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Hkkjrh; bfrgkl dk ,d

nqyZHk nLrkost
‘kghns vkte Hkxrflag
dh tsy UkksVcqd
;s nLrkost jkgqy Qkm.Ms’ku }kjk izdkf’kr fd;k
x;k gS o izxfr’khy lkfgR; ds forjd tupsruk
}kjk de ls de nkeksa esa turk rd igq¡pk;k
tk jgk gSA vxj vki ihMh,Q dh ctk; fiz.V
dkWih ls i<+uk pkgrs gSa rks tupsruk ls lEidZ
dj ldrs gSa ;k fQj vestu ls [kjhn ldrs gSaA
vestu fyad % https://www.amazon.in/
dp/8187728922
tupsruk lEidZ % D-68, Niralanagar, Luc-
know-226020
0522-4108495; 09721481546
janchetna.books@gmail.com
Website - http://janchetnabooks.org
bl ihMh,Q Qkby ds var esa tupsruk }kjk
forfjr fd;s tk jgs izxfr’khy] ekuorkoknh o
ØkfUrdkjh lkfgR; dh lwph Hkh nh x;h gSA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
Hkxrflag }kjk tsy esa (1929&31)
vè;;u ds nkSjku fy;s x;s uksV~l vkSj m¼j.k

vuqokn
fo'oukFk feJ
lEiknu
lR;e oekZ

+
jkgqy Qkm.Ms 'ku
y[kuÅ
ISBN 978-81-87728-92-4

ewY; % #- 65-00
igyk laLdj.k % vizSy] 1999
NBk iqueqZnz.k % uoEcj] 2005
nwljk la'kksf/r ,oa ifjo£¼r laLdj.k % tuojh 2009
çdk'kd % jkgqy i+Qkm.Ms'ku
69] ckck dk iqjok] isijfey jksM] fu'kkrxat]
y[kuÅ&226 006
vkoj.k % jkeckcw
Vkbils¯Vx % dEI;wVj çHkkx] jkgqy i+Qkm.Ms'ku
eqæd % fØ,fVo fç.VlZ] 628@,l&28] 'kfDruxj] y[kuÅ

Shaheed-e-Azam ki Jail Notebook


Translated by Vishwanath Mishra
Edited by Satyam Varma
ØkfUr ifjJeh fopkjdksa vkSj ifjJeh
dk;ZdrkZvksa dh iSnkokj gksrh gSA nqHkkZX; ls
Hkkjrh; ØkfUr dk ckSf)d i{k ges'kk nqcZy
jgk gSA blfy, ØkfUr dh vko';d phtksa vkSj
fd;s x;s dke ds çHkko ij è;ku ugha fn;k
x;kA blfy, ,d ØkfUrdkjh dks
vè;;u&euu dks viuh ifo= ftEesnkjh
cuk ysuk pkfg,A

& Hkxrflag
Hkwfedk

^'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd* dks fgUnh ikBdksa ds gkFkksa esa nsrs gq, gesa fefJr
vuqHkwfr gks jgh gSA bfrgkl dh bl vueksy èkjksgj dks vki rd igq¡pkdj ge
xkSjokfUor vuqHko dj jgs gSa] ij lkFk gh blesa gqbZ nsjh dh dpksV Hkh gSA
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl ds bl nqyHZ k nLrkost+ dk egÙo fli+QZ bldh ,sfrgkfldrk
esa gh ugha gSA Hkxr¯lg ds v/wjs lius dks iwjk djus okyh Hkkjrh; ØkfUr vkt
,d ,sls iM+ko ij gS tgk¡ ls u;s] çp.M osx ls vkxs c<+us ds fy, blds
flikfg;ksa dks ^bUo+Qykc dh ryokj dks fopkjksa dh lku ij* u;h èkkj nsuh gSA
;g uksVcqd mu lcds fy, fopkjksa dh jks'kuh ls nedrk ,d çsj.kkiaqat gS tks
bl fojklr dks vkxs c<+kus dk tT+ck j[krs gSaA
vkt tc Hkkjrh; ØkfUr lkeus mifLFkr lokyksa&pqukSfr;ksa ls tw> jgh gS]
;qok ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh u;h ih<+h ds dU/ksa ij jkLrk fudkyus vkSj ml ij c<+us
dk dk;ZHkkj gS rFkk ,d u;s loZgkjk uotkxj.k vkSj çcks/u dk dke bfrgkl
ds ,ts.Ms ij gS] rks bl uksVcqd dks i<+rs gq, gekjh vk¡[kksa ds lkeus ckj&ckj
ml ukStoku dh Nfo mHkjrh gS tks iQk¡lh ds iQUns ds lk;s esa cSBdj Hkkjrh;
bUo+Qykc ds jkLrs dh lgh le> gkfly djus vkSj mls yksxksa rd igq¡pkus ds
fy, vkf[k+jh iy rd vè;;u&euu vkSj ys[ku esa tqVk jgkA
tsy esa Hkxr¯lg us pkj iqLrdsa fy[kh FkhaA gks ldrk gS ;s uksV~l bu iqLrdksa
dh rS;kjh esa fy;s x;s gksaA pkjksa ik.Mqfyfi;k¡ vkt u"V gks pqdh gSaA ysfdu vkt
Hkh muds ckjs esa u rks dksbZ çkekf.kd tkudkjh miyC/ gS vkSj u gh fdlh us
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl ds bl v¡/sjs i{k ij 'kks/ djus dh t+:jr le>h gSA
UkksV cqd ds egku ,sfrgkfld egÙo vkSj vkt bldh fo'ks"k çklafxdrk dks
js[kkafdr djus ds fy, geus vkyksd jatu vkSj ,y- oh- fe=kksf[ku ds nks ys[k
Hkh 'kkfey fd;s gSaA ge pkgsaxs fd vki uksVcqd ls igys bu ys[kksa dks vo';
i<+saA uksVcqd dks lgh ifjçs{; vkSj i`"BHkwfe esa le>us esa bu ys[kksa ls dki+Qh
enn feysxhA Hkkjr ds ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu ds oSpkfjd fodkl ij geus
Hkxr¯lg ds lkFkh f'kooekZ dk foLr`r ys[k Hkh 'kkfey fd;k gSA

Hkwfedk @ 7
uksVcqd dh çLrqfr ds ckjs esa dqN ckrsa
gekjh bPNk Fkh fd tgk¡ rd lEHko gks gLrfyf[kr uksVcqd dh ewy
'kDy cuh jgs] Hkxr¯lg us ftl rjho+Qs ls uksV~l fy;s gSa mUgsa yxHkx mlh <ax
ls çLrqr fd;k tk;sA ysfdu fdrkc dh 'kDy esa çLrqr djus ds fy, dqN
cnyko djus iM+s gSaA
iwjh uksVcqd Hkxr¯lg ds NksVs v{kjksa okyh fy[kkoV esa fy[kh x;h gSA
T+;knkrj uksV~l ds Hkxr¯lg us NksVs ij lVhd vkSj lkjxfHkZr 'kh"kZd fn;s gSaA
vusd 'kh"kZd gkf'k;s ij Hkh fn;s x;s gSaA dgha&dgha dqN egÙoiw.kZ okD;ksa ;k
okD;ka'kksa dks Hkh gkf'k;s esa fy[kk x;k gSA
& geus lHkh 'kh"kZdksa rFkk gkf'k;s ij vafdr okD;ksa dks VsDLV ds lkFk
gh j[kk gS ij Hkxr¯lg }kjk fn;s x;s egÙo ds vuqlkj mUgsa NksVs ;k cM+s v{kjksa
esa fn;k x;k gSA
& Hkxr¯lg }kjk js[kkafdr fd;s x;s fgLlksa dks eksVs v{kjksa esa fn;k x;k
gSA
& Hkxr¯lg us dbZ txgksa ij dqN fgLlksa ij vfrfjDr cy nsus ds fy,
ck;ha vksj [kM+h ydhj [khaph gSA bls iqLrd esa ,sls gh fn[kk;k x;k gSA
uksVcqd esa vk;s vf/dka'k lUnHkk±s dh tkudkjh geus ikBdksa dks nsus dh
dksf'k'k dh gS] fiQj Hkh dqN lUnHkZ vKkr jg x;s gSaA ikBdksa ls vuqjks/ gS fd
;fn mUgsa bl ckjs esa tkudkjh gks rks gesa crk;asA bl lEcUèk esa gesa Jh HkwisUnz
gwtk ds lEiknu esa ^bf.M;u cqd ØkWfudy* }kjk loZçFke vaxzst+h esa çdkf'kr
A Martyr's Notebook ls dki+Qh enn feyh ftlds fy, ge mudk vkHkkj
O;Dr djrs gSaA
lR;e
ubZ fnYyh

8 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


vuqØe

Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd tks 'kgknr ds


frjlB o"kks± ckn Ni ldh @ vkyksd jaatu ------------------------------------ 11
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku fopkj;k=kk dk
nqyZHk lk{; @ ,y- oh- fe=kksf[ku ------------------------------------------------ 19
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd ---------------------------------------------------------- 37
ifjf'k"V & ,d
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ f'ko oekZ ----------------- 163
ifjf'k"V & nks
t;nso ds uke i=k ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 199
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd
tks 'kgknr ds frjlB o"kks± ckn Ni ldh

vkyksd jatu

:lh fo}ku ,y-oh- fe=kksf[ku os igys O;fDr Fks ftUgksaus 1981 esa çdkf'kr
viuh iqLrd 'Lenin and India' esa igyh ckj] ,d vyx vè;k; es]a Hkxr¯lg
dh nqyZHk tsy uksVcqd ls foLr`r gokys nsrs gq, muds }kjk vfUre fnuksa esa fd;s
x;s ØkfUrdkjh vkSj ekDlZoknh lkfgR; ds xgu vè;;u ij çdk'k Mkyk Fkk
vkSj mu ;kstd&lw=kksa dks la;ksftr djus dh dksf'k'k dh Fkh] tks Hkxr¯lg ds
fpUru ds la?kVd vo;o FksA
Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa us 1928 esa ^fgUnqLrku lks'kfyLV
fjifCydu ,lksfl,'ku* dh LFkkiuk ds le; gh lektokn dks y{; vkSj
fl¼kUr ds :i esa Lohdkj dj fy;k Fkk] ij dekscs'k 1929 ds eè; rd
lektokn vkSj ekDlZokn ds çfr mudk yxko HkkokRed gh Fkk] cqf¼laxr ughaA
Hkxr¯lg ds lg;ksxh ØkfUrdkjh f'kooekZ lfgr vusd bfrgkldkjksa us bl ckr
dk mYys[k fd;k gS fd 1929 esa fxjÝ+rkjh ds ckn ,p-,l-vkj-,- ds ;qok
ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds ,d èkM+s us] vkSj fo'ks"kdj Hkxr¯lg us tsy esa cM+h eqf'dyksa
ls tqVkdj] ØkfUrdkjh lkfgR; vkSj ekDlZokn dk xgu vè;;u vkSj ml ij
fopkj&foe'kZ fd;kA blds ifj.kkeLo:i os vjktdrkoknh vkSj eè;oxhZ;
nqLlkglokn dks NksM+dj rst+h ls loZgkjk ØkfUr ds ekDlZoknh fl¼kUrksa dks
viukus dh fn'kk esa vkxs c<+sA oS;fDrd 'kkS;Z ,oa cfynku ls turk dks txkus
vkSj vkradoknh j.kuhfr }kjk mifuos'kokn ds fo#¼ la?k"kZ dk jkLrk NksM+dj
mUgksaus vius vrhr dh vkykspuk o lekgkj fd;k rFkk bl ckr ij cy fn;k
fd ØkfUr dh eq[; 'kfDr et+njw vkSj fdlku gS]a lkezkT;okn dks dsoy loZgkjk
ØkfUr }kjk gh f'kdLr nh tk ldrh gS] eq[;r% is'ksoj ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ij

Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd tks 'kgknr ds frjlB o"kks± ckn Ni ldh @ 11


vkèkkfjr loZgkjk oxZ dh ØkfUrdkjh ikVhZ ds ekxZn'kZu esa O;kid esgurd'k
turk o eè;oxZ ds tulaxBu [kM+k djds tukUnksyu dk ekxZ viuk;k tkuk
pkfg, vkSj ;g fd] blds ckn gh l'kL=k ØkfUr }kjk lÙkk iyVdj loZgkjk
vfèkuk;dRo dh LFkkiuk dh tk ldrh gSA ,p-,l-vkj-,- ds fl¼kUrdkjksa esa
Hkxr¯lg loksZifj Fks vkSj mudh iwjh fopkj&;k=kk dks 1929 ls ekpZ 1931 rd
(;kuh iQk¡lh p<+us rd) ds muds nLrkost+ksa] ys[kksa] i=kksa vkSj oDrO;ksa esa ns[kk
tk ldrk gSA Hkxr¯lg ds loksZUur fopkj i+Qjojh 1931 ds nks Hkkx ds ml
elfonk nLrkost+ esa ns[kus dks feyrs gSa tks ^ØkfUrdkjh dk;ZØe dk elfonk*
uke ls ^Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa ds nLrkost+* (la- & txeksgu ¯lg]
peuyky] jktdey çdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh) esa ladfyr gSA
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd feyus ds ckn Hkxr¯lg ds fpUrd O;fDrRo
dh O;kidrk vkSj xgjkbZ ij vkSj vfèkd Li"V jks'kuh iM+h gS] mudh fodkl
dh çfØ;k le>us esa enn feyh gS vkSj ;g lPpkbZ vkSj vfèkd iq"V gqbZ gS
fd Hkxr¯lg us vius vfUre fnuksa esa] lqO;ofLFkr ,oa xgu vè;;u ds ckn
cqf¼laxr <ax ls ekDlZokn dks viuk ekxZn'kZd fl¼kUr cuk;k FkkA ,dckjxh
rks ;g ckr vfo'oluh;&lh yxrh gS fd ØkfUrdkjh thou vkSj tsy dh
chgM+ dfBukb;ksa esa Hkxr¯lg us fczfV'k lsaljf'ki dh reke fnD+o+Qrksa ds ckotwn
iqLrdsa tqVkdj bruk xgu vkSj O;kid vè;;u dj MkykA egt 23 o"kZ dh
NksVh&lh mez esa fpUru dk tks èkjkry mUgksaus gkfly dj fy;k Fkk] og muds
;qxæ"Vk ;qxiq#"k gksus dk gh çek.k FkkA ,sls egku fpUrd gh bfrgkl dh fn'kk
cnyus vkSj xfr rst+ djus dk ekík j[krs gSAa Hkxr¯lg dh 'kgknr Hkkjrh; turk
dks vkt Hkh f{kfrt ij vuojr tyrh e'kky dh rjg çsj.kk nsrh gS] ij ;g
Hkh lp gS fd mudh iQk¡lh us bfrgkl dh fn'kk cny nhA ;g lkspuk x+yr
ugha gS fd Hkxr¯lg dks 23 o"kZ dh vYik;q esa ;fn iQk¡lh ugha gqbZ gksrh rks
jk"Vªh; eqfDr la?k"kZ dk bfrgkl vkSj Hkkjrh; loZgkjk ØkfUr dk bfrgkl 'kk;n
dqN vkSj gh <ax ls fy[kk tkrkA
cgjgky] bfrgkl dh mruh gh nq[kn foMEcuk ;g Hkh gS fd vkt Hkh bl
ns'k ds f'kf{kr yksxksa dk ,d cM+k fgLlk Hkxr¯lg dks ,d egku ohj rks ekurk
gS] ij ;g ugha tkurk fd 23 o"kZ dk og ;qok ,d egku fpUrd Hkh FkkA
jktuhfrd vkt+knh feyus ds ipkl o"kks± ckn Hkh lEiw.kZ xk¡èkh okÄe;] usg:
okÄe; ls ysdj lHkh jk"Vªifr;ksa ds vuq"Bkfud Hkk"k.kksa ds fo'kn~xzUFk rd
çdkf'kr gksrs jgs ij fdlh Hkh ljdkj us Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa ds lHkh
nLrkost+ksa dks vfHkys[kkxkj] i=k&if=kdkvksa vkSj O;fDrxr laxzgksa ls fudkydj
Nkius dh lqèk ugha yhA
12 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
fNViqV i=k&if=kdkvksa esa çdkf'kr ys[kksa] vt; dqekj ?kks"k] f'ko oekZ]
lksgu ¯lg tks'k] ftrsUæ ukFk lkU;ky vkfn Hkxr¯lg ds ledkyhu
ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh fofHkUu iqLrdksa&ys[kksa] Hkxr¯lg ds vuqt dh iq=kh ohjsUæ
flUèkq dh iqLrdksa rFkk xksiky Bkdqj] th- nsoy] eUeFkukFk xqIr] fciu
pUæ] galjkt jgcj] deys'k eksgu vkfn bfrgkldkjksa&ys[kdksa ds fofHkUu
ys[kksa ,oa iqLrdksa ls Hkxr¯lg ds fopkjd O;fDrRo ij jks'kuh vo'; iM+rh jgh
gS] ij cgqla[;d f'kf{kr vkcknh Hkh blls cgqr de gh ifjfpr jgh gSA
Hkxr¯lg ds dqN ,sfrgkfld c;kuksa&nLrkost+ksa dks lÙkj ds n'kd ds iwokZ¼Z esa
fnYyh ls dqN ØkfUrdkjh okeiUFkh laLÑfrdfeZ;ksa dh igy ij çdkf'kr gksus
okyh ^eqfDr* if=kdk us çdkf'kr fd;kA blds ckn dbZ if=kdkvksa us vkSj
ØkfUrdkjh xzqiksa us iqfLrdkvksa ds :i esa Hkxr¯lg ds pqus gq, dqN ys[kksa dks
Nkius dk dke fd;kA Hkxr¯lg ds lkFkh f'kooekZ us muds pqfuUnk ys[kksa dk
ladyu vaxzst+h vkSj fgUnh esa çdkf'kr fd;kA
lcls igys txeksgu ¯lg (Hkxr¯lg dh cgu ds iq=k) vkSj peuyky
us Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa ds vfèkdka'k oDrO;ksa] ys[kksa] i=kksa vkSj nLrkost+ksa
dks ,d txg ladfyr fd;k (gkyk¡fd ;g ladyu Hkh lEiw.kZ ugha gS) tks
1986 esa jktdey çdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh ls çdkf'kr gqvkA
bl rF; dh ppkZ Hkxr¯lg ds dbZ lkfFk;ksa vkSj bfrgklfonksa us dh
gS fd tsy esa mUgksaus pkj vkSj iqLrdsa fy[kh Fkha % ^vkRedFkk*] ^lektokn
dk vkn'kZ*] ^Hkkjr esa ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu* rFkk ^e`R;q ds }kj ij*A
nqHkkZX;o'k budh ik.Mqfyfi;k¡ vkt miyCèk ugha gSa vkSj ekuk ;gh tkrk gS fd
os u"V gks pqdh gSaA gkyk¡fd buds x+k;c gksus dh dgkuh Hkh jgL;e; gS vkSj
blesa Hkh fdlh lkft'k ls iwjh rjg bUdkj ugha fd;k tk ldrkA cgjgky] ;g
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl ds lokZfèkd nqHkkZX;iw.kZ çlaxksa esa ls ,d gSA
vc ge Hkxr¯lg dh ml ,sfrgkfld tsy uksVcqd dh ppkZ ij vkrs gSa
tks igyh ckj 1993 esa t;iqj ls ^bf.M;u cqd ØkWfudy* ls 'A Martyrs
Notebook' uke ls çdkf'kr gqbZA bldk lEiknu HkwisUæ gwtk us fd;k FkkA bl
Mk;jh ds çkjEHk esa nh x;h ifjp;kRed fVIi.kh ds vuqlkj] bldh gLrfyf[kr@
MqIyhdsVsM çfrfyfi ,d iSdsV ds :i esa igyh ckj th-ch- dqekj gwtk
(xq#dqy dkaxM+h] gfj}kj ds rRdkyhu dqyifr) dks 1981 esa xq#dqy] bUæçLFk
ds nkSjs ds le; Lokeh 'kfDros'k ls feyh FkhA
ij blls Hkh igys ;g Mk;jh 1977 esa ,y-oh- fe=kksf[ku us i+Qjhnkckn esa
jg jgs Hkxr¯lg ds HkkbZ dqychj ¯lg ds ikl ns[kh Fkh vkSj mldk foLr`r
vè;;u djds ,d ys[k fy[kk Fkk] tks 1981 esa vaxzst+h esa çdkf'kr mudh
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd tks 'kgknr ds frjlB o"kks± ckn Ni ldh @ 13
iqLrd 'Lenin and India' esa ,d vè;k; ds :i esa 'kkfey fd;k x;kA iqu%
1990 esa bl iqLrd dk fgUnh vuqokn Hkh çxfr çdk'ku] ekLdks ls ^ysfuu
vkSj Hkkjr* uke ls çdkf'kr gqvkA
vc rd bl Mk;jh ds lEcUèk esa çkIr tkudkjh dks ge ;gk¡ flyflysokj
çLrqr dj jgs gSaA
1968 esa Hkkjrh; bfrgkldkj th- nsoy us ^ihiqYl ikFk* if=kdk esa
Hkxr¯lg ij ,d ys[k fy[kk Fkk ftlesa 200 iUuksa dh ,d dkih dk ft+Ø
fd;k x;k gSA mDr dkih esa iw¡thokn] lektokn] jkT; dh mRifÙk] ekDlZokn]
dE;qfuT+e] èkeZ] n'kZu] ØkfUr;ksa ds bfrgkl vkfn ij fofHkUu iqLrdksa ds
vè;;u ds nkSjku Hkxr¯lg }kjk tsy esa fy;s x;s uksV~l gSAa ;g uksVcqd Hkxr¯lg
dh iQk¡lh ds ckn muds ifjokj okyksa dks lkSai nh x;h FkhA nsoy us bls
i+Qjhnkckn esa jg jgs Hkxr¯lg ds NksVs HkkbZ dqychj ¯lg ds ikl ns[kk Fkk vkSj
vè;;u djds uksV~l fy;s FksA vius ys[k esa nsoy us bl ckr ij t+ksj fn;k fd
;g Mk;jh çdkf'kr dh tkuh pkfg,] ij ,slk gqvk ughaA
mDr Mk;jh dh tkudkjh gksus ij 1977 esa :lh fo}ku fe=kksf[ku Hkkjr
vk;s vkSj dqychj ¯lg ds gokys ls mDr Mk;jh ds foLr`r vè;;u ds ckn
,d ys[k fy[kk tks mudh iqLrd 'Lenin and India' dk ,d vè;k; cukA
gesa miyCèk tkudkjh ds vuqlkj] 1979 ds ckn bfrgkl ds dbZ 'kksèkk£Fk;ksa
us 404 i`"Bksa dh mDr tsy uksVcqd dh ,d i+QksVks çfrfyfi rhu ewfrZ Hkou
fLFkr tokgj yky usg: eseksfj;y E;wft+;e o yk;czsjh esa Hkh ns[kh&i<+hA ij
bl ij vyx ls dksbZ 'kksèk fucUèk dgha Hkh çdkf'kr ugha gqvkA
xq#dqy dkaxM+h ds rRdkyhu dqyifr th-ch- dqekj gwtk 1981 esa xq#dqy
bUæçLFk (fnYyh ls 20 fdyksehVj nf{k.k rqxydkckn jsyos LVs'ku ds fudV)
ds nkSjs ij x;s FksA ogk¡ laLFkk ds rRdkyhu eq[; vfèk"Bkrk Lokeh 'kfDros'k
us xq#dqy ds ^gkWy vkWi+Q i+Qse* ds rg[k+kus esa lqjf{kr bl ,sfrgkfld èkjksgj dh
,d gLrfyf[kr@MqIyhdsVsM çfrfyfi fn[kyk;h] ftls th-ch- dqekj gwtk us
dqN fnuksa ds fy, ek¡x fy;kA ckn esa Lokeh 'kfDros'k dh gR;k gks x;h vkSj
mDr Mk;jh (çfrfyfi) gwtk th ds ikl gh jg x;hA
1989 esa Hkxr¯lg dh 'kgknr ds fnu 23 ekpZ dks t;iqj esa dqN
cqf¼thfo;ksa us ^fgUnksLrkuh eap* dk xBu fd;kA mlh dh çkjfEHkd cSBdksa
esa th-ch- dqekj gwtk us Hkxr¯lg dh tsy Mk;jh dh tkudkjh nh vkSj
^fgUnksLrkuh eap* us bls çdkf'kr djus dk fu'p; fd;kA
^bf.M;u cqd ØkWfudy* if=kdk (t;iqj) ds lEiknd HkwisUæ gwtk dks bl
ifj;kstuk ds lEiknu dh ft+Eesnkjh nh x;h vkSj ^fgUnksLrkuh eap* ds egklfpo
14 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
ljnkj vkscsjk;] çks- vkj-ih- HkVukxj vkSj MkW- vkj-lh- Hkkjrh; us muds
lg;ksxh dh Hkwfedk fuHkk;hA nqHkkZX;o'k] vFkkZHkko ds dkj.k ;g ;kstuk [kVkbZ
esa iM+ x;hA
blh nkSjku MkW- vkj-lh- Hkkjrh; dks mDr tsy uksVcqd dh ,d vkSj Vkbi
dh gqbZ çfrfyfi çkIr gqbZ tks ,d LFkkuh; fo}ku MkW- çdk'k prqosZnh ekLdks
vfHkys[kkxkj ls i+QksVks&çfrfyfi djkdj yk;s FksA ^ekLdks çfr* vkSj ^xq#dqy
çfr* 'kCn'k% ,d&nwljs ls fey jgs FksA
1991 esa HkwisUæ gwtk us uksVcqd dks fd'rksa esa viuh if=kdk ^bf.M;u cqd
ØkWfudy* esa çdkf'kr djuk 'kq: fd;kA Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd bl :i
esa igyh ckj O;kid ikBd leqnk; rd igq¡phA MkW- peuyky us Hkh HkwisUæ gwtk
dks lwfpr fd;k fd mDr uksVcqd dh ,d çfrfyfi mUgksaus Hkh usg: E;wft;e
yk;czsjh] ubZ fnYyh esa ns[kh FkhA
bl rjg HkwisUæ gwtk o muds lg;ksfx;ksa dh ut+j esa mDr tsy uksVcqd dh
vkfèkdkfjdrk vkSj vfèkd iq"V gqbZA igyh ckj 1994 esa mDr tsy uksVcqd
^bf.M;u cqd ØkWfudy* dh vksj ls gh HkwisUæ gwtk vkSj th-ch- dqekj gwtk
(cyHkæ Hkkjrh) dh Hkwfedkvksa ds lkFk iqLrdkdkj çdkf'kr gqbZA mDr nksuksa
Hkwfedkvksa ls Hkh Li"V gS fd th-ch-dqekj gwtk vkSj HkwisUæ gwtk dks bl rF;
dh tkudkjh ugha Fkh fd mDr Mk;jh dh ewy çfr Hkxr¯lg ds HkkbZ dqychj
¯lg ds ikl i+Qjhnkckn esa Hkh ekStwn gSA mUgsa th- nsoy ds ml ys[k dh Hkh
lEHkor% tkudkjh ugha Fkh ftUgksaus lcls igys 1968 esa ;g rF; mn~?kkfVr
fd;k Fkk] u gh mUgsa fe=kksf[ku dk og ys[k (1981) gh feyk Fkk tks mDr
Mk;jh ds fo'kn vè;;u ds ckn fy[kk x;k FkkA
cgjgky] fe=kksf[ku us dqychj ¯lg ds ikl miyCèk uksVcqd@Mk;jh ls fy;s
x;s gokyksa ij tks i`"B vafdr fd;s gSa] mUgsa ns[kus ls Li"V gks tkrk gS fd th-
ch- dq e kj gw t k dks çkIr ^xq # dq y Vs D LV* mDr ew y Mk;jh dh gh
MqIyhdsV@gLrfyf[kr çfrfyfi gSA
,slk lEHko gS fd MkW- çdk'k prqosZnh us Mk;jh@uksVcqd dh tks çfrfyfi
ekLdks vfHkys[kkxkj esa ns[kh Fkh] og fe=kksf[ku gh Hkkjr ls ys x;s gksaA ;k ;g
Hkh gks ldrk gS fd fdlh vkSj :lh fo}ku us Hkh Mk;jh dk vè;;u fd;k
gksA
cgjgky] bu rF;ksa ls Mk;jh dh vkfèkdkfjdrk gh vkSj vfèkd iq"V gksrh
gSA
^Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa ds nLrkost+* iqLrd ds lEiknd&};
txeksgu ¯lg vkSj peuyky us Hkh iqLrd ds nwljs laLdj.k dh Hkwfedk (23
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd tks 'kgknr ds frjlB o"kks± ckn Ni ldh @ 15
ekpZ *89) esa fy[kk gS % ¶Hkxr¯lg dh tsy esa fyf[kr 404 i`"Bksa dh Mk;jh]
ftlesa egÙoiw.kZ jktuhfrd o nk'kZfud uksV~l gSa] vc Hkh lkekU; ikBdksa dh
igq¡p ls ckgj gS] gkyk¡fd bldh i+QksVks çfr rhu ewfrZ fLFkr tokgjyky usg:
eseksfj;y E;wft+;e o yk;czsjh esa lqjf{kr gSA bl ij D;k dgk tk ldrk gS]
ikBd Lo;a gh lkspsaA¸
bl fVIi.kh ls ,slk yxrk gS fd txeksgu ¯lg vkSj peuyky dks Hkh ;g
rF; Kkr ugha Fkk fd Hkxr¯lg dh ewy tsy uksVcqd muds HkkbZ dqychj ¯lg
ds ikl ekStnw gS] ftldk vè;;u 1968 esa th- nsoy us vkSj 1977 esa fe=kksf[ku
us fd;k FkkA ;g fo'ks"k vk'p;Z dh ckr blfy, Hkh gS D;ksafd txeksgu ¯lg
Hkh Lo;a Hkxr¯lg ds ifjokj ds lnL; gSaA os Hkxr¯lg dh cgu chch vej
dkSj ds iq=k gSaA Hkxr¯lg ds nwljs HkkbZ dqyrkj ¯lg dh iq=kh ohjsUæ flUèkw us Hkh
Hkxr¯lg ij nks iqLrdasa fy[kh gSaA mUgksaus Hkh bldk mYys[k ugha fd;k gS fd
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd muds ifjokj ds gh ,d lnL; ds ikl ekStwn gSA
;fn bu ifjokj&tuksa dks Hkh ;g rF; ugha irk Fkk rks bl ckjs esa gesa dqN ugha
dgukA u gh bldh vUrdZFkk dks tkuus esa gekjh dksbZ #fp gSA
;g loky ge ;gk¡ blfy, mBk jgs gSa fd ;g Hkkjr esa bfrgkl dh ,d
xEHkhj leL;k gSA vkt+kn Hkkjr dh dkaxzslh ljdkj gh ugha] fdlh Hkh iw¡thoknh
lalnekxhZ ny ls ge ;g vis{kk ugha j[krs fd mudh ljdkjsa Hkxr¯lg ds
fopkjksa dks turk rd igq¡pkus dk dke djsaxhA mudk cl pyrk rks os Hkxr¯lg
dh Le`fr rd dks nÝ+u dj nsrhaA ij ;g muds cl ds ckgj dh ckr gSA
ysfdu 'kghns&vkte Hkxr¯lg ds ifjokj&tuksa dk mudh oSpkfjd fojklr
ds ckjs esa tks #[k jgk] mlds ckjs esa D;k dgk tk;s\ lhèkk loky ;g gS fd
dqychj ¯lg ds ikl ;fn Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd ekStwn Fkh] rks mUgksaus mls
Hkkjrh; turk rd igq¡pkus ds fy, D;k dksf'k'k dh\ mUgksaus v[k+ckjksa esa]
bfrgkldkjksa dks i=k fy[kdj bls Nikus vkSj turk rd igqp ¡ kus dh dksbZ dksf'k'k
D;ksa ugha dh\ D;k bls çdkf'kr djus ds fy, çdk'kd ugha feyrs\ ;k turk
ls Ïksr&lalkèku ugha tqVrs\ gekjh tkudkjh ds vuqlkj] 'kghnsvkte ds ifjokj
ds yksx Lo;a Hkh brus foiUu ugha gSAa mUgsa ;fn Hkxr¯lg ds vkn'kks± ls I;kj gksrk
vkSj muds fopkjksa dks tu&tu rd igq¡pkus dh fpUrk gksrh rks os mDr Mk;jh
Lo;a Niok ldrs FksA vk'p;Z rks rc gksrk gS tc yxrk gS fd tsy uksVcqd ds
dqychj ¯lg ds ikl miyCèk gksus dk rF; Lo;a txeksgu ¯lg ;k ohjsUæ flUèkw
dks gh ugha irk FkkA D;k ;g ,d 'keZukd foMEcuk ugha gS fd Hkxr¯lg dh
tsy uksVcqd ij vkèkkfjr igyk foLr`r 'kksèk&fucUèk 1981 esa ,d :lh fo}ku
fe=kksf[ku dh iqLrd esa ladfyr gksdj lkeus vk;k\ oSls bl dkfgyh vkSj
16 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
x+Sjft+Eesnkjh ds fy, mu bfrgkldkjksa dks Hkh eki+Q ugha fd;k tk ldrk tks
bfrgkl dks dsoy çksi+Qsljh dk tfj;k cuk;s gq, gSa vkSj bfrgkl dh cgqewY;
fojklr dks Hkh turk rd igq¡pkus dh ftUgsa jÙkhHkj fpUrk ugha gSA vkSj Hkyk
D;ksa gks\ os bfrgkl i<+kus okys eqnfjZl gSa] bfrgkl cukus ls mudk Hkyk D;k
ljksdkj\
tgk¡ rd Hkxr¯lg ds ifjokj ds mu lnL;ksa dk loky gS] ftUgksaus vkt+knh
ds brus o"kks± ckn rd bfrgkl dh ,d cgqewY; èkjksgj dks ikfjokfjd lEifÙk
dh rjg nkcs j[kk vkSj mls turk rd igq¡pkus dh dksbZ dksf'k'k ugha dh_ os
Hkh viuh bl djuh ds pyrs bfrgkl esa viuk uke ntZ djk pqds gSaA oSls gekjs
ns'k esa ;g dksbZ ubZ ckr ugha gSA ØkfUrdkjh jktuhfr vkSj lkfgR; esa ,sls dbZ
mnkgj.k gSa fd egku foHkwfr;ksa ds jDr&lEcUèkh mÙkjkfèkdkjh muls tqM+s gksus ds
ukrs bT+t+r rks [+kwc ik jgs gSa ij muds vkn'kks± vkSj liuksa ls mUgsa dqN Hkh ugha
ysuk&nsukA mudh #fp ;k rks lEeku&çfr"Bk&lqfoèkk esa gS ;k fiQj jk;YVh dh
eksVh jo+Qe esaA Hkxr¯lg gksa ;k jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u] mudk ÑfrRo vkt iwjs jk"Vª
dh] iwjh turk dh ;k muds oSpkfjd mÙkjkfèkdkfj;ksa dh èkjksgj u cudj
ifjokj&tuks a dh futh lEifÙk cu x;h gS A ØkfUrdkfj;ks a ds reke
csVs&Hkrhts&Hkkats vkt ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds jDr&lEcUèkh gksus ds ukrs LokHkkfod
rkSj ij turk ls bT+t+r ikrs gSa vkSj lhuk iQqykrs gSaA ij mUgsa bl ckr esa dksbZ
fnypLih ugha fd D;k mu ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds lius iwjs gq,\ blds foijhr os
mlh lÙkk ls lqfoèkk,¡ ysus vkSj mUgha jktuhfrd nyksa dh jktuhfr djus rd
dk dke djrs gSa] ftUgksaus ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds liuksa ds lkFk fo'okl?kkr fd;kA
ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds ,sls okfjl Hkh D;k vius egku iwoZtksa ds vkn'kks± dk O;kikj
ugha dj jgs gSa\
cgjgky] 1994 esa HkwisUæ gwtk vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa us Hkxr¯lg dh tsy
uksVcqd dk ewy vaxzst+h laLdj.k Nkidj Hkkjr dh turk vkSj ØkfUrdkjh
vkUnksyu ds fy, tks mi;ksxh dk;Z fd;k mls dHkh Hkh Hkqyk;k ugha ldrkA
vke turk dks bfrgkl dh cgqewY; èkjksgj ls ifjfpr djkus ds egÙoiw.kZ
dk;ZHkkjksa esa ls ;g Hkh ,d gS fd Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd vkSj muds rFkk
muds lkfFk;ksa ds lHkh nLrkost+ksa dks lHkh Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa esa vuwfnr djds
tu&tu rd igq¡pk;k tk;sA
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd Ldwyh dkih dh lkekU; lkbt (17-50 ls-eh-
x 21 ls-eh) dh iqfLrdk gSA uksVcqd [kksyrs gh igys ist (VkbfVy ist) ij
vaxszt+h esa fy[kk gS % ^^Hkxr¯lg ds fy,@pkj lkS pkj (404) i`"B---** uhps ,d
gLrk{kj gS vkSj 12-9-29 dh frfFk nh x;h gSA Li"V gS fd ;g çfof"V tsy
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd tks 'kgknr ds frjlB o"kks± ckn Ni ldh @ 17
vfèkdkfj;ksa }kjk Hkxr¯lg dks dkih nsrs le; dh x;h gSA tsy eSuqvy@
fu;ekoyh ds tkudkj tkurs gksaxs fd tc Hkh dksbZ o+QSnh fy[kus ds fy, dkih
ek¡xrk gS rks tsy vfèkdkjh dks dkih ds 'kq: vkSj vUr esa ,slk fy[kuk gksrk
gS vkSj o+QSnh dks Hkh çkIr djrs le; ogk¡ gLrk{kj djuk gksrk gSA Hkxr¯lg ds
gLrk{kj (vaxzst+h esa) VkbfVy ist ij Hkh ekStwn gSa vkSj 12-9-29 dh frfFk ds
lkFk dkih ds vUr esa HkhA uksVcqd dh tks MqIyhdsVsM@gLrfyf[kr çfrfyfi
th-ch- dqekj gwtk dks xq#dqy bUæçLFk esa feyh] mlesa uhps ck;sa dksus ij vaxt sz h+
esa ;g Hkh fy[kk gqvk Fkk % ¶çfrfyfi 'kghn Hkxr¯lg ds Hkrhts vHk; dqekj
¯lg }kjk rS;kjA¸
ewy uksVcqd ds i`"B Hkxr¯lg dh NksVs v{kjksa okyh fy[kkbZ ls Hkjs gq, gSaA
T;knk uksV~l vaxszt+h esa fy;s x;s gSa] ysfdu dgha&dgha mnwZ dk Hkh bLrseky fd;k
x;k gSA

18 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku
fopkj;k=kk dk nqyZHk lk{;
,y- oh- fe=kksf[ku

vDVwcj] 1967 esa ,d o;kso`¼ Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkjh fot; dqekj flUgk ls esjh
HksaV gqbZA 1929 esa vaxzst+ ljdkj us mUgsa ml eqo+Qnes esa lt+k fnyok;h Fkh] tks
bfrgkl esa ykgkSj "kM~;U=k dsl ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA mu fnuksa dh ?kVukvksa
dks ;kn djrs gq, Jh flUgk us egku Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkjh Hkxr¯lg ds ckjs esa
crk;k] tks iQk¡lh ds r[+rs ij p<+us ls dqN ?k.Vs igys rd ysfuu dh thouh
i<+rs jgs FksA
dSlk vuqie bPNk&cy Fkk ml ohj dk! mu vdFkuh; ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa]
iQk¡lh ls igys ,d iqLrd i<+uk! ijUrq ysfuu ds O;fDrRo dk çHkko bruk
çcy Fkk fd lqnwj vkSifuosf'kd Hkkjr esa e`R;qn.M çkIr o+QSnh muds thou dk
o.kZu djus okyh iafDr;ksa dks ;ksa i<+rs Fks] ekuks thounk;h Ïksr ls ?kw¡V Hkj jgs
gksAa
---lqcg dk oD+r FkkA bl fnu Hkxr¯lg rsbZl o"kZ] ik¡p eghus vkSj NCchl
fnu ds gq, FksA ykgkSj dk ,d v[k+ckj ns[krs gq, Hkxr¯lg dh ut+j gky gh
esa Nih ysfuu dh thouh ds ckjs esa ,d ys[k ij iM+hA
ysfuu ij ,d fdrkc---og gj gkyr esa mls i<+uk pkgrs FksA Hkxr¯lg tkurs
Fks fd vkSifuosf'kd ¶U;k;ky;¸ viuk i+QSlyk lquk pqdk gS vkSj mUgsa iQk¡lh
feydj jgsxhA ;s ,sls {k.k gksrs gSa] tc vkneh dh lcls cM+h bPNk gksrh gS fd
vius fç;tuksa ds vfUre n'kZu ik ysA
^;qxn`"Vk Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds e`R;qat; iqj[ks* iqLrd esa Hkxr¯lg dh
Hkrhth ohjsUæ flUèkq us muds vfUre fnuksa dk o.kZu bl çdkj fd;k gSA og
fy[krh gSa % ¶Hkxr¯lg ds fy, ysfuu ls vfèkd o+Qjhch vkSj dkSu Fkk\ og
viuh e`R;q ls igys muls feyus dks mRlqd Fks vkSj muds fy, ysfuu dh
thouh i<+us dk vFkZ ysfuu ls feyuk FkkA¸

Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku fopkj;k=kk dk nqyZHk lk{; @ 19


,d foy{k.k ØkfUrdkjh vkSj Hkkjr ds jk"Vªh; uk;d Hkxr¯lg dk thou]
ftUgsa fczfV'k vkSifuosf'kd vfèkdkfj;ksa us 1931 esa iQk¡lh ns nh] ,d ohj dk
thou FkkA Hkkjr ds vykok muds ckjs esa lksfo;r la?k vkSj nwljs ns'kksa esa Hkh
iqLrdsa fy[kh x;h gSaA1 esjh ^ysfuu ds ckjs esa Hkkjr* esa ,d iwjk vè;k; ^og
iqLrd] tks Hkxr¯lg us i<+h* bl ohj ds tsy ds thou dks le£ir gSA2
vkSj vc nl lky ckn eq>s u;s nLrkost+ksa ds gksus dk irk pyk] tks
Hkxr¯lg ds HkkbZ dqychj ¯lg us ÑikiwoZd eq>s fn[kk;sA mudk lkjk ifjokj
vius fj'rsnkj ls] ftls usg: us Hkkjrh; yksxksa ds LorU=krk laxzke dk çrhd
dgk] lEcfUèkr lHkh nLrkost+ tek djrk vkSj l¡Hkkydj j[krk gSA bu nLrkost+ksa
ls bl ckr ij u;k çdk'k iM+rk gS fd fdl çdkj Hkxr¯lg ,d vkradoknh
ls fodflr gksrs gq, ,d vkLFkkoku ekDlZoknh cusA buls muds lkfFk;ksa ij
Hkxr¯lg ds çHkko rFkk muds fopkjèkkjkRed fodkl esa Hkxr¯lg dh Hkwfedk
dk irk pyrk gSA
;s nLrkost+ gSa Hkxr¯lg dh tsy Mk;jh] mUgksaus tks iqLrdsa i<+ha] muds
lkjka'k vkSj m¼j.kA buds vfLrRo dk Kku Hkkjrh; i=k&if=kdkvksa ls gqvkA 1968
esa Hkkjrh; bfrgkldkj th- nsoy us ^ihiqYl ikFk* if=kdk ds fy, ^'kghn
Hkxr¯lg* ys[k fy[kk] ftlesa mUgksaus 200 i`"Bksa dh ,d dkih dk ft+Ø fd;k
vkSj crk;k fd mlesa vusd fo"k;ksa ij Hkxr¯lg ds uksV gSa] ftuls mudh #fp
dh O;kidrk dk irk pyrk gSA dkih esa iw¡thokn] lektokn] jkT; dh mRifÙk]
dE;qfuT+e] èkeZ] lektfoKku] Hkkjr] ç+Qkal dh ØkfUr] ekDlZokn] ljdkj ds
:iks]a ifjokj vkSj vUrjjk"Vªh;rkokn ij uksV gSAa nsoy us ;s uksV i<+s vkSj bl ckr
ij t+ksj fn;k fd bUgsa çdkf'kr fd;k tkuk pkfg,] gkyk¡fd mudh ;g bPNk
vHkh rd lkdkj ugha gks ik;h gSA
;g dkih] ftlds ckjs esa Jh nsoy us fy[kk] ØkfUrdkjh ds nwljs dkx+t+kr
ds lkFk tsy vfèkdkfj;ksa us 23 ekpZ] 1931 dks Hkxr¯lg dks iQk¡lh nsus ds ckn
muds ifjokjokyksa dks lkSai nh vkSj vc iQjhnkckn esa jg jgs muds HkkbZ dqychj
¯lg ds ikl gSA
bu nLrkost+ksa dh çkekf.kdrk dh u dsoy bl rF; ls iqf"V gksrh gS fd
os ØkfUrdkjh ds ifjokj esa lqjf{kr j[ks x;s gSa_ dkih ds i`"B Hkxr¯lg dh NksVs
v{kjksa dh fy[kk;h ls Hkjs gq, gSa] og vaxzst+h esa fy[krs Fks] dgha&dgha mnwZ dk
Hkh bLrseky mUgksaus fd;kA i`"B 68 ij frfFk vafdr gS % 12-7-1930 vkSj
gLrk{kj gSa % ^Hkxr¯lg*A
;s nLrkost+ ;qok ØkfUrdkjh ds le`¼ vkfRed thou ij] vkRe f'k{kk ds
fy, muds ?kksj ifjJe rFkk tsy esa o+QSn ds nkSjku mudh fopkjèkkjkRed [kkst
20 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
ij çdk'k Mkyrs gSaA bu dkx+t+ksa dks ljljh rkSj ij ns[kus ij Hkh ;g irk pyrk
gS fd budk ys[kd ç[kj cqf¼ dk èkuh O;fDr Fkk] tks lkspus ds vknru <ax
dks R;kxus esa liQy jgk vkSj ftlus çxfr'khy if'peh fpUrdksa ds fopkjksa dks
vkRelkr fd;kA bu uksVksa esa ekDlZokn esa Hkxr¯lg dh #fp gh 'kk;n lcls
vfèkd egÙoiw.kZ gSA muds n`f"Vdks.kksa ds bl igyw dks gh Hkkjr vkSj nwljs ns'kksa
ds cqtqZvk bfrgkldkj fNikus dk ;Ru djrs gSaA vesfjdh bfrgkldkjksa th- Mh-
vksojLVªhV vkSj ,e- fo.Mfeyj dk nkok gS fd ¶T+;knkrj bl lEcUèk ds
vkèkkj ij gh Hkkjrh; dE;qfuLV ikVhZ us Hkxr¯lg dks ikVhZ dk ghjks fn[kkus dh
dksf'k'k dh gSA¸3
Hkxr¯lg ds uksV] tks mUgksaus laf{kIr] lkjxfHkZr 'kh"kZdksa ds lkFk fy[ks]
mudh O;fDrxr Hkkoukvksa dks Hkh çfrfcfEcr djrs gSsaA og vkt+knh ds fy,
rM+i jgs Fks] blhfy, mUgksaus ck;ju] fOgV~eSu vkSj oMZ~loFkZ dh LorU=krk ds
fo"k; ij iafDr;k¡ viuh dkih esa mrkjhaA mUgksaus bClu ds ukVd] nksLrks;sOLdh
dk ^vijkèk vkSj n.M* vkSj áwxks dk ^innfyr* miU;kl i<+s A :lh
ØkfUrdkjh osjk fi+QXuj rFkk :lh fo}ku vkSj ØkfUrdkjh u- eksjkst+kso dh
jpukvksa ls tsy thou dh dfBukb;ksa ds tks m¼j.k mrkjs] os mudh
euksHkkoukvksa ds vuq:i FksA mej [k+Õ;ke dh iafDr;k¡ Hkh Fkha] tks ;g fn[kkrh
gSa fd fdl çdkj Hkxr¯lg us thou vkSj e`R;q ds ç'uksa ij euu fd;k] tcfd
os vkSifuosf'kd vnkyr ds i+QSlys dh çrh{kk dj jgs FksA Hkxr¯lg us vius dks
eqo+Qnes ds fy, rS;kj djus ds mís'; ls o+Qkuwu dk Hkh vè;;u fd;kA
tsy esa iqLrdsa Hkxr¯lg dh fpUrk dk çeq[k fo"k; FkhaA tqykbZ] 1930 esa
mUgksaus vius fe=k t;nso xqIrk dks fy[kk % ¶Ñi;k ykgkSj ds }kjdknkl
iqLrdky; ds ykbczsfj;u ls iwNuk fd cksLVsZy tsy esa o+QSfn;ksa dks fdrkcsa Hksth
x;h gSa ;k ughaA mUgsa fdrkcksa dh cgqr raxh gSA mUgksaus lq[knso ds HkkbZ t;nso
ds gkFk lwph Hksth Fkh] exj fdrkcsa mUgsa ugha feyhaA vxj lwph [kks x;h gS] rks
tjk ykyk fi+Qjkst+pan ls fourh djuk fd mlds cnys viuh ilUn ls dqN
jkspd iqLrdsa Hkst nsaA bl brokj dks mUgsa fdrkcsa fey tkuh pkfg, FkhaA Ñi;k
fourh djuk fd fdrkcsa t+:j Hkst nsaA¸ 4
16 flrEcj] 1930 dks mUgksaus nq[kh eu ls vius HkkbZ dqychj ¯lg dks
fy[kk fd i+QSlyk lquk;s tkus rd muls feyus dksbZ ugha vk ldrk % ¶blfy,
esjh fourh gS fd rqe [k+ku lkgc ds nÝ+rj tkuk vkSj ogk¡ ls esjh fdrkcsa vkSj
nwljh tks pht+sa eSaus ogk¡ NksM+h gSa] ys ysukA eq>s ykbczsjh dh iqLrdksa dh cM+h
fpUrk gSA fi+Qygky esjs fy, dksbZ fdrkcsa ykus dh t+:jr ugha gS] D;ksafd esjs
ikl vHkh dqN gSaA vPNk gks] vxj rqe ykbczsjh ls mu fdrkcksa dh lwph ek¡x
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku fopkj;k=kk dk nqyZHk lk{; @ 21
yks] tks eSaus ogk¡ ls fudyok;h FkhaA¸
ØkfUrdkjh ts- lkU;ky us] tks dqN le; rd Hkxr¯lg ds lkFk tsy esa
jgs Fks] bl ckr ij t+ksj fn;k gS fd og cM+s è;ku ls i<+us ds fy, iqLrdsa pqurs
Fks] fMdsal] ¯lDys;j] okbYM vkSj xksdhZ mUgsa vfèkd ilUn FksA5
tsy esa mUgksaus ftl jktuhfrd vkSj oSKkfud lkfgR; dh ek¡x dh] mlls
mudh #fp;ksa dk irk pyrk gSA tqykbZ] 1930 esa mUgksaus nwljs b.Vjus'kuy dk
iru vkSj ¶okeiUFkh¸ dE;qfuT+e (¶okeiUFkh¸ dE;qfuT+e % ,d cpdkuk
etZ & çR;{kr% ;s nksuksa iqLrdsa ysfuu dh Fkha)] i- ØksiksfRdu dh ^ijLij
lgk;rk* rFkk ekDlZ dh ^ç+Qkal esa x`g;q¼* jpuk,¡ e¡xok;haA
Hkxr¯lg ds dqN uksV mudh thouh dk vkn'kZokD; gks ldrs gSaA mnkgj.k
ds fy,] vesfjdh lektoknh ;wthu oh- MsCl dk fuEu dFku % ¶tc rd
fuEu oxZ gS] eSa mlesa gw¡A tc rd dksbZ vijkèkh rÙo gS] eSa mlesa gw¡A tc rd
dksbZ tsy esa gS] eSa LorU=k ugha gw¡¸ (Hkxr¯lg dh Mk;jh dk i`"B 21A vkxs
mudh Mk;jh dh iafDr;ksa ds ckn mldk i`"B bafxr fd;k x;k gS)A i`"B 29
ij mUgksaus fy[kk % ¶fujFkZd ?k`.kk dh [k+kfrj ugha] lEeku] ;'k vkSj vkRe'yk?kk
dh [k+kfrj ugha] cfYd vius è;s; dh dh£r dh [k+kfrj rqeus ,slk dqN fd;k
gS] tks dHkh Hkqyk;k ugha tk;sxkA¸
LorU=krk ds fy, la?k"kZ vkSj nwljksa ds fy, vkRecfynku ds fopkj ge
mudh Mk;jh ds gj i`"B ij ikrs gSaA i`"B 23 ij Hkxr¯lg us VkWel tSiQjlu5
ds ;s çfl¼ 'kCn fy[ks % ¶vkt+knh ds fcjos dks le;&le; ij ns'kHkDrksa vkSj
rkuk'kkgksa ds [+kwu ls rkt+k fd;k tkuk pkfg,A ;g o+Qqnjrh [kkn gSA¸ bfrgkl]
n'kZu vkSj vFkZ'kkL=k ds fofHkUu fo}kuksa dh iqLrdksa ls tks m¼j.k Hkxr¯lg us
viuh Mk;jh esa mrkjs] os vR;Ur jkspd gSaA dguk u gksxk fd tsy ds gkykr
esa og dksbZ lqO;ofLFkr vè;;u ugha dj ldrs Fks] muds fy, rks ckgj ls
fdrkcsa ikuk rd eqf'dy FkkA muds uksV i<+rs gq, ,d ckr dh vksj è;ku tkrk
gS % mUgksaus BsB Hkkjrh; leL;kvksa dh vksj dgha de è;ku fn;kA dsoy dqNsd
ckj gh ykyk yktir jk;] fcfiupUæ iky vkSj enu eksgu ekyoh; tSls
LorU=krk lsukfu;ksa dk mYys[k fd;kA ,d fczfV'k ys[kd dh iqLrd esa ls mUgksua s
egkRek xk¡èkh dk dsoy ,d m¼j.k mrkjkA o"kks± rd vaxt sz k+ as }kjk Hkkjr ds 'kks"k.k
dh fofèk;ksa dk fo'ys"k.k vkSj vkSifuosf'kd jkT;rU=k ds fujadq'k mik;ksa dk
Hk.MkiQksM+ Hkkjrh; ns'kHkDrksa ds vè;;u dk ijEijkxr fo"k; jgk FkkA Hkxr¯lg
us dsoy nks&rhu ckj bldk ft+Ø fd;k gS] 'kk;n ;g ekurs gq, fd bl fo"k;
ij cgqr dqN fy[kk tk pqdk gS] fd vkSifuosf'kd nklrk ls muds ns'k dks eqDr
djkus dh vko';drk lcds fy, Li"V vkSj çekf.kr ckr gks x;h gSA ml le;
22 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
mudk è;ku lekt ds fodkl dh vke leL;kvksa esa vfèkd Fkk] lks og
Hkkjrh; fpUrdksa dh vis{kk if'peh fpUrdksa dh vksj vfèkd mUeq[k gq,A tgk¡
muds iwoZorhZ & jk"Vªh; ØkfUrdkjh & Hkkjr dks gh fo'o ds vUrjfojksèkksa dk
dsUæ ekurs Fks] ogha Hkxr¯lg ladh.kZ jk"Vªh;rkoknh iwokZxgz ksa ls iwjh rjg Åij mB
x;s Fks vkSj ;g ekurs Fks fd Hkkjr dh leL;k,¡ fo'o ds fodkl dh ifjfèk
esa gh gy dh tk ldrh gSaA
ftu ys[kdksa ds m¼j.k Hkxr¯lg us viuh Mk;jh esa mrkjs] muds çfr muds
#[k esa iwjh lqlaxfr gSA 'kq: esa og 18oha lnh dh vesfjdh vkSj ç+Qkalhlh
ØkfUr;ksa rFkk fopkjdksa ds çfr Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dk ijEijkxr yxko n'kkZrs
gSAa mUgksua s :lks7] VkWel isu8] VkWel tSiQjlu vkSj iSfVªd gsujh9 ds LorU=krk
rFkk ekuo ds tUefl¼ vfèkdkjksa ij fopkj uksV fd;sA i`"B 16 ij mUgksaus
iSfVªd gSujh dk fuEu Hkkoiw.kZ dFku uksV fd;k % ¶D;k ft+Unxh bruh I;kjh vkSj
pSu bruk ehBk gS fd csfM+;ksa vkSj nklrk dh o+Qher ij mUgsa [k+jhnk tk;sA {kek
djks] loZ'kfDreku çHkq! eSa ugha tkurk fd os D;k jkLrk viuk;saxs] eq>s rks cl%
^LorU=krk ;k ekSr* nksA¸
rkuk'kkgh dh HkRlZuk djus ds fy, Hkxr¯lg n'kZu dh jpukvksa dk gh ugha]
yfyr lkfgR; dk Hkh lgkjk ysrs gSaA ekdZ V~osu ds fuEu 'kCn mUgksaus viuh
Mk;jh esa mrkjs % ¶ge bl ckr dks Hk;kud ekurs gSa fd yksxksa dh xjnusa mM+k;h
tkrh gSa] ysfdu gesa ;g ns[kuk ugha fl[kk;k x;k gS fd ft+UnxhHkj yEch og
ekSr fdruh Hk;kud gS] tks x+jhch vkSj rkuk'kkgh iwjh vkcknh ij yknrh gSA¸
iw¡thoknh fodkl ds fu;eksa dks le>us ds Hkxr¯lg ds ç;klksa dks çn£'kr
djrh Hkh cgqr lkjh lkexzh gSA mUgksaus bl fo"k; dks xEHkhjrk ls fy;k vkSj
lkaf[;d lkefxz;ksa dk vè;;u fd;kA ToyUr lkekftd vUrjfojksèkksa dks fn[kkrs
vk¡dM+ksa dh vksj mUgksaus lcls igys è;ku fn;kA fofHkUu ys[kdksa ls tks m¼j.k
mUgksaus fy;s] os laf{kIr] fdUrq çHkkoksRiknd gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy,] og fy[krs gSa
fd fczVsu dh vkcknh dk ukSok¡ fgLlk ogk¡ ds vkèks mRikn dks gfFk;krk gS vkSj
bl mRikn dk dsoy lkrok¡ fgLlk nks frgkbZ vkcknh ds fgLls esa vkrk gS_ fd
vesfjdk dh vkcknh dk ,d çfr'kr ls de va'k og èkfud oxZ gS] ftlds ikl
67 vjc Mkyj rd dh lEifÙk gS] tcfd 70 çfr'kr vkcknh loZgkjkvksa dh gS]
tks jk"Vªh; mRikn ds dsoy pkj çfr'kr ij nkok dj ldrh gSA
cgqr ls m¼j.k ;g fn[kkrs gSa fd Jfedksa ds çfr muds eu esa xgjh
ln~Hkkouk Fkh vkSj iw¡thoknh O;oLFkk ds çfr mudk #[k vkykspukRed FkkA
mnkgj.kr%] iQwfj;s dk ,d m¼j.k mUgksaus uksV fd;k vkSj mldk 'kh"kZd j[kk
% ^lcds f[k+yki+Q vdsyk* % ¶orZeku lkekftd O;oLFkk ,d csgwnk dk;ZrU=k
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku fopkj;k=kk dk nqyZHk lk{; @ 23
gS] ftlesa lexz ds va'k ,d&nwljs ds foijhr gSa vkSj lexz ds f[k+yki+Q dke
djrs gSaA ge ns[krs gSa fd lekt esa çR;sd oxZ vius LokFkZ ds dkj.k nwljs oxks±
dk vfgr pkgrk gS] gj rjg ls O;fDrxr fgr dks tu dY;k.k ds f[k+yki+Q
j[krk gS¸ (vkSj vkxs ;g fy[krs gSa fd MkWDVj dk LokFkZ ;g gS fd lekt esa
T+;knk ls T+;knk jksx gksa] odhy T+;knk ls T+;knk eqo+Qnes pkgrk gS] okLrqdkj vkSj
c<+bZ pkgrs gSa fd edku tysa] bR;kfn)A blh Hkkouk esa johUæukFk Bkdqj ds
tkikuh fo|k£Fk;ksa ds le{k ml Hkk"k.k dk m¼j.k gS] ftlesa Bkdqj us tkiku
esa iSls ds ihNs nkSM+ dks ¶ekuotkfr ds fy, Hk;kud [k+rjk¸ crk;k] tks ¶'kfDr
ds vkn'kZ dks ifj"dkj ds Åij j[krh gS¸A
;s lHkh m¼j.k fn[kkrs gSa fd Hkxr¯lg iw¡thokn dks vLohdkj djrs gSaA
blhfy, mUgksaus ;g fu"d"kZ fudkyk % ¶loky ;g ugha gS fd orZeku lH;rk
dks cnyk tkuk pkfg, ;k ugha] cfYd ;g fd mls dSls cnyk tk;sxkA¸
Hkxr¯lg us iw¡thokn dh vkykspuk lkekftd vkSj jktdh;] nksuksa
O;oLFkkvksa ds çlax esa dhA i`"B 46 ij ysfuu dk uke igyh ckj vk;k gSA ;gk¡
Hkxr¯lg us vesfjdh lektoknh ekWfjl fgyfDoV dh iqLrd ^ekDlZ ls ysfuu
rd* ls cqtqZvk yksdrU=k ds lhfer Lo:i ij m¼j.k fy;k % ¶iw¡thokn esa
yksdrU=k ,d lk£od vewrZ yksdrU=k ugha Fkk] cfYd fof'k"V cqtqZvk yksdrU=k]
;k tSlkfd ysfuu us bls dgk Fkk] cqtqZvk oxZ ds fy, yksdrU=kA¸ vkxs og
fy[krs gSa % ¶yksdrU=k fl¼kUrr% jktuhfrd vkSj o+Qkuwuh lekurk dh O;oLFkk
gS] fdUrq Bksl vkSj O;kogkfjd :i esa ;g >wB gS] D;ksfa d tc rd vk£Fkd lÙkk
esa Hkkjh vlekurk gS] rc rd dksbZ lekurk ugha gks ldrh] u jktuhfr esa vkSj
u gh o+Qkuwu ds lkeusA---iw¡thoknh 'kklu esa yksdrU=k dh lkjh e'khujh 'kkld
vYier dks Jfed cgqer dh ;krukvksa ds tfj;s lÙkk esa cuk;s j[kus ds fy,
dke djrh gSA¸
Hkxr¯lg us cqtqZvk O;oLFkk dh fopkjèkkjkRed lajpuk dh vksj Hkh è;ku
fn;k vkSj bl flyflys esa cqtqZvk lekt esa èkeZ dh Hkwfedk esa #fp yhA vius
fy, og èkeZ dk ç'u gy dj pqds Fks] bl le; rd og ,d iDds
fujh'ojoknh cu pqds FksA ysfdu mUgksaus Hkkjrh; lekt esa èkeZ dh Hkwfedk vkSj
LFkku dks rFkk vius lkfFk;ksa] jk"Vªh; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh fopkjèkkjk ij blds
çHkko dks le>uk pkgkA
^èkeZ & LFkkfir O;oLFkk dk leFkZd % ^nklrk* 'kh"kZd ls mUgksaus
vesfjdk ds çslfcVsfj;u ppZ dh egklHkk (1835) ds çLrko dk ;g m¼j.k
uksV fd;k fd ¶nklrk dks ckbfcy ds iqjkus vkSj u;s èkeZxzUFkksa esa ekU;rk çkIr
gS vkSj bZ'oj dh lÙkk mldh fuUnk ugha djrhA¸ Hkxr¯lg vkxs fy[krs gSa fd
24 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
mlh o"kZ pkYlZVu cSifVLV ,lksfl,'ku us ¶vius nklksa ds le; dk mi;ksx
djus ds ekfydksa ds vfèkdkj¸ dh iqf"V dhA bl flyflys esa Hkxr¯lg us bl
ckr ij t+ksj fn;k fd èkeZ us ¶iw¡thokn dk leFkZu¸ fd;k gSA
èkeZ dh mRifÙk ds dkj.kksa vkSj mlds eeZ dks le>us dh ps"Vk esa og ekDlZ
dh vksj mUeq[k gq,A i`"B 40 ij ge ekDlZ dh jpuk ^gsxsy ds U;k;&n'kZu
dh lekykspuk dk ç;kl* ls ^èkeZ ds ckjs esa ekDlZ ds fopkj* 'kh"kZd dk
,d m¼j.k ikrs gSa % ¶---euq"; èkeZ dh jpuk djrk gS] èkeZ euq"; dh jpuk ugha
djrkA---euq"; dk vFkZ gS euq"; dk lalkj] jkT;] lektA ;g jkT;] ;g lekt
èkeZ dks] ,d foÑr fo'on`f"Vdks.k dks tUe nsrs gSa] D;ksafd os Lo;a ,d foÑr
lalkj gSaA èkeZ bl lalkj dk lkekU; fl¼kUr] mldk lkj&laxzg] lqcksèk :i esa
mldk rdZ gSA---èkeZ ds fo#¼ la?k"kZ ijks{k :i ls ml lalkj ds fo#¼ la?k"kZ
gS] ftldk vkè;kfRed lUrks"k èkeZ gSA-- èkeZ turk ds fy, vi+Qhe gSA¸
mYys[kuh; gS fd i`"B 192 ij Hkxr¯lg us vfUre okD; nksgjk;k gSA
lks] vius uksVksa esa Hkxr¯lg us iw¡thokn ds mUewyu ds i{k esa Bksl rdZ is'k
fd;sA ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn ds laLFkkidksa dh Hkk¡fr og Hkh ;gh ekurs Fks fd
Hkkoh lekt dsoy lektoknh lekt gh gks ldrk gSA muds uksVksa esa Hkkoh lekt
dk dksbZ foLr`r fooj.k rks ugha gS] fdUrq dqN fopkj ;g fn[kkrs gSa fd og
lektokn dh èkkj.kk dk oSKkfud vFkZ yxkrs FksA mUgksaus Hkkoh lekt ds
nf{k.kiUFkh lkekftd&tuokfn;ksa ds vkn'kZ dks vLohdkj fd;k rFkk iw¡thokn
ds LFkku ij lektokn ykus dh leL;k ds çfr lkekftd&lqèkkjoknh #[k dks
HkhA mUgksaus if'pe ds nf{k.kiUFkh lektokfn;ksa dh HkRlZuk dh vkSj vkj-
eSdMksukYM dks ¶fczfV'k yscj ikVhZ dk lkezkT;oknh usrk¸ dgk (i`"B 13)A
i`"B 52 ij nwljs b.Vjus'kuy ds usrkvksa }kjk et+nwj oxZ ds è;s; ls dh x;h
x+íkjh ds ckjs esa fgyfDoV dh iqLrd ls ,d m¼j.k gSA
tsy esa og iwjh rjg iw¡thoknh O;oLFkk dk r[+rk iyVus rFkk lkjh
ekuotkfr ds fgr esa vFkZO;oLFkk vkSj lkjh çkÑfrd lEink ij fu;U=k.k
LFkkfir djus dh vksj yf{kr fo'o lektoknh ØkfUr ds fopkj esa rYyhu jgsA
i`"B 190 ij mUgksaus fy[kk % ¶lektoknh O;oLFkk % çR;sd ls mldh ;ksX;rk
ds vuqlkj] çR;sd dks mldh vko';drk ds vuqlkjA¸ Hkxr¯lg lektokn esa
laØe.k dks loZgkjk ds la?k"kZ ds lkFk tksM+rs Fks] tks Hkkoh lekt esa 'kkld oxZ
cusxkA i`"B 69 ij ^dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ds ?kks"k.kki=k* dk ,d m¼j.k gS %
¶---et+nwj oxZ dh ØkfUr dk igyk o+Qne loZgkjk oxZ dks mBkdj 'kkld oxZ
ds vklu ij cSBkuk vkSj tuokn ds fy, gksus okyh yM+kbZ dks thruk gSA
¶loZgkjk oxZ viuk jktuhfrd çHkqRo iw¡thifr oxZ ls èkhjs&èkhjs dj lkjh
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku fopkj;k=kk dk nqyZHk lk{; @ 25
iwt
¡ h Nhuus ds fy,] mRiknu ds lkjs vkStk+ jksa dks jkT;] vFkkZr 'kkld oxZ ds :i
esa laxfBr loZgkjk oxZ] ds gkFkksa esa dsUæhÑr djus ds fy, rFkk lexz mRiknd
'kfDr;ksa esa ;Fkk'kh?kz o`f¼ ds fy, bLrseky djsxkA¸10
Hkxr¯lg us ;g Hkh bafxr fd;k fd ;fn loZgkjk dk iFkçn'kZu mldk
gjkoy nLrk] mldh ikVhZ] tks loZgkjk ØkfUr dk vfuok;Z midj.k gS] u dj
jgh gks] rks dksbZ ØkfUr ugha gks ldrhA mUgksaus loZgkjk xhr ^b.Vjus'kuy* ds
'kCn viuh Mk;jh esa mrkjsA
;g rdZlaxr gh Fkk fd Hkxr¯lg ØkfUr ds vkjEHk ds ukrs l'kL=k foæksg
ds ç'u ij igq¡psA ,slk foæksg Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh vusd ihf<+;ksa dk y{;
jgk Fkk] ijUrq os bls yk ikus esa liQy ugha jgs FksA ;gh dkj.k gS fd Hkxr¯lg
us bl fo"k; ij ekDlZoknh jpukvksa esa [k+kl fnypLih yhA mUgksaus ,axsYl dh
jpuk ^teZuh esa ØkfUr rFkk çfrØkfUr* ls yEcs m¼j.k mrkjs] gkyk¡fd ,slk
mUgksaus ewy jpuk ls ugha] cfYd ,d vU; iqLrd ls fd;k Fkk vkSj blhfy,
og bl Hkze esa jgs fd og ekDlZ dks m¼`r dj jgs gSa % ¶igyh pht+ & foæksg
ls rc rd f[kyokM+ u djsa] tc rd vki ml [ksy ds ifj.kkeksa dk lkeuk
djus ds fy, iwjh rjg rS;kj ugha gksrsA foæksg rks ,d ,slk dyu gS] ftlds
ifjek.k loZFkk vfuf'pr gksrs gSa] ftudk ewY; jkst+ cny ldrk gSA eqo+Qkcys
esa [kM+h 'kfDr;ksa dks laxBu] vuq'kklu rFkk ijEijkxr çfr"Bk ds lkjs ykHk
miyCèk gksrs gSaA ;fn foæksgh vius nq'euksa ds f[k+yki+Q vkSj cM+h rko+Qr eSnku
esa ugha mrkjsaxs] rks os gkj tk;saxs vkSj cjckn gks tk;saxsA nwljh pht+ & ,d ckj
foæksg 'kq: gksus ij vfèkdre n`<+ladYi ds lkFk dke djus rFkk çgkj djus
dh t+:jr gksrh gSA çfrj{kk dh fLFkfr çR;sd l'kL=k foæksg dh ekSr gqvk djrh
gS_ vius 'k=kq ls eqo+Qkcyk gksus ls igys gh eSnku gkFk ls fudy tkrk gSA¸ 11
bl m¼j.k esa çR;sd 'kCn foæksg ds ç'u ij Hkxr¯lg ds lkfFk;ksa ds lrgh
#[k ds f[k+yki+Q rFkk dqN gn rd ØkfUrdkjh xfrfofèk;ksa ds vkjEHk esa Lo;a
Hkxr¯lg ds n`f"Vdks.k ds f[k+yki+Q psrkouh nsrk gSA
dki+Qh yEcs le; rd Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us u rks Hkkoh LorU=k Hkkjr
esa lÙkk ds Lo:i ij vkSj u gh mldh ljdkj dh lkekftd&vk£Fkd uhfr ds
ç'u ij fopkj fd;kA os ;g lksprs Fks fd LorU=krk gh ,d ¶jkeck.k¸ gksxhA
ekDlZoknh lkfgR; ls çHkkfor gksdj Hkxr¯lg us bu lHkh ç'uksa esa xgjh
fnypLih yhA muds dqN uksV ;g fn[kkrs gSa fd mUgksaus loZgkjk vfèkuk;dRo
ds fopkj dks Lohdkj dj fy;k FkkA 'kq: esa mUgksaus ,axsYl dk ;g dFku uksV
fd;k fd fot;h loZgkjk dks oxZ&'k=kq dks dqpyus ds fy, vfèkuk;dRo dh
t+:jr gS vkSj blfy, ,d ¶LorU=k yksd jkT;¸ dh ckr djuk csrqdk gS (i`"B
26 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
62)A blds vkxs mUgksaus ysfuu dh ifjHkk"kk tksM+h % ¶vfèkuk;dRo çR;{k :i
ls ¯glk ij vkèkkfjr vkSj fdlh Hkh o+Qkuwu ls u c¡èkh gqbZ lÙkk gSA
¶loZgkjk oxZ dk ØkfUrdkjh vfèkuk;dRo loZgkjk oxZ }kjk cqtqZvk oxZ ds
fo#¼ ¯glk }kjk gkfly dh tkus okyh vkSj cjo+Qjkj j[kh tkus okyh lÙkk gS]
fdlh Hkh o+Qkuwu ls u c¡èkh gqbZ lÙkk gSA¸ 12
Hkxr¯lg ds uksVksa esa loZgkjk vfèkuk;dRo ds lkj ij la'kksèkuoknh #[kksa dh
vkykspuk ge ikrs gSaA mUgksaus ysfuu dh jpuk ^loZgkjk ØkfUr vkSj x+íkj
dkmRLdh* ls yEcs m¼j.k mrkjs vkSj ysfuu ds bl fopkj ij [k+kl è;ku fn;k
fd cqtqZvk fuUnd ¶'kq¼ yksdrU=k¸ ds ukjs dk lgkjk ysdj lksfo;r ljdkj
ij vR;kpkj dk vkjksi yxkrs gSa % ¶ijUrq vc pw¡fd Jfed rFkk 'kksf"kr oxks±
us lkezkT;oknh ;q¼ ds dkj.k fons'kksa ds vius Hkkb;ksa ls dVs jgdj Hkh bfrgkl
esa igyh ckj Lo;a viuh lksfo;rksa dh LFkkiuk dj yh gS] mu tu lewgksa dks
jktuhfrd fuekZ.k ds dke esa tqVk fn;k gS] ftudk cqtqZvk oxZ mRihM+u djrk
Fkk] ftUgsa og dqpyrk Fkk vkSj ftUgsa efrew<+ cukrk Fkk] vc pw¡fd mUgksaus Lo;a
,d u;s] loZgkjk jkT; dk fuekZ.k djuk vkjEHk dj fn;k gS] Hkh"k.k la?k"kZ dh
Tokyk ds chp] x`g;q¼ dh Tokyk ds chp 'kks"kdksa ls eqDr jkT; ds cqfu;knh
fl¼kUrksa dh :ijs[kk rS;kj djuh 'kq: dj nh gS & blfy, lkjs yqPps cqtqZvk
tu] [+kwu pwlus okyksa dk iwjk fxjksg ^euekusiu* dk 'kksj epkus yxk gS vkSj
dkmRLdh Hkh mUgha ds Loj dks çfrèofur dj jgs gSa!¸ 13
loZgkjk vfèkuk;dRo dks u;s lekt ds fuekZ.k dk midj.k ekurs gq,
Hkxr¯lg us ,sls lekt dh LFkkiuk ds iFkksa dh vksj cgqr è;ku fn;kA bl
flyflys esa og lksfo;r :l ds vuqHko vkSj ogk¡ dqN le; igys gq,
ØkfUrdkjh iquxZBu dh vksj fujUrj mUeq[k gksus yxsA Mk;jh ds i`"B 36 ij
igyh ckj ¶cksY'ksfod :l¸ dk ft+Ø vk;k gSA blds vkxs gkf'k;ksa ij fofHkUu
ys[kdksa }kjk :l ij fy[kh x;h iqLrdksa dh lwph gS % jsus iQqyksi&feyj dh
^cksY'ksfoT+e dk psgjk vkSj fnekx+*] ,e- vks*gkjk dh ^jf'k;k*] ySalyks yksVu
dh ^:lh ØkfUr*] ,.Vu dkyZxzhu dh ^cksY'ksfod :l* vkSj ^ekDlZ] ysfuu
rFkk ØkfUr dk foKku* (i`"B 191)A bl lwph esa :l ij os lHkh iqLrdsa ugha
gSa] ftuesa Hkxr¯lg us tsy esa fnypLih fn[kk;h FkhA ts- lkU;ky ds vuqlkj
Hkxr¯lg us tkWu jhM dh ^nl fnu tc nqfu;k fgy mBh*] xksdhZ dh ^ek¡*
vkSj l- LrsIU;kd&ØkOphaLdh dh ^:lh yksdrU=k dk tUe* Hkh i<+h FkhaA14
ts- lkU;ky vkxs fy[krs gSa % ¶gkyk¡fd lektokn mudk fo'ks"k fo"k; Fkk]
rFkkfi mUgksaus 19oha lnh ds vkjEHk esa :lh ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dh mRifÙk
ls ysdj 1917 dh vDVwcj ØkfUr rd mlds bfrgkl dk xgjkbZ ls vè;;u
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku fopkj;k=kk dk nqyZHk lk{; @ 27
fd;kA ;g ekuk tkrk gS fd Hkkjr esa cgqr de yksx ,sls Fks] ftuds bl fo"k;
ij Kku dh rqyuk Hkxr¯lg ds Kku dh tk ldrh gSA cksY'ksfod 'kklu esa :l
esa gks jgs vk£Fkd ç;ksx esa Hkh mudh xgjh fnypLih FkhA¸15
Hkxr¯lg ;g le>rs Fks fd lektoknh ØkfUr ds lEeq[k fojkV l`tukRed
dk;ZHkkj gSa tks bls cqtqZvk ØkfUr ls vyx djrs gSaA fuEu m¼j.k esa bl Hksn ij
t+kjs fn;k x;k gS % ¶cqtv Zq k ØkfUr vkerkSj ij lÙkk ikus ds lkFk lekIr gks tkrh
gSA loZgkjk ØkfUr ds fy, lÙkk ikuk ,d 'kq#vkr gh gS_ lÙkk ik ysus ij mldk
mi;ksx iqjkuh vFkZO;oLFkk dk dk;kdYi djus vkSj u;h vFkZO;oLFkk xfBr
djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA¸ (i`"B 120)
ØkfUr ds ekDlZoknh fl¼kUr dk Lo;a gh LorU=k :i esa vè;;u djrs gq,
Hkxr¯lg us mlds lokZfèkd egÙoiw.kZ rÙo igpkusA mUgksaus iqjkuh jktdh;
e'khujh dks rksM+us vkSj u;h e'khujh cukus dh vko';drk ij ysfuu ds fopkj
uksV fd;s vkSj ;g bafxr fd;k fd vkUrfjd dk;ks± ds vykok lektoknh ØkfUr
ds lkeus vUrjjk"Vªh; dk;ZHkkj Hkh gksrs gSa] D;ksafd fo'o ØkfUr ds fcuk fdlh
,d ns'k esa dE;qfuLV 'kklu [k+rjs ls eqDr ugha gks ldrk] D;ksafd vUrjjk"Vªh;
iw¡thoknh gLr{ksi dk [k+rjk mlds flj ij lnk e¡Mjkrk jgsxk (i`"B 120)A
Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkjh gjkoy ds] ftldk tulkèkkj.k ds lkFk igys dksbZ
lEidZ ugha jgk] çfrfufèk ds ukrs Hkxr¯lg }kjk ysfuu ds bl fopkj dks
Lohdkj fd;k tkuk ,d cgqr cM+h ckr Fkh fd turk ij ikVhZ dk çHkko cgqr
egÙoiw.kZ gSA i`"B 121 ij muds uksV ysfuu ds bl fopkj dks çfrfcfEcr djrs
gSa fd loZgkjk dks vkcknh ds cM+s Hkkx dks vius i{k esa ykuk gksrk gS vkSj lkFk
gh oxZ&lg;ksx dh odkyr djus okys cqtqZvk vkSj VqViq¡ft;k rÙoksa ds Jfedksa
ij çHkko dks feVkuk gksrk gSA
bl rjg ge ns[krs gSa fd tsy esa FkksM+s le; esa gh Hkxr¯lg us ekDlZoknh
f'k{kk ds çeq[k fl¼kUrksa dks le> fy;k vkSj vkRelkr dj fy;kA muds thou
dk ,sls {k.k esa =kkln vUr gks x;k] tcfd og ekDlZokn ds Kku dk mi;ksx
djus ds fy, rS;kj gks x;s FksA
ijUrq tsy esa mUgksaus tks HkxhjFk ifjJe fd;k] og fujFkZd ugha FkkA
Hkxr¯lg us Lo;a tks dqN tkuk&le>k] mls mUgksaus vius fe=kksa vkSj lkfFk;ksa rd
igq¡pkus dh dksf'k'k dh] ;g le>rs gq, fd Hkkjr esa ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu ds
fodkl ds fy, ekDlZoknh fl¼kUr fdruk egÙoiw.kZ gSA ;g dksbZ la;ksx dh ckr
ugha fd vius ,d i=k esa mUgksua s vius dks ,d LorU=krk lsukuh ugha] lektoknh
fopkjksa dk çpkjd dgkA16
tsy esa Hkxr¯lg us vius ØkfUrdkjh lkfFk;ksa ds lkFk gh ugha] cfYd x+nj
28 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
ikVhZ ds cgqr ls lnL;ksa ds lkFk Hkh lEidZ LFkkfir fd;s] tks çFke fo'o;q¼
ds fnuksa ls tsy esa cUn FksA jk"Vªh; eqfDr vkUnksyu dh leL;kvksa ij mUgksua s x+nj
ikVhZ okyksa ls yEch ckrsa dhaA th- nsoy us x+nj ikVhZ ds lnL;ksa ds lkFk
Hkxr¯lg ds lEcUèkksa ds ckjs esa ,d ys[k fy[kk gSA17 tsy esa og x+nj ikVhZ ds
,d usrk lksgu ¯lg Hkduk ls feys] tks dkykUrj esa Hkkjr esa dE;qfuLV
vkUnksyu ds ,d çeq[k usrk cusA18
Hkxr¯lg vius lkfFk;ksa dks lykg nsrs Fks fd os ekDlZokn dk vè;;u djsAa
mnkgj.k ds fy,] mUgksaus ekDlZ dh ^iw¡th* ds vè;;u dh vko';drk ij t+ksj
fn;kA t;nso çlkn xqIr dks 24 tqykbZ] 1930 dks fy[ks i=k esa mUgksua s vius fy,
fdrkcsa e¡xok;h Fkha vkSj dgk Fkk fd vius lkfFk;ksa ds fy, fdrkcksa dh lwph
igys Hkst pqds gSa vkSj fourh dh Fkh fd mudk ;g vuqjksèk tYnh iwjk fd;k
tk;s] D;ksafd mUgsa fdrkcksa dh l[+r raxh gSA19
bl ckr ds Hkh çek.k feyrs gSa fd tks lkFkh lkSHkkX;o'k tsy tkus ls cp
x;s] muds lkFk Hkh Hkxr¯lg us lEidZ cuk;s j[ksA viuh dkydksBjh ls Hkh og
1929 esa ykgkSj esa gqbZ ukStoku Hkkjr lHkk dh dkaxl sz dks ,d egÙoiw.kZ lUns'k
Hkstus esa liQy jgsA viuh ØkfUrdkjh iqfLrdkvksa dh] ftuesa ^ce dk n'kZu*
Hkh Fkk] ik.Mqfyfi;k¡ mUgksaus tsy ls ckgj fHktok nhaA iQk¡lh ij p<+us ls dqN
fnu igys gh mUgksaus ;qok jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZvksa ds uke viuh ?kks"k.kk
fy[kh vkSj ckgj fHktok;h] ftls mudh vfUre bPNk vkSj olh;rukek dgk tk
ldrk gSA20·
tsy esa mUgksua s dqN iqLrdsa Hkh fy[kha % ^vkRedFkk*] ^lektokn dk vkn'kZ*
vkSj ^Hkkjr esa ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu*A nqHkkZX;o'k] bu iqLrdksa dh ik.Mqfyfi;k¡
ugha cph jgha] gkyk¡fd muds O;fDrxr vkSj jktuhfrd i=k cps jgsA bu i=kksa
ls Hkxr¯lg ds bl vkReewY;kadu dh iqf"V gksrh gS fd og lektoknh fopkjksa
dk çpkjd gSa vkSj bl ckr dh Hkh fd mUgksaus vius lkfFk;ksa dh ekDlZoknh #[k
viukus esa enn djus dh dksf'k'k dhA
lq[knso dks] ftUgsa Hkxr¯lg ds lkFk gh iQk¡lh nh x;h] mudk ,d i=k
çdkf'kr gqvk gSA blls bl ckr dh iqf"V gksrh gS fd Hkxr¯lg bl lPpkbZ dks
le>us yxs Fks fd Hkkjr esa O;kIr ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa lektokn ,d rdZlaxr jkLrk
gSA blls ;g Hkh irk pyrk gS fd Hkxr¯lg Hkkjr ds lkekftd thou ij vius
çHkko dks le>rs FksA
mUgksaus fy[kk fd vius lkfFk;ksa ds lkFk mUgksaus (jktuhfrd) okrkoj.k dks
dki+Qh cnyk vkSj os vius le; dh iSnkb'k FksA ekDlZ dk gokyk nsrs gq,]
ftUgksua ]s Hkxr¯lg ds 'kCnksa es]a vkS|ksfxd ØkfUr ls tUeh fopkjèkkjk dks fu:fir
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku fopkj;k=kk dk nqyZHk lk{; @ 29
fd;k] mUgksaus fy[kk fd mUgksaus vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa us Hkkjr esa lektoknh vkSj
dE;qfuLV fopkjksa dh jpuk ugha dh gS] os rks dky vkSj ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds çHkko
dk ifj.kke gSaA ijUrq blesa dksbZ lUnsg ugha fd mUgksaus ;Fkk'kfDr bu fopkjksa dk
çpkj djus esa enn dh gSA21
Hkxr¯lg vius thou ds vfUre {k.k rd ekDlZoknh fopkjksa dk çpkj djrs
jgsA ^ce dk n'kZu* iqfLrdk esa mUgksaus oxZ jfgr lekt vkSj loZgkjk
vfèkuk;dRo dk leFkZu fd;kA22 iQk¡lh dh lt+k lquk;h tk pqdus ds ckn
iatkc ds xouZj dks Hksts ,d i=k esa Hkxr¯lg us fy[kk fd Hkkjr esa esgurd'k
tulkèkkj.k vkSj muds mRihM+dksa ds chp yEck la?k"kZ py jgk gS] fd ;g la?k"kZ
nqxus mRlkg] lkgl vkSj vVwV ladYi ds lkFk rc rd pyrk jgsxk] tc rd
fd ,d lektoknh x.krU=k dh LFkkiuk ugha gks tkrh] orZeku O;oLFkk dk LFkku
,d u;h O;oLFkk ugha ys ysrh] ftldk mís'; tu dY;k.k gksxk vkSj ftlesa
gj rjg ds 'kks"k.k dk vUr gks tk;sxk vkSj ekuotkfr lPph vkSj fo'oO;kih
'kkfUr ds ;qx esa inkiZ.k djsxhA (bl i=k dh ,d uo+Qy eq>s Hkxr¯lg ds lkFkh
fot; dqekj flUgk us nhA)
Hkkjr dh LorU=krk ds vnE; lsukuh Hkxr¯lg us viuk ru&eu ns'k dh
vkt+knh ds la?k"kZ dh leL;kvksa esa rFkk jk"Vªh; ØkfUrdkjh laxBuksa dks l`n`<+
djus esa yxk;kA O;fDrxr vkrad dh uhfr ls mUgksaus iwjh rjg bUdkj dj fn;kA
mUgksaus lkjh isphnfx;ksa] vçR;kf'kr eksM+ksa vkSj mrkj&p<+koksa ds lkFk jktuhfrd
la?k"kZ ds egÙo dks Lohdkj fd;k vkSj og bl ckr ds fy, mRlqd Fks fd muds
tks lkFkh tsy tkus ls cp x;s gSa] os Bhd ,sls la?k"kZ esa tqVsaA 2 i+Qjojh] 1931
ds vius i=k esa lkfFk;ksa dks ;g lykg nsrs gq, mUgksua s ysfuu ds vuqHko dks è;ku
esa j[kkA blls irk pyrk gS fd mUgksaus rRdkyhu Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds fy,
yk{kf.kd cgqr ls ¶okeiUFkh¸ n`f"Vdks.kksa ls NqVdkjk ik fy;k FkkA mUgsa bl ckr
dk o+Qk;y djus ds fy, fd la?k"kZ dh dqN eaft+yksa esa 'k=kq ds lkFk ckrphr
dh tk ldrh gS] mUgksaus fy[kk fd le>kSrk viusvki esa dksbZ cqjh ckr ugha gS
vkSj viuk mís'; ikus esa vkjEHk esa mldk mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA
1905&1907 esa nwek ds çfr ysfuu dh uhfr dk gokyk nsrs gq, mUgksaus fy[kk
fd ¶le>kSrk¸ ,d ,slk gfFk;kj gS] ftldk jktuhfrd la?k"kZ esa bLrseky fd;k
tkuk pkfg,] rkfd jk"Vª dks FkksM+h nsj ds fy, vkjke fey lds vkSj og vius
dks vkxs ds la?k"kZ ds fy, rS;kj dj ldsA Hkxr¯lg us ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dk vkàku
fd;k fd os vius vfUre y{; dks dHkh u HkwysaA
ebZ] 1931 esa ;g i=k Hkkjrh; çsl esa Ni x;k FkkA bls çdkf'kr djus okyksa
esa bykgkckn dk lkIrkfgd ^vH;qn;* vkSj iatkc dk ^dsljh* FkkA23 bl rjg
30 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
Hkkjrh; turk blls voxr gks ik;h vkSj blus og ç;kstu iwjk fd;k] ftlds
fy, ys[kd us bls fy[kk FkkA
Hkxr¯lg dh vçdkf'kr jpukvksa esa og Hkwfedk è;ku nsus ;ksX; gS] tks
mUgksaus x+nj ikVhZ ds ykyk jke'kj.k dh ;wVksfi;kbZ jpuk ^LoIuyksd*
(MªheyS.M) ds fy, 15 tuojh] 1931 dks fy[kh FkhA ;g iqLrd rks ugha Nih]
ysfdu bldh Hkwfedk Hkxr¯lg ds ifjokjokyksa us l¡Hkkydj j[kh gqbZ gSA24 bl
Hkwfedk dh vUroZLrq iqLrd ds fo"k; ls dgha vfèkd O;kid gS % Hkxr¯lg
us ?kuhHkwr :i esa vius fopkj O;Dr djus ds fy, rFkk vius lkfFk;ksa dks lykg
nsus ds fy, bl volj dk ykHk mBk;kA
Hkwfedk bl dFku ls vkjEHk gksrh gS fd Hkkjr ds jktuhfrd vkUnksyu dk
dksbZ lqLi"V vkn'kZ ugha gS vkSj bl n`f"V ls ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu Hkh dksbZ
viokn ugha gSA dsoy x+nj ikVhZ us gh viuk vkn'kZ Li"Vr% fu:fir fd;k Fkk
% 'kklu ds x.krU=kh; :i dk leFkZu fd;k FkkA Hkxr¯lg us fy[kk fd ;g
lki+Q&lki+Q le>uk pkfg, fd ØkfUr dk vFkZ mFky&iqFky ;k [+kwuh ;q¼ek=k
ugha gSA ØkfUr dk vk'k; vfuok;Zr% ,d ,sls dk;ZØe dks ykxw djuk gS] tks
u;s rFkk vfèkd vPNs vkèkkj ij lekt dk iquxZBu djsA mUgksaus dgk fd u
dsoy okeiUFkh dkaxzslh] cfYd jk"Vªh; ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu ds çfrfufèk Hkh
¶ØkfUrdkjh¸ dgykus ds vfèkdkjh ugha gSa] D;ksafd la?k"kZ ds mxz mik;ksa dks
ekuuk gh blds fy, i;kZIr ugha gSA
ykyk jke'kj.k dh iqLrd dh ppkZ djrs gq, Hkxr¯lg us fy[kk fd ys[kd
ml n'kZu ds foospu ls 'kq: djrk gS] ftls og caxky vkSj iatkc ds lkjs
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk vkèkkj ekurk gSA mUgksaus dgk fd og ys[kd ls lger
ugha gS] D;ksafd ys[kd lalkj dh ç;kstuijd vkSj vfèkHkwroknh O;k[;k djrk
gS] tcfd og Lo;a HkkSfrdoknh gSaA mUgksaus bZ'oj esa fo'okl vkSj jgL;okn ds
fy, ys[kd dh vkykspuk dh] vyx&vyx èkeks± esa lkeatL; fcBkus ds ys[kd
ds ç;klksa dks vLohdkj fd;k vkSj bl ç'u ij viuk #[k ekDlZ ds 'kCnksa esa
O;Dr fd;k % ¶èkeZ turk ds fy, vi+Qhe gSA¸
ys[kd }kjk fpf=kr Hkkoh lekt dk fo'ys"k.k djrs gq, Hkxr¯lg us
lkekftd çxfr esa ;wVksfi;kbZ fl¼kUrksa dh mi;ksxh Hkwfedk dks Lohdkj fd;k
% ¶lsaV&fleksa] iQwfj;s vkSj jkcVZ vksosu vkSj muds fl¼kUrksa ds fcuk ekDlZ dk
oSKkfud lektokn fu:fir ugha gks ldrk FkkA¸ mUgksaus bl ckr ij t+ksj fn;k
fd Hkkoh lekt dE;qfuLV lekt gksxk] ftlds fuekZ.k ds fy, og vkSj muds
lkFkh ç;Ru'khy gSaA ,dkfèkd ckj og lksfo;r :l ds bfrgkl dh vksj mUeq[k
gq,] 'kkjhfjd vkSj ckSf¼d Je ds fy, leku ikfjJfed rFkk tu f'k{kk ds {ks=k
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku fopkj;k=kk dk nqyZHk lk{; @ 31
esa mldh uhfr dk mnkgj.k fn;kA Hkkoh lekt esa ;q¼ksa ds mUewyu dh
Hkfo";ok.kh djrs gq, mUgksaus fy[kk fd lksfo;r :l dks loZgkjk vfèkuk;dRo
dk ns'k gksus ds dkj.k iw¡thoknh lekt ls viuh j{kk ds fy, i+QkSt j[kuh iM+
jgh gSA
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy dh Mk;jh vkSj nwljh lkefxz;k¡] ftu ij ;gk¡ x+kSj fd;k
x;k gS] bl ;qok ØkfUrdkjh ds n`f"Vdks.k dk fodkl fn[kkrh gSaA lkFk gh os bl
fygkt+ ls Hkh vewY; gSa fd buesa gesa Hkxr¯lg dh fopkjèkkjkRed [kkstksa dk irk
pyrk gS] ge ns[krs gSa fd Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dk ekDlZokn dh vksj
#>ku Fkk vkSj os ysfuu rFkk vDVwcj ØkfUr ds fopkjksa ls çHkkfor gq, FksA
Hkxr¯lg rRdkyhu eè;oxhZ; ukStokuksa dh] tks dkaxzsl ds cqtqZvk usrkvksa
ls fujk'k Fks] Hkkoukvksa dk ewrZ :i gSaA bu ukStokuksa dks Hkxr¯lg us ;g fn[kk;k
fd mUgsa dkSu&lk jkLrk idM+uk pkfg,A tc bl ØkfUrdkjh dks iQk¡lh ns nh
x;h] rks muds mnkgj.k dk vuqlj.k djrs gq, ØkfUrdkjh nyksa us tsy esa gh
ekDlZokn ds vè;;u ds fy, ikB~;Øeksa dk çcUèk fd;kA
lksfo;r la?k esa gks jgs ØkfUrdkjh dk;kdYi rFkk ikVhZ dk;ZdrkZvksa dks
f'kf{kr djus dh mldh fopkjèkkjkRed vkSj jktuhfrd ç.kkyh ls Hkxr¯lg
cgqr vkd£"kr gq,A og vDVwcj ØkfUr ds vuqHko dk çR;{k vè;;u djuk
pkgrs Fks vkSj mUgksaus vius lkfFk;ksa ls ,sls ;ksX; mEehnokj pquus dks Hkh dgk]
ftUgsa bl mís'; ls ekLdks Hkstk tk ldsA
lqfo[;kr LorU=krk lsukuh ckck i`Foh ¯lg vkt+kn us ^ysfuu dh èkjrh
esa* uked viuh iqLrd esa fy[kk gS %
¶mu fnuksa Hkxr¯lg tsy esa ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn dk vè;;u dj jgs Fks
vkSj mudh ØkfUrdkjh n`f"V dks ,d u;k] vfèkd ifjiDo vk;ke çkIr gks jgk
FkkA og Hkkjr dh LorU=krk rFkk tulkèkkj.k dh 'kks"k.k ls eqfDr dh leL;k
ij vfèkd O;kid ifjçs{; esa iqu£opkj dj jgs FksA og Hkyh Hkk¡fr tkurs Fks fd
mUgsa iQk¡lh gksxhA ijUrq 'kghn gksus ls igys og vk'oLr gks tkuk pkgrs Fks fd
Hkkjr esa ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu ml u;h voLFkk esa inkiZ.k dj ys] ftldh
dYiuk mUgksaus ekDlZoknh fl¼kUrksa vkSj lksfo;r ØkfUr ds vè;;u ds vkèkkj
ij dh FkhA¸
vkxs og fy[krs gSa % ¶pUæ'ks[kj vkSj èkUoUrfj us eq>ls dgk % ljnkj
Hkxr¯lg tsy esa ekDlZ vkSj ysfuu ds dE;qfuLV n'kZu dk xgjk vè;;u djrs
jgs Fks vkSj vius lkfFk;ksa dks Hkh bldh çsj.kk nsrs jgs FksA---mUgksua s gh rqels feyus
vkSj rqEgsa bf.M;u lks'kfyLV fjifCydu vkehZ dk lnL; cukdj lksfo;r la?k
esa vè;;u ds fy, Hkstus dks dgk FkkA¸ 25
32 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
fxjÝ+rkjh ls igys Hkxr¯lg [+kqn Hkh lksfo;r la?k tkdj lektokn ds ns'k
dks viuh vk¡[kksa ls ns[kuk pkgrs FksA ^lksfo;r la?k esa uo ekuo* iqLrd esa
fot; dqekj flUgk fy[krs gSa %
¶mu fnuksa gh 'kkSo+Qr mLekuh] tks dqN nwljs yksxksa ds lkFk rhljs dE;qfuLV
baVjus'kuy dh NBh dkaxzsl esa Hkkx ysus ds fy, pksjh&fNis ekLdks tk jgs Fks]
dkuiqj esa eq>ls feys vkSj vius lkFk pyus dks dgkA---eSua s Hkxr¯lg ls ckr dh
% gesa yxk fd ;g mfpr le; ugha gSA geus r; fd;k fd ge nksuksa dqN le;
ckn ekLdks tk;saxsA¸ 26 nqHkkZX;o'k] ;g ;kstuk dHkh lkdkj ugha gks ik;hA
dqychj ¯lg us] ftudh Ñik ls eSa muds cM+s HkkbZ Hkxr¯lg dh tsy
Mk;jh dk vè;;u dj vkSj mldh uo+Qy mrkj ldk] muds thou rFkk
dk;Zdyki ij vf}rh; lkexzh tek dh gS] ftldk ckjho+Qh ls vè;;u fd;k
tkuk pkfg,A muds fopkj esa Hkxr¯lg tsy esa dwV Hkk"kk esa Hkh ,d Mk;jh j[krs
Fks] tks vHkh rd ugha fey ik;h gSA
Hkxr¯lg ds nwljs HkkbZ] dqyrkj ¯lg Hkh cM+s lkSgknZ ls eq>ls feysA mudh
lqiq=kh ohjsUæ flUèkw us mijksDr iqLrd fy[kh gSA blesa og crkrh gaS fd tqykbZ]
1929 esa fnYyh esa eqo+Qnes dh lquokbZ esa Hkxr¯lg us dgk Fkk % ge ml
,sfrgkfld fu"d"kZ ij t+ksj nsrs gSa] ftl ij ge igq¡ps gSaA---ftl rjg iQk¡lh ds
r[+rs vkSj lkbcsfj;k dh [k+kuksa ds Mj ls :l esa ØkfUr dh Tokyk ugha cq>h]
mlh rjg ljdkj ds vkns'k vkSj ¶vlkèkkj.k¸ o+Qkuwu Hkkjr esa LorU=krk laxzke
dh Tokyk ugha cq>k ldrsA
21 tuojh] 1930 dks ysfuu dh iq.; frfFk ij Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkFkh
yky :eky xys esa ck¡èkdj vnkyr esa vk;sA dV?kjs esa igq¡prs gh mUgksaus ukjs
yxk;s % ¶lektoknh ØkfUr ft+Unkckn¸] ¶dE;qfuLV b.Vjus'kuy ft+Unkckn¸]
¶ysfuu dk uke vej gS¸] ¶turk ft+Unkckn¸] ¶lkezkT;okn eqnkZckn¸A
blds ckn Hkxr¯lg us og rkj i<+k] tks mUgksaus vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa us rhljs
b.Vjus'kuy dks Hkstus ds fy, vnkyr dks fn;k FkkA blesa dgk x;k Fkk % ysfuu
fnol ij ge mu lc yksxksa dk gk£nd vfHkoknu djrs gSa] tks egku ysfuu ds
fopkjksa dks vkxs ys tkus ds fy, ç;Ru'khy gSaA :l tks egku ç;ksx dj jgk
gS] mlesa liQyrk dh dkeuk ge djrs gSAa ge vUrjjk"Vªh; et+njw vkUnksyu dh
vkokt+ esa vkokt+ feykrs gSaA loZgkjk dh thr gksdj jgsxh] iw¡thokn dh gkj
gksxhA lkezkT;okn eqnkZcknA
Hkkjr esa ,d ,sls O;fDr ls Hkh esjh eqyko+Qkr gqbZ] tks Hkxr¯lg dks iQk¡lh
fn;s tkus ls dqN ?k.Vs igys gh muls feys FksA ;g Fks çk.kukFk esgrk] Hkxr¯lg
ds fe=k vkSj odhyA mUgksaus eq>s crk;k %
Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku fopkj;k=kk dk nqyZHk lk{; @ 33
¶mu fnuksa eSa Mk;jh j[krk Fkk (vius dke ds fy, Hkh eq>s bldh t+:jr
gksrh Fkh)A cnfo+QLerh ls 1947 esa ikfVZ'ku ds oD+r eq>s ykgkSj NksM+uk iM+k]
esjs dkx+t+kr ogha jg x;s] dqN irk ugha mudk D;k gqvkA
¶cgjgky Mk;fj;k¡ rks [kks x;h gSa] exj mu fnuksa dh ?kVukvksa us esjs fnekx+
ij bruh xgjh Nki NksM+h gS fd mls u oD+r feVk ldk gS] u dksbZ nwljh
?kVuk,¡A---
¶23 ekpZ] 1931 dks eq>s og fdrkc fey x;h] tks Hkxr¯lg us e¡xok;h
FkhA eSa mlls feyus x;kA tsy ds xsV ij eq>s crk;k x;k fd Hkxr¯lg vkSj
mlds nksLrksa us fdlh ls Hkh feyus ls bUdkj dj fn;k gSA otg ;g Fkh fd
tsy ds vfèkdkfj;ksa us o+Qjhch fj'rsnkjksa dks NksM+dj vkSj fdlh ls feyus ij
ikcUnh yxk nh FkhA blds fojksèk esa Hkxr¯lg vkSj mlds lkfFk;ksa us dgk fd
os fdlh ls Hkh ugha feysaxsA
¶dqN djuk pkfg, FkkA eSa tsy ds vfèkdkfj;ksa ls feyus x;kA muesa ,d
fe- iqjh usd bUlku fudykA mlus eq>s lykg nh fd rhu o+QSfn;ksa ds odhy
ds ukrs eSa vthZ nw¡ fd eq>s mudh vkf[k+jh bPNk fy[kus ds fy, muls feyuk
gSA fiQj mlus eq>s Hkxr¯lg dh dkydksBjh esa gh mlls feyus dh btkt+r ns
nhA FkksM+h nsj ckn jktxq: vkSj lq[knso dks Hkh ogk¡ yk;k x;kA
¶ml oD+r eq>s ;g irk ugha Fkk fd ykgkSj tsy ds bu rhu o+QSfn;ksa ls ;g
esjh vkf[k+jh eqyko+Qkr gS] fd nks ?k.Vs ckn bUgsa iQk¡lh ns nh tk;sxhA
¶Hkxr¯lg us eq>ls iwNk fd eSa fdrkc yk;k gw¡ ;k ughaA eSaus mls fdrkc
nh] rks og cM+k [+kq'k gqvkA fdrkc ysrs gq, cksyk % ^vkt jkr dks gh bls [k+Re
dj nwx¡ k] blls igys fd os---* ml cspkjs dks D;k irk Fkk fd og fdrkc vkf[k+j
rd dHkh ugha i<+ ik;sxkA¸
eSaus çk.kukFk esgrk ls iwNk fd mUgsa ml fdrkc dk uke ;kn gS] tks og
Hkxr¯lg ds fy, ys x;s FksA mudk tokc Fkk % ¶lp iwNsa] rks eq>s ;kn ugha
fd ;g ysfuu ds ckjs esa fdrkc Fkh] ;k ysfuu dhA ,d NksVh&lh fdrkc FkhA-
--vxys fnu tsy ds lUrjh us eq>s crk;k fd tc Hkxr¯lg dks fyokus vk;s Fks]
rks og ;g fdrkc i<+ jgk FkkA ckn esa Hkxr¯lg esjs fy, tks pht+sa NksM+ x;s
Fks] muds lkFk eq>s og fdrkc Hkh feyhA¸
¶'kk;n mlh lUrjh us]¸ esgrk us vkxs dgk] ¶Hkxr¯lg ds fj'rsnkjksa dks
muds vfUre {k.kksa ds ckjs esa crk;kA¸
ohjsUæ flUèkw us viuh iqLrd esa fy[kk gS fd Hkxr¯lg çk.kukFk esgrk dh
yk;h ysfuu dh thouh i<+ jgs Fks] tc njokt+k [kqykA ngyht ij vi+Qlj [kM+k
FkkA
34 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
¶^ljnkj th]* mlus dgkA ^iQk¡lh yxkus dk gqDe vk x;k gSA rS;kj gks
tkb;sA*
¶Hkxr¯lg ds nk;sa gkFk esa fdrkc Fkh] mlls ut+jsa mBk;s fcuk gh mUgksaus
ck;k¡ gkFk mBkdj dgk % ^Bgfj;sA ;gk¡ ,d ØkfUrdkjh nwljs ØkfUrdkjh ls fey
jgk gSA*
¶dqN iafDr;k¡ vkSj i<+dj mUgksaus fdrkc ,d rji+Q j[k nh vkSj mB [kM+s
gq, cksys % ^pfy,!*¸
Hkxr¯lg ds ØkfUrdkjh ny esa ls ,d vkSj deZB ØkfUrdkjh fudyk] tks
vkxs pydj Hkkjrh; dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk egklfpo cukA ;g Fks vt; dqekj
?kks"kA
^Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkFkh* uked iqLrd esa vt; ?kks"k us fy[kk fd
Hkxr¯lg Hkkjr ds jktuhfrd f{kfrt ij vYika'k ds fy, ,d mYdk fi.M dh
rjg peds vkSj yqIr gksus ls igys og yk[kksa yksxksa ds fy, ,d u;s Hkkjr dh
vkRek vkSj vk'kkvksa dk çrhd cu x;s] mu yksxksa ds fy,] ftUgsa e`R;q dk Mj
ugha Fkk] tks lkezkT;oknh vadq'k dks mrkj iQsadus vkSj vius egku ns'k esa ,d
LorU=k jkT; dk Hkou [kM+k djus ds fy, ÑrladYi FksA
Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa tSls fuMj ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dk cfynku O;FkZ ugha
FkkA muds ny ds loZJs"B çfrfufèk bl fu"d"kZ ij igq¡ps fd eqV~BhHkj ukStoku
ØkfUr ugha yk ldrs] fd cM+s èkhjt vkSj ifjJe ds lkFk tulkèkkj.k ds chp
dke djuk pkfg,] yksxksa dks la?k"kZ ds fy, laxfBr djuk pkfg,] Bksl
dk;Zuhfr;k¡ rS;kj djuk] mu ij vey djuk rFkk yksxksa dks lÙkk ds vfUre
la?k"kZ dh vksj ys tkuk pkfg,A
(1981)

