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N'KMRYVYQSO" YSOX^KVO
TOME" 110

LE" CAIRE" " 2010

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A"Granite"Statue"Base"of" q-q-"(Cairo"N"1)(/)"".................................................."

EV-AQ_Sdc"Ola
Une"nouvelle" "tombe-sarcophage""puits"""Saqqra""............................................" )+
EV-EXKXc"Khald
Un"carr"de"lin"peint"au"muse"de"l'Agriculture"du"Caire"(inv."01+)""..................." +E]MROXLOXXO-DSOWO"Grsand
Les" "modles""funraires"du"muse"d'Ethnographie"de"Neuchtel""...................." ,/
FKRWc"Ahmd,"GKVX"Jos"M.,"HKWNc"Rim
A"Deposit"of"Floral"and"Vegetative"Bouquets"at"Dra"Abu"el-Naga"(TT")))""......." /+
GRSMK"Victor
Sasabek"and"Beroth"(NH"VI,,),*0+():"A"

eonymic"Mixed"Marriage""............" 1)

GYLOSV"Cdric
Une"plaque"cramique""l'eDgie"du"dieu"Seth""Ayn"Asil""....................................." )(+
KKZO"Olaf"E."
A"Kelxs"Ostracon"from"Amheida,"Dakhleh"Oasis""................................................." ))KVY^d"David
Two"Studies"on"the"Late"Period"Temples"at"Abydos""..............................................." )*/
MKRPY_d"El-Sayd
Amenemhat"IV"au"ouadi"Gaouasis""............................................................................." ).-

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MK_SM-BKLOSY"Flornc
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dans"la"tombe"de"Ramss"VI""........................................................................................" )/MOPPO"Raphal
Un"nouveau"nom"d'Horus"d'or"de"Sheshonq"Ier"sur"le"bloc"Caire"JE"+1,)("......" **)
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Bronzes"d'ibis"provenant"de"Touna"al-Gebel""............................................................" *+R_]]Y"Barbara
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tude"palographique"et"considrations"historiques""..............................................." *-)
SOVSW"Hassan
Statue"Fragments"from"Karnak"Temple"in"the"Basement""
of"the"Egyptian"Museum"in"Cairo""............................................................................." */S_LSK]"PK]M_KV"Eva
Hracls"et"Asclpios"sur"un"relief"d'Oxyrhynchos"
Un"aspect"du"langage"guratif"de"la"religion"grco-romaine"en"gypte""............." *01
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Rsums"n"franais"t"n"anglais"".................................................................................... ",/1
Adrsss"ds"auturs""............................................................................................................ ",1)

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Two"Studis"on"th"Lat"Priod"Tmpls"at"Abydos
NK`SN"UVY^d

RY_QRY_^" Pharaonic" history," Abydos" ranked" among" Egypt's" most" revered" sites.)"
Reputed"to"contain"the"actual"tomb"of"Osiris"at"Umm"el-Qa`ab,"this"Upper"Egyptian"
city"attracted"devoted"pilgrims"until"the"late"Roman"Period."Yet"despite"its"legacy"as"a"
holy"site"in"all"eras,"only"scant"architectural"traces"remain"from"the"Late"Period,*"even"though"
many"private"sarcophagi,"stelae,"and"other"objects"attest"to"the"continued"performance"of"local"
cults.+"Recent"excavations"have"identied"a"sizeable"temple"near"Kom"el-Sultan"dating"primarily"
to"the"reigns"of"Nectanebo"I"and"II"of"the" irtieth"Dynasty"(c."+0(-+,+"BCE),"with"building"
phases"going"back"to"the"New"Kingdom.,"Additional"material"from"outside"Abydos"provides"

An"early"version"of"this"paper"was"presented"at"the"Institute"for"the"Study"of"
the"Ancient"World,"New"York"University,"
October" )+," *((1." e" author" would"
like"to"thank"John"C."Darnell"for"oCering" many" important" suggestions" and"
comments.
" 1" See"recently"D."O'CYXXY,"Abxdnr:"
Efxos'r" Fhqrs" Pgaqangr" amd" sge" Ctks" n"
Orhqhr,"Cairo,"*((1."
" 2" O'CYXXY," Abxdnr," p." )*)-)+.;"
for" Abydos" in" the" preceding" periods"
("Dynasties"*)-*-),"see"A."LOKRc," "Abydos"
in" the" Libyan" Period," in" A." Leahy"
(ed.),"Lhbxa"amd"Efxos:"c."$&##-*(#"B.C.,"
"London,")11(,"p.")---*((;"hd.," Kushite"
"Monuments"at"Abydos,"in"Chr.J."Eyre"
(ed.)," e" Umbqnjem" Reed," Sstdher" hm"

sge" Ctkstqe" amd" Heqhsafe" n" Amchems"


Efxos"hm"gnmntq"n"A.F."Sgnqe,"EESOP"
))," )11,," p." )/)-)1*;" hd.," Dating" Stelae"of"the"Libyan"Period"from"Abydos,"
in" G.P.F." B
" roekman," R.J." Demare,"
O.E." Kaper" (eds.)," e" Lhbxam" Peqhnd"
hm" Efxos," EfUhs" *+," *((1," p." ,)/-,,(;"
O'CYXXY,"Abxdnr,"p.")*.-)*0,")+)-)+,.
" 3" H."DO"MO_VOXKOO," Une"famille"
de" prtres" thinites," CdE" *1," )1-,,"
p." **)-*+.;" hd.," Le" clerg" abydnien"
d'Osiris""la"Basse"poque,"OLP".//,"
)1/.///," p." )++-)-);" hd.," Sculptures"
dores" d'Abydos," CdE" /1," *((,,"
p." 0)-00;" K." JKX]OX-WSXUOVX," Eine"
Familie"im"Totenkult,"ZS")*0,"*((),"
p.")++-),).

" 4" M."MKVK," Excavations"of"the"


Temple"of"Osiris"at"Abydos"Reported"on"
behalf"of"the"University"of"Pennsylvania"
Museum" -"Yale" University" -" Institute"
of"Fine"Arts,"New"York"University"Expedition"to"Abydos,"in"J.-Cl."Goyon,"
Chr." Cardin" (eds.),"Pqnceedhmfr" n" sge"
Nhmsg"Imseqmashnmak"Cnmfqerr"n"Efxosnknfhrsr,"II,"OLA")-(,"*((/,"p.")*-)-)*-1;"hd.,"
e"Orhqhr"Teloke"as"Abxdnr:"Am"Aqcgaenknfhcak" Imuershfashnm" n" sge" Aqcghsecstqe"
amd"Decnqashue"Ekelemsr"n"Tvn"Teloke"
Pgarer"(PhD"Diss.;"New"York"University,"
*((1);"O'CYXXY,"Abxdnr,"p.")*0-)*1."

LSPKY"))("-"*()(

"

)*0"

NK`SN"UVY^d

new"historical"background"to"these"remarkable"discoveries."Previously"neglected"Pharaonic"
blocks"reused"in"the"White"Monastery"Church"in"Sohag"and"a"beautiful"private"statue"in"the"
Metropolitan"Museum"of"Art"shed"light"on"the"fate"of"the"Late"Period"temples"in"Abydos.

)."

^RO"VY]^"^OWZVO"YP"KWK]S]5

A"private"statue"belonging"to"the"high-ranking"oDcial"Peftuaneith"(Louvre"A"1+)"includes"a"
wealth"of"information"concerning"the"temple"of"Osiris"at"the"end"of"the"Twenty-Sixth"Dynasty."
In"a"lengthy"hieroglyphic"inscription,"Peftuaneith"records"the"extensive"renovation"works"he"
conducted"in"Abydos"for"Apries"and"Amasis.-"He"enumerates"the"most"substantial"building"
eCorts"as"follows:.
I"qeonqsed"sge"cnmdhshnm"n"Abxdnr"sn"sge"oakace,"sn"ghr"laiersx'r"eaq."Hhr"laiersx"nqdeqed"le"
sn"dn"vnqj"hm"Abxdnr,"hm"nqdeq"sn"qebthkd"Abxdnr;"I"kabnqed"fqeaskx"hm"qersnqhmf"Abxdnr,"I"ots"
eueqxsghmf"beknmfhmf"sn"Abxdnr"hm"hsr"okace."I"kax"avaje"reejhmf"vgas"var"fnnd"nq"Abxdnr,"I"
beffed"aunqr"qnl"lx"knqd"dahkx,"hm"nqdeq"sn"qersnqe"Abxdnr.
I"bthks"sge"seloke"n"Kgemsalemsh"ar"a"rnkhd"vnqj"n"eseqmhsx"as"ghr"laiersx'r"cnllamd,"sgas"ge"
lhfgs"ree"oqnroeqhsx"hm"sge"a=ahqr"n"Taveq."I"rtqqntmded"hs"vhsg"vakkr"n"bqhcj,"sge"rgqhme"qp- "
var"n"nme"bkncj"n"fqamhse,"sge"atftrs"cgaoek"n"ekecsqtl,"nqmalemsr,"dhuhme"altkesr,"akk"racqed"
nbiecsr"veqe"n"fnkd,"rhkueq,"amd"akk"oqechntr"rsnmer.
Peftuaneith's" comprehensive" renovation" included" the" temple" of" Osiris-Khentiamentiu,"
the"qp- "chapel,"an"august"shrine"( "or),"a"brick"enclosure"wall,"the"v-opq"(vof)"chapel"
(the"monumental"tomb"of"Osiris"in"Umm"el-Qa`ab),"and"a"new"House"of"Life"(scriptorium)."
Furthermore,"Peftuaneith"organized"the"economic"infrastructure"necessary"to" provision"the"
temple"of"Khentiamentiu,"establishing" the"Osiris"Village"(fqf.s-Wrq),"a"large"agricultural"
estate"and"vineyard"to"supply"divine"oCerings,"and"replacing"ritual"equipment"such"as"the"
sacred"bark."Although"Peftuaneith"was"active"already"under"Apries,"the"restoration"work"at"
Abydos"took"place"during"the"reign"of"Amasis.
Peftuaneith's"testimony"is"substantiated"to"a"small"degree"in"the"meagre"archaeological"record./"
While"excavating"the"Osiris"temple"precinct"in"Kom"el-Sultan,"Petrie"discovered"foundation"
deposits"of"both"Apries"and"Amasis,0"a"naos"inscribed"with"the"cartouches"of"both"pharaohs"

E." JOVXUY`-ROcWYXN," Quelques" recherches" sur" les" rformes"


d'Amasis,"ASAE"-,,")1-.--/,"p."*/--*0/;"
S."GKVVO^,"Batem""Sshsem""Wehgem:"
fxoshrcge" Bat-" tmd" Rersatqheqtmfrhmrcgqhsem" unm" dem" Ammfem" bhr" ytq" &#."
Dxmarshe,"ADAIK")0,"*((),"p.",/+-,/,;"
J." HOS]O," Eqhmmeqm" tmd" Gedemjem:"
" 5"

A
" roejse"deq"bhnfqaoghrcgem"Imrcgqhsem"deq" " 7" W.M.Fl."PO^SO,"Abxdnr"I,"MEEF"
fxoshrcgem" Sosyehs," OBO" **.," *((/," **,")1(*,"p."+)-++;"hd.,"Abxdnr"II,"MEEF"*,,"
p."**1-*++;"Peftuaneith"oversaw"renova- )1)+,"p.")1-*(."
tions"at"several"sites"throughout"Egypt;" " 8" PO^SO,"Abxdnr"I,"p."+*"and"pl."LXX,"
HOS]O,"no."chs.,"p.")(.-)(/.
gs.".-1.
" 6" Translation"of"M."LSMR^ROSW,"Amchems"Efxosham"Lhseqastqe,"III:" e"Lase"
Peqhnd,")10(,"p."+,.

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

)*1

(perhaps"the"very"same" "or"mentioned"by"Peftuaneith),1"an"oCering"table"of"Amasis,)("and"
quarry"marks"on"foundation"blocks"with"the"label" Amasis,"beloved"of"Osiris"Lord"of"Abydos.))"
Amlineau" had" previously" discovered" a" fragmentary" stela" of" Amasis" at" Umm" el-Qa`ab," apparently"related"to"the"Osiris"burial"in"the"tomb"of"Djer.)*"In"addition,"an"obelisk"of"Amasis"
dedicated"to"gods"from"Abydos"(Osiris,"Sokar"and"Re-Harakhty),"turned"up"slightly"north"
in"Mensha"(Ptolemais),)+"and"GolenischeC"recorded"a"statue"of"the"important"Saite"oDcial"
Neshor"in"Sohag"bearing"an"inscription"dedicated"to"Osiris"Lord"of"Abydos,"probably"from"
the"reign"of"Apries.),
e" textual" and" archaeological" evidence" agrees" that" Amasis" was" engaged" in" building"
projects"near"the"temple"of"Osiris"Khentyamenty"in"Kom"el-Sultan,"perhaps"continuing"the"
construction"program"of"his"predecessor"Apries."However,"little"remains"of"the"temple"besides"
the"foundations"and"the"various"Kkehmtmde"mentioned"above."While"some"blocks"may"have"
found"their"way"into"the"expanded" irtieth"Dynasty"temple"(see"hmqa),"no"further"traces"of"
Amasis's"architectural"contributions"have"come"to"light"at"Abydos."

Spolia"in"th"Whit"Monastry"Church,"Sohag
New"information"concerning"this"temple"may"be"found"in"the"White"Monastery"Church"of"
St."Shenoute"in"Sohag,"roughly",-"km"north"of"Abydos.)-"Like"many"early"Christian"monuments,"
this"church"(c.",-("MO))."is"partially"built"from"Pharaonic"and"Graeco-Roman"ronkha""blocks,"
columns"and"other"architectural"elements"salvaged"from"earlier"buildings.)/"Although"these"
pagan"monuments"at"Sohag"are"quite"famous,"and"several"authors"have"recorded"individual"
objects,)0"the"ronkha"have"never"been"the"object"of"a"comprehensive"catalogue.
In"*((/,"the"Yale"White"Monastery"Church"Documentation"Project"began"recording"all"
decorated" material" presently" visible" as" part" of" broader" multi-disciplinary" investigations" of"

Ibhd,"p."+)-*,"pl."LXVIII.
Ibhd," p." +*," pls." LXIX" and" LXX,"
g.")(;"this"object"is"now"in"the"British"
Museum,"EA".)(.
" 11" PO^SO," Abxdnr" II," pl." XLVIII," .,"
p.")1:" temple"built"by"Aahmes"II"[Amasis]," whose" name" is" frequently" found"
cut" as" a" quarry-mark" on" the" blocks;"
cf." B." KOWZ,"
e" Osiris"Temple" at"
"Abydos," MDAIK" *+," )1.0," p." ),/,"
pl."XLI,"b.
" 12" ."AWVSXOK_,"Ler"mntuekker"nthkker"
d'Abxdnr,"$+,*-$+,+,")1(,,"p.").-"()+),"+();"
O'CYXXY,"Abxdnr,"p.")++-)+,.
" 13" CG" )/(*1;" Ch." K_OX^d," CGC"
Obkhrpter,")1+*,"p."-1-.(,"pl.")-.
" 14" O." PON_," Socle" d'une" statue"
de" Neshor" " Abydos," RdE" ,+," )11*,"
p."),--).*"(the"statue"is"now"missing);"
" 9"

" 10"

for"the"career"of"Neshor,"see"hd.," Neshor"
"Mendes"sous"Apris,"BSFE"))0,")11(,"
p."+0-,1.
" 15" PM"V," )1+/," p." +);" G." LOPOL`O,"
Deir-el-Abiad,"in"F."Cabrol,"H.""Leclercq"
(eds.)," Dhcshnmmahqe" d'aqcgnknfhe" cgqshemme"es"de"khstqfhe"(DACL)"IV.),")1*(,"
p.",-/--(*;"U."MYXXOO^"NO"VSVVKN,"
Ler" cntuemsr" oqr" de" Sngaf," II," )1*.;"
B."VOLOOMU,"L"V,"col.")(-*-)(-,,"r.u."
S" ohag;" hd.," De" Kloosterkerken" bij"
"Sohag:" De" Architekturale" Beslechting"
van"een"ideologisch"Conict,""Pgmhw"*/,"
)10),"p."1)-)(*;"P.""GY]]WKXX,"Cgqhrskhcge"Aqcghsejstq"hm"fxosem,"HdO"I,".*,"
*((*,"p."-*0--+-.

P."GY]]WKXX," Zur"Stiftung"und"
Bauzeit" der" grossen" Kirche" des" Schenuteklosters"bei"S h "(Obergypten),"
BxyZ")(),"*((*,"p."+---,.
" 17" Fr.W."DOSMRWKXX,"Dhe"Sonkhem"hm"
deq" rosamshjem" Aqcghsejstq," SAWM" .,"
)1/-,"p."-.-.(,"gs."**-*-;""GY]]WKXX,"
Cgqhrskhcge" Aqcghsejstq" hm" fxosem,"
p.")/)-)/*.
" 18" R."WOSVV," Monuments"gyptiens"
divers," XII:" Monuments" d'Amasis" et"
de" Hakoris" au" Deir" el-Abiad,"RT" +.,"
)1),," p." 1/-)((;" H." GK_^RSO," Un"
autel" consacr" " la" desse" Mehit,"
ASAE" +-," )1+-," p." *(/-*)*;" P."VOX_],"
Inscriptions"de"la"Troisime"Priode"Intermdiaire"(II):"Blocs"du"grand-prtre"
d'Amon"Ivovs"remploys"dans"le"Deirel-Abyad,"BIFAO"/-,")1/-,"p."./-/*.
" 16"

"

)+("

NK`SN"UVY^d

the" site.)1" e" epigraphic" mission" has" thus" far" recorded" over" fty" inscribed" blocks," dating"
from"the"Twenty-Second"Dynasty"to"the"reign"of"Antoninus"Pius."While"the"nal"edition"of"
all"blocks"is"still"in"progress,*("one"can"already"hazard"some"preliminary"conclusions"on"the"
well-preserved"objects.*)
Scholars" have" traditionally" assumed" that" Shenoute's" masons" salvaged" building" material"
from"earlier"pagan"temples"close"to"the"White"Monastery"complex,"either"from"a"completely"
vanished"sanctuary"of"Horus-lx-mv.s"(in"ancient"Nv/v),**"or"from"the"temple"of"Repyt"
(Triphis)"at"nearby"Atripe,"roughly"three"kilometers"south"of"the"church.*+"Since"the"ongoing"
documentation"survey"has"yet"to"discover"any"mentions"of"Horus-lx-mv.s,"aside"from"the"
free-standing"naos"now"in"the"Long"Hall"of"the"church,*,"the"rst"hypothesis"is"no"longer"tenable.*-"As"expected,"many"blocks"can"be"securely"traced"to"the"temple"at"Atripe,"including"a"
Graeco-Roman"ceiling"block"with"a"building"inscription"mentioning" Repyt,"Eye"of"Horus"in"
the"West.*."Most"pieces"from"the"Atripe"group"are"concentrated"in"the"interior"(north-eastern)"
staircase.
e" White" Monastery" Church"
Documentation" Project" is" directed" by"
Bentley"Layton,"under"the"auspices"of"
the"Yale"Monastic"Archaeology"Project,"
Stephen"J."Davis,"executive"director."Our"
research"was"given"generous"support"by"
the"Marilyn"M."and"William"K."Simpson"
Endowment" Fund" for" Egyptology" at"
Yale"University,"under"the"direction"of"
John"C."Darnell."For"project"updates"and"
detailed"maps"of"the"church,"see"www.
yale.edu/egyptology/aw_white.htm.
" 20" D." KVY^d," Imrcqhbed" Pgaqanmhc"
Maseqhak"Retred"hm"sge"Wghse"Mnmarseqx"
Cgtqcg"(in"preparation).
" 21" For"the"following,"see"D."KVY^d,"
Triphis"in"the"White"Monastery:"Reused"
Temple" Blocks" from" Sohag,"Amchems"
Snchesx",(,"*()(,"p.")1/-*)+.
" 22" Suggested" by" H." KOO]," Kulttopographische" und" mythologische"
Beitrge," ZS" .,," )1+)," p." )(0;" followed"by"PM"V,"p."+);"A.H."GKNSXO,"
AEO" II," )1,/," p." ,.*;" S." SK_XOYX,"
Villes" et" lgendes" d'gypte" XXXII" "
Le"chaudron"de""Sohag:"comment"nat"
une"lgende,""BIFAO".1,")1/(,"p."-,--0;"
B."VKX"NO"WKVVO," Une"base"de"statue-"
gurisseuse"avec"une"nouvelle"mention"
de"la"desse-scorpion"Ta-Bithet,"JNES"
+)," )1/*," p." /1;" H."TO"VOVNO," L" III,"
p." ,/;"VOLOOMU," L" V," col." )(-*," r.u."
"Horus" imi-schenut,;" G." VS^^WKXX,"
Ein" Amulett" aus" der" Sptzeit" zum"
Schutz" gegen" Feinde," ZS" )))," )10-,"
p." ).0," n." e;" G."WKQXO,"V." RYXNY^,"
Une"ddicace"au"roi"Ptolme"de"la"part"
" 19"

d'un"Alexandrin,"ZPE")(+,")11,,"p."*-(;"
R."EV-SKcON," Schenute"und"die"Tempel"
von"Atripe."Zur"Umnutzung"des"Triphisbezirks"in"der"Sptantike,"in"H."Knuf,"
Chr." Leitz," D." von" "Recklinghausen"
(eds.),"Hnmh"rnhs"pth"lak"x"oemre:"Sstdhem"
ytl"ogaqanmhrcgem,"fqhecghrcg-qlhrcgem"
tmd"rosamshjem"fxosem"yt"Egqem"unm"
Hehmy-Jnre" hrrem," OLA" )1,," *()(,"
p."-+(--+),"-+0.
" 23" Suggested" already" by" W.M.Fl."
PO^SO,"Asgqhbhr,"BSAE"),,")1(0,"p.")),"
),;"this"suggestion"is"largely"accepted"today;"see"e.g."Y."EV-MK]c," More"Recent"
Excavations"at"Athribis"in""Upper"Egypt,"
MDAIK"-/,"*((),"p."*(1;"GY]]WKXX,"
Cgqhrskhcge"Aqcghsejstq"hm"fxosem,"p.")/),"
-+*;"K."LOWLUO,"C."FV_MU,"G.""VS^^WKXX,"
fxosemr"rose"Bkse:"Dhe"Rleq"al"Nhk,"
ZBA," *((,," p." ))(;" C.T." SMRYONO,"
Mnmarshc"Bndher:"Dhrchokhme"amd"Sakuashnm"
hm"Sgemntse"n"Asqhoe,"*((/,"p."1-.
" 24" WOSVV," RT" +.," )1),," p." 1/-11;"
"L OPOL`O," DACL" IV.)," p." ,.1,"
g."+.,/;"KOO],"ZS".,,")1+),"p.")(0;"
P.""GY]]WKXX,"D."BYYU]-HON]^YW,"
M."ALNKV-RK]]_V,"E.S."BYVWKX," e"
Excavation" in" the" Monastery" of" Apa"
Shenute"(Dayr"Anba"Shinuda)"at"Suhag,"
DOP"-0,"*((,,"g.")(.
" 25" Furthermore," the" cult" center" of"
this"god"(Nv/v),"can"be"reasonably"
identied"with"Demotic:"oq-rv,"Greek:"
Ptolemais," and" Arabic:" Mensha," as" already"suggested"by"KOO],"ZS".,,")1+),"
p.")(0-)(1;"see"further"KVY^d," Triphis"
in"the"White"Monastery"(rtoqa,"n."*))."

