981

80

Magic diamond

A magic diamond is a magic square rotated 45 degrees. It is

quite similar to a Serrated magic square.

See Inlaid magic diamond.

Magic Graph

See Graphs

Magic hypercube

An n-dimensional array of mn cells containing the numbers1, 2,

, mn arranged in such a way that all rows, columns, etc sum the

magic sum, as well as the 2n-1 n-agonals.

Dimension

irows

Squares

cubes Tesseracts

5-D

Hyp.

2m

3m

3m

4m3

6m2

4m

5m4

10m3

10m2

5m

6m5

15m4

20m3

15m2

7m

21m

35m

35m

6m

21m2

given hypercube.

The proceeding table shows the total number of hyper-planes in a

hypercube. From this another table can be compiled that shows the

number of bounding hyper-planes. Use m = 2 and change the word irows to edges.

Remember that i-rows are orthogonals only. Correct n-agonals are not

shown in this table. If the hypercube is perfect, all these hyper-planes

must also have all the n-agonals summing correctly.

J. R. Hendricks, Perfect n-Dimensional Magic Hypercubes of Order 2n,

Self-published,1999, 0-9684700-4-1, p.5.

Magic lines 81

Magic lines

Lines connecting the centers of cells of a Pure Magic Square in

the number order. The line diagrams produced may be used for

purposes of classification.

If the areas between the lines are filled with contrasting colors,

interesting abstract patterns result. These are also called

sequence patterns.

1

6

16

11

15

12

2

5

4

7

13

10

14

9

3

8

diagram and the diagram filled in.

Jim Moran, Magic Squares, 1981

commonly used for classification. It was first used by H.E.

Dudeney to classify the 880 order 4 magic squares. In this

method, each pair of complimentary numbers are joined by a

line. The resulting combination of lines forms a distinct pattern.

H.E.Dudeney, Amusements in Mathematics, 1917, p 120

Jim Moran Magic Squares, 1981, 0-394-74798-4 (lots of material)

Magic object

Used in this book as a general term to indicate any array or other

magic figure that has a magic sum, product, etc. that is in

proportion to the number of cells in the line. Some magic objects

are square, cube, star, circle, rectangle, generalized part, graph,

etc.

82

Magic rectangle

A rectangular array of cells numbered from 1 to m. All rows sum to the

value which is the mean of each cell times the number of cells in the

row. Likewise, all columns sum to the value which is the mean of each

cell times the number of cells in the column. Neither Andrews,

Collison, Hendricks, Moran, Trenkler, or de Winkel require that the

diagonals be magic.

A simple way to construct a magic rectangle, is to take the several layer

of a magic cube and place them side by side. If the cube is diagonal,

pandiagonal or perfect, the diagonals will be correct, otherwise not.

Ed Shineman, in a letter dated March 27, 2000, provided a 4 x 16

magic rectangle in which 4 equally spaced leading and right diagonals

summed correctly.

8

12

22

1

14

27

6

16

20

17

21

4

10

23

9

15

25

2

26

33

13

19

5

18

24

7

11

This 3 x 9 magic rectangle was constructed using a method

proposed by Aale de Winkel. Columns and the 3 evenly spaced

diagonals in each direction (starting at columns 1, 4 and 7) sum

to 42, rows sum to 126.

e-mail from Aale de Winkel May 16, 2000

Magic square

An m x m array of cells with each cell containing a number. These

numbers are arranged so that the sum for each row, each column, and

the two main diagonals are all the same. If the numbers used are from 1

to m2 it is a normal magic square. If it has no special features, it is a

simple magic square.

n is called the order by many authors so in that case the array is n x n.

NOTE: In geometry, n is used for the dimension, so when Hendricks

extended the notion of magic squares to higher dimensions, he found it

more practical to use m for the order and reserve n for the dimension of

the magic hypercube. This is the practice that will be followed

throughout this book.

.. Magic square 83

.. Magic square

32

4 23 3 28

17 12 49

22

26 33

10 47

25

19 11 31 20

90 and containing special numbers.

This magic square was designed to celebrate one of the authors

(Heinz) fathers 90th birthday. In the top row are 3 numbers of his

birth date, April 23, 1903. Because the numbers in this square

are not consecutive and starting with 1, this is not a normal

magic square. However, because all diagonals sum correctly, it

is not simple.

A magic square composed of the natural numbers from 1 to m2.

Also called pure, or traditional.

64 24 35 46 60 17

52 57 14

9

40 74 72 22 29 54 58 11

48 59 16

44 73

41 79 66 23 34

38 81 67 20 36 49 56 18

71 19 33 53 55 15

50 61 12

2

42 80

39 77 70 21 32

69 26 28 51 62 10

4

37 78

43 75 68 25 30

45 76 65 27 31 47 63 13

32-ply.

The equation for the constant of a magic square is S = (m3 +

m)/2

84

Figure 82 is an normal magic square because it uses the numbers

from 1 to m2 (1 81). It is a perfect (pandiagonal) magic square

because all 2m diagonals sum correctly. And it is 32 ply

because all 3 x 3 sub-squares sum correctly.

Magic star

The magic star shown here is index number 437363 of a total of

826112 basic order-12 magic stars of pattern B. Each of 12 lines

of 4 numbers sum to 50. The complement of this star is # 3737

and the complement pair is # 1960. It is normal because it uses

the consecutive numbers from `1 to 2n.

There are a total of 4 patterns for this order. The 826112

solutions of pattern b were found by an exhaustive computer

search lasting 39.5 days. I have found many solutions for each of

the other order-12 patterns, but have been reluctant to devote the

necessary computer time to find all of them.

Note the use of n to indicate order. For orthogonal magic arrays,

this book uses m to indicate order, and n to indicate the

dimension.

See Magic star, normal for more information on this subject and

2

an order-11 example.

20

6

22

star solution in the

indexed list with 2 as

the top point number.

See Index.

H.D.Heinz,

http://www.geocities.com/~

harveyh/magicstar.htm

21

13

9

23

10

12b

16

4

19

24

3

Index # 437363

15

17

7

12

5

18

11

14

Magic star, normal

A normal magic star consists of a set of integers 1, 2, 3, ..., 2n

which are placed at the 2n exterior points of intersection of the

lines which form a regular polygram, such that the sum of the

four integers found in any of the n lines is given by: S = 4n+2

where S is called the magic sum, and n is the order of the star.

Also called pure.

Trenkler calls stars that do not consist of consecutive numbers

starting with 1, Weakly magic stars, and those with four numbers

per line but the two inside numbers placed at interior line

intersections, Type-T stars.

Magic stars have not attracted the attention of mathematicians to

the same extent that magic squares have. Presumably this is

because the unstructured nature of magic stars do not lend

themselves to mathematical analysis as magic squares do. These

solutions were all found by exhaustive computer search.

12

21

15

11

8

1

4

19

13

7

16

3

18

11B

11b

17

Index # 75931

10

20

2

5

14

22

This is the first basic star solution in the indexed list with 12 as

the top point number. See Index.

Note: All order 5 magic stars are not normal because it is

impossible to construct a magic star of this order using

consecutive numbers.

86

Order

#

#

Series

1 to 12

Patterns

(graphs)

Basic

Solutions

Aspects

24

Continuous

12*

10

1 to 12

26

2 triangles

80

12

1 to 14

30

a-Continuous

b-Continuous

72

72

14

1 to 16

34

a-2 squares

b-Continuous

112

112

16

1 to 18

38

a-Continuous

b-3 triangles

c- Continuous

3014

1676

1676

18

10

1 to 20

42

a-2 pentagrams

b-Continuous

c-2 pentagons

10882

115522

10882

20

11

to 22

46

a-Continuous

b-Continuous

d-Continuous

c-Continuous

53528

75940

53528

75940

22

12

1 to 24

50

a-2 hexagons

b-3 squares

c-4 triangles

d- Continuous

>600000

826112

>600000

>600000

24

Three of the four order-12 lists have not been completed. The

large number of order-10b solutions looks suspicious. However,

all solutions form complement pairs and I have not been able to

find any duplicates. Order-5 is not normal because 7 and 11 are

not used.

The number of aspects for each pattern of each order is equal to

the number of points (rotation) times 2 (reflection).

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/magicstar.htm

Magic stars type T

Marin Trenkler of Safarik University, Slovakia, has classified

normal magic stars into two groups. Type S which is the same as

my definition of a normal magic star, contains all the cells in the

outside vertices of the star. The other is type T, which has two of

the four cells of each line in the interior of the star.

1

16 9

4

13

14

M

S10

10-A

18 5

17 3

19

10 7

15

9

20

18

2

8 11

12

1

17

16

14

10

6

5

2

13

15

M

T10

10-A

12

11

19

20

The type S is a normal magic square by one of the authors

(Heinz) definition and is index # 12195 of pattern B. The type T

is not normal by Heinzs definition, even though it does consist

of the consecutive numbers from 1 to 2n.

Marin Trenkler, Obzory Matematiky, Fyziky a Informatiky, 1998, no. 51, pp.1-7,

Magic Stars

88

Magic squares have a 3-D version, the magic cube. Is it possible

for magic stars to also come in 3 dimensions? The answer is yes.

The simplest version is an 8 pointed star consisting of two

interconnected regular tetrahedrons.

There is one solution, using the numbers from 1 to 17, but

without the 3, 9 and 15.It has 12 lines of 3 numbers all summing

to 27.

This is the only solution possible (except for its complement)

using this number set (not counting rotations or reflections). The

magic constant, 27, is the smallest possible for a magic star of

this type.

The three unused numbers 3, 9 and 15 may be incorporated in

the pattern as follows:

Place the number 9 in the center of the star. It forms a magic line

with it's two 'satellites', the 3 and the 15. The 9 also forms magic

lines in conjunction with each of the 4 star point pairs, and with

each of the 3 star midline pairs.

Thus we have a pattern using the consecutive numbers from 1 to

17, forming 22 lines of 3 numbers, all summing to 27

The following diagram is a little confusing. Try to visualize a

tetrahedron with the apex, 14, pointing away, and another

tetrahedron with the apex, 4, pointing towards you. The 3, 9 and

15 are not part of the magic star, but do enhance the pattern.

Aale de Winkel helped to visualize the pattern for an 8-point 3-D

star. He also came up with this solution when Heinz indicated

that numbers 1 to 15 and 1 to 16 didnt work

After I (Heinz) determined that it was impossible to construct a

10-point 3_D star, Hermann Mierendorff provided an

impossibility proof.

See the 3-D page on the Heinz Web site for more information,

better diagrams, and two photographs of a wood block model.

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/3-d_star.htm.htm

.. Magic star..3-D 89

.. Magic star.. 3-D

2

6

17

15

11

4

13

10

14

12

16

Magic Sum

The value each row, column, etc., sums to is called the magic

sum. It is denoted by S.

For a normal n-dimensional magic hypercube of order-m the sum

is

m (mn + 1).

See constant and Summations.

For a magic star, S is the sum of the numbers in each line. For a

normal magic star of order-m, S = 4n + 2.

90

.. Magic Sum

Magic Square

Magic Cube

Magic Tesseract

Regular

Regular

Regular

m rows

m2 rows

m3 rows

m columns

m2 columns

m3 columns

2 diagonals

m2 pillars

m3 pillars

4 3-agonals

m3 files

8

Perfect

Perfect

4-agonals

Perfect

m rows

m2 rows

m3 rows

m columns

m2 columns

m3 columns

m2 pillars

m3 pillars

2m diagonals

4m2 3-agonals

m3 files

6m2 2-agonals

8m3 4agonals

12m3 3agonals

16m3 2agonals

tesseracts.

Perfect n-Dimensional Magic Hypercubes of Order 2n, Self-published,1999,

0-9684700-4-1

Magic tesseract 91

Magic tesseract

A magic tesseract is a four-dimensional array, equivalent to the

magic cube and magic square of lower dimensions, containing

the numbers 1, 2, 3, , m4 arranged in such a way that the sum

of the numbers in each of the m3 rows, m3 columns, m3 pillars,

m3 files and in the eight major quadragonals passing through the

center and joining opposite corners is a constant sum S, called

the magic sum, which is given by: S = m(m4+1) and where m

is called the order of the tesseract.

A magic tesseract is also called a 4 dimensional hypercube.

A magic tesseract contains 54 number squares and 8 border

number cubes, not necessarily magic.

27

68

59

46

67

30

48

17

41

65

34

52

36

15

23

14

55

projection with corners and center values only.

92

.. Magic tesseract

65

24

34

31

71

21

27

28

68

22

35

66

72

19

32

29

69

25

36

64

23

20

33

70

67

26

30

(3, x, y, 1)

(3, x, y, 2)

(3, x, y, 3)

43

74

80

40

37

77

44

75

41

81

78

38

73

45

42

79

39

76

(2, x, y, 1)

(2, x, y, 2)

(2, x, y, 3)

52

56

15

12

49

62

59

18

46

57

13

53

50

63

10

16

47

60

14

54

55

61

11

51

48

58

17

(1, x, y, 1)

(1, x, y, 2)

(1, x, y, 3)

The center cell contains the number 41 (on all order-3 normal

magic tesseracts). The 16 corner values are shown in bold type.

One of the 8 quadragonals is 27 + 41 + 55.

There are 58 basic magic tesseracts of order-3. Each of these has

384 variations (aspects) due to rotations and reflections.

C.Planck (W.S.Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes,1917, pp

363-375) refers to these as octahedroids, and their space

diagonals as hyperdiagonals.

.. Magic tesseract 93

.. Magic tesseract

Comparing Order-3 Hypercube Dimension Facts

Dimension

Correct

lines

# of Basic

Aspects

31

48

116

58

384

421

2992

3840

1490

543328

46080

J. R. Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, Self-published 1999,

0-9684700-0-9

J. R. Hendricks, All Third Order Magic Tesseracts, self-published 1999,

0-9684700-2-5

1

6

11

15

17 3

12

14

9

10

13 2 16

18

94

Let Tn be the nth triangular number. Arrange the numbers from 1

to Tn in an equilateral triangular array.

If all the triangular regions of 3 rows within this array sum to the

same value, it is called a magical triangular region (MTR).

Fig. A shows an order-4 MTR using numbers from 1 to Tn (Tn =

10, n is called the order). There are Tn-2 equilateral triangles

within this figure that sum to the same value of 28. One (shown)

has the apex 6, another with apex 8, and the other with apex 2.

Fig. B is an order-6 with 10 such regions. Shown is the one with

apex 21. Also shown is one of three inverted constant-sum

regions making this a type-E MTR. Not shown is an order-5

MTR.

1

18 14

16 15 2

8

6

4

9 5

A.

2

1

7

3 10

6

13 19

20 4 17

B.

8 21

5 11

7 10 12

Usiskin & Stephanides, J. Recreational Mathematics, 11:3, 1978-79, pp.176-179,

Magic Triangular Regions of Orders 4 and 5.

Katagiri & Kobayashi, J. Recreational Mathematics, 15:3, 1982-83, pp200-208,

Magic Triangular Regions of Orders 5 and 6

Main Diagonals

The two diagonal series of cells that go from corner to corner of

the magic square. Each must sum to the constant in order for the

array to

be magic. The leading (or left) diagonal is the one from upper

left to lower right. The right diagonal is the one from lower left

to upper right.

Mapping 95

Mapping

Mapping is a transformation of one image into another one. See

also Graphs, Isomorphic magic stars and Magic circles.

5

11

6

3

12

10

1

5

12

11

6 2

3

8

9

12

10

10

11

octahedron.

The cube is face perimeter magic with the vertices mapping to

the triangles of the star. The octahedron is vertex magic with the

edges of the eight triangles mapping to the star triangles.

4

16

13

10

14

11

10

13

14

15

12

12

15

16

1

7

11

3

8

9

96

Modular arithmetic

Any system of arithmetic in which any two numbers are

equivalent when they differ by an integral multiple of the

modulus. For example, one writes:

x y (mod m)

means that x-y is divisible by m. Sometimes, this is called clock

arithmetic, which has a modulus 12. Because of the modulus,

this is often called a congruence equation and the regular

congruence symbol with three bars is used instead of the equal

sign.

Collins Dictionary of Mathematics. Hendricks, et al, uses

modular equations to find the digits of a number at a given

location in a magic square, cube, or hypercube.

Modular space

Instead of having the customary infinite continuous

mathematical space for studying magic squares, etc., a lattice, or

framework is designed sufficient to hold the numbers in a square

array, or a cubic array. The x-axis is then of finite length and is

selected to be the same as the order of the magic square, or cube.

This way, there is always a position for each number and a

number at each position. However, the x-axis is bent around and

joins itself in a circle. The order m is modulo m. The y-axis

undergoes the same treatment. One ends up with the best

representation of a 2-dimensional modular space is on the

surface of a donut. The x-axis goes around the ring, torus, or

donut one way and the y-axis perpendicular to it the other way.

The advantage of modular space is that all diagonals become

continuous. The disadvantage is that it seems strange at first.

See coordinates, n-agonals, and Triagonals.

Monagonal

The orthogonal lines of a magic rectilinear object. Also called irows, 1-agonals, summations, orthogonal.

Most-perfect magic square

A normal pandiagonal magic square of doubly-even order with

two added properties. Any two-by-two block of adjacent cells

(including wrap-around) sum to the same value which is 2m2+2,

where m is the order of the magic square, and the integers come

in complementary pairs distanced m along the diagonals.

Most-perfect magic squares can be precisely enumerated because

the have a one-to-one relationship with Reversible squares and

the number of reversible squares may be easily calculated.

All order-4 pandiagonal magic squares are most-perfect, but for

orders greater then 4 an increasingly smaller percentage of

pandiagonal magic squares are most-perfect.

63

61 12 54 10 56

16 50 14 52

59

57

17 47 19 45 28 38 26 40

32 34 30 36 21 43 23 41

53 11 55

64

60

49 15 51 13

58

62

37 27 39 25 48 18 46 20

44 22 42 24 33 31 35 29

95 - An order-8 most-perfect magic square.

K. Ollerenshaw and D. Bre, Most-Perfect Pandiagonal Magic Squares, IMA 1998,

0-905091-06-X

Ian Stewart, Mathematical Recreations, Scientific American, November 1999

Note that both these authors use the series from 0 to m2-1 for

mathematical convenience. The sum of each 2 by 2 square array

is then 2m2-2. They also use n to indicate the order. In keeping

with the rest of this book, we use m for this purpose and reserve

n (when required) for dimension.

