Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 159

fdG jQG

HdG IQGRh

c
FjdG dG
SSCG dG e edG dG ed

: dCJ
hGdG H

qdG a OdG q

Qhq G G

hCq G PSCG

qe

hCq G e

: J
H G Y

OhGO a

hCq G qe

Y qe

LZGdG WdG cG

LZGdG WdG cd X G L

dG ee

dG e edG GdG eJ j H FjdG dG IOe dG Gg J gh udDG dG qj


QSG d Gkh ,hdGh G jH kjJ ,MG e L J CG ,qHeh SSCG
.IFd k Jh jG
G bGh SCG IQKEG N e dG ASG hQ J Y VdG jW fYG d
jG QdG e fJa ,IOG SGQO qgCG gh jdG fG Y fcCG c ,jdGh VdH
ud cQJ , dGh OdG jW Y GH ,FjdG OGh gG e qdG h GQG jd Sh
.iNCG Mf e Ffh HdG UN h Mf e G H eOEGh HdG
e e jGQOh jhH edG Y -dG JWf EG aVEG -edG IYe dG Gg e fb
dG d VdG bh e e ,adCe gGX Y Lf GMCG qJh W fGb dG bGh
.jL g e eh ,FG dGh AHdGh VQCd G
q dc eEG fh HdG
s Jh qG q g CG eCf HQe NJ Y ShQdG AH UM ,dG Gg e Iq L
o G GgCd kh
IG GgCG e SQdG f H , JGdG qdG e q ,Y IQOG hQ qJh egG
SJh M Y dGh a d uG Yf DhdGh eCdG e L f K ,dG Gh
c M OjEGh fGG dGh jG Qdc MG fCH d Geh Ge j ,d
SG EG d aGH SSG eh jdG dG c j Ggh ..bGdG VQCG Y Mhe
.UG EG NCG jh Je u j dP Hh , dG
LCG eh ,SJh IjG J JGdG dG Y OhO YVG jdG e G LCG eh
jf N fEa,ShQG IgdH JG FGh ,OGc MW dG DhdG ReQ a Y QGbEG
Y QdG H j K ,Yeh IjY jQ REH f Y a j
q k cQ MGdG QG GHCG e H c
jf GQe eOEGh geh YGb OYH H he REG Y hCG ,VH e Y Kh SGQO
.qG IOH SSCG J J iNCGh
dG jhdG H Y MbG ,jG LddG GSG Y d jQJh , J e c EG kaVEG
.a eq G GQGh FGdGh GQGh QG e d )et udn e( fGfCG h ffCG : JdG
SSG hj e ch SqQGh d aQ Nh IOG qJ S e M dG Gg j CG eCf
.jdGh LGd lHb H Y c gh ,H
udD G

dG jN
-1- dG IOq `G
dG

13
14

17

f
G
q

ShQdG
IOq G
t UGJ

:G dG
IMh h jJ
.b
dG jdG
q G d

24

a qdG LCG
LCGh
IQG

28

q FG dG

29

fG
AG

34
39
44

``gGh G

cJ
Fe
TEG
dfG h
AG
IKDG eGdG
dfG

G dG

:Iq`G GgCG
:Y GQOb qG j
cPh ( geQ) q G dG jJ
.b IMh
= m / V dG
q J

a qdG LCG
LCGh
IQG

LCGh a qdG LCG EG q dG


LCd q G dG fQ AG IQG
.Ad q G dG e
IQG LCGh a qdG LCG H dG
.e FS

AG d

q G

q G
fG
cq dG

.fG QH dG
,qe ,fG :gG SGh jJ
.q dfG , ,
.
q Gh
q G H q dG
b GMh H cPh C cdG jJ
.(...mg.L-1 ,g.mL-1)

q G G
TEG
dfGh

51
52

IOq G H

IqOG F

IOG F

58

dG G
FdG

IAdG
4

Y q G dG b q J Y KEG
.fEG qY
.TEG jJ
qe
b Y OYH q e EG dG
(s). dfGh (C)cdG

.IOq G qH fG IgX J
L UCG qfCG Y IAdG jJ
.IqOG qJ Y j CG
j
q qfCG Y FdG qdG G jJ
.He GAg e

-2- dG IOq `G
dG

64

f
G
q

ShQdG
FGdG dG

66

dG

67

qFGdG GQqdG
qjG dGh

75

AGdG QhO
GMG

76

IQhV
cCG
.GMEd
qdG GMEG
IG qgCGh

78

82

Z GMEG
dG

``gGh G

:Iq`G GgCG
:Y GQOb qG j

FGdG dG
.qjG IdH UN
jN IAGb
q
GQq dG
.FGdG .dG QJ
q ITDG eGdG Y qdG
qdG
.jq G

AGdG QhO
GMG
IQhV
.Ff Y qdH qdG GMG KEG
AGdG cCG

.GMG Y dG jQGG bdH J ILCG cP


iNCG GfCG EG jH hCG GMG Y
dG GMG
.bdG e
:IG gCGh
bdG dJ
.jQGG
SG
N e dG Z GMG Y dG
jQGG bdG
.Ff
edG IG
cCG K fEG
HdG .dG Z GMGh dG GMG H dG
Y JSfG)
.(IG
Z GMG Y W h dG Z GMG W GQOEG
.Wh dG
.dGh IG

WedG
dG

90

88
92

f
G
q

``gGh G

ShQdG

Qq dG jRJ
QdG jRJ
IQGO FHdG IQGO FHdG
.Yqe
:Yq e
dG fb
:FHdG JdG
qJq dG e

.FHdG
b IMh
96

qJqdG b
FHdG

100

qJqdG jRJ
:FHdG

101

qJd G jRJ
IQGO FHdG
.dH

103

H FG
`p`qde b FK
b FKh
.m u e

:FHdG JdG

JdG e
FHdG

:Iq`G GgCG
:Y GQOb qG j
.dG fb OS
dG fb J

.FHdG qJdG b

b IMh
FHdG JdG
(VddG)
JdG b dBG
FHdG
.(ddG)
jRJ fb
FHdG JdG
dH IQGO

IQGO FHdG qJdG jRJ fb OS


dH

H FG
de b FK
b FKh
.e

e de dG FK eAe e dG
.IQGdG Z b e dG FK

AdG
dG

108
111

114

f
G
q

ShQdG
jDhdG e

``gGh G
jDhdG e
.AdG QOe
Ae L

AdG
q QOe
:QHEG
jDhdG hT
.Ae Lh
AdG Te AdG Te

121

UG
ShCd jq dG

dG QG
SG QGh

124

G QfG
Ad

125

QfG CGe
Ad G
qFdG eMCG
QfE J
,Ad G
dBGh G adG
jdG
QfE J
,Ad G
. qdGh qdG
CGe J
G QfEG
QGWCG ,Ad
dG ,dG
.Gh

jdG UG
ShCd

128
133

137

142

:I`q G GgCG
:Y GQOb qG j
.jDhdG e J
.FV Qe RGHEG
.Ae Lh Ae L H dG
.AdG Te H EG qdG
.jDhdG hT J

Qeh f FV Qe H dG
.Se
q
.jdG JUN M ShCG J

dG SdG T Sh h T Sh H (j) dG
dG SdG
.Y Shh
dG SdG
G QfG
.Ad

QfG fb
.Ad G
eMCG
dGh FdG
FdG
J
QfG
:Ad G
G adG
.jdG dBGh
.dGh
q dG
dG QGWCG
G
dGh

.Ad G QfG CGe cP


.FdG eMCG H dG
eMCG dHh FV T SQ
.FdG
:G QfG EGe XJ
dBGh G adG IQdG fG d
.jdG
Y Ae dGh dG Y d
.Sq dG jW
.dG h G JgX d
.Jg qdG e qd qG SqdG RE
.dG QGWCG Jh d

R`````````e`````````````````dG O

MCG h q LCG

q J `TCG

SQ`````````````dG

````````````SCG

AJCG h eq CJCG

MCG h eq CJCG

S```````````jEG

Je qbCG

``````````UG

GqdG Y OYEG

``````aG````````e

: ndG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

`q ``G `dG

Hc SCG c
J
UG````````````
IOq `````````G q

G QG GHCG e H GY
(1

MG ShQdG

dG
: q G
hh jJ dG jdG (2
M
I
b

.
d
.G a qdG LCG (3
CGh
L

.IQG

Iq e QU hCG IQU

S
J U
dG Y q

GP
dG J UQ
U
? dG Y
Z
c U
LCG

A
GP
dG
j

N
H
?
EG
dG
g e
j M
FN
G LCG FN g e
G
? J d

C
L
dG
? J
S Y

DhJ db OGb

dG
J M

b IM
hh

Yfh fGY

Q
h SQdG b

jJ

:G

dG (1
G``gC G

: Y GQO
b uG
: fQ
j
.G jh QH dG
.b I

e
Oq Ge c Mhh jRd
.

dG
q Gh FdGh
j
dG OG he Oq Ge MCG d G
dG j
J
= m
V dG J
: ```q `dG

a
jM

.e c

J```e

b IMhh

c`H `S

Qd ``

SGC
dG
eh G
e
.GG
c RGJ
hT
.Mh
L c
H dG
: A```JC

: SQdG i
Y fCG
HdG J Ye
q qJ
e bfG q fGG dGh
G bGdG e IQ qVh
M Yeh
.JGdG d

G h ``qeC JCG
.N IO
q e qdGh
K IOq e j
? qY

G qEG
bO Z
dG Gg j
j GP
: ``MGC h
() ,(),

()
f d S
f
G b
b c

()

N
b
f d q
a
G b
b c

qLCG

fRdH bC

(CG)

N
b

qc LQ
MCG q
dG b
Mh
G b e
14

(CG) SdG

`q `LGC

f d q
a
G b
b M

N
b

MCG
c M
hJ Z
Q :(CG) S
dG
G
b

-1- dG IOq `G
IOq `````````G UG````````````J
q
A`````````G ``````d`````
IOq `````````G ```````````````````H

qce

`````q````Fe ```d``

Fja IgX J
IOq G F hCG G dH qJ e q M

10

SdG efdG e e
(YS 17 EG 15 e) dG IOq ``G
``gGh i`G

fCGh OGb

Iq`G GgCG
:Y GQOb qG j

IOq G UGn
q J H j GP AG LCG Z Y
qG dG
?NBG dG jh dG EG
hCG , jG hCG c LCG Z
Igeh AG S dGhCG ,S q dG
.dP H Y q J dG VdG
a qdG LCG
bdG d G Jh AH jq dG e
IQG LCGh
.qdG Ige qK

cPh q G dG j J .b IMh
= m / V dG
q J a q dG LCG EG q dG e FS IQ G LCGh
dG e q G c fQ
.FdG dd qG

c OGG H AG e Y j GPe
?...edGh dGh jq dGh qdGh
hCG G hCG qdG hCG G e b V
Q fCG SQ dG hCG O jCG
.jG Nh
,Ae j
q
c e Gh G c fQe
G
qjRdG FGdG
q e RdG GSG

.fG QH dG ,
q o `dG , fG : j J .qdfG ,G ,qpo`dG
.qpo`dG h qo`dG H qdG H cPh C cdG j J .(...g.L-1 ,g.mL-1) b GMh
q G dG b q J Y KEG .fG qY Y
.dfGh TEG jJ .e OYH q e EG dG q dfGh C cdG b Y
.S

AG d

q po `dG
qG
fG
cq dG
G
q G
TG
dfEG

IOG H c fe
q IOq e fG H SG q H fG IgX J IOq G qJ
H EG qdG H AG jQdGh
.IOq G
IAdG
.IOq G qJ
UCG qfCG Y IA dG j J d IqOG q J e Q SG Y j CG L
.IqOd qFjdG dG
.IqOG qJ
q
Y FdG
q dG G jJ .He GAg e j
q qfCG

11

IOq `````````G UG````````````J


q
.b IMhh jJ : q G dG (1
.G d dG jdG (2
.IQG LCGh a qdG LCG (3

dG Y q J U S

c UJ M dG S Y dG J GP
? dG UUQ
j M dG EG H j GP AG LCG Z Y
?NBG dG
? J dG LCG FN g e
? J dG LCG FN g e

13

b IMhh jJ :G dG (1
I``G G``gCG

: Y GQOb uG j
: fQ QH dG
.G jhe Oq Ge c .dG jhe Oq Ge MCG .b IMhh jq RdGh FdGh dG OGd G dG jJ
= m dG J
V

: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG


a

jM

.e c b IMhh dG eh G e
.GG c RGJ hT
.Mh L c H dG
: A```JCG h ``qeC JCG

.N IOq e qdGh K IOq e jG qEG j


? qY bO Z dG Gg j GP
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

()
f d Sf b
G b c

N b

q LCG
() ,(), (CG) SdG G fRdH bCG
()
(CG)
f d qa b
G b c

N b

f d qa b
G b M

N b

MCG
qc LQ MCG qdG b Mh G b e c M hJ ZQ :(CG) SdG
G b
14

: `````````SCG

.eMCG hJ ZQ LCG c J
MCG
.c hJ ZQ dG b M hj G b M :() SdG
.e c c hJ ZQ G b M e UCG SdG b M :() SdG
: `````````SCG

.c hJ ZQ OGG MCG J

BG aY
`dd ,`qbu dG J HJ g N IOe qdGh K oIOs e jG :e dhGG HdG qGE
p G jhe ,e q Y Rh LJ JOq e H dG
q fQG qE a
IQGG LQO f

: G dG jJ
JOe cGJ KJ d c hCG eMCG fG LCG ihJ b
.`UGJh
q
LJ dG G Gg e IOG c H o s J Fja QG Z Y fe L c j
.q G dG q j h G IMh
e IQGM LQO Y h (FS hCG U ) e IQGM LQO Y G dG
V M Y G Gg e q d m dG b f g RZ e Vh
= m :ddG dG ah Jh
V

M`e
jq OY jhe q dG c J G IMd jhe e IOq e e q Y M j eY . d fG
IOq d q G d
q
: e h iNCG U Y Gh , = m HdG dG jJ V
V = m hCG m = .V

hCG IQGG LQO ) hdG q H jRZ hCG FS hCG U fe q G dG q J .dG K h G d f ( dG


15

: G dG b IMh
(m) dG fc GPEa .G dG b IMh USG = m ddG dG o n n r Jo
V
G dG IMh qEa (m3) G H jo (V) Gh (kg) GZdH oJ

.d qdG IMdG gh kg. m-3 e e d GZdH J


(kg)
kg. m-3

=m
V

(m3)
g. cm-3 :H e h iNCG GMh USG
: `J``e ` q```bCG

e jOdG hdG jRdGh FdGh dG OGG d G dG dG hG


.V h IQGM LQO
`jR`Z OG`e
(kg. m-3)G dG

0,083
1,2
1,82

F`S OG`e

`U OG`e

(kg. m )G dG IqO``G (kg. m )G dG IqO``G


IOq ``G
LhQdG
dG
240 qdG
790
AGdG
jdG jR 1000 EG 400 e G
920
HdG cCG K
AG
2700 CG
1000
FdG
7100 fdG
13600
7900 jG
8900 SdG
-3

-3

g. cm-3 H OGG g e d G dG LhCG


: ``````````U````G

,G Gg e G IMh c g fe G dG
. H d ejh
= m : ddG dG f e G dG jd
V
.M EG V h G c EG m eJ M
. kg. m-3 : g G d dG dG IMh
16

G d dG jdG (2
I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb uG j
.FS q d hCG U q d G dG j e q QH dG : ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.dG LCG c b .QG QG SGH dG LCGh FGdG MCG b .Q QJ IAGb c : dG LCd G dG -1

: ``MCG h q``LCG

m = 66,28g
66.28

0.00

:hCG dG
Z U L e qY NBG
,AG fEd Hb
Ge SGH m c bCG `
.qc P Ge hCG hdEG

:dG dG
SGH M bCGh dG f NBG `
:ddG MGG e Qq e Q
.Ae dG ie EG Qq G QG CeCG
.Ad V1 G
q SCG
.q c J H QG NGO q dG VCG
. V2 jG G G qSCG
V = V2 - V1 qdG M SCG

V1 = 50 mL

V2 = 58,4 mL

17

: `````````SCG

=m= m
V

= 7890 kg. m-3 dG q d G dG


V2-V1

: FdG OGd G dG -2

: ``MCG h q ``LCG

.e AG , IaG FGdG MCG e q Y NBG


.QG jQd ITG IAGdG jW Y q dG d V G jH bCG
.``q c P Ge hCG hdEG Ge SGH FdG e q dG J c jH bCG
Qa QG
AG e c aVEG H

QG c W H

= m = 100 = 1g. mL-1 : G c , AG g G FdG


V

100

1000 kg. m-3 g dG dG IMH Ad G dG


18

: ``MCG h q``LCG

.jdG jR Iq G g e HdG dG MGe H bCG


QG c W H

jdG e c aVEG H

Qa QG

= m = 92 = 0,92g. mL-1 = 920g. L-1 : g jdG jd G dG qCG LCG


V
100
920 kg. m-3 : g dG dG IMH jd G dG
: `````````SCG

.jd G dG Y Ad G dG J
: `J``e `q```bCG

V (mL)

10

30

40

50

m (g)

24

32

=m

60

FdG d MCG c H bCG


48
: HG hG FdG MCG K
q YCGh G Fd G dG Oq MCG
.hG

g.mL-1

: ``````````U````G

ITG IAGdG jW Y dG G hCG FdG d (V) G j j q Y


.Qq e Q jQd
.Ge SGH b a G dd (m)dG eq CG
,G d G dG Y G j = m dG Hh
V

.M (V) h G q dG c (m) M
19

: S````````````jEG

adG

IY adG IQY J

: f
dG b AS h dG c AS : f
G GH Me SQO SSCG dG e SOdG d
q YLG OGG SGQO N
.fS OYh HdG
dG e Y dH c GdG g e H d fqdG adG Y d
. dG hG ah dG fa He edH
QTCG c HZ

(S S S V Y) ac
q bCG HZ

(2c / S) adG
6
1,3
3
4
2,6

(2c) MG

(2001)

162 155
2 381 000
1 759 540
732 550
1 025 520

dGOY

dG 1000

9 700 000
31 000 000
5 200 000
29 200 000
2 700 000

fJ
FGG
d
bCG G
fjQe

SSCG dG e SOdG d YLEG OGG c e

: A```JCG h ``qeC JCG


IdG CG TCG iNCG dH G f e dG e Ich
q j iMEH jjM Ic M GPEG
e S
cCG jG Ic IOG CG EG dP Ojh .dG e e e KCG jjG
o n nJ q TCGh UGJ
q
: dH Y j e Ggh dG IOe

' qdG e ac YCG dG CG M dG ac e YCG ac jd EG '


20

:dG IMh f OYHh hdG f


EG ODJ dG QfG cCG IOd G dH e G dG fQe
.adG J Z Y G Gg iNCG UN
.FdG OGGh dG LCG ac j AG j
.GRdG ac j AGdG j

d=
dG ah ,AG EG dH FS hCG fc U fe IOe ac
'
.Ad G dG ' h IOG d G dG M

Rd G dG M d = ' dG ah ,AGdG EG dH RdG ac


.AGd G dG ' h

FdG hCG dG OGG EG ``dH `fYG GPEG


(V) G GP fe Y c : (m)
. hdG f AG e (V) G f c : (m)
`jR`dG OGG EG dH fYG GPEGh
(V) G GP RdG e Y c : (m)
. hdG f AGdG e (V) G f c : (m)

m CG h
d=
= V = m qE a ' = m h = V
' 'V m
V
a qdHh IMdG f d d c f g adG
.IMh hH GOY q

