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fdG jQG

HdG IQGRh

VjQ
SSCG qdG e eqdG qdG Ied
dCJ
HG dG Y
qhCG e

MdG Y
qhCG e

HdG Ra
hCG PSCG

dG QW
e

J

Ie

bQdG gdG
e

LZGdG WdG cG

fJ .LZGdG WdG cd X G L

eqe
qG cEG Y GYe j CG eBG dG Gg jjCG H f CG fqj
.IqOG eGH aJ dG GQG
:qdG qqdG ah ZCG qb Qh e qj g h
GP jQhqdG G QSG Y qG YJ fCG Y : SCG @
.QH bdG
.gcJh IjG gG HQe e q fCG Y : qWCG h SCG @
: Y qG jQJ EG J jQ Y : H ae jQ @
.Fe q QNG .Lf Y e qNJ .M ZU .ShQG YGdGh UGh gG qgC qe : UMCG @
ShQG gG SG Y qG YJ jQ Y : jQdG @
qM JGQeh aQe Jh adCe Z hCG adCe Vh XJh
.FG
.Y PSCd GSh SGQO d GYe dG Gg j CG eCG
FGKEG gSh dG Gg cGh jqdG dG Y f G h
GOG Y LZGdG WdG cG GYCG qac f c .qdG JM
.qdDG Gg RE gdH qdG
qdD G

SdG
5

G fCG .1

16

qqdG qjdG OGYCG .2

30

qqdG qjdG OGYCG qdGh G .3

42

qqdG qjdG OGYCG Y dGh qdG .4

55

qqdG qjdGOGYCG Y idG .5

69

qaG GQdG M fCG .6

78

MGh GP hCG LQqdG e Oe .7

89

SqdG .8

105

MGh AMEG M fCG .9

127

cG XqdG .10

qjOY fCG

qjL fCG
MGh AMEG

150 jRGe eh e WJ Y UG jGhqdG .11


165

jG qG .12

182

VCG qYHQ .13

202

IdG dG dG .14

215

AdG RGqdG .15

qSg fCG

G fCG

eRQGG
Y h a dCG e hCGh dG Gg SDe fC eRQGG cP G Y cP GPEG
h G Y e H G Y SG e hCG gh dG hGG h G
SBG We iMEH dh dG eRQGG Se H g eRQGG h ,Y db
AY jh (`g235)- 850 Y H Jh OGH TYh (`g164) 780 Y SdG
Gg VjQ YCG QYH ''eRQGG Y'' g ddG dG Y HhQhCG
.QdG c VjdG YCG MCG dG AY j H ,dG
d qdG qHdG qG

qdG qah qd b
SQ j CG qG Oc
bT MCG

, 25 , 4 Y dG qHb

SCG
? U GOY a d a OdG QNG c

dG OdG j
b d dG dG
dG Od Sb
Hb a c GPEG a dG
c GPEG CG b Y d

Gg OHCG g e 24 hJ HG dH e Me b
.GU hj b Y
? W U OGYCG qfCG Y GPEG G

a Od jbEG dG bH

qCG jCG f dG Jg
. b `d Ye a

U OY g hCG OY
j h 1 e cCG W
f Yh 1 Y EG dG

Sj

(*)

edG VY ddG G e dM c
W U OY Y d
,

31
*

13
*

7
*

15
*

e hGL 1000 e UCG dG dG OGYCG JJ Yh h MCG CGH


: j c
qdG Od qjbEG dG
dG OdG Y a qdG
J b qd dG dG
M a = bq+rT Y a Hc
OY r h W U OYq
b e b UCG W U
SdG qj b h G j a
dG bH r h dG QN q h

Y hL

MCG hL

q hL

10

10

15 14 13 12 11

15 14 13 12 11

16 17 18 19 20

20 19 18 17 16

12 11 10

................

................

................

KdG hGG e hL d dH 97 OdG Lj OY CG (CG


KdG hGG e hL d dH 574 OdG Lj OY CG (
e h OM ?Y hL h hL H e OY Lj g (
jOhCG g JJ e ?Y h hL H ce jOhCG LJ g (O
6

dhG eGY AGL EG 490 ,


95
225

56
490

225 , 95 , 56 ddG OGYCG e OY c a (1


( 95,225 ) CG.. h ( 56,490 ) CG.. Y HG (2

ddG jdG OGYCG M bCG EG NG (3


J G h dG hG fG

Y dG j

207

330
540

7..

3 h 2 Y d Hb OdG j d SG bdH * edG dM c VY (CG

G fCG

(G G L YCG)
345 * ;
. 9 h 5 Y d HdG h 900 h

;
7* 68 bdG f
*180
800 H IQG OGYCG c LhCG (

qWCGh SCG
4

Y dG qHb
1 f

40

440

81

Y dG J dG J cPG 100 e UCG OGYCG H e (1


4 Y 68 b bH h 4 Y 2768 b bH Qb (CG (2
: dG hG cCGh fCG (

1681

75

875

68

2768

OdG
4 Y dG bH

Sj ZGdG G h fCG
4527 = ...... x 100 + 27
71845 = ........ x .... + ....

265 = ...... x 100 + 65


35291 = ..... x 100 + 91

(1

U OY a M 17143 = a + b jOY T Y 17143 OdG cCG (2


bQCG GPe.100 e UCG W U OY b h 100 `d Ye W
17143 Od dH b OdG
4 Y 43 b bHh 4 Y 17143 b bH Qb (3
15075 , 375700 , 1152 , 657 ddG OGYCG f (4
W U OY a M a + b T Y OGYCG g e OY c cG (CG
100 e UCG W U OY b h 100 `d Ye
b bHh 4 Y b bH H Qb HdG OGYCG e OY d dH (
. 4 Y d aGG b OdG
OdG c GPEG 4 Y d Hb (99 e cCG) OY j
(GdG bQh OMBG bQ) jNCG bQ e qG
4 Y d Hb
qG OdG b bH f g 4 Y OY b bH
. 4 Y jNCG bQ e

xJ
4
2131404

Y dG J dG J ddG OGYCG H e cPG -CG (1

, 12345678 , 10254324 , 235348 , 71 , 275


4 Y HdG OGYCG e OY c b bH ge -

Y d Hb Y G OdG d Sj * edG dM c VY (2
2586482*8

7347*

340*

18*4

qH ae j
9 h5

h 4 Y bdG f d Hb OdG j d f c e bQ V
( G G L YCG ) 73 , 5 4 , 8 6

: qG
dG Jg h 5 hCG 0 OMBG bQ j CG j 5 Y d Hb 8 6 d
65 hCG 60 g jNCG bQ e G OdG Ea

(1

Hb jNCG bQ e G OdG j CG j

Y d Hb 8 6 d @
8 60 g OdG Ea GPEG 4 Y d
9 Y d Hb ebQCG j CG j 9 Y d Hb 8 60 d @
4 g G bQ PEG
8460 g G OdG

9 h 5h 4

Me
Y dG j 8 4 60 OdG CG ShQG YGdG G LdH cCJ
5940 h 5040 M 54 Od dH dG f OYH (1
.HLEG U e ? G g e 73 Od dH (2

25
25

G fCG

80

280

Y dG qHb

Y dG J dG J cPG 100 e UCG OGYCG H e (CG 1 f


25 Y 38 b bHh 25Y2538b bH Qb (
: dG hG cCGh fCG (
62

1162

25

325

38

2538

OdG
25 Y dG bH
2

Sj ZGdG G h fCG
9537 = ........ x 100 + 37
50875 = ....... x .......+ .......

f
(1

462 = ........ x 100 + 62


29219 = ........ x 100 + 19

W U OY a M 7887 = a + b j OY T Y 7887OdG cCG (2


7887 Od dH b OdG bQCG GPe.100 e UCG W U OYb h 100 `d Ye
25Y 87 b bH h 25 Y 7887 b bH Qb (3
1537 , 173200 , 1432 , 675 ddG OGYCG f
100 `d Ye W U OY a M a + b T Y OGYCG g e OY c cG (CG (4
100 e UCG W U OY b h
aGG b OdG b bHh 25Y b bH H Qb HdG OGYCG e OY d dH (
. 25 Y d
bQ e qG OdG c GPEG 25Y d Hb (99e cCG) OY j
. 25 Y d b jNCG
bQ e qG OdG b bH f g . 25 Y OY b bH
. 25 Y jNCG
9

J
Y ddG OGYCG e OY c b bH OM
,12345678925 , 33200 , 2561 , 73
3 Y h 25 Y d Hb OdG d Sj dG VY
,1 6 , 8 2
.GQjO 15 g aQ M b K h ffO 10 g c K
. ebCG OdG dP e h dG e GOY c iTG
ddG dG H e jG K dG G g e
O 3130 , O 3125 , O 3120
25

1
2
3

Y dG qHb

Y ddG OGYCG e OY c b bH g e (1 1 f
808 , 647 , 157 , 94 , 16
8 Y ddG OGYCG e OY c b bH g e (2
6856835112 , 867112 , 2112 , 112
8 Y ddG OGYCG e OY c b bH g e (3
1567567173 , 236173 , 5173 , 173

Ye W U OY a M a + b T Y5283 OdG cCG (CG (1 2 f


1000 e UCG W U OY b h 1000 `d
8 Y b OdG b bH h 8 Y 5283 b bH H Qb (
375720 , 41252 ,3528 ddG OGYCG f (2
W U OY a M a + b T Y OGYCG g e OY c cG (CG
. 1000 e UCG W U OY b h 1000 `d Ye
bH h 8 Y b bH H Qb HdG OGYCG e OY d dH(
? J GPe 8 Y d aGG b OdG b
OdG c GPEG 8 Y d Hb (999e cCG) OY j
bQ h OMBG bQ ) INCG dG ebQCG e G
8 Y d Hb (G bQ h GdG
e G OdG b bH g 8 Y OY b b H
8 Y INCG dG ebQCG
10

J
: 8 Y ddG OGYCG e OY c b bH cPCG
796864 , 9767439 , 574024 , 67355 , 984
8 Y d Hb OdG j d Sj dG , Ie c VY
6597924348 , 674536 , 4562
OY .NCG H h MCG H Gjc Y e qc IU Y 8 d
: dG hH qe dG g GjdG
8 dG
62

7 dG
46

6 dG
31

5 dG
28

4 dG
18

3 dG
9

2 dG
10

1
2
3

1 dG
11

VCG S G Y dG AGG GjdG OY UCa dG iMEG YV


? G AGG GjdG OY g e .AGG GjdG OY

qH ae jQ
1 j

G fCG

Yh 5 Y d Hb 12571 OdG j d Sj dG VY

: qG
5

hCG 0 OMBG bQ c GPEG

Y d Hb 12571 OdG j
0 hj OMBG bQ :hCG dG

8 Y d Hb 1.0

190 h 180 h 170

OdG c GPEG 8 Y dG 12571 0 OdG j


h 160 h 150 h 140 h 130 h 120 h 110 h 100 g 1 0J qdG OGYCG
8 Y dG j a 160h 120 OGYCG g H e CG Mf
1257160 hCG 1257120 g GOdG GPEG

hj OMBG bQ : fqdG dG
8 Y d Hb 15 OdG c GPEG 8 Y dG 125715 OdG j
, 185 , 175 ,165 , 155 , 145 , 135 , 125 , 115 , 105 ddG OGYCG e OY CG Lj
8 Y dG j , 195
Wd j GdG GOdG g 1257160 h 1257120 qEa dHh
5

11

2 j

qW U OGYCG g dqdG TCG VCG

GPEG ddG TCG e T c b g e


YG EG j W U OY fCG Y
. JMe TCG qCGh { 274 h 279 h 120 h 715 h 292 }
.TCG g SQ qdG f OYG j : Me

: qG

hCG 120 a GPEG 3 Y d Hb OY g A G 292 hCG 120 a GPEG 4 Y d Hb OY g B HG ( 8Y d HdG MdG OdG)120 a GPEG 8 Y d Hb OY g C dG ? HG h G GPEG g e
? G g e
279

3 j

j c dH S fGN 5 Obh jRJ


760 - 475 - 950 - 640 - 225

jOY jH hCG hH eEG A G fGG e GN c h aQ jH A MGh GN


OdG jdG c V hdG c CG Y GPEG GN H OLG FdG OM

: qG
Gd 3050 g fGG d qG dG
hdG h OdG jdG c Ea OdG jdG c V g hdG c CG
3 Y d Hb OY g
GOY j 3050 e W GPEG dG OdG G dG j adG jdG GN Y d GPEG
3 Y d Hb
.Gd 950 g adG jdG c CG SG
? G fGG e GN H OLG FdG GPEG ge
12

UMCG
dG dG dG OdG Y a dG dG Od jbEG dG
OY r h W U OY q M a = bq + rT Y a Hc J b d
b e b UCG W U
dG bH r h dG QN q h SdG j b h G j a
GPEG a dG dG Od Sb d dG b dG dG OdG j
hj b Y a Od jbEG dG bH c GPEG CG b Y d Hb a c
GU

G fCG

f Y h 1 Y EG dG j h 1 e cCG W U OY g hCG OY
bQ e G OdG c GPEG 4 Y d Hb ( 99 e cCG) OY j
4 Y d Hb ( GdG bQ h OMCG bQ) jNCG
jNCG bQ e G OdG b bH f g 4 Y OY b bH
4 Y
bQ e G OdG c GPEG 25 Y d Hb ( 99 e cCG) OY j
25Y d Hb jNCG
jNCG bQ e G OdG b bH f g 25Y OY b bH
25 Y
dG ebQCG e G OdG c GPEG 8 Y d Hb (999e cCG) OY j
8 Y d Hb (G bQ h GdG bQ h OMBG bQ ) INCG
INCG dG ebQCG e G OdG b bH g 8 Y OY b b H
8 Y

13

`` ` ` jQ`` ` ` `
H e cPCG dG Y AGLEG hO
7 OdG j d f c e bQ V
bH f d dG ddG OGYCG
3 h 5 h 2 Y d Hb
8 Y dG
73 , 5 4 , 8 6
81076 , 11623 , 51228 , 623 , 8112
(G G L YCG)
923600
75368974623 ,
OdG j d f c e bQ V
M b K h ffO3 g c K 8
9 h 5 h 8 Y d Hb
ffO 5 g aQ
G L YCG ) 73 , 5 4 , 8 6
dG g e OdG f c iTG
( G
e , 1296 dP He aO h bCG h
IGG dG OY g
dG bH h QN SG dBG SGH OM
Y
d
HdG
OGYC

G
g
e
9
7
`d jbEG
1325 h 3500 ddG OGdG H e
15 Y 267 (CG
507h 7707 h 77 h 773 h 147 h
235 Y 5532 (
? 763 h
824 Y 33555 (
jdG OGYCG qM bCG EG NG 10 UCG `ge'' dW HCG HEG Y LQ CS
:ddG 5 h 4 h 3 h 2 `d bdG f Ye OY
36650 3600 588 255
,
,
,
OY VCG ''HLCa'' 10 h 9 h 8 h 7 h 6 h
51975 5400 840 595
TCG OY dG jCG OY SCG jCG
W U OY UCG Y HG 11 qU ie e ''J e a dG
.HLEG g
3 Y dG j h d d
bdG f 5 h 4h
H Me dG e VQCG b
? 15 Y dG OdG Gg j g
122 H h 900 HG
? 20 Y dG OdG Gg j g
U OGYCG fCG Y GPEG gGH g e
? W
qCG H.
2004

Y d Hb OY g 2
+ 2 2006
73
74
75
7 Y d Hb 2 + 2 + 2 qCGh

14

, 5454 : ddG OGYCG f (1


? MJ GPe ? 101 Y e MGh qc b QN g e
dH qJ OdG GP f fH cGh bQ GP GOY cCG (2
.bQCG HQCG P OY Y
? MJ GPe ? 101 Y b QN g e
.dP qa

12

: ddG OGYCG f (1
748748 , 103103 , 351351 , 512512
1001 h 13 h 11 h 7 Y e qc b QN g e
qJ . f OdG GP fH cGh bQCG KK GP GOY cCG (2
.bQCG qS P OY Y
? MJ GPe ? 1001Y b QN g e
.dP qa
.? dEG qUJ e J g (3

13

G fCG

1919 ,3838 , 6767 ,2323

15

OdG f 14
54a , 27a , 18a MCG SG dBG SH
? gJh dG J feEH g ? MJ GPe
a = 12345679

qqdG qjdG OGYCG

RGqdG H HCG
dG dG EG GYO jdG OGhdG e GMGh c h OGH TY GjEG W g
TCG e .dG Ge HGQdG Ue dP j gh eSEG dG
QdG GP G Hc CG c .''QG dG''h ''hG'' c JdDe
VGeCG RGdG c jh jW eR AWCG Y YG QG h c
h Ge IY JG IdG EG RGdG c LJ bh .Yf e hCG WCG
Xh 1745 Y Gh QG Hc LJ W YCG bh , jQGJ
.jW eR c Y J HhQCG dG c
d qdG qHdG qG

H e NCG CG qfEGh
GgP bNCG gP og Ea
bT MCG

16

qqdG qjdG OGYCG


SCG
ddG TCG e T c b H MG 1

qqdG qjdG OGYCG

.U e IMGh ddG HLEG eJ HQCG b 9,48 - 7,6 2


. 2,88 ; 2,42 ; 1,88 ; 2,28
? eG HLCG H e dG HLEG g e (1
? WG HLEd J J g (2
. ddG TCG e T c M UdG H bH jJ b HG H YEG 3

.P e QOdG JQGh MNP e dG dG 4


Me CGh 8,7 cm hj MNP G G Y GPEG PH MG
3,564 cm2 hJ
ddG G MCG MG 5
12,5 m
8m

17

3,7 m
15,9m

2,13 m

5m

0,2 m

: MCG 6
7,38 : 12,5

101,25 : 4

0,32 : 0,6

2,513 x 10
21,34 : 10

dBG TT Y

;
;

2,38 : 0,9

120,7 x 1000
923,005 : 1000

51,7 ; 0,007 ; 11,54 ; 25,23584

68 : 0,04

: MCG 7
; 0,572 x 104 (CG
; 789,1 : 106 (

ddG OGYCG QXEG c (CG 8


UdG QR SG hH SG

Y OLG OdG Gg SG c .SG dBG TT Y 58,17 OdG cG (


? 58170 ; 5817 ; 581,7 ddG OGYCG QXE TdG
. ddG GAGG e AGL c dG Hc Y UdG Vh Y dG bh 9
.dG AGLEG hH SG G UdG V
13,2 x 15,6 = 20592
;
125,33 x 0,12 = 150396 ;

0,25 x 14,7 = 3675


3,15 x 1,002 = 35702

; 2,26 x 3,25 = 7345


; 253 x 0,0002 = 00506

qWCGh SCG
qqdG qjdG OGYCG
1 f
Y OY g 13,72 @
OdG Gd dG AG j 13 @
d dG AG j 72 h
Hc g

1372

hCG

1372
2

(1
? 5,432 Od dG AGh dG AG ge (2
1372
100

a
10 n

HdG @

100
10
a
IQU
Y
13,72 dG Od
n
10
n = 2 h a =1372 M

Y Hc AG
a
IQU dG
10
n

1342
10 2

72

13 +

72
100

13,72 Qb

IQU Y OdG Gg cCG

W U j OY nh a M
2 f

AG
qdG
13

OdG

: qdG hG J qCGh fCG

13,72

31
10

2,575
25
047

0
3

18

3 f
a
10

Y Hc Le qY OY qc @
a
U GOY a h n M n IQU
10
.qW

IQU Y ddG OGYCG e OY c cCG -CG


W U G OY n h a M
7 5 7
5, 5 ; ; ; ;13,123
5 4 20

U GOY a h n M 

10

10

IQU

IQU Y Hc SG-
ddG OGYCG e OY d
.W U GOY n h a M


Y Hc dS qY OY qc @

.qW

-13,125 ; -1,4 ; -1,25 ; -5,5

; -0,35

4 f
10 n

10 7

10 4

10 3

10 2

101

ddG OGYCG f -1

.dhCG eGY AGL G e c a -CG


? e MGh d dhCG SGdG g e -
qqdG qjdG OGYCG

? Y OY g

2
3

? Y OY g

a
10 n

2 OdG Hc g-CG
3
80 OdG g .M bCG EG 80 NG-
120
120
? Y OY g 105 OdG g -
84

OdG g ?

IQU Y

-2

.Le c Od M bCG EG d Hc ba d
dhCG SGdG fc GPEG jY GOY dG OdG Gg j
5h 2 hCG 5 hCG 2 g b d

J
8
10 3
51 12 15
;
;
;
;
44 14 5 ; 6
8
60

ddG OGYCG H e jdG OGYCG g e

H ae j
GOY n h a M

a
10 n

IQU Y cGh jdG OGYCG EG ,ddG OGYCG H e ,J


27 , 630 , 15 , 21 W U
60 4500 66

19

24

G
1

21 OdG g (
24
M bCG G 21 hCG f
24
21 3x 7 7 7 jd @
=
= =
24 3x8 8 2 3
. M bCG G d 21 Od Hc g( 73 hCG ) 7 Hda PEG
24
2
8
21
7
IQU Y Hc dH h Y OY g( hCG) OdG PEG 2 g 8 Od hCG SdG@
24
8
:j c W U GOY n h a M a n

? Y OY g

10

7 7x5 3
875 875
= 3 3=
=
8 2 x5 (2x5)3 10 3

15 OdG g (
66
15 5
5
=
=
66 22 2x11
hCG Sb d 22 G

? Y OY g
.jY d( 15 hCG )
66

5 Oda dHh 11 OdG gh 5 h 2 Y j


22
630
. 27 h 4500
jOd dH dG f YG (
60

qqdG qjdG OGYCG


1

dG QG G f

1
C h B h A h O dG Yh SdG fG (2
Ph Nh M dG Ua ge (

ddG UdG d dG E h

Dh

6,5

h -3 , 5 h

-2 , 5

h0

20

f
G dG dG eCJ (1
2

dG e f c KGMEG cG -CG
Le Ua d dG dG g e -
dS JJ d dG dG g e -
dG hG CGh fG -

qqdG qjdG OGYCG

Hh Gh D h A

JqdG

UdG

qKGMEG hR

qdG

(1,2)
(-4,1)

B(1,2)

-2

-4
H( , )
(3,0)

-3

eh ReQ
dG dG OGYCGY
dG dG OGYCGY
dG jdG OGYCGY

N
Z
D

`H ef
`Hh
`Hh

`H ef c
: Y B h A d LG dG dG OGYCGY
Z + = {0 ; 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; ...} = N
g A YG e Y c j A  B
B YG e Y jCG ddG dG dG OGYCGY
Z - = {... ; -4 ; -3 ; -2 ; -1 ; 0}
e Y bCG Y Lj j A  B
LG jdG OGYCGY
B YG EG j A YG

ddG jdG OGYCGY


21

Z +
ZD+
D-

Y B h A d
g B h A YG OqJG @
A YG EG G UdG Y
B YG EG hCG
`H d efh
Y g B h A YG WJ @
EGh AYG EG G UdG
. B YG
. B `H d efh
C = {-1 ; 2 ; 4}

OY jCG g W U OY c CG Mf
f U
:CG f
N  Z : fh '' Z YG IG N YG''
Z  D CG jCG Mf

B = {-1 ; 0 ; 2 ; 2,25 ; 3 ; 4,15 ; 29 ; 37}

: ddG YG f
h A = {2 ; 3 ; 15 ; 29}

`H Gh fG (1
; 2,5....C ; A....B ; -1....A ; C....A -CG
D ....Z ; B .... D ; C....N ; A.... Z -
ddG YG UY OM(2
; A  B ; B  C ; C  A ; C  Z - -CG
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2....A

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AB
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Ua dG A dG Y K SGc Y SdG fCG (1


A dG Ud He Ua dG A' dG SQG -CG (2
? A dG Ua dG OdG 154 ; 27 ; 175 ddG jdG OGYCG H e g e -
? He g e . A' dG Ua Y c OH GPEG Y (3
3,5

a
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hCG -a jCG d efh - a ddG dG OdGg He Ea Le jc GOY a c GPEG


b

a a
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a
b

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+

a
b

a
b

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jCG j fEa Le jc GOY a c GPEG


b

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5
9

11

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2
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3
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2
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4
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19 11
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LG jdG OGYCG Y Q +
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2
5
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a
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a<b

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f
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7 23 35 105

a > b h qW U GOY b h a h CD = b h AB = a M qdG qdG qeCJ 2


C

f d Le jc GOY @
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h CP Y b dHh jc OGYCH Y (
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b
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14
15

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15
; 2 ; 84 ; 4 (CG

25

f
T HSCG MCG N gGQO Y j G f dG IQGG LQO dG hG 4
jO
MCG

qdG

AHQCG

AKdG

KEG

dG

-4

-1

-2

-3

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? SCG Gg N e IQGM LQO qbCG g e (1


? G ddG IQGG LQO g e (2

? e dS IQGM LQO cCG g e (3


? He IQGM LQO a S dG jCG g e (4

.SCG Gg G IQGG LQO jYJ qJQ -CG (5


.Qe e Y g IQGG LQO e -

LQe e dG SdG 5

JUa dGh B' hA' h B h Ah O dG Yh SdG fG -CG-1


D h C dG Yh -3h -2h + 3h + 2 h 0 GdG Y
16
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d
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qdG OGYCG fc e
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24

J


17
27

14
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12
7

15
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11
4

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1
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3
4

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3
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4
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11
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.HqdG OGYCG GqdG Y JUa qdG A,B,C,D,E qdG qQe e Y SQCG - 2


qdG QG G f

. P h N h M qdG Ua OqM - 1

f c OY c
e e IMh f
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GqdG Y JUa qdG Dh Ch B h A qdG SQCG - 2




10
11
<a<
3
3
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3

7
6

h 2 h1 h5
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M af c OY Ua K f SQCG - CG - 3
M b f c OY Ua L f SQCG -

f c Od G dG
f
.GWCG d IMc OI fh dG QG G f
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? A' Ua ge .jQdG
? O dGh A' dG H OA' dG ge ? O dGh A dG H OA dG ge (
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C dG SQCG (CG-2

2
4
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OD' h ODK OC' h OC Qb (
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25

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a
b

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b

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a
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b
a
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J
2
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7
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a =0

MCG - 1

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; a = 2 ; a = 6 ; a = 4

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a
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a
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b
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a
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b

a
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b

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. OI g dG b IMh - 2
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5
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5
3
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26

UMCG
W U G OY n h a M

a
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a
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b
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. a ddG dGOdGg He Ea Le jc GOY
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a
b

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a
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b
b
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d


c
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b
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N ..... Q+ ; 5 ..... Z ; - 545 ..... D

7cm dW e SGqc Y SQCG -

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; {1 ; -2 ; 2,5}...Q

21
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7

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5
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: dqdG YG f
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h A =  15 ; 5 ; 0, 7 ; 2 ; 3

. 4cm VYh
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5

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-1
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: dqdG TCG e T qc MCH

D YG IG YG g qCG (

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; A B

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25
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18
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10
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7
4

4
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5

14
35

5
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21

15
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; 33 ;
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120
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165

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28

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GqdG Y JUa qdG

F h E h D h C h B h A qdG qY - CG 

7
4

4
; -1,5 ; 11 ; 9 ; -2 ;
5

OF

h OE h OD h OC h OB h OA OHCG MCG -
.(G qc cPG)
M m c OY Ua ( OI ) e M f Y -
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p  3 = 0 M p c OY Ua ( OI ) e P dG Y - `g
5
m =
2

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qqdG qjdG OGYCG

9
E(2, 5, )
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29

; A(-2,1) ; I'(0 ; -1) dqdG qdG qY - 2


. (AI') G SQCG - CG - 3
? JJ g e . -3 Ua qdG (AI')e M qdG qY -
? Ua g e . -2 JJ qdG (AI') e N qdG qY -

; D( 25 ,  114) ; C(-3,5 ; 0) ;

7 1
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2
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(AdG) jdG FGQ dG HG


e Gdf jdG eh ,GdG Od TdG dG GhX jdG dG IbY e dG HG
Y g e Y jdG Y c dh ,VjdGh dG GdN GkQKBG J .gWSGh
L .fGbh SCGh dUCG d ke kY e Lh jdG Y kHfG MCG a .BG
c CG HdG eh .AdG Jee e GSG bh ,hb IY c Y j HhQhCG AY
Y kjJh IOe j gh .GkQb aQCGh AdG d ASG dG cCG e dG H XG
QdG jJ ch dG jJh AdG QfG Ve H j EG ddG jG dG
dG AY SG jf e jj eh IG dG Gg H Hh ,dG T Y
e c a Y YS keJ eJ EG OCG ,a GN AdH j CG jdGh Y SdG
,dSQ jY Y jJ dG Y IjY FSQ dG Hh.AHdGh dH G FG
.dG g h ,dG JQG h ,dG Lh Y KCG Fe J : FSQ K e Y

qe hCG SqdG a dY c
Qqa K da eS hCG
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30

dGh dG
dG jdG OGYCG Ye a
jdG OGYCG Ye a dG Y
: Y g Q+ LdG
CG . jJ @
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a+b=b+a

1 1 1
+ 
3 6 2

1 1 1 1
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(O

SCG
MG 1
1 1 1 (CG
+ +
2

1 1 1 1
+ + +
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: Ea Le jc GOGYCG c h bh a fc GPEG
a + b + c = (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

qqdG qdG OGYCG

SQdG g eJ

3
10

h HdG dH Se jOGYEG SQGdG iMEG eJ

2
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? SdG dH SdG edG f Y c OY SGH Y
.jQJ HQCG e Va j 3
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e LGd dG FbO dG Nh bdG N a HGdGh bdG K a ddGh
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? VdG Gg RfEG Ie ge .LGd dG bdG Y c OH Y

qWCGh SCG
1 f

a.VhdG e a H gOGYCG J UN jW PSCG Nj eJ Hd


H (ddG hCG LdG )QdG H j H Y dG OdG J c bQh Y j
.IY dGh OdG GP
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7,25 h 14 h 8 h 12,5 : dqdG OGYCG Y VhdG MCG a eJ HQG J(CG-1
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10

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10

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1 .