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/most-perfect.htm

98

A magic square where the constant is obtained by multiplying

the values in the cells.

The magic square shown here uses 4 unusual arithmetic series.

When the four cells in each row, column or diagonal are

multiplied together, a magic product of 401,393,664 is obtained.

When the order of the digits in each number is reversed, a new

multiplication magic square is formed with a product of

4,723,906,824.

12

21

122

24

306 448

221

42

36

63

224 102

48

366

A.

12

422 201

603 844

84

663

63

84

B.

24

36

48

21

42

squares.

96 - An order-4 multiplication magic square (not

geometric) and its reverse.

This remarkable square was constructed by R. B. Edwards, an

amateur magician of Rochester, New York. It is the nucleus of

an order-6 Bordered adding magic square. See Order, doublyeven.

See geometric magic square for information on the two most

common types of multiplication magic squares. See also

Division magic square.

Joseph S. Madachy, Mathematics On Vacation, Nelson, 1966, 17-147099-0,

pp.89-90.

N (or n) 99

N

N (or n)

n is used for many things in mathematics. In Geometry it is often

used for the dimension. In magic squares it has been used for the

order. And, when you are counting it may stand for the number

of objects. When it comes to magic cubes, tesseracts and

hypercubes n could very well stand for each of these.

So for higher-dimensional spaces Hendricks (and this book) uses

n for the dimension, m for the order and N for the number of

things. Note, however, that this book still uses n to indicate the

order of magic stars.

n-agonals

A line going from 1 corner, through the center to the opposite

corner, of a magic hypercube greater then dimension-2. Also

called space diagonal. (A 1-agonal is an i-row (orthogonal line).)

Number of broken n-agonals for each continuous one

n

2 seg.

3 segments

4 segments

Total

M1

3(m-1)

(m-1)(m-2)

m2

2(5m-8)

2(2m27m+7)

(m-1)(m-2)(m3)

m3

2, 3, 4.

For each continuous n-agonal in n-dimensional space, there are a

number of broken n-agonals, depending upon the order of the

hypercube. There are 2 continuous diagonals in a square, 4 continuous

triagonals in a cube, and 8 continuous quadragonals in a tessseract. So,

the numbers in the table must be multiplied by the number of

continuous ones in order to determine how many and of which kind of

n-agonals are in a hypercube.

These numbers only apply in conventional mathematical space. If

modular space is used, then all broken n-agonals become continuous.

100

An imaginary structured object in the format of a lattice

containing mn cells and which resides in an n-dimensional

modular space.

An n-dimensional magic hypercube of order-m may have the

same or lower order magic hypercubes within it.

greater then

Hypercube

point

line segment

a square

a cube or hexahedron

a tesseract

a hypercube

J. R. Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, Self-published 1999,

0-9684700-1-7

Now commonly called a pandiagonal Magic Square.

The term was first published by A. H. Frost in the Quarterly

Journal of Mathematics, London, 1865 and 1878, pp 34 and 93.

W. S. Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes, Dover, Publ., 1960, p365

Normal

When used in reference to a magic square, magic cube, magic

star, etc, it indicates that the magic array uses consecutive

positive integers starting with 1 and going to mn (or 0 to mn 1).

An equally popular term for this condition is pure.

Normalized position

See Standard position.

Number of .. 101

Normalizing

Rotating and/or reflecting a magic square or magic star to achieve the

standard position so the figure may be assigned an index number. This

changes an aspect of the magic object to the basic orientation.

Number of ..

Anti-magic squares: see Anti-magic squares

Aspects of a magic square: see Aspects.

Aspects of a magic star: See Magic star, normal.

Basic magic tesseracts: see Basic magic tesseract

Correct lines in a tesseract: see Perfect tesseract

Cubes in a 5-D hypercube; see Magic hypercube

Diagonals in a tesseract: see Summations.

Order-4 magic square types: see Dudeney groups

Squares in a cube: see Magic hypercube

Third order magic squares: see Enumeration-squares

Number square

A square containing different numbers but is not necessarily

magic. One could extend this definition to higher dimensions.

1

A.

B.

C.

D.

A. Numbers are in simple sequence, B. second and third rows are

multiples of first row, C. the three rows are all 3-digit square

numbers.

D. an order-4 Perfect Prime Square. So named because all 4digit numbers in the rows, columns and main diagonals are

distinct 4-digit primes. There are thus 20 distinct 4-digit primes

in this square. There are at least 24 other distinct 1, 2 and 3 digit

primes also in this square.

See Perfect prime squares.

Carlos Rivera, http://www.primepuzzles.net/puzzles/puzz_004.htm

102

O

Octants

The eight parts of a doubly-even order magic cube if you split

the cube in half in each dimension. i.e. if you divide an order-8

cube in this fashion, the octants are the eight order-4 cubes

positioned at each of the eight corners of the original cube.

J.R.Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, Self-published 1999,

0-9684700-1-7, pp 123-129

Odd order

The order is not divisible by 2, i.e. 3 (the smallest possible magic

square), 5, 7, etc.

14

10

17

18

11

25

24

19

13

21

22

23

15

16

20

12

orders.

This normal order-5 contains an inlaid order-3 magic square.

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, p 32

Oddly-even order

See Singly-even.

Opposite cells

If the coordinates of a cell are (w,x,y,z) then the opposite cell

would be located at (m+1-w, m+1-x, m+1-y, m+1-z) where m is

the order. In general if xi is the coordinate, then xi is replaced by

m+1-xi.

See Symmetrical cells.

Opposite corners

The two cells that are at the ends of an n-agonal are also at

opposite corners of the hypercube.

A corner has coordinates which have either a 1, or an m for

each coordinate. Simply replace the one by the other to obtain

the coordinates of the opposite corner. For example in a 5dimensional magic hypercube, you have a corner at (1,m,1,1,m)

so the opposite corner would be at (m,1,m,m,1).

See Coordinates, Magic tesseract and Perfect magic tesseract for

examples.

Two short diagonals that are parallel to but on opposite sides of a

main diagonal and each containing the same number of cells.

See Semi-pandiagonal.

J. L. Fults, Magic Squares, Open Court 1974, 0-87548-197-3

A normal order-3 magic square consists of 3 series of numbers

with both the horizontal step and the vertical step positive

numbers. Because the numbers are consecutive, both steps equal

one.

However, a magic square consisting of non-consecutive numbers

may be constructed of three series where the vertical step is a

negative number. Such a magic square is called a type 2 magic

square. It is easy to identify because the number in the bottom

left corner cell is smaller then that in the cell immediately above

it.

104

Harry J. Smith speculated on this type of magic square and

coined the term in a letter to Dr. Michael Ecker dated Dec. 8,

1990.

11

11

magic squares.

A. This number square shows three series with both horizontal and

vertical steps equal to 1.

B. The magic square using the three series in A. It is the only normal

basic order-3 and is a type 1.

C. This number square shows three series with a horizontal step of 2

and a vertical step of 1.

D. The magic square using the three series in A. It is the smallest

possible type 2 magic square. See Vertical step.

Harry J. Smiths web page at http://home.netcom.com/~hjsmith/

Heinzs Type 2 page at http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/type2.htm

Order-m

Hendricks (and this book) always uses m to indicate the order or

number of cells per side of a magic square, cube tesseract, etc. n

is reserved to indicate the number of dimensions of the magic

object.

Order n

n traditionally indicates the number of cells per side of the magic

square, cube, tesseract, etc. However, because he does so much work in

multi-dimensions, Hendricks (and this book) uses m for this purpose.

For a magic star, n indicates the number of points, (and the order) in the

star pattern.

Order, doubly-even

The order is evenly divisible by 4. i.e. 4, 8, 12, etc.

This is probably the easiest type of magic square to construct.

The following example shows an order-6 (singly-even) adding

magic square, with an inlaid order-4 (doubly-even) multiply

magic square. The order-6 magic sum is 1,355 and the order-4

magic product is 401,393,664. Neither magic square is normal.

This square was devised by R. B. Edwards, an amateur magician

of Rochester, New York.

See Doubly-even order for another example.

223

283

200

322

163

164

177

408

336

244

12

178

228

122

24

306

448

227

258

36

488

112

204

257

308

224

102

48

366

307

161

282

205

323

162

222

doubly-even multiply magic square.

Joseph S. Madachy, Mathematics On Vacation, Nelson, 1966, 17-147099-0, p.89

Order, even

The order is evenly divisible by 2. Order 4 is the smallest even

order magic square (it is also doubly-even).

See Even Order and Order, doubly-even for examples.

Order, odd

The order is not divisible by 2, i.e. 3 (the smallest possible magic

square), 5, 7, etc.

See Odd order for an example.

106

Order, singly-even

The order is evenly divisible by 2 but not by 4. i.e. 6, 10, 14, etc.

This order is by far the hardest to construct.

See Order, doubly-even for an example.

A general term for magic squares containing unusual features.

Some examples are; Bordered, Composition, Inlaid,

Overlapping, Reversible, Lozenge, Serrated, etc.

1

40

70

71

66

36

55

56

26

35

65

64

57

37

21

25

46

7

34

54

67

31

45

14

27

47

74

61

42

79

77

78

44

43

24

23

17

22

11

80

76

19

10

30

41

15

60

50

20

16

75

51

18

49

29

12

13

28

48

73

72

32

9

8

33

53

68

69

52

39

59

62

63

58

38

Each magic diamond sums to 162. In addition each diamond

contains four 2 x 2 cells that sum to 162 as well as four 3 x 3 and

one 4 x 4 diamonds with corner cells also summing to 162.

Within each diamond, each number ends with one of two digits.

Notice the digits 1 to 5 at the points. (Illustration adapted from

W.S. Andrews).

W. S. Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes, Dover, Publ., 1960, p.172

Ornamental magic stars

Any Magic Star containing unusual features. It may have one

star embedded in another, more then four numbers to a line,

consist of prime numbers (or any unusual number series), etc.

17

19

1

6

3

23

15

20

10

13

12

7

21

9

2

37

8

14

11

16

31

36

interlocked order-8, pattern B magic stars.

The inner star is a normal magic star in standard position and is,

in fact, index # 30. The outer star is also magic but is not normal

because the numbers are not consecutive and the two inside cells

of each line are in the interior of the star. It sums to 68 in each

line. The normal star, of course, sums to 34.

See an order-9 ornamental star on the back cover of this book.

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/unusualstr.htm.

108

Orthogonal

Lines that are perpendicular to each other. In the magic square,

the rows and columns are orthogonals.

pillar (z)

333

133

123

313

113

222

322

diag

ona

l

column (y)

112

tr

ia

go

n

al

113

111

211

311

row (x)

paths

This cube shows the orthogonals, the rows, columns and pillars.

Note that in each case only 1 coordinate changes as you move

along the line. These lines are collectively also called i-rows, 1agonals, or monagonals.

Shown for contrast is a diagonal (311, 322, 333) where 2

coordinates change as you move along it. Also shown is a

triagonal (111, 222, 333), which passes through the center of the

cube and requires a change of all 3 coordinates.

For brevity, no brackets or commas are shown for the

coordinates.

See Square of squares

Overlapping magic squares

A special type of inlaid magic square where 1 square partially

(or completely) overlaps another magic square (probably of a

different order).

71

51 32 50

80

79

21 41 61 56 26 13 69 25 57

31 81 11 20 62 64 18 63 19

34 40 60 43 28 65 17 55 27

48 42 22 54 39 75

10 72

68 53 15 33 16 44 58 77

14 29 67 49 66 24 38 59 23

76 37 70 73

74 78 46 47 52

45 12

36 30 35

Frierson includes orders 3, 5, and 7.

J.R. Hendricks, Friersons Fuddle (Problem #1945), Journal of Recreational

Mathematics, 25:1, 1993, p77

6

22

25

32

1

17

19

20

28

12

10

7

23

26

9

27

31

15

24

11

8

4

14

5

13

16

3

18

29

30

21

110

P

Palindromic magic square

Palindromes are numbers (or letters) that read the same right-toleft as left-to-right. Palindromic magic squares may be any type

of magic square, but consisting only of palindromes.

696 232 383 898 939 969 242 525

676 949 222 595 737 888 272 545

656 868 959 666 444 373 353 565

636 343 484 333 999 626 878 585

535 292 777 848 262 555 929 686

494 979 838 323 282 252 989 727

828 797 575 474 464 454 434 858

107 - An order-8 bordered palindromic magic square by

A. W. Johnson, Jr.

The magic sums are also palindromes.

S4 = 2442, S6 = 3663 and S8 = 4884.

A. W. Johnson, Jr., Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 21:2, 1989, p.155.

Pandiagonal

Pandiagonal means all diagonal, which means that the broken

diagonals are also included. Sometimes pan-2-agonal is used,

instead, especially in n-dimensional space. A 2-agonal is

described through space if any two coordinates change while the

rest remain constant.

For example in a cube of order 4, one could describe a diagonal

through (1,2,3) by holding y constant while x and z are allowed

to change. Such a set could be:

(1,2,3) ; (4,2,4) ; (3,2,1) ; and (2,2,2)

.. Pandiagonal 111

.. Pandiagonal

In this example x is decreasing in increments of one and z is

increasing by increments of one and all coordinates are kept

within the modulus 4. There are N = n!.mn-1/(n-2)! diagonals in

an n-dimensional magic hypercube of order m, including the

broken ones.

The broken diagonals in a magic square consist of two elements.

In a magic cube there are 2 or 3 element broken triagonals. In a

magic tesseract they may are 2, 3, or 4 element broken

quadragonals. Etc.

See Broken diagonal pair for an illustration

A Pandiagonal Magic Cube has the normal requirements of a magic

cube plus the additional one that all the squares (planes) also be

pandiagonal. Remember that an ordinary magic cube does not require

even the main diagonals of these squares to be correct.

There are 9m2 + 4 lines that sum correctly (m2 rows, m2 columns, m2

pillars, 4 main triagonals and 6m2 Diagonals). Order-7 is the smallest

possible order of pandiagonal magic cube. This is the original

definition of a Perfect Magic Cube.

J.R.Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, 1999

Also known as Diabolic, Nasic, Continuous, Indian, Jaina or

Perfect. To be pandiagonal, the broken diagonal pairs must also sum

to the constant. This is considered the top class of magic squares.

Some pandiagonal magic squares are also associative (order 5 &

higher) . Because of the vast number of combinations possible,

individual magic squares may contain unique features, which make

them more magic.

There are 4m lines that sum correctly (m rows, m columns and 2m

diagonals).

There is only 1 basic order 3 magic square and it is not pandiagonal.

Of the 880 basic order 4 magic squares, only 48 are pandiagonal and

none of these are associative.

112

Order 5 has 3600 basic pandiagonal magic squares (Only 36

essentially different).

Order 7 has 678,222,720 basic pandiagonal magic squares, of

which 38,102,400 are regular and 640,120,320 are irregular.

Order 8 has more then 6,500,000,000 pandiagonal magic

squares.

There are NO singly-even pandiagonal magic squares All the

above numbers assume we are considering only normal, basic

magic squares.

1

18

24

15

12

20

21

19

25

11

10

16

22

13

12

20

21

23

14

17

10

16

22

13

18

24

15

23

14

17

19

25

11

A.

B.

and one of its 100 transformations.

A. is the original pandiagonal magic square. B is a new

pandiagonal magic square obtained by moving the two top rows

to the bottom. A pandiagonal magic square is a Perfect magic

square. See Essentially different and Regular and irregular.

Pan-magic stars

An order-8A type magic star then can be constructed by a

systematic transformation of odd-order pandiagonal magic

squares greater then order-5. The outside diagonals of the magic

star are formed from pandiagonal pairs one member of which is

a corner cell.

Aale de Winkel investigated this type of magic star in the spring

of 1999 which later resulted in his and my joint investigation of

Iso-like magic stars. (Iso-like magic stars do not require that the

generating square be pandiagonal, but instead uses plusmagic or

diamagic patterns of a Quadrant magic square.)

.. Pan-magic stars

Unlike iso-magic stars which cannot use all the numbers, panmagic stars may use all the numbers in the originating magic

square but require the use of duplicate numbers to complete the

pattern. In the following example, I use shading to indicate the

duplicate numbers.

A variation of pan-magic stars is what de Winkel calls the

butterfly. See Iso-like magic stars for a comparison of Iso-like,

Isomorphic and Pan magic star features.

32

2

1

22

47

17

36 25

13

41

6

35

34

33

3

14 45

44

24

20

49

15

21

42

23 12

31

40

39

39

28 10 48 30 19

1

29 18

7 38 27

26

47

46

16

The order is determined by the generating magic square (see next

page) and is the number of cells per line.

114

.. Pan-magic stars

1

19

30

48

10

28

39

49

11

22

40

20

31

41

21

32

43

12

23

33

44

13

24

42

15

25

36

16

34

45

14

17

35

46

26

37

27

38

18

29

47

this pan-magic star.

H.D.Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/panmagic.htm

See more on this subject at Aale de Winkels Web site at

http://www.adworks.myweb.nl/Magic/

Pan-n-agonal.

All coordinates are changing in unit intervals either plus, or

minus, as one describes a path through space. In an ndimensional magic hypercube of order m, the number of ragonals, where 1<r<n+1 is given by N which is:

N = 2r-1.nCr.mn-1

where m is the order, n is the dimension, r is the space diagonal

of the rth dimension and where C stands for the customary

combinations.

Panquadragonal

Broken quadragonal pairs that are parallel to a quadragonal and

that sum to the magic constant. If all these pairs sum correctly,

the magic tesseract is panquadragonal. It is analogous to a

pandiagonal magic square but instead of moving a row or

column from one side to the other and maintaining the magic

properties, you move any cube from one side to the other. When

one moves along the panquadragonal, 1 cell at a time, four

coordinates change. See also, Pantriagonal.

J.R.Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, 1999

J.R.Hendricks, The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 75, No. 4, April 1968,

p.384

Pantriagonal 115

Pantriagonal

Sometimes called Pan-3-agonal.

This term is used for cubes, or high dimensional hypercubes. In

n-dimensional space, if any three coordinates are changing while

the rest remain constant, then one describes a triagonal through

space, of which most are broken. The main triagonal is the one

which passes through (1,1,1) and has successive coordinates

(2,2,2),, (m,m,m) in a cube.

