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ANSYS Maxwell + CFD + structure

CAE
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ANSYS
System

Circuit

Component
Electrical

ANSYS Workbench
Magnetic Fluid Mechanical Thermal Acoustic
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Maxwell
ANSYS CFD Fluent RMxprt

HFSS

Maxwell 2-D/3-D

ANSYS Mechanical
/
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PExprt

ANSYS Multiphysics Workflow


Analytical Motor Design Geometry Winding Materials AutoSetup For FEA Vibration Analysis Modal Harmonic Electromagnetic Force - FFT Electromagnetic Forces Structural Analysis Stress Deformation
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FE Motor Analysis Efficiency Inductance, Torque Optimization Temp. Feedback

Losses CFD Analysis Temp Distribution External Cooling Convective Coefficients

Temp.

EM Losses

Thermal FE Analysis Temp Distribution Temperature


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ANSYS Multiphysics Simulation Example


From electromagnetic fields to heat, cooling, and stress

Electromagnetic field
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Thermo-fluid Heat transfer

Stress

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Loss of Motors
Classified by loss causes
Resistance loss
Copper loss Eddy current loss Stray load loss

Classified by parts
Coil
Copper Stranded loss Stray load loss

Magnetic loss
Hysteresis loss

Electrical steel sheet (core)


Hysteresis loss Eddy current loss

Mechanical loss
Friction loss Windage loss

Permanent magnet
Eddy current loss

Other
Friction loss Windage loss

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Previous proposed workflow: one-way

CFD Model Temperature

Geometry Losses Maxwell Model


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Mapped Losses

CFD Thermal Analysis: Results

Forced water cooling


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Forced air cooling

Natural air cooling

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Customers Requirements: Two Way Thermal Analysis


No fluid mesh Use HTC

CFD Model Mechanic al

Temperature Deformation Temperature

Geometry Losses
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Maxwell Model

Mapped Losses

Customers Requirements :

Two Way CFD Thermal Analysis, R14

CFD Model

Temperature

Geometry Losses
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Maxwell Model

Mapped Losses

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Introduction
Low noise regulation
Aimed at reduction in noise pollution

Comfort Criteria
Noise causes discomfort and fatigue Noise suppression demonstrates technological/marketing edge

Component Failure
Sensitivity of structure to acoustic resonances

The above Applies to many Industry sectors:


Transportation, Power, Environmental, Building services
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. ANSYS :

ANSYS

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Noise Sources [1]


Magnetic
Radial Slot Harmonics Magnetic Unbalance
Stator Modes of Vibration Bearings Balancing Dynamic Eccentricity Self Auxiliaries Load Induced

Mechanical

Aerodynamic
Fluid Cooling Phenomena

Electronic
Switching Harmonics

Rotor

Couplings

Foundation Static Eccentricity

Audible Frequencies

Elliptical Rotor Surface

Unbalanced Rotor

20 Hz
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60 Hz

261.63 Hz
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4.186kHz

5 kHz

20 kHz

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[1] P. Vigayraghavan, R. Krishnan, Noise in Electric Machines: A Review, IEEE, 1998


ANSYS Machine Design Methodology
RMxprt Maxwell SimplorerRMxprt Maxwell.

SINE1

SINE2

SINE3

TRIANG1

IGBT1 E1

D7

IGBT3

D9

IGBT5

D11

RphaseA PhaseA_in RphaseB PhaseB_in RphaseC PhaseC_in MotionSetup1_in E2 IGBT2 D8 IGBT4 D10 IGBT6 D12 0 PhaseC_out MotionSetup1_out PhaseB_out PhaseA_out

V
VM1

w
V_ROTB1

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Maxwell Simplorer
2D IPM (Interior Permanent Magnet) motor model created from RMxprt and Maxwell UDP (User Defined Primitive) for rotor
Model
V M odel DM odel1 SM odel1 D40 D42 D44