A" recently" published" inscription" from"


Atripe"states"that"the" domain/temple"
(oq)" of" Horus-lx-mv.s" was" to" the"
south-west"of"Atripe,"thus"in"the"opposite"direction"of"the"White"Monastery:"
Chr."LOS^d,"D."MOXNOV,"Y."EV-MK]c,"
Asgqhbhr" II:" Deq"Teloek" Psnkelahnr" XII,"
*()(,"p."xxxvii,"n."))(;"El-Sayed"(in"Knuf"
es"ak." (eds.)," Hnmh" rnhs" pth" lak" x" oemre,"
p." -*,)" argued" this" might" designate" a"
chapel" of" Horus-lx-mv.s"within" the"
Triphis"temple.
" 26" KVY^d," Amchems" Snchesx" ,(," *()(,"
p."*)*,"g.",;"note"that"this"ceiling"block"
is"strikingly"similar"to"one"of"the"only"
ceiling" blocks" from" Atripe" published"
thus" far" (Asgqhbhr" II," p." /+" [C" )," /0],"
pl."+,)."R."El-Sayed"recently"attempted"
to" dismiss" the" notion" that" Shenoute"
could"have"attacked"the"temple"of"Atripe"
or"reused"any"of"its"temple"blocks"in"the"
White" Monastery," noting" that" bisher"
[kein]"irgendein"stichhaltiger"textlicher"
oder"archologischer"Nachweis"erbracht"
worden" wre" (EV-SKcON," in" Knuf,"
es"ak." (eds.)," Hnmh" rnhs" pth" lak" x" oemre,"
p."-)1--+0;"quote"on"p."-*()."However,"
this" very" condent" assertion" needs" to"
be"seriously"reevaluated"in"light"of"this"
particular"inscription"along"with"other"
related"ronkha"in"the"White"Monastery;"
although" R." El-Sayed" claims" to" have"
inspected"this"material"(hbhd,"p."-+(-)),"
he" appears" to" have" overlooked" the"
"signicant"hieroglyphic"inscriptions.

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

)+)

While"the"church"builders"employed"a"substantial"number"of"blocks"from"neighboring"Atripe,"
the"majority"of"identiable"ronkha"derive"from"sites"further"south." e"naos"of"Achoris"dedicated"
to"Horus-lx-mv.s"could"come"from"Mensha"(Ptolemais)"(cf."rtoqa),"while"the"granite"altar"
of"Necho"II"and"Psamtek"II,"dedicated"to"Mehyt,"should"have"originally"stood"in"her"temple"
in"Eastern"Behdet"(Nag`a"el-Mesheyekh).*/"Furthermore,"a"number"of"objects"almost"certainly"
traveled"downstream"from"Abydos,"including"a"statue"belonging"to"the"Saite"oDcial"Neshor,*0"
and"at"least"ve"pieces"of"a"monumental"cenotaph"of"the"High"Priest"of"Amun,"Iuput"II.*1
To"this"list,"one"can"now"add"more"than"thirty"large"pink-granite"blocks"with"ne"reliefs"and"
inscriptions." ese"pieces"are"scattered"throughout"the"church,"functioning"primarily"as"door"
jambs"and"lintels"in"the"various"portals,"and"as"ceiling"slabs"for"the"west"staircase"and"windows"
between"the"Long"Hall"and"the"Nave.+(" e"architects"quite"naturally"preferred"granite"for"
these"critical"architectural"elements"over"the"more"fragile"limestone"found"in"the"temple"of"
Atripe." e"decoration"on"around"thirty"blocks"is"still"visible,"but"the"reliefs"on"other"granite"
pieces"throughout"the"church"are"obscured,"either"due"to"infelicitous"location"(i.e."built"into"
the"wall),"or"because"the"original"surface"has"been"eCaced."Additional"decorated"blocks"were"
also"used"for"the"church"foundations,"but"these"are"not"visible"at"present"without"excavation.+)
A"precise"date"for"this"stylistically"homogenous"group"is"conrmed"by"several"cartouches"of"
Amasis,+*"some"of"which"suCered"from"dalmashn"lelnqhae.++"On"a"block"in"the"western"staircase,"
the"prenomen"was"selectively"eCaced"so"that"the"divine"names"( Moon"( )"and" Neith)"
remained"intact"(g.")"a).+," e"cartouches"on"most"Hapi"gures,"meanwhile,"were"rendered"

GK_^RSO," ASAE" +-," )1+-,"


p." *(/-*)*;" R.B." GYddYVS," The"
"Statue"BM"EA"+/01)"and"the"Erasure"
of" Necho" II's" Names," JEA" 0.," *(((,"
p." /+," I.b+." For" Mehyt" of" Eastern" Behedet" (modern" Nag`" al-Mesheyekh),"
see" S." CK_`SVVO," L'hymne" " Mehyt"
d'Edfou,"BIFAO"0*,")10*,"p.")(--)*-;"
B."OMUSXQK,Y."AV-"MK]S,"Tvn"Ralerrhde" Tnlbr" as" Ek-Margaxhjg," )100," I,"
p.")-*.
" 28" PON_,"RdE",+,")11*,"p."),--).*.
" 29" VOX_],"BIFAO"/-,")1/-,"p."./-/*;"
the" current" survey" has" recorded" one"
more"block"from"this"ensemble.
" 30" For" the" architectural" functions"
of" these" blocks," cf." S." CVKUO," Cgqhrsham"Amshpthsher"hm"sge"Nhke"Vakkex,")1)*,"
p." ),0-),1;" DOSMRWKXX," Dhe" Sonkhem"
hm"deq"rosamshjem"Aqcghsejstq,"p."-.-.(;"
MYXXOO^" N_"VSVVKN," Ler" cntuemsr"
oqr"de"Sngaf,"II,"p.")*+-)*,;"GY]]WKXX,"
Cgqhrskhcge"Aqcghsejstq,"p.")/)-)/*.
" 31" An" unknown" number" of" decorated" blocks" were" visible" when" the"
"foundations"of"the"south-east"corner"of"
" 27"

the"church"were"exposed"(cf."the"photographs"in"LOPOL`O,"DACL"IV.),"col.",.),"
g." +.,*;"W.G." NO" BYMU," Masqhatw"
ontq" requhq" " k'aqcgnknfhe" de" k'fxose"
cgqshemme,")1(),"p.",-,"g."-/),"but"only"
one"of"these"blocks"was"ever"published:"
VOX_],""BIFAO"/-,")1/-,"p.".0,"pl."X.
" 32" Blocks"belonging"to"Amasis"were"
noted" already" by"WOSVV," RT" +.," )1),,"
p." 1/-10" (followed" by" PM" V," p." +));"
LOPOL`O,"DACL"IV.),"col.",/(;""VOX_],"
BIFAO"/-,")1/-,"p."./;"VOLOOMU,"L"V,"
col.")(-*;"EV-MK]c,"MDAIK"-/,"*((),"
p."*(1,"n."*/."Previous"authors"have"also"
recorded" the" cartouches" of" Psamtek" I"
and" Apries" (PO^SO," Asgqhbhr," p." )),"
),;" "LOPOL`O," DACL" IV.)," col." ,/(;"
EV-MK]c," no." chs.," p." *(1" )," but" the"
present"survey"so"far"has"not"yielded"any"
traces"of"these"kings."It"is"possible"that"
the"earlier"reports"might"have"misinterpreted"the"traces"on"the"partially"eCaced"
cartouches,"understandable"given"that"all"
these"Pharaohs"had"similar"prenomens"
(already" acknowledged" by" LOPOL`O,"
DACL"IV.),"col.",/()."PO^SO"also"noted"

a"shrine"of"Nepherites"I"built"into"the"
oor" of" the" nave" (Asgqhbhr," p." ),;" hd.,"
Amchems" Efxos" *," )1)-," p." */)," but" any"
traces"of"this"object"have"been"covered"
by"more"recent"paving"stones."
" 33" For" attacks" on" the" cartouches" of"
Amasis,"see"H."DO"MO_VOXKOO,"L"I,"
p.")0*,"r.u." Amasis;"GYddYVS,"JEA"0.,"
*(((,"p."/1-0(,"n."/+."A"detailed"study"
on"these"erasures"by"A.J."Leahy"is"now"in"
press"(personal"communication,"*((0).
" 34" Cf." K." Mc VSaSOM," Rnxak" Pnqsqahstqe" n" sge" Dxmarsher" XXI-XXX," )100,"
p." )))," for" a" comparable" example" on"
a"relief"of"Amasis"from"Memphis;"the"
name"of"his"son,"the"prince"and"general"
Amasis,"was"erased"in"precisely"the"same"
way"on"his"sarcophagus"from"Memphis:"
A.O."BYV]RKUY`," Persians"and"Egyptians:"Cooperation"in"Vandalism?,"in"
S.H."D'Auria"(ed.),"O=eqhmfr"sn"sge"Dhrceqmhmf"Exe:"Am"Efxosnknfhcak"Medkex"hm"
Hnmnq"n"Jacj"A."Jnreogrnm,"CHANE"+0,"
*()(,"p.",---+.

"

)+*"

NK`SN"UVY^d

almost"completely"illegible"(g.")b).+-"Occasionally,"
the"name"of"Amasis"escaped"destruction,"as"on"the"
interior"door"jambs"of"the"north"portal.+.
Given" the" fragmentary" preservation" of" the"
Amasis"material,"the"overall"decoration"program"
of"which"the"blocks"were"originally"part"remains"
tantalizingly" obscure." In" addition" to" cartouches"
and"processions"of"fecundity"gures,"the"granite"
ronkha"predominantly"feature"legs"and"torsos"of"the"
king"and"various"divinities"(g."*)."One"large"block"
preserves"a"small"excerpt"of"an"archaizing"oCering"
list" (g." +"a);+/" other" fragments" feature" episodes"
from"a"Sed-Festival"for"Amasis.+0"On"one"block,"the"
Wepwawet-standard"accompanies"two"labels:" rst"
occasion"of"celebrating"the"[Sed]-Festival"(yo-sox"
rd" b[-rd])"and" the"king"makes"a"processional"
stop"( so"mrv.s)"(g."+b)."Elsewhere,"the"Horus"
name" of" Amasis" appears" to" the" left" of" another"
Wepwawet-standard,+1"while"on"the"right"one"discerns"a"label"for"a"Meret-goddess"(Mq.s)"and"the"
phrase" fashioning"(a"statue"and"performing)"the" Cartouches"of"Amasis" beloved"of"Sokar""
(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"North"Portal).
Opening"of"the"Mouth"ceremony"(lr(.s)"vo(.s)-q)"
(g." +c).,(" A" larger" block" near" the" church" roof"
contains"a"remarkable"example"of"the"Rtdeqkat"(g.","a),,)"and"the"lintel"slab"of"the"north"
portal"depicts"a"king"wearing"the"red"crown"and"the"Sed-Festival"robe,"although"his"face"is"
now"partially"obstructed"by"support"beams"(g.",b).

Based"on"his"copy"of"the"inscription,"R."Weill"already"noted"one"of"these"
blocks" and" correctly" attributed" it" to"
Amasis"(RT"+.,")1),,"p."10);"so"far"fteen"
of"the"expected"forty-two"Hapi"gures"
have"been"recorded,"with"the"following"
distribution:"Upper"Egypt,"nomes")-+,"/,"
)*-),;"Lower"Egypt,"nome");"unknown,"
seven"examples"(all"with"missing"nome"
emblems).
" 36" For" the" position" of" these" texts,"
see" LOPOL`O," DACL" IV.)," col." ,/-,"
g." +.-);" NO" BYMU," Masqhatw" ontq"
requhq" " k'aqcgnknfhe" de" k'fxose" cgqshemme,"p.",0;"DOSMRWKXX,"Dhe"Sonkhem"hm"
deq"rosamshjem"Aqcghsejstq,"g."*-;"the"
portal"is"no"longer"bricked"up,"but"the"
inscriptions"are"still"partially"obscured"
by"support"beams.
" 35"

A"photograph"appears"already"in"
DOSMRWKXX,"Dhe"Sonkhem"hm"deq"rosamshjem"Aqcghsejstq,"g."*,."For"parallels,"see"
W."BK^K,"Dhe"aksfxoshrcge"Ooeqkhrs"unm"
deq"Fqgyehs"bhr"ytq"fqhecghrcg-qlhrcgem"
Eoncge,"MS"+,")1.+,"p.",0"(Nos."0-)-),"
).+;"cf."the"similar"layout"in"the"Saite"
tomb" of" Bakenrenef" from" Saqqara"
(LD"III,"*.(c),"which"hints"at"the"colossal"scale"of"the"present"oCering"list.
" 38" The" only" other" Sed-Festival"
scene"for"Amasis"comes"from"Sais;"see"
L.""HKLKMRS," Sais"and"its"Monuments,"
ASAE",*,")1,+,"p."+0-,"g.")(-.
" 39" East"portal"of"the"Long"Hall." is"
block"was"described"in"part"by"R."Weill"
(RT" +.," )1),," p." 1/-10)" who" recorded"
the"entire"Horus"name"of"Amasis,"now"
missing.
" 37"

For"these"activities"in"the"context"
of"the"Sed-Festival,"see"P."M_XY," Bemerkungen"zu"einem"Sedfest-Relief"in"
der" Stadtmauer" von" Kairo," ZS" 0.,"
)1.),"p.".--./.
" 41" For" the" Rtdeqkat" " ritual," cf." H."
KOO]," Deq" Ooeqsamy" der" fxoshrcgem"
Kmhfr,")1)*,"p."**--*,"/,-)(*;"M.J."LOLVKXM," e" Rhstakr" n" sge" Sed" Fershuak:"
Amchems"Efxosham"Rnxak"Idenknfx"amd"Icnmnfqaogx"qnl"sge"Pqedxmarshc"sgqntfg"sge"
Gqaecn-Rnlam"Peqhnd"(PhD"Diss.;"Yale"
University,"*())),"Chapter","(with"many"
references).
" 40"

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

)++

Among"all"the"divinities"represented,"only"Osiris"appears"with"any"frequency."One"window"
slab"preserves"a"full"relief"of"Osiris"with"the"following"label"(g."-"a):
" "
" "

"
"

""
""

["Wrq"mb"b] v"d"m " .s


["Orhqhr"Lnqd"n"Abx]dnr,"fhuem"khe"eseqmakkx.

Other" blocks" preserve" images" of" mummiform"


Osirian"deities"(g."-b-c);"another"relief"juxtaposes"
Khentyamenty,"Lord"of"Abydos"with"the"cartouches"
of"Amasis,"and"the"royal"titularies"on"the"door"jambs"
claim"he"is" beloved"of"Sokar"(cf."rtoqa)."Finally,"a"
cartouche"on"the"interior"jambs"of"the"north"portal"
belongs"to"Amasis" son"of"Osiris"(g."."a)"instead"
of"the"usual" son"of"Neith,"a"variant"attested"only"
on"material"from"Abydos.,*
From"the"preceding"evidence,"it"is"clear"that"the"
granite"blocks"at"Sohag"come"from"a"sanctuary"of"
Amasis"in"which"Osiris"played"a"major"role,"and"the"
most"likely"candidate"for"their"location"would"be"
Abydos,"the"closest"temple"with"reliefs"attributable"
to" Amasis." ese" granite" blocks" could" easily" join"
the"list"of"similar"monuments"denitely"traced"to"
Abydos,"including"the"Amduat"scenes"of"Iuput"II"
(cf." rtoqa).,+" Compelling" evidence" for" this" provenance" comes" from" yet" another" block," currently"
along"the"north"wall"of"the"Nave,"bearing"the"initial"
fragments" of" a" royal" titulary" in" large" hieroglyphs"
(roughly"*("cm"high):"
,"probably"to"be"
restored"as"[ml-b]-R," [Khnem-ib]-re"(Amasis)."
e" bottom" surface" contains" a" smaller" and" more"
crudely"inscribed"text,"which"very"closely"resembles"
the"ownership"inscription"of"Amasis"from"Abydos.,,
PO^SO," Abxdnr" I," pl.LXVIII;"
K_OX^d," Obkhrpter," p." .(;" cf." A.I."
BVLK_W,"Demm"hcg"bhm"ehm"Kmhf,"deq"
dhe"Maas"khebs :"Heqqrcgeqkefhshlashnm"hl"
rosyehskhcgem"fxosem,"ehme"ueqfkehcgemde"
Umseqrtcgtmf"deq"Pgqarenknfhe"hm"dem"nyhekkem" Kmhfrhmrcgqhsem" unl" Befhmm"
deq"%(."dxmarshe"bhr"ytl"Emde"deq"lajednmhrcgem"Heqqrcgas,"AefMnmars",,"*((.,"
p."+*(.
" 42"

b
a."Quarry"mark"of"Amasis,"now"in"Sohag."
b."Quarry"mark"of"Amasis,"found"hm"rhst"at"Abydos"
(from"Kemp,"MDAIK"*+,")10.,"p."),/).

In" a" discussion" of" the" Abydene"


s" tatue" of" Neshor" found" at" Sohag,"
O.""Perdu"(RdE",+,")11*,"p."),.,"n.".)"had"
already"suggested"that"the"Amasis"material"(as"recorded"by"Weill"and""Vernus)"
could" have" also" come" from" "Abydos,"
without"elaborating"on"the"content"of"
the"reliefs."
" 44" A"photograph"of"this"inscription"
was"published"by"P."Vernus"(BIFAO"/-,"
" 43"

)1/-,"p."./,"pl."VI),"but"with"no"scale,"
discussion"of"the"context,"or"mention"
of" the" name" Osiris." Similar" ownership" inscriptions" have" been" found" on"
blocks" of" Apries" from" Sais" and"Tanis:"
P." "WSV]YX," e" Stquex" n" Sar" (Sa"
ek-Hafaq)," $,,*-%##%," MEES" //," *((.,"
p."*)(-*)),"g.".1,"pl."*1b.

