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Test 7

l.a

2.a

3.b

4.d

5.b

6.c

7.c

l1.a

12.d

13.a

t4.b

15.d

16.b

17.b

9.a

l0.c

l8.a

19.c

29.b

20.b
30.a

8.c

22.b

23.a

24.c

25.b

26.d

27.c

28.b

l.c

2.b

3.c

4.b

5.a

6.b

7.d

8.b

9.a

10.c

11.b

12.c

13.c

14.b

l5.a

17.b

18.b

19.a

2l.a

22.b

23.c

24.d

25.a

r6.d
26.d

27.d

28.c

29.d

20.b
30.c

2.d

3.c

4.a

5.c

6.b

7.a

8.b

9.d

10.c

2t.d
Test

Test

1.b

l1.a

12.d

13.c

14.c

l5.a

16.b

17.c

18.c

19.b

26.c

27.c

28.b

29.c

20.d
30.b

9.d

10.a

20.a
30.a

22.b

23.d

24.b

25.a

l.d

2.c

3.d

4.d

s.b

6.c

7.b

8.c

11.b

12.b

13.a

14.b

1s.b

16.d

l8.c

19.b

28.b

29.c

2t.c
Test

l0

2l.b
Test

22.d

23.d

24.b

25.b

26.c

r7.b
27.c

2.c

3.d

4.a

6.d

7.b

8.b

9.a

10.b

r9.d

11

1.b

l.a
2l.c
I

12.c

13.d

14.a

5.b
15.d

16.c

t7.d

18.c

22.c

23.d

24.b

25.d

26.c

27.c

28.c

29.c

20.d
30.a

2.d

3.b

4.c

5.a

6.b

7.b

8.c

r7.b
27.d

l8.c

9.a
19.b

20.a

28.c

29.d

30.b

8.d
I8.c
28.b

9.a

10.a

19.b

20.a

29.b

30.a1

Test 12
1.c

l1.d
2l.c

12.a

t3.b

14.a

l5.a

16.d

26.b

7.d

15.b

6.a
16.b

25.d

26.d

27.b

22.b

23.b

24.c

25.c

2.a

3.b

4.a

5.b

10.c

Test 13

l.a
11.b

2l.c

n8

12.c

22.c

13.c

23.b

l4.b
24.d

17.c

Test 14

l.c
l1.c
2t.b

2.a

3.c

4.c

s.b

6.a

7.d

8.c

9.a

l0.b

t2.b
22.b

l3.d

l5.c

l8.c

19.a

2s.b

6.b
26.c

17.a

23.d

r4.b
24.a

27.b

28.a

29.c

20.d
30.c

3.b

4.c

5.b

6.b

7.c

8.d

9.b

l0.c

t4.d

1s.d

16.b

17.d

l8.c

24.b

25.c

26.a

27.d

28.d

19.c
29.a

20.d
30.d

Test 15

l.a
l l.d

2"b
12.a

2L.b

22.d

t3.b
23.c

l.a
l l.c

2.b

3.a

4.a

5.b

6.a

7.d

8.b

9.c

l0.a

t2.d

73.a

l4.d

l5.d

l6.c

17.a

18.b

19.c

2l.a

22.b

23.d

24.b

25.c

26.c

27.d

28.d

29.a

20.c
30.c

l.b

2.c

3.c

4.a

7.a

8.b

t2.d

l3.c

14.c

16.a

l7.c

l8.d

9.a
19.c

2l.a

22.a

23.a

24.b

5.b
1s.b
25.c

6.d

I 1.c

26.d

27.c

28.d

29.b

20.c
30.c

l.b

2.a

3.d

4.c

5.d

6.b

7.b

8.a

9.b

l0.d

11.b

12.a

t3.d

14.a

15.a

16.a

17.a

22.b

23.a

24.c

2s.b

26.c

27.b

r 8.d
28.d

19.a

2t.d

29.d

20.b
30.c

2.a

4.a

s.b

6.b

7.b

12.d

3.a
13.d

t4.d

l6.d

t7.b

22.d

23.c

24.b

15.c
25.a

26.d

1.d
I 1.c

2.b

3.d

4.b

12.a

13.c

5.c
15.c

2I.c

22.b

23.d

14.d
24.a

2s.d

Test 16

Test 17
10.b

Test 18

Test 19

l.b
I l.a
2l.a

9.d

10.a

19.c

27.b

8.a
18.c
28.a

29.a

20.c
30.c

6.a
16.d

7.c

8.b

9.d

l0.b

17.c

18.d

l9.b

26.c

27.d

28.b

29.b

20.d
30.c

Test 20

CHALLENGES

10

inherited from many generations of weather-wise ancestors, and it is by thal


instinctively goes. So the Englishman is his own infallible barometer.

traditionally typical of: a'


rainbow,
black ice,blizzard, drizzle, gale,hail,hoar-frost, icicle,lightning, mist,
windl
shower, sleet, snow-flakes, sunshine, thaw, thunder bolt, thunderstorm,

C. Which

season is each of these phenomena/elements

D. What are the differences between: breeze, monsoon, typhoon, gale, hurricane,
E.

Fill in the blanks with one of the nouns denoting natural calamities:
e

ar th qu ak e, e r up t io n,

fir e s, flo o d,

an d slid e,

tid

al

w av

e,

orna

do e.s'

1. Global heating has brought about severe ...... in many EuroPean cou
recent Years.
2. The central part of the USA is frequently ravaged by ...

'.. that drop mu

behind.
3. The ...... struck in the dead of night taking its toll in a matter of minut'
4. The cottages on the side of the hitl were buried in the
5. we cant get across the bridge because the river is in ...... and the watr
too high.
6. Scientists say that a major ...... of Fuji is likely to happen in the near fu
7. The huge .. " ... devastated the southern coast of eastern Asia.
g. The . . . . .. that severely damaged huge areas in Greece were said to have be
by criminal negligence.

r Exercise

Fill in each gap with a word derived from the word in capitals at the end of
line.

A(
For world leaders and for the environment time is ...1... running out'
Urgent action is needed. Environmental concerns have to be included in
M
pol-icies. Not only because the ...2... believes, as Eurobarometer polls
PI
show, that environmental ...3... policies are an incentive for innovation
PI
and not an obstacle to economic ...4... . But because it is a necessity'
in
than
Current environmental challenges are more complex and diffuse
PI
the past. The most ...5. '. task is the climate change under way'
...0... the biggest challenge humanity faces in the 2l't century, climate A.

