DRAFT
Lecture Notes
Introduction to
CONTINUUM MECHANICS
and Elements of
Elasticity/Structural Mechanics
c VICTOR
E. SAOUMA
Draft
02
Victor Saouma
Draft
03
PREFACE
Une des questions fondamentales que lingenieur des Materiaux se pose est de connaitre le comportement dun materiel sous leet de contraintes et la cause de sa rupture. En denitive, cest precisement la
reponse `
a c/mat es deux questions qui vont guider le developpement de nouveaux materiaux, et determiner
leur survie sous dierentes conditions physiques et environnementales.
Lingenieur en Materiaux devra donc posseder une connaissance fondamentale de la Mecanique sur le
plan qualitatif, et etre capable deectuer des simulations numeriques (le plus souvent avec les Elements
Finis) et den extraire les resultats quantitatifs pour un probl`eme bien pose.
Selon lhumble opinion de lauteur, ces nobles buts sont idealement atteints en trois etapes. Pour
commencer, lel`eve devra etre confronte aux principes de base de la Mecanique des Milieux Continus.
Une presentation detaillee des contraintes, deformations, et principes fondamentaux est essentiel. Par
la suite une briefe introduction a
` lElasticite (ainsi qu`
a la theorie des poutres) convaincra lel`eve quun
probl`eme general bien pose peut avoir une solution analytique. Par contre, ceci nest vrai (`
a quelques
exceptions prets) que pour des cas avec de nombreuses hypoth`eses qui simplient le probl`eme (elasticite
lineaire, petites deformations, contraintes/deformations planes, ou axisymmetrie). Ainsi, la troisi`eme
et derni`ere etape consiste en une briefe introduction a
` la Mecanique des Solides, et plus precisement
au Calcul Variationel. A travers la methode des Puissances Virtuelles, et celle de RayleighRitz, lel`eve
sera enn pret `
a un autre cours delements nis. Enn, un sujet dinteret particulier aux etudiants en
Materiaux a ete ajoute, a
` savoir la Resistance Theorique des Materiaux cristallins. Ce sujet est capital
pour une bonne comprehension de la rupture et servira de lien a
` un eventuel cours sur la Mecanique de
la Rupture.
Ce polycopie a ete enti`erement prepare par lauteur durant son annee sabbatique a
` lEcole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Departement des Materiaux. Le cours etait donne aux etudiants en
deuxi`eme annee en Francais.
Ce polycopie a ete ecrit avec les objectifs suivants. Avant tout il doit etre complet et rigoureux. A
tout moment, lel`eve doit etre `
a meme de retrouver toutes les etapes suivies dans la derivation dune
equation. Ensuite, en allant a
` travers toutes les derivations, lel`eve sera `
a meme de bien connaitre les
limitations et hypoth`eses derri`ere chaque model. Enn, la rigueur scientique adoptee, pourra servir
dexemple a
` la solution dautres probl`emes scientiques que letudiant pourrait etre emmene `
a resoudre
dans le futur. Ce dernier point est souvent neglige.
Le polycopie est subdivise de facon tr`es hierarchique. Chaque concept est developpe dans un paragraphe separe. Ceci devrait faciliter non seulement la comprehension, mais aussi le dialogue entres eleves
euxmemes ainsi quavec le Professeur.
Quand il a ete juge necessaire, un bref rappel mathematique est introduit. De nombreux exemples
sont presentes, et enn des exercices solutionnes avec Mathematica sont presentes dans lannexe.
Lauteur ne se fait point dillusions quand au complet et a
` lexactitude de tout le polycopie. Il a ete
enti`erement developpe durant une seule annee academique, et pourrait donc benecier dune revision
extensive. A ce titre, corrections et critiques seront les bienvenues.
Enn, lauteur voudrait remercier ses eleves qui ont diligemment suivis son cours sur la Mecanique
de Milieux Continus durant lannee academique 19971998, ainsi que le Professeur Huet qui a ete son
h
ote au Laboratoire des Materiaux de Construction de lEPFL durant son sejour a
` Lausanne.