"

)+,"

NK`SN"UVY^d

Although"the"inscription"from"Sohag"is"almost"twice"the"size"of"its"parallel"at"Abydos,"both"
are"stylistically"similar,"and"one"may"easily"restore"the"leftmost"line"of"the"Sohag"text"as"follows:"[lqx]"Wrq"mb"[b v])." [beloved"of ]"Osiris"Lord"of"[Abydos]."While"Osiris"can"appear"
in"oCering"scenes"at"any"Egyptian"temple,"it"is"highly"unlikely"that"this"type"of"ownership"
inscription"would"mention"Osiris"unless"the"block"belonged"to"his"cult"center"at"Abydos.

Imseqoqesashnm
e"large"group"of"granite"blocks"in"the"White"Monastery"Church"can"be"securely"attributed"
to"Amasis." e"ne"granite,"exceptional"workmanship,"content"of"the"reliefs,"and"multiple"
references"to"Osiris,"Sokar"and"Abydos"in"the"few"surviving"texts,"all"strongly"suggest"that"these"
ronkha"derive"from"nearby"Abydos."
Since"Osiris"features"prominently"in"the"decoration"program"of"most"Egyptian"temples,,-"
one"might"argue"that"these"blocks"actually"came"from"an"Osirian"chapel"of"another"temple"in"
the"vicinity"of"Sohag,"such"as"Atripe"or"Akhmim.,."However,"if"this"were"the"case,"one"would"
expect"at"least"one"reference"to"this"alternate"toponym,,/"whereas"all"the"blocks"from"Sohag"
exclusively"mention"Abydos."Furthermore,"there"is"no"evidence"for"constructions"of"Amasis"at"
any"other"site"between"Memphis"and" ebes,"while"numerous"sources"attest"to"the"extensive"
activity"under"his"reign"at"Abydos."In"other"words,"the"Saite"blocks"at"Sohag"either"derive"from"
a"temple"of"Amasis"in"an"unknown"location"(never"specically"named"in"the"surviving"inscriptions),"a"structure"otherwise"completely"unattested"in"the"archaeological"and"textual"record,"
or"they"come"from"his"well-known"temple"at"Abydos,"a"place"mentioned"several"times"on"the"
reliefs."While"either"interpretation"is"theoretically"plausible,"the"latter"option"most"adequately"
explains"the"decoration"of"the"blocks"in"the"context"of"Amasis's"known"building"activities.
As"noted"above,"the"""decorated"blocks"represent"a"mere"fraction"of"the"combined"granite"
material"at"Sohag,"and"thus"the"original"temple"would"have"been"a"substantial"construction."
e"preserved"Hapi"gures"permit"a"rough"estimate"of"the"scale."Each"fecundity"gure"with"his"
column"of"text"measures"roughly"-("cm"in"width,"thus"assuming"all",*"nomes"were"originally"
represented,"this"procession"would"require"a"minimum"perimeter"of"*)"meters.,0
Since"all"the"Amaside"decoration"from"Abydos"was"discovered"at"Kom"el-Sultan,"the"blocks"
from"Sohag"should"ultimately"derive"from"the"same"building."Nonetheless,"the"exact"nature"
of"this"structure"is"unclear."Peftuaneith"claimed"to"have"rebuilt"the"temple"of"Khentiamenty"
for"Apries"and"Amasis"(cf."rtoqa),"and"Barry"Kemp"assumed"the"Saite"traces"at"Kom"el-Sultan"

S."CK_`SVVO,"La"sgnknfhe"d'Orhqhr"
"Ednt,"BdE"1),")10+;"ead.,"Le"seloke"de"
Demdaqa:" Ler" cgaoekker" nrhqhemmer,"I-III,"
BdE" ))/-))1," )11/;" L." CY_VYX," Une"
trinit" d'Osiris" thbains" sur" un" relief"
dcouvert""Karnak,"in"Chr." iers"(ed.),"
Dnctlemsr"de"sgnknfher"sgbahmer"saqdhuer"
(D&T"$),"CENhM"+,"*((1,"p.")-)0.
" 45"

For"a"possible"chapel"of"Osiris"and"
Sokar" at" the" Repyt" temple" in" Atripe:"
PO^SO," Asgqhbhr," pl." *)," *0-*1;"LOS^d,"
MOXNOV,"EV-MK]c,"Asgqhbhr"II,"p."b`SS,"
n."+*.
" 47" Cf." PO^SO," Asgqhbhr," pl." *)," for"
Osiris-Khentyamenty"and"Sokar-Osiris"
specied" as" within" Akhmim" ( qx-b"
Iov).
" 46"

Note" that" according" to" Kemp's"


reconstruction"of"the"Amasis"temple"at"
Abydos"(MDAIK"*+,")1.0,"p."),.,"and"
g.")),"the"exterior"wall"had"a"perimeter"
of"around").("meters,"while"the"interior"
wall"of"the"sanctuary"measured"roughly"
1-"meters.
" 48"

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

)+-

r" epresent"the"latest"phase"of"the"Osiris"temple.,1"However,"David"O'Connor"suggested"the"
smaller" buildings" at" Kom" el-Sultan" were" actually" royal" Ka-chapels" going" back" to" the" Old"
Kingdom,"and"that"the"main"Osiris"temple"was"the"much"larger"structure"to"the"south"(cf.""hmqa,"
Section"*).-("Recent"excavations"by"Michelle"Marlar"have"conrmed"the"latter"theory,"and"
suggesting"the"smaller"temple"of"Amasis"at"Kom"el-Sultan"was"indeed"a"type"of"Ka-chapel."
According"to"Kemp's"reconstruction,"the"Amasis"temple"would"have"opened"to"the"south-west,"
with" the" entrance" being" parallel" to" the" processional" road" leading" to" the" Portal"Temple" of"
Ramesses" II" and" ultimately" to" Umm" el-Qa`ab." Since" the" main" Osiris" temple" faced" to" the"
north-east,"diagonal"to"the"Amasis"shrine,"the"bark"of"Osiris"would"have"passed"by"the"Ka-chapel"
before"reaching"the"causeway"and"could"have"easily"made"processional"stops"therein"during"
the"Khoiak"or"Valley"Festivals.-)
Despite"their"fragmentary"nature,"the"surviving"reliefs"from"Abydos"may"provide"further"support"for"the"Ka-chapel"interpretation."In"particular,"the"multiple"Sed-Festival"scenes"(cf."rtoqa)"
would"be"perfectly"appropriate"for"a"chapel"celebrating"the"divine"kingship"of"Amasis."Other"
scenes"bear"comparison"to"the"preserved"decoration"of"earlier"Ka-chapels"from"Abydos,"including"the"archaizing"oCering"list"(g."+"a)"and"another"scene"in"which"the"King"and"a"Iunmutef"
priest"standing"before"a"deity"(g.".b).-*
It"is"impossible"to"determine"when"or"how"these"blocks"came"to"Sohag,"or"when"the"Amasis"
temple"was"dismantled."More"intriguing,"however,"are"the"traces"of"dalmashn"lelnqhae"on"most"
of"his"cartouches."Since"the"attackers"took"care"to"not"destroy"the"divine"names,"the"erasures"
must"have"occurred"while"people"could"still"read"hieroglyphs." e"most"plausible"candidate"
would"be"the"Persian"conqueror"Cambyses,"who"famously"exhumed"Amasis's"corpse"just"to"
ay"and"burn"it"(Herodotus"III,").).-+"If"this"is"the"case,"these"minor"attacks"to"the"Amasis"
temple"may"be"related"to"the"greater"damage"the"Persians"reportedly"inicted"upon"Abydos"
and"its"people"(cf."hmqa,"Section"*).

KOWZ,"MDAIK"*+,")1.0,"p."),..
O'CYXXY," Abxdnr," p." 0(-0),"
)))-))+;" MKVK," in" J.-Cl." Goyon,"
Chr." Cardin" (eds.),"Pqnceedhmfr" n" sge"
Nhmsg"Imseqmashnmak"Cnmfqerr"n"Efxosnknfhrsr,"II,"*((/,"p.")*-)-)*-*;"hd.," e"Orhqhr"
Teloke"as"Abxdnr,"*((1,"p."+--+.;"for"the"
relative"positions"of"these"two"structures,"
cf."O'CYXXY,"Abxdnr,"p.")*(,"g."..;"
J." GK]^KXQ," Ek" Aqbag," A" Celeseqx"
n" sge" Mhddke" Khmfdnl;" Stquex" n" sge"
Okd"Khmfdnl"Telemnr;"Gqa>sh"qnl"sge"
Teloke"n"Sesx,"ERA".,")1((,"pl."XXXVII,"
where" the" Amasis" temple" is" labeled"
Stone"Pavement,"and"the"larger"temple"
covers"the"areas"labeled" Platform"and"
" 49"

" 50"

Pavement" of" Stone," Rough" Ground"


with"traces"of"Brick"Walls"and" Irregular"
Mound"covered"with"Stone"Chippings"
(cf."MKVK," e"Orhqhr"Teloke"as"Abxdnr,"
*((1,"p.")*-),)."
" 51" Compare"the"stela"of"Sety"I"commemorating"the"erection"of"a"cenotaph"for"
his"father,"Ramesses"I,"at"Abydos"(KRI"I,"
))*,",-.):" I"caused"his"statue"to"reside"
within"it,"being"provided"like"(previous)"
kings"(d=" so"rl="l-mv=r,"r .s"
l"mrv.v)."Whenever"the"majesty"of"this"
august" god," (Osiris)-Wennefer" would"
come" forth" to" rest" therein," he" would"
honor"my"father"like"those"in"the"past"
(oq" l"m"m q"om"or"Wm-mq"q" so"l,"sq="

s="l"lx.v-" .s),"having"elevated"him"
among"the"blessed"dead"(r.m="rv"l-l"
yx.v).
" 52" For" the" decoration" of" earlier" Kachapels,"see"MKVK," e"Orhqhr"Teloke"
as" Abxdnr," *((1," p." *+,-*+-," +---+-."
(g.")).-))/).
" 53" For"the"interpretation"of"Amasis's"
dalmashn"lelnqhae,"see"the"forthcoming"
study"by"A.J."Leahy"(rtoqa,"n."++);"for"
the" various" crimes" attributed" to" Cambyses,"see"recently"D."KKRX," Note"on"
the"Time-Factor" in" Cambyses'" Deeds"
in"Egypt"as"told"by"Herodotus,"Tqamretogqasme"+,,"*((/,"p.")(+-))*.

"

)+."

NK`SN"UVY^d

*."

]^K^_O"WWK")11..1):"
"K"QOXOKV"PYW"L_]SS]"KXN"^RO"O]^YK^SYX"YP"KLcNY]

After"the"surge"of"building"activity"under"Apries"and"Amasis,"work"at"Abydos"came"to"a"
dramatic"halt"after"the"invasion"of"Cambyses"in"-*-"BC,"and"no"records"survive"of"architectural"
work"at"Abydos"attributable"to"the"Twenty-Seventh"to"Twenty-Ninth"Dynasties.-,"Nonetheless,"
Abydos"experienced"a"renascence"in"the" irtieth"Dynasty,"a"period"of"intense"reconstruction"
throughout"the"entire"country.--"Nectanebo"I"and"II"donated"two"granite"naoi"to"local"deities,-."
Nectanebo"II"dedicated"a"statue"to"the"goddess"Meskhenet-/"and"issued"a"decree"protecting"the"
nearby"quarries.-0"Moreover,"Petrie"discovered"cartouches"of"Nectanebo"I"near"Kom"el-Sultan,-1"
and"recent"excavations"by"M."Marlar"have"yielded"additional"relief"fragments"conrming"that"
Nectanebo"I"and"II"renovated"the"main"Osiris"temple"originally"constructed"in"the"Eighteenth"
Dynasty"or"earlier..(
Private"monuments"further"attest"to"cult"activity"at"Abydos"at"this"time." e"vizier"Harsiese,"
whose"career"spanned"the" irtieth"Dynasty,"was"also" prophet"of"Osiris"and"Horus"of"the"
temple"of"v-op(q)"(Umm"el-Qa`ab),.)"and"a"sarcophagus"of"another"priest"of"Nectanebo"II"
was"found"at"Abydos..*"An"Abydene"funerary"stela"belonging"to"the" overseer"of"singers"for"
the"Osiris"festival"Chaonnophris"contains"a"unique"autobiographical"statement"alluding"to"
the"resumption"of"proper"temple"services:.+

G."Vittmann"( Rupture"and"Continuity:"On"Priests"and"ODcials"in"Egypt"
during"the"Persian"Period,"in"P.""Briant,"
M." Chauveau" (eds.)," Oqfamhrashnm" der"
ontunhqr"es"cnmsacsr"ctkstqekr"damr"ker"oaxr"
de"k'Elohqe"acglmhde,"Peqrhja"),,"*((1,"
p."))*)"recently"discussed"two"cases"of"
priests"from"Abydos"who"may"have"been"
active" in" the" late"Twenty-Seventh" Dynasty,"but"precise"dates"are"impossible"
to"determine."
" 55" For" the" building" eCorts" of" Nectanebo"I"and"II,"see"recently"N."SZOXMO,"
A"Nanr"n"Nejgsgnqgeb"qnl"Btbarshr."Rekhfhntr"Icnmnfqaogx"amd"Teloke"Bthkdhmf"
hm" sge" &#< " Dxmarsx," BMRP" )-.," *((.,"
p.",/--*;"C."MKXK]]K," e"Lase"Efxosham"
Umdeqvnqkd:"Saqcnogafh"amd"Rekased"Tewsr"
qnl"sge"Necsamebhd"Peqhnd,"I,"AT"/*,"
*((/,"p.",/--,/0.
" 56" CG" /(()/-/(()0;" G." RYONO,"
CGC" Nanr," )1),," p." -(---" (noting" the"
provenance:" Kleiner" Tempel" westlich" Schunet" ez-Zebib);" M." SKVOR,"
H.""SY_Y_dSKX," e"Efxosham"Mtretl,"
Cahqn,")10/,"No."*-/.
" 54"

H."DO"MO_VOXKOO," Meskhnet"
"Abydos,"in"U."Verhoeven,"E."Graefe"
(eds.),"Rekhfhnm"tmd"Pghknrnoghe"hl"aksem"
fxosem."Fersfabe"q"Pghkhooe"Deqcgahm"
yt"rehmel")(."Gebtqsrsaf"al"%'."Jtkh"$,,$,"
OLA"+1,")11),"p."*,+-*-).
" 58" D."MOOU]," Oiseaux"des"carrires"
et" des" cavernes," in" U." Verhoeven,"
E."Graefe"(eds.),"Rekhfhnm"tmd"Pghknrnoghe"
hl"aksem"fxosem,"Fersfabe"q"Pghkhooe"
Deqcgahm,")11),"p."*++-*,).
" 59" PO^SO,"Abxdnr"I,"p."++;"Abxdnr"II,"
pl."XLIX.
" 60" MKVK," in" J.-Cl." Goyon," Chr."
Cardin"(eds.),"Pqnceedhmfr"n"sge"Nhmsg"
Imseqmashnmak"Cnmfqerr"n"Efxosnknfhrsr,"II,"
*((/,"p.")*-)-)*-1;"ead.," e"Orhqhr"Teloke"
as" Abxdnr," *((1," especially" p." ),*-).0,"
+)*-+)/"(gs."/+-/0);"O'CYXXY,"Abxdnr,"
p.")*0-)*1."Note"also"that"several"blocks"
with"the"cartouches"of"Nectanebo"I"have"
also"been"found"at"Sohag"(noted"already"
by"EV-MK]c,"MDAIK"-/,"*((),"p."*(1)"
see"D."Klotz," A"Naos"of"Nectanebo"I"
from" the" White" Monastery" Church"
("Sohag),"(forthcoming),"although"those"
" 57"

objects" do" not" necessarily" come" from"


Abydos.
" 61" Moscow," Pushkin" Museum"
-+*(,"back"pillar,"col."*;"O.D."BOVO`,"
S.I."HYNTK]R,"Sctkostqe"n"Amchems"Efxos"
hm" sge" Cnkkecshnm" n" sge" Ssase" Ptrgjhm"
Mtretl"n"Fhme"Aqsr,"*((,,"p."+)(-+)-;"
cf."H."DO"MO_VOXKOO," Le"vizir"Harsisis" de" la" +(e" dynastie," MDAIK" ).,"
)1-0,"p."*+-;"immediately"after"this"title,"
Harsiese"mentions"the"title" prophet"of"
Hathor"Lady"of"Dendara.
" 62" Cambridge,"Fitzwilliam"Museum"
E.,0.)1():" D." "R KXNKVV-MKMI`O,"
A.C." MKMO," Ek" Alqag" amd" Abxdnr,"
$+,,-$,#$,")1(*,"pl."XXXV,");"cf."H."DO"
MO_VOXKOO," Les" monuments" du"
culte"des"rois"Nectanbo,"CdE"+-,")1.(,"
p."1--1.,"(1).
" 63" Cairo"TR" *1/)(/*,/*;" following"
the"translation"of"K."JKX]OX-WSXUOVX,"
Beitrge" zu" den" Privatinschriften" der"
Sptzeit,"ZS")*-,")110,"p.")*-)+,"who"
dated"it"to"the" irtieth"Dynasty"on"the"
basis"of"stylistic"criteria."

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

)+/

rlm.m="l"l"oq-Wrq"
" "
q"fl.m.sv="q- .s"v(.v)"q"vrx
I"qehmrsased"ceqelnmhak"ltrhc"hm"sge"seloke"n"Orhqhr,
" " rhmce"hs"var"ntmd"sn"gaue"akkem"hmsn"qthm"oqeuhntrkx.
A"statue"in"the"Metropolitan"Museum"of"Art"(MMA")11..1))"oCers"a"valuable"new"perspective"for"the"history"of"the"Osiris"temple"in"the"Late"Period"(g."/)." is"object"is"notable"for"its"
exceptional"workmanship,"and"it"is"certainly"one"of"the"nest"examples"of" irtieth"Dynasty"
statuary..," e"hieroglyphic"inscriptions"are"equally"important"for"their"historical"signicance"
and"philological"peculiarities,"but"they"have"so"far"remained"unpublished"and"garnered"only"
brief"mentions"in"Egyptological"literature..e"statue"is"made"from"light"meta-graywacke,"and"measures".1.*"cm"in"height..."Only"the"
torso,"thighs"and"arms"are"preserved,"and"a"diagonal"crack"has"removed"most"of"the"right"side."
Nonetheless,"the"statue"is"remarkably"well"carved,"nely"polished,"and"the"sculptor"captured"
the"musculature"and"subtle"torsion"using"a"classical,"archaizing"pose."Stylistically,"the"torso"
is"a"great"example"of" irtieth"Dynasty"sculpture../" e"gure"wears"a"tripartite,"striated"kilt"
with"an"uninscribed"belt,"and"the"bottoms"of"the"pleats"are"carved"in"a"scalloped"form"popular"
in"the"reign"of"Nectanebo"I"(g."0"a),.0"although"not"necessarily"exclusive"to"his"reign..1" e"
torso"displays"a"moderate"degree"of"bipartition,"with"no"trace"of"a"median"line./("Although"
" 64" PM" VIII,*," )111," p." /.1," 0()/*/-+)(;"SY^ROLc']"LYXNYX,"Efxosham,"
Mhddke"Earseqm,"Gqeej,"Esqtrcam"amd"Rnlam"Amshpthsher,"Amchems"Gkarr,"amd"Aqs"
Reeqemce"Bnnjr,"Jtkx"$&,"$,+$,"p." 0(-0*,"
no.").,;"M."HSVV,"J.P."AVVOX,"BMMA"
-,/*,")11.,"p."0-1;"Do."AXYVN,"Aonkkn,"
October,")11/,"p.")-;"ead.,"in"Pghkhooe"de"
Mnmsebekkn"amd"sge"Mesqnonkhsam"Mtretl"
n"Aqs,"$,**-%##+,"*((1,"p."/-0,"g."1." e"
author"would"like"to"thank"Dorothea"
Arnold,"Lila"Acheson"Wallace"Curator"
of"Egyptian"Art,"for"granting"permission"
to"publish"the"statue,"Marsha"Hill"for"offering"additional"photographs"and"many"
helpful"suggestions,"and"Isabel"Stuenkel"
for"providing"detailed"measurements.
" 65" P.-M." CRO`OOK_," Pqnrnonfqaoghe" der" cadqer" lhkhsahqer" fxoshemr" de"
ka" Barre" onpte." Caqqhqer" lhkhsahqer" es"
caqqhqer"raceqdnsaker"em"fxose"dt"XI e"at"
II e""rhcke"auams"J.-C.,"Antony,")10-,"p.").,,"
*-*," doc." *+/;" J.A." JY]OZR]YX," Efxosham" Rnxak" Sctkostqe" n" sge" Lase" Peqhnd,"
'##-%')" B.C.," SDAIK" +(," )11/," p." )),"
n."/(."K.""LOWLUO,"G."VS^^WKXX," Die"
Standgur"des"Horos,"Sohn"des" otoes"
(Berlin," "gyptisches" Museum" SMPK"
**/)),"MDAIK"--,")111,"p."+)),"n."l.

