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# Introduction

## what is this all about?

vA

D1

D3

D5

+
iOU T

D2

D4

D6

vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

+
v2

v3

vOU T

input voltages

v1 = Vm cos (0 t)


2
v2 = Vm cos 0 t
3


4
v3 = Vm cos 0 t
3



2
vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1)
,
3

k {1, 2, 3}

## input voltages, waveforms

normalization of voltages

mX ,

vX
Vm

m1 = cos (0 t)


2
m2 = cos 0 t
3


4
m3 = cos 0 t
3

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

v1 , spectrum

v2 , spectrum

v3 , spectrum

k
1
2
3

Vk RM S
103.83 V
103.70 V
105.12 V

## all graphs and data PyLab processed

T HD(vk )
3.34 %
2.77 %
3.06 %

T HD
And what is THD?
qP

2
k=2 Ik RM S

T HD ,

I1 RM S

Parsevals identity:
2
IRM
S =

Ik2 RM S

assumed I0 = 0

k=1

results in
q
T HD ,

2
2
IRM
S I1 RM S

I1 RM S

## simple, but important

computational issues, finite sums . . .

jX ,

iX
IOU T

, 0 t

## good: physical dimensions lost, reduced number of

variables, results are generalized, core of the
problem focused
bad: physical dimensions lost, perfect double-check
tool is lost

vA

D1

D3

D5

+
iOU T

D2

D4

D6

vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

+
v2

v3

vOU T

## one of the three: D1, D3, D5

vA

vA , analytical

mA = max (m1 , m2 , m3 )

vA , spectrum

3 3
mA =
2

1+2

X
(1)k+1
k=1

9k 2 1

!
cos (3k0 t)

vA

D1

D3

D5

+
iOU T

D2

D4

D6

vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

+
v2

v3

vOU T

## one of the three, again: D2, D4, D6

vB

vB , analytical

mB = min (m1 , m2 , m3 )

vB , spectrum

3 3
mB =
2

1 + 2

X
k=1

!
1
cos (3k0 t)
9k 2 1

vOU T , spectrum

mOU T

3 3
=

12

k=1

36k 2 1

!
cos (6k0 t)

currents?

## i1 (t) = (d1 (t) d2 (t)) IOU T

i2 (t) = (d3 (t) d4 (t)) IOU T
i3 (t) = (d5 (t) d6 (t)) IOU T

consider i1

j1 (t) =

+
X

## J1C, k cos (k0 t)

k=1

J1C, k

, k = 6n 1

k
2 3 1
=
, k = 6n + 1

k

0, otherwise

for n N0 , k > 0

double-check:
PIN
obtained using wxMaxima

3
2 3
3 3
= 1
=
= POU T
2

## THD of the input currents

2
IOU T
3

6
=
IOU T

Ik RM S =
Ik RM S, 1

T HD ,

q
Ik2 RM S Ik2 RM S, 1
Ik RM S, 1
r

2
1 31.08 %
9
Parsevals identity based formula turned out to be useful
T HD =

s
XRM S ,

1
2

x {i, v}

S , IRM S VRM S
P ,

1
2

0

PF ,

P
S

DP F , cos 1
and 1 is . . .

## and if the voltages are sinusoidal . . .

S = VRM S IRM S
P = VRM S I1, RM S cos 1
PF =

I1, RM S
I1, RM S
P
=
cos 1 =
DP F
S
IRM S
IRM S
DP F = cos 1

T HD =

q
2
2
IRM
S I1, RM S
I1, RM S

s
=

IRM S
I1, RM S

2
1

## some more parameters, plain rectifier

r
Ik RM S =

2
IOU T
3

1
Vk RM S = Vm
2

2
1
IOU T Vm = 3 Vm IOU T
3
2

3 3
P = VOU T IOU T =
Vm IOU T

S =3

PF =

3
95.5%

DP F = 1
actually, not so bad; T HD is the problem

## back to the rectifier:

how does it work? part 2: experiment
vA

D1

D3

D5

+
iOU T

D2

D4

D6

vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

+
v2

v3

vOU T

input, at IOU T = 3 A

input, at IOU T = 3 A

input, at IOU T = 3 A

input, at IOU T = 3 A

input, at IOU T = 6 A

input, at IOU T = 6 A

input, at IOU T = 6 A

input, at IOU T = 6 A

input, at IOU T = 9 A

input, at IOU T = 9 A

input, at IOU T = 9 A

input, at IOU T = 9 A

output, at IOU T = 3 A

output, at IOU T = 3 A

output, at IOU T = 6 A

output, at IOU T = 6 A

output, at IOU T = 9 A

output, at IOU T = 9 A

IOU T
0A

3A

6A

9A

k
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

Ik RM S [A]

2.60
2.61
2.63
5.12
5.12
5.13
7.59
7.64
7.66

Vk RM S [V]
101.29
100.63
102.40
98.23
97.73
98.82
94.87
94.34
96.80
92.38
91.95
94.04

Sk [VA]

255.01
254.60
259.71
485.41
482.67
496.95
701.53
702.47
720.00

Pk [W]

245.16
244.37
251.00
466.87
464.25
477.08
673.86
675.16
692.30

IOU T
0A

3A

6A

9A

k
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

P Fk

0.9614
0.9598
0.9665
0.9618
0.9618
0.9600
0.9605
0.9611
0.9615

T HD(ik ) [%]

30.50
29.57
29.97
29.26
28.37
28.31
28.00
27.21
27.06

T HD(vk ) [%]
4.33
3.75
4.75
4.17
3.86
5.38
3.87
3.66
3.87
4.01
3.92
4.19

## in quantitative terms, output

IOU T [A]
0.00
3.21
6.27
9.41

VOU T [V]
239.79
229.51
221.23
212.91

POU T [W]
1.07
736.72
1386.56
2004.12

PIN [W]
0.81
740.53
1408.20
2041.32

[%]

99.49
98.46
98.18

overall impressions
I

good symmetry

excellent DP F

acceptable P F

## poor T HD (but not that poor)

up to this point:
I
I

## diode bridge rectifier analyzed

measurement tools developed

vA
iOU T
D1

D3

D5

+
ROU T

D2

D4

D6

vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

+
v2

v3

vOU T

T HD = 30.79%

vA
+

iA
D1

D3

D5

ROU T
2

vOU T
D2

D4

ROU T
2

D6

iB
vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

iN

+
v2

v3

T HD = 24.76%

somewhat better

## all of i1 , i2 , and i3 cannot be fixed by programming iA and

iB in this circuit

conclusions

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