21

: ````f Y YCG

:1 O``Y j

.13,6 g. cm-3 hJ dG h IQGd e hX Fd qG dG


.FdG e78,0 g M Y HG K dG dG IMH dG g Y q Y
:2 O``Y j

qG dG a J hX 120 g c qjjM b M Y HG
. 7800 kg.m-3 hJ jd
:3 O``Y j

hX ,J G Gg e 86 g CH Y fedCd q G dG Y HG
. 32 cm3 hj AdG e Gq M ,q e
:4 O``Y j

: dG hG Y f FdG d MCG c f eY
V(cm3)

50

100

150

200

250

m(g)

56

112

169

224

280

.G Fd G dG LhCG
:5 O``Y j

. 185 g c h 2,87 cm YJQGh 3,24 cm gb q fe fGSG


.G Gd G dG LhCG
h = JQGh R = dG MV = .R2.h : fGSG M : cJ
:6 O``Y j

. 6,21 kg ch 13,2 cm gb fe Ic
.q G c LhCG
4
R = dG M V = .R3 : IdG cJ
3

22

:7 O``Y j

. jW q f jPa IOq e e fGS q G dG jd


:hCG jdG (CG
fGSd h JQGh d dG H f
h = 39,0 mm h d = 21,0 mm CG a
m = 106,2 g a hdEG Ge SGH fGSCG c f
G jPdG IOd G dG Y HG
:G GSG ,fdG jdG (
HdG fGSG ee ddG fRdH f

m1

m1 = 42,1 g

m2
m2 = 148,2 g

m3
T

m3 = 55,8 g

hX Ad G dG CH Y GPEG G jq PdG IOd q G dG Oq M


1 000 kg.m3 hJ HdG
1 mL = 1cm 3 h 1Kg/m 3 = 1 Kg.m-3 = 10 3 g.mL-1 : cJ

jdG f H Qb (
?dP S g a dG H NG Lh EG
23

IQG LCGh a qdG LCG (3


``G ``dG
IQG LCGh adG LCG EG q dG Y GQOb uG j

.FdG dd qG dG e qG c fQ e FS

: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.ach G c M OGG

: ``MCG h q ``LCG

AG S Y J qfCG MCG .Ae H VM G e b VCG


?AG J GP

U ZQ AG S Y J GP .Ae H VM VCGh jG e b NBG


?G H fQe M

24

NGO OLG AG ZCG K G b OHCG f d q`dG e b NBG


.d cJCGh G b Y Vh dG LdG f Y VG
?MCG GPe

AG Y H
q j QG gAL
q d G b e e J qdG b qCG MCG
? dP dG a .G b e QG
.dGh G b e M UCG SdG e b e HdG YCG
?j GPe

. VG b q d UJ SdG b qCG MCG


.bdG d G JCG K Qq e Q NGO AG e H jdG e b GqL eCG
?j GPe
G
H ITe jR h Ae
q

G
e bdG H H G
q

25

HdG f

(kg. m-3) G dG

IOq ``G

AG S Y j
AG S Y j
AG S Y j
dG EG j
dG EG j

1000
240
750
920
7900
8900

AG
qdG
G
jdG jR
jG
SdG
: `````````SCG

.dG EG J Ad G dG G c J dG LCG
.AG S YJ Ad G dG Y G c J dG LCG
: `J``e ` q ```bCG

Q HdH G h dG e SdG dG Ke Y Z Y
.Ie c AG ie JQG Mf Ae a Qe
.AG S ie JQG S Y
.HGL Y .gCG JQG j dG CG

: ``````````U````G

.Ad G dG e qbCG qM H J AG S Y J dG LCG


.Ad G dG e cCG qM H J AG UJ dG LCG
d G dG qb qc : MCG jhG dG LCG EG dH
.AG e QG AG M f Ad G dG Y dG
qG dG e bCG q M H qJ e FS S Y J dG LCG
.FdG dd

26

Y f
q AGSG

: S````````````jEG

? dG L FGdG dG OLh e VdG g e


dHh AGdH dG G`g C fEa ,S EG AG YCG e fG dG jJ eY
J hCG ,JQG Y bJ d AG S EG dG JJ Ggh ,L M OGOj
M j dHh ,c e AGdG OJ ,S q dG Y fEa ,SCG EG
.L
AY Y EG OJ , `d FGdG dG j dG QhdG Y G IdG g EG
`Y QH PSCG g VY e hCG ch ,Y HdG dG fQa OcCG
. 1685
dG H J fCG M , S 200 GW gbq Uh IdG g SdG J bh
.OG MdG OH EG dG fH Y j h ,SQG
c SG dG SCG C ,dG MH bY FGdG `d qCG
q T h
Y ,fYq dG bJ f`c eYh ,Iq H `fYR jH EG MdG J ,FGdG
.dG EG J SCG fc ,cG
.G AjdG - jH c```d f

?FGdG dG j dG G QhdG PEG g e


G f e c f eCG Y VdG AGdG c f qCG h Y (1
IdG cP OQh q bfGh ,(dG jdG hG fG ) e hCG FS
AGdG aO ``q `qdG f dG M J Y GOYGh , YCG dEG QG hCG
`G `ch ,`dG CG ,Ap `e IQe `fc ```G ```c H Q``b
2
1
AGS MS AKCG fCG H J eh cP S e H Qb q K . AG S Y gh
. dG hCG G
? dG Ae MS CG dG AG MS SCG jCG QJ CG d g (2
.```dP `qY
CG d g fdG IdG Y OYH (3
? hCq G GDdG Y HLEG cDJ
GKCG d SGh dqdG IdG LGQ (4
QJ GYGh edG b M
C jQC`dG Y dG `F`G
.Fja IgX

27

`````````````F```````dG ```````d``G
A`````dG `````fG (4
`````F```````e ``` ```````c``J (5
``````q ```d``````fGh ``````````TEG (6
q dfG IqKDG eGdG (7

? dG b jdG FdG J c

jq dGh qdGh c OGG H AG e Y MCG GPe Y


?...edGh dGh
? hGGh jOhCG e Y QeCG e Ge j GP
b Y g c G fe
c j g
q
? G H h

28

A`````dG `````fG (4
I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb uG j
fG QH dG
. ,
w ,
q e ,fG : gG SGh jJ
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.LeCG J
.dG dG f e
x c b IMhh Gh dG jJ
.G bh dG b

: A```JCG h ``eq C JCG

* jG jc h Ae

S h Ae

* SdG jch Ae

? fG LeCG g H GdCG NG S e
AG q dG Oq GG fG

: ``MCG h q``LCG

` qG AG e c e ,10 g hJ m c dG e e q c eCG
.100 mL hj V M

SGMH j *
29

MCG

.de W d fe je Y h AG e e G eG

je Y MCGh AH e eG qdG qCG MCa ,qdH G VYC


q G fK H
.M W d fe
: `````````SCG

:q SCG ,hCG HdG


.dG FG G : Y
o
q dG fG jG
p `oG : G
.
t `
q fG M AG
.
o ``
n r `oG : AG GP bh G
p rfG : fG jG Gg Y G EG Oq CG dG q dG
.
o n
: `J``e ` q```bCG

MCa , jG NCG q K qG AG e SCc f qdG e e VCG


.Y
q dG Gh Gh G Oq MCG . fe je Y
FGdG
e
q
: ``MCG h q``LCG

d dG e q u c e , 30 mL hj V1 M d AG e q u c eCG
. 10 mL hj V2 M

qdc qj fe je Y MCG

Ae

* c

: `````````SCG

q `G :SCG ,M cCG gh ,AG

q ``G : SCG ,M
t bCG gh ,dG
dG G :Y o
q dG fG jG `u SCG
SGMH j *
30


q G e
q G q eCG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

V2 M d dG e q u c e ,10 mL hj V1 M d AG e q u c eCG
.50 mL hj

qdc qj fe je Y MCG

Ae

* c

: `````````SCG

q ```G : q j ,dG g M cCG gh ,dG

q ``G : q j ,dG g M UCG gh ,AG


.c :q j Y
o
q dG fG jG

: `eC
u G h HdG UM QbCG
,q``G M cCG FdG

q G :q SCG ,FS L e e
q
.t```G a NBG qeCG
AG RdG fG
: A```JCG h ``qeC JCG

MCG RZ he IQhQb NC
t G eY
? RdG Gg c jCG ,jRZ ba hN

SGMH j *
31

: ``MCG h q``LCG

: dGG HdH bCG qK ,fqeCG RZ e b VCG ,U QhO


NGO IQGa AG j
QdG
q a Oq hdG

feq CG RZ

e QdG

e QdG
Ae

SGMH j

W qe fCG

.AG dH
q j feq CG RZ
. JdGRH feq CG RZ jJ e ,HdG YCG

QhdG NGO AG j
QdG
q a ZQ

JdG RZ

e QdG

e QdG
Ae

32

W qe fCG

: q ``LCG
N
q H RZ he

RdG hG
q q c
q UCG ,U QhO
HdH bCG q K ,RZ he e
: dGG

G Ae

: MCG

RdG hG : N
H RdG hG e YG RdG G Ae qj
q
.HdG cCG K j
: `````````SCG

.
q j NBG dGh AG
q J jq RdG LCG H
g qjRdG Hh h qfG G H IOLG qjRdG bdG
.HdG cCG K V e ,a qe GRZ
. q Fe d jCG dG g q S CG
: `J``e ` q ```bCG

.fG ,qd ,jG ,G : dqdG dG Y e SG dH GdG CeCG


NCGh qdG e e dEG VCGh Ae dG CeCG ,Ib a OQCG qc
...............Y G H ,AG ........... S qdG qCG dP ,b ...........
IdG e e e d VCG ,dP H .FOg Qf Y H bCG , .......... FG
.GK d jG Gg q MCGh
: ``````````U````G

q bCG Y q f L e j
q ,fe FS je g FG G
.AG gMCG j
.
q G q j a
q fG dG Gh
q G q j AG
.fG :q J FG G Y G EG Oq CG dG q dG
33

`````F```````e ``` ```````c``J (5


I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb uG j
,b GMh H cPh Fe cJ jJ
. dG qG dG qJ Y KEG
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.h
q e , : H u eCG
.G bh dG b

: A```JCG h `` qeC JCG

dGh GdCG e dG he a ShDc HQCG

? q j Jfe
q f qCG ZQ NBG EG e gdG dG Qq J S g e
? bCG ch J dG jOG g e
qG qH cdG bY
: ``MCG h q``LCG

e fH ,100 mL hj V1 M SdG jd v Fe u MCG


. (S1) `H G Gd eQCG .dG QRCG Y MCG .AG *SdG jc e IU

SGMH j *

34

V2M *SdG jd vFe MC


u G
e JU e fH , 100 mL hj
mK Y MCG .AG SdG jc
. (S2) `H G Gd eQCG .dG QRCG

MCG
. (S1) G d e bQR q TCG (S2) G d UCa ,
u G c YV
. (S1) G cJ e cCG (S2) G cJ sGE bCG
dG FG G W j AG e SCc qdG e IMGh b fG Y
f G `qdG q q c YJ qc IhM dG Gg OGOj .GM Y
.AG e G
: `````````SCG

G Gg cJ OGOj ,AG e se M xe q c fG Y
.C H cd eQCG .
q G c OjORG e
G H cdG bY
: ``MCG h q``LCG
* SdG jd v Fe MC
u G

e fH ,200 mL hj V2 M
dK Y MCG .AG
u G Gg e
. C3 cJ h (S3)G Gd eQCG .dG QRCG

MCG
.C3

<

. (S1)G d e bQR
q bCG (S3)G d
C1 : GPEG (S1) G e GcJ
q bCG(S3) G

SGMH j *
35

: `````````SCG

, (V) M Fe Y d
x e e e q c fG Y
. (V) G OjORH G Gg cJ j
b IMh - cdG jJ
.G e MGh d qG q dG H ,e
q e Fe , C cdG q j
c Hh , V G M ee j c OYH Fe C cdG j
C = m : d`qdG dG
q ah q ojh m G G
V

g.L-1 ```H d efh dG r Gn `r`rdG IMH C cdG Sj


. mg.L-1 h g.mL-1 eh cdG d iNCG GMh f CG c

: ``M``````e
e qc fG Y , dP e ,x% : qjFG dG MH cdG Y qdG
e c f gh , 5% g MG f ,AG e 100g 5g gQGe dG e
.
q G G c EG qdG
ihj G M sCG f e dZ ,cdG N CG ,cdG V FG dG
.
q G M e
Hh fG b q G dG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

H Wh bQhO : GG qc iMEG Y VCG M hCG fRdH bCG


m1 H IYCG VCGh SdG jc e b a U hMh qG AG e q q c
: hCq G Sq dG dEG QG q dG Y GG IHG d
m1

FG SqdG jc

hCG fRdG

Ae IQb

.N
H qdG f Y YCG q K ,QhdG AG IQbh Sq dG jc eCG
q
36

m1

fqdG fRdH bCGh

FG Sq dG jc

. fqdG fR dG jG hj hCG fR dG jG
: `````````SCG

q dG FG G ch L e qGh qG c
.jhe iNCG L e Y

: `J``e ` q ```bCG

Y d dG AG e q q H Le dG qdG c MG
.50g.L-1 hj C cJh 400 mL hj V M qS Fe

: ``````````U````G

.G e MGh d qG q dG H ,e
q e Fe ,CcdG q j
.G M OjORH bjh qG G c OjORG e OGOj Fja QGecdG
.fG q Y Y q G dG `s J