e"back"pillar"is")*"cm"wide,"and"
the"intercolumnar"width"is"*.,"cm;"the"
depth"of"the"statue"is")1.-"cm"at"the"chest,"
and"*..."cm"at"the"legs.
" 67" M."Chevereau"(no."chs.,"p.").,)"dated"
the"statue"to"the"period"of"the" dernires"
dynasties"indignes"("Twenty-Ninth"to"
irty-First"Dynasties);"B."Bothmer"(le"
in" CLES)," M." Hill," J.P." Allen" (no." chs.,"
p." 0)" and" Do." Arnold" (no." chs.," p." )-)"
placed" it" specically" in" the" reign" of"
"Nectanebo"I.
" 68" Noted"already"by"M."Hill,"J.P.""Allen,"
hbhd.;"clear"parallels"for"the"scalloped"edges"appear"on"royal""statues"of""Nectanebo"
I,"including"Louvre"E."**/-*"(W."SOSZOV"
(ed.)," Gnss," Memrcg," Pgaqang,"Vienna,"
)11*,"p.",/*-,/+,"No.")1-;"PM"VIII,"),"
)111,p." )-)," 0((-0-0-.1()," Strasbourg"
University" +-*" (A.P." ZS`SO," Heqlnonkhr"es"ke"mnle"de"k'hbhr."Recgeqcger"rtq"ka"
oqnuhmce"dt"dhet" nsg"em"Barre"fxose"I:"
Imsqndtcshnm"es"hmuemsahqe"cgqnmnknfhpte"
der" rntqcer," BdE" ..," )1/-," p." ))0-)*(,"
doc."+(;"photograph"from"the"CLES);"
"Vatican," Museo" Gregoriano" Egiziano"
**./)"(PM"VIII,),")111,"p.")-(,"0((-0-00((;" J.-Cl." GOXSO," Mtren" Efhyhamn"
Gqefnqhamn,"Roma,")11+,"p."-),"pl.")-).
" 66"

At"least"one"example"occurs"after"
the" reign" of" Nectanebo" I" (kindly" noted" by" Marsha" Hill):" British" Museum"
EA")(/1"(Nectanebo"II;"N."SZOXMO,"A"
Nanr"n"Nejgsgnqgeb"qnl"Btbarshr."Rekhfhntr"Icnmnfqaogx"amd"Teloke"Bthkdhmf"
hm" sge" &#< " Dxmarsx," BMRP" )-.," *((.,"
colour"plate",)."Others"are"of"uncertain"
date:" Marseille," muse" d'Archologie"
mditerranenne" 0*." (P.E." S^KXaSMU,"
Pnqsqahsr" n" sge" Psnkelher:" Gqeej" Khmfr"
ar" Efxosham" Pgaqangr," Austin," *((*,"
p.")(-,"g.",),"Cat."A,*:" Late"fourth"
or" third" century" B.C.)," and" Berlin"
)+*-,"(fxoshrcger"Mtretl"Beqkhm,")1./,"
p."11,"Cat."1.*:" Rmisch,"wohl")."Jh."
n."Chr.).
" 70" For" this" detail" in" Late" Egyptian"
sculpture," see" B.V." BY^RWO," H." DO"
MO_VOXKOO," e"Brooklyn"Statuette"
of"Hor,"Son"of"Pawen"(with"an"Excursus"on"Eggheads),"in"L.H."Lesko"(ed.),"
Efxosnknfhcak"Sstdher"hm"Hnmnq"n"Rhcgaqd"
A." Paqjeq," Hanover," New" "Hampshire,"
London,")10+,"p.");"JY]OZR]YX,""Efxosham"
Rnxak" Sctkostqe" n" sge" Lase" Peqhnd,"
)11/," p." )(-));" O." PON_," Le" torse"
d'Irethorerou"de"la"collection"Bhague,"
RdE",1,")110,"p."*-(.
" 69"

"

)+0"

NK`SN"UVY^d

the"head"is"broken,"surviving"traces"conrm"that"the"top"of"the"back"pillar"had"a"trapezoidal"
shape"typical"for"the"period./)"He"carries"small"rolls"of"cloth"in"both"hands,/*"and"he"displays"
the" so-called" Isis-knot" (ss)" on" his" left" shoulder" (g." 0b)." In" general," this" statue" is" quite"
similar"to"other"striding"statues"of"the" irtieth"Dynasty./+"While"its"provenance"is"uncertain,"
the"inscription"indicates"that"it"originally"came"from"the"temple"of"Osiris"in"Busiris,/,"a"very"
important"site"which"has"yielded"only"a"handful"of"objects"thus"far./e"back"pillar"features"four"columns"of"inscriptions"composed"in"very"clear"hieroglyphs."
is"text"is"well"preserved"with"lacunae"limited"to"the"upper-right"corner,"the"middle"of"the"
fourth"column,"and"the"entire"bottom"of"the"statue." e"inscription"is"composed"in"the"terse"
and"very"diDcult"semi-cryptographic"style"characteristic"of"the"early" irtieth"Dynasty,"evidenced"on"the"Naucratis"stela"of"Nectanebo"I,"the"Metternich"Stela"(New"York,"MMA"-(.0-),"
and"the"statue"of"Tjaihapimu"(New"York,"MMA"(0.*(-.))./."During"the"reign"of"Nectanebo"I,"
scribes" experimented" with" new" orthographies," rendering" words" by" the" barest" consonantal"
elements"(e.g." "=" "<" d," to"say;"
"="sv"<" ()v," breath;" "="vs"<"v.s," road)."
Employing"novel"alphabetic"orthographies"and"graphic"puns"while"simultaneously"eschewing"
determinatives"and"phonetic"complements,"hieroglyphic"inscriptions"from"this"period"appear"
deceptively"simple."Despite"its"use"of"formulaic"royal"epithets"and"beautifully"carved"hieroglyphs,"
the"Naucratis"stela"remains"one"of"the"most"diDcult"inscriptions"from"any"period,//"and"its"
various"orthographic"riddles"were"only"gradually"solved"through"the"successive"attempts"by"
many"eminent"philologists./0" e"rst"section"of"the"present"statue"consisting"primarily"of"
laudatory"clichs"is"quite"diDcult"in"this"regard,"and"the"translations"proposed"are"sometimes"
For"this"development"of"the"back"
pillar," see" PON_," no." chs.," p." *-(-*-*;"
VS^^WKXX,"in"Briant,"Chauveau"(eds.),"
Oqfamhrashnm"der"ontunhqr"es"cnmsacsr"ctkstqekr"damr"ker"oaxr"de"k'Elohqe"acglmhde,"
*((1,"p."10.
" 72" For" the" enigmatic" object," see"
primarily" H.G." FS]MRO," An" Elusive" Shape" within" the" Fisted" Hands"
of" Egyptian" Statues," MMJ" )(," )1/-,"
p." 1-*);" A." F
" ORVSQ," Das" sogenannte"
Taschentuch" in" den" gyptischen" Darstellungen"des"Alten"Reiches,"SAK")+,"
)10.,"p."---1,.
" 73" Compare" especially" the" statue"
of"Tjaihorpata" (Brooklyn" Museum" of"
Art," .0.)(.);" D." WSVN_XQ," Ilgnseo"
tmd"Alemgnseo:"Gnssveqdtmf"hl"aksem"
fxosem,"MS"+.,")1//,"p.",,-,-,"pl."/).
" 74" Especially"in"col."+,"where"the"statue"
owner"implores"future"readers"to"say"his"
name"beside"the"great"god"(Osiris)"on"account"of"the"benefactions"he"performed"
in"Busiris.
" 75" PM"IV,")1+,,"p.",,;"H.G."Fischer,"
Some"Early"Monuments"from"Busiris,"
in"the"Egyptian"Delta,"MMJ")),")1/.,"
" 71"

p." --*,;" O." PON_," Documents" relatifs"aux"gouverneurs"du"Delta"au"dbut"


de" la" XXVIe" dynastie," RdE" -/," *((.,"
p.")/.-)//.
" 76" For" the" specific" features" of"
inscriptions" from" the" irtieth" Dynasty" and" early" Ptolemaic" Period," see"
H." DO" MO_VOXKOO," Une" statue" de"
prtre" hliopolitain," BIFAO" .)," )1.*,"
,(-,*;"PON_,"RdE"+.,")10-,"1*-1.;"hd.,"
RdE",1,")110,"p."*-*-*-+;"and"most"recently"."EXQ]RONOX," On"the"Verge"of"
Ptolemaic"Egyptian:"Graphical"Trends"
in"the"+("th"Dynasty,"Abfadhxas"),"*((.,"
p."+--,).
" 77" E.g."J."BKSXO]," Restricted"Knowledge,"Hierarchy,"and"Decorum:"Modern"
Perceptions" and" Ancient" Institutions,"
JARCE"*/,")11(,"p.")/.
" 78" See" the" bibliography" in"
M." L
" SMR^ROSW,"
e" Naucratis" Stela"
Once" Again," in" Sstdher" hm" Hnmnq"
n" Genqfe" R." Htfger," SAOC" +1," )1/.,"
p." )+1," n." );" further" renements" and"
new" readings" were" recently" proposed"
by" ." E
" XQ]RONOX," Philologische" Bemerkungen" zu" sptzeitlichen"Texten,"

LhmfAef" )+," *((-," p." +1-,+." Other" particularly"diDcult"texts"of"the" irtieth"


Dynasty" or" early" Ptolemaic" Period" include"Bayonne",10"(DO"MO_VOXKOO,"
"BIFAO" .)," )1.*," p." *1-,*);" JE" ,/*1)"
(I." "G_OWO_," Ler" ctkser" d'Alnm" gnqr"
de" ber,"BEPHE")*+,"*((-,"p."**)-***);"
Lyon,"muse"des"Beaux-Arts"E.G.")/,0"
(J.-Cl." GYcYX," M." "GKLYVNO," Trois"
pices" de" Basse" poque" et" d'poque"
ptolmaque"au"muse"des"Beaux-Arts"
de" Lyon," BMML," )11)/+-,," p." *-)+);"
Alexandria"*(1-1"(I."G_OWO_," Les"
monuments" d'Ounnefer," ls" de" Djedbastetiouefnkh," contemporain" de"
Nectanbo"Ier,"in"I."Rgen,"Fr.""Servajean"
(eds.)," Veqba" Mamems." Rectehk" d'stder"
ddher" " "Dhlhsqh" Meejr," "CENhM" *,"
*((1," p." )/0-)1*);" Ph." "DOMRKSX," in"
D."Boschung,"es"ak."(eds.),"Dhe"amshjem"
Sjtkostqem"hm"Cgasrvnqsg,"rnvhe"hm"Dtmgal"Marrex"tmd"Whsghmfsnm"Hakk,"CSIR"
III.0," )11/," p." )*/-)*0;" and" Hannover,"
Kestner-Museum" )1+-.*((.-)(" (to" be"
published"by"the"author).

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

)+1

tentative."However,"the"historical"content,"recounting"military"actions"against"foreigners"and"
the"reconstruction"of"temples"is"relatively"straightforward,"and"bears"many"similarities"with"
the"biographies"of"contemporaneous"Generals"from"the"Delta./1

Txt"and"Translation"

[PSQ."1]

A." Titles"and"Epithets"(cols.")-*)
[)]

"

"
[*]"

"
"
[)]"[qx-o.s"

sx-"l]"m sx"a" p"l"Nv.s-qm=r"b"


" vq"l"q "bv()"l"j-b"c
" ls(q)- (.s)"d"lm"r q(.v)"
" rb" q.v"mb.v"l"ldv="
" rl" l"p"mb-q "f
" d"m=".s"mb"rq=r"g
" dmr-lgv(.s)"h
" v" (d)="l" ()v"m"m "i
" l(v)m"m"[]"j
[*]"[]" mb"qpx.v"k"
" sq" "l
" m"m.v"l"rm ="m
" q"l.s"rod"q"vl"n
" rso.m"m (q)"l- ms"mv.s="o
" "
q"q(.s)" d"m="b="p
" (lx)-q"l"vq"sox"m" l="q
" l-m q" jm.s"ms""vq"r"m"Pq-Wrq
" [ l]-m q"[]
Primarily" J." VOMY_^^O," Les"
statues" du" gnral" Hor," gouverneur"
d'Hraklopolis," de" Busiris" et"
d'Hliopolis"(Louvre"A."00,""Alexandrie"

" 79"

s.n.)," BIFAO" ,1," )1-(," p." 0--)),"


(G." GYO," Ler" qekashnmr" dt" ckeqf"
"fxoshem"es"der"Lafhder"d'aoqr"ker"rntqcer"
oqhuer,"SstdHekk",-,"*((1,"p.")10-*(1);"

and" Uqj." II," *,-*." (GYO," no." chs.,"


p."+1.-,()).

"

),("

NK`SN"UVY^d

[)]"[Cntms"amd"fnueqmnq"hm"sge]"Btrhqhse"mnle,"cghe"hm"Nv.s-qm=r"(Mnrsah)

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

fqeas"hm"jmnvkedfe,"mnsabke"n"sqtrsvnqsghmerr,
rsqahfgs"n"geaqs,"ghddem"n"derhfm,
vgn"seacger"eueqxbndx"sgqntfg"ghr"roeecg,
vgn"fthder"sge"hfmnqams"amd"qevaqdr"sge"onrrerrnq"n"hmsekkhfemce,
sn"vgnl"eueqx"bndx"fhuer"sgehq"vhrdnl,
qerequed"n"roeecg,
ghr"vnqdr"aqqhue"ar"sge"bqeasg"n"khe,
oqnsecsnq"n"[],
[*]"[]"vgn"rkaxr"sge"qebekr,
" amd"vgn"sher"to"sge"sghe,
" affqerrnqr"ee"sgqntfg"eaq"n"ghl,
" vgn"oeqnqlr"Maas,
" rgaqoeq"sgam"a"reed,
" cgnrem"bx"fnd"qnl"alnmf"sgnre"hm"ghr"chsx,
" "
nq"dnhmf"sgas"vghcg"ghr"geaqs"snkd"ghl.

" Fhqrs"Gemeqakhrrhln"n"ghr"Maiersx,
" oqhers"n"sge"dnnq"bnks"n"sge"fqeas"onqsak"n"sge"seloke"n"Orhqhr"(Btrhqhr),
" [oq]hers"[n"]
a." Enough"traces"remain"to"safely"read" ," Busirite"Nome.0(" e"titles"are"restored"on"the"
basis"of"similar"sequences"from"the"Late"Period.0)"
b." Nv.s-qm=r"is"another"name"for"Mostai"(usually"Mr .s),0*"a"city"in"the"Busirite"nome.0+"In"a"
recently"published"geographic"list"from"Athribis,"Nv.s-qm=r"appears"in"apposition"to"Mr .s"
(reading"
,"instead"of"
).0," e"contemporaneous"General"Hor"was"also" director"
of"the"districts"( qo"v.v)"of"Busiris,"Heliopolis"and"Nv.s-qm=r.0-"
"
c.
e" epithet" great" of" knowledge" (vq" l" q )" occurs" on" two" sarcophagi" of" the" irtieth"
Dynasty.0."Although"the"latter"epithet"bv()"l"j-b," great"of"trustworthiness"(or:""discretion)"

P." MYX^O^," Gnfqaoghe" I," )1-/,"


p."1/;"O."PON_," Un"dieu"venu"de"la"
campagne,"RdE"-.,"*((-,"p.")+)-)...
" 81" For"titles"composed" sx-"+"toponym,"see"primarily"H."DO"MO_VOXKOO,"
Le" vizir" Harsisis" de" la" +(e" dynastie,"
MDAIK").,")1-0,"p."*++;"I."G_OWO_,"
BhOq" .(," *((+," p." ++*;" cf." especially"
Uqj."II,"*,,".-/"and"*-,"."(Berlin"/).
" 82" For"the"identication"of"Nv.s-qm=r,"
see" J." YYcY^^O," AEPHE.Ve" recshnm" /-,"
)1./-.0,"p.")(,."Other"examples"of"this"
toponym"include"VOMY_^^O,"BIFAO"
,1," )1-(," p." )(+," col." *," )(/," n." (m);"
P.""VOX_],"Asgqhbhr."Tewser"es"dnctlemsr"
" 80"

qekashr" " ka" fnfqaoghe," atw" ctkser," es" "


k'ghrsnhqe" d'tme" uhkke" dt" deksa" fxoshem"
" k'onpte" ogaqanmhpte," BdE" /,," )1/0,"
p.")**,")*0"n."(ab);"G_OWO_,"Ler"ctkser"
d'Alnm"gnqr"de" ber:"qecgeqcger"de"fnfqaoghe"qekhfhetre"BEPHE")*+,"*((-,p.".,,"
.-,"n."i;"PON_,"RdE"-/,"*((.,"p.")-.,"
g.")b,"col."+,")-/,"n."a;"and"Turin"+(*,"
(CLES"photo;"noted"by"YYcY^^O,"no."chs.,"
)(,).
" 83" For"the"location"of"Mostai,"see"primarily"YYcY^^O,"AEPHE"/-,")1./-)1.0,"
p.")(*-)(0;"hd.,"AEPHE"/.,")1.0-)1.1,"
p." )(0-))+;" G_OWO_," no." chs.," p." .,,"
n."(f ),")00-)1*.

Asgqhbhr" II/)," ++/" (C" -," *1)," corrected"after"the"photograph"in"hbhd,"II/+,"


pl."1(.
" 85" VOMY_^^O," BIFAO" ,1," )1-(,"
p.")(+,"col."*.
" 86" Uqj."II,"*-,"/"(Berlin"/);"E."BO]MSKXS,"
S."EV-NKQQK,"S.""POXSQY^^S,"Fl."SSV`KXY," La" fakkeqha" dh" Padhmehs," uhrhq" dh"
Necsamebn" I," Sappaqa" I," )10-," pl." XII,"
col." )." Compare" also" the" epithet" oq"
l" q ," equipped" with" knowledge," in"
J." VOMY_^^O," Tewser" bhnfqaoghpter"
dt"Sqaotl"de"Meloghr."Cnmsqhbtshnm"
" k'stde" der" rsker" unshuer" dt" Sqaotl,"
BEHE"I"+).,")1.(,"p."1,.
" 84"

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

),)

is"apparently"without"parallel,0/"one"might"compare"the"similar"phrase"vq"l"l-b," great"of"
omniscience"(lit." consuming"of"heart)"in"a"Saite"Period"autobiography"(Zagreb"No."./*).00
d." Tentatively"reading"
"as"ls(q)- .s," true"of"heart.01"A"similar"orthography"of"l "
( )"for"lsq"in"the"epithet"lsq-b"occurs"in"two"autobiographies"of"the"Twenty-Ninth"and"
irtieth" Dynasties.1(" One" might" also" consider" reading"l -b," deep" of" heart/mind,1)"
although"such"an"epithet"is"not"attested"elsewhere."An"early"Ptolemaic"inscription"spells"
"(Uqj."II,".(,"))."
ls(q)-b"as"
" For" "=" .s,"one"might"compare"the"use"of"this"sign"to"write" v.s,1*"noting"that"this"phe"=" v.vs-m q.v,"
nomenon"is"quite"popular"in"the" irtieth"Dynasty:" " v.s-m q,1+"
temples.1,"Alternatively,"this"could"simply"be"a"variant"ls(q)".s," true"of"body,"since"the"
terms" .s"and".s"are"relatively"interchangeable"in"other"epithets.1." lm-r q.v"is"apparently"a"variant"of"the"more"common"epithets" o-.s" q"r q.v=," hidden"
of"body"concerning"his"designs,"and" one"who"hides/suppresses"the"designs"of"the"body"
(lm/gqo"r q.v".s="),"both"of"which"express" discretion.1.
f." A"similar"sequence"of"epithets"occurs"on"a"statue"attributed"to"the"General"Hor"currently"
in"Alexandria:1/
" "MMA")11..1):"

"""""""""""

"""""""""""""

""""""""""""""

"

"

"

" "Alexandria"w/o" :"