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3 +5,5 = 8,5

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(-7) +3

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+
+
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100
100
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8
8
7 7
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a 3
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2 2
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b
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2
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1
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? HdG YdGh eG YdG H (O
? edG YdGh SOdG YdG H (
CGh qdG hdG fCG (2
7-3 = 4

Y jOdGYdGh SdG YdG H IQGdG LQO JQG QGe M

3-(-2)=3+2=5

SdG YdGh HdG YdG H IQGdG LQO JQG QGe M

-4-(-7)= ... + = ....

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........ = ........ = ......

HdG YdGh edG YdG H IQGdG LQO JQG QGe M

........ = ........ = ......

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........ = ........ = ......

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2 7
2

qqdG qjdG OGYCG a dGh qdG

3
7 1
5 3

+ )(  )
16 12 4
4 5
2
4
( 3  ) (  1)
3
7

1 1 1
 
2 3 4
2 3 3
1+  +
3 4 5
1+

OHCG HV GPEG e

qjc OGYCG d h c h bh a Le c OY x 2
x 3 h x 7 M qd d qf
=
( = 
b

(1

dW HV

10

x 3
h x=2 h
= 
d 2
c
h a OGYCG qJQ
h b 
qjYJ JJ d h c 

OdG MCG (1 7
3+

MCG 3
;

1
7+
15

2
4 7 4 5

(1  ) ( + ) ;
7
5 8 13 11

; ( 1  2 + 1 ) ( 5 + 2 )

UdG H bH qjJ b YG (2
? qdG g qcJ a ,OdG Gd

(3 +

M qf qjc OGYCG c h
a 1
=
c 4
b
c

c
a

ha

b 1
=
a 2

h a MCG
b

M c h b h a OGYCG f

53

6 1
1 5 2
 )( +  )
5 10
5 7 3
5 9

27 5

MCG (CG 4

K K Kh K K c OY (
. 1 hj
3
9
? OdG Gg g e

5
7
h a=1
h b=
12
3
18
MCG 5
a b ; 1 1 1
 +  ; a (b + c) MCG
+
a b c
b c
21
5 (1  1 )x(1  1 )x(1  1 )x...(1  1 )x(1  1 )
(

)
(
)
2
3
4
99
100
a
+ 18  4
5
b
c

3
c=

qd de qjc GOY b h
ab=

1
6

a+b=
2

5
6

jOdG f 10

13

MCG

1 1
+
a b

A=

1 3 5 7 9 11

2 4 6 8 10 12

B=

2 4 6 8 10 12

3 5 7 9 11 13
AB

MCG

2 Od Hc c
FYh Wa : H HQCG Ld 14
h a 11
d
b
3
qh MCG eCGJ Gdhh
CG qH
e OYCG MCG S Y qRh
j c qde a + c  2 2
c2
2
a2
2
=
= h
=
h
Fd YCGh Wd G K YCG
b+d+3
3
d+3
3
b+3
3
eCGqdG bGh qG G SNCG KK
.hqdH bdG qh MCG
qf U OGYCG d h c h b h a 12
OGYCG H e dG OdG g e (1
.eCGqdG MCG e Y j qdG dqdG
b - d h b + d M qd de

2 3 2
B= (  ) 2
3 5 3

; A=

(1 

1 3
 )
3 5
2

1 3 2 1
C = (1   )
3 5 3 2

G qCG Y MGh qc e MCG (2


.GQjO 90 g jRJ bh qdG G

ad=bc
a a+c
=
b b+d

h qd d
a c
=
b d

a ac
=
b bd

(CG qCG qH
(

54

Y idG
Q q`dG qjdG OGYCG

AdG Y jdG M HG HL
Sh (SGN) SW dh .dH hG dG dG Y H M H HL dG Y HCG g
,dG e dG HL Y a .kfdG ,dG ,dc dG d j c M ,adG
gdG a jW NOCG fCG dP e ,Ad dG MdG Y T c. gZh ,QdG ,HGPEG
GQY jJ CT dh ,G M ee dGR jW gh ,eG SGH H dG Y
.gdG FdGh G gdG
UG J Y Yj dG CH HL Y - 1 :e cf H iNCG Fc acG
.dG Y dG dG OGG H EG HL UJ - 2 .dP KG jG dGh ,bG
- 4 .dG dG NG Y Vqd ,gdG d d dG ,GfG jc GSG EG UJ - 3
a jW NOCG - 5 .QdG Gg f G M j jG dGh ,GMd Hb Z Qh U e
.G M ee dGR jdG gh (G AG) eG SGH H dG Y gdG
d qdG qHdG qG

fX AS AG a AS GPEG
qgJ e Oj e qUh
qdG

55

dG jdG OGYCG Y idG


SCG

. Ib IQU Y Hc YG . 3 cm V W hj VCG je e (1 1
8 cm hj V W hj He (2
. 2 Od Ib IQU Y M Hch Hc YG
Ib IQU Y Hch fG M Hc YG 16 cmhj e V W 2
. 4 Od

SG g dG
IYb hCG d e
gdG hO qUN hCG
...Y

qHe qf
qd ec
a oj OY
qHe U
c Od

b = 675

.SCG eG MG H e dG GG g e 3
219 ; 110 ; 120 ; 210 : g 220 f
MCG (1 4
102 - 112 ; 42 - 52 ; 32 - 42 ; 22 - 32 ;12 - 22 ;02 - 12

: Od dH J e (2
.SG dBG SH J U e
1452 - 1462

a = 648

M : b h a jOdG qdqhCG eGY AGL EG qa (CG - 1 5


. (a, b) CG..h (a, b) CG.. : `d J SG (
: CG M (2
. ec He 3 x b OdGh a OdG (CG
2
G
C
..
*
G
C
..
=
(a, b)
(a, b)
a x b (
5
. BC = 211 h AB = AC = 2 M e ABC 6
AB2 + AC2 = BC CG H

qWCGh SCG
1 f
2
2
2
2
2
c = (- )x (- )x(- )x(- )x(- ) h b = (-1,5) x (-1,5) h a = (-4) x (-4) x (-4)
3
3
3
3
3
(-4) Od jhe OGYG Kd AGL g a

qf qjc GOY x d
zqHe x {hCG zKEG Iqb x { CGj x 2
zqe x { hCG zKK Iqb x { CGj x 3

MCG

OdG
ddG HdH dP Y f

a = (-4)3

b = (-1,5) x (-1,5) = (-1,5)2

f dc
2
2
2
2
2
2
c = (- )x (- )x(- )x(- )x(- ) = (- )5 h
3

56

eJ

xn

e cCG qW U GOY n h qjc GOY x c GPEG


x Od jhe OGYCG n AG
( x `d jhe OGYCG n AGL )
x n = x x x x x x .... x x
x Od Iqb qJ x n HdG
.IqdG g dO qj n OdG
x1 = x @
x 0 = 1 Ea d d GOY x c GPEG @
0 n = 0 Ea d d qW U GOY n c GPEG @

HdG Ea

1 J
5 4
)
4
-2547 0
(
)
78965

qqdG qjdG OGYCG Ye a idG

(-

3
( )5
5

(-7,5)2

(-4)3

(-1)50

(-1)27

115

MCG

2 J
(-5)4
10 3

34
1 3
x (- )
2
5
2

73
(2 )5

MCG

(SG dBG SH ib M) 2 f
. 2 7 MCG (CG - 1
: dqdG HQCG MGG JG SG dBG SH (
HGqdG MG

dqdG MG

fqdG MG

hCG MG

QdG Y VEG
=

OdG NOCG

qQdG Y VEG

OdG NOCG

x y hCG y

. CG GDdG fh SG TH G OdG Qb (
.SG dBG SH MCG (2
(-537)2 ; 79 2 ; (149 )3 ; (29 )6 ; 12 5
6
2 21
(4,15)19 ; 5 ; (-3,5)11
217
(-5)9 ;

57

x2

hCG

: Me
Qq dG SG BG H

EE

J
: ddG OGYCG e OY c OMBG bQ ge (CG-1
65 ; 64 ; 63 ; 62 ; 6

? 6 2157 OdG OMBG bQ j e (


: ddG OGYCG e OY c OMBG bQ ge (CG-2
46 ; 45 ; 44 ; 43 ; 42 ; 4

: 4 312 OdG OMBG bQh ?


OY qHe
SG SGH
x 2 qQdG SG

4 75 OdG OMBG bQ j e (
759 2M (CG -3

: ddG KqdG MGG JG SG dBG SH (


ddG MG

fdG MG

hCG MG

QdG Y VEG QdG Y VEG


x2
=

OdG NOCG
759

.G GDdG fh SG TH G OdG Qb
OY qc ec qHe qf
IQU Y Hc J
c Od qHe

(edG HG) 4 f
q c Od qHe IQU a dqdG OGYCG e OY qc cCG

49
121
;
; 100 ; 25
81
64
2500 ; 400 ; 0,25 ; 6,25
;

.ec qHe j HqdG OGYCG e OY qc

1 J

: dqdG OGYCG H e edG qHG g e (1


4
25

; 49 ; 40

16

15

1 e qbCG ec qHe N YEG (2


. 100 e qbCG qHe qdG qdG qdG OGYCG qc cPCG (3
58

2 J
.ec He g ddG eG e c CG M
13 + 2 3 + 33 + 4 3 + 5 3

3
3
3
13 + 2 3 + 33 + 4 3 1 + 2 + 3

13 + 2 3

qH ae j
.ddG eG e c MCG (1
? MJ GPne 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 ;

1+3+5+7+9; 1+3+5+7;1+3+5; 1+3;

? ddG Yd dH J ge (2
1 + 3 + 5 + ... + 1997 + 1999 ;

1 + 3 + 5 + .... + 97 + 99 ;

G
qqdG qjdG OGYCG Ye a idG

1 + 3 = 4 = 22
1 + 3 + 5 = 9 = 32
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 +9 + 11 = 36 = 62

1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = 25 = 52

1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16 = 42

.ec qHe fCG Me HqdG eG eCH


: qdc HqdG eG Hc (2
1 + 3 = 4 = 22 = (

3+1 2
)
2

1 + 3 + 5 = 9 = 32 = (
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16 = 4 2 = (
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 = 36 = 62 = ......... ; 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = 25 = 52 = .........

5 +1 2
)
2

7 +1 2
)
2

CGh fCG

1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 + 19 + 21 = .........

: j e J Se Y GOYGh e
1 + 3 + 5..... + 97 + 99 = (

99 + 1 2
) = 50 2 = 2500
2

d dH J ge
1+3+5.....+1997+1999

59

(ec H HdG QG)

5 f

: ddG KdG MGG JG SG dBG SH


ddG MG

fdG MG

QdG Y VEG QdG Y VEG


=

qHe a OY c GPEG
HdG QG Ea ec
qdG LG OdG g d
Od jhe He j
a `H d efh a

hCG MG

OdG NOCG
1444

? MJ GPe.Y G OdG He MCG


: CG f 382 = 1444
HqdG QdG qCG hCG 1444 Od HqdG QdG g 38 OdG
.38 g 1444 Od
1444 =38

: ddG Hd`H dd efh


( 5 hj 25 `d HdG QG : CGf ) 25 =5
132 = 169 j 169 =13

1 J
: ddG OGYCG e OY d HdG QG g e (CG
10000 ; 400 ; 81 ; 64 ; 49 ; 36 ; 16 ; 9 ; 4 ; 1
400
81
9
: MG (
;
;
. 169
;
81
16
64
49

: SG dBG SH OM (
3200521 ;

204304

9025

6241

1024

109, 2025

54, 76

12, 25

2 J
123454321 ;
; 1234567654321

; 12345654321

: MCG (CG
: dqdG OGYCG e OY d HdG QG g e (
1234321 ;

12321

12345678987654321

121

; 123456787654321

60

qH ae j
.ec He fCG Mh A x B + 1OdG ddG G e dM c MCG (1
 A = 1111

B = 10005

 A = 111

B = 1005

111111555556

 A = 11

B = 105

(CG

Od HdG QG ge (2

qG
(CG - 1
SG SH

A x B + 1 = 11 x 105 + 1 = 1156

ddG MG

fdG MG

QdG Y VG QdG Y VG
=

hCG MG

OdG NOCG
1156

qqdG qjdG OGYCG Ye a idG

34

TdG Y CGf
1156 = 342 PEG

A x B + 1 = 111 x 1005 + 1 = 111556 = (334)2

A x B + 1 = 1111 x 10005 + 1 = 11115556 = (3334)2

(
ebQCG OY C dPh111111555556Od HdG QG Y d SG SG (2
33334 gh OdG Gd HdG QG SG S SSEH dh IdG j
(333334)2 = 111111555556 CG CG
(ddG idG)
.

52 OdG jdG HdG YCG ( CG -1

: ddG HQCG MGG JG SG dBG SH (


HGqdG MG

ddG MG

fdG MG

QdG Y VG QdG Y VG QdG Y VG


=
-2
(x y hCG ) y x

hCG MG

OdG NOCG
5

.CG GDdG fh TdH qG OdG Qb


Ea W U OY n h qd de qf U GOY a c GPEG
an OdG eJ a -n HdG
a -1 =

61

1
a

a -n =

1
an

J
(-2)-3 ;

10 -3

-2
; (-4)

5 -1

4
(- )-2 ;
3

-2
2
( )-3 ; (0,5)
5

(CG : MCG
(

idG UN
N idG Ud OGeG g Q

YG idG UN
qEa f U jOY n h m h d d f U jOY b h a c GPEG

an
= a n-m
am

(a n )m = a nxm
a
an
( )n = n
b
b

an

a m = a n+m

(a x b)n = a n

bn

1 J
. f c Od Ib U cCG
(-8)12
(-8)5

(-3)11
(-3)7

(3,5)7 

-3

10 -3 
10 -7 x 10 2

10 4

5
5
; (- )3 x (- )8
2
2
-5

; (10 -5 ) 

2 J
Sj cGh fCG
12 8
= 12 5 ; (-7,25)6
12...
(-9)7
= (-9)11
...
(-9)

(-7,25)... = (-7,25)11
-7

5 -21
 5 ... 
(- 9 )  = (- 9 )

62

10 OdG ib

7 f

: dG hG J JCGh fG

10

-9

10

0,00001

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

0,001

10

100

12

10

Y OdG
Iqb IQU
10 `d
HdG
qjdG
Od

10000000

1 J
: ddG OGYCG e OY d HdG HdG YCG
qqdG qjdG OGYCG Ye a idG

97,645 x 10 2 ; 1,78 x 10 -5 ; 0,0362 x 10 7 ; 789 x 10 -4 ; 2,35 x 10 2

2 J
MCG (CG
1010 -1
9

10 4 -1
9

10 3 -1
9

101 -1
9

3 J
M bCG G NG
10 7 -1
8888888

10 5 -1
66666

10 4 -1
5555

10 3 -1
444

10 2 -1
33

4 J
948 x 102
948 x 102 = 0,948 x 105

CGh

2,35 x 105

2920 x 10-7 = ..... x 10-4

jOdG fQe jf (1

2,35 x 105 = 2350 x 102

948 x 102

2,83 x 10-4 = 2830 x 10...

2,35 x 105

CG M (CG

jOdG PEG Qb

: Sj Gh fCG (CG -2

2920 x 10-7 h 2,83 x 10-4

63

10 2 -1
9

jOdG Qb (

5 J
: dqdG OGYCG qjYJ JQ
3,25

x 10-2

31

x 10-3

; 5199 ; 3,685 x

10-2

; 5,2 x 103

8 f

Y Od qdG HdG

q CG qM (1
0,00243 dG Od a x 10n IQU Y Hc g HdG g qc
: dqdG Wd a OdG j e Hc qCG
? UdG b MGh bQ d @
? 0hj bqdG gh @
0,00243 dG Od qdG HdG J HdG g
MCG SG dBG SH (2
? MJ GPe 0,000056 : 68457932 ( 0,000002 x 0,00006 ( 9000000 x 40000 (CG
0,00243 = 0,0243 x 10-1 = 0,243 x 10-2

2,43 x 10-3 = 243 x 10-5

a x 10n

U OY

IQU Y Hc g Y Od qdG HdG

bqd d bqdG Ggh UdG b MGh bQ hP Y OY a h

1 J
: dqdG OGYCd qdG HdG YCG
165,42 x 105

GQe Y S

.fe KKh Nh Fe

65487,456

2 J
: dqdG OGYCG f
;

0,75 x 106

1,75

x 104

9,03

x 106

7,49512 x 1011

0,235 x 10-7

? qY Hc e OGYCG g CG (CG
.HqdG OGYCG e OY qd qjjJ b YCG (

3 J

.qY Hc IQU Y qdG cGh MG


;

10-2 + 10-1 + 100 + 102

0,235 x 104 x 10-6 + 4 x 10-2

4,23

x 211

0,532 + 235 x 10-3

270 x 102 x 2,5 x 10-5


7,5 x 107 x 105

64

4 J
d qY Hc YG .YS

h ej 365 qdG M ec IQhO qVQCG IdG J


.GdH IqG

5 J
YCG qK GZdH d qY Hc YCG .WQG Qe

5980

`H qVQCG IdG c QqJ


.dG d qjjJ b

OY L

9 f

qqdG qjdG OGYCG Ye a idG

qdG hG J CGh fG

65

GdH L

H L

UdG H bH L

bH L
UdG H

OdG

......................
260

300
......................

......................
263,8

......................
263,82

263,8179

......................

......................

......................

......................

2546,871

......................

......................

......................

......................

754,3728

......................

......................

......................

......................

164,191

UMCG
HdG Ea 1 e cCG qW U GOY n h qjc GOY x c GPEG @
x Od jhe OGYCG n AG eJ xn
xn = x x x x x x ... x x

x0
0n

=1
=0

( x `d jhe OGYCG n AGL)


x Od Iqb J xn HdG
IqdG g dO qj n OdG
qEa d d GOY
qEa d d GOY

x1 = x
x c GPEG
n c GPEG

qdG LdG OdG g d HdG QG Ea ec qHe a OY c GPEG @


a `H d efh a Od jhe He j
qEa qW U GOY n h qd de qf U GOY a c GPEG @
1
1
an OdG eJ a-n HdG
a -1 =
;
a-n = n
a

U jOY n h m h d d f U jOY b h a c GPEG @


.qEa qf
an
= an-m ;
m
a

(a n )m = a nxm

an

a m = an+ m

U OY n M a x 10 n IQU Y Hc g Y Od qdG HdG


0 bqd d bqdG Ggh UdG b MGh bQ hP Y OY a h f

66

`` ` ` jQ`` ` ` `
jW jCH MG
; B = 2 4 x 5 5 x 20 ; A = 2 5 x 13 x 5 5
D = (-2)7 x 2008 0

(-3,5)2

(-0, 5)7 ; C = 4 2 x 12, 25 x 5 4

dqdG GQdG qM bCG dEG NG 7


.qf qjc GOY y h x M
(-4x )  x y
6
 8y 2  x x 7
3 6

[(4)7 ]3 ;
4

3x 4 x (-5y 7 )
2x 3 x 3y 2

qqdG qjdG OGYCG Ye a idG

2(5a 2 )3 b12
B=
(5ab 2 )3

4
31000OMBG bQ SG 3 OMBG bQ g e

;
;

10

MCG 11

132, 25 ; 625 ; 25 ; 55225


169
81
1111 + 56 ;
2

(-2)11

(-5 )-14 ; 38

(-2 )8

(-7)6 x (-7)-12
; (-2)7
-10
(-7)

(-2)-5

(-2)11

edG e e qc cCG (1
4
.Iqb IQU YdqdG

4 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 ; 4 + 22 + 23 + 24

11 + 6 MCG 12
2

: `d qdH J g e (2
4 + 2 2 + 2 3 + ... 2 n ; 4 + 2 2 + 2 3 + ... + 2 75

3 e cCG W U OY n M

`d qdH J e f c OY a M a n IQU Y cCG 5


MCG 13

33332 + 2222 ; 3332 + 222 ; 332 + 22 ; 32 + 2


33333332 + 2222222 `d qdH J e

Qe 5,8 `H qVQCG IdG qS OY Qqj 14


.qej AdG e jd cS qc j .f
Y qdG dHh qY HH qY
b YG qK qdG qad edG SG
.SEG Gd qjjJ

67

(-2)-5

4 + 2 2 +2 3 ; 4 + 2 2

11111111 + 5556 2 ; 111111 + 556 2

111111111111 + 555556 2

(-7)6 x (-7)-12
; (-2)7
(-7)-10

dqdG GAGdG e AGL qc cCG 3


U Od Iqb IQU Y

g ec He U OY OMBG bQ CG KCG 9
9 hCG 6 hCG 5 hCG 4 hCG 1 hCG 0
[(4)7 ]3 ;

870, 25 ;

h a M an IQU Y cCG 2
f U GOY

116
2112
8  6 ; 12
99
7

3a 3b 6
A=
ab 2

12
8
; 10 ; 5 ; 1369 ; 361; 144

-3 4
5
) ; (-3)4 ; (2,1)2 ; (- )3
2
4

16 5
2511
;
; 10 -14
-3
9
4
5

MG ab 2 = 2 M jc GOY b h

MG

.f U OY

5
( )11
2
2
4
; (  )14 x ( )7
5
3
3
( )23
4
6
7
(- )5
17
17
7 ; (- 4 )3  x (- 64 ) ; 10 x 2 ;
 5 
2
317
125
( )5
3

: dqdG OGYCG e OY qd qjjJ bh qdG HdG YG 15


(0,048)7 ; 2456 5 ; 0,000954 x 10 -15 ; 12, 457 x 1017 ; 9452,457

OY g a dG GjdG e

2,025 x 1013 Y J fEG O e d 4,5 c GPEG 16

.MGh d a IGdG GjdG

.qFV S e 50 `H VQCG Y z M.87 Iqe{ IqdG IqdG J 17


3 x 105 km/s YH S a AdG j qdG adG g qFdG dG (1
.(YS 6 h j 365 dG QYH) .qFdG qd edH qjjJ b YEG
.VQCG Y IqdG g H Y edG Hh qY HH qY (2
dG c CG Y dG g MCG .dG c Iqe QH z M.87 Iqe{ c QqJ (3
. 2 x 1013 kg `H QqJ

68

qaG GQdG M fCG

jhdG
jg 650 S OhM jhH dh .jhdG H jcR H dG Y HCG g
,dGh ,dH T K ,Ie AdH TG ,dH TG ,jg 682 S Jh
dDe TCG .G UdG Y Jjf g kfCT dYCG YCG dh ,IG Yh
jhdG j a .(GOLG FGZh bG FY) hG Hc jhdG
jOhCGh dLh VQCG Y J c .hHh GLCGh cGc e eh AdG
,FMCGh gQHh AG Ich ,JQhOh jdG Yh ,AGdG Ic Y h ,gQfCGh
kjHCG kJJ dP JQ bh .GMh fh OL e a eh HdG Y K
.kbO
d qdG qHdG qG

Yh qY SqdG L EG S
Lh Y AGS a
CGdG

69

qaG GQdG M fCG


qaM GQY QNGh f
1 f

ddG dhG CG K fG - 1
r YT FGO Ub

L h l GH e

c V He
4c

dG
G
MG

Fb jFGO fGSCG
c h b h a OHCG e RGe c V e
h YJQGh r YT

G
S G MG
V G

V = abc
25,1 cm

YJQGh

50 cm

h 18,5 cm h 10 cm OHCG e M dH MCG - 2


75,2 cm h 56 cm h 23 cm OHCG e RGe - 3
? G Me g e
YT Fb jFGO fGSCG G H jJ b YCG - 4
123 cm

2 f

UG EG VCG , 6 Y G dG VG , 5 e WG , 5 e cCG GOY N - 1


? Y G OdG g e 6 Y dG bG K 30
dP a ? MJ GPe . NBG OY e bfG dG f YCG
WG K KK Y dG bG . Y e EG 15 VCG , KK HVGh GOY N - 2
. hCG JNG dG OdG
.dP a ?MJ GPe .FeR FH f Qb
3 f

BAC

jhGdG b Y x dH qY

70

H ae j
.gY VCG HQCG Y eH qj qeCG Yh .gY VCG N AT IdG CG Y
.GqdH AT Y a d - 1
CG Y Y a dH Y -CG
CG Y Y a dH Y -
? HCG h eCG h AT QYCG g e -
? S 14 H e MGh c Y j c -CG - 2
? GS K b e MGh c Y c c -
H dG g e
? HG h CG Y - CG - 3
? HGh CG Y -
? CG h CG Y -
GS 8 AT Y qCG Y GPEG e MGh c Y MCG - 4
qaG GQdG M fCG

G
5a

g HCG Y Ea eY a AT Y c GPEG - CG - 1
4a - 2 g eCG Y -
g HCG h eCG h AT QYCG -
a + 5a + 4 a - 2 = 10a 2

CG Y j eY 14 H - CG - 2
GS K b -
5a 3 CG Y c
a 3 AT Y c
(4a 2) 3 = 4a 2 3 = 4a 5 CG Y c
g HG Y h CG Y H dG - CG - 3

a + 14 AT Yh(4a - 2) + 14 = 4a + 12 qCG Yh 5a + 14

5a a = 4a

g HG Y h CG Y H dG -
(4a 2) a = 4a 2 a = 3a 2

g LhR Y h CG Y H dG -
5a (4a 2) = 5a 4a + 2 = a + 2

Ea GS 8 AT Y c GPEG
5 x 8 = 40 g HCG Y - CG - 4
qeCG Y -
4 x 8 2 = 32 2 = 30
71

4 f

HG G f
x dH Me MCG
.Y G IQdG NCGh fCG
MNPQ

2
Q

5 f
h ABI
jGhdG b Y t
h AIC
BAI

dH Y -CG
CG H -
dG je e ABI
= 2 ABI
CG KCG -
AIC

6 f
b

b>1

M qdG qdG f
DE h AB jdG MCG
dG Gg b MCG

J
f jc OGYCG a h t h y h x M ddG GQdG NGh fG
2(x + 3) + 3x 5

-CG

5(y2)3(y + 1) -
3(3t + 2) + 2(t 1) + t + 1

a+1+a3
2
2

-O

2x + 3 x 1
2
3

- `g

7 f

:ddG G jRGe f
e c M MG - 1
M Qb - 2
72

8 f

: dqdG G M Qb

J
f c OY x M (x - 3)(x + 3) ddG IQdG NGh fG - 1
qaG GQdG M fCG

87 x 93

h 97 x 103 gP MG - 2

H ae j
dG dG f
ABCD G M I IQY YG - 1

2
? QRCH G AG Me b g e - 3

EFGH G M I IQY YG -

ABCD

G Me - 1

(5x + 3)(3x + 2) = 5x X 3x + 5x X 2 + 2 + 3 x 3x + 3 X 2
= 15x2 + 10x + 9x + 6 = 15x2 + 19x + 6

g EFGH G Me - 2
(3x +1)(x +1)= 3x2 + 4x + 1

CG

EFGH G Me ABCD h G Me H dG g G AG Me
(15x2 +19x + 6)(3x2 + 4x + 1) = 15x2 + 19x + 6 3x2 4x 1
= (15x2 3x2) + (19x - 4x)+61
= 12x2 + 15x + 5

73

f
: qf qjc OGYCG z h yh x M dqdG GQdG NGh fCG (1
9

A = x2 (x + 1)(x - 1)

C = z2 (z 3)(z + 3) B = y2 (y - 2)(y + 2)

: qgP MCG (2
(987988)2 (987987)(987989)

(CG
(123456785)2 (123456783)(123456787) (
(253564)2 (253561)(253567) (

.Y LCGh qdG GDqdG OQh e Ge Y SCG fCG (3

aM GQY J
10
(2t + 1)(x + 2)