37

: ````f Y YCG

.C ``H e cJh ,V ``H L M h , m `H L d ef :cJ


:1 O``Y j

:dq dG MG e e c Y CN hCG `H LCG


M eeh m uG G c H j H Fe cJ j (1
.V qdG ``G
C = m / V ```H c``d ef (2
. `q G Ae G cJ e cCG dG Ae G cJ (3
. dG Ae G cJ e cCG IO OGh Ae G cJ (4
:2 O``Y j
dG
q HLEG eCG eY VCG
.tG g AG qj dG G ` CG
.dG eh AG e j
fe je g dG FG G `
q
.U q Fja dM L ehO
q G j `
.GG M Fe Y MCa ,qdG j ` O
:3 O``Y j
,e : JBG dG e Sj ZGdG cCGh dq dG UG fdG Hc YCG
.fG ,```G ,G ,G ,fG
A`G `qcM AG`S MCG ,Y Ae H AfEG VCG ,dG e e b UEG H NBG
J b W qd ,FGQ X AG CG h ,qqc ````j M qjQJ qj G qCG `cq MCG ``d hCG
fCG bCa .AG NGO SG b d W Ad Gf ````j PEG G ...........UCa
. .......``H Y
q qdG dG FdG YOCGh....... H g dG YOCGh ........
c bCG G Yfh . ........`H G eG fCH d hj dG h G e c cCG AG q SCGh
H Ga c GPEGh .Gce q j G H dG G . ........H AG e
. Yj G
:4 O``Y j
-1
. C1 = 2 g.L a qdG e cJ Rhj qCG j GG jd G AM d
dG e c b c ,jd M Qb , G AM e jd W OQCG GPEG (1
.Gjd dG j q M aVEG dG idG
eGZ N a Vh q d ,d MQb ,cdG HdG
q AG H dG NCG qJ (2
.dG e e
.dP qY ? Gjd AG Gg S g ` CG
? j CG Y bCG GPe ,GG jd AM Y G NCG e ` oWh ,Gjd j EG `
38

``````q ```d``````fGh ``````````TEG (6


I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb uG
,q dfGh TEG jJ
,e
s qdfEGh C cdG b Y OYEH e EG q dG

: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.b IMhh cdG SCG


: A```JCG h ``eq C JCG

. jG T Mqe iMEG IQdG


q qJ

?G Sj
q c
?AdG e SCG dG
q Gg j GP
39

s G FG G
: ``MCG h q``LCG

: hCG dG
, 100 mL hj V M G qe Ae j QhO
, m1 = 20g c dG e e q q c VCG
. jG NCG qK

MCG

.fe je Y MCG h AG e G
q j
m1
FG G Gg cJ
C1 =
= 200 g.L-1 : g Y G
q
V
: dG dG
m2 = 15g `c G e iNCG u c hCq G `d VCG
mt = 35g ihJ a aG q G G c a
.bdG d G q MCG

MCG

.fe je Y M h AG e G qfG
FG G cJ UCG
C2 = ((m1 + m2) / V) = 350 g.L-1 : Y G
q
ddG dG
, 2g hJ G e m3 c NCG FG d VCG
. 37g hJ m aG qG G c a
j b dG J e WCG Iq G q MCG
.qdG jG

MCG

G e U SGhQ a J jG j dH e
G h jG TJ H
mr = 1g c LCG SG
q
,V = 100 mL M AG e qq c e qG ,dG qG dG
25 C `H IQq e jq OY IQGM LQO ms = 36 g hJ

40

: `````````SCG

.IOh AG e e M G dG e c
.q e q j Y G dG FG G
Cs = 360 g.L-1 : g e q G FG G Gg cJ
25 C hJ IQGM LQO

: q dfG jJ

. s H d efh q dfG q j Cs TEG M Y G cJ


. e Fe g C = s cJ d Fe
q c

: ```M``e
s = 360 g.L-1 hJ ,(25 C `H IQq e qjOY IQGM LQO ) dG e qdfG
: `J``e ` q ```bCG

s = 360 g.L-1 hJ dG e q dfG qCGh Y ,GG hG CG


VCG dG dG e c FG G M
bdG G c : q e
cdG b
(SG)
CG f
(g) H AG (mL) G H
q
76
80
80

200
200
400
: ``````````U````G

j Hb Z ,e
q Fe
q c ,q e IQGM LQO
. s q dfG jOY hj Cs cJ q e g G Gg fG
g.L-1 CG cdG b IMh f g q dfG b IMh
. Z Y q s q dfG d
q e
q c
a GPEG ,
q G e jG f Hb j G sEa C < s fc GPEG
.e Z
41

: ````f Y YCG

. s `H q dfGh C ``H e cJh ,V ``H L Mh ,m `H L d ef :cJ


:1 O``Y j

s ,e ,qdfG , FdG
q : SG GdG ,dqdG dG V SG dG VCG
`YOCG G `H ......c GPEGh .Gsce q SCG G H Z G ````c GPEG
. C = .... dOG M ......... b hJ cdG b J M e
:2 O``Y j

:dq dG MG e e c Y CN hCG ``H LCG


.`q e Fe g ,q dfGh cdG e
q c a ihj Fe
q c (1
.cdG b IMh f g q dfG b IMh (2
dG Ae GPEG , 39 000 mg.L-1OhM SG
HCG dG Ae G cJ (3
q
.e Fe g SG
HCG
q
-1
.g.L g q dfG b IMh (4
:3 O``Y j

. 10 C hJ IQGM LQO Y 880 g.L-1 hJ AG jOdG


q Gf q dfG
q G G M g e ,1g hJ jOdG
t Gf e c Y G OQCG GPEG (1
? J j dG IOq G g e
M q fG G Xe IQH LJ q d , Ad KG LCG e GdG (2
Y MCG qM J dG G AG M g e . 0,03 g.L-1 gcJ Rhj
? HdG
q GdG c
:4 O``Y j

: AG SG Y KDj AG eCG cJ
.g.L-1 H G cJ

AG SG

1^5
3^0 h 1^5 H

SG
q c
dG Ae

5 e
q bCGh 3 e cCG

dc - SGdG H Q

? 4,5 g.L-1 Qj a G cJ c GPEG dG


q TG SG
q CG
42

: ```````aG````````e

Jee EG VCG

(mg.L-1) MGdG dG GuG H fG


H cJ MG KdG
u
: 1999 S TCG N SH b YSG S f Y IO OGh Ae e
eCG

cCG

AGdG IQGM LQO


(C)

AG IQGM LQO
(C)

1853

7^9

10^7

10^4

2029

10^4

14^8

14^1

1922

9^6

18^3

15^5

2262

9^8

17^8

16^6

1423

6^4

21^4

20^5

1136

8^3

28^9

23^7

1259

9^1

29^8

27^8

1383

6^9

27^7

25^2

1947

8^9

32^7

27^2

1487

6^7

24^4

18^8

10

1476

9^5

18^3

14^9

11

1847
1668

10^2

13^2

10^3

8^7

20^6

17^9

12
e

] DGETH q FG TCGh SGQ``d eq dG IQGOEG MdG IQGRh [

. HLEG `uY ? dG TCG W HK e


q uc cJ j g (1
? IO e fe
q cJ Y IQGG LQO JQG KCJ g e (2
.HGL `uY ? HhY cCG IO Ae j T
u CG (3

43

q dfG IqKD G eGdG (7


``G ``dG

.AG q dfG Y IqKDG eGdG EG q `q dG Y GQOb uG j


: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

. Fe q dfG e cdG
.
q G f `t H s q dfG s J
: ``MCG h q``LCG

qe Ae (2,5 g) c *SJdG Gf e e qq c VCG


. 25C hJ IQGM LQO Y ,10 mL hj V M

Fe Y jG N H MCG
.C = 250 g.L-1 cJ SJdG Gd

SJdG Gf e
2,5 g hJ m c

Gf e b d VCG
. Gq L NCGh SJdG

MCG
. dM Y H VCG dG SJdG Gf c
: `````````SCG

cJh q e Fe g HdG e hCG MG UM


.C = s = 250 g.L-1 : s hj C
.360 g.L-1 hJ AG dG e q dfG ,IQGG LQO f
.
t G f `t H AG s q dfG s J GPEG
SGMH j *
44

Y G G qcG d Fe d q dfG hj GG hG
.25C OhM IQGM LQO
g.L-1 `H qdfG
316
360
767
49

q G G
SdG jc
jOdG
q jQc
dHdG jQc
SJdG ehc K
`q dfEG b Y IQGG LQO KCJ
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

.IQdG Y gTCG e ah HdG CG

Y MCG
fe je

Qf Y fCG H bCG
IQGM ILQO Ja FOg
G

j QNG fCG NBG


SJdG GH qe qFe
G Gg e e jH Yb

MCG
. AG SJdG Gf e fG UGJ ,IQGG LQO JQG Y
45

: `````````SCG

.IQGG LQO JQH JJ ,AG SJdG Gf q dfG


:AG IQGM LQO q J e g.L-1 H LCG H q dfG q J u dG hG
100C

80C

60C

40C

20C

10C

485

215

125

773

656

562

458

357

333

388

384

373

366

360

358

0,77

0,94

1,16

1,41

1,65

1,76

2080

1960

1760

1600

1440

1360

754

550

400

265

207

174

9520

6690

5250

3760

2200

1700

1,6

1,9
2040
0,002
0,001

IQGG LQO
IOG
jOdG
q fHc
jQdG jQc
jOdG
q jQc
dG chQg
SJdG QhOj
SdG jc
dG
q Gf
dG jc
qdG
FdG jQc
UUq dG fHc
: MCG h qeC JCG

.G IQGM LQO JQG qc AG LCG H q dfG OGOJ


IQGM LQO fG qc AG iNCG LCG H q dfG bJ
.G
IOh q L qdfG d NCGh AG Ic qdfG d LCG H
..AG fd HdG Z LCH J

: ``````````U````G

J hCG qG Gg W J c AG e qdfG J
.IQGG LQO
46

: ````f Y YCG

:1 O``Y j

: e e
fe je Y G Y G q SCG q K
q
q
n G h oG e qc Oq MCG
.dG e 30 mL h qG AG e 50 mL (CG
. qG AG e 30 mL h dG e 50 mL (
:2 O``Y j
Pqf qdG ,`q jqdG HhG d
q q J ,q FdG SG c ,GaCG : dG
q
... `q edG heh R``dG he e cfh .gY iTh W Ih HH
.Gh G Ou M dG
N e (1
u
? dhJ b qdG hG AG e b ehO f GP Y (2
:3 O``Y j
.
q j ,RdG ,q dfG ,FdG
s ,gcJ : j e V e SG dH GdG CeCG
CG EG a
q J ........... oJ eY dG LCG e dG qCG HdG J
.Gc
q j e eh qH AG ...... e dG
q LCG eh ......... q M ....... j
:4 O``Y j
. AG QOe H eCG cJ u GG hG
g.L-1 ``H cdG

AG Qe
39

SG HCG dG

42

(SBG) jhb H

270

G dG

IO OGh

( IO aGhQ e ) SJ OGh

37 EG 33 e

G
OhQR OGh

2,8

.Me cCG EG
q bCG e jq YJ fBG IQcG QOG U
47

:5 O``Y j

eCG cJ qCGh Y .C1 = 3.g.L QJ Me ,IO aGhQ e aGQ SJ OGh


.C2 = 0,3 g.L-1 gJ fG G iMEG q G
cJ ihj d SJ Ae e jd EG aVEG dG qG Ad V G g e
.? G AG eCG cJ e
:6 O``Y j
-1
Y d .qjOdG IQGG LQO .C3 = 39 g.L Me cJ d ,SG
HCGdG
u
Lh dG SG
HCG dG Ae M g c ,dG G e MGh GZ c
u
? `J
:7 O``Y j
q dfG b qCG Y GPEG .V1 = 400 mL M d ,e e ,fe Fe
.s = 360 g.L-1 :g AG dG e
? fG FG G e V1 G dfG bh dG G c b c (1
Y MCG M V1 d aVEG s Y Lh dG V AG IQb M c (2
? C2 = 120 g.L-1 cJ d de NBG
? Y M dG V2 jG G M c (3
-1

48

: ````Kh ````SCG

: MCG a j dG dG
,Gq L e dG Gg e qEG . . G dG SG Y jh a dG Gg j
QeCG g a Qj dG G eh .a j CG x M Fc
u C H
eCG J h ,AG `q j dG g h .IH dG S e `q J Y Yj
.cCGh 27% f EG J M ,G Me e jJh ,dG
.ge ```sG eCG e J
`q G dG j HQ e cCG qEa Ggh
q
,S Y fEG L j H MG IjdG
q G g e dG j
.dG AG J nqfCG M dG AG LLdG H J c
108 U- SOq dG dG- hq CG AG- S OhGO LJ - jH cd f Y

QcG dG eCG cJ sCG e qcCJ dG dG


OQh fSH (1
u
.C = 270 g.L-1 g
? Y f
dG G c g a u G dG Ae e 100g J bh d (2
q
.fqdG IdG OQh dP Qb
(3
dG b OGOJ ,dG Ae Csel G cdG f OGR c GP `a
q
.F G

49

: S````````````jEG

H LC
q G
e e Fe eh Iq Y FSh OYG jdG jdH jdG QK d
Iq Y Hh ,jdG QK a f K ,S LRW H a SJ qCG Y dG
.FdG edG Sd U jdG j HSCG
: ``````j bCG ,cP S K FG cdG b Y H
.LRW Hh ,G e WQ fh ,qG Ae e d f NBG
.ahe J c G e GU e NBG
Y J de Y MC jG NC
t Gh ,b H G VCG
.dG S
.Y dG dG AG cJ MCG q K ,qG G c MCG
d dG AG e jd d jRh e e ej e MCG ,GNCG
.jq dG QK

jdG QK d RGd

ffG Ie jhY
http://www.khayma.com/skl/
http://www.emailfaile.com
50

IOq `````````G `````````````H


IOq d q jG cdG (8
IAdG (9

OhQh bH

de Ge Y

? G ALQCG ac gGT j CG OQdG GgR d qfGC


GG e Gd j CG Fc e e d c
? G q dG

51

IOq d q jG cdG (8
I``G G``gCG

: Y GQOb uG j
.IOq G qH fG IgX J
.FN Y aGh IOq d e
q UCG EG dG
: ```q `dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

, q FjdG Jh
JMh IOq G
t
,fG Z LeCGh fG LeCG
dG
: MCG h eq C JCG

IOq e e dG SG j ,G SGh jRJ cd dG Gq G


? AG
q c de j a aG
IOq G F
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

LC
q G

AG *jQdG hCG c fe
q IOq e fG
jQdG

G j H , sK

e Ae
SGMH j *
52

MCG
? GP ,fe
q jG UCG
G W e G d q J
: ``MCG h q``LCG

e b VCG
Sq dG jc
q K ,QNG SCc
qG AG VCG

MCa jG NCG
Fe Y
SqdG jd

? QRCG dG G ec Y J CG *Sq dG jc e d a ,AG d q J

AJCG
-U dh e AL
u c - G Y J CG G e IU q u d eCG c
?IOs G scJ q ? d Is G FGdG hCG dG q UN
: jd IG qUG Jh G ec Y Rq J IU AGLCG EG j G qGE
. dG ... Iq FGQ ,Me ,IhM
: `````````SCG

bO jL e dCJ IOq e ,G hCG


q G : Fd Hb IOq G
.OdG Ich Gq L
SGMH j *
53

IOq G F jq Oh
SqdG jd FG G (1
: ``MCG h q``LCG

.*Sq dG jd qce Fe e b VCG ,QNG fCG


jG NCG qK ,AG qc YVCG
QRCG H d fe a
gH

,AG qc iNCG Iqe YVCG


.cCG gH qdG a

MCG

- QRCG dG UCG AG q c YV qc
,cCG kgH - FG SdG jc UN
q
.aT QdG fCG i j CG EG
? d jf e EG SdG jc CGJ g
qG FG G

LC
q G
.qcG G q dG he e b VCG ,SCc
jG NCG qK ,AG qc YVCG
NCG H d fe a
.
q NCG iTh IM q bCG Wh gH

,AG qc iNCG Iqe YVCG


idGh qdGh qdG Aa
.cCG

dG he

MCG
qG AG VCG qc
q Jh ,fG FG G ec Y idG
q dch IhG Rq J
? d jf e EG IOq G CGq J g .cCG
SGMH j *

54

: `````````SCG

. Ke jL EG IOq G CGJ
.fG FG G ec Y qdG iTq Rq j Ke FL EG qJ H
J M cCG F - IOq e
q c - SdG jch qdG dch q dG
. IOh Fa G AdG
q c
. IAdG :q j FN Y aj IOq G e AL UCG
fG IgX aC
q G
AL c .Gq L IU jL EG q J qG q q dG sEa
v `eo IOq e fG Y
.IOq G FN ad eM J M ,IAg q j
G `ec Y Rq `J M G`M W FG G Y `qdG GAg ``J
.fe j c G`s L N H SSCGh
je uc CdG Gch .N H eM W FG G Y uG GAg J
. c h fe
Y `Jh `H `e `KJ `e AG GA`g :e Ke GAg e dCj q dG G
...dG GRZh qdG dch gGS
IAdG q YCG
.JU ad eM j h IOq G F Y j CG L UCG g IAdG
UN
dch ,iNCG IO FjdG UG Y J e IO FjdG UG
q
.iNCG IOe IAg UN Y J e IOe IAg
IAdG OHCG
AL GM j gb qE a qjhc T qCG fYG GPEa ,qGL IU OHCG IMGdG IAd
.(1 / 1026) kg QJ c d h ,dG e e Fe e
.Fg j Gq L IU IOq e q M GAdG OY qCG dP Y j
: e
.IAg Qe 80 GM J IU qS q M GAdG OY

55

: `J``e `q ```bCG

,IOq G ,IAdG ,AL : j e V SG dH GdG CeCG


. ........... gh ,FN Y aj ,e ........ UCH Oh............. F

: ``````````U````G

FN Y a IU jL EG IOq G qJ ,fG Y
.IOq G g
.OdG Ich IU AGLCG e Oq e L qc j
q
`eM `jh IA`g `q jo ,e AL UCH IOh IOq G F
.F
.IOq G jJ Nj L g IAdG

56

: ````f Y YCG

:1 O``Y j

: dq dG MG e e
q c Y CN hCG H LCG
.IAdG gh ,FN Y aj ,e AL UCH Oh ,F hCG IOq G qJ (CG
.e
q c GAg OGYCG KJ , AG
q e fG Y (
.q FjdG dM q H , e IOq e IAg q J (
.OdG Ic jL e ,Oq e L
(O
q c j
q
:2 O``Y j

dG HLEG QNCG
: e qd FG G j
q
.FS dM dG
q qdG (CG
.Ae GAgh qS GAg (
.c gOY d IAdG f f (
.OdG jhe jL (O
:3 O``Y j

q J ,q dfG e
q bCG cdG b J eY ,AG
q G c qCG YCG
.AG aVEH
? AG aVEG H qG GAg OY qj g (1
. N1 g qdG GAg OY , MGh d M h ,C1 cJ qd Fe (2
b fc GPEG qd FG G e d f IOLG qdG GAg OY g c
? C1 b HQ cJ
:4 O``Y j

. Dhq ,IOq G ,UGe : V e SG dG VCG SG GdG


.dG e gj c VQCG cc L
H .... Y ej dH fq fCG q j CH Fjd j ,AdG bQR dG qGE {
c GPEa ( )AGG YTEG e GQfG q TCG AbQdG YTEa Ad ITdG ....
gGj c .QdG VGh dG jDhQ e q h AGOS AdG fc .... Sh G
q
.zVQCH G G
q QN e AdG LQ
.Ajd Hf IFL Y q G Sc jdCG Y
57

`F````dG q ````dG ``Gh IAdG (9


``G ``dG

e
qfCG Y FdG q dG G jJ Y GQOb qG j
q
.He GAg e
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.IOG J jOh
.IAdG jJ
: A```JCG h ``qeC JCG

? AG aVEG Y Jfe
Y FG G aj g
q
? JUN
g a ,IOq d e
q
q UC aq J c
? H Y OGG jL H J a ,gZ Y g HK UN
d q f IOq e
q
q c

NCJ ,AGhqdG IAg : jSBG IAd SQ


.LhCG e dG ja AG J hCG M
1889 Y ag a FdG cG
.dP H S G SG NCGh
qjeqdG YhCG Y j CG G Gd c
.OHCG g eh ? bq dG

58

: ``MCG h q ``LCG

LC
q G

.qoG eq dG hCG RdG hCG dG GT hCG e d Fe EG AG e b VCG

MCG

qdG c qCG ZQ JhM LQO bJ G d aG AG c OGR qc


? AG aVEG Hh b hG cJ b qJ g .qJ a

LC
q G

. dG Fe e AG aVEG H YCG

MCG

.dG dH SMEG bJ qc cdG b dAJ qc qfEa ,d o t G dG ASH


.OQdG FGQ Y SdG FGQ Jh ,G W Y j qdG W
: `````````SCG

hCG dc ,qdG LCG e Z Y q FN q f L qd


....FGq dG
.q dG LCG e Z GAg Y q f L IAg NG `j
q e Ggh

FdG
t dG G
: e .c HG GAdG e c OY e j
w f L g q FdG t dG G
s
...hRhCG ,cCG ,dG G ,jdG ,AG ,qdG
IOq ``d q FjdG dG
t
Gge h H gGMEG VCG ,`ZQa GhCG K MoCG
`u c fqdG VCGh ,dG e `b
cCG K e u c dsdG VCGh ,AG e
.L ZCG s K ; hRCG

HK Gh HK dG - 1 - dG
59

- 2 - dG
.HK Gh qe dG : FGdG
q

kfe
q Ak e be GhCG

- 3 - dG
.a VJ AfEG
q CG C RdG e q dG fh q e Gh q e dG : GRdG

: `````````SCG

RGgG dM h Ueh qJe IOd fG GAdG J : dG dG


be dch edG Qhe e HK
t J iNCGh IAg H aG qCG Y ,FGO
.e c
H Y fG cM d Ue GAdG J : FdG
q dG
cGe a ,e hU Sh
s c FGY cM h dG
.FGY
. FGY dM EG fG dM e fG f IOe QfG
FGY cM h H Y IYe GAdG J : qjRdG dG
CG GAdG RJ .edG e J iNCGh IAg H aG .QGSH
.d o as j e u M e M
.hCG e FGY cCG dM EG FGY dM e fG s f IOq e J

60

: `J``e ` q ```bCG

... JGQe Yq OCGh JJh `q dG SQO qcJCG

QgR Q qb
QgRCG M

? dP aC
q G ,QgR IQ qb Aa gGT q jh G J QgRCG FGQ

: ``````````U````G

g eh ,He GAg e j
FdG q dG G
q
... cCG ,jq dG ,qdG ,AG : LCG
HGqdG e g PEG NBG q f L IAg Y q f L IAg J
.MGdG H UG
q
.q FjdG dM q J Y q f L GAg q J

61

: ````f Y YCG

:1 O``Y j

.Ke , c ,qf ,q FdG : V e SG dG VCG SG GdG


G j
q . ......... LCGh LeCG : JeR EG dG IOLG LCG J
.G Gg ........ JUN
q Hh ,Mh .......... Ke GAg e ......q dG
q
:2 O``Y j
: dq dG MG e e
q c Y CN hCG H LCG
.FN Y aG e IOq G F Y j AL UCG g IAdG (1
.e KJ J Aa ,HCG c qdG (2
.q FjdG dM q H e IOq e IAg q J (3
(4
.OdG Ic jL e Oq e L
q c j
q
:3 O``Y j
dG HLEG QNCG
: e j
q q dG G
. GAg (CG
.e Ke GAg (
:4 O``Y j
.H HLEG Y J bCG CG Y hCG H LCG
.q FjdG dM q H q e L GAg q J (CG
.NBG EG q f L e IAdG c q J (
.Ke GAg e G j
q (
.LdG
q jR GAg Y jdG jR GAg J (O
:5 O``Y j
.IOq G F CGe a
q j CG fEd dG GhCG G Y a q CG Ib IaQq MCG
:6 O``Y j
H IAdG c
GAg OY MCG GG hG Y OYH (1
I
O
G
SG
26
s
(1 / 10 ) kg
.JOq G Jg e MGh GZ AGh qdG e qc
OY ihJ g SCG q K jOdG H QbCG (2
AG
2^99
d fc EG q f L GAdG
qdG
29^9
.dG f
62

Jee EG VCG

: ```````aG````````e

GAdG OY
IAdG q Y sCG fYG GPEG h 3.1019 Qj dM AGdG e mL
u c GAdG OY
.fK 3.1019 GAdG
u c u d RdG bdG c ,edG e fK q e j IMGdG
17
fK 10 e CG S Qe 10 e Lh G dG qCG hj AdG qCG M
.a
.GAdG H c q j hL
H IAdG c
(1 / 1026) kg

IOs G SG

2^99

AG

29^9

qdG

5^31

cCG

ffG Ie jhY
www.ac-rouen.fr/pedagogie/math_science/ressources/sciences/odyssee
index.html21
HY behttp://www.alrouad school.net

63

-2- dG IOq G
dG
GMG AGdG QhO

.Gh dG J
q HdG FGM

.NBG EG e e J IOQdGh IQq G jq G G

.G
q dH bY d IgX J hCG e q M
bhd e adCe ILC TG
q SEG

64

SdG efdG e e
(dG IOq G j) VQC`d G
q dG
``gGh i`G

dG
FGdG GQqdG
qjG qdG

GMG AGdG QhO


cCG IQh V
GMG AGdG
q dG GMG
IG q gCGh
q dG Z GMG
Wh

fCGh OGb

Iq`G GgCG
:Y GQOb qG j

q j jG eGd jN SH IdH U
q N jN IAGb ah FG dG GQq dG qJG j
.qjG
.dG GQJ
IKDG eGdG Y dG q
.dG QJ

GMG AGdG cCG QhO KEG


.G
GMG Y EG AdG OGJ
TG SG b qedG IG
.TG Z hCG
q dG Z GMG W EG Vq dG
.dG Y q dG JGKCJh

65

e q dG GMG EG q dG .Ff N
qY H J ILCG cP Z jH hCG IT e GMG
.ITe
e q dG Z GMG EG q dG
.Ff N
q dG GMG H dG .qdG Z GMGh
q dG Z GMG W J .dGh IG Y