4 pole, 1500 RPM, 220 Volt DC bus. Two Control Strategies used: 6 step inverter In Maxwell PWM current regulated Cosimulation Maxwell with Simplorer

S_46

V
D35

S_48

V
D37

S_50

D39

+ -

110V LabelID=V32 LabelID=VIA 0.000512893H*Kle LA 2.00694ohm RA LPhaseA

LabelID=VIB 0.000512893H*Kle LB

2.00694ohm RB

LPhaseB

+ -

110V LabelID=V33

LabelID=VIC 0.000512893H*Kle LC

2.00694ohm RC

LPhaseC

D41

D43

D45

D34

S_47

V
D36

S_49

V
D38

S_51

LabelID=IVc3 LabelID=IVc4 LabelID=IVc5 LabelID=IVc6 LabelID=IVc1 LabelID=IVc2 100ohm 100ohm 100ohm 100ohm 100ohm 100ohm R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R20 + -1 + 1V LabelID=V14 -1 + 1V LabelID=V15 -1 + 1V LabelID=V16 -1 + 1V LabelID=V17 -1 + 1V LabelID=V18 -1 1V LabelID=V19

SINE1

SINE2

SINE3

TRIANG1

IGBT1 E1

D7

IGBT3

D9

IGBT5

D11

RphaseA PhaseA_in RphaseB PhaseB_in RphaseC PhaseC_in MotionSetup1_in E2 IGBT2 D8 IGBT4 D10 IGBT6 D12 0
1.10

PhaseA_out PhaseB_out
Sine Triangle
Basic_Inverter1
Curve Info SINE1.VAL SINE2.VAL SINE3.VAL TRIANG1.VAL
ANSOFT

V_ROTB1
-0.38

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Y1

V
VM1

PhaseC_out
TR

0.88

TR TR TR

MotionSetup1_out

0.25

-1.00 -1.10 20.00 22.50 25.00 27.50 30.00 Time [ms] 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00

Maxwell Simplorer

SAS IP, Inc.


15.00

Torque

Basic_Inverter1
Curve Info
TR FEA1.TORQUE

ANSOFT

SAS IP, Inc.


20.00

Currents

Basic_Inverter1
Curve Info
TR TR RphaseA.I RphaseB.I RphaseC.I

ANSOFT

15.00
12.50

TR

10.00

10.00

5.00

FEA1.TORQUE

7.50

Y1 [A]
20.00 22.50 25.00 27.50 30.00 Time [ms] 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00

0.00

-5.00
5.00

-10.00

2.50

-15.00

0.00

-20.00 20.00 22.50 25.00 27.50 30.00 Time [ms] 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00

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Maxwell Stress Tensor
Force calculation at a point on the stator. Force on a line in the airgap Force on a line co-linear with the stator tooth Edge Force Density Default field quantity available in Maxwell Can be used for creating lumped force
calculations on tooth tips

Automatic Force mapping from Maxwell to


ANSYS Mechanical. (2D-2D, 2D-3D, 3D-3D)
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Edge Force Density in Maxwell


Tangential Force on Tooth Tips
10.00

02_DC-6step_IPM

ANSOFT

5.00

0.00

Force (Newtons)

-5.00

-10.00

-15.00
Curve Info ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_Full1)

-20.00

ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_2) ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_3) ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_4) ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_5) ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_6)

-25.00

-30.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 Time [ms] 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00

Radial Force on Tooth Tips


50.00

02_DC-6step_IPM

ANSOFT

-0.00

-50.00

Force (Newtons)

-100.00

-150.00

Curve Info ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_Full1) ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_2) ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_3) ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_4) ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_5) ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_6)

-200.00

-250.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 Time [ms] 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00

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Left Side Tooth

Right Side Tooth

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0%, 25%, 50% : FFT of

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, 50%

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50% :
0.00

Radial Tooth Tip Forces

ANSOFT

15.00

Tangential Tooth Tip Forces

ANSOFT

10.00 -50.00 5.00

-100.00

0.00

Force (N)