In N-dimensional space, the n-agonal may be broken into as

many as n segments. For magic cubes there are:

4 continuous triagonals

12(m-1) triagonals broken into pairs, and

4(m-2)(m-1) triagonals broken into 3 sections.

If all the broken Triagonal lines sum correctly, the magic cube is

pantriagonal.

See Orthogonal and Pan-triagonal magic cube for illustrations.

See n-agonals and Triagonals for tables.

J.R.Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, 1999

If all triagonal pairs (Pan-triagonals) sum correctly, the magic

cube is pantriagonal.It is analogous to a pandiagonal magic

square but instead of moving a row or column from one side to

the other and maintaining the magic properties, you may move

any plane from one side to the other.

There are 7m2 lines that sum correctly (m2 rows, m2 columns, m2

pillars, and 4m2 triagonals). There may be some diagonals in the

cube but they are not required. Order-4 is the smallest possible

order pantriagonal magic cube. See also, Pandiagonal magic

cube.

There are 6 fundamental pandiagonal magic squares of order-4

from which the 48 basic squares are derived. There are 20

fundamental pantriagonal magic cubes of order-4 from which the

160 basic cubes are derived.

J.R. Hendricks, Pan-3-agonal Magic Cubes of Order-4, JRM, 13(4), 1980-81, pp

274-281

116

35

62

22

11

19

14

2

47

50

7

4

26

44

53

40

15

18

58

46

30

3

54

49

32

43

48

41

20

60

39

27

13

24

23

56

33

64

34

28

57

51

42

45

17

16

10

31

55

52

29

63

38

59

25

36

61

37

12

21

One of the four triagonals is 60 + 46 + 5 + 19= 130.

One of the 15 pan-triagonals parallel to it is 6, 17, 59, 48 and is

broken into two parts. Another one of the 15 which is broken

into three parts is 36, 10, 29 55.

See Broken diagonal pairs and Pantriagonals.

J.R.Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, 1999

Parity patterns.

Parity patterns are the arrangements of the odd and even

numbers in a magic square. Some form pleasing patterns, many

do not. The most pleasing patterns are usually symmetrical.

See Lozenge and Self-similar for other patterns.

3 19 25 12

20 22 11 8

13 9

5 17 21

2 16 23 14 10

24 15 7

1 18

numbers underlined.

Partitioning

Sub-dividing. A square may be sub-divided into cells, as shown

below.

Similarly, a cube may be sub-divided into building blocks, There

are m2 cells in a square of order m and m3 cells in a cube of order

m. There are 3m squares in the cube which may be found by this

partitioning.

In four-dimensional space, the equivalent partitioning yields, m4

cells, 4m cubes and 6m2 squares,

118

An Inlaid magic square that has magic squares or odd magic

shapes within it. The most common shape is a magic rectangle,

but diamonds, crosses, tees and L shapes are also possible. These

shapes are magic if the constant in each direction is proportional

to the number of cells. For example, a 4 x 6 rectangle may have

the constant of 100 in the short direction and 150 in the long

direction. Diagonals are not required to be magical (except for

squares).

This example by David Collison is an order 14 magic square,

containing 4 order 4 magic squares in the quadrants, a magic

cross in the center, 4 magic tees on the sides, and 4 magic

elbows in the corners.

The order-14 magic sum is 1379 and dividing by 14 gives the

mean for each cell as 98.5. Adding the numbers in each line of a

generalized part and dividing by the number of cells in the line

will, in each case, give the value of 98.5!

154

155

41

44

190

192

193

38

35

161

160

42

43

156

153

195

191

189

159

162

37

36

40

157

91

105

104

94

194

83

113

112

86

163

34

158

39

102

96

97

99

196

110

88

89

107

33

164

177

20

98

100

101

95

140

57

90

108

109

87

171

26

24

173

103

93

92

106

58

139 111

85

84

114

167

30

176

23

178

17

137

136

59

131

65

63

172

27

29

166

174

21

19

180

60

61

66

138 132

134

25

170

31

168

22

175

75

121

120

78

135

62

67

129

128

70

165

32

18

179

118

80

81

115

133

64

126

72

73

123

28

169

146

51

82

116

117

79

188

74

124

125

71

45

152

52

145

119

77

76

122

11

186 127

69

68

130

151

46

54

55

144

141

187

183

13

15

181

12

147

150

49

48

142

143

53

56

10

14

182

184

16

185

50

47

149

148

contains magic squares, elbows, tees and a cross.

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, p 312.

Pathfinder 119

Pathfinder

An orderly and systematic way to find ones way through ndimensional space. Through any given element, or cell, there are

(3n-1)/2 different paths., or lines, For a square, this means that

there are 4 paths which are a row, a column and two (broken, if

needed) diagonal ways. Through a cell of a cube, there are 13

routes. Through a tesseract, there are 40. One may travel

forwards, or backwards on any route, or path. The method is

found in Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer.

See Coordinate iteration.

J. R. Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, Self-published 1999,

0-9684700-0-9

Pattern

There are many types of patterns involved in magic squares,

cubes, etc. In fact, the square, cube, star, etc is itself a pattern.

See Algebraic, Complimentary pair, Dudeney Groups, Magic

lines and Parity patterns.

A perfect magic cube is pantriagonal and all of its planes (the

magic squares) are pandiagonal. There are 13 m2 lines that sum

correctly (m2 rows, m2 columns, m2 pillars, 4m2 triagonals and

6m2 diagonals). Order-8 is the smallest possible order perfect

magic cube.

J.R.Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, Self-published 1999.

0-9684700-0-9

An older definition of a Perfect Magic Cube is what Hendricks

now calls a Pandiagonal magic cube. This older definition

probably originated from the fact that a pandiagonal magic

square is perfect. However, perfect is now construed to mean

that it is pandiagonal but all lower order magic objects within it

are perfect. This makes the definition consistent for all

dimensions.

For an Order-8 pandiagonal first published in 1888, see Benson & Jacoby, Magic

Cubes New Recreations, Dover, 1981,0-486-24140-8.

120

Another (but not commonly used) name for Pandiagonal magic

square. However, this name shows the relationship of the

highest class of rectilinear magic figures, the perfect square,

perfect cube, perfect tesseract, etc. See Magic sum for a

comparison table.

26

21

33

45

15

32

38

48

28

36

12

30

39

13

49

22

20

19

14

43

25

37

31

10

23

41

46

40

34

11

44

27

42

16

18

47

29

17

35

24

square.

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, p 185

John R. Hendricks constructed the first perfect magic tesseract

(order-16) in 1998. It was confirmed correct by Clifford

Pickover in 1999. He later published the equations for a 5dimensional perfect magic hypercube of order-32. However, as it

contains the numbers 1 to 33,554,432, he thought it impractical

to publish the hypercube itself!!

A tesseract is a 4-dimensional hypercube. It is perfect if all panquadragonals are correct, and all the magic squares and magic

cubes within it are perfect. i.e. the magic squares are all

pandiagonal and the magic cubes are all pantriagonal and

pandiagonal. There are 40m3 lines that sum correctly. They are

m3 rows, m3 columns, m3 pillars, m3 files, 8m3 quadragonals,

16m3 triagonals, and 12m3 diagonals.

The smallest order perfect tesseract is order-16 and is too big to

reproduce here. However, it is practical to show the outline

diagram with the corner numbers.

.. Perfect magic tesseract

21383

30584

16842

7317

25913

14438

3804

10795

41635

34388

37917

45294

60849

51522

65536

56079

tesseract.

This tesseract utilizes the numbers 1 to 65536 and contains:

49,152 diagonals

65,536 triagonals

32,768 quadragonals

16,384 rows, columns, pillars and files

163,840 ways to sum to 524,296

It also contains 64 perfect magic cubes, and 1536 perfect magic

squares, all of order-16.

122

With any order perfect magic hypercube, any element can serve

as the starting point on an axis reference system. There are mn

elements and therefore mn different hypercubes for each

essentially different hypercube. As each of these have 2nn!

aspects, one essentially different perfect hypercube will generate

mn2nn! apparently different hypercubes.

*** Perfect magic tesseract is a new definition. ***

Please review the revised definition for the Perfect magic cube.

These new definitions are more compatible with that of a perfect

(pandiagonal) magic square.

J.R.Hendricks, Perfect n-Dimensional Magic Hypercubes of Order 2n, Selfpublished,1999, 0-9684700-4-1

J. R. Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, Self-published 1999,

0-9684700-0-9

Clifford A. Pickover, The Zen of Magic Squares, Circles, and Stars, Princeton

University Press, 2002, 0-691-07041-5, page 121.

Heinz-Private correspondence with Hendricks and Pickover, 1999.

A perfect prime square is not a magic square but a number

square where all rows and columns and main diagonals consist

of distinct prime numbers, reading in both directions, with a

length equal to the order of the square. Of course, with an array

so full of the odd digits, the square will also be rich in smaller

primes.

Originally discovered by L.E. Card in 1968 and rediscovered in

1998 by Carlos Rivera and popularized on his Primes Puzzles

page.

The order-11 (next page) was found in late 1998 by T. W. A.

Baumann of Germany along with many of smaller orders seven

to ten. It contains 48 different 11-digit prime numbers and

appears on Riveras PP&P Web page.

There are no order-3 perfect prime squares because all contain

duplicate 3-digit primes, but such squares exist for all other

orders from 2 to at least 11.

.. Perfect prime squares.

L. E. Card

T. W. Baumann (Rivera)

L. E. Card, J. Recreational Mathematics, 1:2, 1968, pp.93-99.

Carlos Rivera, http://www.primepuzzles.net/puzzles/

A PMP is defined as a regular polygon with consecutive

numbers from 1 to n placed along the perimeter in such a way

that the sums of the integers on each side (edge) is a constant.

The order refers to the numbers along each side of the figure.

There are 18 basic order-4 perimeter magic triangles. Their

magic sums are; 17, 19, 20, 21 and 23. There are 4 basic order-3

perimeter-magic triangles with sums of 9, 10, 11, and 12.

The examples in figures 118 and 119 are edge perimeter magic.

See Mapping for face perimeter and vertex perimeter magic

examples.

124

5

1

A.

2

4

9

5

B.

4

8

6

7

Fig. B, constructed by D.M. Collison, is bimagic. If each number

is squared, the triangle is still perimeter magic. Perimeter magic

can also be applied to higher dimensions. See Mapping for

examples of a magic tetrahedron and octahedron.

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, pp.1-4

1

20

1

14

14

9

10

12

9

11

17

45

18

10

22

12

13

13

19

5

16

15

8

5

11

Terrel Trotter, Jr., Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 7:1, 1974, pp.14-20,

Perimeter-magic Polygons.

Perimeter anti-magic octahedrons

As all the faces of a polyhedron are triangles, it is impossible to

place distinct integers on its vertices so that every triangle will

have the same perimeter sum. Therefore, no such polyhedron can

be magic. However, if the perimeter sums are all different the

polyhedron will be perimeter anti-magic.

In the case of an octahedron it turns out that there are 15 basic

ways to distribute the digits 1 to 6 on the vertices with eight

different perimeter sums. Of these 15, five produce distinct

perimeter sums for the eight triangles and so are perimeter antimagic.

1

2

A.

4

5

3

1

6 2

B.

3

6

5

4 2

C.

Figures A. and B. may each be complemented by subtracting

each number from 7, to provide another solution. C. is selfcomplementing.

C. W. Trigg, Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 11:2, 1978-79, pp.105-107,

Perimeter Anti-magic tetrahedrons and Octahedrons.

Pillars

The Z dimension in a coordinate system of addressing the cells

in a magic cube or higher order hypercube. (x = rows and y =

columns.) See orthogonals.

J.R.Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, 1998

126

Plusmagic

An pattern of n cells in the shape of a plus sign that appears in

each quadrant of an order-n quadrant magic square.

H. D. Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/quadrant.htm

A magic square consisting only of prime numbers. They are not

too difficult to construct. The difficulty is in constructing ones

consisting of consecutive primes. The first order 3 magic squares

of this type was only published in 1988 and consists of nine, 10

digit primes. The author proved there are only two such squares

with prime numbers under 231.

Harry L. Nelson, J. Recreational Mathematics, 20:3, 1988, p.214-216.

126-7) that it is impossible to construct a consecutive prime

number magic square of order smaller then 12. The order 12

magic square shown by the author, however, contained the digit

1 and missed out the digit 2. (Of course the number 1 is no

longer considered a prime, and the number 2 can never appear in

a prime number magic square, because it is the only even prime,

and parity would be destroyed.)

All prime magic figures have a complement solution (see

complement magic squares). However, when you complement

a prime number magic square, most resulting numbers will be

composite, so the complement of a prime number magic square

is almost certainly not a prime number magic square.

.. Prime number magic squares

Order of Consecutive Prime

square

series

1,480,028,129

31

269

67

122 Starting prime # for consecutive primes magic

square.

2621

2477

2039

1289

3251

1583

3533 2207

3257

1361

3491

2393

2333

2963

1709 1493

2609

1811

2837

2087

2687

1889

2939 2141

2777

2819

2753

1823

1223

3701

1931 1973

2351

2879

1049

3527

2927

1997

1871 2399

1283

2339

2861

2063

2663

1913

2411 3467

1559

3041

1259

2357

2417

1787

3389 3191

2543

2273

2711

3461

1499

3167

1217 2129

number magic square.

This order-8 is a simple prime magic square summing to 19,000.

The order-6 is pandiagonal with a magic sum of 14,250; and the

order-4 is symmetrical with a magic sum of 9,500.

See Vertical step for the smallest possible consecutive prime

order-3 magic square.

A. W. Johnson, Jr., J. Recreational Mathematics 15:2, 1982-83, p. 84

128

A magic star that consists only of prime numbers is (naturally) a

prime number magic star. Because prime numbers are not

consecutive natural numbers, these stars are not normal.

However, they can consist of consecutive prime numbers, so

there are two types of series to look for, minimal solution prime

stars and consecutive primes, prime stars. And just as with

normal magic stars, rotations and reflections do not count as

unique.

13907

11

23

43

19

13921

13999

31

13

A. 17

#1 of 12

13997

13967

13931

14009

13963

41

B.

13913 #6 of 12 13933

B. is minimal consecutive primes solution.

The minimal solution for order-6 prime stars uses 12 of the 14

primes (not 37 and 43) from 3 to 47 with 8 basic solutions and a

magic sum of 82. The minimal consecutive primes solution uses

primes 29 to 73 with 20 basic solutions and a magic sum of 204.

An interesting point. Unlike all normal magic stars and all

solutions for the order-5 prime magic star, none of the order-6

minimal solutions consist of complement pairs, and only 4 of the

20 minimal consecutive solutions have complement partners.

H. D. Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/primestars.htm

See Reversible square, principal

Proper magic cube

Refers to a cube that contains exactly the minimum requirements

for that class of cube. i.e. a proper simple or pantriagonal magic

cube would contain no magic squares, a proper diagonal magic

cube would contain exactly 3m + 6 simple magic squares, etc.

See the table in Summations for minimum requirements.

This term was coined by Mitsutoshi Nakamura in an email of

April 15, 2004.

See Magic square, normal.

See Magic star, normal.

It is possible to build a set of three magic squares on the sides of a

triangle with sides equal to a pythagorean triplet. R. V. Heath published

several such magic squares in 1933. Here are examples (Heinz) of two

versions of this type of magic square built around the 3, 4, 5

pythagorean triangle.

The first set consists of three order-4 magic squares. The square of the

magic sum of a plus the magic sum of b is equal to the square of

the magic sum of c. The square of any cell in a plus the square of

the corresponding cell in b equals the square of the same cell in c.

In addition, the square of the sums of a added to the squares of the

sums for b for any 2 x 2 set of cells is equal to the square of the sum

of the corresponding 2 x 2 set of cells in magic square c. The four

corners of any 3 x 3 or 4 x 4 square (wrap-around works) also has this

same property, as does the sum of all the cells in the squares.

The second example shows 3 simple magic square of orders 3, 4 and 5

built on the sides of the 3, 4, 5 triangle. The magic constants of a and

b are 27 and 38 which sums to the magic constant of c.

Any addition magic square, when multiplied by members of a

pythagorean triplet, will produce a pythagorean set of magic squares.

R. V. Heath, Mathemagic, Dover, 1953

130

36

39 21

27

24 6 48 18

33

3

9

42 15

12 30 a

45

48

52 28

36

32 8

24

64

4 44 20 12

56

40

b 16

60

c

40 65 60

70 55 10 35

20 25 80 45

75 50 15 30

13

8

14

10

11

9

6

13

11

16

c

9

2 25 18 11

21 19 12 10

22 20 13

16 14

23

15

24 17

15

7 a

17

12

12

10

Quadragonal 131

Q

Quadragonal

A 4-dimensional version of the 2-dimensional diagonal and the

3-dimensional triagonal. However, just as a 2-dimensional

diagonal can exist in spaces higher then 2 dimensions, and a

triagonal in spaces higher then 3 dimensions, so also a

quadragonal can exist in spaces higher then 4 dimensions.

A Magic Tesseract (4- dimensions) requires eight of these lines

of n numbers summing correctly that go from one corner to the

opposite corner through the center of the tesseract. Also called a

4-agonal.

1

7

6

2

2

6

4

7

tesseract.

J. R. Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer, Self-published 1999,

0-9684700-0-9, p 116

132

Quadrant

A quarter of a magic square. The four quadrants are; upper-left,

upper-right, lower-left and lower-right. If the magic square is

even, the size of each quadrant is n/2 square. If the magic square

is odd, the size of each quadrant is (m+1)/2 square and the center

row or center column is common to two orthogonally adjacent

quadrants.

Quadrants figure prominently in Quadrant magic squares.

An pattern of m cells that appears in each quadrant of an order-m

quadrant magic square and is symmetrical around the center cell

of the quadrant. There are 5 such quadrant patterns for order-5, 7

for order-9, 38 for order-13, and 253 for order-17.

The first patterns discovered were named. Later ones were

identified with an index number. While patterns such as these

can be readily found in magic squares, to qualify as quadrant

magic, the square must contain an identical pattern in all four

quadrants.

Many quadrant patterns have cells that are in common with the

orthogonal adjacent arrays. This is because the center row of the

magic square is common to the two top and bottom arrays..