fVIif.k;k¡
1- v- o- jkbdkso] ^Hkxr¯lg vkSj mudh fopkjèkkjkRed èkjksgj*] ^ujksnh vkt+hb bZ
vkÚhdh* (^,f'k;k vkSj vÚhdk ds tux.k*)] vad 1] 1971 (:lh esa)
2- y-o- fe=kksf[ku] ^ysfuu ds ckjs esa Hkkjr*] ^ukÅdk* (^foKku*) çdk'ku] ekLdks] 1971]
i`"B 124&130 (:lh esa)
3. M. Windmiller and G.D. Overstreet, Communism in India, Berkley, 1959, p. 240
4- iwjk i=k ifjf'k"V esa ns[ksa
5. J. Sanyal, Sardar Bhagat Singh, Lahore, 1930, p. 104
lkU;ky dh iqLrd ij vkSifuosf'kd vfèkdkfj;ksa us çfrcUèk yxk fn;k FkkA mYys[kuh; gS
fd Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa ds ckjs esa iqLrdksa] dforkvksa vkSj mudh j{kk dh vihyksa
dk fuf"k¼ lkfgR; dh lwph esa fo'ks"k LFkku FkkA vesfjdh 'kksèkdrkZ ,u- tsjYM cSfj;j

Hkxr¯lg dh tsy uksVcqd % ,d egku fopkj;k=kk dk nqyZHk lk{; @ 35


dh iqLrd esa lksyg ,sls çdk'ku fxuk;s x;s gSa (ns[ksa %
N. Gerald Barrier, Banned
Controversial Literature and Political Control in British India, 1907-1947, pps.
224-225)
6- VkWel tSiQ+jlu (1743&1828) & vesfjdh jktusrk] 1801&1809 esa la;qDr jkT;
vesfjdk ds jk"Vªifr
7- T;k¡ tkd :lks (1712&1778) & ç+Qkalhlh nk'kZfud vkSj çcksèkd
8- VkWel isu (1737&1809) & vesfjdh vkSj fczfV'k lkekftd ,oa jktuhfrd usrk]
çcksèkdksa ds ØkfUrdkjh i{k ds çfrfufèk
9- iSfVªd gsujh (1736&1799) & vesfjdh jktuhfrK vkSj oDrk
10- dkyZ ekDlZ vkSj ç+QMs fjd ,axYs l] ^dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk ?kks"k.kk i=k*] 1847&1848 (dk-
ekDlZ] ç+Q-s ,axYs l] ladfyr jpuk,¡] rhu [k.Mksa es]a fgUnh laLdj.k] ekLdks] çxfr çdk'ku]
[k.M 1] Hkkx 1] 1978] i`"B 152&153)
11- ç+Qs- ,axsYl] ^teZuh esa ØkfUr rFkk çfrØkfUr*] 1851&1852 (dk- ekDlZ] ç+Qs- ,axsYl]
ladfyr jpuk,¡] rhu [k.Mksa esa] [k.M 1] Hkkx 2] 1978] i`"B 103)
12- Oyk- b- ysfuu] ^loZgkjk ØkfUr vkSj x+íkj dkmRldh*] 1918 (Oyk- b- ysfuu] ladfyr
jpuk,¡] nl [k.Mksa esa] [k.M 8] 1984] i`"B 88
13- Oyk- b- ysfuu] ^loZgkjk ØkfUr vkSj x+íkj dkmRLdh*] 1918 (Oyk- b- ysfuu] ladfyr
jpuk,¡] nl [k.Mksa esa] [k.M 8] 1984] i`"B 137)
14. J. Sanyal, Sardar Bhagat Singh, Lahore, 1930, p. 104
15- Ibid., p. 103. ohjsUæ flUèkw us viuh iqLrd esa fy[kk gS fd
Hkxr¯lg :lh ØkfUr dks]
mlus tks jkLrs r; fd;s Fks vkSj tks urhts gkfly fd;s Fks] mudks le> ikus ds fy, jkr
fnu ç;kl djrs jgs
16. N. K. Singh, The impact of the Marxist ideas on Indian Revolutionary
Movement after the October Revolution, Mitteilgen des Institus fur
Orientforschung, BD. XVII, H. 2, 1971, S. 248
17. G. Deol, The Ghadarites and Shaheed Bhagat Singh, Peoples Path, March 1968
18. S.S. Josh, Baba Sohan Singh Bhakna, New Delhi, 1970, pp. 61 and 62
19. Peoples Path, June 1968, p. 17
20. N. K. Singh, The Impact of the Marxist Ideas on Indian Revolutionary
Movement after the October Revolution., p. 247
21. Ibid., p. 71
22. B. Hardas, Armed Struggle for Freedom, Poona, 1958. pp. 383-389
23. M. N. Gupta, History of the Indion Revolutionary Movement, Bombay-New
Delhi, 1972, p. 132
24- bl Hkwfedk dk lkjka'k ^¯yd* us 24 vxLr] 1969 ds vad esa Nkik FkkA
25. Baba Prithvi Singh Azad, In Lenin's Land, New Delhi, 1978, pp. 29, 32 and 35
26. Bejoy Kumar Sinha, the New Man in The Soviet Union, Peoples Publishing
House, New Delhi, 1971, p. 2

36 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
Hkxr¯lg }kjk tsy esa (1929&31)
vè;;u ds nkSjku fy;s x;s
uksV~l vkSj m¼j.k
uksVcqd [kksyrs gh igys ist (VkbfVy ist) ij vaxzst+h esa fy[kk
gS%
¶Hkxr¯lg ds fy,
pkj lkS pkj (404) i`"B---¸
uhps ,d gLrk{kj gS vkSj 12-9-29 dh frfFk nh x;h gSA Li"V gS
fd ;g çfof"V tsy vfèkdkfj;ksa }kjk Hkxr¯lg dks dkih nsrs le; dh
x;h gSA
blds uhps Hkxr¯lg ds nks iwjs vkSj nks y?kq gLrk{kj gSaA
i`"B ds Åijh nk;sa fdukjs ij Hkh vaxzst+h esa Hkxr¯lg dk uke
fy[kk gSA (ns[ksa lkeus dk i`"B)
tsy eSuqvy@fu;ekoyh ds tkudkj tkurs gksaxs fd tc Hkh dksbZ
o+QSnh fy[kus ds fy, dkih ek¡xrk gS rks tsy vfèkdkjh dks dkih ds
'kq: vkSj vUr esa ,slk fy[kuk gksrk gS vkSj o+QSnh dks Hkh çkIr djrs
le; ogk¡ gLrk{kj djuk gksrk gSA Hkxr¯lg ds gLrk{kj (vaxzst+h esa)
VkbfVy ist ij Hkh ekStnw gSa vkSj 12-9-29 dh frfFk ds lkFk dkih ds
vUr esa HkhA
uksVcqd dh tks MqIyhdsVsM@gLrfyf[kr çfrfyfi th-ch- dqekj
gwtk dks xq#dqy bUæçLFk esa feyh] mlesa uhps ck;sa dksus ij vaxzst+h
esa ;g Hkh fy[kk gqvk Fkk % ¶çfrfyfi 'kghn Hkxr¯lg ds Hkrhts vHk;
dqekj ¯lg }kjk rS;kjA¸
uksVcqd vke Ldwyh dkWih ds vkdkj dh Fkh] yxHkx
6-75 x 8-50 bap ;k 17-50 x 21 ls.VhehVjA
& lEiknd
i` " B 2 ¼2½ 1
t+ehu ds eki 2 %
teZu 20 gsDVs;j & 50 ,dM+ vFkkZr 1 gsDVs;j ¾ 2½ ,dM+

1- uksVcqd dh i`"B la[;k VkbfVy i`"B ls fxuh x;h gSA dks"Bd esa nh x;h la[;k mu
i`"Bksa dh gS ftu ij fy[kk gqvk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, i`"B 2 ¼2½ ds ckn rhu i`"B lkns
gSa vkSj vxyh fy[kkoV i`"B 6 ¼3½ ij gSA uksVcqd esa chp&chp esa dqN i`"B ugha gSa rFkk
dbZ i`"B [k+kyh NksM+s gq, gSaA dqy 145 i`"Bksa ij Hkxr¯lg us uksV~l fy;s gSaA
2- uksVcqd ds i`"B nks ij t+ehu dh eki lEcUèkh fli+QZ bUgha nks bdkb;ksa & gsDVs;j vkSj
,dM+ dh vkilh rqyuk vafdr gSA

40 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


i` " B 6 ¼3½
lEifÙk ls eqfDr & ¶lEifÙk dh LorU=krk¸---tgk¡ rd NksVs iw¡thifr vkSj
fdlku lEifÙkèkkjdksa dk loky gS] ¶lEifÙk ls eqfDr¸ cu x;hA
fookg viusvki esa] igys dh Hkk¡fr gh] os';ko`fÙk dk o+Qkuwuh rkSj ij
LohÑr :i] vkSipkfjd vkoj.k] cuk jgk---A
(lks'kfyT+e] lkbf.Vfi+Qd ,.M ;wVksfi;k)1

fnekx+h X+kqykeh & ¶,d 'kk'or lÙkk us ekuolekt dks oSlk gh jpk] tSlk
vkt og gS] rFkk ^Js"Brj* vkSj ^lÙkk* ds çfr leiZ.k nSoh bPNk ls gh
^fuEurj* oxks± ij ykxw fd;k x;k gSA¸ mins'kd x.k] mins'k eap vkSj çsl dh
vksj ls fn;s tkus okys bl lUns'k us vkneh ds fnekx+ dks lEeksfgr dj j[kk
gS vkSj ;g 'kks"k.k ds lcls et+cwr LrEHkksa esa ls ,d gSA
(vksfjftu vkWi+Q n i+QSfeyh esa vuqoknd dh Hkwfedk)2

i` " B 7 ¼4½

,axsYl Ñr n vksfjftu vkWi+Q n i+QSfeyh---


vkfne lekt ds bfrgkl esa ,d rdZlaxr O;oLFkk çLrqr djus dk ç;kl
lcls igys ekxZu us fd;kA3
og bls rhu eq[; ;qxksa esa ck¡Vrk gS %
1- vlH;rk] 2- ccZjrk] 3- lH;rk
1- vlH;rk iqu% rhu voLFkkvksa esa foHkkftr %
1- fuEurj_ 2- eè;_ 3- mPprj
1- vlH;rk dh fuEurj voLFkk % ekuotkfr dh 'kS'kokoLFkkA

1- ç+QsMfjd ,axsYl_ lektokn] dkYifud ,oa oSKkfud


2- ç+QsMfjd ,axsYl_ ifjokj] futh lEifÙk vkSj jkT; dh mRifÙk
3- yqbl ,p- ekxZu (1818&1881)_ vesfjdh lekt'kkL=kh ftUgksaus 1877 esa çdkf'kr
viuh iqLrd çkphu lekt (Ancient Society, or Researches in the Lines of Human
Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization) esa foLr`r lkekftd
vè;;u ds vkèkkj ij bfrgkl fodkl dh HkkSfrdoknh èkkj.kk dks iq"V fd;k FkkA ,axsYl
us viuh iqLrd ifjokj] futh lEifÙk vkSj jkT; dh mRifÙk fy[kus esa eq[; :i ls ekxZu
}kjk çLrqr lkexzh dks vkèkkj cuk;k FkkA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 41
1- isM+ksa ij jgukA 2- Hkkstu Fkk iQy] fxjhiQy vkSj dUnewyA 3- lqlaxr cksyh
dk fodkl bl dky dh çèkku miyfCèkA
2- eè; voLFkk % 1- vkx dh [kkstA 2- eNyh Hkkstu ds :i esa ç;qDrA
3- f'kdkj ds fy, iRFkj ds vkSt+kj vkfo"ÑrA 4- ekuo ekalHk{k.k vfLrRo esa
vk tkrk gSA1
3- mPprj voLFkk % 1- èkuq"k vkSj ck.k] dqEgkjh ughaA 2- xzkeh.k cfLr;k¡A
3- ?kj cukus esa bekjrh ydM+h dk bLrsekyA 4- diM+s cqus tkus yxsA
vlH;rk dh voLFkk esa èkuq"k vkSj ck.k oSls gh Fks] tSls ccZjrk dh voLFkk
esa yksgs dh ryokj] vkSj lH;rk dh voLFkk esa vkXus;kL=k & ;kuh] çHkqRo ds
gfFk;kjA

i`"B 8 ¼5 ½
2- ccZjrk %
1- fuEurj voLFkk % 1- dqEgkjh dk vkjEHkA igys ydM+h ds cjruksa ij
feV~Vh dh ijrsa p<+k;h tkrh Fkha] ysfdu ckn esa pydj feV~Vh ds cjru
vkfo"Ñr dj fy;s x;sA
2- ekuotkfr;k¡ nks Li"V oxks± esa foHkkftr %
(i) iwohZ] tks tkuoj ikyrh Fkha vkSj vukt iSnk djrh Fkha_
(ii) if'peh] ftuds ikl fli+QZ ^eDdk* FkkA
2- eè; voLFkk %
(v) if'peh xksyk¼Z % vFkkZr vesfjdk esa os [kk|&i+Qlysa mxkrs Fks] ([ksrh
vkSj ¯lpkbZ)] vkSj ?kj cukus ds fy, b±Vsa idkrs FksA
(c) iwohZ % os nwèk vkSj ekal ds fy, i'kqikyu djrh FkhaA bl voLFkk esa
dksbZ [ksrh ughaA
3- mPprj voLFkk %
1- dPps yksgs dks xykukA
2- nLrkost+ fy[kus ds fy, v{kj&fyfi dk fodkl vkSj mldk bLrsekyA
bl voLFkk esa vusd vkfo"dkj gksrs gSaA ;wukuh uk;dksa dk ;gh dky gSA
3- cM+s iSekus ij eDdk dh [ksrh djus ds fy, i'kqvksa }kjk yksgs ds gy
[khaps tkrs gSaA
4- taxyksa dh dVkbZ] rFkk yksgs dh dqYgkfM+;k¡ ,oa yksgs dh dqnkysa bLrseky
esa vkus yxhaA
1- ;gk¡ Hkxr¯lg us gkf'k;s ij fy[kk gS % osfut+u ¾ f'kdkj ls çkIr i'kq&ekal
42 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
5- egku miyfCèk;k¡ % (i) yksgs ds mUur vkStk+ j] (ii) HkkfFk;k¡] (iii) tkUrk]
(iv) dqEgkj dk pkd] (v) rsy vkSj 'kjkc fudkyuk] (vi) èkkrqvksa dh <ykbZ]
(vii) xkM+h vkSj jFk (viii) tgkt+&fuekZ.k ¹i`"B 9 ¼6½º (ix) dykRed
okLrq&f'kYi] (x) 'kgj vkSj fo+Qyksa dk fuekZ.k] (xi) gksej ;qx vkSj lEiw.kZ
feFkd'kkL=k
bu miyfCèk;ksa ds lkFk gh] ;wukuh rhljh voLFkk & ¶lH;rk¸ & esa ços'k
dj tkrs gSaA
la{ksi esa %
1- vlH;rk % eq[; rkSj ij rS;kj'kqnk çkÑfrd mRiknksa ds fofu;kstu dk
dky_ ekuoh; cqf¼&dq'kyrk eq[;r% bl fofu;kstu esa lgk;d fl¼ gksus okys
mi;ksxh vkSt+kjksa dk vkfo"dkj djrh gSA
2- ccZjrk % i'kqikyu] Ñf"k ,oa ekuoh; vfHkdrkZ }kjk çÑfr dh
mRikndrk c<+kus ds u;s&u;s rjho+Qksa dk Kku gkfly djus dk dkyA
3- lH;rk % çkÑfrd mRiknks a ds O;kidrj mi;ks x lh[kus dk]
eSU;qi+QSDp¯jx dk] rFkk dyk dk dkyA

bl çdkj] ges]a ekuo&fodkl dh rhu eq[; voLFkkvksa ls vkerkSj ij esy


[kkrs gq, ifjokj ds rhu eq[; :i feyrs gSa %
1- vlH;rk ds dky esa % ¶;wFk fookg¸
2- ccZjrk ds dky esa % ;qXe ifjokj
3- lH;rk ds dky esa % ,dfu"B fookg ds lkFk&lkFk O;fHkpkj vkSj
os';ko`fÙkA ;qXe ifjokj vkSj ,dfu"B fookg ds njE;ku] ccZjrk dh mPprj
voLFkk esa] nkfl;ksa ds Åij iq#"kksa ds 'kklu vkSj cgqiRuh&fookg dk ços'kA
(i`"B 90)
i` " B 10 ¼7½

fookg ds nks"k
[k+klrkSj ls ,d nh?kZdkfyd yxko] nl ekeyksa esa ls ukS esa] O;fHkpkj dk
,d iDdk çf'k{k.k Ldwy gksrk gSA (i`"B 91)

lektoknh ØkfUr vkSj fookg laLFkk


vc ge ,d ,slh lkekftd ØkfUr dh vksj vxzlj gks jgs gSa ftlds
ifj.kkeLo:i ,dfu"B fookg dk orZeku vk£Fkd vkèkkj mrus gh fuf'pr :i
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 43
ls feV tk;sxk] ftrus fuf'pr :i ls ,dfu"B fookg ds vuqiwjd dk]
os';ko`fÙk dk vk£Fkd vkèkkj feV tk;sxkA ,dfu"B fookg dh çFkk ,d O;fDr
ds & vkSj og Hkh ,d iq#"k ds & gkFkksa esa cgqr&lk èku ,df=kr gks tkus ds
dkj.k vkSj bl bPNk ds iQyLo:i mRiUu gqbZ Fkh fd og ;g èku fdlh nwljs
dh lUrku ds fy, ugha] dsoy viuh lUrku ds fy, NksM+ tk;sA bl mís';
ds fy, L=kh dh ,dfu"Brk vko';d Fkh] iq#"k dh ughaaA blfy, ukjh dh
,dfu"Brk ls iq#"k ds [kqys ;k fNis cgqiRuhRo esa dksbZ ckèkk ugha iM+rh FkhA
ijUrq vkus okyh lkekftd ØkfUr LFkk;h nk;k| èku&lEink ds vfèkdrj
Hkkx dks & ;kuh mRiknu ds lkèkuksa dks & lkekftd lEifÙk cuk nsxh vkSj ,slk
djds lEifÙk dh fojklr ds ckjs esa bl lkjh fpUrk dks vYire dj nsxhA ij
,dfu"B fookg pwf¡ d vk£Fkd dkj.kksa ls mRiUu gqvk Fkk] blfy, D;k bu dkj.kksa
ds feV tkus ij og Hkh feV tk;sxk\ (i`"B 91)1

i` " B 11 ¼8½

¶Hkj nks I;kyk gs fç; esjs] tks nwj djs


vkt foxr ds nq[k vkS* vkxr ds Hk; dks &
dy\ & D;ksa] dy gks ldrk eSa gks tkš
lkr gt+kj o"kks± ds dy dk vrhrA
--- --- ---
;gk¡ ?kus xkN ds uhps] lkFk esa jksVh]
efnjk dh lqjkgh] 'kk;jh dh fdrkc & vkSj rqe
xk jgh cxy esa esjs bl futZu chgM+ esa!
vc rks LoxZ cuk ;g futZu chgM+ gh!
¶mej [k+Õ;ke¸
jkT; dh iwokZis{kk gS cy ç;ksx dh ,d lkoZtfud lÙkk] tks vius
jkT; %
lnL;ksa ds lEiw.kZ fudk; ls i`Fkd gks pqdh gksA
& (,axsYl) (i`"B 116)2

1- ,axsYl_ ifjokj] futh lEifÙk vkSj jkT; dh mRifÙk


2- ogh
44 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
jkT; dh mRifÙk %
---iqjkus t+ekus esa o+Qchyksa ds chp gksus okys ;q¼ksa }kjk Hkz"V gksrs gq, u;k :i
èkkj.k & thfodksiktZu ds lkèku ds :i esa <ksj] nkl vkSj èku&nkSyr ywVus ds
fy, t+ehu vkSj ikuh ds jkLrs ls cko+Qk;nk èkkos_ la{ksi esa] èku&nkSyr dks nqfu;k
esa lcls cM+h pht+ le>k tkus yxk] mls ç'kalk vkSj vknj dh n`f"V ls ns[kk
tkus yxk vkSj iqjkus xks=k&lekt dh laLFkkvksa vkSj çFkkvksa dks Hkz"V fd;k tkus
yxk rkfd èku&nkSyr dks t+cjnLrh ywVuk mfpr Bgjk;k tk ldsA vc dsoy
,d pht+ njdkj Fkh % ,slh laLFkk dh] tks u dsoy vyx&vyx O;fDr;ksa dh
u;h gkfly dh gqbZ lEifÙk dks xks=k&O;oLFkk dh iqjkuh lkeqnkf;d ijEijkvksa
ls cpk lds] tks futh LokfeRo dks] ftldh igys vfèkd çfr"Bk ugha Fkh] u
dsoy ifo=k o+Qjkj ns vkSj bl ifo=krk dks ekuolekt dk pje y{; ?kksf"kr
dj ns] cfYd tks lEifÙk çkIr djus] vkSj blfy, èku&nkSyr dks yxkrkj c<+krs
jgus ds u;s vkSj fodflr gksrs gq, rjho+Qksa ij lkoZtfud ekU;rk dh eqgj Hkh
yxk ns_ ,slh laLFkk dh] tks u dsoy lekt ds uotkr oxZ&foHkktu dks] cfYd
lEifÙkoku oxZ }kjk lEifÙkghu oxZ ds 'kks"k.k fd;s tkus ds vfèkdkj dks vkSj
lEifÙkghu oxZ ij lEifÙkoku oxZ ds 'kklu dks Hkh LFkk;h cuk nsA
vkSj ;g laLFkk Hkh vk igq¡phA jkT; dk vkfo"dkj gqvkA
(i`"B 129&130)1

,d vPNh ljdkj dh ifjHkk"kk % ¶vPNh ljdkj Lo&'kklu dk fodYi


dHkh ugha gks ldrhA¸
¶gsujh dSEicsy cSujeSu¸ 2

¶gesa ;o+Qhu gS fd ljdkj dk dsoy ,d gh :i gS] pkgs bls ftl uke


ls Hkh iqdkjk tk;s] ftlesa vfUre fu;U=k.k turk ds gkFkksa esa gksrk gSA¸
¶vyZ vkWi+Q ckyiQksj¸ 3

1- ,axsYl_ ifjokj] futh lEifÙk vkSj jkT; dh mRifÙk


2- lj gSujh dSEicsy&cSujeSu (1836&1908) % fczfV'k mnkjoknh jktusrk] 1905&08
rd çèkkueU=kh jgsA
3- lEHkor% vkFkZj tsEl (1848&1930) % çFke vyZ vkWi+Q ckyiQksj] fczfV'k jktuf;d
,oa çèkkueU=kh (1902&1905)
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 45
èkeZ % ¶èkeZ ds çfr esjk viuk n`f"Vdks.k ogh gS tks Y;wØsfr;l
dk gSA eSa bls Hk; ls iSnk gqbZ ,d chekjh ds :i esa] vkSj ekuotkfr ds fy,
,d vdFkuh; nq[k ds :i esa ekurk gw¡A ysfdu] eSa blls bUdkj ugha dj ldrk
fd blus lH;rk esa dqN ;ksxnku Hkh fd;k gSA blus vkjfEHkd dky esa
iapkax&fuèkkZj.k esa enn dh] vkSj blh ds pyrs feÏ ds iqjksfgrksa us xzg.kksa dk
ys[kk&tks[kk bruh lkoèkkuh ds lkFk j[kk fd ckn esa os buds ckjs esa Hkfo";ok.kh
dj ldus esa leFkZ gks x;sA bu nks lsokvksa dks rks eSa ekuus ds fy, rS;kj gw¡]
ysfdu vkSj fdlh ds ckjs esa eSa ugha tkurkA
&cVsZª.M jlsy 1

i` " B 13 ¼10½
ijksidkjh fujadq'krk % ekW.VsX;w&psEli+QksM2Z us fczfV'k ljdkj dks ,d
^ijksidkjh fujadq'krk* dgk gS vkSj] fczfV'k yscj ikVhZ ds lkezkT;oknh usrk] jSEts
eSDMksukYM3 ds vuqlkj ¶,d ^ijksidkjh fujadq'krk* }kjk fdlh ns'k ij 'kklu
djus ds lHkh ç;klksa esa] 'kkflrksa dks dqpy Mkyk tkrk gSA os O;ogkj'khy
ukxfjd ugha] vkKkdkjh çtk cu tkrs gSaA mudk lkfgR;] mudh dyk] mudh
vkfRed vfHkO;fDr ej tkrh gSA¸

Hkkjr ds çHkkjh fons'keU=kh] vkujscy ,l- ekW.VsX;w us


Hkkjr ljdkj % gkml vkWi+Q dkeal esa 1917 esa dgk ¶Hkkjr ljdkj]
vkèkqfud mís';ksa ds fy, fdlh Hkh dke yk;d gksus dh
n`f"V ls csgn tM+] csgn fueZe] csgn vkfne] vkSj csgn nfd;kuwl gSA Hkkjr
ljdkj vleFkZuh; gSA¸

1- egku xf.krK vkSj nk'kZfud cVsZª.M vkFkZj fofy;e jlsy (1872&1972)


2- Hkkjr esa laoSèkkfud lqèkkjksa ds lEcUèk esa ekW.VsX;w&psEli+QksMZ fjiksVZ (1918) ftlds
vkèkkj ij Hkkjr ljdkj vfèkfu;e] 1919 ds rgr nksgjk 'kklu ykxw gqvkA ,Mfou lSev q y
ekW.VsX;w (1877&1924) 1917 ls 1922 rd Hkkjr ds ekeyksa dk çHkkjh fczfV'k fons'keU=kh
vkSj ykWMZ psEli+QksMZ 1916 ls 1920 rd Hkkjr dk ok;ljk; jgkA
3- tsEl jSEts eSDMksukYM (1866&1937) % fczfV'k jktuf;d vkSj fczfV'k yscj ikVhZ dk
laLFkkid lnL;A 1923&24 esa rFkk 1929&35 esa fczVsu dk çèkkueU=kh jgkA
46 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
Hkkjr esa MkW- jFki+QksMZ1 ds 'kCn % ¶Hkkjr esa fczfV'k 'kklu tSls
fczfV'k 'kklu % pyk;k tk jgk gS og nqfu;k esa ljdkj dh lcls fuÑ"V
vkSj lcls vuSfrd ç.kkyh & ,d jk"Vª }kjk nwljs dk 'kks"k.k & gSA¸

vkt+knh vkSj ¶vaxszt+ yksx vkt+knh dks Lo;a viuh [k+kfrj gh I;kj
vaxzst+ yksx djrs gSaA os vU;k; dh lHkh dkjZokb;ksa ls ?k`.kk djrs gSa]
flok; muds tks os Lo;a djrs gSaA os ,sls vkt+knh&çseh yksx
gSa fd dkaxks esa n[k+yvUnkt+h djrs gSa] vkSj csfYt;uksa ij ¶'keZ&'keZ¸ fpYykrs
gSaA ysfdu os Hkwy tkrs gSa fd mudh ,fM+;k¡ Hkkjr dh xjnu ij gSaA¸
& ,d vk;fj'k ys[kd 2

i` " B 14 ¼11½

HkhM+ dk çfr'kksèk
---¶vc vkb;s ge ns[ksa fd dSls yksx bl <ax ls lt+k nsus ds fopkj ds
dk;y gq,A
¶os bls mUgha ljdkjksa ls lh[krs gSa ftuds vUrxZr os th jgs gksrs gSa] vkSj
cnys esa ogh lt+k nsrs gSa ftldks Hkksxus ds os vknh gks pqds gksrs gSaA lwyh ij
V¡xs flj] tks o"kks± rd VsEiy ckj ds Åij yxs jgs] isfjl esa lwyh ij Vk¡xs tkus
okys fljksa ds n`'; dh Hk;kogrk ls rfud Hkh fHkUu ugha Fks_ fiQj Hkh vaxzst+
ljdkj us ;gh fd;kA 'kk;n dgk tk ldrk gS fd blls vkneh dks dksbZ [k+kl
i+Qo+QZ ugha iM+rk fd ejus ds ckn mlds lkFk D;k fd;k tkrk gS_ ysfdu thforksa
dks blls dki+Qh i+Qo+QZ iM+rk gS] blls ;k rks mudh Hkkouk,¡ fonh.kZ gks tkrh gSa
;k muds fny iRFkj gks tkrs gSa] vkSj nksuksa gh lwjrksa esa] ;g mUgsa f'kf{kr djrk
gS fd tc lÙkk muds gkFk esa vk;s rks os dSls lt+k nsaA
¶rc dqYgkM+h ls tM+ ij gh çgkj djks] vkSj ljdkjksa dks ekuork fl[kk
nksA ;s mudh [kwa[kkj lt+k,¡ gh gSa tks ekuotkfr dks Hkz"V djrh gSa---A tulkekU;
ds lkeus çn£'kr bu Øwj n`';ksa dk çHkko laosnu'khyrk dks [k+Re djus ;k
çfr'kksèk HkM+dkus ds :i esa lkeus vkrk gS] rFkk foosd ds ctk; vkrad ds
1- MkW- oh-,p- jnji+QksMZ dh iqLrd ekWMuZ bf.M;k % bV~l çksCyEl ,.M ns;j lksY;w'kal]
yUnu] 1927 ls
2- lEHkor% mijksDr iqLrd esa m¼`r

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 47


}kjk yksxksa ij 'kklu djus dh blh fuÑ"V vkSj >wBh èkkj.kk ds tfj;s os felky
curs gSaA¸
(jkbV~l vkWi+Q eSu] (i`"B 32)] Vh- isu)1

i` " B 15 ¼12½
jk"Vª us yqbZ pkSngosa ds fo#¼ ugha] cfYd ljdkj ds
jktk vkSj fujadq'k fl¼kUrksa ds fo#¼ foæksg fd;kA ;s fl¼kUr
jktrU=k %
ewyr% mlls ugha] cfYd dbZ lnh igys LFkkfir vkjfEHkd
O;oLFkk ls iSnk gq, Fks] vkSj bruh xgjkbZ esa tM+ tek pqds Fks fd [k+Re ugha
fd;s tk lds Fks] rFkk ijthfo;ksa ,oa yqVsjksa dk xUnxh ls Hkjk gqvk vLrcy Hkh
brus ?k`.kkLin :i ls xUnk Fkk fd ,d lEiw.kZ ØkfUr gh mls lki+Q dj ldrh
FkhA tc dksbZ dke djuk t+:jh gks tkrk gS] rks mls nÙk&fpÙk gksdj djuk
pkfg,] ;k mls djus dh dksf'k'k gh ugha djuh pkfg,---A jktk vkSj jktrU=k nks
vyx&vyx fHkUu pht+sa Fkha_ vkSj iwoksDZ r (;kuh jktk & l-) ;k mlds fl¼kUrksa
ds gh fojksèk esa ;g foæksg gqvk vkSj ØkfUr dh x;hA
& (i`"B 19)2

euq"; us lekt esa ços'k blfy, ugha fd;k fd og


çkÑfrd vkSj
igys ls Hkh cnrj gks tk;s] cfYd blfy, fd mlds
ukxfjd vfèkdkjvfèkdkj
% igys ls csgrj <ax ls lqjf{kr gksaA mlds çkÑfrd
vfèkdkj gh mlds lHkh ukxfjd vfèkdkjksa dh vkèkkjf'kyk gSaA
çkÑfrd vfèkdkj os gSa tks euq"; ds thus ds vfèkdkj ls lEcfUèkr gSa
(ckSf¼d&ekufld vkfn)A
ukxfjd vfèkdkj os gSa tks euq"; ds lekt dk ,d lnL; gksus ls lEcfUèkr
gSAa & (i`"B 44)3

1- VkWel isu dh Ñfr] n jkbV~l vkWi+Q eSu_ vaxzst+ ys[kd vkSj çpkjd VkWel isu
(1737&1809) vesfjdh LorU=krk&laxzke vkSj ç+Qkalhlh ØkfUr esa viuh vfoLej.kh;
Hkwfedk ds fy, lkjh nqfu;k esa fo[;kr gS_ mldk ijpk dkeu lsal rFkk ;g Ñfr jkbV~l
vkWi+Q eSu] bfrgkl dh vewY; èkjksgj gSaA vesfjdh LorU=krk&laxzke ds nkSjku fy[kk x;k
jkbV~l vkWi+Q eSu vesfjdh lafoèkku dk eq[; vkèkkj cukA
2- n jkbV~l vkWi+Q eSu ls
3- ogh
48 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
i` " B 16 ¼13½
jktk dh ,d O;fDr ds Hkj.k&iks"k.k ds fy,] fdlh ns'k ds
ru[+okg % lkoZtfud VSDlksa esa ls] nl yk[k LV²yx lkykuk nsus
dh ckr djuk vekuoh; gS] tcfd gt+kjksa yksx tks blesa
;ksxnku djus ds fy, etcwj fd;s tkrs gSa] vHkko ls =kLr vkSj cngkyh ls tw>
jgs gSaA ljdkj tsyksa vkSj jktegyksa ds chp] ;k daxkyh vkSj 'kku&'kkSo+Qr
ds chp fdlh le>kSrs ds :i esa ugha gksrh_ ;g blfy, ugha xfBr dh tkrh
fd t+:jreUn ls mldh neM+h Hkh ywV yh tk;s vkSj [k+Lrkgkyksa dh nqnZ'kk vkSj
c<+k nh tk;sA
& (i`"B 204)1

¶eq>s vkt+knh nks ;k ekSr¸


¶---ekeys dks gydk cukuk csdkj gS] egk'k;A 'kjhiQ yksx 'kkfUr] 'kkfUr
fpYyk ldrs gSa & ysfdu dksbZ 'kkfUr ugha gSA ;q¼ rks okLro esa 'kq: gh gks pqdk
gSA vc vxyk >a>kokr tks mÙkj ls mBdj---gekjs dkuksa rd igq¡p jgk gS]
xqatk;eku gfFk;kjksa dh VdjkgVksa dk gSA gekjs cUèkq&ckUèko rks igys gh ls yM+kbZ
ds eSnku esa gSaA ge ;gk¡ csdkj D;ksa [kM+s gSa\ vkf[k+j 'kjhiQ yksx pkgrs D;k gSa\
os D;k djsaxs\ D;k thou bruk I;kjk ;k 'kkfUr bruh ehBh gS fd mls csfM+;ksa
vkSj X+kqykeh dh o+Qher ij Hkh [k+jhn fy;k tk;s\
jksdks bls] gs loZ'kfDreku bZ'ojA eSa ugha tkurk fd vkSj yksx dkSu&lk jkLrk
vf[+r;kj djsaxsA ysfdu tgk¡ rd esjh ckr gS] eq>s ¶vkt+knh¸ nks ;k ¶ekSr¸A
& iSfVªd gsujh 2
et+nwj dk vfèkdkj %
^tks dksbZ Hkh dfBu Je ls dksbZ pht+ iSnk djrk gS mls ;g crkus ds fy,
fdlh [+kqnkbZ iSx+ke dh t+:jr ugha fd iSnk dh x;h pht+ ij mlh dk vfèkdkj
gSA¸
& jkcVZ th- baxjlksy 3

1- ogh
2- iSfVªd gsujh (1736&1790) % vesfjdh LorU=krk laxzke ds usrkvksa esa ls ,d] ç[kj
oDrk vkSj lkaln
3- jkWcVZ th- baxjlksy (1832&1899) % vesfjdh odhy] oDrk vkSj ys[kd

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 49


i` " B 17 ¼14½
¶yksxksa ds flj dye dj fn;s tkus dks rks ge Hk;adj ekurs gSa] ij gesa
thou&i;ZUr cjo+Qjkj jgus okyh e`R;q dh ml Hk;adjrk dks ns[kuk ugha fl[kk;k
x;k gS tks x+jhch vkSj vR;kpkj }kjk O;kid vkcknh ij Fkksi nh x;h gSA¸
& ekdZ V~osu 1

¶---lkfgR; ds p;u esa vjktdrkokfn;ksa vkSj foækssg


vjktdrkoknhHkM+% dkus okyksa dks Hkh LFkku fey tkrk gS_ vkSj ;fn mldh dqN
pht+sa ikBd dks egt vkØks'k dk mn~xkj gh yxsa] rks Hkh eSa dguk pkgw¡xk fd
blds fy, lkfgR; ds le£ir p;udrkZ dks nks"k ugha nsuk pkfg,] ;gk¡ rd fd
jpukdkj dks Hkh nks"k ugha nsuk pkfg, & mls (;kuh ikBd dks & l-) dkss Lo;a
viusvki dks gh nks"k nsuk pkfg,] fd mlus mu ifjfLFkfr;ksa dh ekStwnxh esa
pqIih lkèk yh gS] ftuds pyrs mlds ns'k&lekt ds yksx ikxyiu vkSj fujk'kk
dh pje lhek ij tk igq¡ps gSaA¸
& vIVu ¯lDys;j 2] Hkwfedk] 19] Økb i+QkWj tfLVl

cw<+k et+nwj % ¶---og (csjkst+xkj cw<+k et+nwj) mez ls] çÑfr ls] vkSj
ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls tw> jgk Fkk_ lekt] o+Qkuwu vkSj O;oLFkk dk lkjk
cks> mlds Åij Hkkjh iM+rk gqvk] mls viuk vkRelEeku vkSj vkt+knh [kks nsus
ij etcwj dj jgk Fkk---A mlus iQkeks± ds njokt+s [kV[kVk;s vkSj og fli+QZ euq";
esa gh vPNkbZ ik ldk & o+Qkuwu vkSj O;oLFkk esa ugha] cfYd fli+QZ euq"; esa ghA¸
& fjpMZ tsiQjht+ (80) 3
i` " B 18 ¼15 ½

x+jhc et+nwj % ¶---vkSj ge yksx] ftUgksaus bl dke dks vatke nsus dk


chM+k mBk;k] bl nqfu;k esa dqtkr gh jgsA ,d vUèkh
fo+QLer] ,d fojkV fueZe rU=k us dkV&Nk¡Vdj gekjs vfLrRo dk <kapk fuèkkZfjr
dj fn;kA ge ml oD+r frjLÑr gq,] tc ge lcls vfèkd mi;ksxh Fks] gesa
1- vlyh uke lSeqvy ySaXgkWuZ Dyhesal (1835&1910) % e'kgwj vesfjdh miU;kldkj
vkSj O;aX;dkj
2- e'kgwj vesfjdh miU;kldkj vkSj lektoknh&lqèkkjd (1878&1968)A Økb i+QkWj
tfLVl lkekftd izfrjks/ ds lkfgR; dk ,d vuwBk ladyu gS tks ¯lDys;j ds lEiknu
esa 1915 esa çdkf'kr gqvk FkkA vkxs dbZ i`"Bksa rd ds uksV~l blh iqLrd ls fy;s x;s gSaA
3- vaxzst+ çÑfroknh vkSj miU;kldkj (1848&1887)
50 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
ml oD+r nqRdkj fn;k x;k] tc gekjh t+:jr ugha Fkh] vkSj gesa ml oD+r Hkqyk
fn;k x;k] tc gekjs Åij foifÙk;ksa dk igkM+ VwVk gqvk FkkA gesa chgM+&catj
lki+Q djus ds fy,] mldh lkjh vkfne Hk;adjrkvksa dks nwj djus ds fy,] rFkk
mlds fo'o&iqjkru vojksèkksa dks fNUu&fHkUu dj Mkyus ds fy, Hkst fn;k
tkrkA ge tgk¡ Hkh dke djrs] ogk¡ ,d fnu ,d u;k 'kgj tUe ys ysrk_ vkSj
tc ;g tUe ys gh jgk gksrk] rc ;fn geesa ls dksbZ ogk¡ pyk tkrk] rks mls
^fcuk fuf'pr irs dk vkneh* dgdj idM+ fy;k tkrk vkSj fljfiQjk&vkokjk
dgdj ml ij eqo+Qnek pyk;k tkrkA¸
& (iSfVªd eSdfxy dh Ñfr]
fpYMªsu vkWi+Q n MsM ,.M] lh-ts- 48 ls)1

uSfrdrk % ¶uSfrdrk vkSj èkeZ ml O;fDr ds fy, egt 'kCnHkj


gSa tks vkthfodk dk tqxkM+ djus ds fy, xUns ukys esa eNyh
ekjrk gS] vkSj tkM+s dh jkr esa dM+kds dh 'khrygjh ls cpus ds fy, lM+dksa
ij ihiksa ds ihNs iukg ysrk gSA¸
& gksjsl xzhys (128)2

Hkw[k % ¶'kkld ds fy, mfpr ;gh gS fd mlds 'kklu esa dksbZ Hkh vkneh
B.M vkSj Hkw[k ls ihfM+r u jgsA vkneh ds ikl tc thus ds ekewyh
lkèku Hkh ugha jgrs] rks og vius uSfrd Lrj dks cuk;s ugha j[k ldrkA¸
& dksadks gks'kh
(tkiku dk ckS¼ fHk{kq] 14oha lnh] i`"B 135)
i` " B 19 ¼16½
eqfDr
vjs euq";ks! djrs gks xoksZfDr
fd rqe lUrfr gks eqDr vkSj ohj firjksa dh]
ij ;fn ysrk lk¡l ,d Hkh nkl èkjk ij]
rks D;k lpeqp rqe gks eqDr vkSj ohj\
;fn rqedks vglkl ugha tc
1- iSfVªd eSdfxy (1889&1963) % vkbfj'k i=kdkj] dfo vkSj miU;kldkjA (lh-ts-
& Økb i+QkWj tfLVl dk laf{kIr)
2- vesfjdh i=kdkj vkSj jktuhfrK (1811&1872)
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 51
csM+h ihM+k nsrh ,d HkkbZ dks]
rks D;k lpeqp rqe ugha vèke nkl
tks o+Qkfcy ugha eqDr gksus ds\
D;k gS og lPph eqfDr] tks rksM+s
t+athjsa cl viuh [k+kfrj]
vkSj Hkqyk ns laxfny gksdj
fd ekuork dk o+Qt+Z gS ge ij\
ugha] lPph eqfDr rHkh tc ge ck¡Vsa
lc t+athjsa] tks igus gSa vius HkkbZ]
vkSj Hkko vkS* deZ ls yxdj
gk¡s vkSjksa dh eqfDr easa rRij!
nkl rks os tks Hk; [kkrs gSa Loj nsus esa
fxjs gq, vkSj nqcZy dh [k+kfrj_
nkl rks os tks ugha pqusaxs
?k`.kk] Mk¡V vkSj xkyh
vkSj nqcddj eq¡g eksM+saxs
lp ls] bl ij lksp t+:jh_
nkl rks os tks fgEer u djsa
nks ;k rhu Hkh gksas xj lp ds go+Q esaA
& ¶tsEl jlsy ykWosy¸ (i`"B 189)1
i` " B 20 ¼17½
Hkjs iM+s gSa 'kqHkz vkSj fueZy vkHkk ds jRu ?kusjs
lkxj ds xgu vxkèk xàj esa]
f[kyrs gSa cgqrsjs iQwy vuns[ks yTtk#.k gksrs]
vkSj yqVk nsrs viuh lqxUèk futZu c;kj esaA2

vkfo"dkj % vc rd ;g loky o+Qk;e gS fd D;k vc rd fd;s


x;s lkjs ds lkjs vkfo"dkj fdlh Hkh vkneh dh jkst+ejkZ dh
dM+h e'kD+o+Qr Hkjh ft+Unxh dks vklku cuk ik;s gSaA
& ts-,l- fey 3] 199
Hkh[k % ¶èkjrh ij ml vkneh ls vfèkd ?k`.kkLin vkSj
1- vesfjdh dfo] fucUèkdkj vkSj lEiknd (1819&91)
2- vaxtsz + dfo VkWel xzs (1716&7) dh jpuk ,fyth fjVsu bu ,d d.Vªh ppZ;kMZ ls
3- tkWu LVqvVZ fey] vaxzst+ fucUèkdkj vkSj mnkjoknh nk'kZfud (1808&73)
52 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
v#fpdj vkSj dksbZ ugha gS tks Hkh[k nsrk gSA vkSj] oSls gh ml
vkneh ls vfèkd n;uh; vkSj dksbZ ugha gS tks mls Lohdkj djrk gSA
efDle xksdhZ 1] i`"B 204

LorU=krk
os e`r 'kjhj uo;qodksa ds]
os 'kghn tks >wy x;s iQk¡lh ds iQUns ls &
os fny tks Nyuh gks x;s Hkwjs lhls ls]
lnZ vkSj fu"iUn tks os yxrs gSa] thfor gSa vkSj dgha
vckfèkr vkst ds lkFkA
os thfor gSa vU; ;qok&tu esa] vks jktkvksA
os thfor gaS vU; cUèkq&tu esa] fiQj ls rqEgsa pqukSrh nsus dks rS;kjA
os ifo=k gks x;s e`R;q ls &
f'kf{kr vkSj leqUurA
i` " B 21 ¼18½
ni+Qu u gksrs vkt+knh ij ejus okys
iSnk djrs gSa eqfDr&cht] fiQj vkSj cht iSnk djus dksA
ftls ys tkrh nwj gok vkSj fiQj cksrh gS vkSj ftls
iksf"kr djrs gSa o"kkZ ty vkSj fgeA
nsgeqDr tks gqbZ vkRek mls u dj ldrs fofPNUu
vL=k&'kL=k vR;kpkjh ds
cfYd gks vts; jerh èkjrh ij] ejej djrh]
cfr;krh] pkSdl djrhA
(okYV fgVeSu 2] i`"B 268)

eqDr fpUru % ¶;fn dksbZ ,slh pht+ gks tks eqDr fpUru dks cjnk'r u
dj ldss] rks og HkkM+ esa tk;sA¸
& fo.Msy fiQfyi 3] i`"B 271
jkT; % ¶jkT; ni+Qk gks tk;s! eSa ,slh ØkfUr esa Hkkx yw¡xkA jkT; dh lewph
1- efDle xksdhZ (1868&1936) % çfl¼ :lh loZgkjk ØkfUrdkjh ys[kd
2- okYV fOgVeSu (1819&92)% çfl¼ vesfjdh dfo_ mudh fo[;kr dfork yhOt+
vkWi+Q xzkl ls
3- fo.Msy fiQfyIl (1811&1884) % vesfjdh oDrk] lqèkkjd] vkSj nklrk fojksèkh
vkUnksyu ds lfØ; dk;ZdrkZ
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 53
voèkkj.kk dk ewyksPNsnu dj nks] eqDr p;u vkSj vkfRed cUèkqrk dks
gh fdlh ,drk dh ,dek=k lokZfèkd egÙoiw.kZ 'krs± gksus dh ?kks"k.kk djks] vkSj
rHkh rqe ,d ,slh vkt+knh dh 'kq#vkr djksxs ftldh dksbZ lkFkZdrk gksxhA¸
& gsufjd bClu 1] i`"B 273

mRihM+u % ¶mRihM+u fu'p; gh ,d le>nkj vkneh dks ikxy cuk nsrk gSA¸
& (i`"B 278)2

i` " B 22 ¼19½

'kghn % tks vkneh vius lkFkh euq";ksa }kjk fd;s tkus okys vR;kpkj dk fojksèk
djus ds ç;kl esa] viuh tku ij [ksyrs gq,] viuh lkjh ft+Unxh
fuNkoj dj nsrk gS] og vR;kpkj vkSj vU;k; ds lfØ; vkSj fuf"Ø; leFkZdksa
dh rqyuk esa ,d lUr gS] Hkys gh mlds fojksèk ls mldh viuh ft+Unxh ds
lkFk&lkFk vU; ft+Unfx;k¡ Hkh D;ksa u u"V gks tkrh gksaA ,sls O;fDr ij igyk
iRFkj ogh ekjus dk go+Qnkj gks ldrk gS ftlus dHkh dksbZ iki u fd;k gksA
(i`"B 287)3

tc rd dksbZ fupyk oxZ gS] eSa mlesa gh gw¡A


fupyk oxZ % tc rd dksbZ vijkèkh rÙo gS] eSa mlesa gh gw¡A
tc rd dksbZ tsy esa o+QSn gS] eSa vkt+kn ugha gw¡A
& ;wthu ch- MsCl 4(144)

lcds fo#¼ ,d (pkYlZ iQwfj, % 1772&1837)5


orZeku lkekftd O;oLFkk ,d gkL;kLin rU=k gS] ftlesa lEiw.kZ ds va'k] bl
lEiw.kZ ds fo#¼ ,d Vdjko esa lfØ; gSaA ge ns[krs gSa fd lekt dk çR;sd oxZ]

1- gsufjd bClu (1828&1906) % ukosZ ds çfl¼ ukVddkj] vkèkqfud x| ukVd dh


'kq#vkr djus okys ekus tkrs gSaA
2- ,Dysft+vkfLrt+ (fgczw ckbfcy dk ,d fgLlk) vè;k; 7] in 7
3- vesfjdh vjktdrkoknh ,ek xksYMeku (1869&1940) ds ,d fucUèk ls
4- ;wthu oh- MsCl (1855&1926)% vesfjdh lektoknh usrk] 1918 esa çFke fo'o;q¼
fojksèkh ,d Hkk"k.k ds dkj.k gqbZ nl o"kZ o+QSn dh lt+k lquk;s tkrs oD+r vnkyr esa c;ku
5- Úk¡Lok esjh pkYlZ iQwfj;s (1772&1837)% ç+Qkalhlh lektoknh ys[kd_ m¼j.k dk
Ïksr vKkr
54 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
lkoZtfud fgr ds LFkku ij gj rjg ls] vius futh fgr dks vkxs j[krs gq,] nwljs
oxks± ds nqHkkZX; dh o+Qher ij] vius fgr dh dkeuk djrk gSA odhy] [k+klrkSj
ls èkfudksa ds chp] eqo+Qnesckt+h vkSj eqo+Qneksa dh dkeuk djrk gS_ MkWDVj chekjh
dh dkeuk djrk gSA (;fn gj dksbZ fcuk chekjh ds ejus yxs rks ;s (MkWDVj) oSls
gh cjckn gks tk;saxs] tSSls ;fn lkjs >xM+s ckrphr ls gy gksus yxsa rks (odhy)
gks tk;saxsA lSfud yM+kbZ pkgrk gS] rkfd mlds vkèks lkFkh ej tk;sa vkSj mldh
rjD+o+Qh lqfuf'pr gks tk;s_ vUR;sf"V djkus okyk di+Qu&ni+Qu dh dkeuk djrk
gS_ bt+kjsnkj vkSj tek[k+kjs ] vukt dh o+Qher nqxuq h ;k frxquh djus ds fy,] vdky
pkgrs gS]a okLrqdkj] c<+b]Z jktxhj vkxtuh pkgrs gS]a rkfd lSdM+kas ?kj tydj HkLe
gks tk;sa vkSj mudh viuh&viuh 'kk[kkvksa dk dkjksckj pyrk jgsA
& (i`"B 202)
i` " B 23 ¼20½
lekt gR;k] O;fHkpkj ;k Bxh dks ut+jvUnkt+ dj ldrk gS_
u;k fl¼kUr % ij og ,d u;s fl¼kUr ds çpkj dks dHkh eki+Q ugha djrkA
& çQsMfjd gSfjlu 1(i`"B 327)

vkt+knh vkt+knh ds fcjos dk le;&le; ij ns'kHkDrksa vkSj


dk fcjok % vR;kpkfj;ksa ds [+kwu ls lhapk tkuk vko';d gSA ;gh bldh
o+Qqnjrh [kkn gSA & VkWel tsiQjlu 2 (i`"B 332)

f'kdkxks ds 'kghn %
vc dksbZ Hkys gh ;g dgs fd mlus Hkkjh x+yrh dh] ijUrq ;fn mudh
x+yrh nl xquk Hkh vfèkd cM+h gksrh] rks Hkh bls mldh o+QqckZuh ekuo&Le`fr
iVy ls iksaN gh Mkysxh---
pfy, ge ;g iwjh rjg eku ysrs gSa fd mUgksaus viuh ut+j esa fojksèk dk
tks lcls vPNk rjho+Qk viuk;k] mldh èkkj.kk iwjh rjg x+yr vkSj vlEHko Fkh]
eku fy;k fd mUgksaus dkjZokbZ dk lcls vPNk jkLrk ugha viuk;kA ysfdu og
D;k pht+ Fkh ftlus mUgsa viuh ekStnw k lkekftd O;oLFkk ds fo#¼ èkkok cksy
s us
ds fy, mdlk;k\ os vkSj gt+kjksa yksx tks muds lkFk mB [kM+s gq,] cqjs vkneh
1- ç+QsMfjd gSfjlu (1831&1923) % çfl¼ fofèkosÙkk_ bfrgkl] jktuhfr vkSj lkfgR;
ij dbZ iqLrdksa ds ys[kd
2- VkWel tsiQjlu (1743&1826)% vesfjdk ds rhljs jk"Vªifr] vesfjdh LorU=krk
laxzke ds vxz.kh usrk vkSj lafoèkku fuekZrkvksa esa çeq[k
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 55
ugha Fks] Hkz"V ugha Fks] [+kwu ds I;kls ugha Fks] laxfny ugha Fks] vijkèkh ugha Fks]
vkSj u gh LokFkhZ ;k ikxy FksA rc og D;k pht+ Fkh ftlus brus rh[ks vkSj xgjs
çfrokn dks mdlkok fn;k---\
fdlh us Hkh bl ljy&lhèkh ckr ij x+kSj ugha fd;k fd euq"; viusvki
dks fdlh fojksèk ds fy, fcuk bl fo'okl ds ,dtqV ugha djrs fd dksbZ u
dksbZ pht+ ,slh gS ftldk mUgsa fojksèk djuk gS vkSj fd fdlh Hkh laxfBr lekt
eas O;kid fojksèk ,d ,slh pht+ gS tks xgjh Nkuchu dh njdkj j[krh gSA
& pkYlZ ,MoMZ jlsy 1(333)

i` " B 24 ¼21½

ØkfUrdkjh dh olh;r
¶eSa vius nksLrksa ls ;g Hkh dguk pkgwx¡ k fd os esjs ckjs esa de ls de ppkZ
djsaxs ;k fcYdqy gh ppkZ ugha djsaxs] D;ksafd tc vkneh dh rkjhi+Q gksus yxrh
gS rks mls bUlku ds ctk; nsoçfrek&lk cuk fn;k tkrk gS vkSj ;g ekuotkfr
ds Hkfo"; ds fy, cgqr cqjh ckr gS---A fli+QZ deks± ij gh x+kjS djuk pkfg,] mUgha
dh rkjhi+Q ;k fuUnk gksuh pkfg,] pkgs os fdlh ds }kjk fd;s x;s gksAa vxj yksxksa
dks buls lkoZtfud fgr ds fy, çsj.kk feyrh fn[kk;h ns] rks os budh rkjhi+Q
dj ldrs gSa] ysfdu vxj ;s lkekU; fgr ds fy, gkfudj yxsa] rks os budh
fuUnk Hkh dj ldrs gSa] rkfd fiQj budh iqujko`fÙk u gks ldsA
¶eSa pkgw¡xk fd fdlh Hkh volj ij] esjh o+Qcz ds fudV ;k nwj] fdlh Hkh
fo+QLe ds jktuhfrd ;k èkk£ed çn'kZu u fd;s tk;sa] D;ksafd eSa le>rk gw¡ fd
ejs gq, ds fy, [k+pZ fd;s tkus okys le; dk csgrj bLrseky mu yksxksa dh
thou&n'kkvksa dks lqèkkjus esa fd;k tk ldrk gS] ftuesa ls cgqrsjksa dks bldh
Hkkjh vko';drk gSA¸
& çQkaflLdks iQsjsj 2 dh olh;r

nku % ¶esjs ihNs vkvks¸] bZlk elhg us èkuh ;qod dks dgkA
1- pkYlZ bZ- jlsy (1860&1941) % edjsdlZ uke ls izfl¼ vesfjdh ys[kdks]a i=kdkjksa
ds lewg ds çeq[k lnL; Fks] ftUgksaus viuh jpukvksa esa iw¡thoknh O;oLFkk dh cqjkb;ksa dk
Hk.MkHkksM+ fd;kA
2- iwjk uke ÚkaflLdks iQsjsj xqvk£n;k (1859&1909) % Lisuh f'k{kk'kkL=kh] tks ckn esa
lektoknh cu x;s_ ;|fi mUgksaus ¯glk dk fojksèk fd;k Fkk] fiQj Hkh mu ij eqo+Qnek pyk;k
x;k] vkSj iQk¡lh ns nh x;h] ftls ckn esa pydj ¶vnkyrh gR;k¸ uke fn;k x;kA
56 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
ysfdu vius O;olk; esa yxs jguk vkSj viuh dqN nkSyr dks
nku&deZ esa yxkuk rqyukRed :i ls vklku FkkA ijksidkj gjsd ;qx dk pyu
jgk gSA nku x+jhch ds foæksgh rsoj dks u"V dj nsrk gSA vr% ijksidkjh èkuh
vkneh vius ljh[ks nkSyreUnksa dk gh fgrS"kh gksrk gS] vkSj mUgha dh ,glkueUnh
eglwl djrk gS_ mlds fy, lH; lekt ds lkjs njokt+s [kqys gksrs gSaA blhfy,
mUgksaus (;kuh bZlk elhg us & l-) fHk{kk&nku dks lkekftd dk;k ds xgjs ?kkoksa
dh ejge&iV~Vh ds :i esa Lohdk;Zrk nsus ls bUdkj dj fn;k---A ijksidkj dks
U;k; ds ,d fodYi ds :i esa mUgksaus drbZ rjthg ugha nhA
¹i`"B 25 ¼22½ ij tkjhº
nku nksgjk vfHk'kki gS & ;g nkrk dks laxfny vkSj çkIrdrkZ dks ujefny
cukrk gSA ;g x+jhcksa dk 'kks"k.k ls dgha vfèkd uqo+Qlku djrk gS] D;ksafd ;g
mUgsa 'kksf"kr gksus dk bPNqd cukrk gSA ;g nkl Hkkouk dks tUe nsrk gS] tks
uSfrd vkRegR;k gh gSSA bZlk elhg us vFkkg nkSyr ds fy, fli+QZ ,d gh
btkt+r nh Fkh vkSj og ;g Fkh fd mls ØkfUrdkjh çpkj ds fy, le£ir dj
fn;k tk;s] rkfd ckn essa vFkkg nkSyr dk tek gksuk gh ges'kk ds fy,
vlEHko gks tk;s---A
& cd àkbV] iknjh] tUe 1870] ;w-,l-,- i`"B(353)1

eqfDr&;q¼
i+QkStksa dh rko+Qr ,d fn[kk;h nsus okyh pht+ gS
lqLi"V] vkSj ns'k dky esa vkc¼]
ysfdu dkSu [kkst ldrk ml 'kfDr dh lhekvksa dks
ftls ,d cgknqj turk gh çdV dj ldrh gS
;k pkgs rks] fNik ldrh gS & eqfDr&;q¼ esaA
HkM+d mBs U;k;laxr çfrjksèk dk & dksbZ ik¡o ihNk ugha dj ldrk]
dksbZ vk¡[k ugha ns[k ldrh ml tkuysok txg dks]
;g rko+Qr pkgs rks mM+ku Hkjs ia[k yxkdj
çp.M ok;q dh Hkk¡fr] ;k lks;s eUn ok;q dh Hkk¡fr
viuh Mjkouh xqiQkvksa esa & lky nj lky
iQSykrh feV~Vh ls tUes bl fopkj dks & fudV vkSj nwj]
ugha ck¡èk ldrh dksbZ Hkh dyk & bl lw{e rko+Qr dks
1- cd àkbV (1874&1951) % vesfjdh lektoknh vkSj ys[kd

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 57


tks iQwVrh t+ehu ls tyèkkjk dh Hkk¡fr]
vkSj ik ysrh gj dksus esa ,d gksaB
tks bldh o+Qæ djsA
& MCY;w- oM~ZloFkZ 1
i` " B 26 ¼23½

ykbV fczxsM dk èkkok


vkèkk yhx vkèkk yhx]
vkèkk yhx vkSj]
ekSr dh ?kkVh esa
c<+ pys N% lkS ohjA
^c<+s pyks ykbV fczxsM!
Hkj yks cUnwo+Qsa!* og cksyk]
ekSr dh ?kkVh esa
c<+ pys N% lkS ohjA
^c<+s pyks ykbV fczxsM!*
D;k dksbZ Fkk ?kcjk;k\
ugha] xksfd ekywe Fkk lSfudksa dks
fdlh u dj nh Fkh Hkkjh Hkwy]
mudk dke ugha Fkk mÙkj nsuk]
mudk dke ugha Fkk loky iwNuk]
mUgsa Fkk cl yM+uk vkSj ej tkuk
ekSr dh ?kkVh esa
c<+ pys N% lkS ohjA
rksisa muds nk;sa ckT+kw]
rksisa muds ck;sa ckT+kw]
rksisa muds Bhd lkeus]
nxrha vkSj xjtrha]
xksykckjh dh vk¡èkh esa]
c<+ pys fuMj os lhèks
ekSr ds tcM+ksa ds Hkhrj]
1- fofy;e oMZ~loFkZ (1750&1850) % çfl¼ vaxzst+ dfo] tks viuh ;qokoLFkk esa
jSfMdy vkSj x.krU=k leFkZd jgsA
58 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
udZ ds eq¡g ds Hkhrj]
c<+ pys N% lkS ohjA
pedkrs lc uaxh ryokjsa]
gok esa tc mudks ygjkrs
dkVrs tkrs rksifp;ksa dks]
geyk djrs lsuk ij] tcfd
lkjh nqfu;k pdjkrh]
i` " V 27 ¼24½
fiy iM+s rksi ds èkq,¡ esa
c<+ pys rksM+dj ekspkZ
dT+t+kd vkSj :lh flikgh
[kkdj ryokj dh pksVsa
fNUu&fHkUu gks tkrsA
rksisa muds nk;sa ckT+kw]
rksisa muds ck;sa ckT+kw]
rksisa muds ihNs ls]
nxrha vkSj xjtrha]
xksykckjh dh vk¡èkh esa]
Hkys fxjs v'o vkSj uk;d
fiQj Hkh os bruk vPNk tw>s
fd gksdj ekSr ds tcM+ksa ls
ykSVs os udZ ds eq¡g ls]
tks Hkh Fks cps jg x;s
N% lkS esa ls cps jg x;sA
dc gks ldrk èkwfey mudk ;'k\
vjs og mudh fodV p<+kbZ!
lkjh nqfu;k pdjkrhA
vknj] ml geys dks
vknj] ykbV fczxsM dks!
Js"B N% lkS ohjksa dksA
& ykWMZ Vsuhlu 1

1- ykWMZ vYç+QsM Vsuhlu (1809&1897) % çfl¼ vaxzst+ jk"Vªoknh dfo

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 59


uksV % i`"B 27 ¼24½ ds vUr esa ;s rhu 'ks*j mnwZ esa fy[ks gq, gSaA ;s fdl 'kk;j ds gSa]
;g Li"V ugha gSA uhps ;s 'ks*j nsoukxjh esa çLrqr gSa %

fny ns rw bl fet+kt dk ijojfnxkj ns


tks X+ke dh ?kM+h dks Hkh [+kq'kh ls xqt+kj nsA

lt+k dj eÕ;r&,&mEehn ukdkeh ds iQwyksa ls


fdlh gennZ us j[k nh esjs VwVs gq, fny esaA

NsM+ uk ,s i+Qfj'rs! rw ft+Øs X+kes&tkuk¡A


D;ksa ;kn fnykrs gks Hkwyk gqvk vi+QlkukA

60 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


i`"B 28 ¼25 ½

tUefl¼ vfèkdkj %
ge csVs gSa mu firjksa ds ftUgksaus ekr nh Fkh
r[+rks&rkt vkSj iqjksfgrks1a ds vR;kpkj dks_
mUgksaus nh Fkh pqukSrh eSnkus&tax esa vkSj iQk¡lh ds r[+rs ls
vius tUefl¼ vfèkdkj ds fy, & ge Hkh ;gh djsaxs!
(Vh- dSEicsy)2

y{; dh efgek %
vjs! csdkj dh ui+Qjr ds fy, ugha]
u lEeku ds fy,] u gh viuh 'kkcklh ds fy,
cfYd y{; dh efgek ds fy,]
fd;k tks rqeus] Hkqyk;k ugha tk;sxkA
(vkFkZj Dyks)3

vkRek dh vejrk %
;fn rqEgsa dHkh ,d ,slk vkneh fey tk;s tks vejrk esa fo'okl j[krk
gks] rks cl le> yks fd vc rqEgkjh dksbZ Hkh dkeuk 'ks"k ugha jg tk;sxh_ rqe
mldh lkjh dh lkjh pht+sa ys ldrs gks & vxj rqe pkgks rks thrs&th mldh
[kky mrkj ldrs gks & vkSj og bls ,dne [+kq'kh&[+kq'kh mrkj ysus nsxkA
(vIVu ¯lDys;j 403) lh-th-