-150.00

-200.00

-250.00
Curve Info Radial Force Small Gap Radial Force Large Gap

Force (N)

-5.00

-10.00

-15.00

-20.00
Curve Info Tangential Force Small Gap Tangential Force Large Gap

-25.00

-300.00 20.00

22.50

25.00

27.50

30.00 Time [ms]

32.50

35.00

37.50

40.00

-30.00 20.00

22.50

25.00

27.50

30.00 Time [ms]

32.50

35.00

37.50

40.00

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ANSYS Force Mapping

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Force Mapping
Direct Force Mapping
Electromagnetic forces from Maxwell to Mechanical by linking systems in Workbench Transient Analysis for Stress prediction

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Direct Force Mapping


Scenario: Study the effect of Rotor Eccentricity Case 1:
0% Eccentricity

No misalignment

Case 2:

50 % Eccentricity

Peak Edge Force Density 1.5e6 N/m2

Eccentricity amount is set to 50% of gap width Creates unbalanced electromagnetic forces

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Peak Edge Force Density 1.9e6 N/m2

Directional Deformation Radial


Max Deformation vs time

Case 1 0% Eccentricity

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Case 2 50 % Eccentricity

Von Misses Stress


Max Stresses vs time

Case 1 0% Eccentricity

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Case 2 50 % Eccentricity

ANSYS Harmonic Analysis

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Mode #1, 8502 Hz

Mode #2, 8708 Hz

Mode #3, 8708 Hz

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Mode #4, 9080 Hz

Why Harmonic Analysis


Boundary Conditions Input Forces

Appling harmonic forces from Maxwell into ANSYS Mechanical


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Harmonic Response Bode plot


Frequency response at a selected node location of the model.

Helps determine that Max Amplitude (1.7mm) occurs at 8710 Hz on the selected vertex
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Harmonic Response Contour plot


Amplitude distribution of the displacements at a specific frequency,

Deformation plot at 8710 Hz

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ANSYS Acoustics

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ANSYS
.
Vibro-Acoustics: (ANSYS Mechanical) Aero-Acoustics : (ANSYS CFD)

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Modeling Aero-Acoustics (ANSYS CFD)


Free-Space Problem with no solid surfaces:
sound generated from turbulence, jet noise

Free-Space Problem with solid surfaces:


Fan noise, airframe noise, rotor noise, boundary layer noise, cavity noise

Interior problem:
Duct noise, mufflers, ducted fan noise

Sound pressure fluctuations


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Vibro-Acoustics (ANSYS Mechanical)


Computing the acoustic field radiated by a vibrating structure Structure modeled in ANSYS Mechanical where vibration patterns are calculated (Modal, Harmonic Analysis). Applied loads are obtained from Maxwell. Vibration patterns used as boundary conditions to compute acoustic field radiated by structure (ANSYS MAPDL, ANSYS Acoustic Structures-ACTRAN)

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Acoustic Analysis Pressure Plot

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Acoustic Analysis Pressure Plot

0.5 m

Pres_1

Pres_2

Pres_3 Pressure (Pa)

Pressure vs Freq

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Freq(Hz)

Appendix: ANSYS 14
Maxwell 2D/3D Electrostatic Magnetostatic Eddy Current Magnetic Transient Electric Transient Maxwell 2D/3D Electrostatic Magnetostatic Eddy Current Magnetic Transient Electric Transient
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ANSYS Static/Transient Structural(Two-Way Link)

ANSYS Static/Transient Structural One-Way Link (Maxwell upstream)

ANSYS Static/Transient Thermal Two-Way Link

ANSYS Static/Transient Thermal One-Way Link (Maxwell upstream)

Appendix: ANSYS 14
Maxwell 2D/3D Fluent Steady State (Thermal link) Two-Way Link Fluent Transient (Thermal link) One-Way Link (Maxwell upstream)

Electrostatic Magnetostatic Eddy Current Magnetic Transient Electric Transient

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Thank You

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