Likewise, with the center column, which is common to the two

side-by-side arrays.

H. D. Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/quadrant.htm

Quadrant magic pattern even order

Even order quadrant magic squares have not yet been

investigated. However, it is now known that they do exist. Any

orders 8m magic square may be quadrant magic. However, two

characteristics are markedly different.

The center cell of the quadrant is not part of the pattern. The

pattern is still required to be symmetrical around the center point

of the quadrant.

Cells are not common to two orthogonally adjacent quadrants.

This is because there is no center row and center column of the

magic square common to two quadrants as it is with odd order

magic squares.

Of the original five first discovered (and named) quadrant

patterns, only the lringmagic, sringmagic (no sringmagic for

order-8) and crosmagic exist in even order. I (Heinz) estimate

that when the subject is investigated, far fewer patterns will be

found to exist for even order then for odd order.

X X

XX

XX

X X

XXXX

X

X

X

X

XXXX

order 8, sringmagic and lringmagic patterns for order

12.

134

Some magic squares of orders m equal to 4m + 1, have patterns

of m cells appearing in each quadrant that sum to the magic

constant.

See Quadrant magic pattern.

If a magic square contains 4 of these patterns in the 4 quadrants,

and if they are all the same type, it is called a quadrant-magic

square.

Because the center row and the center column of the square is

common to two adjacent quadrants, it is common for a border

cell to be a member of to two different patterns. We have

deliberately chosen the arrays to show below to avoid this.

Quadrant magic squares of odd order were investigated by Aale

deWinkel and Harvey Heinz in 1999. It is now known that there

are equivalent magic squares of even order. See Quadrant

magic pattern- even order.

43

106

13

76

139

33

96

159

53

129

23

86

149

22

85

148

42

105

12

75

138

32

95

158

65

128

157

64

127

21

84

147

41

117

11

74

137

31

94

136

30

93

169

63

126

20

83

146

40

116

10

73

115

9

72

135

29

92

168

62

125

19

82

145

52

81

144

51

114

8

71

134

28

104

167

61

124

18

60

123

17

80

156

50

113

7

70

133

27

103

166

39

102

165

59

122

16

79

155

49

112

6

69

132

5

68

131

38

101

164

58

121

15

91

154

48

111

153

47

110

4

67

143

37

100

163

57

120

14

90

119

26

89

152

46

109

3

66

142

36

99

162

56

98

161

55

118

25

88

151

45

108

2

78

141

35

77

140

34

97

160

54

130

24

87

150

44

107

1

quadrant magic. i.e 14 patterns appear in all 4

quadrants.

.. Quadrant magic square

That is, there are 14 patterns that each appear in all four

quadrants of the magic square. In fact, of the 38 total magic

patterns possible for order-13, 32 of them appear at least once in

the square and all 32 appear in the top left quadrant.

W

W

W W W W W W W X X X X X

W

Y Y

Y Y

Y

Y Y

Z

Z

Y Y

Y

Z

Z

square

The above diagram shows the above quadrant magic square in

more detail.

We have indicated the center cell of each quadrant and the

outline of the two smaller patterns. However, each pattern must

be considered as occupying a 7 x 7 array so cells on the center

column and center row belong to two adjacent quadrants. Also,

each pattern appears in all four quadrants.

H. D. Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/quadrant.htm

See more on this subject at Aale de Winkels web site at

http://www.adworks.myweb.nl/Magic/

136

R

Radix

See Base.

See Associative magic squares

Also a major classification of Pandiagonal magic squares

See Regular & Irregular

A common method of constructing a Pandiagonal magic square

makes use of 2 subsidiary squares where letters are used to

represent various constants. The values in the two squares are

then combined to obtain the value for the corresponding cell of

the magic square. If each letter appears exactly once in each row,

column and diagonal in both squares, the resulting pandiagonal

is considered regular. If they do not appear an equal number of

times in the rows, columns and diagonals of one or both squares,

then the resulting pandiagonal is irregular. All pandiagonal

magic squares of orders 4 and 5 are regular. There are

38,102,400 regular pandiagonals of order 7 and 640,120,320

irregular.

The number of cyclical pandiagonal magic squares of the mth

order (m = prime) is (m-3)(m-4)(m!)2/8.

The term regular sometimes is used for associated magic

squares. [1]

This type of pandiagonal magic square is sometimes called

cyclical. [2]

[1] Andrews, W. S., Magic Squares & Cubes, 2nd edition, Dover Publ. 1960

[2] Benson & Jacoby, New Recreations with Magic Squares, Dover, 1976

0-486-23236-0, p93- 141)

.. Regular & Irregular

Aa Bb Cc Dd

16

Dc Cd Ba Ab

13 12

Bd Ac Db Ca

15 10

Cb Da Ad Bc

11 14

A.

B.

C.

Graeco-Latin square.

The two subsidiary squares are combined in A.

Values assigned (in this case) are A, B, C, D = 0, 4, 8 ,12.

Lower case a, b, c, d = 2, 3, 1, 4. These values appear in square

B. They are then added to give the final regular pandiagonal

magic square (C).

See Solution set for a different method.

Reflection

A transformation of a magic square by exchanging the contents

of cells on the right and left sides (or the top and bottom) as

though the matrix was reflected in a mirror See Standard

position, magic square for an illustration of rotation and

reflection.

Relative frequency.

To determine the relative frequency, or degree of rareness of a magic

square, cube, or hypercube, one must find all there are and divide by

the number of ways of placing numbers into the array.

For example: Consider the magic cube of order 3. There are 27

numbers in the cube. This means that there are Factorial 27 = 27! =

1.088886945x1028 ways of arranging numbers.

Out of all the arrangements possible, there are 4 basic cubes, and each

can be shown in 48 aspects due to rotations and reflections. This brings

the total count to 192 magic cubes of order three altogether. (This is

called the long count).

138

.. Relative frequency.

The relative frequency is then approximately 192/27! =

1.763268454x10-26.To calculate the odds against writing out a

magic cube of order three, you simply find the reciprocal, which

turns out to be 5.671286172x1025 : 1.

Relative frequency for some magic squares:

order-3 = 8/9! = 2.204585x10 5 ; order-5 = 275305224/25! =

1.774879092x10-18.

See Enumeration-magic squares.

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991.

Representation .. square

A magic square may be shown in different ways. Here are three

of them. See also Intermediate and Literal squares.

aa

bA

Bb

AB

00

13

21

32

10

15

Ab

BB

ba

aA

31

22

10

03

14

11

bB

ab

AA

Ba

12

01

33

20

16

BA

Aa

aB

bb

23

30

02

11

12

13

A. Analytical

B. Intermediate

C. Conventional

square.

A. A Greaco-Latin square which is obviously pandiagonal. Each

symbol appears exactly 2 times in all 8 diagonals (as well as all

rows and columns.

B. A magic square using quaternary (base 4) numbers. It is derived

from A by assigning these values to the algebraic digits. a = 0, b =

1, B = 2 and A = 3.

C. The final pandiagonal magic square is obtained by converting the

base 4 numbers to base 10 (decimal) and adding 1 to each number.

assigned to the algebraic digits to produce different final magic

squares. The value zero is used deliberately so all base 4

numbers contain two digits.

J. R.Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and cubes, Self-published 1999,

0-9684700-1-7, p.7

Representation .. star

Magic stars have been illustrated in several pages in this book.

However, diagrams take up a lot of space. Solution list may be

represented concisely by showing the each solution number by

number in one line of type.

The lines of the illustration are simply filled in as we trace them

in order. The drawing shows the two types of patterns,

continuous or separate, for all magic stars. Note that all orders,

except six, have at least one continuous and, if the order number

is composite, at least one separate pattern. The number of

patterns per order increases for each odd order (orders 9 and 10

have 3 patterns). When you finish tracing the first separate

circuit, start the next circuit at the first vacant cell after passing

the top point (M in the A pattern shown here).

A

A

P

8A

H

D

8B

G

F

L

O

F

G

D

K

magic stars.

By placing the numbers for the cell names in order we can list

one solution per line

140

.. Representation .. star

The first 4 solutions, in index order for Order-8A

1

3 14 16 2

8 13 5 15 6 12 11 10

3 14 16 2 12 4

9 13 8 10 15 11 7

3 16 14 2 11 7

3 16 14 6 12 2 13 11 8 10 15 7

8 15 5 13 6 10 9 12

5

p

8

A

3 16 14 2 13 5 11 15 7 10 4

9 12 6

3 16 14 5

7 11 13 4 12 2

9 15 6 10

3 16 14 7

5 15 11 10 6

9 13 2 12

5 12 16 3 11 4 10 15 7

m n

2 13 8

H. D. Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/magicstar_def.htm

19

10

2

20

22

18

17

8

16

14

23

7

21

12D

12

13

15

11

24

6 14

Representation .. tesseract

Until Hendricks published his version of a tesseract in 1962,

there was no satisfactory way to visualize or diagram a magic

tesseract. Researchers simply tabulated the square (or cube)

arrays in the tesseract.

142

.. Representation .. tesseract

Fig. 136 are the two old attempts to visualize the tesseract. They

cannot be partitioned which explains why Andrews, Kingery, Dr.

Planck and others had difficulty visualizing it.

Fig. 137 shows the modern method of depicting a magic

tesseract. For order-3, the numbers are placed at the location of

the dots.

Tesseracts of higher orders ( and hypercubes of higher

dimension) rapidly become too complex to show in diagram

form. The preferred alternative is to display them in tabular form

as a series of square arrays. See Magic tesseracts for an

example.

Probably the only practical method for displaying these large

magic figures is the one preferred by one of us (Hendricks).

Simply store the hypercube in a computer program. Then, on

request, print out a magic line that passes through a set of given

coordinates. Or print out the coordinates for a given number. See

Pathfinder.

J. R. Hendricks, Canadian Mathematical Bulletin, vol. 5, no. 2, 1962, p175

A pair of magic squares in which the digits of the numbers in

one square are in reverse order to the digits in the numbers of the

other square. See Ixohoxi and Upside-down magic squares

where the effect depends on the symmetry of the digits used.

15

94

36

97

79

63

49

51

96

37

91

18

81

19

73

69

93

16

98

35

53

89

61

39

38

95

17

92

29

71

59

83

Original

Its reverse

reverse order.

Reversible square

This type of square was defined and used by K. Ollerenshaw in

her work with Most-Perfect Magic Squares. While not magic,

they are important because

there is a one-to-one relationship between most-perfect and

reversible squares

the number of reversible squares of a given order may be readily

determined.

Thus by simply calculating the number of reversible squares for a given

order, the number of most-perfect magic squares for that order is

immediately known.

(Ollerenshaw uses the series from 0 to m2 1). They have these

additional properties.

The sum of the two numbers at diagonally opposite corners of any

rectangle or sub-square within the reversible square will equal the sum

of the two numbers of the other pair of diagonally opposite corners.

The sum or the first and last numbers in each row or column equal the

sum of the next and the next to last number in each row or column, etc.

1

10 11 12

10 11 12

13 14 15 16

13 14 15 16

13 14 15 16

A.

B.

C.

10 11 12

variations.

These two were obtained by swapping rows (see next entry).

NOTE: I have used the series from 1 to 16 in these examples to

be consistent with the rest of this book. Ollerenshaw and Bre

use 0 to 15.

H. D. Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/most-perfect.htm

K. Ollerenshaw and D. Bre, Most-Perfect Pandiagonal Magic Squares, IMA 1998,

0-905091-06-X

144

Reversible squares may be assembled in sets whose members

may be transformed from one to another by

Interchanging a pair of complementary rows and/or columns.

Interchanging two rows/columns in one half of the square

together with interchanging the complementary rows/columns in

the other half of the square.

It is therefore necessary to define which is the principle square

from which the others in the set are derived from.

The principle reversible square is defined as that one containing

1 and 2

(0 and 1 if using series from 0 to m2-1) as the first two numbers

in the first row and all its rows and columns have sequences of

integers in ascending order.

1

9 10

11 12

9 10 11 12

9 10 13 14

13 14

13 14 15 16

11 12 15 16

15 16

There are three principle reversible squares for order-4, each

may be transformed to 15 other reversible squares, making three

sets of 16, for a total of 48 for order-4. Because each of these

may be mapped to a most-perfect magic square there are 48

most-perfect magic squares for order-4. i.e. all the order-4

pandiagonal magic squares are most-perfect.

.. Reversible square, principal

Order

N

4

8

12

16

32

Principle

Reversible

square.

Nn

Variation of each

Mn=2n-2{(1/2n)!}2

Mn

squares

Nn x M n

3

10

42

35

126

16

36864

5.30842 x 108

2.66355 x 1013

4.70045 x 1035

48

368640

2.22953 x 1010

9.32243 x 1014

5.92256 x 1037

K. Ollerenshaw and D. Bre, Most-Perfect Pandiagonal Magic Squares, IMA 1998,

0-905091-06-X

Right diagonal

The diagonal line of numbers from the lower left to upper right

corners of the magic square.

Rotation

A transformation of a magic square (or other magic object) by

rotating the magic square clockwise or counterclockwise. This

produces a different aspect, (a disguised magic square). 90degree rotations are easily accomplished using a coordinate

system. For a magic square, simply replace all coordinates (x, y)

by (m+1-y, x) and this square is rotated 90 degrees.

For a cube, there are four different kinds of rotation.

Yaw where (x. y, z) is replaced by (m+1-z, y, x)

Roll where (x, y, z) is replaced by (x, m+1-z. y)

Around main triagonal where (x, y, z) is replaced by (y, z, x)

See associated magic cube and basic magic cube illustrations for

the rotation of a cube.

See Standard position, magic square for an illustration of rotation

and reflection.

146

Row

Each horizontal sequence of numbers. There are n rows of length

n in an order n magic square.

See orthogonals for a magic cube graphic example.

1

16

18

14

11

21 3

6

17

7

8 11D

12

5

15

20

2

10

13

19

4

9

22

S 147

S

S

Indicates the magic sum. See constant.

The Sagrada Familia cathedral in Barcelona, Spain, contains an

unusual magic square.

Both the number 10 and the number 14 are repeated twice and

there is no 12 or 16. The magic sum is 33. So this is not a magic

square in the true sense. But what is its significance?

The Sagrada Familia cathedral is the most important work of

Gaudi, a Spanish architect considered as a true genius. He

worked on this building from 1882 until his death in 1926.

Recently work has resumed in an effort to complete the building.

14

14

11

10

10

13

15

There is some information about the cathedral at:

http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Sagrada_Familia.html

Two pictures of the magic square may be seen on the Heinz Web site at

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/unususqr.htm#Sagrada Familia

148

Magic squares are usually considered a numerical construction.

However, in the middle ages when magic squares were

considered amulets, and believed to have magic powers, the

Sator word square was held in high esteem and believed to have

magical powers. It also seemed to be of importance to the early

Christian church.

This order five square is constructed from the Latin palindrome,

SATOR AREPO TENET OPERA ROTAS. Because this phrase

is palindromic, it reads the same backwards as forward.

A magic square which after each number is converted to its

complement, is a rotated and/or reflected copy of the original

magic square. This is sometimes referred to as selfcomplimenting.

Mutsumi Suzuki discovered magic squares with this feature and

named it self-similar. He has listed 16 order-5 magic squares and

352 order-4 magic squares of this type.

One of us (Heinz) subsequently realized that any magic square

in which the complementary pairs are symmetric across either

the horizontal or the vertical center line of the square is selfsimilar. The resulting copy is either horizontally or vertically

reflected. Because associated magic squares are symmetric

across both these lines, all such magic squares are self-similar

and the copy is horizontally and vertically reflected from the

original.

.. Self-similar magic squares

For order-4, all 48 group III which are associated, are selfsimilar. Also all group VI, which are not associated but are

symmetric across either the horizontal or vertical axis are selfsimilar.

6

26

45

29

18

42

40

23

43

11

35

20

28

48

12

31

16

36

17

37

25

49

13

33

46

14

34

19

38

22

30

15

39

27

47

10

32

21

41

24

44

magic square.

If each number in this square is subtracted from 50, the same

magic square emerges, but rotated 180.The underlined cells

shows the parity pattern (which is unrelated to the self-similar

property).

2

10

15

15

10

12

12

11

16

16

11

13

14

14

13

associated.

A. shows an order-4 that is not associated and B. shows its

complement, which is self-similar. The process of

complementing each number of a magic object is also known as

complementary pair interchange (CPI).

See Heinz Self-similar Magic Squares page (self-similar.htm)

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/self-similar.htm

Link to Mr. Suzuki s Magic Squares page from Heinzs links page.

See an excellent paper on this subject in Robert S. Sery, Magic Squares of Order-4 and

their Magic Square Loops, Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 29:4, page 274

150

Semi-diabolic

See Semi-pandiagonal magic square.

Semi-magic square

The rows & columns of the square sum correctly but one or both

main diagonals do not. This may be generalized to n-dimensional

hypercubes by saying if one or more n-agonals do not sum

correctly.

2332

2401 2209

961

169

25

2025

16

324

1521

36

529

1369

676

484

1296 1225

196

5775

361

1681

900

625

1024

784

400

5775

289

256

225

1936 1764

576

729

5775

121

100

1089 2116

64

841

1444 5775

49

144

1600

81

441

5775

1849 5775

146 - An order-7 semi-magic square of squares.

This semi-magic square by D. M. Collison consists of the

squares of the numbers from 1 to 49. See Square of squares.

Kraitchik, Maurice, Mathematical Recreations, Dover Publ., 1953, 53-9354. p. 143

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, p 23

Semi-Pandiagonal

Also known as SemiDiabolic These magic squares have the

property that the sum of the cells in the opposite short diagonals

are equal to the magic constant (subject to the following

conditions).

In an odd order square, these two opposite short diagonals,

which together contain m-1 cells, will, when added to the center

cell equal the squares constant. The two opposite short

diagonals, which together contain m+1 cells, will sum to the

constant if the center cell is subtracted from their total.

Semi-pandiagonal 151

.. Semi-Pandiagonal

In an even order square, the two opposite short diagonals which

together consist of n cells will sum to the square's constant. The

opposite short diagonals that together contain (3/2)m will sum to

3/2 constant., etc.

Of the 880 fundamental magic squares of order 4, 384 are semipan ( 48 of these are also associative).