[+kqnkbZ vR;kpkjh
,d vR;kpkjh 'kkld ds fy, t+:jh gS fd og t+kfgjk rkSj ij èkeZ esa
vlkèkkj.k vkLFkk fn[kk;sA turk ,d ,sls 'kkld ds nqO;Zogkj ds çfr de lpsr
1- vaxzst+h esa 'kCn Li"V ugha
2- VkWel dSEicsy (1777&1844) % LdkWV dfo ds xhr eSu vkWi+Q baXyS.M dh vfUre
iafDr;k¡A uksVcqd ds fiNys laLdj.kksa esa =kqfVo'k ^Vh* dks ^ts* i<+k tkus ds dkj.k budk
ifjp; vkbfj'k dfo tkst+si+Q dSEicsy ds :i esa fn;k x;k FkkA
3- vkFkZj áw Dyks (1819&61) % vaxzst+ dfo dh dfork isfLp,jk dh iafDr;k¡A ftlesa
bVyh ds çFke Lokèkhurk laxzke ds nkSjku isfLp,jk uked LFkku ij 1848 esa gqbZ yM+kbZ
dk o.kZu gSA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 61
gksrh gS] ftls og bZ'oj ls Mjus okyk vkSj ifo=k ekurh gSA nwljs] og vklkuh
ls mlds fojksèk esa Hkh ugha tkrh] D;ksafd mls fo'okl jgrk gS fd nsork Hkh
'kkld ds lkFk gSaA1
i` " B 29 ¼26½
lSfud vkSj fpUru %
¶;fn esjs lSfud lkspuk 'kq: dj nsa] rc rks muesa ls dksbZ Hkh lsuk esa ugha
jgsxkA¸
(ç+QsMfjd egku 2) 562

ejs tks loZJs"B ohj %


ekjs x;s gSa loZJs"B ohjA ni+Quk fn;s x;s os
pqipki] ,d futZu Hkwfe esa]
dksbZ vk¡lw ugha cgs mu ij
vtuch gkFkksa us mUgsa igq¡pk fn;k o+Qcz esa]
dksbZ lyhc ugha] dksbZ ?ksjk ugha] dksbZ lekfèk&ys[k ugha
tks crk lds muds xkSjo'kkyh ukeA
?kkl mx jgh gS mu ij] ,d nqcZy iÙkh
>qdh gqbZ] tkurh gS bl jgL; dks]
cl ,dek=k lk{kh Fkha miQurh ygjsa]
tks çp.M vk?kkr djrh gSa rV ij]
ysfdu os çp.M ygjsa Hkh ugha ys tk ldrha
vyfonk ds lUns'k
muds lqnwj ?kj rdA
(oh-,u- fi+QXuj)3

dkjkxkj %
¶rkjs ugha] ns'k ugha] dky ugha]
Bgjko ugha] cnyko ugha] usdh ugha] cnh ugha]
1- vjLrw] ikWfyfVDl
2- ç'kk dk ç+QsMfjd (1712&1786)% çcq¼ fujadq'k 'kkld ds :i esa çfl¼
3- osjk fudksyk;sOuk fi+QXuj (1852&1942) :lh efgyk ØkfUrdkjh vkSj 'kghn]
t+kj'kkgh ds fo#¼ ;q¼ dh ?kks"k.kk djus okyh çFke :lh efgykvksa esa ,d
62 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
cfYd [+kkeks'kh] vkSj ,d fu"iUn lk¡l
tks u thou dh] u e`R;q dhA
(n fçt+uj vkWi+Q fpyksu)1
i` " B 30 ¼27½

vkjksi&flf¼ ds ckn %
viuh lt+k lqu ysus ds rqjUr ckn ds {k.kksa esa lt+k ds fy, vfHk'kIr O;fDr
dk fnekx+ dbZ ek;uksa esa ml vkneh ds fnekx+ tSlk gks tkrk gS tks ekSr ds dxkj
ij >wy jgk gksrk gSA pqipki] vkSj ekuks vUr%çsfjr gksdj] vc og mu lHkh
pht+ksa ls fojDr gks tkrk gS ftUgsa mls NksM+ tkuk gS] vkSj og] n`<+Hkko ls] vius
lkeus ns[krk gqvk] ml lPpkbZ ds çfr iwjh rjg lpsr gks tkrk gS] tks
vifjgk;Zr% ?kfVr gksus okyh gksrh gSA
(oh-,u- fi+QXuj)

o+QSnh %
¶?kqVu gksrh gS bl uhph] xUnh Nr ds uhps_
fupqM+rh tk jgh gS esjh rko+Qr lky nj lky_
mRihfM+r djrs gSa eq>s & ;g iFkjhyk i+Q'kZ]
;g ykSg&t+athjksa ls c¡èkh est
;g [kkV] ;g dqlhZ] c¡èkh gqbZ t+athj ls
nhokjksa ds lkFk] rkcwr ds iVjksa dh Hkk¡fr]
bl fpjLFkk;h] ewd] eqnkZ [+kkeks'kh esa
[+kqn dks cl ,d yk'k gh le>k tk ldrk gSA¸
¶,u-,- eksjkst+kso¸ 2

1- çfl¼ vaxt sz + dfo ykWMZ ck;ju (1788&1824) dh bl dfork esa tsuos k >hy ds ikl
fpyksu ds fo+Qys esa o+QSn ,d ns'kHkDr Úk¡Lok fn cksfuokj ds tsy&thou dk o.kZu fd;k
x;k gSA
2- fudksykbZ vysDlkUæ eksjkst+kso (1854&1946) % :lh ØkfUrdkjh] ys[kd] dfo vkSj
oSKkfud_ 1880 esa yUnu esa ekDlZ ls eqyko+Qkr vkSj esfui+QsLVks vkWi+Q n dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ds
:lh esa vuqokn dk ftEek] 1875 ls 1878 rd] rFkk 1881 ls 1905 rd] o+Qjhc 25 o"kks±
rd tsy dh lt+k ds nkSjku] jlk;u foKku] HkkSfrdh] xf.kr vkSj [kxksy foKku ij 28
iqLrdksa ds vykok dfork,¡ vkSj dgkfu;k¡ Hkh fy[khaA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 63
uaxh nhokjsa] tsy ds [+;kykr]
fdrus v¡fèk;kjs vkSj mnkl gks rqe]
fdruk eqf'dy gS fd cUnh gks fuf"Ø; jguk
vkSj ns[kuk lius vkt+knh ds fnuksa dsA
(eksjkst+kso)

i` " B 31 ¼28½
¶gj pht+ ;gk¡ gS fdruh [k+keks'k] cstku] iQhdh
o"kks± xqt+j tkrs gSa ;ksa gh] dqN irk ugha pyrk]
gÝ+rs vkSj fnu dVrs gSa cM+h eqf'dy ls]
nsrk gS fli+QZ cksfj;r budk ;g flyflykA
(eksjkst+kso)

yEch o+QSn ls gekjs [+;ky gks tkrs gSa eugwl_


Hkkjhiu eglwl gksrk gS gekjh gfM~M;ksa esa_
;U=k.kk dh ihM+k ls] yEgs yxrs gSa vUrghu
pkj Mx pkSM+h bl dksBjh esaA

gesa thuk gS iwjh rjg vius geli+Qj Hkkb;ksa ds fy,]


gesa nsuk gksxk viuk loZLo muds fy,]
vkSj mUgha dh [k+kfrj yM+uk gksxk cnulhch ds f[k+yki+Q!
--- --- ---
(eksjkst+kso)
1- ewy esa mnwZ esa ;g 'ks*j fy[kk gqvk gS %
rq>s tcg djus dh [+kq'kh] eq>s ejus dk 'kkSo+Q]
esjh Hkh et+hZ ogh gS] tks esjs lS;kn dh gSA
64 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
vk;s eq>s vkt+kn djus %
vkf[k+j yksx vk;s eq>s vkt+kn djus_
eSaus u iwNk D;ksa vkSj u lkspk dgk¡]
esjs fy, rks dqy feykdj ,d gh Fkk]
c¡èks jguk ;k cUèkueqDr gksuk]
eSaus fujk'kk ls I;kj djuk lh[k fy;k Fkk]
vkSj bl rjg vUrr% tc os çdV gq,]
vkSj mrkj Mkys esjs lkjs cUèku
;s Hkkjh nhokjsa cu pqdh Fkha esjs fy,
,d laU;kl&vkJe & iwjh rjg viukA
(n fçt+uj vkWi+Q fpyksu)
i` " B 32 ¼29½
¶vkSj ge lEekfur fd;s x;s gSa ,d fe'ku nsdj!
geus ,d dfBu Ldwy ikl fd;k] ysfdu gkfly dj fy;k
Å¡pk KkuA
fuokZlu] tsy] vkSj eqf'dy fnuksa dh cnkSyr
ge tku x;s gSa vkSj o+Qher le>rs gSa lPpkbZ vkSj vkt+knh dh
nqfu;k dhA¸
(fçt+uj vkWi+Q 'yqlsycxZ)1

,d f'k'kq dh e`R;q vkSj ihM+k


^,d cPpk iSnk gqvkA mlus lpsr rkSj ij u rks dksbZ cqjk dke fd;k] u
vPNk dke fd;kA og chekj iM+ x;k] og yEcs le; rd dki+Qh rdyhi+Q
>syrk jgk] rc rd tc rd fd ml vlá osnuk ls ej ugha x;kA D;ksa\ D;k
otg Fkh\ nk'kZfud ds fy, ;g ,d 'kk'or igsyh gSA*2

1- ysfuuxzkn {ks=k esa fLFkr 'yqlsycxZ o+QLcs ds ikl ,d }hi ij ihVj egku dh lsuk
}kjk 1702 esa cuk;s x;s fo+Qys dks ckn esa ,d dkjkxkj esa cny fn;k x;k FkkA bl dkjkxkj
esa vusd fnlEcjoknh ØkfUrdkjh] vjktdrkoknh ckdqfuu] iksfy'k ns'kHkDr yqdklksfoLykx]
ek'kZy nksyxks#dh] vkSj ysfuu ds HkkbZ vysDlkUæ dks o+QSn djds j[kk x;k Fkk (ysfuu ds
HkkbZ dks ;gha iQk¡lh nh x;h)
2- Ïksr vKkr
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 65
,d ØkfUrdkjh ds fnekx+ dh cukoV %
¶tks O;fDr dHkh Hkh bZlk elhg ds thou ls çHkkfor jgk gS] ftUgksaus ,d
vkn'kZ ds uke ij ihM+k] vieku vkSj e`R;q dk oj.k fd;k_ ftlus mUgsa dHkh
,d vkn'kZ rFkk muds thou dks vuklDr çse dh çfrew£r ekuk gS & ogh ml
ØkfUrdkjh ds fnekx+ dh cukoV dks le> ldrk gS ftls lt+k nh x;h gS] vkSj
turk dh vkt+knh ds fy, dke djus ds tqeZ esa thfor gh eo+Qcjs esa Mky fn;k
x;k gSA¸ (osjk ,u- fi+QXuj)

vfèkdkj %
vfèkdkj ek¡xks ughaA c<+dj ys yksA vkSj mUgsa fdlh dks Hkh rqEgsa nsus er
nksA ;fn eqÝ+r esa rqEgsa dksbZ vfèkdkj fn;k tkrk gS rks le>ks fd mlesa dksbZ u
dksbZ jkt t+:j gSA T+;knk lEHkkouk ;gh gS fd fdlh x+yr ckr dks myV fn;k
x;k gSA1
i` " B 33 ¼30½

dksbZ nq'eu ugha\


rqe dgrs gks] rqEgkjk dksbZ nq'eu ugha\
vi+Qlksl! esjs nksLr] bl 'ks[k+h esa ne ugha]
tks 'kkfey gksrk gS i+Qt+Z dh yM+kbZ esa]
ftls cgknqj yM+rs gh gSa
mlds nq'eu gksrs gh gSaA vxj ugha gSa rqEgkjs
rks og dke gh rqPN gS tks rqeus fd;k gSA
rqeus fdlh x+íkj ds dwYgs ij okj ugha fd;k gS]
rqeus >wBh o+Qlesa [kkus okys gksaB ls I;kyk ugha Nhuk gS]
rqeus dHkh fdlh x+yrh dks Bhd ugha fd;k gS]
rqe dk;j gh cus jgs yM+kbZ esaA
(pkYlZ eSds] 747)2
cky&Je %
xkSjS;s dk cPpk xkSjS;s dks nkuk ugha pqxkrk]

1- jkstj ,u- ckYMfou % vesfjdu flfoy fycVhZ ;wfu;u ds funs'kd jgsA ç+Qh Lihp
i+QkbV vkWi+Q n vkbZ- MCY;w- MCY;w- (b.MfLVª;y odZlZ vkWi+Q n oYMZ) ls
2- pkYlZ eSds (1814&1889) % LdkWV dfo] i=kdkj vkSj xhrdkj
66 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
pwt+k eqx+hZ dks pqXxk ugha djkrk]
fcYyh dk cPpk fcYyh ds fy, pwgs ugha ekjrk &
;g egkurk rks fli+QZ euq"; dks ulhc gSA
ge lcls cqf¼eku] lcls cyoku uLy gSa &
ge o+Qkfcys rkjhi+Q gSaA
,dek=k ft+Unk çk.kh
tks thrk gS vius cPpksa dh esgur ijA
('kkyksZV i£dUl fxyeSu)1
i` " B 34 ¼31½

dksbZ oxZ ugha! dksbZ le>kSrk ugha!!


(tkWtZ Mh- gsjlu)
lektoknh vkUnksyu ds nkSjku ,d ,slk oD+r vk jgk gS] vkSj lEHko gS]
og oD+r vk pqdk gS] tc lqèkjh gqbZ n'kk,¡ ;k lek;ksftr mtjrsa et+njw ksa dh ek¡x
dk tokc ugha jg tk;saxh] vkSj rc ;s pht+sa lkekU; cqf¼ ds fy, ,d vieku
ds vykok vkSj dqN ugha fl¼ gksaxhA vkt nqfu;kHkj esa tks lektoknh vkUnksyu
py jgk gS og csgrj mtjrksa] lqèkjh gqbZ iw¡thoknh n'kkvksa ;k iw¡thoknh equki+Qs
esa fgLlk c¡Vkus ds fy, ugha py jgk gS_ ;g py jgk gS mtjrksa vkSj equki+Qksa
ds [k+kRes ds fy,] vkSj iwt¡ hokn ,oa futh iwt¡ hifr;ksa dh lekfIr ds fy,A lqèkjh
gqbZ jktuhfrd laLFkk,¡] iw¡th vkSj Je ds chp le>kSrk djkus okyh ifj"knsa]
ijksidkj vkSj fo'ks"kkfèkdkj tks iw¡thifr;ksa dh [kSjkrksa ds vykok vkSj dqN ugha
gSa & buesa ls dksbZ Hkh pht+ ml loky dk tokc ugha ns ldrh tks efUnjksa] lÙkk
ds ¯lgkluksa vkSj lalnksa dks d¡id¡ik jgk gSA tks yksx ncs&dqpys gSa vkSj tks yksx
mudh ihB ij lokj gksdj vkxs c<+s gq, gSa] vc bu nksuksa ds chp dksbZ
veu&pSu ugha jg ldrkA vc oxks± ds chp dksbZ esy&feyki ugha gks ldrk_
vc rks oxks± dk fli+QZ vUr gh gks ldrk gSA tc rd igys U;k; u gks] rc
rd ln~Hkkouk dh ckr djuk vuxZy çyki gS] vkSj tc rd bl nqfu;k dk
fuekZ.k djus okyksa dk viuh esgur ij vfèkdkj u gks] rc rd U;k; dh ckr
djuk csdkj gSA nqfu;k ds et+nwjksa dh ek¡x dk tokc mudh esgur dh lewph
dekbZ ds vykok vkSj dqN ugha gks ldrkA (tkWtZ Mh- gsjlu)2
1- 'kkyksZV i£dUl fxyeSu (1860&1935) % vesfjdh miU;kldkj] dgkuhdkj vkSj
lekt lq/kjd dh dfork ftls 1920 ds n'kd esa vesfjdk esa ckyJe o+Qkuwu esa la'kksèku
ij pyh cgl esa ,d lkaln }kjk m¼`r fd;k x;kA
2- lEHkor% tkWtZ Msfol gSjksu (1862&1925)] tks ,d t+ekus esa fØf'p;u lks'kfyLV
iknjh Fks vkSj vesfjdk dh lks'kfyLV ikVhZ ds lnL; Hkh jgsA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 67
i` " B 35 ¼32½

iw¡thokn dh cckZfn;k¡1
vkLVsªfy;k ds ckjs esa vk£Fkd vuqeku] fFkvksMksj gVZ~t+dk 2 (1886) }kjk %
çR;sd ifjokj ¾ 40 oxZ iqQV esa 5 dejksa okyk edku 50 o"kks± rd pyus
yk;dA3
et+nwjksa dh dke djus dh mez ¾ 16&50 (o"kZ & l-)
bl çdkj gekjs ikl gSa 5]000]000 (et+nwj & l-)
615]000 et+nwjksa dk Je ¾ Je dk 12-3 çfr'kr 22]000]000 yksxksa dk
Hkkstu iSnk djus ds fy, i;kZIr gSA
;krk;kr&ifjogu dh Je ykxr lesr] foykflrkvksa gsrq fli+QZ 315]000
¾ 6-33 çfr'kr et+nwjksa ds Je dh vko';drk iM+rh gSA
bldk eryc ;g gqvk fd miyCèk Je dk 20 çfr'kr gh lewps egk}hi
ds Hkj.k&iks"k.k ds fy, i;kZIr gSA 'ks"k 80 çfr'kr lekt dh iw¡thoknh O;oLFkk
ds dkj.k 'kksf"kr vkSj cjckn gks tkrk gSA
i` " B 36 ¼33½

t+kj'kkgh 'kklu vkSj cksY'ksfod 'kklu


czSft;j g.V4 dk dguk gS fd cksY'ksfodksa us vius 'kklu ds igys pkSng
eghuksa esa] 4500 yksxksa dks ekSr dh lt+k nh ftuesa ls T+;knkrj dk tqeZ pksjh vkSj
lV~Vsckt+h FkkA
1905 dh ØkfUr ds ckn] t+kj ds eU=kh] Lrksyhfiu5 us] ckjg eghuksa ds
Hkhrj 32]773 yksxksa dks ekSr dh lt+k nh FkhA
(i`"B 390] czkl psd)6

1- ;g 'kh"kZd cM+s v{kjksa esa fy[kk gqvk gS


2- fFk;ksMksj gV~Zt+dk (1845&1924) % gaxkjh&vkWfLVª;kbZ vFkZ'kkL=kh vkSj i=kdkjA ç+Qh
yS.M % lks'ky ,f.Vflis'ku ds ys[kd
3- edku ds {ks=kiQy esa dqN xM+cM+ gS] vk¡dM+s Li"V ugha
4- vesfjdh i=kdkj
5- I;ks=k vdkZfn,fop Lrksyhfiu (1862&1911) % 1906 ls 1911 rd t+kj dh
efU=kifj"kn dk vè;{k vkSj x`geU=kh
6- vIVu ¯lDys;j dh iqLrd ftls cqtqZvk i=kdkfjrk dh cf[k;k m/sM+us okyh igyh
iqLrd ekuk tkrk gSA
68 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
i` " B 37 ¼34½

lkekftd laLFkkvksa dk LFkkf;Ro


çR;sd ih<+h ds Hkzeksa esa ls ,d Hkze ;g gS fd og ftu lkekftd laLFkkvksa
ds rgr th jgh gksrh gS os] dqN [k+kl vFkZ esa] ¶çkÑfrd¸] vifjorZuh; vkSj
LFkk;h gSaA fiQj Hkh] vufxur gt+kj o"kks± ls] lkekftd laLFkk,¡ mÙkjksÙkj iSnk gksrh
jgh gSa] fodkl djrh jgh gSa] iru'khy gksrh jgh gSa vkSj lelkef;d
vko';drkvksa ds vuq:i nwljh csgrj laLFkkvksa }kjk Øe'k% foLFkkfir dh tkrh
jgh gSa---A rc] loky ;g ugha gS fd gekjh orZeku lH;rk cnysxh ;k ugha]
cfYd ;g gS fd og dSls cnysxh\
;g] lqfopkfjr vuqdwyu ds tfj;s] Øe'k% vkSj pqipki ,d u;k :i ys
ldrh gSA ;k] ;fn vuqdwyu ds ctk; dksbZ mxz çfrjksèk mB [kM+k gksrk gS] rks
;g èkekds ds lkFk èoLr gks ldrh gS] vkSj ekuotkfr dks lkekftd vjktdrk
vkSj vO;oLFkk dh voLFkk ds fupys Lrj ls ,d u;h lH;rk ds fuekZ.k dk
d"Vlkè; dk;ZHkkj lkSai ldrh gS] ftlesa fiNyh O;oLFkk dh fli+QZ cqjkb;k¡ gh
ugha] cfYd mldh HkkSfrd] ckSf¼d vkSj uSfrd miyfCèk;k¡ Hkh ugha jgsaxhA
& ih-vkbZ- fMds vkWi+Q dSi- flfoykbt+s'ku 1
i` " B 38 ¼35 ½

iw¡thokn vkSj okf.kT;okn %


tkikuh Nk=kksa dh ,d lHkk esa johUæukFk2 dk Hkk"k.k %
tkiku esa vkidk viuk m|ksx Fkk_ og fdrus dÙkZO;fu"B Hkko ls bZekunkj
vkSj lPpk Fkk] bls vki blds mRiknksa ls & mudh Lrjh;rk vkSj rknkn ls]
NksVh&NksVh pht+ksa ds çfr muds è;ku nsus ls tku ldrs gSa] ftu ij 'kk;n gh
dksbZ Vhdk&fVIi.kh dh tk ldsA ijUrq vkidh Hkwfe ij >wB dh ,d ygj nqfu;k
ds ml Hkkx ls cgdj vk pqdh gS tgk¡ O;kikj fli+QZ O;kikj gS vkSj bZekunkjh
dks fli+QZ lcls vPNh uhfr ekuk tkrk gSA D;k vkidks dHkh 'keZ ugha eglwl
gksrh] tc vki mu O;kikfjd foKkiuksa dks ns[krs gSa] tks fli+QZ lewps 'kgjh {ks=k

1- lEHkor% I;qfVªi+QSD'ku ,.M b.VuZy fMds vkWi+Q dSfiVfyLV flfoykbt+s'ku & ysfdu
Bhd&Bhd Ïksr ,oa lUnHkZ dk irk ughaA
2- johUæukFk Bkdqj (1861&1941) Hkk"k.k dk LFkku] le; rFkk vU; C;ksjs miyCèk
ugha gSaA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 69
dks gh >wB vkSj vfr'k;ksfDr;ksa ls ugha ikV jgs gSa] cfYd mu gfjr {ks=kksa ij Hkh
èkkok cksyrs tk jgs gSa] tgk¡ fdlku bZekunkjh ls esgur djrs gSa] vkSj mu
ioZr&f'k[kjksa dks Hkh vius geys dk fu'kkuk cukrs tk jgs gSa] tks Hkksj ds çFke
fueZy çdk'k dk Lokxr djrs gSa\---A viuh Hkíh ltkoVksa dh ccZjrk ds lkFk
;g okf.kT;okn lewph ekuork ds fy, ,d Hk;kud egkfoink gS] D;ksafd ;g
çoh.krk ds Åij rko+Qr ds vkn'kZ dk vkjksi.k dj jgk gSA ;g viuh uXu cs'kehZ
ds lkFk vius esa gh exu jgus ds pyu dks xkSjokfUor dj jgk gSA bldh gjdrsa
¯gld gSa] vkSj bldk 'kksj&'kjkck cslqjk vkSj ddZ'k gSA ;g vius gh loZuk'k
dh vksj c<+ jgk gS] D;ksafd ;g mlh ekuork dks dqpy dj foÑr dj jgk
gS---ftl ij ;g Lo;a [kM+k gSA ¹i`"B 39 ¼36½ ij tkjhº ;g vkuUn dh o+Qher
ij èku iSnk djus dh dM+h e'kD+oQ+ r esa yxk gqvk gS---A ;wjksi dh orZeku lH;rk
dh eq[; egÙokdka{kk ;gh gS fd 'kSrku ij mlh dk ,dN=k vfèkdkj gksA

iw¡thoknh lekt
¶jktuhfrd vFkZ'kkL=k dh lcls cM+h lPpkbZ ;g gS fd gj dksbZ ;FkklEHko
de ls de R;kx djds O;fDrxr lEink çkIr dj ysuk pkgrk gSA¸
¶uklkm lhfu;j¸ 1

i` " B 40 ¼37½

èkeZ ds ckjs esa dkyZ ekDlZ dk n`f"Vdks.k


euq"; èkeZ dks cukrk gS_ èkeZ euq"; dks ugha cukrkA èkeZ okLro esa] euq";
dh gh vkRepsruk vkSj vkReHkkouk gS] ftlus ;k rks vHkh rd viusvki dks ik;k
ugha gS] ;k (;fn viusvki dks ik;k Hkh gS rks) viusvki dks fiQj ls [kks fn;k
gSA ysfdu vkneh dksbZ ,slh vewrZ lÙkk ugha gS tks nqfu;k ls ckgj dgha ikyFkh
ekjs cSBh gqbZ gksA euq"; dh nqfu;k euq";ksa] jkT;] lekt dh nqfu;k gSA ;g jkT;]
;g lekt èkeZ iSnk djrk gS] ,d mYVh fo'o psruk iSnk djrk gS] D;ksafd ;s
[+kqn ,d mYVh nqfu;k gSA èkeZ blh nqfu;k dk ,d lkekU;hÑr fl¼kUr gS]
bldk fo'odks'kh; lkj&laxgz gS] ,d yksdfç; :i esa bldk rdZ gS---A blfy,
èkeZ ds fo#¼ la?k"kZ ml nqfu;k ds fo#¼ ,d çR;{k vfHk;ku gS ftldh
vkfRed lqxUèk èkeZ gSA ¹i`"B 41 ¼38½ ij tkjhº

1- uklkm fofy;e lhfu;j (1790&1864) % vaxzst+ vFkZ'kkL=kh


70 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
èkeZ mRihfM+r çk.kh dh vkg gS] ,d ân;ghu nqfu;k dk vglkl gS] Bhd
oSls gh tSlsfd ;g vkReghu n'kkvksa dh vkRek gSA ;g turk ds fy, vi+Qhe
gSA
yksx okLro esa rc rd lq[kh ugha gks ldrs tc rd fd os èkeZ dk mUewyu
dj] blds feF;k lq[k ls futkr ugha ik ysrsA ;g vis{kk fd yksx bl ejhfpdk
ls viusvki dks Lo;a viuh gh n'kk dh [k+kfrj eqDr djsa] ;g vis{kk gS fd os
ml n'kk dk gh R;kx djsa ftls bl ejhfpdk dh t+:jr gksrh gSA
vkykspuk dk gfFk;kj gfFk;kjksa dh vkykspuk dk LFkku ugha ys ldrkA
HkkSfrd 'kfDr;ksa dks fuf'pr :i ls HkkSfrd 'kfDr;ksa }kjk gh m[kkM+ iQsadk tkuk
pkfg,_ ysfdu fl¼kUr Hkh tc tuleqnk;ksa esa jp&cl tkrk gS] rks ,d HkkSfrd
'kfDr cu tkrk gSA1
i` " B 42 ¼39½

ØkfUr ;wVksfi;kbZ ugha


,d vkewy ifjorZuoknh ØkfUr] ;kuh ekuotkfr dh vke eqfDr] teZuh ds
fy, dksbZ ;wVksfi;kbZ LoIu ugha gS_ ;wVksfi;kbZ rks ,d vkaf'kd] ,d fo'kq¼
jktuhfrd ØkfUr dh èkkj.kk gksrh gS] tks (iw¡thoknh O;oLFkk dh & l-) bekjr
ds [kEHkksa dks [kM+k NksM+ nsxhA2

¶egku blfy, egku gSa D;ksafd


ge ?kqVukas ij gSa
vkvks mB [kM+s gksa!¸3
i` " B 43 ¼40½

jkT; ds ckjs esa gcZVZ Lisalj4 dk n`f"Vdks.k %


¶Hkys gh ;g lp gks ;k u gks fd euq"; fu"dyad iSnk gqvk vkSj iki esa
lu x;k] ysfdu ;g fuf'pr :i ls lp gS fd ljdkj dk tUe vkØkedrk
ls vkSj vkØkedrk ds }kjk gqvkA¸
1- dkyZ ekDlZ] gsxsy ds U;k;&n'kZu dh lekykspuk dk ç;kl ls m¼`r
2- ogh
3- ewy esa ;s iafDr;k¡ i`"B ij frjNs fy[kh gqbZ gSa
4- gcZVZ Lisl
a j (1820&1903) % vaxt sz + nk'kZfud_ egÙoiw.kZ Ñfr;k¡ % n fçafliYl vkWiQ+
lkbdksykth vkSj i+QLVZ ¯çfliYl

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 71


euq"; vkSj euq";tkfr %
¶eSa ,d euq"; gw¡]
vkSj mu lHkh pht+ksa ls esjk ljksdkj gS tks euq";&tkfr dks çHkkfor djrh
gSAa ¸
¶jkseu ukVddkj¸ 1

baXyS.M dh fLFkfr dh leh{kk %


¶vPNs yksxks] baXyS.M esa fLFkfr;k¡ rc rd vPNh ugha gks ldrha] tc rd
vPNkb;k¡ vke ugha gks tkrha] vkSj tc rd lTtu yksxksa ds lkFk nqtZu yksx Hkh
cus jgrs gSaA os ftUgsa ge ykWMZ dgrs gSa] fdl vfèkdkj ls gels egku gSa\ fdl
vkèkkj ij os blds o+Qkfcy cus gq, gSa\ os D;ksa gesa Hkw&nkl cuk;s gq, gSa\ vxj
ge lHkh ,d gh cki vkSj ek¡] vkne vkSj gOok dh lUrkusa gSa] rks os ;g dSls
dgrs ;k lkfcr djrs gSa fd os gels egku ;k csgrj gSa\ vxj os vius i+Qk;ns
ds fy, gels esgur ugha djokrs rks os viuh 'kku&'kkSo+Qr esa D;k [k+pZ djrs\
os [+knq rks e[k+ey igurs gSa vkSj viusvki dks i+QjdksVksa vkSj 'kkgh ycknksa ls xeZ
j[krs gS]a tcfd ge fpFkM+s yisVs jgrs gSAa muds ikl rks 'kjkc] yt+ht+ [kkuk vkSj
McyjksVh gS] vkSj gekjs ikl tbZ dh fyV~Vh] ?kklikr vkSj ikuhA muds ikl
i+Qjq lr gh i+Qjq lr gS vkSj cf<+;k ?kj Hkh] vkSj gekjs ikl gS rdyhi+Q vkSj esgur]
[ksrksa esa ckfj'k vkSj vk¡èkh_ fiQj Hkh ;g gekjh esgur gh gS ftlds cwrs ij os
jkt dj jgs gSaA
ç+Qk;j vkWi+Q okWV VkbylZ fjcsy 2
i` " B 44 ¼41½

ØkfUr vkSj oxZ


lkjs ds lkjs oxZ lÙkk ikus dh dksf'k'k esa ØkfUrdkjh gh gksrs gS]a vkSj lekurk
dh ckrsa djrs gSaA vkSj lkjs ds lkjs oxZ tc lÙkk çkIr dj ysrs gSa rks
ladh.kZrkoknh gks tkrs gSa vkSj eku ysrs gSa fd lekurk fli+QZ ,d jaxhu liukHkj
gSA lkjs ds lkjs oxZ] fli+QZ ,d dks & et+nwj oxZ dks NksM+dj] D;ksafd tSlkfd
1- vKkr
2- dqN 'kCn Li"V ugha_ vkxs iUuk iQVk gqvk_ mijksDr 'kCn tkWu ckWy ds gSaA tkWu ckWy
vkSj okWV VkbylZ baXyS.M esa gq, 1381 ds fdlku foæksg ds usrk FksA

72 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


dkWErs1 us dgk gS] ¶lp dgk tk;s rks et+nwj oxZ ,d oxZ gksrk gh ugha] cfYd
og rks lekt ds fudk; dk la?kVd gksrk gSA¸ ysfdu et+njw oxZ dk oD+r] ;kuh
lHkh yksxksa ds ,d gks tkus dk oD+r vHkh Hkh ugha vk;k gSA
¶oYMZ fgLVªh i+QkWj odZlZ¸ i`"B 47] vYç+QsM ckVZu Ñr 2

i` " B 45 ¼42½
lj gsujh esu3 us dgk gS %
¶baXyS.M dh vfèkdka'k Hkwfe odhyksa dh x+yrh ls blds orZeku Lokfe;ksa
ds gkFk esa pyh x;h gS & ftu x+yfr;ksa ds ifj.kkeLo:i NksVs&NksVs vijkfèk;ksa
dks Hkh iQk¡lh dh lt+k ns nh x;hA¸

¶o+Qkuwu eqtfje o+Qjkj dj nsrk gS ml iq#"k ;k L=kh dks


tks pqjkrs gSa vke vkneh dh eq£x;k¡]
ysfdu NksM+ nsrk gS cM+s vijkfèk;ksa dks
tks pqjk ysrs gSa eq£x;ksa ls vke vkneh dks ghA¸4
i` " B 46 ¼43½
turU=k
turU=k] lS¼kfUrd rkSj ij] jktuhfrd vkSj o+Qkuwuh lekurk dh ,d
ç.kkyh gSA ysfdu Bksl vkSj O;kogkfjd dkjZokbZ esa] ;g feF;k gS] D;ksafd dksbZ
lekurk rc rd ugha gks ldrh] ;gk¡ rd fd jktuhfr esa vkSj o+Qkuwu ds
le{k Hkh ugha] tc rd fd vk£Fkd 'kfDr esa vlekurk eq¡g ck;s cjo+Qjkj
jgsxh_ tc rd fd lÙkkèkkjh oxZ et+nwjksa ds jkst+xkj ij] ns'k ds çsl vkSj
Ldwyksa ij rFkk tuer rS;kj djus vkSj vfHkO;Dr djus ds lHkh lkèkuksa ij
viuk vfèkdkj tek;s j[ksxk] tc rd fd ;g lHkh çf'kf{kr lkoZtfud
dk;Zdkjh fudk;ksa ij viuk ,dkfèkdkj cuk;s j[ksxk] vkSj pqukoksa dks çHkkfor
djus ds fy, cs'kqekj èku [k+pZ djrk jgsxk] tc rd fd o+Qkuwu lÙkkèkkjh oxZ
1- vkxLr dkWErs (1798&1857) % ç+Qkalhlh fopkjd
2- vU; fooj.k vuqiyC/
3- lEHkor% fczfV'k bfrgkldkj vkSj fofèkosÙkk lj gsujh lej esu (1822&1888)] Hkkjr
esa 1863 ls 1869 rd dkmafly ds lnL;] vkSj dydÙkk fo'ofo|ky; ds okbl&pkalyj
Hkh jgs
4- baXyS.M esa 19oha lnh esa ,d vKkr dfo ds }kjk fy[kh dfork dk va'k
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 73
}kjk cuk;s tkrs jgsaxs vkSj vnkyrksa esa blh oxZ ds lnL; vè;{krk djrs jgsaxs]
tc rd odhy çkbosV çSfDV'kuj cus jgsaxs vkSj viuh fofèk fo'ks"kKrk dk
dkS'ky lcls vfèkd i+Qhl nsus okys dks csprs jgsaxs] rFkk vnkyrh dkjZokbZ
rduhdh vkSj eg¡xh cuh jgsxh] rc rd o+Qkuwu ds le{k ;g ukeek=k dh
lekurk Hkh ,d [kks[kyk et+ko+Q gh cuh jgsxhA
,d iw¡thoknh O;oLFkk esa] turU=k dh iwjh e'khujh cgqla[;d et+nwj oxZ
dks ihfM+r dj] lÙkkèkkjh vYila[;d oxZ dks lÙkk esa cuk;s j[kus dk dke
djrh gS] vkSj tc cqtqZvk ljdkj dks turkfU=kd laLFkkvksa ls [k+rjk eglwl
gksrk gS] rc ,slh laLFkkvksa dks vDlj cM+h csjgeh ds lkFk dqpy fn;k tkrk
gSA
¶ç+QkWe ekDlZ Vq ysfuu¸
(ekWfjl fgyfDoV 1 Ñr) (i`"B 58)

turU=k ¶gjsd oxZ ;k ikVhZ ls lEcfUèkr gjsd O;fDr ds fy, leku


vfèkdkj vkSj lHkh jktuhfrd vfèkdkjksa esa Hkkxhnkjh¸ lqfuf'pr ugha djrk
(dkmRLdh)A ;g rks ekStwnk vk£Fkd vlekurkvksa ds fy, [kqys jktuhfrd vkSj
o+Qkuwuh [ksy dh vuqefr nsrk gS---A bl çdkj iw¡thokn ds vUrxZr turU=k
lkekU;] vewrZ turU=k ugha] cfYd fof'k"V cqtqZvk turU=k---;k tSlkfd ysfuu
us bldk uke fn;k gS & cqtqZvk oxZ ds fy, turU=k gksrk gSA2

i` " B 47 ¼44½

ØkfUr 'kCn dh ifjHkk"kk


¶ØkfUr dh voèkkj.kk dks bl 'kCn dh iqfyfl;k O;k[;k ds vFkZ esa] ;kuh
l'kL=k foæksg ds vFkZ esa ugha ysuk pkfg,A ;fn fdlh ikVhZ ds ikl nwljs] de
[k+phZy]s vkSj vis{kkÑr vfèkd lqjf{kr rjho+Qs bLrseky djus dh xqt
a kb'k gS] vkSj
rc Hkh og fl¼kUr ds ukrs foæksg dk gh rjho+Qk viukrh gS] rks mls ikxy gh
dgk tk;sxkA bl vFkZ es]a lkekftd tuokn dHkh Hkh fl¼kUr ds ukrs ØkfUrdkjh
ugha jgkA ,slk ;g fli+QZ blh vFkZ esa gS fd ;g bl ckr dks ekurk gS fd tc
bls jktuhfrd lÙkk gkfly gks tk;sxh] rks ;g bldk bLrseky orZeku O;oLFkk
1- ekWfjl fgyfDoV (1869&1933) % vesfjdh lektoknh
2- iSjs dk Ïksr vkSj lUnHkZ okyk fgLlk iQVk gqvkA lEHkor% ekWfjl fgyfDoV dh gh
iqLrd ls m¼`r

74 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


dks fVdk;s j[kus okyh mRiknu&ç.kkyh dks [k+Re djus ds vykok vkSj fdlh
eo+Qln ds fy, ugha djsxkA¸
¶dkyZ dkmRLdh¸ 1

la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds ckjs esa dqN rF; vkSj vk¡dM+2s


5 vkneh 1000 yksxksa ds fy, jksVh iSnk dj ldrs gSa
1 vkneh 250 yksxksa ds fy, lwrh diM+k iSnk (dj ldrk) gS
1 vkneh 300 yksxksa ds fy, Åuh diM+k iSnk dj ldrk gS
1 vkneh 1000 yksxksa ds fy, cwV vkSj twrs iSnk dj ldrk gS
& vk;ju ghy 3 (i`"B 78)
15]000]000 yksx csiukg x+jhch (esa) th jgs gSa tks viuh Je&n{krk dks
Hkh cuk;s ugha j[k ldrsA
3]000]000 cky&JfedA

iqu'p% baXyS.M4
;q¼&iwoZ vuqeku (!)
baXyS.M dk dqy mRiknu £ 2000]000]000
(çfro"kZ)
fons'kh fuos'kksa ls ykHk £ 200]000]000
£ 2200]000]000
tula[;k ds 1@9osa Hkkx us
ys fy;k ½ ¾ £ 1100]000]000
tula[;k ds 2@9osa Hkkx us
ys fy;k 'ks"k ¾ £ 1100]000]000
dk 1@3 vFkkZr ¾ £ 300]000]000
(fooj.k dk cko+Qh fgLlk iQVk gqvk & l- ---)
1- dkyZ dkmRLdh (1854&1938) % teZu lkekftd&tuoknh vkUnksyu rFkk nwljs
b.Vjus'kuy ds ,d usrkA 'kq: esa ekDlZoknh Fks ij ckn esa ekDlZokn ds lkFk x+íkjh dh vkSj
et+nwj vkUnksyu esa ekStwn ,d voljoknh ço`fÙk (dkmRLdhokn) ds fl¼kUrdkj cu x;sA
2- ;g rFkk uhps vk;k baXyS.M lEcU/h 'kh"kZd eksVs v{kjksa esa fy[ks gq, gSaA
3- tSd (tkWu) fxzfi+QFk y.Mu (1876&1916) dk miU;kl vk;ju ghy] tks 1908 esa
çdkf'kr gqvkA bl miU;kl esa iwt¡ hokn ds jDrfiiklq vkSj neudkjh pfj=k rFkk blds fo#¼
et+nwjksa ds la?k"kZ dk vR;Ur çHkko'kkyh fp=k.k gSA
4- Ïksr dk irk ugha
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 75
i`"B 48 ¼45 ½
b.Vjus'kuy1
mB tkx çrkfM+r èkjrh ds
mB tkx Hkw[k ds cUnh
U;k; dh ctrh j.kHksjh]
,d csgrj nqfu;k tUesA
vc ck¡èk lds uk gedks ijEijk dh csM+h
vjs! mBks! X+kqykeks tkxks! vc djuh ugha X+kqykeh!
vc u;h uhao ij cusxh nqfu;k]
ge vc rd jgs u dqN Hkh] vc lc dqN gksaxsA (Vsd)
;g gS vfUre la?k"kZ
vkvks gksysa vfody
dy ekuotkfr cusxh
b.Vjus'kuyA
ns[kks mudks tks cSBs gSa efgekef.Mr
jsyksa] [k+kuksa] èkjrh ds jktk!
Je dks gh jgs ywVrs ;s
cl blds flok fd;k D;k gS\
ni+Qu gSa turk dh esgur ds iQy
dqN dh et+cwr frtksfj;ksa esa_
nsuk gksxk bls okil
gS ;g turk dk go+QA (ogh Vsd)
,dtqV gksa dkj[k+kuksa&[ksrksa ds esgurd'k
ikVhZ ge lcdh tks dke djsa_
;g èkjrh gS gekjh] turk dh]
;gk¡ u txg dkepksj dh]
gekjs ekal ij gq, gSa fdrus eksVs\
ysfdu ;fn ;s ?k`f.kr f'kdkjh i{kh]
gekjs vkleku ls ,d lqcg gks tk;sa x+k;c
lwjt dh vkHkk rc Hkh cuh jgsxhA
(ogh Vsd fiQj)
1- ;wthu iksfr, }kjk isfjl dE;wu (1871) ds nkSjku ç+Qsap esa fy[kk x;k ;g xhr
b.Vjus'kuy uke ls fo'o loZgkjk dk la?k"kZxhr cu x;kA
76 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
i` " B 49 ¼46½
eklZb;st1
vks esgur ds csVks] tkxks] xkSjo gkfly djks!
lquks] lquks] os dksfV&dksfV vkokt+sa fd rqe tkxks]
cPps] choh] vkSj iqjkru firj rqEgkjs]
ns[kks rqe muds vk¡lw] vkSj lquks rqe mudh ph[ksa+!
D;k ?k`f.kr fujadq'k 'kkld djrs jgsa 'kjkjr
ys HkkM+s ds VV~Vw] vkSj xq.Mksa ds tRFks &
djrs jgsa èkjk dks lU=kLr vkSj ohjku
tcfd 'kkfUr vkSj vkt+knh dk cgrk jgs [+kwu\ (dksjl)
vkvks 'kL=k l¡Hkkysa] iafDrc¼ gks tk;sa
[ksr lhaprs muds [+kw¡ ls vkxs c<+rs tk;sa
csiukg ,s;k'kh vkSj 'kku&'kkSo+Qr dh
T+kqjZr djrs gSa vèke vr`Ir fujadq'k]
Lo.kZ vkSj lÙkk dh mudh Hkw[k vifjfer
Hkksxrs vkSj csprs èkwi&gok Hkh_
ge <ksrs mudk Hkkj cu ds yíw ?kksM+s
os dgsa fd muds nkl mUgsa nsork ekusa]
ysfdu bUlku ls c<+dj vkSj dkSu gS\
fiQj os dc rd fVds jgsaxs] dc rd ekjsaxs gedks\ (fiQj ogh dksjl)
vjs vkt+knh! ekuo D;k R;kx ldsxk rqedks]
vuqHko dj ysus ds ckn rqEgkjh fnyd'k ykS dks\
D;k jksd ldsaxh rqedks rg[k+kuksa ds iQkVd vkSj lyk[ksa
;k D;k dksM+s ck¡èk ldsaxs rsjs mnkÙk thoV dks\
yEcs vlsZ ls fcy[k jgh gS nqfu;k]
pyk jgs gSa >wB dh dVkj fujadq'k]
ysfdu vkt+knh gS ryokj vkSj <ky gekjh]
vkSj O;FkZ gS mudh lkjh dykdkjhA (fiQj ogh dksjl)
1- yk eklZb;st % ç+Qkal dk jk"VªxkuA 24 vçSy] 1792 dks jpk x;kA ç+Qkalhlh ØkfUr
dh fgi+Qkt+r djus ds fy, ;q¼jr lSfudksa ds fy, bls ,d ç+Qkalhlh dIrku Dyksn tkst+si+Q
n fyy us laxhrc¼ fd;kA eklZb;st 'kgj ls isfjl dh vksj ekpZ djrs lSfudksa us tc bls
igyh ckj xk;k rks ,slk vkosx vkSj tks'k iSnk gqvk fd yksx meM+ iM+sA ,d ç+Qsap tujy
us ,d ckj lUns'k Hkstk Fkk fd mlds ikl rRdky eklZb;st Hkstk tk, D;ksfa d bldh rko+Qr
dbZ cVkfy;uksa ds cjkcj gSA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 77
i` " B 5 0 ¼47½

voljokn dk tUe
o+Qkuwu ds nk;js esa jgdj dke djus dh lEHkkouk us gh nwljs b.Vjus'kuy
ds le; esa et+nwj ikfVZ;ksa ds Hkhrj voljokn dks tUe fn;kA
(ysfuu] dksySIl vkWi+Q II baV- us-)1

x+Sj&o+Qkuwuh dke %
¶fdlh ns'k esa tgk¡ cqtqZvk oxZ ;k çfrØkfUrdkjh lkekftd tuokn lÙkk
esa gS] dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dks vius o+Qkuwuh vkSj x+Sj&o+Qkuwuh dkeksa ds chp ,d
rkyesy j[kuk vo'; lh[k ysuk pkfg,] rFkk o+Qkuwuh dke dks ges'kk vkSj
fuf'pr :i ls x+Sj&o+Qkuwuh ikVhZ ds çHkkoh fu;U=k.k esa gh jguk pkfg,A
& cq[+kkfju 2

nwljs b.Vjus'kuy ds y{; ds lkFk fo'okl?kkr %


lektokn vkSj Je ds bl fojkV laxBu dks ,slh 'kkfUrdkyhu xfrfofèk;ksa
ds fy, vuqdwfyr dj fn;k x;k] vkSj tc ladV vk;k] rks cgqr ls usrk vkSj
tuleqnk;ksa ds Hkkjh fgLls viusvki dks bl u;h fLFkfr ds vuq:i cukus esa
vleFkZ gks x;s---A ;gh og vifjgk;Z fLFkfr gS tks cgqr gn rd nwljs
b.Vjus'kuy ds fo'okl?kkr dk dkj.k gSA
ekDlZ Vq ysfuu] i`"B 140 (ekWfjl fgyfDoV)

¶n flfuDl oMZ cqd¸ (1906)3


,Eczksl fç;lZ fy[krk gS %
1- ysfuu dh iqLrd] f}rh; baVjus'kuy dk iru
2- fudksykbZ gokuksfop cq[k+ kfju (1888&1938) & :lh lkekftd&tuoknh et+njw ikVhZ
ds lnL;A jkT;] loZgkjk vfèkuk;dRo] jk"Vªh;rkvksa ds vkRefu.kZ; ds vfèkdkj rFkk ,sls
gh vU; ç'uksa ij ysfuu fojksèkh n`f"Vdks.k viukrs jgsA vDVwcj lektoknh ØkfUr ds ckn
ckj&ckj ysfuuoknh ikVhZ uhfr dk fojksèk fd;kA 1937 esa viuh ikVhZ fojksèkh xfrfofèk;ksa
ds dkj.k ikVhZ ls fudkys x;sA
3- O;aX;kRed ifjHkk"kkvksa dh iqLrd] tks ckn esa MsfoYl fMD'kujh ds uke ls çdkf'kr
gqbZA ,Eczksl fc;lZ (1842&1914) vesfjdh i=kdkj] dFkkdkj vkSj O;aX;dkj FksA
78 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
¶xzsi 'kkWV1 & (laKk) & ,d rdZ ftls Hkfo"; vesfjdh lektokn dh
ek¡xksa ds tokc esa rS;kj dj jgk gSA¸
i` " B 5 1 ¼48½
èkeZ] LFkkfir O;oLFkk dk leFkZd %
nklrk %
1835 esa] çsfLcVsfj;u ppZ dh tujy vlsEcyh us çLrko ikfjr fd;k
fd % ¶nklrk iqjkus vkSj u;s nksuksa gh VsLVkes.Vksa esa LohÑr gS] vkSj bls
bZ'ojh; lÙkk us o£tr ugha fd;k gSA¸
n pkYlZVu cSfIVLV ,lksfl,'ku us 1835 esa fuEufyf[kr i+Qjeku tkjh
fd;k %
¶ekfydksa }kjk vius X+kqykeksa ds le; dk bLrseky djus ds vfèkdkj dks
lHkh pht+ksa ds l`"Vk us Li"Vr% ekU;rk ns j[kh gS] tks viuh et+hZ ls ftl Hkh
pht+ ij pkgs lEifÙk dk vfèkdkj ykxw dj ldrk gSA¸
othZfu;k ds esFkkWfMLV dkWyst ds ,d çksi+Qslj jsoj.M bZ- Mh- lkbeu]
MkWDVj vkWi+Q fMokbfuVh] us fy[kk %
¶gksyh fjV (bZlkbZ èkeZ'kkL=k & l-) ds vorj.kksa esa lki+Q rkSj ij X+kqykeksa
ds Åij lEiR;kfèkdkj vkSj bl vfèkdkj ls lEcfUèkr jkst+ejkZ dh ckrksa dk
mYys[k fd;k x;k gSA rc] dqy feykdj] ckr ;gh gS] pkgs ge Lo;a bZ'oj }kjk
LFkkfir ;gwnh uhfr dks ns[ksa] ;k lHkh ;qxksa esa ekuotkfr ds ,d leku fopkj
vkSj O;ogkj dks ysa] ;k U;w VsLVkes.V vkSj uSfrd fu;e ds fofèk&fu"ksèk lEcUèkh
funsZ'kksa dks ns[ksa_ ge blh fu"d"kZ ij igq¡prs gSa fd nklrk vuSfrd ugha gSA tc
;g ckr fl¼ gks pqdh gS fd vÚhdh nkl o+Qkuwuh rkSj ij [k+jhndj c¡èkqvk
cuk;s tkrs Fks] rc muds cPpksa dks c¡èkqvk cukdj j[kus dh ckr Hkh vifjgk;Zr%
fl¼ gh gks tkrh gSA bl çdkj ge ns[krs gSa fd vesfjdk esa tks nklrk ekStwn
gS] mldh LFkkiuk lgh FkhA¸
iw¡thokn dk leFkZu %
gsujh okWu MkbZd2 ¶,Lls bu ,Iyhds'ku¸ (1905) esa fy[krk gS %
¶ckbfcy dh f'k{kk gS fd bZ'oj nqfu;k dk ekfyd gSA og viuh 'kqHkadj
bPNk ls] lkekU; fu;eksa ds vuq:i] çR;sd vkneh dks mldk Hkkx nsrk gSA¸
1- cUnwo+Q ds NjsZ
2- gsujh okWu MkbZd (1852&1933) % vesfjdh èkk£ed fopkjd vkSj ys[kd

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 79


i` " B 5 2 ¼49½

la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds ckjs esa vk¡dM+s %


lSU;&la[;k 50]000 Fkh
}
vc ;g 300]000 gSA

èkudqcsjksa ds ikl 67 vjc dh lEink gSA


O;olk;ksa esa yxs dqy O;fDr;ksa esa ls
dsoy 9@10 çfr'kr gh èkfudrU=k esa 'kkfey gSaA
fiQj Hkh muds ikl dqy lEink dk 70 çfr'kr gSA
O;olk;ksa esa yxs dqy O;fDr;ksa esa ls
29 çfr'kr eè;e oxZ ls lEcfUèkr gSa
muds ikl dqy lEink dk 25 çfr'kr gS ¾ 24 vjc
O;olk;ksa esa yxs yksxksa esa ls 'ks"k 70 çfr'kr
loZgkjk oxZ ls lEcfUèkr gSa vkSj muds ikl
dqy lEink dk fli+QZ 4 çfr'kr vFkkZr 4 vjc gSA
ywfl;u lSfu;y ds vuqlkj] 1900 esa
O;olk; esa yxs dqy yksxksa esa ls
¾ 250]251 èkfudrU=k ls lEcfUèkr Fks
¾ 8]429]845 eè;e oxZ ls lEcfUèkr Fks
¾ 20]395]137 loZgkjk oxZ ls lEcfUèkr FksA
& vk;ju ghy 1

jk;i+Qysa %
¶rqe dgrs gks fd laln vkSj jktdh; inksa ij rqEgkjk cgqer gksxk] ysfdu
¶rqEgkjs ikl jk;i+Qysa fdruh gSa\ D;k rqEgsa ekywe gS fd i;kZIr lhlk rqEgsa dgk¡
ls fey ldrk gS\ tgk¡ rd ck:n dh ckr gS] jklk;fud feJ.k] ;kfU=kd
feJ.kksa ls csgrj gksrs gSa] ;s ckr esjh eku yksA¸
& vk;ju ghy] i`"B 198 2

1- vkSj 2- tSd y.Mu dk miU;kl

80 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


i`" B 5 3 ¼5 0½

lÙkk---1
,d lektoknh usrk us èkfudrU=k dh ,d eh¯Vx dks lEcksfèkr fd;k vkSj
mu ij lekt ds dqçcUèk dk nks"k yxk;k vkSj bl çdkj ihfM+r ekuork ds
lEeq[k mifLFkr lHkh fodjkyrkvksa vkSj nq[k&rdyhi+Qksa dh lkjh dh lkjh
ft+Eesnkjh mUgha ij Fkksi nhA ckn esa ,d iw¡thifr (fe- foDlu) mB [kM+k gqvk
vkSj mls bl çdkj lEcksfèkr fd;k %2
¶bl ij gekjk tokc ;g gSA gekjs ikl rqEgkjs Åij cjckn djus ds fy,
'kCn ugha gSaA tc rqe vius xohZys et+cwr gkFk gekjs egyksa vkSj oSHko dh vksj
c<+kvksxs] rc ge rqEgsa fn[kk nsaxs fd gekjh D;k rko+Qr gSA cexksyksa dh
xM+xM+kgV vkSj e'khuxuksa dh rM+rM+kgV ls ge viuk tokc nsaxsA ge rqe
ØkfUrokfn;ksa dks viuh ,fM+;ksa rys ihl Mkysaxs] vkSj rqEgkjs psgjksa dks dqpy
MkysaxsA ;g nqfu;k gekjh gSA ge blds ekfyd gSa vkSj ;g gekjh gh jgsxhA tgk¡
rd Je dh ckr gS] ;g rks tc ls bfrgkl 'kq: gqvk rHkh ls èkwy pkVrk jgk
gS] vkSj eSaus bfrgkl dks Bhd ls i<+k gSA vkSj ;g rc rd èkwy pkVrk jgsxk tc
rd gekjs vkSj gekjs mÙkjkfèkdkfj;ksa ds gkFk esa lÙkk jgsxhA
¶,d 'kCn gS & lÙkkA ;g lHkh 'kCnksa dk jktk gSA bZ'oj ugha] èku&oSHko
ugha] cfYd lÙkkA viuh t+cku ij j[k yks vkSj rc rd j[ks jgks tc rd fd
;g mls >u>ukus u yxsA¸
¶eq>s mÙkj fey x;k¸] vusZLV (ml lektoknh usrk)3 us fu£odkj Hkko
ls dgkA ¶,dek=k ;gh mÙkj fn;k Hkh tk ldrk FkkA lÙkkA ge et+nwj oxZ
ds yksx blh dk rks çpkj djrs gSaA ge tkurs gSa vkSj vius dVq vuqHko ls
HkyhHkk¡fr tkurs gSa] fd lR; dh] U;k; dh] ekuork dh] dksbZ Hkh vihy
dHkh rqEgsa Nw ugha ldrhA rqEgkjs fny Hkh rqEgkjh mu ,fM+;ksa dh rjg gh
dBksj gSa ftuls rqe x+jhcksa ds psgjs dqpyrs gksA blhfy, rks geus lÙkk dk
çpkj fd;k gSA ysfdu] pquko ds fnu gekjs eri=kksa dh rko+Qr rqels rqEgkjh
ljdkj Nhu ys tk;sxh---A¸
¶vxj pquko ds fnu rqEgsa cgqer] Hkkjh cgqer fey gh tk;s] rks Hkh
mlls D;k i+Qo+QZ iM+us okyk gS¸] fe- foDlu rikd ls cksykA

1- 'kh"kZd dk 'ks"k fgLlk iQVk gqvk gS


2- Hkxr¯lg ds 'kCn
3- dks"Bd esa Hkxr¯lg ds 'kCn
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 81
¶eku yks ;fn erisfVdkvksa esa rqEgkjh thr ds ckotwn ge rqEgsa lÙkk lkSaius
ls bUdkj dj nsa rks\¸ ¹i`"B 5 4 ¼5 1½ ij tkjhº
¶geus ml ij Hkh lksp j[kk gS¸] vusLZ V us tokc fn;kA ¶vkSj bldk tokc
ge rqEgsa xksfy;ksa ls nsaxsA lÙkk] rqEgha us bls 'kCnksa dk jktk dgk gSA cgqr vPNk!
lÙkk] ns[ksaxs blsA vkSj ftl fnu ge pquko esa fot; gkfly dj ysaxs] vkSj rqe
gekjh bl laoSèkkfud vkSj 'kkfUriw.kZ <ax ls gkfly dh x;h lÙkk dks gesa lkSaius
ls bUdkj dj nksxs] rks rqEgkjs bl loky ds tokc esa fd ge D;k djsaxs & ml
fnu] eSa crk nw¡] fd ge rqEgsa bldk tokc nsaxs] ge cexksyksa dh xM+xM+kgV vkSj
e'khuxuksa dh rM+rM+kgV ls viuk tokc nsaxsA
¶rqe gels cp ugha ldrsA ;g lgh gS fd rqeus bfrgkl dks Bhd ls i<+k
gSA ;g lgh gS fd Je bfrgkl ds vkjEHk ls gh èkwy pkVrk vk jgk gSA vkSj
;g Hkh lgh gS fd tc rd rqEgkjs vkSj rqEgkjs mÙkjkfèkdkfj;ksa ds gkFk esa lÙkk
jgsxh] rc rd Je èkwy gh pkVrk jgsxkA eSa rqels lger gw¡A rqeus tks dqN dgk
gS mu lkjh ckrksa ls eSa lger gw¡A lÙkk gh fu.kkZ;d gksxh] tSlkfd ges'kk gksrk
vk;k gS_ ;gh rks oxks± dk la?k"kZ gSA tSls rqEgkjs oxZ us iqjkus lkeUrh rU=k dks èoLr
fd;k] Bhd oSls gh esjk oxZ] et+nwj oxZ] rqEgkjs oxZ dks èoLr dj MkysxkA vxj
rqe vius çkf.kfoKku vkSj vius lekt foKku dks Hkh mruh gh Li"Vrk ls i<+ks]
ftruh Li"Vrk ls rqe bfrgkl i<+rs gks] rks rqe ns[kksxs fd eSua s ftl gJ dk o.kZu
fd;k gS og vifjgk;Z gSA blls dksbZ i+Qo+QZ ugha iM+rk fd blesa ,d o"kZ yxsxk]
nl o"kZ yxsaxs ;k gt+kj o"kZ yxsaxs & ;g r; gS fd rqEgkjk oxZ feV~Vh esa fey
tk;sxkA vkSj ;g lÙkk ds tfj;s gh gksxkA ge esgurd'k bl 'kCn dks bruk jV
pqds gSa fd gekjs fnekx+ blls >u>uk jgs gSaA lÙkkA ;g ,d jktksfpr 'kCn gSA¸
& tSd y.Mu Ñr vk;ju ghy (i`"B 88)

i`"B 5 5 ¼5 2½

vk¡dM+1s
baXyS.M %
1922 & csjkst+xkjksa dh la[;k ¾ 1]135]000
1926 & ;g 1¼ ls 1½ fefy;u ds chp
vFkkZr 1]250]000 ls 1]500]000 ds chp jgh gSA

1- Ïksr dk irk ugha


82 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
vaxzst+ et+nwj usrkvksa dk fo'okl?kkr
1911 ls 1913 rd ds o"kZ vkerkSj ij [knku et+njw ] jsyd£e;ksa vkSj ifjogu
et+nwjksa ds csfelky oxZ&la?k"kks± dk le; FkkA vxLr 1911 esa] jsyos dh jk"Vªh;]
nwljs 'kCnksa esa] vke gM+rky] iQwV iM+h FkhA mu fnuksa fczVsu ds Åij ØkfUr dh ,d
èkq¡èkyh Nk;k e¡Mjk jgh FkhA ysfdu usrkx.k us bl vkUnksyu dks iaxq dj Mkyus ds
fy, viuh iwjh rko+Qr yxk nhA mudk bjknk ¶ns'kHkfDr¸ dk Fkk_ ;g gjdr
vxkfnj dh ml ?kVuk ds le; dh tk jgh Fkh] ftlus teZuh ds lkFk ;q¼ dk
[k+rjk mifLFkr dj fn;k FkkA tSlkfd vkt HkyhHkk¡fr ekywe gS] çèkkueU=kh us
et+njw &usrkvksa dks ,d xqIr cSBd esa cqyk;k vkSj muls fir`Hkwfe dh j{kk dh vihy
dhA vkSj usrkvksa us] cqtqZvk oxZ dks et+cwr djus ds fy, vius cwrsHkj lc dqN
fn;k] vkSj bl çdkj lkezkT;oknh ujlagkj ds fy, jkLrk lki+Q fd;kA
(i`"B 3) g~os;j bt+ fczVsu xksbax\ 1
=kkRLdh 2
i`" B 5 6 ¼5 3½
fo'okl?kkr %
dsoy 1920] ;kuh ^dkys 'kqØokj* ds ckn gh] vkUnksyu lhekvksa esa okil
ykSVk] tc [k+kud£e;ksa] jsyd£e;ksa vkSj ifjogud£e;ksa ds f=ki{kh; laJ; ds
usrkvksa us vke gM+rky ds lkFk fo'okl?kkr dj fn;kA
(i`"B 3)3

lqèkkj ds fy, ØkfUr dk [k+rjk t+:jh gS %


---fczfV'k cqtv
Zq k oxZ us ;g le> fy;k Fkk fd ,sls mik; (lqèkkj) ds tfj;s
ØkfUr dks Vkyk tk ldrk gSA vr% blls fu"d"kZ fudyrk gS fd lqèkkjksa rd
1- =kkRLdh dh Ñfr g~os;j bt+ fczVsu xksbax\
2- fyvksu =kkRLdh % yso nohnksfop =kkRLdh (1879&1940) & ysfuuokn ds ?kksj
fojksèkhA :lh lkekftd&tuoknh et+njw ikVhZ (cksY'ksfod) dh NBh dkaxl sz esa (1917)
cksY'ksfod ikVhZ ds lnL; cu x;sA vDVwcj ØkfUr esa egÙoiw.kZ fgLlsnkjhA ØkfUr ds
ckn dbZ ljdkjh inksa ij jgsA 1923 esa ikVhZ dh vke uhfr vkSj lektokn ds fuekZ.k
ds ysfuu ds dk;ZØe ds f[k+yki+Q xqVckt+h Hkjk la?k"kZ pyk;k rFkk bl ckr dk çpkj
fd;k fd lksfo;r la?k esa lektokn dh fot; vlEHko gSA dE;qfuLV ikVhZ us
=kkRLdhokn dks ikVhZ esa fuEu iwt
¡ hoknh ço`fÙk ds :i esa csudkc fd;k vkSj mls laxBu
o fopkjèkkjk ds n`f"Vdks.k ls ijkftr fd;kA =kkRLdh 1927 esa ikVhZ ls fudky fn;s x;s
vksj 1929 esa lksfo;r fojksèkh xfrfofèk;ksa ds dkj.k mUgsa ns'k fudkyk ns fn;k x;kA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 83
dks Hkh ykxw djokus ds fy,] fli+QZ èkhjs&èkhjs dke djrs jgus dk fl¼kUr i;kZIr
ugha gS] vkSj fd ØkfUr dk ,d okLrfod [k+rjk t+:jh gSA
(i`"B 29)1

lkekftd ,drk %
---,slk gks ldrk gS fd ,d ckj tc ge ,d ,sls fo'ks"kkfèkdkjçkIr oxZ
ds liQk;s ds fy, mB [kM+s gksa] tks jaxeap ls gVuk u pkgrk gks] rc oxZ&la?k"kZ
dh cqfu;knh vUroZLrq] mlh esa fufgr çrhr gksA ysfdu ughaA eSdMksukYM2
lkekftd ,drk dh psruk ¶tkx`r¸ djuk pkgrs gSaA ij fdldh\ et+nwj oxZ
dh ,drk rks cqtqZvk oxZ ds fo#¼ la?k"kZ esa mldh vkUrfjd lqlEc¼rk dh
vfHkO;fDr gksrh gSA
eSdMksukYM ftl lkekftd ,drk dk mins'k nsrs gSa] og 'kks"kdksa ds lkFk
'kksf"krksa dh ,drk] ;k nwljs 'kCnksa es]a 'kks"k.k dks cuk;s j[kus ds vykok vkSj dqN
ugha gSA3

ØkfUr ,d vki+Qr %
¶:l dh ØkfUr us¸ eSdMksukYM ds dFkukuqlkj] ¶gesa cM+k lcd
fl[kk;kA blus fn[kk fn;k fd ØkfUr ,d cjcknh vkSj foink ds flok; vkSj
dqN ugha gSA¸ ¹i`"B 5 7 ¼5 4½ ij tkjhº
ØkfUr rks foink dks gh tUe nsrh gS ysfdu fczfV'k turU=k us rks
lkezkT;oknh ;q¼ dks tUe ns fn;k---ftldh cjcknh dh rqyuk ØkfUr dh
foinkvksa ls rks fuf'pr rkSj ij rfud Hkh ugha dh tk ldrhA fiQj Hkh] ftl
ØkfUr us t+kj'kkgh] dqyhurU=k vkSj cqtqZvk oxZ dks m[kkM+ iQsadk] ppZ dks fgyk
dj j[k fn;k] 13 djksM+ yksxksa ds ,d jk"Vª ;k jk"Vªksa ds ,d lewps dqy esa] ,d
u;s thou dk lapkj fd;k] mlds lkeus ;g ?kks"k.kk djus ds fy, fd
& ØkfUr ,d foink ds flok; vkSj dqN ugha gS & ,sls gh cgjs dkuksa vkSj
fuyZTt psgjkas dh t+:jr gSA
(i`"B 64)4

1- ogh
2- lEHkor% tsEl jSEt+s eSDMksukYM (1866&1937)% fczfV'k yscj ikVhZ ds usrk vkSj nks
ckj çèkkueU=kh
3- g~os;j bt+ fczVsu xksbax\ 4- ogh
84 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
'kkfUriw.kZ\
dc vkSj dgk¡ lÙkkèkkjh oxZ us 'kkfUriw.kZ ernku ds tfj;s dHkh lÙkk vkSj
lEifÙk lkSaih gS & vkSj og Hkh] [k+klrkSj ls fczfV'k cqtqZvk oxZ us] tks lfn;ksa ls
nqfu;kHkj esa ywVikV djrk vk;k gS\ (i`"B 66)1

lektokn dk y{; % 'kkfUr


;g ,dne fu£ookn lPpkbZ gS fd lektokn dk y{;] loZçFke :i ls]
rko+Qr ds lcls HkksaM+s vkSj [+kwuh :iksa dks [k+Re djuk gS] vkSj fiQj mlds ckn
mlds vkSj fNis :iksa dks Hkh [k+Re djuk gSA (i`"B 80)
¶g~os;j bt+ fczVsu xksbax\¸] =kkRLdh

fo'o ØkfUr dk y{; %


1- iw¡thokn dks m[kkM+ iQsaduk
2- ekuork dh lsok ds fy, çÑfr dk fu;U=k.k djukA
cq[+kkfju us bls ,sls gh ifjHkkf"kr fd;kA
i`"B 5 8 ¼5 5 ½
vkneh vkSj e'khujh
n ;qukbVsM LVsV~l C;wjks vkWi+Q yscj dk dguk gS %
& e'khu ij dke djds ,d vkneh 1 ?k.Vk 34 feuV esa fiuksa dk 12 ikS.M
dk iSdsV rS;kj dj ldrk gSA
& vxj vkneh e'khu ij ugha] cfYd fli+QZ vkSt+kjksa ls dke djs rks mrus gh
dke esa 140 ?k.Vk 55 feuV dk le; yxsxkA
(vuqikr & 1-34 % 140-55 feuV)
& e'khu ij dke djds 100 tksM+s twrs cukus esa 234 ?k- 25 feuV yxrs gSaA
& gkFk ls blesa 1]831 ?k.Vs 40 feuV yxsaxsA
& e'khu ij dke djus ij Je dh ykxr $ 69-55 vkrh gSA
& gkFk ls---$ 457-79 vkrh gSA
& e'khuh Je }kjk 500 xt pkj[k+kusnkj diM+k rS;kj djus esa 73 ?k.Vs yxrs gSaA
& gkFk ds Je }kjk] blesa 5]844 ?k.Vs yxrs gSaA
& e'khuh Je }kjk 100 ikS.M flykbZ dk lwrh èkkxk 39 ?k.Vksa esa rS;kj gksrk gSA
& gkFk ls blesa 2]895 ?k.Vs yxrs gSaA
1- ogh

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 85


iqu'p% Ñf"k %
& ,d Hkyk&paxk vkneh g¡lv q k ls ,d ,dM+ i+Qly ,d fnu (12 ?ka-) esa dkV
ldrk gSA
& ,d e'khu mlh dke dks 20 feuV esa dj nsrh gSA
& N% vkneh ewly ls 60 yhVj xsgw¡ dh eaM+kbZ vkèks ?k.Vs esa dj ldrs gSaA
& ,d e'khu mrus gh le; esa 12 xquk vfèkd dke dj ldrh gSA
¶e'khujh ds bLrseky ls ekuo&Je dh çHkkodkfjrk esa gksus okyh c<+ksÙkjh---jkbZ
ds ekeys esa 150 çfr'kr ls ysdj tkS ds ekeys esa 2]244 çfr'kr rd gks tkrh
gS---A¸1
i` " B 5 9 ¼5 6½

la-jk-v- vkSj mldh vkcknh dh lEink % (1850&1912)2


çfr O;fDr dqy vkcknh
1850 esa dqy lEink Fkh
$ 7]135]780]000 $ 308 ¾ 23]191]876
1860 $ 16]159]616]000 $ 514 ¾ 31]443]321
1870 $ 30]068]518]000 $ 780 ¾ 38]558]371
1880 $ 43]642]000]000 $ 870 ¾ 50]155]783
1890 $ 65]037]091]000 $ 1]036 ¾ 62]947]714
1900 $ 88]517]307]000 $ 1]165 ¾ 75]994]575
1904 $ 107]104]202]000$ 1]318 ¾ 82]466]551
1912 $ 187]139]071]000$ 1]965 ¾ 95]40503
e'khujh bLrseky ds dkj.kA

e'khu viuh çÑfr esa lkekftd gS] tSlsfd vkSt+kj O;fDrxr FkkA3

¶gesa [k+jkc diM+k nks] ysfdu gesa csgrj vkneh nks¸] ,elZu4 dk dguk
gSA
¶lq[k.Mh jksx ls ejrs f'k'kqvksa dh çk.k&j{kk djks] fiQj mlds ckn diM+k
O;kikj dks rjthg nksA¸ i`"B 815
1- Ïksr vKkr 2- Ïksr vKkr 3- vKkr
4- jSYiQ okYMks ,elZu (1803&1882) % çfl¼ vaxzst+ dfo] fpUrd vSj fucUèkdkj
5- VkWel dkykZby (1795&1881)] ikLV ,.M izt+s.V] cqd IV
86 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
vkneh dks e'khu ij o+QqckZu ugha fd;k tk ldrkA e'khu dks fu'p; gh
ekuotkfr dh lsok esa yxuk pkfg,] tcfd vHkh gh bl vkS|ksfxd O;oLFkk
esa ekuotkfr ds Åij Hkkjh dgj cjik gksus dk [k+rjk e¡Mjkus yxk gSA
ikWoVhZ ,.M fjpst+ (i`"B 81)] LdkV uhv¯jx 1

i` " B 60 ¼5 7½
vkneh vkSj e'khujh %
lh- uSui+QksMZ gs.Mjlu viuh Ñfr ¶js Ms¸ esa fy[krk gS %
;g m|ksx dh laLFkk] tks lHkh laLFkkvksa esa lcls iqjkuh gS] ekuotkfr dks
pht+kas dh fujad'q krk ls eqDr djus dh xjt ls laxfBr vkSj fodflr gqb]Z ysfdu
vc ;g Lo;a mlls cM+h fujadq'krk cu pqdh gS] tks fo'kky vkcknh dks X+kqykeksa
dh n'kkvksa esa & ,sls X+kqykeksa dh n'kkvksa esa èkdsyrh tk jgh gS tks yEcs vkSj
Fkdk nsus okys ?k.Vksa rd dke djrs gq,] <sjksa pht+sa iSnk djrs jgus ds fy,
vfHk'kIr gSa] tcfd os tks pht+sa iSnk djrs gSa] [+kqn mUgha ds vHkko ls =kLr jgus
ds fy, foo'k gSaA
¶iko- fjpst+] (i`"B 87)¸

vkneh e'khujh ds fy, ugha gS %


vkneh us bLikr vkSj vkx ds la;ksx ls tks pht+ iSnk dh gS vkSj ftls e'khu
dgk gS] mls fu'p; gh ges'kk euq"; dk Lokeh ugha] cfYd lsod gh jguk
pkfg,A u rks e'khu vkSj u gh e'khu ds ekfyd dks ekuotkfr ij 'kklu djus
dk vfèkdkj gSA i`"B 88

lkezkT;okn %
lkezkT;okn fodkl ds ml pj.k dk iw¡thokn gS ftlesa bt+kjsnkfj;ksa vkSj
foÙkh; iw¡th us ,d çHkqRodkjh çHkko gkfly dj fy;k gS] fu;kZr&iw¡th Hkkjh
egÙo çkIr dj pqdh gS] vUrjjk"Vªh; VªLVksa us nqfu;k dk c¡Vokjk djuk 'kq: dj
fn;k gS] vkSj lcls cM+s iw¡thoknh ns'kksa us i`Foh ds lewps HkkSxksfyd {ks=kiQy
dk vkil esa c¡Vokjk iwjk dj fy;k gSA¸ & ysfuu 2
1- LdkWV uhv¯jx (1883&1983) % vesfjdh i;kZoj.koknh] ;q¼fojksèkh dk;ZdrkZ]
izpkjd vkSj ys[kdA ikWoVhZ ,.M fjpst+ 1916 esa çdkf'kr gqbZ FkhA
2- oh-vkbZ- ysfuu] lkezkT;okn] iw¡thokn dh pje voLFkk
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 87
i` " B 61 ¼5 8½
vfèkuk;dRo %
vfèkuk;dRo ,d lÙkk gS tks lhèks rko+Qr ij vkèkkfjr gksrh gS] vkSj fdlh
o+Qkuwu ls ugha c¡èkh gksrhA
loZgkjk oxZ dk ØkfUrdkjh vfèkuk;dRo ,d ,slh lÙkk gS tks cqtqZvk oxZ
ds fo#¼ vkSj mlds Åij] loZgkjk oxZ }kjk rko+Qr dh cnkSyr ykxw dh tkrh
gS] vkSj tks fdlh o+Qkuwu ls ugha c¡èkh gksrhA
çksfy- fjoks-1 (i`"B 18) & ysfuu

ØkfUrdkjh vfèkuk;dRo %
ØkfUr ,d dkjZokbZ gS ftlds rgr vkcknh dk ,d rcdk nwljs rcdksa
ij jk;iQyksa] laxhuksa] cUnwo+Qksa vkSj ,sls gh vU; vR;Ur lÙkkoknh mik;ksa ds
tfj;s] viuh bPNk vkjksfir djrk gSA vkSj tks i{k fot;h gksrk gS og viuk
'kklu vko';d :i ls] ml Hk; ds tfj;s LFkkfir djrk gS] ftls mlds
gfFk;kj çfrfØ;kokfn;ksa esa mRiUu djrs gSaA ;fn isfjl ds dE;wu us cqtqZvk oxZ
ds f[k+yki+Q gfFk;kjcUn turk ij Hkjkslk ugha fd;k gksrk] rks D;k og
viusvki dks pkSchl ?k.Vs ls Hkh vfèkd o+Qk;e j[k ldk gksrk\ blds
foijhr] D;k gekjh ;g vkykspuk tk;t+ ugha gS fd dE;wu us bl lÙkk dk
cgqr gh de bLrseky fd;k\
& ,iQ- ,axsYl 2

cqtqZvk turU=k %
cqtqZvk turU=k] lkeUrokn dh rqyuk esa] ,d egku ,sfrgkfld çxfr gksus
ds ckotwn] ,d cgqr gh lhfer] cgqr gh ik[k.Miw.kZ laLFkk] èkfudksa ds fy,
,d LoxZ vkSj 'kksf"krksa ,oa x+jhcksa ds fy, ,d tky vkSj Nykos ds vykok u
rks dqN gS] vkSj u gh gks ldrk gSA
ysfuu (i`"B 28)3

1- ysfuu] loZgkjk ØkfUr vkSj x+íkj dkmRLdh ls


2- ç+QsMfjd ,axsYl] lÙkk ds ckjs esa ls
3- ogh

88 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


i` " B 62 ¼5 9½
Je dk 'kks"k.k vkSj jkT; %
¶fli+QZ çkphu vkSj lkeUrh gh ugha] cfYd vkt dk çfrfufèk jkT; Hkh iw¡th
}kjk mtjrh Je ds 'kks"k.k dk ,d midj.k gh gSA¸
& ,axsYl 1

vfèkuk;dRo %
¶pw¡fd jkT; fli+QZ ,d vLFkk;h laLFkkHkj gS ftldk mi;ksx vius 'k=kqvksa
dk cyiwoZd neu djus ds fy, ØkfUr esa fd;k tkrk gS] blfy, turk ds
LorU=k jkT; dh ckr djuk dksjh cdokl gS] tc rd loZgkjk oxZ dks jkT; dh
vko';drk jgrh gS] rc rd bldh vko';drk LorU=krk ds fgr esa ugha]
cfYd vius fojksfèk;ksa dk neu djus ds fy, iM+rh gS] vkSj tsSls gh LorU=krk
dh ckr djuk lEHko gks tkrk gS] oSls gh bldk vfLrRo viusvki [k+Re gks
tkrk gSA¸
cscsy dks fy[ks ,axsYl ds i=k ls] 28 ekpZ] 18752

vèkhj vkn'kZoknh %
vèkhj vkn'kZoknh ds fy, & vkSj fcuk dqN vèkhjrk ds 'kk;n gh vkneh
çHkkoh fl¼ gks lds & ;g yxHkx r; ckr gS fd nqfu;k dks [+kq'kgky cukus
dh dksf'k'k esa mls vius fojksfèk;ksa dh ?k`.kk dk ik=k cuuk gksxk vkSj fujk'k Hkh
gksuk iM+ ldrk gSA
& cVªsZ.M jlsy
i` " B 63 ¼60½
usrk %
dkykZby3 fy[krk gS] ¶dksbZ Hkh le; cjckn u gqvk gksrk¸] ;fn dksbZ
egku vkneh fey tkrk tks dki+Qh le>nkj vkSj usd gksrk] ftlesa bruh
1- ifjokj] futh lEifÙk vkSj jkT; dh mRifÙk ls
2- vxLr cscsy (1840&1913) & teZu rFkk vUrjjk"Vªh; et+nwj vkUnksyu ds ,d
çfl¼ usrkA 1867 ls teZu et+njw la?kksa dh yhx ds usrk] igys b.Vjus'kuy ds lnL;] 1867
ls jkb[k+LVkx (teZu laln) ds lnL;] teZu lkekftd&tuokn ds laLFkkidksa esa ls ,d]
ekDlZ rFkk ,axsYl ds fe=k rFkk lg;ksxh] nwljs b.Vjus'kuy ds çeq[k usrk
3- VkWel dkykZby (1795&1881) % fczfV'k ys[kd o fucUèkdkj
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 89
le>nkjh gksrh fd og lgh&lgh tku ys fd oD+r dk ro+Qkt+k D;k gS_ ftlesa
bruk ijkØe gksrk fd oD+r ds fygkt+ ls lgh jkLrs ij usr`Ro dj ldrk] rc
rks budh cnkSyr dksbZ Hkh le; eqfDr dk le; gks ldrk FkkA

LosPNkpkfjrk %
dkmRLdh us ¶çksfyrkfj;r fMDVsVjf'ki¸ 'kh"kZd ls ,d iqfLrdk fy[kh]
ftlesa mlus cksY'ksfodksa }kjk cqtqZvk oxZ ds yksxksa dks oksV nsus ds vfèkdkj ls
oafpr fd;s tkus dh fuUnk dhA bl ij ysfuu us viuh ¶çksfyrkfj;u
fjoksY;w'ku¸ % (i`"B 77) esa fy[kk %
¶LosPNkpkfjrk! t+jk lkspsa rks fd bl [ksn çdk'k esa dehusiu ds fdl
fuÑ"V Lrj ij mrjdj cqtv Zq k oxZ dh pkiywlh dh x;h gS] vkSj fdruk vfèkd
ew[kZrkiw.kZ ikf.MR; c?kkjk x;k gSA tcfd lfn;ksa ls] et+nwjksa dk neu djus ds
fy,] x+jhc yksxksa ds gkFk&ik¡o ck¡èks j[kus ds fy,] vkSj turk ds lhèks&lkns vkSj
esgurd'k leqnk;ksa ds jkLrs esa ,d lkS ,d vM+axs vkSj vM+pusa [kM+s djrs jgus
ds fy,] iwjh rjg ls cqtqZvk] vkSj mlesa Hkh iw¡thoknh ns'kksa ds çfrfØ;koknh
fofèkosÙkk gh fu;e&foèkku cukrs vk;s gSa] vkSj os gh fofoèk lafgrkvksa vkSj
o+Qkuwuksa ij lSdM+ksa xzUFk vkSj mudh O;k[;k,¡ fy[krs vk;s gSa & tgk¡ bruk
lc fd;k x;k gS] ogk¡ cqtqZvk mnkjifUFk;ksa vkSj Jh dkmRLdh dks dksbZ
¶LosPNkpkfjrk¸ ugha fn[kk;h nsrh! rc rks ;g lc o+Qkuwu&O;oLFkk gS! ;g lc
blfy, lkspk vkSj fy[kk x;k gS fd dSls x+jhcksa dks nck;s j[kdj fupksM+rs jgk
tk;sA gt+kjksa&gt+kj cqtqZvk odhy vkSj ljdkjh vgydkj o+Qkuwuksa dh ,slh
O;k[;k djrs jgrs gSa fd et+nwj vkSj vkSlr fdlku mudh daVhys rkjksa dh
?ksjscUnh dks dHkh rksM+ u ldsaA cs'kd] ;g dksbZ LosPNkpkfjrk ugha gSA cs'kd]
;g mu xUns ;k equki+Qk[kksj 'kks"kdksa dk vfèkuk;dRo ugha gS tks turk dk [+kwu
ih jgs gSaA vksg] ;g ,slk dqN Hkh ugha gS! ;g rks ^'kq¼ turU=k* gS] tks
fnu&çfrfnu 'kq¼rj gksrk tk jgk gSA ¹i`"B 64 ¼61½ ij tkjhº ysfdu tc]
lkezkT;oknh ;q¼ }kjk ljgn ikj ds vius Hkkb;ksa ls vyx dj fn;s x;s
esgurd'k vkSj 'kksf"kr tuleqnk;ksa us bfrgkl esa igyh ckj viuh lksfo;rsa xfBr
dj yh gSa] tc mUgksaus jktuhfrd fuekZ.k ds fy, et+nwjksa dk vkSj mu oxks± dk
vkàku fd;k gS ftUgsa cqtqZvk oxZ mRihfM+r vkSj tM+ cuk;s j[krk Fkk] vkSj tc
ls os ,d u;k loZgkjk jkT; fu£er djus ds dke esa yx x;s gSa] rFkk fodV
:i ls tkjh ;q¼ ds nkSjku] x`g;q¼ dh Tokyk esa] tc os ^'kks"kdksa ls jfgr jkT;*
ds cqfu;knh fl¼kUr fu:fir djus yxs] rc cqtv Zq k oxZ ds lHkh ikth rÙo] vkSj