PI
change is already happening faster than ...7 ... expected. Average European
to
temp-eratures have risen in the past century by 0.95 "C and are expected

rise by 2-6 "C in this century. The impact is already evident in regional
water ...8... or melting polar ice. Sea levels rising by seven metres in
Greenland's glaciers melt or even by 100 metres in the Antarctic's glaciers

melt might no longer be ...9.. ' horror

scenarios'

SI

Fl

CHALLENGES

inherited from many generations of weather-wise ancestors, and it is by that that he


instinctively goes. so the Englishman is his own infallible baromerer.

C. Which

season is each of these phenomena/elements traditionally typical of: avalanche,


black ice, blizzard, drizzle, gale, hail, hoar-frost, icicle,lightning, mist, rainbow, rainfall,

shower, sleet, snow-flakes, sunshine, thaw, thunder bolt, thunderstorm, wind?

D. What

are the differences between: breeze, monsoon, typhoon, gale, hurricane, cyclone?

E. Fill in the blanks with one of the nouns denoting natural calamities:

drought,

earthquake, eruption, fires, flood, Iandslide, tidal wave, tornadoes.

l.

Global heating has brought about severe ...... in many European countries in
recent years.
2. The central part of the usA is frequently ravaged by ...... that drop much
debris
behind.
3. The ...... struck in the dead of night taking its toll in a matter of minutes.
4. The cottages on the side of the hill were buried in the
5. We can't get across the bridge because the river is in
too high.
6. Scientists say that a major ...... of Fuji is likely to happen in the near
future.
7. The huge ... . .. devastated the southern coast of eastern Asia.
8. The . '. '.. that severely damaged huge areas in Greece were said to have
been caused
by criminal negligence.

r Exercise

Fill in each gap with

word derived from the word in capitals at the end of the same

line.
For world leaders and for the environment time is ...1... running out.
urgent action is needed. Environmental concerns have to be included in
policies. Not only because the ...2... believes, as Eurobarometer polls
show, that environmental ...3... policies are an incentive for innovation
and not an obstacle to economic ,..4... . But because it is a necessity.
current environmental challenges are more complex and diffuse than in
the past. The most . . .5. . . task is the climate change under way.
...6... the biggest challenge humanity faces in the 21't century, climate
change is already happening faster than ...7 ... expected. Average European
temperatures have risen in the past century by 0.95
"c and are expected to
rise by 2-6 'c in this century. The impact is already evident in regional
water ...8... or melting polar ice. Sea levels rising by seven metres in
Greenland's glaciers melt or even by 100 metres in the Antarctic's glaciers
melt might no longer be ...9.., horror scenarios.

ACTUAL
MAJOR
PROTECT
PERFORM
PRESS

ARGUE
PREVIOUS

SHORT

FICTION

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Jo

,;rrjJueol{)eqsuoJ}Jaredrund}eq}surorsJapunql

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SOr

a-raqdsoule eqr or suoJrf,elaJo ssol "'6I"' aqr


treqr aar3e.{epo1s}srlua's -i .
_ .:
auo o] Surpromy 'sJnoq y7 ,l:r,rc umop qlnol slloq gurulq8l
uorlpu g i - r - i
'sallur ur ,qseg Surulq8rl aqt
o] e)uetsrp ...gi.. i _ . . , pue II dq spuoras ap$lp ,3ur1unol dols ,rapunql Juer{
no,( uaq14 .spuor:; -.- :
'
ilels '<qsuu e aas no.,(.;aUV.spuolas a^rJ lnoqe ur alru euo sla^eJl punos ..-,__1 -:
- *,i
3uru1q'r1 aas uer no,( aruassa ur reql
lpuoras :ad sa1,u, ooo,gf
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t^tl

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d11euorse,o,(ervresalruua^asoldnpreaqaqdleu.rouunrrroffil;Ij:r':

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guop
qied
aqt
rre
eq} spupc,-; _
Jo
ieaq "'9I"'q8urulq811 'areyns suns ar{rJo a:n1e:adtuar eqi saurr
a,rrJ or r:-_"
'elnJ u se ({
000,05 ot 000,0) 3 saargap 000,g2 ot 000,/I ruorC
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,., - : " :
ol pnop a{rl qool 1r q8n^oql ,pnolf, o1 punorg tuor; _ . .i. .
s,teq1) .qs:;- :
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ue
II
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e 3uo1y'apu.,, sr uorxauuol e pue eruoJJeAO Sr Jre
eqlJo aluplsrsal ei{r ,-\--, _ - , *
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sa8'reqr "'s"' eqt os ro])npuol "'t"' e sr rre
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sr Ie,t

qf,sa.,rue^{,, o'rr1e8au pue a^l}rsod's}ro^Jo suorilrurJo


pr1ual0d e sr aJeql punc:: ; :
pnol:r aqt uee./{tag.punor8eqi uo a8.reqr ...t... v
dn sMerp slqt pue,idol .r,
:
-tsod 'ruo11oq aqr re "'7"' ,(lalrle8au sr pnop e)
,r
aEreqr
uu dola.tap spr..
_',(p,oa1s ,uJa$Da-qjnos ,dntls ,tqBnot ,trry1y ,auot[ ,(7)

., -

.:,

attlrsc- '(7) aalpBau '3uo1 'pa33o['asualut ,rcq ,r1nrr.l ,tqi1t1-uo-ruoty-aa{,snou,*oua ,


(g) 1.c::. -.
'tyop_'atqsnpuoc'pa7nLrr <juotrrtq t.1"r1i"rq eql uI u^roqs su
luadar ..,ar{}Jo rri,-.
lareld 1q81'r 'r;aql purd 'xal aqr uorJ palotuar
uaaq aAur1ladord saallra(pe eq j

srrqal

g AstfJe

UI

r:

SAI

'ilq8nt

i?uor
UgCNN

HfNI^I
.IVgU

alor{^{ aqi Jo g}leaq aql ...2I ..