(2t + 1)(x - 1)

a(x + 2)

3(x + 2)

3b

3a

ddG AGG f
f jc OGYCG t h x h b h a M
3(x + 2) , 3b , 3a H G edG g e -CG - 1
33a + 3(x + 2) , 3b + 3 , 3a + 3b ddG GQdG AGL U cG -
(2t + 1)(x + 2) , a(x + 2) , 3(x + 2) H G edG g e -CG - 2
3(x + 2) a(x + 2) , a(x + 2) + (2t + 1)(x + 2) ddG GQdG AGL U cG -
; 7a3 - 8a5 ddG GQdG AGL U cCG - 3
21t2y - 15ty2 ; 5x3 - x2
j qaM IQY J
.AGL U Hc
11
x

GQdG d - 1
: f c
C IQdG h B IQdG eGY AGL EG a -CG
D = A + B = (x - 1) (2x + 3) + 10x - 10 IQd J SG -
E = (x-1)(2x + 3) - 14x - 21 IQdG eGY AGL EG a -

C = 14x 21

B = 10x 10

A = (x 1)(2x + 3)

74

qH ae j
qf qjc GOY b h a M dqdG B h

A JQdG AGL EG qa

B = (a 2 + 3)(2 a  1)  ( 4 a 2  2 a ) ; A = (x - 1)(2 x + 3) + 2 x - 2

qG
IQdG J
2 x  2 = 2(x  1) qdc 2 x  2 J dh ce eY gh qhGC e Mf
A = (x  1)(2 x + 3) + 2(x  1) jd a
A = (x  1)[(2 x + 3) + 2 ] PEG ce eY (x 1) Mf A IQd HdG g h
A

A = (x  1)(2 x + 5 )

IQdG J
j c AGL U 4 a 2  2a IQdG Hc feEH qfGC Mf
: qdc B IQdG Hc GPEG h
B

4 a 2  2 a = 2 a(2 a  1)

qaG GQdG M fCG

B = (a 2 + 3)(2 a  1)  2 a(2 a  1)
B = (2 a  1)[(a 2 + 3)  2 a ]
B = (2 a  1)(a 2  2 a + 3)

J
zh y h xh b

h a M j e eGY AGL EG qah HqdG jqdG Ge Y fCG 1


: qf qjc OGYCG

B = b( 3a 2  1) + 9 a 2  3

A = (2 a + 2 )(y  5 )  25 + 10 y

D = (x  1)(2 z  1)  ( 4 z  2 )(x  5 )

C = 3x + 6 + 7(x + 2 )2

qf qjc OGYCG y h x h b h a M dqdG GQdG eGY AGL EG qa


C = xy  3x  2 y + 6

75

B = xy  x  y + 1

A = ax  ay + 3bx  3by

`` ` ` jQ`` ` ` `

G x dH I IQY YCG - 1 5
G e dM c G Gg MG - 2
7
5
( x = 6 (CG : ddG
x = (
x=
ABCD

Y a dH Y h dG dG eCJ 1
[BC] dG W
[BD] dG W
[DC] e B dG J H a L

dG G T Me x dH MG -CG
e c MG g b MG -
ddG G
jOY x h a M ddG JQdG NG 6
f jc

x=

16
3

( ,

x=8

(CG

2x + 1 -CG
6
a

2
2a
+
1
1

2a -
B=
+
3
5
2
A = 3x - 1 +

x h t h a M ddG GQdG NGh fCG

f qjc OGYCG
(x +1)(x 3)

-CG

(3a + 1)(a 5) -

(t 1)(t2 + t + 1) -
3
5
x2
x + 4 -O
4
3
a + 1 (2a + 4) -
2

)(

GS b ihe Y h GS a MCG Y 3
? GS 5 H e c Y j c @
? GS 10 H gQYCG g e @

f qjc GOY x f 4
dM c Y G dG x dH MG
: j e eGY AGL EG qa 8
ddG G e
D = 15a 35b + 10 (CG
7 Ud fh 3 x OdG f - CG
B = 15x3 - 21x2 (
K UG fh xOd 5f -
C = 3x2 6xy + 15x ( 10 UG fh x OdG e 3 f -
4

A = 3(x 2) 3(2x + 1) (O

76

qf qjc OGYCG y h x h b h a M j e eGY AGL EG qa


F = x2 - a - (3a + 5)(2a - 2)

E = (2x + 3)(y - 4) - (2y - 7)(2x + 3)

H = xy + 22-11x - 2y

G = ab - 15 + 3a - 5b

: qdG qdG f

10

qaG GQdG M fCG

d d dH I IQY YCG - 1
Me d d dH I IQY YCG - 2

x +2

77

.Fb HG qG CG KCG

12

x +1h xOHCG Fb G RG qG Md x dH I IQY YG

13

LQdG e OG
MGh GP hCG

QdG HG
1197 S GM dfCG dh dG MCG H dG Y HCG jdG AV g
SdG hdG X Jf Y YCG QdG HG j .1248 S eO Jh
KCG KHC ch ,SGh OH UGNh JdG SQO ,kLfEG AdG cCG eh
''jZCGh jhOCG GO eG'' Hc qV , e GN dG GH dG dG
300 eh ,eh GMh Jf H AGhO 1400) jhOCG e c Od se kMhT
H kHc Nh Fe e cCG) dDe Y kGe (UG QHG e jL AGhO
(kffj Hc hY
d qdG qHdG qG

N H e a dH bG
dG j qM dG j
UQG gGHEG

78

MGh GP hCG LQqdG e OG


SCG
.hN H MqdG Y edG Iah Y S 600 Qh 2006 S fJ MG
? S 74 TY qfCG Y GPEG edG Gg dh S qCG

Sj dG Ie c cCG -

1
3
+ =
5
5

12 3
=
5

= 2
5

7 x ... = 4

2 x = 3 y H f jc GOY y h x

MGh GP hCG ILQqdG e OG

.HGL qe dqdG GQdG Qb


5
9

2x

3
1
y
5
3

2
1
x+
5
3

3 y   

5
9

-
-O

3 y   

1
2

   27  y

h
h

1
2

-CG

18x

2x+

qWCGh SCG
1 f
X
XX

X
X

jRGe Ge qc HG IQdG
RGdG Gg Y x dH Y - 1
? RGdG j g ,eGZ

2x c c e fCG -

IGh dP Y qY
.iNCG IGh dP Y Y ? RGdG j g ,eGZ 150 qc c e dP H fCG - 3
? x b g e - 4

79

2 f

Ge11`H VY Y dW jj h Ge 61 f e H EG dG j
G Gg Vd l `H ef
G f Y l dH Y - 1
zGe 61 hj G f{ dG G Y IGh Y - 2
VdG j CG g - 3
? G GH g e - 4
.G e jdG jg He e q - 5

? Ge 100 ? Ge 30 ? Ge

15

3 f

c OY

h BC = 4 x + 12 h AC = 7 x - 19h AB = 2 x + 1 M ABCG f
6<x<25 M
5x = 20 j 7 x - 19 = 2 x + 1 qCG H - CG -

H x OdG b SG -
? [AC] h [AB] dG jj CG g -
. C FdG b dG je ABC G d x OdG Y HG -CG - 2
? [BC] h [AB] dG jj CG g -
? 124 cm hj qCG Y GPEG G Gg OHCG g e - 3
7 x - 19 = 2 x + 1

f e Hd VJ HdG fCG
2 l = 50 ; 2 l + 11 = 61 ;

7 x - 19 = 4 x + 2

; 7 x - 19 = 2x - 1 ; 13 x = 130

.qd d a h ee jc GOY b h a M a l = bhCG ax=bf e c Hc gh


.MGh GP hCG LQqdG e dOe J HdG g e Hc c
:

ax=b

dOG
G j x
dOd hCG dG j ax
dOd dG dG j b

ax=b IGhG j dG x G OdG Y dG dOG g qM j

80

J
ax=bf e Hc EG x + 1 = 4 x 1 HdG qM - CG 2
x + 1 = 4 x 1 dOG Q qM -
2
2t + 3 dOG f 3t + 1 + t 1 =
2
4
f
e
Hc
E
G
dOG
g
Hc qM - CG
at = b

1
2

dOG g Q qM -
HG VCG RGe f - 3
jGhRh YVCG bCG Y HG

MGh GP hCG ILQqdG e OG

1 H ae j
IMGh eSG Y B , O , A jd dG dG
BON = 3 MON h MON = 2 AOM h
BON h MON h AOM Y HG

G
AOM jhGdG d x
MON = 2 x

`H ef

MON = 2 AOM j c G Lf

BON = 3(2 x) = 6x j BON = 3 MON h


AOM + MON + BON = 180 qEa IMGh eSG Y B h O h A CG
x + 2x + 6 x = 180

9x = 180
x = 180 = 20
9

j
j

BON = 120 , MON = 40 , AOM = 20 dc g jGhdG bCG Ea GPEG


MON = 40 = 2 AON
BON = 120 = 3 MON

81

G e dEG UJ e He e dG

2 H ae j
e JYb e RGe T Y V
. 48h 30 dH GH
AG e Gd 18 a Vh
? VG Gg AG JQG g e

G
h `H

AG JQG EG ef
: g AG M
V = 48 x 30 x h
V = 1440h cm3

18000 cm3

h=

18000
1440

CG Gd

g AG M qCG h
1440h = 18000 jd GPEG
= 12,5 hj qdH VG AG JQG Ea dH h
18

3 H ae j

. GQjO 20 h ffO10h ffO 5 a e jf GQhCG e e GQjO 270 Qb e e


.GQjO 20 a e GQhCG OY 3 `H j ffO 5 a e GQhCG OY
ffO 5 a e GQhCG OY VCG KK g ffO 10 a e GQhCG OYh
? a qc e qjqdG GQhCG OY g e

G
3(x + 3)

GQjO jdG a e qjqdG GQhCG Od x `H ef


g ffO IdG e GQhCG OYh x + 3 GPEG g ffO 5 a e GQhCG OY
20x + 5(x +3) + 10 x 3(x + 3) = 270 jd GPEG
dqdG dOG EG Uf GNGh qdG H
55x + 105 = 270
55x = 270 105 = 165

j
.ffO 5 a e GQhCG 6 h ffO10 a e bQh 18 h GQjO 20 a e GQhCG 3 jd dHh
G e dEG qUJ e He e qcCqdG BG Y
x=3

GQjO 60hj e oJ GQjO 20 a e GQhCG 3


GQjO 180 hj e oJ ffO 10a c bQh 18
GQjO 30 hj e oJ ffO 5 a e GQhCG 6
60 + 180 + 30 = 270 g G G qEa dHh
82

gh MGe IqY qNJ HdG jdG


Hc - G e G He e cCdG - G QNG - dOG M
.dOe U VdG
.MGG g JQ

MGh GP hCG LQqdG e Oe qM EG qM hDj Oe


1
1 5
1
( 3x + )( x  )
2 4
3
3x2 + 5x = 0

t(3t + 5) = 0

(2 x  5 )(x  1)(1  2 x ) = 0

: ddG OG Q M
(2x + 3)(x 1) = 0 .CG
x2 - x = 0

.O

f
.f c OY x M A = (3x 2)(2x 5) + 6 x - 4 IQdG d
A = (3x 2)(2x 3) G H
A=0 dOG Q M
GP hCG ILQqdG e OG

83

J
: eGY AGL EG dqdG GQdG qa -CG
C = y2 3y (y 2) (y 3) ; B = t(t + 1) + 2t + 2 ; A = 8x 2 + (x 1)(4x 1)
C=0
;
B=0
;
A = 0 ddG OG Q qM -
3

5
4

Y qf

4
5

dG OdG e h H e MW GPEG dG OdG g e

MGh GP hCG LQqdG e Oe qM EG qM hDj Fe

(H ae) 1 dCe
jQCG c Y eJ 5 LCG d FGQCH I VY Yb EG edG e L NO
eJ 3 j ,jQCG c Y eJ 4 LCG d h GZT fe 12 YdG H j
.Sd fe e
? edG OY g e

qG
x `H FGQCG Od ef
5x - 12

g edG OY Ea GPEG ,GZT fe12 YdG H j ,jQCG c Y eJ 5 LCG d


4 x + 3 g edG OY Ea GPEG Ye hH eJ 3 j jQCG c Y eJ 4 LCG d
x = 15 j 5 x 12 = 4x + 3 jd GPEG dG f g edG OY G h
GJ 63 CG 4 x 15 + 3 hCG 5 x 15 12 edG OY h jQCG 15 YdG a dHh

2 dCe

S 12 Y Mh S 40 Y HG d S 62 Y LQ
jhe jY j S S 75S j CG b{ : M h H LdG b
zd
? b a g g

3 dCe

10

a e dG h ffO 5 a e H jf bQh 12 e qe GQjO 100 Qb e e


.ffO
? a c e GQhCG OY g e

4 dCe
cT EG T qJ ffEG GTd
dc JeN hCG Y VY
ffO 6 dG GTEG e H YdG JJ ,YS G AfG Hh K f ffCG Y QHEG YS 5 .YS d jQjO
: dc JeN fdG Y VY
GQjO 18 dG GTEG e (QHEG Yd S j hO) Aj c QHEG d YS 7 g jT QHEG YS e c GPEG fCG cdG g e YS 15 g jT QHEG YS e c GPEG fCG cdG g e Y jhe GTEG de a J dG ffEG Y QHEG YS OY g e .cdG Jg

(H ae) 5 dC e

gdG 30km/h YS HjEGh HgP je H UdG aG GqQO b


.jEG 20km/h h
.''HjEGh HgP'' GqQdG Gg YS e g e
84

qG
.Y f qdG ''HqjEGh HgP'' YqdG q v `Hh jG H UdG ad d `H ef
2d g HqjEGh HgP YG qG aG
d
30
d
20

2d
v

d
d
+
20
30

g gqdG GQqdG Gg qb qdG bdG


g qjG GQqdG Gg qb qdG bdG

Mf e g HqjEGh HgP'' qb qdG bdG GPEG


CG qjEGh gqdG G bdG a iNCG Mf e g
5d GPEG
5d 2d j 2d + 3d
=
=
60

60
60 60
5d = 60 ja qdHh
v
2d

5
60 j
=
2
v
5v = 120 CG (aqdG AGL hj SdG AGL)

MGh GP hCG ILQqdG e OG

v = 24km/h g ''HjEGh HgP'' GQdG Gg YS e GPEG v = 24km/h j


(dG gd QOj c 25km/h d h)

6 dCe
e) ddG fG e jGH qfCG Y GPEG SG OdG fN qc V qK dG hG M
.HdG fH jOLG jOdG g OY qc (dG EG QdG
1

...

...

...

...

...

...

35

7 dC e
.NBG W V gMCG Wh JQG f d FM AH AdG qY e ja qoc
IJdG f Y h jdG H qdG ADg TG
.dG FG e GAL GhCa qdG qc TG qhCG dG
CG qdG e NBG dGh cCa dG FG AH qCG qdG OY f dG dG
.dG FG e AL AH
.dG FG AH qCa a eY fG NCGh ddG dG
? qd G OdG g e

8 dCe
.dG e OY Ld
. H f h gOY f hCG dG cCG
,H f h J e f dG dG cCG
.H qjCG dP H d j h H f h J e f ddG dG cCG K
? dG OY g e

85

`` ` ` jQ`` ` ` `
bSG .VjQ Y g DIOPHANTE 6
1 `H dW H hJ .Y e 1 dW
,
12
6
1 h GS LGhR H TYh Y e
7
.WCG hO Y e
e f j CG QdG AT W CG qK
HG Iah H DIOPHANTE J .HCG TY
? DIOPHANTE TY S c .GS 4 `H

: MGh dqdG IQqdG qeCJ


qG iqdG fGSEG AL M
.AG Gg JQGh FqdG

: ddG OG Q qM 1
1
x 1 2
x+
= (
2
3
7

2x + 1 

x
=3
5

(CG

t +1
t 1 1
2
=
5
3
5

2y  7 y  2
y +1

= y  3
3
2
5

5
7

(
(O

Od jc Hc Y HG 2
132 ee h H

SQe cG ged MQ d 3
cGQ 56 `d j c H aM jOGYEG
aG OY.cGQ 44 `d EG j Hh
.iNCG aG OY 4 `H j IdG
Y GPEG U c e aG OY g e
YG c qCGh 624 MdG cQG OY CG
qFGHG SQ b eJ QYCG 8
? de
. S 208 hj
dG f d dG Gg eJ qc
e qc Y jj KEG .KK qEG (GqdH) Y K aO h IJ RL T iTG
4
Y H qS qj NBGh FeR qS Y S
.bCG KK
.FeR qS
dG K : hCG dG b
? dG Gg eJ OY g e
G G N : dG dG b
? e MGh qc qS g e
GQjO 132 : NCGh ddG dG b
qG iMEG dG GTG e 9
IdG RL K g e
a cG OY h QjO 50 `H Qqj dG
. 700
.FL EG e M 5
OY qCG qG MU M FMEG SGQO H
Qj`H J qc Y 20 `H jj cG W 52 H W 76 H AL h W 58 H AL
.GTG e jRJ c .jJ j G e
?NqdG f j qdG dG QGe g e a G c J d jCGG Y
? jhe
(U OY g QjdH dG QGe)
86

YH 60 km Y J B je EG A je e MU edG YdG Y GqQO fG 10


. 24 km/h `H dqe Qqj
Qqj YH GbCG Y GS G aG cCa dG iMG fG dUh b
.11h20mn YdG Y dUh a 4 km/h `H dqe
? GbCG Y GS b dG aG g e
H bQCG dG EG QdG e bfG qfCG Y fN qc SG bdG V 11
. 20 hj de fN K
....

....

....

....

....

....

....

....

....

....

MGh GP hCG ILQqdG e OG

h LGQO Hh IMGh LGqQO FdG g H FY 1250 J jb 12


OY qCG Y jdG H LGQd G OdG g e .LGQO K NBG dG
? IMGh LGQO dG FdG OY hj LGQO K dG FdG
iNCG fGh 80 km/h hj YS q B je EG A je e aM fG 13
HJ f qCG h e 64 km/h hj YS q AjG EG B jG e bdG f
18 km g jG H UdG aG CG Y aG

87

VYCa K qK SSh HQ h
ec dG e K d gh
14
ee S e K jgCa
IOjR Y b b bh
.VqJ EG d b GPh
YCG eY jY HCGh
? HCG g MU Y e gGgCGh gh dG GdG OY g e

SqdG

aGG Y FGQ : jQOEG jdG


S je dh dG jQOEG H dG Y HG H dG Y HCG SG
Qc MCG ., (1166) `g 560 Y e h (jOe 1100) `g 493 Y G T
SQOh dGh ,dGh ,OCGh ,jQdG c fCG c ,jQdG aGG
FGNh JGQe eSG .Wb dGh ,aGGh ,dGh ,dGh ,dG
V , aBG GNG G gf Hc. HQhCG dG Y c FS
QSCG UQ h BGQ e h g cG e Y OGR ee e ebCG aY e c
I HQhCG Ad Le X cdG Ggh , jN S h f a h JMQ h
.S FK Y HQCG
d qdG qHdG qG

j c j e j c dG YEG g G
jH

88

SqdG
SCG
iNCG Jh

IQSJ 1
? SCG jCG .30 m/s YS

70 km/h YS

QjqdH qdG

QjdH cGdG e f dfH HG SdG j 2


O 1,250 : MGdG GZdG S .GZdH fRh M
3 kg ; 0,5 kg K ge -CG
.cdG g e GTe K O 5,250 WGe aO -
? cdG g e ,GZdH, WGG Gg iTG c
1m3 = 1000 l

GZdH RdG

100 m

h 125 m gGH dG e VQCG b 3


. 1 dH dG d J SQCG
2500
(15 l/s) fdG Gd Y N e e J 4
? YdG e e e J c
: jOGYEG SQGG iMEH 5
.fEG f SSCG HdG dH J 500
.fEG e 40% SSCG edG dH J 300
.fEG e 60%SSCG SdG dH J 200
.HLEG Y ? 49 % CG ? 75 % CG ? 50 % g g jOGYEG H fEG f

SqdG

SCG
1 f

GAdG iMEH GLJ gYG dG dGh UCG KCG ddG hG


.FdG e UCG HQC jQdG
qdG LqdG
qhCG LqdG
20

15

10

1,5

QjqdH UCG dG

0,760 QjqdH qdG b

16

10

1,920 1,200 0,720 0,480

QjqdH UCG dG
QjqdH qdG b

dqdG dhG J CGh fG - 1


qhC G LqdG

qdG LqdG

1,920 1,200 0,720 0,480

3
20

QjqdH UCG dG
QjqdH qdG b
qdG f
c OY U

3
25

QjqdH UCG dG
QjqdH qdG b
qdG f
c OY U

15%

qd qjhCG qdG

12%

qd qjhCG qdG

89

20

15

10

1,5

0,760

16

10

? HK J f YG jLqdG CG
0, 480 0, 420 1, 200 1, 920 3
12
qGC Mf
=
=
=
=
=
4

10

16

25

100

1,200; 0,720; 0,480dG CGh dG e Se dG CG LdG Gd dH f


16 , 10 , 6 , 4

KCG e Se 1,920h
.d jhCG dG J 12%h SdG eY j 3 OdG
25

2 f

. 60 km Y J iNCG je qJG je e JQqS LN


fqdG qVdG
hCG qVdG
IQqqdG b qdG aG SCG (II) hG q IQqqdG b qdG d aG SCG(I)SqdG q
.bqdH t gS Iqe M (edH) fqdG .bqdH t gS Iqe M (edH) hCG
40 30 20

10

FbqdH t qdG Iqe

60 50 30

20

d YG aG

CGh qdG hG fG (1
40 30 20

10

FbqdH t qdG Iqe

60 50 30

20

edH d YG aG
d
t

? Se t h d jqG qCG g (2
:dqdG f HQCG Y qYh qdG G fG (3
M(10,20) ; N(20,30) ; P(30,50) ; Q (40,60)

CGh qdG hG fG (1
40 30 20

10

FbqdH t qdG Iqe

15

edH d YG aG

? IMGh eSG Y qdG g g


15 3
=
10 2

d
t

? Se t h d jqG qCG g (2

90

d
t

HK H

je Mf hCG IQqqd qdH


qdG qdh qdG Iqe qH qdG Iqe qH qJ YG aG - @
( 3 `d jheh)
2
.G UCG O qdG e q e g I O`Y dG SqdG - @
CG f dG Jg
.SdG eY g 3 CGh Se t h d jG -1
2

. 40h 30h 20h 10 OGYCG e GdG Y GOW Se 60h 45h 30h 15 OGYCG -2
. 15 = 30 = 45 = 60 = 3 j
10 20 30 40 2
hG -3
40

30

20

10

60

45

30

15

OW SJ hL g
: dG hG f eY H
x

a'

b'

c'

d'

......

......

SqdG

.d d jc OGYCG

..., d' , c' , b' , a' , x , .....d, c, b, a

y a b b d
= = = = = ... jd c GPEG
x a' b' c d'

CG j dP Ea
OW SJ hL hG - 1
..., d' , c' , b' , a' OGYCG e GOW Se ..., d , c , b , a OGYCG - 2
GOW Se yh x jG - 3
G UCG O dG e e g (O, I, J) e xdH y `d dG SdG - 4

J
? INCG d SdG eGY geh SdG hGL ge ddG hGG H e 1
dqdG hG
7.5

qdG hG

4.5

12

10.5 17.5 15

18

15

qhCG hG
21

75 12.5 62.5 77.5

80

12

20

32

60

15

24

? SJ qVh ddG fdG SdG qCG (1


91

. SdG eY OM SJ dM d dH (2
4OY dG SdG

2OY dG SdG

3OY dG SdG

ddG dG f

(O, I, J)

1OY dG SdG

G G

A(-1 ; -0 , 4) ; B(0,5 ; 0,2) ; C(3 ; 1,2) ; D(7; 2,8)

. G Gg SQG .O dG e e G J dG g G KCG
.M
10

`H h

3,5

`H ef h R YT jFGO Ub f
: dG hG CGh fCG-CG-

14
12,25

H R qdG
H P G
qHG H S MG

? SdG eY g e dc fc EG ? GOW Se R h P jG CG g-
? SdG eY g e dc fc EG ? GOW Se Rh S jG CG g -

qH ae jQ
SJ hL dG hG d aOdG Y HG (1
3

a+3

.3 h 7e GOW Se b + 10h 14b GOdG d b OdG Y HEG(CG -2


e GOW Se c+2 ; b+10 ; 14b OGYCG CG Y GPG c h b jOdG Y HG(4 ; 3 ; 7 OGYCG

92

SJ hL HdG hG (1
3 h 2 j OdG e GOW Se a+3 h a GOdG j
a a + 3 j
=
2
3
2a + 6 = 3a j
a = 6 j
hG j dG g h
3

g SqdG eYh
h 14b GOdG (GC -1

3
14 b 10 + b
=
7
3

j 3h 7 e GOW Se

b + 10

14 b 10 + b
=
7
3
2b =

b + 10
3

SqdG

j
6b = b + 10 j
5b = 10 j
b = 2 j
4;3;7

OGYCG e GOW Se

c+2 ; 10 + b ; 14b

OGYCG ( -2

14 b 10 + b c + 2
=
=
7
3
2
10 + b c + 2 14 b 10 + b
=
=
3
4
7
3

10 + b c + 2
=
3
4
10 + b c + 2
=
3
4

b=2

j
j

IGhG H b VY GPG
jd j
12 c + 2
=
3
4

4 h 3 , 7 OGYCG e GOW Se c + 2

16 = c + 2

c = 14

h 10 + b , 14b OGYCG J dH
c = 14

28 12 16
( =
=
= 4)
4
3
4

93

b=2

c GPEG

c + 2 = 16 ; 10 + b = 12 ; 14 b = 28 Ea dG g h
4 h 3 , 7 OGYCG e GOW Se 16h 12 , 28 OGYCGh

G
1

(SqdG HGqdG) f
ddG OdG SdG hGL J Gh fG
2 0,25
...... 7,5

....... -21
6
14

2,5
3,2

......
5

2
6

5
.....