3

16

22

15

15

20

21

14

11

13

25

13

19

14

12

24

12

18

10

16

11

17

10

23

A.

B.

A. not associated, B. associated.

The underlined cells indicate the short diagonals.

A. even order, opposite short diagonals = S;

B. odd order, opposite short diagonals plus center = S.

Sequence patterns

The center of the cells containing consecutive numbers are

joined by lines. See magic lines.

Series

Broadly speaking, series refers to the set of numbers that make

up the magic object.

However, it also has a narrower meaning. A magic square

usually contains m series of m numbers. The horizontal step

within each series is a constant. The vertical step between

corresponding numbers of each series is also a constant. This

step can be but need not be the same as the horizontal step.

A normal magic square has the starting number, the horizontal

step and the vertical step all equal to 1.

152

.. Series

After the N initial series are established, the magic square is

constructed using any appropriate method. If m = the squares

order, a = starting number, d = the horizontal step D = the

vertical step, and K = sum of numbers in the first series; then

S = (m3 + m) / 2 + m (a - 1 ) + ( K - m ) [ m ( d - 1 ) + ( D - 1 )]

See Horizontal step, Order-3 type 2, and Vertical step for

examples.

W.S.Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes,1917, pp 54-63

J.L.Fults, Magic Squares, 1974, pp 37-39

This special type of magic square was described by H. A. Sayles

in The Monist sometime between 1905 and 1916 (see footnote).

It is rich in unusual features, some of which are presented here.

14

19 16 30

29 24 40

4

39 17

36 11 25 22

27 10

21 15 32 35 38

20 33 31 26 37

41 18

34 13

12

23

28

148 - Order-9 serrated magic square.

.. Serrated magic square

G.

B.

E.

A.

F.

C.

D.

Figure A. represents the diagonal in a conventional magic

square. Here it is the longest horizontal and vertical lines. B.

represents the rows and columns. In this square, there are 16 of

them, the same as the number of boundary cells.

The other figures also appear in this construction, but only

because in this case, the embedded squares are pandiagonal. C

and D each appear nine times, E and F six times, and G 12 times.

You can change the order-4 pandiagonal to an associated magic

square by simply exchanging rows 3 and 4, then columns 3 and

4. Make the necessary changes to the serrated square and notice

the main features are still valid but figures C to G no longer are.

14

30

22

38

16

25

35

19

40

11

32

24

36

15

29

21

37

13

17

26

34

39

10

31

23

27

33

18

20

41

12

28

above serrated magic square.

Here we show these two magic squares in the more normal

orientation. Rotate 45 clockwise to see how they fit into the

serrated square.

W.S.Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes, 1917, pp241-244

154

Short diagonal

One which runs parallel to a main diagonal from 1 side of the

square to an adjacent side. For a magic square of order 2m, each

short diagonal contains m cells. For a magic square of order 2m1, each short diagonal contains (m-1)/2 cells. See Semipandiagonal magic squares and Opposite short diagonals for

illustrations.

Used by some authors on magic cubes to mean the diagonals of a

square face, or cross section of a cube. For this case, Hendricks

uses diagonal, or 2-agonal instead.

See also Long Diagonal.

A square array of numbers, usually integers, in which all the

rows, columns, and the two main diagonals have the same sum.

As these are the minimum specifications to qualify as a magic

square this term signifies it has no special features. The one

order 3 magic square is not simple (it is associative). Of the 880

order 4 magic squares, 448 are classified as simple. A broad

classification of magic squares is;

Simple

Associated

Semi-pandiagonal

Pandiagonal (perfect)

Combinations; Associated with Semi-pandiagonal or

pandiagonal

Singly-even order

The side of the square is divisible by two but not by four. This is

the most difficult order to construct. Order-6 is the smallest

singly-even order magic square.

Also called oddly-even order.

.. Singly-even 155

.. Singly-even order

26 27 22 23

28 25 24 21

34 35 18 19

36 33 17 20

14 15 10 11 30 31

13 16 12

29 32

square

It is not possible to have an order-6 magic square consisting of

the numbers 1 to 36 (or any other consecutive numbers) that is

also pandiagonal or associated.

W. S. Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes, Dover, Publ., 1960, p.266.

Skew related

More modern terms are Symmetrical cells and Diametrically

equidistant.

RouseBall & Coxeter, Mathematical Recreations and Essays, 1892, (13 Edition,

p.194)

16

13

20

4

22

21

19

15

7

23

9

3

8

18

12

6

17

5

10

12C

11

14

24

156

Solution set

The set of numbers assigned to algebraic symbols which may

bring about the solution one seeks. For example, one seeks a

pandiagonal magic square of order 6. One devises a pattern, as

follows.

bA

cC

aB

BA CC AB

aC

bB

cA

AC BB

cB

aA

bC

CB

CA

AA BC

pandiagonal magic square of

order six. a,A,b,B,c,C stand for

0,1,2,3,4,5 in some order or

other.

a+A=b+B=c+C=m-1. If you

study the lines of first digits and

ac bb ca Ac Bb Ca

the lines of second digits, you

will find that in the diagonals,

cb aa bc Cb Aa Bc

they will all sum the same sum

which would be 15 from. the

152 - An algebraic pattern for an order-6 pandiagonal

magic square.

ba

cc

ab

Ba

Cc

Ab

impossible. Therefore, in the number system based six, although

one can get the diagonals to sum a magic sum, we cannot get the

rows and columns to do so. The goal is to obtain a pandiagonal

magic square, not necessarily a normal one. So, what we do is

increase the order m to 7, or any odd number higher than 7 and

get a solution.

Using the number system base 7.with digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 , if we

omit the 3 and use the others, there is a solution. The equation

becomes: a+A=b+B=c+C=7-1=6. Below are one solution (you

can find others), one magic square in the number system base 7

and its conversion to the decimal number system.

Solution set: a = 0, A = 6, b = 4, B = 2, c = 5, C = 1

... Solution set

46

51

02

26

11

62

35

37

21

45

01

42

56

61

22

16

31

42

44

17

14

52

06

41

12

66

21

38

30

10

49

16

40

55

04

20

15

64

29

41

15

13

47

05

44

50

65

24

10

33

36

48

19

54

00

45

14

60

25

40

34

12

43

20

base 10

153 - The order-6 pandiagonal in base 7 and base-10

And dont be surprised if you get a bonus, The base ten square

sums 150 and it is bimagic in rows and columns with the sum

5150.

See Intermediate square and Literal square.

1

16

17

7

19

13

11

20

10A

5

8

10

6

3

12

14

15

4

18

158

Space diagonal

A line joining opposite corners of a hypercube. When moving

along the line, all n coordinates will change (n is dimension of

the hypercube).

See triagonals, quadragonals and n-agonals.

Species, order-3

Species is a consideration of the placement of even and odd

numbers in the normal order-3 magic square, cube and tesseract.

This classification has no meaning if the magic square, etc. does

not consist of consecutive numbers. For instance, an order-3

prime number magic square must consist of all odd numbers.

An even number

An odd number

square and cube.

There is only one basic magic square of order-3, and so only 1

species with the even numbers appearing on the four corners.

The magic cube must have three even numbers on two edges of

each of the six faces. So, even though there are four basic order3 magic cubes, there is only one species.

.. Species, order-3

There are three types of order-3 magic tesseracts. In each case,

the type of species is determined by the even and odd numbers in

the lines (row, column, pillar, file) radiating from corners that

have odd numbers.

Species # 1; All four lines consist of two even numbers (plus the

odd corner number). Of the 58 basic magic tesseracts, only 2 are

of this species. Species # 2; two lines have all odd numbers, the

other two lines have 2 even numbers (plus the odd corner

number). 24 basic tesseracts are of this species. Species # 3;

Through an odd corner numbers, either the other two numbers

are even in only one line, or odd in only one line. The remaining

32 basic tesseracts belong to this species.

J. R. Hendricks, Species of Third Order Magic Squares and Cubes, JRM 6:3, 1973,

pp.190-192.

J. R. Hendricks, All Third Order Magic Tesseracts, self-published 1999,

0-9684700-2-5, pp 4-7.

160

Square of squares.

This is a Number Square where when you square the numbers

it becomes magic. It is important because you have four types:

Number --- not magic

Semi-magic --- only rows and columns sum correctly

Magic -- sums a constant in first degree

Square of Squares - sums a constant second degree

Bimagic - sums a constant in either degree

Nobody yet has determined if it is possible for a square of

squares to be fully magic (when the original numbers do NOT

form a magic square).

Following are two examples of a semi-magic square of squares.

Kevin Brown calls these Orthomagic squares of squares. Brown

shows proof on his Web site that an order-3 of this type cannot

be magic.

See also Semi-magic for an order-7 example.

155

8571

11 23 71 105

121

61 41 17 119

3721 1681

289

5691

43 59 19 121

1849 3481

361

5691

A.

529

5041 5691

B

square.

A. Original numbers (all primes) but not magic.

B. Square of these prime numbers form a semi-magic square.

.. Square of squares.

143

4

6849

16

529

2704 3249

23 52

79

32 44 17

93

1024 1936

289

3249

47 28 16

91

2209

256

3249

83 95 85 64

A.

784

B.

squares.

A. Original number square.

B. Squares of numbers. The rows and columns all sum to 3249,

the square of 57.

From Kevin Browns Web site at http://www.seanet.com/~ksbrown/kmath427.htm

Sringmagic

An array of m cells in the shape of a small ring that appears in

each quadrant of an order-n quadrant magic square. This is one

of the first 5 patterns discovered. However, This pattern doesnt

exist for order-5.

See Quadrant magic patterns and Quadrant magic square.

order-13

162

Any magic square may be disguised to make 7 other

(apparently) different magic squares by means of rotations

and/or reflections. These variations are NOT considered as new

magic squares for purposes of enumeration. For the purpose of

listing and indexing magic squares, a standard position must be

defined. The magic square is then rotated and/or reflected until it

is in this position. This position was defined by Frnicle in 1693

and consists of only two requirements.

Conditions for standard position:

The lowest of any corner number must be in the upper left hand

corner.

The cell in the top row adjacent to the top left corner must be

lower then the leftmost position of the second row (also adjacent

to the top left corner).

This process is called Normalizing. Achieving the first

condition may require rotation. The second may require rotation

and reflection. Once the magic square is in this position, it may

be put in the correct index position in a list of magic squares of a

given order.

This definition has meaning (and relevance) only for a normal

magic square.

Another term often used for a magic square with these

qualifications is Fundamental.

4

15

16

10

14 11

11

13

14

12

16

14

12

11

13

12 13

16

10

15

10

15

A. Standard position

B.

C.

Magic square A. is the basic version; B. copy but vertically

reflected, C copy but rotated 90 clockwise.

Bensen & Jacoby, New Recreations with Magic Squares, 1976, p 123.

Standard position - magic star

A magic star may be disguised to make 2n-1 apparently different

magic stars where n is the order (number of points) of the magic

star.

Three characteristics determine the Standard position.

The diagram is oriented so only one point is at the top.

The top point of the diagram has the lowest value of all the

points.

The valley to the right of the top point has a lower value then

that of the valley to the left.

This process is called Normalizing. Achieving the first and

second conditions may require rotation. The third may require

reflection. Once the magic star is in this position, it may be put

in the correct index position in a list of magic stars of a given

order.

This definition has

meaning (and relevance) only3 for a normal

1

magic star. See the Heinz web page on Magic Star Definitions.

3

10

A.

12

11

11

10

12

B.

it.

Star A. is index # 23 of the basic 80 order-6 magic stars. It is in

the standard position because 1 is the smallest point number and

it is at the top. The second condition is that the 6 in the valley to

the right of the top point is smaller then the 9 in the valley to the

left..

Star B. is a disguised version of star A. To be put in the standard

position (normalized) it must first be rotated one position

clockwise, then it has to be reflected horizontally.

H. D. Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/magicstar_def.htm

164

Interchange the contents of diagonal opposite corners of an

order-3 addition magic square. Now, if you add the two outside

numbers and subtract the center one from the sum, you get the

constant 5.

The Division magic square is a similar conversion from the

Multiply (Geometric) magic square.

A. order-3 magic square, B. resulting subtract magic square. QB

=5

Summations

The magic sum for an n-Dimensional Magic Hypercube of Order

m is given by:

S = m(1 + mn)/2

In a magic object, there are many lines that produce the magic

sum. The table below, shows the minimum requirement of the

number of lines for various types of magic hypercubes and is

derived from the following equation:

N = 2(r-1)n!m(n-1)/[r!(n-r)!]

n is the dimension of the hypercube

m is the order of the hypercube, and

r is the dimension of the hyperplane.

shown is the smallest order for the various classifications of

pandiagonal, pantriagonal, etc. which is known. for each

dimension. Some of the tesseracts are not known yet and some of

these varieties have not been constructed yet.

.. Summations 165

.. Summations

This table provides the minimum requirements for each

category. Usually, there are some extra lines which may sum the

magic sum, but not a complete set so as to change the category.

Magic

Lowest

i-row

Hypercube

Order

3

4

2m

2m

2

2m

3

5

4

8?

7

8

3m2

3m2

3m2

3m2

3m2

3m2

3

?

?

4

4m3

4m3

4m3

4m3

?

?

?

16

4m3

4m3

4m3

4m3

Square

Regular

Pandiagonal

Cube

Regular

Diagonal

Pantriagonal

PantriagDiag

Pandiagonal

Perfect

Tesseract

Regular

Pandiagonal

Pantriagonal

Panquadragonal

Pan2 + Pan3

Pan2 +Pan4

Pan3 + Pan4

Perfect

n-agonals

3

Total

2m + 2

4m

3m2 + 4

3m2+6m+4

7m2

7m2+6m

9m2 + 4

13m2

4

4

4m2

4 m2

4

4m2

6m

6m

6m2

6m2

3

12m

16m3

12m3

12m3

3

12m

16m3

16m3

16m3

8

8

8

8m3

4m3 + 8

16m3 + 8

20m3 + 8

12m3

8

8m3

8m3

8m3

32m3 + 8

24m3

28m3

40m3

Symmetrical cells

Two cells that are the same distance and on opposite sides of the

center of the cell are called symmetrical cells. In an odd order

square the center is itself a cell. In an even order square the

center is the intersection of 4 cells. Other definitions for these

pairs are skew related and diametrically equidistant (illustration).

166

.. Symmetrical cells

X

2

Z

1/2

squares.

X, Y and Z in each case are symmetrical cells. 1 is symmetrical

around the vertical axis only and 2 around the horizontal axis

only.

J. L. Fults, Magic Squares, 1974

RouseBall & Coxeter, Mathematical Recreations and Essays,1892 (13 Edition,

p.194,202)

See Associated Magic Square.

1

20

22

6

23

14

13

24

12A

11

17

18

4

15

19

10

7

12

8

16

21

T

Talisman magic square

A Talisman square is an m x m array of the integers from 1 to m2

so that the difference (D) between any integer and its neighbors,

horizontally, vertically, of diagonally, is greater then some given

constant. The rows, columns and diagonals will NOT sum to the

same value so the square is not magic in the normal sense of the

word. This type of square was discovered and named by Sidney

Kravitz.

28

10

31

13

34

16

15

12

19

22

25

20

22

18

24

29

11

32

14

35

17

16

13

10

20

23

26

21

23

19

25

30

12

33

15

36

18

17

14

11

21

24

27

D>4

D>8

Joseph S. Madachy, Mathemaics On Vacation, 1966, pp 110-112.

Tesseract

A four-dimensional equivalent to a cube. A regular fourdimensional hypercube. It is bounded by 16 corners, 32 edges,

24 squares, 8 cubes. See Basic magic tesseract, Magic

tesseract, Partitioning, Perfect magic tesseract, and

Quadragonal for illustrations.

Pickover, Clifford A., The Zen of Magic Squares, Circles and Stars, Princeton Univ.

Press, 2002, 0-691-07041-5, page 117

168

Transformation

Any order-5 pandiagonal magic square may be converted to

another magic square by permuting the rows and columns in the

order 1-3-5-2-4. Each of these two magic squares can be

transformed to another by exchanging the rows and columns

with the diagonals. Finally, each of these four squares may be

converted to 24 other magic squares by moving one row (or

column) at a time to the opposite side.

See cyclical permutations.

Any order-5 magic square can be transposed to another one by

either of the following two transformations.

Exchange the left and right columns, then the top and bottom rows.

Exchange columns 1 and 2 and columns 4 and 5. Then exchange

rows 1 and 2, and rows 4 and 5.

These methods, of course, also work for all odd orders greater

then order-5.

Another type of transformation converts any magic square to its

compliment by subtracting each integer in the magic square from

n2 + 1. In some cases this results in a copy of the original magic

square.

Still other types of transformations involve complementing digits

of the numbers when represented in the radix of the magic

square order.

See the Heinz Transformation pages which shows more then 45

transformations (for order-4).

2 11

16 5

13 8

3 10

7 14

9 4

12 1

6 15

2 11 5 16

7 14 4 9

12 1 15 6

13 8 10 3

pandiagonal magic square by changing quadrants to

rows.

H. D. Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/transform.htm

Benson & Jacoby, Magic Squares & Cubes, 1976, pp.128-131.

Translocation 169

Translocation

When the left column of numbers is moved to the right side of

the magic square, or vice-versa. Or the top row is moved to the

bottom (or the bottom to the top). For cubes, the front face may

be moved to the back, etc. This works for any dimension of

hypercube, but only if the figure is pan-n-agonal or perfect. If we

tried this with a pan-diagonal magic cube, it would change the

triagonals and the new triagonals may not sum correctly.

In a pan-4-agonal magic tesseract, an entire facial cube may be

shifted to the other side of the tesseract and it remains magic.

This is because we place the emphasis that the main n-agonals

must sum the magic sum.

This is a type of Transformation.

Transposition

The permutation of the rows and columns of a pandiagonal

magic square in order to change it into another pandiagonal

magic square.

For order-5 this is cyclical 1-3-5-2-4. For order-7 there are two

non-cyclical permutations, 1-3-5-7-2-4-6 and 1-4-7-3-6-2-5.

Another transposition method for pandiagonals is to exchange

the rows and columns with the diagonals.

Benson & Jacoby, Magic squares & Cubes, Dover 1976, 0-486-23236-0, pp.146154.

transposition, but freely use the term transformation elsewhere in

the same book. Other authors seem to prefer the term

transformation. In general, either term may be considered any

method of converting one magic square into another one.