IIiM eseasrp pteJ sll se ,plrqr l:-_:
-hua ruarrs" Jraql erouSr ra3uo1 0u ueJ sJapeel'uJsar
or suossrr rL:-.
lsotu aqtJo auo sl slr{J. '..II...ro s;ea,,(
00I ot dn a>1e1.(eru ru:u- :
or a,'q aql pu' sl0edur
lryureq aql lng 'are1d ur 1nd eq or srer-\ r i

sa-rnseeru,{:r1od aArllaJJA .

...0I...

AUNJVN UAHTO'4{ 'I

o1 sada qauo

asoll ol

'\P{ut
'aqiub

sr sllEJ eseu:

..

aq ]er

CHALLENGES

with one and the same word that you


came across in the text above (when they were used with a different meaning)'

B. Fill in the gaps in each of the five

c.

e.

sentences

At the first ...... it ivill be exactly 7 o'clock'


With a long, powerful . '... ' he steered the boat sideways'
The . ..... left him partly paralysed'
It was a .... .. of luck that I found him there.
She has a bold brush-".... .
This hinge needs fastening with a strong
I knew I had to shoot my ' '. '.. but I was still hesitant'
She unrolled the .. ' ... of flannel on the counter'
When the police arrived he made a '.. . .. for the door'
Lock the door and slide the '... . ' if you want to feel safe'
First impressions of people do . '.. '. .
This must surely .. '... as your greatest victory so far'
I ... ... myself lucky to have such friends.
Dont ...... on a salary increase too soon'
His criminal record could . '. '.. against him in finding a job'
He -..... an arrow from his bow.
The car . ..... past us in a cloud of dust'
The pain ...... uP her arm and into the shoulder'
They ... ... the Oscar winning movie in black and white'
The journalists ...... questions at the candidates'
All goods are delivered free of ' '... ' .
The police brought a ..... ' of theft against him'
He was left in ... ... of the store while the manager was away'
He made a ... ... for the ball but failed'
His music carries a very strong emotional
is anYthing the matter?
You look
Rugby is a . .. ... game' don t you think so?
When the sea is very ...... the ferry doesnt sail'
Why should I do all the . '... ' work?
I'm sorry I was ... .. ' on You.

* Exercise

A. Fill in the blanks with one of the words denoting elements of nature: air, cloud,
earth, fire, fog, ice, storm, water, weather, wind'

into
1. we used to see a lot of our former coach, then one day, he simply vanished
thin ...... .
) under cross-examination his explanation didnt hold ......, though'
3. The news of the PM's resignation spread like wild
4. If he doesn t come down to ' '. '.. soon' he'll run into trouble'
to take you in.
5. provided you keep a ... ... eye open, they will not be able

'11

Hlnos

drlunor raProg aqlJo sputldn rauaarB aql


"' uI 's'IePFoI{s sll uo t*ous3o qlled
'sllrq ral{lo 3re 3raq1 Puel}ols "'I
plo ue alll ule{llM uoJJo urnrol dar8 lerus
1".rorr*rro ue qllM op-daaqs
tlltt't PaJaAof, Pue
aql Pue aquulT qf,oT o^oqe saqf,norf, pu 'JaqlPaH

t{llqM 'sl^aN uafl lnoqE au1d1y Eurq}ou sI 3Jaql


uI uopmous 'q8rq taa; 90?'t sl
1nq:q3rq tr.l orn,t Sureq sale^ quoN
.uEtrrg learD ur uwlunolu lsaqErq aql sl spuElqSrg aql uI sl^aN.ueg
1I
1no peards daql
aql olul "'I
rSgM 'rrppq"1] aqlJo spuelsl d>por 'alourar dq qSnorqtI'''
Paqsels 'puelloour
'as eq] Jo slrlJe pu sqlol r,rorJeu '8uo1
dorlno altuerS;o suotSal ulelunotu "'0I "' lryp
aNOT prrr,ror-rrqleeq Pue "'6"'
aql'sumlunoru Iear aAeI{ suot8ar asaql qiog
ate spue1q81g
SIofS -neaq
.quou aql ol puepors ur pue lsa|\ aql o) salM ut ]nq'puu18ug uI ]ou
arn]f,nrls SuilFapun
are 's1ead lseq8lq aql 'sploJ 1sa38rq aql 'ulellrfl Jo
*'8"'
aql8urmo11o;'lsea-qlrou o] lsam-I{lnos
lDo1OflD aqlJo ]lnsar e sy'sa8pu
' ' '/' ' '
detu aqt ssorf, dgeuo8erp Suquads
'ri1.1 lisplrg eql

oNnou

'
''
lualo^aueq p uE ' 'zI'

sI

.un'I
Jo
cvoug -or;
e
eql ul saplulr^\ aql' "'9"' aql pu ernlua^peJo loquk ..''(u'r're
aderspuq
MON)
plo eq] a>1eur daql 111er* Lrlunor e

slllq eql relq, ]noqe arudqr


sa8ueqr aql qlptr
ot ,rodrnd pue 1u1od a'rr8 daqt 'pnop pue lq8nuns;o
darp
"'9"'
aSueqr daql 'purm Sulle'raJd oql luo{ rauaqs se 1re
anNIINOS ,Jar{}ouB
"ro1o,
uor; a8u11n Jo u^|ol auo aleredas daql '8un1u1ql;o der* srq
daql pue '.lluurs pue
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-I]Iwvc
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nod ;1 'slllq Jo
qsrlSug ' ' ' 'z'" e aufe*r o1 ueurqsrlSug a8era're aq] ISB
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IUVA ...I... lear3 B seq ll
'saull alues aIIl Jo
sprorvr qlllvr $Iuelq eql q ruC 'V
pua aql1u s1u1lduc ul palupd sauo aql uory Pa^IraP
rEJ PuE

E asl)Jax3

'uJols zql JaLfioaln


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Jo
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'g
esn
q surolpl tuptl'o11o; eql
uxol autn ,sluautap )ql ,norq:u,tto .rnoI Jo saf,ueluas

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'''"

'0I

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8uo1 moq talleru ou '"'
' aql
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.uorsl3ep e Surleur aroJaq 7ur,uo1q s,
'fun
'8
o rs'r luaPlsle ,sluared JaqJo s^{au aql
'uoorudauoq JaI{ JaAo
d1a11 '1
wo
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ll

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1 iaseald'au
"
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3ut1ot1s aJal\ no1 '9
uo
urul
.pueqsnq Meu s.aJIM-xa stq pauorluau nod uequ
'I
AUNJVN dAHJOW

CHALLENGES

Between these two large areas of high ground, or around


their eastern
fringes, the cities and industries of scotland have had to
accommodate
themselves. wales also is largely ...r4..., with fine peaks
and long, deep MouNTAiN
wooded valleys, and with Snowdon dominating ihe landscape
of the
north; so that in Wales . .. i 5. .. the chief cities and industries are
on the SIMILAR
lower ground, which is to the south.