OqdG SqdG hGL e hL qc


ae e q e OGYCG 3 ae HqdG
SqdG HGqdG OdG Gg qj .HGqdG OdG

J
.CGh hG Gg fG .GZdH fRh M QjdH YH S qdG hG qj 1
2
12,500

3,750

5,5

3,5
8,750

GZdH RdG
QjqdH qdG

100 km d jdG e Gd 8

IQS J 2
? jdG e Gd 26 `H J dG aG g e .1
? 420 km d eRdG jdG c g e .2
.H G dG e Se H Hf j 3
.ddG VdG HdG W OMh ddG QdG eCJ
hCG qVdG

100C

fqdG qVdG

dqdG qVdG

d Vj dG IQGG LQO e Se H jM OY Oj 4
IQGM LQO 76,55cm dWh 20C IQGM LQO 76,40cm dW c GPEG
? 200C IQGM LQO b dW g a

94

OqdG SqdG qqUN H


1 f

7,5 kg ,10,5 kg ? 0,5 kg K g a 10,150 g QjqdH dG e 3,5 kgK c GPEG

2 f

d d f jc OGYCG k h

a, b, c, d

M dG SdG hL f

SJ hL jCG g dqdG hGG e hL qc qCG KCG


kb

b-d

b+d

ka

a-c

a+c

SqdG

Ea d h b jOdG e Se c h a GOdG c GPEG


a c a+c
= =
b d b+d
a c ac
= =
b d bd
a c ka
= =
b d kb

j
j
j

a c
=
b d
a c
=
b d
a c
=
b d

CG

b+dh dh b OGYCG e Se a + c h c h a
b-d h dh b OGYCG e Se a - c
kb h d h b

OGYCG @

h c h a OGYCG @

OGYCG e Se k a h c h a OGYCG @

. k d dG dG dG OdG c e

J
.CGh qdG SqdG hL fG
1
3
a b+ c
2
4

2a-3b-5c

a+b+c

2
xy
3

9,50

x-y+z

13,50

.GQb

27 QhdG iMEG e 1,50 kg oj

81

Gh dG hG fG
1,50 GZdH QhdG
QdH fEG
27

600
135

68 H h ee H QdG j 3 Od jc Hc L
7

95

. 4h 5 , 7 , 15 OGYCG e GOW Se KdG pFHCGh CG QYCG


GS H CG Y j OhCG QYCG CG Y GPEG e MGh c Yge

h x = 7 M yh x jOY Y HG

11x - 13y =9

qH ae jQ
112

eeh H j

3
11

Od jc Hc L

hCG jqdG : qG
H b h a jOY OjEG g G
a +b =112 h a = 3
a b
=
3 11
a b
a+b
= =
3 11 3 + 11

j
j

b 11
a 3
=
b 11
a b
=
3 11

qEa a +b =112 qCG h


a b
a + b 112
= =
=
=8
3 11 3 + 11 14

dHh
b = 88 CG

b
=8
11

h a = 24 CG

a
=8
3
24
88

112 eeh H 3 Od iNCG Hc PEG g


11

fqdG jqdG : qG
H x OY OjEG g G
3x +11x = 112
3
3x 8 24
=
=
11 11x 8 88

Ea dHh x = 8 j

3xx
h 113 = 11
xx

14x = 112 j 3x +11x = 112

.GQjO84 Qb e dG j Y Rh .S14 h S 11h GS 5 gQYBG AHCG 3 Ld 2


.Y e GOW Se dh qc f ch
? MGh qc e g e
96

: qG
KdG WCG H c h b h a `H ef
a b
c
j da QYCG e Se HG CG
= =
5 11 14
a b
c
a+b+c
84 14
= =
=
=
=
GPEG
5 11 14 5 + 11 + 14 30 5
a = 14
b=

154
=
5

O 30,800

a 14
=
5 5

5b = 11 x 14 = 154
5 c = 196

j b

c=

jd j PEG
14
11 5
c 14
=
14 5
=

h
h

196
= 39,200
5

j
: j c HLEG U e dG
a + b + c = 14 + 30,800 + 39,200 = 84 ( CG
14, 11, 5 QYCG e GOW Se 39,200, 30,800 , 14 dG (
14 30, 800 39, 200
=
=
5
11
14

CG

HG TCG

SqdG

1 f

. ABC e SQG
AM = 3AB M M dG [AB) G f Y SQG
AN = 3AC M N dG [AC)G f Y SQG
AM AN MN
=
=
= 3 CG (1
AB
AC
BC
ABC G P'`H h AMN G P `H ef (2
P
= 3 CG KCG
P'
eYh h ABC G VCG e Se h AMN G VCG CG f
3 hj SdG
1 hj SdG eYh AMN G VCG e Se ABC G VCG CG c
3
CG dG g f
3 g HdG eYh ABC d He AMN G @ - 1
( 3 g dG eYh ABC d J g AMN G hCG)
g HdG eY h AMN d He ABC G @ - 2
( g dG eYh AMN d J g ABC G) hCG
1
3

1
3

He

97

ABC h AMN G @

-3

2 f
A Fb ABC e SQCG
A d dH B dG IXe M dG HG
C d dH B dG IWe N

dG HG
?HdG eY ge ABC d He MBN G CG SG
G M(1
MBN G Meh JdG Y S h P `H ef(2
ABC G Meh JdG Y S' h P' `H efh
. S' dH S MCGh P' dH P MCG
MN
=2
AC

qeY H
NBG VCG e JqdG Y Se MGdG VCG fc GPEG He qfCG qe Y f
MN MP NP j ABCqd He MNP qG @
=
=
AB
AC BC
AB BC CD DA qEa IJKL YHqd He ABCD YHqdG c GPEG @
=
=
=
IJ
JK
KL
LI

.qdG qd J g qhCG qdG qCG f MGh e cCG HqdG eY c GPEG @

J
h ABC je e f 1
HdG eY ge.He fCG KCG
HJ eGYh HG TCG OqMh dqdG SqdG qeCJ 2
MNP

98

. 6 h 5 h 4 dHG OHCG ABC e HpG (1 3


. 6 YVCG UCG bh d He A'B'C' e HpG-CG (2
. MCG-
10cm2 `H ABC G Me QJ (3
? A'B'C'G Me ge
. 3 eY ABC d GJ MNP d (4
4
. MNP G MCG -CG
? Me ge -
? OHCG ge -

dG SdG
1 f

SqdG

.e N OHCG dG hG
36

45

60

90

100

25

20

15

10

qdG
l
VdG
S = L x l MG

.CG h hG Gg fCG
. 900 `d jheh HK H Lxl AGG dh J l hL OHCG CG Mf
36 h 45h 60 h 90 h100OGYCG CGh Y Se l h L jG G dG g f
. 25 h 20 h 15 h10h 9 OGYCG S e Y Se
.Y SJ hL g HdG hG CG f c
SdG eY 900 OdG j
Se ... d h c h b h a OGYCG qCG f qeY H
c GPEG ... d'h c'h b'h a' OGYCG e Y
a x a' = b x b' = c x c' = d x d' = ...

J
qdG dG SqdG hL J CGh fG 1
40
24

99

60

8
30

15

dG e YS 160 S AH j 2
dG YS 8 j edG c GPEG
: qdG Gg Ad RdG dG OYg a (1
jCG 4 (- jCG 10 (- CG
?dG Gg hj j e c a Y HQC dG Gg AH e chCG (2

qH ae j
.WT b 15 Y Rh S12 h GS 8 h GS 6 h GS 4 gQYCG WCG HQCG C
? S e Y Se fG Y GPG e MGh c f ge

qG

WCG H dh c , b , a ef
a + b + c + d = 15 jd
4a = 6b = 8c = 12d h
8 x 6 x 4 x 12 AGG Y 4a = 6b = 8c = 12d HdG W c b GPEG
4a
6b
8c
12 d
Y f
=
=
=

4 x 6 x 8 x 12

4 x 6 x 8 x 12

4 x 6 x 8 x 12

4 x 6 x 8 x 12

a
b
c
d
=
=
=
6 x 8 x 12 4 x 8 x 12 4 x 6 x 12 4 x 6 x 8

a
b
c
d
=
=
=
576 384 288 192

j
Hc OdG SdG UN iMEG Y GOYGh
a
b
c
d
a+b+c+d
15
1
=
=
=
=
=
=
576 384 288 192 576 + 384 + 288 +192 1440 96
a
1
=
576 96
a=

Ea PEG

576
=6
96

je EG Uf jdG Hh
b=
a + b + c + d = 6 + 4 + 3 + 2 = 15

384
288
192
=4 ; c=
=3 ; d=
=2
96
96
966

C d He Y G FdG
2 x 12 = 8 x 3 = 6 x 4 = 4 x 6 h

''OW SJ'' H j da ''Y'' hCG ''OW'' cP hO ''SJ'' c OQh GPEG : Me

100

UMCG
: qdG hG f
x
y

a'
a

b'
b

c'
c

.qd d qjc OGYCG

d'
d

.........
.........

y ,d', c', b', a', x,...., d, c, b, a


y
a
b
c
d
=
=
=
=
= ...
x a' b' c' d'

jd c GPEG

CG j dP qEa

OW SJ hL hG -1
...,d' , c', b', a' OGYCG e GOW Se ...., d, c, b, a OGYCG -2
GOW Se y h x jG- 3

SqdG

.G UCG O dG e e g (O, I, J) e x dH y `d dG SdG -4


a c a+c
= =
b d b+d
a c ac
= =
b d bd
a c ka
= =
b d kb

j
j

a c
=
b d
a c
=
b d
a c
=
b d

Ea d h b jOdG e Se c h a GOdG c GPEG


b + d h d h b OGYCG e Se a + c h c h a

OGYCG

b - d h dh b OGYCG e Se a - c h c h a

OGYCG

dG dG OdG c e kbh dh b OGYCG e Se a - c h c h a OGYCG


. k d dG
NBG VCG e JdG Y Se MGdG VCG fc GPEG He fG e Y f
MN MP NP j ABC d He MNP G@
=
=
AB
AC BC
AB BC CD DA j IJKL YHd He ABCD YHdG@
=
=
=
IJ
JK
KL
LI

dG d J g hCG dG CG f MGh e cCG HdG eY c GPEG@


dG d J g hCG dG CG f MGh e UCG HdG eY c GPEG@
c GPEG .... d' h c' hb' h a' OGYCG e qY Se ....d h c h b h a OGYCG qEG f
a x a' = b x b' = c x c' = d x d' = ...

101

`
`
`
`
j
Q`
`
`
`
`

IQqS jW - qjOY jW - CG
.G NGO -

FbO EG j e lM 1
(YdG HQCG KK)

3
h
4

-CG

edG YdG Y IQdG g fG - 2


(YS f) 12 h -
e iMEG H fJ e MU HdGh
12,5h -
IQdG jdG aG K a G
.3,7h -O
AG bh jOY jW e 60% h
NGO 30 km `H QGh aG e G H UdG aG g 9 cm fc GPEG 2
.G
edH ga 5001.000 dG M je
? jG H aG ge -CG
? H dG aG
Ig G jdG c ge -
? IdG 36 km/h g jQf LGQO YS e c GPEG 3
fCG Y GPEG IQdG g YS e ge- ? (m/s) fdG H YS e g a
fdG YdG Y IOG jG Uh
? GhdG H dGh
h bO 20 1.6 km ae Y b 4
eCG FbO 3 250 m ae b
O 36 UCG Kb LQ iTG 7
.FbO 5 450 mae b a MCG
e iTGh 4 % f H h
SCG jCG
9 % f H h O 180 UCG K
? jG d G Gge - 1 e 2 d U e jRJ aJ 5
AGH H dG dG f ge - 2 e IMGdG F dG Jh fdG e
.YS 24 c Gd 400
? e Gh d
? G g e J G FY e c
Q KK Qb VQG MCG S 8
hCG a YH QSCG dG IQS SG e dG hG j 6
dG HH J'' dG h : 20 % `H J'' gS M 100 km (dH )jdG e
f e c Ya ddG eCGh ''UCG hCG IQdG jdG hG jOY jW
. G NGO
dG h O45 dG dG'' Y eh dG
. ''O 35 jG G NGO IQqS jW qjOY jW
? J f cCG aj dG LdG g e
qe
YH dG M QhJ VQCG CG f 9
107.103 Km/h

H fGQhO YS Y Y HH Y -1
.fdG

12

10

SG
qdH
100 km

Gd 16 `H b qdG aG g e - 1
? jdG e
102

jqdG H dqdG KqdG YhCG C 13 M ec IQhO J VQCG fc GPEG-2


g a YS 6 h ej 365 dG
SqdG qh fqdG MGh d Hh
? IQhdG g J dG aG
.IqG M YhCG H AG JQG qfdG
.aG d BH jjJ b YCG
AdG YS J 10
edH YS Y Y HH Y - 1
SqdG
YdG
qfdG
hJ b IMh g FdG dG - 2
IqG ej 365) S AdG j dG aG
.(YS 6 h
.AYh qd aGG dG qdG OqM YG ?edH FdG dG b g e
.dd jH jjJ b
O50.000 ddG dH UTG KK gS 14
`H dG h VQCG H aG QJ-3
.cT SCd O 140.000 h O 110.000 h
8
O 48.000 cdG g HGe fc S Hh T j dG bdG g e 1,5.10 Km
? VQCG h dG H FV
de e Se H AcdG bG
300.000 Km/s

JQG

SqdG

.G SGQ Jge
? jT c e ge
9a +7b = 5

a 3
=
b 4

SdG hGL ge ddG hGG H e 11


? INCG d SdG eGY geh OdG

M bh ajOY Y HG 15

qVh q dG g e dqdG SqdG H e 16


? SqdG eGY g eh OW SJ
1 OY dG SqdG 2 OY dG SqdG

qdG hG

qhCG hG

75 12,5 62,5 77,5


18
3
15 21

-7,5 15
2,5 -5

-3
1

4,5
1,5

dqdG hG
- 7 10,5 -17,5 -15
3 -4,5 7,5 12

ddG OdG SdG hGL Gh fG 12

3 OY dG SqdG 4 OY dG SqdG

qdG hG
6,25
-3

10
4

qhCG hG
5

-28 56 2,25
8
-5,8

dqdG hG

1
1

-2,75

103

1
4

0,5
36

. T 12Y IQY 17
HdH T 3 dG HdH qT
HdH T 3 h dG HdH T 4 hG
IQdG g H cG J.ddG
O350^000. dJ Qb
GPG e MGh c H gS dG G g e
dG SqdG hL J Gh fG 21 dG HdG bQ e GOW Se fCG Y
? T H LJ
: qdG
eY ABC d GJ SQCG-CG (2
Me h Qb-
1,5 eY ABC d GJ SQCG -CG (3
Meh Qb -

0,5

-6

-8

-4

h ; 650 m2; 840 m2; 750 m2 18


Ad U VQCG b HQCG Me g
e c. ej H LLO J 22
O 24,000 VGQCG g J qJ
? jCG IY LLO Y J H qfCG Y e IMGh qc J J g e
? Me e Se
2,5

30

15

960 m2

e j e dh jL 800 INH 23
QHEG e ej 40 H. ej 90 I fhDG Vjh IG H eY j 19
. O 20 Qb ej GLCG e
.L 200 dEG fG
? fhDG J j c H ej 27 I TG b hCG c TCG MG
e dP He a ej 23 I dGh
.O 492 Qb L
? e MGh d edG LCG ge
QeCG 6 dW FM Y KK j 24
.YS MGh e YJQGh
j Y N j YS e c (1
ABC d He MNP e SQCG (1 20
12 dW FM IJdG Hh jdG H
10 cm YVCG WCG jh SCG
?MGh e YJQGh Ge
AH MGh e YJQG FM W ge (2
A
? fh YS Y HQCG W e
4 cm
C

104

AMEG fCG
qFGY gGd eCG -

LRdG adG HCG


JVjQ (998 - 940) LRdG YSEG H j H H adG HCG
.OGH TY SQa ah
AdG H KH S b h .G M J K ,VjdG J
JYVeh Jjf H YOG dG ''Sfe SjQ'' H eh dG
fcH ga Y SG WG ,dG cM ddG G e gh VjdG
e hCG gh .dG GLCG e LQO kGRL QW .adG HCG ga ,dH
.G M hGL M W Mh (tangent ,''X'' ,SG) dG dGO NG
.jqdG G Fe IjL FSh QW bh
d qdG qHdG qG

JM fCG qc e
GObe d qj T
(H eY)

MGh AMEG fCG


SCG
qFMEG SGQO Ff fc GPEG
qdG qCG f OGYCG IQU
qc Ie GP Y qG

qJ qG IRGG LQO
OYh qFMEG dG g b
qj (31) jL T qjCG
.G gQGJ

QGJ cC aGG dG
dGe qj qFMEG S
gcCGh b UCG H QdGh
.gGe qj

G iMEH qG IQGG LQO j e 1


: jL T N
,37 ,35 ,38 ,37 ,35 ,34 ,34 ,33 ,37 ,38 ,32
,35 , 34 ,35 ,35 ,37 ,39 ,38 ,35 ,37 ,35 ,34
.32 ,35 ,36 ,38 ,37 ,32 ,37 ,39 ,37

ah hL FMEG dG g UM - 1
: dG Gd

39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32

IQGG LQO
jCG OY

.QGdG qe SQG h qdG q FMEG dG qe- 2


? jL T jG H IQGG LQO qe g e (CG
.dG g Ge h ie OqM (
? LQO 36 J IQGM LQO H S dG jCG OY g e (CG .3
? LQO 36 e qbCG IQGM LQO H S dG jCG OY g e (

106

OY EG qqd ISCG 150 T FMEG SGQO Ff dG dG q q


.e qH WCG

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

AMEG fCG

.GQGdG e SQG h dG q fG - 1

.qG Gg OYH cCG qK dG hG fG - 2

5
23

0
7

WCG OY
SCG OY
jFG dH JGdG
.JGdG qe SQ .3

? FMEG dG g Ge h ie g e .4
? ISCG qH WCG OY qe g e .5

? WCG 3 e qbCG d dG SCG f g e (CG .6


? W e cCG d dG SCG f g e (

107

VjdG f M jOGYEG SQGG iMEH GJ 650 qRJ dG FGdG qG q


.fSQ qdG

10%

20%

40%

dG Ic
dG Ic
qdG Ic
idG dCG

30%

.HqdG qG OYH cCG h dG hG fG (CG


idG dCG

dG Ic

dG Ic

dG Ic

VjdG f
edG OY

? edG e OY cCG SQ qdG VjdG g e (


M jQcdG jGdG H q IR jL T NGe dG hG q
.dG
Yqe YH jhj YS

360

160

440

He jjH bH

360

240

dG
QjdH G
jFG dG

cCG qK hG fCG (CG


?e Ne cCG qS qdG dG g e (
? QjO 200 e qbCG ? QjO 300 j Ne qS dG UCG g e (
.FGdG dG q HdG hG qe (O

108

qWCGh SCG
1 f

100 `d edG W bCG ddG OGYCG S q


145 - 145 - 146 - 147 - 147 - 147 - 148 - 148 - 148 - 148 - 149 - 149- 150 - 150
- 156 - 156 - 156 - 157 157- 157 - 140 - 140 - 141 - 142 - 143 - 142 - 144 145 151 - 151 - 152 - 152 - 152 - 153 - 153 - 154 - 154 - 154 - 155 - 155 - 155 - 156
- 160 - 160 - 160 - 160 - 162 - 162 - 162 - 163 - 163 - 163 - 150 -151 - 151 170 - 171 - 157 - 157 - 158 - 158 - 158 - 158 - 159 - 159 - 159 - 159 - 160 - 160
165 - 165 - 165 - 165 - 166 - 166 - 166 - 167 - 167 - 167 - 168 - 168 - 168 170 173 - 173 - 175 - 175 - 177 - 177 - 179 - 179 - 163 - 164 - 164 - 164 - 165 - 165 171 - 172 .cCG qK dG hG fG - 1

AMEG fCG

.dH jOGYEG SQe e J

149 148 147 146 145 144 143 142 141 140

qdH edG W
eqdG OY

.cCG qK dG hG fG - 2

175 e 170 e 165 e 160 e 155 e 150 e 145 e 140 e


hO e EG hO e EG hO e EG hO e EG hO e EG hO e EG hO e EG hO e EG edG W

180

175

170

165

160

155

150

145

13

OY
eqdG

qc GWCG H dG j H Y K EG IG g b jRJ q qfGC Mf


( e ) 5 j e
.a Y qc qJ
.Se Iqe qJ a q b Iqe
.e qd aGG QGdG h a K HdG hG N e cPG

109

EG 140 e'' hCG dG H bh qe PSCG SQ , q HqdG hG d - 3


: qdG SqdG qe g c ''eJ 7'' QGqd aGG ''145 hOe

.dG qd aGG G SQG qK SGqc Y HqdG qG fG- 4


.G q : Y qG qG qj
q Se qFMEG S q
G q qj
2 f

e LQGh jG g EG eOdG GQqqdG OY M qFMEG SGQH je qjH eb


g c FqdG fa qYSCG qdG qjCG MC YS jYh HQCG N YS HQCG qc
: qdG hH qe

20 YqdG e 16 YqdG e 12 YqdG e 8 YqdG e 4 YqdG e


b e EG
24 YqdG

b e EG
20 YqdG

b e EG
16 YqdG

b e EG
12 YqdG

120

170

50

200

e e
IdG
b e EG e EG qdG
(YqdH)
8 YqdG 4 YqdG b

360

100

OY
GQqqdG

.d aGG GQGqdGh IqG d a K cPG - 1


.qFMEG qdG d qG G q SQG - 2
.dG d GQGqdG qe SQ jf - 3
110

: Sj cCG qK dG hG fG (CG
EG 20 YqdG e

e EG qdG e e
4 YqdG b

24 YqdG b e

0+4
=2
2

20 + 24
= 22
2

120

170

50

200

360

100

dG

dG ce
GQqqdG OY

cG dG A dG e qc qY M dG qG f (
g dG ce
dG F dG h d aGG (100) QGdG h hCG d (2)
ad HG qG
.d aGG (120) QGdG h NCG d (22) cG

AMEG fCG

350
300
250
200
150
100

50
0

12

16

20

24

28

32

.JGQGH dG H cGe HJ dG E hD h C h B dG qY qK SGc Y fG


[EF] h [DE] h [CD] h [BC] h [AB] G b SQG (
.QGdG e :qj Y G qG

111

3 f

aG d J qc j dG IqG a AGQBd H jOGYEG SQe je b


: dG hH eqG FdG Y qa SQG h de H UdG
EG 45 e

EG 30 e

60 e qbCG

45 e qbCG

120

170

EG 15 e

30 e qbCG
50

EG 0 e

15 e qbCG
7,5
100

bqdH IqG
dG ce
eqdG OY

.cCG qK SGc Y hG fG
G H edG qj dG (bqdH) edG IqG qe dG cGe QYH MG
.SQG h

J
qdG G G M qdG e Y qJ qFMEG SGQH qG iMEG eb .1 1
: qdG hG qfh eG qa e MGh qc qej j
EG 4 e

5 e qbCG
7

qbCG EG 3 e qbCG EG 2 e qbCG EG 1 e qbCG EG 0 e

4 e

15

3 e
24

2e
55

1 e
32

QjqdH G
dG ce
qdG OY
GqJqdG

,G q dG g qe .2

? qdG e f cCG J qdG G g e .3


? qdG ADg EG dH fEG qe g e .4

112

.qjjG IdG eQ He GJ 32 Ff qRJ qdG G q q

eqdG OY

20

AMEG fCG

10

H aG

? edG e OY UCG ? edG e OY cCG Y q dG dG g e .1


.cCG qK dG hG fCG .2

EG 11 e
13 e qbCG

EG 9 e
11 e qbCG

EG 7 e
9 e qbCG

EG 5 e
7 e qbCG

H aG
edG OY
dG ce
JGdG

? eqdG Y q qdG FqdG qe g e .3


.GJGqdG q qdG g qe .4
4 f

HGSG q FY 15 id jG JGdG OY dG hG q

5
1
113

4
2

3
1

2
2

1
6

0
3

JGdG OY
FdG OY

.dG g ie h Ge YCG .1

.IMGdG FdH jG JGdG OY qe MCG .2


:ddG jdH FdG g J IOYEG
qf ,FY qc EG dH CG jOa IQH h (dRJ hCG) jYJ qJe FdG f
: j e Y

{
{

5 4 43 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
FY 7

FY 7

.(7) QGdG f d FL EG dG qJ dG IqG b qWDG 1 OdG q


Me `H d ef h IqG qSe dG g qJ
g qFMEG S qSe
qdG Aq Iqd b
QGqdG f d FL EG

5 f

.VjqdG Va GJ 14 Y q qdG OGYCG qdG hG q

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7
2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2

OdG
eqdG OY

? dG g ie h Ge g e .1

.edG e YG g qe MG .2
.IqG g qSe OjEG jf .3
? MeSG j g .HqdG dG c dG g H b
11 + 12
Me =
= 11, 5 : dH h 12h 11`d HG qG NDj CG kj dG g
2

114

J
gQYCG M MS Of cQe qRJ dG dG q
cQG OY
7
6
5
4
3
2

AMEG fCG

1
9

0
10

oodG
11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

-1

? OdG GH cQG OY g e .1
.CG qK dG hG fG .2
dH dG
QGdG
jFG dH JGdG
? OdG GH cQG OY g e .3

.qFMEG qdG g qSeh Ge YG .4

.GJGqdG qe SQG .5

115

qFGY gGd eCG


1 f

.AbQR jb 3 h AGM jb 3 c j .1
Qqc qK dG NGO LQCGh fd qS ,FGY jH dG e jb H q b
: ddG FdG Y qa Iqe 24 HdG
qFGY qfCG H Y f
H CG eY
b HqdGG f qb
.gQX

- QRCG - QRCG - MCG - MCG - QRCG

-MCG - QRCG -QRCG


- QRCG - QRCG - MCG - QRCG - QRCG - MCG - QRCG - MCG
- QRCG - MCG - MCG - QRCG - MCG - MCG- MCG- QRCG
.MCG

: dG hG Y q dG FdG UM
QRCG jdG S

MCG jdG S
GqG OY
qjFG qdH JGdG
.cCG K SGqc Y foG
? MCG jdG XCG dG e 50 % qCG f CG g .2
? QRCG jdG QX JGJ g e .3
: ddG FdG Y a Iqe 40 HdG Qqc .4

QRCG - MCG - MCG - MCG - QRCG - MCG - QRCG - QRCG - MCG - MCG - MCG - QRCG - MCG -QRCG
- MCG - MCG - QRCG - QRCG - MCG - MCG - QRCG - MCG - MCG - QRCG - MCG - QRCG - QRCG .QRCG - MCG -QRCG - MCG - QRCG - MCG - MCG - QRCG - QRCG- MCG - QRCG - MCG - QRCG
cCG qK SGc Y dG hG fG (CG
QRCG jdG S

MCG jdG S
GqG OY
qjFG qdH JGdG

116

? QdG e 50 % e cCG MCG jdG S q g (

UGh d'' b h 25 bQ HdG Y qbJ qd Iqe 40 HdG H FbUCG MCG b .4


g .''QRCG jdG QX JGJ e cCG MCG jdG QX JGJ UC qdG Y
? CGdG WJ
2 f

.SG dBG SGH FGY OGYCG S


ALEA hCG RANDOM QdG SGH FGY GOGYCG dG SG dBG qaJ
... rand hCG
H Q Y OY Y qf IMGh Iqe RANDOM QdG Y f eY
.dBG f M cCG hCG FGY bQCG 3 GP Fb qj dG AL h 1 h 0
HdG J Qqc .UdG H bQCG KH FGY GOGYCG VJ SM dBG f
: qddG FdG Y qa Iqe 30

AMEG fCG

-154 -932 -202 -353 -147 -925 -957 -989 -513 -410 -696 -847 -760 -046
-024 -802 -699 -104 -509 -660 -319 -724 -621 -772 -296 -193 -971 -630
214 -619
.cCG qK SGc Y dG hG fG (CG .1
bdG
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
GqG OY
jFG dH JGdG
.GJGdG qe SQG (
: dG hG FdG UM qK Iqe 60 SG dBG SH HdG Qqc (CG .2
n

Se qY qf
e e qFMEG S
Y qG FqdG
n HqdG g QGJ Y
hqdG f h Iqe

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

bdG
GqG OY
jFG dH JGdG

.GJGdG qe SQG (
. 0,1 OdH GJGdG Qb ? qdG c qc MJ GPe .3

117

3 f

qc H dG LdG bQ qS h Iqe jY h N 6 EG 1 e qbe LhCG GOf QG (CG


: dG hG FdG UM K eQ
FdG
6 5 4 3 2 1
QGdG
jFG dHJGdG
.GJGdG qe SQG (
.HdG hG e hL FeR e KK Ff e Y q dG FdG qL (
.GJGdG qe SQG (O
. 0^16 OdH GJGdG Qb ? qdG c qc MJ GPe (
4 f

Y HLEG HG qJ J efH N e He eqdG e Y cQT


.qFGY jH Y e QG j qdG GDqdG
.1g VjqdG gOYh 4 g jQqdG gOYh 5g qedG aqdG SCG OY qCG f
? qd MG qbCG ? qd MG cCG GDqdG g e (CG
.qjFe f U qdG YG ? jQqdG GDS S MG g e (
? VjqdG hCG qedG aqdG GDS S MG g e (
5 f

gPSCG H MG ,VjqdG qM e LhN Y YdH ebCG MCGh jYh CG f


.dGG qG jGH qFGY jH Y YqRh qK
.cG qK SGqc Y fG .eqdG Y bCG jRJ qfeEG qdG hG q
MCG qj
b
jY b
CG b

jY qj
b
MCG b
MCG b

CG qj
b
b
jY b

jRqdG qfeEG
hCG qfeEG
fK qfeEG
dK qfeEG

118

? jRdG feEG OY g e (CG


? b CG qj CG MG g e (
? b J qc qj CG MG g e (

AMEG fCG

.3 , 2 , 0 qddG bQCG SH
. bQ P OY jJ jW e H (CG
? jhe hCG bQ P OY jJ jW e H (
IQd e qc qj IQhe h dN ceCG 4 H e T qUN GQS ihCe
.IMGh
.ihCG JQS NO
? ihCG e dN fe f JQdG LJ jW e H (CG
? JQhe fe JQdG J CG MG g e (
: dqdG qSdG TCG jJ jj .qdGh UCGh QRCG : fqe bCG KK Qd

? qbCG Y MGh d SG j qfCG fYG e GPEG GdCd G GQNG g e


? GdCG KK j qfCG fYG e GPEG GdCd G GQNG g e

119

`` ` ` jQ`` ` ` `
VjdG dG M SSCG edG e a KK eJ fH HJ PSCG SG 1
.SQG VjdG qG QWEG SQ hqj dG
.dcEG qj dGh qddG dG FKdG G g J PSCG hM
(1) KdG
G

idG dCG dG Ic

dG Ic

0
3
2

2
0
10

dG Ic

5
2

G
(2) KdG

dG Ic SQ

eqdGOY

1C G 8
2 CG 8
3 CG 8

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

1CG 8

2CG 8

3G 8

eqdGOY

(3) KdG

dG Ic

dG Ic

qqdG Ic

idG dCG

120

? HdG FKdG e Kh qc q GPe .1

Y qJ dG KdG g e ? dG Ic SQ hqj jdG 2CG8 e edG OY g e .2


? dP
? dP Y qJ dG KdG g e ? idG dCG SQ hqj jdG edG OY g e .3
.OGdG GH bdG G cCG ? dG Ic OGh (1) KdH 10 OdG q GPe .4