```````````` qdG
`jq G dGh FGdG GQq dG
q FGdG GQdG jq G q dG -

jO 22 Ae jq G dG
? GG dG d JJ g e

2004

Q bCG FGN qjG O UQCG S e j


Y qqd AGG a qTCH IQG
q qYUG
g MCG M ,GdCd W e q c IQGG
.dP e q bCG dGh IQGM cCG

? VQCG J h AdG
q J WG j qdG e
? q YUG QbCG FGN G
q Uq dG Se
q j c
? dG GQJ
q ah q FGdG GQq dG qJG j q j c

66

`jq G dGh FGdG GQq dG (10


I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb uG j
,jq G IdH UN
jN IAGb
q
.dG QJ
q IqKDG eGdG Y q dG
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

,VQCd G
q dG
,jq G IdG e ge
.L W G
q dG

: A```JCG h ``qeC JCG

jdG qdG Wh Yfh qFGdG GQqdG EG q dG c


? dq dG jG IAGb N e LdG

67

: MCG h eq C JCG

Gh edG VQCG Y G
dG q J
q

b h ,NBG EG e e dG S ie Y G
u dG q j ,dG f
G
q dG ,GPEG .AGSG qN ie Y e q VQG IdG bCG ie Y cCG
.]`q VQCG IdG T OGOj AGSG qN e HbG qc[ q VQCG IdG T e Y Sj
IU H d ,iNCG EG e G
dG qj ,G f
q
.MGdG dG (hPa) SH dG OhM CG G
dG g J PEG ,NBG EG e e FGdG dG cM QGdG g Y qdJh
eh HWQ e q FGdG dG q Yf[ adGh IQGG dG H Y
.]V e Y g

```M``e
RGdG NG qKDJ h G
u dG JQG gJ dG UdG e AGdG J
t qG
.dG
OUQCG q jq G GMCH q dG
HJh G
u dGh IQGG
u c
u J ,IjY `q LJ VQCG S Y
.gu J
G
u dG q J Heh ,d IQhG qG iG
q dG b Y t dG N e
b qch ,bJh iNCG EG e YJ dG dM j e G
u OUQCG ua u`j
.eq G jq G IdG cCG qbdG cCJ edG q G

68

jq dG Yd l
u n eo IQGhO
q

.NBG EG e e G
q dG q j ,eq dG f

FGN ,IOq jQGJ ,q ej SJ ,VQCG S Y IqcG G


q OUQCG q
.jq G IdG

IOQH L

aGO b
aGO L

NdG
q AGdG q qd OQdG AGdG fG Y jqdG J

hdG uN Y f ,q e Ia ,G
dG a ihj dG dG HH
q
.IdG J dG
J h ] A ce QYEG [ JG dG GP WG j e u G g SQ
.] D L
u e [ e H J dG
hCG ,eY fEG f uKDJh e dG dM j e jq G IdG q
GMCG AS H Iq Y Gq jQCG Gch ,c q FdG cG WEG NCJ j
? jq G

69

: `````````SCG

.iNCG EG e G
q dG q j ,G f
.NBG EG e e G
q dG qj ,eq dG f
q G UdG e D G
u Gh A cG QYEG q J He
Y QRCG d) OQdG AGdG HJ AGS ,q G jq G GMCG j
.(jG Y MCG d) NdG
q G hCG (jG
: `J``e ` q ```bCG

,YUG dG dG dG hCG jG Y QcG jQq dG G


q VdG EG dH
fOH LJ PEG ,q ddG
q IdG f jdG qJG M fqdG jG Y OYH h
?GG dG W j CG c , e e GP e V

: ``````````U````G

u dH eq CG .IU e ,HQe G
u dG b J
: qJ dG g sE`a ST M
.G f ,edH
.eq dG f H
: EG q dG Lh GG dG W EG q d
NdG AGdG d OQdG AGdG fG : qFGdG GQqdG
. D G
q dG L
u Gh A cG QYEG : G
70

Jee EG VCG
dh ,fa ah jOCG ,Ajah VjQ Y
aGhh 1623 S eQc j SH RH
. 1682 S jQH q G
dG q J XCGh qjQW H a
q : 1648
: Hc dG S Y JQG q H G
q
.( 1663 Y X) FG LCG RGJ
- Vh pFGG RG J Y SDq e e
dG b IMh q S M ShQ dG
.SH G
q
: ````f Y YCG

.D G
u Gh ,A cG QYEGh ,P `H G
u d ef :cJ
:1 O``Y j

:dq dG MG e e c Y CN hCG U ``H LCG


.U
u c e H G G
u Y VQCG V g G
q dG (1
L
q c Yh e
q c VQCH G AGdG V g G
q dG (2
.VQCG S Y
-1
T.L dG (1T = 1000kg) dG g G
q dG b IMh (3
.Pa `H d efh SdG G
q dG b IMh (4
:L
u V q J IMH G
q dG Y q j (5
1013 mbar = 1013 hPa = FR 76 cm
H J dG Jh ] A ce QYEG [ JG dG GP WG q J (6
.] D L
u e [ e

71

:2 O``Y j

Qq dG IAGb N e G
q dG
q Oq M
ehQdG IHEG d J qdG

:3 O``Y j

e NBGh G
d JQG e gMCG q M (2)h (1) Sq dG V -1
q
.FN cPCG h e
q c Oq MCG ,G
q d VfG
) H d
q Qa cCGh UCG MG q K ,G
q JGh G
q G H Qb -2
.(fq dG dG h idG dG
Hg :IMdG

1015
1010
1005
1000

Hg :IMdG

1020
1075
1030
1035

qdG hJ N

2 Sq dG

qdG hJ N

1 Sq dG

:4 O``Y j

G
q dG N GG Sq dG q
:G dG dMcPG ,eCG iMEG
,IQdG
q dG -1
.GG dG U -2
:5 O``Y j

L
q e

L
q Je

.G
adG Q SQO e ,HdG
q dGh
q
q SdG
q G Jg qdGa
q
72

: ```````aG````````e

Jee EG VCG
jq dGh G
dG
q
q
iNCG G UY Y KDj gc C Ne eY jdGh G dG e c j
. QeCGh HWdGh IQGG LQc
UN j g Ne QhO dh NB e e G dG NG f jdG CJ
JG H dG QdH UN jdG YS JJ .WG H HWdGh IQGG f Y
.G Gh
Oh (Hg1015) jJ Qe 1015 VQCG S Y G dG e hj
.45 VY N Yh dG S i dH dG g
G dG h``n J N OYH G `d FGN SQ e G dG b
(dG S Y dG dG b a ihJ `dG dG H HJ gh N)
G dG TCG
g FQ T G `d
G dG a Rhj VQCG S e e c Y j G JG *
.Hg 1015
G ce EG GWCG e dG Jj .dG hd e H G JG q
.(1 SQ) ,(+) eH hCG A H dG ej qdG
e bCG G dG a j VQCG S e e c Y j G G *
c dG b J dh dG hd e H jCG q . Hg 1015
.(2 SQ), (-) eH hCG D H Y qj qdG G b G G

2 Sq dG

1 Sq dG

73

VQCG S Y WfG
cGG GfCG
q
QGM Vh ejO V g G dG e SSCG Yf Lj

: ejdG
dG GMh ( GC
q
J .JQGM Y dG H AG`d jOdG cH gOLh Jj FGO GMh g
: b
Y Sq j fEa UGe Wg cM AGdG j eY : ejdG G JG
jQGG T JG e `d YJQG K jh VQCG S
K fRh
q j UGe jYJ cM AGdG j eY : ejdG G G
dG T G e jq L e VQCG S Y

: jQGG dG TCG (
: Yf dc gh VQCG S IQGM LQO NG f CJ TCG g
d eG AGdG Oj jW Iq VQCG S IOhH UGJ eY : QGG G JG
jL Je K ejdG G G S Y Sq j h a FGdG OdG jh
dG AGg J VQCG S IQGM LQO JQG j : QGG G G
S Y jL e dH K YJ h O h QGSG Y EG ODj dG jG
VQCG
Ge H
G Ud WdG G GY Lj e Y GOYG h , HdG
q KdH SSH
:`H bCG ,MCGh dG ed YUG dG QU Y WCG CG M ,ffCG
,SCG e dGG jq CG N `` qdG Y j dG dG j -1
,q FG jq G IdG G
e e dP QbCG -2
q OUQCG AGN d Uj
q
.IQhdG
q bG qc ,VG Y JGQJ Qe q YCG -3
www.meteo.tn :ffCG G Ud WdG G GY

74

GMG AGdG QhO


G``Md ````cCG IQh```V (11
IG q gCGh q `q `dG G````MG (12
q `````````dG ```Z G```MG (13

? IOq e fGdCG NCj *dG j dG e


? q dH bhG H UJ GP
? bhG SG e dG Y aG J c

SGMH j *

75

G``Md ````cCG IQh```V (11


``G ``dG

.GMG AGdG cCG QhO KEG Y GQOb qG j


: ```q `dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

,VQCd G
q dG
,AGdG fe
.W h J`q `e ,AGdG qJ

: A```JCG h ``eq C JCG

,HdG jM
q j eY
? QqdG LCJ jqdG jJ GP

: ``MCG h q ``LCG

.IYG dG
q N e GQf q a T a TCG
.AYH qZCG q K , Ak e j AfEG G dG VCG

dG
q TJ
J h

dG j

(3 SQ)

(2 SQ)
76

(1 SQ)

MCG
cQJ J K ,GjhQ ,GjhQ T HJh dG
q Qf j
.j e YS OSCG NO e N
jj c dG AGdG M o N GM LCa AYdG YG AG M bCG
.AfEG jj c dG cCG M hj qfG ,VG dG Gg aY d : AdG
IQhQb
RZ
cCG

dG
q Y ,cCG RZ e H
q VCG d
GOq T L
q Cd ,dqdG Sq dG
cCG gQf q Th
: `````````SCG

.dG
q a GM
q QhV cCG
.bG IOq d G Qhd LCG GMG q Y QhV cCG
.bhG V q J bG IOq G
: `J``e ` q ```bCG

,G HdG cCG K e J
q ,AH IZQ AWEG IQhQb qJ
.J q K a ,G Qq dG Y
. AWEG q Y AdG IZq dG QhO a
q
: ``````````U````G

.Qq dG L
q CJ KJ qc .bhT
q QhV cCG

: S````````````jEG

Jee EG VCG
,G
q NGOh VQCH G AdG IF qdG q
.o c AGdG cCG J M
G e qfEa ,gZh jQCc ,q FdG qcG eq CG
LhQdG) ObdGh (hRCG cCG K hCG cCG)
(jRQdG hCG q G
77

IG q gCG q `q `dG G``MG (12


``G dG

ILCG cf Ff N e q `q dG GMG EG q dG Y GQOb qG j


.GMGp q Y H J
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd qSCG

,VQCd G
q dG
,AGdG fe
,GMG AGdG QhO
.b qdG

: A```JCG h ``eq C JCG

SG c
G d hCG H b eCG
? OhOe bCHh

dG GMG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

qLLR b aW cG NBG
* c qe

VCG q K ,dG Qq dG TCG


QNG fCG NGO

SGMH j *
78

MCG
GG GNEG H fCG
NGqdG QGL Yh
Ae Gb

jHh ,fCG NGO IQGG LQO JJ


.NGq dG QGL Y Ae Gb qJ
,NC
q Gh fCG G Ae e b VCG
. G Ae qa

: `````````SCG

IOjR.HdG cCG K h AG e j
q dG GMG qY UM
GMEG JJ IQGG LQO bW GMG q Y J dP Y
.jq QGM bW q Jh
.eq J bGMG GMG Gg q SCG
UUq dG e G aq dG jdG GMG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

. HdG
q HdG YCGh UUq dG e G aq dG jd`H dG VYC
q G
.GMEG qY e HdG
q qdG f Y MCG
: `````````SCG

AG e j
q UUq dG e G aq dG jdG GMG q Y UM
. qjQGM bW e HdG cCG Kh
.eq J bGMG ,cCG GMG Gg q SCG
q dG GMG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

LQO G Ae e b GMG qb VCG CG Y hCG HdG YCG


.qjOdG IQGG
*dG e q q c VCG ,jW e S WHe GMG Ie hCG IU JH
.dG
q c j q M fCGh GMG q b U NOCGh ,Qq dG a TCG q K ,V1 M
79

MCG
LQO JJ h G Ae qj
.JQGM
G dG c Ye Y
.cCG IQGG JJ
: `````````SCG

.hG c YH YJ jq QGM bW j q dG GMG


eCG J q dG GMG J ILCG
: MCG h eq C JCG

Y HG IQdG
q ICae J
Jb d j GPa .G GMG
Ne Y iNCGh AGdG f IMGh
?Je

H J ICae

NGdG GMG Y IQq dG J


,gObh Gq N OLG fHchQd
.qcM bW EG qjQGG b qdG jd

80

e T

AGdH RdG
q FGg a
RZ

dG RdH hCG jQGdG RH j ,RdG bG


aCG OhOe j ,q G hdG RH hCG
? dP c d .TH
q dSG Y
: `````````SCG

, bGh ICac Ic ILCG


q J jq QGM bW j q dG GMG
T qfe b qW : bW EG iNCG ILCG d
q CG c
...q FHc bW hCG ec b qW h CG ,q cM bW
e c Qb aJ e q H jq QGM bW bCGh q q dG GMG Y d
. cCG
: `J``e `q```bCG

dG Y aG q J W dBG SHh ,IR FJ d e GP


Y QdG cGjh G IQGM OGOJ c qdG H M f qdG GhCG SCG
q j ,Gh
.aGq dG LR
: ``````````U````G

UM ,jq dG bhG e j
q , cCG q dG GMG Y
LQO JQG e H dG cCG Kh AG e q j q dG g
.IQGG
,qdG adG , qdG W : IjY qej GMG fG j
... IQq dH qdG

Jee EG VCG
c - dSGh HdG cCG K fG M ,gZ hCG ffCG T Y H bCG
.q edG IG Y JSfGh ,FGG AWG jQGb
81

q `````````dG ```Z G```MG (13


IG GgCG

: Y GQOb qG j
.Ff N e q dG Z GMG EG q dG .dGh IG Y q dG Z GMG W J .qdG Z GMGh qdG GMG H dG : ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

,VQCd G
q dG
,AGdG fe
. Wh J`q `e ,AGdG qJ

: A```JCG h ``eq C JCG

OSCG NO Yj GP
bf G Qq dG N e
? J GMG Gg g hdG

qdG Z GMG
: ``MCG h q``LCG

.G Ae qb q fCH qj b ba VCGh e T NBG

MCG gH H
? GP G Ae qJ

82

eCG dG
q Qf a
d QNG SCH
?MCG GPe , bdG
dG
q Qf e JH q bCG
S Y cGa
.HdG e OSCG NO
: `````````SCG

K h ,AGQH : Lj dG
q Qf GMG q Y UM V
.jq QGM bW fG e ,HdGh ,HdG cCG
.qJ Z bGMG GMG Gg q SCG

q dG Z GMG W
: MCG h eq C JCG

q ,AGdG HdG cCG K f jGa cCG j e RZ


q c
hHh fN RZ - HdG cCG OMCG d
q Fe ahX `q `aj PEG NG N Y q j
.q dG Z GMG AGq L - d qdG e fEG q FGQ hCG d
GRdG ANEG : eh SG h qdG qaJ e q H bh
q CG SG Y NEGW d
cCG OMCG eh fG GRdG J qM ,Fe FJ aJh GMG Y qdG
.fEG Y GN j e IOY dG f G RdG Fah HdG cCG Kh HdG
f e a q d AGG jq dG ie Y Fq dG Kj H dG cCG OMCG
.dG qbO HGVGh GOLEGh AYEG q j q cCG
m3 dG H RdG e q e e GM RdG AGdG M

RdG f

4.2

qG jG RZ

23

Qq dG HhdG

29

Qq dG JdG

10

FGG dG RdG

8.5

ddG dG RdG
83

: ``MCG h q``LCG

.QRCG *hdG e b TCG IU JH


.gc FGQ G q Jh AdG OSCG NO Yj
? dGh G Y G j GMG Gg g

: `````````SCG

FdGh dG Y GN `q `h G J
q OGe j qqdG Z GMG
.a J dG q G
G dG bG J q H WGG q fG jG de J e Gc
G GRdHh cCG PH j q M jW Iq ,FdG J aH
.GMEG q Y e
jGH Me h ,qqdG Z GMG W M HdG
q UqdG d Y
L e cCG f Y f qJ V e QGhH eCG OH f
,G
q
M ,iNCG L e ,HdG cCG OMCGh HdG cCG d qJ AGq Lh
.d FGQ h d
G FJ e ,SGMH j *
: `J``e `q ```bCG

dG MG g e ? q J Z GMG g g ,G NGO ,cbe RdG GMG


?HLEd JYG

: ``````````U````G

JQGh HdG cCG Kh AG QH e qdG GMG j e Y IOjR


.HdG cCG OMCGh HdG jCG j q dG Z GMG qEa ,IQGG LQO
.q G FdG Oq j GN h a jf dG dG j
q q dG Z GMG
84

: ````f Y YCG

:1 O``Y j

:dq dG MG e e c Y CN hCG U ``H LCG


. jdG GM QhV Z cCG (1
.S AH qKOCG M G dG j (2
.cCG RZ j e Y Qq dG L
q CJ (3
:2 O``Y j
G ,cCG ,IQGM : dq dG dG e Sj ZGdG CeCG
gYf dG LCG . ...........OLd AGdG j QdGh dGh G
. ...........: SH bGMG Y Yj dG cCG Yj h , GMd HdG LCH
...............h AH He bGMEG
:3 O``Y j
. a IOQGdG ANCG hCG CG J e dGG IdG Hc YCG
K RZh AG : Y ehO MCG PG q dG Z GMG UM f g q q dG GMG UM
.jq QGM bW fG e HdG cCG OMCGh HdGh HdG cCG
:4 O``Y j
?dP qYCG .Fd be J e q H , RdG jQGb UJ Y
:5 O``Y j
?eq dH qf GP, FGG H AWE
:6 O``Y j
dG WG g e .J b Iq j RdG GS dG j ,RdG bG TE
?FY d Vq dG
:7 O``Y j
CG GPe ,dG Gg a Vj dG AfEG SCG GOGS j G dG d (1
?f h GMG f M f
? L
q Ce Qf b dG a AfEG J Y N e g (2
:8 O``Y j
: c e Sj ZGdG qCG
cCGh ..................... g SCG qE a *SCG M SGH GMG Y
................ g
. G dG j RL g :SCG M *
85

: ```````aG````````e

Jee EG VCG

UCG d

RdG j
AGg hH

: S dCG e cCG e IQfEG 1


dG jq dG jdG e IjY MG IQfG e
.G FHdG SfdG EG b fEG SG
IQfEG j fEG c dG
q e H e
. fGG T e U T
EG Hd a fdG UJ
q 1798 Y
. IQfEG RZ cG
hT fdG FdG U 1820 Y
LG bG qc JH AJ GJ dGh dG
q
M iNCG SG hCG OG OYCG AGS
.SCG GdGh
q hdG GdG
q VY
q
: GMG ANCG -2
MEH AGdG a V Y
H hJ dG
q Ea QdG a c GPEG
.gH H AZ j ,cGO QRCG Wh
.YH KJ FWEG Y h cSh ,cS gh
QdG
q V c GPEG ,RdG e c e
Y qjQGG b qdG fGh qeJ j GMG qE a
.bCG
GhCG SCG qfEa ,AGU dG
q fc GPEG
fG f Y f ,q J Z GMG : AGOS
FGR fG dO Ga dG
q q UG GPEG .AGdG
QdG
q V e q H .fMCG J j AGd
e AGdG fG jJ h GaG a : MEH
.GMG RL NGO RdG

RZ

86

WedG
FHdG QdG jRJ
Yq e IQGO
FHdG JdG
FHdG qJdG jRJ
dH IQGO
qde b FK H eAG
e b FKh

qT

fJ-SOGH q FHdG b qdG dJ q

.adCG ILCG hCG BG H d Fe FHc IQGO RG


87

FHdG JdG
Yq e IQGO FHdG QdG jRJ (14
FHdG JdG e (15
FHdG JdG b (16

Y qJJ GP FHc S Y q e
G Ue q FHc IQGO

gDhf dG 9Vh 4,5 V, 1,5V:dq dG fdGeJ GPe EG


?FHdG IYCG Y
FHc SCG Y M iPCG CH adG J GP
Fc CG j H Y JJ GP SCG J fc dh e
?VQCG eJ aGWCG H hCG bSh j M M

88

SdG efdG e e
(YS 7 EG 5 e) WedG
``gGh i`G

fCGh OGb

I`q G GgCG
:Y GQOb qG j

Qq dG jRJ
IQn GO q FHdG
no dG fb : Yq e

fb q f eeCG SH hCG) Yq e IQGO REG .o dG


(RGdH cJ
.no dG fb OS .o dG fb J -

q FnHn dG qJqdG
qJ dG e
q FHn n dG
qJdG b IMh
: q FHn dG
(V) ddG
qJdG b R L
: q F Hn n dG
ddG
qJdG jRJ fb
IQn GO q FHdG
.dH
o

: HdG eJ GPe EG
gDhf dG 9V , 4,5V , 1,5V
? qaG q FHdG IYCG Y
qJdG d ddG SG
H e qde b H FHdG
qe b Hh GqdG J
.e IQn GO
IQn GO H dG f IO YEG
Me
qCG e qf ddG SH
IQn GO dG n b H qJ dG
GqJdG hj dH
o
.IQn GdG q H UY bCG H

F K H enAG
F Kh qde b
.q e b

eAe IQhV q J Q REG FK enAe e q dG J j q M qdG e q G


b FK e qde ob
.jq OY hX
.IQn GdG Z b q e

89

q FHdG qJdG jJ d ddG SG .FHdG JdG


qJ dG jRJ fb O S IQn GO q F H dG
.dH
o
qJdG jRJ fb J IQn GO q F Hn dG
.dH
o

Yq e IQGO FHdG QdG jRJ (14


I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb G j
,RGq dH cJ hCG Yq e IQGO REG
,dG fb OS
.dG fb J
: ```q `dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

. q dH IQGO Jq Th gqJG ,FHdG Qq dG


: A```JCG h ``qeC JCG

He Iq Y J c
h MGh Qe e q FHc
? bdG f
qJ q FHdG HG IjY jq qdG
.jq dGh IAVEd gZh RG

: ``MCG h q``LCG

eh R eheh M FHc q : e `qcG dq dG IQGq dG RH bCG


: q dG f e A eeCG ILCG HQCG e jq QHh Rh dq eh K Wbh ,FHc
M

A3
A2

I2

R1
A1

I3
P
I1
I

4,5 V

A
Rh

.IY q J IjY ha G IQqGdG q J M P dG

MCG

.GU hJ FHc QqJ Iq T EG j eeCG qc Me IQGq dG J eY


90

FHdG Qq dG Iq T IAGb H GG hG q YCGh ,dq G dGR q MCG q K ,IQGq dG ZCG


: IQGq dG e a qc G
I1 (mA)

I2 (mA)

I3 (mA)

I (mA)

I1+I2+I3 (mA)

. SCGh I b e I1+I2+I3 GQq dG Iq T QbCG


: `````````SCG

hj ,P IdG e LQG q FHdG GQq dG Iq T


. dG OQGdG FHdG Qq dG Iq T
: `J``e `q ```bCG

qJG jH GG Sq dG CG
Z H ,a qc q dG FHdG Qqd
GQ q dG Iq T H b dG LhCG q K IQGq dG
.IY
q c e Gh IOQGdG q FHdG
: ``````````U````G

I2

I1
P

I5

I3

.Yq e IQGO q J M e cCG q FHc IQGO c


IQGO ,cCG hCG bCG FK KH dUe f
q c
.IY q J ,FHc
qFHdG GQqdG Iq T j IY qc
qFHdG GQqdG Iq T hj e LQG
I4
.d OQGdG
I1+I2+I3 = I4+I5

(dG fb YNBG J)