B' Find words in the text denoting relief elements corresponding to the following

definitions. The word counterpane (like patchwork quiity is ur.d to illustrate


the
land quite suggestively, meaning actually bedspreai, while the word loch
is the
Scottish termfor lake.

1' an area in a field surrounded by a fence or wall where, generally,

sheep are kept

for safety
2. an area of low wet land with few trees
3. a narrow area of high land along the top of a line of hills
4. a pointed top of a mountain; a mountain with a pointed top
5. a large mass of rock that stands above the surface of the ground
6. a high oPen area of land that is not cultivated and is mosily covered with heather
7 . the higher or inland parts of a country
8. the outer edge ofan area

C' Many words denoting elements of relief

are similar to their Romanian counterparts: basalt, canal, canyon, crater, crevasse, depression, desert, dune, geyser,
granite,
massif, meander, prairie, stalactite, stalagmite, terrace, tundra, valley, ,olriro,
zlnc, etc.
With the help of dictionaries match the words with their right definitions and give

their Romanian equivalents.


l.

plateau

2. meadow
3.

glacier

4.

rayine

5. marsh
6. slope
7. cave

8. reef
9. swamp
10. glen

LL. crevice
12. belt
13.

tor

14. pass

15. gorge

sometimes narrow area or region that is distinct from those


around it
a hollow place in the side of a cliff or hill, or underground
a narrow opening or crack in a rock or wall
d. a mass of ice, formed by snow on mountains, moving slowlv
down a valley
e. a narrow valley, especially in Scotland, Ireland or USA
f. a narrow valley with steep sides, usually with a stream or river
o an area of low land which is
b'
wet because water cannot drain
away from it
h. an area of low, often wet, land near a river
i. a road or way over or through mountains
j' alarge area of fairlylevel land high above the area around it
k. a deep narrow valley with steep sides
l. a ridge ofrock, sand, etc. at or near the surface ofthe sea
m. an area of rising or falling ground which is usually a side of a
mountain
n. an area of land that is full of water
o. a small hill with rocks at the top
a. a

Itrl,

e 01 af,ueJlua ue Jo JeArJ e Jo puaq e ]e sal]las uaqt pue JaleM ur parrJEf sn


'saarl r{leaqJo " " "
Iletus E ur s}ual rno qr}rd o} peprrap 31v\ guDln{ Suoi aqr r;:--;

'searlJo

""" rllqt

'rddrssrssry4l aql ol
.. . .."
;L,: ;II
JInD aq] slf,auuol
'aprs Ll.raquou Jreql uo umor8-'. . . . . dlpraua8 a:e sa;.; IT
pJo ap?qs aql u! leeq Surqrrols 3r{} uro4 ratlaqS puno-l
}a It[
urlunou 3 Jo JeleM aql ul palleual serlt lalEql Brj - 6

uaaq peq deq]Jl se sazrs

d,lunor

qf,nlu surpluof,

?i

]uaraJJrpJo

"'

',{1s aql uor; paddc;


gllr* para^oJ are Luu.JoN ur sea:e ag.{

''"'

eqr Jo rsea-quou aqr ur


;1oB seq aqnueq aqt

r a,

rr4J Jo sura^ IIIrs a-re a.r;L*


...... dueur
Moq Mor.DI no-\ r.C

;,iffi :l;,:i,;, ;, llil""ff ;x'J ;:l $:,0

T
,&

Jrerp

JSAIJ

"t
'lxnrtF:
:

ll

osnpleq qslllqM sr 'pue13uE urals?a;o prrdl1


rlor e":,:...
drnluar qr0Z aql -::
Suruur8aq aqr re pasoll eram uare uo,,(ue3 puerD eql urrlll^\ seu*u ... ..' plo r;- 'etuosa,ltu dlear sr eruolelE] ur dralseuow
leJJasluow a^oqe Surrau.ol ...... 3q:

'un|

'a1op '11i1s ,ato ,ssot,u ,auo$awq ,uno\

,s77ou4

i1'u,op

pu

tut' 17o{t

p n'

wo a4s'

7y

asoql

's p aa /w,{tn1,s a u r
rn,fl:w,
,t4qaq ,sqto1strot1 ,a,rot|.p.c-'.Fnr

'nddot'dwnp'Tauuaqt'snppoq:sproa tu1,uo11o; aqlJo auo qll,v\ $IuBIq arn Erl lftl


Ap o o

t' a1pp n d, r1o tru ow o td, 7o o d, p u o d, p nut,

Juu, p tir-7w,s,

'pan{ 'asdoj 'paloroj 'apocsot 'adat '\ootq'fog :srur(uouds 1ra;.rad ,(aqt art- *rq
Jo qf,ea ur spJo r aaJrn eJ8 aJaql :lsII aql uorJ surduour(s;o sdno.rg 4s JrF pqr
'eruJoJrle] w atotS/asdotldutnp a8ue:o u su.Aro aFj,
63uuds lsaxJnos ruo4 Jalu,/r .rraql la8 s-ra8e1Fr arXl
'puel.,relu sprTerlsnvJo lsea-quou aq] ul spuolst/saqt/sllol0Jo s10l
er' araqi
'uoteleg a>le.JJo aroqs/$oor/1uoq eqt uo padrue: a1,u
',hynt 111apppp aqtJo aprs raqlla uo nar8
leql surla aqt qleaueq palle,u aqq
'sJJrlr aqt ,(q paraqaqs
aq]
ul uns eq] ur Surzef pa,torua a-11
talnb
fintp,toc1,fug
'lsatoJ aril
alppru
aql ul t1oou1apo\81guuoalr uKerls-Lsrep a3.re1 e ur rrucrd rno pEri a-\r.
Jo
'ruelg ]uol^l Jo dol/dg/Wad aqt ol la8 ot
1no 1as ,,{aq1
atdn atd/ uts oqt 6s,ia:
eql Jo aSpa aql uo paqc-rad esnoq aql Mes aM uer{M sada rno elarlag
}.uplnor a-\\
dlEururup uorsore Ttosypuno$yqtrroa peseerf,ur seq s-read lsel aqi uliqg.,orp ,,{;
'o70t1s1ua,(a\1s|tsodap
leJauru ur r{f,rJ ale suru}unour uJeJse^/}4, aril<;sauo$/epoJ/sgry eql urory Lervre daay,, :pres qleaq aql Jo pua aq] 1e u8rs aqi

p
')1e'Jt

a,rr8

'aJtuo)