?VjdG qG QWEG VjQ f SQ hqj jdG 1CG8 e edG OY g e .5


? VjQ f SQ GhQNG jdG ed G OdG g e
.cCG qK (1) KdH hG fG .6
.dG M dG Ic SQ GhQNG jdG edG qRJ FGdG dG q qe .7

AMEG fCG

: qdG qdG Y qjOGYEG SQe eJ qRj 2


S 17

S 16

S 15

S 14

S 13

S 12

0
0
20

0
40
36

4
50
70

48
50
6

76
10
0

22
0
0

qdH QGqdG
qjFG

QGqdG dH dG

22
124
20

12
13
14
15
16
17
G

121

dG
iG

SSCG 7
SSCG 8
SSCG 9

? ShQG FMEG YG g e .1

? W g e ? ShQG IG g e .2
.cCG qK HG hG fG .3

? G QGdG g e .4
EG dH dG qe h ie h Ge YG .5
.dG g
dG q HdG hG qe .6
.dG g qSe g e .7

.SCG GW ic IR jOJG AaG OY qRJ dG hG q


MCG

qdG

AHQEG

AKqdG

KEG

3900

2730

2300

1230

590

1230

1920

? AaG Od edG qG g e .1

? MCG j Aad qjFG qdG g e .2


.qdG q qdG g qe .3

78 , 77 , 76 , 75 ,74 , 73 , 72 , 71 :WG ReQ MC`H CGJ QdG JdG bQCG 4


: dG hH qe g c Jg e 1200 `H SDe eb
G eQ
78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71
100 150 160 30 130 360 120 140 G OY
? 73 edG f jLG dG JdG G OY g e .1
? 78 edG f LG JdG d jFG dG g e .2
.FGdG dG dG g qe .3
17 h OhCG 10 e qj a qHdG dG PSCG H b dG dG Ff j a

.T X edG dW dG dG OY M ee H
(1 hG) dG EG qdH
(1 hG)

2 e cCG
9

1
2

0
0

dG c OY
eqdG OY
qjFG qdH JGqdG
(2 hG) OhCG EG qdH

(2 hG)

2 e cCG
4

2
5

1
0

0
1

dG c OY
eqdG OY
qjFG qdH JGqdG

122

.cCG qK HdG dhG fG .1

.MGh hL HdG G qL .2

.c 3 e qbCG dW JdG d a jFG dG MG(CG .3


.c 3 e qbCG GdW jdG Qcd b jFG dG MG (

.c 3 e qbCG GdW jdG ed c jFG dG MG (


? GP ? b h a `d HG qG q cqCG g (O

qc ej j dG edG M ee j SQe IQGOEG eb , SGQH dG b 6


: IQSEG g JRaCG dG FdG dG hG qj SG eCG J
EG 90 e

EG 60 e

120 e qbCG
20

EG 30 e

90 e qbCG
50

EG 0 e

60 e qbCG
100

30 e qbCG
130

bqdH eqdG
eqdG OY
qdH JGqdG
qjFG

40
35
30

G OY

AMEG fCG

.qJdG G qR qJdG G Oe qRJ qdG G q q

25
20
15
10
5
0

bqdH bdG

10

? qJdG G e OY cC qeqdG IqG g e .1


.cCG qK qdG hG fG .2

123

EG 8 e

EG 6 e

EG 4 e

10 e qbCG 8 e qbCG

EG 0 e

EG 2 e

6 e qbCG

bqdH eqdG

2 e qbCG

4 e qbCG

G OY
GJGqdG

.GJGdG dG g qe .3

..JdG G Oe qe g e .4
e hdG RG d dG S H G Y aqdG e eb 8
.IRe 80
EG 340 e EG 330 e EG 320 e EG 310 e EG 300 e
QjdH dG
350 e qbCG 340 e qbCG 330 e qbCG 320 e qbCG 310 e qbCG

15

25

20

10

GRG OY

.G q G g qe .1

? qfe ? Je qdG H dG GRG OY g e .2


.QSCG qe g e .3
.qFMEG qdG g ieh Ge YG .4

.gQYCG M cT qY qRJ dG G q q 9
53

qdG OY

10

43

32
27

19
14
9
3
15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

124

: dG hG cCG .1

55 e 50 e 45 e 40 e 35 e 30 e 25 e 20e

dG
qbCG EG qbCG EG qbCG EG qbCG EG qbCG EG qbCG EG qbCG EG qbCG EG dH
60 e 55 e 50 e 45 e 40 e 35 e 30 e 25 e
OY
qdG
?dG d G QGdG g e .2

AMEG fCG

? cdG qd dH QYCG qe g e .3
.GQGdG qe Y SQG qK qG fG .4

qK Qe qc gOUG dG qdG qc RH SCG U H qG dG eb 10


: dG hG FdG eqb

2 e
e qbCG EG
2^5

1^5 e

2 e bCG EG
1

1 e

0^5 e

0 e

e qbCG EG
1^5

qbCG EG
1 e

qbCG EG
0^5 e

10

20

GZdH RdG

jOdG OY

? dG d G QGdG g e .1

? MGdG Qd aGG dG Rh e g e .2
? dG g e h Ge g e .3
.G q qe .4

? GZ 1500 e cCG GhOUG jdG cQG OY g e .5


? GZ 1000 e qbCG GhOUG jdG cQG OY g e .6

125

.JCGeG h LQ KK e fqe Y V T e jJ OGoj 11


? dG g J e q jW c (CG
? LQ e qce dG J CG MG g e (
? JCGeG e qce dG J CG MG g e (
.ICGeG h LQ e fqe dG J CG MG SG (O
HQCG H e adG OGdG cQG QNG geJ Y jHJ qSDe VJ 12
ddG OGf
dG :4
G : 3
bdG : 2
SG : 1
cQH d oS e GPEG MGdG dG EG dH G GQNG OY g e
?jJ bCG Y OGf 3 ? a jOf

. qdG e UCG KK FaM Y e Vj 13


? a GMGh U Qj CG Y jG qCG fYG e GPEG G GQNG g e .1
? U e cCG Qj CG qfCG fYG e GPEG G GQNG g e .2

126

cG XqdG

WH HG
j W je dh.WonH HH hG dG dG Y H dG Y HCG g
gh ghCG : MQ K WH HG MQ . H SQOh ,jg 703 S LQ 17
NGhCG G j e fGh (1325) `g725 S LQ 12 G j gCGH dWCG
HG OY.dfCH WfZ fdG MQ CGa ,OY K .`g 750 S Y T
Uhh ,GJ EG eh , K e K ,GOdG OH EG ddG MQ CGd WH
.`g 777 S WH HG J.dG f EG G g H JJ
d qdG qHdG qG

d qj AGhO AGO qd
jhGj e YCG bG qEG
bT MCG

127

cG XdG
SCG
qc G AdG CG qK SGc Y SdG fCG
1
: ddG G e dM
G EG dH A dG IXe A' dG HG (CG
.
B
A

. e EG dH JXe f B h A (
. HG

EG dH ABC G Xe A'B'C' G HG (
. G

? cCG hCG XJ Q d dG dG g e (CG 2

(`g)

(O)

()

()

(CG)

? (d) G EG dH JXe V hUdG J ddG TCG e T CG (

(`g)

(O)

()

()

(CG)
128

.(d) qdH JXe f B h A


.HG fG ''C N'' hCG ''U'' `H LCG qK SGqc Y qdG hG fCG
(d) Q QG XdH A dG IXe g B

.1

(AB) RGj (d) G .2


(AB) Y OY (d) G .3

cG XqdG

SG g

129

e [AB] j (d) G

.4

(d) EG dH G f e B h A

.5

. G EG J G e M fh e d
G c GPEG G EG dH M d IXe M' dG J
[MM']d OdG
.f IXe a G EG J M fc GPEG
: dqdG G e dM qc

AM + MB h AB Qb

AM + MB = AB IGhG M dG HqdG qVdG e qVh qCG

(CG

qWCGh SCG
1 f

.SGqc Y h T Qh Y (F) SdG fCG (1


.SdG j H SGc Y dG QdG V . O dG Y QcdG cT qK qCG MJ S d ) IQhO f dG QdG jhH b (.G f Y G qG
. (F') S .IjG qVh SGc Y dG SH b . O dG EG dH(F)d Xe (F') dG qCG f
hCG
. O ce qdG cG XdH (F)dG Xe g (F') dG qCG
. D hC h B h A d GdG Y aGG

D' h C' h B' h A' dG OqM (CG (2

? [CC'] h [BB']h[AA']G b e qc EG dH

O dG q GPe (

.[AA'] G b e O fc GPEG O d dH AdG IXe A' dG qCG f

2 f
SGqc Y dqdG TCG fCG (CG

qdG EG qdH SG qdG Xe dqdG G e dM qc SQCG (

jJ
G e f O d
. O d d f M
O `d dH M d IXe M' dG J
[MM'] G b e O fc GPEG
.f g O d dH O dG IXe
130

Hch e
ce XJ qj O d dH XdG
.XdG ce O dG qf
iNCd IXe e qc qCG f O `d dH JXe M' h M dG J eY
.cG XdH

J
.O EG dH D h C h Bh A qdG GXe OqM h e

ABCD M qdG SqdG M

IFGdG SQCG . A h O f SQCG (CG


OA YT h O gce dG
A' fK f Wj
h [AO) G f

A
D

cG XqdG

. O EG dH JXe A' h A qCG qH (


: qdG QG G SGqc Y fCG

, 4 , -3 , 3 ,2 GqdG Y JUa qdG Eh Dh C h Bh A qdG qY (CG


B EG qdH E qdG IXe h O EG qdH B qdG IXe OqM (
...g I EG qdH E qdG IXe - : Sj CG qK fCG (
....EG qdH JXe Eh O qdG -

: qdG SqdG fCG 4


? C h B h AdG e qc KMEG g e (CG
GXe C' h B' h A' dG qY (
. O EG dH GdG Y C h B h A dG
C' h B' h A' dG KMEG g e (
131

: eSG Y aG - e f Xe - e Xe
1 f

.dEG J

f h (D) e SQCG (1
. (D) e B h A f qY
. (A'B') Gh O EG dH GdG Y B' h A' JXe SQCG
(AB) G Y fCG qK O dG QcdG cT SGH qK h aT bQh N
(A'B') Y fG b (AB) CG M h A'dG Y A dG J M adG bQdG QOCG
(A'B') G g O EG dH (AB) G Xe qCG CG
.jRGe (A'B')h (AB) G qCG qM
? O EG dH [AB) G f Xe g e (2
O

.G e f O d
.d RGe e g O EG dH e Xe
Y JXe B'h A' h f B h A fc GPEG
(AB)

G Xe (A'B')G qEa O EG qdH GqdG


(AB)

`d RGe (A'B') jdh O EG dH


[AB) G f Xe [A'B') G f
.O EG dH

J
f h e SQCG (CG 1
EG J
''h A EG dH Xe ' G HG (
B EG dH Xe
.jRGe '' h ' CG KCG (
B

S Gc Y HG SdG fCG
EG dH G Xe HG

132

.ce O dG dh EFGH VCG RGe HG 3


: Sj SGc Y CGh fCG
.......... G g O EG dH (EH) G Xe
(EH) G g O EG dH........ G Xe
(yy')

(xx') M dG dG M

jRGe e
[EF) h [Fy) h [Ex) e qc Xe g e
O dG EG dH

cG XqdG

2 f

. O fh IMGh eSG Y C h B h A f K SQCG (CG


.O G qdH GqdG Y C h Bh A GXe C' h B'h A' qdG HG (
.IMGh eSG Y C'h B'h A' qCG KCG (
A

C'
O
B'

XH IMGh eSG Y f K GXe


.jCG IMGh eSG Y f K g ce
.eSG Y aj cG XdG qCG f

A'

J
.[AB] eO qdG qYh IMGh eSG Y Ch B h A f K SQCG 1
. O qd qdH C qdG IXe D qdG f
. (AB) G EG J D qdG qCG qH
e O qdG qYh ABC qe SQCG 2
O qdG EG qdH A qdG IXe D qdG HG
N qdG (CD) j (OM) G .[AB] e f M qY
. O qdG EG dH M dG IXe g N qdG qCG qH
[BC]

133

.G Y aG -e b IXe -dG Y aG
1 f

G e f O d
IMGh eSG Y d B h Ah O M B h A f qY (1
O EG dH GdG Y B h A JXe B'h A' dG HG (CG
? O EG dH (A'B) h (AB) e qc Xe g e (
.VCG RGe ABA'B'YHdG qCG KCG (
A'B' = AB qCG SG (O
. O `d qdH C' JXe HGh Ah O `d d (OA) G eC f qY (2
A'C'h AC Qb
f B h Ah G e f O d
O EG dH GdG Y B h A qdG JXe B'h A'dG fc GPEG
.dG Y aj cG XdG qCG f .A'B' = AB qEa

2 f

. O fh [AB] e b SQCG (CG


. O dG EG dH GdG Y B h A JXe B'h A' dG HG (
. [A'B'] dG SQCG (
Qb qK AB h AM + MB Qb .O EG dH JXe M'h [AB] e f M d (O
. [A'B'] EG J M' qCG SCG A'B'h A'M' + M'B'
[AB] EG J N qCG qH . O EG dH JXe N h [A'B'] e f N' d (
. O EG dH [AB] G b Xe SG (h

.G e f O d
d je e b g O EG dH e b Xe
GdG Y B h A f JXe B' h A'f fc GPEG
dG IXe g [A'B'] G b qEa O EG dH
. O EG dH [AB]

134

J
HG dG M 1
? E EG dH [CG] h [GH] h [HC] h [CD] e qc Xe g e
e b SQCG
FEG dH G IXe G'dG h G EG dH F IXe F' dG HG (CG
FG' = GF' qCG qH (

GdG Y [AB]h [AC] h[BC] dG e C' h B' h A' h e ABC d


C' EG dH B' IXe C''h A'EG dH B' IXe A'' H C"h A"dG HG (CG
? AB'BC"YHdG W g e (
[A"C"] G b e B dG qCG KCG (
B
e ABCD M SGc Y HG SdG fCG (CG
I
G e I f h AD = 3 cm h AB = 5 cm GH
qdH ABCD G Xe EFGH YHqdG HG (
.Meh OqM ? W g e . I EG

[FG]

cG XqdG

3 f
[MN] dG e I M SGqc Y HG SdG fG (CG

. G e f O h
GdG Y Ih Nh M GXe I'h N'h M' dG HG (
O EG dH
[M'N'] dG e I' dG qCG qH (
G Y aj cG XdG

J
[A'B'] JXe e GALh [AB] G b SQ - 1 1
.HG dH qe g c I dG EG dH
[A'B'] dG e QcdGh IH HGh dG fCG

135

. O ce qY h ABCD VCG RGe SQCG (CG .1 2


. C EG dH B IXe B' dG HG (
D' dG (AD) j (OB')G .2
O EG dH JXe D' h B' qCG qH (CG
[DD'] dG e A dG qCG SG(

jhGR IXe
f
O fh BAC jhGR SQCG (CG
OEG dH GdG Y C h B h A dG GXe C' h B' h A' dG HG (
[A'C') h [A'B') G f SQCG (
B'A'C' jhGdG g O EG dH BACjhGdG IXe qCG e adG bQdG SGH q (O
B'A'C' = BAC qCG q
jhGR g G e f EG dH jhGR IXe
bCG Y aj cG XqdG qCG f .d je
.jGhdG
f K C h B h A fc GPEG G e f O d
GdG Y JGXe C' h B' h A' h G e
B'A'C' jhGdG g BAC jhGdG IXe qEa O EG dH
B'A'C' = BAC h

J
BC = 4 cm h ACB = 40h ABC = 60M ABC G HG (CG
I EG dH BIXe D dG HG [AC] e I dG d (

. BAC MCG
EG dH BAD h ABC h BAC : ddG jGhdG e qc IXe g e (
DCM MCG qK [BC]EG J h [BC) EG J M f qY (O
h XOY SCGdH HG jhGdG f 2
? O EG dH [OY)h [OX) e c Xe g e -CG
O EG dH XOY jhGdG Xe g e -
? J GPe
XOY' MCG XOY + X'OY' = 90 c GPEG -
X'OY'

136

.SGqc Y HG qdG fG 3
GXe S h R h Q h P qdG HG
. BqdG EG qdH Eh Dh Ch AqdG
.QPB h RSA jGhqdG b MCG

IFGO IXe
f
[II']

dGh dG f d JFGO

( )

cG XqdG

HG dG
SGc Y dG fCG .1
e f M d .2
.O EG dH M IXe M' dG HG (CG
'EG J M' qCG KCG (
' e f N' d
N' dG J H N dG HG (CG .3
O EG dH N IXe
EG J N qCG KCG (

( ')

'h

I'

EG dH JXe ' h JFGdG qCG f


.d je IFGO g G e f EG dH IFGO IXe
O

f d

'

IFGO g O f EG dH I gce IFGO IXe


. I dG IXe I' M I' gceh qdG

J
IFGO SQCG 1
IXe ' IFGdG SQCG
I gce

.dM qc
dqdG dG
O ( )

137

f EG dH

fqdG dG

hCG dG

I =O

O ( ),I O

cG f d FGhO K SQCG (CG


IFGO Y SCGQ qc j H MNP qe SQG (
XG M'N'P' G a IG SHh HG (
. O d dH MNP d
O

( )' h ( ) JFGdG M HG SdG M


O dG Seh je

: Sj dG VqY h j e fCG
.................... g O EG dH I dG IXe
............. g D EG dH ( )IFGdG IXe
............ g D' EG dH ( ') IFGdG IXe
........... g O EG dH ( ) IFGdG IXe

MG Y aG
f
( ')h ( ') HG qK SGc Y HG SdG fG
O EG dH GdG Y ( )h ( ) JXe
( ') h ( ) Me H Qb

. ( ')h Me Qb qK
EG dH GXe h Sg T
.MG f d PEG He g O f
.MG Y aj cG XdG

J
M A jhGdG Fb ABC e SQCG 1
.A EG dH GdG Y C hB dG JXe E h D dG HG
ABE h ADC h ADE G VCG Qb
? ABC G Me g e
. BCDE YHdG Me SG
AC = 5 cm h AB = 3 cm

138

dH jXe (F') h (F) dG j H CG h SGc Y dG SdG fCG (CG 2


. I dG EG
.(F') h (F) dG e qc Me MCG (

qSg TCG XJ ce
f
.SGc Y F dG fCG (CG
G dG g O EG dH B dG IXe qCG M
EG J dG
iNCG dG Y J MG f qCG g (
? O EG dH JGXeh
O EG dH JGXe HGh F Y iNCG f qY (
? J GPe (O

cG XqdG

Sg T XJ ce O f q
O dG EG dH Xe e dG Gg fG GPEG

J
.OqM ? XJ ce d qdG g e : dqdG TCG H e

(4)

139

(8)

(3)

(7)

(2)

(1)

(5)

OY H ae j

JXe N' h M' M HG qdG M


D EG qdH N h M qdG
O EG qdH M'h M JXe P h N h
? O EG qdH (MM')G Xe g e .1
(NN')`d RGe (MM')qCG qH .2
.IMGh eSG Y P h N' h N qdG qCG SG .3

qG
q CG .1
.(NP) G g
D Y OY (MM') PEG D EG dH M dG IXe M' jd .2
`d RGe (MM') dH D Y OY (NN')PEG D EG dH N dG IXe N' h
(NN')
.(NN') `d RGe (MM') PEG (NP) G g O EG dH (MM') G Xe jd .3
dHh (NP)`d RGe (NN') PEG (NP) h (NN') G e qc RGj (MM') G
.IMGh eSG Y P h N' h N dG
(MM') G Xe qEa O EG dH M' h M JXe P h N

OY H ae j

IFGdG h A jhGdG Fb AOB e f


IFGd S (AB) G qCG qH
A
GXe D'h B'h A'dGh A EG dH B IXe A' dG HG
. O EG dH GdG Y D h B h A
[B'D']e A' qCG qH
.HGL qY ? IFGdGh (A'B') d dG VdG ge

A e IQGh O gce dG

.1
.2
.3
.4

qG
(OA)Y OY (AB)PEG A jhGdG Fb OAB G jd .1

EG J A qdGh

IFGdG T CG

OA g (AB)G Y O dG H dHh
IFGd SG g (AB) PEG
A dG

(SdG EG fG)

D'h B' h A' h D dG AH .2

140

. [BD] dG e A j A EG dH B IXe D dG jd .3
A' qEa G Y aj cG XdG qCG f h O EG dH A `d IXe A' qCG
[B'D'] e
. dP qd .A' dG IFGd S (A'B') G qGC Mf .4
B'A'O = 90 PEG B'A'O g O EG dH g Xe h BAO = 90 jd
. (OA') Y OY (A'B') CG CG
Ea dHh ( IFGdG T OA ) OA' = OAPEG O EG dH JXe A' h A dG
IFGdG EG J A' q
. A' dG IFGd S (A'B') G PEG

qdGh XdG

cG XqdG

f
OI = OJ = 1cm h G e (O,I,J) M dG SdG M
MG dG Vj c C h B h A dG d

J
I

G ah SdG IOLG dG e qc KGMEG OqM .1


JKGMEG OqMh (OI) EG dHC h B hA dG GXe HG (CG .2
dH JXe Ua h C h Bh A dG e f qc Ua EG dH MJ GPe (
(OI)EG dH JXe JJh HS IQcG dG e f qc JJ dch (OI) EG
qfGC q ? KGMEG EG dH MJ GPe S(3,- 1 ) h R(3, 1 ) dG qY (
2
2
. (OI) EG dH JXe
.(OJ) EG dHh A h I dG GXe OqM (CG .3
JXe Uah B h A h J dG e f qc Ua EG dH MJ GPe (
dH JXe JJh HS IQcG dG e f qc JJ dch (OJ) EG dH
.(OJ)EG
(O,I,J)

141

qfGC q ? KGMEG EG dH MJ GPe . Q(+ 3 ,- 1 ) h


2

3 1
P(- ,- ) dG qY
2
2 2
(OJ) EG dH JXe

O EG dH C h A h B dG GXe OqM(CG (4
(O,I) dH JXe Ua h C h A h B
O

dG e f qc Ua EG dH MJ GPe (

EG dH JXe JJ h HS IQcG dG e f qc JJ dc h O EG

qfGC q ?KGMEG EG dH MJ GPe.

5
5
H(2,- ) h G(-2, ) dG qY (
2
2
.O EG dH JXe

oj (O J) Y OY (O I) M (O, I, J) f KK c
.iG Gee e
G UCG qoJ O dG
.UGdG Q qoj (OI) G
.JdG Q qoj (OJ) G
.KGMEG GQ g (OJ) h (OI) G
jdG OGYCG e (x,y) hR qd
CGfh M(x,y) f h G e M IMh f f
(x,y) KGMEG GP M dG
. G e (O, I, J) c GPEG
: qEa M dG KGMEG (x,y) dG hdG c GPEGh
JKGMEG , M' dG g (OI) EG dH JXe (-x,y) JKGMEG , M'' dG g (OJ)EGdH JXe JKGMEG , M''' dG g O dG EG dH JXe (x,-y)

(-x,-y)

J
OI=OJ M G e (O, I, J) d
C (2,4) h B (-3,2)h A (1,3)dG h

qdH C h Bh A qdG GXe


qdH C' h B' h A'

C' h B' h A'

dG e qc qKGMEG Y HG (CG
(OI) Qd
qdG GXe C"h B"h A" qdG e qc qKGMEG Y HG (
(OJ) Qd
. OEG dH Ch Bh A dG GXe KGMEG Y HG (
? J GPe (O
142

. A( 7 ,-2) dGh OI = OJ M G qe (O, I, J)d 2


3
: ddG G e dM qc B h A dG EG dH J GPe
. B(-2, 7 ) (O, B(- 7 , 2) (, B( 7 , 2) (, B(- 7 ,-2) (CG
3

OY H ae j

.G e (O,I,J) d
.qdG je AOB qG qCG qHB. (2,-3)h A (2,3)qdG qY (CG
.JKGMEG OqM . O qd qdH A qdG IXe C qdG f (
.Fb ABC qG qCG qH
.e jABCD YHqdG H D qdG qKGMEG OqM(

qG
cG XqdG

-3

-2

-1

-1

-2

Cx

-3

JJh UdG f d B h A dG (CG


Q EG dH JXe g PEG He
OdG SG g (OI) qCG CG (OI) UdG
G qCG j OA = OBdH h [AB] d
.dG je AOB
. C (-2,-3) dG (
g PEG C (-2,-3) h B (2,-3) qGC Mf
JdG Q EG dH JXe
(BC) Y OY (OJ) dH h
(AB) Y OY (OI)
h
: qCG h
(OJ) Y OY (OI)

G dHh(BC)Y OY (AB) PEG (BC)Y OY (OJ) h(AB)`d RGe (OJ) jd


A Fb ABC
. D(-2,3) PEG O EG dH B dG IXe D dG d (
O EG dH [BC) Xe [DA)h O EG dH [BA) Xe [DC) jd
. ABC = CDA = 90 PEG
. DAB = BCA = 90 CG qf jdG Hh
.e ABCDYHdG dH h
143

UMCG
.G e f O d
IXe M'f J O Y f M
e O fc GPEG O EG dH M d
. [MM']
dG g O EG dH O dG IXe
.f O
.d RGe e g ce XH e Xe

G e f O h e (AB) c GPEG
G g O EG qdH (AB) Xe qEa
Y B h A JXe B'h A'M (A'B')
. O EG qdH GqdG
e f g ce XH e f Xe

e f O h e f[AB) c GPEG
B h A JXe B' h A' M G
[AB) Xe qEa O EG qdH GqdG Y
. [A'B') G f g O EG dH
e b g ce XH e b Xe
d je

f B h A h G e fO
Y B h A JXe B' h A'h
IXe qEa GPEGO qdG EG qdH GqdG
jdh [A'B'] dG g O EG qdH [AB]
. A'B' = AB
dG Y aj cG XdG

GdG Y JXe B'h A'f fc GPEG


e O f EG dH Bh A qd
. A'B' =AB qEa G
A

C'

B'

eSG Y aj cG XdG

IMGh eSG Y f K GXe


Y f K g O dG EG dH
.IMGh eSG

O
A'

144

UMCG
G Y aj cG XdG

dH e b e Xe
dG J Xe e g O f EG

.d je jhGR g G e f EG qdH jhGR IXe

jGhqdG Y aj cG XqdG
.G e f O d
C' h B' h A' h f K C h B h A
. O f EG qdH GqdG Y JGXe
h B'A'C'jhGqdG g BAC jGhqdG IXe qEa
cG XqdG

BAC = B'A'C'

145

.d je IFGO g G e f EG qdH IFGO IXe

O f EG dH I gce IFGO IXe


. I qdG IXe I' gce ' IFGO g

. IFGqdG T f dh
MG Y aj cG XdG

EG dH GXe h qSg T
.MG f dh He g O f
.MG Y aj cG XqdG
G e T XJ ce g O f
qdH f dG g Xe qCG j
.O EG
Gee (OJ)h (OI) M G e(O,I,J) c GPEG
: qEa MqdG qKGMEG (x,y)dG hqdG c GPEGh
M' qdG g (OI) EG qdH JXe (x,-y) JqKGMEG
M'' qdG g (OJ) EG qdH JXe (-x,y) JqKGMEG
M''' qdG g O qdG EG qdH JXe (-x,-y) JqKGMEG

B'C'A' h B'A'C'

`
`
`
`
j
Q`
`
`
`
`

jhGdG e qc b g e
.2
A'B'C' h

.HGL qY
.HGL qY ? B'C' dG g e .3

M[AB] e b SQCG (CG 1


G b e JhKh IdG HG (
GdG Y [IB] h [AI]h [AB]
CG qK SGqc Y dqdG G fG (
.Sj ZGdG
I EG qdH...... qdG IXe........ dG
........ EG qdH JXe Kh J qdG
........ EG qdH I qdG IXe B qdG
5 J EG qdH JXe .........h........... qdG
AB=8cm

h BC = 6cmM ABC qe SQG .1


qY dG qY qKCBA = 80 h AB = 3cm
. [AC] e I qdG e ABCM SGc Y dG dG fG- CG 2
I EG dH B dG IXe B' dG HG .2 [AA']eOdG HG qK G e f A'h
.HGL Y ? BAB'C YHdG W g e .3 . O EG dHABC G Xe AH cCG (
YHqdG h CB'A jGhqdG b MG .4
BAB'C

qHe SQG (CG 6


[EF) G f eO dG qY (
SGc Y ddG dG e T c fG 3
EO = 5cm M EG qdH qK I dG EG dH Xe SQG qK
E GXe H'h G'h F'h E' qdG HG (
. (d) G
O EG dH GqdG Y H h G h F h
g e .qHe E'F'G'H' YHqdG qCG qH (O
?
EF = 3cm M EFGH