See Magic square, normal

170

Triagonal

A space diagonal that goes from 1 corner of a magic cube to the

opposite corner, passing through the center of the cube. There

are 4 of these in a magic cube and all must sum correctly (as

well as the rows, columns and pillars) for the cube to be magic.

As you go from cell to cell along the line, all three coordinates

change. In tesseracts this is called a quadragonal. For higher

order hypercubes, this is called an n-agonal or space diagonal.

Of course, with these higher dimensions there are more

coordinates. A triagonal is sometimes called a long diagonal. See

orthogonal for an illustration.

Order

1 segments 2 segments 3 segments

Total

16

12

12

25

15

20

36

18

30

49

21

42

64

24

56

81

10

27

72

100

Because there are four triagonals in a magic cube, the above

figures must be multiplied by four to obtain the actual number of

triagonals in the cube.

J.R.Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, 1999.

Trimagic Square

Also called Triplemagic. A magic square in which all the

number lines sum correctly, when each number is squared the

lines sum correctly, and when each number is cubed the lines

sum correctly. Benson and Jacoby show a method to produce

order-32 trimagic squares, the smallest so far constructed. See

Bimagic Square for an illustration.

Benson & Jacoby, Magic squares & Cubes, Dover 1976, 0-486-23236-0

U

Upside-down magic square.

The digits 0, 1 and 8 have horizontal and vertical symmetry and

so read the same right-side up, in reverse, and upside-down. See

Ixohoxi magic square for an order-8 square of this type that

uses digits 1 and 8 only. The 6 and the 9 may be added to this

list, but in their case the upside-down 6 becomes a nine. and the

upside down 9 a six.

The upside-down magic square below is produced using only

these five digits. When it is turned upside down, by 180

rotation, a new magic square is produced. The square may also

be viewed upside down by reflection. This produces still another

magic square, but in this case digits 6 and the 9 are reversed.

Of course, in all cases, the resulting magic square is only a

disguised version of the original. The novelty is due to the fact

that the numbers read correctly. See Ixohoxi.

See also Reversible magic square, which doesnt depend on

symmetrical digits.

00

66 88 99

86 98 0 9 0 6

9 6 0 8 96 08

9 06 8 69 8 0

68 89 90 0

magic square.

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, p 31

172

V

Vertical step

The difference between corresponding numbers of the m series.

It is not a reference to the rows of the magic square.In a normal

magic square, the horizontal step and vertical step are both 1.

1480028201

1480028129

1480028183

1480028153

1480028171

1480028189

1480028159

1480028213

1480028141

square.

In fig. 168, the horizontal step is 12 and the vertical step is 6.

Because the vertical step is positive, this is a type 1 magic

square. It was discovered, along with 21 others, by Harry L.

Nelson in 1988.

23813359751

23813359613

23813359727

23813359673

23813359697

23813359721

23813359667

23813359781

23813359643

magic square.

This magic square consists of three triplets of primes with

horizontal step of 30 and vertical step of 6. It was recognized

by Aale de Winkel in August, 1999 as a Type 2 magic square,

working from a list of consecutive prime number sequences

found by Harry L. Nelson in 1988. See Horizontal step and

Order-3, type 2.

J. L. Fults, Magic Squares, 1974

W.S.Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes,1917

E-mail messages between Aale de Winkel, H. D. Heinz, and Harry J. Smith in July

and August, 1999.

Harry L. Nelson, J. Recreational Mathematics, 20:3, 1988, A Consecutive Prime 3 x

3 Magic Square.

H. D. Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/type2.htm

W

Weakly- magic stars

Marin Trenkler of Safarik University, Slovakia, refers to a

magic star that does not use consecutive numbers (i.e. not

normal) as weakly-magic.

16

18

3

35

27

34

37

31

12

11

25

29

W

S8

numbers are not consecutive.

H. D. Heinz, http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/trenkler.htm

Marin Trenkler, Magicke Hviezdy (Magic stars), Obsory Matematiky, Fyziky a

Informatiky, 51(1998).

174

Wrap-around

Used in pandiagonal magic squares to indicate that lines are

actually loops. Each edge may be considered to be joined to the

opposite edge. If you move from left to right along a row, when

you reach the right edge of the magic square, you wrap-around

to the first cell on the left.

Or consider that the pandiagonal magic square is repeated in all

four directions. Any n x n section of this array may be

considered as a pandiagonal magic square. This results from the

fact the broken diagonal pairs form complete lines.

See Broken-diagonal pair for an illustration.

1

10

10

11

12

13

14

15

11

12

13

14

15

11

12

13

14

16

17

18

19

20

16

17

18

19

20

16

17

18

19

21

22

23

24

25

21

22

23

24

25

21

22

23

24

10

10

11

12

13

14

15

11

12

13

14

15

11

12

13

14

16

17

18

19

20

16

17

18

19

20

16

17

18

19

21

22

23

24

25

21

22

23

24

25

21

22

23

24

10

10

11

12

13

14

15

11

12

13

14

15

11

12

13

14

order-5 magic square.

This unconventional use of wrap-around may be used to generate

odd order magic squares. Broken diagonal pairs better illustrates

the normal meaning of the term.

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published 1991, p 67.

References

175

of Ideas. Creative Computer Press,1979, 0-916688-16-X,

P. 117

W. S. Andrews, Magic Squares and Cubes, Dover, Publ.,

1960, pp124-125

Benson & Jacoby, Magic squares & Cubes, Dover 1976,

0-486-23236-0

Kevin Brown,

http://www.seanet.com/~ksbrown/kmath427.htm

Kevin Brown,

http://www.seanet.com/~ksbrown/kmath353.htm

L. E. Card, J. Recreational Mathematics, 1:2, 1968,

pp.93-99.

Cormie & Lineks anti-magic square page at

http://www.uwinnipeg.ca/~vlinek/jcormie/index.html

H. E. Dudeney, Amusements in Mathematics,Dover 1958,

0-486-20473-1 (Reprint of 1917 work)

J. L. Fults, Magic Squares, Open Court 1974,

0-87548-197-3

Martin Gardner, New Mathematical Diversions from

Scientific American, Simon & Schuster 1966, 66-26153.

pp.162-172.

176

H. D. Heinz web page on Iso-like Magic Stars

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/panmagic.htm

H. D. Heinz web page on Magic Star Definitions

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/magicstar_def.htm

H. D. Heinz web page, Most-Perfect Magic Squares

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/most-perfect.htm

H. D. Heinz web page, Quadrant Magic Squares

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/quadrant.htm

H. D. Heinz web page, Self-similar Magic Squares

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/self-similar.htm

H. D. Heinz web page, Transformations

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/transform.htm

H. D. Heinz web page, Trenkler Stars

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/trenkler.htm

H. D. Heinz Web page on 3-D Magic Stars

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/3-d_star.htm

H. D. Heinz Web page on Tree-planting graphs.

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/order5.htm

H. D. Heinz Web page on Unusual Magic Stars.

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/unusualstr.htm

H. D. Heinz Web page on Order-3 type 2.

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/type2.htm

177

H. D. Heinz Web page on Prime Magic Stars.

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/primestars.htm

J. R. Hendricks, All Third Order Magic Tesseracts,

self-published 1999, 0-9684700-2-5

J. R. Hendricks, Bimagic Squares: Order 9, self-published

1999, 0-9684700-6-8

J. R. Hendricks, A Bimagic Cube Order 25, self-published

1999, 0-9684700-6-8 and

Danielsson, Printout of A Bimagic Cube Order 25, 2000

J. R. Hendricks, Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes,

Self-published 2000, 0-9684700-7-6

J. R. Hendricks, The Magic Square Course, self-published

1991, p 32

J. R. Hendricks, Magic Squares to Tesseracts by Computer,

Self-published 1999, 0-9684700-0-9

J. R. Hendricks, Perfect n-Dimensional Magic Hypercubes

of Order 2n, Self-published,1999, 0-9684700-4-1

J. R. Hendricks, American Mathematical Monthly,

Vol. 75, No. 4, April 1968, p.384

J. R. Hendricks, Canadian Mathematical Bulletin,

Vol. 5, No. 2, 1962, p175

J. R. Hendricks, J. Recreational Mathematics, 25:4, 1993,

pp 286-288, An Inlaid Magic Cube

178

A. W. Johnson, Jr., J. Recreational Mathematics 15:2,

1982-83, p. 84

Katagiri & Kobayashi, J. Recreational Mathematics, 15:3,

1982-83, pp200-208, Magic Triangular Regions of Orders

5 and 6.

M. Kraitchik, Mathematical Recreations., Dover Publ. ,

1942, 53-9354, pp 166-170

Joseph S. Madachy, Mathematics On Vacation, Nelson,

1966, 17-147099-0

Jim Moran Magic Squares, 1981, 0-394-74798-4

Harry L. Nelson, J. Recreational Mathematics, 20:3, 1988,

p.214-216.

Ollerenshaw and D. Bre, Most-Perfect Pandiagonal Magic

Squares, IMA 1998, 0-905091-06-X

Carlos Rivera Prime Problems & Puzzles WWW site

http://www.primepuzzles.net/

RouseBall & Coxeter, Mathematical Recreations and

Essays, 1892, 13 Edition, p.194

Lee SallowsAbacus 4, 1986, pp.28-45 & 1987 pp.20-29

Harry J. Smith at http://home.netcom.com/~hjsmith/

Ian Stewart, Mathematical Recreations column in

Scientific American, November 1999

179

Mutsumi Suzukis large WWW site now at

http://mathforum.org/te/exchange/hosted/suzuki/MagicSqu

are.html

Marin Trenkler, Obzory Matematiky, Fyziky a

Informatiky, 1998, no. 51, pp.1-7, Magic Stars

Marin Trenkler, The Mathematical Gazette March 2000, A

Construction of Magic Cubes.

C. Trigg, J. Recreational Mathematics, 10:3, 1977, pp 169173, Anti-magic pentagrams.

C. W. Trigg, J. Recreational Mathematics, 11:2, 1984-85,

pp.105-107, Perimeter Anti-magic tetrahedrons and

Octahedrons.

C. W. Trigg, J. Recreational Mathematics, 17:2, 1978-79,

pp.112-118, Nine-digit Digit-root Magic Squares.

C. W. Trigg, J. Recreational Mathematics, 29:1, 1998,

pp.8-11, Almost Magic Pentagams

Terrel Trotter, Jr., J. Recreational Mathematics, 7:1, 1974,

pp.14-20, Perimeter-magic Polygons.

Usiskin & Stephanides, J. Recreational Mathematics, 11:3,

1978-79, pp.176-179, Magic Triangular Regions of Orders

4 and 5.

Aale de Winkels WWW site on magic subjects at

http://www.adworks.myweb.nl/Magic/

180

Some additional Web sites with material on magic squares.

Suzanne Alejandre, magic squares for math education

http://forum.swarthmore.edu/alejzndre/magic.square.html

Holgar Danielsson's Magic Squares at

http://www.magic-square.de

Bogdan Golunskis big magic squares at

www.golunski.de/

Alan Grogonos Magic Squares by Grog

http://www.grogono.com/magic/

Meredith Houltons WWW site

www.inetworld.net/~houlton/

Fabrizio Pivaris strange magic squares WWW site at

www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/3469/ ml

F. Poyo magic Squares, Cubes & Hypercubes

http://makoto.mattolab.kanazawa-it.ac.jp/~poyo/magic/

Kwon Young Shin

http://user.chollian.net/~brainstm/MagicSquare.htm

R. C. Wilke Nested magic squares

http://members.aol.com/robertw653/magicsqr.html

181

The Authors

Harvey D. Heinz

Harvey Heinz was born in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, the

oldest of 5 boys and one girl, and moved to Vancouver, British

Columbia at age 10.

He entered the printing industry at age 15 as an apprentice paper

ruler. At that time, unknown to him, it was already a dying

industry. On his semi-retirement in 1991, he was the only

paperuler still operating from Toronto west, and probably the

only one in all of Canada.

He was always interested in mathematical puzzles and especially

number patterns. He was also interested in electronics and

became an amateur radio operator in 1948, building all his own

equipment. This evolved to where he was building radio

controlled model boats (at a time when all equipment had to be

home constructed). This in turn changed to an interest in

building simple game machines, thus combining his interests in

electronics and mathematical logic. These little machines were

entered in local hobby shows under the nave name of intelligent

machines.

In 1956 Harvey married Erna Goerz and they subsequently had

two sons, Randal and Gerald. It was about this time that

computers and robots were coming onto the scene and he started

devouring everything he could find on these subjects in the

popular press. Of course, all this time he was still collecting

puzzles and number patterns.

In 1958 he designed EDRECO, (Educational RElay Computer),

and after obtaining about 5 tons of obsolete equipment from the

local telephone company, started a computer club of senior high

school students. The club started with about 25 members, but

after three years, when it disbanded, had dwindled down to three

(all original) members. By this time several units of the

computer were built and operating successfully, the most notable

being the arithmetic logic unit (ALU).

182

In 1973, Harvey was suddenly out of a job, so decided to work

part-time at his trade and concentrate on bringing some of his

electronic games to market. During this time, he attended many

free engineering seminars on computer circuits (which were

actually available to anyone) that were put on by the new semiconductor manufacturers as a selling ploy. He also took several

technical courses at the local Institute of Technology by brazenly

writing prerequisite exams.

By 1977, he realized his plans were not practical so he and wife

Erna started a printer trade bookbindery. By 1983 sons Randy

and Gerry were both involved with the company and it was

starting to grow. At that time the boys bought a half interest in

the company so they could participate in this growth. In 1991

Harvey and Erna sold them the other half interest and semiretired.

Now Harvey had time to get back to his hobbies. Building

electronic hardware was now replaced by operating computers.

This fit in perfect with his interest in number patterns! He was

now able to investigate all sorts of patterns that previously he

had just wondered about.

Heinzs major accomplishments in number patterns.

Found all solutions for magic stars orders 6 to 11 (by

computer exhaustion).

Found all solutions for order-12 pattern B magic stars

(826,112) and most for the other 3 patterns of this order.

Found all minimal and smallest consecutive primes solutions

for orders 5 and 6 prime number magic stars.

Discovered a 3-D magic star (in association with Aale de

Winkel).

Investigated Isolike, Pan-magic stars and Quadrant magic

squares also in association with Aale de Winkel).

Investigated Self-similar magic squares.

Publishes a large Web site on number patterns at

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/

183

The Authors

John R. Hendricks

Mr. Hendricks worked for the Canadian Meteorological Service

for 33 years and retired in 1984. At the beginning of his career,

he was a NATO training instructor. He worked at various

forecast offices in Canada and eventually became a supervisor.

Throughout his career, he was known for his many contributions

to statistics and to climatology.

While employed, he also participated in volunteer service

groups. He was Chairman, Manitoba Branch and earlier

Saskatchewan Branch, The Monarchist League of Canada.

He was appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba as

President, Manitoba Provincial Council, The Duke of

Edinburghs Award in Canada. He was also appointed by the

Governor General of Canada to the National Council of The

Award Program.

Later, he was conferred with the Canada 125 Medal for his

volunteer work.

.John Hendricks started collecting magic squares and cubes

when he was 13 years old. This became a hobby with him and

eventually an obsession. He never thought that he would ever do

anything with it. But soon, he became the first person in the

world to successfully make and publish four, five and sixdimensional magic hypercubes. He also became the first person

to make inlaid magic cubes and a wide variety of inlaid magic

squares. He has written prolifically on the subject in the Journal

of Recreational Mathematics.

184

Several major discoveries he made within the last two years are:

the placement of numbers for a perfect magic tesseract of

order 16.

the placement of numbers in a perfect five-dimensional

magic hypercube of order 32

a new method of doubling the order of a given square, cube,

or tesseract.

a new method of making bimagic squares of order nine.

the worlds first bimagic cube of order 25.

Given many public lectures on magic squares.

Given many lectures to teachers at in-service sessions.

Developed a magic square course for the gifted junior high

students.

Delivered half a dozen colloquia to professors.

Assisted with the Shad Valley program for young people.

Written many books on the subject.

Appendix A1-1

MAGIC SQUARE BIBLIOGRAPHY

The following bibliography consists of books, chapters

from books, and articles published during the 20th century,

that deal with magic squares, cubes, stars, etc.

Because it contain only material that I am personally

acquainted with (except for those mentioned on this page),

it is obviously not complete. However, it does contain more

than 140 items.

H. D. Heinz

For 18th and 19th century books on the subject see Early

Books on Magic Squares, W. L. Schaaf, JRM:16:1:198384:1-6

Some books on magic squares published prior to that time

are

Agrippa

De Occulta Philosophia (II, 42)

1510

Bachet

Problems plaisans et delectables 1624

Prestet

Nouveaux Elemens des

1689

Matmatiques

De la Loubere Relation du Royaume de Siam

1693

Frenicle

Des Quarrez Magiques. Acad. R. 1693

des Sciences

Ozonam

Rcrations Mathmatiques

1697

From

Falkener, Edward, Games Ancient and Oriental, Dover Publ.,

1961, 0-486-20739-0.

Page A1-2

The following books are wholly concerned with magic squares (and related subjects).

Andrews, W.S., Magic Squares & Cubes, Dover Publ., 1960 (original publication Open Court,1917)

This book seems to be the definitive text on magic squares. The essays which comprise this volume appeared first in

an American journal called The Monist between 1905 and 1916 and were written by different authors.

Benson, W. & Jacoby, O., New Recreations with Magic Squares, Dover Publ., 1976, 0-486-23236-0

This book is a serious attempt to bring the theory of magic squares up to date (1976). The authors present a new

method of cyclically developing magic squares. They include a listing of all 880 4 by 4 magic squares. A chapter

shows how to generate all 3600 5x5 pandiagonal magic squares.

Benson, W. & Jacoby, O., Magic Cubes: New Recreations, , Dover Publ., 1981, 0-486-24140-8

This book provides a valuable contribution to the literature, including the first(?) (not by new definition) perfect order8 magic cube..

Candy, A. L. Pandiagonal Magic Squares of Prime Order, self-published 1940. A small hard-bound book with much

theory on this subject.

Fults, John Lee, Magic Squares, Open Court Publ., 1974, 0-87548-197-3

This book contains a wealth of information on all types of magic squares. It is written as a text book and includes

exercises at the end of each chapter.