For" the" meaning" of" j-b," see"
E."HYX_XQ," Lexikalische"Studien"II,"
ZS"0/,")1.*,"p."))--)).;"and"the"forthcoming" discussion" by" J.C." DKXOVV,"
C."MKXK]]K," A"Trustworthy"Seal-Bearer"
on"a"Mission:" e"Monuments"of"Sabastet"from"the"Khephren"Diorite"Quarries"
(in"press)." e"term"bv," notable"(one),"
occurs"fairly"often"in"inscriptions"from"
this" period," cf." K." JKX]OX-WSXUOVX,"
Drei" Statueninschriften" einer" Familie"
aus" frhptolemischer" Zeit," SAK" +.,"
*((/,"p."-),"(c)",;"Uqj."II,")/,".;")0,")*.
" 88" J."MYXXO^"SKVOR,"Ler"amshpthsr"
fxoshemmer"de"Zafqeb,")1/(,"p."--,"col."/;"
for"this"meaning"of"l-b,"see"K."JKX]OXWSXUOVX," Bhnfqaoghrcge" tmd" qekhfhre"
Imrcgqhsem" deq" Sosyehs" atr" del" fxoshrcgem"Mtretl"Kahqn,"AT",-,"*((),"I,"
p."*,),"n.",;"D."KVY^d,"Adnqashnm"n"sge"
Ral:"Fhue"Hxlmr"sn"Altm-Re"qnl"Hhbhr"
Teloke,"YES".,"*((.,"p."),1,"n."A.
" 89" Wb." II," )/+," .;" J.M.A." JKX]]OX,"
De"sqadhshnmeeke"efxoshrcge"Atsnbhnfqa e"
u q"ges"Nhetve"Rhij,"I,")1,.,"p."*+-*,;"
HOS]O," Eqqhmeqm" tmd" Gedemjem," *((/,"
p."1.,"n."*-).
" 87"

VOX_]," Asgqhbhr," p." )/,," col." ),"


)/-," n." (a);" hd.," Inscription" d'un" personnage"d'Athribis"bien"en"cours"sous"
la"XXIXe"Dynastie,"MDAIK"+/,")10),"
p.",0,,"n."(e)."
" 91" For"the"sentiment,"compare"Amh"D,"
,,"*-+"(="J.Fr."Q_KMU,"Dhe"Legqem"der"Amh:"
ehm"metfxoshrcgeq"Wehrgehsrsews"hm"rehmel"
jtkstqekkem"Ulekd,"OBO"),),")11,,"pp."
)(.-/,")/,,"+(0-1):"q" .s"(ql )"vr "rs"
q"mv.s,"l "rv"q"dx.s," As"for"the"heart"
(of"a"man),"it"is"wider"than"a"granary,"it"
is"deeper"than"a"well.
" 92" Wb." III," +-0," )*-),;" M." SWS^R,"
e"Mnqstaqx"Tewsr"n"Paoxqtr"BM"$#(#*,"
CDPBM" +," )10/," p." 1/-10," note" (a)"
to"VI," *);" D." K_^R," Ehmgqtmf" hmr"
Psnkelhrcg,"I,"*((/,"p."**.,"*+0,"n."*,*.
" 93" JE" ,/*1)," col." *" (G_OWO_,"
Ler"ctkser"d'Alnm"gnqr"de" ber,"*((-,"
p."***;"reign"of"Nectanebo"I);"Athens,"
National" Museum" *((1" (D." MKVVO^,"
Quelques" monuments" gyptiens" du"
muse" d'Athnes," RT" )0," )01.," p." )),"
Front," col." -;" fourth" century" BCE);"
W.M.Fl." PO^SO," Nebergeg" amd" Deemmeg,"MEEF",,")000,"pl.")("())).
" 90"

G."RYONO," Zwei"hieroglyphische"
Inschriften" aus" Hermopolis" (Obergypten),"ASAE"-*,")1-,,"p."+0,,"line"
,"(reign"of"Nectanebo"I),"in"the""context:"
he"who"gives"temples"to"them"(viz."the"
gods),"who"builds"their"statues"therein,"
(and"puts)"every"body"in"their"service,"
so"they"might"bring"to"him"a"great"Inundation"in"its"season"(qd" v.vs-m q.v"
m=rm,"lr" l(.v)"l=rm,"(qd)"bv"mb"
q" lr=rm," m=rm" m=" o" vq" q" sq=" )."
Cf." also" I." G_OWO_," Le" groupe"
familial" de" Pachryentaisouy." Caire"
JE" +.-/.," "BIFAO" )(,," *((,," p." *-+,"
*-,,"n."x"(fourth"century"BC).
" 95" Fr." DK_WK]," L'origine" gyptienne" de" la" tripartition" de" l'me" chez"
Platon," in" Mkamfer" Adnkoge" Gtsbtb,"
)10,,"p.",.-,0,"-(--);"N."SR_ZKU,"Wgeqe"
Cam"Whrdnl"be"Fntmd?" e"Safe'r"Lamftafe"hm"sge"Bhbke"amd"hm"Amchems"Efxosham"
Lhseqastqe,"OBO")+(,")11+,"p."*1+-*1-.
" 96" See" J.J." CVO," L'expression"
dm" lgvs" des" autobiographies" gyptiennes,"JEA"+-,")1,1,"p."+1-,*,"for"these"
phrases"and"related"epithets.
" 97" VOMY_^^O," BIFAO" ,1," )1-(,"
p.")(+,"pl."V,"col."*.
" 94"

"

),*"

NK`SN"UVY^d

" Vercoutter"translated"the"Alexandria"example"as"follows:" son"horreur,"c'est"l'homme"qui"ne"


sait"payer"(lit."qui"ignore"le"paiement),"possesseur"de"plus"de"biens"que"le"grenier"royal"(lit."le"
Double"Grenier).10"However,"this"interpretation"requires"interpreting"q x"as"an"unusual"
spelling"of" q.s/ .s," goods.11"Moreover,"if" l-p"were"truly"a"compound"meaning," the"
one"ignorant"of"reward,"one"would"expect"the"seated-man"determinative"to"follow"p,"not"
l.
" Instead,"one"could"translate"the"Alexandria"example"as"follows:" one"whose"abomination"is"
the"ignorant,"(but)"who"rewards"(p))(("the"possessor"of"knowledge;"overseer"of"the"Double"
Granary"(lx-q"mv.sx).)()
"
e"dichotomy"between" the"learned"(q ))(*"and" the"ignoramus"( l)"pervades"Egyptian"
wisdom"literature.)(+" e"extreme"reactions"to"these"groups"on"the"Alexandria"statue"recall"
an"earlier"statement"about"Akhenaten:" He"sets"his"wrath"against"the"one"ignorant"of"his"
teaching,"(but)"his"praise"is"for"the"one"who"knows"it"(q="bv="q" l"rbx.s=," yv.s="m"
q "r).)(," e"owner"of"the"MMA"statue"was"more"open-minded,"and"vaunts"of"having"
guided"(rl)"the"ignorant"towards"knowledge.)(g." In"the"absence"of"any"obvious"parallels,"the"translation"of"this"passage"remains"speculative,"
inspired"by"earlier"autobiographical"phrases"like:" one"to"whom"people"tell"their"secrets"
( d.m"m=".vs"l.s=rm/ q.vs=rm)"(lit." to"whom"bodies"(again".vs")"tell"their"contents.)(."
e"lack"of"determinatives"is"particularly"frustrating"here,"since"the"element"or" "could"
potentially" write" r/rq.s," wisdom,"rv/rq," satiety,)(/" y" q" to" await,)(0" or" r" q," to"
perceive.)(1

VOMY_^^O," BIFAO" ,1," )1-(," q )"(J.D."RKc," e"Aqcghue"n"Hnq,")1/.,"


p.")(+;"followed"by"PON_,"RdE"+.,")10-," p.").(),"suggesting"that"q "and"mb"q "are"
were"roughly"equivalent"epithets."
p."10-1,"n."k.
" 99" VOMY_^^O," BIFAO" ,1," )1-(," " 103" SR_ZKU," Wgeqe" Cam"Whrdnl" Be"
p.")(--)(.,"n."(h);"followed"by"G."GYO," Fntmd?,")11+,"pp.")0+--;"H.-W."FS]MROLer" qekashnmr" dt" ckeqf" fxoshem," *((1," EVPO^," Dhe" Legqe" ehmer" Mammer" q"
rehmem" Sngm:" ehme" Esaooe" at" del"
p."*(*.
" 100" For"oDcials" rewarding"(p)"their" Gnsservef "der"knxakem"tmd"rnkhdaqhrcgem"
underlings" in" Late" Period" autobiogra- Bealsem,"fAb".(,")111,"I,"p.".1,")1,-)1-.
phies,"cf."VOMY_^^O,"BIFAO",1,")1-(," " 104" N."de"G."DK`SO]," e"Rncj"Tnlbr"
p."01,"and"pl."III,"col."+;"J.J."CVO," Au- n"Ek"Alaqma,"VI,"ASEf"Melnhq")0")1(0,"
tobiographie" d'un" gnral" gouverneur" pl."*),"line"*/;"cf."H."G_U]MR,"Kmhfrde" la" Haute-gypte" " l'poque" sate," dhemrs:"ytq"Sekbrsdaqrsekktmf"deq"Bealsem"
BIFAO"0+,")10+,"p."01,"col."+;"and"compa- hm"deq"$+."Dxmarshe,"SAGA")),")11,,"p.")-..
re" also" the" stela" of" Nectanebo" I" from" " 105" As" Shupak" notes" (no." chs.," p." )0,,"
Hermopolis,"line"+)"(RYONO,"ASAE"-*," )1.),"several"other"Egyptian"texts"speak"
)1-,,"p.",))):" his"majesty"gave"rewards"to" of"educating"the"ignorant"( l.v),"since"
the"prophets"and"priests"for"completing" they" were" deemed" worthy" for" instrucall"works"he"had"performed"in"Hesret" tion."For"the"general"theme"of" guiding"
(vmm" l=" q" d.s" p" m" l.v-m q.v" (rl)" others," cf." J.-P." CY^OQQSKXS,"
vb.v"l"qp"j.s"mb"q.s.m="l" yq.s).
Une"stle"hliopolitaine"d'poque"sate,"
" 101" For"this"abbreviation"of"lx-q,"see" in"Hnllafer""Seqfe"Satmeqnm,"BdE"0),"
)1/1,"I,"p.")+),"n."(l).
K_OX^d,"BIFAO"+,,")1+,,"p.")-,-)-/.
" 102" Note" that" in" the" Hor" Ostraca," " 106" JKX]]OX," De" sqadhshnmeeke" efxooth"is"both" the"learned"one"(o"q )" shrcge" Atsnbhnfqa e," I," )1,.," p." )*-;"
and" the"possessor"of"knowledge"(o"mb" W.K." SSWZ]YX," The" Stela" of"
" 98"

Amun-wosre," Governor" of" Upper"


Egypt" in" the" Reign" of" Ammenemes" I"
or"II,"JEA"-),")1.-,"p."./,"n."(r),"pl."XIV,"
line" 0." "Compare" also" the" following"
epithets:" one"to"whom"the"mind"is"revealed"(vb(.v)"m="b)," on"to"whom"
that" which" is" in" the" heart" is" revealed,"
"consisting" of" that" which" is" hidden"
from" all" (other)" people" (vb(.v)" m="
mss"l"b"l" o.s"q"ql "mb),"and" one"to"
whom" secret" aCairs" are" spoken" ( d.v"
m="ld.s" o.s)"(JKX]]OX,"no."chs.,"p."-+,"
)*-;"D.M."DYbOc,"Efxosham"Nnm-Rnxak"
Eohsgesr"hm"sge"Mhddke"Khmfdnl,"Pd")*,"
)110,"p.")(0-)(1,"*0,,"+1/;"SSWZ]YX,"JEA"
-),")1.-,"p."./,"n."t)."For".vs," bodies,"
denoting" people" by" metonymy," see"
Wb."III,"+-/,")-,"and"the"Naucratis"Stela,"
col.",.
" 107" E.g." d.m=" .s" mb(.s)" rq=r," he"
gave" every" belly" its" satiety." Compare"
Naucratis" Stela," col." ,:" Every" man"
is" sated" through" his" provisions" (r()"
y"mb"(q)" (v)=")"(following"H."DO"
MO_VOXKOO," Zwei"Bemerkungen"zur"
Naukratisstele," ZS" 0,," )1-1," p." /0);"

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

),+

h." Literally," heavy"of"speech,"with"the"general"meaning" reserved.))(" e"present"spelling"


with"the"hippopotamus"for"dmr," heavy,"occurs"already"on"a"statue"of"the"Twenty-Sixth"
Dynasty.)))
i." e"rst"sign"( )"could"alternatively"write"the"particle"v,"resulting"in"a"slightly"diCerent"
translation:" whatever"he"says"is"the"breath"of"life." e"abbreviated"orthographies" "for"
d,))*" "for" v,))+"and" "for"m ),)),"are"all"attested"in"texts"from"the" irtieth"Dynasty."
Kings"or"gods"can"communicate"the" breath"of"life"through"their"voices,))-"but"some"private"individuals"bear"epithets"such"as" one"who"rejuvenates"millions"with"his"speech"(alone)"
(rm m" .v"l"so-q=").)).

for" this" term" spelled" rq" (for" rv),"


cf." Chr."TRSO]," Psnkle" Pghkadekoge"
es"ker"oqsqer"d'Asntl"de"Tijnt:"Nntuekke"
dhshnm"cnllemse"de"ka" "rske"de"Phsgnl","
OqMnmro")/,"*((/,"p."/(,"line"*,.
" 108" H." DO" MO_VOXKOO," Notes"
ptolmaques:" *." L'expression" rv" q"
v.s.," BIFAO" -+," )1-+," p." )(.-)(/;"
A.H." G
" KNSXO," `To" await'" in" Middle"Egyptian,"JEA",+,")1-/,"p."))*-))+;"
." EXQ]RONOX," Un" Mendsien" en"
Dalcarlie."Statue"ZAE"/,"de"la"collection"Zorn,"in"I."Rgen,"Fr."Servajean"
(eds.)," Veqba" lamems." Rectehk" d'stder"
ddher""Dhlhsqh"Meejr"oaq"rer"cnkkfter"es"
alhr,"CENhM"*,"*((1,"p."))1-)*(,"n."(k).
" 109" E.g."d.m=".s"mb(.s)"r"q=r," he"ensured"that"every"body"was"aware"of"it"(viz."
the"reward)."For"the"phrase"r"q," to"be"
aware"of,"cf."K."JKX]OX-WSXUOVX," Drei"
Gebete"aus"der"**."Dynastie,"in"J.""Osing,"
G."Dreyer"(eds.),"Fnql"tmd"Marr,"AT"
)*,")10/,"p."*+0-*+1,"g."),"col.".,"*,0,"
n."0:" You"know"all"the"things"I"have"
done,"you"are"aware"of"them"(v=j"q .sv"
q.m="mb,"msj"r"q=rm)." is"translation"
could"correspond"to"other"biographies"in"
which"oDcials"claim"to"have"instructed"
other"priests"(e.g."K."JKX]OX-WSXUOVX,"
Die"Biographie"eines"Priesters"aus"Heliopolis,"SAK"*1,"*((),"A,"and"B0)."Note"
that"the"terms"r"and"r/rq.s"are"virtually" synonymous;" cf." SR_ZKU," Wgeqe"
Cam"Whrdnl"Be"Fntmd?,"p."***-**.,"and"
"compare"an"epithet"of"Tjaihorpata"(Dynasty" +():" whom" the" king" promoted"
because"of"his"perception"(r.v),"whom"
the" king" advanced" on" account" of" his"
wisdom" (rq.s)" (G." MK]ZOY," CGC"

Saqcnogafer"der"onpter"oeqrame"es"osnklapte,")1),,"I,"p."*,().
" 110" See"primarily"CVO,"JEA"+-,")1,1,"
p."+0-,*;"hd.," Deux"nouveaux"exemples"
de"l'expression"dm"lgvs,"JEA"+/,")1-),"
p." ))*;"W.A."WKN," Lexicographical"
Miscellanies,"SAK"-,")1//,"p."*0+-*0,;"
BO]MSKXS"es"ak.,"La"fakkeqha"dh"Padhmehs,"
uhrhq"de"Necsamebn"I,"pl."XII,"col."),"p."/+,"
n."(d);"G."PY]OXO," Du"nouveau"sur"
Kombabos,"RdE"+/,")10.,"p."1-.
" 111" H." DO" MO_VOXKOO," Raccords"
memphites,"MDAIK",/,")11),"p."*,/,"
col." )," *,0," n." (b)." Other" examples"
are" roughly" contemporaneous" with"
the" New"York" statue:"Vienna," S" *("
(Ph." DOMRKSX," Ler" hlonmdqabker" de"
k'gekkmhrashnm:" khssqastqe" d'ghqnfqallaser,"MRE"/,"*(((,"p.",),"pl."I,"col.");"
noted" by" CVO," JEA" +-," )1,1," p." +1,"
n." ,)" and" Athens," National" Museum"
*((1"(MKVVO^,"RT")0,")01.,"p.")),"Front,"
col." );" noted" by" CVO," JEA" +/," )1-),"
p." ))*," B)." Note" also" several" examples"
of"the"nearly"synonymous"dmr-q"spelled"
with"the"hippopotamus:"Uqj."II,"*-,"0;"
.(," ,;" Hannover," Kestner-Museum"
)1+-.*((.-)("(cf."rtoqa,"n."/0).
" 112" Other"examples"from"the" irtieth"
Dynasty"include"Naucratis"Stela,"cols."-,"
.," 0," )+;" DO" MO_VOXKOO," BIFAO" .),"
)1.*,"+*,",);"O."PON_," Le"monument"
de"Samtoutefnakht""Naples,"RdE"+.,"
)10-,"p."1-;"Uqj."II,"*-,"1;"note"that"this"
abbreviation" is" extremely" common" in"
the"early"Ptolemaic"Satrap"Stela"(Uqj."II,"
).,"."and")-;")/,"-,"0,")),"),;")0,"/"and")*;"
)1,"+)."For"earlier"examples,"see"J."OX,"
e" Stela" of" Emhab" from"Tell" Edfu,"

MDAIK"*,,"p.)1.1,"p."1(,"n."(F);"PON_,"
RdE",+,")11*,"p.")-,-)--,"n."(i).
" 113" For" another"
irtieth" Dynasty"
example,"see"Metternich"Stela,"line"**("
(C.E."SKXNO-HKX]OX," Dhe"Tewse" deq"
Messeqmhcgrseke,"AmAef"/,")1-.,"p.".-);"for"
earlier"attestations,"see"PON_,"RdE",+,"
)11*," p." )-0," n." (r);" hd.," Hommage"
d'une"princesse"sate""son"prcepteur,"
"BIFAO")(-,"*((-,"p."*).,"n."c.
" 114" Naucratis" Stela," col." ,;"YYcY^^O,"
BIFAO"-,,")1-,,"1*,"Doc."."a.
" 115" For"the"king,"compare:"M."SKXNWKX,"Tewsr"qnl"sge"Thle"n"Ajgemasem,"
BhAef"0,")1+0,"*0,")-"(discussed"by"J."A]]WKXX," Die" Loyalistische" Lehre"
Akhenatens," SAK" 0," )10(," p." )/-)0):"
just" hearing" his" [vo]ice" is" the" breath"
of" life" ( v" m" m " r l" [ q]v=" )." For"
gods"allowing"the"deceased"to"breathe"
via"their"speech,"see"J.C."DKXOVV," e"
Emhflashc" Nesgeqvnqkd" Bnnjr" n" sge"
Snkaq-Orhqham" Umhsx," OBO" )10," *((,,"
p."*)+-*),."Cf."also"H.G."FS]MRO," An"
Eleventh"Dynasty"Couple"Holding"the"
Sign"of"Life,"ZS")((,")1/+,"p."*+-*-.
" 116" R."OV-SKcON,"Dnctlemsr"qekashr""
Sar"es"rer"dhuhmhsr,"BdE".1,")1/-,"p.")*/,"
n."h."Of"course"private"individuals"could"
enliven"the"deceased"by"means"of"their"
breath" of" the" mouth" ( v" m" q)," for"
which" see" P."VOX_]," La" formule" `le"
souEe"de"la"bouche'"au"Moyen"Empire,"
RdE" *0," )1/.," p." )+1-),-;" K." JKX]OX-"
WSXUOVX," Semsemyem" tmd" Mawhlem"
hm"dem"Pqhuashmrcgqhsem"deq"fxoshrcgem"
Sosyehs,")111,"p.")0,",--,0.

