Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 72

Introduction

three-phase diode bridge rectifier

what is this all about?


vA

D1

D3

D5

+
iOU T

D2

D4

D6

vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

+
v2

v3

vOU T

input voltages

v1 = Vm cos (0 t)


2
v2 = Vm cos 0 t
3


4
v3 = Vm cos 0 t
3



2
vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1)
,
3

k {1, 2, 3}

input voltages, waveforms

normalization of voltages

mX ,

vX
Vm

m1 = cos (0 t)


2
m2 = cos 0 t
3


4
m3 = cos 0 t
3

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

voltages?

vk = Vm cos 0 t (k 1) 2
3 ,

k {1, 2, 3}

v1 , spectrum

v2 , spectrum

v3 , spectrum

voltages, quantitative characterization

k
1
2
3

Vk RM S
103.83 V
103.70 V
105.12 V

all graphs and data PyLab processed

T HD(vk )
3.34 %
2.77 %
3.06 %

T HD
And what is THD?
qP

2
k=2 Ik RM S

T HD ,

I1 RM S

Parsevals identity:
2
IRM
S =

Ik2 RM S

assumed I0 = 0

k=1

results in
q
T HD ,

2
2
IRM
S I1 RM S

I1 RM S

simple, but important


computational issues, finite sums . . .

normalization of currents and time


jX ,

iX
IOU T

unless otherwise noted

, 0 t

good: physical dimensions lost, reduced number of


variables, results are generalized, core of the
problem focused
bad: physical dimensions lost, perfect double-check
tool is lost

how does it work? part 1: theory


vA

D1

D3

D5

+
iOU T

D2

D4

D6

vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

+
v2

v3

vOU T

one of the three: D1, D3, D5

vA

vA , analytical

mA = max (m1 , m2 , m3 )

vA , spectrum

3 3
mA =
2

1+2

X
(1)k+1
k=1

9k 2 1

!
cos (3k0 t)

what about vB ?
vA

D1

D3

D5

+
iOU T

D2

D4

D6

vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

+
v2

v3

vOU T

one of the three, again: D2, D4, D6

vB

vB , analytical

mB = min (m1 , m2 , m3 )

vB , spectrum

3 3
mB =
2

1 + 2

X
k=1

!
1
cos (3k0 t)
9k 2 1

the output voltage, vOU T

mOU T = mA mB = max (m1 , m2 , m3 ) min (m1 , m2 , m3 )

vOU T , spectrum

mOU T

3 3
=

12

k=1

36k 2 1

!
cos (6k0 t)

currents?

i1 (t) = (d1 (t) d2 (t)) IOU T


i2 (t) = (d3 (t) d4 (t)) IOU T
i3 (t) = (d5 (t) d6 (t)) IOU T

states of the diodes

the input currents

consider i1

spectra of the input currents

spectra of the input currents, analytical


j1 (t) =

+
X

J1C, k cos (k0 t)

k=1

J1C, k

, k = 6n 1

k
2 3 1
=
, k = 6n + 1

k

0, otherwise

for n N0 , k > 0

double-check:
PIN
obtained using wxMaxima

3
2 3
3 3
= 1
=
= POU T
2

numerical verification, Gibbs phenomenon

THD of the input currents

2
IOU T
3

6
=
IOU T

Ik RM S =
Ik RM S, 1

T HD ,

q
Ik2 RM S Ik2 RM S, 1
Ik RM S, 1
r

2
1 31.08 %
9
Parsevals identity based formula turned out to be useful
T HD =

voltages and currents

some more parameters


s
XRM S ,

1
2

(x(0 t))2 d(0 t),

x {i, v}

already used for the THD

S , IRM S VRM S
P ,

1
2

v(0 t) i(0 t) d(0 t)


0

PF ,

P
S

DP F , cos 1
and 1 is . . .

and if the voltages are sinusoidal . . .


