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Unit 10: Aqueous Chemistry – Acid-Base Titrations

Recap: What we know so far…


 When an acid and a base are mixed, a neutralization reaction occurs.
 This reaction is a double replacement reaction where the products are always water and a salt.

Acid-Base Titrations
 Titration is a quantitative technique used to analyze acid
(or base) solutions of unknown concentration.

Example: Titration of an unknown acid with a standardized base.


1. Add a measured volume of the unknown acid solution (the
analyte) to an Erlenmeyer flask.
2. Add a couple drops of indicator to the flask. An indicator
is a substance that changes color depending on the pH of
the solution (more on this later).
3. Use a base solution with a known concentration (the
titrant) to fill the buret. Record the initial volume.
Slooowly (one drop at a time) add base to the acid
solution until the neutralization is complete. Record the
final volume.

BUT, how do you know when the neutralization is complete? The reaction is complete when enough
base has been added to neutralize all the acid. In other words, the reaction is complete when moles of
OH– added = moles of H+ initially in flask. This point is called the equivalence point.

4. At the equivalence point, the indicator will change color because the solution will go from being
acidic (excess acid) to basic (excess base).
o The indicator we will use is called phenolphthalein. Phenolphthalein is clear in acidic
solution and bright pink in basic solution.
5. Once you notice a permanent color change, stop the titration and record the total volume of
titrant used.

Now what? By knowing the volumes of acid and base used, and the concentration of the known
(base) solution, we can calculate the concentration of the unknown (acid) solution.

Example
20.0 mL of HCl solution with an unknown concentration is titrated to the end point with __32.40_ mL of
0.10 M NaOH solution. What is the concentration of the HCl solution? (the “end point” of a titration indicates
(color) when the equivalence point has been reached)
Unit 10: Aqueous Chemistry – Acid-Base Titrations

Practice
1. In a titration, 25.00 mL of a 0.100 M NaOH solution is required to neutralize 15.00 mL of a solution
of HCl. What is the molarity of the acid?

2. What is the molarity of a 45.0 mL solution of KOH that is completely neutralized by 20.0 mL of a
0.500 M HBr solution?

3. What volume of 0.196 M LiOH is required to neutralize 25.0 mL of 0.413 M HI?

4. A 20.0 mL solution of Mg(OH)2 is titrated with a solution of 0.050 M HCl. The solution changes color
when 25.0 mL of the HCl solution have been added. What is the concentration of the Mg(OH) 2
solution?

5. A neutral solution is produced when 42.00 mL of a 0.150 M NaOH solution is used to titrate 50.00
mL of a sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution. What is the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution before
titration?

6. Vinegar must have a minimum of 5% acidity in order to earn the FDA seal of approval. The percent
acid in a sample is calculated as g acid/mL solution x 100%. A 5.00 mL sample of vinegar is titrated
with a 0.105 M solution of NaOH and the endpoint is reached after 40.30 mL of base is added. Does
this vinegar deserve the FDA seal of approval? Why or why not?

http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/animations/chang_7e_esp/crm3s5_5.swf
titration animation – HCl and NaOH