90 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


[+kwu pwlus okyksa ds lHkh fxjksg dkmRLdh ds lqj esa lqj feykdj] LosPNkpkfjrk
dh ph[k+&iqdkj epkus yxs gSa!
(ysfuu) i`"B 77&781

ikVhZ %
ysfdu ;g Li"V gks pqdk gS fd tc rd ØkfUr dk usr`Ro djus ds fy,
,d l{ke ikVhZ u gks] rc rd dksbZ ØkfUr lEHko ugha gks ldrhA
(i`"B 15] yslal vkWi+Q vDVwcj] 1917)2
loZgkjk ØkfUr ds fy, ikVhZ ,d vifjgk;Z midj.k gSA
(i`"B 17] ogh] =kkRLdh Ñr)
i` " B 65 ¼62½

mlds (esgurd'k] vkneh ds) fy, o+Qkuwu] uSsfrdrk] èkeZ ;s lc mlds


(loZgkjk ds) fy, ukuk cqtqZvk iwokZxzg ek=k gSa] ftudh vkM+ esa brus gh cqtqZvk
LokFkZ ?kkr yxk;s jgrs gSaA
dkyZ ekDlZ & ?kks"k.kki=k 4

1- ysfuu] loZgkjk ØkfUr vkSj x+íkj dkmRLdh


2- fyvksu =kkRLdh dh fdrkc] yslal vkWi+Q vDVwcj 1917 ls
3- i`"B dk Åijh yxHkx nks&frgkbZ Hkkx [k+kyh gSA blesa fli+QZ ch-ds- nÙk (cVqds'oj
nÙk) dk frjNk gLrk{kj gSA vkSj fnukad 12-7-30 nks ckj vafdr gSA
4- ekDlZ&,axsYl] dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk ?kks"k.kki=k

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 91


i` " B 67 ¼64½

uksVcqd esa i`"B 66 ¼63½ ugha gSA bl i`"B] ;kuh uksVcqd i`"B 67 ¼64½ ij] eè; esa]
ch-ds- nÙk dk rkjh[k+ (12-7-1930) lfgr gLrk{kj gSA
blds uhps Hkxr¯lg dh fy[kkoV esa i`"B ij uhps] nk;ha rji+Q ;g fVIi.kh vafdr gS %
Jh ch-ds- nÙk dk bl tsy ls i+Qkbuy
fMikpZj ls pkj fnu igys dksBjh u- 137]
ls.Vªy tsy ykgkSj] esa 12oha tqykbZ *30
dks fy;k x;k vkVksxzki+Q]
blds uhps Hkxr¯lg ds gLrk{kj gSaA bu çfof"V;ksa ds vykok uksVcqd esa vkSj fdlh
çfof"V esa rkjh[k+ ugha gSA
uksVcqd esa i`"B 68 ¼65 ½ ugha gSA

92 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


i` " B 69 ¼66½

dE;qfuLVksa dk y{;
¶dE;qfuLV vius n`f"Vdks.k vkSj y{; fNikus ls ?k`.kk djrs gSaA os [kqys rkSj
ij ,yku djrs gSa fd mudk y{; fli+QZ leLr ekStwnk lkekftd n'kkvksa dks
cyiwoZd m[kkM+ iQasdus ds }kjk gh gkfly gks ldrk gSA 'kkld oxks± dks
dE;qfuLV ØkfUr ds Hk; ls dkaius nksA loZgkjkvksa ds ikl viuh csfM+;ksa ds
flok; [kksus ds fy, dqN ugha gSA thrus ds fy, muds lkeus lkjh nqfu;k gSA
nqfu;k ds et+nwjks] ,d gks!1

dE;qfuLV ØkfUr dk y{;


¶ge Åij ns[k pqds gSa] fd et+nwj oxZ dh ØkfUr esa igyk o+Qne] loZgkjk
oxZ dks mBkdj 'kkld oxZ dh fLFkfr esa ykuk gS] tuokn dh yM+kbZ dks thruk
gSA loZgkjk vius jktuhfrd çHkqRo dk ç;ksx cqtv Zq k oxZ ls èkhjs&èkhjs djds lkjh
iw¡th Nhuus] mRiknu ds lHkh midj.kksa dks jkT; ds] vFkkZr 'kkld oxZ ds :i
esa laxfBr loZgkjk oxZ ds gkFkksa esa dsUæhÑr djus rFkk mRiknd 'kfDr;ksa dh
lexzrk esa ;Fkk'kh?kz o`f¼ djus ds fy, djsxkA¸
¶dE;qfuLV eSfuiQsLVks¸2

i` " B 70 ¼67½

dkyZ ekDlZ dh x+yfr;k¡ fudkyuk %


---vkSj ;g fuf'pr ekywe iM+rk gS fd =kkRLdh ekuks mlls lEcfUèkr Fks
ftls teZu ¶vlyh jktuhfr¸ dk Ldwy dgk djrs Fks] vkSj fdlh Hkh
fopkjèkkjk ds çfr ,dne mruk gh eklwe Fks ftruk fd fcLekdZA vkSj]
blhfy,] ;g ns[kdj dqrwgy gksrk gS fd =kkRLdh Hkh brus ØkfUrdkjh ugha gSa
fd dg ldas fd ekDlZ us ,d x+yrh dh Fkh_ cfYd og ,d ;k vfèkd i`"B
vFkZfu:i.k ds dke esa & vFkkZr ;g fl¼ djus esa yxkuk t+:jh le>rs gSa fd
ifo=k iqLrdksa esa tks dqN dgk x;k gS] mldk vFkZ mlls ,dne fHkUu gSA
=kkRLdh Ñr ^yslUl vkWi+Q vDVwcj 1917* dh Hkwfedk
Hkwfedk ,- lwlu ykWjsUl }kjk fyf[kr

1- dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk ?kks"k.kki=k dk vkf[k+jh iSjk


2- dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk ?kks"k.kki=k
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 93
turk dh vkokt+ %
gesa ftruh ljdkjksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh gS] os lcds lc eq[; :i ls]
turk ds çfr mnklhu jgdj gh 'kklu djrh jgh gSa] os ges'kk gh ns'k ds
jktuhfrd :i ls lpsr bl ;k ml rcds dh] vYila[;d ljdkjsa gh jgh gSaA
ysfdu tc ;g nSR; (;kuh turk & l-) tkx tk;sxk] rks mlh dh et+hZ ykxw
gksxh] ysfdu lcls cM+h ckr gS fd ;g le; ls tkxsxk ;k ughaA
Hkwfedk 1
i` " B 71 ¼68½
ysfuu us tqykbZ] 1917 esa fy[kk] ¶;g vDlj gksrk gS fd tc ?kVuk,¡
vpkud eksM+ ys ysrh gSa] rks ,d vxz.kh ikVhZ Hkh dqN le; rd ds fy, bl
u;h ifjfLFkfr ds lkFk viuh lqlaxfr ugha cuk ikrhA og os gh iqjkus tqeys
nqgjkrh jgrh gS] tks bl u;h ifjfLFkfr esa vFkZghu gks pqds gksrs gSa] rFkk ftl
vuqikr esa ?kVukvksa esa ^vçR;kf'kr* ifjorZu gks pqdk gksrk gS] mlh vuqikr esa
mudh vFkZoÙkk Hkh ^vçR;kf'kr :i ls* [k+Re gks pqdh gksrh gSA
yslal vkWi+Q vDVwcj (i`"B 17)2

j.kdkS'ky vkSj j.kuhfr %


tSls ;q¼ esa] oSls gh jktuhfr esa Hkh] j.kdkS'ky dk vFkZ gS vyx&vyx
dkjZokbZ dk lapkyu djus dh dyk_ j.kuhfr dk vFkZ gS fot; ikus dh] vFkkZr
lÙkk ij okLrfod o+QCt+k djus dh dykA
(i`"B 18)3

çpkj vkSj dkjZokbZ %


vkSj tc loZgkjk oxZ dh ikVhZ rS;kjh ls] ;kuh çpkj vkSj laxBu ,oa
vkUnksyu ls] vkxs c<+dj lÙkk ds fy, okLrfod la?k"kZ esa mrjrh gS vkSj cqtv
qZ k
oxZ ds fo#¼ ,d okLrfod tu&foæksg dks vatke nsus yxrh gS] rc ,d
vR;Ur vpkud cnyko ?kfVr gksrk gSA ,sls esa ikVhZ ds Hkhrj ,sls rÙo tks
n`<+ladYi ugha j[krs] ;k lansg'khy] ;k le>kSrkoknh] ;k dk;j gksrs gSa & os

1- ogh
2- vkSj 3- 1926 esa çdkf'kr =kkRLdh dh iqLrd yslal vkWi+Q vDVwcj 1917 ls
94 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
tu&foæksg dk fojksèk djus yxrs gSa] vius fojksèk dks mfpr Bgjkus ds fy,
lS¼kfUrd nyhysa [kkstus yxrs gSa] vkSj mUgsa ;s nyhysa] vius dy ds fojksfèk;ksa
ds chp] ,dne ids&idk;s rkSj ij] fey Hkh tkrh gSaA
=kkRLdh 191

i` " B 72 ¼69½

¶vc t+:jr bl ckr fd gS fd ge viusvki dks iqjkus i+QkewZyksa ls ugha]


cfYd u;h okLrfodrkvksa ls funsZf'kr djsaA¸
ysfuu (i`"B 25)2
og ges'kk gh Hkfo"; ds fy, vrhr ls yM+rs jgsA
i`"B 413

---ysfdu ,d {k.k ,slk vkrk gS tc lkspus dh ;g vknr] fd nq'eu


vfèkd cyoku gS] fot; ds fy, eq[; ckèkk cu tkrh gSA
=kkRLdh] i`"B 484
---ysfdu ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa gjsd ikVhZ ds ikl viuk ysfuu rks gksxk ughaA
---egÙoiw.kZ {k.k dks x¡ok nsus dk D;k eryc gksrk gS\---
j.kdkS'kyksa dh lkjh dyk blh esa gS] fd tc ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk la;ksx
lokZfèkd vuqdwy gks rks ml {k.k ds vuq:i dkjZokbZ dh tk;s---A
ifjfLFkfr;ksa us ,slk gh la;ksx mifLFkr fd;k Fkk vkSj ysfuu us dgk Fkk fd
ladV dks fdlh u fdlh i{k esa gy djuk t+:jh gSA ysfuu us ckj&ckj dgk]
^vHkh ;k dHkh ugha*A
i`"B 52 5
i` " B 73 ¼70½
,d ØkfUrdkjh ikVhZ dh rko+Qr ,d fuf'pr lhek rd c<+rh gS] ysfdu
mlds ckn bldk mYVk Hkh gks ldrk gS---A6
¶fgpfdpkuk vijkèk gS¸---vDVwcj dh 'kqq#vkr esa---(ysfuu us)---fy[kk]

1-] 2-] 3-] 4- vkSj 5- =kkRLdh dh fdrkc yslal vkWi+Q vDVwcj 1917 ls
6- vkf[k+jh 'kCn ewy esa vLi"V_ yslal vkWi+Q vDVwcj 1917 ls
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 95
¶lksfo;rksa dh dkaxzsl dk bUrt+kj djuk vkSipkfjdrkvksa dk ,d cpdkuk [ksy
[ksyuk gS] vkSipkfjdrkvksa ds lkFk ,d viekutud [ksy [ksyuk gS] ;g ØkfUr
ds lkFk fo'okl?kkr djuk gSA¸

mi;qDr {k.k %
jktuhfr esa le; ,d egÙoiw.kZ dkjd gS] vkSj ;q¼ ,oa ØkfUr esa rks ;g
gt+kjksa xquk vfèkd egÙoiw.kZ gSA pht+sa tks vkt dh tk ldrh gSa] dy ugha dh
tk ldrhaA gfFk;kj ysdj mB [kM+s gksuk] nq'eu dks ijkftr djuk] lÙkk ij
o+QCt+k djuk] vkt lEHko gks ldrk gS] vkSj dy vlEHko gks ldrk gSA ysfdu
vki dg ldrs gSa fd lÙkk ij o+QCt+k djus dk eryc rks bfrgkl dh èkkjk
dks cny Mkyuk gksrk gS] vkSj D;k ;g lEHko gS fd ,d ,slh pht+ egt 24
?k.Vs dh nsjh ij fuHkZj gks\ gk¡] tc l'kL=k tu&foæksg dh ?kM+h vk tkrh gS]
rc ?kVuk,¡ jktuhfr ds yEcs iSekuksa ls ugha] cfYd ;q¼ ds NksVs iSekuksa ls ukih
tkrh gSaA blesa dqNsd gÝ+rs] dqNsd fnu] ;k ;gk¡ rd fd dHkh&dHkh ,d fnu
dh nsjh dk eryc ØkfUr dk ifjR;kx gks ldrh gS] ?kqVus Vsd nsuk gks ldrk
gSA

jktuhfrd pkyckt+h] [k+klrkSj ls ØkfUr esa] ges'kk [k+rjukd gksrh gSA vki
nq'eu dks èkks[kk ns ldrs gSa] ysfdu blls vkids ihNs pyus okys tuleqnk;
fnXHkzfer gks ldrs gSaA
i` " B 74 ¼71½
fgpfdpkgV %
usrkvksa dh vksj ls fn[kk;h tkus okyh] vkSj muds vuq;kf;;ksa }kjk eglwl
dh tkus okyh fgpfdpkgV jktuhfr esa vkerkSj ij uqo+Qlkunsg lkfcr gksrh gS]
vkSj l'kL=k tu&foæksg dh fLFkfr esa rks ;g ,d ?kkrd [k+rjk gSA

;q¼
---¶;q¼ ;q¼ gS¸] pkgs tks Hkh gks] blesa dksbZ fgpfdpkgV ;k oD+r dh
cjcknh ugha gksuh pkfg,A1

1- mijksDr lHkh m¼j.k lEHkor% =kkRLdh dh fdrkc yslal vkWi+Q vDVwcj 1917 ls gSaA

96 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


v{ke usrk %
---,sls usrkvksa dh nks fo+QLesa gSa tks ikVhZ dks ,sls oD+r ihNs [khapus dh #>ku
j[krs gSa] tc mls lcls rst+ xfr ls vkxs c<+us dh t+:jr gksrh gSA ,d fo+QLe
,sls usrkvksa dh gS ftudh ço`fÙk ØkfUr ds jkLrs esa ges'kk gh csiukg dfBukb;k¡
vkSj ckèkk,¡ ns[kus dh gksrhs gS] vkSj tks mUgsa ns[kdj & lpsr ;k vpsru rkSj ij
& muls cpus dh bPNk j[krs gSaA ;s ekDlZokn dks rksM+&ejksM+dj bl :i esa
O;k[;kf;r djus yxrs gSa fd ØkfUrdkjh dkjZokbZ D;ksa vlEHko gSA
nwljs fo+QLe ds usrk egt lrgh vkUnksyudrkZHkj gksrs gSaA os tc rd
ckèkkvksa ls Vdjkdj viuk flj ugha iQksM+ ysrs] rc rd mUgsa dHkh ckèkk,¡ ut+j
gh ugha vkrhaA os le>rs gSa fd cl Hkk"k.k >kM+ dj gh okLrfod dfBukb;ksa
ls futkr ik ysaxsA os çR;sd pht+ dks vfr vk'kkokn ds lkFk ns[krs gSa] vkSj tc
lpeqp dqN djus dks gksrk gS] rc Bhd mlh oD+r ikyk cny ysrs gSaA
i`"B 801

i`"B la- 75 ls 100 uksVcqd dh gesa miyCèk gqbZ çfr esa ugha FksA
vxyh i`"B la- 101 ¼74½ gSA & lEiknd

i` " B 101 ¼74½


lekt'kkL=k2
ewY; %
¶1 iko eDdk ¾ d@ yksgs dh o+QherA ;g lehdj.k gesa D;k crkrk gS\
;g gesa crkrk gS fd nks fHkUu&fHkUu pht+ksa esa & eDdk ikoHkj esa vkSj yksgs dh
d o+Qher esa & leku xq.kksa okyh dksbZ pht+ nksuksa esa mHk;fu"B :i ls ekStwn
gSA vr% bu nks pht+ksa dks vo'; gh fdlh ,slh rhljh pht+ ds cjkcj gksuk
pkfg,] tks Lo;a u rks igyh pht+ gks] vkSj u gh nwljh pht+---A vc vkb;s ge
bu nksuksa mRiknksa esa ls çR;sd ds Hkhrj fufgr bl rhljh vof'k"V pht+ ij fopkj
djsa] ;g çR;sd mRikn esa] ,d gh vHkkSfrd ;FkkFkZ ds :i esa] ,dlkj ekuoh;
Je] ;kuh ml Je 'kfDr ds egt ,d teko ds :i esa fufgr gS] ftlesa blls

1- lEHkor% yslal vkWi+Q vDVwcj 1917 ls gh


2- gkf'k;s ij uksV fd;k gqvk

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 97


dksbZ i+Qo+QZ ugha iM+rk fd ml Je'kfDr ds [k+pZ fd;s tkus dh foèkk D;k jgh
gSA vc ;s lkjh pht+sa gesa crkrh gSa fd mi;qZDr mRiknksa ds mRiknu esa ekuo&Je
[k+pZ fd;k x;k gS] ;kuh fd muesa Je gh ewreZ ku gqvk gSA tc ge bl lkekftd
inkFkZ ;kuh Je dks mlds vyx&vyx Li"V ewrZeku :iksa esa ns[krs gSa] rks
loZlkèkkj.k ds fy,] os gh ^ewY;* dgykrs gSaA
ekDlZ & ¶iw¡th¸] vaxzst+h vuqokn (i`"B 3]4]5)

 o+Qkuwu1 %
¶cgjgky] lekt o+Qkuwu ij ugha vkèkkfjr gksrk gSA ;g rks ,d o+Qkuwuh xYi
gSA blds foijhr] o+Qkuwu dks vo'; gh lekt ij vkèkkfjr gksuk pkfg,A bls
fu'p; gh lekt ds fgr vkSj vko';drkvksas dh vfHkO;fDr gksuk pkfg,] vkSj
bls vkS|ksfxd mRiknu dh LosPNkpkfjrk ds ctk;] mRiknu dh lkekftd vkSj
fujiokn :i ls HkkSfrd mRiknu&ç.kkyh ls fu%l`r gksuk pkfg,A bl le; esjs gkFk
esa usiksfy;u lafgrk gS] ysfdu blus vkèkqfud ukxfjd lekt dks ugha iSnk fd;k
gSA 18oha lnh esa tUek vkSj 19oha lnh esa fodflr gqvk lekt bl lafgrk esa fli+QZ
,d o+Qkuwuh vfHkO;fDr ds :i esa fufgr gSA tc ;g lkekftd n'kkvksa ds vuq:i
ugha jg tk;sxk] rc ;g egt jíh dkx+t+ dk iqfyUnk gh fl¼ gksxk---A thou dh
cnyrh n'kkvksas ds lkFk&lkFk o+Qkuwu Hkh fuf'pr rkSj ij cnyrs jgs gSaA ijUrq
lkekftd fodkl dh u;h vko';drkvksa vkSj vis{kkvksa dks njfdukj dj (;qx
dh iqdkj ds fygkt+ ls) iqjkus o+Qkuwu dks cuk;s j[kuk] njvly] loZlkèkkj.k ds
fgr ds foijhr fdUgha [k+kl fgrksa dh ik[k.Miw.kZ fgek;r ds vykok vkSj dqN
ugha gSA¸
ekDlZ (dksyksu dh twjh vnkyr esa)2

1- ewy esa 'kh"kZd dh ck;ha rji+Q ^lgh*() dk fu'kku


2- 1848 esa] ekDlZ ds Åij muds v[k+ckj dks ysdj dksyksu (teZuh) esa ,d çfl¼
eqo+Qnek pykA ebZ 1848 esa dkyZ ekDlZ vkSj ç+QsMfjd ,axsYl us dqN lkfFk;ksa dh enn ls
U;w jkbfu'k t+kbVqxa (Neue Rheinische Zeitung) uked ,d jktuhfrd nSfud v[k+ckj dh
LFkkiuk dhA ekDlZ blds lEiknd FksA ;g ;wjksi esa ØkfUrdkjh mFky&iqFky dk nkSj FkkA
uoEcj 1848 esa tc ç'kk ds jktk us us'kuy vlsEcyh dks Hkax dj fn;k rks ekDlZ vkSj
muds lkfFk;ksa us turk ls dj u pqdkus dk vkàku fd;k vkSj gfFk;kjcUn fojksèk dh
odkyr dhA dksyksu dh ?ksjscUnh dj yh x;h vkSj mudk v[k+ckj cUn dj fn;k x;kA
eqo+Qnes ds nkSjku ekDlZ us vius rdks± ls twjh dks gh nks"kh o+Qjkj fn;kA mUgsa cjh dj fn;k
x;k ysfdu ç'kk ls fuokZflr dj fn;k x;kA
98 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
 tuleqnk; %
¶turk ,d ,sls Hkkjh&Hkjde vkSj iapesy tkuoj dh Hkk¡fr gksrh gS] tks
viuh gh rko+Qr ls vufHkK jgrk gS vkSj blhfy, cks> <ksrs gq, dksM+s&M.Ms
[kkrk jgrk gSA ;g ml fiQrus cPps }kjk Hkh gk¡d fy;k tkrk gS] ftls og tc
pkgs èkDds ekjdj iQsd a ldrk gSA ysfdu ;g ml cPps ls Mjrk gS vkSj blhfy,
;g mldh lkjh ludksa vkSj eucgfd;ksa dks >syrk jgrk gS] vkSj dHkh eglwl
ugha djrk fd og cPpk [+knq mlls fdruk Mjrk gS---A vn~Hkqr gS! yksx [+knq vius
gh gkFkksa ls viusvki dks iQk¡lh ns nsrs gSa vkSj [+kqn gh tsy pys tkrs gSa rFkk [+kqn
gh vius Åij ;q¼ vkSj ekSr dk dgj cjik dj ysrs gSaA fdlfy,\ cl ,d
neM+h ds fy,] tks mUgha reke nefM+;ksa esa ls ,d gksrh gS ftUgsa os [+kqn gh jktk
dks ns pqds gksrs gSaA tcfd èkjrh vkSj vkdk'k ds chp tks dqN gS lc rks mudk
gh gS] ysfdu os bls ugha tkurs vkSj vxj mUgsa dksbZ ;g crk ns rks os ml vkneh
dks fxjkdj ekj MkysaxsA
rksekLlks dSEikusyk 1

i` " B 102 ¼75 ½


¶ekDlZokn cuke lektokn¸
(1908&12) ys[kd Oykfnehj th- fl[kksfop
ih,p-Mh-] dksyfEc;k fo'ofo|ky;
og ,d&,d djds ekDlZ ds lkjs fl¼kUrksa dh vkykspuk djrs gSa vkSj bu
lHkh dks [k+kfjt djrs gSa %
1- ewY; dk fl¼kUr
2- bfrgkl dh vk£Fkd O;k[;k
3- lEink dk FkksM+s ls gkFkksa] vFkkZr iw¡thifr;ksa ds gkFkksa esa ladsUæ.k] eè;e
oxZ dk iwjh rjg [k+kRek vkSj loZgkjk oxZ dh ck<+
4- c<+rh x+jhch dk fl¼kUr] ftldh ifj.kfr ds rkSj ij
5- vkèkqfud jkT; vkSj lkekftd O;oLFkk dk vifjgk;Z ladVA
og fu"d"kZ fudkyrs gSa fd ekDlZokn fli+QZ bUgha ewyHkwr fl¼kUrksa ij
vkèkkfjr gS] vkSj mUgsa ,d&,d djds [k+kfjt djrs gq,] fu"d"kZ ds rkSj ij dgrs
gSa fd ØkfUr ds tYnh iQwV iM+us dh lkjh èkq¡èkyh vk'kadk,¡ vHkh rd fuewZy
gh lkfcr gqbZ gSaA eè;e oxZ ?kV ugha] cfYd c<+ jgk gSA èkuh oxZ la[;k esa c<+
1- rksekLlks dSEikusyk (1568&1639) % brkyoh dfo vkSj nk'kZfud
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 99
jgk gS] rFkk mRiknu vkSj miHkksx dh ç.kkyh Hkh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuqlkj cny
jgh gS] vr% et+nwjksa dh n'kk esa lqèkkj djds fdlh Hkh çdkj ds la?k"kZ dks Vkyk
tk ldrk gSA lkekftd v'kkfUr dk dkj.k c<+rh x+jhch ugha] cfYd vkS|ksfxd
dsUæksa ij x+jhc oxks± dk ladsUæ.k gS] ftlds ukrs oxZ&psruk iSnk gks jgh gSA
blhfy, ;g lc fpYy&iksa gSA1

i` " B 103 ¼76½

ysl fet+jscYl dh Hkwfedk


tc rd o+Qkuwu vkSj ijEijk dh cnkSyr ,d ,slh lkekftd vèkksxfr ekStnw
jgsxh ftlesa lH;rk ds Hkhrj udZ fu£er gksrs jgsaxs vkSj nSoh; fu;fr ds lkFk
ekuoh; fu;fr dk my>ko gksrk jgsxk] tc rd bl ;qx dh rhu leL;k,¡
x+jhch ds dkj.k euq"; dh nqxfZ r] Hkw[k ds dkj.k ukjh dh vèkksxfr] vkSj vKkurk
ds dkj.k cPpksa dh v'kDrrk & gy ugha gksrha] tc rd dqN {ks=kksa esa lkekftd
?kqVu ekStwn jgsxh & nwljs 'kCnksa esa] rFkk ,d vkSj Hkh O;kid n`f"Vdks.k ls & tc
rd bl èkjrh ij vKkurk vkSj cngkyh cjo+Qjkj jgsxh] rc rd ,slh fdrkcsa
O;FkZ ugha fl¼ gksaxhA
¶foDVj áwxks¸ 2

U;k;kèkh'k ¶U;k;kèkh'k (vius i+QSlys ls) tks d"V igq¡pkrk gS] ;fn dh
ifjHkk"kk % og Lo;a mlds çfr fu"Bqj gks] rks og U;k; djus dk
vfèkdkj [kks cSBrk gSA¸
¶johUæukFk Bkdqj¸ 3

¶ysfdu vçfrjksèkh 'kgknr tks dj ikus esa vliQy jg tkrh gS] mls
U;k;fç; vkSj çfrjksèkh 'kfDr dj Mkyrh gS] rFkk vR;kpkjh dks vkSj vfèkd
gkfu igq¡pkus esa ukdke dj nsrh gSA¸4

1- Hkxr¯lg }kjk iqLrd ij ntZ fVIi.kh


2- foDVj áwxks (1802&1885) % ç+Qkalhlh dfo] ukVddkj] miU;kldkj vkSj jksekalokn
ds ,d çorZd_ ysl fetjscYl mudk 1862 esa fy[kk ,d Dykfldh; miU;kl gSA
3- ek¡ dh çkFkZuk uked dfork dh iafDr;k¡
4- vKkr
100 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
¶èkekZUrfjr gksus ds ctk; ekj Mkys tkvks¸ ml le; fgUnqvksa ds chp ;gh
iqdkj çpfyr FkhA ysfdu jkenkl1 mB [kM+s gq, vkSj dgk] ¶ugha! ,sls ugha!
èkekZUrfjr gksus ls csgrj gS ekj Mkys tkuk & ;g dguk dki+Qh vPNk gS] ysfdu
blls Hkh csgrj gS ;g dksf'k'k djuk fd u rks ekjs tkvks vkSj u gh èkekZUrfjr
gksvks] cfYd [+kqn ¯glk dh 'kfDr;ksa dks ekj MkyksA blesa vxj ejuk gh gks rks
ekj fn;s tkvks] ysfdu fot; dh [k+kfrj ekjrs gq, ejks & U;k; dh thr ds fy,
ejksA¸
fgUnw in ikn'kkgh i`"B 181&82
i` " B 104 ¼77½
lHkh fof/&fuekZrk vijkfèk;ksa ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr %
vkfndky ls ysdj ykbdjxl2] lksyksu3] eksgEen4] usiksfy;u5] vkfn rd
euq";ksa ds fy, ftrus Hkh fofèk&fuekZrk vkSj 'kkld gq, gSa os lc ds lc
vijkèkh jgs gSa] D;ksafd u;s o+Qkuwuksa dk foèkku djds] LokHkkfod rkSj ij] mUgksaus
mu iqjkus o+Qkuwuksa dks Hkax fd;k] ftUgsa lekt J¼kiwoZd ekurk vk jgk Fkk vkSj
tks iwoZtksa ls fojklr esa feys gq, FksA
(i`"B 205) vijkèk vkSj n.M & nksLrks;sOLdh 6

cdZ7 dk dguk gS] ¶,d lPpk jktuhfrK] ges'kk bl ckr ij lksprk jgrk
gS fd dSls og vius ns'k esa ekStwn lalkèkuksa ls T+;knk ls T+;knk v£tr djsA¸

1- çfl¼ ejkBk lUr vkSj f'kokth ds çsj.kk&xq#


2- ykbdjxl % çkphu LikVkZ (;wuku) dk lafoèkku fuekZrkA mlds thouhdkj IyqVkdZ
ds vuqlkj og ¶fofèk fuekZrk¸ Fkk] vkSj gsjksnksrl ds vuqlkj] mlus ¶lkjh ijEijk,¡¸ cny
MkyhaA
3- lksyksu (639 bZ-iw-&559 bZ-iw-)% çkphu ,Fksal (;wuku) dk jktuf;d] ftlus lhfer
turU=k nsus ds fy, ,Fksal ds lafoèkku dk la'kksèku fd;k] vkSj Hkwfe&lqèkkj ykxw fd;kA
4- gt+jr eksgEen (570&632 bZ-) dk mYys[k vjc ns'kksa esa çpfyr iqjkus o+Qkuwuksa vkSj
çFkkvksa ds LFkku ij bLykeh o+Qkuwuksa ds laLFkkid ds :i esa fd;k x;k gSA
5- usiksfy;u cksukikVZ (1769&1821) us usiksfy;u lafgrk rS;kj dh ftls ;wjksi esa ykxw
fd;k x;kA
6- çfl¼ :lh miU;kldkj Ý;ksnksj fe[kkbyksfop nksLrks;sOLdh (1821&1881) dk
çfl¼re miU;kl vijkèk vkSj n.M tks 1866 esa çdkf'kr gqvkA
7- ,Me.M cdZ (1729&1797) % fczfV'k jktuhfrK vkSj ys[kd

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 101


i` " B 105 ¼78½

fofèk'kkL=k1 %
o+Qkuwu %
1- o+Qkuwu dk çkfoèkku ftl :i esa og ekStwn gSA
{ 2- o+Qkuwu dk bfrgkl
3- o+Qkuwu&foèkku dk foKku
{ ftl :i esa mldk fodkl gqvkA
tSlk mls gksuk pkfg,A

1- lS¼kfUrd (i) n'kZu fof/ ds foKku ds fy,


{ 2- lkekU; { fofèk'kkL=k vkèkkj çnku djukA

1- fo'ys"k.kkRed
2- ,sfrgkfld
3- uhfr'kkL=kh;
{ fofèk'kkL=k

1- fo'ys"k.kkRed fofèk'kkL=k o+Qkuwu ds çFke fl¼kUr dh O;k[;k


djrk gSA bldh fo"k;&oLrq gS %
(v) ukxfjd o+Qkuwu dh voèkkj.kk
(c) ukxfjd vkSj vU; o+Qkuwuksa ds chp lEcUèk
(l) fofoèk la?kVd fopkj tks o+Qkuwu dh èkkj.kk] tSls jkT;] lEçHkqrk
vkSj U;k;&ç'kklu dk la?kVu djrs gSaA
(n) o+Qkuwu ds o+Qkuwuh Ïksr vkSj fofèk fuekZ.k dk fl¼kUr vkfnA
(;) o+Qkuwu ds oSKkfud oxhZdj.kA
(j) o+Qkuwuh vfèkdkj
(y) o+Qkuwuh (ukxfjd vkSj i+QkStnkjh) nkf;Ro dk fl¼kUr
(o) vU; o+Qkuwuh voèkkj.kk,¡A
i` " B 106 ¼79½
2- ,sfrgkfld fofèk'kkL=k o+Qkuwu] o+Qkuwuh voèkkj.kkvksa dh mRifÙk vkSj
fodkl dks fuèkkZfjr djus okys lkekU; fl¼kUrksa dk vè;;u djrk gSA ;g
bfrgkl gSA

1- ,slk çrhr gksrk gS fd Hkxr¯lg us fofèk'kkL=k lEcUèkh O;kid vè;;u dh :ijs[kk


cuk;h Fkh] tks uksVcqd ds vxys dbZ i`"Bksa rd tkjh gSA
102 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
3- uhfr'kkL=kh; fofèk'kkL=k % ;g o+Qkuwu ds lEcUèk esa U;k; ds fl¼kUr
ls lEcfUèkr gSA
o+Qkuwu vkSj U;k; %
o+Qkuwu ds uhfr'kkL=kh; fufgrkFkks± dh iw.kZ vogsyuk fo'ys"k.kkRed
fofèk'kkL=k dks ,d cstku ç.kkyh esa rCnhy dj ldrh gSA
baXyS.M esa %
nks fHkUu&fHkUu 'kCn ¶o+Qkuwu¸ vkSj ¶U;k;¸ yxkrkj bl ckr dks ;kn
fnykrs jgrs gSa fd ;s nksuksa ,d gh pht+ ugha cfYd nks fHkUu pht+sa gSaA ysfdu
buds bLrseky esa bu nksuksa ds chp ekStwn okLrfod vkSj ?kfu"B lEcUèk vDlj
vk¡[k&vks>y gks tk;k djrk gSA
vkSj egk}hi esa %
¹jspsV % jkbV (vfèkdkj) ¾ MªkWbV % ykW (o+Qkuwu)º
egk}hih; Hkk"kk&'kSyh ¶o+Qkuwu¸ vkSj ¶vfèkdkj¸ ds chp ds i+Qo+QZ dks
fNikrh gS] tcfd vaxzst+h Hkk"kk&'kSyh muds chp ds lEcUèk dks fNikrh gSA

i` " B 107 ¼80½

o+Qkuwu %
¶ge ml fdlh Hkh fo+QLe ds fu;e ;k fl¼kUr dks o+Qkuwu uke ns nsrs gSa]
ftlds }kjk dkjZokb;k¡ fuèkkZfjr dh tkrh gSaA¸
(gwdj)1
¶o+Qkuwu vius lokZfèkd lkekU; vFkZ esa dkjZokbZ lEcUèkh fu;e dks
fof'k"VhÑr djrk gS] vkSj ;g lHkh çdkj dh dkjZokbZ ij fcuk HksnHkko ds] ykxw
gksrk gS] pkgs os rdZijd gksa ;k rdZghu] thoèkkjh ls lEcfUèkr gksa] ;k futhZo
lsA blhfy, ge xfr ds] xq#Rokd"kZ.k ds] çdk'k ds] HkkSfrdh ds] çÑfr ds vkSj
jk"Vªksa ds fu;eksa dh ckr djrs gSa¸A
(CySdLVksu)2
1- lEHkor% vaxzst+ èkeZ'kkL=kh; fjpMZ gwdj (1554&1600) ftlus n ykW vkWi+Q
,Dysfl,fLVdy ikWfylh esa ,aXyhdfuT+e ds fl¼kUrksa dks lafgrkc¼ fd;kA
2- lEHkor% lj fofy;e CySdLVksu (1723&1780)% vaxszt+ fofèkosÙkk] ftlus des.Vªht+
vkWu n ykWt+ vkWi+Q baXyS.M (1765&1769) fy[kh] tks vaxzst+h o+Qkuwu ds fl¼kUr ij ,d
vkfèkdkfjd iqLrd ekuh tkrh gSA

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 103


o+Qkuwuksa ds çdkj
1- vfuok;Z o+Qkuwu
2- HkkSfrd fu;e ;k oSKkfud o+Qkuwu
3- çkÑfrd ;k uSfrd o+Qkuwu
4- çpfyr o+Qkuwu
5- ijEijkxr o+Qkuwu
6- O;kogkfjd ;k rduhdh o+Qkuwu
7- vUrjjk"Vªh; o+Qkuwu
8- ukxfjd o+Qkuwu ;k jkT; dk o+Qkuwu
i` " B 108 ¼81½

) 1- vfuok;Z o+Qkuwu dk vFkZ gS dkjZokbZ dk fu;e]


vfuok;Z o+Qkuwu dh
vuqKfIr & 1- ltk] tks fdlh ,slh lÙkk }kjk yksxksa ij ykxw fd;k tkrk gS
;q¼ vkfn tks bldk vuqikyu cyiwoZd djok ysrh gSA
^o+Qkuwu ,d vkns'k gS tks O;fDr ;k O;fDr;ksa dks ,d fuf'pr vkpj.k djus
ds fy, foo'k djrk gS*
(vkWfLVu)1
lekt dh çR;{k uSfrdrk Hkh vfuok;Z o+Qkuwuksa ds nk;js esa vkrh gSA
gkWCl dk n`f"Vdks.k %
euq"; vkSj gfFk;kj gh o+Qkuwuksa dh 'kfDr vkSj lEcy gSA
(gkWCl)2
2- HkkSfrd o+Qkuwu py jgh dkjZokb;ksa dh vfHkO;fDr gSA (uSfrd o+Qkuwu
;k foosd dk o+Qkuwu dkjZokb;ksa dh bl :i esa vfHkO;fDr gS] tSlh os gksuha
pkfg,)A
3- çkÑfrd ;k uSfrd o+Qkuwu dk vFkZ gS çkÑfrd :i ls lgh ;k x+yr
ds fl¼kUr & ;kuh lHkh lgh dkjZokb;ksa lesr çkÑfrd U;k; ds fl¼kUrA
U;k; ds nks çdkj gSa & çR;{k vkSj çkÑfrdA
çkÑfrd U;k; og U;k; gS tks okLro esa vkSj lpeqp gksA

1- tkWu vkWfLVu (1811&1680) % fczfV'k nk'kZfud jktuhfrd fpUrd


2- VkWel gkWCl (1588&1689) % vaxzst+ nk'kZfud&jktuhfrd fpUrdA jkT; dh mRifÙk
ds lkekftd le>kSrs ds fl¼kUr dk tudA jktrU=kkRed fujadq'krkokn dk leFkZd FkkA

104 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


çR;{k U;k; U;k; dk og :i gS ftl :i esa mls le>k tkrk gS] Lohdkj
fd;k tkrk gS] vkSj vfHkO;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA
i` " B 109 ¼82½
4- çpfyr o+Qkuwu % ,slk dksbZ Hkh fu;e ;k fu;eksa dh ç.kkyh gS ftl
ij yksx vius vkpj.k ds fu;eu ds fy, lger gksrs gSaA lger gksus okys i{kksa
dh lgefr gh o+Qkuwu gSA
5- ijEijkxr o+Qkuwu % euq";ksa }kjk okLro esa dh tkus okyh dkjZokbZ dk
dksbZ Hkh fu;e & tks LoSfPNd dkjZokbZ dh fdlh okLrfod le:irk dh
vfHkO;fDr gSA ijEijk mu yksxksa dk o+Qkuwu gS tks bls ekurs gSaA
6- O;kogkfjd ;k rduhdh o+Qkuwu % blesa ,sls fu;e vkrs gSa tks
O;kogkfjd mís'; dh çkfIr ds fy, gksrs gSaA [ksyksa esa] ^çpfyr o+Qkuwu* vkSj
^O;kogkfjd o+Qkuwu* nksuksa gh vkrs gSa] ftuesa igys çdkj ds o+Qkuwuksa ds vUrxZr
os fu;e vkrs gSa ftu ij f[kykfM+;ksa dh lgefr gksrh gS] vkSj nwljs çdkj ds
o+Qkuwuksa ds vUrxZr os fu;e vkrs gSa] tks [ksy dks liQy cukrs gSa] ;k [ksy dks
liQyrkiwoZd pykus ds fy, gksrs gSaA
7- vUrjjk"Vªh; o+Qkuwu % blesa os fu;e vkrs gSa tks lEçHkqrklEiUu jkT;ksa
ds vkilh lEcUèkksa ,oa ,d&nwljs ds çfr vkpj.k dk fu;eu djrs gSaA
(i) ,Dlçsl o+Qkuwu (lfUèk;k¡ vkfn)
(ii) vUr£ufgr o+Qkuwu (ijEijkxr)
iqu% nks çdkjksa esa foHkkftr %
(i) lkekU; o+Qkuwu (lHkh jk"Vªksa ds chp)
(ii) fof'k"V o+Qkuwu (nks ;k vfèkd jk"Vª fo'ks"k ds chp)
8- ukxfjd o+Qkuwu % jkT; ;k ns'k dk o+Qkuwu] tks U;kf;d vnkyr esa
ç;qDr gksrk gSA
i` " B 110 ¼83½

lt+k %
jktuhfrd tqeZ % ge fofèk&fuekZrkvksa ds Hkkjh leqnk; dh bl lksp ls
lger gSa fd] Hkys gh] vkerkSj ij ml O;fDr ij dM+h dkjZokbZ ugha dh tkuh
pkfg,] tks ,slh eqtfjekuk lkft+'k esa 'kkfey jgk gks] ftl lkft+'k dks vatke
ugha fn;k x;k gks] fiQj Hkh jkT; ds f[k+yki+Q fd;s x;s cM+s tqeks± ds flyflys
esa bl fu;e dk ,d viokn t+:j j[kk tkuk pkfg,] dkj.k fd jkT; ds
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 105
f[k+yki+Q fd;s tkus okys tqeks± dh [k+kfl;r ;g gksrh gS fd ;fn muesa eqtfje
o+Qke;kc gks tkrk gS] rks og lt+k ls ro+Qjhcu lki+Q cp tkrk gSA o+Qkfry o+QRy
djus ds ckn] o+QRy djus dh vis{kk dgha vfèkd [k+rjs esa gksrk gS] ysfdu
jktæksgh tc ljdkj dk r[+rk iyV nsrk gS] rks og [k+rjs ls ckgj gks tkrk gSA
pw¡fd n.MkRed o+Qkuwu ,d o+Qke;kc foæksgh ds fo#¼ uiqald gh fl¼ gksrk
gS] blfy, t+:jh gS fd bls foæksg dh igyh 'kq#vkr ds f[k+yki+Q gh l'kDr
vkSj dM+k cuk;k tk;s---A¸
(II ,y-lh-lh- ttes.V 1906] i`"B 120)1
i` " B 111 ¼84½

lt+k %
LoIu tks çk.kn.M dk dkj.k cuk % tc eklsZt us liuk ns[kk fd mlus
Mk;ksuhfl;l2 dk xyk dkV fn;k gS] rc fujadq'k 'kkld us mls çk.kn.M ns
fn;k] ftlds ihNs mldh nyhy ;g Fkh fd ;fn mlus fnu esa ,slk lkspk u
gksrk rks jkr esa ;g liuk dnkfi ugha ns[krkA
çk.kn.M vkSj MªSdks dk o+Qkuwu % MªSdks3 ds o+Qkuwu esa yxHkx lHkh çdkj
ds tqeks±] tSls ekewyh pksjh ls ysdj èkeZ&æksg vkSj gR;k rd ds fy, ,d leku
ekSr dh lt+k dk foèkku Fkk] vkSj dgk tkrk gS fd bldk ,dek=k Li"Vhdj.k
tks MªSdks us fn;k Fkk] og ;g fd NksVs&eksVs tqeks± dh rks ;gh lt+k gksuh pkfg,
vkSj cM+s tqeks± ds fy, bls cM+h lt+k og lksp ugha ldkA

lt+k dks cgqrsjs nk'kZfudksa us ,d vko';d cqjkbZ ekuk gSA

jkT; vkSj euq"; % jkT; viusvki esa dksbZ y{; ugha gS] vkSj euq"; o+Qkuwu
;k jkT; ds fy, ugha] cfYd ;s gh euq"; ds fy, gksrs gSaA

1- Ïksr vkSj fooj.k vuqiyCèk


2- Mk;ksuhfl;l n ,YMj (430&367 bZ- iw-) % fllyh dk ;wukuh jktusrk] tks 400
bZ-iw- esa lkbjsD;wl dk fujadq'k 'kkld cukA
3- Mªd S ks (bZ-iw- lkroha lnh) % ,Fksl
a (;wuku) dk jktuhfrK ftlus ijEijkxr vfYyf[kr
lafoèkku dks lafgrkc¼ fd;k] NksVs ls ysdj] cM+s rd lHkh çdkj ds tqeks± ds fy, çk.kn.M
nsus ds fy, dq[;kr mldk o+Qkuwu (MªSdfu;u ykW) vkt Hkh ,sls dkys o+Qkuwuksa ds fy,
eqgkojs ds rkSj ij bLrseky gksrk gSA
106 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
i` " B 112 ¼85 ½

U;k; % jkT; dh HkkSfrd rko+Qr ds tfj;s ,d jktuhfrd leqnk; ds Hkhrj


vfèkdkj cuk;s j[kukA
blus ml O;fDrxr çfr'kksèk dk LFkku ys fy;k gS] tc yksx x+yfr;ksa dk
çfr'kksèk Lo;a ;k vius cUèkq&ckUèkoksa ds lg;ksx ls ys fy;k djrs FksA mu fnuksa]
^ftldh ykBh mldh HkSal* dk fl¼kUr dke djrk FkkA
nhokuh vkSj i+QkStnkjh U;k; %
ukxfjd U;k; vfèkdkj ykxw djrk gSA i+QkStnkjh U;k; x+yfr;ksa ds fy, lt+k
nsrk gSA
,d vkneh vius cdk;s dk] ;k mlls x+yr <ax ls nck yh x;h lEifÙk
dks fiQj ls okil ikus dk nkok djrk gSA ;g nhokuh (U;k; dk ekeyk) gSA
i+QkStnkjh ds ekeys esa] çfroknh ij x+yr djus dk vkjksi yxk gksrk gSA
vnkyr bl eqfYte dks dÙkZO; dh vogsyuk ds tqeZ esa rFkk vfèkdkj ds
mYya?ku ds tqeZ esa] lt+k nsrh gS] ftlesa ;fn gR;k dk tqeZ gS rks iQk¡lh vkSj
;fn pksjh dk tqeZ gS rks tsy dh lt+k nsrh gSA ¹i`"B 113 ¼86½ ij tkjhº
nhokuh vkSj i+QkStnkjh] nksuksa gh çdkj dh dkjZokbZ esa] x+yrh dh f'kdk;r
ntZ dh tkrh gSA
nhokuh (dkjZokbZ) esa vfèkdkj dk nkok fd;k tkrk gS]
i+QkStnkjh (dkjZokbZ) esa x+yrh dk vkjksi yxk;k tkrk gSA
nhokuh U;k; dk ljksdkj] çkFkfed rkSj ij] oknh vkSj mlds vfèkdkjksa ls
gksrk gS]
i+QkStnkjh (U;k;) dk çfroknh vkSj ml ij yxs vkjksi lsA

i+QkStnkjh U;k; ds mís';


lt+k %
;g rVLFk ^vijkèkdrkZvksa* tSls jktuhfrd O;fDr;ksa ds ekeyksa esa mi;ksxh
ugha gks ldrhA ;g muds fy, ,d cqjk lkSnk fl¼ gks ldrh gSA
1- fuokjd % o+Qkuwu dk çeq[k mís'; nks"kh O;fDr dks ,d ut+hj cukuk
vkSj ml tSls cko+Qh lHkh O;fDr;ksa dks ,d psrkouh nsuk gSA ;g çR;sd vijkèk
dks ¶vijkèkdrkZ dh ,d nqHkkZouk¸ fl¼ djrk gSA (bjkns dk cnyko)
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 107
2- fujksèkd % nwljs ekeys esa] ;g fujksèkd ;k v;ksX; fl¼ djus okyk gSA
bldk fo'ks"k mís'; vijkèkdrkZ dks ukdke dj mls iqu% x+yr dke djus ls
jksduk gSA
ge gR;kjksa dks iQk¡lh egt blhfy, ugha nsrs fd ;g nwljksa dks
çk.kn.M (gR;k djus ls) fojr djrh gS] cfYd mlh dkj.k ls] ftl
dk dkj.k ls ge] mnkgj.k ds fy,] lk¡i dks ekj Mkyrs gSa] D;ksafd
vkSfpR; % gekjs fy, ;gh csgrj gS fd os bl nqfu;k esa jgus ds ctk; blls
ckgj gks tk;saA
3- lqèkkjkRed % vijkèk pfj=k ds Åij bjknksa ds çHkko ls fd;s tkrs gSa]
vkSj os ;k rks bjknksa ds cnyko ls ;k pfj=k ds cnyko ls jksds tk ldrs gSaA
fuokjd lt+k igys ekeys esa nh tkrh gS] (dqN 'kCn vLi"V & l-)
tcfd lqèkkjkRed (lt+k) nwljs ekeys esa nh tkrh gSA
i` " B 114 ¼87½

¶lqèkkjkRed fl¼kUr¸ ds iSjksdkj lt+k ds fli+QZ mUgha :iksa dh fgek;r


djrs gSa] tks vijkèkh dh f'k{kk vkSj mls vuq'kkflr djus ds fy, mi;ksxh gksrs
gSa] vkSj cko+Qh mu lHkh (lt+kvksa) dks vekU; Bgjkrs gSa tks ykHkdkjh rkSj ij
fli+QZ fuokjd ;k v;ksX;dkjh (gksrh gS)a A mudh n`f"V esa e`R;q dksbZ mi;qDr lt+k
ugha gSa] ^gesa vius vijkfèk;ksa dk bykt djuk pkfg,] mudh gR;k ughaA*
fiVkbZ vkSj vU; 'kkjhfjd lt+k,¡ ccZjrk dh fu'kkuh dgdj fufUnr dh tkrh
gSaA os ,slh lt+kvksa dks lt+k Hkksxus okys vkSj lt+k nsus okys nksuksa dks gh uhps
fxjkus okyh vkSj Øwj ekurs gSaA
jkT; dh cyç;ksx dh dkjZokbZ ftruh l{ke gksrh
dM+h lt+k dk urhtkA gS] og lHkh lkekU; euq";ksa dks [k+rjukd jkLrksa (ij
vijkfèk;ksa dk [k+rjukd
tkus) ls jksdus esa mruh gh liQy gksrh gS] ysfdu
vkSj nqLlkgfld oxZ
iSnk gks tkrk gSA
o+Qkuwu rksM+us okyksa esas vèk%iru dk vuqikr Hkh
mruk gh vfèkd gksrk gSA
4- çfrdkjkRed lt+k %
lokZfèkd Hk;kog fl¼kUr! ,slh lksp j[kus okys yksx okLro esa çkphu vkSj
lH;rkiwoZ dkyksa dh ccZj eu%fLFkfr;ksa ds fgek;rh gksrs gSaA1
;g çfr'kksèk ;k cnys dh ml uSl£xd ço`fÙk dks rq"V djrh gS] tks fli+QZ

1- gkf'k;s ij fy[kk gqvk

108 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


x+yrh dk f'kdkj gq, O;fDr esa gh ugha ekStwn jgrh] cfYd O;kid iSekus ij
lekt esa mlds çfr gennhZ ds :i esa Hkh ekStwn jgrh gSA
bl n`f"Vdks.k ds vuqlkj] ;g lgh vkSj mfpr gS fd cqjkbZ dk cnyk cqjkbZ
ls fy;k tk;sA vk¡[k ds cnys vk¡[k vkSj nk¡r ds cnys nk¡r çkÑfrd U;k; dk
,d lhèkk vkSj viusvki esa iw.kZ fu;e ekuk tkrk gSA lt+k [+kqn esa ,d eo+Qln
cu tkrh gSA
i` " B 115 ¼88½
lt+k ,d cqjkbZ %
lt+k viusvki esa gh ,d cqjkbZ gS] vkSj bls fli+QZ ,d egÙkj mís'; dh
çkfIr ds lkèku ds rkSj ij gh mfpr Bgjk;k tk ldrk gSA
ysfdu çfrdkjkRed fl¼kUr ds leFkZd bl <ax ls nyhy nsrs gSa % ¶nks"k
èku lt+k cjkcj funksZ"krkA¸
¶mlus U;k; ds o+Qkuwu dk ftl x+yrh }kjk mYya?ku fd;k gS] mlls mlds
Åij ,d ½.k vk;n gks x;k gSA vr% U;k; dk ro+Qkt+k gS fd og ½.k pqdk
fn;k tk;s---lt+k dk igyk mís'; Hkax fd;s x;s o+Qkuwu dks rq"V djuk gSA¸

Peine forte et dure % ;kruk nsdj ekSr---ftldk i+QSlyk fuEufyf[kr :i


esa fn;k x;k %
¶fd rqEgsa fiQj mlh tsy esa okil ys tk;k tk;s tgk¡ ls rqe vk;s Fks] ;kuh
fd mlh yEch dkydksBjh esa] ftlds Hkhrj dksbZ jks'kuh u tk lds] fiQj rqEgsa
ogk¡ uaxh i+Q'kZ ij ihB ds cy fyVk;k tk;s] fli+QZ rqEgkjh dej esa ,d diM+k
fyiVk jgs] tcfd 'ks"k lHkh Hkkx uaxk jgs] fd rqEgkjs 'kjhj ij yksgs dk ,d bruk
Hkkjh cks> j[kk tk;s ftruk fd rqe cjnk'r dj ldks] vkSj fiQj mlls Hkh
vfèkd Hkkjh] fd rqEgsa igys fnu [kkus ds fy, eksVh ls eksVh jksfV;ksa ds flok;]
vkSj dksbZ pht+ u nh tk;s] nwljs fnu tsy ds iQkVd ds lcls ut+nhd ds xM~<s
esa tek ikuh ds rhu ?kw¡V fn;s tk;sa] rhljs fnu fiQj igys tSlk gh [kkuk fn;k
tk;s] vkSj ,slh jksfV;k¡ vkSj ,slk ikuh ,d&,d fnu ds vUrj ij rc rd fn;k
tk;s] tc rd fd rqe ej u tkvksA¸1
;g lt+k L=kh&iq#"k nksuksa dks leku :i ls mu lHkh çdkj ds tqeks±
ds fy, nh x;h tks x+Sj&ekewyh ugha FksA2
1- mUuhloha lnh ds iwokZ¼Z esa baXyS.M esa ,d tt }kjk lquk;h x;h ekSr dh lt+k
2- gkf'k;s ij uksV fd;k gqvk vkSj js[kkafdr

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 109


i` " B 116 ¼89½
fons'kh vèkhurk %
fons'kh tqos dh vèkhurk jk"Vªkas ds iru ds lcls çcy dkj.kksa esa ls ,d gSA
& çks-,-bZ-jkWl 1

turU=k dk ,d fons'kh turk ds Åij ,d turU=k dh dkjZokb;k¡


çHkqRo vkSj ftruh >iV~Vkekj vkSj fueZe gksrh gSa] mruh vkSj fdlh
fons'kh jk"Vª % Hkh 'kklu dh ugha gksrhA
& ykykth 2

fookg %
MkW- VSxksj3 dk ekuuk gS fd vkfne ;qxksa ls ysdj vkt rd fookg dh
ç.kkyh fli+QZ Hkkjr esa gh cfYd lkjh nqfu;k esa L=kh vkSj iq#"k ds lPps feyu
ds jkLrs esa ,d ckèkk gh cuh gqbZ gS] tksfd dsoy rHkh lEHko gS tc lekt
bruk l{ke gks tk;s fd og L=kh dks] ?kj esa jpukRed dk;Z djus ls jksds cx+Sj]
mldh fof'k"V çfrHkk dks jpukRed dk;Z esa yxkus ds fy, ,d O;kid {ks=k
eqgS;k dj ldsA
i` " B 117 ¼90½
ukxfjd vkSj euq"; %
LikVkZoklh isMkdZVht+ rhu lkS dh ifj"kn esa nkf[k+ys ds fy, mifLFkr gqvk]
ijUrq mls okil dj fn;k x;k_ og bl [+kq'kh esa pyk x;k fd 300 LikVkZoklh
mlls csgrj rks FksA eSa le>rk gw¡ fd blesa lUnsg dh dksbZ xqatkb'k ugha fd og
lPPkk Fkk]
og ,d lPPkk ukxfjd FkkA
1- vKkr
2- ykyk yktir jk; (1865&1928)] ykgkSj esa lkbeu deh'ku dk fojksèk djus ij
fczfV'k iqfyl us ccZj ykBhpktZ fd;k] vkSj blh esa yxh lka?kkfrd pksV ds iQyLo:i ckn
esa] ykyk th dh e`R;q gks x;hA mudh ekSr vkSj iatkc ds vieku dk cnyk ysus ds fy,
Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds ØkfUrdkjh lkfFk;ksa us fczfV'k iqfyl vi+Qlj] lk.MlZ dh xksyh ekj
dj gR;k dj nhA
3- johUæukFk Bkdqj

110 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


,d LikVkZoklh ek¡ ds ik¡p csVs lsuk esa FksA ,d nkl vk;kA dk¡irs gq,
mlus lekpkj iwNkA ¶rqEgkjs ik¡pksa csVs ekj Mkys x;sA¸
 ¶rqPN nkl] D;k rqels eSaus ;g iwNk Fkk\¸
¶geus fot; gkfly dj yh gS¸A og nsorkvksa dks èkU;okn nsus ds fy,
nkSM+h&nkSM+h efUnj pyh x;hA
og ,d lPph ukxfjd FkhA
& ,feyh] i`"B 8 1

thou vkSj f'k{kk %


yksx fli+QZ vius cPps dh ft+Unxh dh lykerh ds gh ckjs esa lksprs jgrs
gSa] ysfdu bruk gh dki+Qh ugha gS] vxj og euq"; gS rks mls Lo;a Hkh viuh
ft+Unxh dh lykerh ds ckjs esa f'kf{kr gksuk t+:jh gS] rkfd og HkkX; ds FkisM+ksa
dks lg ldsa] lEink vkSj x+jhch dk cgknqjh ls eqo+Qkcyk dj lds] t+:jr iM+us
ij vkblyS.M dh ci+QZ ds chp ;k ekYVk dh rirh pV~Vkuksa ij fuokl dj
ldsaA csdkj gh rqe ekSr ds f[k+yki+Q [kSj eukrs gks] mls ejuk rks gS gh] vkSj Hkys
gh rqe viuh lrdZrkvksa ds pyrs mls u ejus nsuk pkgks] ysfdu ;g eqxkyrk
gh gSA
mls ekSr ls cpus ds ctk; thus dh f'k{kk nks! thou lk¡l ysuk
ugha cfYd deZ gSA viuh bfUæ;ksa dk] vius fnekx+ dk] viuh {kerkvksa dk]
vkSj vius vfLrRo dks psru cuk;s j[kus okys çR;sd Hkkx dk bLrseky djuk
 gSgSAA thou dk vFkZ mez dh yEckbZ esa de] thus ds csgrj <ax esa vfèkd
,d vkneh lkS o"kZ thus ds ckn o+Qcz esa tk ldrk gS] ysfdu mldk
thuk fujFkZd Hkh gks ldrk gSA vPNk gksrk fd og tokuh esa gh ej x;k
gksrkA
& ,feyh] i`"B 10

i` " B 118 ¼91½

lR; %
lR; dksbZ [k+t+kuk ugha çnku djrk] vkSj turk dksbZ jktnwr ;k çksi+Qslj dk

1- ,feyh & ç+Qkalhlh nk'kZfud T;k¡ tkd :lks (1712&1778) dk miU;kl (1762)
ftlesa ;g fl¼kUr fu:fir fd;k x;k gS fd cPps dks lH;rk ds cqjs çHkkoksa ls cpkus ds
fy, çkÑfrd okrkoj.k esa fodkl dk iw.kZ volj fn;k tkuk pkfg,A
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 111
in ;k isa'ku ugha çnku djrhA
& :lks] 122
,l-lh-1

tqeZ vkSj eqtfje %


¶---idh&idk;h èkkj.kk,¡ nsdj tqeZ dks le>k ugha ldrkA yksx tSlk lksprs
gSa mlls bldk i+Qyli+Qk dqN vfèkd gh tfVy gSA ;g rks ekuh gqbZ ckr gS fd
u rks dksbZ o+QSn] u dksbZ dkydksBjh vkSj u dksbZ dM+h e'kD+o+Qr dh ç.kkyh gh
fdlh eqtfje dks lqèkkj ldrh gSA n.M&foèkku ds ;s :i fli+QZ mls nf.Mr
djrs gSa vkSj lekt dks ;g vk'oklu nsrs gSa fd og vkSj tqeZ ugha djsxkA o+QSn]
fu;e&foèkku vkSj dM+h ls dM+h e'kD+o+Qr ml ij dksbZ vlj ugha Mky ikrs]
flok; blds fd ,sls O;fDr;ksa esa ,d Hkkjh ui+Qjr] o£tr dke dks vkSj pko
ls djus dh ,d yyd] vkSj ,d [k+kSi+Qukd uki+Qjekuh gh fodflr gks tkrh
gSA blhfy, esjk iDds rkSj ij ekuuk gS fd ;g dkydksBjh okyh ijEijkxr
ç.kkyh fn[kkoVh vkSj diViw.kZ urhts gh nsrh gSA ;g eqtfje ls mldh rko+Qr
fupksM+ ysrh gS] mls v'kDr djds vkSj Mjk dj mldh vkRek dks fuLrst dj
Mkyrh gS] vkSj bl çdkj vUrr% mls i'pkrki vkSj lqèkkj ds ,d uewus ds rkSj
ij] ,d cstku ;knxkj ds :i esa gh çLrqr djrh gSA
n gkml vkWi+Q MsM i`"B] 17
Ý+;ksnksj nksLrks;sOLdh 2
i` " B 119 ¼92½

bPNk cuke lUrqf"V!


;fn ,d psru çk.kh dh 'kfDr;k¡ mldh bPNkvksa ds cjkcj gksrha rks og
iwjh rjg lq[kh gksrk---A ysfdu fli+QZ viuh bPNkvksa dks lhfer djuk gh dki+Qh
ugha gS] D;ksafd ;fn os gekjh 'kfDr;ksa ls de gSa] rc rks gekjh {kerkvksa dk ,d
va'k ;ksa gh csdkj pyk tk;sxk] vkSj rc ge vius iwjs vfLrRo dk vkuUn Hkh

1- :lks dh iqLrd lks'ky dk.VSªDV % blesa ,d ,sls vkn'kZ jkT; dk o.kZu çLrqr fd;k
x;k gS ftlesa lEçHkqrk iwjh turk esa fufgr FkhA mlds fopkj 1789 dh ç+Qkalhlh ØkfUr
dh ,d egÙoiw.kZ çsjd'kfDr cusA
2- Ý+;ksnksj fe[kkbyksfop nksLrks;sOLdh (1821&1881) dk miU;kl n gkml vkWi+Q MsM]
tks Lo;a muds dkjkokl ds vuqHkoksa ds vkèkkj ij 1861 esa fy[kk x;kA

112 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


ugha ys ik;saxsA blh rjg] viuh 'kfDr;ksa dk egt foLrkj Hkh i;kZIr ugha gS]
D;ksafd ;fn gekjh bPNk,¡ Hkh c<+ tk;sa] rc rks ge vkSj vfèkd nq[kh gh gks
tk;saxsA lPpk lq[k rks viuh bPNkvksa vkSj viuh 'kfDr;ksa ds chp ds vUrj dks
?kVkrs tkus esa fufgr gSA
& 44] ,feyh

i` " B 120 ¼93½


¶cqtqZvk ØkfUr dk tUe viuh iwoZorhZ 'kklu&O;oLFkk esa igys ls ekStwn
ifjfLFkfr ls gksrk gSA
¶cqtqZvk ØkfUr vkerkSj ij lÙkk ij o+QCt+s ds lkFk gh [k+Re gks tkrh gSA
ysfdu loZgkjk ØkfUr ds fy, lÙkk ij o+QCt+k rks egt ,d 'kq#vkrHkj gS] lÙkk]
tc o+QCt+s esa vk tkrh gS] rc og iqjkuh vFkZO;oLFkk ds :ikUrj.k vkSj ,d u;h
vFkZO;oLFkk ds laxBu ds fy, ,d mÙkksyd ds :i esa bLrseky dh tkrh gSA¸
i`"B 201

¶vHkh Hkh nks Hkkjh&Hkjde vkSj vR;Ur nq"dj dk;ZHkkj cko+Qh gSa & (,d
ns'k & ;kuh :l & esa ekStwnk 'kklu&O;oLFkk dks m[kkM+ iQsadus ds ckn Hkh)A
¶lcls igyk dk;ZHkkj gS vkUrfjd laxBuA
¶nwljh egÙoiw.kZ leL;k fo'o ØkfUr dh--- & vUrjjk"Vªh; leL;kvksa dks
gy djus dh] fo'o ØkfUr dks vkxs c<+kus dh gS (ftlds gy fd;s fcuk
dE;qfuLV 'kklu&O;oLFkk vUrjjk"Vªh; iw¡thokn ds [k+rjs ds fo#¼ lqjf{kr ugha
jg ldrhA)
i`"B 21&22 2
i` " B 121 ¼94½

1- ;fn loZgkjk dks vkcknh ds cgqer dks vius i{k esa djuk gS rks mlds
fy, lcls igys t+:jh gS fd og cqtqZvk oxZ dks m[kkM+ iQsads vkSj jkT; lÙkk
ij o+QCt+k djsA
2- nwljs] mls iqjkus jkT; midj.k dks rksM+dj lksfo;r lÙkk LFkkfir djuk]
vkSj ,d >Vds esa ml çHkko dks [k+Re dj nsuk t+:jh gS] ftls cqtqZvk oxZ vkSj

1- vkSj 2- ysfuu dh jpukvksa ls m¼`r va'k

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 113


oxZ&lg;ksx ds fuEu cqtv Zq koxhZ; leFkZd esgurd'k (x+jS &loZgkjk) tuleqnk;ksa
ds Åij Mkyrs jgrs gSaA
3- rhljs] loZgkjk oxZ ds fy, vko';d gS fd og ml çHkko dks iwjh rjg
vkSj vfUre :i ls u"V dj ns] ftls cqtqZvk oxZ vkSj fuEu&cqtqZvk le>kSrkoknh
cgqla[;d esgurd'k (x+Sj&loZgkjk) tuleqnk;ksa ds Åij Mkyrs jgrs gSaA ;g
'kks"kdksa dh o+Qher ij bu leqnk;ksa dh vk£Fkd vko';drkvksa ds ØkfUrdkjh
rqf"Vdj.k ds }kjk fd;k tkuk pkfg,A
fudksykbZ ysfuu 1
i`"B 23

¶loZgkjk vfèkuk;dRo dk eryc gS tuleqnk;ksa dk dE;qfuLV ikVhZ }kjk


ekxZn'kZu vkSj funs'Z kuA ;|fi ikVhZ dki+Qh çHkko ;k fu;U=k.k j[ks gq, gS] fiQj Hkh
bruk gh lc dqN ugha gSA vius ekxZn'kZu ds vykok] tuleqnk;ksa dh ^bPNk*
Hkh fdlh mís'; fo'ks"k dh çkfIr ds fy, vko';d gksrh gSA
¶gesa ;g Lohdkj djuk gksxk fd et+nwjksa ds O;kid leqnk;ksa dk oxZ&psru
vYila[;k }kjk usr`Ro vkSj ekxZn'kZu vko';d gSA vkSj ;g ikVhZ gh gks ldrh
gSA ikVhZ ds ikl ikVhZ dks loZgkjk et+nwjksa ds lkFk tksM+us ds fy, ^VsªM ;wfu;usa*
gSa---jktuhfrd {ks=k esa lHkh esgurd'k tuleqnk;ksa dks blls tksM+us ds fy,
lksfo;rsa gSaA ¹i`"B 122 ¼95 ½ ij tkjhº
vk£Fkd {ks=k esa [k+klrkSj ls fdlku leqnk;ksa dks tksM+us ds fy, ^dksvkijsfVosa*
gSa] mnh;eku ih<+h ds chp ls dE;qfuLVksa dks çf'kf{kr djus ds fy, ^;qok yhx*
gSA vUrr% ikVhZ Lo;a gh loZgkjk vfèkuk;dRo ds vUrxZr ,d vuU; ekxZn'kZd
'kfDr gSA¸2
i` " B 123 ¼96½
vk¡dM+s % vkenfu;ksa esa vlekurk
mRiknu %
;q¼ iwoZ ;wukbVsM ¯dXMe dk (baXyS.M)
ok£"kd mRiknu dk eku jgk % £ 2000]000]000
{ fons'kh fuos'kksa ls ykHk
;ksx
£ 200]000]000
£ 2200]000]000

1- vkSj 2- ysfuu dh jpukvksa ls

114 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


forj.k %
dqy vkcknh ds 1@9 vFkkZr] { U;wure ok£"kd vkSlr
iw¡thifr ;k cqtqZvk us ys fy;k vk; £ 160
dqy mRiknu dk 1@2 vFkkZr £ 1100]000]000
dqy vkcknh ds 2@9 vFkkZr vkS l r vk; £ 160
fuEu cqtqZvk oxZ us 'ks"k vkèks dk 1@3 ;k { çfro"kZ ls de
dqy dk 1@6 ys fy;k vFkkZr £ 300]000]000
vkcknh ds 2@3 vFkkZr 'kkjhfjd {vkSlr vk; £ 60 ok£"kd
Je djus okys ;k loZgkjk dks cko+Qh feyk £ 800]00]000
la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk % 1890 esa
dqy mRiknu dk 40 çfr'kr (mRiknu ds) lkèkuksa ds ekfydksa dks feyk
dqy mRiknu dk 60 çfr'kr lHkh et+nwjksa dks fn;k x;kA1

i` " B 124 ¼97½

thou dk mís';
¶thou dk mís'; eu dks fu;fU=kr djuk ugha cfYd mldk lqlaxr
fodkl djuk gS] ejus ds ckn eks{k çkIr djuk ugha] cfYd bl lalkj esa gh
mldk loksZÙke bLrseky djuk gS] dsoy è;ku esa gh ugha] cfYd nSfud
thou ds ;FkkFkZ vuqHko esa Hkh lR;] f'ko vkSj lqUnj dk lk{kkRdkj djuk gS]
lkekftd çxfr dqNsd dh mUufr ij ugha] cfYd cgqrksa dh le`f¼ ij fuHkZj
djrh gS] vkSj vkfRed turU=k ;k lkoZHkkSfed Hkzkr`Ro dsoy rHkh çkIr fd;k
tk ldrk gS] tc lkekftd&jktuhfrd vkSj vkS|ksfxd thou esa volj dh
lekurk gks¸A2

uksVcqd esa i`"B la- 125 ls 164 ugha gSA


gesa miyCèk çfr esa i`"B ¼97½ ds ckn i`"B ¼100½ gSA & lEiknd

1- vkSj 2- Ïksr vKkr

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 115


i` " B 165 ¼100½

jkT; dk foKku
çkphu jkT; O;oLFkk % jkse1 vkSj LikVkZ]2 vjLrw3 vkSj IysVks4 % jkT; ds çfr
O;fDr dh ekrgrh bu çkphu jkT; O;oLFkkvksa] LikVkZ vkSj jkse dh çeq[k
fo'ks"krk FkhA gsykl5 es]a ;k jkse es]a ukxfjd dks cl FkksMs+ ls futh vfèkdkj çkIr
FksA mldk vkpj.k dki+Qh gn rd lkoZtfud lsaljf'ki ds vèkhu Fkk] vkSj
mldk èkeZ jkT;lÙkk }kjk ykxw fd;k x;k gksrk FkkA ,dek=k lPps ukxfjd vkSj
lEçHkqrklEiUu fudk; ds lnL; fo'ks"kkfèkdkj çkIr dqyhu oxZ ds eqDr yksx
gksrs Fks] ftuds fy, 'kkjhfjd Je nkl fd;k djrs Fks] ftuds ikl dksbZ ukxfjd
vfèkdkj u FksA
lqdjkr %
lqdjkr6 dks ;g nyhy nsrs gq, çLrqr fd;k tkrk gS fd tks dksbZ Hkh
ukxfjd jkT; esa igq¡pus ds ckn] ;fn LosPNk ls ,d uxj esa jgus yxs] rks mls
ljdkj dh ekrgrh Lohdkj djuh pkfg,] Hkys gh mls blds o+Qkuwu vuqfpr
D;ksa u yxsa] rnuqlkj gh] bl vkèkkj ij fd ;fn og tsy ls i+Qjkj gksdj Hkkx
tk;s] rks jkT; ds lkFk mldk o+Qjkj Hkax gks tk;sxk] og ,d vuqfpr lt+k ds
ykxw gksus dk Hkh bUrt+kj djrs jgus ds fy, rS;kj jgsA
IysVks % (lkekftd le>kSrk)
og lekt vkSj jkT; dh mRifÙk dks ikjLifjd vko';drkvksa esa ns[krk gS]
D;ksafd euq"; vyx&vyx jgdj viuh cgqfoèk vko';drkvksa dks rq"V djus
esa vleFkZ gksrs gSaA og ,d fo+QLe ds vkn'khZÑr LikVkZ dk fp=k.k djrs gq,
dgrk gS] ¶,d vkn'kZ jkT; es]a nk'kZfudksa dks 'kklu djuk pkfg,] vkSj ukxfjdksa
ds fudk; dks bl dqyhu rU=k ;k loZJs"Bksa dh ljdkj ds çfr fuf'pr :i
1- çkphu jkseu x.kjkT; vkSj lkezkT;
2- ;wuku dk çkphu uxjjkT;
3- vjLrw (384&322 bZ-iw-) % ;wukuh nk'kZfud vkSj IysVks dk f'k";A mlus cgqrsjs fo"k;ksa
ij fy[kk] ftuesa ls ikfyfVDl vkSj iks;fVDl fo'ks"k :i ls mYys[kuh; gSaA
4- IysVks (427&347 bZ-iw-)% ;wukuh nk'kZfud vkSj lqdjkr dk f'k";] vkSj vkn'kZ jkT;
ds ;wVksfi;k ds rkSj ij] fjifCyd dk ys[kd] ftlesa mlus ,d nk'kZfud jktk vkSj
foosdlEer jkT;&O;oLFkk dh dYiuk dh FkhA
5- gsykl % çkphu ;wuku
6- lqdjkr (469&399 bZ- iw-) % ;wukuh nk'kZfud ftls ukStokuksa dks ¶Hkz"V djus¸ ds
vkjksi esa tgj dk I;kyk ihdj vkRegR;k dj ysus dh lt+k nh x;hA
116 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
ls vkKkdkjh gksuk pkfg,A¸ og ukxfjdksa ds lpsr çf'k{k.k vkSj f'k{kk ij t+ksj
nsrk gSA
vjLrw %
og igyk O;fDr Fkk ftlus jktuhfr dks uhfr'kkL=k ls eqDr fd;k] gkyk¡fd
og lrdZ Hkh Fkk fd ;s nksuksa ,d&nwljs ls fcYdqy i`Fkd u gks tk;saA mldh
nyhy Fkh] ¶yksxksa dh cgqla[;k foosd ds ctk; viuh Hkkoukvksa ls 'kkflr
gksrh gS] vkSj blhfy, jkT; ds fy, t+:jh gS fd og mUgsa thou&i;ZUr
vuq'kklu esa jgus dk çf'k{k.k ns] tSlkfd LikVkZ esa gSA tc rd jktuhfrd lekt
LFkkfir ugha gksrk] rc rd U;k; dk dksbZ ç'kklu ugha gks ldrk---(ysfdu)
blds fy, vko';d gS fd loksZÙke lafoèkku vkSj fofèk&fuekZ.k dh loksZÙke
ç.kkyh dh [kkst dh tk;s---A ¹i`"B 166 ¼101½ ij tkjhº
¶jkT; dk cht ifjokj ;k dqVqEc esa gksrk gSA dbZ dqVqEcksa ds la;qDr gksus
ls xzke leqnk; dh mRifÙk gqbZ gS (ftlds) lnL; fir`lÙkkRed ljdkj ds
vèkhu gksrs gSaA
¶dbZ xk¡oksa dks feykdj jkT; dk fuekZ.k gqvk] tks ,d çkÑfrd] LorU=k]
vkSj vkRefuHkZj laxBu FkkA
¶ysfdu tgk¡ dqVqEc ,d O;fDrRo }kjk 'kkflr gksrk gS] ogha laoSèkkfud
ljdkjksa esa O;fDr LorU=k vkSj vius 'kkldksa ds leku gksrs gSaA
¶çkÑfrd lkekftd eS=kh vkSj ijLij ykHk ls ,drk xfBr gksrh gSA euq";
vius LoHkko ls ,d jktuhfrd (lkekftd) çk.kh gSA
¶jkT; ,d laJ; ls dgha vfèkd gS] ftlls O;fDr tqM+ ldrs gSa ;k fcuk
dksbZ i+Qo+QZ iM+s NksM+ ldrs gSa] ysfdu LorU=k ;k ukxfjdrkjfgr euq";
vfo'oluh;] vlH;] vkSj ,d ukxfjd ls fHkUu dksbZ pht+ gksrk gSA
IysVks %
IysVks us ,d ,sls fudk; ds :i esa jkT; dh bl voèkkj.kk dk iwokZuqeku
fd;k Fkk ftlds lnL; ,d loZekU; y{; ds fy, lkeatL;iw.kZ <ax ls
la;qDr gksaA
vjLrw %
vjLrw dk ekuuk Fkk fd tgk¡ LorU=krk vkSj lekurk gks] ogk¡ ckjh&ckjh ls
'kklu vkSj vèkhuhdj.k gks] ysfdu lcls vPNk ;gh gS fd ;fn lEHko gks rks]
os gh O;fDr ges'kk 'kklu djrs jgsaA
IysVks ds lkE;okn ds fojksèk esa mldh nyhy cko+Qk;nk fu;e fuèkkZfjr
futh lEifÙk ds i{k esa Fkh] ftlds ihNs mldk fopkj ;g Fkk fd jkT; esa
fli+QZ ,d uSfrd ,drk gh lEHko ;k okaNuh; gSA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 117
(ljdkjksa ds çdkj)
mlus ljdkjksa dks jktrU=kksa] dqyhurU=kksa vkSj x.krU=kksa rFkk Øe'k% muds
foÑr :iksa] tSls fujadq'k rU=kksa] vYirU=kksa vkSj turU=kksa esa oxhZÑr fd;k]
ftldk vkèkkj ;g Fkk fd buesa loksZPp lÙkk ,d ;k dqN ;k dbZ ds gkFkksa esa
gksrh gS] vkSj budk mís'; lkekU; fgr ;k 'kkldksa dk futh fgr gksrk gS rFkk
buesa LorU=krk] lEink] laLÑfr vkSj dqyhurk dks Hkh roTtks nh tkrh gSA
çR;s d jkT; O;oLFkk ds rhu va x gks r s gS a % (1) foe'kkZ R ed
(2) dk;kZRed vkSj (3) U;kf;d fudk;A ukxfjdrk dk fuèkkZj.k u rks
fuokl ls gksrk gS u gh o+Qkuwuh vfèkdkj j[kus ls] cfYd U;kf;d lÙkk vkSj
ljdkjh dkedkt esa Hkkxhnkjh ls gksrk gSA
uSfrdrk dk ,d fuf'pr Lrj çkIr djds db;ksas dks 'kklu djuk pkfg,]
D;ksafd vyx&vyx O;fDrxr rkSj ij de ;ksX; gksus ds ckotwn] os lfEefyr
:i ls] dqNd s pqfuUnk O;fDr;ksa ls dgha vfèkd prqj vkSj vfèkd ln~x.q klEiUu
gksrs gSaA ysfdu lkjh foe'kkZRed vkSj U;kf;d dk;Zokfg;ksa dks l¡Hkkyus ds
ckotwn] mUgsa mPpre dk;kZRed inksa ls ckgj gh j[kuk pkfg,A lcls
vPNh jkT;O;oLFkk og gS ftlesa cgqr èkuh vkSj cgqr x+jhc ds chp dk
eè;e oxZ ljdkj pyk;s] dkj.k fd bl oxZ dk thou lcls LFkk;h gksrk gS
rFkk ;g lcls foosdlEer] vkSj lkFk gh laoSèkkfud dk;Zokgh esa lcls l{ke
Hkh gksrk gSA ¹i`"B 167 ¼102½ ij tkjhº oLrqr% blh ds fy, ;g dgk tkrk
gS fd lEçHkqrk dks ukxfjdksa dh cgqla[;k esa fufgr gksuk pkfg,] ftlesa
cs'kd nkl ugha vkrsA
turU=k O;fDrxr LorU=krk ds ekeys esa lekurk ij ,der gksrs gSa]
ftldk fufgrkFkZ ;g gS fd lHkh ukxfjd] jkT; ds inksa ij vklhu gksus ;k pqus
tkus ds fy,] rFkk gjsd lc ij vkSj lHkh gjsd ij 'kklu djus ds fy, vgZ~;
gksrs gSaA
vjLrw Hkh] IysVks dh Hkk¡fr gh turU=k dks ljdkj dk ,d foÑr :i ekurk
Fkk] vkSj dgrk Fkk fd ;g vU; fdlh çdkj ds jkT;ksa dh vis{kk cM+s jkT;ksa
ds fy, vfèkd mi;qDr gSA
LVksbdoknh % flfudoknh %
,ihD;wjloknh % ,ihD;wjl1 dk dguk Fkk] ¶U;k; Lo;a esa dqN ugha gS] ;g
cl ijLij uqo+Qlku jksdus ds fy, (U;k; ds vkèkkj ds rkSj ij) le>kSrs

1- ,ihD;wjl % (341&270 bZ-iw-) ;wukuh nk'kZfud] tks ekurk Fkk fd vkRela;e ls thou
lq[ke; cuk;k tk ldrk gSA uSfrdrk lUrks"kçkfIr dk ,d lkèku gSA
118 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
dh ,d rjdhcHkj gSA
LVksbd % (okn)
nk'kZfud t+suks (340&260 bZ-iw-)1 dk ,d f'k";] ftlus ,Fksal ds ^LVksvk
ikWbdykbV* (is.VsM ikspZ) uked cx+hps esa viuh nk'kZfud 'kk[kk dk
f'k{k.k&laLFkku [kksykA ckn esa dSVks n ;axj2] lsusdk3] ekD;wZl vkWjsfy;l4 jkseu
LVksbdoknh gq,A LVksbd 'kCn dk 'kkfCnd vFkZ gS % ^og O;fDr tks lq[k ;k nq[k
ds çfr fojDr gksA*
LVksbdokn iqjkus n'kZu dh ,d 'kk[kk gS] tks thou vkSj dÙkZO; ds çfr
vius n`f"Vdks.k esa ,ihD;wjlokn dk çcy fojksèkh gS_ vkSj lq[k ;k nq[k ds çfr
mnklhu gSA
flfudokn %
nk'kZfudksa dk ,d lEçnk; ftldh LFkkiuk ,Fksal ds ,.VhLFksuht5 (tUe
444 bZ-iw-) us dh Fkh] ftldh vfHkyk{kf.kd fof'k"Vrk èku&nkSyr] dyk]
foKku vkSj vkeksn&çeksn ds fo#¼ ,d çdV ?k`.kk ds :i esa FkhA bUgsa flfud
buds :[ks O;ogkj ds dkj.k dgk tkrk gSA flfudokn dHkh&dHkh ekuo&
LoHkko ds çfr frjLdkj Hkkouk ds fy, Hkh bLrseky fd;k tkrk gSA
,ihD;wjloknh %
,ihD;wjl (341&270 bZ-iw-) ,d ;wukuh nk'kZfud Fkk] ftldh f'k{kk Fkh
fd lq[k gh vlyh pht+ gSA ,ihD;wjloknh mls dgk tkrk gS tks [kkvks&ihvks
vkSj ekSt&eLrh esa fo'okl djrk gSA

1- t+us ks % ;wukuh nk'kZfud] tks vkRela;e vkSj çÑfr dh laxfr esa thou thus dk fgek;rh
FkkA
2- dSVks n ;axj (95&46 bZ-iw-) % jkseu nk'kZfud tks LVksbdokfn;ksa dk laj{kd lUr cukA
3- lsusdk % iwjk uke Y;wfl;l ,uh;l lsusdk (4 bZ-iw-&65 bZ-) % jkseu ys[kd vkSj
jktuhfrK rFkk jkseu lezkV uhjks dk f'k{kd] ftlus LVksbdokn ij dbZ fucUèk vkSj nq[kkUr
ukVd Hkh fy[ksA FkksM+s le; ds fy, og ,d rjg ls jkse dk 'kkld Hkh jgk] fiQj ckn
esa vkRegR;k djus dh lt+k feyhA
4- ekdZl vkjsfy;l ,Urksfu;l % (121&180 bZ-) % jkseu nk'kZfud vkSj lezkV
(161&180 bZ- rd)A mlus esfMVs'kal uke ls ,d Dykfldh; LVksbdoknh xzUFk fy[kkA
5- ,.VhLFksuht+ (444&365 bZ- iw-) % lqdjkr ls çHkkfor ;wukuh nk'kZfudA mlds lknxh
Hkjs thou vkSj f'k{kkvksa us x+jhcksa dks vkd£"kr fd;kA