Hendricks, John R., The Magic Square Course., Unpublished, 1991, 554 pages 8.5 x 11 binding posts.

Written for a high school math enrichment class he conducted for 5 years

Page A1-3

Hendricks, John R., A Magic cube of Order-10, Unpublished, 1998, 23 pages 8.5 x 11 flat stitched.

With an inlaid cube of order-6 and adorned with 12 inlaid magic squares of order-6.

Hendricks, John R., Magic Squares to Tesseract by Computer, Self-published, 1998, 0-9684700-0-9

212 pages plus covers, 8.5 x 11 spirol bound, 100+ diagrams.

Lots of theory and diagrams, new methods and computer programs. 3 appendices.

Hendricks, John R., Inlaid Magic Squares and Cubes, Self-published, 1999, 0-9684700-1-7

206 pages plus covers, 8.5 x 11 spiral bound, 100+ diagrams.

Lots of theory and diagrams. Includes a list of 46 mathematical articles published in periodicals by the author.

Hendricks, John R., All Third-Order Magic Tesseracts, Self-published, 1999, 0-9684700-2-5

36 pages plus covers, 8.5 x 11 flat stitched, 60+ diagrams. Some theory. Lots of diagrams.

Hendricks, John R., Perfect n-Dimensional Magic Hypercubes of Order 2n, Self-published, 1999,

0-9684700-4-1. 36 pages plus covers, 8.5 x 11 flat stitched, some diagrams.

Theory with examples for a cube, tesseract and 5-D hypercube.

Hendricks, John R., A Bimagic Cube of Order 25, Self-published, 2000,

0-9684700-7-6. 14 pages plus covers, 8.5 x 11 flat stitched, some diagrams.

Coordinate equations and a basic program to generate this cube.

A companion booklet by Holger Danielsson shows the horizontal planes of this cube.

Page A1-4

Hendricks, John R., Bi-Magic Squares of Order 9, Self-published, 1999, 0-9684700-6-8 14pp + covers, 8.5 x 11.

A method of generating these squares using equations and coefficient matrices.

Kelsey, Kenneth, The Cunning Caliph, Frederick Muller, 1979, 0-584-10367-0

This is one of the five books (the first one) that make up The Ultimate Book of Number Puzzles.

Kelsey, Kenneth The Ultimate Book of Number Puzzles, Cresset Press, 1992, 0-88029-920-7

This is a combination of 5 books ( four by K. Kelsey & the last one by D. King), all published in Great Britain 19791984 by Frederick Muller Ltd. It consists of numerical puzzles in the form of magic squares, stars, etc. No theory, but

lots of examples (some quite original) and lots of practice material.

Moran, Jim, The Wonders of Magic Squares, Vantage Books, 1982, 0-394-74798-4

A large format book that is simply written with little theory, but demonstrates a large variety of ways to compose

magic squares. Contains a forward by Martin Gardner.

Ollerenshaw, K. and Bre, D., Most-Perfect Pandiagonal Magic Squares, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998, 0-90509106-X

The methods of construction and enumeration of these doubly-even magic squares.

Pickover, Clifford A., The Zen of Magic Squares, Circles, and Stars, Princeton Univ. Press, 2002, 0-691-07041

Completely devoted to magic objects with lots of diagrams.

Swetz, Frank J., Legacy of the Luo Shu, Open Court Publ. 2002, 0-8126-9448-1

All about the order 3 magic square.

Page A1-5

The following books have chapters or sections dealing with magic squares (and related subjects).

Ahl, David H., Computers in Mathematics, Creative Computing Pr., 1979, 0-916688-16-X

Contains some theory and Basic language programs to generate magic squares. Pages 111-117

Berlekamp, E., Conway, J. and Guy, R., Winning Ways vol. II, Academic Press, 1982, 01-12-091102-7

Original material on order-4 magic squares. Also shows a tesseract with magic vertices. Pages 778-783.

Dudeney, H.E., Amusements in Mathematics, Dover Publ., 1958, 0-486-20473-1 Originally published in 1917. Order

4 classes, Subtraction, multiplication, division, domino, etc. List of first prime # magic squares, etc. Pages 119-27 and

245-247

Falkener, Edward, Games Ancient and Oriental and How to Play Them, Dover Publ., 1961, 0-486-20739-0 First

published by Longmans, Green & Co. in 1892, this book contains the original text with no changes, except for

corrections. A comprehensive discussion of magic squares circa 100+ years ago. Pages 267-356

Gardner, Martin, 2nd Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions ,Simon and Schuster, 1961,

61-12845. Diabolic hypercube (tesseract), diabolic donut, some history, pages 130-140

Gardner, Martin, Incredible Dr. Matrix, Scribners, 1967, 0-684-14669-X

Anti-magic, multiplication & division, pyramid, etc. Pages 21, 47, 211,246

Page A1-6

Gardner, Martin, Mathematical Carnival, Alfred Knopf, 1975, 0-394-49406-7

Hypercubes, pages 41-54. Magic Stars, pages 55-65

Gardner, Martin Mathematical Puzzles & Diversions, Simon & Schuster, 1959, 59-9501

Chapter 2, Magic With a Matrix, pages 15-22.

Gardner, Martin, New Mathematical Diversions, Simon and Schuster, 1966, 671-20913-2

Euler's spoilers- order-10 Graeco- Latin squares, order-4 playing card magic square. Pages 162-172

Gardner, Martin, Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers, Freeman, 1989, 0-7167-1986-X

Alphamagic, smith numbers, 3x3 properties, pages 293-305

Gardner, Martin, Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions,, Simon and Schuster, 1959, 599501. Using magic squares for magic tricks, pages 15-22.

Gardner, Martin, Sixth book of Mathematical Games, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963, 0-684-14245-7

Magic hexagons, pages 23-25. Consecutive prime s. (using #1) pages 86-87

Gardner, Martin Time Travel & Other Mathematical Bewilderments, Freeman Publ., 1988, 0-7167-1924-X

First published enumeration of Order-5 magic squares and information about order-8 magic cubes. Note that Gardner

refers to perfect magic cubes. These are what Hendrick's now calls Diagonal magic cubes. Magic Squares & Cubes.

Pps 213-226.

Page A1-7

Heath, Royal Vale, Mathemagic, Dover Publ., 1953

The author copywrited this material in 1933. Some unusual patterns. Pages 87-123.

Hunter, J. & Madachy, J., Mathematical Diversions, Van Nostrand, 1963,

Theory of magic squares includes a simple method to produce bimagic squares. Pages 23-34.

Kraitchik, Maurice, Mathematical Recreations, Dover Publ., 1953, 53-9354 (origin publisher. W. W. Norton, 1942)

Construction methods, multi-magic, Graeco-Latin, border, order-4 theory, etc. Pages 142-192

Madachy, Joseph S., Mathematics on Vacation, Thomas Nelson Ltd., 1968, 17-147099-0

A good discussion of magic, anti-magic, heterosquare, talisman, etc squares, pages 85-113.

Madachys Mathematical Recreations, Dover Publ., 1979, 0-486-23762-1 is a page-for-page copy.

Meyer, Jerome S., Fun With Mathematics, World Publ., 1952, 52-8434

A good discussion of bi-grades and upside-down magic squares of order-4. Pages 47 to 54.

Olivastro, Dominic, Ancient Puzzles, Bantam Books, 1993, 0-553-37297-1

On a Turtle Shell, pages 103-125, discuss the Lo Shu ,Pandiagonal, Franklin and composite magic squares. Also magic

graphs. However, he erroneously states that no one has yet discovered a magic tesseract.

Page A1-8

Pickover, Clifford A., The Wonder of Numbers, Oxford Univ. Press, 2001, 0-19-513342-0, pp 233-239 plus others.

Pickovers usual great stuff!

Rouse Ball, W. & Coxeter, H., Mathematical Recreations & Essays, 12th Edition, Univ. of Toronto Pr., 1974, 0-80206138-9. Pages 189-221.

This classic work was originally published in 1892. H. S. M. Coxeter brought it up to date with the 1938 publication of

the 11th edition, the 12th edition in 1974 and edition 13 in 1987. Chapter 7 is on magic squares.

Rouse Ball, W. & Coxeter, H., Mathematical Recreations & Essays, 13th Edition, Univ. of Toronto Pr., 1987,

0-486-25357-0. Pages 193-221. See above re edition 12.

Stein, Sherman K. Mathematics: The Man-made Universe, 1963, W. H. Freeman, 63-7786

Chap. 12, Orthogonal Tables. Discussion of Graeco-Latin squares and magic squares. Pages 155-174

Spencer, Donald D. Game Playing with Computers, Hayden, 1968, 0-8104-5103-4

Computer programs and magic square theory. Pages 23-107.

Card, division, upside down, composite, prime, subtracting, etc. Pages 209-224.

Spencer, Donald D. Game Playing with Basic, Hayden, 1977, 0-8104-5109-3

Computer programs and magic square theory. Pages 119-141.

Spencer, Donald D. Exploring Number Theory With Microcomputers, Camelot, 1989, 0-89218-249-0

Computer programs and magic square theory, geometric, talisman, multiplying, heterosquares, prime, etc.

Pages 155-180

Page A1-9

Weisstein, Eric W., Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics, CRC Press, 1999, 0-8493-9640-9

A general mathematical encyclopedia containing more then 14,000 entries so has many on magic square related

subjects.

Weisstein, Eric W., Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics CD-ROM, CRC Press, 1999, 0-8493-1945-5

Contains all of the material in the book, plus interactive graphics and both internal and external hyperlinks.

Games & Puzzles for Elementary and Middle School Mathematics Readings from the Arithmetic Teacher Published by

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1975, 0-87353-054-3.

Readings for Enrichment in Secondary School Mathematics, Bordered Magic Squares

Published by National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1988, 0-87353-252-X,. Pages 195-199.

Marin Trenkler, Magic Cubes, The Mathematical Gazette, 82, (March, 1998), 56-61.

Marin Trenkler Magic rectangles, The Mathematical Gazette, 83, 2000, 102-105

Marin Trenkler, A construction of Magic Cubes, The Mathematical Gazette, 84, (March, 2000), 36-41.

Marin Trenkler, Magic p-dimensional Cubes of order n not 2 (mod 4), Acta Arithmetica (Poland) Acta

Arithmetica, 92(2000), 189-194.

Page A1-10

The following Articles on Magic Squares appear in Recreational Mathematics Magazine

I show these as Title, Author, RMM:issue #:date: pages(s)

More Strictly for Squares

Miscellaneous authors

RMM: # 5

Add Multiply Magic Squares

Walter W. Horner

RMM: # 5

How to Make a Magic Tesserack

Maxey Brooke

RMM: # 5

More Strictly for Squares

Miscellaneous authors

RMM: # 7

Anti-magic squares

J. A. Lindon

RMM: # 7

Geometric magic squares

Boris Kordemskii

RMM:#13

The following Articles on Magic Squares appear in Journal of Recreational Mathematics

I show these as Title, Author, JRM:volume #:issue #:date:pages(s)

Magic Designs

Robert B. Ely III

A Magic Square

William J. Mannke

The Construction of knight Tours

T. H. Willcocks

Mannkes Order-8 Square

Leigh Janes

Construction of Odd Order Diabolic Magic Squares

J.A.H.Hunter

Sums of Third-order Anti-magic Squares

Charles W. Trigg

Triangles With Balanced Perimeters

Charles W. Trigg

Fifth Order Concentric Magic Squares

Charles W. Trigg

Doubly Magic Square with Remarkable Subsidiaries

Charles W. Trigg

Edge Magic and Edge Anti-magic Tetrahedrons

Charles W. Trigg

Normal Magic Triangles of order-n

Terrel Trotter

Edge Anti-magic Tetrahedrons With Rotating Triads

Charles W. Trigg

The Third Order Magic Square Complete

John R. Hendricks

The Pan-3-agonal Magic Cube

John R. Hendricks

Oct. 1961

Oct. 1961

Oct. 1961

Feb. 1962

Feb. 1962

Feb. 1963

p24-29

p30-32

p40-44

p14-19

p14-19

p3-6

JRM:1:1:1968:3-17

JRM:1:3:1968:139

JRM 1:4:1968:225-233

JRM:2:2:1969:96

JRM:2:3:1969:175-177

JRM:2:4:1969:250-254

JRM:3:4:1970:255-256

JRM:4:1:1971:42-44

JRM:4:3:1971:171-174

JRM:4:4:1971:253-259

JRM:5:1:1972:28-32

JRM:5:1:1972:40-42

JRM:5:1:1972:43-50

JRM:5:1:1972:51-52

Perfectly Odd Squares

Latin Squares Under Restrictions and a Jumboization

Magic Squares with Nonagonal & Decagonal Elements

The Pan-3-agonal Magic Cube of Order-5

Anti-magic Squares With Sums in Arithmetic Progression

Graeco-Latin cubes

Species of Third-Order Magic Squares & Cubes

Magic Tesseracts & n-dimensional Magic Hypercubes

Magic Cubes of Odd Order

Trimagic Squares

Perimeter Magic Polygons

Third Order Square Related to Magic Squares

Eight Digits on a Cubes Vertices

Pan-n-agonals in Hypercubes

Not Every Magic Square is a Latin Square

Some Properties of Third Order Magic Squares

9-digit Determinants equal to Their 1st Rows

A Pandiagonal Magic Square of Order-8

Magic Square Time

Perfect Magic Cubes of Order Seven

Infinite Magic Squares

58. Magic Squares

Perfect Magic Icosapentacles

Pan-diagonal Associative Magic Cubes

Related Magic Squares with Prime Elements

Monk A. Ricci

N. T. Gridgeman

Charles W. Trigg

John R. Hendricks

Charles W. Trigg

P. D. Warrington

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

William H. Benson

Terrel Trotter Jr.

Charles W. Trigg

Charles W. Trigg

John R. Hendricks

Joseph M. Moser

Charles W. Trigg

Charles W. Trigg

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

Bayard E. Wynne

Ronald J. Lanaster

Rudolf Ondrejka

Baynard E. Wayne

Ian P. Howard

Gakuho Abe

Page A1-11

JRM:5:2:1972:138-142

JRM:5:3:1972:198-202

JRM:5:3:1972:203-204

JRM:5:3:1972:205-206

JRM:5:4:1972:278-280

JRM:6:1:1973:47-53

JRM:6:3:1973:190-192

JRM:6:3:1973:193-201

JRM:6:4:1973:268-272

JRM:7:1:1974:8-13

JRM:7:1:1974:14-20

JRM:7:1:1974:21-22

JRM:7:1:1974:49-55

JRM:7:2:1974:95-96

JRM:7:2:1974:97-99

JRM:7:2: 1974:100-101

JRM:7:2: 1974:136-139

JRM:7:3:1974:186

JRM:7:3:1974:187-188

JRM:8:4:1975:285-293

JRM:9:2:1976:86-93

JRM:9:2:1976:128-129

JRM:9:2:1976:241-248

JRM:9:4:1976:276-278

JRM:10:2:1977:96-97

Page A1-12

Magic Talisman Squares

Perimeter Antimagic Tetrahedrons

Magic Cubes of Prime Order

The Perfect Magic Cube of Order-4

A Family of Sixteenth Order Magic Squares

The Pan-3-agonal Magic Cube of Order-4

Consecutive-Prime Magic Squares

Special Anti-magic Triangular Arrays

Consecutive-Prime Magic Squares

A Bordered Prime Magic Square

The Construction of Doubly-even Magic Squares

A Unique 9-Digit Square Array

A Sixth Order Prime Magic Square

Magic Triangular Regions of Orders 5 and 6

Irregular Perfect Magic Squares of Order 7

Early Books on Magic Squares

666 Order 4 M. S. (Letter to the Editor)

9-digit Digit-Root Magic & Semi-Magic Squares

Ten Magic Tesseracts of Order Three

A Magic Rooks Tour

Letter to the Editor Borders for 2nd-order square

Generating a pandiagonal Magic Square of Order-8

Vestpocket Biblio. No. 12. Magic Squares and Cubes

A Ninth Order Magic Cube

Ronald J. Lancaster

Greg Fitzgibbon

Charles W. Trigg

K.W.H.Leeflang

John R. Hendricks

. Charles W. Trigg

John R. Hendricks

Alan W. Johnson Jr.

Charles W. Trigg

Alan W. Johnson Jr.

Alan W. Johnson Jr.

Tien Tao Kuo

Vittorio Fabbri

Alan W. Johnson Jr.

Katagiri & Kobayashi

Gakuho Abe

William L. Schaaf

Rudolf Ondrejka

Charles W. Trigg

John R. Hendricks

Stanley Rabinowitz

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

William L. Schaaf

John R. Hendricks

JRM:10:3:1977:202-203

JRM:10:4:1977:279-280

JRM:11:2:1978-79:105JRM:11:4:1978-79:241-257

JRM:13:3:1980-81:204-206

JRM:13:4:1980-81:269-273

JRM:13:4:1980-81:274-281

JRM:14:2:1981-82:152-153

JRM:14:4:1981-82:274-278

JRM:15:1:1982-83:17-18

JRM:15:2:1982-83:84

JRM:15:2:1982-83:94-104

JRM:15:3:1982-83:170-171

JRM:15:3:1982-83:199

JRM:15:3:1982-83:200-208

JRM:15:4:1982-83:249-250

JRM:16:1:1983-84:1-6

JRM:16:2:1983-84:121

JRM:17:2:1985:112-118

JRM:18:2:1986:187-188

JRM:18:3:1986:203-204

JRM:19:1:1987:42

JRM:19:1:1987:55-58

JRM:19:2:1987:81-86

JRM:19:2:1987:126-131

Page A1-13

Constructing Pandiagonal Magic Squares of Odd Order

Creating Pan-3-agonal Magic Cubes of Odd Order

Some Ordinary Magic Cubes of Order 5

A Magic Cube of Order 7

Related Magic Squires

Pandiagonal Magic Squares of Odd Order

Magic Cubes of Odd Order by Pocket Computer

The Diagonal Rule for Magic Cubes of Odd Order

More Pandiagonal Magic Squares

A Consecutive Prime 3 x 3 Magic Square

The Third Order Magic Tesseract

Another Magic Tesseract of Order-3

Creating More Magic Tesseracts of Order-3

Groups of Magic Tesseracts

More and More Magic Tesseracts

The Pan-4-agonal Magic Tesseract of Order-4

A Perfect 4_Dimensional Hypercube of Order-7

Palindromes and Magic Squares

Supermagic and Antimagic Graphs

The Determinant of a Pandiagonal Magic Square is 0

A 5-Dimensional Magic Hypercube of Order-5

The Magic Tesseracts of Order-3 Complete

The Secret of Franklins 8 x 8 Magic Square

Magic Squares Matrices Planes and Angles

Minimum Prime Order-6 Magic Squares

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

Alan W. Johnson Jr.