G HGh [AB] G b SQG (CG 7


[AB] `d OdG qSG
I
[AB] `d J e K f qY (
B h K JXe B' h K' qdG HG (
A EG qdH GqdG Y jhGdG Fb ABC e dG dG
4
.qdG je AK'B'qG qCG SG (O
O h BCA = 60 h BC = 4cmM A

.G e f
A EG qdH B h C JXe A' dG HG qK SGc Y dG SQCG .1
qdH C' qdG IXe C'' qdG HG (
C' h B' h
(AB) EG qdH GdG Y C h B h A GXe
B'C" = BC qCG H (
. O EG
B' h C'qdG HG qKABC qe SQCG (CG

146

h AB = 4,5 cm M ABC e HG (CG 9


BC = 7 cm h AC = 8 cm
C `d IXe B J M O dG HG (
.O EG dH
O EG dH A IXe M dG HG (
ABC G Xe RBC G HG (O
? g e.(BC) G EG dH
RBC h MBC G qCG M hO qH (
.MG fh G f d

-3

-2

-1

-1

3
x

-2
G

x
-3

(O, I, J) Gee qe SQCG (CG 10


.e f M h I gce IFGO SQCG (CG 13
C(-3, -2) h B(0,-4) h A(3,-2) qdG d (
M dG EG dH IXe 'IFGdG HG (
. G(-5, 0) h F(5, 0) h E(0, 4) h D(3, 2)h
.gce I' d
qdG g H e cPG
qCG g . [II'] gb dG IFGdG SQCG(
(OI) EG dH JXG dG d g ? XJ ce d Y qG dG
(OJ) EG dH JXG dG ? XJ Q
EG dH JXG dG O

cG XqdG

? XJ ce qdG qd g

14

qK SGc Y SCG dG fCG ( CG (1 15


I EG dH Xe SQG
d G MG MCG (
.(FG e A jJ H)FdG

2,5
2,5
2,5

147

je bQh Y fCG (CG 11


C h A dG h
C h A e qc KGMEG OqM (
OqMh Oce ABCD HG SQCG (
. D h B dG KGMEG

(O, I, J) qG

qe (O, I, J) M qdG SdG qeCJ (CG 12


G h F h E dG KGMEG g e (
G h F h E dG GXe KGMEG OqM (
dH qK (OJ)EG dH qK (OI) EG dH
. O EG
J H bh SGc Y SdG fCG (O
.dG