-Jalur

's1.,a,n

reqles

1da4 a

'

r
;

aql sI
aql al'

8ur,uo

luopdo lsaq aql sr qrr.(Lr{ 1ti

9 ASlfJerS

'xal aql alslsu?rlL u


EUNJ.VN UAHJOI/{

'I

u
NIV.T

L
t6

CHALLENGES

15. . .. . . . are much lower and easier to climb than hills.


16. Fortunatelywe found a ...... and we could drive across the river.
17. The garden was overgrown with ...... and looked thoroughly neglected.
18. People were sitting on deck-chairs in the middle of the carefully tended ....

built ...... on the field.


20. The pitch was covered with soft green ......
19. The farmers

r Exercise

A. Fill in each gap with

one word only.

This is your oPPortunity to ... 1... the fascinating, hidden world of Britain's woodl
As a member of woodland Trust you will have . ..2... to woods and shrouded
that extend ...3... virtually every English and Welsh county and scottish region.
since 1972 the Trust has planted over one million trees. on a mix of bare land
within existing woodland, and particularly in community forest ...4..., the Trust
worked to establish woodland that is in keeping with the existing landscape ...5.
planting native trees such as oak, ash and beech.
With the help of its members and supporters, the Trust rescues, on . . .6 . . . , one
every week. Over 7 40 woods . . .7 . . . more than 25,000 acres have been safeguarded so
This woodland, which ...8... have been lost to the public forever, is now protected
the enjoyment of ourselves, our children, and for ...9... to come.
So help us protect our woodland heritage by joining us and you will enjoy an im
...10... of benefits.

B. In the text

above you came across the names of three deciduous trees native
Europe: oak, ash, beech. with the help of dictionaries find their Romanian
valents as well as of the following: acacia, alder, birch, chestnut, elm, hornbea
limetree, maple, poplar, willow.
which of these trees do the following words refer to: acorn,five-pointed leaf,
spiny husk, syrup, tea, white bark?
which of the followingtrees are coniferous or cone-bearing: aspen,fir,holly,I
palm, pine, plane, sallow, spruce, yew?
Arrange the following parts of a tree from bottom to top: bark, blossom,
branch, catkin, leaves, limb, root, trunk, twig.
Is there any difference between a shrub and a bush? which of the following is
such a thing: barberry, blackthorn, clover, elder, fern, hawthorn, heather, hedge,
rose, honeysuckle, ivy, jasmine, laburnum, lilac, magnolia, may, mimosa, ole
thyme, wormwood?

C. What is the difference between a nature reserve, a national park and the Brit
National Trust?

CHALLENGES

coffee-tree, coltsfoot, cot.ton,

flax, ginger, gutta-percha-tree, hardhay, hemp, lavr


marsh-mallow, milfuil (y-arrow), oil-palm, opium poppy, peanut, pepper_plant,
r ibw or t, r ubb er- tre e, s affr o n, t e a- shrub rtre e, t ob
aci o - pl ani, v aler i an, w or mw o o d.
a.

lavender, ...

b. coffee-tree,
c.

...

flax, ...

r Exercise 10
A. which of the following

are parasites/vermin or pests: ant, beetle, bug, bum


butterfly, caterpillar, cockroach, cricket, dragon-fly, iarwig,flea,fly, grasstopper,
Iady-bird,locust,louse, millipede, mite, moth,-spider, ,ig-brrili, lirk, tsriir, wasp?

B. which of them are winged and which

are wingless?
antennae and which of them can sting?

which of them have

r Exercise 11
A. Which of the following are freshwater fishes and which are saltwater
anchovy, carp, crucian carp, eel, herring, perch, pike, sarmon, sardine, shark, sheatsterlet, sturgeon, trout, tunny?

B. Which

of the following are amphibians, which are sea creatures and which of t
are reptiles: adder, alligator, asp, boa constrictor, chameleon, cockle, conch,
crayfish, crocodile, cuttle fish, frog, iguana, jelly
fish, lizard, lobster" mussel, oc
oyster, python, rattlesnake, salamander, sea-horse, shrimp, snail, squid, toad,
tor
turtle, water-newt?

C. Which of the creatures mentioned in this exercise may

be described using one


more of the followingwords:fins,forked tongue, gills,jaws,pincers, rings, scales, sh
skin, spawn, tentacles, valves?

D. which of them may the following refer to: caviar, edible,

mimesis, pearl, poison,

sac, sepia, tadpole?

r Exercise 12
A. Bird-watching is one of the main hobbies of the English. Identify all the
typical of Britain (all of which being typical of Romania

B.

as

well) in the text.