```M``e

.dG AHdG cGJ ,QG AdG Y AG cGj c


91

FHdG JdG e (15


I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb G j
.FHdG JdG jJ
.FHc IQGO eGfG hCG FHc JJ OLh EG q dG
: ```q `dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.FHdG IQGdG
.FHdG q Gh qdG
: A```JCG h ``qeC JCG

IYCG Y IOLG fdG J GPe


?HG FHdG
(40 mA , 4,5 V) fdG J GPe
?FHc Sfa Y IOLG
FHdG JdG e
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

LC
q G

eSG FHdG IQGdG CG


dG S SGH UCG K HG dG
q Y
B dG UCGh Gd Y NH M
.H K S SGH

MCG

.YCG EG TdG Sh e aCG FdG G j

LC
q G

N dG H UdH Y NGh M dG H UdG VYC


q G K HdG HdG f YCG
. YNGh
92

MCG
.fe HK j Gd aCG FdG G

: `````````SCG

dG H (Ke Z) FHdG dM B h M dG
.FHdG dG f Y a (Ke) Nh B
Bh M dG H FHdG JdH j e f g KdG Gg
.FHc IQGO
FHdG JdG OLh
: ``MCG h q``LCG

eSG FHdG IQGdG CG


.HG dG Y
Y1 NH P dG S SGH UCG
Y2 NH M dGh GG H N dGh

MCG
:Me IQGq dG
,gYCG EG TdG Sh e Y2 Nd NCG qG j
.TdG
q Sh be NBG qG j M
: IQGq dG Z Y
j c jJ fe Y1 Nd NCG qG j
.UCG QG dh YCG EGY2 Nd NCG qG
: `````````SCG

.qdd Nh P dG H qEG qJJ Lj ,Me IQGq dG fc GPG


dG H FHc qJJ jh ,a FHc Qq J j ,IQGq dG Z Y
. qdGh d Nh M
93

d Hb QGe g FHdG JdG


: A```JCG h `` eq C JCG

Y 12V ,` qG qG OdG Y 4 ,5 V : fdG eJ GPe G


? FHc q Md Y hCG e
SH q MU e q dH AHdG q a j ,jq QH T Y
? RG j GPe ,b j OqGY
?bq dG RG fH hCG RG IHEG GfG j GPe
: ``MCG h q``LCG

b RL H b UCGh 4,5 V Y qS qe qaL GOY NBG


.V4,5 dH fQbCGh TT Y q J dG dG CGbCG .(bQ da e) FHdGqJqdG
: `````````SCG

.d Hb QGe FHdG qJdGG


. V : `H d ejh ddG g qJq dG b IMh
: ddG Ye
1 kV = 1000V M ,q YdG
q AHdG e (kV)da dG
1V = 1000 mV M (mV) dG ddG AGLCG e
L QGe qJdG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

LC
q G

SGH UCG M hCG HdG CG


FHdG IQGdG e A dG bf S
B dG UCGh Gd Y NH
.H K S SGH

MCG
.gYCG EG TdG Sh e aCG FdG G j
94

LC
q G

Y NH FHdG IQGdG e B dG -S SGH - UCG M fdG HdG CG


.H A dG UCGh Gd

MCG

HdG QGG H TdG Sh e aCG FdG G j


.SCG f d
: `````````SCG

G fG qj eY Le jL b FHdGJd J
efh Le JdG CH a hCG HdG Me Ggh YCG f FdG
UAB > 0 `H d
Gd FdG G fG q j eY dS jL b Jd J
JdG CH a fdG HdG M e Ggh SCG f
UBA < 0 dS
j H UBA h UAB jQGd G dG ihJ
UBA = - UAB
edG
: `J``e `q ```bCG

dP qYCG ,fdG FHdG IQGdG HHdG Ge TT Y FdG G SQCG

: ``````````U````G

e d FHdG KdG Y qj FjaQGe g FHdG JdG


. V `H d ef h ddG g b IMh .FHc IQGO
.L QGe ghUAB `H FHc IQGO e Bh A f H Jd ej
.GU hj FHc IQGO Ke f H JdG
95

FHdG JdG b (16


I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb G j
ddG :FHdG JdG b RL EG q dG
ddG SGH FHc IQGO f H FHdG qJdG b
. H JdG
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

dH q FHc IQGO RG
: A```JCG h ``qeC JCG

FHdG JdG b ILCG G q dG hMCG


.Y eSG RedG a hMCGh a Gq L q CG
? Y SG VG ej GPe EG
? dG RL b `d j GP
96

: `````````SCG

ddG JdG b RL q j
:e IjY GfCG dd
qJd ITG IAGd IHEG ITCJ a Jh HEG ddG
.Rd G qSGh ITCqdG OYH hCG
.TdG
q Y qJd ITG IAGdG a Jh bq dG ddG
qJq dG b EG aVEa FXdG IOq e ILCG g J CG
.q FHdG ehG b hCG / h FHdG Qq dG Iq T d jCG dSG
j h /hCG (+) edG dZ j gMCG , b dd
qdG OSCG j h /hCG (-) edG j NBGh qdG MCG
: `H fdG SdG dd ej
V
jQH

FHdG IQGdG ddG Uh


: ``MCG h q ``LCG

LC
q G

:dGG FHdG IQGdG CG

de

FHdG G

MCG

da

.q e qJJ G ddG jh FHdG G Aj


: `````````SCG

HH RGdH FGO ddG Uj UAB FHdG JdG d


B dGh dd (+) ed eG hCG MCH G
q dH A dG
.(-) ed eG hCG OSH G
q H
HEG dd (+) ed eG hCG MCH G
q dG Uj : ```M``e
dd qdG dG Ujh qdd LG dG L e J IQGq dG e H FGO
.qdd ddG
q dG L e J IQGq dG f e iNCG H
97

f H FHdG JdG b
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

.WCG d q h eh qde e J
q dH FHc IQGO CG
hCG Me bQ da SGH (qdG b) N h P dG H UPN JdG bCG
.(2dG) fK Me P h N dG H UNP JdG bCG .(1dG)
V

(2dG)

V
N

N (1dG)
M

MCG
.dS qJJ G j fqdG dG h Le qJJ G ddG j hCG dG
j d UNP Jd G dG hJ UPN Jd G dG
UPN = - UNP : edG
: `````````SCG

Y d Nh P dG CG j Ga e Z Nh P f H JdG c GPEG
.H SdGh fdG JdG Gg .qFHdG dG f
N
P
.dG Jg HUPN JdG EG P EG Ne G dG ej
UPN
.dG Jg H UNP JdG EG N EG P e G dG ej
N
P
UNP
FHc IQGO f H JdG d Ge SG M
.GG TT ce Y FdG G ``Ho h Gd SCGdG SG f qfEa
UPN = TdG ce Y FdG G H Gd SCGdG SG
f qfEa FHc IQGO f H JdG d HG ddG SG M
:bdG EG ODJ dG dG dBG IHEG GfGh JdG H q SdG UN

UPN = (n) IHEG dEG J dG jQdG OY


bCG jQdG OY
(N)
UPN = nC
N

(C) QdG

:`H bdG d ejh

.N jQdG CG Qq G qdG jf G IHEG q dG i`odGqJdG b g C QdG


98

```M``e

aW H JdG j ,FHc QJ a ,Ue S b K Y


.QdG IT fc e eeY
(Qq dG Iq T b RL) e eCG b H Gq L V FGO JdG j
.FHc QJ a
A dG e ,qdG QN FHdG QdG Ea ,Le UAB JdG c GPEG
.dH dGh B dG G
: `J``e `q```bCG

: ddG FHdG IQGdG f


? JdG d IQGdG g ddG RL Uf c (1
?dS qJJ d dd LG dG Uf f jq CH (2

: ``````````U````G

ddG SGH f H FHdG JdG Sj


V : `H fdG SdG dd ej
ddG Uj ,FHc IQGO e f H UAB FHdG JdG d
(+) ed eG hCG MCH G
q dH A dG HH RGdH FGO
.(-) ed eG hCG OSH G
q H B dGh dd

99

dH IQGO HdG JdG jRJ

dH FHc IQGO

?dH FHc IQGO NGO hdH FHdG qJdG Rj g


? Ye FHc IQGO NGO FHdG QdG Rj c
? FHdG bdH f GPe

100

FHdG JdG jRJ (17


dH FHc IQGO
``G ``dG

:Y GQOb G j
.dH FHc IQGO FHdG qJdG jRJ fb J
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.ddG SH f H FHdG JdG b


.H JdG
qJdG jRJ fb
jQH

: ``MCG h q ``LCG

K
e
FHc
B

ehG

UAB

UBC

FHdG Qd Gqde GdG Y UhCG


.IQGdG ZCG K ILCG KKh Qd Wbh
GJdG ddG SGH bCG
D
UCD h UBC h UAB

UCD

UAC
UAD

MCG
JdG FGR G b H JdG hj ehGh G FdG b H JdG
.ehG b H
CD h BC h AB AGLCG b H GJdG g AD AG b H JdG

101

: `````````SCG

H GJdG hj FHc IQGO e AL f H JdG


.dG Jg H GdG Y cG ILCG b
UAD = UAB + UBC + UCD

G fb
UAD = - UDA : UG Y OYH
q
UAD = UAB + UBC + UCD

bdG qCG qHCG

: dq dG dG
q G Oq DJ
UAB + UBC + UCD + UDA = 0

:dG q dG Y jh G fb bdG g
.GU hj e IQGO NGO GJdG

: `J``e `q```bCG

IQGO NGO GJdG MCG


qde e feh e ,dH FHc
.FHc h FHc eh FHc

: ``````````U````G

b H GJdG hj FHc IQGO e AL f H JdG


.IQGq dG g GdG Y cG ILCG e RL c
.GU hj e IQGO NGO GJdG

102

e
q b FKh qde b FK H eAG (18
G dG

b FK e qde b FK eAe e qdG Y GQOb uG j


.IQGq dG Z b ,q e
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

q G qe b FKh qde b Fd qFHdG FG IAGb


. e
q c bH
.qde b FKh q e b FK H dG

: A```JCG h ``qeC JCG

?iNCG hO IYCH qFHdG ILCG H J GP


: ``MCG h q ``LCG

hCG H
Rh dq eh K Wbh ,FHc e e cJ dG dq dG IQGq dG REH bCG
: A eeCG RL e qjQHh
I
4,5 V

A
Rh

MCG
.fq dG b M FHdG Qq dG Iq T J H dq G dGR q MCG ,WdG Z b
G dq G dGR cq M qc OGOjh G e j aN GQf MCa WdG ZCG
.Fe IQGO EG qW H G j : SG
.J OhM Rh Y G JEG QMCG
a j dG I FHdG Qq dG Iq T h AG G b H UqJq dG b e qc bCG
? MCG GPe :Y
q IQcG G QbCG .G Y c a fCG q K
103

fK H
.Hq dG f YCGh U FHc q G VYC
q G ,HdG
q IQGq dG
M
I
4,5 V

A
Rh

MCG

FHdG Qq dG Iq T Y MCG H dq G dGR q MCGh ZCG ,IQGq dG q G Vh b


.fq dG
Fe Z IQGq dG :JJ JQGM qCG Y a FHdG QqdG Qhe ZQ j q G ,IQGq dG ZCG
.q G T
qCG QMCG :TG q G CGj ,q e ie h ,SG G dq G dGR q MCG eY
?Fe IQGq dG g g - a idG YS RhCG
fCG q K ,j dG I FHdG Qq dG Iq Th G q G b H U qJq dG b e qc bCG
? MCG GPe : Y
q IQcG G QbCG .q G Y G G
: `````````SCG

H UqJqJ e q e q FHc hX EG G h q G j
eY e
q c j dG I FHdG Qq dG Iq Th e
q c b
. e MGh
q c H j dGh j
: `J``e ` q```bCG

: dqdG G CGb ,AHdH G BG iMEG Md Y


Rating : DC 3V - 250 mA
Use battery 1,5V*2

? q e FHc RL d jq QH
q CG SG g
? jH qjQH AGT Y QYEG H PqJG q Y j e
: ``````````U````G

e qdG dG FK eAe e qdG j FHdG IQGq dG Z b


q G b H ,UqJq dG e
q c b eAe e qdG : q G dG FK
.a j dG I FHdG Qq dG Iq Th
104

: ````f Y YCG

:1 O``Y j

42 jQdG Y - jQJ 100 Y j -da IHEG SG U JJ b Y


.SG U JdG b LhCG .30V QdG SG Y
:2 O``Y j
GQY SH U GJJ -jQJ 100 Y j - HEG da SGH f
:GG hG Ae CG .
U (V)
(C) QdG
(n) jQdG OY

15

30

90

30

15

:3 O``Y j

G e FHc IQGO JBG dG

Y NG

? dS CG Le -SG JdG eY g e (1
. b bh dGJdG q S SQCG (2
-1
j FdG G beh 5 V .cm g Gd SCGdG SG CG Y GPEG (3
.G b H JdG b MCG ,IQGq dG Z b Y c q Y YCG f 2,5cm
:4 O``Y j
B
A
:HG dG n q G FHdG IQGdG f
:ddG GJd jq G dG g e
CG Y GPEG UDC , UCD , UBC , UBA
. 4,5 V hJ UAB Jd G dG
D

105

:5 O``Y j

.SCG hG Ae CG .HG dG G FHdG IQGdG f


UAC (V)
UDC (V)
UBD (V)
UAB (V)

-5

-4

8
8

5
-18

-3

20

-17

:6 O``Y j

.a ,Qq dG ,jq QGM ,IQGM ,q FHdG : dq dG dG iMEH Ga


q c CeCG
Ye fGSG Y e hqdG IOq e e e jW S Y ........ICaG
LQO EG .........hqdG S FHdG........ q .Qfd Hb Z dRY IOq e e
.........bW EG q FHdG b qdG J
:...........jh QGMG
q
:7 O``Y j
dGG q FHdG IQGq dG j dG G Oq MCG
.dP qYCGh
1
4
3
2

:8 O``Y j
Oq MCGh dGG q FHdG IQGq dG SH bCG (1

.FHdG QqdG G
.IQGq dG g qFHdG b qdG
q Oq MCG (2

106

R1

:9 O``Y j

I
4,5 V

A
Rh

: dq dG fdG Y MCG ,IQGq dG Z Y


I = 0,2 A, UPB = 1V , UBO = 1,6V , UON = 1V

?dq G b H qJdG b g e (1
Y c qK FHc jJ g ,IQGq dG g FHdG G J Y (2
? 1,8V , 0,20 A : dq dG fdG

Jee EG VCG
q FHdG b qd TG
q Sd dG
q aCG Y ffCG HCG
ffG Ie jhY
http://www.edunet.tn/physique/savant. html
http://www.infoscience.fr/biograph-som..html
?Ghh eCGh da : Ad q dG KBG Y HG

107

AdG
jDh`````dG ```````e
ShCd jq dG UG
Ad G QfG

dH dG HG VJ "XG" Hc
gcP dG , dG e jDhdG fG jd
MO j M e c ah ,aSCG
jDhdG Y EG : jDhdG fG jd
dh QHG Y e J TH J
e G Td dG SH J jDhdG
...QHG Y NJh LQG ATCG

eh 965 Y IdG dh : dG HG G
." RdG" SH HhQhCG jh 1040 Y IgdG

108

SdG efdG e e
(YS 10 EG 8 e) A````````dG
``gGh i`G
jDhdG e
AdG QOe
G LCG IG LCG Ad Tc dG
Ad iNCG Te
dG
q jQc FV he -

fCGh GOGb

:I`q G GgCG
:Y GQOb qG j

iNCGh Ie LCG Ige N e


.FV Qe EG qdG : noj e
Lh Ae L H dG .e
qoJ dG LCG qEG iJ dG qCG Te H EG dG .Ak V
.AdG
: Yf AdG QOe qCG q
.jDhdG hT J G LCG0
IG LCG 0
: Y FV Qe Ige
OY LR b ie
s Qh hCG N b sje Qh hCG TMCG LR b GNG M ShCG G fCG J
d AdG

M ShCG J .qjdG JUN


Sh ,qT Sh H dG .Y Shh qT

Ad G QfG
AdG h Ae Sfa Ige
SG
q FdG QG QGh nu dG QG e SGh
FdG QGh
SG
q
Ad G QfEG J H REG
qnudG
q FdG eMCG RGHE Q REG
G QfG Y d dSGh e aZ REG
: Ad TT Y Ae VGh IQU
Y G
IQdG
FdG dG P
q
q fG Jh
qFdG eMCG RGHEG b jJ dB NGdG AGLCG je
G adG e HdG LhCG
QfG J
LCG
: Ad G
q d J OjEG
dBGh G adG - Ae L qX Y d H REG
jdG qdG ee RGHEGh Se
s FV Q
rdGh qdG rdGh
dG QGWCG - d (HdG) In G HdG SG
G dGh G JgX
dGh
dG QGWCG M qe OGYEG

q npf FV Qe H dG .Se
s Qeh
G QfG CG e cP .Ad
eMCG H dG .q FdG
FV T SQ .qFdG eMCG SQ adG IQdG fG J .jdG dBGh G
Qe A e L
q X SQ .f
p
.Ae d rdGh qdG SQ G J g X J q G Sq dG REGh dGh
.d
.dG QGWCG J -

ShCd jq dG UG
qdG SdG
qdG SdG
dG SdG

109

jDhdG e
AdG QOe (19
jDhdG hT - QHEG : AdG Te (20
ShCd jdG UG (21

SQO OGYG e q SfdG AV d

?G ceCG jDhdG J GP
? AdG Y G c
? ShCG N e VdG H ATCG if g
? QHEG j c

110

A```````dG QO````````e (19


I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb G j
,FV Qe EG q dG
,e Lh Ae L H dG
.Se
q FV Qeh f FV Qe H dG
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

dG GMG Y dG IAVEG - IQGG LQO JQG H LCG gq J


. dG Z GMG Y JAVEGh
: MCG h eq C JCG

,e f hCG c NGO
e GPEG EG H j e Y dG
,T hCG Sfa TCG CG O .qdH
ATCG jDhQ e CGh G AdG j
.IAG

: ``MCG h q ``LCG

LC
q G
.WCG K ,LQG AdG ae c Sq H ,aZ NGO T hCG FHc Sfa TCG

MCG
.dG Y a CfG GPEG eCG ,e c GPEG SfdG jDhQ e CG
.Y f e GAL a ,SfdG e OQGdG AdG AVCG GPEG qEG adG KCG jDhQ e CG
111

: `````````SCG

J e Y Oj AV OLH EG ATCG e dM e iJ CG d
.IAe LCG hCG Ad YH LCG g q FG LCG
q c .ATCG
AdG QOe GfCG
: AdG Qe jJ

. Ad Qe g AdG e j L c
: AdG QOe H cPCG

,jdG ,QTCG ,q dG ,dG ,FHc Sfa ,T d ,dG


... dG b ,KCG
AJCG

?J dG Ad I`ude FG LCG c g
: Yf AdG QOe

q dGh dG
q e Ae La ,dM qj h AdG dj JGH e Qe
. Gh
.dG e eo La ,NBG Qe e j dG AdG e A Kf Qe