"

),,"

NK`SN"UVY^d

j." One"could"possibly"restore" protector"of"[the"orphan]," [the"widow]," [the"poor],"or"


similar"terms.))/
k." He"who"repels"the"enemies"( mb"qpx.v)"was"one"of"the"guardians"of"Osiris"in"Book"of"
the"Dead"),-.))0" e"statue"owner"thus"mythologizes"his"own"work"restoring"the"temples"
of"Osiris"in"Busiris"and"Abydos,"and"possibly"also"expelling"Persians"from"Egypt.
l." Reading" "=" sq," to"tie"up"(birds),))1"possibly"referring"to"the"act"of"binding"prisoners'"
arms"behind"their"backs"like"pinioned"fowl.)*(" e"term" ," thief,"can"also"refer"to"demonic"
enemies.)*)
m."On"the"statue"Louvre"A."00,"the"General"Hor"claims"to"be"one" who"repels"the"opponents"
( r"m.v),"apparently"also"in"reference"to"the"Persians.)**" is"specic"term"is"common"
among"gargoyle"texts,"where"the"lion"repels"(m)"the"enemies"(m.v)"and"storm"clouds"
(m.v).)*+" e"present"example"might"allude"to"the"title" priest"of"the"door-bolt"( jm.s)"
mentioned"later"(cf."hmqa),"for"which"one"might"compare"a"doorway"inscription"from"the"
Opet"Temple:" I"am"the"lion-shaped"door-bolt"of"the"great"portal"(mj" jm.s"ms"rb"vq)"(),"
who"repels"the"enemy"(m"m)"(Ooes"I,".,")-+).
"="rod," sharp,)*,"this"group"is"recognizn." Despite"the"unconventional"orthography"of"
able"as"the"classical"epithet" sharper"than"a"grain"(of"wheat),"attested"already"in"the"First"
Intermediate"Period.)*-"As"in"the"present"example,"this"phrase"usually"qualies"a"statement"
about" performing"Maat"(q"l.s).)*."
"="msx(.v),)*/"following"the"pattern"of"similar"epithets,)*0"especially"Pesnrhqhr,"
o." Reading"
No."0*,")(+:"rso(.v)"m"lx.v"mv.s=," chosen"among"those"in"his"city.)*1"

For"many"epithets"beginning"with"
lvm," protector,"see"DO"MO_VOXKOO,"
BIFAO" .)," )1.*," p." +.," n." (k);" HOS]O,"
Eqhmmeqm"tmd"Gedemjem,"*((/,"p."+)..
" 118" LGG" V," OLA" )),," *((*," p." *)1"
(noting" the" variants" m" qpx.v" and" ms"
qpx.v;"hbhd,"p.")-0"and"**1);"for"the"various"meanings"of" mb"and"related"words,"
see" A." EQLO^]," Im" Qters" n" Meamhmf:"
A"Sstdx"n"sge"Amchems"Efxosham"Rhser"n"
Cnmrecqashmf"sge"Meqes-cgersr"amd"Dqhuhmf"
sge"Cakuer,"EfUhs"0,")11-,"I,"p."+*(,"n."-;"
another" General" from" the" late" Ptolemaic" Period" mentions" driving" away"
rebels"(qpx.v),"see"LOWLUO,"VS^^WKXX,"
MDAIK"--,")111,"p."+)),"n."l."
" 119" Wb." III," *(*," *-+:" (gefangene"
Vgel)"zusammenbinden"(I"thank"John"
C."Darnell"for"this"suggestion);"for"the"
orthography,"see"Vak."Pgnm."II,"p."++)-++*"
(especially"No."//1);"Demdaqa"XII,"),,")0.
" 120" H."J_XUO," Die"Feinde"auf"dem"
Sockel"der"Chasechem-Statuen"und"die"
" 117"

Darstellung"von"geopferten"Tieren,"in"
O."Firchow"(ed.),"fxosnknfhrcge"Sstdhem,"
)1--,"p.").*-/-.
" 121" Cf."LGG"I,"OLA"))(,"*((*,"p.".*/"a,"
.+1"a.
" 122" VOMY_^^O," BIFAO" ,1," )1-(,"
p."0/,"pl."III,"col.").
" 123" P."WSV]YX," A" Psnkelahc" Lewhjnm,"
OLA"/0,")11/,"p.")()0-1;"Demdaqa"XII,"
+*),")(;"
" 124" Other" examples" of" rod" written"
as" rbd" occur" in" inscriptions" from" the"
"Twenty-Sixth" and"Twenty-Seventh" dynasties;" see" G." PY]OXO," La" oqelhqe"
dnlhmashnm"oeqre"em"fxose,"BdE")),")1+.,"
p."1(,"n."(b),"who"already"noted"the"descendants"in"Demotic"(rbs)"and"Coptic"
( ).
" 125" Wb." I," +/,," -;" OV-SKcON," Dnctlemsr" qekashr" " Sar" es" rer" dhuhmhsr,"
p.")*-,"l."+,,")*/,"n."(f );"M."LSMR^ROSW,"
Maas" hm" Efxosham" Atsnbhnfqaogher" amd"
Rekased" Sstdher," OBO" )*(," )11*," p." +);"

K."JKX]OX-WSXUOVX,"SAK"*1,"p."*((),"
p.")(+,"col.",,"and")(0,"n."(.0);"J."O]SXQ,"
G."RY]K^S,"Paohqh"feqnfkh ch"e"heqashch"da"
Tebsxmhr,")110,"p.".0.
" 126" EV-SKcON,"Dnctlemsr"qekashr""Sar,"
p.")*-;"JKX]OX-WSXUOVX,"SAK"*1,"*((),"
p.")(+,"col.",.
" 127" For"
irtieth" Dynasty" parallels,"
see" Naucratis" Stela," col." )+;" RYONO,"
ASAE"-*,")1-,,"p.",*).
" 128" Wb." IV," ++/," )+-),;" G_U]MR,"
Kmhfrdhemrs,")11,,"p."))*-))+;"K."JKX]OXWSXUOVX,"fxoshrcge"Bhnfqaoghem"deq"%%."
tmd"%&."Dxmarshe,"AT"0,")10-,"I,"p."*+*,"
n."-;"HOS]O,"Eqhmmeqm"tmd"Gedemje,"*((/,"
p." ++0;" cf." also" Uqj." II," +," )," ("Naple"
"Stela);" DOMRKSX," Ler" hlonmdqabker"
de"k'gekkmhrashnm,"*(((,"pl."IV,"col."*.
" 129" Compare"also"JE"+...+,"ll."1-)(:"rso"
m"mvsx.v=," one"chosen"by"his"fellow"
citizens" (H." DO" MO_VOXKOO," Une"
famille"sacerdotale"thbaine,"BIFAO"0.,"
)10.,"p.")+1,"),(,"n."d,"and"pl."VI).

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

),-

" Alternatively,"this"word"could"be"an"abbreviated"form"of"m (q),)+("and"thus"one"could"read"


chosen"by"the"god"within"his"city,"i.e." his"local"god." e"latter"option"would"nd"a"close"
parallel"in"another" irtieth"Dynasty"biography:" whom"god"distinguished"because"of"what"
his"heart"created"for"him"( m"m q" q"pl"m="b=").)+)
p" e"value" "=" d," to"say,"is"common"in"this"period.)+*"
q." For"similar"orthographies"of"(lx)-q"l,"see"Chevereau,"Pqnrnonfqaoghe"der"cadqer"lhkhsahqer"fxoshemr"de"ka"Barre"onpte,"p."*.)-*.*." e"full"title," Great"generalissimo"in"chief"
of"his"majesty"(lx-q"l"vq"sox"m" l=")"was"quite"common"in"the" irtieth"Dynasty"
(cf."Chevereau,"no."chs.,"p."*(-)"and"thus"it"is"impossible"to"identify"the"owner"of"the"statue"
based"on"his"titles"alone.
"
r. Door" bolts" on" Late" Period" temples" were" sometimes" shaped" like" lions" ," as" with" the"
present" determinative" for" the" word" jm(.s).)++" A" similar" title" appears" on" the" Ptolemaic"
Period"sarcophagus"of"Panehemise"(Vienna"S",),"who"was" priest"of"the"Mound"of"Shena`,"
priest"of"the"gods"and"goddesses"united"within"it,"priest"of"its"portal,"priest"of"its"door"bolts"
),priest"of"its"trees,"and"priest"of"its"water.)+,
(
B." Restorations"in"Busiris"(col."+)
[+]"

"
"
[+]"[]"m

q
" dl= m"qm="q-fr"m q""a
" q"msx"q.m=" .v"m/l"Pq-Wrq
" "
rlv="r.s"vq.s"m"m q-
" qd.m="v y-mq.v"m"Wrq"mb- dv
" "
-or"m"Wrq" qx-r.s-vq.s"b
" "
"
l" "lj(.v)"l"mbv

Similar"orthographies"are"popular"
in"the"Late"Period:"H."De""Meulenaere,"
N (R)"et"NF(R),"in"C."Berger,"G."Clerc,"
N." Grimal" (eds.)," Hnllafer" " Jeam"
Leckams,"BdE")(./,,")11,,"p.".--/).
" 131" J.J."CVO," Une"statuette"du"ls"
an" du" roi" Nectanab," RdE" .," )1-),"
p.")+0.
" 132" H." DO" MO_VOXKOO," Les" valeurs" de" signe" " " la" Basse" poque,"
BIFAO"-,,")1-,,"p."/,;"note"especially"
" 130"

E.J." "SROWKX," Djedor" the" Saviour"


Statue" Base" OI" )(-01," JEA" ./," )10),"
p."0.,"col.".,"0/-01,"oarrhl
" 133" See" primarily" A." VKSVVO," La"
grande" porte" du" temple" d'Apet" "
"Karnak,"ASAE"-+,")1--,"p."0--1(,"pl."IX,"
col." );"WSV]YX," A" Psnkelahc" Lewhjnm,"
p.".0*-.0+;"CK_`SVVO,"Demdaqa."La"onqse"
d'Irhr,"+-,"-"and"p."*/*,"n."1)."For"lions"
(qv.sx)" protecting" gateways" (qv.s)," see"
already"H."GYONSMUO," A""Lion-Cult"of"

the"Old"Kingdom"Connected"with"the"
Royal"Temple,"RdE")),")1-/,"p."-/-.(;"
H."WSVVOW]," e"Cn>m"n"Hepasa"(Cahqn"
JdE" &)'$+):" a" Care" Sstdx" hm" Efxosham"
Ftmeqaqx" Ctkstqe" n" sge" Eaqkx" Mhddke"
Khmfdnl,"OLA"/(,")11.,"p."+)0-+)1.
" 134" G_OWO_,"Ler"ctkser"d'Alnm"gnqr"
de" ber,"*((-,"p.")+*;"see"in"particular"
the"discussion"of"J."YYcY^^O,"ACF"1-,"
)11,-)11-,"p."./1.

"

),."

NK`SN"UVY^d

" qd.m="lss"m"mov" q-b" v.s-mov"c


" "
q"q(.s)"y"[]"d
[+]"[]"fnd,

" lax"xnt"oqnmntmce"lx"male"berhde"sge"fqeas"fnd,
" becatre"I"oeqnqled"bemeacshnmr"nq/hm"Btrhqhr,
" "
qemnuashmf"sge"fqeas"reas"n"sge"Gqeas"Gnd.
"
"
"
"
"

Jtrs"ar"I"dnmased"sge"oqncerrhnmak"baqj"nq"Orhqhr"Lnqd"n"Btrhqhr,
"
amd"sge"atftrs"rgqhme"nq"Orhqhr"tonm"sge"Gqeas" qnme,
"
"
(lade)"qnl"rhkueq"amd"cnueqed"vhsg"fnkd,
rn"I"dnmased"sge"rale"sn"Amtbhr"vhsghm"Cxmnonkhr,
"
hm"nqdeq"sn"oqnsecs"[]

e"phrase"q-fr"m q""appears"with"an"identical"orthography"on"a"Memphite"relief"from"the"
reign"of"Nectanebo"I"(Brooklyn"-..)-*).)+b." Although"the"term" "or," august"shrine,"often"refers"to"the"sanctuary"or"a"free-standing"
naos,"the"presence"of"silver"and"gold"suggests"this"object"was"a"small"portable"naos"intended"
to"hold"a"statuette"of"Osiris.)+.
c." e"present" house"of"Anubis"( v.s-mov)"is"most"likely"Cynopolis"of"the"Busirite"nome"
(modern"Abusir"Bana)"well"known"in"Greco-Roman"sources,"but"heretofore"never"attested"
in"hieroglyphic"or"demotic"texts.)+/
" Building"inscriptions"frequently"state"that"temple"renovations"are"intended"to"protect"or"
hide"the"divine"statues"from"harm.)+0
a."

K." JKX]OX-WSXUOVX," Eine"


Grabbernahme" in" der" +(." Dynastie,"
JEA"0+,")11/,"p.")/),"g."*,"col."*,")/,,"
n."(m);"cf."similarly"H."DO"MO_VOXKOO,"BIFAO".),")1.*,"p."+*,"col."*"(also"
irtieth"Dynasty)"where"the"funerary"
wish"should"read:"r =sm"qm="q-mq"q-fr"
mv.s-m q.v," May"you"recall"my"name"
well" beside" the" Mistress" of" the" Gods"
(Hathor).
" 136" See"already"Wb."III,"*(1,"*;""WSV]YX,"
A" Psnkelahc" Lewhjnm," )11/," p." .1*;"
S."Cauville"renders"all"examples"of"this"
word"as" reliquaire"(Demdaqa"I,"p."+1,;"
Demdaqa"III,"p."--.;"Demdaqa"IV,"p."/.);"
Demdaqa"V-VI,"*,"pp."+-,--)."Note"that"
Peftuaneith"also"dedicated" one"august"
shrine"of"electrum"(v" "or"l" l)"
" 135"

for" the" Osiris" temple" at""Abydos," and"


that"it"also"contained" divine"amulets,"
all"ritual"requirements"made"from"gold,"
silver,"and"all"types"of"precious"stones"
(y.v"m qx,"db .vs"mb"mv" s-m q"l"mbv"
" .s" mb)" (Louvre" A" 1+," cols." +-," ="
JOVXUY`-ROcWYXN," ASAE" -,," )1-.-/," p." */.);" for" a" similar" shrine" built"
for" Osiris" in" Libya," see" A." RYaO," A"
Hhrsnqx"n"Amchems"Cxqemahca:"Nev"Lhfgs"
nm" "Aefxosn-Cxqemaeam" Rekashnmr;"Tvn"
Psnkelahc" Ssaster" Fntmd" hm" Tnklehsa,"
CASAE")*,")1,0,"p."/,,"col."+."Cf."also"
JE" ./(1+" (Chr." ZS`SO-CYMRO," Tamhr":"
sqauatw"qcemsr"rtq"ke"Tekk"Sm"Ek-Hafaq,"&,"
Ssaster"es"atsnbhnfqaogher"de"dhfmhsahqer":"
Tamhr""k'onpte"osnklapte,"*((,,"p."*/),"
col."0):" I"renewed"the"august"shrine"in"

electrum,"lled"with"all"precious"stones,"
so"that"the"statue"of"the"Lord"of"Mesen"
(Horus)" might" appear" in" procession"
within"it"(rqmo=" "or"l" l,"l (.v)"
l".s"mb," "rl"mb-Mrm"l" q-b=r).
" 137" A."CKVNOSXS,"Dhyhnmaqhn"deh"mnlh"
fenfqa ch" e" snonfqa ch" dekk'Efhssn" fqecnqnlamn,")1+-,"III,"p.")..;"St."TSWW,"Dar"
cgqhrskhcg-jnoshrcge"fxosem"hm"aqabhrcgeq"
Zehs:"ehme"Sallktmf"cgqhrskhcgeq"Ssssem"
hm"fxosem"hm"aqabhrcgeq"Zehs,"TAVO",),"
)10,,"I,"p."+)0-+*,;"GKNSXO,"AEO"II,"
p.")//*.
" 138" R." POc]," Ler" cnlokewer" de" ka"
Deletqe" dt" Shrsqe" es" dt"Tqme" de" R."
nknfhe" es" dcnqashnm" damr" ke" seloke"
d'Hasgnq" " Demdeqa," OLA" )(.," *((*,"
p.".-,"n.".()-.(*.

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

),/

C." Restorations"in"Abydos"(col.",)
[,]"

"
"
[]"[,]"lss"l"Nv.s- oqq"a"
" "
l"g"q.m" rsx.v"b
" "
"
q=" .v"m"ql .v=r"c
r ="Wrq" ms[x-lmsx.v]"d"[mb?"b] v"l"b v.s="vq.s"
" "
q"r q"lx.v"f"q"o()"so"or"g
qd.m(=)"bd"m"Sjq"l"b v"h
" "
q"d(.s)"qmo"m q""q"sq="i
oq="oq=j"l"db .v"
" "
r oq.m(=)"v x(.s)"l"[]"j
[]"[,]"sge"khje"hm"Nv.s- oqq"(Abxdnr),
" "
qnl"sge"amfthrg"vghcg"sge"nqehfmeqr"gad"catred,
" "
"
reejhmf"nts"bemeacshnmr"nq"hsr"oenoke.
as"I"catred"Orhqhr"Kgemsx[alemsht?"knqd"n ?]"Abx[dnr]"sn"aooeaq"hm"oqncerrhnm
" "
vhsghm"ghr"fqeas"Abxdeme"rsamdaqd,
" "
var"hm"nqdeq"sn"dqhue"avax"vamdeqhmf"rohqhsr"qnl"sge"atftrs"gead"(n"Orhqhr).
as"I"dnmased"a"ltllx-rgaoed"lnkd"nq"Snjaq"hm"Abxdnr,
" "
var"hm"nqdeq"sn"akknv"sge"Gqeas"Gnd"sn"qeituemase"as"ghr"shle;
I"epthooed"xntq"seloke"vhsg"mecerraqx"hlokelemsr,
" "
gauhmf"cqeased"abtmdamce/fqahm"hm"[]
a." Nv.s- oqq"(lit." City"of"the"Scarab)"is"a"surprisingly"well-attested"designation"of"Abydos"
in"the"Late"Period,)+1"and"an"identical"orthography"occurs"in"Pghk"I,",1,")0." e"present"
example"complements"the"use"of"Nv.s-qm=r"for"Mostai"in"column")"(rtoqa,"n."b)."
H."GK_^RSO,"DG"III,")1*.,"p."0(;"
P."MYX^O^,"Gnfqaoghe"II,")1.),"p.")()"
(arguing"it"was"actually" inis);"LGG"III,"
-**-+;"H."BOSXVSMR,"Dhe"Orhqhrqekhpthem"
Ztl"Mnshu"deq"Kqoeqfkhedeqtmf"hm"deq"
aksfxoshrcgem" Rekhfhnm," fAb" ,*," )10,,"
p." ))+," n." -," **+-**,," */1," n." -1;" and"
recently" M."S^KNVO," Der" Skarabus"
" 139"

als" osirianisches" Symbol" vornehmlich"


nach"sptzeitlichen"Quellen, "ZS")*0,"
*(()," p." /-," //-/0." Examples" include:"
Bndite," Pghkae," 1(," )-;" Pghk" I," ,1,"
)0;" Demdaqa" I," 1+," /;" Demdaqa" II," )++,"
,;" ),*," ,;" "Demdaqa"V," /+," 0;" Demdaqa"
X," -*," ,;" /.," );" )).," +;" *((," +;" *+*," +;"
+*-,"/;""Demdaqa"XI,".(,"0;"Demdaqa"XII,"

..,"))-)*;"Demdaqa"XIII,"*/,"),;"Ooes"I,"
*)+,"n."0;"Td"I,"01,",;"Ednt"I,")(0,"*;"
Ednt" III," *,/," ),-)-;" Ednt" V," 1/," ,;"
*1+," ),-)-;" Ednt"VI," **1," ),;" LD" IV,"
.*"d"(Armant)."For"another"occurrence"
in" a" private" inscription," see" H." DO"
"MO_VOXKOO," Un" prtre" d'Akhmim"
Abydos,"CdE",,,")1.1,"p."*)0,"n."(u).

"

),0"

NK`SN"UVY^d

b." Reading" " =" rsx.v," foreigners,),(" which" in" the" present" context" should" refer" to" the"
Persians"(cf."hmqa)." e"same"expression"occurs"in"the"Mendes"Stela,"line"1"(Uqj."II,"+0,"
/-0),"in"which"Ptolemy"II"visits"the"local"temple"and"oversees"restoration"work"in"order"to"
remove"the"damage"which"the"evil"foreigners"had"inicted"against"it"(qv"g"q" rsx.v"bd.v"
q=").
c." e"phrase" q" .v," to"seek"benefactions,"is"common"in"other"auto-biographies.),)" e"
orthography" "=" q"appears"to"be"unique,"although"the"sportive"value"of"the"second"animal"for"q"(<" goat," horned"animal)),*"is"attested"already"in"a"private"inscription"of"the"
Twenty-Sixth"Dynasty.),+"A"similar"example"might"occur"in"the"biography"of"the"General"
Hor,"who"claimed"to"be" one"who"restores"what"is"missing"in"the"temples,"who"elevates"
(rq"=" )"their"magnicence"to"the"god"upon"the"throne"(viz."the"King)"(l "fl-v"l"
fr.v-oq.v,"rq"bv=rm"m"m q" q"mr.s).),,"As"in"other"inscriptions,"this"oDcial"seeks"benefactions"( .v)"for"the"population"of"Busiris"(col."+)"and"Abydos,"not"just"for"the"gods.),d." e"lacuna"is"denitely"large"enough"to"restore"Khenty[imentiu],"and"this"would"t"the"
general"Abydene"context.
." e"Abydene"standard"(b v.s)),."was"the"most"sacred"object"of"Abydos,"since"it"was"supposed"to"contain"and"protect"the"head"of"Osiris"(cf."hmqa)."