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 119


i` " B 168 ¼103½
jkseu jkT;&O;oLFkk
jkseuksa us jktuhfrd fl¼kUr esa de gh ,slk bt+ki+Qk fd;k x;k ftldk
çR;{k egÙo gks] ysfdu ,d ?kfu"B :i ls lEcfUèkr foHkkx] ;kuh fofèk'kkL=k
esa & mUgksaus xgjh #fp okyk vkSj ewY;oku ;ksxnku fd;kA
x.krU=k ds vUrxZr] ¶ukxfjd o+Qkuwu¸ (tl&flfod)
tl&flfod ds vfrfjDr] tl&tsf.V;e (jk"Vª ds o+Qkuwu) uke ls
tl&tsf.V;e <sjksa fu;e vkSj fl¼kUr vfLrRo esas vk pqds Fks] tks brkyoh
o+Qchyksa ds chp çpfyr lkekU; fo'ks"krkvksa dks çfrfcfEcr djrs FksA
egku jkseu T;wfjl&dalYV~l (o+Qkuwu&foKku ds fo'ks"kK)
tl usp(LVks
qjsy bdokfn;ksa ds fopkj ls çsj.kk ysdj) èkhjs&èkhjs çÑfr ds o+Qkuwu
(tl uspqjsy) dks tl&tsf.V;e ds le:i ekuus yxsA
mudh f'k{kk Fkh fd ;g o+Qkuwu nSoh; vkSj 'kk'or Fkk] vkSj fd ;g fdUgha
fof'k"V jkT;ksa ds o+Qkuwuksa ls viuh HkO;rk vkSj oSèkrk esa dgha vfèkd Js"B FkkA
çkÑfrd o+Qkuwu dks okLro esa vfLrRoeku ekuk tkrk Fkk] vkSj bls ukxfjd
o+Qkuwu ls lEc¼ le>k tkrk FkkA
,.Vksfu;kbZ dky 1 esa] tc jkseu o+Qkuwu viuk pje fodkl dj pqdk Fkk
vkSj LVksbdoknh fl¼kUr lokZfèkd çHkkoh gks pqds Fks] rc fofèkosÙkkvksa us
jktuhfrd fl¼kUrksa ds :i esa ugha] cfYd U;k;'kkL=kh; :i ls] ;g fl¼kUr
lw=kc¼ fd;k fd %
¶lkjs euq"; tUetkr LorU=k gksrs gSaA¸
vkSj fd çÑfr ds o+Qkuwu ls] ¶lkjs euq"; leku gksrs gSa¸ & ftldk
fufgrkFkZ ;g Fkk fd Hkys gh ukxfjd o+Qkuwu esa oxZ&Hksn dh ekU;rk Fkh] çÑfr
ds o+Qkuwu ds le{k lewph ekuotkfr cjkcj FkhA
jkseu jkT; O;oLFkk esa lkekftd le>kSrk %
;|fi jkseu fofèkosÙkkvksa us ukxfjd lekt dh mRifÙk ds rkSj ij fdlh
le>kSrs dks Lohdkj ugha fd;k Fkk fiQj Hkh LohÑr vfèkdkjksa vkSj nkf;Roksa dks
,d dfYir] ysfdu x+Sj&ekStwn le>kSrs ls fuxfer djus dh ,d #>ku ekStwn
FkhA

1- jkseu lezkV ,.Vksfu;l ik;l (86&161 bZ-) dk 'kkludky (138&161 bZ-)A mldk
'kkludky 'kkfUr vkSj mÙke ç'kklu dk dky ekuk tkrk gSA

120 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


lEçHkqrk ds ekeys esa] ukxfjd dksfefV;k fVªC;wjk 1 esa ,d=k gksdj] x.krU=k
ds Lo£.ke fnuksa esa] loksZPp lÙkk ds :i esa dke djrs FksA
lkezkT; ds vUrxZr] lEçHkq lÙkk lezkV esa fufgr Fkh] vkSj ckn ds T;wfjl
dalYV~l ds vuqlkj] turk ysDl jsft;k 2 ds vuqlkj] loksZPp deku çR;sd
lezkV dks] mlds 'kklu ds 'kq: gksrs gh] lkSai nsrh Fkh] vkSj bl çdkj 'kklu
djus vkSj o+Qkuwu cukus ds vius lkjs vfèkdkj mls lkSai nsrh FkhA

i` " B 169 ¼104½


eè; ;qx
(VkWel ,fDoukl)
VkWel ,fDoukl3 % (1226&1274) ds ckjs esa dgk tkrk gS fd og eè;
;qx ds jktuhfrd fl¼kUr dk çeq[k çorZd FkkA mlus] jkseu fofèkosÙkkvksa dk
vuqlj.k djrs gq,] ,d çkÑfrd o+Qkuwu dks ekU;rk nh] ftlds fl¼kUr ekuoh;
foosd esa nSoh; :i ls fufo"V fd;s x;s (ekus x;s & l-) vkSj blds lkFk gh
mlus mu çR;{k o+Qkuwuksa dks Hkh ekU;rk nh] tks fHkUu&fHkUu jkT;ksa esa fHkUu&fHkUu
gqvk djrs FksA
mldk dguk Fkk fd o+Qkuwu cukus okyh lÙkk] tksfd lEçHkqrk dh vfuok;Z
fo'ks"krk gksrh gS] lkekU; dY;k.k dh fn'kk esa funsZf'kr gksuh pkfg,] vkSj fd
bl mís'; dh çkfIr ds fy,] bls cgqla[;d turk ;k mlds çfrfufèk]
jktk] ls lEc¼ gksuk pkfg,A mls jktk] dqyhuksa] vkSj turk dh
feyh&tqyh ljdkj loksZÙke çrhr gksrh Fkh ftlesa loksZPp lÙkk ds :i esa iksi
gksA
iknqvk dk ek£lfyvks4
(1328 esa fuèku)
le>kSrs dh èkkj.kk
viuh Ñfr ^fMiQsalj iSfll* esa iknqvk ds ek£lfyvks us yksdkèkkfjr
1- jktdh; ;k 'kkgh desVh] tks lezkV }kjk xfBr dh tkrh FkhA
2- jktdh; o+Qkuwu
3- VkWel ,fDoukl (1226&1274) % brkyoh nk'kZfud
4- iknqvk dk ek£lfyvks (e`R;q 1328 bZ-) % bVyh ds iknqvk 'kgj dk fuoklh
jktuhfrd fl¼kUrdkj ftlus ppZ vkSj jkT; dks ,d&nwljs ls i`Fkd djus dks ysdj
ckn'kkg yqbZ prqFkZ ds fy, fMiQsl
a j iSfll xzUFk fy[kk] tks dki+Qh fooknkLin fl¼ gqvkA

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 121


lEçHkqrk ds fl¼kUr dh fgek;r dh] vkSj ykSfdd lÙkk ds çfr mu iksioknh
ik[k.Mksa dk fojksèk fd;k] tks iQkYlks fMfØVYl ij vkèkkfjr FksA
(turk dh lEçHkqrk)
pw¡fd euq"; us ukxfjd thou vius ikjLifjd fgr ds fy, viuk;k
blfy, o+Qkuwu Hkh ukxfjd ds fudk; }kjk gh cuk;s tkus pkfg,_ o+Qkuwu tc
rd mu yksxksa }kjk ugha cuk;s tkrs] ftuds fgr buls lhèks çHkkfor gksrs gSa vkSj
ftUgsa irk gksrk gS fd mudh vko';drk,¡ D;k gSa] rc rd u rks os loksZÙke
dgs tk ldrs gSa] vkSj u gh mudk rRijrk ls ikyu fd;k tk ldrk gSA
mlus nkos ds lkFk dgk fd o+Qkuwu cukus okyh lÙkk turk esa fufgr
gksrh gS] vkSj fd foèkkf;dk dk dke dk;Zikfydk dk xBu djuk gS] ysfdu
og mls Hkh ifjo£rr ;k jí dj ldrh gSA

iqutkZxj.k & lqèkkj!!


iqutkZxj.k esa] Kku ds lHkh {ks=k tkx:d gks mBs vkSj tks yhdc¼ n'kZu
gt+kjksa o"kks± ls èkeZ'kkL=k dh pkdjh djrk vk jgk Fkk] vc mldk LFkku çÑfr
vkSj euq"; ds ,d u;s n'kZu us ys fy;k] tks vfèkd mnkj] vfèkd xgjk] vkSj
vfèkd cksèkxE; FkkA
csdu1 us euq"; dks vfèkHkwrokn ls çÑfr vkSj ;FkkFkZ dh vksj ykSVus dk
vkàku fd;kA
n'kZu dh 'kq#vkr fu'p; gh lkoZHkkSfed lUnsgokn ls gksuh pkfg,A ysfdu
tYn gh ;g rF; vlfUnXèk ik;k tkrk gS % euq"; esa fpUru'khy fl¼kUr dk
vfLrRoA psruk dk vfLrRo!
dkrZoknh n'kZu
lqèkkj dky esa vkRexr lPpkbZ ij fo'okl vkSj O;fDr dh lÙkk dk ftl
t+ksj&'kksj ds lkFk vkàku fd;k x;k ogh dkrZoknh n'kZu dk vkèkkj cukA
dkrZoknh & ç+Qkalhlh nk'kZfud jsus n dkrZ2 (1596&1650) vkSj mlds
n'kZu ls lEcfUèkrA

1- lEHkor% Úkafll csdu (1561&1626) % vaxzst+ nk'kZfud vkSj jktuhfrK dh fdlh


jpuk ls m¼`rA
2- ç+Qkalhlh nk'kZfud vkSj xf.krKA dkrZoknh n'kZu psruk vkSj inkFkZ ds Hksn ij vkèkkfjr
gS] tks n dkrZ dh Ñfr fMLdkslZ vkWu eSVj (1673) esa mlds bl lw=k&okD; ls Li"V
gS % dkWxfuVks vxksZ le (Cognito ergo sum) & vFkkZr ¶eSa lksprk gw¡] blfy, eSa gw¡A¸

122 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


i` " B 170 ¼105 ½

u;k ;qx
lqèkkj&dky ds ckn] iksi dh lÙkk pjejk x;h] rFkk 'kkld vkSj turk nksuksa
ds fnekx+ vkt+knh dh ygj esa rjaxkf;r gks pysA ysfdu ,d Ågkiksg dh fLFkfr
Hkh iSnk gks x;hA bl u;h fLFkfr ls fuiVus ds fy, cgqrsjs fpUrdksa us jkT; ds
loky ij lkspuk 'kq: dj fn;kA fpUru dh fofHkUu 'kk[kk,¡ mB [kM+h gqb±A
eSfd;kosyh %
eSfd;kosyh & bl e'kgwj brkyoh jktuhfrd fopkjd us ljdkj ds
x.krkfU=kd :i dks loksZÙke ekuk] ysfdu ljdkj ds bl :i ds LFkkf;Ro ij
lUnsg gksus ds dkj.k] mlus ,d l'kDr jktrU=kkRed 'kklu dks lqjf{kr j[kus
ds fl¼kUrksa dk Hkh fu:i.k fd;k] vkSj blh ukrs mlus ¶n fçUl¸1 dh jpuk
dhA
,d dsUæhÑr ljdkj dh mldh fgek;r dk ;wjksi ds jktuhfrd fl¼kUr
vkSj O;ogkj ij Hkkjh çHkko iM+kA
eSfd;kosyh lEHkor% igyk ys[kd Fkk ftlus ,dne èkeZfujis{k n`f"Vdks.k
ls ¶jktuhfr¸ ij fopkj fd;kA

vU; fopkjd
o+Qjkj vkSj le>kSrk
vU; fopkjdksa esa ls T+;knkrj us o+Qjkj ;k le>kSrs ds fl¼kUr dk leFkZu
fd;kA jkseu o+Qkuwu esa (o+Qjkj) O;fDr;ksa ds chp ,d lgefr dk urhtk gqvk
djrk Fkk vkSj bldk nk;jk le>kSrs ls NksVk gqvk djrk Fkk] tcfd le>kSrk
o+Qjkj ds lkFk&lkFk ,d ckè;dkjh nkf;Ro Hkh gksrk FkkA
,sls fopkjdksa ds nks vyx&vyx lEçnk; FksA igys çdkj dk lEçnk;
bZ'oj vkSj euq"; ds chp o+Qjkj dh ;gwnh èkkj.kk ij vkèkkfjr fl¼kUr dk
çfriknu djrk Fkk] tks le>kSrs dh jkseu èkkj.kk ls lEiwfjr FkkA ;g ljdkj vkSj
turk ds chp ,d vfyf[kr le>kSrs dk çfriknu djrk FkkA

1- n fçUl % 1527 esa] brkyoh jktuhfrd fpUrd eSfd;kosyh }kjk fy[kh x;h çfl¼
iqLrd] ftlesa jkT;lÙkk gkfly djus ds mik;ksa dk foLrkjiwoZd foospu vkSj fo'ys"k.k
fd;k x;k gSA eSfd;kosyh vkSj mldh iqLrd us vius le; rFkk ckn ds ;qx esa Hkh jktuhfr
ij dki+Qh çHkko MkykA

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 123


nwljk ;k vkèkqfud çdkj dk lEçnk; O;fDr;ksa ds chp ,d o+Qjkj ds tfj;s
jktuhfrd lekt dh laLFkkc¼rk ls lEcfUèkr gSA fpUru dh bl 'kk[kk ds
çeq[k fopkjd gwdj1] gkWCl2] ykWd3 vkSj :lks4 gq, gSaA
yksd&LorU=krk ds fgek;rh
áwftukWr5
1- fof.Mfl, dks.Vªk VkbjSuWl 6 (1576) áwftukWr ySaxq,r dh jpukA
blesa nyhy nh x;h Fkh fd jktk viuh lÙkk turk dh bPNk ls çkIr djs] vkSj
fd ;fn jktk o+Qkuwuksa ds ifjikyu esa ml o+Qjkj dks Hkax djs tks mlds vkSj turk
ds chp la;qDr :i ls jkt'kkgh dh LFkkiuk ds le; fd;k x;k gksrk gS] rc
turk Hkh jkT;fu"Bk ls eqDr gks tk;sxhA
cqdkuu7 %
2- cqdkuu dk Hkh ;gh dguk Fkk fd jktk vkSj turk ,d iSDV ds rgr
opuc¼ gksrs gSa] vkSj fd ;fn jktk bls Hkax dj ns] rks og vius vfèkdkj Hkh
[kks cSBrk gSA
1- fjpMZ gwdj % ns[ksa uksVcqd i`"B 107 ¼80½ dk lUnHkZ 1
2- VkWel gkWCl % ns[ksa uksVcqd i`"B 108 ¼81½ dk lUnHkZ 2
3- tkWu ykWd (1632&1707) % vaxzst+ nk'kZfud vkSj ,d vxz.kh O;ogkjoknhA mlus
lkekftd lafonk ds gkWCl ds fl¼kUr dh vkykspuk dh tks jktrU=k ds leFkZu rd tkrs
Fks_ 1689 esa viuh çfl¼ Ñfr Vw VªhVkbtst+ vkWu xouZes.V fy[kh] ftlus vkxs pydj
vesfjdh lafoèkku fuekZrkvksa dks çHkkfor fd;k_ mldh nwljh çfl¼ iqLrd ,Lls dal²ux
áweu v.MjLVS¯.Mx gS tks ,sfUæd vuqHko ij vkèkkfjr Kku dh voèkkj.kk ds leFkZu esa
gSA
4- T;k¡ tkd :lks % ns[ksa uksVcqd i`"B 119 ¼92½ dk lUnHkZ 1
5- áwftukr % ;g uke lksygoha lnh ds eè; ls ç+Qkal ds çksVsLVs.Vksa dks fn;k tkus yxk
Fkk] dkj.k fd rwlZ 'kgj esa LFkkuh; çksVLs Vs.V bZlkbZ jkr esa jktk áwxks ds iQkVd ij eqyko+Qkr
fd;k djrs FksA jktk áwxks dks turk ,d nSoh; 'kfDr ekurh FkhA
6- fo.Mhfl, dks.Vªk VkbjSul % áwcVZ ySaxq,r (1518&1581) dh jpuk ftlesa fujadq'k
'kklu ds fo#¼ çfrjksèk djus dk fl¼kUr çfrikfnr fd;k x;k Fkk_ ijUrq blds fy, ;g
Hkh t+:jh crk;k x;k Fkk fd ,slk çfrjksèk ,d leqfpr :i ls xfBr vkfèkdkfjd fudk;
}kjk gh fd;k tkuk pkfg,A
7- tkWtZ cqdkuu (1506&1582) % LdkWV fopkjd] ftUgksaus viuh jpuk fM T;wj jsXuh
,iqM LdksVksl (1579) esa fy[kk fd jktk mu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls c¡/k gksrk gS ftuds rgr
mls loksZPp lÙkk çnku dh x;h_ vkSj fujadq'k 'kkldksa dk çfrjks/ djuk rFkk ;gk¡ rd
fd mUgsa nf.Mr djuk Hkh U;k;iw.kZ gSA

124 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


i` " B 171 ¼106½
tslqbV1 %
3- ;gk¡ rd fd tslqbV csyk£eu2 vkSj ekfj,uk3 dh Hkh ;gh nyhy Fkh fd
jktk viuh lÙkk turk ls çkIr djs_ ijUrq iksi ds vèkhu jgsA
jktk tsEl çFke4 (1609) % tsEl çFke us bl fl¼kUr dks] 1609 esa]
laln esa ,d oDrO; nsrs gq, ;g dgdj Lohdkj fd;k fd ¶,d LFkkfir jkT;
dk gjsd U;k;fç; jktk ;g ns[kus ds fy, ckè; gS fd mldh ljdkj ds xBu
esa] turk ds lkFk mlds o+Qkuwuksa ds rgr tks iSDV fd;k tkrk gS og turk dks
Lohdk;Z Hkh gksA¸
duosa'ku ik£y;kes.V (1688) % duosa'ku ik£y;kes.V us 1688 esa
?kksf"kr fd;k fd tsEl f}rh;5 dks ¶jktk vkSj turk ds chp ewy le>kSrs dks
rksM+dj lafoèkku dks myVus dh dksf'k'k djus ds dkj.k ¯lgklu [k+kyh dj nsuk
iM+kA¸
cksnSa6 (1586)8 % vkèkqfud dky ds igys lEiw.kZ jktuhfrd nk'kZfud
vkSj ^fjifCyd* (1577 vkSj 1586) ds ys[kd] cksfnu dk dguk gS fd
¶le>kSrk ugha] cfYd rko+Qr ls x.kjkT; dh mRifÙk gqbZ gSA¸ vkfndkyhu
fir`lÙkkRed ljdkjksa dks thr djds m[kkM+ iQsadk x;k] vkSj bl çdkj]
çkÑfrd LorU=krk dk vUr gks x;kA
mlds fopkj ls] ¶lEçHkqrk ukxfjdksa ds Åij loksZPp lÙkk gSA¸ og
ekurk Fkk fd ¶lEçHkqrk LorU=k] vfoHkkT;] LFkk;h] vgLrkUrj.kh; vkSj
1- tslqbV % lkslk;Vh vkWi+Q thll uked lEçnk; dk lnL;_ bl dSFkksfyd èkk£ed
lEçnk; dh LFkkiuk 1540 esa] ls.V bXusf'k;l yks;ksyk us dh FkhA
2- csyk£eu (brkyoh esa csyk£euks) & jkcVksZ ÚkaflLdks jkseksyks (1542&162) brkyoh
èkeZ'kkL=kh] og ekurk Fkk fd iksi ds ikl ,d v;ksX; 'kkld dks gVk nsus dk vçR;{k
vfèkdkj gksrk gSA
3- tqvku fM ekfj,uk (1536&1624) % Lisu dk bfrgkldkj vkSj tslqbV_ og ,d
fujadq'k 'kkld dks m[kkM+ iQsadus dks oS/ ekurk FkkA
4- tsEl çFke (1602&1625)% fczVsu dk jktkA mlus jktk ds nSoh; vfèkdkj dh
?kks"k.kk dh] ftldks ysdj laln ls mldk Vdjko gqvkA
5- tsEl f}rh; (1633&1701) % fczVsu dk jktkA viuh dSFkksfyd i{kèkjrk vkSj
LosPNkpkjh 'kklu ds dkj.k mls 1688 dh ¶xkSjo'kkyh ØkfUr¸ ds ckn] ¯lgklu NksM+dj
ç+Qkal Hkkxuk iM+kA
6- T;k¡ cksnSa (1530&1596) % ç+Qkalhlh nk'kZfudA mldk ekuuk Fkk fd lEçHkq 'kkld
dh lÙkk dks turkfU=kd laln la'kksfèkr dj ldrh gSA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 125
fujis{k lÙkk¸ gSA mlus lEçHkqrk dh viuh èkkj.kk vkSj ml le; dh
ekStwn jkt'kkgh ds chp ?kkyesy dj fn;kA
vYFkwfl;l (1557&1638)1% og Li"V :i ls ;g dgus ds fy, tkuk
tkrk gS fd lEçHkqrk ,dek=k turk esa gh fufgr gksrh gSSA jktk fli+QZ mldk
eftLVsªV ;k ç'kkldHkj gksrk gS] vkSj fd leqnk; dk lEçHkqrk dk vfèkdkj
vgLrkUrj.kh; gksrk gSA
xzksfV;l (1625)2% viuh Ñfr ¶fM T;wjs csyh ,V isfjl¸ (1628) esa
xzksfV;l dgrk gS fd euq"; esa ,d 'kkfUrfç; vkSj O;ofLFkr lekt dh
çcy bPNk gksrh gSA ysfdu og v&çfrjksèk dk fl¼kUr fodflr djrk gS]
vkSj bl ckr ls bUdkj djrk gS fd yksx ges'kk vkSj gj txg lEçHkqrk
lEiUu gksrs gSa vFkok ;g fd lkjh ljdkjsa 'kkflrksa ds fy, xfBr gksrh
gSaA lEçHkqrk ;k rks fot; ls vkrh gS ;k lgefr ls] ysfdu og bl èkkj.kk ij
t+ksj nsrk gS fd lEçHkqrk vfoHkkT; lÙkk gSA
gw d j % og viuh Ñfr ^,Dys f l;fLVdy ikfyVh* & [k.M 1
(1592&3) esa çÑfr dh ,d ,slh ekSfyd n'kk dks Lohdkj djrk gS ftlesa
lHkh euq"; cjkcj Fks vkSj fdlh Hkh o+Qkuwu ds ekrgr ugha FksA ekuoksfpr xfjek
ds vuqdwy thou dh bPNk vkSj ,dkdhiu ds çfr v#fp us mUgsa ^jktuhfrd
lektksa* esa ,dc¼ gksus ds fy, çsfjr fd;kA ^çkÑfrd #>ku* vkSj ,d lkFk
thou thus dh mudh ,dc¼rk ds rkSj&rjho+Qs ij çR;{k ;k xqIr lgefr ls
pyus okyh O;oLFkk gh orZeku ^jktuhfrd lektksa* ds nks cqfu;knh vkèkkj cusA
buesa ls nwljs vkèkkj dks gh ge ¶lkekU; fgr ds o+Qkuwu¸ dgrs gSaA

i` " B 172 ¼107½ jkT; dh mRifÙk

lEçHkqrk % foèkk;h lÙkk dk


dk;Zikfydk ij Hkh fu;U=k.k
^lHkh vkilh f'kdk;rksa] {kfr;ksa vkSj x+yfr;ksa dks nwj djus ds fy, ,dek=k
rjho+Qk fdlh fo+QLe dh ljdkj] ;k loZekU; U;k;drkZ dh O;oLFkk djuk gh
FkkA*
1- tksgkUl vYFkwfl;l (1557&1638) % ,d teZu fofèkosÙkk vkSj Mp x.kjkT; dh
lhek ij fLFkr ,d bEihfj;y 'kgj ,eMSu dk phi+Q eftLVsªV
2- áwxks xzksfV;l (1583&1645) % Mp fofèkosÙkk vkSj jktuhfrKA mldh iqLrd
vUrjjk"Vªh; o+Qkuwu dk lcls igys fu:i.k djus okyh Ñfr ekuh tkrh gSA
126 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
og bl ckr ij vjLrw ls lger Fkk fd ljdkj dh mRifÙk jktrU=k ls
gqbZA ysfdu og ;g Hkh dgrk gS fd ^o+Qkuwu fli+QZ HkykbZ dh f'k{kk gh ugha
nsrs] cfYd ,d ckè;dkjh 'kfDr Hkh j[krs gSa] tks 'kkflrksa dh lgefr ls çkIr
gksrh gS] vkSj tks ;k rks O;fDrxr rkSj ij ;k çfrfufèk;ksa ds eki+QZr çn£'kr gksrh
gSA*
¶o+Qkuwu] pkgs ftl fdlh Hkh fo+QLe ds euq";ksa ds fy, gksa] os mudh
lgefr ls gh miyCèk (vFkkZr oSèk) gksrs gSaA¸
¶os o+Qkuwu o+Qkuwu ugha gSa tks turk ds vuqeksnu ls ugha cuk;s x;s gksrs gSaA¸
¶turk dh lEçHkqrk¸
bl çdkj mlus Li"V rkSj ij dgk fd lEçHkqrk ;k o+Qkuwu&fuekZ=kh lÙkk
vUrr% turk esa gh fufgr gksrh gSA
1620 %
esÝykoj (1620) ij lokj ¶fiyfxze i+QknlZ¸1 dh e'kgwj ?kks"k.kk %
¶bZ'oj dks lk{kh ekudj ge lc feydj ,d nwljs o+Qjkj dh ?kks"k.kk djrs gSa
vkSj viusvki dks ,d ukxfjd jktuhfrd fudk; ds :i esa la;qDr djrs gSaA¸
1647 %
baXyS.M dh turk dk o+Qjkj % ,d vkSj e'kgwj I;wfjVu2 nLrkost+] tks vkehZ
vkWi+Q n ik£y;kes.V (1647) ls fu%l`r gqvk] lksp dh blh ço`fÙk dk ladsr
nsrk gSA
feYVu 3
1649 (turk dh lEçHkqrk)4
viuh Ñfr ¶VsU;ksj vkWi+Q ¯dXl ,.M eSftLVsªV~l¸ (1649) esa og Hkh ,sls
gh fl¼kUrksa dk çfriknu djrk gSA og nkos ds lkFk dgrk gS fd ¶lHkh euq";
çkÑfrd :i ls LorU=k gh iSnk gq, FksA¸ os ,d ¶lkekU; la?k ds :i esa
,d&nwljs ds lkFk c¡èkus ds fy, blfy, lger gq, fd os ,d&nwljs dks {kfr

1- fiyfxze i+QknlZ % baXyS.M ds ppZ ds I;wfjVu foæksfg;ksa dk ,d tRFkk tks ijs'kku fd;s
tkus ls cpus rFkk mÙkjh vesfjdk esa tk clus ds fy,] esÝykoj uked tgkt+ ls Hkkx
fudykA
2- I;wfjVu % çksVsLVs.V bZlkbZ lEçnk; dk lnL;
3- tkWu feYVu (1608&1674) % vaxzst+ dfoA iSjkMkbt ykWLV vkSj iSjkMkbt fjxsUM ds
jpf;rk
4- eksVs v{kjksa esa gkf'k;s ij ntZ
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 127
igq¡pkus ls cp ldsa rFkk ,d lkFk feydj ml fdlh Hkh pht+ ls viuk cpko
dj ldsa tks xM+cM+h iSnk djus okyh gks ;k bl rjg dh lgefr ds f[k+yki+Q
iM+rh gksA blh dh cnkSyr o+QLcs] uxj vkSj jkT; vfLrRo esa vk;sA rc vkRej{kk
vkSj laj{k.k dh ;g vkfèkdkfjd lÙkk tks cqfu;knh rkSj ij muesa ls çR;sd ds
Hkhrj rFkk la;qDr :i ls lcesa fufgr Fkh] fMfIV;ksa vkSj dfe'ujksa ds :i esa
jktkvksa vkSj eftLVsªVksa dks lkSai nh x;hA¸
¶jktkvksa vkSj eftLVsªVksa dh lÙkk vkSj dqN Hkh ugha gS] flok; blds fd
;g fli+QZ mUgsa turk }kjk lcdh HkykbZ ds fo'okl ds lkFk çnkfur] gLrkUrfjr
vkSj lkSaih x;h lÙkk gS] tks vHkh Hkh cqfu;knh rkSj ij mlh esa (;kuh turk
esa & l-) fufgr gksrh gS vkSj tks mlds çkÑfrd tUefl¼ vfèkdkj dk
mYya?ku fd;s cx+Sj Nhuh ugha tk ldrhA vr% jk"Vª jktkvksa dks pqu ;k gVk
ldrs gSa] LorU=k&tUek euq";ksa ds egt bl vfèkdkj vkSj LorU=krk ds vk/kj
ij fd os fduls 'kkflr gksuk loksZÙke le>rs gSaA¸

i` " B 173 ¼108½

jktkvksa ds nSoh vfèkdkjksa dk fl¼kUr


fir`lÙkkRed fl¼kUr
blh ;qx esa tgk¡ cgqrsjs fopkjd ^turk dh lEçHkqrk* ds bu fl¼kUrksa dk
bl çdkj çfriknu djus esa yxs gq, Fks] ogha nwljs fl¼kUrdkj Hkh Fks] tks ;g
lkfcr djus dh dksf'k'k dj jgs Fks fd jkT; o`gnkdkj ifjokj gh gSa] ftuesa ,d
dqVqEc ds eqf[k;k dh iSr`d lÙkk] T;s"Brk Øe dh oa'kijEijk esa iwoZorhZ lEçHkq
'kkld ds ml çfrfufèk dks gLrkUrfjr dj nh tkrh gS tks fdlh jk"Vª ij 'kklu
djus esa l{ke fl¼ gks ldsA blhfy, jkt'kkgh dks ,d vts; vfèkdkj ij
vkèkkfjr ekuk x;k] vkSj jktk dks dsoy bZ'oj ds çfr gh mÙkjnk;h
Bgjk;k x;kA bls gh ¶jktkvksa dk nSoh vfèkdkj¸ dgk x;kA bls gh
¶fir`lÙkkRed fl¼kUr¸ dgk x;kA1
VkWel gkWCl %
1642&1650&1651 esa fy[kh x;h viuh fofoèk jpukvksa esa mlus lEçHkq
'kkld dh vlhfer lÙkk ds fl¼kUr dks turk ds vkjfEHkd o+Qjkj ds fojksèkh
fl¼kUr ds lkFk la;qDr dj fn;kA ijUrq fujadq'krkokn & ewd vkKkdkfjrk & ds
1- ;g Li"V ugh gS fd Hkxr¯lg fdlh iqLrd ls m¼j.k uksV dj jgs Fks ;k ;s mudh
viuh fVIif.k;k¡ gSaA
128 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
çfr gkWCl dh i{kèkjrk èkeZ'kkL=kh; u gksdj] èkeZfujis{k vkSj rdZlaxr FkhA og
leqnk; (iwjh lef"V) ds lq[k dks ljdkj dk egku y{; ekurk FkkA

(euq"; ,d vlkekftd çk.kh)


gkWCl dk n'kZu flfudoknh gSA mlds vuqlkj] euq"; ds euksosx LokHkkfod
:i ls mlds futh laj{k.k vkSj lq[k dh fn'kk esa gh fu£n"V gksrs gSa] vkSj og
mudh çkfIr ds vykok vkSj dksbZ mís'; ugha j[krkA vr% euq"; LoHkko ls
vlkekftd gSA og dgrk gS] ¶çkÑfrd voLFkk esa] gjsd vkneh vius
tSlksa ls ;q¼jr jgrk gS] vkSj gjsd dk thou [k+rjs esa] vdsyk] vlgk;]
vlqjf{kr] i'kqor vkSj vYidkfyd gksrk gSA¸ bl çdkj ds thou dk Hk;
gh mls jktuhfrd ,drk esa c¡èkus ds fy, foo'k djrk gSA
(yxkrkj [k+rjk mUgsa jkT; xfBr djus ij foo'k djrk gS!)
pw¡fd egt iSDV dke ugha nsrk] blfy, ^,d loksZPp loZekU; lÙkk* &
¶ljdkj¸ dh LFkkiuk
(¶thr¸ ;k ¶vfèkxzg.k¸ vkSj ¶laLFkkc¼rk¸ lHkh jkT;ksa ds ,dek=k
vkèkkj)
lekt dh LFkkiuk ¶vfèkxzg.k¸ vFkkZr thr }kjk ;k ¶laLFkkc¼rk¸
}kjk] elyu] ikjLifjd le>kSrs ;k o+Qjkj }kjk] gksrh gSA bl çdkj] ,d ckj
tc lEçHkq lÙkk o+Qk;e gks tkrh gS] rc lHkh dks bldk vkKkdkjh gksuk
vko';d gks tkrk gSA blls foæksg djus okys fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks [k+Re dj
fn;k tkuk pkfg,A mls rckg dj fn;k tkuk pkfg,A
(lEçHkq 'kkld dh vlhfer lÙkk!)
og1 foèkkf;dk] U;k;ikfydk vkSj dk;Zikfydk ds lkjs ds lkjs vfèkdkj
lEçHkq 'kkld ds gokys dj nsrk gSA og fy[krk gS] ¶çHkkoh gksus ds fy, lEçHkq
lÙkk dks fu'p; gh vlhfer] vgLrkUrj.kh; vkSj vfoHkkT; gksuk pkfg,A cs'kd
vlhfer lÙkk xM+cfM+;ksa dks tUe ns ldrh gS] ysfdu lcls bldk cqjk ls cqjk
:i Hkh mruk cqjk ugha gS ftruk fd x`g;q¼ ;k vjktdrkA
i` " B 174 ¼109½

mlds fopkj ls jkt'kkgh] dqyhurU=k] ;k turU=k esa lÙkk dks ysdj dksbZ

1- gkWCl

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 129


vUrj ugha gSA lkekU; 'kkfUr vkSj lqj{kk dh fn'kk esa budh miyfCèk;k¡ buds
}kjk 'kkflr turk ;k yksxksa dh vkKkdkfjrk ij fuHkZj djrh gSaA fiQj Hkh og
^jkt'kkgh* dks gh vfèkd ilUn djrk gSA mlds fopkj ls ^lhfer jkt'kkgh*
gh loksZÙke gSA ysfdu og bl ckr ij Hkh t+ksj nsrk gS fd lEçHkq 'kkld dks
fu'p; gh èkk£ed ds lkFk&lkFk ukxfjd ekeyksa dk Hkh fu;eu djuk pkfg,]
vkSj ;g rtcht Hkh djuh pkfg, fd dkSu ls fl¼kUr 'kkfUr&O;oLFkk cuk;s
j[kus esa lgk;d fl¼ gks ldrs gSaA
bl çdkj] og lEçHkqrk ds ,d Li"V vkSj oSèk fl¼kUr dh fgek;r rks
djrk gS] ysfdu blds lkFk gh og jktk ;k lEçHkq 'kkld iSnk djus ds fy,
lkekftd le>kSrs dh dYiuk dks Hkh cjo+Qjkj j[krk gSA

fLiukst+k1 % (1677)
(euq"; dh vlekftdrk)
viuh Ñfr VSªDVsVl ikWfyfVdl (1677)] esa og ekurk gS fd 'kq:&'kq:
esa euq";ksa dk lHkh pht+ksa ij leku vfèkdkj Fkk] blfy, çkÑfrd voLFkk ;q¼
dh voLFkk FkkA euq";ksa us vius foosd ls çsfjr gksdj viuh 'kfDr;ksa dks
ukxfjd ljdkj dh LFkkiuk ds fy, la;qDr fd;kA pw¡fd euq";ksa ds ikl fujadq'k
lÙkk Fkh] blfy, bl çdkj LFkkfir lEçHkq lÙkk Hkh fujad'q k lÙkk gh FkhA mlds
fopkj ls ^vfèkdkj* vkSj ^lÙkk* ,d leku gSA vr% lÙkk ls ySl gksdj lEçHkq
'kkld dks lkjs ds lkjs vfèkdkj Lo;eso çkIr gks tkrs gSaA bl çdkj] og
^fujadq'krkokn* dk leFkZu djrk gSA

iqi+QsUMksj2 %
(ykW vkWi+Q uspj ,.M us'kal 1672)3
mlds fopkj ls] euq"; ,d lkekftd çk.kh gS] tks ifjokj vkSj 'kkfUre;
thou dh vksj LokHkkfod #>ku j[krk gSA

1- fLiukst+k (1632&1677) % nsdkrZ ls çHkkfor Mp nk'kZfudA mlus viuh iqLrd


,fFkDl (1677) esa ;g fopkj çdV fd;k fd ekuo&thou bZ'oj (;k çÑfr) ls
vksrçksr gSA vikjEifjd fopkjksa ds dkj.k vius ewy lEçnk; ls 1956 esa fu"dkflrA
2- lSeqvy cSju iQku iqi+QsUMksj (1632&1684) % teZu fofèkosÙkk vkSj bfrgkldkjA
mldk fopkj Fkk fd jkT; ds o+Qkuwu çkÑfrd o+Qkuwu esa gh 'kkfey gSaA
3- lEHkor% iqi+QsUMksj dh iqLrd] fn T;wjs uspqjh ,V tsf.V;e dk vaxzst+h 'kh"kZd

130 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


,d vkneh }kjk nwljs vkneh dks igq¡pk;h tk ldus okyh {kfr;ksa dk
vuqHko gh ukxfjd ljdkj dh çsj.kk nsrk gS] tks bl çdkj xfBr gksrh gS %
1- ,d dkeuosYFk xfBr djus gsrq dqN yksxksa ds chp ,d loZlEer vkilh
o+Qjkj }kjk] 2- cgqer ds bl çLrko }kjk fd veqd 'kkld dks lÙkk ij vklhu
fd;k tk;s] 3- ljdkj vkSj turk ds chp bl o+Qjkj }kjk fd ljdkj 'kklu djs
vkSj turk fofèklEer vkns'kksa dk ikyu djsA

i` " B 175 ¼110½


ykWd %
(ukxfjd ljdkj ds nks fl¼kUr&1690)
¶fdlh Hkh euq"; dks 'kklu djus dk çkÑfrd vfèkdkj ugha gksrkA¸
og çkÑfrd voLFkk dk & ;kuh 'kklukfèkdkj vkSj çHkqRo ds ekeys esa
LorU=krk vkSj lekurk okyh ,d ,slh voLFkk dk fp=k.k djrk gS tks fli+QZ
çkÑfrd o+Qkuwu ;k foosd ds gh vèkhu jgs] tks yksxksa dks ,d&nwljs ds thou]
LokLF;] vkt+knh vkSj LokfeRo vfèkdkjksa ds ekeys esa uqo+Qlku igq¡pkus ls jksdrs
gSaA fu"ks/ ;k {kfriw£r ds :i esa lt+k nsus dk vfèkdkj çR;sd O;fDr ds gkFk
esa gksrk gSA
çkÑfrd voLFkk!
¶çkÑfrd voLFkk okLro esa og gS ftlesa yksx vkil esa i+QSlyk djus ds
vfèkdkj ds lkFk] fcuk fdlh ,d loZekU; 'kkld ds] foosd ds vuqlkj ,d
lkFk jgrs gSaA¸
futh lEifÙk!
¶çR;sd O;fDr dk ;g çkÑfrd vfèkdkj gS fd og vius ikl lEifÙk
j[ks vkSj çkÑfrd lkexzh ij vius futh Je ls çkIr mRikn ij Hkh viuk
vfèkdkj j[ksA ,d vkneh ftruh vfèkd Hkwfe dks tksr] cks] lqèkkj ldrk gS
vkSj [ksrh&ckM+h ds dke esa yk ldrk gS rFkk mlls çkIr ftruh iSnkokj
bLrseky esa yk ldrk gS] og lc mlh dh lEifÙk gSaA
lEifÙk vkSj ukxfjd lekt!
mlds vuqlkj ¶lEifÙk¸ ¶ukxfjd lekt¸ dh iwoZorhZ gSA

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 131


ukxfjd lekt dh mRifÙk!
ysfdu ,slk yxrk gS fd yksxksa dks fdlh çdkj dk [k+rjk vkSj Hk; jgrk
Fkk] vkSj blhfy,] mUgksaus ukxfjd LorU=krk ds i{k esa] viuh çkÑfrd
LorU=krk dks frykatfy ns nhA la{ksi esa] vko';drk] lgwfy;r vkSj #>ku
us yksxksa dks lekt esa c¡èkus ds fy, foo'k fd;kA
ukxfjd lekt dh ifjHkk"kk!
tks yksx ,d fudk; esa xfBr gks pqds gksrs gSa] vkSj ftuds ikl ,d ,slk
loZekU; LFkkfir o+Qkuwu vkSj U;k;kfèkdj.k gksrk gS ftleas vihy dh tk lds
rFkk ftls vkilh fooknksa dks fuiVkus ,oa nks"kh dks nf.Mr djus dk vfèkdkj
gks] os ,d ukxfjd lekt esa gksrs gSaA
lgefr %
nwljksa ij fot; ljdkj dk ^Ïksr* ugha gSA lgefr gh fdlh Hkh oSèk
ljdkj dk Ïksr Fkh] vkSj gks ldrh gSA
o+Qkuwu&fuekZ=kh lHkk yksxksa ds thou] LorU=krk vkSj lEifÙk ds Åij iw.kZr%
euekuk vfèkdkj ugha j[krh] D;ksfa d blds ikl fli+QZ ogh la;Dq r vfèkdkj gksrk
gS tks lekt ds xBu ls igys vyx&vyx lnL;ksa ds ikl gqvk djrk Fkk] vkSj
ftls mUgksaus vius fo'ks"k vkSj lhfer mís';ksa ds fy, lkSai fn;k gSA
o+Qkuwu %
¶o+Qkuwu dk mís'; LorU=krk dks [k+Re djuk ;k jksduk ugha] cfYd
mls lqjf{kr djuk vkSj foLr`r djuk gSA¸
foèkkf;dk %
foèkkf;dk dqN fuf'pr mís';ksa ds fy, fli+QZ ,d U;klèkkjh lÙkkHkj gS] tks
;fn blesa U;Lr fd;s x;s fo'okl dks [kf.Mr djs] rks turk }kjk Hkax ;k
ifjo£rr dh tk ldrh gSA
turk dh loksZifj lEçHkqrk!
bl çdkj loksZPp lÙkk ;k loksZifj lEçHkqrk ges'kk tu&leqnk; ds ikl gh
jgrh gS] ijUrq og bldk bLrseky rc rd ugha djrk] tc rd fd ljdkj Hkax
ugha gks tkrhA

132 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


i` " B 176 ¼111½

foèkkf;dk vkSj dk;Zikfydk


futh fgrksa ij lkekU; fgr dh cfy jksdus ds fy,] ;g t+:jh gS fd
foèkkf;dk vkSj dk;Zikfydk dh lÙkk,¡ vyx&vyx gkFkksa esa jgsa] vkSj
dk;Zikfydk foèkkf;dk ds ekrgr jgsA
tgk¡ ;s nksuksa lÙkk,¡ ,d gh fujad'q k jktk esa fufgr gksrh gS]a ogk¡ dksbZ ukxfjd
ljdkj ugha gksrh] D;ksfa d jktk vkSj mldh turk ds chp dksbZ loZekU; U;kf;d
lÙkk ugha gksrhA
LorU=k lektksa esa jkT;ksa ds fHkUu&fHkUu :i gSa] turU=k1] vYirU=k] ;k
fuokZfpr jktrU=k rFkk fefJr :iksa okyh O;oLFkk,¡A
^ØkfUr dk vfèkdkj*!
¶tc ljdkj le>kSrs ds çfr viuk nkf;Ro iwjk djus & ;kuh O;fDrxr
vfèkdkjksa dk laj{k.k djus & esa foiQy gks tkrh gS rks ØkfUr U;k;laxr cu tkrh
gSA
:lks 1
:lks2 %
lekurk
dksbZ Hkh vkneh bruk vfèkd èkuh ugha gksuk pkfg, fd og nwljs dks [k+jhn
lds] vkSj u gh dksbZ vkneh bruk vfèkd x+jhc gksuk pkfg, fd og viusvki
dks cspus ds fy, etcwj gks tk;sA Hkkjh vlekurk,¡ fujadq'krk ds fy, jkLrk
rS;kj djrh gSaA
lEifÙk vkSj ukxfjd lekt %
ftl igys vkneh us t+ehu ds ,d VqdM+s dks ?ksjdj ;g dgus dks lkspk
gksxk fd ^;g esjk gS*] rFkk ftls viuh ckr ij fo'okl djus okys lhèks&lkns
yksx fey x;s gksaxs] ogh ukxfjd lekt dk vlyh laLFkkid FkkA
vxj fdlh us bl èkks[ksckt+h dk inkZi+Qk'k dj fn;k gksrk] vkSj ;g ,yku
dj fn;k gksrk fd ;g èkjrh fdlh dh lEifÙk ugha gS vkSj fd blds iQy
lcds gSa] rc ekuotkfr dks brus ;q¼] vijkèk vkSj lU=kkl ugha >syus iM+s gksrAs
1- vkSj 2- ewy esa ,sls gh uksV fd;s gq,_ ns[ksa uksVcqd i`"B la- 118 ¼91½ dk
lUnHkZ 1
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 133
i` " B 177 ¼112½
¶tks vkneh è;ku djrk gS og nqjkpkjh çk.kh gSA¸1
ukxfjd o+Qkuwu %
det+kjs ksa ds mRihM+u vkSj lcdh vlqj{kk dh vksj b'kkjk dj èkfudksa us cM+h
pkykdh ls U;k; vkSj 'kkfUr ds fu;e fu:fir fd;s] rkfd muds }kjk lcds
LokfeRoksa dh xkj.Vh jgs] vkSj o+Qkuwuksa dks ykxw djus ds fy, ,d loksPZ p 'kkld
dh LFkkiuk dhA
fu'p; gh lekt vkSj o+Qkuwuksa dh mRifÙk blh Hkk¡fr gqbZ gksxh] ftlus x+jhcksa
dks u;h csfM+;k¡ iguk nha vkSj èkfudksa dks u;h rko+Qr çnku dj nh] çkÑfrd
LorU=krk dks vfUre :i ls [k+Re dj fn;k] vkSj FkksM+s ls egÙokdka{kh yksxksa ds
ykHk ds fy,] ges'kk&ges'kk ds fy, lEifÙk vkSj vlekurk dk o+Qkuwu fuèkkZfjr
dj fn;k] ,d pkykdh Hkjh ywV dks ,d vVy vfèkdkj esa rCnhy dj
fn;k] vkSj bl çdkj vkbUnk ds fy, lkjh ekuotkfr dks Je] nklrk] vkSj
nqxZfr dk f'kdkj cuk fn;kA2
iqu'p% vlekurk,¡
ysfdu ;g ckr iwjh rjg çkÑfrd o+Qkuwu ds f[k+yki+Q gS fd eqV~BhHkj yksx
rks cs'kqekj nkSyr xVdrs jgsa] tcfd fo'kky Hkw[kh vkcknh thou dh t+:jh
pht+ksa ds fy, Hkh rjlrh jgsA3

i` " B 178 ¼113½

mldh jpukvksa dk gJ
,feyh vkSj lks'ky dk.VSªDV nksuksa gh 1762 esa çdkf'kr gqb±] igyh dks
isfjl esa tyk;k x;k] :lks ceqf'dy fxjÝ+rkj gksrs&gksrs cpk] fiQj nksuksa fdrkcksa
dks lkoZtfud rkSj ij] tsuksvk esa] mldh tUeLFkyh esa] tyk;k x;k] tgk¡ mls
dgha vfèkd 'kksgjr feyus dh mEehn FkhA

1- lEHkor% :lks dk m¼j.k


2- :lks] lks'ky dkW.VªSDV
3- ogh
134 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
jktk dh lEçHkqrk ls turk dh lEçHkqrk dh vksj
:lks ,drk vkSj dsUæhdj.k dh ç+Qkalhlh èkkj.kkvksa dks cuk;s j[krk gS_
tcfd l=kgoha lnh esa jkT; (;k lEçHkqrk) dks jkt'kkgh ds lkFk xM~MeM~M
dj fn;k x;k FkkA 18oha lnh esa :lks ds çHkko ls ;g turk esa fufgr le>h
tkus yxhA
vuqcU/
vuqcU/ ds tfj;s yksx ukxfjd LorU=krk vkSj uSfrd LorU=krk ds fy,
çkÑfrd LorU=krk dk çfrnku djrs gSaA1

çFke LokfeRo dk vfèkdkj


lEifÙk dk vfèkdkj %
bldk vkSfpR; bu n'kkvksa ij fuHkZj djrk gS %
(v) fd t+ehu x+Sj&vkckn gS] (c) fd ,d vkneh fli+QZ mrus gh jdcs
ij o+QCt+k djrk gS ftruk fd mlds xqt+kjs ds fy, t+:jh gks_ (l) fd og
bl ij egt [kks[kyh vkSipkfjdrk ds tfj;s ugha] cfYd esgur vkSj
[ksrh&ckM+h djus ds ukrs n[k+y j[krk gSA2

i` " B 179 ¼114½

èkeZ %
:lks èkeZ dks Hkh lEçHkq 'kkld dh fujadq'krk ds vèkhu j[krk gSA

Hkwfedk3 %
eSa bl ckr dh tk¡p djuk pkgrk gw¡ fd D;k] vkt yksx tSls gSa vkSj
tSls o+Qkuwu cuk;s tk ldrs gSa] mudks eísut+j j[krs gq,] ;g lEHko gS fd
ukxfjd ekeyksa ds ç'kklu gsrq dqN U;k;laxr vkSj fuf'pr fu;e LFkkfir
fd;s tk;sa---A

1- vkSj 2- lks'ky dkW.VªSDV ds vkèkkj ij


3- :lks] lks'ky dk.VSªDV dh Hkwfedk ls

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 135


---eq>ls iwNk tk ldrk gS fd D;k eSa dksbZ jktk ;k fofèk fuekZrk gw¡ tks eSa
jktuhfr ij fy[krk gw¡A esjk mÙkj gS fd eSa ugha gw¡A vxj eSa oSlk gksrk] rks ;g
dgus esa le; u"V ugha djrk fd D;k fd;k tkuk pkfg,] cfYd mls dj
Mkyrk ;k [k+keks'k jgrkA

euq"; tUe ls LorU=k gksrk gS ysfdu gj txg csfM+;ksa esa tdM+ fn;k tkrk
1
gSA

X+kqykeh ds tqos dks cyiwoZd mrkj iQsaduk!


eSa dguk pkgw¡xk fd tc rd yksx vkKkikyu ds fy, etcwj fd;s tkrs
jgsa vkSj os vkKkikyu djrs jgsa] vPNk gS_ ysfdu os ftruh tYnh bl tqos dks
mrkj iQsad ldsa vkSj mrkj iQsadrs gSa] rks og vkSj Hkh vPNk gS_ dkj.k fd] ;fn
yksx viuh vkt+knh fiQj mlh vfèkdkj (vFkkZr rko+Qr) ls okil ysrs gSa ftl
vfèkdkj ls ;g muls Nhuh x;h gksrh gS] rks ;k rks mudk ,slk djuk U;k;laxr
gS] ;k muls bls Nhu fy;s tkus dk dksbZ vkSfpR; ugha FkkA2
i` " B 180 ¼115 ½
rko+Qr %
¶lÙkk] tks ¯glk ds }kjk gkfly dh tkrh gS] egt ,d gM+ih x;h lÙkk
gksrh gS] vkSj fli+QZ rc rd gh cuh jgrh gS tc rd mldh deku l¡Hkkyus
okys dh rko+Qr mldks ekuus okyksa dh rko+Qr ij gkoh jgrh gS] vkSj tc bldks
ekuus okyksa dh rko+Qr lcls vfèkd gks tkrh gS vkSj os mlds tqos dks mrkj
iQsadrs gSa] rks ,slk os mrus gh vfèkdkj vkSj U;k; ds lkFk djrs gSa ftlds lkFk
mu ij lÙkk Fkksi j[kh x;h FkhA ogh (rko+Qr dk) o+Qkuwu tks lÙkk dk vfèkdkj
nsrk gS] ckn esa mls Nhu Hkh ysrk gS_ ;g lcls rko+Qroj dk o+Qkuwu gSA¸
fnnsjks & balkbDyksihfM;k 3
¶lÙkk¸

1- :lks dh çfl¼ mfDr] lks'ky dkW.VªSDV ls


2- ogh
3- nsuh fnnsjks (1713&1784) % çcksèku dky dk ç+Qkalhlh nk'kZfudA fo'odks"k
(bUlkbDyksihfM;k) dk çeq[k lEikndA ç+Qkalhlh ØkfUr dh oSpkfjd t+ehu rS;kj djus esa
:lks vkSj okYrs;j ds lkFk mldh eq[; Hkwfedk FkhA

136 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


nkl viuh csfM+;ksa esa lc dqN [kks nsrs gSa] ;gk¡ rd fd muls futkr ikus
dh bPNk Hkh!1

lcls rko+Qroj dk vfèkdkj


¶lÙkkfèkdkfj;ksa dk vkKkikyu djksA ;fn bldk eryc rko+Qr ds vkxs
>qduk gS] rks ;g vkns'k vPNk rks gS ysfdu x+Sj&t+:jh gS_ esjk dguk gS fd
bldk dHkh mYya?ku ugha gksxkA¸2

nklrk dk vfèkdkj
¶D;k rc ijkèkhu tu viuh vfLerkvksa dk bl 'krZ ij R;kx dj nsa fd
mudh lEifÙk Hkh ys yh tk;s\ eSa le> ugha ikrk fd muds fy, D;k 'ks"k jg
tk;sxk\
¶dgk tk ldrk gS fd fujadq'k 'kkld vius 'kkflrksa ds fy, ukxfjd 'kkfUr
lqfuf'pr djrk gSA gks ldrk gS] ,slh gh ckr gks_ ysfdu blls mudks feyrk D;k
gS] tcfd ;q¼] tks mldh egÙokdka{kkvksa ds pyrs mu ij Fkksi fn;s tkrs gSa] rFkk
mldh vrks"k.kh; yksyqirk vkSj mlds ç'kklu ds lUrki] muds vius cSj&fojksèk
ls dgha vfèkd gh mUgsa rax djrs gSa\ ¹i`"B 181 ¼116½ ij tkjhº
¶;g dguk] fd ,d vkneh viusvki dks fcuk fdlh ,ot esa ;ksa gh lkSai
nsrk gS] ,dne okfg;kr vkSj vdYiuh; ckr gSA¸
bl rjg dh ckr] pkgs ,d vkneh nwljs vkneh dks lEcksfèkr djds dgs
;k jk"Vª dks lEcksfèkr djds dgs] ges'kk ew[kZrkiw.kZ gh dgh tk;sxh %
¶eSa iwjh rjg ls rqEgkjh o+Qher ij vkSj iwjh rjg ls vius ykHk ds fy,
rqels ,d le>kSrk djrk gw¡] vkSj eSa bls rc rd ykxw fd;s j[kw¡xk] tc
rd eSa pkgw¡xk] vkSj rqe Hkh bls rc rd ykxw fd;s j[kksxs tc rd eSa
pkgwx¡ kA¸3

lekurk %
;fn rqe jkT; dks LFkkf;Ro çnku djuk pkgrs gks] rks bu nks pje voLFkkvksa
dks] tgk¡ rd lEHko gks lds] o+Qjhc ykvks % u rks èkfudksa dks cjnk'r djks]
u gh fHk[kkfj;ksa dksA ;s nksuksa gh fLFkfr;k¡] tks LokHkkfod rkSj ij ,d&nwljs ls
1- :lks] lks'ky dkW.VªSDV
2- ogh 3- ogh
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 137
vfoHkkT; gSa] lkekU; fgr ds fy, leku :i ls lka?kkfrd gSa % ,d oxZ ls
fujadq'k iSnk gksrs gSa] rks nwljs oxZ ls] fujadq'krk ds leFkZd % ges'kk bUgha nksuksa
ds chp lkoZtfud LorU=krk dk O;kikj pyrk jgrk gS % ,d [k+jhnrk gS] nwljk
csprk gSA1
i` " B 182 ¼117½
¶vksyko`f"V dqNsd {ks=kksa dks cjckn dj Mkyrh gS] ij blls vdky fcjys
gh iM+rk gSA naxs&iQlkn vkSj x`g;q¼ lnkjr djus okys yksxksa dks dki+Qh pkSadk
nsrs gSa_ fiQj Hkh os jk"Vªksa ds fy, dksbZ okLrfod ladV ugha iSnk djrs] tc rd
bl ckr dks ysdj fookn pyrk gS fd dkSu mu ij fujadq'k 'kklu djsA mudh
okLrfod le`f¼ ;k foink,¡ rks mudh LFkk;h fLFkfr;k¡s ls iSnk gksrh gSaA tc
lc dqN tqos rys dqpy dj j[k fn;k tkrk gS] rHkh lc dqN u"V gks tkrk
gS_ rHkh ;s 'kkld] bRehuku ls lc dqN u"V djus ds ckn] ,d eqnkZ [k+keks'kh
iSnk dj nsrs gSa] ftls os 'kkfUr dgrs gSaA¸
i`"B 176 2
i` " B 183 ¼118½

ç+Qkalhlh ØkfUr3 %
vesfjdk % vesfjdh LorU=krk&laxzke dk ç+Qkal dh fLFkfr ij Hkkjh çHkko
iM+kA (1776)
VSDl %
^jktk* ds uke ij dke djus okys dksVZ ;k efU=ke.My us euekus <ax ls
VSDlksa ds i+Qjeku rS;kj fd;s vkSj mls ik£y;kes.V4 esa bUnjkt fd;s tkus ds fy,
Hkst fn;k] D;ksafd tc rd ik£y;kes.V mudk bUnjkt ugha dj ysrh] rc rd
os ykxw ugha gks ldrs FksA
dksVZ dk nkok Fkk fd ik£y;kes.V dh lÙkk dks ,rjkt+ dk dkj.k crkus
ds vykok vkSj dksbZ vfèkdkj u Fkk] tcfd og (;kuh dksVZ ;k efU=ke.My)
vius ikl ;g i+QSlyk djus dk vfèkdkj lqjf{kr j[ks gq, Fkk fd dkj.k
okftc gSa ;k x+Sj&okftc] vkSj fd rnuqlkj gh og viuh et+hZ ls pkgs rks

1- ogh 2- ogh
3- ç+Qkalhlh ØkfUr ds ckjs esa Hkxr¯lg ds bu uksV~l ds Ïksr dk irk ugha pyrkA
4- ik£y;kes.V % okLro esa ;g dksbZ fuokZfpr çfrfufèk;ksa dk fudk; ugha] cfYd jktk
ds lykgdkjksa dk ,d fudk; ;k btykl gqvk djrh FkhA
138 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
i+Qjeku okil ys ys ;k cko+Qk;nk mls vkfèkdkfjd rkSj ij bUnjkt fd;s tkus
dk vkns'k tkjh dj nsA
nwljh rji+Q] ik£y;kes.V dk nkok Fkk fd mlds ikl bUdkj dj nsus dk
vfèkdkj FkkA
eU=kh ,e- dSyksu1 dks eqæk pkfg, FkhA og VSDlksa ds ekeys esa ik£y;kes.V
ds dM+s #[k ls ifjfpr FkkA mlus ¶vlsEcyh vkWi+Q uksVscYl¸2 vkgwr dh
(1787)A
;g LVsV~l&tujy ugha Fkh] tksfd pquh tkrh Fkh] cfYd blds lHkh lnL;
jktk }kjk euksuhr fd;s x;s Fks vkSj blesa dqy 141 lnL; FksA rc Hkh og
cgqer dk leFkZu gkfly u dj ldkA rc mlus bls 7 desfV;ksa esa foHkDr
dj fn;kA çR;sd desVh esa 20 lnL; FksA gjsd loky desfV;ksa esa cgqer ls
vkSj vlsEcyh esa desfV;ksa ds cgqer ls r; fd;k tkrk FkkA mlus fdUgha pkj
;k çR;sd desVh esa 11 ,sls lnL; j[kus dh dksf'k'k dh] ftu ij og fo'okl
dj ldrk FkkA ysfdu mldh ;s ;qfDr;k¡ Hkh vliQy jghaA
i` " B 184 ¼119½
,e- n yi+Qk;r4 ,d nwljh desVh dk mikè;{k FkkA mlus ,e- dSyksu ij
1- pkYlZ vysDlkUæ n dSyksu (1734&1802)] ç+Qkalhlh jktuhfrK] tks uoEcj 1783 esa
foÙkeU=kh cukA
2- vlsEcyh vkWi+Q uksVscYl % jkT; dk [k+t+kuk [k+kyh gksus ds dkj.k] foÙkeU=kh dSyksu
'kkgh [k+t+kus ds fy, o+Qt+Z ysuk pkgrk Fkk] ijUrq ik£y;kes.V us bls eatwj ugha fd;kA rc
mlus jktk dks lykg nh fd vkUrfjd lhek'kqYdksa dks [k+Re dj fn;k tk;s vkSj uksVscYl
;kuh dqyhuksa vkSj iknfj;ksa ij VSDl yxk fn;k tk;sA blds fy, dqyhuksa dh ,d lHkk
(vlsEcyh vkWi+Q uksVscYl) tuojh 1787 esa cqyk;h x;hA ijUrq dqyhuksa us vius
fo'ks"kkfèkdkjksa esa dVkSrh fd;s tkus dk fojksèk dj fn;kA
3- LVsV~l tujy% ;g dqyhu oxZ] iknjh oxZ vkSj cqtqZvk oxZ ls pqus x;s çfrfufèk;ksa dh
,d lHkk FkhA
4- ek£Dol n yi+Qk;r (1757&1834) % vesfjdh LorU=krk laxkz e vkSj ç+Qkal dh ØkfUr
esa Hkkx fy;kA og ç+Qkalhlh lsuk dk duZy (1779) vkSj ckn esa estj tujy (1781)
Hkh jgk_ 1790 esa mldh rjD+oQ+ h us'kuy xkMZ vkWiQ+ isfjl ds duZy&tujy in ij gks x;h]
vkSj mlus ØkfUr ds vkjfEHkd nkSjksa esa cgqr lfØ; Hkwfedk fuHkk;hA ysfdu 1792 esa
laoSèkkfud jktrU=k dk leFkZu djus ds dkj.k vlsEcyh us mls x+íkj o+Qjkj dj fuokZflr
dj fn;kA vius fuokZlu dky esa Hkh og viuh ØkfUrdkjh Hkwfedk ds dkj.k 5 o"kks± rd
ç'kk] teZuh] vkSj vkfLVª;k dh tsyksa esa o+QSn jgk] vkSj usiksfy;u cksukikrZ ds gLr{ksi ls
gh tsy ls fjgk gksdj 1799 esa ç+Qkal ykSVkA
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 139
nks fefy;u ykboj esa 'kkgh t+ehu csp Mkyus dk vkjksi yxk;kA bls mlus
fyf[kr :i esa Hkh is'k fd;kA mlds dqN gh le; ckn] ,e- dSyksu dks
cj[k+kLr dj fn;k x;kA
rksywl dk vkdZfc'ki çèkkueU=kh vkSj foÙkeU=kh fu;qDr gqvkA mlus
ik£y;kes.V ds le{k nks çdkj ds VSDlksa dk çLrko j[kk & LVkEi VSDl vkSj ,d
fo+QLe dk Hkwfe VSDlA bl ij ik£y;kes.V us tokc fn;k]
fd jk"Vª vc rd ftl rjg ds jktLo dh fgek;r djrk vk
jgk gS] mlds lkFk VSDlksa dh ppkZ muesa dVkSrh djus ds vykok
vkSj fdlh Hkh mís'; ls ugha djuh pkfg,]
vkSj mu nksuksa gh çLrkoksa dks mBkdj jíh dh Vksdjh esas iQsad fn;kA rc mUgsa
olkZbZ cqyk;k x;k] tgk¡ jktk us ^, csM vkWi+Q tfLVl* uke ls ,d fo'ks"k cSBd
dh vkSj mu çLrkoksa dk bUnjkt dj fy;kA ik£y;kes.V isfjl ykSV x;hA ogk¡
,d vfèkos'ku fd;kA olkZbZ esa dh x;h çR;sd dk;Zokgh dks x+Sj&o+Qkuwuh o+Qjkj
nsrs gq,] bUnjkt dks jí dj nsus dk vkns'k fn;kA rc lcdks ^ysVj fM dS'ksRl*
uked 'kkgh i+Qjeku tkjh gqvk vkSj lHkh dks fuokZflr dj fn;k x;kA fiQj ckn
esa mUgsa okil cqyk fy;k x;kA vkSj fiQj os gh i+Qjeku muds lkeus j[ks x;sA
¹i`"B 185 ¼120½ ij tkjhº
fiQj LVsV~l tujy dh cSBd cqykus dk loky mBkA jktk us blds fy,
ik£y;kes.V ls oknk fd;kA ysfdu efU=ke.My us fojksèk fd;k] vkSj ,d ^iQqy
dksVZ* xfBr djus dk u;k çLrko j[kkA ysfdu bldk nks vkèkkjksa ij fojksèk gqvk
% igyk ;g fd lS¼kfUrd vkèkkj ij ljdkj dks Lo;a dks cnyus dk dksbZ
vfèkdkj ugha FkkA bl rjg dh ut+hj uqo+Qlkunsg gksxhA nwljk fojksèk Lo:i dks
ysdj Fkk] blds fojksèk esa ;g nyhy nh x;h fd ;g ,d foLrkfjr efU=ke.My
ds vykok vkSj dqN u gksrkA
vr% ik£y;kes.V us bl çLrko dks Bqdjk fn;kA rc mls l'kL=k lsukvksa ls
?ksj fy;k x;kA dbZ fnuksa rd ;g ?ksjscUnh pyrh jghA fiQj Hkh ik£y;kes.V
viuh ckr ij vM+h jghA rc mlds dbZ lnL;ksa dks fxjÝ+rkj djds vyx&vyx
tsyksa esa Hkst fn;k x;kA
bldk fojksèk&çn'kZu djus ds fy, fczVSuh ls ,d çfrfufèke.My vk;kA
mlds lnL;ksa dks ckLrh; (tsy) Hkst fn;k x;kA
^vlsEcyh vkWi+Q uksVscYl* fiQj cqyk;h x;h] vkSj LVsV~l tujy dh cSBd
cqykus ds fy, fiQj ogh rjho+Qk viukus dk i+QSlyk fd;k x;k] tks 1614 esa
viuk;k x;k FkkA
ik£y;kes.V us r; fd;k fd blds fy, dqy 1200 lnL;ksa esa ls 600
140 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
lkèkkj.k turk ls] 300 iknjh oxZ ls] vkSj 300 dqyhu oxZ ls pqus tkus pkfg,A
LVsV~l tujy1 dh cSBd ebZ 1789 esa gqbZA dqyhu oxZ vkSj iknjh oxZ
ds çfrfufèk nks vyx&vyx d{kksa esa cSBsA
i` " B 186 ¼121½
rhljh Js.kh] ;k lkèkkj.k turk ds çfrfufèk;ksa us iknjh oxZ vkSj dqyhu oxZ
ds bl vfèkdkj dks ekuus ls bUdkj dj fn;k vkSj Lo;a dks ^jk"Vª ds çfrfufèk*
?kksf"kr djrs gq,] vius d{k esa lkFk cSBs jk"Vªh; çfrfufèk;ksa ds vykok] vU;
fdlh Hkh gSfl;r ds fdlh Hkh lnL; dk dksbZ Hkh vfèkdkj ekuus ls bUdkj
dj fn;kA bl çdkj] LVsV~l tujy gh ^jk"Vªh; vlsEcyh* gks x;hA mlus nwljs
d{kksa esa vkeU=k.k HkstAs iknjh oxZ ds çfrfufèk;ksa dh vfèkdrj la[;k muds lkFk
vk x;hA dqyhu oxZ ds 45 lnL; muds lkFk vk x;s] fiQj mudh la[;k
c<+dj 80 vkSj ckn esa mlls Hkh vfèkd gks x;hA
i` " B 187 ¼122½
Vsful dksVZ dh 'kiFk
dqyhu oxZ vkSj iknjh oxZ ds nq"V rÙo jk"Vªh; vlsEcyh dks m[kkM+ iQsaduk
pkgrs FksA mUgksaus efU=ke.My ds lkFk feydj "kM~;U=k jpkA jk"Vª ds çfrfufèk;ksa
dh ekStwnxh esa gh d{k dk njokt+k cUn dj fn;k x;k vkSj ml ij vaxj{kd
lsuk dk igjk cSBk fn;k x;kA rc os ,d Vsful dksVZ dh vksj c<+ x;s] vkSj
ogk¡ lcus feydj 'kiFk [kk;h fd tc rd os ,d lafoèkku dh LFkkiuk ugha
dj ysrs] rc rd vyx ugha gksaxsA
ckLrh;2
nwljs fnu d{k dk njokt+k muds fy, fiQj [kksy fn;k x;kA ysfdu
pqids&pqids 30 gt+kj dh i+QkSt isfjl dks ?ksjus ds fy, jokuk dh tk pqdh FkhA
1- LVsV~l tujy % 175 o"kZ ds yEcs vUrjky ds ckn ebZ 1789 esa bldh cSBd gqbZA
[k+t+kuk [k+kyh gks tkus ds dkj.k etcwj gksdj lezkV yqbZ pkSngosa dks lkeUrksa] ppZ vkSj
cqtqZvk oxZ ds çfrfufèk;ksa dh ;g cSBd cqykuh iM+hA igyh nksuksa Jsf.k;ksa ds o+Qjhc
300&300 vkSj rhljh Js.kh ds blls nksxuq s çfrfufèk vk;sA tYn gh ;g ,d u;s jktuhfrd
la?k"kZ dk dsUæ cu x;hA turk ds çfrfufèk;ksa us c<+dj igy vius gkFk esa ys yhA ç+Qkalhlh
ØkfUr ds rwi+Qkuh ?kVukØe dh 'kq#vkr blh ls gqbZA
2- ckLrh; % isfjl ls dqN nwj fLFkr ckLrh; dk fo+Qyk] tgk¡ jktrU=k fojksèkh cfUn;ksa
dks j[kk vkSj ;kruk,¡ nh tkrh Fkha] fujadq'krk vkSj neu dk ,d ?k`f.kr çrhd FkkA 14
tqykbZ 1789 dks fugRFkh turk dh HkhM+ us bl ij èkkok cksydj o+QCt+k dj fy;kA

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 141


isfjl dh fugRFkh HkhM+ us ckLrh; ij èkkok cksy fn;k] ckLrh; dk iru gks x;kA
14 tqykbZ 1789

olkZbZ1 %
5 vDVwcj 1789 & gt+kjksa L=kh&iq#"k jk"Vªh; çrhd ds çfr vaxj{kd lsuk
}kjk fd;s x;s xqLrk[k+h Hkjs O;ogkj dk cnyk ysus ds fy, olkZbZ dh vksj dwp
dj x;sA bls olkZbZ vfHk;ku ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA mlds ckn ?kVh ?kVukvksa
ds iQyLo:i jktk dks isfjl yk;k x;kA
i` " B 188 ¼123½
çR;sd jk"Vª dk foosd tc tkx tkrk gS] rks og vius lHkh mís';ksa ds fy,
i;kZIr fl¼ gksrk gSA (i`"B 112] jkbV~l vkWi+Q eSu)2

pw¡fd gj dky esa ljdkj dk Lo:i iwjh rjg ls jk"Vª dh bPNk dk gh


ekeyk jgk gS] ;kuh fd vxj mlus jktrU=kkRed Lo:i pquk] rks ,slk djus dk
mls vfèkdkj Fkk_ vkSj mlds ckn vxj mlus x.krkfU=kd gksuk ilUn fd;k] rks
mldk vfèkdkj Fkk fd og x.krkfU=kd gks] vkSj jktk ls ;g dgs fd ¶vc
rqEgkjs fy, gekjs ikl dksbZ xaqtkb'k ugha gSA¸
gkml vkWi+Q ykWMZ~l esa] eU=kh vyZ vkWi+Q lsycksuZ 3
i` " B 189 ¼124½
jktk %
;fn dgha dksbZ ,slk vkneh gks tks vU; lcls yksdksÙkj :i esa bruk vfèkd
cqf¼eku gks fd jk"Vª ds lapkyu ds fy, mldh cqf¼ t+:jh gks] rc rks jkt'kkgh
dk dqN vkSfpR; ekuk tk ldrk gS] ysfdu tc ge fdlh ns'k ij ut+j nkSM+krs
gSa vkSj ns[krs gSa fd dSls mldk gjsd fgLlk vius ekeyksa dh lw>cw> j[krk
1- olkZbZ % isfjl ls dqN nwj fLFkr olkZbZ ds egyksa esa jktk vkSj mlds efU=k;ksa dk
fBdkuk Fkk tgk¡ ls os lsuk ds lgkjs ØkfUr dks nckus dh dksf'k'k dj jgs FksA 5 vDVwcj
1789 dks gt+kjksa yksxksa us olkZbZ ij èkkok cksyk vkSj jktk yqbZ pkSngosa] jkuh eSjh
vUrks;usr rFkk muds veys dks cUnh cukdj isfjl ys vk;sA
2- VkWel isu dh jpuk jkbV~l vkWi+Q eSu ls (ns[ksa i`"B 14 ¼11½ dk lUnHkZ 3)
3- çFke vyZ vkWiQ+ lsYcksuZ jkm.Msy ikej (1812&1895) ;k mldk iq=k f}rh; vyZ
vkWiQ+ lsYcksuZ fofy;e okYMxzos ikej (1859&1942)A nksuksa gh fczfV'k laln ds lnL;
FksA
isu vkSj lsYcksuZ ds m¼j.k eksVs v{kjksa esa ist ij frjNs fy[ks gq, gSaA
142 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
gS_ vkSj tc ge iwjh nqfu;k ij ut+j nkSM+krs gSa vkSj ns[krs gSa fd blesa jgus okys
lHkh euq";ksa esa ls jktkvksa dk gh oa'k ,slk gS tks viuh {kerk esa lcls ux.;
gS] rc gekjh cqf¼ bl loky ij pdjkus yxrh gS fd & vkf[k+j bu yksxksa dks
D;ksa cjo+Qjkj j[kk x;k gS\ 1121

viekudrkZ %
¶;fn VSDlksa ds T+kYq eks&flre dks [k+Re djus dh xjt ls jkt'kkgh vkSj gjsd
fo+QLe dh oa'kkuqxr ljdkj dh èkks[kkèkM+h vkSj Ny&diV ls Hkjh VSDl&uhfr
dk Hk.MkiQksM+ djuk & vlgk; cPpksa dh f'k{kk rFkk cw<+ksa ,oa eqlhcr ds ekjs
yksxksa dh lgk;rk dh ;kstuk,¡ çLrkfor djuk & ;q¼ ds ?k`f.kr pyu dks [k+Re
djuk & lkoZHkkSfed 'kkfUr] lH;rk vkSj okf.kT; dks çksRlkfgr djuk & vkSj
jktuhfrd vUèkfo'okl dh csfM+;ksa dks rksM+ Mkyuk] rFkk vèkksxfr ds f'kdkj
euq"; dks mldh okftc xfjek rd mBkuk & ;fn ;s lc pht+sa viekutud
gS]a rks eq>s ,d viekudrkZ dk thou thus nks] vkSj esjh o+Qcz ij ¶viekudrkZ¸
dk uke [kqnok nsukA¸ xi 2
i` " B 190 ¼125 ½
ysfdu tc LFkku ugha cfYd fl¼kUr deZ dks ÅtZfLor djus okyk dkj.k
cu tkrk gS] rks eSa ns[krk gw¡ fd vkneh gj txg ,d gh tSlk gks tkrk gSA3

e`R;q %
;fn ge vej gksrs rks cgqr nq[kh gksrs] blesa dksbZ 'kd ugha fd ejuk dfBu
gS] ij ;g lkspuk eèkqj yxrk gS fd ge ges'kk thrs gh ugha jgsaxsA4
(i`"B 45] ,feyh)
lektoknh O;oLFkk %
¶çR;sd ls mldh ;ksX;rk ds vuqlkj] çR;sd dks mldh vko';drk ds
vuqlkjA¸5

1- VkWel isu] jkbV~l vkWi+Q eSu


2- fczfV'k ljdkj }kjk jktæksg dk eqo+Qnek pyk;s tkus ij VkWel isu }kjk fn;k x;k
çfl¼ tokc
3- vkSj 4- ;s nksuksa m¼j.k eksVs v{kjksa esa ist ij frjNs fy[ks gq, gSaA
5- 'kks"k.k&foghu] oxZ&foghu] jkT;&foghu lkE;oknh lekt dks vfHkyf{kr djus okyk
ekDlZ&,axsYl dk çfl¼ lw=k okD;

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 143


lkgfldrk ØkfUr esa liQyrk dh tku gSA

nkUrksa1 dk dguk Fkk] ¶dkjZokbZ] dkjZokbZA lÙkk igys] cgl ckn esa¸A2

i` " B 191 ¼126½

:lh ç;ksx3
1917&27
1- i+Qsl ,.M ekb.M ^^cksY'ksfodksa dk n'kZu ,dne]
vkWiQ+ cksY'ksfoT+e vkØked :i ls HkkS f rdoknh gS ]
ys- jsus iQqyi&feyj ftldh ,d eqfDrnk;h fo'ks"krk dks
2- jf'k;k muds dV~Vj ls dV~Vj nq'euksa rd dks
ys- ekdho&vks*gkjk Lohdkj djuk iM+sxk] vkSj og ;g fd
3- jf'k;u fjoksY;w'ku muesa fdlh Hkh çdkj ds foHkze dk iwjh
ys- ySalykWV yksVu (eSdfeyu) rjg vHkko gSA
4- cksY'ksfoLV jf'k;k os vius laLFkkid ds bl fo'okl
ys- ,.Vu dkyZxzhu ij iwjh n`<+rk ls o+Qk;e gSa fd ¶çR;sd
5- fyVjspj ,.M fjoksY;w'ku pht+ dks çkÑfrd fu;eksa }kjk ;k] ,d
& =kkRLdh ladh.kZrj vFkZ esa dgsa rks] HkkSfrd
6- ekDlZ&ysfuu ,.M lkbal fØ;k foKku (fiQftvkWfyth) }kjk
vkWi+Q fjoksY;w'ku O;k[;kf;r fd;k tk ldrk gSA¸
ys- ,.Vu dkyZxzhu & i`"B 30

1- tkWtZ tkd nkUrksa (1769&1794) % ç+Qkalhlh ØkfUrdkjhA ç[kj oDrk vkSj ç+Qkalhlh
ØkfUr ds lcls jSfMdy usrkvksa esa ls ,dA jkt'kkgh dks m[kkM+ iQsadus (1792) esa mldh
çeq[k Hkwfedk FkhA og vLFkk;h ljdkj dk çeq[k cuk vkSj ^ukxfjd lqj{kk dh desVh*
dh LFkkiuk dh tks ckn esa ØkfUrdkjh vkrad o+Qk;e djus dk lkèku cu x;hA
2- ;s nksuksa okD; eksVs v{kjksa esa ist ij frjNs fy[ks gq, gSaA
3- Hkxr¯lg us ,d vksj dqN iqLrdksa vkSj muds ys[kdksa ds uke ntZ fd;s gSa vkSj muds
lkeus ,d m¼j.k fy[kk gS ftldk Ïksr Li"V ugha gSA
144 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
ekDlZ us dgk gS] ¶nk'kZfudksa us] bl nqfu;k dh egt rjg&rjg ls O;k[;k
dh gS] njvly egÙoiw.kZ ckr rks bls cnyus dh gSA¸1

i` " B 192 ¼127½

èkeZ vkSj lektokn


¶èkeZ ekuork ds fy, vi+Qhe gS¸] ekDlZ dk dguk FkkA2

¶lkjs ds lkjs Hkkooknh fpUru vUrr% ,d u ,d çdkj dh nSoh;rk dh


voèkkj.kk ij gh tk igq¡prs gSa] vkSj blhfy,] ekDlZokfn;ksa dh ut+j esa] os 'kq¼
cdokl gSaA ;gk¡ rd fd gsxsy3 dks Hkh bl nqfu;k ij 'kklu djus okyh çR;sd
vPNh vkSj rdZlaxr pht+ dk Bksl :i bZ'oj esa gh fn[kk;h nsrk FkkA Hkkooknh
fl¼kUr çR;sd pht+ dks cjcl blh vHkkxs idh nk<+h okys (vFkkZr bZ'oj &
l-) ds dUèkksa ij Mky nsrk gS] tks mlds HkDrksa dh f'k{kkvksa ds vuqlkj] iw.kZ
gS] vkSj ftlus] vkne ds vykok] fiLlqvksa vkSj os';kvksa] o+Qkfryksa vkSj dksf<+;ksa]
Hkw[k vkSj nq[k] Iysx vkSj oksndk dh l`f"V dh gS] rkfd mu ikfi;ksa dks lt+k
ns lds] ftudks mlus [+kqn gh iSnk fd;k] vkSj tks [+kqn mlh dh et+hZ ls iki
djrs gSa---A oSKkfud n`f"Vdks.k ls] ;g fl¼kUr okfg;kr gh fl¼ gksrk gSA bl
nqfu;k dh lHkh ifj?kVukvksa dh ,dek=k oSKkfud O;k[;k rks iw.kZ HkkSfrdokn gh
nsrk gSA
(i`"B 32] cq[+kkfju)4

muds (;kuh HkkSfrdokfn;ksa ds & l-) vuqlkj]


vkjEHk esa Fkh çÑfr_ mlls thou_ vkSj thou ls fpUru vkSj os lkjh

1- ekDlZ dh Fkhfll vkWu i+Qk;jck[k+ ls


2- ns[ksa uksVcqd i`"B 40 ¼37½ dk lUnHkZ 1
3- xsvksxZ foYgsYe ç+QsMfjd gsxsy (1770&183) % teZu nk'kZfud ftlus fpUru vkSj
O;k[;k dh }U}kRed i¼fr nh] ftls ekDlZ us HkkSfrdoknh n'kZu ds fy, viuk;k & ijUrq
myVdj] D;ksafd bl i¼fr ls gsxsy us psruk ;k ije rÙo ;k bZ'oj dks çkFkfed dgk
Fkk tcfd blh dk bLrseky dj ekDlZ us inkFkZ dks çkFkfed vkSj psruk dks mlls O;qRiUu
fl¼ fd;kA
4- ns[ksa uksVcqd i`"B 5 0 ¼47½ dk lUnHkZ 2
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 145
vfHkO;fDr;k¡] ftUgsa ge ekufld ;k uSfrd ifj?kVuk,¡ dgrs gSaA vkRek tSlh
dksbZ pht+ gS gh ugha] vkSj eu%psruk inkFkZ dh] ,d [k+kl <ax ls laxfBr] ,d
fØ;k ds vykok vkSj dqN ugha gSA1
(i`"B) 33

i` " B 193 ¼128½


vke cx+kor ds ckjs esa ekDlZ dk n`f"Vdks.k
igyh ckr %
¶vxj vke cx+kor dks mlds dM+os vatke rd ys tkus (vFkkZr & mlds
lkjs ifj.kkeksa dks >syus) dk n`<+ladYi u gks] rks mlds lkFk [ksyks erA vke
cx+kor ,d ,slk lehdj.k gS ftlds eku cgqr vfuf'pr gksrs gSa] tks gj fnu
cny ldrs gSaA blesa ftu 'kfDr;ksa dk fojksèk fd;k tkuk gksrk gS muds ikl
laxBu] vuq'kklu vkSj ijEijkxr lÙkk dh lkjh vuqdwy fLFkfr;k¡ gksrh gSaA
¶vxj vke cx+kor djus okys vius 'k=kqvksa ds f[k+yki+Q Hkkjh rko+Qr ugha
tqVk ik;sa] rks os dqpy Mkys vkSj u"V dj fn;s tk;saxsA
nwljh ckr %
¶;fn vke cx+kor ,d ckj 'kq: gks x;h] rks ;g vko';d gS fd iwjs
ladYi ds lkFk dkjZokbZ dh tk;s vkSj vkØked #[k+ vf[+r;kj fd;k tk;sA
j{kkRed #[k+ gjsd l'kL=k vke cx+kor dh ekSr lkfcr gksrk gS_ ;g nq'eu ls
t+ksj&vkt+ekb'k djus ls igys gh rckg gks tkrk gSA nq'eu dks mlh oD+r
gDdk&cDdk dj Mkyuk vko';d gS tc mlds lSfud vHkh fc[kjs gq, gksa]
vkSj gj jkst+ u;h&u;h liQyrk,¡ gkfly djuk t+:jh gS] pkgs os fdruh Hkh
NksVh D;ksa u gksaA igyh liQyrk ls c<+s eukscy dks cuk;s j[kuk t+:jh gSA
Mk¡ok¡Mksy rÙoksa dks vke cx+kor ds i{k esa ykecUn djuk t+:jh gS] tks
ges'kk gh rko+Qroj ds ihNs gks ysrs gSa] vkSj ges'kk vfèkd lqjf{kr i{k ryk'krs
jgrs gSa--- ,d 'kCn esa nkUrksa & vc rd dh tkudkjh esa ØkfUrdkjh uhfr ds
lcls cM+s fo'kkjn & ds bu 'kCnksa ds vuqlkj dkjZokbZ djks % lkgfldrk---
lkgfldrk---vkSj ,d ckj fiQj lkgfldrk!¸2
1- ogh
2- ,axYs l] teZuh esa ØkfUr rFkk çfrØkfUr lsA Hkxr¯lg us ;g m¼j.k ewy jpuk ls ugha]
cfYd ,d vU; iqLrd ls fy;k Fkk vkSj blhfy, og bl Hkze esa jgs fd og ekDlZ dks
m¼`r dj jgs gSaA
146 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
uksVcqd esa vxyh fy[kkoV i`"B 273 ¼130½ ij gSA i`"B
194 ls i`"B 272 rd lkns gSaA ihNs Hkh ,sls gh lkns i`"B ;k
vUrjky vk;s gSaA
gks ldrk gS fd Hkxr¯lg us viuh 404 i`"Bksa dh uksVcqd
esa vius vè;;u ds fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ds vuqlkj vyx&vyx
fgLls fuèkkZfjr fd;s gksaA ;gk¡ [k+Re gq, fgLls esa i`"B 165 ¼100½
ls 193 ¼128½ rd muds uksV~l jkT; ds foKku ij & LorU=krk
vkSj lEçHkqrk dh voèkkj.kkvksa vkSj muds fodkl ij] rFkk
mudh fujUrjrk esa ç+Qkalhlh ØkfUr vkSj lksfo;r ç;ksx ij
dsfUær jgsA vxys fgLls esa fofHkUu fofoèk fo"k;ksa ij mudh
fVIif.k;k¡ vkSj iqLrdksa ds vorj.k ntZ gSaA ysfdu bu lcesa ,d
lkekU; lw=k ;g gS fd T+;knkrj rRdkyhu Hkkjrh; fLFkfr;ksa vkSj
vU; lEcfUèkr eqíksa ds ckjs esa gSaA & l-

i` " B 273 ¼130½


¶---D;k rqe pkgrs gks fd foèkku ifj"knksa dk vkSj foLrkj gks\ D;k rqe pkgrs
gks fd dqNsd Hkkjrh; rqEgkjs çfrfufèk;ksa ds :i esa gkml vkWi+Q dkeal esa tkdj
cSB\as D;k rqe pkgrs gks fd Hkkjrh;ksa dh ,d cM+h la[;k flfoy l£ol esa Hkjrh
gks tk;s\ rks vkvks ns[ksa fd D;k 50] 100] 200] ;k 300 (Hkkjrh; & l-)
flfofy;u Hkjrh gks tkus ls ljdkj gekjh gks tk;sxh---A Hkys gh iwjh dh iwjh
flfoy l£ol Hkkjrh; gks tk;s] ysfdu flfoy losZ.V~l dks rks fli+QZ gqDe dh
gh rkehy djuh gksxh & os dksbZ funsZ'k ugha ns ldrs] dksbZ uhfr ugha fuèkkZfjr
dj ldrsA ,d eqxkZ fogku ugha ykrkA fczfV'k ljdkj dh lsok esa ,d
flfofy;u] 100 flfofy;u ;k 1000 flfofy;u Hkjrh gksdj ljdkj dks
Hkkjrh; ugha cuk ldrsA tks ijEijk,¡ gSa] o+Qkuwu gSa] uhfr;k¡ gSa] mudh rkcsnkjh
rks gj flfofy;u dks djuh gksxh] pkgs og dkyk gks] Hkwjk gks] xksjk gks] vkSj tc
rd ;s ijEijk,¡ ugha cnyh tkrha] tc rd buds fl¼kUrksa esa jíkscny ugha fd;k
tkrk] vkSj tc rd budh uhfr;ksa esa vkewypwy ifjorZu ugha fd;k tkrk] rc
rd ;wjksfi;uksa ds LFkku ij Hkkjrh;ksa dks Hkjrh dj nsus ek=k ls gh bl ns'k esa
viuh ljdkj ugha o+Qk;e gks ldrh---A
vxj vkt ljdkj vkdj eq>ls dgs fd] ¶Lojkt yks¸] rks eSa bl migkj

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 147


ds fy, èkU;okn rks ns nw¡xk] ij ml pht+ dks Lohdkj ugha d:¡xk ftls eSaus Lo;a
vius gkFkksa ls v£tr ugha fd;k gS---A
¶dksbZ Hkh lÙkk tks gekjs fo#¼ tkrh gS] mls ge cjcl viuh et+hZ ds vkxs
>qdus ds fy, etcwj djsaxsA
¶---cqfu;knh pht+ ljdkj dh xfjek gSA ¹i`"B 274 ¼131½ ij tkjhº
¶D;k lkezkT; ds Hkhrj Lo&'kklu dk gksuk okLro esa ,d O;kogkfjd
vkn'kZ gks ldrk gS\ bldk eryc D;k gksxk\ bldk eryc ;k rks gekjk
dksbZ Lo&'kklu ugha gksxk] ;k baXyS.M dk gekjs Åij dksbZ okLrfod vkfèkiR;
ugha gksxkA D;k ge Lo&'kklu ds ek=k Nk;kHkkl ls gh lUrq"V gks ysaxs\ vxj
ugha rks D;k baXyS.M gekjs Åij vius ek=k Nk;kHkklh vkfèkiR; ls gh lUrq"V
gks ysxk\ nksuksa gh n'kkvksa esa] baXyS.M ,d Nk;kHkklh vkfèkiR;Hkj ls gh lUrq"V
ugha gks ldrk] vkSj ge Hkh ek=k Nk;kHkklh Lo&'kklu ls lUrq"V gksus ls bUdkj
djrs gSaA vkSj blhfy, Hkkjr esa Lo&'kklu vkSj baXyS.M ds ml ij vkfèkiR;
ds chp ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa dksbZ le>kSrk lEHko ugha gS---A ;fn Lo&'kklu &
okLrfod & gks] rks fli+QZ Hkkjr esa gh ugha] cfYd Lo;a fczfV'k lkezkT; ds
Hkhrj baXyS.M dh fLFkfr D;k gksxh\ Lo&'kklu dk eryc gS Lo;a VSDl
yxkus dk vfèkdkj] bldk eryc gS viuk fu;U=k.k] bldk eryc gS viuh
turk dks fons'kh fu;kZrksa ij laj{k.kkRed vkSj fu"ksèkkRed pqaxh yxkus dk
vfèkdkjA ftl {k.k gedks [+kqn VSDl yxkus dk vfèkdkj fey tk;sxk] ml
{k.k ge D;k djsaxs\ rc ge vkS|ksfxd ck;dkV ds bl dfBu dke esa yxus
dh dksf'k'k ugha djsaxsA cfYd ogh djsaxs tks gjsd jk"Vª djrk vk;k gSA vkt
ge ftu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa th jgs gSa] muds eísut+j ge eSupsLVj ls vkus okys
diM+s ds ,d&,d bap ij] vkSj yhM~l ls vkus okyh ,d&,d CysM ;k Nqjh
ij] Hkkjh fu"ksèkkRed vkSj laj{k.kkRed pqxa h yxk nsxa As ge vius ns'k esa ,d Hkh
vaxzst+ dks ?kqlus dh vuqefr ugha nsaxsA vkt ftl rjg fczfV'k iw¡th Hkkjrh;
lalkèkuksa ds fodkl ds uke ij ;gk¡ yxh gqbZ gS] mldh ge drbZ vuqefr
ugha nsaxsA ge fczfV'k iw¡thifr;ksa dks ns'k dh [kfut lEink dh [kqnkbZ djus
vkSj mls vius ns'k mBk ys tkus dk dksbZ vfèkdkj ugha nsaxsA ¹i`"B 275 ¼132½
ij tkjhº gesa fons'kh iw¡th dh t+:jr gksxhA ij blds fy, ge iwjh nqfu;k ds
[kqys ckt+kjksa ls fons'kh o+Qt+Z ysus dh nj[+okLr djsaxs] vkSj o+Qt+Z dh okilh ds
fy, Hkkjrh; ljdkj] Hkkjrh; jk"Vª dh lk[k dh xkj.Vh nsxa -s --A vkSj vkt ftl
rjg ls baXyS.M ds okf.kfT;d fgr fl¼ gks jgs gSa] rc] turk ds Lo&'kklu
dh n'kk esa] ugha fl¼ gksaxs] Hkys gh ;g ljdkj lkezkT; ds vèkhu gh D;ksa u

148 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


jgsA ysfdu rc lkezkT; ds Hkhrj bldk D;k eryc gksxk\ bldk eryc ;g
gksxk fd baXyS.M dks pqaxh lEcUèkh dqN rjthg ikus ds fy, gekjs lkFk dqN
o+Qjkj djus dks ckè; gksuk iM+sxkA vxj baXyS.M Hkkjr ds gekjs ckt+kjksa esa ços'k
dh [kqyh NwV pkgsxk] rks mls gekjs }kjk j[kh x;h 'krks± ds rgr gh vkuk gksxk]
vkSj ,d le; ds ckn tc ge vius lalkèkuksa dk fodkl dj ysaxs vkSj vius
vkS|ksfxd thou dks lqO;ofLFkr dj ysaxs] rc ge fli+QZ baXyS.M ds fy, gh
ugha] cfYd fczfV'k lkezkT; ds gjsd fgLls ds fy, viuk njokt+k [kksy nsaxsA
vkSj D;k rqe le>rs gks fd baXyS.M tSlk eqV~BhHkj vkcknh okyk ,d
NksVk&lk ns'k] tks pkgs fdruk Hkh vfèkd lEiUu D;ksa u gks] fu"i{krk vkSj
cjkcjh dh 'krks± ij] Hkkjr tSls çkÑfrd lalkèkuksa ls Hkjiwj ns'k ds lkFk
çfr;ksfxrk dj ldsxk] ftlds ikl bruh Hkkjh vkcknh gS] tks nqfu;k ds fdlh
Hkh Hkkx esa lcls 'kkyhu vkSj la;eh le>h tkrh gS\
¶vxj lkezkT; ds Hkhrj lpeqp gekjh viuh ljdkj gks tk;s] vxj 30
djksM+ yksxksa dks ogh LorU=krk fey tk;s tks lkezkT; dks gkfly gS] rc rks
fczfV'k lkezkT; jg gh ugha tk;sxkA Hkkjrh; lkezkT; gks tk;sxk---A¸
fc-p- iky 1
U;w fLifjV] 1907 esa
i` " B 276 ¼133½

fgUnw lH;rk %
gesa ,slk yx ldrk gS fd vius dbZ i{kksa dh n`f"V ls ;g ,d ,slk yxHkx
vdYiuh;&lk leqPp; gS ftlesa ,d rji+Q vkè;kfRed Hkkookn gS rks nwljh
rji+Q LFkwy HkkSfrdokn Hkh gS] ,d rji+Q bfUæ;fuxzg gS rks nwljh rji+Q
bfUæ;fyIlk Hkh gS] ,d rji+Q ;g ekuoh; vkRek dks oSf'od vkRek ds lkFk
,dkdkj djus dk niZHkjk nkok djrh gS rFkk euq"; dks nSoh;rk esa vkSj nSoh;rk
dks euq"; esa lekfgr djrh gS] rks nwljh rji+Q og grk'k dj nsus okyk fujk'kkokn
Hkh gS ftlds rgr ;g mins'k nsrh gS fd thou viusvki esa nq[knk;h çrhfr

1- fcfiupUæ iky (1858&1932) % Lokèkhurk laxzke ds nkSjku caxky esa ,oa vU;=k
Lons'kh ,oa fons'kh oLrqvksa ds cfg"dkj vkUnksyuksa ds çeq[k usrk_ cky xaxkèkj fryd] ykyk
yktir jk; vkSj fcfiupUæ iky ;kuh ^yky&cky&iky* dh frdM+h us dkaxzsl esa ^xje
ny* dk usr`Ro fd;kA iky us dbZ v[k+ckjksa tSls U;w bf.M;k] oUnsekrje] Lojkt] n
bf.Mis.Ms.V ,oa U;w fLifjV dk lEiknu fd;kA

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 149


ds vykok vkSj dqN ugha gS vkSj fd blls eqfDr dk ,oa lHkh cqjkb;ksa ds vUr
dk] ,dek=k mik; vfLrRoghu gks tkus esa gh gSA
f'kjksy i`"B 26
bf.M;u vujsLV 1

f'k{kk uhfr %
Hkkjr esa if'peh f'k{kk dks pkyw djus dk ewy eUrO; ukStoku Hkkjrh;ksa dh
,d vPNh&[k+klh la[;k dks çf'kf{kr djuk Fkk] rkfd ljdkjh nÝ+rjksa esa ekrgrh
inksa dks vaxzst+h cksyus okys ns'kt yksxksa ls Hkjk tk ldsA
i`"B 34 2

i` " B 277 ¼134½


fczfV'k ukSdj'kkgh ds vR;kpkj ds f[k+yki+Q viusvki dks jktuhfrd
vkUnksyu esa >ksad nsus okys fdrus if'peh f'k{kkçkIr Hkkjrh;ksa us vius
ns'kokfl;ksa dks mudh lkekftd cqjkb;ksa dh u`'kalrk ls eqDr djus ds fy,
dHkh v¡xqyh mBk;h gS\ muesa ls fdrus ,sls gSa tks Lo;a blls eqDr gSa] ;k]
;fn eqDr Hkh gSa] rks D;k muesa vius fopkj ds vuqlkj vkpj.k djus dk
lkgl Hkh gS\
bf.M;k vksYM ,.M U;w] i`"B 107 3
i` " B 278 ¼135 ½

fdlh Hkkjrh; laln dh dYiuk djuk dfBu gS!


Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxl
sz yxHkx 'kq: ls gh ,d laln dh dk;Z'kSyh vf[+r;kj
dj pqdh FkhA ijUrq Hkkjr esa laln dh u rks dksbZ xqatkb'k Fkh] vkSj u gS dkj.k

1- lj oSys.Vkbu f'kjksy (1858&1929) % ,d e'kgwj fczfV'k i=kdkj] ftUgksaus Hkkjr


dk 17 ckj nkSjk fd;k_ mUgksaus Hkkjr lEcUèkh nks çeq[k fdrkcsa fy[kha % bf.M;u vujsLV
vkSj bf.M;k % vksYM ,.M U;wA og 1890 ls 1912 rd yUnu ds ^VkbEl* v[k+ckj ds
fons'k foHkkx ds çHkkjh Fks rFkk 1912 ls 1914 rd Hkkjrh; yksd lsok vk;ksx ds lnL;
Hkh jgsA
2- bf.M;u vujsLV ls
3- f'kjksy dh iqLrd

150 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


fd tc rd fczfV'k 'kklu ,d okLrfodrk cuk jgsxk] rc rd Hkkjrh; ljdkj]
tSlkfd ykWMZ ekslyh us lki+QrkSj ij dgk gS] ,d fujadq'k rU=k gh gks ldrk gS
& tks Hkys gh dY;k.kdkjh gks vkSj Hkkjrh; fopkjksa ds lkFk iwjh lgkuqHkwfr j[ks]
fiQj Hkh ,d fujadq'krU=k gh gksxkA
154] vujsLV 1

dkaxzsl dk mís'; ;k y{; %


¶Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl dk mís'; Hkkjrh; turk dks ljdkj dh ,d ,slh
ç.kkyh miyCèk djkuk gS tks Bhd oSlh gh gks tSlhfd fczfV'k lkezkT; ds
vUrxZr Lo&'kkflr ns'k pyk jgs gS]a ftlesa os lkezkT; ds vfèkdkjksa vkSj nkf;Roksa
esa cjkcj ds Hkkxhnkj gksaA¸
ekyoh; th dk vè;{kh; Hkk"k.k 1909 2
(dkaxzsl dk ykgkSj vfèkos'ku)
i` " B 276 ¼136½

LorU=k Hkkjr dk lafoèkku1


vkSj dksbZ ugha] cfYd Lo;a (Hkkjr) ek¡ gh ;g r; djsxh vkSj dj
ldrh gS fd ,d ckj tc og viuh vfLerk ik ysrh gS vkSj vkt+kn gks
tkrh gS rks bl ØkfUr ds lEiUu gks tkus ds ckn og vius thou ds
ekxZ&n'kZu ds fy, dkSu&lk lafoèkku viuk;sxh---A fcuk foLrkj esa x;s] ge
bruk dg ldrs gSa fd Hkkjrh; jk"Vª dh bEihfj;y ljdkj dk eqf[k;k
jk"Vªifr cusxk ;k jktk] ;g bl ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd ;g ØkfUr Lo;a dks
dSls vkxs c<+krh gS---A ek¡ dk vkt+kn gksuk] mldk v[k.M vkSj ,d gksuk]
rFkk mldh bPNk dk loksZifj jguk t+:jh gSA mlds ckn gh og viuh
bPNk t+kfgj dj ldrh gS fd og vius flj ij jktlh eqdqV èkkj.k djs
;k viuh ifo=k dk;k dks x.krkfU=kd ifjèkku ls vkosf"Br djsA

1- f'kjksy dh bf.M;u vujsLV_ Hkxr¯lg us f'kjksy dh iqLrd ls foLr`r uksV~l fy;s gSaA
[k+kldj blesa m¼`r usrkvksa ds Hkk"k.kksa vkSj ijpksa lsA ihNs vk;k fcfiupUæ iky dk yEck
m¼j.k vkSj vkxs vk;k enueksgu ekyoh; dk m¼j.k blh iqLrd ls fy;k x;k gSA
2- if.Mr enu eksgu ekyoh; (1861&1946)

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 151


ij er Hkwyks gs jktkvks! fd rqEgkjs ÑR;ksa vkSj vÑR;ksa dk dM+k fglkc
fy;k tk;sxk] vkSj u;k tUe ik;h gqbZ turk rqEgkjs lkFk rqEgkjs gh <ax ls fglkc
pqdrk djus esa ugha pwdsxhA gj dksbZ tks turk ds lkFk lfØ; :i ls
fo'okl?kkr djsxk] vius iqj[kksa dk frjLdkj djsxk] vkSj ek¡ ds f[k+yki+Q
tkdj vius [+kwu dks xUnk djsxk---mls dqpy dj èkwy vkSj xnZ esa feyk fn;k
tk;sxk---A D;k rqEgsa gekjs bl dBksj ladYi ij 'kqcgk gS\ vxj gS] rks lqu yks
uke èkhaxjk1 dk vkSj pqi dj tkvksA ml 'kghn dk uke ysdj dgrs gSa fd vjs
Hkkjrh; jktkvks] bu 'kCnksa ij xEHkhjrk ls vkSj xgjkbZ ls lkspksA tSlh et+hZ gks
djks] ysfdu rqe ogh ikvksxs tks cksvksxsA pqu yks fd rqe jk"Vª ds laLFkkidksa esa
igyk cuksxs ;k jk"Vª ds vR;kpkfj;ksa esa vkf[k+jhA
i`"B 196] bf.M;u vujsLV
¶r; djks] vks Hkkjrh; 'kkldks¸ 2

vNwr %
jktuhfrd n`f"Vdks.k ls Hkkjrh; vkcknh ds yk[kksa&yk[k yksxksa dk vius
'kkldksa dh vkLFkk ds vuq:i èkekZUrj.k ,slh lEHkkoukvksa ds }kj [kksy nsxk fd
eSa mudk foLrkjiwoZd o.kZu djus dh t+:jr ugha eglwl djrkA
i`"B 184 3

1- enuyky èkhaxjk % yUnu esa ^bf.M;u gkse:y lkslk;Vh* rFkk ^bf.M;k gkml xzqi*
ls tqM+s ;qok ØkfUrdkjhA bldh LFkkiuk ØkfUrdkjh ';keth Ñ".k oekZ us ykyk gjn;ky]
lkojdj vkSj èkhaxjk tSls ns'kHkDr ;qokvksa dks lkFk ysdj dh FkhA enuyky èkhaxjk us
cax&Hkax vkSj mlds ckn ns'k esa pys vkUnksyu ij ccZj neu ds fojksèk esa lj fofy;e
dtZu ok;Zyh dh yUnu esa 1 tqykbZ 1909 dks xksyh ekj dj gR;k dj nhA mUgsa ckn esa
iQk¡lh ns nh x;hA
2- ¶r; djks] vks Hkkjrh; 'kkldks¸ 'kh"kZd ;g ijpk jk"Vªoknh ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us Hkkjr
ds jtokM+ksa@fj;klrksa ds 'kkldksa ds uke Hkstk FkkA ,d 'kkld us bls f'kjksy dks fn;k Fkk
ftlus blds nks fgLls viuh iqLrd bf.M;u vujsLV esa 'kkfey fd;sA
3- f'kjksy] bf.M;u vujsLV] vè;k; ^nfyr tkfr;k¡* ls

152 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


i` " B 280 ¼137½
gR;k ukW; ;K1
lksus dh eqæk ikus ds ykyp esa ekuo os"kèkkjh dqN ns'kh ujfi'kkpksa] Hkkjr
ds dyad & iqfyl & us okjhUæ ?kks"k2 vkfn mu egku liwrksa dks fxjÝ+rkj dj
fy;k] tks vius futh fgrksa dk cfynku djds vkSj ce cukus tSls ^;K* ds
ifo=k vuq"Bku dks iwjk djus esa vius thou dks le£ir djds] vius ns'k dh
vkt+knh ds fy, dke dj jgs FksA bu ujfi'kkpksa esa lcls cM+k ujfi'kkp] vk'kqrks"k
fo'okl3 bu cgknqj liwrksa dks iQk¡lh ds r[+rs ij igq¡pkus dk jkLrk lki+Q djus
yxkA ysfdu 'kkckl pk#4! (vk'kqrks"k fo'okl dks [k+Re djus okys) rqEgkjs
ek¡&cki loZiwT; gSaA rqeus mudk xkSjo c<+k;k] loksZPp lkgl dk ifjp; fn;k]
tks bl {k.kHkaxqj thou dh ijokg u djrs gq,] ml ujfi'kkp dh bl nqfu;k
ls NqV~Vh dj nhA vHkh T+;knk fnu ugha gq, tc xksjksa us] Ny&cy ls Hkkjr dks
Hkkjrh;ksa (ewy ikB esa eqgEeMuksa & l-) ls] mpDdksa dh rjg >iV fy;k FkkA
vkSj og dehuk 'kEl&my&vkye5] ftlus ml vkyexhj ikn'kk6 dk jkLrk

1- gR;k ugha ;K % ;g iwjk vorj.k f'kjksy dh iqLrd bf.M;u vujsLV (eSdfeyu ,.M
dEiuh] yUnu ls 1910 esa çdkf'kr) ds fVIif.k;ksa okys fgLls ls fy;k x;k gSA blesa ¶n
fjewoy vkWi+Q bui+QkeZlZ¸ (Hksfn;ksa dk liQk;k) 'kh"kZd ds vUrxZr fy[kk x;k gS fd
¶'kEl&my&vkye dh gR;k ds rqjUr ckn fuEufyf[kr vihy¸ ØkfUrdkfj;ksa }kjk dydÙks
esa tkjh dh x;h %
^gR;k ukW; ;K* (gR;k ugha ;K)
uo+Qn buke % ,d ;wjksih; ;k nks Hksfn;ksa dk flj dkVus ij
50ok¡ vad] dydÙkk] jfookj pS=k v"Veh 1316)
2- okjhUæ ?kks"k % vjfoUnks ?kks"k ds NksVs HkkbZ vkSj ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds ekfudryk xzqi ds
,d usrk] tks vyhiqj "kM~;U=k dsl (ebZ 1909) ds vfHk;qDr Fks_ os ^;qxkUrj* uked
ØkfUrdkjh i=k Hkh çdkf'kr djrs FksA
3- vk'kqrks"k fo'okl % ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks lt+k fnykus ds fy, reke x+yr rjho+Qs viukus
okyk vaxzst+ijLr ,d ljdkjh odhy ftls vyhiqj iqfyl dksVZ ls ckgj ØkfUrdkjh pk#
pUæ xqgk us xksyh ekjdj ekSr ds ?kkV mrkj fn;kA
4- pk#pUæ xqgk % ,d ohj r#.k ftlus nk;sa gkFk dh gFksyh tUe ls gh ugha gksus ds
ckotwn ns'kæksgh ljdkjh odhy vk'kqrks"k fo'okl dks xksyh ekj nhA mls 10 ekpZ 1909
dks vyhiqj ls.Vªy tsy esa iQk¡lh ns nh x;hA
5- 'kEl&my&vkye % fczfV'k iqfyl dk lh-vkbZ-Mh- baLisDVj tks ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh
lqjkxj'kh djrk FkkA mls ohjsUæukFk nÙk us 24 tuojh] 1910 dks xksyh ls mM+k fn;k_ bl
ukStoku ØkfUrdkjh dks 21 i+Qjojh 1910 dks iQk¡lh ns nh x;hA
6- vkyexhj ikn'kk % eqxy ckn'kkg vkSjxatsc

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 153


viuk;k] ftlus lksus dh eqæk ikus dh ykyp esa iwoZtksa ds uke dks dyafdr
fd;k & vkt ml nqjkpkjh dks rqeus Hkkjr dh bl ifo=k èkjrh ls feVk fn;k
gSA ujsu xkslkb±1 ls ysdj rfyr pØorhZ rd lHkh ml dehus tkylkt+
'kEl&my&vkye dh tkylkft+;ksa vkSj ;kruk ds iQyLo:i ljdkjh xokg cu
x;s FksA vxj rqeus ujfi'kkpksa ds bl ennxkj dh NqV~Vh ugha dj nh gksrh] rks
D;k Hkkjr ds fy, dksbZ mEehn cph jg tkrh\
dbZ yksx ;g ph[k+&iqdkj epk jgs gSa fd foæksg djuk egkiki gSA ysfdu
foæksg gS D;k\ D;k Hkkjr esa dksbZ ,slh pht+ gS] ftlds f[k+yki+Q foæksg fd;k
tk,\ D;k ,d fiQjaxh dks Hkkjr dk jktk ekuk tk ldrk gS] ftlds Li'kZek=k
ls] ftldh egt ijNkb± iM+ tkus ls gh fgUnw viuk 'kqf¼dj.k djus ds fy,
ckè; gks tkrs gSa\
;s egt if'peh yqVjs s gSa tks Hkkjr dks ywV jgs gS-a --A mUgsa fudky ckgj djks]
gs Hkkjr ds liwrks! os rqEgsa tgk¡ dgha Hkh feysa] mu ij vkSj muds lkFkh tklwlksa
vkSj [+kqfi+Q;k ,ts.Vksa ij dksbZ jge er djksA fiNys o"kZ] vdsys caxky esa gh 19
yk[k yksx cq[kkj] pspd] gStk] Iysx vkSj nwljh chekfj;ksa ls ej x;sA rqe
viusvki dks HkkX;'kkyh le>ks fd rqe cp x;s] ysfdu ;kn j[kks fd dy rqe
Hkh Iysx vkSj gStk dh pisV esa vk ldrs gksA D;k rqEgkjs fy, csgrj ugha gksxk
fd rqe cgknqjksa dh ekSr ejks\
tc bZ'oj dk ;gh foèkku gS] rks t+jk lkspks] fd D;k bl 'kqHk csyk esa Hkkjr
ds gjsd liwr dk dÙkZO; ugha gS fd og bu xksjs nq'euksa dk lagkj djss\ ¹i`"B
282 ¼138½ ij tkjhº2 viusvki dks Iysx vkSj gStk ls er ejus nks] ,slk djds
Hkkjr ek¡ dh ifo=k èkjrh dks nwf"kr er djksA iq.; vkSj iki esa i+Qo+QZ djus ds
fy, gekjs 'kkL=k gekjs ekxZn'kZd gSaA gekjs 'kkL=k ckj&ckj gesa crkrs gSa fd bu
xksjs dehuksa vkSj muds lg;ksfx;ksa ,oa lgvijkfèk;ksa dks o+QRy djuk v'oesèk
;K ds cjkcj gSA vkvks] lc ds lc vkvksA vkvks ge lc feydj bl cfyosnh
ij viuh ;Kkgqfr v£ir djsa] vkSj çkFkZuk djsa fd bl ;K esa lkjs xksjs lk¡i
bldh Tokyk esa oSls gh HkLe gks tk;sa tSls tuest; ;K esa lk¡i u"V gks x;s
FksA ;kn j[kks] ;g gR;k ugha] ;K gSA
(i`"B 342] uksV~l) vkb-;w-3
1- iwjk uke ujsUæukFk xkslkbZ % eqt+Ý+i+Qjiqj ce dk.M esa (ftlds fy, [+kqnhjke cksl dks
iQk¡lh ns nh x;h) fczfV'k ljdkj dk eq[k+fcj] ftls 31 vxLr 1908 dks dukbZ yky nÙk
vkSj lR;sUæ ukFk nÙk us ekj MkykA
2- uksVcqd i`"B la[;k 281 ugha gS] ij i`"B ¼137½ ds ckn i`"B ¼138½ dk Øe Bhd
gSA
3- f'kjksy dh iqLrd bf.M;u vujsLV
154 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
¶Hkkjr esa dqy ernkrk 62]00]000 vFkkZr Hkkjr dh dqy vkcknh dk 2¾
çfr'kr gSa ftlesa os {ks=k 'kkfey ugha] ftu ij 1919 dk o+Qkuwu ugha ykxw gksrk
FkkA¸
194
vkb-vks-,u-1

i` " B 283 ¼140½ 2

bf.M;k vksYM ,.M U;w % f'kjksy oh-


¶fczfV'k yksx ;g tku ysa fd ;fn os U;k; ugha djuk pkgrs] rks ;g çR;sd
Hkkjrh; dk ije dÙkZO; cu tk;sxk fd bl lkezkT; dks u"V dj nsA¸
egkRekth3 (ukxiqj dkaxzsl)

nsgkr vkSj 'kgj dk loky


dqN ljdkjh cqf¼eÙkk bl :i esa fn[kk;h x;h Fkh fd HkkSxksfyd fLFkfr
ij fcuk è;ku fn;s] nwj&njkt ds 'kgjksa dks ,d fuokZpu {ks=k esa j[k fn;k x;k
Fkk] rkfd ,sls 'kgjh O;fDr;ksa dks] tksfd (ljdkj ds) u pkgrs gq, Hkh vfèkd
fodflr jktuhfrd n`f"Vdks.k ik pqds Fks] mu nsgkrh fuokZpu {ks=kksa ls mEehnokj
cuus ls jksdk tk lds] ftuesa ;fn mi;qZDr O;oLFkk u dh x;h gksrh rks dbZ
,d NksVs 'kgj Hkh LokHkkfod rkSj ij 'kkfey gks tkrsA ;g ,d vkf[k+jh dksf'k'k
Fkh tks bl fo'okl ij vkèkkfjr Fkh fd iatkc dh vkcknh dks cdfj;ksa vkSj
HksM+ksa ds :i esa foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk Fkk] ftlesa cdfj;k¡ ^fo'okl?kkrh*
'kgjh yksx rFkk HksM+sa ^fo'oklik=k* fdlku leqnk; ds yksx ekus x;s FksA4

[kkylk dkyst 1892 esa LFkkfir gqvk 5

1- f'kjksy dh iqLrd bf.M;k vksYM ,.M U;w


2- uksVcqd i`"B 282 ds ckn i`"B 283 dk Øe rks Bhd gS ij ¼138½ ds ckn ¼139½ ugha]
cfYd ¼140½ fn;k x;k gSA
3- egkRek xk¡èkh_ f'kjksy dh iqLrd bf.M;k vksYM ,.M U;w ls m¼`r
4- bf.M;k vksYM ,.M U;w ls gh m¼`r
5- ewy esa] ist ds uhps dh vksj gkf'k;s ij frjNk fy[kk gqvk
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 155
i` " B 284 ¼141½
Hkkjr tSlk eSaus bls tkuk1
,d ^egkRek* dk jkLrk lpeqp dfBu gS] vkSj ;g vk'p;Ztud ugha gS
fd xk¡èkh us gky gh esa bl mikfèk dks & vkSj bldh ft+Eesnkfj;ksa dks R;kx nsus
dh dksf'k'k dh gSA Hkkjr esa mudk çHkko fujUrj ?kVrk tk jgk gS] fiQj Hkh mudk
laU;klh dk ckuk vkSj egku uSfrd lPpkb;ksa ds :i esa muds }kjk vR;Ur
dq'kyrk ls fu:fir fd;s tkus okys vLi"V vkSj vO;kogkfjd rksyLrks; ekdkZ
fl¼kUr cgqrsjs yksxksa dks lkFkZd yxus dk Hkze nsrs gSa rFkk Hkkoqd baXyS.M ds
nqcZy eu okys rFkk ç+Qkal ds dqN rdZ'khy yksx Hkh blh Hkze esa gSa] tks iwoZ ls
,d u;h jks'kuh dh mEehn yxk;s gq, gSaA i`"B 65

Hksfn;k2 %
vk;fj'k "kM~;U=kksa esa tks ?k`f.kr ysfdu mi;ksxh oxZ vkerkSj ij (Hksfn;ksa
dh & l-) vkiw£r fd;k djrk Fkk] og tM+ewy ls D;ksa lw[k x;k] blds eq[;
dkj.kksa esa ls eSa le>rk gw¡ ,d rks ;gh jgk gS fd lÙkkèkkjh vius Hksfn;s dks
fNikus vkSj cpkus esa vliQy jgs (tSls tsEl dSjh ds ekeys esa] tcfd mlh
us ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds vHksn~; fxjksg dk jgL;ksn~?kkVu fd;k Fkk vkSj mlh ds lk{;
ij czSMh] fiQV~t+gjcVZ vkSj eqysu dks iQhfuDl ikdZ dh nks gR;kvksa] vFkkZr phi+Q
lsØsVjh vkSj v.MjlsØsVjh dh gR;kvksa ds cnys iQk¡lh ij p<+k fn;k x;kA ml
Hksfn;s dh ,d ukStoku ØkfUrdkjh vks*MkWusy us] Mjcu esa] fnu&ngkM+s xksyh
ekjdj gR;k dj nhA3) xks fd gR;k djus okyk idM+k x;kA egk;q¼ ls igys
1- lj ekbdsy vks*M~ok;j (1864&1940) dh iqLrd bf.M;k ,st+ vkbZ fum bV ls
m¼`r] tks 1925@28 esa yUnu ls çdkf'kr gqbZA 1988 esa feÙky ifCyds'kal] fnYyh ls
iqueqZfærA vks*M~ok;j çFke fo'o;q¼ ds nkSjku iatkc dk ysfÝ+Vus.V xouZj Fkk] mlus iatkc
ls cM+s iSekus ij ukStokuksa dh t+cju lsuk esa Hkjrh djk;h] yksxksa dks ;q¼ ds fy, ljdkj
dks ½.k nsus ij ckè; fd;k vkSj jktuhfrd usrkvksa dks ØwjrkiwoZd çrkfM+r fd;kA
tfy;k¡okyk ckx+ dk.M dk mlus leFkZu fd;kA ckn es]a Åèke¯lg us yUnu esa mldh gR;k
dj nhA
2- bl fgLls esa vks*M~ok;j us vk;jyS.M ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa }kjk fczfV'k ljdkj ds Hksfn;ksa
ds liQk;s dk mnkgj.k nsrs gq, iatkc esa [+kqn mlds }kjk ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds fo#¼ viuk;s
rjho+Qksa dh ppkZ dh gSA
3- tc vk;fj'k ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us iQhfuDl ikdZ esa phi+Q vkSj v.MjlsØsVfj;ksa dh gR;k
dj nh] rc mUgsa idM+okus vkSj iQk¡lh p<+okus esa tsEl dSjh us eq[kfcj dh Hkwfedk fuHkk;h]
gkyk¡fd mldh Hkh iSfVªd vks*Mksuy s uked ØkfUrdkjh us xksyh ekjdj gR;k dj nh] ftlls
Hkkjr ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks Hkkjh eukscy çkIr gqvkA
156 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
vkSj mlds nkSjku] iatkc ds ysÝ+Vhus.V xouZj ds :i esa] esjk dbZ ØkfUrdkjh
"kM~;U=kksa ls ikyk iM+k] ftudk inkZi+Qk'k djus esa Hksfn;ksa dh tkfr us ,d cM+h
Hkwfedk vnk dh] vkSj gekjh lrdZrk bruh eqdEey jgh fd ,d Hkh ekeys
esa fdlh Hkh Hksfn;s ij dksbZ vk¡p ugha vk;hA1

i` " B 285 ¼142½

eSa le> ldrk gw¡ fd viuh uhprkHkjh pkyckt+h] vlkekU; vgEeU;rk]


nqjfHklfUèk jpus dh viuh tUetkr #>ku] vkSj v#fpdj rF;ksa ij inkZ Mkyus
dh {kerk ls iwjh rjg ySl Hkkjrh; "kM~;U=kdkjh dSls bl ekgkSy esa vkjke ls
dke djrs FksA
i`"B 187
bf.M;k ,st+ vkb fum bV 2

vk;Zlekt %
okLro esa vk;Zlekt if'peh çHkko ds fo#¼ ,d jk"Vªoknh iqutkZxj.k gSA
;g bl lEçnk; ds laLFkkid n;kuUn ds vkfèkdkfjd xzUFk] lR;kFkZ çdk'k esa
vius vuq;kf;;ksa dk vkàku djrk gS fd os osnksa dh vksj ykSVsa vkSj vk;ks± ds
dkYifud Lo£.ke vrhr esa Lo£.ke Hkfo"; dh ryk'k djsaA lR;kFkZ çdk'k
x+Sj&fgUnw 'kklu ds fo#¼ nyhysa Hkh nsrk gS] vkSj dqN o"kZ igys] bl lEçnk;
ds ,d vxz.kh eq[ki=k us rks n;kuUn dks gh Lojkt ds fl¼kUr dk vlyh
çorZd gksus dk nkok Hkh fd;kA
ysfdu 1907 esa tc dqN 'kjkjrh yksxksa us vk;Z lekt ds fo#¼ vi+Qokgsa
iQSykuk 'kq: fd;k] rc bl lEçnk; us vius iqjkus èkeZ fl¼kUr dks nqgjkrs gq,
bl vk'k; dk ,d çLrko çdkf'kr djus dh cqf¼eÙkk fn[kk;h fd bl laxBu
dk fdlh Hkh fo+QLe ds jktuhfrd fudk; ;k fdlh Hkh fo+QLe ds jktuhfrd
vkUnksyu ls dksbZ lEcUèk ugha gSA vc ;fn ,d fudk; ds :i esa lekt }kjk
pjeiUFkh jktuhfr ls lEcUèk&foPNsn ds bl nkos dks eku Hkh fy;k tk;s] rc
Hkh dV~Vj fgUnqvksa ds fy, ;g ckr x+kSjryc gksuh gh pkfg, fd Hkys gh] vk;Z
lekt esa iatkc dh fgUnw vkcknh ds 5 çfr'kr ls vfèkd yksx 'kkfey ugha gSa]
fiQj Hkh 1907 ls ysdj vkt rd fgUnqvksa dh ,d cM+h vkcknh tks jktæksg

1- vks*M~ok;j dh iqLrd bf.M;k ,st+ vkbZ fum bV ls


2- vks*M~ok;j dh iqLrd
'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 157
vkSj nwljs jktuhfrd vfHk;ksxksa ds rgr nf.Mr gksrh jgh gS] og bl lekt dh
gh lnL; jgh gSA
i`"B 184] ogh
i` " B 286 ¼143½

Hkkjr ds ckjs esa lkaf[;dh; vk¡dM+s %


baXyS.M vkSj osYl esa 4@5 vkcknh 'kgjksa esa jgrh gSA
'kgjh thou dk ekud ogk¡ ls Hkkjr (fczfV'k)
'kq: gksrk gS tc 1000 yksx
,d lkFk jgus yxrs gSaA dsoy
rHkh uxjikfydk dh vksj ls
tyfudkl] jks'kuh vkSj ikuh dh
vkiw£r dh O;oLFkk dh tk
ldrh gSA
{ dqy

esa ls
244]000]000

226]000]000 yksx
xkaoksa esa jgrs gSaA

baXyS.M & lkekU; le;ksa esa


eqgS;k djrk gS 58 % (vkcknh dk & l-) m|ksx dks
8 % Ñf"k dks
Hkkjr nsrk gS 71 % Ñf"k dks
12 % m|ksx dks
5 % O;kikj dks
2 % ?kjsyw lsokvksa dks
1) % LorU=k is'kksa dks
1) % lsuk lesr] ljdkjh lsok dksA

& iwjs Hkkjr esa 31 djksM+ 50 yk[k yksxksa esa ls 22 djksM+ 60 yk[k yksx Hkwfe
ij vkfJr gSaA
& muesa ls 20 djksM+ 80 yk[k yksx lhèks Ñf"k ij thrs ;k vkfJr gSaA
(ekW.Vi+QksMZ fjiksVZ)1

1- ekW.Vi+QksMZ fjiksVZ % Hkkjrh; laoSèkkfud lqèkkjksa ij rS;kj dh x;h fjiksVZA bls ekW.Vi+QksMZ
fjiksVZ blfy, dgk x;k fd bls lsØsVjh vkWi+Q LVsV] ekW.VsX;w] vkSj xouZj tujy psEli+QksMZ us
feydj rS;kj fd;k FkkA ;g fjiksVZ 8 tqykbZ 1918 dks çLrqr dh x;hA
i` " B 288 ¼144½

dqy {ks=kiQy & 1]800]000 oxZ ehy


xzsV fczVsu ls 20 xquk cM+k
& 700]000 oxZehy ;k 1@3 ls vfèkd jkT;ksa ds vèkhu gSA Hkkjrh;
jkT;ksa dh la[;k 600 gSA
& cekZ ç+Qkal ls cM+k gSA eækl vkSj cEcbZ (çkUr)] vyx&vyx bVyh
ls cM+s gSaA

Hkkjr dh dqy tula[;k (1921 dh tux.kuk) &


318] 942] 000
vFkkZr dqy ekuotkfr dk 1@5
& 247]000]000 vkcknh fczfV'k Hkkjr esa vkSj
71]900]000 jkT;ksa esa gSA

25 yk[k yksx vaxzst+h i<+uk tkurs gSa & çfr ,d gt+kj iq#"kksa esa ls 16
vkSj çfr gt+kj fL=k;ksa esa ls 2
ns'kh Hkk"kkvksa dh dqy la[;k 222 gS
xk¡oksa dh dqy la[;k 500]0001

i` " B 288 ¼145 ½

Lost ugj 1869 esa [kqyhA


ml le; Hkkjr dk dqy fu;kZr Fkk %
#- 80 djksM+ ¾ £ 80]000]000
1926&27 vkSj mlds igys ds nks o"kks± esa bldk vkSlr Fkk %
#- 350 djksM+] vFkkZr yxHkx £ 262]500]000

1- mijksDr lHkh vk¡dM+ksa dk Ïksr lEHkor% ekW.Vi+QksMZ fjiksVZ


'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 159
dqy tula[;k ¾ 31 djksM+ 90 yk[k
ftlesa ls 3 djksM+ 20 yk[k 50 gt+kj vFkkZr 10-2 çfr'kr yksx
o+QLcksa vkSj 'kgjksa ('kgjh {ks=k) esa jgrs gSa]
tcfd baXyS.M esa ;g 79 % gSA1

vkSj dke dk lcls dfBu fgLlk gksxk >qXxh&>ksaifM+;ksa esa jgus okyksa ds
fnekx+ esa dqN csgrjh dh bPNk dks fcBkukA
i`"B 22
lkbeu fjiksVZ 2

1- vk¡dM+ksa dk Ïksr vLi"V


2- lkbeu fjiksVZ % fjiksVZ vkWiQ+ n bf.M;u LVSV;~ Vw jh deh'ku (lkbeu deh'ku) (yUnu]
1930)

160 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


i` " B 304 1

Hkxr¯lg
ds y?kq gLrk{kj
fnukad 12-9-1929

1- uksVcqd esa i`"B 289 ls i`"B 303 rd dqN ugha vafdr gSA uksVcqd ds çFke i`"B ij
uksVcqd esa i`"Bksa dh la[;k 404 vafdr gSA ijUrq i`"B 305 ls ysdj i`"B 404 rd ds iUuksa
dk dksbZ vrk&irk ugha gSA dqy 304 i`"B miyC/ gSa ftu ij jcj dh eqgj ls uEcj Mkys
x;s gSaA ;s uEcj dc vkSj fdlus Mkys ;g Li"V ugha gSA 'ks"k 100 i`"B D;k gq,\ os x+k;c
gks x;s ;k fdlh vU; dke ds fy, bLrseky fd;s x;s] ;g Hkh Li"V ugha gSA
Hkxr¯lg us dqy 145 i`"Bksa ij uksV~l fy;s gSa ftuesa chp&chp esa [k+kyh i`"B gSaA

'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd @ 161


ifjf'k"V & ,d

ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl


(pkisdj cUèkqvksa ls Hkxr¯lg rd)
f'ko oekZ

Lokèkhurk laxzke esa ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds ços'k dh ?kks"k.kk djus okyk igyk èkekdk
1897 esa iwuk esa pkisdj cUèkqvksa us fd;k FkkA iwuk 'kgj esa mu fnuksa Iysx t+ksjksa
ij FkkA jS.M uke ds ,d vaxzst+ dks ogk¡ Iysx dfe'uj cukdj Hkstk x;kA og
cM+k gh t+kfye vkSj rkuk'kkg fo+QLe dk vkneh FkkA mlus Iysx ls çHkkfor
edkuksa dks fcuk dksbZ viokn [k+kyh djk;s tkus dk gqDe tkjh dj fn;kA tgk¡
rd ml gqDe dk loky gS mlesa dksbZ x+yr ckr ugha FkhA ysfdu ftl rjg
jS.M us bl gqDe ij vey djok;k] mlls og vyksdfç; gks x;kA yksxksa dks
muds ?kjksa ls fudkyk x;k vkSj mUgsa diM+s] cjru vkfn rd ys tkus dk le;
ugha fn;k x;kA
4 ebZ] 1897 dks yksdekU; fryd us vius i=k dsljh esa ,d ys[k
fy[kdj u fli+QZ uhps ds vi+Qljksa ij cfYd [+kqn ljdkj ij bYt+ke yxk;k fd
og tku&cw>dj turk dk mRihM+u dj jgh gSA mUgksua s jS.M dks fujad'q k cryk;k
vkSj ljdkj ij ¶neu dk lgkjk ysus¸ dk vkjksi yxk;kA
fiQj vk;k f'kokth lekjksgA bl volj ij] 12 twu] 1897 dks ,d
lkoZtfud lHkk esa vè;{k in ls cksyrs gq, fryd us dgk % ¶D;k f'kokth
us vi+Qt+y [k+k¡ dks ekjdj dksbZ iki fd;k Fkk\ bl ç'u dk mÙkj egkHkkjr esa
fey ldrk gSA xhrk esa Jheu Ñ".k us vius xq#vksa vkSj ckUèkoksa rd dks ekjus
dk mins'k fn;k gSA muds vuqlkj vxj dksbZ O;fDr fu"dke Hkko ls deZ djrk
gS rks og fdlh Hkh rjg iki dk Hkkxh ugha curk gSA Jh f'kokth us vius
mnj&iw£r ds fy, dqN ugha fd;k FkkA cgqr gh usd bjkns ds lkFk] nwljksa dh
HkykbZ ds fy, mUgksaus vi+Qt+y [k+k¡ dk oèk fd;kA vxj pksj gekjs ?kj esa ?kql
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 163
vk;sa vkSj gekjs vUnj mudks ckgj fudkyus dh rko+Qr u gks rks gesa csfgpd
njokt+k cUn djds mudks ft+Unk tyk nsuk pkfg,A bZ'oj us fgUnqLrku ds jkT;
dk iV~Vk rkez&i=k ij fy[kdj fonsf'k;ksa dks rks ugha fn;k gSA f'kokth egkjkt
us mudks viuh tUeHkwfe ls ckgj [knsM+us dh dksf'k'k dhA ,slk djds mUgksaus
nwljksa dh oLrq gM+ius dk iki ugha fd;kA dq,¡ ds es<+d dh rjg viuh n`f"V
dks ladqfpr er djks] rkthjkrs&fgUn dh o+QS n ls ckgj fudyks] Jhen~Hkxon~xhrk
ds vR;Ur mPp okrkoj.k esa igq¡pks vkSj egku O;fDr;ksa ds dk;ks± ij fopkj
djksA¸1
vkSj 22 twu dks pkisdj Hkkb;ksa us jS.M o ,soLVZ dks ekj fn;kA bl rjg]
Åijh rkSj ij ns[kus ls ;gh yxrk gS fd pkisdj Hkkb;ksa ds dk;Z ds rkRdkfyd
çsjd rÙo jS.M dh fujadq'krk vkSj fryd dk Hkk"k.k FksA ysfdu ;g fli+QZ
v¼ZlR; gSA njvly] pkisdj cUèkqvksa ds fopkj egkekjh iQSyus ;k jS.M ds iwuk
vkus ls cgqr igys ls gh ,d 'kDy vf[+r;kj djus yxs FksA
1894 esa gh pkisdj Hkkb;ksa us iwuk esa 'kkjhfjd vkSj lSfud çf'k{k.k ds fy,
^fgUnw èkeZ vojksèk fuokj.k lfefr* o+Qk;e dj j[kh Fkh fd ftls fgUnw lajf{k.kh
lfefr Hkh dgk tkrk FkkA ;g lfefr gj lky fu;eiwoZd f'kokth o x.kifr
lekjksg vk;ksftr djrh FkhA bu lekjksgksa esa pkisdj Hkkb;ksa }kjk i<+s tkus okys
'yksdksa ls mudh Hkkouk dk irk pyrk gSA turk ls ryokj mBkus dk vkxzg
djrs gq, ^f'kokth 'yksd* dgrk gS %
¶Hkk¡M dh rjg f'kokth dh dgkuh nqgjkus&ek=k ls Lokèkhurk çkIr ugha dh
tk ldrhA vko';drk bldh gS fd f'kokth vkSj ckt+h dh rjg rst+h ds lkFk
dke fd;s tk;saA vkt gj Hkys vkneh dks ryokj vkSj <ky idM+uh pkfg, &
;g tkurs gq, fd gesa jk"Vªh; laxkz e ds ;q¼{ks=k esa thou dk tksf[ke mBkuk gksxkA
ge èkjrh ij mu nq'euksa dk [+kwu cgk nsaxs tks gekjs èkeZ dk fouk'k dj jgs gSaA
ge rks ekjdj ej tk;saxs] ysfdu rqe vkSjrksa dh rjg fli+QZ dgkfu;k¡ lqukrs
jgksxAs ¸2
^x.kifr 'yksd* rks ^f'kokth 'yksd* ls Hkh T+;knk mxz FkkA xkS vkSj èkeZ dh
j{kk ds fy, mB [kM+s gksus dk vkàku djrs gq, blesa fgUnqvksa ls dgk x;k gS
% ¶vi+Qlksl] rqe X+kqykeh dh ft+Unxh ij 'k£eUnk ugha gks_ tkvks] vkRegR;k dj
yksA mi+Q~! ;s dehus dlkb;ksa dh rjg xk; vkSj cNM+ksa dks ekj jgs gSa_ mls (xkS
dks) bl ladV ls eqDr djkvks_ ejks ysfdu vaxzst+ksa dks ekjdj_ uiqald gksdj
èkjrh ij cks> u cuksA bl ns'k dks fgUnqLrku dgk tkrk gS_ vaxzst+ Hkyk fdl
rjg ;gk¡ jkt dj jgs gSa\3
bl rjg ge ns[krs gSa fd pkisdj cUèkq vkSj muds lg;ksxh eq[;r% rhoz
164 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
èkk£ed Hkkoukvksa ls mRiszfjr Fks vkSj mudk n`f"Vdks.k ?kksj dV~VjiUFkh FkkA
lEHkor% blh dkj.k ls os fczfV'k fojksèkh gh ugha] eqfLye fojksèkh Hkh FksA
pkisdj cUèkqvksa dh ns'kHkfDr fgUnqRo ij vkèkkfjr FkhA os fgUnw èkeZ vkSj
xkS dh j{kk ds fy, vaxzst+ksa dks ckgj Hkxkuk pkgrs FksA jS.M dh gR;k Hkh ,d
,sls O;fDr ds çfr mudh xgjh ui+Qjr dk urhtk Fkh tks viuh neu vkSj
fujadq'krk dh dkjZokb;ksa ds dkj.k iwjh turk dh ?k`.kk dk ik=k cu x;k FkkA
tgk¡ rd mudks çsfjr djus okys nwljs dkj.kksa dk loky gS] bldk dksbZ
lqcwr ugha feyrk fd os 1857 ds Hkkjrh; Lokèkhurk laxzke ls ;k ç+Qkalhlh o
brkyoh ØkfUr;ksa ls çHkkfor jgs gksaA
bu reke lhekvksa ds ckotwn eqo+Qnes ds nkSjku ;k ckn esa] pkisdj Hkkb;ksa
us ftl ohjrk] lkgl vkSj vkRecfynku dh Hkkouk dk ifjp; fn;k mlds
egÙo dks fdlh Hkh rjg de djds vk¡dk ugha tk ldrkA lj Å¡pk fd;s gq,
rhuksa Hkkb;ksa us iQk¡lh ds iQUns dks pwekA
X+ky
q keh vkSj vkt+knh dh leL;kvksa ds çfr ;g èkk£ed n`f"Vdks.k pkisdj
Hkkb;ksa rd gh lhfer ugha FkkA lkojdj cUèkq Hkh èkk£ed jgs---caxky ds
ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us Hkh èkeZ ds lgkjs yksxksa dks mHkkM+k FkkA bl okD; ls 'kk;n ;g
x+yri+Qgeh gks fd os èkeZ dks u ekurs Fks dsoy mHkkM+us dk dke mlls ysrs Fks]
blfy, ;g dg nsuk t+:jh gS fd os Lo;a èkeZ ds dV~Vj ekuus okys FksA4
1902 esa dydÙkk esa o+Qk;e vuq'khyu lfefr dh dk;Zç.kkyh dk o.kZu
djrs gq, rkfj.kh'kadj pØorhZ fy[krs gSa % ¶ØkfUrdkjh dk;Z ds fy, tks bl
lfefr esa vkrs Fks] mudks nks oxks± esa ck¡Vk tkrk FkkA èkeZ esa ftudh vkLFkk Fkh
mudks ,d oxZ vkSj èkeZ&fo'ks"k esa] ftUgsa vkLFkk ugha Fkh ijUrq ØkfUrdkjh dk;ks±
esa fo'ks"k fu"Bk Fkh] ,slh yM+dksa dks nwljs oxZ esa j[kk tkrk FkkA¸ ¶èkeZ ds çfr
tks J¼koku Fks os bl cx+hps (ekfudrYyk ckxku & l-) esa jgrs Fks---;s gh
yM+ds çFke dksfV ds ØkfUrdkjh le>s tkrs FksA¸5
ml le; caxky ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dk cgqer cafdepUæ pVthZ vkSj Lokeh
foosdkuUn ls csgn çHkkfor FkkA ¶vuq'khyu lfefr ds lnL;ksa dks fgUnw xzUFkksa]
[k+kldj xhrk dks cgqr è;ku ls i<+uk iM+rk FkkA¸6
¶cafdepUæ pVthZ vkSj Lokeh foosdkuUn dh ckSf¼d ijEijk esa iys&c<+s
caxky ds chloha lnh ds igys n'kd ds ;s ØkfUrdkjh èkk£ed miknkuksa vkSj
deZdk.Mksa ls rFkk çkphu o rkRdkfyd fgUnqRo ds ikSjkf.kd mik[;kuksa] çrhdksa]
xhrksa vkSj ukjksa ls çsj.kk xzg.k djrs FksA¸7
bl rjg] ØkfUrdkjh vkUnks y u ds igys pj.k (1897&1913) ds
ØkfUrdkjh vkerkSj ij fgUnw èkeZ ds çfr vkLFkkoku Fks vkSj mlls çsj.kk xzg.k
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 165
djrs FksA ;g dksbZ vkdfLed ckr ugha FkhA blds ,sfrgkfld dkj.k FksA fiNyh
lnh ds vkBosa n'kd esa r#.k Hkkjr ds fnyksa dks ,d u;h Hkkouk eFk jgh FkhA
f'kf{kr ;qod jktuhfrd n`f"Vdks.k ls lkspus yxs FksA ,d u;h fo+QLe dk
jk"Vªokn tUe ys jgk FkkA ;g u;k jk"Vªokn iqjkus jktuhfrokn ds eqo+Qkcys T+;knk
lathnk] T+;knk [kqys fnekx+ okyk FkkA ;g bl fopkj ls ySl vkSj iszfjr Fkk fd
iwjs jk"Vªh; thou dk iqu#RFkku vko';d gSA Hkkjrh; ekul fdl lhek rd
vkUnksfyr gks mBk Fkk] bldk vuqeku blh rF; ls yxk;k tk ldrk gS fd lHkh
csgrjhu lksp ds yksxksa dh u;h Hkkouk,¡ vkSj fopkj èkeZ ls vuqçkf.kr FksA iqjkus
nsorkvksa dh txg ?k`.kk vkSj jDr ds u;s nsorkvksa dh iwtk gksus yxh FkhA8
bl lhek rd] èkeZ dh ,d ldkjkRed Hkwfedk vo'; FkhA ysfdu
bldk ,d udkjkRed igyw Hkh FkkA bl nkSj esa cky xaxkèkj fryd]
fcfiupUæ iky] czã ckUèko mikè;k; vkSj vjfoUn ?kks"k tSls lHkh tq>k:
jk"Vªh; usrk jktuhfr dks èkeZ ds jax esa j¡x jgs FksA bl rjg vpsru :i esa
gh lgh] mUgksaus lkEçnkf;d jktuhfr ds fo"ko`{k yxk;sA xk¡èkh vkSj muds
vuq;kf;;ksa us bl ijEijk dks vkxs c<+k;k vkSj vUr rd mlls fpids jgs]
tcfd ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us 1914 esa gh] tc mudk vkUnksyu nwljs pj.k esa
ços'k dj jgk Fkk] bls NksM+dj èkeZfujis{krk dks viuk fy;k FkkA èkeZ vkSj
jktuhfr dk ;g rkyesy rc ls vkt rd yxkrkj gekjs lkoZtfud thou
dks rckg djrk jgk gS] vkSj vc rks blds dkj.k gekjh jk"Vªh; ,drk dk
<k¡pk gh pjejkrk ut+j vk jgk gSA
gkyk¡fd egkjk"Vª ds pkisdj cUèkq vkSj caxky ds igys n'kd ds ØkfUrdkjh]
nksuksa çkphu Hkkjrh; laLÑfr ls çsj.kk xzg.k djrs Fks ysfdu nksuksa ds chp ,d
ekdsZ dk vUrj Hkh gSA
30 vçSy] 1908 dks ¯dXli+QksMZ dh cX?kh ij ,d ce vkdj fxjk ftlls
nks efgykvksa dh e`R;q gks x;hA bl ?kVuk ij fVIi.kh djrs gq, 22 twu ds dsljh
esa yksdekU; fryd us fy[kk % ¶1897 dh gR;k vkSj caxky ds cedk.M ds
chp dki+Qh vUrj gSA tgk¡ rd fnysjh vkSj dk;Z dks dq'kyrkiwoZd lEiUu djus
dk loky gS] pkisdj Hkkb;ksa dk ntkZ caxky dh ce ikVhZ ds lnL;ksa ls Å¡pk
gSA ysfdu vxj lkè; vkSj lkèku ds ut+fj;s ls ns[ksa rks caxkfy;ksa dh T+;knk
rkjhi+Q djuh gksxh---o"kZ 1897 esa iwuk fuoklh Iysx ds le; ds neu ds f'kdkj
Fks] vkSj ml neu ls mRiUu mÙkstuk dk dksbZ 'kq¼ jktuhfrd pfj=k ugha FkkA
;g 'kklu&ç.kkyh gh [k+jkc gS vkSj tc rd vfèkdkfj;ksa dks Nk¡V&Nk¡Vdj
O;fDrxr :i ls vkrafdr ugha fd;k tkrk] rc rd os O;oLFkk dks cnyus ij
rS;kj ugha gksaxs & ,slk dksbZ egÙoiw.kZ ç'u pkisdj Hkkb;ksa ds lkeus ugha FkkA
166 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
mudk deZ Iysx ds ckn tkjh neu ds] ;kuh ,d fo'ks"k dk;Z ds f[k+yki+Q FkkA
fu'p; gh caxky dh ce ikVhZ dh n`f"V ,d T+;knk O;kid iVy ij Fkh ftls
caxky ds foHkktu us mHkkjk FkkA¸9
bruk gh ugha] caxky ds ØkfUrdkjh èkeZ dks cgqr T+;knk egÙo nsrs Fks] bl
rF; ds ckotwn vkUnksyu ds vfUre y{; dh n`f"V ls dgsa rks] 1902 esa gh
mUgksaus ,d cgqr egÙoiw.kZ ?kks"k.kk dh FkhA blh o"kZ caxky ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us
vius dks ^vuq'khyu lfefr* uke dh ,d ikVhZ ds :i esa laxfBr fd;k FkkA
lfefr dh LFkkiuk ds le; tkjh ?kks"k.kki=k esa dgk x;k Fkk % ¶vuq'khyu dh
dYiuk ds lekt esa vui<+] x+jhc yksx ugha gksxa ]s dk;j] nq"V yksx ugha gksxa s vkSj
vLoLFk yksx Hkh ugha gksaxsA ,sls lekt ds fuekZ.k ds fy, lHkh çdkj dh
fo"kerkvksa dks lekIr djuk gksxkA fo"kerk ds chp ekuo dh ekuork fodflr
ugha gks ldrhA ekuo lekt ls èku dh fo"kerk] lkekftd fo"kerk]
lkEçnkf;d fo"kerk vkSj çknsf'kd fo"kerk nwj dj lHkh euq";ksa esa lekurk ykuh
gksxhA dsoy jk"Vªh; ljdkj }kjk gh ,slk fd;k tkuk lEHko gSA ijkèkhurk dh
n'kk esa vuq'khyu ds LoIu ds lekt dh LFkkiuk lEHko ugha gS] blhfy,
vuq'khyu ijkèkhurk ds fo#¼ foæksg dh ?kks"k.kk djrh gSA vuq'khyu Hkkjr dh
iw.kZ LorU=krk pkgrh gSA¸10
vuq'khyu lfefr dh ;g ?kks"k.kk fu'p; gh vkxs dh rji+Q ,d cgqr cM+k
o+Qne FkkA ;gha ij caxky ds ØkfUrdkjh 1897 ds iwuk dsUæ ls vkxs gSaA pkisdj
cUèkq fonsf'k;ksa ls ui+Qjr rks djrs Fks exj os [+knq D;k pkgrs gSa blds ckjs esa Li"V
ugha FksA ;g ckr caxky ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds lkFk ugha FkhA ;s yksx eqfLye
fojksèkh Hkh ugha Fks] gkyk¡fd os èkk£ed yksx Fks vkSj fgUnw xzUFkksa ls çsj.kk çkIr
djrs FksA
blds foijhr bl nkSj ds iatkc ds ØkfUrdkjh vkjEHk ls gh lkEçnkf;drk
ds nks"k ls eqDr FksA ljnkj vthr ¯lg] ykypUn ^i+Qyd*] lwi+Qh vEck çlkn]
ykyk gjn;ky vkSj muds lHkh lg;ksxh èkeZfujis{k FksA èkeZ muds fy, ,d
futh ekeyk FkkA
'krkCnh ds igys n'kd ds ØkfUrdkjh ftu Ïksrksa ls çsj.kk xzg.k dj jgs Fks
muesa èkeZ ds vykok ,d Fkk 1857 dk Hkkjr dk igyk Lokèkhurk laxzkeA ¶bl
fo"k; ij 1907 ;k 1908 esa yUnu esa fy[kh x;h ohj lkojdj dh iqLrd us
viuh reke vi;kZIrrkvksa ds ckotwn] tks ml nkSj esa vkSj ml le; ds gkykr
esa LokHkkfod Fkh] cM+h egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk vnk dhA bl fo"k; ij fczfV'k
lkezkT;oknh ys[kdksa }kjk iQSyk;s x;s ykaNuksa rFkk muds >wBs ,sfrgkfld ys[ku
dh èkfTt;k¡ mM+kdj bl iqLrd us cgqr cM+k dke fd;kA blus ckrksa dks lgh
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 167
rkSj ij lkeus j[kkA bl fdrkc ij fczfV'k 'kkldksa us i+QkSju çfrcUèk yxk fn;k]
ysfdu fiQj Hkh ;g esgur ls vkSj xqIr :i ls rS;kj dh x;h ik.Mqfyfi ds :i
esa Hkkjr ds ml le; ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds chsp ?kwerh jghA¸11
okLrfodrk ;g gS fd 1857 dk tu&foæksg iwjs Lokèkhurk laxzke ds nkSjku
lHkh Lokèkhurk lsukfu;ksa ds fy, çsj.kk dk Ïksr cuk jgkA
'krkCnh ds igys n'kd esa ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds fy, çsj.kk dk nwljk Ïksr Fkk
ç+Qkalhlh] brkyoh vkSj :lh ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh dgkfu;k¡A
vkUnksyu ds igys pj.k dh det+ksfj;k¡ vkSj lhek,¡
vkUnksyu ds igys pj.k ds nkSjku iwuk vkSj caxky ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh igyh
det+ksjh Fkh mudk fgUnw iwokZxzgA bl iwokZxzg us eqfLye turk dks vkUnksyu ls
nwj j[kkA gkyk¡fd caxky ds ØkfUrdkjh eqfLye fojksèkh ugha Fks] ysfdu eqfLye
turk ls dk;ZdrkZ Hkjrh djus dk dksbZ xEHkhj ç;kl mUgksaus dHkh ugha fd;kA
bl dFku ds dqN viokn ;gk¡&ogk¡ fey ldrs gSaA ysfdu viokn dHkh fu;e
ugha cursA
vkUnksyu ds nk;js dks lhfer djus okyh nwljh det+ksjh Fkh turk ds lkFk
thoUr lEcUèkksa dk u gksukA Lons'kh vkUnksyu ds rhu ;k pkj lkyksa dks NksMd+ j]
tc caxky ds ØkfUrdkjh turk ds chp x;s vkSj yksxksa dks lfØ; gksus ds fy,
çksRlkfgr fd;k] vkerkSj ij ØkfUrdkjh O;fDrxr fØ;k'khyrk esa fo'okl j[krs
Fks] ftls ljdkj vkradokn ds x+yr uke ls iqdkjrh FkhA turk bu ØkfUrdkfj;ksa
ds vkRecfynku] fuHkhZdrk vkSj lkgl dh ç'kalk rks djrh Fkh ysfdu viuh
jkst+ejkZ dh leL;kvksa ds lkFk mudh dkjZokb;ksa dks tksM+ ldus esa vleFkZ jgrh
FkhA ,slh fLFkfr esa lkezkT;okfn;ksa ds fy, ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dk neu dj lduk
vkSj Hkh vklku gks tkrk FkkA
vkUnksyu dh rhljh lhek Fkh mlds dk;ZdrkZvksa dk oxZ&pfj=kA ØkfUrdkjh
vkUnksyu ds dk;ZdrkZvksa dk ,d cM+k cgqer fuEu&eè;e oxZ ls lEcfUèkr FkkA
bl pj.k esa ;g ,dne LokHkkfod FkkA ;g ogh nkSj Fkk tcfd ubZ ih<+h fons'kh
'kklu ls iw.kZ eqfDr dk nkok djus yxh FkhA ;g ih<+h [+knq dks ^o;Ld* le>us
yxh FkhA ukStoku rcds esa cspuS h Fkh exj iqjkuk usrR` o gkse :y ds fy, çLrkoksa
vkSj çkFkZuki=kksa ls vkxs c<+us dks rS;kj u FkkA ysfdu f'kf{kr ukStoku ,d u;h
nqfu;k ikus ds fy, viuk lc yqVk nsus ij vkeknk FkkA ukStokuksa dk fo'okl Fkk
fd os tq>k: l'kL=k la?k"kZ ds tfj;s ns'k dks vkt+kn djk ldrs gSAa blds fy,
os viuk thou rd gkse dj nsus dks rS;kj FksA
eè;e oxZ LoHkko ls gh O;fDroknh gksrk gSA ;g ,d 'kfDr'kkyh lg;ksxh
168 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
gks ldrk gSA vxj ;g iwt ¡ hifr oxZ dh rji+Q tkrk gS rks çfrfØ;kokn dk okgd
gks tkrk gSA vxj ;g et+nwj oxZ ds lkFk [kM+k gksrk gS rks] Lo;a usr`Ro çnku dj
ldus dh {kerk u gksrs gq, Hkh] ,d ØkfUrdkjh 'kfDr cu tkrk gSA bldh
LorU=k dkjZokb;k¡ çk;% O;fDrxr dkjZokb;ksa dk :i ys ysrh gSaA ftl nkSj dh
ckr ge dj jgs gSa ml le; Lokèkhurk ds fy, tukUnksyu [kM+k dj ldus esa
u rks iw¡thifr oxZ leFkZ Fkk vkSj u et+nwj oxZ ghA bl pqukSrh dk lkeuk vius
liuksa dks lkdkj djus ds fy, lcdqN o+Qcq kZu dj nsus dks rS;kj bu eè;eoxhZ;
ukStokuksa us LoHkkor% vius <ax ls fd;k tks vkjEHk esa O;fDrxr dkjZokb;ksa dk
gh :i ys ldrh FkhA ;g lhek ,d ,sfrgkfld çfØ;k dh mit FkhA
X+kqykeh dh viekutud fLFkfr ds lkeus leiZ.k djus ls csgrj gksrk gS
pksV djuk vkSj u"V gks tkukA fdlh u fdlh dks igyh pksV djuh gh iM+rh
gSA igyh pksV dk dksbZ urhtk ugha fudyrk vkSj igyh pksV djus okys T+;knkrj
u"V gks tkrs gSaA ysfdu mudh o+QqckZfu;k¡ dHkh csdkj ugha tkrhaA >juk c<+dj
xjtrk gqvk nfj;k cu tkrk gS] fpuxkjh Tokykeq[kh curh gS] O;fDr lef"V ls
,dkdkj gks tkrk gSA iqjkuh O;oLFkk dh txg ,d u;h O;oLFkk vkrh gS] vkSj
liuk ,d go+Qho+Qr dk :i ys ysrk gSA ØkfUr;k¡ blh rt+Z ij vkxs c<+rh gSaA
Hkkjr dk ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu Hkh Bhd blh rt+Z ij vkxs c<+kA
¶Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us] vdYiuh; dfBukb;ksas ds chp Hkh] vkèkqfud
;qx dh lcls cM+h lkezkT;oknh&mifuos'koknh rko+Qr dks pqukSrh nsus dh T+kqjZr
dhA bruk gh ugha] ml ;qx ds ØkfUrdkjh 'kwjohjksa & pkisdj Hkkb;ksa] [+kqnhjke]
dukbZyky vkSj enuyky èkhaxjk us vius vkRecfynku vkSj 'kgknr ds ekè;e
ls vius Å¡?krs gq, ns'kokfl;ksa dks txk;k vkSj mUgsa jk"Vªh; Lokèkhurk rFkk vius
tUefl¼ tuoknh jktuhfrd vfèkdkjksa ds mPp fopkjksa ls Hkh ifjfpr djk;kA
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu] ,sfrgkfld :i ls] vius <ax dk og igyk vkUnksyu Fkk
ftlus jk"Vªh; Lokèkhurk vkSj lEçHkqrk ds fy, Hkkjr ds la?k"kZ ds jktuhfrd
mís'; ds :i esa iw.kZ Lokèkhurk rFkk fczfV'k lkezkT; ls gj rjg ds jktuhfrd
lEcUèk&foPNsn ds y{; dks turk ds lkeus j[kkA Bhd blh mís'; dks è;ku
esa j[kdj mUgksaus fons'kh lkezkth 'kklu ds fo#¼ laxfBr gfFk;kjcUn la?k"kZ ds
fy, turk dk vkàku fd;kA
¶os 'kq: ls gh Hkkjrh; turk ds fy, iw.kZ jk"Vªh; çHkqlÙkk vkSj yksdrkfU=kd
LorU=krk ds fy, vuojr la?k"kZ djrs jgs vkSj ml y{; ls dHkh fMxs ughaA
¶mudh 'kgknrksa us muds çfr turk dh ç'kalk dks mHkkjdj fons'kh
lkezkT;oknh 'kklu ds çfr mldh ui+Qjr dks vkSj Hkh rh[kk cuk;k vkSj mlds
la?k"kZ'khy lkgl dks vkSj Hkh Å¡pk mBk;kA¸12
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 169
x+nj ikVhZ dh LFkkiuk
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu ds igys nkSj esa cgqr&ls ØkfUrdkjh ns'k NksMd + j ;wjksi vkSj
vesfjdk pys x;s FksA mudk mís'; Fkk Hkkjr esa ØkfUrdkjh xfrfofèk;ksa ds
lapkyu ds fy, èku laxzg djuk] çpkj djuk vkSj lkglh] vkReR;kxh rFkk
le£ir ;qodksa dh ,d Vhe [kM+h djukA bl dke esa mudks dqN de liQyrk
ugha feyhA ysfdu tgk¡ rd vfUre y{; dk ç'u gS] muds fopkj vHkh rd
Hkkjr dh vkt+knh dh ,d HkkoukRed èkkj.kk rd gh lhfer FksA ØkfUr ds ckn
LFkkfir gksus okyh ljdkj dh :ijs[kk D;k gksxh] nwljs ns'kksa dh ØkfUrdkjh
'kfDr;ksa ds lkFk mlds lEcUèk D;k gksaxs] ubZ O;oLFkk esa èkeZ dk D;k LFkku
gksxk] vkfn ç'uksa ij ml le; ds vfèkdka'k ØkfUrdkjh Li"V ugha FksA ;g lwjr
deksc's k 1913 rd tkjh jghA bu lHkh eqíksa ij Li"V joS;k viukus dk Js; x+nj
ikVhZ ds usrkvksa dks tkrk gSA
bl 'krkCnh ds igys n'kd esa Hkkjr NksM+dj tkus okys ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks
vaxzst+ ljdkj ds gkFkksa esa iM+us ls cpus ds fy, ,d ns'k ls nwljs ns'k rd
HkVduk iM+rk FkkA vUr esa] muesa ls db;ksa us vesfjdk esa clus vkSj ml ns'k
dks vius dk;Z dk vkèkkj&{ks=k cukus dk i+QSlyk fd;kA buesa çeq[k Fks &
rkjdukFk nkl] 'kSysUæ ?kks"k] pUæ pØorhZ] uUnyky dkj] clUrdqekj jk;]
lkjaxèkj nkl] lqèkhUæukFk cksl rFkk th-Mh- dqekjA igys n'kd ds vUr rd
ykyk gjn;ky Hkh muls vk feysA bu yksxksa us vesfjdk vkSj dukMk esa cls
Hkkjrh; çokfl;ksa ls lEidZ fd;k] èku laxzg fd;k] v[k+ckj fudkys] vkSj dbZ
txgksa ij xqIr laLFkk,¡ o+Qk;e dhaA
rkjdukFk nkl us ç+Qh fgUnqLrku uke ls v[k+ckj fudkyk vkSj vesfjdk esa
jg jgs Hkkjrh; Nk=kksa rFkk Hkkjrh; çokfl;ksa ds fy, O;k[;ku nsrs jgsA os lfefr
uke dh ,d xqIr laLFkk ds çèkku Hkh FksA bl laLFkk ds vU; lnL; Fks &
'kSysUæukFk cksl] lkjaxèkj nkl] th-Mh- dqekj] yLdj vkSj xzhu uked ,d
vesfjdhA
jkeukFk iqjh us 1908 esa vksdyS.M esa ^fgUnqLrku ,lksfl,'ku* uke dh ,d
laLFkk o+Qk;e dh] vkSj ldqZyj vkWi+Q ç+QhMe uke ls ,d v[k+ckj fudkykA ;s
bl v[k+ckj ds ekè;e ls vaxzst+ksa dks Hkkjr ls [knsM+s tkus dh odkyr djrs jgsA
th-Mh- dqekj us oSadwoj ls Lons'kh lsod uked v[k+ckj fudkykA os ogk¡ dh
,d xqIr laLFkk ds lnL; Hkh FksA bl laLFkk ds lnL; jghe vkSj lqUnj ¯lg
Hkh FksA lqUnj ¯lg vk;Zu uke ds ,d v[k+ckj dk lEiknu Hkh djrs Fks vkSj
mlds tfj;s yxkrkj fczfV'k&fojksèkh çpkj pykrs FksA jghe vkSj vkRekjke us

170 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


oSadwoj esa ^;wukbVsM bf.M;k yhx* dk xBu fd;kA
ykyk gjn;ky 1911 esa vesfjdk igq¡ps vkSj ogk¡ LVSui+QksMZ fo'ofo|ky;
esa çkè;kid gks x;sA lSu ç+QkaflLdks esa ^fgUnqLrkuh LVwMs.V~l ,lksfl,'ku* uke
dh ,d laLFkk mUgksua s xfBr dhA 1913 esa ,LVksfj;k dh ^fgUnqLrkuh ,lksfl,'ku*
dk xBu gqvkA djhe c[+'k] uokc [k+ku] cyoUr ¯lg] eq'a khjke] dslj ¯lg vkSj
drkZj ¯lg ljkHkk blds lnL; FksA Bkdqjnkl vkSj muds fe=kksa us ls.V tkWu esa
jgus okys Hkkjrh;ksa dh ,d laLFkk xfBr dhA 1913 esa f'kdkxks esa ^fgUnqLrkuh
,lksfl,'ku vkWi+Q fn ;qukbVsM LVsV~l vkWi+Q vesfjdk* dk xBu gqvkA13
ykyk gjn;ky us eglwl fd;k fd la;Dq r jkT; vesfjdk ds fofHkUu fgLlksa
esa dk;Zjr bu laxBuksa dh xfrfofèk;ksa dk leUo; vko';d gSA vr% mUgksaus
dukMk vkSj vesfjdk esa jgus okys Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh ,d eh¯Vx cqyk;hA
bl eh¯Vx esa ^fgUnqLrkuh ,lksfl,'ku vkWi+Q n iSflfi+Qd dksLV* uke dh ,d
laLFkk ds xBu dk i+QSlyk fy;k x;kA ckck lksgu ¯lg Hkduk vkSj ykyk
gjn;ky blds Øe'k% vè;{k vkSj lfpo pqus x;sA ykyk gjn;ky ukSdjh ls
bLrhi+Qk nsdj viuk iwjk le; ,lksfl,'ku ds dke esa yxkus yxsA
ekpZ 1913 esa ,lksfl,'ku us lSu ç+QkaflLdks ls x+nj uke ls ,d v[k+ckj
fudkyus dk i+QSlyk fd;kA mlds ckn ,lksfl,'ku dk uke Hkh cnydj ^x+nj*
ikVhZ dj fn;k x;kA
vkxs dh rji+Q ,d cM+k o+Qne
1913 esa x+nj ikVhZ dk xBu ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu ds fodkl dh fn'kk esa ,d
cgqr cM+k ,oa egÙoiw.kZ o+Qne FkkA blus jktuhfr dks èkeZ ls eqDr fd;k vkSj
èkeZfujis{krk dks viuk;kA èkeZ dks futh ekeyk ?kksf"kr dj fn;k x;kA
v[k+ckj x+nj us fgUnw&eqlyeku nksuksa dk vkàku fd;k fd os vk£Fkd
elyksa ij T+;knk è;ku nsa D;ksfa d mudk nksuksa ds thou ij ,d tSlk çHkko iM+rk
gSA Iysx ls fgUnw vkSj eqlyeku nksuksa gh ej jgs gSaA vdky iM+us ij vUu ls
nksuksa gh oafpr jgrs gSaA ixkj ds fy, t+ksj&t+cjnLrh nksuksa ij dh tkrh gS vkSj
nksuksa dks gh vR;fèkd Å¡ph njksa ij Hkw&jktLo rFkk ty&dj nsuk iM+rk gSA
leL;k fgUnw cuke eqlyeku dh ugha cfYd Hkkjrh; cuke vaxzst+ 'kks"kdksa dh
gSA fgUnw&eqfLye ,drk dks bruk et+cwr cuk;k tkuk pkfg, fd dksbZ mls rksM+
u ldsA14
x+nj ikVhZ ¶èkeZfujis{krk esa fo'okl djrh Fkh vkSj Bksl fgUnw&eqfLye
,drk dh rji+Qnkj FkhA og Nwr vkSj vNwr ds HksnHkko dks Hkh ugha ekurh FkhA
Hkkjr dh ,drk vkSj Hkkjr ds Lokèkhurk&laxzke ds fy, ,drk] ;gh mls çsfjr
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 171
djus okys çeq[k fl¼kUr FksA¸15 bl ekeys esa x+nj ikVhZ ml le; ds Hkkjrh;
usrkvksa ls ehyksa vkxs FkhA lksgu ¯lg tks'k ds vuqlkj] ¶x+nj ds ØkfUrdkjh
jktuhfrd&lkekftd lqèkkj ds lokyksa ij vius lelkef;dksa ls vkxs FksA¸16
14 ebZ] 1914 dks x+nj esa çdkf'kr ,d ys[k esa ykyk gjn;ky us fy[kk
% ¶çkFkZukvksa dk le; x;k_ vc ryokj mBkus dk le; vk x;k gSA gessa if.Mrksa
vkSj o+Qkft+;ksa dh dksbZ t+:jr ugha gSA¸17 1913 esa iksVZyS.M esa Hkk"k.k nsrs gq,
mUgksaus dgk Fkk fd x+nj ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks vkxkeh ØkfUr ds fy, rS;kj jguk
pkfg,A mUgsa Hkkjr tkdj vkSj ogk¡ ls vaxzst+ksa dks Hkxkdj vesfjdk tSlh ,d
turkfU=kd ljdkj o+Qk;e djuh pkfg, ftlesa èkeZ] tkfr vkSj jax ds vUrj ls
ijs lHkh Hkkjrh; leku vkSj LorU=k gksaA
ykyk gjn;ky us] tks viusvki dks vjktdrkoknh dgk djrs Fks] ,d
ckj dgk Fkk fd Lokeh vkSj lsod ds chp dHkh dksbZ lekurk ugha gks
ldrh] Hkys gh os nksuksa eqlyeku gksa] fl[k gksa] vFkok oS".ko gksaA vehj
ges'kk x+jhc ij 'kklu djsxk---vk£Fkd lekurk ds vHkko esa HkkbZpkjs dh ckr
fli+QZ ,d liuk gSA18
fgUnqLrkfu;ksa ds chp lkEçnkf;d ln~Hkko c<+kus dks x+nj ikVhZ us viuk ,d
mís'; cuk;kA ;qxkUrj vkJe uke ds x+nj ikVhZ ds nÝ+rj esa lo.kZ fgUnw] vNwr]
eqlyeku vkSj fl[k] lHkh tek gksrs vkSj lkFk&lkFk Hkkstu djrs FksA
èkeZ tc jktuhfr ds lkFk ?kqyfey tkrk gS rks og ,d ?kkrd fo"k cu tkrk
gS tks jk"Vª ds thoUr vaxksa dks èkhjs&èkhjs u"V djrk jgrk gS] HkkbZ dks HkkbZ ls
yM+krk gS] turk ds gkSlys iLr djrk gS] mldh n`f"V dks èkq¡èkyk cukrk gS]
vlyh nq'eu dh igpku dj ikuk eqf'dy dj nsrk gS] turk dh tq>k:
eu%fLFkfr dks det+ksj djrk gS] vkSj bl rjg jk"Vª dks lkezkT;oknh lkft+'kksa dh
vkØe.kdkjh ;kstukvksa dk ykpkj f'kdkj cuk nsrk gSA Hkkjr esa bl ckr dks
lcls igys x+nj ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us eglwl fd;kA mUgksaus fnysjh ds lkFk ,yku
fd;k fd os bl t+gj dks viuh jktuhfr ls nwj gh j[ksaxsA vkSj mUgksaus tks dgk
oSlk gh fd;k HkhA Hkkjrh; jktuhfr esa ;g mudh igyh egku miyfCèk FkhA
x+nj ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh nwljh egku miyfCèk Fkh] mudk vUrjjk"Vªh;
n`f"Vdks.kA ¶x+nj dk vkUnksyu ,d vUrjjk"Vªh; vkUnksyu FkkA mldh 'kk[kk,¡
eyk;k] 'ka?kkbZ] b.Mksusf'k;k] bZLV b.Mht+] fiQyhihal] tkiku] euhyk]
U;wt+hyS.M] gkaxdkax] ¯lxkiqj] fiQth] cekZ vkSj nwljs ns'kksa esa dk;Zjr FkhaA x+nj
ikVhZ ds mís';ksa ds çfr b.MfLVª;y odZlZ vkWi+Q n oYMZ (vkbZ-MCY;w-MCY;w-)
dh cgqr gennhZ Fkh---os (x+nj ds ØkfUrdkjh) lHkh ns'kksa dh vkt+knh ds
rji+Qnkj FksA¸19
172 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
dbZ dfo;ksa dh fy[kh gqbZ dforkvksa ds laxzg x+nj nh xw¡t esa ,d dfo
dgrk gS % ¶Hkkb;ks] phu ds f[+kyki+Q tax esa u yM+ksA Hkkjr] phu vkSj rqdhZ ds
voke vkil esa HkkbZ gSaA nq'eu dks bldh btkt+r ugha nh tkuh pkfg, fd og
bl HkkbZpkjs dks rgl&ugl dj ldsA¸20
oSadwoj esa 1911 esa ,d laLFkk o+Qk;e gqbZ Fkh ftldk mís'; Fkk cko+Qh
nqfu;k ds lkFk Hkkjrh; jk"Vª ds LorU=krk] lekurk vkSj HkkbZpkjs ds lEcUèk
o+Qk;e djukA ykyk gjn;ky us Hkh dbZ ckj vius Hkk"k.kksa esa ;g ?kks"k.kk dh Fkh
fd os dsoy Hkkjr esa gh ugha cfYd gj ml ns'k esa ØkfUr pkgrs gSa tgk¡ X+kqykeh
vkSj 'kks"k.k ekStwn gSA21
x+nj ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds çpkj dk ,d çeq[k vax Fkk nqfu;k dh Jfed
;wfu;uksa ds uke vihy tkjh djukA mUgksaus iwjh nqfu;k ds tulkèkkj.k ls vihy
dh fd os lkezkth fut+ke dks m[kkM+ iQsadus ds fy, ,dtqV gksaA22
fopkjèkkjk vkSj dk;ZØe
x+nj ikVhZ fczfV'k 'kklu dh fojksèkh Fkh vkSj mldk mís'; Fkk l'kL=k la?k"kZ ds
tfj;s Hkkjr dks fczfV'k 'kklu ls eqDr djds ;gk¡ vesfjdh <ax dk çtkrU=k
LFkkfir djukA mldk fo'okl Fkk fd çLrkoksa] çfrfufèk&e.Myksa vkSj
çkFkZuk&i=kksa ls gesa dqN feyus okyk ugha gSA vaxzst+ 'kkldksa ds lkeus ujenyh;
usrkvksa dk ukpuk Hkh os ilUn ugha djrs FksA ftl x.krU=k dh ckr os djrs Fks
mlesa fdlh rjg ds jktk dh ugha] cfYd ,d pqus gq, jk"Vªifr dh xaqtkb'k FkhA
Hkkjr dh vkt+knh gkfly djus ds fy, x+nj ikVhZ O;fDrxr dkjZokb;ksa ij
mruk fuHkZj ugha djrh Fkh ftruk bl ckr ij fd lsuk esa çpkj djds lSfudksa
dks foæksg ds fy, çksRlkfgr fd;k tk;sA mUgksaus lSfudksa ls vihy dh fd os
foæksg ds fy, mB [kM+s gksaA
x+nj ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dk oxZ&pfj=k Hkh igys ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ls fHkUu FkkA
iqjkus ØkfUrdkjh eq[;r% fuEu&eè;e oxZ ds dqN f'kf{kr yksx Fks tcfd x+nj
ikVhZ ds vfèkdka'k lnL; fdlku ls et+nwj cus yksx Fks] vkSj blfy, mUgksaus
foæksg ds fy, fdlkuksa ls Hkh mB [kM+s gksus dh vihy dhA
nks det+ksfj;k¡
x+nj ikVhZ dh LFkkiuk vesfjdk esa gqbZ Fkh tgk¡ yksxksa dks dqN ukxfjd Lokèkhurk,¡
vkSj vfHkO;fDr dh vkt+knh gkfly Fkh tcfd ml le; Hkkjr esa ;s pht+sa ugha
FkhaA ogk¡ x+nj ds usrk [kqydj viuh ;kstukvksa] bjknksa vkSj dk;ZØe ij cgl
djrs vkSj mu ij ys[k fy[krs FksA bl rjg fczfV'k lkezkT;okfn;ksa dks mudh

ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 173


;kstukvksa dh iwjh&iwjh tkudkjh jgrh Fkh vkSj os x+nj ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh
xfrfofèk;ksa ls iSnk gks ldus okyh gj fLFkfr ls fuiVus dks rS;kj FksA x+nj ds
ussrkvksa vkSj dk;ZdrkZvksa dh bl vxksiuh;rk dh cgqr cM+h o+Qher ikVhZ dks
pqdkuh iM+hA
nwljh çeq[k det+kjs h mudk ;g Hkzked fo'okl Fkk fd ,d lkezkT;oknh
'kfDr mudks nwljh lkezkT;oknh 'kfDr ds paxy q ls vkt+kn djkus esa bZekunkjh ds
lkFk lgk;rk djsxhA muds fnekx+ esa ;g ckr lki+Q ugha Fkh fd teZu gks ;k
fczfV'k ;k dksbZ vkSj & lHkh lkezkT;oknh 'kfDr;ksa dh ço`fÙk ,d tSlh gksrh gSA
tc igyk fo'o;q¼ vkjEHk gqvk rc x+nj ikVhZ vkSj nwljs ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us ukjk
fn;k fd ¶fczVus dh eqlhcr gekjs fy, lqugjk volj gS]¸ vkSj fd ¶nq'eu
dk nq'eu nksLr gksrk gS¸A bl fo'okl ds lkFk mUgksua s teZuh ds o+Ql S j ls
lgk;rk ds fy, lEidZ fd;kA o+QSlj ds çfrfufèk;ksa ls ckrphr ds nkSjku
Lokèkhu Hkkjr dh Hkkoh O;oLFkk ls lEcfUèkr dqN 'krs± Hkh mUgksua s j[kus dh
dksf'k'k dhA exj bl uqDrs ij o+Ql S j dk tokc ges'kk vLi"V jgkA mldh
fnypLih tax ds nkSjku fczVus ds f[+kyki+Q x+nj ikVhZ ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dk vfèkd
ls vfèkd bLrseky dj ldus rd gh lhfer FkhA mlds vius taxh mís'; Fks &
fczVsu vkSj ç+Qkal ls vfèkd ls vfèkd mifuos'k NhuukA bl rjg x+nj ds
ØkfUrdkjh lkezkT;okn dh okLrfod çÑfr ls ,dne vutku FksA okLrfod
vkSj LFkk;h eqfDr ds fy, X+ky q ke ns'kksa dks iwjh lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk ls yM+kbZ
yM+uh gksxhA & ;g ckr :l essa vDVwcj (ubZ ç.kkyh esa uoEcj) 1917 dh
ØkfUr ds ckn gh iwjh rjg Li"V gqbAZ
egku vDVwcj ØkfUr vkSj mldk çHkko
1917 dh vDVwcj lektoknh ØkfUr ekuork ds bfrgkl esa ,d ;qxkUrjdkjh
?kVuk gSA mlus dsoy :l esa gh lkezkT;okn dks ijkftr ugha fd;k cfYd iwjh
lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk dks Hkh ,d t+cjnLr >Vdk fn;kA bl ØkfUr us :l esa
euq"; }kjk euq"; ds vkSj jk"Vª }kjk jk"Vª ds 'kks"k.k ij vkèkkfjr O;oLFkk dks
lekIr dj fn;kA lksfo;r turk vius HkkX; dh Lokeh cu x;hA [ksrks]a dkj[+kkuksa
vkSj odZ'kkWiksa ij mldk lkewfgd LokfeRo o+Qk;e gks x;kA vDVwcj ØkfUr us
u fli+QZ :l ds voke dks iw¡thifr;ksa vkSj t+ehankjksa dh X+kqykeh ls eqDr fd;k
cfYd ,d fcYdqy u;s lekt vkSj u;s bUlku dks Hkh tUe fn;kA mlus X+kqyke
ns'kksa ds Lokèkhurk lsukfu;ksa dks çsfjr fd;k vkSj muds vUnj fo'okl txk;k fd
mudh yM+kbZ o+Qke;kc gksdj jgsxhA mlus nqfu;k ds fofHkUu fgLlksa esa py jgs
eqfDr&la?k"kks± dks u;s vk;ke Hkh fn;sA
174 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
fo'oO;kih lkezkT;okn&fojksèkh laxzke dk vax gksus ds ukrs Hkkjr dk
Lokèkhurk laxzke Hkh blls vNwrk ugha jgkA mlds n`f"Vdks.k esa Hkh ,d iQSyko
vk;k vkSj eglwl fd;k x;k fd vk£Fkd vkSj lkekftd lekurkvksa ds fcuk
vkt+knh dk dksbZ vFkZ ugha gksxkA
vDVwcj ØkfUr vkSj ;wjksi rFkk ,f'k;k esa lkezkT;okn&fojksèkh ØkfUr dh
ygj us] vkSj lkFk gh çFke fo'o;q¼ ds mijkUr Hkkjrh; turk ds ØkfUr dh
rji+Q c<+rs o+Qneksa us fczfV'k lkezkT;okfn;ksa dks pkSdUuk dj fn;k FkkA mUgksaus
vfç; fLFkfr ls fuiVus ds fy, nksrji+Qk uhfr viuk;hA ,d rji+Q rks mUgksaus
ekW.VsX;w&psEli+QksMZ lqèkkjksa dk <dkslyk [kM+k djds ujeiUFkh jk"Vªh; usrkvksa dk
leFkZu çkIr djus dh dksf'k'k dh vkSj nwljh rji+Q jktæksg ds ekeyksa dh
Nkuchu djus vkSj ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds neu ds mik; lq>kus ds fy, U;k;ew£r
jkSyV dh vè;{krk esa ,d desVh fu;qDr dhA bl desVh dh fli+Qkfj'ksa cM+h
gh ik'kfod FkhaA mlus lkèkkj.k jktuhfrd xfrfofèk;ksa rd dks jktæksg o+Qjkj
ns fn;k FkkA jkSyV desVh dh neudkjh fli+Qkfj'kksa ds fojksèk esa xk¡èkhth us ,d
fnu vke gM+rky dk vkàku fd;kA bl vkàku ds vçR;kf'kr çHkko gq, vkSj
turk viuk Øksèk O;Dr djus ds fy, ,dtqV gksdj lkeus vk x;hA ;g ljdkj
ds fy, gh ugha] gekjs usrkvksa ds fy, Hkh ,d u;h ckr FkhA vaxzst+ksa us Hkkjrh;ksa
dks lcd fl[kkus dk fu'p; fd;k vkSj 13 vçSy] 1919 dks tfy;k¡okyk ckx+
esa bl fu'p; dks veyh :i Hkh ns fn;k x;kA blds ckn rks turk esa X+kqLls
dh ygj nkSM+ x;h vkSj iatkc ds yxHkx lHkh 'kgjksa esa yksx lM+dksa ij fudy
vk;sA ljdkj us mls laxfBr foæksg dh laKk nhA ysfdu okLro esa xk¡èkhth Hkh
bl lcds fy, rS;kj ugha FksA mUgksaus ,yku fd;k fd ,d fnu dh vke gM+rky
dk ukjk nsdj mUgksaus Hk;adj Hkwy dh FkhA mUgksaus yksxksa ls vkUnksyu cUn djus
vkSj lqèkkjksa ij vey djus dk vuqjksèk fd;kA
flrEcj] 1920 esa ykyk yktir jk; us dkaxzsl dks vkxkg djrs gq, dgk
Fkk fd turk {kqCèk ,oa ijs'kku gS vkSj dqN dj xqtj+ us ds ewM esa gSA mUgksua s dkaxl
zs
ls ;g Hkh dgk fd vxj turk ds bl X+kqLls dks lgh jkLrs ij u Mkyk x;k
rks og viuk jkLrk viuk;sxh tks ns'k ds fy, vfgrdj gksxkA ¶bl rF; dh
vksj ls vk¡[ksa cUn djus ls dksbZ ykHk ugha gksxk fd ge ØkfUrdkjh ;qx ls gksdj
xqt+j jgs gSaA¸ mUgksaus ,yku fd;k vkSj dgk] ¶çÑfr ls vkSj ijEijk ls ge
ØkfUr;ksa dks ilUn ugha djrs gSaA¸23 dkaxszl us ukxiqj vfèkos'ku esas ykyk th dh
ml psrkouh ij Hkh fopkj fd;k vkSj xk¡èkhth dks funsZ'k fn;k x;k fd os
LojkT; ds fy, vlg;ksx vkUnksyu vkjEHk djsaA vkUnksyu 'kq: djus ls igys
egkRek th caxky x;s vkSj dqN ØkfUrdkjh usrkvksa ls feydj muls ,d lky
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 175
dk le; ek¡xk vkSj dgk fd vxj os ,d lky ds vUnj LojkT; u çkIr dj
ysa rks ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks vius jkLrs ij pyus dh iwjh NwV gksxhA ØkfUrdkjh
usrkvksa us xk¡èkhth dh ckr eku yhA lR;kxzg vkUnksyu 'kq: gqvkA ns[krs&ns[krs
og lkjs ns'k esa iQSy x;k vkSj xk¡oksa dh NksVh&NksVh >ksaifM+;ksa rd esa ^LojkT;*
'kCn xw¡tus yxkA vkUnksyu esa Hkkx ysus ds fy, xk¡èkhth us tks Hkh jksdFkke dh
'krs± yxkbZ Fkha mu lcdks Hkh rksM+dj fdlku iwjs tks'k ds lkFk vkUnksyu esa dwn
iM+sA ¶ljdkj ijs'kku vkSj ?kcjk;h gqbZ Fkh] mlds gkFk&iSj iQwyus yxs FksA ;fn
ljdkj dh pkSeq[kh voKk dh Nwr 'kgjksa ls pydj djksM+ksa fdlkuksa rd igq¡p
tkrh gS rks vaxzst+h gqdwer ds ikl cpr ds fy, dksbZ pkjk ugha jg tk;sxk_ rhl
djksM+ turk ds foæksg dh [kkSyrh gqbZ gk¡Mh ls mudh lkjh rksias vkSj gokbZ tgkt+
Hkh mUgsa cpk ugha ldsaxsA¸24 xk¡èkhth Hkh [+kq'k ugha Fks vkSj mrus gh ?kcjk;s gq,
FksA os vkUnksyu okil ysus ds fy, fdlh volj dh çrh{kk esa Fks vkSj i+Qjojh]
1922 esa pkSjh&pkSjk dh ?kVuk ls mUgsa ;g volj fey x;kA ctk; blds fd
os ml ?kVuk dk Lokxr djrs vkSj turk ls mlh çdkj dh gt+kjksa vkSj ?kVukvksa
dh ek¡x djrs] mUgksaus fdlh ls lykg fy;s cx+Sj pqipki vkUnksyu okil ys
fy;k vkSj jktuhfr ls vyx gks x;sA bl i`"BHkwfe esa ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us] ftUgksaus
xk¡èkhth ds dgus ij gfFk;kj j[k fn;s Fks] vius dks laxfBr djds fiQj ls
gfFk;kj mBkus dk i+QSlyk fd;kA
fgUnqLrku fjifCydu ,lksfl,'ku
lHkh ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks ,d vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ esa laxfBr djus esa igy dh
'kphUæukFk lkU;ky usA blh mís'; ls mUgksaus 1923 ds vUr esas ^fgUnqLrku
çtkrU=k la?k* (fgUnqLrku fjifCydu ,lksfl,'ku) dh cqfu;kn MkyhA mUgksaus
ikVhZ dk lafoèkku Hkh rS;kj fd;k tks ihys dkx+t+ ij Nik Fkk vkSj blhfy, og
^ihyk ijpk* ds uke ls e'kgwj gSA ,d vkSj egÙoiw.kZ nLrkost+ tks mUgksaus rS;kj
fd;k og Fkk ^fgUnqLrku çtkrU=k la?k* dk ?kks"k.kki=k ftldk 'kh"kZd Fkk (fn
fjoksY;w'kujh)A ;g nLrkost+ igyh tuojh] 1925 dh jkr esa iwjs mÙkj Hkkjr esa
ck¡Vk x;k FkkA 1917 dh vDVwcj ØkfUr ls çHkkfor gksdj ?kks"k.kki=k esa Hkkjrh;
ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds mís'; dk ,yku uhps fy[ks 'kCnksa esa fd;k x;k Fkk %
¶jktuhfr ds {ks=k esa ØkfUrdkjh ikVhZ dk rkRdkfyd mís'; laxfBr l'kL=k
ØkfUr }kjk Hkkjr ds la;qDr jkT;ksa dk ,d la?kh; x.kjkT; (i+QsMjy fjifCyd
vkWi+Q ;wukbVsM LVsV~l vkWi+Q bf.M;k) LFkkfir djuk gSA bl x.kjkT; ds vfUre
lafoèkku dk fuekZ.k ,oa ?kks"k.kk rc gksxh tc lEiw.kZ Hkkjr ds çfrfufèk vius
fu.kZ;ksa dks ykxw djus esa l{ke gksaxsA ysfdu bl x.kjkT; dk ewyHkwr fl¼kUr
176 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
lkoZtfud erkfèkdkj ij vkSj 'kks"k.k ij vkèkkfjr ,slh leLr O;oLFkkvksa dh
lekfIr ij vkèkkfjr gksxk tks euq"; }kjk euq"; ds 'kks"k.k dks lEHko cukrh gSaA
bl x.kjkT; esa ernkrkvksa dks] ;fn os pkgsa rks] çfrfufèk;ksa dks okil cqykus dk
vfèkdkj gksxk] vU;Fkk çtkrU=k ,d e[kkSy cudj jg tk;sxkA¸
?kks"k.kki=k esa dgk x;k Fkk fd ¶;g ØkfUrdkjh ikVhZ bu vFkks± esa jk"Vªh; u
gksdj vUrjjk"Vªh; gS fd bldk vfUre mís'; fo'o esa esy ,oa lkeatL;
LFkkfir djuk gSA ;g fofHkUu jk"Vªksa vkSj jkT;ksa ds chp çfr}fU}rk ds ctk;
lg;ksx pkgrh gS_ vkSj bu vFkks± esa og Hkkjr ds mTToy vrhr ds egku Íf"k;ksa
,oa vkt ds cksY'ksfod :l dk vuqlj.k djsxhA¸25
?kks"k.kki=k esa lkEçnkf;d leL;k ds ckjs esa] turk ds vk£Fkd ,oa
lkekftd fgrksa ds loky ij vkSj dkaxzsl rFkk vU; jktuhfrd ikfVZ;ksa ds ckjs
esa ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds n`f"Vdks.k dks Li"V fd;k x;k FkkA
bu lHkh lokyksa ij ?kks"k.kki=k dk n`f"Vdks.k fuf'pr :i ls vrhr dk
nkeu NksMd + j lektokn dk vkSj lksfo;r dks ^fot;h lektokn dk igyk ns'k*
dgdj mldk Lokxr djrk gSA mlesa gesa jk"Vªh; vkt+knh ds fy, pyus okys
vkUnksyuksa ds vUrjjk"Vªh; pfj=k dh le> Hkh ns[kus dks feyrh gSA gkyk¡fd ;g
le> vHkh cgqr lki+Q ugha gSA LorU=k Hkkjr dh lkekftd&vk£Fkd O;oLFkk
dSlh gksxh] ?kks"k.kki=k esa ml ij Hkh çdk'k Mkyus dk ç;kl fd;k x;k gS vkSj
bl mís'; dh iw£r ds fy, et+nwjksa vkSj fdlkuksa dks laxfBr djus dh
vko';drk dks Hkh Lohdkj fd;k x;k gSA ysfdu bldk ;g eryc ugha fd
?kks"k.kki=k dk ys[kd ekDlZoknh Fkk ;k mlus oSKkfud lektokn ds lkjrÙo dks
vkRelkr dj fy;k FkkA mldk >qdko [k+klrkSj ij bZ'oj vkSj jgL;okn dh vksj
gSA ?kks"k.kki=k ds vuqlkj] ¶ikVhZ dk mís'; lR; dks çLFkkfir djuk vkSj mldk
çpkj djuk gSA fo'o u ek;k gS u Hkze fd mldh rji+Q ls vk¡[k cUn dj yh
tk;s vkSj mldh mis{kk dh tk;sA og ,d vfoHkkT; vkRek dk çdV Lo:i
gS] vkRek tks 'kfDr] Kku vkSj lkSUn;Z dk loksZPp mn~xe gSA¸ ys[kd ekDlZokn
ds vk£Fkd i{k dks Lohdkj djrk gS] tks dkdksjh ls igys ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds
eqo+Qkcys fu'p; gh ,d vkxs c<+k gqvk o+Qne gSA ysfdu tgk¡ rd ekDlZokn
ds nk'kZfud i{k dk loky gS] ys[kd HkkSfrdokn dks u ekudj Hkxoku vkSj
èkS;Z ij vfMx jgrk gSA vkxs pydj lkU;ky th Lo;a fy[krs gSa % ¶dE;qfuLV
n'kZu esa bfrgkl ds HkkSfrdoknh fo'ys"k.k dk ,d egÙoiw.kZ LFkku gSA vkSj
bfrgkl dh HkkSfrdoknh O;k[;k esa oxZ&la?k"kZ dh voèkkj.kk 'kq: ls vkf[k+j rd
yxkrkj ekStwn gS---eSa vkt Hkh bu fl¼kUrksa dks Lohdkj ugha dj ik;k gw¡---A¸26
,d vkSj egÙoiw.kZ eqík ftl ij mudk dE;qfuT+e ls erHksn Fkk] og Fkk
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 177
loZgkjk oxZ ds usr`Ro dh voèkkj.kkA mudk ;g er Fkk fd ¶fli+QZ eè;e oxZ
ds ukStoku gh usr`Ro çnku djus dh {kerk j[krs gSa] tcfd et+nwj vkSj fdlku
ØkfUrdkjh lsuk ds flikgh dk dke djsaxsA¸27
'kphUæukFk lkU;ky vkSj muds le; ds vU; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh lS¼kfUrd
ekU;rkvksa dk lR;sUæ ukjk;.k etwenkj us viuh iqLrd bu lpZ vkWi+Q ,
fjoksY;w'kujh vkbfM;ksyksth ,.M fjoksY;w'kujh çksxzke esa la{ksi esa cM+k vPNk
[kqyklk çLrqr fd;k gSA nksuksa nLrkost+ksa (ØkfUrdkjh vkSj lafoèkku) ij fVIi.kh
djrs gq, mUgksaus fy[kk gS % ¶;s nksuksa nLrkost+ mu ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh lksp dk
çfrfufèkRo djrs gSa tks mu fnuksa lkE;okn dh rji+Q vkd£"kr gks jgs FksA¸28
blds ckn nksuksa nLrkost+ksa dh fof'k"Vrkvksa dk mYys[k djrs gq, os fy[krs gSa
% ¶bu nksuksa nLrkost+ksa dh fof'k"Vrk,¡ gSa & (d) lektokn dh fot;&irkdk
iQgjkus okys igys ns'k ds :i esa cksY'ksfod :l ds çfr vkSj lkE;okn ds çfr
Li"V >qdko_ ([k) jk"Vªh; eqfDr ds fy, ØkfUr ds vUrjjk"Vªh; pfj=k dks
le>us dh 'kq#vkr] gkyk¡fd ;g le> vHkh cgqr lki+Q ugha Fkh_ (x) LorU=k
Hkkjr dh lkekftd rFkk vk£Fkd O;oLFkk dh :ijs[kk rS;kj djus dh dksf'k'k_
(?k) et+nwjksa vkSj fdlkuksa dks laxfBr djus ds fy, Ñr&ladYi gksuk_
(Ä) ikVhZ esa tuoknh&dsUæh;rk ds fl¼kUr dk ços'kA¸29
nksuksa nLrkost+ksa dh det+ksfj;ksa dks etwenkj us bl çdkj fxuk;k gS % ¶
(d) lkE;okn ds çfr >qdko vo'; Fkk] ysfdu vHkh rd lkE;okn ds
vè;;u dk Bksl vkèkkj mls ugha feyk Fkk_ ([k) jk"Vªh; eqfDr&la?k"kZ esa et+njw ksa
vkSj fdlkuksa dh Hkwfedk ds okLrfod egÙo dks Li"V :i ls ugha le>k x;k
Fkk_ (x) ?kks"k.kki=k dk ys[kd vHkh rd èkk£ed jgL;okn ds çHkko ls xzLr
gS_ (?k) ?kks"k.kki=k ;g le>us esa vliQy jgk fd vkradokn dk eqoQ+ kcyk djus
ds fy, tokch vkradoknh vfHk;ku dk et+nwjksa vkSj fdlkuksa dks laxfBr djus
ds dk;Z ls lkeatL; cSBkuk vO;kogkfjd gS_ (Ä) jk"Vªh; fLFkfr dk x+yr
fo'ys"k.k nsrs gq, ?kks"k.kki=k esa dgk x;k Fkk fd ^gekjs thou ds gj {ks=k esa pje
vlgk;rk dh Hkkouk fo|eku gS vkSj vkradokn mlesa ;Fkksfpr mRlkg iSnk djus
dk çHkkodkjh lkèku* vkfnA tcfd ml le; rd Hkkjr dh esgurd'k turk
la?k"kZ dh jkg ij dwp dj pqdh FkhA mldk vxqok nLrk et+nwj oxZ fueZe
iqfyl&neu ds ckotwn yxkrkj vkSj cgknqjh ds lkFk 'kkunkj yM+kb;k¡ yM+ jgk
FkkA¸30
caxky esa Hkh mlh fn'kk esa fodkl gks jgk FkkA ogk¡ vuq'khyu vkSj ;qxkUrj
ds dbZ usrkvksa us lksfo;r :l rFkk dE;qfuT+e esa fnypLih ysuh 'kq: dj nh
FkhA ysfdu ;g fnypLih lkE;okn ds vè;;u ij ;k vDVwcj ØkfUr vkSj
178 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
mldh fof'k"Vrk dh Bhd le> ij vkèkkfjr ugha FkhA os lksfo;r ;wfu;u vkSj
dksfe.VuZ dks ¶gfFk;kj rFkk vU; çdkj dh lgk;rk] elyu ce cukus dh
f'k{kk vkfn] çkIr djus ds ,d lEHkkfor Ïksr ds :i esa ns[krs FksA ysfdu tc
mUgsa irk pyk fd lksfo;r ;wfu;u vkSj dE;qfuLV b.Vjus'kyu nksuksa gh turk
ls vyx fdlh çdkj dh l'kL=k xfrfofèk;ksa dks çksRlkgu ugha nsrs gSa rks mudh
fnypLih B.Mh iM+ x;hA¸31
ml le;] vFkkZr rhljs n'kd ds mÙkjk¼Z esa Hkkjro"kZ esa dE;qfuLV
fopkjèkkjk tufç; gks jgh FkhA vDVwcj ØkfUr vkSj :l ds f[+kyki+Q lkezkT;oknh
gLr{ksi dh ijkt; ds vykok bl cnyko ds dqN vU; dkj.k Hkh FksA tSls %
(d) is'kkoj vkSj dkuiqj ds cksY'ksfod "kM~;U=k dsl_ ([k) ns'k ds dbZ Hkkxksa
esas fdlkuksa ds tq>k: la?k"kZ_ (x) et+nwjksa dh ns'kO;kih cM+h&cM+h gM+rkysa
(?k) et+nwj&fdlku ikVhZ dk xBu_ (Ä) ns'k ds fofHkUu dE;qfuLV xzqiksa dks
feykdj ,d vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ ds xBu dk ç;klA jk"Vªh; rFkk vUrjjk"Vªh;
iSekus ij ?kfVr bu ?kVukvksa ls çHkkfor gksdj vuq'khyu ds dqN dk;ZdrkZ ikVhZ
ls vyx gksdj dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu esa pys x;sA vuq'khyu esa mudk vPNk
lEeku Fkk vkSj ØkfUrdkjh ;qodksa esa lkE;okn dks tufç; cukus esa mu yksxksa
dh dki+Qh gn rd egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk FkhA
fgUnqLrku lektoknh çtkrU=k la?k dk xBu
la;qDr çkUr (vc mÙkj çns'k) esa 1925 esa ØkfUrdkjh ikVhZ ds çk;% lHkh çeq[k
usrk dkdksjh "kM~;U=k dsl ds flyflys esa idM+dj tsy esa cUn dj fn;s x;s
FksA blls fgUnqLrku çtkrU=k la?k ds laxBu dks cgqr cM+k èkDdk yxkA dsoy
pUæ'ks[kj vkt+kn vkSj dqUnuyky xqIr gh iqfyl ds paxy q ls cpdj fudy ik;s
FksA buds vfrfjDr ckgj tks lkFkh jg x;s Fks os lc nwljh iafDr ds flikgh FksA
ikVhZ dks fiQj ls laxfBr djus dk nkf;Ro bUgha nwljh iafDr ds lkfFk;ksa ij iM+kA
ml le; vFkkZr 1925 esa dqN ØkfUrdkjh ykgkSj esa lfØ; Fks vkSj dqN dkuiqj
esa fiQj ls dke vkjEHk djus dk ç;kl dj jgs FksA lS¼kfUrd n`f"Vdks.k ls ml
le; rd bu nksuksa dsUæksa ds lkfFk;ksa ds fnekx+ lki+Q ugha FksA gk¡] ,d lgh
fl¼kUr dh ryk'k vo'; vkjEHk gks x;h FkhA bl fn'kk esa nksuksa dsUæksa ds
lkfFk;ksa dks ;ksX; ekxZn'kZd Hkh fey x;s FksA
bl le; (1925&26) ykgkSj ds lkFkh] [k+kldj Hkxr¯lg vkSj lq[knso]
:lh vjktdrkoknh ckdqfuu ls çHkkfor FksA Hkxr¯lg dks vjktdrkokn ls
lektokn dh vksj ykus dk Js; nks O;fDr;ksa dks gS & dkejsM lksgu ¯lg tks'k
tks vc gekjs chp esa ugha gSa vkSj ykyk NchynklA tks'k ,d e'kgwj dE;qfuLV
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 179
usrk vkSj fdjrh uke dh iatkch ekfld if=kdk ds lEiknd FksA os Hkxr¯lg
ls fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij ckrphr djrs vkSj mUgsa fdjrh esa fy[kus ds fy, çksRlkfgr
djrs FksA ykyk Nchynkl ^fryd Ldwy vkWi+Q iksfyfVDl*] tks us'kuy dkWyst
ds uke ls Hkh çfl¼ Fkk] ds çèkkukpk;Z FksA os ukStoku ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks crykrs
jgrs Fks fd D;k i<+sa vkSj dSls i<+saA Hkxorhpj.k oksgjk dk lektokn dh rji+Q
vkjEHk ls gh #>ku FkkA lksgu ¯lg tks'k dk lkjk ekxZ&n'kZu vkSj ykyk
Nchynkl ds fdrkcksa ds ckjs esa lkjs lq>ko iqLrdksa ds vHkko esa O;FkZ gh jg
tkrsA bl vko';drk dks dqN gn rd iwjk fd;k ykyk yktir jk; dh
^}kjdknkl ykbczsjh* usA bl iqLrdky; esa jktuhfr&lEcUèkh iqLrdksa dk vPNk
laxzg Fkk ftuesa ekDlZoknh vkSj lksfo;r :l ij ,slh iqLrdsa Hkh 'kkfey Fkha
ftUgsa ljdkj us t+Cr ugha fd;k FkkA
ykgkSj ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us ml iqLrdky; ls iwjk ykHk mBk;kA ml dke
esa mUgsa iqLrdky; ds vè;{k vkSj ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds gennZ Jh jktkjke 'kkL=kh
(vc LoxhZ;) ls dki+Qh lgk;rk feyrh FkhA iqLrdsa çkIr djus dk ,d vkSj
Hkh lkslZ Fkk jkeÑ".k ,.M lUl uke dh fdrkcksa dh ,d nwdkuA ;g nwdku
vukjdyh ckt+kj esa Fkh vkSj mlds ikl baXyS.M ls t+Cr'kqnk iqLrdsa e¡xokus
dh vPNh O;oLFkk FkhA iatkc ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us] [k+kldj Hkxr¯lg vkSj
Hkxorhpj.k oksgjk us] bu lqfoèkkvksa ls iwjk ykHk mBk;kA Jh jktkjke 'kkL=kh
us ,d ckj bu iafDr;ksa ds ys[kd ls dgk Fkk fd Hkxr¯lg oLrqr% iqLrdksa
dks i<+rk ugha fuxyrk Fkk] ysfdu fiQj Hkh mldh Kku dh fiiklk lnk
vucq>h gh jgrh FkhA Hkxr¯lg iqLrdksa dk vè;;u djrk] uksV~l cukrk]
vius lkfFk;ksa ls mu ij fopkj&foe'kZ djrk] viuh le> dks u;s Kku dh
dlkSVh ij vkRekykspukRed <ax ls ij[kus dk ç;kl djrk vkSj bl çfØ;k
esa viuh le> esa tks&tks x+yfr;k¡ fn[kyk;h iM+rha mUgsa lqèkkjus dh dksf'k'k
djrkA bu lc ckrksa us iatkc xzqi dks rst+h ds lkFk vkxs c<+us esa enn dhA
ifj.kkeLo:i 1928 ds vkjEHk esa mUgksaus vjktdrkokn dks NksM+dj lektokn
dks è;s; ds :i esa Lohdkj dj fy;kA bldk ;g eryc ugha fd mUgksaus
ekDlZokn dks iwjh rjg ls le> fy;k FkkA vrhr ds çHkko ls vHkh iwjh rjg
NqVdkjk ugha fey ik;k FkkA
dkuiqj ds lkFkh Hkh Bhd mlh fn'kk esa vkxs c<+ jgs Fks] gkyk¡fd mudh
vkxs c<+us dh xfr esa og rst+h ugha Fkh tks ykgkSj ds lkfFk;ksa esa FkhA dkuiqj
esa jkèkkeksgu xksdy
q th] lR;HkDr vkSj ekSykuk gljr eksgkuh vius dks dE;qfuLV
dgrs FksA buesa ls jkèkkeksgu th dk uke fo'ks"k :i ls mYys[kuh; gSA muds ikl
iqLrdksa dk vPNk laxgz FkkA vè;;u'khy O;fDr gksus ds lkFk gh os ,d l'kDr
180 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
ys[kd Hkh FksA 1927 esa mUgksua s ,d iqLrd fy[kh Fkh & dE;qfuT+e D;k gS\ ljy
vkSj lhèkh&lknh Hkk"kk esa bl iqLrd ds ekè;e ls mUgksaus fgUnh ds ikBdksa ds
lkeus dE;qfuLV fl¼kUr ds çeq[k eqíksa dks çLrqr fd;k FkkA bu iafDr;ksa ds
ys[kd dks Hkh dE;qfuT+e dk igyk lcd jkèkkeksgu th ls gh feyk FkkA
jkèkkeksgu th dV~Vj ukfLrd FksA bZ'oj] èkeZ] vUèkfo'okl vkfn ij mUgksaus
i=k&if=kdkvksa esa dki+Qh dqN fy[kk FkkA mudk ;g :i ns[kdj fgUnh ds
miU;kl&lezkV çsepUn us mUgsa ^vkèkqfud pkokZd* dgdj iqdkjk FkkA
lR;HkDr dk dE;qfuT+e vè;kReoknh jax dk Fkk vkSj ekSykuk gljr eksgkuh
ds fopkj dE;qfuT+e vkSj bLyke dh f[kpM+h dgs tk ldrs gSaA bu det+ksfj;ksa
ds ckotwn lksfo;r :l vkSj lkE;okn dks fgUnh Hkk"kk&Hkk"kh turk ds chp
tufç; cukus esa bu rhuksa dh Hkwfedk ls bUdkj ugha fd;k tk ldrkA dkuiqj
ds ;qok ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us lektokn dh çFke nh{kk bUgha egkuqHkkoksa ls çkIr dh
FkhA 'kkSo+Qr mLekuh Hkh fot;dqekj flUgk ds ekè;e ls dkuiqj xzqi ds lEidZ
esa Fks] ysfdu ge yksxksa dks muls fdlh çdkj dk lS¼kfUrd ekxZn'kZu ugha fey
ldk FkkA Jh x.ks'k'kadj fo|kFkhZ ls Hkh] tks dkuiqj dh cgqr cM+h e'kgwj gLrh
Fks] ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks gj rjg dh lgk;rk feyrh jgrh FkhA os jktuhfrd
vè;;u vkSj turk ds chp dke ij fo'ks"k :i ls cy nsrs FksA
bl lcds ifj.kkeLo:i dkuiqj ds lkfFk;ksa dk >qdko Hkh lektokn dh
rji+Q gks x;k FkkA ysfdu ;g >qdko cqf¼laxr gksus ds ctk; HkkokRed vfèkd
FkkA ml le; rd dkuiqj xzqi pUæ'ks[kj vkt+kn vkSj dqUnuyky xqIr ls lEidZ
LFkkfir dj pqdk FkkA ;s nksuksa lkFkh dkdksjh "kM~;U=k dsl esa i+Qjkj ?kksf"kr fd;s
tk pqds FksA
;g Fkh i`"BHkwfe] tc 1928 ds vkjEHk esa Hkxr¯lg us fofHkUu nyksa dks
feykdj ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dk ,d vf[ky Hkkjrh; laxBu cukus dk fopkj vius
lkfFk;ksa ds lkeus j[kkA muds çLrko bl çdkj Fks % (d) le; vk x;k gS
fd ge lektokn dks lkgl ds lkFk viuk vfUre y{; ?kksf"kr djsa_
([k) ikVhZ dk uke rnuqlkj cnyk tkuk pkfg, rkfd yksx tku ldsa fd gekjk
vfUre y{; D;k gS_ (x) gesa fli+QZ mUgha dkeksa dks gkFk esa ysuk pkfg, ftudk
lhèkk lEcUèk turk dh t+:jrksa vkSj Hkkoukvksa ls gks ldrk gS] vkSj gesa ekewyh
iqfyl vfèkdkfj;ksa vFkok Hksfn;ksa dks ekjus esa viuh 'kfDr vkSj le; dk
viO;; ugha djuk pkfg,_ (?k) èku ds fy, gesa ljdkjh [k+t+kus ij gh gkFk
Mkyuk pkfg, vkSj ;FkklEHko futh ?kjksa ij dkjZokbZ ugha djuh pkfg,_ vkSj
(Ä) lkewfgd usr`Ro ds fl¼kUr dk dM+kbZ ls ikyu djuk pkfg,A
Hkxr¯lg us bu lc eqíksa ij ykgkSj vkSj dkuiqj ds vius lkfFk;ksa ds lkFk
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 181
fopkj&foe'kZ fd;k vkSj pUæ'ks[kj vkt+kn rFkk dqUnuyky dh lgefr Hkh ys
yhA blds ckn ;g r; fd;k x;k fd fofHkUu çkUrksa ds çfrfufèk;ksa dh ,d
cSBd 8 vkSj 9 flrEcj] 1928 dks fnYyh esa vk;ksftr dh tk;sA ik¡p çkUrksa
ds çfrfufèk;ksa dks blds fy, vkefU=kr fd;k x;k] ysfdu buesa ls pkj çkUrksa
us gh viuh LohÑfr nhA caxky dks eh¯Vx esa Hkkx ysus ds fy, ge jkt+h ugha
dj ik;sA
bl lEcUèk esa ,l-,u- etwenkj us fy[kk gS fd ¶fgUnqLrku fjifCydu
,lksfl,'ku ds caxky ds çfrfufèk;ksa us eh¯Vx esa Hkkx ugha fy;k D;ksafd ,slk
dgk tkrk gS fd os vkradokn rFkk ¯glk ds f[+kyki+Q FksA¸ ;g lgh ugha gSA
ikVhZ dh vksj ls Lo;a eq>s gh vxLr 1928 ds vfUre lIrkg esa dydÙkk Hkstk
x;k Fkk rkfd caxky ds lkfFk;ksa ds lkFk çLrkoksa ij ckrphr djds mUgsa fnYyh
eh¯Vx esa vkus ds fy, vkefU=kr fd;k tk ldsA lEidZ feyk Fkk okjk.klh ds
,d rkjkin HkV~Vkpk;Z lsA dydÙks esa esjk ifjp; ftu lTtu ls djk;k x;k
muds ckjs esa dgk x;k fd os vHkh&vHkh tsy ls NwVdj vk;s gSaA ns[kus ls os
cqT+kqxZ yxrs Fks] mudk 'kjhj eksVk vkSj FkqyFkqyk Fkk vkSj mudk O;ogkj cM+k gh
v#fpdj FkkA mudh ckrphr vkSj gko&Hkko ls eq>s ;g le>us esa nsjh ugha yxh
fd eSa ftl O;fDr ls fey jgk gw¡] og rkuk'kkgh ço`fÙk okyk ,d nEHkh ,oa
cM+k vgadkjh O;fDr gSA pkj&ik¡p ukStoku yM+ds tks cjkcj ogk¡ ekStnw jgs] mUgsa
lq'khy nk dgdj lEcksfèkr djrs FksA eSaus tSls gh muds dejs esa ços'k fd;k
oSls gh mUgksaus ;w-ih- xzqi dks dkdksjh dk.M ds fy, Mk¡Vuk&iQVdkjuk 'kq: dj
fn;k] ¶rqe yksxksa us ;g dke ge yksxksa ls iwNs cx+Sj D;ksa fd;k\ vkSj vc lkjk
laxBu pkSiV dj nsus ds ckn gels lgk;rk ek¡xus vkus ls D;k i+Qk;nk\¸ eSaus
muls dgk fd eSa vkils dksbZ lgk;rk ek¡xus ugha vk;k gw¡ cfYd dqN eqíksa ij
ckrphr djus vkSj vkidks fnYyh eh¯Vx ds fy, vkefU=kr djus vk;k gwA¡ blds
ckn eSaus ,d&,d djds lHkh çLrkoksa ds ckjs esa mUgsa cryk;k vkSj muls fnYyh
eh¯Vx esa Hkkx ysus dk vuqjksèk fd;kA mUgksaus dgk fd os viuh 'krks± ij gh
eh¯Vx esa Hkkx ys ldsaxs vkSj eq>ls ;g vk'oklu ek¡xk fd mudh 'krs± eku yh
tk;saxhA mudh 'krs± bl çdkj Fkha % (d) fd ge yksx lektokn ;k dE;qfuT+e
ls dksbZ ljksdkj ugha j[ksaxs_ ([k) fd ikVhZ dk uke ugha cnyk tk;sxk_
(x) fd gesa ljdkj ls lhèks fHkM+k nsus okys dkdksjh tSls dke Hkfo"; esa gels
iwNs cx+Sj ugha fd;s tk;saxs_ (?k) fd dsUæh; desVh tSlh dksbZ pht+ ugha gksxh
vkSj ge yksxksa dks dsoy mUgha ds ekè;e ls caxky ds ekrgr jgdj dke djuk
gksxk_ (Ä) fd ge yksxksa dks viuh xfrfofèk;k¡ fli+QZ laxBu cukus] gfFk;kj
vkSj iSlk tek djus rd gh lhfer j[kuh gksaxh_ (p) fd iSls ds fy, fli+QZ
182 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
vjktuhfrd dkeksa dh gh btkt+r gksxhA eSaus mUgsa bl ckr ij jkth djus dh
dksf'k'k dh fd os cx+Sj fdlh çdkj dh 'krs± yxk;s [kqys fny ls eh¯Vx esa vk;sa
vkSj lHkh ckrksa ij cgl esa fgLlk ysaA mUgksaus esjh ckr ekuus ls lki+Q bUdkj dj
fn;kA pw¡fd mudh lHkh 'krs± gekjs çLrkoksa ls fcYdqy fHkUu Fkha blfy, eSaus
fouezrkiwoZd mudh 'krs± ekuus ls bUdkj dj fn;kA bu dkj.kksa ls fnYyh eh¯Vx
caxky ds lkfFk;ksa dh vuqifLFkfr esa gh djuh iM+hA
fnYyh eh¯Vx vkSj mlds ckn
vkB flrEcj] 1928 dks eh¯Vx esa Hkkx ysus ds fy, pkj çkUrksa dk
çfrfufèkRo djus okys dqy feykdj nl lkFkh dksVyk fi+Qjkst+'kkg esa tek gq,
FksA buesa nks fcgkj ls] nks iatkc ls] ,d jktLFkku ls vkSj ik¡p la;qDr çkUr
(vc mÙkj çns'k) ls FksA ;w-ih- ds ik¡p lkfFk;ksa esa ls Hkh nks us eh¯Vx esa cSBus
ls bUdkj dj fn;k D;ksafd cko+Qh lkfFk;ksa us mudh dqN 'krs± ugha ekuhaA bl
çdkj dsoy vkB lkfFk;ksa us gh ckrphr esa Hkkx fy;kA vkt+kn dks lqj{kk dh
n`f"V ls fnYyh ugha yk;k x;k FkkA ysfdu muls lHkh eqíksa ij iwoZLohÑfr
çkIr dj yh x;h FkhA eh¯Vx esa nks fnu dh cgl ds ckn Hkxr¯lg }kjk j[ks
x;s lHkh çLrkoksa dks nks ds f[+kyki+Q Ng ds cgqer ls Lohdkj dj fy;k x;kA
iQ.khUæukFk ?kks"k vkSj eueksgu cuthZ (nksuksa fcgkj ls) us lektokn dks ikVhZ
ds vfUre y{; ds :i esa viuk;s tkus vkSj ikVhZ dk uke cnyus ds çLrko
dk fojksèk fd;kA vkxs pydj tc fnlEcj 1928 esa Hkxr¯lg dydÙkk x;s
vkSj =kSyksD; pØorhZ rFkk çrqy xkaxqyh] tks ml le; rd tsy ls NwVdj
ckgj vk pqds Fks] ls feys rks mUgksaus crk;k fd fnYyh eh¯Vx ds fy, caxky
dks vkefU=kr djus tks lkFkh igys vk;s Fks] mudks nqHkkZX;o'k ,d x+yr
vkneh ls feyk fn;k x;k FkkA Hkxr¯lg us nksuksa usrkvksa dks fnYyh ds i+QSlyksa
ls voxr djk;k vkSj lHkh eqíksa ij mudh lgefr Hkh çkIr dj yhA os geesa
ls dqN lkfFk;ksa dks ce cukus dk çf'k{k.k nsus ds fy, ;rhUæukFk nkl dks
vkxjk Hkstus ds fy, Hkh lger gks x;sA
1928 ds vkrs&vkrs ge yksxksa us lektokn dks fl¼kUr ds :i esa
Lohdkj dj fy;k Fkk] ysfdu vey esa ge ij vrhr dk lk;k vc Hkh gkoh
FkkA fiQj Hkh ;g dguk x+yr gksxk fd lk.MlZ oèk vkSj dsUæh; vlsEcyh
esa ce iQsadus ds ihNs Hkxr¯lg dh fdlh çdkj dh ekufld dq.Bk ;k
fujk'kk dke dj jgh Fkh] tSlkfd ,l-,u- etwenkj us lkfcr djus dh
dksf'k'k dh gSA os fy[krs gSa % ¶=kSyksD; pØorhZ us mUgsa (Hkxr¯lg dks) ik¡p
gt+kj dh ,d ;qok okyf.V;j okfguh laxfBr djus dh lykg nh] tSlhfd
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 183
dkaxzsl ds dydÙkk vfèkos'ku ds le; (fnlEcj 1928) laxfBr dh x;h
FkhA pØorhZ us vkxs fy[kk gS fd Hkxr¯lg us mudh lykg ij vey djus
dh dksf'k'k dh ysfdu vliQy jgkA blus mlds fnekx+ esa dq.Bk vkSj fujk'kk
dks tUe fn;k vkSj dqN luluh[k+st+ dke dh vfuok;Z vko';drk ds ckjs
esa mlds fo'okl dks vkSj iDdk dj fn;kA 'kh?kz gh mlds ckn vlsEcyh esa
ce iQsadus dh ?kVuk gqbZA¸32
;g lkjh dgkuh rF;ksa ls esy ugha [kkrh gSA igyh ckr rks ;g fd Hkxr¯lg
us dHkh dksbZ cM+k jktuhfrd o+Qne ikVhZ dh dsUæh; desVh dks fo'okl esa fy;s
cx+Sj ugha mBk;kA ik¡p gt+kj ukStokuksa dh ,d okyf.V;j lsuk xfBr djus dk
ç'u dHkh Hkh dsUæh; lfefr ds lkeus cgl ds fy, ugha vk;kA nwljh ckr
;g fd bl çdkj dh fdlh okyf.V;j lsuk dk fopkj gok esa iqy ck¡èkus tSlk
fopkj FkkA pkj&ik¡p fnuksa ds fy, FkSfy;ksa ds lgkjs [kqysrkSj ij ik¡p gt+kj dh
okyf.V;j lsuk (dkaxzsl }kjk & l-) [kM+h dj ysuk ,d ckr Fkh] ysfdu xqIr
ØkfUrdkjh dke ds fy, jktuhfrd rkSj ij ltx] çf'kf{kr vkSj vuq'kkflr
ukStokuksa dh bruh cM+h lsuk dqN eghuksa esa [kM+h dj ysuk lEHko Hkh ugha FkkA
;gk¡ ;g ckr Hkh è;ku esa j[kuh pkfg, fd Hkxr¯lg dydÙks ls tuojh 1929
ds igys lIrkg esa okil vk;sA i+Qjojh esa tc ;rhUæukFk nkl vkxjk vk;s rks
geesa ls gj dksbZ fdlh u fdlh :i esa ce i+QSDVjh LFkkfir djus ds dke esa
O;Lr gks x;k FkkA fiQj esjB dh fxjÝ+rkfj;ksa ls igys i+Qjojh ds vUr esa vkxjk
esa gh vlsEcyh esa ce iQsadus dk i+QSlyk fy;k x;kA ,slh fLFkfr esa Hkxr¯lg
dk =kSyksD; ckcw dh lykg ij vey djus dk ç;kl djuk] foiQy gksuk]
fujk'kk vkSj iLrh dk f'kdkj gksuk vkfn dk ç'u ugha mBrk FkkA bl çdkj dh
vliQyrk] fujk'kk] dq.Bk vkfn dh eux<+Ur ckrksa ls vlsEcyh esa ce iQsadus
ds dke dk jktuhfrd egÙo gh lekIr gks tkrk gS vkSj og ,d O;fDr dh
dq.Bk vkSj fujk'kk dk ifj.kke&ek=k jg tkrk gSA
,slh gh gkfudkjd vkSj vlsEcyh esa ce iQsd a us ds egÙo dks de djus okyh
dgkuh eUeFkukFk xqIr us nh gSA lq[knso jkt ('kghn lq[knso ugha & l-)] tks 1928
vkSj *29 ds iwokZ¼Z esa dgha Hkh rLohj esa ugha Fkk] }kjk çlkfjr ,d lkS i+Qhlnh
eux<+Ur dgkuh dks vkèkkj cukdj xqIr th us dgk gS fd ikVhZ vlsEcyh esa ce
iQsd
a us ds fy, lq[knso rFkk cVqd's oj nÙk dks Hkstus ds i{k esa FkhA ysfdu
Hkxr¯lg ds çfr O;fDrxr bZ";kZ ds dkj.k mlus Hkxr¯lg dks ch-ds- nÙk ds lkFk
tkus ds fy, etcwj dj fn;kA pUæ'ks[kj vkt+kn vkSj nwljs yksx fudy vkus ds
i{k esa FksA ysfdu Hkxr¯lg blds fy, jkt+h ugha gq,A mudk rdZ Fkk fd turk
dks txkus ds fy, mPpre cfynku dh vko';drk gSA33
184 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
;gk¡ ij ;g dguk gh x+yr gS fd vlsEcyh eas ce iQsadus ds fy, lq[knso
dks pquk x;k FkkA vkxjs esa dsUæh; desVh dh igys fnu dh eh¯Vx esa tks nks
uke r; gq, Fks] os Fks cVqds'oj nÙk vkSj fot;dqekj flUgkA bl dke ds fy,
fdlh Hkh Lrj ij lq[knso dk uke desVh esa fopkjkFkZ ugha vk;kA gekjs lkeus
fopkj&foe'kZ dk eq[; fo"k; jktuhfr Fkk u fd O;fDrxr bZ";kZ ;k oSjHkko] tks
lkSHkkX;o'k ml le; gekjs chp esa ugha FkkA blesa lUnsg ugha fd vlsEcyh esa
ce iQsadus ds fy, fot;dqekj flUgk ds LFkku ij Hkxr¯lg dks Hkstus ds fy,
lq[knso iwjh rjg mÙkjnk;h FkkA mlus ;g blfy, fd;k D;ksafd og bZekunkjh
ds lkFk fo'okl djrk Fkk fd Hkxr¯lg ds vykok vkSj fdlh ds tkus ls dke
dk jktuhfrd mís'; iwjk ugha gksxkA tgk¡ rd mPpre cfynku dk loky gS]
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu esa cfynku dh deh ugha jgh (vkSj gj cfynku mPpre
gksrk gS)A ,slk ugha Fkk fd Hkxr¯lg ,d fujk'k ,oa foiQy euksjFk ukStoku Fkk]
ftlus vlsEcyh esa ce iQsaddj vkRegR;k djus dk ,d vklku jkLrk fudky
fy;k FkkA
vlsEcyh esa ce iQsadus dk i+QSlyk
dSls vkSj dc fy;k x;k\
jk"Vªh; eqfDr&la?k"kZ ds bfrgkl esa rhljs n'kd ds vfUre o"kZ] [k+kldj
1928&30 ds o"kZ] cM+s gh egÙoiw.kZ FksA ;gh le; Fkk tc okeiUFkh 'kfDr;ksa
us laxfBr :i ls ,oa n`<+rkiwoZd cksyuk vkjEHk dj fn;k FkkA loZgkjk oxZ dh
cM+h&cM+h tq>k: gM+rkyksa us ns'kO;kih :i èkkj.k dj fy;k FkkA et+nwjksa dh
laxfBr VsªM ;wfu;u xfrfofèk;k¡ c<+rh tk jgh Fkha] ftlds iQyLo:i et+nwj
dke ds gkykr esa lqèkkj vkSj et+nwjh esa c<+ksÙkjh ds fy, vkSj vfèkd eqLrSnh
ds lkFk la?k"kZ djus dh fLFkfr esa vk x;s FksA et+nwjksa] ukStokuksa vkSj fo|k£Fk;ksa
esa dE;qfuLVkssa dk çHkko rst+h ds lkFk c<+ jgk Fkk % ns'k esa igyh ckj ck;sa ckT+kw
dk jktuhfrd vkUnksyu lj mBk jgk FkkA ml le; dh ;qok ih<+h dh lksp
dh fn'kk dk o.kZu djrs gq, tokgjyky usg: us fy[kk gS] ¶cqf¼thfo;ksa] ;gk¡
rd fd ljdkjh vi+Qljksa esa Hkh lkE;okn vkSj lektokn ds vLi"V fopkj iQSy
pqds FksA dkaxl sz ds ukStoku iq#"k vkSj efgyk,¡] tks igys ^czkbl vkWu MseksØl s h*]
ekysZ vkSj dhFk vkSj eSft+uh dks i<+k djrs Fks] vc tc Hkh mUgsa miyCèk gksrha
rks lektokn] dE;qfuT+e vkSj :l ij fdrkcsa i<+rs Fks % bu u;s fopkjksa dh rji+Q
yksxksa dk #>ku iSnk djus esa esjB "kM~;U=k dsl us dki+Qh lgk;rk igq¡pkbZ FkhA
fo'o&vk£Fkd ladV us Hkh yksxksa dks bl rji+Q è;ku nsus ds fy, etcwj dj
fn;k FkkA pkjksa rji+Q ftKklk dh ,d u;h Hkkouk Li"V fn[kyk;h iM+ jgh Fkh
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 185
& ekStwnk laLFkkvksa ds çfr ,d ç'uokpd vkSj pqukSrh Hkjh ftKklkA ml
ekufld rwi+Qku dk vke #[k Li"V FkkA ysfdu og vHkh ,d gydh c;kj Fkh
& Lo;a vius ls vufHkKA¸34
vaxzst+ lkezkT;okfn;ksa dks bl lcls fpUrk gqbZ vkSj mUgksaus vkUnksyu dks
çkjEHk esa gh dqpy nsus dk i+QSlyk fd;kA vfèkdkjh fdrus ?kcjk;s gq, Fks vkSj
ljdkj dk fnekx+ fdl rjg dke dj jgk Fkk] ;g ns[kus ds fy, ,d felky
gh i;kZIr gksxhA xqIrpj C;wjks ds funs'kd lj MsfoM iSfVªd us ^Hkkjr esa
dE;qfuT+e* ij viuh fjiksVZ esa] ftls mUgksaus 1929 esa rS;kj fd;k Fkk]
^cksY'ksfod vfHk'kki* ds Lo:i dk uhps fy[ks 'kCnksa esa o.kZu fd;k gS %
¶lu~ 1920 esa rhljh b.Vjus'kuy us viuh nwljh dkaxzsl esa tks Fkhfll ikl
dh Fkh mlesa lj lsfly ds, us Hkkjr ds f[k+yki+Q ,d lqfuf'pr "kM~;U=k ds
dhVk.kq v ks a dks Bhd gh igpkuk FkkA ml Fkhfll es a dgk x;k Fkk]
^mifuosf'kd vkSj v¼Z&mifuosf'kd ns'kksa dk jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu oLrqxr
n`f"Vdks.k ls vkSj cqfu;knh rkSj ij ØkfUrdkjh la?k"kZ gS] vkSj blfy, og
fo'o&ØkfUrdkjh la?k"kZ dk fgLlk gSA* blesa dksbZ lUnsg ugha gks ldrk fd
xzsV fczVsu us cksY'ksfod geys dk eq[; çgkj vius Åij fy;k gS---D;ksafd og
fo'o&ØkfUr] ftls cksY'ksfod yksx viuh vfUre liQyrk ds fy, t+:jh
'krZ ekurs gSa] ds f[+kyki+Q eq[; fo+Qyksa esa ls ,d gSA cksY'ksfodksa dk ;g
fo'okl gS fd fczfV'k lkezkT; esa Hkkjr lcls det+ksj fcUnq gSA vkSj os bls
èkk£ed fo'okl ds :i esa fny esa l¡tks;s gq, gSa fd tc rd Hkkjr vkt+kn
ugha gks tkrk rc rd :l baXyS.M ds vfHk'kki ls eqDr ugha gks ldsxkA¸35
ts- Øsjj us] tks ml le; Hkkjr ljdkj ds gkse esEcj Fks] dgk Fkk fd ,d
O;ofLFkr lekt ds fy, dE;qfuT+e ds fl¼kUr vkSj vey ls vfèkd foèoald
vkSj dksbZ pht+ ugha gks ldrhA36
dE;qfuT+e] ck;sa ckT+kw dh 'kfDr;ksa vkSj Jfed oxZ ds vkUnksyu dks dqpyus
ds fy, ljdkj us dsUæh; vlsEcyh esa nks fcy is'k djus dk i+QSlyk fd;k &
ifCyd lsÝ+Vh fcy vkSj VsªM fMLI;wV~l fcyA igyk fcy mu yksxksa ds f[k+yki+Q
Fkk tks fczfV'k&Hkkjr ;k fdlh Hkkjrh; jtokM+s ds fuoklh ugha FksA igys fcy
esa xouZj tujy dks ;g vfèkdkj fn;k x;k Fkk fd og vaxzst+ ;k vU; fons'kh
dE;qfuLV dks Hkkjr ls fudky nsaA nwljs fcy dk mís'; et+nwjksa ds VsªM ;wfu;u
vfèkdkjksa dh dVkSrh djuk FkkA
vlsEcyh esa iwjs fojksèk i{k us] turk us vkSj çsl us nksuksa fcyksa dk tedj
fojksèk fd;kA bl pkSeq[kh fojksèk dks ut+jvUnkt+ djrs gq, ljdkj us 6 flrEcj]
1928 dks ifCyd lsÝ+Vh fcy vlsEcyh esa is'k fd;kA 24 flrEcj dks lnu
186 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
us mls ukeaT+kwj dj fn;kA tuojh 1929 esa dqN iQsj&cny ds lkFk ljdkj us
mls fiQj vlsEcyh ds lkeus j[kkA37
ftl le; lekpkji=kksa esa ;g [k+cj Nih fd ljdkj us fcy dks vlsEcyh
esa fiQj ls is'k djus dk i+QSlyk dj fy;k gS ml le; Hkxr¯lg vkxjs esa FkkA
lekpkj ij mldh tks çfrfØ;k gqbZ og cM+h rh[kh FkhkA mlus dgk fd ljdkj
ds bl euekusiu ds f[+kyki+Q çfrokn ds :i esa dqN u dqN t+:j djuk pkfg,A
og ykgkSj x;k] lq[knso ds lkFk vius çLrkoksa ij ckr dh] okil vk;k] dsUæh;
desVh dh cSBd cqyk;h vkSj mlds lkeus vius çLrko j[ksA la{ksi esa mlds
çLrko bl çdkj Fks % (1) ikVhZ dks vlsEcyh esa ce iQsaddj ljdkj ds bl
l[+r ,oa gBh joS;s dk fojksèk djuk pfg,_ (2) bl dke dks djus ds fy,
tks lkFkh rSukr fd;s tk;sa os dke ds ckn Hkkxus dh dksf'k'k djus ds ctk;
ogha vkReleiZ.k dj nsa vkSj dsl ds nkSjku vnkyr dks ikVhZ ds mís';ksa ds çpkj
ds fy, eap ds rkSj ij bLrseky djsa_ vkSj (3) bl i+QSlys dks dk;kZfUor djus
ds fy, ,d vkSj lkFkh ds lkFk mls Lo;a tkus dh vuqefr nh tk;sA Hkxr¯lg
ds igys nks lq>koksa dk dsUæh; desVh ds lHkh lnL;ksa us Lokxr fd;kA ysfdu
mldk rhljk lq>ko fdlh us Hkh ugha ekukA ;g eh¯Vx vkxjs esa gqbZ Fkh vkSj
igys fnu lq[knso mlesa mifLFkr ugha FkkA og nwljs fnu vk;kA lq[knso ds vk
tkus ij Hkxr¯lg dks cy feyk vkSj dki+Qh cgl ds ckn vUr esa desVh us
Hkxr¯lg dk rhljk çLrko Hkh eku fy;kA
nwljk fcy (VsªM fMLI;wV fcy) vlsEcyh esa 4 flrEcj] 1928 dks is'k
fd;k x;k FkkA lnu us mls lsysDV desVh ds ikl Hkst fn;kA ogk¡ ls dqN
iQsj&cny ds lkFk mls 2 viSzy] 1929 dks cgl ds fy, vlsEcyh ds lkeus
fiQj yk;k x;kA lnu us 8 vçSy dks 38 ds f[+kyki+Q dqN oksVksa ls mls ikl
dj fn;kA tSls gh vè;{k egksn; oks¯Vx dk ifj.kke ?kksf"kr djus ds fy, mBs
oSls gh Hkxr¯lg vkSj cVqds'oj nÙk us n'kZd nh?kkZ ls vlsEcyh Hkou esa ce
iQsads vkSj ukjs yxkus ds lkFk&lkFk ijps Hkh fxjk;s] ftuesa ce iQsadus ds
jktuhfrd mís'; dks Li"V fd;k x;k FkkA ;g ijpk mlh fnu fgUnqLrku VkbEl
ds lUè;kdkyhu ifjf'k"V esa çdkf'kr gks x;k FkkA ;g gesa ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu
ds ,d Nks V s nkS j es a igq ¡ p k ns r k gS ] ftldk ft+ Ø yks x dHkh&dHkh
vkradoknh&lkE;okn ;k Vsjks&dE;qfuT+e ds uke ls djrs gSaA
Vsjks&dE;qfuT+e ;k vkradoknh&lkE;okn
ykgkSj rFkk dkuiqj ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us 1926&27 ls gh lektokn dh vksj
c<+uk 'kq: dj fn;k FkkA vkB&ukS flrEcj 1928 dh fnYyh eh¯Vx esa gkyk¡fd
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 187
lektokn dks fl¼kUr ds :i esa vkSj lektoknh lekt dh LFkkiuk dks vfUre
mís'; ds :i esa Lohdkj dj fy;k x;k Fkk] vey esa ge yksx mlh iqjkus
O;fDroknh <ax ds dkeksa esa gh yxs jgsA ge et+nwjksa] fdlkuksa] ;qodksa vkSj
eè;oxZ ds cqf¼thfo;ksa dks laxfBr djus dh ckr rks djrs Fks ysfdu iatkc esa
ukStoku Hkkjr lHkk ds xBu dks NksM+dj vkSj dgha Hkh lathnxh ds lkFk ml
fn'kk esa o+Qne mBkus dh dksf'k'k ugha dh x;hA ml ek;us esa gekjh oSKkfud
lektokn vFkkZr ekDlZokn dh le> vèkdpjh FkhA ekDlZokn vey dks
fl¼kUr ls vyx djus dh btkt+r ugha nsrk] ;g ckr ge le> ugha ik;s Fks
vkSj ;g fd mlesa O;fDrxr dkeksa ds fy, dksbZ LFkku ugha gSA ge ¯glkRed
xfrfofèk;ksa dks] ftlesa t+kfye ljdkjh vfèkdkfj;ksa dh gR;k vkSj NqViqV foæksg
'kkfey Fks] et+nwjksa] fdlkuksa] ;qodksa vkSj fo|k£Fk;ksa ds tu&laxBu cukus ds
dke esa feykuk pkgrs FksA ysfdu vey esa gekjk t+kjs ¯glkRed xfrfofèk;ksa vkSj
l'kL=k dkeksa dh rS;kjh rd gh lhfer jgkA gekjk fo'okl Fkk fd yksxksa dks
uhan ls txkus ds fy, vkSj ljdkjh neu dk tokc nsus ds fy, ;g lc
vko';d gSA dkaxzsl ds dydÙkk vfèkos'ku ds volj ij fnlEcj] 1928 esa
Hkxr¯lg us dk- lksgu ¯lg tks'k ls dgk Fkk] ¶ge vkidh ikVhZ ds dkeksa ls
vkSj mlds dk;ZØe ls lkS i+Qhlnh lger gSa] ysfdu dHkh&dHkh ,sls Hkh {k.k
vkrs gSa tc turk esa fo'okl dh Hkkouk tkx`r djus ds fy, nq'eu ds çgkj
dk l'kL=k dkeksa }kjk rRdky tokc nsuk vko';d gks tkrk gSA¸38 ml le;
gekjs fnekx+ blh rjg dke dj jgs FksA gekjh le> esa fufgr vUrjfojksèk dk
viuk rdZ FkkA et+nwjksa&fdlkuksa dks laxfBr djus dk gekjk i+QSlyk dsoy ,d
ifo=k bjknk cudj gh jg x;kA gekjh 'kfDr dk vfèkdka'k fgLlk çfr'kksèkkRed
dkeksa dks laxfBr djus esa gh t+k;k gqvkA
gekjh x+yr le> dks Bhd djus dk ,d ç;kl rhljs b.Vjus'kuy us fd;k
FkkA ;g ç;kl fons'k esa xfBr Hkkjr dh dE;qfuLV ikVhZ }kjk ¶jk"Vªokfn;ksa ls
vihy¸ ds t+fj;s fd;k x;k FkkA ;g vihy 15 fnlEcj] 1924 ds oSuxkMZ ds
ifjf'k"V esa çdkf'kr gqbZ FkhA vihy esa ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds ckjs esa dgk x;k Fkk %
¶xqIr lHkkvksa }kjk fd;s tkus okys NqViqV vkradoknh dke Hkh dqN de
çHkkoghu ugha gSaA bl çdkj ds O;FkZ mxzokn dks viukus okyksa dh ØkfUr dh
le> Hkh mruh gh x+yr gSA lekt dh ekStwnk fLFkfr esa ,slh mEehn ugha dh
tk ldrh gS fd jktuhfrd vkSj lkekftd ØkfUr;k¡ v¯glkRed gksaxh ;k
muesa jDrikr ugha gksxkA ysfdu gj jDrikr ;k ¯glkRed dke dks ØkfUr ugha
dgk tk ldrkA ,d [k+kl lkekftd O;oLFkk dks ;k jktuhfrd laLFkk dks
mlds pUn leFkZdksa dks ekjdj dHkh Hkh lekIr ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA vkSj
188 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
;g rks vkSj Hkh ukeqefdu gS fd FkksM+s ls ljdkjh vi+Qljksa dks ekjdj ;k
fczfV'k ik£y;kes.V ls cgqr ls lqèkkj ikl djokdj ns'k dh vkt+knh gkfly
dh tk ldsA ;s nksuksa mik; leku :i ls çk.kghu gSa] D;ksafd buesa ls dksbZ
Hkh cqjkbZ dh tM+ ij pksV ugha djrkA nksuksa gh jktuhfrd Hkwy gSaA ysfdu
vkradokfn;ksa dks ^ØkfUrdkjh vijkèkh* dguk fuiV ew[kZrk gS] D;ksafd
^laoSèkkfudrkoknh* fuf'pr :i ls x+Sj&ØkfUrdkjh gSa vkSj fu.kkZ;d ?kM+h vkrs
gh os çfrfØ;koknh gks tk;saxsA¸39
mlh ys[k esa nwljh txg ij ØkfUr dh lgh&lgh ifjHkk"kk ns nh x;h Fkh %
¶ØkfUr D;k gS\ Hkkjr ds jk"Vªh; gydksa esa blds ckjs esa ,d cM+h x+yr
èkkj.kk cuh gqbZ gSA vkerkSj ij ØkfUr dks ce] fjokYoj vkSj xqIr laLFkkvksa ls
tksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA Hkkjrh; jktuhfrd 'kCndks"k esa cgq&çpfyr okD;
^ØkfUrdkjh vijkèk* ØkfUr dh blh x+yr voèkkj.kk dh mit gSA cgjgky]
ØkfUr bl lcls dgha vfèkd xEHkhj leL;k gSA ØkfUr ,d egÙoiw.kZ
,sfrgkfld ?kVuk gS] tks çLrqr ,sfrgkfld ;qx dk vUr vkSj mlds LFkku ij ,d
u;s ;qx dk 'kqHkkjEHk djrh gSA pw¡fd tkus okys lekt ds çfrfufèk ;k nyky]
vk£Fkd oxZ vkSj jktuhfrd laLFkk,¡] tks ml lekt esa çpfyr gkykr ls
ykHkkfUor gksrs jgs gSa] ,d Hk;kud çfrjksèk ds cx+Sj ,slk dksbZ ifjorZu ugha gksus
nsaxs ftlls muds çHkqRo dk vUr gks tk;s vkSj] tSlkfd vkerkSj ij gksrk gS]
ftldk vUr muds pkSeq[kh fouk'k esa gks tk;sA blhfy, vkerkSj ij jktuhfrd
¯glk vkSj lkekftd mFky&iqFky ^ØkfUr* dgykus okyh ,sfrgkfld ?kVuk ds
vax cu tkrs gSaA¸40
lu~ 1925 esa ;ax dE;qfuLV b.Vjus'kuy us caxky ds ;qok ØkfUrdkjh
laxBu ds uke ,d vihy 'kk;k dh FkhA ;g ;ax dE;qfuLV b.Vjus'kuy ds
?kks"k.kki=k ds :i esa Fkh tks eklst+ ds ftYn 1] uEcj 7 esa çdkf'kr gqvk FkkA
?kks"k.kki=k esa bl ckr dks Lohdkj fd;k x;k Fkk fd iwoZ ds ØkfUrdkjh ukStoku
jk"Vªh; vkt+knh dh yM+kbZ esa cM+h egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk vnk dj jgs gSaA turk ds
fy, viuk thou cfynku djus okys ^ghjks&vkradoknh* ds lkgl vkSj cgknqjh
ds çfr xgjk vknj O;Dr djrs gq, ?kks"k.kki=k us dgk Fkk fd ¶,d ØkfUrdkjh
tks turk ds fy, yM+ jgk gS mls uSfrd vfèkdkj gS fd og turk dk xyk
?kksaVus okyksa vkSj tYyknksa dks jkLrs ls gVk nsA¸41
nqHkkZX;o'k buesa ls dksbZ Hkh nLrkost+ ml le; gesa ugha feyk vkSj gesa vius
vuqHkoksa ds lgkjs gh vkxs c<+uk iM+kA O;fDrxr dkeksa dk nk;jk cgqr lhfer
gS ;g le>us esa gesa rhu lky yx x;sA ge o+Qne&c&o+Qne lektokn dh
rji+Q c<+ jgs FksA fxjÝ+rkjh ds ckn tsy esa dki+Qh le; feyk] i<+us ds fy,
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 189
dki+Qh lkexzh feyh] vkil esa cgl djus vkSj vius vrhr ij lathnxh ls
lkspus dk dki+Qh ekSoQ+ k feyk vkSj rc dgha tkdj ge lgh urhts ij igqp ¡ ik;sA
bldk ;g eryc ugha fd ftl nkSj dh leh{kk dh tk jgh gS mlesa
ldkjkRed dqN Fkk gh ughaA mldh det+ksfj;ksa ds lkFk gh mlds dqN
ldkjkRed vkSj et+cwr igyw Hkh FksA eSa viuh vkSj vius lkfFk;ksa dh le>
dh [k+kl dfe;ksa ij jks'kuh Mky pqdk gw¡A la{ksi esa fiQj ls nksgjk nw¡] igyh
ckr rks ;g fd gekjk dE;qfuT+e dks Lohdkj djuk ekDlZokn ds lgh vè;;u
ij vkèkkfjr ugha FkkA nwljh det+ksjh Fkh et+nwjksa vkSj fdlkuksa dks laxfBr
djus vkSj tokch vkradokn ds chp rkyesy fcBykus dh vO;kogkfjdrk dks
u le> ikukA
bu lkjh dfe;ksa vkSj lhekvksa ds ckotwn bl FkksM+s le; pyus okys p£pr
nkSj ds [kkrs esa dqN cgqr egÙoiw.kZ miyfCèk;k¡ Hkh gSAa ykgkSj dh ^ukStoku Hkkjr
lHkk dk ?kks"k.kki=k* (1928)] vlsEcyh ce dsl ds nkSjku Hkxr¯lg vkSj
cVqd's oj nÙk }kjk vnkyr ds lkeus fn;k x;k c;ku (1929)] dkaxl sz ds ykgkSj
vfèkos'ku ds le; ck¡Vk x;k ^fgUnqLrku lektoknh çtkrU=k la?k dk ?kks"k.kki=k*
(fnlEcj 1929) vkSj ^ce dk n'kZu* (tuojh 1930) ml ;qx ds loZJs"B
çfrfufèk nLrkost+ gSaA bu nLrkost+ksa ds vkèkkj ij ge dg ldrs gSa fd
^fgUnqLrku lektoknh çtkrU=k la?k* (fglçl) dk igyk vkxs c<+k gqvk o+Qne
Fkk ekDlZokn dks fl¼kUr ds :i esa vkSj lektokn dks vfUre mís'; ds :i
esa Lohdkj djukA caxky esa Hkh vkUnksyu dk #[k+ ;gh Fkk] gkyk¡fd xfr
vis{kkÑr èkheh FkhA ftl le; fglçl us lektokn dks Mads dh pksV ij
viuk vfUre mís'; ?kksf"kr dj fn;k Fkk] ml le; caxky ds yxHkx lHkh
ØkfUrdkjh ny vkSj çeq[k ikfVZ;k¡ bl loky ij vfuf'prrk dh fLFkfr esa FksA
lektokn dks è;s; ds :i esa Lohdkj djus ds vykok bl nkSj ds
ØkfUrdkjh euq"; }kjk euq"; ds vkSj ,d jk"Vª }kjk nwljs jk"Vª ds 'kks"k.k ls eqDr
oxZghu lekt ds i{k esa FksA mUgksaus ,yku fd;k fd mudh yM+kbZ fli+QZ fczfV'k
lkezkT;okn ds f[k+yki+Q gh ugha gS] cfYd fo'o lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk ds
f[k+yki+Q gSA muds fnyksa esa lksfo;r ;wfu;u ds çfr çxk<+ vknj vkSj viukiu
FkkA mudk fo'okl Fkk fd ØkfUr ds ckn tks ljdkj cusxh mldk :i ,d
çdkj dh loZgkjk oxZ dh rkuk'kkgh dk gksxkA mUgksaus bZ'oj] èkeZ vkSj jgL;okn
ls iwjh rjg NqVdkjk ik fy;k FkkA os èkeZfujis{krk esa fo'okl djrs Fks vkSj mudk
n`f"Vdks.k ?kksj lkEçnkf;drkokn fojksèkh FkkA
vlsEcyh cedk.M ds ckn fgUnqLrku lektoknh çtkrU=k la?k ds vfèkdka'k
lkFkh fxjÝ+rkj dj fy;s x;sA mUgksaus vius eqo+Qnes dh lquokbZ ds nkSjku vius
190 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
n`f"Vdks.k dks çpkfjr djus] lektokn ds fopkjksa dks yksdfç; cukus vkSj
ØkfUrdkjh ikVhZ ds mís';ksa rFkk ç;kstuksa dks turk ds lkeus j[kus ds fy,
vnkyr dk eap ds :i esa tedj bLrseky fd;kA
mudh ;g j.kuhfr o+Qke;kc gqbZA blds ckjs esa ,l-,u- etwenkj us fy[kk
gS % ¶fgUnqLrku lks'kfyLV fjifCydu ,lksfl,'ku dh reke x+yfr;ksa vkSj
det+ksfj;ksa ds ckotwn lewps jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu esa vkSj r#.k ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks
lkE;okn dh vksj vkd£"kr djus esa bl ikVhZ ds ;ksxnku dh mis{kk ugha dh
tk ldrh gSA¸42
th-,l- nsvksy ds vuqlkj] ¶ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk dk;Z{ks=k pkgs ftruk
lhfer jgk gks mlus Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu dh xfr dks ,d nwljh èkkjk ds
ekè;e ls vkSj rst+ fd;kA cs'kd ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd muds (Hkxr¯lg
vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa ds & f'k-o-) dk;Zdykiksa us Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl ds fy,
fnlEcj 1929 ds ykgkSj vfèkos'ku esa iw.kZ LorU=krk dh ek¡x djus vkSj iw.kZ
LojkT; dk çLrko ikl djus dk iFk ç'kLr fd;kA¸43
nsvksy ds vuqlkj ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds dk;Zdykiksa vkSj la?k"kks± us ns'k esa vR;Ur
foLiQksVd fLFkfr iSnk dj nh Fkh] ftlds dkj.k dkaxzsl 1930 dk vlg;ksx
vkUnksyu 'kq: djus ds fy, etcwj gks x;h FkhA ¶;g vkUnksyu Hkxr¯lg vkSj
muds lkfFk;ksa ds mxz vkUnksyu ds fodYi ds :i esa 'kq: fd;k x;k FkkA bl
er dh iqf"V egkRek xk¡èkh }kjk 2 ekpZ] 1930 dks ok;ljk; dks fy[ks x;s ,d
i=k ds bl va'k ls gksrh gS % ^¯glkoknh ikVhZ viuh txg cukrh tk jgh gS vkSj
mlus vius vfLrRo dk vglkl djkuk 'kq: dj fn;k gSA* mUgksaus vkxs Li"V
fd;k Fkk fd os ftl rjg dk v¯gld vkUnksyu 'kq: djuk pkgrs gSa] mlls
u fli+QZ fczfV'k gqdwer dh ¯gld 'kfDr dk cfYd mHkjrs gq, ¯glkoknh ny
dh laxfBr ¯gld 'kfDr;ksa dk Hkh çfrjksèk fd;k tk ldsxkA¸44
oSKkfud lektokn dh vksj
^fgUnqLrku lektoknh çtkrU=k la?k* ds vfèkdka'k çeq[k usrk 1929 ds eè; rd
fxjÝ+rkj djds tsyksa esa cUn dj fn;s x;s Fks] tgk¡ mUgsa i<+us vkSj fopkj&foe'kZ
djus dk Hkjiwj ekSoQ+ k feykA blls muds vUnj tks u;h le> iSnk gqbZ Fkh] mlds
vkèkkj ij mUgksaus vius iwjs vrhr dks] [k+kldj oS;fDrd dk;Zdykiksa vkSj 'kkS;Z
çn'kZu ds vkn'kZ dks u;s fljs ls tk¡pk&ij[kk vkSj viuh vc rd dh
dk;Zç.kkyh dks NksM+dj lektoknh ØkfUr dk jkLrk viukus dk fu'p; fd;kA
xgu vè;;u vkSj cksLVZy tsy esa nwljs lkfFk;ksa ls yEcs fopkj&foe'kZ ds ckn
Hkxr¯lg bl fu.kZ; ij igq¡ps fd ;gk¡&ogk¡ dqN Hksfn;ksa vkSj ljdkjh vi+Qljksa
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 191
dh oS;fDrd gR;kvksa ls y{; dh çkfIr ugha gks ldrh gSA
Hkxr¯lg us 19 vDVwcj] 1929 dks iatkc LVwMs.V~l dh dkaxsl z ds uke ,d
lUns'k Hkstk Fkk ftlesa mUgksaus dgk Fkk & ¶vkt ge ukStokuksa dks ce vkSj
fiLrkSy viukus ds fy, ugha dg ldrsA---bUgsa vkS|ksfxd {ks=kksa dh xUnh cfLr;ksa
esa vkSj xk¡oksa ds VwVs&iQwVs >ksaiM+ksa esa jgus okys djksM+ksa yksxksa dks txkuk gSA¸
2 i+Qjojh] 1931 dks mUgksaus ^;qok jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZvksa ds uke* ,d
vihy fy[kh Fkh ftlesa mUgksaus tulkèkkj.k ds chp dke djus ds egÙo dks
ckjEckj js[kkafdr fd;k FkkA mUgksua s dgk Fkk] ¶xk¡oksa vkSj dkj[+kkuksa esa fdlku vkSj
et+nwj gh vlyh ØkfUrdkjh lSfud gSaA¸
blh vihy esa Hkxr¯lg us cyiwoZd bl ckr ls bUdkj fd;k Fkk fd os
vkradoknh gSaA mudk dguk Fkk] ¶eSaus ,d vkradoknh dh rjg dke fd;k gSA
ysfdu eSa vkradoknh ugha gw¡A eSa rks ,slk ØkfUrdkjh gw¡ ftlds ikl ,d yEck
dk;ZØe vkSj mlds ckjs esa lqfuf'pr fopkj gksrs gSAa eSa iwjh rko+Qr ds lkFk crkuk
pkgrk gw¡ fd eSa vkradoknh ugha gw¡ vkSj dHkh Fkk Hkh ugha] dnkfpr mu dqN
fnuksa dks NksM+dj tc eSa vius ØkfUrdkjh thou dh 'kq#vkr dj jgk FkkA eq>s
fo'okl gS fd ge ,sls rjho+Qksa ls dqN Hkh çkIr ugha dj ldrs gSaA¸ mUgksaus
ukStoku jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZvksa dks lykg nh fd os ekDlZ vkSj ysfuu dk
vè;;u djsa] mudh f'k{kk dks viuk ekxZn'kZd cuk;sa] turk ds chp tk;sa]
et+nwjksa] fdlkuksa vkSj f'kf{kr eè;oxhZ; ukStokuksa ds chp dke djsa] mUgsa
jktuhfrd n`f"V ls f'kf{kr djsa] muesa oxZ&psruk mRiUu djsa] mUgsa ;wfu;uksa esa
laxfBr djsa] vkfnA mUgksaus uo;qodksa ls ;g Hkh dgk fd ;g lkjk dke rc rd
lEHko ugha gS tc rd turk dh ,d viuh ikVhZ u gksA os fdl rjg dh ikVhZ
pkgrs Fks bldk [kqyklk djrs gq, mUgksaus fy[kk Fkk] ¶gesa is'ksoj ØkfUrdkfj;ksa
dh t+:jr gS & ;g 'kCn ysfuu dks cgqr fç; Fkk & iw.kZdkfyd dk;ZdrkZvksa
dh] ftudh ØkfUr ds flok vkSj dkssbZ vkdka{kk u gks] vkSj u thou dk dksbZ
nwljk y{; gksA ,sls dk;ZdrkZ ftruh cM+h la[;k esa ,d ikVhZ ds :i esa laxfBr
gksaxs] mruh gh rqEgkjh liQyrk dh lEHkkouk,¡ c<+ tk;saxhA¸
mUgksaus vkxs dgk %
¶O;ofLFkr <ax ls vkxs c<+us ds fy, vkidks ftldh lcls vfèkd
vko';drk gS] og gS ,d ikVhZ ftlds ikl ftl Vkbi ds dk;ZdrkZvksa dk Åij
ft+Ø fd;k tk pqdk gS oSls dk;ZdrkZ gksa & ,sls dk;ZdrkZ ftuds fnekx+ lki+Q
gksa vkSj leL;kvksa dh rh[kh idM+ gks vkSj igy djus vkSj rqjUr i+QSlyk ysus
dh {kerk gksA bl ikVhZ dk vuq'kklu cgqr dBksj gksxk vkSj ;g t+:jh ugha gS
fd og Hkwfexr ikVhZ gks] cfYd Hkwfexr ugha gksuh pkfg,---ikVhZ dks vius dke
192 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
dh 'kq#vkr voke ds chp çpkj ls djuh pkfg,A fdlkuksa vkSj et+nwjksa dks
laxfBr djus vkSj mudh lfØ; lgkuqHkwfr çkIr djus ds fy, ;g cgqr t+:jh
gSA bl ikVhZ dks dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk uke fn;k tk ldrk gSA¸
;gk¡ Hkxr¯lg [kqYye&[kqYyk ekDlZokn] lkE;okn vkSj ,d lkE;oknh ikVhZ
dh odkyr djrs fn[kk;h nsrs gSaA
ØkfUr dh ifjHkk"kk
ØkfUr ds lEcUèk esa Hkxr¯lg ds fopkj cgqr Li"V FksA fupyh vnkyr esa tc
muls iwNk x;k fd ØkfUr 'kCn ls mudk D;k eryc gS] rks mÙkj esa mUgksaus dgk
Fkk] ¶ØkfUr ds fy, [+kwuh la?k"kZ vfuok;Z ugha gS] vkSj u gh mlesa O;fDrxr
çfr¯glk dk dksbZ LFkku gSA og ce vkSj fiLrkSy dh laLÑfr ugha gSA ØkfUr
ls gekjk vfHkçk; ;g gS fd orZeku O;oLFkk] tks [kqysrkSj ij vU;k; ij fVdh
gqbZ gS] cnyuh pkfg,A¸ viuh ckr dks vkSj Hkh Li"V djrs gq, mUgksaus dgk Fkk]
¶ØkfUr ls gekjk vfHkçk; vUrr% ,d ,slh lkekftd O;oLFkk dh LFkkiuk ls
gS ftldks bl çdkj ds ?kkrd [k+rjksa dk lkeuk u djuk iM+s vkSj ftlesa loZgkjk
oxZ dh çHkqlÙkk dks ekU;rk gks rFkk ,d fo'ola?k ekuotkfr dks iw¡thokn ds
cUèku ls vkSj lkezkT;oknh ;q¼ksa ls mRiUu gksus okyh cjcknh vkSj eqlhcrksa ls
cpk ldsA¸
lektokn dh fn'kk esa Hkxr¯lg dh oSpkfjd çxfr dh jÝ+rkj cgqr rst+
FkhA mUgksaus 1924 ls 1928 ds chp fofHkUu fo"k;ksa dk foLr`r vè;;u fd;k
FkkA ykyk yktir jk; dh }kjdknkl ykbczsjh ds iqLrdky;kè;{k jktkjke
'kkL=kh ds vuqlkj mu fnuksa Hkxr¯lg oLrqr% ¶fdrkcksa dks fuxyk djrk FkkA¸
muds fç; fo"k; Fks :lh ØkfUr] lksfo;r la?k] vk;jyS.M] ç+Qkal vkSj Hkkjr dk
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu] vjktdrkokn vkSj ekDlZoknA mUgksaus vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa
us 1928 ds vUr rd lektokn dks vius vkUnksyu dk vfUre y{; ?kksf"kr
dj fn;k Fkk vkSj viuh ikVhZ dk uke Hkh rnuqlkj cny fn;k FkkA mudh ;g
oSpkfjd çxfr muds iQk¡lh ij p<+us ds fnu rd tkjh jghA
bZ'oj vkSj èkeZ ds ckjs esa
bZ'oj] èkeZ rFkk jgL;okn ij Hkxr¯lg ds fopkjksa ds ckjs esa dqN 'kCn dgs cx+jS
;g Hkwfedk vèkwjh jg tk;sxhA ;g blfy, Hkh t+:jh gS fd vkt gj rjg ds
çfrfØ;koknh] :f<+oknh vkSj lkEçnkf;drkoknh yksx Hkxr¯lg rFkk pUæ'ks[kj
vkt+kn ds uke vkSj ;'k dks viuh fut dh jktuhfr vkSj fopkjèkkjk ds i{k
esa bLrseky djus dh dksf'k'k dj jgs gSaA

ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 193


viusvki dks ukfLrd crkrs gq, ¶Hkxr¯lg us 'kq: ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds
rjho+Qs vkSj n`f"Vdks.k ds fy, iwjk lEeku çn£'kr fd;k gS vkSj mudh
èkk£edrk ds Ïksrksa dh iM+rky dh gSA os ladsr djrs gSa fd vius Lo;a ds
jktuhfrd dk;ks± dh oSKkfud le> ds vHkko esa mu ØkfUrdkfj;kas dks viuh
vkè;kfRedrk dh j{kk djus] oS;fDrd çyksHkuksa ds fo#¼ la?k"kZ djus]
volkn ls mcjus] HkkSfrd lq[kksa vkSj vius ifjokjksa rFkk thou rd dks R;kxus
dh lkeF;Z tq V kus ds fy, foos d ghu fo'oklks a ,oa jgL;okfnrk dh
vko';drk FkhA ,d O;fDr tc fujUrj vius thou dks tksf[ke esa Mkyus
vkSj nwljs lkjs cfynku djus ds fy, rRij gksrk gS rks mls çsj.kk ds xgjs Ïksr
dh vko';drk gksrh gSA 'kq: ds ØkfUrdkjh] vkradokfn;ksa dh ;g vfuok;Z
vko';drk jgL;okn vkSj èkeZ ls iwjh gksrh FkhA ysfdu mu yksxksa dks ,sls
Ïksrksa ls çsj.kk ysus dh t+:jr ugha jg x;h Fkh tks vius dkeksa dh çÑfr dks
le>rs Fks] tks ØkfUrdkjh fopkjèkkjk dh fn'kk esa vkxs c<+ pqqds Fks] tks Ñf=ke
vkè;kfRedrk dh cSlk[kh yxk;s fcuk vU;k; ds fo#¼ la?k"kZ dj ldrs Fks]
tks LoxZ vkSj eks{k ds çyksHku vkSj vk'oklu ds fcuk gh fo'okl ds lkFk
vkSj fuHkhZd Hkko ls iQk¡lh ds r[+rs ij p<+ ldrs Fks] tks nfyrksa dh eqfDr
vkSj LorU=krk ds i{k esa blfy, yM+s D;ksafd yM+us ds vykok vkSj dksbZ jkLrk
gh u FkkA¸46
vlsEcyh cedk.M ds dsl dh vihy ds nkSjku ykgkSj gkbZdksVZ esa c;ku
nsrs gq, Hkxr¯lg us fopkjksa dh egÙkk ij cy nsrs gq, dgk Fkk % ¶bUo+Qykc dh
ryokj fopkjksa dh lku ij rst+ dh tkrh gS]¸ vkSj mlds vkèkkj ij mUgksaus ;g
lw=k çLrqr fd;k fd ¶vkykspuk vkSj LorU=k fopkj fdlh ØkfUrdkjh ds nks
vifjgk;Z xq.k gSa]¸ vkSj ;g fd ¶tks vkneh çxfr ds fy, la?k"kZ djrk gS mls
iqjkus fo'oklksa dh ,d&,d ckr dh vkykspuk djuh gksxh] ml ij vfo'okl
djuk gksxk vkSj mls pqukSrh nsuh gksxhA bl çpfyr fo'okl ds ,d&,d dksus
esa >k¡ddj mls foosdiwoZd le>uk gksxkA¸ mUgksaus n`<+rk ds lkFk dgk Fkk fd
¶fujk fo'okl vkSj vUèkfo'okl [k+rjukd gS] blls efLr"d dqf.Br gksrk gS
vkSj vkneh çfrfØ;koknh gks tkrk gSA¸
Hkxr¯lg Lohdkj djrs Fks fd ¶bZ'oj esa det+ksj vkneh dks t+cjnLr
vk'oklu vkSj lgkjk feyrk gS vkSj fo'okl mldh dfBukb;ksa dks vklku gh
ugha cfYd lq[kdj Hkh cuk nsrk gSA¸ os ;g Hkh tkurs Fks fd ¶vk¡èkh vkSj rwi+Qku
esa vius ik¡oksa ij [kM+s jguk dksbZ cPpksa dk [ksy ugha gSA¸ ysfdu os lgkjs ds
fy, fdlh Hkh cukoVh vax ds fopkj dks n`<+rkiwoZd vLohdkj djrs FksA os
dgrs Fks] ¶viuh fu;fr dk lkeuk djus ds fy, eq>s fdlh u'kss dh t+:jr
194 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd
ugha gSA¸ mUgksaus ,yku fd;k Fkk fd ¶tks vkneh vius ik¡oksa ij [kM+s gksus dh
dksf'k'k djrk gS vkSj ;FkkFkZoknh gks tkrk gS] mls èkk£ed fo'okl dks ,d rji+Q
j[kdj] ftu&ftu eqlhcrksa vkSj nq[kksa esa ifjfLFkfr;ksa us mls Mky fn;k gS] mudk
,d enZ dh rjg cgknqjh ds lkFk lkeuk djuk gksxkA¸
bZ'oj] èkk£ed fo'okl vkSj èkeZ dks ;g frykatfy Hkxr¯lg ds fy, u rks
vkdfLed Fkh vkSj u gh muds vfHkeku ;k vga dk ifj.kke FkhA mUgksaus cgqr
igys 1926 esa bZ'oj dh lÙkk dks vLohdkj dj fn;k FkkA mUgha ds 'kCnksa esa]
¶1926 ds vUr rd eq>s bl ckr ij ;o+Qhu gks x;k Fkk fd l`f"V dk fuekZ.k]
O;oLFkkiu vkSj fu;U=k.k djus okyh fdlh loZ'kfDreku ije lÙkk ds vfLrRo
dk fl¼kUr ,dne fujkèkkj gSA¸
Hkkouk dHkh ugha ejrh
og tqykbZ] 1930 dk vfUre jfookj FkkA Hkxr¯lg ykgkSj ls.Vªy tsy ls gesa
feyus ds fy, cksLVZy tsy vk;s FksA os bl rdZ ij ljdkj ls ;g lqfoèkk
gkfly djus esa o+Qke;kc gks x;s Fks fd mUgsa nwljs vfHk;qDrksa ds lkFk cpko ds
rjho+Qksa ij ckrphr djuh gSA rks ml fnu ge fdlh jktuhfrd fo"k; ij cgl
dj jgs Fks fd ckrksa dk #[k+ i+QSlys dh rji+Q eqM+ x;k] ftldk ge lcdks
cslczh ls bUrt+kj FkkA et+ko+Q&et+ko+Q esa ge ,d&nwljs ds f[k+yki+Q i+QSlys lqukus
yxs] fli+QZ jktxq# vkSj Hkxr¯lg dks bu i+QSlyksa ls cjh j[kk x;kA ge tkurs Fks
fd mUgsa iQk¡lh ij yVdk;k tk;sxkA
¶vkSj jktxq# vkSj esjk i+QSlyk\ D;k vki yksx gesa cjh dj jgs gSa\¸
eqLdqjkrs gq, Hkxr¯lg us iwNkA
fdlh us dksbZ tokc ugha fn;kA
¶vlfy;r dks Lohdkj djrs Mj yxrk gS\¸ èkhes Loj esa mUgksaus iwNkA
pqIih NkbZ jghA
gekjh pqIih ij mUgksaus Bgkdk yxk;k vkSj cksys] ¶gesa xjnu ls iQk¡lh ds
iQUns ls rc rd yVdk;k tk;s tc rd fd ge ej u tk;saA ;g gS vlfy;rA
eSa bls tkurk gw¡A rqe Hkh tkurs gksA fiQj bldh rji+Q ls vk¡[ksa D;ksa cUn djrs
gks\¸
vc rd Hkxr¯lg vius jax esa vk pqds FksA os cgqr èkhes Loj esa cksy jgs
FksA ;gh mudk rjho+Qk FkkA lquus okyksa dks yxrk Fkk fd os mUgsa iQqlykus dh
dksf'k'k dj jgs gSaA fpYykdj cksyuk mudh vknr ugha FkhA ;gh 'kk;n mudh
'kfDr Hkh FkhA
os vius LokHkkfod vUnkt+ esa cksyrs jgs] ¶ns'kHkfDr ds fy, ;g loksZPp
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 195
iqjLdkj gS] vkSj eq>s xoZ gS fd eSa ;g iqjLdkj ikus tk jgk gw¡A os lksprs gSa fd
esjs ik£Fko 'kjhj dks u"V djds os bl ns'k esa lqjf{kr jg tk;saxsA ;g mudh Hkwy
gSA os eq>s ekj ldrs gSa] ysfdu esjs fopkjksa dks ugha ekj ldrsA os esjs 'kjhj dks
dqpy ldrs gSa] ysfdu esjh Hkkoukvksa dks ugha dqpy ldsaxsA fczfV'k gqdwer ds
flj ij esjs fopkj ml le; rd ,d vfHk'kki dh rjg e¡Mjkrs jgsaxs tc rd
os ;gk¡ ls Hkkxus ds fy, etcwj u gks tk;saA¸
Hkxr¯lg iwjs vkos'k esa cksy jgs FksA dqN le; ds fy, ge yksx Hkwy x;s
fd tks vkneh gekjs lkeus cSBk gS og gekjk lg;ksxh gSA os cksyrs tk jgs Fks
% ¶ysfdu ;g rLohj dk fli+QZ ,d igyw gSA nwljk igyw Hkh mruk gh mTToy
gSA fczfV'k gqdwer ds fy, ejk gqvk Hkxr¯lg thfor Hkxr¯lg ls T+;knk
[k+rjukd gksxkA eq>s iQk¡lh gks tkus ds ckn esjs ØkfUrdkjh fopkjksa dh lqxUèk
gekjs bl euksgj ns'k ds okrkoj.k esa O;kIr gks tk;sxhA og ukStokuksa dks engks'k
djsxh vkSj os vkt+knh vkSj ØkfUr ds fy, ikxy gks mBsaxsA ukStokuksa dk ;g
ikxyiu gh fczfV'k lkezkT;okfn;ksa dks fouk'k ds dxkj ij igq¡pk nsxkA ;g esjk
n`<+ fo'okl gSA eSa cslczh ds lkFk ml fnu dk bUrt+kj dj jgk gw¡ tc eq>s ns'k
ds fy, esjh lsokvksa vkSj turk ds fy, esjs çse dk loksZPp iqjLdkj feysxkA¸
Hkxr¯lg dh Hkfo";ok.kh ,d lky ds vUnj gh lp lkfcr gqbZA mudk
uke ekSr dks pqukSrh nsus okys lkgl] cfynku] ns'kHkfDr vkSj ladYi'khyrk dk
çrhd cu x;kA lektoknh lekt dh LFkkiuk dk mudk liuk f'kf{kr ;qodksa
dk liuk cu x;k vkSj ^bUo+Qykc ft+Unkckn* dk mudk ukjk lewps jk"Vª dk
;q¼ukn gks x;kA 1930&32 esa turk ,d gksdj mB [kM+h gqbZA dkjkxkj] dksM+s
vkSj ykfB;ksa ds çgkj mlds eukscy dks rksM+ ugha ldsA ;gh Hkkouk] blls Hkh
Å¡ps Lrj ij] ^Hkkjr NksM+ks* vkUnksyu ds nkSjku fn[kk;h nh FkhA Hkxr¯lg dk
uke gksaBksa ij vkSj mudk ukjk vius >.Mksa ij fy;s gq, fd'kksjksa vkSj cPpksa us
xksfy;ksa dk lkeuk bl rjg fd;k ekuks os eD[ku dh cuh gqbZ gksaA iwjk jk"Vª
ikxy gks mBk FkkA vkSj fiQj vk;k 1945&46 dk nkSj tc fo'o us ,d loZFkk
u;s Hkkjr dks djoVsa cnyrs ns[kkA et+nwj] fdlku] Nk=k] uo;qod] ukSlsuk]
Fkylsuk] ok;qlsuk vkSj iqfyl rd & lc dM+k çgkj djus ds fy, vkrqj FksA
fuf"Ø; çfrjksèk dh txg lfØ; tokch geys us ys yhA cfynku vkSj ;krukvksa
dks lgu djus dh tks Hkkouk 1930&31 rd FkksM+s ls ukStokuksa rd lhfer Fkh]
vc lewph turk esa fn[kk;h ns jgh FkhA foæksg dh Hkkouk us iwjs jk"Vª dks viuh
fxjÝ+r esa tdM+ fy;k FkkA Hkxr¯lg us Bhd gh rks dgk Fkk] ¶Hkkouk dHkh ugha
ejrhA¸ vkSj ml le; Hkh og ejh ugha FkhA

196 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


lUnHkZ
1. Quoted in the Sedition Committee (Rowlatt) Report 1919, p. 3
2- ogh] i`"B 2
3- ogh] i`"B 2
4- eUeFkukFk xqIr % Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk bfrgkl] nwljk laLdj.k] 1960]
i`"B 44
5- rkfj.kh 'kadj pØorhZ % Hkkjr esa l'kL=k ØkfUr dh Hkwfedk] ØkfUrdkjh çdk'ku]
fet+kZiqj] i`"B 142
6. Budhadeva Bhattacharya (ed.), Freedom Struggle & Anushilan Samiti, p. 48
7- ogh] i`"B 68
8. J. C. Car: Political Troubles in India 1907-1917, Preface, 1973, p. XIII
9. Quoted in Sedition Committee Report, p. 7
10- rkfj.kh 'kadj pØorhZ % i`"B 93
11. G. Adhikari: Challenge, PPH, New Delhi, Jan. 1984, p. 3
12. Tridib Chaudhary: Freedom Struggle and Anushilan Samiti, Introduction, p.
XVI-XVII
13- vesfjdk ds Hkkjrh; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dh xfrfofèk;ksa ds ckjs esa vfèkdrj lkexzh
,y-ih- ekFkqj dh iqLrd Indian Revolutionary Movement in United States
of America ls yh gSA ;g iqLrd ,l- pk¡n ,.M d-] u;h fnYyh ls 1970 esa
çdkf'kr gqbZ FkhA
14. Paraphrased from Ghadar Weekly, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Dec. 30, 1913) by Sohan
Singh Josh, Hindustan Ghadar Party, A Short History, p. 160
15- ogh] i`"B 189
16- ogh] i`"B 175
17- ogh] i`"B 192
18- ogh] i`"B 177
19- ogh] i`"B 193
20- ogh] i`"B 193
21. L.P. Mathur, op. Cit., p. 23
22- ogh] i`"B 29
23. Presidential Address to Special (Calcutta) Session of the Indian National
Congress, September 1920. Quoted by R.P. Dutt; India Today, p. 280
24- ogh] i`"B 284
25- nsf[k;s ifjf'k"V u- 1
26- 'kphUæukFk lkU;ky dh iqLrd cUnh thou ls fo'ofe=k mikè;k; }kjk 'kphUæukFk
lkU;ky vkSj mudk ;qx esa m¼`r] i`"B 195
27- ogh] i`"B 156
28. S.N. Mazumdar: In Search of a Revolutionary Theory and a Revolutionary
Program. p. 178
29- ogh] i`"B 177
ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl @ 197
30- ogh] i`"B 178
31- ogh] i`"B 154
32- ogh] i`"B 181&2
33- ogh] i`"B 183
34. Jawaharlal Nehru: An Autobiography, John Lane, The Bodley Head, London,
1936, p. 164-5
35. Quoted by Pratima Ghosh, Meerut Conspiracy Case & the Left-Wing in
India, p. 47
36- ogh] i`"B 53
37- ;g fcy lnu esa cgl ds fy, 21 ekpZ dks is'k fd;k x;kA ysfdu vè;{k us mls
2 vçSy] 1929 rd ds fy, LFkfxr dj fn;kA 2 vçSy dks mUgksaus fu.kZ; fn;k fd
pw¡fd fcy dk vkèkkj vkSj esjB "kM~;U=k dsl esa vfHk;qDrksa ds f[k+yki+Q yxk;s x;s
vfHk;ksx ,d tSls gSa] bl fLFkfr esa fcy ij tks cgl gksxh mlls vfHk;qDrksa ds cpko
ij vlj iM+sxkA bu dkj.kksa ls mUgksaus fcy ij cgl dh vuqefr ugha nhA 4 vçSy
dks Hkkjr ljdkj us mls fiQj lnu ds lkeus is'k fd;k vkSj cgl dh vuqefr ek¡xhA
11 vçSy dks vè;{k us ljdkj dh vihy Bqdjk nh vkSj viuk fu.kZ; cjo+Qjkj j[kkA
13 vçSy dks ok;ljk; us mls vè;kns'k ds :i esa ykxw dj fn;kA
38. Quoted by G. Adhikari in an article in Mainstream, April 29, 1981
39. G. Adhikari (ed.): Documents of the History of the Communist Party of India,
Vol. II, p. 443
40- ogh] i`"B 442
41- ogh] i`"B 473
42. S.N. Mazumdar, op. Cit. p. 176
43. G. S. Deol, Sardar Bhagat Singh
44- ogh] i`"B 113
45. B

198 @ 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd


ifjf'k"V & nks

t;nso ds uke i=k

ls.Vªy tsy] ykgkSj


24 tqykbZ] 1930

esjs fç; t;nso!


Ñi;k fuEufyf[kr fdrkcsa }kjdkukFk iqLrdky; ls esjs uke ij tkjh
djokdj 'kfupjokj dks dqychj ds gkFk Hkst nsuk %
eSVhfj;sfyT+e % dkyZ yhCus[kr
OgkbZeSu iQkbV & ch- jlsy
lksfo;V~l ,V odZ
dksysIl vkWi+Q lsfd.M b.Vjus'kuy
ysÝ+V ¯ox dE;qfuT+e
E;wpqvy ,.M fçUl ØksiksVfdu
i+QhYM~l i+QsDVªht ,.M odZ'kkIl
flfoy okj bu ç+Qkal % ekDlZ
yS.M fjoksY;w'ku bu ,f'k;k] vkSj
vIVu ¯lDys;j dh ^LikbZ*
Ñi;k ;fn gks lds rks eq>s ,d vkSj fdrkc Hkstus dk çcUèk djuk] ftldk
uke ^F;ksjh vkWi+Q fgLVksfjdy eSfVfj;sfyT+e % cq[+kkfju* gSA (;g iatkc ifCyd
ykbczsjh ls fey tk;sxh)A vkSj iqLrdky;kè;{k ls ;g ekywe djuk fd dqN
fdrkcsa D;k cksLVZy tsy esa Hksth x;h gSa\ mUgsa fdrkcksa dh cgqr t+:jr gSA
mUgksaus lq[knso ds HkkbZ t;nso ds gkFkksa ,d lwph Hksth Fkh] ysfdu mudks vHkh
rd fdrkcsa ugha feyhaA vxj muds (iqLrdky;) ikl dksbZ lwph u gks rks
Ñi;k ykyk fi+Qjkst+pUn ls tkudkjh ys ysuk vkSj mudh ilUn ds vuqlkj dqN
jkspd fdrkcsa Hkst nsukA bl jfookj tc eSa ogk¡ tkÅ¡ rks muds ikl fdrkcsa
t;nso ds uke i=k @ 199
igq¡ph gqbZ gksuh pkfg,A Ñi;k ;g dke fdlh Hkh gkyr esa dj nsukA blds lkFk
gh Mkfy±x dh ^iatkc ists.Vªh bu çkWliSfjVh ,.M MSV* vkSj blh rjg dh
,d&nks vU; fdrkcsa fdlku leL;k ij MkW- vkye ds fy, Hkst nsukA
vk'kk gS rqe bu d"Vksa dks T+;knk eglwl u djksxsA Hkfo"; ds fy, rqEgsa
;o+Qhu fnykrk gw¡ fd rqEgsa dHkh Hkh dksbZ d"V u nw¡xkA lHkh fe=kksa dks esjh ;kn
dguk vkSj yTtkorh th dks esjh vksj ls vfHkoknuA mEehn gS fd vxj nÙk
dh cgu vk;ha rks os eq>ls eqyko+Qkr djus dk d"V djsaxhA
vknj ds lkFk]
Hkxr¯lg

· vius cpiu ds fe=k t;nso ds uke Hkxrflag dk ;g i=k fdrkcksa dh mudh Hkw[k dk
çek.k gSA buesa ls vusd fdrkcksa ds uksV~l bl uksVcqd esa feyrs gSa ftlls irk pyrk gS
fd ;s murd igq¡p xbZ FkhaA i=k ls ;g Hkh irk pyrk gS fd Hkxrflag vius lkfFk;ksa ds
vè;;u ds ckjs esa Hkh lpsr Fks vkSj mlesa tsy ls gh ;FkklEHko enn djus dh dksf'k'k
djrs jgrs FksA

•••
csgrj ft+Unxh dk jkLrk
csgrj fdrkcksa ls gksdj tkrk gS!

tupsruk

ml ikj gS mEehnksa
vkSj mtkl dh
,d iwjh nqfu;k
v¡èksjk rks fli+QZ nsgjh ij gS

lEiw.kZ lwphi=k
2018
ge gSa liuksa ds gjdkjs
ge gSa fopkjksa ds Mkfd;s
vke yksxksa ds fy,
t+:jh gSa os fdrkcsa
tks mudh ft+Unxh dh ?kqVu
vkSj eqfDr ds LoIuksa rd
igq¡pkrh gSa fopkj
tSls fd ck:n dh <sjh rd
vkx dh fpuxkjhA
?kj&?kj rd fpuxkjh fNVdkus okyk
rst+ gok dk >ksadk cu tkuk gksxk
ft+Unxh vkSj vkus okys fnuksa dk lp
crykus okyh fdrkcksa dks
tu&tu rd igq¡pkuk gksxkA
nks n'kd igys izxfr'khy] tui{k/j lkfgR; dks tu&tu rd igq¡pkus dh
eqfge dh ,d NksVh&lh 'kq#vkr gqb]Z cM+s ealcw s ds lkFkA ,d NksVh&lh nqdku
vkSj i+QVq ikFkksa ij] eqgYyksa esa vkSj nÝ+rjksa ds lkeus NksVh&NksVh izn'kZfu;k¡ yxkus
okys rFkk lkbfdyksa ij] Bsyksa ij] >ksyksa esa Hkjdj ?kj&?kj fdrkcsa igqp ¡ kus okys
le£ir voSrfud okyf.V;jksa dh Vhe & 'kq#vkr cl ;gha ls gqbAZ vkt ;g
oSpkfjd vfHk;ku mÙkj Hkkjr ds ntZuksa 'kgjksa vkSj xk¡oksa rd iQSy pqdk gSA ,d
cM+s vkSj ,d NksVs izn'kZuh okgu ds ekè;e ls tupsruk fgUnh vkSj iatkch {ks=k
ds lqnjw dksuksa rd fgUnh] iatkch vkSj vaxt sz h+ lkfgR; ,oa dyk&lkexzh ds lkFk
lius vkSj fopkj ysdj tk jgh gS] thou&la?k"kZ&l`tu&izxfr dk ukjk ysdj tk
jgh gSA
fgUnh {ks=k esa ;g vius <ax dk ,d vuwBk ç;kl gSA ,d Hkh oSrfud LVki+Q
ds fcuk] le£ir okyf.V;jksa vkSj fofHkUu lg;ksxh tulaxBuksa ds dk;ZdrkZvksa
ds cwrs ij ;g çkstsDV vkxs c<+ jgk gSA
vkb;s] vki lHkh bl eqfge esa gekjs lg;k=kh cfu;sA
lEiw.kZ lwphi=

ifjdYiuk çdk'ku
miU;kl
1- r#.kkbZ dk rjkuk@;kÄ eks ---
2- rhu Vds dk miU;kl@csVksZYV csz"V ---
3- ek¡@efDle xksdhZ ---
4- os rhu@efDle xksdhZ 75-00
5- esjk cpiu@efDle xksdhZ ---
6- thou dh jkgksa ij@efDle xksdhZ ---
7- esjs fo'ofo|ky;@efDle xksdhZ ---
8- i+Qksek xksnsZ;so@efDle xksdhZ 55-00
9- vHkkxk@efDle xksdhZ 40-00
10- csdjh dk ekfyd@efDle xksdhZ 25-00
11- vlyh bUlku@cksfjl iksysoksbZ ---
12- r#.k xkMZ@vysDlkUæ i+Qns;so (nks [k.Mksa esa) 160-00
13- xksnku@çsepUn ---
14- fueZyk@çsepUn ---
15- iFk ds nkosnkj@'kjr~pUæ ---
16- pfj=kghu@'kjr~pUæ ---
17- x`gnkg@'kjr~pUæ 70-00
18- 'ks"kç'u@'kjr~pUæ ---
19- bUæèkuq"k@okUnk oSlhY;qLdk 65-00
20- bdrkyhlok¡@cksjhl yozsU;kso 20-00
21- nkLrku pyrh gS (,d ukStoku dh
Mk;jh ls)@vukrksyh dqT+usRlkso 70-00
-3-
22- os lnk ;qok jgsaxs@xzhxksjh cdykukso 60-00
23- eqnks± dks D;k ykt&'keZ@xzhxksjh cdykukso 40-00
24- c[+rjcUn jsy 14&69@Olsoksyksn bokukso 30-00
25- v'olsuk@blkd ckcsy 40-00
26- yky >.Ms ds uhps@ykvks 'k 50-00
27- fjD'kkokyk@ykvks 'k 65-00
28- fpjLej.kh; (çfl¼ dUuM+ miU;kl)@fujatu 55-00
29- ,d r;'kqnk ekSr (,uthvks dh i`"BHkwfe ij)@eksfgr jk; 30-00
30. Mother/Maxim Gorky 250.00
31. The Song of Youth/Yang Mo ---
dgkfu;k¡
1- Js"B lksfo;r dgkfu;k¡ (3 [k.Mksa dk lsV) 450-00
2- og 'k[+l ftlus gSMyscxZ dks Hkz"V dj fn;k
(ekdZ V~osu dh nks dgkfu;k¡) 60-00

efDle xksdhZ
3- pquh gqbZ dgkfu;k¡ ([k.M 1) ---
4- pquh gqbZ dgkfu;k¡ ([k.M 2) ---
5- pquh gqbZ dgkfu;k¡ ([k.M 3) ---
6- fgEer u gkjuk esjs cPpks 10-00
7- dkeks % ,d tk¡ckt+ bUo+Qykch et+nwj dh dgkuh ---
vUrksu ps[k+o
8- pquh gqbZ dgkfu;k¡ ([k.M 1) ---
9- pquh gqbZ dgkfu;k¡ ([k.M 2) ---
10- nks vej dgkfu;k¡@yw 'kqu ---
11- Js"B dgkfu;k¡@çsepUn 80-00
12- ik¡p dgkfu;k¡@iqf'du ---
13- rhu dgkfu;k¡@xksxksy 30-00
14- rwi+Qku@vysDlkUæ lsjki+Qheksfop 60-00
15- olUr@lsxbZs Z vUrksukso 60-00
16- olUrkxe@jvks f'k 50-00
-4-
17- lwjt dk [k+t+kuk@fe[k+kbZy çhf'ou 40-00
18- LusxksosRl dk gksVy@eRosbZ rsosY;kso 35-00
19- olUr ds js'ke ds dhM+@s ekvks rqu 50-00
20- ØkfUr >a>k dh vuqxw¡tsa (vDVwcj ØkfUr dh dgkfu;k¡) 75-00
21- pquh gqbZ dgkfu;ka@¡ ';kvks gqÄ 50-00
22- le; ds ia[k@dksULrkUrhu ikmLrksOldh ---
23- Js"B :lh dgkfu;k¡ (ladyu) ---
24- vutku iQwy@vkUæsbZ Iykrksukso 40-00
25- dqÙks dk fny@fe[k+kbZy cqYxkdkso 70-00
26- nksu dh dgkfu;k¡@fe[k+kbZy 'kksyks[k+kso 35-00
27- vc bUlki+Q gksus okyk gS ---
(Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku dh çxfr'khy mnwZ dgkfu;ksa dk çfrfufèk ladyu)
(X;kjg u;h dgkfu;ksa lfgr ifjo£¼r laLdj.k)@l- 'kdhy flího+Qh
28- yky dqjrk@gfj'kadj JhokLro ---
29- pEik vkSj vU; dgkfu;k¡@enu eksgu 35-00

dfork,¡
1- tc eSa tM+ksa ds chp jgrk gw¡@ikCyks us:nk 60-00
2- vk¡[ksa nqfu;k dh rji+Q ns[krh gS@a ySXaXlVu g~;wt 60-00
3- mEehn&,&lgj dh ckr lquks (i+QSt+ vgen i+QSt+ ds laLej.k vkSj
pqfuUnk 'kk;jh] lEiknd% 'kdhy flího+Qh) 160-00
4- ekvks Rls&rqÄ dh dfork,¡ (jktuhfrd i`"BHkwfe lfgr foLr`r
fVIif.k;k¡ ,oa vuqokn % lR;ozr) 20-00
5- bdgÙkj dfork,¡ vkSj rhl NksVh dgkfu;k¡ & csVksZYV czs"V
(ewy teZu ls vuqokn % eksgu Fkify;ky)
(czs"V ds nqyZHk fp=kksa vkSj Ldspksa ls lfTtr) 150-00
6- lej rks 'ks"k gS--- (bIVk ds nkSj ls vkt rd ds
çfrfufèk ØkfUrdkjh lewgxhrksa dk ladyu) 65-00
7- eè;oxZ dk 'kksdxhr@gkUl ekXuql ,URlsUlcxZj 30-00
8- tsy Mk;jh@gks ph feUg 40-00
9- vksl dh cw¡nsa vkSj yky X+kqykc@gksls ekfj;k fllksa 25-00
-5-
10- bfUri+Qknk % i+QyLrhuh dfork,¡@l- jkeÑ".k ik.Ms; ---
11- ygw gS fd rc Hkh xkrk gS@ik'k ---
12- yksgw vkSj bLikr ls iQwVrk X+kqykc % i+QyLrhuh dfork,¡ (f}Hkk"kh ladyu)
A Rose Breaking Out of Steel and Blood (Palestinian Poems) 60-00
13- ikBkUrj@fo".kq [kjs 50-00
14- ykyVsu tykuk (pquh gqbZ dfork,¡)@fo".kq [kjs 60-00
15- bZ'oj dks eks{k@uhykHk 60-00
16- cgusa vkSj vU; dfork,¡¡@vln t+Snh 50-00
17- lkeku dh ryk'k@vln t+Snh 50-00
18- dksgsdki+Q ij laxhr&lkèkuk@'kf'kçdk'k 50-00
19- ir>M+ dk LFkkiR;@'kf'kçdk'k 75-00
20- lkr Hkkb;ksa ds chp pEik@dkR;k;uh (isijcSd) ---
(gkMZckmaM) 125-00
21- bl ikS#"kiw.kZ le; esa@dkR;k;uh 60-00
22- tknw ugha dfork@dkR;k;uh (isijcSd) ---
(gkMZckmaM) 200-00
23- i+QqVikFk ij dqlhZ@dkR;k;uh 80-00
24- jk[k&v¡èksjs dh ckfj'k esa@dkR;k;uh 15-00
25- ;g eq[kkSVk fdldk gS@foey dqekj 50-00
26- ;g tks oDr gS@dfiys'k Hkkst 60-00
27- ns'k ,d jkx gS@Hkxor jkor ---
28- cgqr ueZ pknj Fkh ty ls cquh@ujs'k pUædj 60-00
29- fnu HkkSagsa p<+krk gS@ey; 120-00
30- ns[krs u ns[krs@ey; 65-00
31- vlEHko dh vk¡p@ey; 100-00
32- bPNk dh nwc@ey; 90-00
33- bl <yku ij@izeksn dqekj 90-00
34- rks@'kSys; 75-00
ukVd
1- djoV@efDle xksdhZ 40-00
2- nq'eu@efDle xksdhZ 35-00
-6-
3- ryNV@efDle xksdhZ ---
4- rhu cgusa (nks ukVd)@vUrksu ps[k+o 45-00
5- psjh dh cfx+;k (nks ukVd)@v- ps[k+o 45-00
6- cfynku tks O;FkZ u x;k@Olsoksyksn fo'usOLdh 30-00
7- Øsefyu dh ?kf.V;k¡@fudksykbZ iksxksfnu 30-00
laLej.k
1- yso rksYLrks; % 'kCn&fp=k@efDle xksdhZ 20-00
L=kh&foe'kZ
1- nqxZ }kj ij nLrd (L=kh iz'u ij ys[k)@dkR;k;uh (isijcSd) 130-00
ToyUr ç'u
1- dqN thoUr dqN ToyUr@dkR;k;uh 90-00
2- "kM~;U=kjr e`rkRekvksa ds chp
(lkEçnkf;drk ij ys[k)@dkR;k;uh 25-00
3- bl jkf=k ';keyk csyk esa (ys[k vkSj fVIif.k;k¡)@lR;ozr 30-00
O;aX;
1- dgsa eucgdh [kjh&[kjh@eucgdh yky 25-00
ukStokuksa ds fy, fo'ks"k
1- t; thou! (ys[k] Hkk"k.k vkSj i=k)@fudksykbZ vksL=kksOLdh 50-00
oSpkfjdh
1- ekvksoknh vFkZ'kkL=k vkSj lektokn dk Hkfo";@jse.M yksV~Vk 25-00
lkfgR;&foe'kZ
1- miU;kl vkSj tuleqnk;@jSYi+Q i+QkWDl 75-00
2- ys[kudyk vkSj jpukdkS'ky@
xksdhZ] i+Qsfnu] e;kdksOLdh] v- rksYlrks; ---
3- n'kZu] lkfgR; vkSj vkykspuk@
csfyaLdh] gtZ+u] psuhZ'ksOLdh] nksczksY;qckso 65-00
4- l`tu&çfØ;k vkSj f'kYi ds ckjs esa@efDle xksdhZ 40-00
-7-
5- ekDlZokn vkSj Hkk"kkfoKku dh leL;k,¡@Lrkfyu 20-00
u;h ih<+h ds fuekZ.k ds fy,
1- ,d iqLrd ekrk&firk ds fy,@vUrksu edkjsadks ---
2- esjk ân; cPpksa ds fy,@olhyh lq[k+ksEyhULdh ---
vkàku iqfLrdk Ük`a[kyk
1- çse] ijEijk vkSj foæksg@dkR;k;uh 50-00
l`tu ifjizs{; iqfLrdk Ük`a[kyk
1- ,d u;s loZgkjk iqutkZxj.k vkSj çcksèku ds
oSSpkfjd&lkaLÑfrd dk;ZHkkj@dkR;k;uh] lR;e 25-00

nks egRoiw.kZ if=kdk,¡

ekDlZoknh lS¼kfUrd 'kksèk vkSj foe'kZ dk eap


lEiknd% dkR;k;uh @ lR;e
,d izfr % 100 #i;s] vkthou% 5000 #i;s
okf"kZd (4 vad) % 400 #i;s (100 #- jft- cqdiksLV O;; vfrfjDr)

ehfM;k] laLÑfr vkSj lekt ij dsfUær


lEiknd% dkR;k;uh @ lR;e
,d izfr % 40 #i;s vkthou% 3000 #i;s
okf"kZd (4 vad) % 160 #i;s (100 #- jft- cqd iksLV O;; vfrfjDr)
lEikndh; dk;kZy; %
69 ,&1] ckck dk iqjok] isij fey jksM] fu'kkrxat] y[kuÅ&226006
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osclkbV % http://dishasandhaan.in bZesy% dishasandhaan@gmail.com
osclkbV % http://naandipath.in bZesy% naandipath@gmail.com

-8-
jkgq y Qkm.Ms ' ku
ukStokuksa ds fy, fo'ks"k
1- ukStokuksa ls nks ckrs@a ihVj ØksiksVfdu 15-00
2- ØkfUrdkjh dk;ZØe dk elfonk@Hkxr¯lg 15-00
3- eSa ukfLrd D;ksa gw¡ vkSj ^MªheyS.M* dh Hkwfedk@Hkxr¯lg 15-00
4- ce dk n'kZu vkSj vnkyr esa c;ku@Hkxr¯lg 15-00
5- tkfr&èkeZ ds >xM+s NksM+ks] lgh yM+kbZ ls ukrk tksM+ks@Hkxr¯lg 15-00
6- Hkxr¯lg us dgk---(pqus gq, m¼j.k)@Hkxr¯lg 15-00

ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds nLrkost+
1- Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa ds
lEiw.kZ miyCèk nLrkost+@l- lR;e 350-00
2- 'kghnsvkt+e dh tsy uksVcqd@Hkxr¯lg 100-00
3- fopkjksa dh lku ij@Hkxr¯lg 50-00
ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds fopkjksa vkSj thou ij
1- cgjksa dks lqukus ds fy,@,l- bji+Qku gchc
(Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa dh fopkjèkkjk vkSj dk;ZØe) ---
2- ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd fodkl@f'ko oekZ 15-00
3- Hkxr¯lg vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa dh
fopkjèkkjk vkSj jktuhfr@fciu pUæ 20-00
4- ;'k dh èkjksgj@
Hkxokunkl ekgkSj] f'ko oekZ] lnkf'kojko eydkiqjdj 50-00
5- laLe`fr;k¡@f'ko oekZ 80-00
6- 'kghn lq[knso % ukS?kjk ls iQk¡lh rd@l- MkW- gjnhi ¯lg 40-00

-9-
egÙoiw.kZ vkSj fopkjksÙkstd ladyu
1- mEehn ,d ft+Unk 'kCn gS
(^nkf;Rocksèk* ds egÙoiw.kZ lEikndh; ys[kksa dk ladyu) 75-00
2- ,uthvks % ,d [k+rjukd lkezkT;oknh dqpØ 60-00
3- MCY;w,l,i+Q % lkezkT;okn dk u;k Vªkstu gkWlZ 50-00

ToyUr ç'u
1- ^tkfr* ç'u ds lekèkku ds fy, cq¼ dki+Qh ugha] vEcsMdj Hkh
dki+Qh ugha] ekDlZ t+:jh gSa @ jaxuk;dEek ---
2- tkfr vkSj oxZ % ,d ekDlZoknh n`f"Vdks.k @ jaxuk;dEek 60-00

nkf;Rocksèk iqfLrdk Ük`a[kyk


1- vu'oj gSa loZgkjk la?k"kks± dh vfXuf'k[kk,¡@nhik;u cksl 10-00
2- lektokn dh leL;k,¡] iw¡thoknh iquLFkkZiuk vkSj egku loZgkjk
lkaLÑfrd ØkfUr@'kf'kçdk'k 30-00
3- D;ksa ekvksokn\@'kf'kçdk'k 20-00
4- cqtqZvk oxZ ds Åij loZrkseq[kh vfèkuk;dRo
ykxw djus ds ckjs esa@pkÄ pqu&fp;kvks 5-00
5- Hkkjrh; Ñf"k esa iw¡thoknh fodkl@lq[kfoUnj 35-00
vkàku iqfLrdk Ük`a[kyk
1- Nk=k&ukStoku u;h 'kq#vkr dgk¡ ls djsa\ 15-00
2- vkj{k.k % i{k] foi{k vkSj rhljk i{k 15-00
3- vkradokn ds ckjs esa % foHkze vkSj ;FkkFkZ 15-00
4- ØkfUrdkjh Nk=k&;qok vkUnksyu 15-00
5- Hkz"Vkpkj vkSj mlds lekèkku dk loky
lkspus ds fy, dqN eqís 50-00
fcxqy iqfLrdk Ük`a[kyk
1- dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk laxBu vkSj mldk <k¡pk@ysfuu 10-00
2- edM+k vkSj eD[kh@foYgsYe yhCus[+r 5-00

- 10 -
3- VªsM;wfu;u dke ds tuoknh rjho+Qs@lsxsZbZ jksLrksoLdh 5-00
4- ebZ fnol dk bfrgkl@vysDt+S.Mj VªSDVucxZ 10-00
5- isfjl dE;wu dh vej dgkuh 20-00
6- vDVwcj ØkfUr dh e'kky 15-00
7- taxyukek % ,d jktuhfrd leh{kk@MkW- n'kZu [ksM+h 5-00
8- ykHkdkjh ewY;] ykxr ewY;] eè;e fdlku vkSj NksVs iSekus
ds eky mRiknu ds ckjs esa ekDlZoknh n`f"Vdks.k % ,d cgl 30-00
9- la'kks/uokn ds ckjs esa 10-00
10- f'kdkxks ds 'kghn et+nwj usrkvksa dh dgkuh@gkoMZ i+QkLV 10-00
11- et+nwj vkUnksyu esa u;h 'kq#vkr ds fy, 20-00
12- et+nwj uk;d] ØkfUrdkjh ;ks¼k 15-00
13- pksj] Hkz"V vkSj foyklh usrk'kkgh ---
14- cksyrs vk¡dM+s] ph[k+rh lPpkb;k¡ ---
15- jktèkkuh ds esgurd'k % ,d vè;;u@vfHkuo 30-00
16- i+Qklhokn D;k gS vkSj blls dSls yM+sa\@vfHkuo 75-00
17- usikyh ØkfUr % bfrgkl] orZeku ifjfLFkfr vkSj vkxs ds jkLrs
ls tqM+h dqN ckrsa] dqN fopkj@vkyksd jatu 55-00
18- dSlk gS ;g yksdra=k vkSj ;g lafoèkku fdudh lsok djrk gS
vkyksd jatu@vkuUn flag 100-00
ekDlZokn
1- èkeZ ds ckjs esa@ekDlZ] ,axsYl 100-00
2- dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk ?kks"k.kki=k@ekDlZ&,axsYl 25-00
3- lkfgR; vkSj dyk@ekDlZ&,axsYl 150-00
4- ç+Qkal esa oxZ&la?k"kZ@dkyZ ekDlZ 40-00
5- ç+Qkal esa x`g;q¼@dkyZ ekDlZ 20-00
6- ywbZ cksukikrZ dh vBkjgoha czwesj@dkyZ ekDlZ 35-00
7- mt+jrh Je vkSj iw¡th@dkyZ ekDlZ 15-00
8- et+nwjh] nke vkSj equki+Qk@dkyZ ekDlZ 20-00
9- xksFkk dk;ZØe dh vkykspuk@dkyZ ekDlZ 40-00
10- yqMfox i+Qk;jck[k+ vkSj Dykfldh; teZu n'kZu dk vUr@
ç+QsMfjd ,axsYl 20-00

- 11 -
11- teZuh esa ØkfUr rFkk çfrØkfUr@ç+QsMfjd ,axsYl 30-00
12- lektokn % dkYifud rFkk oSKkfud@ç+QsMfjd ,axsYl ---
13- ikVhZ dk;Z ds ckjs esa@ysfuu 15-00
14- ,d o+Qne vkxs] nks o+Qne ihNs@ysfuu 60-00
15- tuoknh ØkfUr esa lkekftd&tuokn ds nks j.kdkS'ky@ysfuu 25-00
16- lektokn vkSj ;q¼@ysfuu 20-00
17- lkezkT;okn % iw¡thokn dh pje voLFkk@ysfuu 30-00
18- jkT; vkSj ØkfUr@ysfuu 40-00
19- loZgkjk ØkfUr vkSj x+íkj dkmRLdh@ysfuu 15-00
20- nwljs b.Vjus'kuy dk iru@ysfuu 15-00
21- xk¡o ds x+jhcksa ls@ysfuu ---
22- ekDlZokn dk foÑr :i rFkk lkezkT;oknh vFkZokn@ysfuu 20-00
23- dkyZ ekDlZ vkSj mudh f'k{kk@ysfuu 20-00
24- D;k djsa\@ysfuu ---
25- ¶okeiUFkh¸ dE;qfuT+e & ,d cpdkuk etZ+@ysfuu ---
26- ikVhZ lkfgR; vkSj ikVhZ laxBu@ysfuu 15-00
27- turk ds chp ikVhZ dk dke@ysfuu 70-00
28- èkeZ ds ckjs es@a ysfuu 20-00
29- rksYLrks; ds ckjs esa@ysfuu 10-00
30- ekDlZokn dh ewy leL;k,¡@th- Iys[k+kukso 30-00
31- tq>k: HkkSfrdokn@Iys[k+kukso 35-00
32- ysfuuokn ds ewy fl¼kUr@Lrkfyu 50-00
33- lksfo;r la?k dh dE;qfuLV ikVhZ (cksY'ksfod) dk bfrgkl 90-00
34- ekvks Rls&rqÄ dh jpuk,¡ % çfrfufèk p;u (,d [k.M esa) ---
35- dE;qfuLV thou'kSyh vkSj dk;Z'kSyh ds ckjs esa@ekvks Rls&rqÄ ---
36- lksfo;r vFkZ'kkL=k dh vkykspuk@ekvks Rls&rqÄ 35-00
37- n'kZu fo"k;d ik¡p fucUèk@ekvks Rls&rqÄ 70-00
38- dyk&lkfgR; fo"k;d ,d Hkk"k.k vkSj ik¡p nLrkost+ @
ekvks Rls&rqÄ 15-00
39- ekvks Rls&rqÄ dh jpukvksa ds m¼j.k 50-00

- 12 -
vU; ekDlZoknh lkfgR;
1- jktuhfrd vFkZ'kkL=k] ekDlZoknh vè;;u ikBÔØe u;h 300-00
2- [kzq'pso >wBk Fkk@xzksoj i+Qj 300-00
3- jktuhfrd vFkZ'kkL=k ds ewyHkwr fl¼kUr (nks [k.Mksa esa)
(fn 'ka?kkbZ VsDLVcqd vkWi+Q iksfyfVdy bdksukWeh) 160-00
4- isfjl dE;wu dh f'k{kk,¡ (lfp=k) ,ysDt+s.Mj VªDS VucxZ 10-00
5- dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk ?kks"k.kki=k@Mh- fj;kt+kukso 100-00
(foLr`r O;k[;kRed fVIif.k;ksa lfgr)
6- }U}kRed HkkSfrdokn@MsfoM xsLV ---
7- egku loZgkjk lkaLÑfrd ØkfUr % pqus gq, nLrkost+
vkSj ys[k ([k.M 1) 35-00
8- bfrgkl us tc djoV cnyh@fofy;e fg.Vu 25-00
9- }U}kRed HkkSfrdokn@oh- vnksjkRLdh 50-00
10- vDVwcj ØkfUr vkSj ysfuu@vYcVZ jhl fofy;El 90-00
(egÙoiw.kZ u;h lkexzh vkSj vusd u;s nqyZHk fp=kksa ls lfTtr ifjo£¼r laLdj.k)
11- lksfo;r la?k esa iw¡thokn dh iquLFkkZiuk@ek£Vu fudksyl 50-00
jkgqy lkfgR;
1- rqEgkjh {k;@jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u 40-00
2- fnekx+h X+kqykeh@jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u ---
3- oSKkfud HkkSfrdokn@jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u 65-00
4- jkgqy fucUèkkoyh@jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u 50-00
5- Lrkfyu % ,d thouh@jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u 150-00
ijEijk dk Lej.k
1- pquh gqbZ jpuk,¡@x.ks'k'kadj fo|kFkhZ 100-00
2- lyk[kksa ds ihNs ls@x.ks'k'kadj fo|kFkhZ 30-00
3- bZ'oj dk cfg"dkj@jkèkkeksgu xksdqyth 30-00
4- ykSfdd ekxZ@jkèkkeksgu xksdqyth 20-00
5- èkeZ dk <dkslyk@jkèkkeksgu xksdqyth 30-00
6- fL=k;ksa dh Lokèkhurk@jkèkkeksgu xksdqyth 30-00

- 13 -
thouh vkSj laLej.k
1- dkyZ ekDlZ thou vkSj f'k{kk,¡@ts+YMk dksV~l 25-00
2- iz+QsMfjd ,axsYl % thou vkSj f'k{kk,¡@t+sYMk dksV~l ---
3- dkyZ ekDlZ % laLej.k vkSj ys[k ---
4- vnE; cksY'ksfod urk'kk
(,d L=kh et+nwj laxBudrkZ dh laf{kIr thouh)@,y- dkrk'ksok 30-00
5- ysfuu dFkk@ejh;k fçyst+k;sok 70-00
6- ysfuu fo"k;d dgkfu;k¡ 75-00
7- ysfuu ds thou ds pUn iUus@yhfn;k i+Qksfr;sok ---
8- Lrkfyu % ,d thouh@jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u 150-00
fofoèk
1- iQk¡lh ds r[+rs ls@twfy;l Ý+;wfpd 30-00
2- iki vkSj foKku@Mk;lu dkVZj 100-00
3- lkisf{kdrk fl¼kUr D;k gS\@yso yUnkÅ] ;wjh :esj ----

eqfDrdkeh Nk=kks&a ;qokvksa dk

vkàku
lEikndh; dk;kZy;
ch&100] eqdqUn fogkj] djkoy uxj]
fnYyh&110094
,d çfr % 20 #i;s • okf"kZd % 160 #i;s (MkdO;; lfgr)

- 14 -
Rahul Foundation
MARXIST CLASSICS
KARL MARX
1. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy 100.00
2. The Civil War in France 80.00
3. The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte 40.00
4. Critique of the Gotha Programme 25.00
5. Preface and Introduction to
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy 25.00
6. The Poverty of Philosophy 80.00
7. Wages, Price and Profit 35.00
8. Class Struggles in France 50.00
FREDERICK ENGELS
9. The Peasant War in Germany 70.00
10. Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of
Classical German Philosophy 65.00
11. On Capital 55.00
12. The Origin of the Family, Private Property
and the State 100.00
13. Socialism: Utopian and Scientific 60.00
14. On Marx 20.00
15. Principles of Communism 5.00
MARX and ENGELS
16. Historical Writings (Set of 2 Vols.) 700.00
17. Manifesto of the Communist Party 50.00
18. Selected Letters 40.00
V. I. LENIN
19. Theory of Agrarian Question 160.00
20. The Collapse of the Second International 25.00
21. Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism 80.00
22. Materialism and Empirio-Criticism 150.00

- 15 -
23. Two Tactics of Social-Democracy
in the Democratic Revolution 55.00
24. Capitalism and Agriculture 30.00
25. A Characterisation of Economic Romanticism 50.00
26. On Marx and Engels 35.00
27. “Left-Wing” Communism, An Infantile Disorder 40.00
28. Party Work in the Masses 55.00
29. The Proletarian Revolution and
the Renegade Kautsky 40.00
30. One Step Forward, Two Steps Back ...
31. The State and Revolution ...
MARX, ENGELS and LENIN
32. On the Dictatorship of Proletariat,
Questions and Answers 50.00
33. On the Dictatorship of the Proletariat:
Selected Expositions 10.00
PLEKHANOV
34. Fundamental Problems of Marxism 35.00
J. STALIN
35. Marxism and Problems of Linguistics 25.00
36. Anarchism or Socialism? 25.00
37. Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR 30.00
38. On Organisation 15.00
39. The Foundations of Leninism 40.00
40. The Essential Stalin Major Theoretical Writings 1905–52 175.00
(Edited and with an Introduction by Bruce Franklin)
LENIN and STALIN
41. On the Party ...
MAO TSE-TUNG
42. Five Essays on Philosophy 50.00
43. A Critique of Soviet Economics 70.00
44. On Literature and Art 80.00

- 16 -
45. Selected Readings from the
Works of Mao Tse-tung ...
46. Quotations from the Writings of Mao Tse-tung ...

OTHER MARXISM
1. Political Economy, Marxist Study Courses
(Prepared by the British Communist Party in the 1930s) 275.00
2. Fundamentals of Political Economy
(The Shanghai Textbook) 160.00
3. Reader in Marxist Philosophy/
Howard Selsam & Harry Martel ...
4. Socialism and Ethics/Howard Selsam ...
5. What Is Philosophy? (A Marxist Introduction)/
Howard Selsam 75.00
6. Reader’s Guide to Marxist Classics/Maurice Cornforth 70.00
7. From Marx to Mao Tse-tung /George Thomson ...
8. Capitalism and After/George Thomson ...
9. The Human Essence/George Thomson 65.00
10. Mao Tse-tung’s Immortal Contributions/Bob Avakian 125.00
11. A Basic Understanding of the Communist Party
(Written during the GPCR in China) 150.00
12. The Lessons of the Paris Commune/
Alexander Trachtenberg (Illustrated) 15.00

BIOGRAPHIES & REMINISCENCES


1. Reminiscences of Marx and Engels (Collection) ...
2. Karl Marx And Frederick Engels:
An Introduction to their Lives and Work/David Riazanov ...
3. Joseph Stalin: A Political Biography
by The Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute ...
PROBLEMS OF SOCIALISM
1. How Capitalism was Restored in the Soviet Union, And
What This Means for the World Struggle
(Red Papers 7) 175.00

- 17 -
2. Preface of Class Struggles in the USSR /
Charles Bettelheim 30.00
3. Nepalese Revolution: History, Present Situation and
Some Points, Some Thoughts on the Road Ahead /
Alok Ranjan 75.00
4. Problems of Socialism, Capitalist Restoration and
the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution /
Shashi Prakash 40.00

ON THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION


1. Hundred Day War: The Cultural Revolution At Tsinghua
University / William Hinton ...
2. The Cultural Revolution at Peking University /
Victor Nee with Don Layman 30.00
3. Mao Tse-tung’s Last Great Battle / Raymond Lotta 25.00
4. Turning Point in China / William Hinton ...
5. Cultural Revolution and Industrial Organization
in China / Charles Bettelheim 55.00
6. They Made Revolution Within
the Revolution / Iris Hunter ...

ON SOCIALIST CONSTRUCTION
1. Away With All Pests: An English Surgeon in
People’s China: 1954–1969 / Joshua S. Horn ...
2. Serve The People: Observations on Medicine in
the People’s Republic of China /Victor W. Sidel and Ruth Sidel ...
3. Philosophy is No Mystery
(Peasants Put Their Study to Work) 35.00

CONTEMPORARY ISSUES
1. Caste and Class: A Marxist Viewpoint /
Ranganayakamma 60.00
DAYITVABODH REPRINT SERIES
1. Immortal are the Flames of Proletarian Struggles /
Deepayan Bose 15.00

- 18 -
2. Problems of Socialism, Capitalist Restoration and
the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution /
Shashi Prakash 40.00
3. Why Maoism? / Shashi Prakash 25.00
AHWAN REPRINT SERIES
1. Where Should Students and Youth Make a New Beginning?
2. Reservation: Support, Opposition and Our Position 20.00
3. On Terrorism : Illusion and Reality / Alok Ranjan 15.00
BIGUL REPRINT SERIES
1. Still Ablaze is the Torch of October Revolution 20.00
2. Nepalese Revolution History, Present Situation and Some
Points, Some Thoughts on the Road Ahead /
Alok Ranjan 75.00
WOMEN QUESTION
1. The Emancipation of Women / V. I. Lenin ...
2. Breaking All Tradition’s Chains: Revolutionary
Communism and Women’s Liberation /Mary Lou Greenberg...

MISCELLANEOUS
1. Probabilities of the Quantum World / Daniel Danin ...
2. An Appeal to the Young / Peter Kropotkin 15.00

et+njw ksa dk bUo+Qykch ekfld v[k+ckj


et+nwj ,d izfr % 5 #i;s

fcxqy et+nwj okf"kZd % 70 #i;s


(Mkd O;; lfgr)
lEikndh; dk;kZy;
69 ,&1] ckck dk iqjok] isij fey jksM]
fu'kkrxat] y[kuÅ&226006
i+Qksu % 0522&4108495
bZesy % bigulakhbar@gmail.com
osclkbV % mazdoorbigul.net

- 19 -
vjfoUn Le`fr U;kl ds izdk'ku
1- bDdhloha lnh esa Hkkjr dk et+nwj vkUnksyu% fujUrjrk vkSj
ifjorZu] fn'kk vkSj lEHkkouk,¡] leL;k,¡ vkSj pqukSfr;k¡
(f}rh; vjfoUn Le`fr laxks"Bh ds vkys[k) 40-00
2- Hkkjr esa tuoknh vf/dkj vkUnksyu% fn'kk] leL;k,¡ vkSj pqukSfr;k¡
(r`rh; vjfoUn Le`fr laxks"Bh ds vkys[k) 80-00
3- tkfr iz'u vkSj ekDlZokn
(prqFkZ vjfoUn Le`fr laxks"Bh ds vkys[k) 150-00
PUBLICATIONS FROM
ARVIND MEMORIAL TRUST
1. Working Class Movement in the Twenty-First Century:
Continuity and Change, Orientation and Possibilities,
Problems and Challenges (Papers presented in the
Second Arvind Memorial Seminar) 40.00
2. Democratic Rights Movement in India: Orientation,
Problems and Challenges (Papers presented in the
Third Arvind Memorial Seminar) 80.00
3. Caste Question and Marxism (Papers presented in the
Fourth Arvind Memorial Seminar) 200.00

tupsruk
,d oSpkfjd eqfge gS
Hkfo";&fuekZ.k dk ,d izkstsDV gS
oSdfYid ehfM;k dh ,d l'kDr èkkjk gSA
ifjdYiuk çdk'ku] jkgqy i+Qkm.Ms'ku] vuqjkx VªLV] vjfoUn Le`fr U;kl]
'kghn Hkxrflag ;knxkjh çdk'ku] nLrd çdk'ku vkSj çkaty vkVZ ifCy'klZ
dh iqLrdksa dh ^tupsruk* eq[; forjd gSA ;s çdk'ku ik¡p Ïksrksa & ljdkj]
jktuhfrd ikfVZ;ksa] dkWjiksjsV ?kjkuksa] cgqjk"Vªh; fuxeksa vkSj fons'kh i+Qf.Max
,tsafl;ksa ls fdlh Hkh çdkj dk vuqnku ;k foÙkh; lgk;rk fy;s fcuk turk
ls tqVk;s x;s lalkèkuksa ds vkèkkj ij vkt ds nkSj ds fy, t+:jh o egÙoiw.kZ
lkfgR; csgn lLrh njksa ij miyCèk djkus ds fy, çfrc¼ gSaA
- 20 -
vuqjkx VªLV
1- cPpksa ds ysfuu 35-00
2 Stories About Lenin 35.00
3- lp ls cM+k lp@johUnzukFk Bkdqj 25-00
4- vkSt+kjksa dh dgkfu;k¡ 20-00
5- xqM+ dh Myh@dkR;k;uh 20-00
6- iQwy dqaMykdkj D;ksa gksrs gS@a luh 20-00
7- èkjrh vkSj vkdk'k@v- oksYdkso 120-00
8- dtkdh@izsepUn 35-00
9- uhyk I;kyk@vjdknh xSnkj 40-00
10- xM+fj;s dh dgkfu;k¡@d+;we raxjhdqyh;so 35-00
11- phaVh vkSj vUrfj{k ;k=kh@v- feR;k;so 35-00
12- vUèkfo'oklh 'ksdh Vsy@lsxsZbZ fe[kkYdkso 20-00
13- pyrk&fiQjrk gSV@,u- ukslkso] gksYdj iqDd 20-00
14- pkykd ykseM+h (yksddFkk) 20-00
15- fn;kadk&VkWefpd 20-00
16- xèkk vkSj Ånfcyko@efDle xksdhZ] lsxsZbZ fe[kkYdkso 20-00
17- xqiQk ekuoksa dh dgkfu;k¡@eSjh eklZ ---
18- ge lwjt dks ns[k ldrs gS@a fedksyk fxy] nk;j Lykodksfop 20-00
19- eqlhcr dk lkFkh@lsxsZbZ fe[kkYdkso 20-00
20- uUgs vkFkZj dk lwjt@g|kd X;qyut+j;ku] xsyhuk yscsnsok 20-00
22- vkdk'k esa ekSt&eLrh@fpuqvk vpscs 20-00
23- ft+Unxh ls I;kj (nks jksekapd dgkfu;k¡)@tSd y.Mu 40-00
24- ,d NksVs yM+ds vkSj ,d NksVh
yM+dh dh dgkuh@efDle xksdhZ 20-00
25- cgknqj@vejdkUr 15-00
26- cqUuw dh ijh{kk (lfp=k jaxhu)@'kL;k g"kZ ---
- 21 -
27- nkUdks dk tyrk gqvk ân;@efDle xksdhZ 15-00
28- uUgk jktdqekj@vkrqvku n lSarsDT+kwisjh 40-00
29- nknk vk£[ki vkSj Y;ksadk@efDle xksdhZ 30-00
30- lsekxk dSls idM+k x;k@efDle xksdhZ 15-00
31- ckt+ dk xhr@efDle xksdhZ 15-00
32- okadk@vUrksu ps[k+o 15-00
33- rksrk@johUæukFk VSxksj 15-00
34- iksLVekLVj@johUæukFk VSXkksj ---
35- dkcqyhokyk@johUæukFk VSxksj 20-00
36- viuk&viuk HkkX;@tSusUæ 15-00
37- fnekx+ dSls dke djrk gS@fd'kksj 25-00
38- jkeyhyk@çsepUn 15-00
39- nks cSyksa dh dFkk@çsepUn 25-00
40- bZnxkg@çsepUn ---
41- ykWVjh@çsepUn 20-00
42- xqYyh&M.Mk@çsepUn ---
43- cM+s HkkbZ lkgc@çsepUn 20-00
44- eksVsjke 'kkL=kh@çsepUn ---
45- gkj dh thr@lqn'kZu ---
46- boku@Oyknhfej cksxkseksykso 40-00
47- pedrk yky flrkjk@yh f'ku&F;su 55-00
48- mYVk nj[+r@Ñ'upUnj 35-00
49- gjkeh@fe[kkbZy 'kksyks[k+kso 25-00
50- nksu fdgksrs @lokZUrsl (ukV~; :ikUrj & uhys'k j?kqoa'kh) ---
51- vk'p;Zyksd esa ,fyl @yqbl dSjksy
(ukV~; :ikUrj & uhys'k j?kqoa'kh) 30-00
52- >k¡lh dh jkuh y{ehckbZ@o`Unkouyky oekZ
(ukV~; :ikUrj & uhys'k j?kqoa'kh) 35-00
53- uUgs xqnM+hyky ds lkgfld dkjukes@lqu ;vksP;qu ---
54- yk[kh@vUrksu ps[k+o 25-00
55- csf>u pjkxkg@boku rqxZuso 12-00
- 22 -
56- fgjukSVk@n~eh=kh ekfeu flfc;kZd 25-00
57- ?kj dh yyd@fudksykbZ rsys'kkso 10-00
58- cl ,d ;kn@ysvksuhn vUæs;so 20-00
59- enkjh@vysDlkUæ dqfçu 35-00
60- ijk;s ?kksalys esa@Ý+;ksnksj nksLrks;sOLdh 20-00
61- dksgdki+Q dk cUnh@rksYlrks; 30-00
62- euekuh ds ets+@lsxsZbZ fe[kkYdkso 30-00
63- lnkuUn dh NksVh nqfu;k@lR;thr jk; 15-00
64- Nr ij iQ¡l x;k fcYyk@forkmrs ftfyUldkbrs 35-00
65- xksyw ds dkjukes@jkeckcw 25-00
66- nks lkgfld dgkfu;k¡@gksYxj iqDd 15-00
67- vke ft+Unxh dh ets+nkj dgkfu;k¡@gksYxj iqDd 20-00
68- daxwjs okys edku dk jgL;e; ekeyk@gksYxj iqDd 20-00
69- jkst+ejsZ dh dgkfu;k¡@gksYxj iqDd 20-00
70- vthcksx+jhc fo+QLls@gksYxj iqDd ---
71- u;s t+ekus dh ijhdFkk,¡@gksYxj iqDd 25-00
72- fdLlk ;g fd ,d nsgkrh us nks
vi+Qljksa dk dSls isV Hkjk@fe[kkby lfYrdkso&'psfæu 15-00
73- i'pn`f"V&Hkfo";n`f"V (ys[k ladyu)@ deyk ik.Ms; 30-00
74- ;knksa ds ?ksjs esa vrhr (laLej.k)@ deyk ik.Ms; 100-00
75- gekjs vklikl dk v¡èksjk (dgkfu;k¡)@ deyk ik.Ms; 60-00
76- dkyeUFku (miU;kl)@ deyk ik.Ms; 60-00

dksia y
cPpksa ds lexz oSKkfud vkSj
lkaLÏfrd fodkl ds fy, lefiZr
vuqjkx VªLV dh =Sekfld if=dk
Mh&68] fujkyk uxj] y[kuÅ&226020
,d izfr % 20 #i;s]
okf"kZ d % 100 #i;s (MkdO;; lfgr)

- 23 -
iatkch çdk'ku
çÃåÕ êz Õ Åôé
îËÕÇÃî ׯðÕÆ çÅ ÃòË-ÜÆòéÆ éÅòñ (Çå§é íÅן ÇòµÚ)
A. î¶ðÅ ìÚêé AC@.@@
B. î¶ð¶ Çòôò-ÇòÇçÁÅñ¶ A@@.@@
C. î¶ð¶ ôÇ×ðçÆ ç¶ Ççé B@@.@@

D. êz¶î, êz§êðÅ Áå¶ Çòçð¯Ô / ÕÅÇåÁÅÂÆéÆ B@.@@


E. æƶàð çŠçֶê åðÕôÅÃåð / ìzËõå AE.@@
F. ÁÅÂÆܶºÃåÅÂÆé çÅ Çëñî ÇÃèźå AE.@@
G. î÷ç±ð ÜîÅåÆ Ã§×Æå ðÚéÅòź çÆÁź ÃîµÇÃÁÅòź A@.@@
H. êÇÔñÅ ÁÇèÁÅêÕ / ڧ׶÷ ÁÅÇÂåîÅå¯ò (éÅòñ) BE.@@
I. ôźå ÃðØÆ ò¶ñÅ / ì¯Çðà òÅÃÆÇñï¶ò (éÅòñ) C@.@@
A@. íÅºÜ / ÁñË×÷źçð øç¶ï¶ò (éÅòñ) A@@.@@
AA. ë½ñÅçÆ Ôó / ÁñË×÷źçð ÃðÅøÆî¯ÇòÚ (éÅòñ) A@@.@@
AB. ÇÂÕåÅÿÆòź / ì¯Çðà ñòð¶Çéúò (éÅòñ) C@.@@
AC. îź / îËÕÇÃî ׯðÕÆ (éÅòñ) AH@.@@
AD. êÆÿ¶ ç˺å çÅ ôÇÔð / îËÕÇÃî ׯðÕÆ H@.@@
AE. ÃÅÇÔå ìÅð¶ / îËÕÇÃî ׯðÕÆ B@@.@@
AF. ÁÃñÆ ÇÂéÃÅé çÆ ÕÔÅäÆ / ì¯Çðà ê¯ñ¶òÅÂÆ (éÅòñ) B@@.@@
AG. Áµá¶ êÇÔð (ÕÔÅäÆÁź) ABE.@@
AH. ìÇØÁÅóź ç¶ òµÃ / ìð°é¯ ÁÇêåÜ (éÅòñ) A@@.@@
AI. îÆÇåzÁÅ Õ¯Õ¯ð / îÆÔÅÇÂñ ÃÅç¯ÇòÁÅé¯ (éÅòñ) A@@.@@
B@. ÇÂéÕñÅì ñÂÆ Ü±ÞÆ ÜòÅéÆ AE@.@@
BA. ìµÇÚÁź 鱧 ÇçÁź Ççñ ÁÅêäÅ î˺ / ò. ð֯îÇñ§ÃÕÆ AE@.@@
BB. ëÅÃÆ ç¶ åõå¶ å¯§ / ܱñÆÁà ë±ÇÚÕ (éÅòñ) E@.@@
BC. í°µìñ / øð§÷ç ÁñÆ (êÅÇÕÃåÅéÆ ê§ÜÅì çÅ éÅòñ) B@@.@@
BD. Ãí 寺 ÖåðéÅÕ... (êÅô çÆ Ãî°µÚÆ À°êñµìè ôÅÇÂðÆ) B@@.@@
BE. èðåÆ èé éÅ ÁÅêäÅ / Ü×çÆô Ú§çð BE@.@@

- 24 -
ôÔÆç í×å ÇÃ§Ø ïÅç×ÅðÆ êzÕÅôé
A. À°Üðå, ÕÆîå Áå¶ î°éÅëÅ / îÅðÕà C@.@@
B. À°ÜðåÆ ÇÕðå Áå¶ ÃðîÅÇÂÁÅ / îÅðÕà B@.@@
C. ÇÃÁÅÃÆ ÁÅðÇæÕåÅ çÆ Áñ¯ÚéÅ ÇòµÚ ï¯×çÅé / îÅðÕà ABE.@@
D. ñ±ÂÆ ì¯éÅêÅðà çÆ ÁáÅðòƺ ìð±î¶ð / îÅðÕà E@.@@
E. 걧ÜÆ çÆ À°åêåÆ / îÅðÕà DE.@@
F. ÇðÔÅÇÂôÆ Øðź çÅ ÃòÅñ / ¶º×ñ÷ CE.@@
G. ÇëÀ±ðìÅÖ : êÅçðæòÅçÆ Áå¶ ÁÅçðôòÅçÆ ÇçzôàÆÕ¯äź
çÅ Çòð¯è / îÅðÕÃ-¶º×ñ÷ F@.@@
H. ÜðîéÆ ÇòµÚ ÇÂéÕñÅì Áå¶ À°ñà ÇÂéÕñÅì / ¶º×ñ÷ E@.@@
I. îÅðÕÃ ç¶ ÒÒÃðîÅÇÂÁÅÓÓ ìÅð¶ / ¶º×ñ÷ F@.@@
A@. ëðźà Áå¶ ÜðîéÆ ÓÚ ÇÕÃÅéÆ çÅ ÃòÅñ / ¶º×ñ÷ B@.@@
AA. ïôÇñ÷î : ÇòÇ×ÁÅéÕ Áå¶ ï±à¯êÆÁÅÂÆ / ¶º×ñ÷ CE.@@
AB. ÕÅðñ îÅðÕà ìÅð¶ / ¶º×ñ÷ A@.@@
AC. ñ°âÇò× ÇëÀ°ðìÅÖ Áå¶ ÕñÅÃÆÕÆ Üðîé çðôé
çÅ Á§å / ¶º×ñ÷ C@.@@
AD. àµìð, ÇéµÜÆ ÜÅÇÂçÅç Áå¶ ðÅÜ çÆ À°µåêåÆ / ¶º×ñ÷ FE.@@
AE. ÕÅðñ îÅðÕà Áå¶ À°éź çÆ ÇõÇÖÁÅ / ñËÇéé CE.@@
AF. ðÅÜ Áå¶ ÇÂéÕñÅì / ñËÇéé E@.@@
AG. ç±ÜÆ Ç§àðéËôéñ çÅ êåä / ñËÇéé DE.@@
AH. Ö¶åÆ ÇòµÚ 걧ÜÆòÅç / ñËÇéé AE.@@
AI. ðÅÜ / ñËÇéé A@.@@
B@. ÃÅîðÅÜòÅç, ÃðîŶçÅðÆ çÅ ÃðòÀ°µÚ êóÅÁ / ñËÇéé G@.@@
BA. ÇÂµÕ Õçî Áµ×¶ ç¯ Õçî ÇêµÛ¶ / ñËÇéé ABE.@@
BB. ñ¯Õź ÇòµÚ Õ§î ÇÕò¶º Õðƶ / ñËÇéé FE.@@
BC. ÃÅÇÔå Áå¶ ÕñÅ ìÅð¶ / ñËÇéé AE@.@@
BD. ÃîÅÜòÅç Áå¶ Ü§× / ñËÇéé DE.@@
BE. Öµì¶ êµÖÆ ÕÇîÀ±Çé÷î ÇÂµÕ ìÚ×ÅéÅ ð¯× / ñËÇéé FE.@@
BF. ÁÃƺ ÇÜÔóÅ ÇòðÃÅ ÇåÁÅ×ç¶ Ôź / ñËÇéé BE.@@
BG. êz¯ñ¶åÅðÆ ÇÂéÕñÅì Áå¶ í×½óÅ ÕÅÀ±åÃÕÆ / ñËÇéé G@.@@
BH. ÁÅðæÕ ð¯îźÚòÅç çÅ ÚÇðµåð ÇÚµåðä / ñËÇéé E@.@@

- 25 -
BI. ðå§åð òêÅð çÅ ÃòÅñ / îÅðÕÃ, ¶º×ñ÷, ñËÇéé A@.@@
C@. ñËÇééòÅç çÆÁź éÆÔź / ÃàÅÇñé B@.@@
CA. øñÃëÅéÅ ÇñÖåź / îÅú-÷¶-å°§× BE.@@
CB. ïòÆÁå ÁðæôÅÃåð çÆ Áñ¯ÚéÅ / îÅú-÷¶-å°§× F@.@@
CC. îÅðÕÃòÅç ç¶ ì°ÇéÁÅçÆ îÃñ¶ / êñËÖÅé¯ò D@.@@
CD. ðÅÜéÆåÕ ÁðæôÅÃåð ç¶ î±ñ ÇÃèźå F@.@@
CE. ÇëñÅÃëÆ Õ¯ÂÆ ×¯ðÖè§çÅ éÔƺ A@.@@
CF. çò§çòÅç ÷ðƶ ñ¯Õź çÆ Ã¶òÅ A@.@@
CG. ÇÂÇåÔÅÃ é¶ Üç Õðòà ìçñÆ D@.@@
CH. ÇÂéÕñÅì Á§çð ÇÂéÕñÅì B@.@@
CI. îÅú-÷¶-å°§× çÆ ÁÇîµà ç¶ä ABE.@@
D@. ÚÆé ÇòµÚ À°ñà ÇÂéÕñÅì
Áå¶ îÅú çÅ ÇÂéÕñÅìÆ ÇòðÃÅ F@.@@
DA. îÅúòÅçÆ ÁðæôÅÃåð Áå¶ ÃîÅÜòÅç çÅ íÇòµÖ F@.@@
DB. ñËÇéé çÆ ÜÆòé ÕÔÅäÆ A@@.@@
DC. Áâ¯ñ ìÅñôÇòÕ éåÅôÅ C@.@@
DD. îÅðÕà Áå¶ Â¶º×ñ÷
ÁÅêä¶ ÃîÕÅñÆÁź çÆÁź é÷ðź ÇòµÚ GE.@@
DE. êËÇðà ÕÇîÀ±é çÆ Áîð ÕÔÅäÆ A@.@@
DF. ì°Þ éÔƺ ÃÕçÆ ÁÕå±ìð ÇÂéÕñÅì çÆ îôÅñ A@.@@
DG. çÇÔôå×ðçÆ ìÅð¶ íðî Áå¶ ïæÅðæ A@.@@
DH. ê§ÜÅì çÅ ÇÕÃÅé Á§ç¯ñé Áå¶ ÕÇîÀ±ÇéÃà ñÇÔð A@.@@
DI. ܧ×ñéÅîÅ : ÇÂµÕ ðÅÜéÆåÕ êóÚ¯ñ A@.@@
E@. íÅðåÆ Ö¶åÆ ÇòµÚ 걧ÜÆòÅçÆ ÇòÕÅà B@.@@
EA. ÁÇîµà Ôé î÷ç±ð ç×ðÅîź çÆÁź ÇÚäן A@.@@
EB. ÃîÅÜòÅç çÆÁź ÃîµÇÃÁÅòź, 걧ÜÆòÅç çÆ î°ó ìÔÅñÆ
Áå¶ îÔÅé êz¯ñ¶åÅðÆ ÃµÇíÁÅÚÅð ÇÂéÕñÅì B@.@@
EC. ÇÕÀ°º îÅúòÅç? A@.@@
ED. ïòÆÁå ï±éÆÁé ç¶ ÇÂÇåÔÅà ìÅð¶ êzÚÅð¶ ÜÅºç¶ Þ±á A@.@@
EE. Çð÷ðò¶ôé : êµÖ, ÇòêµÖ Áå¶ åÆÃðÅ êµÖ E.@@
EF. îÅðÕÃòÅç Áå¶ ÜÅå çÅ ÃòÅñ / ðÖÇò§çð B@.@@

- 26 -
EG. îÅðÕÃòÅç ìÅð¶ Á§ì¶âÕð ç¶ ÇòÚÅð / ð§×ÅéÅÇÂÕ§îÅ AE.@@
EH. âÅ. Á§ì¶âÕð Áå¶ íÅðå çŠçÇòèÅé / ð§×ÅéÅÇÂÕ§îÅ AE.@@
EI. âÅ. Á§ì¶âÕð : ÜÆòé Áå¶ ÇòÚÅð / ð§×ÅéÅÇÂÕ§îÅ A@.@@
F@. íÅðå ç¶ ÇÂÇåÔÅà ÇòµÚ ÜÅå-êÅå / êz¯. ÇÂðøÅé ÔìÆì A@.@@
FA. À°çÅðòÅçÆ éÆåÆÁź ç¶ AH ÃÅñ E.@@
FB. Ú¯ð, Çízôà Áå¶ ÁïÅô é¶åÅôÅÔÆ E.@@
FC. êÅê Áå¶ ÇòÇ×ÁÅé / âÅÂÆÃé ÕÅðàð F@.@@
FD. ëÅÃÆòÅç ÕÆ ÔË Áå¶ ÇÂà éÅÿ ÇÕò¶º ñóƶ? AE.@@
FE. ÁÅÂÆéÃàÆé ç¶ ÃîÅÇÜÕ Ãð¯ÕÅð A@.@@
FF. é½ÜòÅéź éÅÿ ç¯ ×µñź / êÆàð Õz¯ê¯àÇÕé A@.@@
FG. ÇÂéÕñÅì çŠðé¶ÔÅ
(í×å ÇÃ§Ø Áå¶ ÃÅæÆÁź çÆÁź ÇñÖåź) C@.@@
FH. ÁÇÜÔÅ ÃÆ ÃÅâÅ í×å ÇÃ§Ø / Çôò òðîÅ A@.@@
FI. î˺ éÅÃÇåÕ ÇÕÀ°º Ôź? / í×å ÇÃ§Ø A@.@@
G@. í×å ÇÃ§Ø é¶ ÇÕÔÅ... / í×å ÇÃ§Ø E.@@
GA. í×å ÇÃ§Ø å¶ À°Ãç¶ ÃÅæÆÁź
çÅ ÇòÚÅðèÅðÕ ÇòÕÅà / êz¯. Çìêé Ú§çðÅ A@.@@
GB. ÇÂéÕñÅìÆ ñÇÔð çÅ ÇÃèźåÕ ÇòÕÅà / Çôò òðîÅ A@.@@
GC. ôÔÆç Ú§çð ô¶Öð ÁÅ÷Åç / í×òÅé çÅà îÔ½ð A@.@@
GD. ×çðÆ Ã±ðìÆð / êz¯. ðäèÆð ÇÃ§Ø A@.@@
GE. ôÔÆç ðÖç¶ò B@.@@
GF. ôÔÆç ÕðåÅð ÇÃ§Ø ÃðÅíÅ E.@@
GG. ÇòÇçÁÅðæÆ é½ÜòÅé éòƺ ô°ð±ÁÅå Çյ毺 Õðé? A@.@@
GH. ïèòÅç ìÅð¶ E.@@
GI. íÅðå ÇòµÚ Ç×ÁÅé êzÃÅð çÆ ñ¯ó ÇÕÀ°º? / ðÖÇò§çð AE.@@
H@. òèçÆ ÁìÅçÆ AE.@@
HA. ï°µ× ÇÕò¶º ìçñç¶ Ôé? / âÅ. Á§Çîzå A@.@@
HB. èðî ìÅð¶ / ñËÇéé C@.@@
HC. îé°µÖÆ ÜÆòé ÇòµÚ îÅå-íÅôÅ çÅ îÔµåò B@.@@
HD. ÇÂµÕ êzÇåíÅ çÅ Üéî / ×ËéÇðÖ ò¯ñÕ¯ò A@@.@@
HE. íÅðå ÇòµÚ éòÀ°çÅðòÅç ç¶ ç¯ çÔÅÕ¶ / ðÖÇò§çð B@.@@

- 27 -
HF. ÕÅðñ îÅðÕà çÅ ÕñÅ çðôé B@@.@@
HG. ÃåÅÇñé – ÇÂµÕ ÜÆòéÆ / ðÅÔ°ñ ÃźÕðåÅÇÂé AE@.@@
HH. ê¯ðé¯×zÅëÆ : ÇÂÕ ÃðîŶçÅðÅ Õ¯Ôó / Áܶ êÅñ A@.@@
HI. Á½ðåź çÆ ×°ñÅîÆ çÅ ÁÅðÇæÕ ÁèÅð / ÃÆåÅ A@.@@

Áé°ðÅ× àðµÃà (ìµÇÚÁź ñÂÆ)


A. ÇÂòÅé / òñÅçÆîÆ ì×Åîñ¯ò CE.@@
B. òźÕÅ / Áéå¯é ÚËÖ¯ò A@.@@
C. ÇÕÃîå ÁÅê¯-ÁÅêäÆ / ÜË鶺çð B@.@@
D. Õ¯Ô¶ÕÅø çÅ ÕËçÆ / åÅñÃåŶ C@.@@
E. Ûµå Óå¶ ëà Ç×ÁÅ ÇìµñÅ Áå¶ Ô¯ð ÕÔÅäÆÁź B@.@@
F. ÁÜÆì¯-×ðÆì Çյö / Ô¯ñ×ð ê°µÕ B@.@@
G. ç¯ ÇÔ§îåÆ ÕÔÅäÆÁź / Ô¯ñ×ð ê°µÕ AE.@@
H. éò¶º ÷îÅé¶ çÆÁź êðÆ-ÕæÅòź / Ô¯ñ×ð ê°µÕ B@.@@
I. ÁÃƺ ñðÜ é±§ ò¶Ö ÃÕç¶ Ôź / ÇîÕ¯ñ Ç×µñ A@.@@
A@. ×°ëÅ îÅéòź çÆÁź ÕÔÅäÆÁź / îËðÆ îÅðà B@.@@
AA. ÇÕµÃÅ ÇÂÔ ÇÕ ÇÂµÕ ê¶ºâ± é¶ ç¯ ÁøÃð ôÇÔðÆ
ÁëÃðź çÅ Çãµâ ÇÕò¶º íÇðÁÅ / ÇîÖÅÂÆñ ôÚ¶Ççzé AE.@@
AB. ÃçÅé§ç çÆ Û¯àÆ ç°éÆÁź / õÇåÁÅÜÆå ðŶ A@.@@
AC. ìÅ÷ çÅ ×Æå / îËÕÇÃî ׯðÕÆ A@.@@
AD. ìµÃ ÇÂµÕ ïÅç / ÇñúÇéç Áźçð¶ï¶ò A@.@@
AE. çÅçÅ ÁðõÆê Áå¶ ÇñúéÕÅ / ׯðÕÆ B@.@@
AF. çÅéÕ¯ çÅ ìÿçÅ Ô¯ÇÂÁÅ Ççñ / ׯðÕÆ A@.@@
AG. Øð çÆ ññÕ / ÇéÕ¯ñÅÂÆ å¶ñ¶ô¯ò B@.@@
AH. ×°µñÆ-â§âÅ / êz¶îÚ§ç A@.@@
AI. ÔÅð çÆ Çܵå / ô°çðôé A@.@@
B@. ÔðÅîÆ / ÇîõÅÇÂñ ô¯ñ¯õ¯ò B@.@@
BA. ÕÅì°ñÆòÅÿÅ / ðÇò§çðéÅæ àËׯð A@.@@
BB. î°ÃÆìå çÅ ÃÅæÆ / öð¶×ÂÆ ÇîÖÅñÕ¯ò A@.@@
BC. ê¯ÃàîÅÃàð / ðÇò§çðéÅæ àËׯð A@.@@

- 28 -
BD. ðÅîñÆñÅ / êz¶îÚ§ç A@.@@
BE. öîÅ×Å ÇÕò¶º ëÇóÁÅ Ç×ÁÅ / ׯðÕÆ A@.@@
BF. å°ðçÅ-ÇëðçÅ à¯ê / Á˵é. é¯Ã¯ò A@.@@
BG. ì¶ÇÜé ÚðÅ×ÅÔ / ÇÂòÅé å°ð׶é¶ò B@.@@
BH. À°ñàÅ ð°µÖ / ÇÕzôéÚ§çð CE.@@
BI. òµâ¶ íÅÂÆ ÃÅÔì / êz¶îÚ§ç A@.@@
C@. ÇÂµÕ Û¯à¶ î°§â¶ Áå¶ Õ°óÆ çÆ ÕÔÅäÆ ÇÜÔó¶ ìðøÆñÆ
á§â ÓÚ ÕÅºì¶ éÅÿ îð¶ éÔƺ / îËÕÇÃî ׯðÕÆ A@.@@
CA. ìÔÅçð / ÁîðÕźå A@.@@
CB. ÇÔðé¯àÅ / çÇîåðÆ îÅÇîé ÇÃÇìð¶ÁÅÕ A@.@@

——::——

uosa lektoknh bUo+Qykc nk cqykjk

izfrc¼
lEikndh; dk;kZy; % 'kghn Hkxrflag Hkou
(frekgh iatkch if=kdk)

lhyksvkuh jksM] jk;dksV] yqf/;kuk& 141109 (iatkc)


iQksu % 09815587807 bZesy % pratibadh08@rediffmail.com
CykWx % http://pratibaddh.wordpress.com
,d vad % 50 #i;s okf"kZd lnL;rk %
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yydkj (ikf{kd iatkch v[kckj)

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,d vad % 5 #i;s okf"kZd lnL;rk % Mkdlfgr % 170 #i;s] nLrh % 120 #i;s

- 29 -
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• ekDlZoknh lkfgR;
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çsfjr djrk gS!
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yqf/;kuk (iatkc) i+Qksu % 09815587807
bZesy % info@janchetnabooks.org
osclkbV % www.janchetnabooks.org

gekjh cqd'kkWi vkSj izn'kZfu;ksa ls iqLrdsa ysus ds vykok vki gels Mkd ls
Hkh fdrkcsa e¡xk ldrs gSaA gekjh osclkbV ij tkdj iqLrd lwph ls iqLrdsa
pqusa vkSj bZesy ;k iQksu ls gesa vkWMZj Hkst nsaA vki euhvkWMZj ;k psd ls ;k
lh/s gekjs cSad [kkrs esa Hkqxrku dj ldrs gSaA vki osclkbV ij fn;s
Instamojo ds fyad ls Hkh Hkqxrku dj ldrs gSaA gekjh fdrkcsa vki
Amazon vkSj Flipkart ls Hkh vkWuykbu e¡xk ldrs gSaA
cSad [kkrs dk fooj.k%
ACC. NAME: JANCHETNA PUSTAK PRATISHTHAN SAMITI
Acc. No. 0762002109003796
Bank: Punjab National Bank
;fn vkidks egt+ euksjatu pkfg,]
egt+ u'ks dh ,d [+kqjkd]
fny dks cgykus ds fy, ,d [+k;ky
rks ugha gSa ,slh fdrkcsa gekjs iklA
ge ,slh fdrkcsa ysdj vk;s gSa
tks vkidh eksgfuæk >d>ksjdj rksM+ nsa]
tks vkt ds gkykr ij
vkidks lkspus ds fy, etcwj dj nsaA
ge fdrkcsa ugha
yM+us dh ft+n
vkSj gkykr dh csgrjh dh mEehnsa
ysdj vk;s gSa]
ge vkus okys dy ds lius ysdj vk;s gSaA
ge ysdj vk;s gSa
,d lkFkZd] LokfHkekuh] eqDr thou dh rM+iA
fdrkcsa ugha
ge vlyh balku dh rjg
thus dk ladYi ysdj vk;s gSaA

tupsruk
,d lkaLÑfrd eqfge
,d oSpkfjd izkstsDV
oSdfYid ehfM;k dk ,d ekWMy