```M``e

.Fe Z IAe fc dG LCG J Y OQGdG AdG Z Y

SG QGh dG QG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

.e Aa Y d aGdG Z MCGh YdG AGVCG CWCG f CG hdG b


:hCG f
LhCG H Y IKe K MCG ,SHO SGH
.iG QdG e Y
.LQN e J CG ,FHc Me dG NGO VCG

MCG
.VH dG S Y dG iQCG : FHdG G J b
.G dG e Y dG S Y gTCa dG e AdG Rj : G J Y
.Ad f GQe K c j
q
112

: K f
e ,HdG YCG
. TCG GPh Se
q a
jL e G d IQGdG ZCG

MCG
qe dG Y dG e AdGj
.Ad Se
q GQe J e Me Lh
q c Y
: `````````SCG

SdG Se e H UCG JSe fc GPG f AdG Qe j


.iNCG G qc Se
q QG jh .H G

```M``e
es EG dP Ojh ,f FV a ,f g FdG QG j CG
.dG e gG Y dG d hCG dG IQGT e d
: `J``e ` q ```bCG

: q K IQdG eq CJCG
.q SCGh AdG QOe q JCG
.SG
q QOG e dG QOG q eCG

: ``````````U````G

.Ie LCGh e LCG Yf AdG QOe


. fQe GU c GPEG q f AdG Qe j
.Ic q f Me fc GPEG Se
q AdG Qe j

113

A```````dG ``````Te (20


I``G G``gCG

: Y GQOb G j
.jDhdG hT q J
.AdG Te H EG dG
: `` `q `dG J```e qcJCG

.jDhq dG - IG LCGh G LCG- AdG QOe


: A```JCG h ``qeC JCG

Jh
AdG Y GH Ic OGe
q
? GP ,Y jQGb iNCG qOGe

? jDhq dG IgX dG QhO g e

? Ad
q J GP
q Vq H - ...dGh FGdGh dc - LCG H UN
q
? J ch iNCG AdG
q Te g e
? JJ IgX
q CHh qjdG G e
Ad e - dG -I
QHEG Y dG -1
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

: hCG H
fCG q K ,Y bM dG eCGh Iq e IBGe fCG ,Yb NGO IQfEG IOh jhGR
? MCG GPe ,q dG YCGh IAVEG cCG cQ EG
114

.AdG
q jGH qJh M IQfEG bJ Y dG bM J
q .dG OGORG qc cCG Y gJ -

: fK H
,Y bM dG eCGh Iq e IBGe fCG ,Yb NGO IQfEG IOh jhGR ,dG AKCG
? MCG GPe ,AdG
q WCG qK
.jDhQ J h fGdCG J h gTCG c dG G e OQGdG AdG
q j ,dG
.GdCG h dG e IQdG
q J
: `````````SCG

.M q a AdG
q q H dG bM qKCJ
.G dP e JCe ac IAVEG dG EG OJ eY e L jDhQ q J
.IAVEG jGH jDhq dG J
FG G e AdG
q fG - : WH jDhq dG qJ
.G Ad
q dG q J fG jd dH dG HG VJ zXG{ Hc
j M e qc q ah ,aSCG gcP dG dG e jDhdG
SH J jDhdG Y qEG : jDhdG fG jd MO
.G e G TCd dG
: qjdG G M FKh -2
: MCG h eq C JCG

(CG)
()
115

hCq G G -CG
? jRGe ()h (CG) G g
.IG SH dP e qcCJCG

(CG)
()

dG G -
? jhe ()h (CG) G b g
.IG SH dP e qcCJCG

ddG G -
? Ke dG g

HGdG G -

(CG)

()

? Ke jcG JFGq dG g
: ``MCG h q``LCG

IQTEG H M ,(stroboscope)SHhS - jQhOh de FV GQTEG Sj Sfa


? T IG b bJ e FdG GQTEG JGJ MCG g . T`H QJ Ib Ie iNCGh
e FdG GQTG JGJ VH q eCG fdG N OhM e T IG b J eY .SfdG
1
GQTG JGJ eCG (T = 20 s)fdG Y f OhM EG Jh T IG b bJ eY .fG hH UGe IQfG hJ PG SfdG e FdG
IG qb GPG QdG JGJ fEd a ,dG fb Y IQdG ehG IgdG g J
q
1
. s Y iNCGh IQdG H T
20

116

: `````````SCG

GdCH hCG -dGh hCq G G - TCH eEG ,fMCG dG SM


q qKCJ
FV JQTEG H UdG TedG H hCG - HGdGh ddG G - ZdG
.dG GH Gg jh bGdG Y edG IQdG
q a ,de

Ad iNCG Te -II
Fc - FV Tc : dG
q jQc -1
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

dG
q Gd Fe
Fe
jOdG jQd
e fCG
Y Z

jOdG
q jQd Fe
Ad
q e

.dG
q jQc : dG HCG SGQ Hj Fe Y MCG
jOdG Gf + dG
q jQc

j `dG
q Gf + jOdG jQc

: Y MCG gH Hh dG
q AV EG HfCG V`Yq CG
jQc SGQ d
fCG ,dG
q
dG G
.dM Y H ,dG

dG
q jQc SGQ d
.jq OeQ UCG
117

``MCG

.Oeq dG EG ,G fCG dG
q jQd ,HCG dG j
q
.dM Y qG fCG dG
q jQd HCG dG j
jQd HCG dG QhH j
q AdG
q EG Vq J q K qdG fCG Y dG dGREG H
.Oeq dG EG dG
q

: `````````SCG

HCG e fd a
Y qG dG
q
q AV dG
q jQc qKCj
. Ad
q Tc dG
q jQc : OeQ EG
WTCG q Y q Jh
q dG eCG H q J q UG g
(dG
q eCG H e j
q bQ AZ ) FdG h qaGZJdG
GOGS OGOJh Ad
eCG H e fG
ZCG Oq J
q Vq J qc dG
q
q
r
.Y qG AdG
q Iq T M
.Fc -FV Tc g AdG
q Jfe
q q J L
q c

fEG IH : ```M``e
Iq e dW qc cCG J (IS) H a
dG
q
q AH fEG IH qKCJ
j ,dG
q SqM IH d jd dH ,Yh .(SSCG q dG a ) q TCd Vq dG
.HdEG e J gGe SH
iNCG Te -2
e e coJ qc AGG JdG GQhCG q J

.Jq dG I AdG
q IQhV ,AdG
q Qe f dG
q Oq Y IgR GQhO qcDj

118

q fhdEG q YUEG TG - OGG Y AdG KCJ -III


FdG
q hG -1
: ``MCG h q``LCG

,dH fq G IQGq dG CG
qdeh FV heh he e
.e eCGh

FdG
q hG
he

.GU hJ FHdG QqdG Iq T J dG


.IQfEG jGH b J M ,FHdG Qq dG Iq T q J FdG hG Y AV
o S
n jo M
: `````````SCG

.Ad
q e FdG hG
d e IAVEG jd GZJdG jdG jCG FdG hG j
.fhdEG SdG j c jJ jf dG

CCD bdG : iNCG q YUEG Te -2

qFdG
q jG jY e CCD bdG j
q

q J .G d IQU dEG e q
j a j T Y f K M e
.q bq dG hCG jq OdG edG
: `J``e ` q```bCG

G Gq G q SCG ,Fc -FV Tc Y G e q H UCG


.HqdG fh
.Ad
q TdG Gg J J cPCG
119

-1
-2

: ``````````U````G

e GOQGh GAV dG GPEG qEG L jDhQ e qJ a QHEG Y g dG


.Ad q dG TG e gh
.Fc -FV Tc g AdG
q KCH Jfe
q q J L
q c
.Ad YUG TG e g FdG
q hGh CCDbdG

: ````f Y YCG

:1 O``Y j

:dG HLEG QNCG


.e GOQGh GAV dG GPEG qEG L jDhQ e qJ a QHEG Y g dG -1
.G c c GPEG L CG jDhQ e qJ QHEG Y g dG -2
.Fc -FV Tc g AdG
q Jfe
q qJ L qc -3
:2 O``Y j

.Ad
q Tc ,dG
q jQc ,AV : V e SG dG VCG SG GdG
:OeQ EG HCG e fd a
Y qG dG
q
q .......................... qKCj
............dG
q jQc
:3 O``Y j

d gf fY GPe .fdG IQU 24 H QU JGJ FdG VdG RL QGe


.HGL Y ? fdG QU N H QdG g JGJ
:4 O``Y j

dG OqY IgR GQhO IgX Y


.AdG Qe f

120

ShCd jdG UG
(21
q
I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb G j
;jdG JUN
M ShCG J
q
.Y Shh
q T Sh ,`q `T Sh H dG
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.IG LCGh G LCG - AdG QOe


: MCG h qeC JCG

: ddG fdH G
q UdG de fq e dZ ,AdG a
SGh QG N
q J GQq dG FS Y ; VGh Z jDhdGh c dG GZ
.IQhdG Y AGVCG
eY q e qc Ia`q dG AGVCG FdG
q j
.hGU V hCG NO H
? ATCG jDhQ e QdGh NdGh dG q j GP
? fMCG Qq dG AGVCG S Cf GP
j qdG UGe g ,IQq dG AGVCG qJ d
? H
jq dG ShCG GfCG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

.HG IQdG
q Y G cq dG CG
.AG G Hh H Md VCG
GdCG q UCG q K ,dG f Iq e
q c q ZCG
.AG d jDhQ Vh M

121

e G dG
G IOe

e G dG
LdG IOe

(ee CG qHV CG VGh) AG G jDhqQ Vh ie

e G dG
hG QdG IOe

dG IqOe f
LdG
hG QdG
N
qjdH e Qh
ie
q Qh
e

: `````````SCG

:dN e LCG jDhQ ie M ShCG q J


,e H jDhQ : G dG h G
,VGh Z h q HV jDhQ :jdH G QdG h hG LdG
. VGh jDhQ : QqdG
jq dG ShCG
jDhQ e q ShCG qc ... V Y dG Ae dch LdG ,dG
q AG ,AGdG
.aqT ShCG a ; AdG Qh J dHh ATCd VGh
Y AGh OGh GQG dch Y cJ OjG dGh ,iG
q QdG ,G
.Y ShCG a ,dN e ATCG jDhH J h AdG Qh fe LGM J
q ...Je
AL Qh EG J ShCG ... dH hCG jdH qG QdGh ,hG QdG ,G
q LdG
.aT ShCG a VGh Z dN e ATCG jDhQh AdG e V
122

: `J``e ` q ```bCG

: ShCG N e dG d EG fCG

QqdG e U : SdG

LdG e d : SdG

N d : SdG

( ee ,VGh Z , VGh ) jDhq dG f fCG ,HdG


q gG e e qd

: ``````````U````G

.qT Sh g VH dN e LCG jDhH j Sh qc


.Y Shg ee dN e LCG jDhQ J Sh qc
.
q T Sh g HV dN e LCG jDhQ J Sh
q c

: ```M``e
Y Sh G q K
qdG Aa ,f AT Y hCG Sh aT
q T Sh G jQJ j
q
.e G h QdG YCG j e Ggh .Ad AG UeG f S OjORH

123

Ad CG QfG
Ad G QfG CGe (22
FdG eMCG (23
Ad CG QfG J (24

QXdG AV

? Ae Lh Qe H AdG q j Qe CG
? GZJdG jdG AdG j QhO CG
? KhM dG eh dG QGWCG g e
? Gh dG JgX aC
q G c

124

Ad G QfEG GC e (22
I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb G j
,Ad CG Qfp G CGe cP
.FV T SQ
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.ShCd jdG UG
- AdG QOe
q
Ige

e aZ

e aZ

dM e Qf j Sfa TCG CG Oq .jDhdG Jh dG qj IAe Z aZ NGO


.(dG g SfdG) ,Qe e bfG j AdG qGE bCG .adG ALQCG jh
(Y LCG) KCG OLh .AG dG Gh G hCG G H VGdG dG MCG
hCG dhdG fCG) X We a ceCG H SfdG AV j ,IAG adH
.(fGG N
Ad G QfG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

.FV Qe eCG,S d eM ie
q Qh VH Ad f GQe CG .K ie
q QH O K N e SQG G fCG .S h O H AdGQe Y T K H dK bQh VCG .O N e AdG
q jDhd FG VdG Y HCG .IMGh eSG Y Oh T ,S qCG KCG ,IHG hCG Ohe N SGH 125

OT S
OT S

: `````````SCG

.SO G b f
q H AdGq ,gG Y G Qe e dfG Y
Ad G QfG CGe

AG G G (AdG Qe) AG G e ,fG qdG SdG AdG j


.e W qN q e

```M``e

.NBG G qT Sh e AdG QfG YS q J


c = 300 000 km.s-1 hJ GdG AdG YS b :e
aG j j
150 000 000km GH VQCGh dG cc H UdG aG Qq J
edG Iq G g e , 300 000 km.s-1dq e YH AdG j AdG qCH Y
?VQCG G d dG AV j dG
edG X YdG q e = YG aG :IYdG YCG GG Y d
aG =edG
YdG q e
8min 20s CG 500s = 300 000 / 150 000 000 =edG
A

FdG dG

AdG
q QfG qJG dG
q q

L
q e G AdG Qe FV YT q SCG
IAG dG f (AdG Qe)G dG e
: e
G AdG ,A SHq dG SCGQ Ige Y
Y bM f AO dGQe ah j e
. O gG
126

: `J``e ` q ```bCG

,S fQe e G (...Ch B,A) AdG q TCG H dGG IQdG q


(...c h b,a )iNCG q TCG Hh
A
,S' NBG Qe e G
B
. S' h S e
q c Ve IQdG Y Oq MCG (1
: fH SQCG (2
c
C
S' e e A d jRGe ,d YT
a
b
.S e e c d jRGe ,D YT
: ``````````U````G

e WN q e gG
q c ,Qe e bfG AdG j
.QfG AKCG G AdG
q Qe Y FV T SG j
.IAG dG f QG dG e L
q e FdG def
.HK YH fG aqdG ShCG AdG j
300 000 km.s-1 b gJ YH AdG AdG j

SQd Y J Y HCG

B
A

:NGdG f
A
B hA f jOY SqHO qKCG
. N Md S e
hMCGh. AB G qJG fCG
B hA H C f dK SHq O J
.He HHdG c hJ H
c Gq e Gq e Iq Y dG YCG
.C dG Ve Iq e
.IMGh eSG Y LJC dG chB ,A qCG Ie SGH KCG
.edG IG dG d dG H cPCG
C

:dG UGdG
c Id AB dG G fCG
e Z IG J .eSG e qCG
.AB d
q j dG f MCG qCG q J GPG
127

FdG eMCG (23


I``G G``gCG

:Y GQOb G j
; FdG eMCG H dG
.FdG eMCG SQ
: `` q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

FdGQOG
Ad G QfG CGe
.FdG dG
q FdG
eMCG GfCG
q
: ``MCG h q``LCG
qe

Ub

.HG IQdG
q Y G cqdG CG
Sfa

e jJ hCG OHEH qG be q ZCG


.S FdG
q QG

MCG

Me gTCG q G SG hH
. IYeh e H IOq IAe
128

: AdG
q Qe Y q jQJ G HCG eY
e H IOq IAe Me gTCG
. jRGeh

: AdG
q Qe Y cCG G HCG eY
H IOq IAe Me gTCG
. HQe h e

: `````````SCG

.e q TCG Y T Y ,Qe e bfG ,AdG


q j
.qFV eM e Y qc q SCG

,Ad GQfG AKCG q TCG YJ GPEG


.IYe eM Y MCG

IYe eM

MGh e Y eG q TCG fc EG
.jRGe eM q SCG (IMGh eSG)
jRGe eM
129

,Ad GQfG AKCG q TCG HQJ GPEG


.(HQehCG) q e eM Y MCG
q e eM

```M``e
.q FV
q M bdG q FdG eG J
M SH q j f CG fCG EG q FV
q eM e MGh T Y `j
.GL bO fGSG
: `J``e `q```bCG

: M ah AdG a j Vh e eCG cPCG


,IYe
,jRGe
.(HQe hCG) q e
: ``````````U````G

.FdG QG f e e FV q TCG Y e FdG eG J


q
.QfG Y AdG q TCG YJ e GPG IYe FdG eG J
.G f Y ,QfG AKCG ,AdG q TCG aM e GPG jRGe FdG eG J
.QfG Y AdG q TCG HQJ e GPG (HQehCG) q e FdG eG J