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

Harry L. Nelson

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

Arkin Arney & Porter

Alan W. Johnson Jr.

N.Hartsfield & G. Ringel

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

Lalbhai D. Patel

Frank E. Hruska

Alan W. Johnson Jr.

JRM:19:3:1987:204-208

JRM:19:4:1987:280-285

JRM:20:1:1988:125-134

JRM:20:1:1988:23-25

JRM:20:1:1988:26

JRM:20:2:1988:81-86

JRM:20:2:1988:87-91

JRM:20:3:1988:192-195

JRM:20:3:1988:198-201

JRM:20:3:1988:214-216

JRM:20:4:1988:251-256

JRM:20:4:1988:275-276

JRM:20:4:1988:279-283

JRM:21:1:1989:13-18

JRM:21:1:1989:26-28

JRM:21:1:1989:56-60

JRM:21:2:1989:81-88

JRM:21:2:1989:97-100

JRM:21:2:1989:107-115

JRM:21:3:1989:179-181

JRM:21:4:1989: 245-248

JRM:22:1:1990: 15-26

JRM:23:3:1991:175-182

JRM:23:3:1991:183-189

JRM:23:3:1991:190-191

Page A1-14

A Note on Magic Tetrahedrons

Prime Magic Squares for the Prime Year 1993

An Inlaid Magic Cube

Property of Some Pan-3-Agonal Magic Cubes of Odd Order

Inlaid Pandiagonal Magic Squares

Inlaid Magic Squares

More Magic Squares

More Multiplication Magic Squares

Powers of Magic Squares

Palindromic Magic Squares

Note on the Bimagic Square of Order-3

Magic Squares of Order-4 and Their Magic Square Loops

A Partial Magic Tesseract of Order Two

Magic Reciprocals

Magic Diamond for the New Millenium

From Inlaid Squares to Ornate Cube

Smarandache Magic Problem 2466 sloution

A Purely Pandiagonal 4x4 Square and the Myers-Briggs

Concatenation on Magic Squares

Franklins Other 8-Square

2617 Solution: Magic Cube of Primes

A Unified Classification System for Magic Hypercubes

Square-Ringed Magic Squares

k-Sets of nth Order Magic Squares

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

Alan W. Johnson Jr.

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

John R. Hendricks

Emanuel Emanouilidis

Emanuel Emanouilidis

Emanuel Emanouilidis

Emanuel Emanouilidis

John R. Hendricks

Robert S. Sery

John R. Hendricks

Jeffrey Haleen

E. W. Shineman, Jr.

John R. Hendricks

Charles Ashbacher

Peter D. Loly

Emanuel Emanouilidis

Paul C. Pasles

Harvey d. Heinz

H. Heinz and J. Hendricks

Jeffrey Heleen

D. Fell and A. Shulman

JRM:24:1:1992:6-11

JRM:24:4:1992:244

JRM:25:2:1993:136-137

JRM:25:4:1993:286-288

JRM:26:2:1994:96-101

JRM:27:2:1995:123-124

JRM:27:3:1995:175-178

JRM:27:3:1995:179-180

JRM:27:3:1995:181-182

JRM:29:3:1998:176-177

JRM:29:3:1998:177-178

JRM:29:4:1998:265-267

JRM:29:4:1998:265-267

JRM:29:4:1998:290-291

JRM:30:1:1999:72-73

JRM:30:2:1999:112

JRM:30:2:1999:125-136

JRM:30:4:1999:296-299

JRM:31:1:2002-2003:29-31

JRM:31:2:2002:110-111

JRM:31:3:2002:161-166

JRM:31:4:2002: 298

JRM:32:1:2003-2004: 30-36

JRM:32:2:2003:144-146

JRM:32:3:2003:181-192

Page A1-15

Literature On Magic Stars

In contrast to the voluminous literature for magic squares spanning 100's of years, there has been very little published on magic

stars. The main sources of information I have been able to locate are:

H.E.Dudeney, 536 Puzzles & Curious Problems, Scribner's 1967. Pages 145-147 and 347-352.

Martin Gardner, Mathematical Recreations column of Scientific American, Dec. 1965, reprinted with addendum in Martin

Gardner, Mathematical Carnival, Alfred A. Knoff, 1975. Mostly on order 6, but mention made of total basic solutions for orders

7 & 8 (also corrected number for order-6).

Marin Trenkler of Safarik University, Kosice, Slovakia published a paper on Magic Stars.

It is called "Magicke hviezdy" (Magic stars) and appeared in Obsory matematiky, fyziky a informatiky, 51(1998), pages 1-7.

(Obsory = horizons (or line of sight) of mathematics, physics and informatics.

Perfect Magic Icosapentacles

Anti-magic Pentagrams

A Magic Asteriod

Magic Pentagram Solutions Over GF(2)

Two New Magic Asteroids

The Magic Hexagram

Letter to the Editor (Magic Asteroids)

Almost Magic

Bayard E. Wynne

Charles W. Trigg

Gakuho Abe

Harold Reiter

Laurent Hodges

John R. Hendricks

Alan W. Johnson Jr.

Charles W. Trigg

The Heinz Web site has 17 pages (currently) on magic stars. They start at

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/magicstar.htm

JRM:9:4:1976:241-248

JRM 10:3::1977:169-173

JRM:16:2:1983-84:113

JRM:20:2:1988:99-104

JRM:24:2:1992:85-86

JRM:25:1:1993:10-12

JRM:26:2:1994:90-91

JRM:29:1:1998:8-11

1

15

14

44

34

45

16

33

8

43

23

13

35

22

37

24

32

25

21

36

17

42

7

20

12

26

38

31

27

19

28

41

30

6

11

29

40

39

18

4

10

5

The ten nodes of this graph are each connected to all the other nodes

with lines (edges) labeled with the consecutive integers from 1 to 45.

All 9 lines connected to each node sum to the same magic constant.

Appendix 2-1

Bibliography of

Articles written by John R. Hendricks

(Not included material in Appendix 1)

STATISTICAL ARTICLES

Service, [AES] TEC 801, 15 February 1974.

2. Probability and Time, Statistical Association of Manitoba, [SAM]

Newsletter Vol.3, No. 3, January 1980.

3. Notes on Probability and Time, SAM Newsletter, Vol. 3, No. 4,

March 1980.

4. Probability Mean Time, AES, Central Region, Technical Notes,

No. 83-1, January 17th 1983.

5. The Standardized Normal Distribution Function and Your Pocket

Computer, The Manitoba Mathematics Teacher, Vol. 15, No. 4,

April 1987.

6. Application of Cube-Root, The Manitoba Mathematics Teacher,

Vol. 16, No. 1, September 1987.

7. The Statistical Probability of Temperatures and Your Pocket

Computer, SAM newsletter Vol.11, No. 5, 11 January 1988.

8. The Statistical Probability of Precipitation and Your Pocket

Computer, SAAAM Newsletter, Vol. 11, No. 6, 1 March 1988.

9. Probability Mean Time, The Manitoba Mathematics Teacher,

Vol. 16, No. 3, March 1988.

10. Probability and Time, Self-published handout material for a talk

to the joint meeting of the Statistical Association of Manitoba and

the American Statistical Society, Red River Chapter held on the

16th day of April 1988 at the Senate chambers of the University of

Manitoba,

11. The Statistical Analysis of the Circumference of an Ellipse, SAM

Newsletter, Vol. 14 No.5, 14th January 1991.

12. Elliptic Arc Lengths, SAM Newsletter, Vol. 14, No. 7, 18 April

1981.

13. An Analysis of the 1993 Summer Rainfall at Winnipeg, AES,

October 1993, Internal Report Number SSD-W93-01, Scientific

Services, Central Region.

A2-2

METEOROLOGY

Single A.F.S., Queens Printer, Winnipeg, 1957, Classified.

15. A Problem in Single-Heading Flight for Jet Aircraft, AES, Circ.

3549, TEC 374, 15 October 1981, pp. 1-19

16. Forecasting Takeoff Pressures, AES Circ. 3777, TEC 444, 19th

December 1962.

17. The Diurnal Pressure Graph, AES, Circ. 3802, TEC. 453, 19

February 1963.

18. Using the Normal Curve for Temperature Frequencies, AES, TEC

765, 25 February 1972.

19. Precipitation at Regina in June, AES, TEC 772, 18 July 1972.

20. A Mirage, Zephyr Magazine, December 1972.

21. A Mirage at Regina, Atmosphere, Vol. 1,1No. 1, 1973.

22. A Probability Study of Extreme Temperatures Part I, Theory,

AES Tec 789, 14 August 1973.

23. A Probability Study of Extreme Temperatures Part II, Application

to High Maxima, AES Tec. 790, 14 August 1973

24. A Probability Study of Extreme Temperatures Part III,

Application to Low Minima, High Minima and Low Maxima,

AES, TEC 791, 14 August 1973.

25. A Probability Study of Extreme Temperatures Part IV. Further

Study, AES, TEC 792, 16 November 1973.

26. A Probability Study of Extreme Temperatures Part V, Results and

General Conclusiions, AES, TEC 806, 15 February 1974

27. The Frequency of Thunderstorm Days at Regina, AES, TEC 799,

4 December 1973.

28. Precipitation Probabilities at Regina, AES, TEC 809, 5

Septembeer 1974.

29. Consistency in Forecast Precipitation Probabilities, AES, Central

Region Technical Notes, No. 82-2, Nov. 28, 1982.

A2-3

MISCELANEOUS ARTICLES

Newsmagazine, 4 February

.

31. Magic Forms: Magic Cubes, VOXAIR, an Airforce

Newsmagazine, 14 May 1955.

32. Russian Peasant Multiplication, VOXAIR, 23 August 1955

33. The Canadian Monarchy, Saskatchewan Genealogical Society

Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1978.

34. The Soul, The Ark, Vol. XLVIII, No. 1, (No. 129), April 1980.

35. The Animal, The Ark, Vol. XLVIX, No. 1, (No. 132), Apr. 1981.

36. Animal Group Names, The Ark, Vol. XLVIX, No. 1, (No. 132) ,

April 1981.

37. A Straight Line, Journal of Recreational Mathematics, Vol. 14(2),

1982

38. The High School Mathematics Club: A Model. The Manitoba

Mathematiccs Teacher, Vol. 14, No. 4, April 1986.

39. The Third-Order Magic Square Complete, The Manitoba

Mathematics Teacher, Vol. 15, No. 2, December 1986.

40. Large Factorial, Journal of Recreational Mathematics, Vol. 21(2),

1989

41. Large Factorial, The Manitoba Mathematics Teacher, Vol. 16,

No. 3, March 1988.

42. Pythagoras Theorem, The Manitoba Mathematics Teacher, Vol.

17, No. 2, January 1989.

43. Magic Cube Terminology, The Manitoba Mathematics Teacher,

Vol. 17, No. 2, January 1989.

44. A Point to Remember, The Manitoba Mathematics Teacher, Vol.

17, No. 3, March 1989.

45. Inlaying Magic Squares, The Manitoba Mathematics Teacher,

Vol 17. No. 4, May 1989.

46. Correcting Imbalance, The Ark, No. 172, Winter 1994..

pages are now all out-of-print.

NOTE (2006): The Magic Square Lexicon: Illustrated

Is still available (2nd run with corrections).

Order via email in Advertisement or online at

http://www.geocities.com/~harveyh/

by John R. Hendricks

ISBN 09684700-0-9, 31 December 1998

206 pages run on 22x28 cm paper, spiral bound,

card covers, indexed.

This book shows the method of construction of magic

squares, magic cubes, and magic tesseracts by the use of

modular equations. Matrices are in the appendix for those

people wishing to do it that way. There is a large section on

geometry. The BASIC program is given, that the author used

in order to achieve the results in his TI 74 BASICALC

programmable battery operated calculator. You might have

to adapt the programs with slight changes to your particular

computer. Many pages are devoted to showing the various

aspects of cubes and tesseracts because of rotations and

reflections.

Shown and explained are the following:

What is meant by a pandiagonal magic cube.

What is meant by a pantriagonal magic cube

What is meant by a PERFECT cube.

Magic tesseracts of orders 3, 4, 5 are shown

The perfect magic tesseract of order 16 is explained in a

separate paper, but the ground work is prepared..

people who are interested. He may be contacted by

e-mail at magic-cubes@home.com or by phone at

(250)-381-1544, or through his address:

John R. Hendricks

#308 151 St. Andrews St.

Victoria, B.C., V8V 2M9,

CANADA

by John R. Hendricks

Edited by: Holger Danielsson

ISBN 0-9684700-3-3, 14 July 2000.

$40.00 CAN each, or $32.00 U.S. each

255 pages on 22x28 cm paper, spiral bound, card covers,

indexed.

This book is especially written for the young people in Junior and

Senior high schools who are interested in mathematics. It is meant

as a source book or REFERENCE book. The method brings in

algebraic digits, rather than algebraic numbers.. Most of the

innovations are due to the authors very own lifetime pursuit of

bigger and better magic squares.

But, even if you have not the time to actually make them yourself,

where else can you obtain such a wide variety of almost every

conceivable type of magic square.

As you know, magic squares of orders 6, 10, 14, etc. are much

more difficult to make than other orders. Well, there is a new

technique for making them in the appendix of the book. There are:

The worlds first inlaid magic cubes

The first magic square with interchangeable parts

Bimagic squares & inlaid bimagic squares

Magic squares of double order

Patchwork squares

who are interested. He may be contacted by e-mail at

magic-cubes@home.com, by phone at (250)-381-1544

by John R. Hendricks

$8.00 CAN each, or $6.00 U.S. each

36 pages run on 22x28 cm paper, stapled, card covers

ISBN 0-9694700-2-5, 15 February 1999

as the four basic magic cubes of order 3.

of Order 2n

ISBN 0-9684700-4-1, 21 May 1999

for the TI74 BASICALC calculator to produce both the 16th

order magic tesseract, and the 32nd order 5-dimensional

magic hypercube, as well. A complete review is made of the

definitions of perfect and why the new definition must

prevail.

ISBN 0-9684700-5-X, 4 September 1999

ones,) which the author has published elsewhere

. Many curves cannot be plotted by the curve-plotting calculators

that abound. This is because x cannot be solved for y, or y for x.

There is another way. Teachers teach the area of an ellipse, but

not the circumference, even though a very close approximation is

available. There are many new curves which are shown that have

loops on them, such as the Cosine Nodosus.

Booklets are sold privately by John R. Hendricks to those people

who are interested. He may be contacted by e-mail at magiccubes@home.com, or by phone at (2250)-381-1544, or through

his address:

by John R. Hendricks

ISBN 0-9684700-7-6, 9 June 2000

14 pages run on 22x28 cm paper, stapled, card covers.

This is the worlds first Bimagic Cube . It is of order 25,

which means that it contains 253 numbers. That is 15,625

numbers. The magic sum is 195,325.

But, that is not all. If you square all the numbers in the cube

and then add it up, the sum of the squares is a constant

2,034,700,525.

Now, we are left wondering if there is a smaller bimagic

cube. This booklet provides the theory and the program in

BASIC for the TI-74. BASICALC calculator.

by Holger Danielsson

$8.00 CAN each, or $6.00 U.S. each

36 pages run on 22x28 cm paper, stapled, card covers

However, Holger Danielsson , a teacher of mathematics and

computer science in a high school in Germany, kindly

provided a layer-by-layer printout of the cube, including

each face and more explanation of the geometry involved.

Some people will likely want the theory. Some may like

only the cube. Others may wish both. Therefore, there is a

deal:

$12.00 CAN, or $9.00 U.S.

The booklets really go together as a pair.

those people who are interested. He may be contacted

by e-mail at magic-cubes@home.com, by phone at

(250)-381-1544

Illustrated

written by H.D. Heinz and John R. Hendricks

is a true reference book. It has been put together by two

men both of whom have a lifetime of knowledge and

experience in magic squares, cubes and related items.

Harvey Heinz is a mathematical hobbyist. He has pursued

magic circles, spheres, stars, polygrams and a wide range of

other mathematical novelties and oddities.

John Hendricks by contrast, decided to pursue magic

hypercubes in higher dimensional spaces and to unravel and

publicize their mystery.

Fully explained with the help of diagrams and tables is the

new concept of perfect as applied to magic squares, cubes,

tesseracts, etc.

market like it.

Everything you wanted to know and more.

Illustrations Terminology

Included are two appendices of bibliographies.

ISBN 0-9687985-0-0, 228 pages 5 x 8, Perfect bound.

Please remit $32 Canadian, or $25 U.S. funds per copy to:

H..D. Heinz,

15450 92A Avenue

Surrey, BC, V3R 9B1, Canada

E-mail: harveyheinz@shaw.ca

This book defines 239 terms associated with magic squares, cubes,

tesseracts, stars, etc. Many of these terms have been in use hundreds

of years while some were coined in the last several years. While

meant as a reference book, it should be ideal for casual browsing, with

its almost 200 illustrations and tables, 171 of which are captioned.

While this book is not meant as a "how-to do" book, it should be a

source of inspiration for anyone interested in this fascinating subject.

Many tables compare characteristics between orders or dimensions.

The illustrations were chosen, where possible, to demonstrate

additional features besides the particular definition.

13

26

23

16

10

6

20

17

21

25

24

14

27

22

19

65

10

65

3

65

13

14

17

16

18

65

25

15

23

21

19

12

22

20

65

12

18

65

4

11

24

65

65

65

15

65

11

1

2

26

17

34

36

23

9

20 18

6

30

7

32

17

29

21

16 11

25

19

24 13

8

15

10

28

35

23 4

33

22

5

12

31

31

19

11

13

27

3

29

3

47

14

$ 32.00 Cdn.

$ 25.00 U.S.

ISBN 0-9687985-0-0

41

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