Wb."II,"*+-,")+-),." is"precise"orthography"occurs"elsewhere"in"Uqj."II,"
+0,"0"(Mendes"Stela),"G."LOPOL`O,"Le"
snlbeat"de"Psnrhqhr"I,"BhGem"*1,")1*,"
(*"nd" ed."*((/),"II,"p.+*,"n"-1,"+,"and"
the"Ballas"inscription"of"Montuhotep"II"
(J.C."DKXOVV," e"Eleventh"Dynasty"
Royal"Inscription"from"Deir"el-Ballas,"
RdE"-1,"*((0,"p."01,"1-,"and"pl."IX,"line"
x"+"0);"compare"orthographies"like" "
(SROWKX,"JEA"./,")10),"p."00,"col."B*,"
1-,"n."u;"Bucheum"Stela"0,"line".;"1,"line"0"
="GYVNL_XXO,"Btcghr,"pls.",--)," "
(TRSO]," Psnkle" Pghkadekoge" es" ker"
"oqsqer"d'Asntl"de"Tijnt,"*((/,"p."+,,"
line"1),"or"
"(ZS`SO-CYMRO,"Tamhr"+,"
*((,,"p."*-0,"col.")().
" 141" Wb."V,"-,(,",;"JKX]]OX,"De"sqadhshnmeeke"efxoshrcge"Atsnbhnfqa e"I,")1,.,"
p.")*);"Chr."TRSO],"La"rske"de"Psnkle"
VIII"ueqfse"II""Hqackhnm,"OCMAM"
,," *((1," p." )+," line" )*" (reading" .v,"
not" vbm/or "(?));"Uqj."II,"..,"/"( q"
mqv);" for" the" more" common" phrase"
- .v," see" E." JOVXUY`-ROcWYXN,"
Ler" hmrcqhoshnmr" de" ka" rsaste" ftqhrretre"
de" Died-geq-ke-ratuetq," BdE" *+," )1-.,"
p."1(-1),"n.")).
" 142" Wb."I,"*(0,")(;"P."VOX_]," Une"
localit" de" la" rgion" d'Hraclopolis,"
RdE" )1," )1./," p." )..-).0;"WSV]YX," A"
" 140"

Psnkelahc"Lewhjnm,")11/,"p.").-."For"this"
sign" used" as" a" phonogram" for" q," see"
Vak."Pgnm."I,"p."***"(**));"S."CK_`SVVO,"
Demdaqa." Le" nmdr" ghqnfkxoghpte" at"
selor"de"Cknosqe,"*((),"p."0+;"Wb."I,"
*(0,",,"*(1,"+;"VOX_],"no."chs.,"p.").0.
" 143" K."PSORV," Saitica,"ZS"+),")01+,"
p."1(,"n."d,"discussing"the"word"rq"in"
BM"0+"(cf."G_OWO_,"Ler"ctkser"d'Alnm"
gnqr"de" ber,"*((-,"p.")(/,"C);"another"
example"from"a"private"inscription"occurs"on"Moscow,"Pushkin"Museum"Stela"
*/("(S.I."HYNTK]R,"O.D."BOVO`," e"
Efxosham"Rekher"amd"Ssekae"hm"sge"Ptrgjhm"
Mtretl"n"Fhme"Aqsr,"Mnrcnv,")10*,"p.")+),"
line")):"()"=rm"q"r .s" m,"q=rm"q"l .s"
m," (all"scribes)"who"shall"come"to"
this"necropolis"and"go"up"( )to"this"
cenotaph.
" 144" VOMY_^^O," BIFAO" ,1," )1,1,"
p." )(+," col." );"Vercoutter" alternatively"
translated:" qui" momie" leurs" mes"
"divines"(c'est--dire:"les"animaux"sacrs)"
(r "b.v=rm)"(followed"by"GYO,"Ler"
qekashnmr"dt"ckeqf"fxoshem,"*((1,"p."*(*,"
*(0)." For" the" use" of" the" verb"rq," to"
bring"up"(a"subject)"in"this"context,"see"
JOVXUY`-ROcWYXN,"ASAE"-,,")1-.--/,"
p."*0*,"n."),;"J.J."CVO," Une"statue"
naophore" hathorique" d'poque" sate,"
RdE"*,,")1/*,"p." -+,"col." *;" BY^RWO,"

ESLP,")1.("pl.",*,"g.")(*,"col."+;"HOS]O,"
Eqhmmeqm"tmd"Gedemjem,"*((/,"p."+))-+)*;"
see"also"G_OWO_,"in"Rgen,""Servajean"
(eds.),"Veqba"lamems,"I,"*((1,"p.")0),"col."+,"
)01,"n."w"(also"written"with"the"goat).
" 145" Cf."DOMRKSX,"Ler"hlonmdqabker"
de"k'gekkmhrashnm,"*(((,"pl."IV,"col."0:" I"
performed"benefactions"for"the"(entire)"
Coptite"Nome"(q.m=" .v"m"Nb.vx);"
ZS`SO-CYMRO," Tamhr" +," *((,," p." *-0,"
col.")(:" I"performed"great"benefactions"
for"the"residents"of"Tanis"(q.m=" .v"
vq.v"m"lx.v"r .s- m.s).
" 146" For" the" term" b v(.s)," Abydene"
standard"(not"in"the"Wqseqbtcg),"see"
." CRK]]SXK^," Le" lxrsqe" d'Orhqhr" at"
lnhr" de" Kgnhaj," II," )1.0," p." -00--1);"
R." "A X^RO]," Die" Berichte" des"
"Neferhotep" und" Ichernofret" ber" das"
Osirisfest" in" Abydos," in" Fersrcgqhs"
ytl" $(#igqhfem" Bersegem" der" Beqkhmeq"
fxoshrcgem" Mtretlr," MSB" 0," )1/,,"
p.",,,"n."a,",.-,/,"n."f;"Fr-R."HOLSX,"
Le"Lhuqe"de"oaqcntqhq"k'seqmhs,"OLA"-0,"
)11,,"p.")(0-)(1;"D."MOOU],"Mxsger"es"
kfemder"dt"Deksa"d'aoqr"ke"oaoxqtr"Bqnnjkxm"'*.%$+.+',"MIFAO")*-,"*((.,"p.",,,"
n.")-,"+((,"n.")((*."For"the"object"itself,"
see"H.E."WSXVYMU,"Bar-Rekher"qnl"sge"
Teloke"n"Ralerer"I"as"Abxdnr,"MMAP"),"
)1*),"p.")--*..

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

),1

f." Protective"deities"are"usually"the"ones"who" drive"away"errant"spirits"(r q"lx.v).),/"In"a"


geographically-structured"hymn"from"Edfu,"Horus"in"Abydos"is"specically" he"who"drives"
away"wandering"spirits"(r q"lx.v)"from"the"tomb"of"his"father,"Osiris"(Ednt"VIII,".,")*)."
is"term"might"be"another"reference"to"the"Persians"(cf."rtoqa,"b.),"and"this"text"recalls"the"
Speos"Artemidos"inscription"of"Hatshepsut"in"which"she"blames"wandering"nomad"elements"(also"lx.v)"among"the"foreign"Hyksos"for"destruction"to"Egyptian"temples"during"
the"Second"Intermediate"Period.),0
"
g. e" august"head"belongs"to"Osiris,),1"and"was"traditionally"preserved"within"the"Abydene"
standard." e"ability"of"this"relic"to"ward"oC"enemies"from"Osiris's"head"is"further"described"
in"a"caption"from"Dendera"(Demdaqa"X,"**1,"1-)():
" b v"or"rv "so-m qx"l"b v
" o .m=r" q.s"q"r q"rb.v"q=
"
e"atftrs"Abxdnr-rsamdaqd"vghcg"oqnsecsr"sge"dhuhme"gead "hm"Abxdnr,
" hs"hr"hm"nqdeq"sn"qeoek"emelher"qnl"hs"(uhy."sge"gead)"sgas"hs"qeacged"sge"rjx.
h.""According" to" a" famous" inscription" from" Dendera," two"bd-molds" were" used" to" fashion"
mummy-shaped"eDgies"of"Osiris-Khentyamenty"and"Sokar"from"grain,"sand,"aromatics"
and"water"during"the"Khoiak"festival.)-("
i."" is"phrase"nds"a"direct"parallel"in"CG"*1/,"col."+,"where"the"priest"Hor"claims"to"have"
renovated"the"temple"of"Osiris" in"order"to"rejuvenate"the"Great"God"at"his"time"(q"rqmo"
m q""q"sq=").)-)
j." ese"actions"echo"a"passage"in"the"Naucratis"Stela,"column".,"where"Nectanebo"I"is"said"to"
be" one"who"increases"necessary"objects"(r"db .v),"and"creates"abundance"in""everything"
(r oq"v x.s"l" s"mb).)-*" e"db .v"could"refer"to"generic"ritual"implements"for"the""temple.)-+"
LGG"VI," OLA" ))-," *((*," p." ,-1;"
Chr."TRSO]," Une"porte"de"Ptolme"
vergte" II" consacre" " Khonsou-quixe"le"sort,"Cagheqr"de"Kaqmaj")),"*((+,"
p." -01," n." b," -1,," n." -/;" WSV]YX," A"
Psnkelahc" Lewhjnm," )11/," p." 01,," )((0)((1."For"the"semantic"evolution"of"the"
term"lx.v,"from" foreign"nomads"to"
demons," see" H.-W." FS]MRO-EVPO^,"
Abrehsr"unm"Ma'as."Fakkrstdhem"yt"Atemrehseqm"hl"Aksem"fxosem,"*((-,"p.")1-*-.
" 148" J.P." AVVOX,"
e" Speos" Artemidos"Inscription"of"Hatshepsut,"BES").,"
*((*,"p."-,"pl."*,"col."+/-+0.
" 149" For"the"specic"term" august"head"
(so"or)"in"similar"contexts,"see"HOLSX,"
Le" Lhuqe" de" oaqcntqhq" k'seqmhs," )11,,"
p."))(;"MOOU],"Mxsger"es"kfemder"dt"Deksa,"p.",,,"n.")-;"Chr."LOS^d," Les"trente"
premiers"versets"de"la"litanie"d'Osiris""
Esna"(Esna"*)/)""RdE"-1,"*((0,"p."*.);"
" 147"

cf."also"Demdaqa"X,"+.,"),,"and"compare"
the" similar" divine" head" (so-m qx)" of"
Osiris"mentioned"in"Demdaqa"X,"**1,"1"
and",(),"),.
" 150" For" the" term" bd," see" CRK]]SXK^,"
Le"Mxrsqe"d'Orhqhr"at"lnhr"de"Kgnhaj,"I,"
)1..,"p.")10-*((;"WSV]YX,"A"Psnkelahc"
Lewhjnm,")11/,"p."++.;"MOOU],"Mxsger"es"
kfemder"dt"Deksa,"*((.,"p.".0,"n.")**;"
for" the" separate" mold" of" Sokar" (distinct" from" the" mold" of" Osiris)," see"
Demdaqa"X,"+),"*--,"+*,"1-)),"-(,"0,"Pls."-"
and"+(,"and"the"discussion"of""CRK]]SXK^,"
no." chs.," p." --," -/--0." For" the" Osirian"
grain-"mummies"in"general,"see"the"summaries"and"bibliography"in"S."CK_`SVVO,"
Le"seloke"de"Demdaqa:"Ler"cgaoekker"nrhqhemmer,"II:"cnllemsahqe,"BdE"))0,")11/,"
p." )/-)1;" Chr." LOS^d," Qtekkemsewse" ytq"
fxoshrcgem"Rekhfhnm"I:"Dhe"Teloekhmrcgqhsem"deq"fqhecghrcg-qlhrcgem"Zehs,"EQA"*,"

*((,," p." )++-),(;" M." MSXK]-NOZOV,"


Die" ptolemischen" Sokar-Osiris-"
Mumien:" Neue" Erkenntnisse" zum"
gyptischen"Dynastiekult"der"Ptolemer,"
MDAIK".*,"*((.,"p.")1/-*)+;"and"most"
recently" M.C." COX^YXO," Efxosham"
Cnqm-"Mtllher:" a" Ckarr" n" Rekhfhntr"
Aqseacsr" Casaknfted" amd" Sxrselashcakkx"
Oqfamhyed,"*((1.
" 151" K."JKX]OX-WSXUOVX," Die"Inschrift"
des"Portrtstatue"des"Hor,"MDAIK"-,,"
)110,"p."**1,"*+(,"g."),"*++,"n."*..
" 152" For"the"term"v x.s," grain;"harvest;"
abundance,"in"similar"inscriptions,"see"
VOMY_^^O,"BIFAO",1,")1-(,"p.")(.,"
n." (i);" cf." also" WSV]YX," A" Psnkelahc"
Lewhjnm,")11/,"p.")1/;"EQLO^],"Im"Qters"
n"Meamhmf,"I,")11-,"p."*1(,"n.")-.
" 153" JOVXUY`-ROcWYXN," ASAE" -,,"
)1-/,"p."*0,,"n."*/;"WSV]YX,"A"Psnkelahc"
Lewhjnm,")11/,"p."))1(-))1).

"

)-("

NK`SN"UVY^d

" Alternatively,"if"the"author"is"still"speaking"about"the"mold"of"Sokar,"the"db .v"and"v x.s,"


grain,"may"refer"specically"to"the"special"objects"necessary"for"creating"the"grain"mummy."
Note"that"one"section"of"the"Khoiak"inscription"from"Dendera"lists" the"objects"necessary"
for"the"mold"of"Sokar"(m"db .v"m"o"bd"m"Sjq).)-,

Summary
e"owner"of"the"statue"held"the"important"military"position"of"chief"Generalissimo"(lx-q"
l"vq),"and"his"administrative"and"sacerdotal"titles"connect"him"to"Busiris"and"Mostai"in"the"
Delta."He"presents"himself"using"a"series"of"traditional"idealizing"epithets,"with"a"particular"
focus"on"his"education,"eloquence,"and"his"eCorts"in"defending"Egypt"from"its"enemies"(viz."the"
Persians)."
Art"historical"and"epigraphic"considerations"support"dating"the"statue"to"the"fourth"century"
LMO,"perhaps"more"precisely"to"the"reign"of"Nectanebo"I"(cf."rtoqa)." e"fact"that"Nectanebo"
I"and"II"also"funded"building"projects"at"Abydos"further"argues"in"favor"of"this"conclusion."
As"Neal"Spencer"has"noted,"high-ranking"oDcials"were"responsible"for"much"of"the"temple"
reconstruction"in"the" irtieth"Dynasty,")--"and"private"restoration"texts"often"accompany"royal"
inscriptions,"as"with"Peftuaneith"and"Amasis"(cf."rtoqa,"Section")).
As"noted"above"(section"A,"text"note"q),"the"sole"title"of"Generalissimo"is"not"suDcient"to"
identify"the"statue's"owner."Nonetheless,"the"object"bears"a"number"of"artistic"and"textual"similarities"to"the"monuments"of"another"Generallisimo,"Hor"(Louvre"A."00"="A,"and"Alexandria,"
w/o" "="B).)-."Textually,"these"include"the"mention"of"expelling" opponents"(m.v)"(A,"col.")),"
the"gazelle"to"write"q"(B,"col."*),"and"the"epithets"involving" l"and"p"(B,"col."*)."Like"the"
owner"of"the"MMA")11..1),"Hor"was"also"in"charge"of"Mostai"(Nv.s-qm=r),"(A,"col."*),"defended"Egypt"against"foreigners"(A,"col.")),"and"nanced"temple"renovations"and"administrative"
changes"(A,"cols."*-,,"B,"cols."+-,)."Artistically,"the"statues"are"all"similar"sizes"and"modeled"in"
the"same"striding"pose,"although"the"kilts"are"quite"diCerent.)-/"In"addition,"the"inscriptions"are"
strikingly"similar"in"layout"as"all"three"statues"have"four"columns,"the"signs"are"carved"in"the"
same"style,"and"the"spacing"is"almost"identical.)-0"It"is"tempting"to"suggest"that"MMA")11..1)"
represents"another"statue"of"the"general"Hor,"erected"in"Busiris"or"Abydos"to"commemorate"
his"local"euergetism,"while"the"other"statues"celebrating"benefactions"to"Harsaphes,"Heneb,"
and"other"deities"would"come"from"Herakleopolis;)-1"at"the"very"least,"it"is"not"unimaginable"

Demdaqa" X," +,," )+-+-," +-," ));"


cf."CRK]]SXK^,"Le"lxrsqe"d'Orhqhr"at"lnhr"
de"Kgnhaj,"II,")1.0,"p.",1+-,1/;"Fr."JKXY^,"
Ler"hmrsqtlemsr"d'elbatlemems,"BdE")*-,"
*(((," p." +/-,(" (kindly" suggested" by"
Philippe"Collombert);"for"similar"private"
donations" of" valuable" ritual" or" mummication"equipment,"see"Chr."TRSO],"
gyptiens"et"Grecs"au"service"des"culte"
indignes."Un"aspect"de"l'vergtisme"en"
gypte"lagide,"in"M."Molin"(ed.),"Ler"
" 154"

qftkashnmr"rnchaker"damr"k'Amshpths."Acser"
dt"cnkknpte"d'Amfeqr"%&"es"%'"lah"%##&,"
*((.," p." *//;" D." KVY^d,"
e" Statue"
of" the" dhnhjsr" Harkhebi/Archibios:"
Nelson-Atkins" Museum" of" Art" ,/-)*,"
BIFAO")(1,"*((1,"p."*1.-*1/,"n."z.
" 155" N."SZOXMO,"A"Nanr"n"Nejgsgnqgeb"
qnl"Btbarshr,"*((.,"p."-).
" 156" VOMY_^^O," BIFAO" ,1," )1-(,"
p."0--)),;"GYO,"Ler"qekashnmr"dt"ckeqf"
fxoshem"es"der"Lafhder,"*((1,"p.")10-*(1.

VOMY_^^O," BIFAO" ,1," )1-(,"


Pls."I"and"IV.
" 158" Even"the"average"sizes"of"the"hieroglyphs"are"close"to"those"on"the"Louvre"
and"Alexandria"statues;"cf."VOMY_^^O"
BIFAO",1,")1-(,"p.")(),"n.").
" 159" Compare"the"Saite"oDcials"Neshor"
and" Peftuaneith" (discussed" rtoqa," Section")),"who"dedicated"statues"to"various"
local"deities"in"both"Upper"and"Lower"
Egypt.
" 157"

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

)-)

that"all"three"statues"are"products"of"the"same"Lower"Egyptian"asekheq."Nonetheless,"this"statue"
could"have"easily"belonged"to"another"member"of"the"burgeoning"military"elite"of"the" irtieth"
Dynasty"with"ties"to"Nectanebo,"an"industrious"social"class"responsible"for"a"renascence"of"
archaizing"inscriptions,"temple"reconstruction,"and"religious"scholarship.).(
e"General"rst"mentions"benefactions"he"performed"for"the"temples"in"his"hometown"of"
Busiris."He"renovated"the"sanctuary"(r.s"vq.s)"of"the"local"Osiris"temple,"and"donated"a"new"
processional"bark"(v y-mqv)"and"portable"shrine"( "or)"to"carry"the"divine"statue."He"performed"similar"works"for"the"god"Anubis"in"the"nearby"town"of"Cynopolis."In"the"nal"column,"
the"General"speaks"of"similar"temple"benefactions"he"performed"in"Abydos,"here"called"Scarab"
City"(Nv.s- oqq)."Abydos"had"traditionally"been"a"popular"pilgrimage"destination,"as"followers"
wished"to"erect"their"own"stelae"and"private"shrines"as"close"as"possible"to"the"tomb"of"Osiris.).)"
Since"this"oDcial"was"also"a"priest"of"Osiris"in"Lower"Egypt"(Busiris),"his"municence"towards"
Abydos"reects"particularly"pious"devotion"to"his"local"god"by"restoring"his"ancient"temple"
in"Upper"Egypt." e"same"type"of"euergetism"was"performed"by"the"high-ranking"oDcial"
Nestaisous"(most"likely"from"the" irtieth"Dynasty),"a"priest"of"Amun"in"Xois"(Lower"Egypt)"
who"commissioned"an"impressive"group"statue"for"the"temple"of"Amun"at"Karnak"and"noted"
that"he" placed"his"arms"around"the"priests"of" ebes,"after"the"City"had"fallen"into"<dis>order"
(qd".vx=" " l.v-m q.v"Wr.s" q"v"N(v).s"l"<>mmv).).*
e" anonymous" General's" gifts" at" Abydos" are" relatively" modest" compared" to" his" contributions"in"the"Busirite"nome,"consisting"primarily"of"cult"objects:"a"silver"mold"to"fashion"
grain-mummies"of"Sokar"during"the"annual"Khoiak"festival,"restoration"of"the"Abydene"standard,"and"additional"small"objects"used"for"temple"services"(db .v)." e"most"interesting"detail"
is"that"these"donations"were"necessary"to"undo" the"damage"inicted"by"the"foreigners"(g"
q.m" rsx.v)."Because"of"the"statue's" irtieth"Dynasty"date,"this"phrase"can"only"refer"to"the"
Persians,).+"implying"they"had"conscated"these"valuable"ritual"objects"or"even"damaged"the"
temples." e"fact"that"the"General"does"not"mention"similar"damage"at"Busiris"or"Cynopolis"
supports"the"veracity"of"these"claims,"suggesting"that"like"in"the"Ptolemaic"Period,"Abydos"or"
even"Upper"Egypt"as"a"whole"may"have"suCered"from"Persian"attacks"again"anti-Persian"rebels.).,

See"in"general"N."SZOXMO,"no."chs.,"
p.",/--*;"MKXK]]K," e"Lase"Efxosham"
Umdeqvnqkd,"*((/.
" 161" Cf."the"Saite"statues"of"Peftuaneith"
and"Neshor"from"Abydos"(rtoqa),"just"
two" of" the" many" private" monuments"
these" prominent" oDcials" dedicated"
throughout"Egypt.
" 162" G_OWO_," BIFAO" )(,," *((,,"
p."*/),"*/0-*/1,"n."v;"Guermeur"noted"
additional"examples"of"priests"of"Amun"
in" Balamun" (Lower" Egypt)" who" also"
donated"statues"at"Karnak"(hbhd,"p."*,.,"
n.",).
" 160"

For" rsx.v" denoting" Persians" in"


contemporaneous"inscriptions,"see"especially"LOPOL`O,"Le"snlbeat"de"Psnrhqhr,"
II,")1*+,"(*"nd"ed."*((/),"p."+*"(n"-1,"+);"
and"the"discussions"of"G."Posener"(La"
oqelhqe" dnlhmashnm" oeqre" em" fxose,"
)1+.," p." )./-).0);" SROWKX," JEA" ./,"
)10),"p."1-,"n."u;"D."DO`K_MROVVO," Le"
sentiment" anti-perse" chez" les" anciens"
gyptiens," Tqamretogqasme" 1," )11-,"
p."//-0(;"Chr."TRSO]," Civils"et"militaires" dans" les" temples." Occupation"
illicite" et" expulsion," BIFAO" 1-," )11-,"
p.",11,"n."a.