ce ABCD VCG RGe SQG (CG 19 :jH j ce hCG Q XJ Lj g 15


```````G j . O e q e h ? F3 EG F1 dG ? F2 dG EG F1 dG
? F4 EG F1 dG
P h N h M dG (DA)h (CD)h (BC)h (AB) ? F4 EG F2 dG
.GdG Y Q h
? [NQ]h [MP] dG e g e (
.HGL Y
O

MCG qG h QH dhW dG dG q 20
gOGJQG bGe g C h B h A dG h IdG Qe
' h jRGe e SQG
16
.JKGMCG OqM(CG HG qK ' e B f h e A f qY (CG .1
.2
Y C h B h A dGh (O,I,J) qG fCG(
. [AB] dG e I dG
.SGc
I EG dH ' Xe qCG qH(
g e .OGJQG Y qbJ IdG qCG Vd ( D f h A `d d e C f qY (CG .3
: dqdG qdG qKGMEG
. [CD] dG e J h B `d d ' e
HdG OGJQG be D . J EG dH ' Xe qCG qH (
15 OY OGJQG be E - G j e q ce XJ e c .4
? ' EG
38 OY OGJQG be F 158 OY OGJQG be G h G M qdG dG qeCJ 17
.HGL e XJ ce OM qK jRGe

IFGO SQG (CG 18


.e I f qY qK d Gb
A dG JXe B' h A' dG HG (
I EG dH GdG Y B h
O'd A'B'I H G 'IFGdG HG (
.gce
? I EG dH O `d IXG dG g e (O
HGL Y
.HGL Y ? ' IFGdG T g e (`g
[AB]h 3cmYT h O gce

HQCG ANCG Y HG
20
ce A dG qCG h Y dG dG
.XJ

148

cG XqdG

: qJGh eG J qXhCG
qdG geoGebra qdG SGH cG XqdG M fCG
.ffG Y http : //www.geogebra.at bG e

D' hC' h B' h A' GdG Y qS h

ABCDYHqdG SQG .1
O qS h G e f qY .2
O EG dH D h C h B h A dG GXe CfCG .3

A'B'C'D'YHdG CfCG .4
? O dG EG dH MJ GPe .IQCdG SGH A dG jH b
? MJ GPe .A dG jH b h TdG Y [AA'] dG W XCG
?[AA'] EG dH O dG q GPe

...................................................... j O EG dH A dG IXe A' dG fc GPEG : cCG


? [A'B'] EG dH MJ GPe B h A dG jH bh TdG Y [AB] dG W XCG
? MJ GPe C h B h A dG jH bhA'B'C' h ABC jhGdG b TdG Y XCG
Y aj cG XdG : cCG
......................................................................................................................
? MJ GPe (AB)
.
`d RGG hA' e QG G SQCG.(AB) G SQCG
........................................................................................ g ce XH e Xe : cCG

?O EG dH d IXe G e f LJ g ABCD
.
YHdG QNO dG qY.5
? O EG dH d IXe G e f LJ g .ABCD YHdG NGOO dG qY .6

149

WJ Y UG jGhqdG
e e jRGe e

s`nG Y
e e dG c e H kY c ,QHH dh G gGHEG H Y g
.cGh OJQG LQO EG b e AdG dEG Uh e Y S a .Y
AfEH bdG e dG dEG Y dG gh ,dG dOG qM e hCG a
ch jMh a e dGh jdG Y J .AdG GLCG cM S UdG
Y e Jh ,Qeh e e c h Uh fh Sh GAGbh eh
dG kY c,kSf kW ch.mej ahG Yha NG Y dG
kahe c a c kYh ,eSEG Zh eSEG ,jMh H kaQY
,HGh G SbEG GQOe e j e T :HdH fJ e.feR
.1123 Y J .e Feh ,SG dSQ ,YHQ ,G Ge
d qdG qHdG qG

qdG qG gh qhGC g
e qc AdG e H
qG

qdG YT b CGdG
IqM d LG g GPEa

e WJ Y UG jGhqdG
e e jRGe

SCG

xAu = yAv = 90 M HG dG M

.ee jGhR cPCG


.qee jhGR cPCG

e e jRGe e WJ Y UG jGhqdG

? SCGdH He

zAt h xAy jhGdG

ddG TCG e T qCG

(Ax)//(tt') h [AB]

e I M HG dG M 3
.e qc eCG CN hCG U `H LCG qK

tBy'

t'By'
t'

t ' By

g I EG dH
g I EG dH
g I EG dH

jhGdG IXe
xAy jhGdG IXe
xAy jhGdG IXe
xAy

xAy

151

t'By'

qWCGh SCG
G f e NGO jGhR -Ke jGhR -NGO dOe jGhR
Y d Wb eh (uv) e (zt) h (xy) ddG dG G e dM qc
. B h A dG GdG

.NGO dOe jhGR g uBt hxAv jhGdG

Ke jhGR g uBth uAy jhGdG

.G f e qNGO jhGR g

vBt h yAu jhGdG

J
[AC] h[AB]j e (xy)

h e

ABC M HG dG M
Jh I

dG GdG Y

(XY) G EG dH NGO dOe jGhR cPCG

(CG

(AC) G EG dH Ke jGhR cPCG


(BC)

(
G EG G f e NGO jGhR cPCG (

152

qe jGhR bCG - qNGO dOG jGhqdG


1 f

e e jRGe e WJ Y UG jGhqdG

e (zt)h (xy) M SGc Y HG SdG fCG (1


GdG Y d Wb e (uv) h jRGe
. B h A dG
. [AB] e I dG qY (2
I EG dH JXe D dGh [Ax) e f C d (3
NGO dOe jhGR cPCG (CG
jhGdG IXe g e (
? I EG dH xAB
xAB = ABt qCG SCG (
zBA = yAB qCG qH (O
dOe jhGR qc qEa jRGe e e b GPEG
je NGO
xAB = tBA jd h NGO dOe tBA h xAB jhGdG
zBA = yAB jd h NGO dOe zBAh yABjhGdG
2 f
ABC e SQCG

(CG
(BC) `d RGG h Ae QG (xy) G HG (
?

ABC

e NGO dOG jhGdG g e (

? ACB e NGO dOG jhGdG g e (O


: je cCG qK SGc Y fCG (`g
ABC + BAC + ACB = ....... + BAC + ....... = .......
180

hj e jGhR bCG

J
. B h A jhGdG MCG e T ABCD (CG 1

153

e T

YHdG M HG dG M (
.jRGe (ER) h (JS) G h
IRE G jGhR bCG MCG

ROSE

MCG qK HG dG qeCJ 2

h O = 2 x C M COQ G f 3
.G Gg jGhR bCG C dH cCG
. Q h O h C MCG
CO = 5cm qCGh Y G Gg SQCG

Q =3xC

q YHQ .ABCD HG dG
Sj cCG qK j e SGc Y fCG

ADC = ADB + .......


ABC = ABD + .......
BAD + ADC + DCB + CBA = BAD + ADB + ....... = 360

360

hoj q YHQ jGhR bCG


3 f
[Ax)

e C f qYh 40 b xAy jhGR SQCG (CG (1


dH G f e d [Ay)h [Cz) h ACz = 40 H [Cz) G f SQCG (
(Ax) EG
jRGe (Cz) h (Ay)G qCG (
? MJ GPe xAy = 100 QYH h h CG MGG f YCG (2
d Wb h e D' h D d
jRGe D' h D qEa NGO dOe jhGR jJ GPEG

154

J
ACB = 50 h ABC = 70h BC = 5cm M ABC

e SQCG (CG
CAD = 50 h ACD = 60M ACD G ABC G QN HG (
.jRGe (BC) h (AD) G qCG qH (
A

jRGe (tt') h (zz') M HG dG M


ABt' h zAB jhGqdG qe [By) h [Ax) h
.jRGe

(Ax) h (By) qCG qH

e e jRGe e WJ Y UG jGhqdG

KG jGhqdG

155

1 f

GdG Y d Wb (uv) e h jRGe (zt) h (xy)e SQCG (CG


B h A dG
je qfCG qH qK Ke jhGR OM (
.ee qfCG qH qK G f e NGO jhGR OM (
Ke jhGR qc qEa jRGe e e b GPEG
.je
d Wb (uv) G h jRGe e (zt) h (xy)
tBA h vAy jhGdG PEG A h B dG GdG Y
vAy = tBA jd h Ke

NGO jhGR qc qEa jRGe e e b GPEG


.ee G f e
d Wb (uv) Gh jRGe e (zt) h (xy)
tBA huAy jhGdG PEG A h B dG GdG Y
uAy + tBA = 180jd h G f e NGO

J
D'h D

.jRGe

EFG = 30

EHG = 150 H [FG]

G M HG dG qeCJ 1
.dG je ABC G qCG qH

[EH]

JYb

EFGH e T HG (CG
FGH h FEH MCG (

? W g e (
jRGe e ' h M dG dG qeCJ 3
hO SG f H dG jGhdG bCG OM qK
.G SG

2 f
(yy')h (xx')e HG dG q
(zz') G h
zBy' = zAx' = 40M d Wb

dG QdG SGH SGc Y dG fCG


? jRGe

(yy') h (xx') G qCG q

3 f

e (yy')h (xx') jd HG dG
zAx = zBy M d Wb (zz')h
zBy = x'Az' qCG qH (1
jRGe (yy')h (xx') G qCG SG (2

d Wb h e D' h D d
jRGe D' h D qEa EG dH Ke jhGR jJ GPEG
156

xJ
e IJK h ABC M HG dG qeCJ 1
.jRGe (IK)h (AC) G qCG qH

e e jRGe e WJ Y UG jGhqdG

. HG dG M 2
? (zt) h (xy) d dG VdG g e

157

M HG dG qeCJ 3
VCG je
(AB) G e qd dG VdG g e
? (DE) h (AC) Gh (CD) h

CDE h ABC

dG VdG g e .HG dG qeCJ 4


? (ED) h (AC) d
. (BD) h (AF) G EG dH dc
1

OY qH ae j

jRGe (yy')h (xx') M HG dG M


G e f P h
OhG jdG EG J P dM (1
(yy')h (xx') `H
x'AP + y'BP = APB. qCG qH
P J eY dG f Y qJ g (2
? jdG f QN

: qG
hCG jqdG
(xx') `d RGG h P e QG G (zz') d - 1
.d Wb (AP)h jRGe (zz')h (xx')G jd
dH h NGO dOe zPA h x'AP jhGdG PEG
(1) x'AP = zPA
(BP)h jRGe (zz') h (yy') G jd dc

NGO dOe y'BPh zPB jhGdG PEG d Wb


(2) zPB = y'BP dHh
zPA + zBP =APB PEG JQhe zPBh zPAjhGdG
APB = x'AP + y'BP qGC f (2) h (1)eh
fqdG jqdG
x'AP + y'BP = 180 - BPA'
= 180 - APB'
= APB
(yy')

h (xx') `H OhG jdG Y LQN

J eY VdG SQOCG - 2

OY qH ae j

, AB = 5cm M ABC e SQCG


.HdG G Y Vh jJ SH b (1
? ITe C h B jhGdGh [AB] dG SQ g (2
.G Gg Ad jW bG (3

C = 80

B = 30

: qG
jdG SdG (1
[AB] G b SQ qfC eqG G ah ITe G Gg AH (2
C jhGdG SQ M BC dG jd d d B jhGdG h
A = 70 qCG f eh 180hj e jGhR bCG qCG f
ABC G SQ dG g h B = 30 h A = 70h AB = 5cm jd PEG (3
158

UMCG

e e jRGe e WJ Y UG jGhqdG

dOe jhGR g uBt h xAv jhGdG


(uv) G EG dH NGO

e jhGR g

uBt h uAyjhGdG

(uv) G EG dH

e NGO jhGR g uBth yAv jhGdG


(uv) G EG dH G f

qc qEa jRGe e e b GPEG je NGO dOe jhGR


JhGR fqj d Wb h e e g je NGO dOe
jRGe
qc qEa jRGe e e b GPEG je Ke jhGR
JhGR fqj d Wb h e jRGe e g je Ke

159

UMCG

q c qEa jRGe e e b GPEG


EG dH G f e NGO jhGR
ee WdG

180 hj e jGhR bCG

360hj q YHQ jGhR bCG

160

`` ` ` jQ`` ` ` `
M qdG dG M 1
(AH) (BC) h
qee jhGR cPCG (CG
je Z h ee jhGR cPCG (
NGO dOe jhGR cPCG (
(xy) // (BC)

[PQ] JYb PQRSe T SQC G ( C G

e e jRGe e WJ Y UG jGhqdG

QR = 4cm

h PQ = 3cm M[RS] h
. Q = 130h P = 108 h

jGhdG SH S h R MCG (
.NGO dOG h eG
[Ox)//[Pz)

(zz') h (yy') M qdG dG M

jRGe e
xOy = x'Az' qCG qH

M qdG dG M 5
[Oy)//[Pt) h
xOy = zPt qCG qH

h (xy) M qdG dG M 3
jCG jRGe (fg) h (su) h jRGe
.cCG qK SGqc Y dG hG fG

(zt)

: qdG dG qeCJ 6
(AB) d dG VdG g e
? (DC)h
e qNGO jhGR

jhGR dOe jhGR


jhGqdG
e G f `d Ke e qNGO
yBg
zCi
fBi

161

uCi

M MNP e SQCG (1 11
.RST e SQCG (CG .1 7
e E dG qY h P = 55 h N = 70 jhGdG e [Rz) G f HG (
E dG (ST) j qdG SRT
PE = 3cm M[MP]
RGGh E e QG G HG -CG (2 `d RGG h T e QG (xy)G HG (
F (MN)j qdG (NP) `d
F (RS) j qdG (RE)
T jhGR F h E MCG -
SRE = RFTh RTF = ERT qCG qH (CG .2
NPEF G
? RFT G W g e (
NP = 7cm

G M qdG dG M 12 ST = 4cm M SVT e SQCG (CG 8


.VT = 8cm h SV = 6cm h
IJK = yIs h tJr = 120h jRGe (zt)h (xy)
.HGL qe JIy h IKJh IJKe qc LhCG (1 [TS]EG J [TS)e E dG qY (
. SE = 1,5cm M
? IJK G W PEG g e (2
? SIJ jhGdG EG dH[Iy)q GPe (3 RGG h E e QG(xy) G SQCG (
. F dG (SV) j dGh (VT)`d
. SEF h SVT G jGhR Qb (O
M qdG dG M 9
(AE) (AB) , ACD = 40 , CAB = 130
Y OY (CD)G qCG qH
(AB) G
d qdG dG eG JFGdG 13
. O cG f
? OQPh OMNjhGdG e qc b g e (1
(MN)d dG VdG g e (2
? (PQ) h
M SGc Y qdG dG fCG 10
(xy)//(BC)
zAth xAz h tAy

h BAx MCG

162

e e jRGe e WJ Y UG jGhqdG

b dG je UVW e SQCG (1 14
e . OPQR VCG RGe SQCG 18
U FdG
E (PQ) j POR jhGdG
SQG K [UV] dG Y A f Y (2
. PE = QR CG H
j (VW) `d RGG h A e QG G
B (UW)
EFGH VCG RGe SQCG 19
UAB G B h A jhGdG Qb -CG (3
. HEG = 35 h FGH = 70 M
? UAB G W PEG g e -
? EHG G W g e
UVW G Ge dG f CG )
EFG e SQG (1
20
(VCG je
j H I h H dG HG (2
.VCG jRGe EFIG h EFGH YHdG
T Fb Z RST e SQG - CG (1 15
? EFIH YHdG W g e (3
.[RA] YJQG SQG K RST = 54 M
H [RT] e B dG qY -
21
(xy)//(zt) M qdG dG qeCJ (CG
RAB = 36
CN hCG GH LCG qK dG hG fCG
.dP Y ?jRGe (AB) h (RS) CG g (2
ddG MGbG e GbG qc Y
jhGdG b MCG qK qdG dG qeCJ 16
ACD h BAC
. ABCD YHdG W SG

eeh JQheBAC h uAB


CDE = vBy
xAu = zCu
vBx

= tDE

qNGO dOe CDE h vBy


Ke zCu h xAu
SCGqdH He tDE h vBx
ee CDE h vBx

163

K 120 b

xOy jhGR SQCG (1 17

. [Oz) e
Y B fh [Oz) Y A f Y (2
OA = OB M [Oy)
.jRGe (AB) h (OX) qCG H

jhGdG e WJ f I f (3
d J I CG H FHG.h FGH
. GIH MCG . (Fx)
H h G e GQOdG YJQG (4
MCG . J dG Wj
. GJH

qdG dG qeCJ (

qb qdG je ABC qe SQCG 24


QG G . [AB] e M fh A FdG CN hCG GH LCG qK dG hG fCG
j (BC) d RGGh M e
ddG MGbG e GbG qc Y
. N qdG [AC]
. ANM = ACBh AMN = ABC qCG gH (1
. ANM qG W SG
d RGGh M e QG G SQCG (2
Gh F dG (BC) j qdG(AC)
j qdG(AB) d RGGh N e QG
Wjh (NE)h (MF) . E dG (BC)
. O dG

jRGe d h D
jRGe x' h
x = 48

.qdG SdG qeCJ (


? G f d [FH] h[EG] qCG g
.HGL qY

je dqdGG G e qe c CG qH
OEF h CNE h BMF : dG
K OPL e SQG 25
L h P jhGdG e ENS = 30 M ENS e SQCG - CG (1 22
[PX) : `d RGG h O e QG G
.ESN = 50 h
[Ly) `d RGG Gh D (PL) j
. I (SN)j SEN jhGdG e
. E (PL) j O e QG h
N e QG (xy) G SQCG -
DE hj OPL G CG qH
. (EI) d RGGh
[Ly) h [Px)

bQdG e GAL qCG qEG

OXY jhGR SQ

26 : ddG jGhdG e jhGR c b MCG (2

.MG b
(jJ b YCG) jhGdG J b g e
EG hO dP RE jW cPGh
.G

ENy h SNx

SEN

= 70M FGH e SQCG (1 23


FGH
= 46 h
. GFH MCG FHG
[FK] h GFH jhGdG e [Fx) d (2
FGH

d F e QOqdG JQG
. KFx MCG

164

qG jJ

goR H
e FHBG S Y iL .`g 507 S TEH doh , Ghe HCG H H HCG g
,G M a ,dG MdG EG dG hDdG fG .OCGh dG
Qh.dG W FSQ EG dCJ e cj h .dP MCG K ,HdG L
H ,Mh dG M JGREG Y J gR H H HCG IT CG EG IQTEG
bh ,eG e a c dG IG JTe S ,T Y UN IQH
Te dh .Yh e HOCG jd a aH ,dG dG aK EG ,J
`g 595 S J. Gh G fG dG (bdG jCG) QG
d qdG qHdG qG

qqdH dG f eh
HZ fqdG NDJ dh
bT MCG

165

qG jJ
SCG
.HG qdG fCG .1 1
? (BC) EG qdH A qdG IXe A' qdG HG (CG
AC = A'C h AB = A'B qCG qH (
BAC = BA'C qCG qH (
IMGh eSG Y D h E h F qdG : jd HG qdG .2
(FG)//(DC) h (UG)//(FC) h
EFG = FDC h FEG = DFC CG qH (CG
EGF = FCD qCG qH (

qWCGh SCG
1 f

qe qT Qh Y SQCG
. 6cm h 4cmh3cm OHCG
qqdG QdG SGH q
SQ qdG qG HJ e
EFG h ABC qG e qc e
.dqdG

He qe g je qe

. FGh

BC K EG h AC qK EF

h AB VCG Qb (3
. G h C qK F h B qK E h A jGhqdG Qb (4
? He ABC h MNP qG qCG g (5

je VCG qEa qe jJ GPEG


e e je gjGhRh e e
166

e
iNCG If g e qc qCG a E qdG Y A qdG J EFG h ABC qG
jhGqdG Jh NBG f g e qc qCG jCG a [EF] qdG Y [AB]qdG j c
.iNCG If g e qc qCG dc a EFG jGhqdG YABC

qG jJ

.SGqc Y HG SqdG fG 1
GqdG Y N h M h L GXe N'h M'h L'qdG HG (CG
. G EG qdH
L'M'N' h LMN qG CG qqdG QdG SGH q (
.je
.Y LQN O fh ABC qe SQCG(1 2
qdH C h B h A qdG GXe C'h B' h A' qdG HG(2
.O EG
.e e je A'B'C'h ABC G VCG qCG KCG(3
.e e je A'B'C'h ABC qG jGhR qCG KCG(4
A'B'C' h ABC qG qCG qqdG QdG SGH q (5
.He
.ce O qdG dh ABCD VCG RGe SQCG (CG
.je COD h AOB qG qCG q (
.je CDA h ABC qG qCG q (

qG jd hCG dG
f
(1
M
q

e
q

T
Qh
Y
SQC
G
MNP
MN = 3cm
= 70 h M
= 25 h
N
qdG qG Y j SQ qdG G qCG q (2
.FeR MCG SQ
(3
EFG qe HG SqdG q
h B
= F h BC = FG M ABC qe SQCG (CG
C = G
.je EFG h ABC qG qCG q ( (4
? J GPe
167

V jb GPEG qe jj : hCG dG
V gMCG d JQhG jhGqdGh
.qdG d JQhG jhqGdGh

J
[Oz) e e A fh40 b XOY jhGR SQCG (CG
. OAC = OAB =60 M C qdG [Oy)Y HGh B f [Ox) Y HG (

je OAC h OAB qG qCG qH (


. OC = OB qCG SG (O
. AB = CD h jRGe e ' h M SqdG M 2
(CB) h (AD) G WJ f I
.je CDIh ABI qG qCG qH (CG
[BC] h [AD] e qc e I qdG qCG SG(
x

: H ae j
hO

ce ABCD VCG RGe HG qdG q


F (CD)h E (AB) e qc jh O e q e
. H (AD) h G (BC) h
.[EF] e g O qCG SG .ODF h OBE qG Qb (1
. [GH] e g O qCG qH (2

: G
d OFDh OBE qG (1
(qNGO dOe jhGR)
( [DB] e O ) OB = OD
OE = OF qEa rdHh qG jd ihCG dG M je ODF h OEB qG PEG
.[EF]e g O qdG qEa IMGh eSG Y F h E h O qCG h
(qNGO dOe) OBG = ODH d ODH h OBG qG (2
(SCGqdH He jhGR) BOG = DOH h
( [EF] e O ) OB = OD h
OG = OHqdHh G jd hCG dG M je ODHh OBG qG PEG
.[HG]e g O qdG qEa IMGh eSG Y H h G h O qdG qCG h
OBE = ODF (SCGdH He jhGR) EOB = DOF

168

qG jd fqdG dG
f
(1
M
q

e
q

T
Qh
Y
SQC
G
ABC
AB = 4cm
qdG qG qCG q qK . BAC = 40 h AC = 3cm h
.FeR MCG SQ qdG qG Y j SQ
qe HG SqdG q (2
= E h MP = EGh MN = EF M MNP qe SQoG (CG
M
.je MNP h EFG qG qCG q (
? J GPe (
EFG

V jb GPEG qe jj : fqdG dG
V gMCG H IQG jhGqdGh
.qdG H IQG jhGqdGh

J
qFqdG qb qdG je ABC qe SQoG (CG 1
. AM = AN H N f [AC] Yh M f [AB] Y qY (
CM = BN qCG SG . AMC h ANB qG Qb (
A

d . A qFqdG qb qdG je ABC qe SQoG (CG 2


. ACB h ABC jGhqdG e WJ
BI = CI qCG qH (
RGe ABCD M HG qdG M 3
. BM = DNh VCG
AN = CM qCG qH

169

h C f

[Oy) Yh B h A

IqOM jhGR SQoG (CG 4


OB = OD h OA = OC H
.je OCB h OAD qG qCG qH (
AD = BC qCG SG (

f[Ox) Y qY qK

xOy

: qG jd dqdG dG
f
AB = 3cm M ABC

qe q`T Qh Y SQoG (CG


. BC = 6cm h AC = 5cm h
qG Y j SQ qdG qG qCG q (
.FeR MCG SQ qdG
qe HG SqdG q
NP = JK h MP = IKh MN = IJ M MNP qe SQoG (CG
,je MNP h IJK qG qCG q (
? J GPe (

(1

(2

jb GPEG Fb qe jj : dqdG dG
KqdG VCG gMCG KqdG VCG
.e e qdG

J
G j [BD] d RGGh C e qQG G . ABCD VCG RGe SQoG (CG 1
E qdG (AD)
. DBCE YHqdG W g e (
. ABD h DCE qG jJ SG (
.HG qdG qeCJ 2
.je AIJ h BIJ qG qCG qH (
AJB jhGqdG qeh AIB jGhqdG qe SG (

HG qdG M
d je jhGRh V AOC qG (CG
.UdG g OqM .BOC qG jhGRh
.HGL qY ? je qe BOCh AOC g (
170

Fb qe jJ dM
hCG dG 1 f

jhGqdG Fb ABC qe HG qdG q


A
=B
H M Fb MNP qe HG (CG
N
NP = BC h
. P = C CG qH (
.je MNPh ABC qG qCG SG (

qG jJ

jb GPEG Fb qe jj : hCG dG
IqOM jhGRh JdG gMCG IqOM jhGRh JdG
.qdG

J
. A qFqdG qb qdG je ABC qe SQCG ( CG
.[CC'] h [BB'] YJQG SQCG (
BB'=CC' qCG SG qK je qe OqMh SqdG qeCJ (
fqdG dG

2 f

. A jhGqdG Fb ABC qe qdG qdG q


.
H F f [Ex) Y qY , xEy Fb jhGR SQCG (CG
EF=AB
. G f [Ey) j qdG BC YTh F ce qjFGO Sb SQCG (
.je EFG h ABC qG qCG SGh EG=AC qCG e (QcdG SGH) q (

171

jb GPEG Fb qe jj : fqdG dG
Fb Vh JdG gMCG a Fb Vh JdG
qdG

J
e C h [Ax) e f B d . xAy Fb jhGR SQCG (CG 1
.[Ax) Y OdGh B e qQG G SQCG (
.[Ay) Y OdGh C e qQG ' G SQCG (
je qe OqMh SqdG qeCJ . M f j ' h G (O
. xAy jGhqdG e g [AM) G f qCG SG (
.CAM jGhqdG b g e (h

AB = AC

[Ay)

.qjb He Zh EG j B h A f qY qK O gce IFGO SQCG (CG .1 2


. T Wj jqdG Bh A `d qSG HG (
.
. [AB] d OdG qSG g
.

ATB

TA = TB qCG qH (CG .2
(OT) qCG SG (

jhGqdG qe g [TO) qCG qH .3

H ae j
GqdG Y qjOdG G K h H qdGh

ABCD VCG RGe SQCG (CG


(AB)h(DC)Y C

h A `d
DH = BK qCG qH

172

qG
: jd ABCD VCG RGe
d Wb (AB)Gh (BC)`d RGe (AD)
(1) (Ke jhGR) CBK = DAB PEG
ADH h BADjGhqdG PEG d Wb (AD) Gh jRGe (DC) h (AB) G
(2) BAD = ADH qdHh qNGO dOe
CBK = ADH f (2) h (1) e
RGe ABCD qC (je GJdG) AD = CB jd CBK h ADH FdG qG
DH = BK Y jq je CBK h ADH qEa qdHhCBK = ADHh VCG

dG jG qG
1 f
qFqdG qb qdG je qe ABC qdG SdG
[BC] e

qG jJ

qdGh
ACH h ABH qG Qb
: qCG SG
[BC] G d OdG qSG g (AH) (CG
.BAC jhGqdG qe g[AH) (
.B = C (

.je qdG je qe IYdG jhGR

( AqFqdG qb) ABCqdG je qe Me


.A e QOqdG JQG Y j A e QOqdG qSG
A e QOqdG qSG dch BAC jhGqdG qe j [BC] IYd OdG qSG

J
I e qQG G . A

173

d d [Az) e f I . [Az)qeh xAy jhGR SQG


. C h B GqdG Y (Ay)h (Ax) j (Az) Y OdGh
.B = C qCG qH

2 f

.
qb qdG je

ABC = ACB H ABC qe SQCG


I qdG [BC] j qdG BAC jhGqdG qe SQCG
.AIB = AIC qCG KCG -1

ABC qGG qCG SGh AIC

h AIB qG jJ KCG
. A qFqdG

-2

Gg qEa qe jhGR jJ GPEG


.dG je qG

J
A qFqdG qb qdG je qe ABC

HG qdG
(EF) // (BC) h (AC) // (OF) h (AB) // (OF) h
.qdG je AMNqG qCG qH -1
. CNF h BME qG jQb -2
.qdG je OEF qG qCG SCG -3

VCG jG qG
1 f

. 60 jGhR iMEG b qdG je ABC qe SQCG


60 jGhR e jhGR qc b qCGh VCG je ABC qG qCG qH
2 f

. 60 jGhR e jhGR qc b CG qH .VCG je

ABC qe SQCG

bh je VCG je qe jGhR
. 60 e qc

J
h B = 60M A jGhqdG Fb ABC qe SQCG (CG
. A EG qdH B qdG IXe D qdG f (
.YVCG MCG W SGh VCG je BCD qG qCG qH

AB = 3cm

174

.q WG IFGqdG - jhGqdG q IqG qqUG


1 f
[Oz)

qe HGh xOy jhGR SQCG


. O qd d [Oz) e M f qY
(Oy) h (Ox) G Y GqdG Y M qd qjOdG G K h H qdG HG
OMK h OMHqG Qb
. MK = MH qCG SCG
jhGqdG qe e f qc J
.jhGqdG J V Y dG f
2 f

. xAy

.HG qdG qeCJ


. AMK h AMH qG Qb (CG
jhGqdG qe [AM) qCG SG (

qG jJ

V Y dG f J f fc GPEG
.jGhqdG J qe EG J a jhGR
3 f

. Of Wj [By)h [Ax)qG . ABC qe SQCG


.(BC)h (AC)h(AB)G Y GqdG Y O qd qjOdG bG P h N h M f
C jhGqdG q J O qCG SCGh OM = ON = OP qCG KCG (CG
? ABC qG VCG EG qdH qVh ge . OM YTh O gce qdG IFGqdG SQCG (
A

g ce f qe jGhR qe WJ
.qH WG IFGqdG ce

I
C
B

J
O qd d [Ox) e f qYh xOy e Z jhGR SQCG
B h A GqdG Y (Oy)h (Ox) Y qjOdG G .OA = OBH [Oy) e B fh
. M f Wj
xOy jhGqd qe g [OM) qCG KCG (CG

.jhGR qe Ad jW SqdG Gg e SG (
175

UMCG
YVCG qe g je qe
e je gjGhRh e e je
. e

h V jb GPEG e jj : hCG dG
h V gMCG d JQhG jhGdG
.dG d JQhG jhGdG

V jb GPG e jj : fdG dG
V gMG H IQG jhGdGh
.dG H IQG jhGdGh

VCG jb GPEG e jj : ddG dG


e dG KdG VG gMCG KdG
e

FdG qG jJ
P
N

jb GPEG Fb e jj : hCG dG
IOM jhGR h JdG gMCG IOM jhGR h JdG
.dG

jb GPEG Fb e jj : fdG dG
Fb V h JdG gMCG Fb V h JdG
.dG

176

UMCG
qdG je qe IYdG jhGR
.je

qG jJ

qG Gg qEa qe jhGR jJ GPEG


.qdG je

177

Y dG f jhGR qe e f qc J
.jhGqdG J V
a jhGR V Y dG jhe f fc GPEG
.jhGdG J qe EG J

g ce f qe jGhR qe WJ
.qH WG IFGqdG ce

`` ` ` jQ`` ` ` `

dGhABC e SQCG (CG.1 6 H MNP h ABC je e HG 1


= 30h B
= 75
j (BC) `d RGG h I e QG G
. AB = 3cmh M
. J dG (AC)
M A jhGdG Fb ABC e SQCG (CG 2
(AC) `d RGG h I e QG G h
.
(BC) Y OdG G. ABC = 30
K dG (BC) j
. D dG (AB) j C
.je BIK h AIJ G qCG qH (
h V DBC h ABC G OqM (
.IJCK YHdG W g e .2
.e e je jhGR
. BC = 2IJ qCG SG .3
? J GPe (
M[AB] h gce IFGO SQCG .1 7
qdG qdG qeCJ 3
j AOB jhGqdG qe .O e q
.je ABCh ADC G qCG qH (CG
.M
.Gee (DB) h (AC) qCG SG (
OBM h OAMqG Qb .2
g [MO) qCGh MB = MA qCG SG .3
. AMB jGhqdGqe

[AB] e I

G M qdG SdG qeCJ 8


.VCG je
EG GdG Y J P h N h M dG h
IFGO SQCG 4
[CD]h[AB]h O gce
[EF] h [EG] h[FG]
.d jb
FM = GN = EP M
.je OBC h OAD G qCG qH .1
NEP h GNM h FMP G qCG qH
je ADB h ABC G qCG SG .2
e e je
MNP G W SG
ABCD M qdG SdG M 5
EFG

Y J h I dG h VCG RGe
[AB] h [AD] dGe GdG
.je JAI h FDI G qCG qH .1
. FI = IJ = JE qCG SG .2
E

ABCD M SGqc Y dG qdG fG .1 9


ADC = BCD h AD = BC h YHQ

178

. BCD h ADC G Qb (CG


. ce He ABCD qdG SdG 12
BD = AC qCG SG (
. BCM = ABP qCG qH (CG O
. E Wj (BC)h (AD) G
ABP h MCB G qCG SG ( .1
? EAB G W g e
. je
je OPAh OMB G qCG qH (CG .2
je h Fb POM G qCG SG (
dG

BCFGh ABDE M qdG SdG qeCJ 10

qG jJ

AG = DC

qHe
qCG qH

h E jhGdG Fb EFG e SQCG .1 13


.[EF] e I dG
F e QGh (EF) Y OdG G
. H (IG) j
. FIH h EIG G Qb .1
. IH = IG qCG SG .2
EIH h FIG G Qb (CG .3
EH = FG qCG SG (
EFG

G M qdG SdG M 14
je MNP h
. z h y h x OGYCG L
M

7-z
E

2x-1

2z+1

2y

x+1

N
F

y+3

M qdG SdG M 15
ACK h ABH G Qb .1
BK = CH h BH = CK CG SG .2

AB = AC

179

d JFGO ( ' )h( ) M qdG dG qeCJ 11


. cG f
je AKO h HIO G qCG qH .1
?( ' ) IFGdG EG dH (AK) G q GPe.2

b dG je MNP e SQCG .1 16
(MP) j MNP jhGdG e . M FdG
h qHe ABCDM qdG SdG qeCJ 20 (MN) j MPN jhGdG eh A
. B
dG IFGd S (DM) G
qCG SGh NPB h NPA G Qb .2
. [AB]gb
MA = MB
(BC)h (OM) G WJ f g R
I Wj (PB) h (NA)G .3
je OMD hOAD G qCG qH (CG .1
. MIB h MIA G Qb
DM = DC qCG SG (
.dG je CMR G qCG qH .2 .AIB jhGdG e g [IM) qCG SG .4
b dG je ROIe SQCG .1 17
M[OI]j ORI jhGdG qe . R FdG
. M h R `d Ije [RM] eQ f SQCG .2
.dG je OQI G qCG qH
M qCGh OQI jhGqdG qe [QM) qCG qH .3
. [OI] e
ce O d ABCD VCG RGe SQCG 18
e LOT M qdG dG M .1 21 Y D `d OdG G E dG dh.
.LM = LN h LO = LT h (AC) YB `d OdG G F dGh (AC)
qCG SG LTM h LON G Qb .2 .je CBF h ADE G qCG qH .1
. [EF] e O qdG qCG SG .2
LMT = LNO
(ON) G WJ f g I dG .3
RGe (AC) M qdG dG M .1 19
. (TM) h
BAC = 90 h BD = AC h `d
. IMO = INT h MO = TN qCG qH(CG
. = BC qCG qH .2
AD
SG . ITN h IOM G Qb(
[AB] e I d .3
. IM = IN CG
. BDI h ACI G Qb (CG
. MIN jhGdG e [IL) qCG SG(
.[CD] e g I qCG SG (
x

180

qG jJ

SG K MIF h LNM qG Qb (
.LE = IF CG

b dG je AIR e SQCG (CG .1 22


jhGdG Fb ABC qe SQCG (CG .1 24
. A FdG
SQCG qK AqFqdG qb dG jeh
qK [RR'] h [II'] SG SQCG (
A e QG YJQG [AH]
.je RR'Ih II'R G qCG qH
(XY)e ABC qG QN SQCG (
?G Ud dH J GPe (
(BC) RGj h A e q
. [RR']h [II'] WJ f Md .2
(XY) Y OdG h B e qQG G .2
.dG je MIR G qCG qH
C e qQG Gh M (XY)j
I'MR' jhGdG e g [MA) qCG gH .3
N (XY) j (XY) Y OdGh
(II')j(IR) `d RGGh A e qQG G .4
HA = HB = HC qCG qH (CG
.E (RR')h F
AMB h ACN qG Qb (
.IE =RF h ME = MF CG qH
MN = BM + CN qCG SG (
GPe ANH h BMH qG Qb (CG .3
? IqdG UdG qH EG dH J
23
[LI] e M M qdG dG M
h jhGdG Fb MHN qG CG qH (
.dG je M e qQG G. LAI jhGdG e[Ax)h
(AI) h E (AL) j [Ax)Y OdGh
.J [Ax) h F
. XOYFb jhGR SQCG .1 25
dG je AEF qG CG qH (CG .1
[Oy) Y h B h A f [Ox) Y qY (CG
OdG qSG g (Ax) qCG SG (
OB = OD h OA = OC H D h C f
. [EF] `d
. BC = AD qCG qH .2
j (AI) `d RGGh L e QG G .2
M Wj (AD)h (BC) G .3
N [EF]
DMC h BMA qG Qb (CG
qb dG je LEN qCG qH (CG
MA = MC qCG SG (
L qFqdG
. AOC jhGdG e [OM) CG SG(

181

VCG qYHQ

( `g777-704) WdG HEG


dG TG ah VjQ Y .WdG HH hG Y jdG AY G HCG g
G g cCG bh .H j a , dG J a dCJ .dG edG
Y EG G CG j dh ,Gh SdG Y WdG HG H,Ic IhK
dBG Uh ,SCG e BG e jd JGQHG e j Ggh ,a HCa dG
jd J a WdG HG GREG gCG eCG. dS gS IdG bh d
VQCG CG EG WdG HG QTCG dh ,dG ce g VQCG CG CN iJ dG SH
HG J .VQCG M Qhj dG h ,fH dG M QhJ dG g IG cGdGh
.VjdGh dG L dDG e Gc GOY WdG
d qdG qHdG qG

fEa f GPEG dG LCG


dG d a dG Y

V'G YHQ
SCG
YHQ g VC'G RGe

: MLCVR VC'G RGe HG


CLR=130 h LR=3cm h LC=5cm

.E e QOdG JQG [EH] h Fb Z EFG e SQCG (CG


A (EH) j (EF) `d RGGh G e QG  G (
. B  j (FG) Y OdGh F e QG  'Gh
? EFBA YHdG W g e

: SG fG (*) V qK SGc Y dG hG fCG

He V qc a iRGj

VCG YHQ

Gee GdG

je GdG G Wj GdG

qHG
G
qG
VC'G RGe
.[AC] G b eI dG qYhABCD VC'G RGe SQG (CG
(AB) G Xe SG ? I EG dH A dG IXe g e (
(BC) G Xe SG ? I EG dH C dG IXe g e (
. I EG dH B dG IXe SG (O
GdG VC'G RGe
AD=BC h AB=CD CG qH (
e Wj ? ABCDV'G RGe XJ ce g dG qCG qH (h
I

.V'G RGe ABCD M SCG SdG qeCJ (1


. CDBh ABD G Qb (CG
? ABCDVC dH J CG GPe (
C h D jhGdGh ee Dh A jhGdG qCG qH (CG (2
ee
B
. D h B Qb qK C h A Qb (

V qc VC'G RGe
je He
: VC'G RGe
qde jhGR qc .ee
He JhGR qc .je

183

: VC'G jRGe g e ddG T'G H e

(5)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(1)

35 cm 2Meh 5cm YVCG MCG W e HG (CG

. 28cm h 8,5cm YVCG MCG W e HG (


.[BC] e I dG EG dH Xe ECBFh e T ABCD SCG SdG
. F h Bh A dG dch IMGh eSG Y E h Ch D dG qCG qH (CG
.hh bh a dH Me MG qK VC'G RGe AFEDYHdG qCG qH (.
. hh bh a dH ABCDG T Me SG (
A

.jRGe gaM jW qJ dG e VQCG d J SCG SdG q


.SqdH qe g c 1/500 qdG ah dG Y gOHCG
VQCG d G OHCG MG
.dW SG qK jd G MG MG
E

15mm

6mm

4mm

30mm
184

qWCGh SCG
VC'G RGe -I
1 f

B
(C)

.( ')h ( ) JFGdG e qc ce O M SCG SdG qeCJ


.HGL qY ? ABCD YHdG W g e

(C)

Wj Gb q YHQ
.V'G RGe g e
D

2 f
B

. AD=BC h AB=CD HG SdG


.je CDBh ABD G qCG qH (CG
. DBC h ADB K BDC h ABD Qb (
? ABCD YHdG W g e (

VCG YHQ

He V qc a jj q YHQ
.V'G RGe g
C

J
M HG SqdG M 1
? ABCD YHqdG W ge