Tlventy adjectives have been removed from the text. Insert them back at
their
place: agonized, brisk, chilly, deplorable, exquisite,
greedy,
haidy,
flashing, fortunate,
impassioned, majestic, odd, outstanding, pathetic, ptorid, swip, tiiy, ubiquitoir,,
unoriginal, worried,

,lwotJ ,attral) ,luoloutJo) ,oo1oytot

'tpufioqt 'r(tanossat 'ptozznq'daqtalq'astpond


ul aas uuf, auo sprrq raqlo lBtlA|Y

{o pqq:tur,uo11oy aql Euorue alaql aru uluutuou

I I aslslaxS

'lxal aql elulsuB{ 'J

'snc

'tpt
r{tr
SPJI

'read aql go aurrl rado;d aql le ]oqs a9 ol ' " 02"' il '<{lnp pll,l'r pue llolPoom pue adtus
.sal.rosard rado.rd Jraql ul aSpr.rlred pu lueseaqd pue asnor8 :sPrlq PILu qtlvr PaP$ord

ou sr urclug ueustrods eqlJo Mar,rJo lurod aql ruo.rg'1q8rp "'6I"' 'p;ramod;o


splq alrr{1v\ '''BI "' asoqt'slp8eas pulJ IIIrv\ auo'puelut rJ uala }nq }seol aql punore Lluo
,araq,vrLJela puv dqledurds ur aq)e o1 ur8aq IJau umo s.euo saIu lsotuF ]el{i lrau
1ou
8uo1 srq ul lf,Ir) "'LI"' ue qtlm lnq luellJluSeur pue "'9I"' '1sed Surltes uems pll/{ e
'''9I "' siq
aas o1 dn 1oo1Leu auo 'sareld,(1auo1 ut 'satutlautos 'luaruel snouolouolu ]nq
Sur3urs ra1lItueqmogad aql reaqdeu auo ro'Eurddoq;o peatsul unr ueJ lulil II]8e,!\ aql ro
.slrt anlqJo rred e ro '.r{lulJllnq e lods deu auo sotul}atuos 'eJlmasnoq alilll "'?I "' e aIIT
Sur4ool pue IunJl-aaJl e ol uo Sut8utlo'qurn{} sauo ueq} ra8uol Llalrers'sPrlq aq}-1o
,ueJ^,\ E
laau Leur auo sauueuos 'lueeJls B eplseq spaal er{} q8no.rql auo lsed
lseile1lls
qseg,anlqJo IBaJls durl e'raqsr;Eun1e as ol qEnoua "'I''' aq deru auo serullatuos
'spunos qsrpug dlauroq raqto
"'ZI"' aqr
aql
8u1ua,re
are L.raloor e uI s{oor;o ralepd
Pue'ra4rad-poom aq};o du1
,suoa8rd-poomJo oorf,-oorl eql 'lmo-I{f,eerf,s aql3o dn " ' I I " ' aqi l.q rePrnulJo slq8noqr
puu ueaq Surleaq qllm pasnor aq ro'lmo-ureq aqlJo ool{Mnl-llqmnl "'0I"'aq} reai{
daals o1;;o Eurddorp are nod se 1sn( deu nod PuE 'prlq lq31u qsrlSug eql sl IMo aL{J
'lsel te aruof, seq Suuds 1eq1 3u1z11eer pue .{np "'6"' lnq lllun:
auros uo splelJ eq] ssotfs 1er-a18nq leep sll Surreaq;o lq811ap 3q] lrlrou>l II altrr lnq :slsau
put "'9"'Suraq's}lqeq "'1,"'seq
.sprrq rar{}o ur s38a s1t Surltsodep pue parauueru-lll
oo{rnf, aq} ,vrotnl IIe aM 'qUoN eq} ul ra}el 'q}nos aqi ul 11rdy 1o t{luaeunoJ aql }noqr
suaddeq 11 :ead qslgrg aql Jo sluala Iellos al{lJo 3uo sI oo{f,n) 3q} Jo Sunuor aql
drlunor aq:
ur s8urua,ra Jatuluns pue Eurrds;o slq8rlap eql Jo auo sI Suos osonilr.'r. qap8urlq8ru aq1
.punos
dpoq e " '9 " ' os leqt a^elleq dlarrers ur auo '3I.\\l
Jo arunlol e qlns arnpo.rd ppor
e uo ro punor8 aq] uo prrq qerp alllll eqt;o lq8rs 8urqr1e3 'proJJe ,{eru 4pm drluno: e
sarnsuald lsauaal aqlJo euo sr JrB ar{} olur Eut8uts looqs pue plalJurol P tuo{ dn 1lels uri-aes ot tnq ,prlq "'g"' dra,r e aq deur {rEI ar{I 'rerTnuJ sI aq qf,IqM q}lm sprlq dreutp:o
aql uror; arnseald alqqsnqxaur elrJap ueJ IelJoIU dreutp.ro eq} uale 1nq :Surqtou s1v\olr-Y
' ' '?' ' ' dlear aq1
Iegotu fteurpro aqt qrlq^r Jo sprlq Jo serof,s Jo s./vlou>l raqllem-Prlq
'pual{ pnads sparpllqr aq} sl }searqPs-r
urqot ar{J drlunor eql se lla,,lr se u.&rol ur tutuazr.a Jeruruns aq} selJl}neaqJoor ar{i raPun
e1uoq slq o] urueru-asnor.l Jo r*ollems aqlJo lqBU "'"' aql pue')IIIJI aW ile Suorue
'sumoJ ur uale artolradar JIaLIIJo ]saq ai{} 1no rnod qsnJql pue PJIqIlelq aql'aPlspeoJ aq.r
Lq sqteq-tsnp 8ur4et ro uap;e8 {)q aq} ur Llppm Surdaaqr ?rrorreds "'2"' aql s^\ou-\
Jalla6p-umol aqJ 'sauo "'I "' lsotu aql IIE uala alueu o1 alqrssodul sI ]I ]eq] spurl duuu;
os eJe ajeql pu :spJlq aq] a:e adu:spuel aql;o lred e pallA pue luel.rodul se ]sn1
ssal

AUNIVN USHJOW 'I

'ao)

'nat
JO:

'as!

'snt
'qo.

rua

'qs1

:sa'

'ae
'Ja

20

CHALLENGES

curlew, eagle, emu, falcon, fulmar, goldfinch, hawk, heron, humming bird, kestreL
lapwing, lyre bird, macaw, ostrich, parrot, peacock, pelican, penguin, pffin, quaiL
redstart, starling, stilt, stork, turtle dove, vulture?

ljl,t

fi
,il.

B.

poultry (fowls) such as the hen, the goose or the turkey there are a lot
of wild land and water birds. Which of the above listed ones are birds of prey?
Besides the

$r

Which are birds of passage?

C. Which of the following words can help to describe a bird: beak, bill, claw, crest"
down, feather, fur, hide, hoof, paw, plumage, tail, talon, trunk, webbed
feet, wingl

*
ffi
...rm

1f,,t

D. The first verb to be used when it comes to birds is fly, Yet there are other verbs
that characterise birds in terms of movement or other aspects. Fill in the blanks
with one of the following verbs: hop, hover, perch, roost, soar, swoop, wheel, wiggle-

l.