```M``e
q FdG
q TCG WJ Y
q eG J
q
.IYe q FV eM G q G

130

: ````f Y YCG

:1 O``Y j

.QfG -G -IAG -e -dG :ddG GOG SH ZGdG CeG


O.............. dGf S............ dG e OQGdG FdG............SQCG
.AdG............... j d eM............qH
:2 O``Y j

HG IQdG Y eSG FdG q TCG


. f FV QOe KK e J
.qT Qh Y SdG fCG - 1
: AdGQOe bGe Oq Mh SdG q CG - 2
S3 hS2 hS1

:3 O``Y j

.YdG d f H q K dG eh f FZ j
? MG g qcDJ Y M
q CG ,AdG j Adc dG qCG Y GPEG - 1
? dP qY ? dG CG AdG SCG jq CG - 2
:4 O``Y j

. dG aG d eAe cCG IMdG g FdG dG


300 000 km.s-1 YH ec S W AdG j dG aG q FdG dG qCH Y

?edH FdG dG He g e ,ej 365 q J dG qCGh


:5 O``Y j

: ddG GOG SH ZGdG CeG


.QG - q G - Y - q TCG -G
.FdG.............f e IOQGh q TCG.............e FdG............qdCJ
.IYe q FV eM G.......... q FdG
......... WJ Y
q eG J
q

131

:6 O``Y j

.IYe - q e - jRGe : ddG dG e Sj e Ga


q c cCG
---- M T AG IQe AV j
bO .............M T Qd q TCG J
........FV eM fe
q adG H a e dG q TCG J

:7 O``Y j

eG d b h a YdG j
.FdG
; YdG WJ f SQCG-1
; FdG eG f q YCG -2
A dG eq dG dG SQCG -3
.eG f G j idGh

132

I Ad G QfG J (24
jdG dBGh G adG

q G dG

: Y GQOb G j
.jdG dBGh G adGY IQdG fG d Ad G QfG CGe XJ
: ``q``dG J```e c`H `SQd ``SCG

.FdG G -FdG dG -CG QfG CGe -AdGQOe


G adG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

e aZ CG
: SdH e ddG dH bCG ,iG
q QdG e G jRGe Y SGH

.qdH e
q T QH G LdG VYC
q GLh Sh , Qe SGH ,K MCG .
q dG
q Qd HG dG
133

.dG LhCG MCG p bCG

.TCG K T MCG
dG a j Vh dG VCG
.jJ Ge h dG d db
S GfCG q K YdG AGVCG CWCG
: TdG e j dG
q dG QdG
.e Vh dG d IQU gTCG
OHG hO NBG G e e dG fCG
: dG Y Gc

MCG
.dH dGh ,QdG G dG IQU de ,dG G dG fG GPG
qbCG gOhM UCGh dG IQU c ,G adG K e dG HbG GPG
.MVh
.VhCG gOhMh UCG IQdG QU dG Y dG HG GPG
Se IQU TdG Y gTCG ,FHc dG dSG GPEG ```M``e
.G d
: `````````SCG

Y G SGH ,RL g G adG


.IAehCG e LC Se QU
.AdG Qe Ve H JSeh IQdG Vh q j
AdG Qe SQCG
.gG
q c FV q TCG H Y GQOb ,f GQe dG d e f
q c J
dG q b e OQGdG qdG SQCG
.T dG c GQhe S
S
B
T
TdG Y ST dG
A
q j
A
IQU S' dG q . S' dG
B
S
.S dG QG
QdG Y C
q G, jdG H
.dGe ...B,A iNCG d ... B, A
.dG
q d IQU Y C
q ... B, A,S dG HQCG
134

: `````````SCG

S f e G adG TT Y eSG IQdG qdCJ


.adG H GQhe,AG G f e G q TCG
.MVh qbCG IQdG fc YqJG dG OGORG qc

```M``e

GZJdG jdG dBG


jdG dBG fe
q

: MCG h eq C JCG

IqaG BG J ejJ dBG qaCG


.dG IgdGh GSCG
HCGhjdG dBG AGLCG Y q JCG .AL c Xh Y
: `````````SCG

: ddG SSCG AGLCG e jdG dBG qcJ


; jdG dBG Y OQGdG Ad e ; q dG e aZ ; IQdG jd q e ,G adG b Vj ,AdH qKCq dG jT a ; QdG dG bhCG QN ,AdG Nd fe OGq S ; jJ OGG G WCJ e G q jJ RL .jdG fG QR : ``````````U````G

Se IQU Y G e q GRL jdG dBGh G adG


.Ae hCG Ae
.gqJG jh IQdG `qJ H Ad CG QfG CGe OYG j
135

: S````````````jEG

Jee EG VCG
jdG dBG V
qj Z hCG e hCG T IQU dG
: dG Y H dG
aG V
G Hh Mf e dBG T ce Y dG J dG aG eAe dG g qJ
.iNCG Mf ejdG dBG YQG
q
.NBG hCG qJG dG eM GQhH dG j
Y jdG dBG J CG dG OHCG G J dG eM Y
q G bQCG
.IOG dG H dG e qh ,jJ OGG G
j dG g .q e dG qC Z aG V Y, dG Bd dH
.QG
Y feCGh jdG RL Y OYG
q
jdG dBG S a V -Ad jdG Ie V
YQOdG Ad dG VY Iq e CG VdG bd jdG dB J dG AdG q c J
.dG dh ,jJ OGG G
VdG bJ V
2s,1s, 1/10s,1/25s, 1/50s,1/100s,1/500s bQCd eM LQq e qSjdG dBG
.G Qq dG Y dG Y AdG Y dG VY Iq e G bQ
q c ej
dG a V
Qq G G GT YqJG j a N e ,AdG NOG e dG q
.dG SMh VdG bdh
a j Y ,jdG BG H dG Ad jdG Ie V SbRL Yj
.FG dG
20-16-11-8-5,6-4-2,8-2 bQCG H e SG bdG OYH FG dG V j
.GQhd Hb W j dG
.f G dG Me dAJ 11 dGG dH 8 dG jd dG jOCGGPG : e
K jdG dB IadG AdG q c YV 5,6 dG G 16 dG e dG dHCG GPG
.Gq e
136

II Ad G QfG J (25

o r n tdGh dG

?dG j c
I``G G``gCG

: Y GQOb G j
.Y dGh dG Y d Ad G QfG CGe XJ
.G be M Ae dGh dGJ J
.Am e
n sdGh
u dG SQ
: `` q``dG J```e qcJCG

- ShCd jdG UG
-G QfG CGe - Se
q
q Qe - Ad f Qe
FdG G
Y L
q X
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

W q de ,Y jq hc L AVCG
FHc e SGH ,aQ N
.(f Qe) G U
; AH TT hdG G N q KCG
G TCG qK YdG AV WCG

aQ N

Y L

AH TT

137

.e e QU G Lh qCG M IAVEG WS Ad Vq G IdG Lh UCG


.VGh gOhM ,dG jFGO ,e H TdG Y X

.gHCG q K dG G e TdG q bCG


dG G e TdG GbG Y MVh gOhM OGOJh TdG e G dG Me qJ
.TdG HG GPEG MVh
q bCG gOhM Jh YqJG G MG OGOJ H ;

. HCG qK dG G e G q bCG
; dG G e AdG Qe bG qc MVh qbCG gOhM Jh G MG qJ
.dG G Y AdG Qe HG qc gOhM qJh qJ qfCG M

dG jJ
QG e G FdG eG Qe SQCG
.C dG G Vj dGh S dG
E
d SG h ed IOG TCG CG MCG
E TdG Y dG G X Th OhM J

: `````````SCG

N X ,f Qe e G AdG Qe Y L VYG qc
.G X J e H
AdG Qe Y dG G Hq H OhM Vhh dG Me q J
.TdG Y Hh
: `J``e ` q ```bCG

.AH TTh Ad f Qe H ,fGSG Gq e Y J


j CG CG ? IFGO T ? Hq e T TdG Y dG X j g
.HGL qY ?NBG T

138

`````dG
: ``MCG h q ``LCG

S1

S2

hCq G f
dG jdG RG f SCG .HdG HdG SG
M dG IdG AVCG .He S2 h S1

.e G Lh qGC M Ae Id eeCG LdG hj .dG jFGO gc e H E TdG Y J . C G e E TdG jQJ bCG


.X TCG Me WdG M dG H e G dG J .dG hCG dG H a X bCG MG eCG C G H dG IjT dG J S
C

A
B

K f
C G e HdG YCG
. S Se
q FV Qe SGH
E
dG IjT Sh e E TdG YJ
X bCG W H j G
q X J
.dG j
H G be H dGh dG Me J
.TdGh AdGQe
dGh dG jJ
SG
q Qd A q dG e G YdG SQCG
. C G
r H r SGh S
B SCG qdG e rG rYdG
o SQCG
. C G rd rSGh S SG
q Qd

q Sh e Y MCG G N
.dG q fK W qX
139

: `````````SCG

dX WJ Y ,Se Qe e G AdG Y L VYG GPEG


.dH J X
q bCG e H dG J e Sh e

: `J``e `q ```bCG

.X HQCG Y d qCG Mf e dZ ,dG Id dG HG AKCG


? IgdG g J
q GP
? GP ?dG f dG J G e e CG

: ``````````U````G

H TdG Y J ,TTh Ad f Qe H Y L b Y
.TdG Y G X q J,dG G Se JSe J e
.TdGh AdG Qe H dG G b dG Se J
Me TdG Y J ,TTh Ad Se
q Qe H Y L b Y
.dG q J ,X qbCG Me H ,dG q J e
.SG FdG QG e a AL e AdG dG IOLG dG qJ
Ad CG QfG Ff e g dG h dG

140

: S````````````jEG

Jee EG VCG

dG dBG - a fS T QWEG YS

de T YS

HK T YS

:e dG YdG J
q
; QdG YS EG J bQCGh N Y f hCG SQ qe Md
.TG G WJ f Md jOY q e ,qbe hCG e OY
W dG q TC Vq e e OY Y IJe ,aCG qG MG J e dZ
Y qaCG qe YdG J ,G H .(... eY MS hCG eL U )QdG YS
.dG EG L
q e QGL
q dG H ,d gdG GQhdG e eGe ,YdG S Y qbG X qj
.G H dG bdG YQdG e c
:jQdG Y dG YdG
g dG "da" j .bdG a H SGh ,dG e dG YdG fEG Y
.dG YS cCG
de GQJ
q dG YdG aY .OG b S 1500 EG T YS hCG jQJ Lj
YdG Y Y Y HGdGh SdG fdG H dG dG NOCG e q gCG e ,jQdG Y
FGG Shh QdG LGh Y a JSG YT .YU ah dG
.FdGh LGh
edG dGh Y HdG dG H dG YdG Xh gQfG q b dG YdG H
.Y
dEG q J GJ a ,dG YdG SG Y dG ZQh VG fY EG dH
.dGh dG Yh QKBG H q G
141

Ad
q G QfG GC e J (26
Gh dG -dG QGWCG
``G ``dG

:Y GQOb qG j
:d Ad G QfG CGe XJ
,Gh dG JgX
.dG QGWCG
: `` `q `dG J```e qc`JCG

Ad CG QfG CGe
FdG G
.dGh dG

```dG QG```WCG
: ``MCG h q``LCG

H
T VQCG IdG ,dG d Ad SeQc
S FHc Me YCG q
.dG d Yq IOq e L G e Ich
.G e jJ GU S H Y T G VnCG .e b hCG N W L IdG qYCG . G `uTCG
q K YdG AV AWCG .QdGh dG hGJ qCGh (T G) G Ic GQhH bCG .AG S bGQCGhT G ML IdH WCG T G Id G dG Y f e jDhQ G ,L e AG AG T jYCG L

T
142

MCG
: hCG ```M``e
.eNBG fh Ae f FGO j ,T G M L IdG GQhO AKCG -

G fG
VQCG e
S G AV

L IdG

T G

.T G
q M gQGe Y q dG bG M

jDhQ a ,T G db

L Id G dG j

e FG AG T j -

: fK ```M``e

,T Gh S eL eSG Y
? T G S Y e L IdG

T
S

jGH a ; jDhQ Qqa e VQCd HG S :VQCGh dG H ,fGQhO AKCG ,dG q


.dG
?dG jDhQ CG c

L IdG

T G

TT
143

S G AV

Y gd hj VQCG M dG GQhO G ,dG


q G b L IdG J eY
g Hj e Ggh S G AV G qLe X g T ``d G fG bCG
. dG
q hCq G
S G AV

: dK ```M``e
,fGQhO L IdG eq J qc
,e AG AGMe qJG
S Y e T gj a
? T G

L IdG

T G

L
T

; AG dG d CG dG gf dG QX H YS Jh jG S
.d hCG HdG a
S G AV

IAG MG a T q J
FG T a , L IdG Y
?T G S Y e
L IdG
T G

T
S

.QdG a ; d G LdG ec if hCG HdG H YS Jh jq CG S


144

L G AV

: HGQ ```M``e
L IdG e q FG MG qJ

, T G M fGQhO UGJ gh
Y e gd dH g g a
? T G S

T G
L IdG

L
NCG HdG g Ggh ; G dG d jCG dG f QdG H YS Jh qjCG S
.d
d G fG W e gd T GGhS G H L IdG LQ Y
.dG NBG g a ; hCG dG Y L
q e g T L IdG jDhQT

: eY ```M``e
.G f FGO if j VQCG M fGQhO e f M dG GQhO eGJ
Y dGNBG j q M j H ej ZhH Ye N
q Ca AH VQCG M dG Qhj
.dG jf
: `````````SCG

EG dHh VQCG EG dH be gQ g dG e FG AG
.dG
Hq dG ,dG jGH : QGWCG e GQW dG Y if g qc q
.NCG Hq dGh QdG ,hCq G
.VQCG M fGQhO f dG QGWCG J

145

``````````G
: ``MCG h q``LCG

IdG J ,T G X L IdG NO Y
.dG N Hj e Gg T G S
T NCa e a AL dG J ,T G X NGO q FL IQe L IdG J eY
.FG H IgdG g J .dG

e jDhQ Q `J H e e

S
L
L
T

M fGQhO e eGG ,dG h VQCG LPCG X e cM q dGG IQdG


.dG
L IdG h T G e
q c
q X e SH IQdG
q e qdG AG CG

T
S

S
: `````````SCG

.VQCG X e dG NO qc G IgX
.VQCG X qc dG NO GPEG eq J G j
.VQCG X dG e a AL NO GPEG FL G j
146

dG
: ``MCG h q``LCG
T PdG

H L IdG
q X j S Gh T G H L IdG Qhe Y
.dG IgX Hj e Gg . qdG ga T G S e Me Y S AV j

S
L
T

J c IQU

: `````````SCG

.VQCGh dG H dG LGJ Y dG j
NGO IOLG VQCG H dP j ; qc dG ANG Y qeJ dG j
.dG X e
hOLG VQCG qS Hjh ; dG e a AL ANG Y FL dG j
.dG X e GWCG Y

147

:``M``e
.VQCG S e IOh We h QdG AKCG EG dG IgH f
iq J a ; VQCG M dG GQhO e eGJ iNCG EG L e dG e J
.FbdG H e e KhM Iq e
.IjY W Y Vq j dG AKCG dG EG j e c
dG
q
VQCG
dG

q qdG

(q e Z qdG
q IYb) dG
q c

(1999 - 08 - 11) dG MGe


: `J``e ` q```bCG

.dG ,VQCG ,dG ,dG : dq dG dG e Sj ZGdG CG


NGO IOLG ......... H dP j ; qc ........ANG Y eq J ............ j
..........X e

: ``````````U````G

.dNCG HdG ,QdG ,d hCG HdG ,dG hCq G b : HQCGdG QGWCG


.VQCG X e Y dG Qhe Y G j
.dG X e Y VQCG Qhe Y dG j
.IMGh eSG Y VQCGh dGh dG OLh e G hCG dG eGj
.FL
hCG qc dG hCG G j
q
. VQCG M dG GQhO f gGdG g
148

: ````f Y YCG

:1 O``Y j

: dq dG dG e Sj GdG q YCG
. Se
q , dG , dG
Me TdG Y J ,TTh Ad ................Qe H Y L b Y
................q J ,X
q bCG Me H , ...............q J e
:2 O``Y j
.G G OHCG FGO J f Q AG G X OHCG CG HdG J
.dP a
:3 O``Y j
.20 cm gb hj,Y Ic ce e 50 cm H Y Ad f Qe j
.AdG Qe e 2 mae Y q e TT Y IdG X j
.IdG X b SG K 1/10dG OYH SQ CG
:4 O``Y j
HCG 6,2 mhj dG X qCG M 1 m qX W a f QGH1^5 m dW
q T bh
.jRGe TCG ah VQCG EG j dG AV CG Y H SQ G OSH dG W Y
:5 O``Y j
E TdG e7 cm H Y IQdG Y g c qe Ad f QOe KK S1 h S2 h S3
Y 3,5 cm j , 2 cm b DFGO Ub
7 cm
S2S3 = S1S2 = 1cm qCH Y E TdG
S1
.FVQe d aGG D UdG X SQCG
S2
.Xh UdG X H q e
S3
dG OHCG Y ,SdG Y OSH HG
D
.TdG Y dGh
E

ffG HG
.gQ M VQCG GQhH bYh QdGh `dG JGJ IgX
.dG M VQCG GQhH bYh dG JGJ IgX
ffCG Ie jhY
.fJ AS dG h dG bGe h dG M www:meteo.tn
gGSh dG gGdG jQJ M http://www.infoscince.fr/histoire/biographsom.htm
.fJ dG bGeh dG M http://www.intllicast.com/weather/tun
149

fa HY Ne
  

dplacement
 
aiguille magntique
  
aiguille aimente
  
bonite
!"
sens
$
%
sens conventionnel
() * $
%
sens du courant

$
%
aspirer
4
mono


combustion

catalytique(combustion)
9 :
frottement
>

calcination

rduction
A7
branlement

%
lvation(pression)
E/
G
centrifugation

extraction
J:) J:
extraire
LJ:
allongement

:
longation

:
exploitation
) :
stabilit
@:
polarisation
@
:
continuit
!:
dduction

:
cylindre
 ":
irradiation

P
rayonnement

P
Radiation
R
P
convention
* )
clairer

/
cadre

V
cadre mobile

 V
Virtuel

arracher
XY
compressibilit
V
HZ
metteur

2
proton
 
analyse quantitative
9> <
analyse qualitative
9G> <
sublimation
Q - 9

opposition

H
conductivit
" *
minimum
(Z Q 
acidit
/" 
photochimie
+
" H
nergie
 
affinit
G
charbon de bois
` G
>
lectron
lectronique
9>
quantitatif
9>
mica

>
hydratation


incliner


absorption


Fidle,Fidlit

 - 
Vase


Vase dversement
&' 

clairage lectrique +


,
/ - 

dtente

2
Tube
"2
Tube essais

27" 2
Tube dgagement
"  )2
Tube raccordement
<*" "2
Tube en verre
(
" 2
Tube coud
" @"2
diffusion

B
propagation

D
"H 9@
D
propagation rectiligne de la lumire
transition
@

dviation
 
dcomposition
M>G  )
solubilit
 )
dclinaison
 

dpression
EH
GJ
fusion

,
fondre
,
compression

H
rflexion
>

rfraction
>

rfraction limite
Q >

Vibration
A
ellipse
U
elliptique
9%
initial
9
machine
 W
instantan
9 W
mcanisme ractionnel
<R
G W
ampre
2
amprmtre
2
exciter

-]

saumatre
  
^ -

outil

instrument
: - W -
base

:
transvaser
_ G*
horizontal
9@'
moins refreingent
< Y
plus refringent
 B
plus refringent
 B
oxalate
)
aluminate
" 

ammonium
""
excuter
A%
Vases communicants
Y 
ozone

150

dshydratation
bG%
conglation
Q%
solidification
Q%
association
X%
cavit
b!"%
infra-rouge
   
dtermination
Q!Q 
dtermination thorique
e Q!Q 
prparation
H 
Vrification
_@ 
ralisation
!"> -_@ 
analyse
< 
lectrolyse
(+
, <
acidification
& 
transmutation
< " !
rarfaction
<JJ
amortissement
QJ
interfrence
<7Q
se repousser
X'Q
division
%!Q
graduation
%!Q
flux
_'Q
dgradation

filtration
^P 
synthse
b h - i 
montage en srie
<
 i
montage en parallle

"i
superposition
i
accumulation
`
frquence

prcipitation
i:
dcantation
i:
composition
i
combinaison
2
concentration
 
couplage
A
acclration


sublimation
9

chauffage
J
fuite

nomenclature

liqufaction

:<
saturation
X2D -
2P - X2D
dispersion
_!G  D
collision


classification
i  - b
neutralisation
!< 
Q
dfinition
b!
strilisation
`@
substitution
Q2: - &" !
Variation

dcalage

G
raction

carbonisation
` G
driv
 G

bar
baromtre
par (en) dfaut
par(en) excs
En excs
mission
J jaillir
vapeur
bue
substituer
bronze
paraffine
Vis
nappe stagnante
perchlorate
permanganate
mergence
bromure
batterie
dimension
rsidus
poulie
cristallisation
cristal
structure
structure ionique
butane
coupelle
creuset
borate
positron
boussole

151

complte
effet lumineux
effet calorifique
effet chimique
action mutuelle
effet magntique
interprtation
corrosion
effet
notation
change
Vaporisation
vaporation
Justification thorique
repousser (se)
fixation
attirer (s')
attraction universelle
exprience
exprimentation
exprimentalement
matrialisation





L@

!
A

!
A

c
d

J
bB>
J
" R - Q - Q 
A 
'
9f
Q
"




QP
 ! 
Q

!
@
>
"
"

!
P 
"

@"
@"
"
"!
*"



9+"/ ]


] 
9+

]

2 ]

9V
 ]

<!