AB=AC=CD h (AB)//(CD)

VC'G RGe

185

ABCD M HG SdG M

.CN=AQ h BM=DP h
.BNMh DPQ K CPN h AMQ G Qb (CG
MAPC YHdG W qK ? MNPQYHdG W SG (
.f WJ (NQ) h (MP) h (AC) G qCG SG (

3 f

q YHQ MNPQ M HG SdG M'


(PQ) `d RGe (MN) h MN=PQ h
.(NQ)h (MP) G WJ f O d (CG
.PQOh MNO G Qb
.[NQ]h [MP] dG e O dG qCG SG (
? MNPQ YHdG W PEG g e (

M
O

je h jRGe V d q YHQ
.V'G RGe g
P

xJ
P

h[LI] e M dG qYh LI=7cm h OI=4cm M LION VC'G RGe SQG (CG


LM=OP=3cm M [ON] e
? LMOP YHdG W g e (
H E dG a IG SH SQCG qK IQ=1cm M [IO] e Q dG qY (
.V'G RGe IQLE YHdG j

BCFE h ABCD
A

M HG SdG M' 2
.VCG jRGe
.jRGe (AE)h (DF) qCG qH

F
C

Oh I

dG qY qK

BC=3cm h AC=4cm h AB=6cm M ABC

e SQG (CG
.GdG Y [AC] h [AB] e
.O EG dH I dG IXe N dG HG (
. ANCI YHdG W g e (
. OI OqM qK BINC YHdG W SG (O

186

.dG g dG b IMh
d ADC h ABC Gh AD=3.2 jd HG SdG
.4 qHG dH bh MG f
.AB=CD h (AB)//(CD) qCG SG qK BC OqM

4 f
= Ph q MNPQ M HG SqdG M
=Q
hM
N
h 2M
+ 2Q
MCG (1
2 P + 2 N

iNCG Mf e P h N h Mf e Q h

jhGqdG qCG SCG (2


.ee
MNPQ YHqdG W SG (3

VCG YHQ

HG jGhR q YHQ
VC'G RGe g je

xJ

B
40

30

J
40

. IJCK YHdG jGhR bCG MG qK HG SdG M (CG


? IJCK YHdG W g e (

dM qCG OqMh ddG SdG M


.VC'G RGe EFGH YHdG (2)h (1) dG e

30

(D)
E

(D)

55

55

124
55

H
1

G
2

187

qH ae j
.B (GH) jh

O ce EFGH V'G RGe SQCG (CG


A (EH) j (EG) `d RGGh F e qQG G
[AB] e F

q CG qH (
OA=O'B CG qH . F EG dH O IXe O'dG SQCG (

: qG
SdG REG (CG
(
(G M) (EG)`d RGe (BF) jd
(GB) `d RGe (EF) PEG VC'G RGe EFGH
VC'G RGe EFBG YHdG dHh
(G M) (EG) `d RGe (AF) jd
(EH) `d RGe(GF) PEG VC'G RGe EFGH
(EA) `d RGe (GF) CG
VC'G RGe AFGE YHdG dHh
FB=EG PEG VC'G RGe EFBG 


AF=EG

PEG VC'G RGe AFGE 

.[AB] e F dG PEG FB=EG=AFh IMGh eSG Y B h F h A jd


[OO']e F qCG CG FEG dH O IXe O'h [AB]e F jd (
VC'G RGe g dH h e Wj Gb AO'BO G YHdG PEG
.OA=O'B qCG f eh

qUG V'G jRGe -II


1 f

. O e Weh je[KL] h [GH]e b SQG (CG


? GKHLYHdG W g e (
.dG je OKH h OGK G e qc qCG qH (
. GKHL YHdG W PEG SG GKO+OKH MG (O
188

Wjh je Gb q YHQ
e g e

xJ

(C)
A

E
I

e MAEL YHdG qCG qH qK HG SdG M 1


L

= 35h IJ=6cm M IJKL


IJL

e AH jf.1
.HdG G ah IJL e SQG (CG
. K dG AH cCG (
= 30h MP=4,5cm M MNOP e HG .2
NMO

VC'G RGe SQG 3


`d RGGh B e QG ' Gh (DC)Y OdGh A e QG G SQG
R h I GdG Y (DC) j 'h G
e ABRI YHdG qCG qH
CD=IR qCG SG

VCG YHQ

.
ABCD

qH ae j
qCG `q`f CG `jf . [BC] `J`dG `e I `dG `q`Y . A `Fb ABC `e `SQG (CG (1
. IA=IB=IC
? ABDC YHdG W g e I d dH A IXe D d (
IA=IB=IC qCG SG (
JM=JR=JSq [RS] dG e J dG fc GPEG MRS e :j e qf CG jf (2
. M Fb MRS G qEa
.e J dG qY qK [RS]e b SQG (CG
JM=JR=JS M S h R `d d M f SQG (
.HGL qY ? MRS G W g e (
189

: qG

SdG (CG (1
[BC] e I dG ABDC YHdG jd (
C
[AD] e I PEG I EG dH JXe D h A qCG fh
jhGdG d VC'G RGe ABDC YHdG dHh
Fb BAC
.e a PEG
. I e Wjh je GdG ABDC G jd (
dG IFGdG EG J Dh C h B h A dG dHh IA=IB=IC=ID PEG
. I gce
.SdG M( h (CG (2
J
S
(
[MM']e J PEG J EG dH M dG IXe M' d
[RS] e J dG
M
(e Wj GdG) VC'G RGe RMSM' PEG
RS=MM' PEG JR=JS=JM=JM' jd
qCG f eh e g RMSM' YHdG dHh
jhGdG
.Fb MRS Gh Fb RMS

2 f

.
. O e Gee [MI] h [RE]M HG SqdG M
. IE h IR K ME h MR Qb (CG
. RI h RM Qb (
. MEIR YHdG W SG (

I
B

Wj h Gee Gb q YHQ
qe g e
.qe g Gee Gb V'G RGe

190

xJ
Y[AC] h [BC] h[AB] eK h J hI dGh VC'G je ABC e SQG (CG 1
GdG
.je CJKh AIK G qCG qH (
. BIKJ YHdG W SG (
.e B h A f qYh O gce IFGO SQG (CG 2
. (AB) G EG dH O IXe O' dG qY (
.HGL qY ? OAO'B YHdG W g e (
M I h A f qY 3
. 28cm h I ce e ABCD d D h C h B dG HG qK
IA=5cm

2 f
AB=AD

MABCD VC'G RGe SQG (CG


.qe ABCD qCG qH (

VCG YHQ

je de V d VC'G RGe
qe g

xJ
. [BC] Y M f qY qK AFdG qb dG je ABC e SQG (CG 1
RGGh M e qQG Gh D (AB) j (AC) `d RGGh M e qQG G
. E (AC) j (AB) `d
DM=DB qCG qH (
.(BM) Y OY (DF) qCG qH . F(ME) j (AC) `d RGGh B e qQG G (

191

.
QMN

jhGdG qe[MP) jd MNPQ VC'G RGe 2


h PMN
Qb (CG
. MPN
? MNP G W g e (
? MNPQ VC'G RGe W g e (

3 f

.HGL qY ? U ddG G qCG g


.Fb jhGR h je de V d VC'G RGe g qHG
.je de V d e g qHG
.Fb jhGR d qe g qHG
.qHe g Fb jhGR d h je YVCG q YHQ
B

Fb jhGRh je YVCG q YHQ


qHe g
D

xJ
.O gce IFGO SQG (CG 1
= 90 M B h A f Y qY (
AOB
. AOBD YHdG W g e .D dG Wj B h A IFGd SG (
. W OqM K G M G YHdG SQG ddG 'G e dM qc 2
.PQ=QRh (SQ )  (PR )h PR=SQ M PQRS YHdG (1)
= 45h IFGdG f Gb [FH] h [EG] M EFGH YHdG (2)
.GEF
.dG jeh Fb RDC h COR G M CORD YHdG (3)
E

. AE=AC h qHe ABCDM HG SdG M 3


jhGdG qe[CE) qCG qH (CG
. ACD
. BCE G jGhR bCG LhCG (

192

qLeOEG Fe
A

1 dCe
AB<AC M A Fb ABC e HG SdG q
. A e QOdG JQG [AH]h

VCG YHQ

B IXe E

dG qY qK SGc Y SdG fCG (CG .1


H
.H d dH
C
E
.dG je ABE G qCG qH (
? ABDE YHdG W g e .H EG dH A IXe D dG d .2
CA=CD qCG qH .3
j (AC) d RGGh D e QG Gh F (AC) j (DE) G .4
. K dG (BC)h L dG (AB)
. EF=BL qCG SG ? AFDL YHdG W g e (CG
DC=DK=AK qCG qH (
.je ECF h BKL G qCG qH (
A
H

2 dCe

.B e QOdG JQG [BH]h ABC e HG SdG q


SGc Y SdG fCG (CG .1
(AC) Y OdGh C e qQG G SQCG (
C
. ' h WJ f E d . (BC) RGGh H e qQG ' Gh
? BHEC YHdG W g e .2
jhGdG qe .3
BH=BF CG qH . F (BC) j BHE
? BHGFYHdG W g e . HG=BF M [HE) e f G d .4
. BHCK YHdG W SG HK=BC qCG qH .C EG dH E IXe K dG d .5
3 dCe

jhGdG qe .dG je Z e ABC


D dG (BC)j BAC
.E f (AC)j (AD)`d RGGh B e QG G
B
D

193

. AE=AB CG qH .1
(AD) h (BF) G . A EG dH E IXe F dG d .2
I f Wj
C
.[BF] e I qCG qH
.(HB) `d RGe (AF) qCG qH . I EG dH A dG IXe H d .3

1
EB CGh VC'G RGe AEBH YHdG qCG qH .4
2
(AB) Y D d jOdG G Nh M dG d .5

. =
AI

.GdG Y (AC) h
. (BC) Y A d OdG d A' `H ef
. ABD G Me jH MG (CG
. ACD G Me jH MG (
DB AB qCG SG (
=
DC

AC

4 dCe
B

A jhGdG Fb ABC

e HG SdG q
.ACFG h ABDE qHeh
.SGc Y SdG fCG (CG .1
C
.IMGh eSG Y F h D h A dG qCG qH (
(BC) Y OdGh A e qQG G .2
. M (GE) h H (BC) j
jhGdG IXe g e (CG
(DF) EG dH ABC
F
.dG je AME h AMG G e qc qCG qH (
[EG] e M qCG SG (
.K Wj (FG)h (DE) G .3
.e AEKG YHdG qCG qH (CG
.IMGh f WJ (GF) h (DE) h (AH) G qCG SG (
(BC) Y F `d OdG G N h (BC) Y D `d OdG G P d .4
.CFN h ACH G qK BDP h ABH G Qb (CG
BC=PD+NF qCG qH (

194

UMCG
A

iRGj YHQ g VC'G RGe


He V qc a
C

VC'G RGe
B

VCG YHQ

q YHQ

g e Wj Gb
VC'G RGe

C
B

q YHQ
RGe g je HG jGhR
VC'G
C

q YHQ
g He V qc a jj
VC'G RGe
C

D
B

195

.e Wj GdG
ee qde jhGR qc
.je He JhGR qch
.je He V qc

q YHQ
g je jRGe V d
VC'G RGe
C

jGhR HQCG d YHQ g G


Fb
D

jhGR d VC'G RGe g G


Fb
D

je

GdG e
.e Wjh
Wj Gb q YHQ qc
e g je h e

HQ'G YVCG YHQ g qG


je

D
B

Wj Gb q YHQ
qe g Geeh e

D
B

de V d VC'G RGe
qe g jeh

je YVCG YHQ g qHG


Fb jGhRh
D

196

VCG YHQ
197

dh je YVCG q YHQ
qHe g Fb jhGR
de V d e
qHe g je

`` ` ` jQ`` ` ` `
ce EFGH VC'G RGe d 6
= 25 M
= 65h HEF
OFE
EF=5cm h
VC'G RGe qK OEF G SQCG (CG
. EFGH
MCG (
G W SG qK FOE
. OEF

2cm

D
cm
2.5

B
E

dG je ABC e SQCG (CG 7


e D f qY qK A FdG qb
. [BC]
jQG ' h G SQCG (
(AC) `d GdG `Y `jRGGh D `e
'h E dG (AB) j .(AB)h
.F (AC) j
AEDF `Y`H`dG `` ``MCG (
. d'H
AB
OqM qddG 'G e dM qc 8
e HG b'Gh OH'G
. I ce RECT
EC=5cm , RE=7cm (1

M HG SqdG M 1
VCG RGe DEFG
DF h IE h ID OHCG OqM
GE h

F
D

``M `H`G `dG qeCJ 2


AECF h ABCD `e q`c
CG q``H `VC'G RG``e
.VC'G RGe EBFDq

`VC'G RG```e `SQCG (CG 3


[GH] e I ```dGh
. I EG dH E IXe M dG SQCG (
? EGMH YHdG W g e (
[FM] e G ```dG qCG ``SG (O
EFGH

`H``G SdG qeCJ 4


RG``e ABCD ``M
Gh VC'G
.(BD)`d RGe
. BD h PM+QN Qb

A
B

P
C

TC h RT MCG
= 20
IER

IE=2.2cm (2

h IEC
h ICT
h ET h IR MCG
IRE
IT h
TE

= 40
RIT

RC=8cm (3

h IR h IC h IE MCG
h IRE
IRT
h
TIC

T
40

45

M HG SqdG M 5
VCG RGe TSRU
jGhqdG bCG OqM
SUR
h
h TUS
h SRU
TUR
R

198

: M HG SdG M' 13
AB=4cm ``M `````e ABCD ``d 9
. (BC) `d RGe G AD=3cm h
. (AB) `d RGe (DE) G M [AB] Y E f qY qK dG SQCG (CG
. (AC) `d RGe (DF) G YHqdG H F qdG qYh . DE=6cm
.CE=BF qCG qH
.VCG RGe CDEF
.
VC'G RGe Me MG (
CDEF

(CF) Y OdGh D e QG G (
. DH MG . H dG j
F

B
D
C

ceABCD VC'G RGe SQCG (CG 14


O

`f q`Y (
AM=CN H [CD] e
.[MN] e O dG qCG qH (

VCG YHQ

N `fh [AB] e M

AC=2,4cm MO ce ABCD qe HG 10

. BD=6,6cm h
[OA] e GdG Y J h I dG qY
[OC] h
. ABCD VCG RGe HG (CG 15 ? MJ GPe .IBJDh ABCD Me MCG
: H F h E h N h M dG qY (
[AB] ``e G``dG ``Y N h M
. [DC] h
O ``dGh IJKL `VC'G RG``e `SQCG (CG 11
. M EG dH N IXe E dG
. [IK] e
. N EG dH M IXe F dG
1
Y jOdG 2 h 1 G SQCG (
(AN) h (MC) G qCG qH (
j . L h J e GdG Y jqQGh (IK)
.jRGe
.B (IJ) j 2h A (KL)
.BEDF YHdG W SG (O
. [AB] e O dG qCG qH (
. IBKA YHdG W SG (O
M ABCD VCG RGe HG (CG 16
. AK=IB qCG qH

``JhG`dG ````e .AB>AD


BAD
h
JhGdG eh I WjADC
h BCD

J Wj ABC
SGh BJC h AID G Qb (
AC=d h AB=a M He ABCD d 12
. ID=JB qCG
. 2a 2 = d 2 qCG qH (CG
. IC=JA qCG qH (
AC=10 qCG `Y GPEG ``Me ```SG (
. AICJ YHdG W SG (O
.dH

199

O ce MNPQ e SQCG (CG 21


Q h N JXe Fh E dG HG (

. (MP)EG dH GdG Y
dH (NQ) G Xe g e (
? (MP) EG
.e ENFQ YHdG qCG SG (O
`e `dM q`c ABCD `q`G `HG
: ddG 'G
AB=5,4cm h AC=8,2cm (CG
24,8cm hj h AC=9,4cm (
= 48h AB=6,4cm (
BCD
cG f d C'h C JFGO SQG (1
8cm h 6cm GdG Y YTh A
e [GH] Gbh C e [EF] Gb SQG (2
. (GH )  (EF ) H C'
e ? EGFH YHdG W g e
? Me g

jhGdG e . ABC ``e `SQCG 17


BAC

. D dG (BC) G j
.(AB) `d RGGh D e QG G SQCG
.E (AC) j
. ED h EA Qb
Qb . BF=AE M [AB] e dG F d
.EF h BD
22
dM c I ce EFGH e HG 18
: ddG G e
= 55 ( , EG=8cm h EH=5cm (G
HFG
= 110h EG=8cm ( , EF=10cm h
EIF
= 126 ( , EGH
= 35h EF=6cm (O
EIF
23
, IH=5cmh , EF=8cm (h ,HG=9cm h
EF =

2
EG
3

(R

.e O f qYh (xy) e SQCG 19


(xy) Y OY Z[Oz) e f SQCG (CG
h xOz
jhGdG qe[Ov)h [Ou)HG (
yOz
``M [AB]```e `b SQCG (CG 24
.GdG Y
AB=4cm
.[Ov) e B fh [Ou) e A f qY qK
Y jce ' h JFGdG SQCG (
RG``e AOBC ``H C ```dG `HG (
. 3cm dG f dh Bh A GdG
.VC'G
'
h (
C dG Wj
MCG (O
.AOBC YHdG W SGh uOv
?ACBD YHdG W g e .Dh
M SGc Y HG qG fCG 20
N h M fh e SQG (G (1 25
OI=OJ=1cm
``d dH G f e d
R(1,3)h B(0,-1) h A(-3,0) dG Y
j H B h A f HG (
H T h S h U dG HG qK
. A  h e MANB
e RSTU
N h M dG be g e (
.d XJ Q (AB)
J
AdG AH e GqdG
. -2 JJ f ceh
? Bh
O I
e jH S'G f Y LG (2
.
200

. ABCD e SQCG (1 26
: M D' h C' h B' h A' dG HG (2
D EG dH A dG IXeA'
A EG dH B dG IXe B'
B EG dH C dG IXe C'
C EG dH D dG IXe D'
.VC'G RGe A'B'C'D'YHdG qCG qH (3
ABCD G Me VCG `N g A'B'C'D' `YHdG `Me qCG qH (4

= 60 h AB=AC h 21cm
BAC

VCG YHQ

hj ABC e SQG (1 27
IXe Fh A d dH GdG Y C h B `dG `JXe E h D `f (CG (2
. (BC) d dH A dG
.BCDE h ABFC YHdG W OM
.Y G dG jGhR e jhGR c b MG (
.Gee [AB] h [CD] e jbh I gce IFGO SQG 28
? ACBD YHdG W g e
I  D h A D H I hA f Y K D

e SQG (1 29
.YVCG MCG e f Ah d XJ Q D j H I ce He HG (2
I

201

ABCD j H D h Ch B dG HG qK Ih A f qY (CG 30
6cm V Wh O `c`e RSTU `qHe `HG q`K O `f `qY (

ce qHe

IdGh hGh dG

GdG HG
.YGQdG Y ,dfCG TEG GsdG H MCG H H j jcR HCG g
dG SQO bh .Id SOdG dG TEG j c fCG Y af e c
kGQe kqb kHc dCG .dG YGQdG dGh ,GGh Y IG
.Ge IY Wh LJ dG (MdG c) YO ,dfCG YGQdG
d qdG qHdG qG

NqdG f dG eL j
gP h GqQO H qdJ
DhqdG OSCG HCG

IdGh hGh dG
SCG
.He fG LhCG Fb GQTe HG dG
.fG Me MG

3cm

T NGdG h e LQG T bCG jhM


.HG SdG j c Fb jFGO fGSEG
? M g e

hG dG

Fb GQTe HG SdG
.e T T JYb
Me CG Y GPEG YJQG MG
. 66cm2hJ G

20cm

.jec eY HG SdG 4
HJ jW Y jedG edG jJ J g e
jJ J CG Y GPEG 125kmJ je H
? GQjO11,400g MGdG HG G

60cm

20cm

40cm

3cm
.

YT FGO Ub MG (CG
(3)h (2)h (1)TCG e T qc AB SdG W SG (

3cm

3cm

216

B
(3)

203

3cm
(2)

A
(1)

(1

3cm YT FGO Ub Me MG (CG (2


(3)h (2)h (1)TCG e T qc

Me SG (
jhGdG MG (
dG Me CG Y GPEG AOB
. 15
hJ HG dH HG FGdG
8
jhGdG MG (O
dG CG Y GPEG AOB
. 8
hj dH HG FGdG
3

qWCGh SCG
1 f
(3) h (2)h (1) G e qd dH g e

? JYb T (CG
? fG LhCG T (

2 f
5cm

e HQCH W He HG SdG -CG


.dG je
.G OHCG ah ie Qh Y SQG
HG VCG ah GdG Y G qH b -
. Y d
g Y G G j
e JYb g dG
.d Gf HG dG jh
.e LhCGh

6cm

204

J
1

(a)
(3)

? eg ddG G e CG
: cCG h dG hG fCG
K g

qhCG g

.......

.......

24

.......

.......

fG LhCG OY
aMCG OY
b OY
.d Gf HG SdG
.UGh T Qh Y fG

. 6cme M c W KK d Gf SQG

hG dG
j e JYb g
qKK eg

3 f

. HQC jQe SQ j a
.FdG jFGdG fGSG h QTG h dG H e OM
j ( c) G
.fGQhO Wh

(a)

205

(d)

(b)
(c)

4 f
= 135M GQhO h Gf HG SdG
ASB
SA=SB=8cm h

.G OHCG ah ie Qh Y fCG (CG


.(2)h (1) dG H b (
j H (2) dG M (1) dG QOG (
. O ce dG FGdG UdH Bh AdH OhG FGdG SdG
S

e
.JYb FGdG UdGh hG b S dG qJ
.YJQG [SO] G b qJ
.Y [SA] G b qJ

A
B

JYb g GQhdG hG
SCGQ H q YJQGh FGO Ub
.JYb ce Y

J
h Gf dG SdG q
. 6cm Y Wh 4cm b
.IYdG MG (CG
jhGdG CG SG (
120 hJ ASB

.d Gfh fGQhO Wh j e

.GQhdG hG Gd fG MG MG -G
.G Me MG -
206

5 f

hG dG

.He JYb d Gf HG dG
G OHCG ah iqe Qh Y SQG -G
.UGh
SH qe cH d eR e b -
.KdG JeGgCG
.dG M PEG SG

: g h YJQGh B JYb Me d V G
V=
V=

1
Bh
3

IYdG Me * JQG W : CG
3

6 f

. S b GQhO h fG Ld Gf dG dG q
.UG h ie Qh Y fG (CG

207

. 4cm YJQG h 3cmYT IYb hH Fb jFGO fGSG T GAYh UG (


.JQG f d hG h AYdG CG M (
.c IMc AYdG e FdG jFGdG fGSG CeG (O
? FdG jFGdG fGSG Ae e d AYdG e Iqe e c (

V=

: hG M
JQG W * IYdG Me
3
V=

r 2h
3

: CG

JYb T rh h YJQG M

J
. 6cmaM W e HG dG
.GdG Y [CB] h [FB] h [AB] MCG e g K h Jh I
? BAFC dG dH BIJK dG M GPe

jFGdG fGSG b M dG hQG M MCG (1


. 2cmYJQGh 2cm hG bh15mm YJQGh 5mm
e G dG c CG Y hQG c g e (2
? 0,8g g d SG dG G

208

hG dG

z
10cm

? M cCG d GgCG g CG

HG dG eCJ
f d c GPEG hG JQG h MG -CG
.dG M
f CG Y GPEG hG JQG MG-
.dG M e 65,44% q M

AYdG GH AG JQG MG
Se jc OGYCG z h y h x CG Y
.10h 6h 8 e GdG Y GOW
.AYdG M e 87,5% q AG M qCGh

h Gf g dG Gg CG H

x
h

6cm

8cm

M r YTh a Y W hS fG MG MCG
r=3cm h a=6cm

209

8 f

b f d Gc K J dG V JQG a j fGSG c CG SNQG gH


. 2R gb Ic M SG .fGSG

2R

gb Ic M

V=

R 3
3

xJ
? G f ddG d g

? HG dG G VG S dH MG

210

hG dG
211

IG eGgCG

.(gdG Ae IQhQb) Ie HG SdG


.a gdG Ae M MG -CG
? IH gdG A jFG dG ge -
dG K CG Y GPEG IG g K g e -
K CGh ffO J hj gdG Ae e MGdG
.GQjO ZQa gh IG

: ddG G MCG JQ

VQCG IdG

UMCG
LhCGh e JYb g dG
.e
YJQGh B JYb Me dV G
V=
V=

1
Bh
3

: g

IYdG Me * JQEG W CG
3

JYb g GQhdG hG
Y SCGQ H YJQGh FGO Ub
.JYb ce
2

r h
: hG M
V=
3
CG JYb T r h YJQG h M
V=

JQEG W * IYdG Me
3

g 2Rgb Ic M
V=

R3
3

212

`` ` ` jQ`` ` ` `
ddG TCG H e OM (CG 6
d Gf dG G

jOG (dl) jdG EG K (1)dG EG M 1


: ddG
3
. 250cl , 24dal , 633dam , 92cm 3 -CG
. 0.06m 3 , 750ml , 4hl , 8.9m 3-
2mm b dG GSG SdG e S -CG

ABCD VCG RGe SQG (

h AB=8cm H

KK eg H UGh BAD=120
h
.dP e 4cm aM e

hG dG

AD = 4cm

.M MG .1m dWh
IQP 8.9 *1019 Lj SdG e 1mm 3 -
? dG dP GQdG OY g c
GAL HG dG q 3
LhCG d f e
je e fG
e JYb h dG
.dG G h fCG

`b GQhO h` `T `N 7
T e c 3m YJQGh 4m
c qCG Y G ebEG d
W qd Oa qd eRdG AGdG
q dG g e ddG TCG H e OM 4
. 2, 5m 3 g
? d Gf
a > b M ddG qG f 8
M Qb

213

Wh HG dG
O JYb ceh S b fGQhO
Meh OS YJQG MCG
Me CG Y GPEG fG
Mh 625
m 2 JYb
SA=65m h 12500 m 3

.dG Gd J HG dG
? JYb JQG g e

b d jQe SQ HG dG 9
. I Fb e IJK JYbh S
. d Gf CG (1
.M MCG (2

T c ddG TCG H e OM 10
d Gf

`dG ``f `d h``h I`c 14


``JQG h ````MG . v ``G ``fh
. r dH hG
Y GPEG VQCG IdG M g e 15
? 6366km jJ hj YT CG

1dm

. 20cm gb jjM Ic 16
c CG Y GPEG c g e
? 7,9kg aGJ jG e

. 500
cm 3M Ic b MG 17

Fb FGO h Gf dG dG 11
r JYb Th AB SdG W MCG .S b

.M MG 24cm gb dG Ic 12

233m V He JYb g g Hc g

.146m YJQGh
) Hc g j dG G fNCG GPEG
H f CG fOQCGh (NGH dG ZGdG f
.IYdG KK Fb GQTe T Y GS
. 400m JYb VCG MCG Wh 50m dG oS

13

214

AdG RGqdG

cfEG
.Id HGdG dG YCG e(H) G ,cfEG MCG H Y SdG HCG g
ch ,`g 376 dG GM Jah M WSa ,OGH EG fGh ,cfEG dh
Y kcQe ,Zf Y ch .Y eGh jdG dhdG Y UCG e
,(dG dG dG) :e ,QKBG e OY EG dG HGh dG QTCGh .FGhCG
.(jOdG jRGG) ,(G c) ,(SbEG T) ,(WKQCG J)
d qdG qHdG qG

e qe e GPEG OdG
dG qdG OGS qj c

c qG b j dG
MU b Y dG j dGh

qHQ Y HG
215

AdG RGqdG
SCG
: cCG h SCG hG fG qK dqdG G M.

(b)

(a)

(C)

(e)

(d)

(e)

(d)

(c)

(b)

(a)

qG
SG
b OY
aMCG OY
qfG LhCG OY
JYb T
qG aMCG OY
qG LhCG OY

216

q GQe T SGc Y SQG

SQ Y qd cCG qK HG dG fG
ABCD d Qe

D
B
C

RG MCG KK HG SqdG q
SQG h fG ABCDA'B'C'D' G
.qG MCG H

A'

AdG RGqdG

Fb QT MCG KK HG SqdG q

ABCA'B'C'

.qG MCG H SQG h fG

C'

qWCGh SCG
AdG G

B'

1 f
ABCA'B'C'

Fb QTe T (S) q iG QdG e UCG - CG


.SCG qe g c (Q)h (P)qdG e Uh

217

. (S) G LhCG MC Ue (P) dG V -


Z dG fQqJ GPEa (P) dG e f Y J LdG e f qc qCG M
.LdG dP e gh P `H d ef e Y FY f G IOh
(S)

F
P
(S) e Lh qc qCGh Q je q(Q)

qdG dch P je q (P) qdG qEG f


.AdG e je Oqj
2 f
C

hBh

A KdG d Ue (P) dG V (CG


ABC

LdG f qc qCG Mh (S)G e


ABC LdG e qCG CG dH dG b
.j (P) dG e h
? MJ GPe. (S) G e C'h B'h A' d Ue (Q) dG V (
OqG d ef
Ch B h A qdH
. (ABC) `H

d AdG e f K
Oq IMGh eSG Y
.GMGh je

J
ABCDA'B'C'D' qe HG dG
G h F hE

dH OqG (P) Gh

dG e qc d J je cPG (1
. Bh A
218

.dEG J iNCGh P G EG J qG e f cPG (2


? (ADH) G EG J E dG qCG g (CG (3
? (ADH)G EG J B dG qCG g (

e e
3 f

qd Ue (P) dG V (1
.(S) G e A' h A
? (P) dG EG J [AA']e f LJ g
? P G EG J (AA') G e f LJ g
PG (AA') G

qCG f .P G EG J

(AA') G e f qc

AdG RGqdG

. (AA') P fh
Gg f qc fc GPEG e qfCG e Y f
G GP EG J G
J e f qc j P ie e
.  P fh P EG
a e e ce f fc GPEG
G Gg
CG
(AB) P Ea P e e f B h A c GPEG

J
Vqe SCG G fG h HG qdG M'
: ddG RedG MCH dG Ie c
. , , ,
M...(BEF)
A...(EBC)
C...(DHF)

M...(ABG)

(BN)...(BHC)

219

,
,
,
,

A...(EFG)
(BM)...(AEF)
(FN)...(AEC)
(GM)...(EFG)

qqdG qVdG
4 f

. ABCDEFGH G RGe HG dG
jRGeh (ABC) G j e cPG (CG
.Weh (BCG) G j e cPG (
? qqdG qVh g e .( ADH) iG j e cPCG (
D'

D
M

D'
P

g G f e e.We hCG jRGe


Zh jRGe Z e G f d g We

G f j e g jRGe e
We Zh

J
e f M M HG dG M'
G e qc j dG G g e -CG (1
? (AB) h (CM)
? (AB)h (CM)d dG VdG g e -
.
[AB]

: dqdG 'G e dM qc eqG G EG dH HdG GDdG Y LCG (2


(AF) h (EM)
(EF) h (HG)
(AB) h (HM)
. ABFE LdG e jRGe jNBG h We e cPG (3

220

5 f

. ABCDEFGH G RGe HG dG
. (AD) G j e cPG -CG(1
. (CG) G j e cPG -
? (CG) h (AD) G pc j e Lj g -
Zh jRGe Z (CG) h (AD) G CG Mf
.G f d fEG f We
.G f d jNBG e cPG (2
f fj AdG e @
. hCG G

AdG RGqdG

G f d e @
.We Z h jRGe Z fj

J
.He JYb eg HG dG
hCG We : `H ZGdG cCG h qddG G fG
.G f d hCG jRGe
...... e g (DC)h (SB) ...... e g (BC)h (AD) ...... e g (SO)h (AC) ...... e g (DB)h (SC) -

eh qqdG qVdG
1 f

. ABCDEF Fb GQTe HG dG
. EFD LdG e P d
cCG.1
(AE) P = ......

(BD) P = ......
(CF) P = ......

221

. E IMGh f P G (AE) G
E qdG We P Gh (AE) G qCG f

f eh c GPEG
We qfCG f IMGh ce
.qdG J
P = {M}

2 f

M HG qG M - 1
. A'B'C' IYdG e ( P)h Fb QTe
.ce f d d Lhh aM cPyG (CG
? Pd Wb (AB) G qCG g (
? P G j NBG e cPG (O

ABCA'B'C'

Z e h e j eY
jRGe qfCG f We
P=

.2
(AB)

`d RGeh P i e cPG (CG

e RGe e c GPEG
.G Gd RGe a e
? (AC) Gh d qdH J GPe (AC) `d RGe h P i e cPG (
.jRGe P G h (BC) G qCG KCG (

(AB) P =

222

J
.Fb GQTe HG dG q
AA'B'B LdG Wb e KK cPG (CG
AA'F'F LdG Wb (BC) G CG g (
(ABC) d jRGe e K cPG (
? (EDE') d RGe (BB') G qCG g (O

We je
8 f

h Fb QTeABCA'B'C' M dG SdG M'


BB'C'C LdG e (Q)h AA'B'B LdG e
h P G (BB') G qCG qH (CG
. Q G
Q h P jG H ce f LJ g (
? (BB') EG J
fh We Q h P jG CG f

AdG RGqdG

P Q = (BB')

f K C h B h A fc GPEG
We je H ce
.IMGh eSG Y a

J
ABCDEFGHG RGe HG dG q

: dM c eqG jG WJ OM
(DHG) h (ABC)

h (GBF)
(CGH) h (DBF)

(AEF)

223

(CG
(
(

We D'h D e HG qdG q
. P G jh O f
. P G EG J f M
D Gh M qdH OqG Q G f
. D' Gh M qdH OqG R Gh
. R h Q jG WJ OqM

qH ae j
M HG dG fG (CG
P G e f N h M
IMGh eSG Y d f K C h B h A
.jRGe Z (BC)h (MN)h P EG Jh
M MK f We P h (BC) CG KCG (
. K dG Y . IMGh eSG Y K h N

: qG
jG EG N h

M dG e qc J(

. P h (ABC)
(MN) G ah jG Gg Wj PEG
(ABC) P = (MN)
(ABC) G j (BC)h (MN) G

. K f We a PEG jRGe Z g h
P G Z (BC) G CG h
P (BC) = {K} ; K dG j fEa
dHh (MN) G EG J K dG
.IMGh eSG Y K h Nh M da

224

jRGe je
9 f

Ue (P) dG V (CG
dGh (S)G e ABC Ld
f e A'B'C' Ld Ue (Q)
.HG dG c G
H ce f g g (
? Q h P jG
We d Qh P jG
Q // P hCG P // Q : fh jRGe fCG f

AdG RGqdG

We Z je g jRGe je

.jRGe je Q h P d
HGL qe '' CN '' hCG ''GU'' `H LCG
Q d RGe g P G e e qc (CG
. P G e e qd RGe g Q G e e qc (

H ae jQ
1

P jeh ABCD KK eg HG dG

. (BCD) d jRGe
P G J [AD]h [AC] h [AB] G
. K h J h I GdG Y
(IK) // (BD) h (JK) // (CD)h (IJ) // (BC) CG H
225

qG
jd
P G (IJ) G *
(BCD) G (BC)G *
P (BCD) = *
(BC) (IJ) = GPEG
(IJ) // (BC)

qEa (ABC) G f j (BC) h (IJ) CG h


. (IK) // (BD) h (JK) // (CD) CG qf jdG H

Q
Q

h P jRGe je HG dG q
P e f KK C h Bh A h Q e f E d
.IMGh eSG Y d
.We Q h (ABE) jG qCG qH (CG
. Q h (ABE) jG WJ G f (
(AB) OqM
.jRGe (AB)h qCG SG (

G
.e Z Q h (ABE) jG GPEG A Q h A (ABE ) d (CG
.We Q h (ABE) jG qEa E Q h E (ABE ) CG h
Q ( ABE ) = (
Q P = qCG f h P G e (AB) h Q G e
. (AB) = PEG
( ( AB) = ) Wj h (ABE) G f j (AB)h CG (
.jRGe fEa

226

jRGe je Q h P HG dG
D G ah P G j dK e R h
D' G ah Q G j h
.jRGe D'h D G qCG qH

. P jRGe e D d
.HGL qe ''CN''hCG ''GU'' `H LCG
. P d RGe g D d RGe e qc

AdG RGqdG

ABCDEGH

G RGe HG dG
[DH] e f M h
.We (BFG)h (AMG) jG CG H (1
d(2
.jRGe (AM) h CG H
h G WJ f K Y -CG(3
( AMG ) ( ABF ) = ( AK ) CG H -
(AK)//(MG) CG H -
. AMGK YHdG W SG (4
( AMG ) (BFG ) =

. (BF)

.V'G RGe g ABGH YHdG CG qH (5


ABGH V'G RGe ce O f (6
. O dG (AMG) d Wb g (BH) G CG KCG

227

qG

G EG J A) e Z gh G dG (BFG) h (AMG) jG j (1
.We g PEG ((BFG) G EG J h (AMG)
( AM )  = GPEG (BFG ) ( AED) = h  (BFG ) h ( AM ) ( AED) d (2
.jRGe qfEa (AMG) G f j (AM) h CG h
.dG fG -CG (3
(ABF) h (AMG) jG j -
(K  (BF ) h  ( AMG ) K  ) K h A dG
G EG J G) e Z g h
((ABF)G EG J h (AMG)
.
G ah We g PEG
(AK)
( AK ) ( ABE ) h (MG ) (DCG ) d -
( AK ) (MG ) =  GPEG ( ABE ) (DCG ) =  h
.jRGe qfEa (AMG) G f j (AK)h (MG) CG h

4
RGe g ABGH G YHdG PEG jRGe h je [HG] h [AB] aG CG f (5
.VC'G RGe g

AMGK YHdG PEG (MG)//(AK)

(KG)//(AM) d (

.VC'G
a dH h [BH] dG e g O PEG ABGH VC'G RGe ce g O dG (6
. (BH) G EG J
O PEG (AMG) G (AG) G CG fh [AG] dG e jCG g h
. (AMG) Gh (BH) d ce f a dH h (AMG) G EG J
Z (BH)G PEG (AMG)G EG J h (AG) G EG J B dG
. O dG (AMG) G j a dHh (AMG)G

228

UMCG
P = (ABC)

B P h A P
( AB) P PEG

D ' Ph D P c GPEG
D' h D hCG D//D' qEa

AdG RGqdG

We
D D' =
jRGe Z D' h D

P//Q

AdG e f K
IMGh eSG Y d
e MGh e O
AdG
f fc GPEG
a e e ce
G Gg
f e e
hCG We g G
.jRGe
f d e
G
Z e g
We Z h jRGe
g jRGe je
.We Z je

We je
e ah Wj

P Q = D

D//P

D P = { A}

229

e h e
jR Ge

j D e
f P e

`` ` ` jQ`` ` ` `

(BCC') G (B'N)G CG H (
.We (CC') h (B'N) CG h
.We (ACC')G h (B'N) CG H (O
.WJ f I dG SQG
(BM) G WJ f J dG SQG (
. (ACC') G h

e SCG dG 1
D EG J A H h D GO
A dG e GQe e D' f
B f D d Wb h
P G D' G CG H
P

xA

: M SCG dG SQG 4
h P We je SCG SdG 2
[CG]e f N h [BC] e f M h e
(AM) d dG VdG g e (CG GqdG Y d Wb D eh Q
? (ADE) G h
N hM
(ADE) jd dG VdG g e (
Q D h P D OM (CG
? (BCF) h (NA) h (NB) G SQCGh dG fG (
.(MA) h (AB) h
ABCDEFGH

d dG VdG g e (
? (BCF) G h
j (CG) h (FM) G CG H (O
.G f
I f Wj (CG)h (FM)G(
.dG g SQG
Gh (FM) G WJ f Y (h
.(DCG)
(EFG) Gh(BN) G CG H (R
.WJ f J dG Y h We
(AM)

M qdG dG fG 3
Fb GQTe
e f N h [B'C']G e f M
.[BC]G
(AA') d dG VdG g e (CG
? (BCC')G h
Z (MN) h (AA') G CG SG (
.We
ABCA'B'C'

230

AdG RGqdG

e h P je qdG SdG 7
M dG dG fG 5
.d jRGe
D G ah We je P'h P *
. D EG J f C
D G j Q je SQG (CG
.D' e M P d Wbh
. B P' j h A P j e D'
. (ABC) d Q `H ef
D d dG VdG g e (
? D' h
. Q P 'h Q P SQG (G
? J CG GPe (
. Q D OM (
f d D'h D G CG H (
.G

e qdG dG 8
MC'G EG GdG Y J f Kh Jh IM
. [AD] h [BC]h [AB]
.dG fG (1
. (BCG)h (ABF)jG WJ OqM (2
ABCDFEGH

We (BF) h (JG) G CG H -CG (3


(ABF) Gh (JG) G CG SG -
.WJ f O OM h We
: e d dG VdG g e (4
? (IJ) h(EK)G ? (GJ) h (KI)G ? (DI) h (HJ) G (AEH) jd dG VdG g e (5
? (GKH) h

231

G RGe qdG dG
ABCDEFGH

1
(DF)d dG VdG g e (2
(EDG) h (EGC) jG WJ OM (

? (EG) h
.jRGe (BG) h (AH) CG H (3
ABFE G ce J h I f (4
.GdG Y BFGC h
(BEG) h (AFC) jG CG H
. (IJ) G M We

. 20 cm h 15 cm h 10 cm aMCG W G RGe qdG SqdG q (1 9


.qdG Gg e MCG K e J h Ch B h
. CEKBJ h JIAKE edG M MCG
.VC'G RGe IEKA YHqdGh EJBK YHqdG e c CG qH - CG (2
. IJBA YHqdG W SG -
.VC'G RGe CDJI YHqdG qCG qH (3
. ACDB YHqdG W SG -
. (CD)G M Wj(IEC) h (ABC) jG qCG qH - CG (4
. (DB) G M Wj (JDB) h (ABC) jG qCG qH -

(ABC) d jRGe je Ph S

qb qKK eg SABCd 10
. P h N h M GqdG Y P G J [SC] h [SB] h [SA] G b
. (MP)//(AC) h (NP)//(BC) h (MN)//(AB) qCG qHh dd SQ CG

232