At nightfall birds

.. on tree branches.
2. The pigeons ...... on window ledges waiting for crumbs.
3. The sparrow ...... along the path as it had a broken wing and couldn't fly.
4. The starlings ...... in huge flocks over the fields all day long.
5. The falcon was ready to ...... at any moment to attack its prey.
6. The condors ...... above the canyon carried by the wind.
7 . We watched the lark ... . .. towards the sky.
8. The ducks and geese ...... to the pond.
....

r Exercise 1,4
A. Which of the following mammals are typical of Romania (or Europe, in general)?
which are felines? which are hunted for their far? ant-eater, antelope, ape, badge,
bat, bear, beaver, bison, buffalo, camel, cheetah, elephant,
fox, gazelle, hare, hedgehog,
hippopotamus, hyena, jackal, jaguar, kangaroo, koala,leopard,lion, ilama,lynx, mink,
mole, monkey, otter, panda, panther, platypus, porcupine, puma, rat, reindeer, rhinoceros,
seal, squirrel, stoat, tiger, walrus, weasel, whale, wild boar, wild cat, wolf, yak, zebra.
B.

Which of the above-mentioned mammals may be described using the following


words: antlers, coat, fangs, horns, hump, mAne> muzzle, pouch, snout, spines, spots,
str i p e s, trotter

s, tusks, whi sker s?

rS

*
IJffiI

r Exercise 15
A. Groups of animals are denoted by specialized collective nouns such as: colony,
down,flock, herd, mob, nest, pack, plague, pride, school, sloth, stud,Insert the suitable
one for the given animals.

'qslJJo

"""

'''"'

eql tuo{ dddnd ))ulq e asor{r "' .': ;'-"


t1t:U.*. aql Eulmollo; dau'rno( J3! Sl'Iri: ;:':-t
' aql Jo 8uq aqt aq o] PIes s|u::- ; *- - ir
a8nq aJe aJaql alar{rur Puel aq} uro{ JUJ slau JIaq} lsel url-:ii;lri'; t
:'* l T
'Jaqlunls tq81u rnod uInJ ol q8noua sr '
'lIEq se """ esn ilI1s oqm sralSue a'I? :'i;';,'aldoad If,Is I{sIJa aJ tuo{ poolq >lf,ns ol Pasn aJa/t\ " " -\p: --: ; I
'y'roq sse18 e ul "'"' palll-lla,r e 1da1 1.tr8 a.:::- ; ;,;
(rql1ea1s eutl{f uor; adorns ol lq8noro
ll:,: ..
telseq aql ul

ry:i:]

due ueqt ralseJ os'elnultu e rePun ul ilH uer sllq

asol'lM

"

::l

...,1
tuor;Suruol seaqJo ......edqpape,rur seMlr s epueral ar{l uo JSaI l,uplr,:: ;,r
'l]eJ aq ueJ lll JI{1Jo 8ut1s asoq,tr " "' ai? ::: *.:ltilililililllllltl'
ladtrt' tulo nti ( lr* j q,.
'r-,;ir:
,o1lnbsow'n1y1
,ilqqoJ
'sMilnnllllt
,uordrcts
,luadtas
'qtaa1 'au4'qs{p1o8 'u,rto't+t7l.I-:
:drussalau alaq^a saSuuqr a{BI tr 'sprola Supu'o11o; aql Jo auo qll^r {uelq Wqa lur mfi
jtil'ir:rl

9 L eSlr:'#3

"""1'

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JIr'8

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aor'9
'9

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fid't

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esrol{

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'i'I

'uan|'Jaa$ 'uoxllog '&o]r.'/vtos'Lttot'atout'putq'nttaq ('ror-'i'*"' 'ilrr'iil


.aop ,ll@ '4tnq'noq:seluuu uoluluot ua,r18 aql JoJ s4ud aprua;/aleru aql tl@ilErn1
.pasn eru auo uotutuof, aql tuory sploil luaJaJJIP dlaplduror UaIIllr sasel -Io !0rr il
.Qoot tuutuqooS-tytq t|ot-'(qqq/toJ-utol) aruara;JtP aqr a-ITEjr @
lgls aru aragl
na*
pasnaresauruur(ruurprosaullawo\'Quotldap-noclluoqilap-nnq'{1on+-qt|w
mrTrr
apuafia{trolrF
-top) tt8ullouap ,(1.reap spruluu raqlo Jo satuuu Lq rc (at{ot8
((tooq-aqs/.tooq-aq
:prztdL'xr ilrurr
tailo-aputa{1ailo apu) rlud apura;/aptu aqf Iq
pndoal-aq) sunouord ,tq raqga palurrpq aq r(eu 'spurluu ol saluof, lI uaq-$ 'trilFrw'i

"'"' e
suoll Jo "'"' e
sleJ Jo "'"'
saolJJnq Jo " "''
surqdlop Jo "'"' e
sreaq Jo

tz

'sI
'il
'I
'u
'II

spunoqJo """
sereqJo """
slas Jo

soo:e8ue1;o

"'"'
"""

e '0I
e '5
e 'B
e 'L

ef,luJo"""'e'9

:lUnJ.VN UflHJOhl

'l

? :
lo
I '?
saAlo,\\ _Io
1
daaqs -1tr
saleq^l-Io 1 :
r
leaP _Io
sasJot{

CHALLENGES

o Exercise 17
Translate the following sentences. Try to find the Romanian idioms correspon
to the English ones wherever this is possible.

a. 1. Given her exceptional


2.
3.
4.

gift, her career was a path strewn with roses.


It's time you grasped the nettle and tell him you can no longer put up with
ridiculous whims.
Their promising plan was nipped in the bud by their authoritarian boss.
His continual critical attitude turned him into a real thorn in the side of

board.

5.

Finding the receipt in the mess on his desk was like looking
for a needle in
haystack.

6.

when I last saw him he looked quite haggard and gave an impression that
had run to seed.
7. He is not the man to let the grass grow under his feet.
8. she's not the conservative kind; on the contrary, she's a reed shaken by
wind,you know
9. we have grown too many roots here to move house all of a sudden.
10. How long are you going to rest on your laurels, I wonder?
11. Stop beating about the bush and tell me what it is you want!
L2. one can't see the wood for the trees in your essay as you have included
many irrelevant details.
the wrong end of the stick

13. You'd got


14.
15.