" 163"

Note"that"such"attacks"on"sacred"
sites"even"occurred"in"the"Pharaonic"Period,"as"when"Khety"damaged"the"nearby"
necropolis" of" inis" during" the" First"
Intermediate"Period:"P."VOX_]," Mns,"
Achtos,"l'hippopotame"et"le"crocodile""
lecture"structurale"de"l'historiographie"
gyptienne,"in"U."Verhoeven,"E."Graefe"
(eds.),"Rekhfhnm"tmd"Pghknrnoghe"hl"aksem"
fxosem,")11),"p."+++-++-;"J.C."DKXOVV,"
e"Message"of"King"Wahankh"Antef"
II" to" Khety," Ruler" of" Heracleopolis,"
ZS")*,,")11/,"p.")(.-)(0.
" 164"

"

)-*"

NK`SN"UVY^d

"Sbnnytic"Rnaissanc"and"th"Prsians
is"brief"phrase"about"the" foreigners"adds"a"compelling"new"perspective"on"the"transitional"fourth"century"LMO,"the"religious"policies"of"the"Persian"Empire,"and"the"responses"
of"the"indigenous"elite."A"group"of"autobiographies"from"the"late" irtieth"Dynasty,"Second"
Persian" Domination," and" reign" of" Alexander" (primarily" Petosiris," Djedhor" the" Savior," the"
general"Hor,"Onnophris,"Somtoutefnakht),"have"long"served"as"the"primary"sources"for"this"
turbulent"period"of"Egyptian"history.).-" e"inscription"on"MMA")11..1)"diCers"from"these"
well-known"texts"in"two"critical"regards.
e"anonymous"general"species"that"the"damage"was"caused"by" foreigners."Restoration"
inscriptions"traditionally"explain"previous"temple"destruction"as"the"result"of"human"negligence"
or"natural"disasters"such"as"oods.).."Contemporaneous"autobiographies"generally"evoke"the"
former"topos,"making"oblique"references"to"a"period"of"chaos,"ignorance,"or"neglect,"particularly"in"reference"to"temples"and"religious"activities."According"to"Petosiris,"all"of"Egypt"was"
in"turmoil"and" the"priests"had"gone"away,"ignorant"of"what"was"happening"therein"(vb.v"
q(.v)"l"mm"q " oq"l).)./"Wennefer,"another"oDcial"from"Hermopolis,"built"a"new"sacred"
lake"at"the" oth"temple"in"order"to"carry"out"purication"rituals,"decrying"that"the"temple"
had" been"damaged"for"ages"(vm(.v)"vrx" q" m.sx)"and"that" there"were"no"longer"any"priests"
inside"(m"vm"vb"mb"l- ms=r),"so"that"he"was"moved"to"perform"a"thorough"purication"of"
fourteen"days"before"resuming"temple"services.).0"Somtoutefnakht"commented"that"his"local"
god,"Harsaphes,"had" turned"his"back"on"Egypt.).1"
Unlike" his" peers," the" anonymous" General" names" the" agent" of" destruction," namely" the"
foreigners."If"the"statue"truly"dates"to"the"reign"of"Nectanebo"I,"or"even"to"the"reigns"of"Teos"
or"Nectanebo"II"(cf."rtoqa),"this"passage"is"one"of"the"earliest"allegations"of"Persians"molesting"
Egyptian"temples.)/("Most"sacerdotal"decrees"of"the"Ptolemaic"Period"celebrate"the"Lagide"reclamation"of"Egyptian"statues"purportedly"carried"away"by"the"Persians.)/)"Skeptical""historians"

" 165" See" recently" M." CRK_`OK_," Chr."


TRSO]," L'gypte" en" transition:" des"
Perses"aux"Macdoniens,"in"P."Briant,"
Fr." Joanns" (eds.)," La" sqamrhshnm" emsqe"
k'Elohqe"acglmhde"es"ker"qnxatler"gekkmhrshpter"(Veqr"&(#-&##"au."J.-C.,"*((.,"
p." +00-+01;" B." MOX_," L'apport" des"
autobiographies" hirioglyphiques" "
l'histoire"des"deux"dominations"perses,"
Tqamretogqasme"+-,"*((1,"p.")-,-).).
" 166" D."RONPYN,"Pgaqnmhc"Khmf-Lhrsr,"
Ammakr,"amd"Dax-Bnnjr,"SSEAP",,")10.,"
p." *-1-*/-;" M." WSOXO," J.P." "AVVOX,"
Separate" Lives:" e" Ahmose"Tempest"
and" the" eran" Eruption," JNES" -/,"
)110," p." *(-*);" for" building" inscriptions" in" general," see" GKVVO^,"
Batem""Sshsem""Wehgem;"J.B."MMCVKSX,"
Rersnqashnm"Imrcqhoshnmr"amd"sge"Tqadhshnm"

n""Mnmtlemsak"Rersnqashnm"(PhD"Diss.;"
University"of"Chicago,"*((/).
" 167" LOPOL`O,"Le"snlbeat"de"Psnrhqhr"II,"
)1*+"(*"nd"ed."*((/),"p."-,,"n"0),"+*-++."
" 168" British"Museum,"EA".1,0."(unpublished);"see"http://www."britishmuseum.
org/research.aspx;"H."DO"MO_VOXKOO,"
La"statuette"du"scribe"du"roi"Pakhnoum"
(Le"Caire"JE"+/,-.),"CdE"/*,")11/,"p.")/.
" 169" Uqj."II,"+,")-;"PON_,"RdE"+.,")10-,"
p.")(-,"n."g.
" 170" When" Cambyses" arrived" in"
Egypt," the" Saite" oDcial" Udjahorresne"
"complained" of" foreigners" (probably"
from" the" Persian" military)" who" had"
taken" up" residence" within" the" temple"
of"Neith,"but"he"made"no"allegations"of"
destruction"or"stolen"property;"PY]OXO,"
La"oqelhqe"dnlhmashnm"oeqre"em"fxose,"

p." ),-)/;" Chr."TRSO]," Civils" et" militaires" dans" les" temples." Occupation"
illicite" et" expulsion,"BIFAO" 1-," )11-,"
p.",10-,11.
" 171" See"most"recently"TRSO],"Psnkle"
Pghkadekoge"es"ker"oqsqer"d'Asntl"de"Tijnt,"p.")((-)(.."Some"historians"have"
suggested"that"it"was"actually"the"Assyrians"(also"designated"as" the"foreigners)"
who"deported"the"statues"during"their"
Egyptian"invasion"in"the"seventh"century"
LMO,"and"traces"of"this"action"might"be"
found"in"the"Demotic"story" e"Quest"
for"the"Divine"Limbs,"where"Imhotep"
and"Djoser"travel"to"Assyria"to"recover"
the"sacred"relics"of"Osiris"(cf."K."RcRYV^,"
e"Life"of"Imhotep"(P."Carlsberg"0-),"in"
G."Widmer,"D."Devauchelle"(eds.),"Acser"
dt" IXe" cnmfqr" hmseqmashnmak" der" stder"

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

)-+

have"tried"to"dismiss"these"episodes"as"ctitious"propaganda,"a"literary"snonr"devised"to"legitimize"Ptolemaic"rule"in"Egypt"as"guardians"of"Pharaonic"religion"and"culture.)/*"However,"the"
irtieth"Dynasty"testimony"of"our"anonymous"General"demonstrates"that"Egyptians"were"
accusing"the"Persians"of"raiding"temple"treasuries"before"Ptolemy"I"and"even"before"the"second"
Persian"invasion"of"Artaxerxes"III"Ochus."
Additional"early"references"to"such"deportations"may"occur"on"the"naos"of"Nectanebo"I"from"
Saft"el-Henna"(CG"/((*)).)/+" e"dedicatory"inscriptions"celebrate"how"Nectanebo"discovered"
the"divine"statues"depicted"on"the"naos"and"allude"several"times"that"these"objects"had"been"
missing"for"a"period"of"time."One"passage"mentions"that"these"gods"had"been" hidden"since"
the"time"of"the"ancestors,"when"turmoil"had"come"to"pass"in"Egypt"(lm(.v)" q"qj" qsx.v,"l"
v" qv"q" oq" q"Bp.s),)/,"while"another"excerpt"notes"that"Nectanebo"restored"the"statues"
to"their"proper"place" after"an"extended"period"of"time"(in"which)"they"had"wandered"oC"to"
foreign"lands"(l- s"oqx.s"v(.s)"r(m)" q"oqq"q" r.vs).)/-"According"to"the"most"detailed"
portion,"the"chief"local"god"Sopdu"chose"to"reveal"himself"to"Nectanebo"I" after"a"great"many"
years"(l-r"qmo.vs"pm.v):)/.
rj"rv" q"m .s" .v="
v"m q"om"l"r.s"s.s
" "
mm"q "rs"m" qx.v-rs.v
" "
or .s"mb"mv"ro.s"sm"l"lm" .s=rm
qd.m"rs"m q"l"b"m"mb-s.vx
" "
(q)"q.s"m"l"mqv" l="[]
" "
[]"qmo.vs"pm.v"mm"q " oq"l
v.sv" q"l"r(v)"l"ff
q"rq=r"l"lq.s"l" "l- d
" "
p"oq.m=" q"bs.s
" "
r m.m="s"l" .v=

dlnshpter,"BdE"),/,"*((1,"p."+(0-+)()."
While"this"is"possible,"one"should"note"
that"there"are"few"if"any"references"to"
stolen" statues" in" royal" and" private" inscriptions"of"the"Twenty-Sixth"Dynasty,"
after" the" expulsion" of" the" Assyrians,"
compared" with" the" multiple" allusions"
to" this" snonr" in" the" irtieth" Dynasty"
and"early"Ptolemaic"Period.
" 172" E.g." P." BSKX^," Quand" les" rois"
crivent" l'histoire:" la" domination"
achmnide"vue""travers"les"inscriptions"
oDcielles" lagides," in" N.-Chr." Grimal,"
M."Baud"(eds.),"umelems,"qchs,"ghrsnhqe"
n>chekke." L'cqhstqe" de" k'ghrsnhqe" damr" ker"
lnmaqcgher"amshpter,"*((+,"p.")/)-)0+.

" 173" RYONO,"CGC"Nanr,")1),,"p."-0-11"


(not" discussed" by" BSKX^," no." chs.);"
translations" can" be" found" already" in"
I.W." SMR_WKMRO," Deq" Gnss" Snodt,"
deq" Heqq" deq" Fqeldkmdeq," OBO" /1,"
)100,"p.").+-)/-;"N."SZOXMO,"A"Nanr"n"
Nejgsgnqges,"p."*+-*.";"new"studies"are"
in"preparation"by"ke"Engsheden"and"
Hlne"Virenque" (personal" communication).
" 174" RYONO," CGC" Nanr," )1),," p." 1,,"
"+,,.
" 175" RYONO," CGC" Nanr," )1),," p." /.,"
" +).;" cf." KVY^d," BIFAO" )(1," *((1,"
p."*10,"n."ag"(noting"a"similar"formulation" in" the" Canopus" Decree," line" .);"

SMR_WKMRO,"no."chs.,"p.")/(,"translated:"
Nach"der"Umlaufszeit(?)"einer"Spende"
beim"Herumschweifen"zu"den"Fremdlndern."
" 176" RYONO," CGC" Nanr," )1),," p." .+,"
*1-c-e;"SMR_WKMRO,"no."chs.,"p.").,."
The" personal" connection" between"
Sopdu"and"Nectanebo"I"is"emphasized"
throughout"the"inscription,"especially"in"
the"following"excerpt:" (Sopdu)"desired"
(to"return)"to"his"proper"throne"(specically)" during" the" reign" of" Kheperkare"
(Nectanebo"I),"his"beloved"son"(b="r.s="
l"qj" oq-j-R"y="lq=")"(RYONO,"
CGC"Nanr,")1),,"p."/1,""+*)c).

"

)-,"

NK`SN"UVY^d

He"(Necsamebn"I)"var"qeptershmf"(sn"ree)"ghr"qadhamce,)//
vghke"sghr"fnd"var"hm"a"qelnse"kncashnm,)/0
" "
vghcg"var"tmjmnvm"euem"bx"sgnre"cgaqfed"vhsg"recqesr,
" "
ar"sge"emshqe"Emmead"n"sghr"dhrsqhcs"veqe"ghdhmf"sgehq"bndher.
e"fnd"ots"hs"hm"sge"lhmd"n"sge"Lnqd"n"sge"Tvn"Lamdr,
" "
sn"laje"am"e=nqs"sn"ree"sge"oeqecshnm"n"ghr"laiersx"[]
" "
[aseq]"lamx"xeaqr"vgem"mnbndx"jmev"vgas"var"gaooemhmf.
Ome"(Necsamebn"I)"rtddemkx"rav"ghl"hm"arsnmhrglems,
itbhkamskx"oqnckahlhmf"hs"hm"sge"rsqeesr,"raxhmf:
" "
e"Rtkeq"gar"qestqmed"qnl"sge"Ears"
" "
He"gar"hkktlhmed"sge"eaqsg"vhsg"ghr"qadhamce. "
In"this"oDcial"account,"the"gods"went"into"hiding"during"the"Persian"Period,"and"Sopdu"
only"returned"once"Nectanebo"took"control"of"Egypt."While"it"is"possible"that"priests"had"carefully"concealed"the"statues"for"safekeeping,"the"narrative"might"simply"justify"how"the"divine"
objects"left"the"country,"much"like"the"pseudo-historic"Bentresh"Stela.)/1
Returning"to"MMA")11..1),"the"main"crime"against"Abydos"was"apparently"related"to"the"
valuable"ritual"equipment."Unfortunately,"our"anonymous"General"does"not"specify"which"
Persian"ruler"was"responsible,"although"one"thinks"rst"of"Cambyses"or"Xerxes"I,"the"Great"
Kings"with"the"worst"reputations"with"regards"to"Egyptian"temples"and"cults.)0("One"might"
even" postulate" that" there" was" one" memorable" disaster" in" Abydos," when" the" cartouches" of"
Amasis"were"erased"(cf."rtoqa,"Section"))"and"the"temple"stripped"of"its"precious"relics."Only"
new"evidence"from"Abydos,"Sohag,"or"some"unexpected"source"can"clarify"this"matter.

In"another"text,"Nectanebo"I"brings"
Sopdu"back"to"his"throne" after"many"
years" during" which" they" had" been" requesting"to"see"him"(l- s"q" m.sx"qmo.
vs" v=rm" q" m (.s)" l=" )" (RYONO,"
CGC"Nanr,")1),,"p."/1,""+*)c).
" 178" Elsewhere"the"gods"are"said"to"have"
been" found"in"another"remote"location"
(fl.v" l" j.s" r.s-s.s)" (RYONO," CGC"
Nanr,")1),,"p.".1"and"/),""+(-"and"+(0).
" 177"

See"recently"W.K."SSWZ]YX"(ed.),"
e" Lhseqastqe" n" Amchems" Efxos," *((+,"
p."+.)-+..,"--(.
" 180" For" Cambyses," see" K." JKX]OXWSXUOVX," Die"Quellen"zur"Eroberung"
gyptens"durch"Kambyse,"in"T.A."Bcs"
(ed)," A"Tqhbtse" sn" Ewcekkemce:" Sstdher"
n=eqed" hm" gnmnq" n" Eqm" Gak," Ukqhcg"
Lts," Lryk "Tqj," SstdAef" )/," *((*,"
p." +(1-+)1;" KKRX," Tqamretogqasme"
" 179"

+,," *((/," p." )(+-))*;" for" Xerxes," see"


H." KVSXUY^^," Xerxes" in" gypten."
Gedanken" zum" negativen" Perserbild"
in" der" Satrapenstele," in" St." PfeiCer"
(ed.),"fxosem"tmseq"qeldem"Heqqrcgeqm"
yvhrcgem"oeqrhrcgeq"Sasqaohe"tmd"qlhrcgeq"
Pqnuhmy,"Ohjtleme"+,"*((/,"p."+,-,1.

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

a.

b.
PSQ.")"a-b."
a."Partially"mutilated"cartouche"of"Amasis"(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"west"staircase).
b."Hapi"gures,"with"mutilated"cartouches"of"Amasis"(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"northeast"staircase).

)--

"

)-."

NK`SN"UVY^d

a.

b.
PSQ."*"a-b." Two"blocks"with"various"divinities"(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"west"staircase).

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

a.

b.

c.
PSQ."+"a-c."
a."Archaizing"oCering"list"(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"south"portal"of"west"exterior"wall).
b."Sed-Festival"Scene"(Sohag,"White"Moanstery"Church,"loose"block"along"north"wall"of"Nave).
c."Sed-Festival"Scene"(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"east"portal"of"Long"Hall).

)-/

"

)-0"

NK`SN"UVY^d

a.

b.

PSQ.","a-b."
a."Sed-Festival"scene"(Rtdeqkat")"
(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"west"
staircase,"upper"gallery)."
b."Amasis"in"Sed-Festival"robe"(Sohag,"White"
Monastery"Church,"north"portal,"interior).

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

)-1

b.

c.

a.

PSQ."-"a-c."
a."Relief"of"Osiris" [Lord"of"Aby]dos"(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"
window"between"Nave"and"Long"Hall)."
b."Relief"of"enthroned"Osiris"(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"west"staircase).
c."Relief"with"mummiform"gures"(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"window"
in"north"exterior"wall).

"

).("

NK`SN"UVY^d

a.

b.
PSQ."."a-b."
a."Cartouche"of"Amasis" son"of"Osiris"(White"Monastery"Church,"north"portal,"east"interior"jamb).
b."Relief"with"King"and"Iunmuef"priest"before"a"divinity"(Sohag,"White"Monastery"Church,"east"portal"of"south"wall).

PSQ."/." Statue"MMA")11..1),"front"and"back.

e"Metropolitan"Museum"of"Art

e"Metropolitan"Museum"of"Art
"

).)

"

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

"

e"Metropolitan"Museum"of"Art

NK`SN"UVY^d

e"Metropolitan"Museum"of"Art

).*"

"

"

a.

PSQ."0"a-b."
a."Statue"MMA")11..1),"detail"of"kilt.
b."Statue"MMA")11..1),"left"prole.
b.

"

e"Metropolitan"Museum"of"Art

^aY"]^_NSO]"YX"^RO"VK^O"ZOSYN"^OWZVO]"K^"KLcNY]"

PSQ."1." Statue"MMA")11..1),"back"pillar.

).+