S = VRM S IRM S
P = VRM S I1, RM S cos 1
PF =

I1, RM S
I1, RM S
P
=
cos 1 =
DP F
S
IRM S
IRM S
DP F = cos 1

T HD =

q
2
2
IRM
S I1, RM S
I1, RM S

s
=

IRM S
I1, RM S

2
1

i.e. everything depends on the current waveform and its position

some more parameters, plain rectifier


r
Ik RM S =

2
IOU T
3

1
Vk RM S = Vm
2

2
1
IOU T Vm = 3 Vm IOU T
3
2

3 3
P = VOU T IOU T =
Vm IOU T

S =3

PF =

3
95.5%

DP F = 1
actually, not so bad; T HD is the problem

back to the rectifier:


how does it work? part 2: experiment
vA

D1

D3

D5

+
iOU T

D2

D4

D6

vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

+
v2

v3

vOU T

input, at IOU T = 3 A

input, at IOU T = 3 A

input, at IOU T = 3 A

input, at IOU T = 3 A

input, at IOU T = 6 A

input, at IOU T = 6 A

input, at IOU T = 6 A

input, at IOU T = 6 A

input, at IOU T = 9 A

input, at IOU T = 9 A

input, at IOU T = 9 A

input, at IOU T = 9 A

output, at IOU T = 3 A

output, at IOU T = 3 A

output, at IOU T = 6 A

output, at IOU T = 6 A

output, at IOU T = 9 A

output, at IOU T = 9 A

in quantitative terms, input, 1st


IOU T
0A

3A

6A

9A

k
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

Ik RM S [A]

2.60
2.61
2.63
5.12
5.12
5.13
7.59
7.64
7.66

Vk RM S [V]
101.29
100.63
102.40
98.23
97.73
98.82
94.87
94.34
96.80
92.38
91.95
94.04

Sk [VA]

255.01
254.60
259.71
485.41
482.67
496.95
701.53
702.47
720.00

Pk [W]

245.16
244.37
251.00
466.87
464.25
477.08
673.86
675.16
692.30

in quantitative terms, input, 2nd


IOU T
0A

3A

6A

9A

k
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

P Fk

0.9614
0.9598
0.9665
0.9618
0.9618
0.9600
0.9605
0.9611
0.9615

T HD(ik ) [%]

30.50
29.57
29.97
29.26
28.37
28.31
28.00
27.21
27.06

T HD(vk ) [%]
4.33
3.75
4.75
4.17
3.86
5.38
3.87
3.66
3.87
4.01
3.92
4.19

in quantitative terms, output

IOU T [A]
0.00
3.21
6.27
9.41

VOU T [V]
239.79
229.51
221.23
212.91

POU T [W]
1.07
736.72
1386.56
2004.12

PIN [W]
0.81
740.53
1408.20
2041.32

[%]

99.49
98.46
98.18

overall impressions
I

pretty good rectifier

simple, robust, cheap

good symmetry

excellent DP F

acceptable P F

poor T HD (but not that poor)

up to this point:
I
I

diode bridge rectifier analyzed


measurement tools developed

is there a way to do something with the T HD?

fruitless effort #1: shaping the output current


vA
iOU T
D1

D3

D5

+
ROU T

D2

D4

D6

vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

+
v2

v3

vOU T

fruitless effort #1: waveforms

fruitless effort #1: quantitative

T HD = 30.79%

not a big deal of an improvement

only one degree of freedom, iOU T

shaping i1 , i2 , and i3 is the goal

two degrees of freedom needed, since i1 + i2 + i3 = 0

fruitless effort #2: additional deegree of freedom


vA
+

iA
D1

D3

D5

ROU T
2

vOU T
D2

D4

ROU T
2

D6

iB
vB
i1

i2

i3

+
v1

iN

+
v2

v3

fruitless effort #2: waveforms

fruitless effort #2: neutral current

fruitless effort #2: quantitative

T HD = 24.76%

somewhat better

all of i1 , i2 , and i3 cannot be fixed by programming iA and


iB in this circuit

example: i1 = iA , i2 = iB , no way to fix i3

gaps in the input currents in both of the patches

the additional degree of freedom is taken by iN

which is a disaster of itself

we would need another degree of freedom to fix iN

but this is a wrong approach, iN was not an issue before

conclusions

three-phase diode bridge rectifier analyzed

quantitative measures of rectifier performance introduced

measurement tools developed

theoretical predictions related to experiments

gaps in the input currents identified as a problem

how to fill in the gaps?

an answer is current injection . . .