* it wasn t Tom you had to deliver it

but Paul.
It's time r turned over a new leaf otherwise I'll end up like my brother.
Speak up! Stop being a shrinking violet!

b' 1. You should learn to let sleeping dogs lie and not bring up sensitive topics
bluntly.
2. Such ingratitude! I simply cherished a snake in my bosom.
3. She looked and sounded so miserable,like a dying duck in a thunderstorm.
4' The promise of a substantial bonus for working overtime was like a carrot to
a donkey.
5. His joining this charity is just a mask; a leopard can never change its spots.
6. Dont let yourself be taken in by his flattery; he's just a wolf in sheep's clothing.
7. To give copies of the new CD to all those ruffians was fo cast pearls before swine.
8. I hate people who run with the hare and hunt with the hounds at the same time.
9. I'm sure he wouldn't hesitate to throw me to the wolves to save himself.
10. Sorry, I can't attend tomorrow's meeting. I hqve other fish to fry.
11. She was like a cat on hot bricks when she accidentally stumbled into the drama
club.

12. He has shrunk from society for a long while and we should make him come
out of his shell.

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Surpuo

AUNIVN USHJOhI 'I

'ss

srq

q]$

CHALLENGES

beauty and legend await your discovery. A place that has


evolved not for its visitor
but for its own sustainment. For the discerning, and inquisitive,
this sets Sout-l:
Somerset apart - and is reason enough to come...
and to stay.

b' Milford Haven in South Wales is a ria. As sea levels rose after the last
Ice Age

water drowned this wide river valley. From the shore, the
land rises steeply as cliits
Out in the water lie many stacks, like Stack Rock and Thorn Island.
This whole
coast is a deep water coast. The waves from the Atlantic Ocean
that pound thi
cliffs are very destructive' The high, rugged coastal cliffs provide
a habitat for mucl:
wildlife. People visit the area to enjoy the scenery urrd to take advantage
of thr
recreational opportunities offered by walking, rock climbing
and watersports. Thii
valuable natural resoutce is under pressure. Milford Haven is protected
by tht
Pembrokeshire National Park Authority. The Authority is responsible for managine
sites of special interest, such as woodlands and sand dunes. In addition there arr
a number of nature reserves, which were set up to protect the rare birds and
mammals that use the coast.

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c. Cheddar

showcaves in Cheddar Gorge offers a fascinating day out. The beautifr:rock formations in the showcaves have taken over half a million years to form ani
are carefully lit to show off their jewel-like beauty. The Gorge is an importanr
conservation area because of its rare flowers and spectacular, sheer limestone clifft
See the wonders of nature: enormous cathedral-like caverns revealing wonderfu.l
stalagmites and stalactites of incredible beauty, a fast-flowing underground river.
"mirror" pools of water reflecting the burnished gold of rock formations. ClimbinE
up 274 stePs to the top of the cliffs-illustration points you can see how the world
has evolved. On top of the ctiffs the views are spectacular and from pulpit rock
you have dramatic views down into the Gorge itself. To encourage the growth ol
rare Cheddar pinks and other wild flowers in the Gorge, a herd of inquisitive goats
graze the pastures and rocky ledges.

d. The Yorkshire Dales offer you wild, heather clad fells, green upland pastures and
valleys cut by sparkling mountain streams. The area, encompassing the South and
Central Pennines includes the Yorkshire Dales National Park. This rural area oi
great scenic beauty boasts many spectacular surface features including Malham
cove, Kilns ey crag, and Gordale scar, besides the many pot-holes and underground
cave systems' The picturesque South Pennines Area of outstanding natural beautroffers a different type of rural scenery; it is based predominantly on sand and
gritstone, from which most of the picturesque and unspoilt villages were built.

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U
AUNJVN USHIOW 'I

CHALLENGES

8. alight with the first hints of green and the meadows are sheets of wild flowers. In September the same
9. mysteriously. Some uncharted shore? No. You are in the centre of the North Island of New Zea\and.
10. This serene surface of 66,604 hectares of it is the water-filled maw of a volcano. Only a little snow
I l. Kalahari. Here the thistle land of the south meets a blue-green wilderness of fresh water, with emerald
12. pastures are wrapped in lilac autumn crocuses and, in October, your eyes feast on the rich shades of
I 3. here, like a sprinkle of icing sugar around the milky blue-green of the crater lake.
14. reed-beds and towering trees. Around the Delta are seasonal swamps and large tracts of grass lands and
15. dying leaves.
16. an astonishing array of wildlife.

B. Fill in the blanks with words from the three paragraphs.

l.

The . .. . .., a wild plant with pricky leaves, is the national symbol of Scotland2. The Himalayas have several ... peaks that stand above the world.
3. The breaking waves left the beach covered with ... .
4. All guests had to admire the ... of his hunting trophies.
5. They left under the ... of darkness to avoid being chased after.
6. ... ... mists rise from the wooded slopes after dawn.
7. We ...... our eyes on the wonderful scenery.
8. We are sailing in . .. . . . waters and have no idea of what traps may lie on the
ahead.

9. They disappeared in the ... of the crevice never to be seen again.


10. She gave no ... that anything was wrong.

C. Translate the three texts.

Topics for Speaking and/or Writing

l. Nature will have her course.


2. Many things grow in a garden that were never sowed there.
3. Nature, time and patience are the three great physicians.
4. To create a little flower is the labour of many ages.
5. Nature is conquered by obeying her.
6. Exploiting nature may be unavoidable if humankind is to progress.
7. Custom, that is before all law; Nature, that is above all art. (Samuel Daniel)
B. Hast thou named all the birds without a gun; i Loved the wood-rose, and left it
its stalk? (Ralph Waldo Emerson)
9. All that thy seasons, O Nature, brings fruit for me!/ All things come from thee, su
in thee, go back to thee. (Marcus Aurelius)
10. Accuse not Nature, she hath done her part;/ Do thou but thine. (John Milton)
11. For beauty being the best of all we know/ sums up the unsearchable and secret
Of nature. (Robert Bridges)

a^ol J :JeoJ slr

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EUnJVN UAHIOI^I 'I

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