< j
 ]h
P h

2
J2
J2
e !2
X'Q
2B

%
("
%
 
i!%

2!%
`%

bivalent
diple
paroi
Tableau
attirer
coulement laminaire
particule
objet virtuel
objet rel
objet
corpuscule
corpusculaire
dsscher
solidifier
appareil
dispositif exprimental
potentiel
atmosphre
joule
qualit
sinus
acide (adj.)
neutraliser
barrire
Etat
support
ampoule
ampoule dconter
pastille
induction
auto-induction
volume
fer doux
ferrite
libre
agiter
brlures
chaleur
chaleur massique
thermique
critique
bruler
mouvement vibratoire
mouvement oscillatoire
mouvement sinusodal
movement priodique
mouvement uniforme
cintique
calorie
Faisceau
pinceau lumineux
sensible
sensibilit
conservation

l >
'9+
]
i @ 9+
]

Q
Q
4
9
!

A
9/` '
9@@ `
` 

`
9
bG
Q

,
92!%
,
Q,
" 
"
R" - "
i

&


R-Q
!
A



Q
: 
<

2
i: 
2
22
c
( c
`%
Q - Q!Q
!Q!Q

 






!A
44 
2 
!
e 
(
!
A
  !"


:

pG

drivation
dcharge
dissocier (se)
estimation
distillation
distillation fractionne
contraction
valuation
valence
covalence
Equivalence
grandissement
agrandissement
condensation
lectrisation
lectrisation par influence
lectrisation par frottement
lectrisation par contact
accomodation
spontan
symtrie
cohsion
reprsentation graphique
dilatation
aimantation
dliquescence
osmose
rpulsion
dcroissant
alternance
floculation
purification
quilibre
concordance
Equilibre lectrique
Equilibre instable
Equilibre indiffrent
Equilibre stable
Tension
configuration(rpartition)
configuration lectronique
courant d'induction
courant lectrique
courant alternatif
courant continu
courant redress

152

constant
fixe
indformable
constante dilectrique
constante de torsion
bichromate
dioxyde
pesanteur
pesant

X!G
m!G
M>G
 !Q@
@ 
A%  @
L@
`@
l>
'
l>
'
l'
>
2>
( 7 2>
bB>
,>
]

 ,>
MQ
 ,>

j ,>
b>
9+
@
<]

M:

9
 <B
Q
E
X
^/

'

(Y



b!Q
@
"
_" '
9+
,"
@ f "
 o "
@ "
 
X!"
9
 >X!"
(B 

9+
,




 


@"


]
]

<>D]

A]

<G]

]
( >

Q]
(
]@

<@]

graduer
degr
temprature critique
Temprature
index
cycle
priode
erlenmeyer
cyclique
priodique
dynamomtre
flau
atome
isobare
isotherme
bras
Mou
filtrat
filtrer
symbole
liaison
prcipit
dpt
spectrographe
levier
marbre
graphe
humidit
mtronome
concentrer
sable
incertitude
incertitude absolue
incertitude relative
augmenter
curseur
angle d'incidence
verre de montre
arsniate
fleur de soufre
paire
doublet(d'lectron)
paire d'lectrons
liquide
couler
alliage
Enregistrer
burette
chauffage lectrique
bouchon
obturateur
surface


   
 
<

9VJ

"
!



] E/

] 

"7
^P
 P
^P
A 
 
i:
i:
b ` :
'

7
9
` :
"V

Y
A
<
i!
_  i!
92 i!

_
' 
R
: 


J
 !2 >

>
o 
9 >

<+
:

:
>2:
<%:

:
9+
,
J:
Q :
Q:
^ :

153

champ

% @<
champ lectrique uniforme `e 9+
,@<
champ magntique
9V
 <@
seringue
@
rel
9@@
dissoudre
<

anneau
@
analyser
<
hydrolyse
h
bain


acide (nom)
&
acidifier
&
convexion
< 
robinet
"2*  G
cuve
"
fiole jauge
" 
bac
"
cristallisoir
2 &!"
pillule

diffraction
Q
prcaution
 

inerte
<
7
quotient
@
7
proprit
*
7
capillarit
!P *
7
rservoir
A7
clipse lunaire
"7
ski
_A 2D7
courbe reprsentative
9
 E7
Vertical (nom)
"R E7
Erreur absolue
_ 
7
Erreur relative
92
7
lignes d'induction
c  " 7
linaire
9 7
diminuer la pression
EH& G7
diluer(solution)
bG7
actate
)
7
vide
) '7
cellule
7
mlange
U!A - E7
Fil plomb
*
E7

battements

Y
ballon

cercle
+
circonfrence
+
circulaire
+
permanent
`+
circuit lectrique
+
,
circuit srie
<

circuit parallle

"
circuit ferm
@
circuit ouvert
"G
court circuit
@"
Etude graphique

 :

b*
,*
*"
*"
*"
*

brouillard

2/
amplifier
`J/
pression
E/
pression atmosphrique
"E/
photochimique
9+
" /
lumire
"/

flottant

'(V
Energie potentielle

 Y
V
Energie nuclaire
! "Y
V
Energie calorifique
! Y
V
Energie cintique
 Y
V
Energie solaire
P Y
V
Energie lumineuse
+"/ Y
V
Energie letrique
+
, Y
V
Energie chimique
+
 Y
V
Energie olienne
+ "Y
V
nature
2V
naturel
92V
borne
V
Extrmit
V
mthode
@!V
mthode analytique
!@  V
procd
<!@ V
merger
-
GV
galvaniser
(V
galvanisation
9V
phase
"V
longueur d'onde
"" V
longitudinal
9"V
spectre
bV

phnomne

v
condition normale
!
R v
ombre
<v
pnombre
-.

titrer


! QY - !
R
isolant

R
manipuler
Q
 U
R
Universel

R
seuil
2R
opacit
R
insoluble

4  !` QR
compteur
QR
Nombre d'Avogadro
'"
QR
nombre ngatif
i
: QR

"H ^ :
() ^ :
:
:
! :
:
:
<*" M:
`:
"+
 `:
M:
M:
M:
):

:

ionique

P
ion

P
anion
! Q - 2
:
P
cran
<+
  P
P
translucide

P
Verticale
9"Y
P " Y
P
saturer
X2P
toile
>2P
semi-conducteur
<*" t2P
charge
 P
charge lectrique
+
,  P
intensit
Q P
tincelle
P
bande d'absorption

o E!P
rayon

P
radial
9R
P
Travail
<P
Transparent

GP
figure
<>P
chute d'eau
)P
pointe
"P
chose
9P

fuse
*

soucoupe
@"  G *
rouille
Q*
choc
Q*
sublimer
Q*
laiton

,2P
- G*
lame
 G*
lamelle
< -  G*
lame faces parallles ,"  "! G*
duret
*) 
rigidit
)*
solide
i*
solide
Q
 i*
rigide
Q*
soupape
*

genre
fusible
son
soude
image
formule

surface presse
mnisque
contenance
capacit
capacit calorifique
chaine
serie
connection (fil de)
chelle
chelle centesimale
Filament
Epaisseur
Epais
coulement
alchimie

154

mtal
fluorescine
lige
effervescence
phosphate
ultraviolet
acier
Voltamtre
Voltmtre
En dfaut
phnol phtaline
combustible(adj)
soluble
interrupteur
BASE
compressible
Expansible
miscible
Expansibilit
miscibilit
bouteil
mesurer
rgle
loi
loi de Pouillet
loi de Coulomb
loi d'Ohm
Evaluer
pouvoir
puissance mcanique
disque plan
indice
indice de rfraction
myopie
Tige
barreau aimant
baguette de verre
compte gouttes
distillat
ple
ple ngatif
ple positif
segment
retrecir
alcalin
basique
basicit
satellite
Entonnoir
canal
flacon
flacon combustion
flacon laveur
intensifier
attraction(forces)

A'
: '"
0-
'"

G:"'
9%G2'"
o"'

"'
"'
L@ 9'

' '"

< )Y

< ) )Y
XV
Y
3 
EH <
Y

D ) <
Y
A
< Y
!Q-Q
 Y
A
 Y

Y
QR
Y

"Y

" " !
Y

" _ "" Y

" Y
QY
QY
W QY
 "Y
!Y
>
o! Y
eY
iHY
E iHY
"iHY

Y

Y
i Y
i
: i Y
i" i Y
@  Y
LY
"Y

"Y
"!Y
Y
XY

Y
Y
 Y
<f Y
" Y
4%" Y

i" QR
:QR
R
AR
9+"DR
"HR

R
R
i@R
Q@R
9>R
Y)R
"2 2R
"R
R
m!G R
7 " R
"R
"R

!"R
R
<"R
9
R
V <!Q 
R

gaz

f
gazeux

f
collodal
(f
membrane

Df
galvanomtre
"
Gf
bullition

f
douille vis
(2" Qf
immerger
f
htrogne
5
% f
dformer
<>D f
ininflammable
", f

dnivellation

Go'

disjoncteur
<*
'
vrole
+'  "
 '
fente
orifice
 '
ouverture
 '
carboniser
` '
carbonate
' 

cramique


J'
hypothse
/'
dcharger
'
dphasage
'  "
diffrence de potentiel Q,%' >" '
sparation
<'
espace
A
H'
efficace
'

action
<'
bulle
R
'@
dissocier
M'>

nombre positif
lentille
Wagon
isoler
dsordonn
organique
inertie
aromatique
culot
nud
rciproque
relation
capsule
altitude
opration
opration de recharge
pile
perpendiculaire
normal
normalement
lment
facteurs
macroscopique
Tare

155

chimie
anhydre
astigmatisme
soudure
difice
viscosit
luminescence
flamme
inflammable
matriel
plaque
ressort
spires jointives
spire
indicateur
temporaire
oxydant
fluide
aqueux
substance
endothermique
exothermique
eau de chaux
saumatre (eau)
eau douce
matire
pince en bois
absorbant
pipette
rfrigrant
fluorescent
mutuelle
divergente (faisceau)
homogne
convergente
Vecteur
isochrone
croissant
identique
volatil
neutre
orthogonal
polychromatique
polyatomatique
variable
ractif(raction)
rcepteur
homologue
cohrent
alternatif
proportionnel
incandescent
parallle
paralllogramme



9+
 o
( @ o


 
A


i,
",
"
 G* "
i"

2"
2"

Pl
Yl
Ql
X+

9+




 

^  
%




" 

(2D7 M:



*

b> -2
- "G - _ j

2
( !") 3 !
5
%
:<!
t%
A
QR
 - Q!A
_


!

) "
Q

"Z Q
4 Q

<R
G
<2@
<
]
M:



i:

U "
"
)/Z"

force
force d'attraction
arc en ciel
arc lectrique
acidimtrie
mesure
Valeur absolue

156

dtecteur
indicateur color
caustique
refringent
ractif (agent)
camphre
becher
agrandir
sulfate
sulfate de cuivre
sulfate anhydre
sulfure
Masse
masse volumique
masse marque
MASSE molaire
masse molculaire
densit
alcool absolu
alcoolate
halocarbure
carboxyle
chromate
clipse solaire
adiabatique
plateau
transvasement
Kelvin
chlorate
chlorure
pince crocodyle
dose
photo-lectrique
lectrochimique
lectro-aimant
lectricit statique
lectricit ngative
lectricit positive
lectrolyte
cosmique
verre pied
verre
Equerre
plantaire
coulomb
qualitatif
kilogramme
CHIMIQUE

"Y
4%" Y
AY "Y
(+
," Y
/" 
Y
5Y
@  Y

bP

"bP


:

bP

'"

27 h
2
!
2
!

2
+
 o !
2
Q!2

% 
Y 
z2
+
2

'B
_  "
o"
("
"
<"


"
`H
G

G*-
G
"
!"
'` 
M2D -P

 

9+"/ ,
9+
 ,
5  ,
Q
,
2
: 
,
2" 
,
(+
,  < ,
9" 

27"
h"
"
92"
""
9G
 f "
9+


quartz

lasticit

adsorber
A - A
double
9+
]- A
couple
A
contact

-5
Trajectoire
% 

distance
Q 
'
poreux
9

porosit


lectrode
2
mulsion
i 
stable
@
droite d'action
 ]h@`
continu

plan
"
niveau
!": - "- "
poudre
 "
acclrateur

plan (adj)
^ 
calorimtre


projection
E@
niveau bulle d'air 
A- "R
@G "
sature (solution)
(-@!) A B!
oscilloscope cathodique

44" D
absorbeur


lampe

2
lampe diode

*
2
lampe incandescence
U
"2
source lumineuse
9+"/ Q
source
X2 -Q
source sonore
9"* Q
anode
Q
pompe
JH
amplificateur
`JH
manomtre

H
comprim
"H
lumineux
(H
absolu
_ 
spectromtre
 

aspect
,e
quation


coefficient
<

dosage

!
titration

!
Etalonnage d'un ressort
i" 
!
opaque
`
minral
9Q
expos l'air
", 
complexe
Q@
Etalon


aimant
E
aimanter
E
interaction
R
G
dtonnant
XYG
Tournevis
MG

157

paralllpipde
"  )
progressif
9"
progression
"
idal
9
B
parfait
(
B
intervalle

%
domaine d'incertitude
i!
%
oprateur
 %
parcours
%
ensemble
R"%
groupe
R"%
microscopique
!?
convexe
Q 
Thermomtre
 
agitateur
 
comburant
 
moteur
 
moteur thermique
  
moteur raction

G  
moteur explosion

%G 
moteur lectrique
9+
, 
solvant
< 
lectrolyseur
9+
, )
solution dilue
_Y  "
solution
 "
axe de rvolution
Q "
axe optique
 " 
Transformateur
 "
prouvette

2J
laboratoire
2J
rducteur
AJ
conique
9
V  J
orbite
Q
orbite plantaire
92 "Q
dure
Q
mortier

Q
filtre
^P 
central
A
miroir
W
chaudire
<
rendement

compos (nom)
i
compos driv
_
D i
composante
2
composante fondamentale
:
: 2
centre
A
concentr
A
centre de symtrie
v
 A
<@B A
centre de gravit
centre de pousse
X'Q A
centre de pression
EH A
centre optique
A
centripte
 ! 
A
centrifuge
4
 !A
accumulateur
`
lastique


conducteur
Jet d'eau
pulsation
flocon
dchloruration
rapport de
relatif
texture
activit
actif
activer
fiche
hmisphre
dcolorer
isotopes
systme
systme isol
thorie-thorme
isotope
permabilit
Expirer
puret
point de solidification
soudure (point de)
conduire
Transfert
Transmission
transmettre intgrallement
renverser
mode (le)
modle
Final
noyau
pendule
pendule lectrique
Espce d'lectricit
nitrate
neutron
nitrite
halogne
molcule
hydrognation
cible
fragile
fragilit
air
hydrate
hydrognocarbonate
hydrognosulfate
hydroxyde
hydronium
masse ( appareil)

<Y


'" 

H2
G!Q
>"A
2
92
U

D
ED
ED
2D
b
<
+
e

e
A
e
!e
e
!
G
4G
@

Q%  @
@  

<@
<@
<@

@<
5>
E
<C
9+
,
"
"
9+
,"

,"


!


" 

 Q
Q


P
D
"
Q

GQ
!
2>Q
QQ
C3
(
,%>< )

158

concept
",G
rsistance
@

rhostat
Q -@
 
rsistivit
@

grandeur
Q@
distill
@
alambic
_2 -  @
section
X @
concave
@
normalis
@
redresseur
@"
jauge
@

alcalimtrie
@
@"!
Equivalent
>
'(
agrandi
2>
loupe
2>
presse
- 52>
densimtre

B>
condensateur
bB>
condens
bB>
condenseur
bB>
thermoscope

 D>
lectroscope
9+
,
D>
composants
> " 

constituant
>"
observations courantes

R
e)
terrain de golf

%" i
caractristique
A
alternateur


plat
E2
Uniforme
`e
solut
<

direction
( 
bas
&GJ
floculant
Q
prise (courant)
( )
iD
prise de courant

iD
ballon dirigeable


lunette astronomique
9>'
e
manganate
A
brleur gaz

f cG
d F!
retroprojecteur
cathode
E2,
cation
(2
" P)  2,
prisme
"P "
onde
"
prise de terre
9/"*<
bec bensen
A QY"
gnrateur
Q"
gnrateur lectrique
9+
, Q"
balance
A
balance automatique
9W A
chronomtre
@
inclinaison
<
fluidit
R "

incident
wattmtre
Fait exprimental
pivot
corde vibrante
Unit
papier filtre
incidence
poids
milieu isolant
catalyseur
solnode
bobine
conduite
empirique
rcipient
Abondance
Temporaire
carburant
combustible(nom)
illusoir
directement proportionnel
inversement proportionnel
absorber
dissoudre (se)
iodure

159

EY
: -
<H
92!% XY
Q
A, 
Q
^P Y

R E:
ED E:
P
P
*
9/

R
'
9Y
"Y
"Y
9

!V i:
!

>R i:
!
L!
<
!
!"