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1NOM 

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2PRENOM :

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5Année Universitaire 2019-2020 / Licence 2 Semestre 4
6Epreuve: UE17 ECUE 3 Initiation à la linguistique
7Enseignante : F. Doro-Mégy/ Devoir sur Table 1 / Le 9 mars 2020
8Durée : 1h
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10L’usage de tout dictionnaire, de tout ouvrage de référence et de tout matériel électronique est
11rigoureusement interdit.
12
13REPONDRE AUX QUESTIONS QUI PORTENT SUR LE TEXTE AU VERSO.
14
15QUESTION 1 : Donnez la catégorie syntaxique (nature) des mots suivants extraits du
16texte : (3 points)
17
18tiniest l. 3:
19that l. 5:
20will : l. 9
21into l. 14:
22that l. 16 :
23because l. 17:
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25

26QUESTION 2 : (12 points)

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28 A) Citez 4 propositions relatives extraites du texte : vous devez citer
29 obligatoirement au moins 1 proposition relative introduite par le pronom
30 relatif Ø. (Mettre les propositions entre crochets et les recopier précisément sans la
31 couper avec (…)).
32
33 B) Analysez ces 4 propositions avec des phases complètes : citez le pronom
34 relatif et son antécédent, donnez la fonction grammaticale précise du pronom
35 relatif (par ex, sujet du verbe « was ») et expliquez pourquoi elle est descriptive
36 (appositive) ou restrcitive.
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38
39
40
41TEXTE :
42Why your brain is not a computer
43Matthew CobbThu 27 Feb 2020 0 https://www.theguardian.com/science/2020/feb/27/why-your-brain-is-not-a-computer-
44neuroscience-neural-networks-consciousness

45

46We are living through one of the greatest of scientific endeavours – the attempt to understand
47the most complex object in the universe, the brain. Scientists are accumulating vast amounts
48of data about structure and function in a huge array of brains, from the tiniest to our own.
49Tens of thousands of researchers are devoting massive amounts of time and energy to
50thinking about what brains do, and astonishing new technology is enabling us to both describe
51and manipulate that activity.

52We can now make a mouse remember something about a smell it has never encountered, turn
53a bad mouse memory into a good one, and even use a surge of electricity to change how
54people perceive faces. We are drawing up increasingly detailed and complex functional maps
55of the brain, human and otherwise. In some species, we can change the brain’s very structure
56at will, altering the animal’s behaviour as a result. Some of the most profound consequences
57of our growing mastery can be seen in our ability to enable a paralysed person to control a
58robotic arm with the power of their mind.

59Every day, we hear about new discoveries that shed light on how brains work, along with the
60promise – or threat – of new technology that will enable us to do such far-fetched things as
61read minds, or detect criminals, or even be uploaded into a computer. (…)

62 In 2017, the French neuroscientist Yves Frégnac focused on the current fashion of collecting
63massive amounts of data in expensive, large-scale projects and argued that the tsunami of
64data they are producing is leading to major bottlenecks in progress, partly because, as he put
65it pithily, “big data is not knowledge”.

66(…) The neuroscientists Anne Churchland and Larry Abbott have also emphasised our
67difficulties in interpreting the massive amount of data that is being produced by laboratories
68all over the world (…

69
70
71QUESTION 3 (ne porte pas sur le texte): La proposition relative en gras dans l’énoncé
72suivant (which is led by Justice Bello) est-elle descriptive (appositive) ou restrictive ?
73Expliquez votre réponse en détails, en définissant les termes employés, et en analysant la
74proposition relative (antécédent…) . (5 points)
75
76
77In 2016, Justice Bello began visiting prisons in his own jurisdiction, and the following year a
78presidential committee on prison reform and decongestion was established, which is led by
79Justice Bello and funded by the federal attorney general. The judge has visited 36 prisons and
80ordered the release of 3,822 inmates – about 5% of the Nigerian prison population.
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