Victor Saouma
Ecublens, Juin 1998
Victor Saouma
Draft
04
PREFACE
One of the most fundamental question that a Material Scientist has to ask him/herself is how a
material behaves under stress, and when does it break. Ultimately, it its the answer to those two
questions which would steer the development of new materials, and determine their survival in various
environmental and physical conditions.
The Material Scientist should then have a thorough understanding of the fundamentals of Mechanics
on the qualitative level, and be able to perform numerical simulation (most often by Finite Element
Method) and extract quantitative information for a specic problem.
In the humble opinion of the author, this is best achieved in three stages. First, the student should
be exposed to the basic principles of Continuum Mechanics. Detailed coverage of Stress, Strain, General
Principles, and Constitutive Relations is essential. Then, a brief exposure to Elasticity (along with Beam
Theory) would convince the student that a well posed problem can indeed have an analytical solution.
However, this is only true for problems problems with numerous simplifying assumptions (such as linear
elasticity, small deformation, plane stress/strain or axisymmetry, and resultants of stresses). Hence, the
last stage consists in a brief exposure to solid mechanics, and more precisely to Variational Methods.
Through an exposure to the Principle of Virtual Work, and the RayleighRitz Method the student will
then be ready for Finite Elements. Finally, one topic of special interest to Material Science students
was added, and that is the Theoretical Strength of Solids. This is essential to properly understand the
failure of solids, and would later on lead to a Fracture Mechanics course.
These lecture notes were prepared by the author during his sabbatical year at the Swiss Federal
Institute of Technology (Lausanne) in the Material Science Department. The course was oered to
second year undergraduate students in French, whereas the lecture notes are in English. The notes were
developed with the following objectives in mind. First they must be complete and rigorous. At any time,
a student should be able to trace back the development of an equation. Furthermore, by going through
all the derivations, the student would understand the limitations and assumptions behind every model.
Finally, the rigor adopted in the coverage of the subject should serve as an example to the students of
the rigor expected from them in solving other scientic or engineering problems. This last aspect is often
forgotten.
The notes are broken down into a very hierarchical format. Each concept is broken down into a small
section (a byte). This should not only facilitate comprehension, but also dialogue among the students
or with the instructor.
Whenever necessary, Mathematical preliminaries are introduced to make sure that the student is
equipped with the appropriate tools. Illustrative problems are introduced whenever possible, and last
but not least problem set using Mathematica is given in the Appendix.
The author has no illusion as to the completeness or exactness of all these set of notes. They were
entirely developed during a single academic year, and hence could greatly benet from a thorough review.
As such, corrections, criticisms and comments are welcome.
Finally, the author would like to thank his students who bravely put up with him and Continuum
Mechanics in the AY 19971998, and Prof. Huet who was his host at the EPFL.
Victor E. Saouma
Ecublens, June 1998
Victor Saouma
Draft
Contents
I
CONTINUUM MECHANICS
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2 KINETICS
2.1 Force, Traction and Stress Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Traction on an Arbitrary Plane; Cauchys Stress Tensor
E 21 Stress Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Symmetry of Stress Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Cauchys Reciprocal Theorem . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Principal Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 Spherical and Deviatoric Stress Tensors . . . . .
2.5 Stress Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 22 Principal Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 23 Stress Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1 Plane Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.2 Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress Conditions . . . .
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Draft
02
2.6
CONTENTS
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213
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DIFFERENTIATION
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4 KINEMATIC
4.1 Elementary Denition of Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Small and Finite Strains in 1D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Small Strains in 2D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Strain Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Position and Displacement Vectors; (x, X) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 41 Displacement Vectors in Material and Spatial Forms . . . . . . .
4.2.1.1 Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions; x(X, t), X(x, t) .
E 42 Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2.1 Deformation; (xX , Xx ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2.1.1 Change of Area Due to Deformation . . . . .
4.2.2.1.2 Change of Volume Due to Deformation . . .
E 43 Change of Volume and Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2.2 Displacements; (uX , ux ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2.3 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 44 Material Deformation and Displacement Gradients . . . . . . . .
4.2.3 Deformation Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3.1 Cauchys Deformation Tensor; (dX)2 . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3.2 Greens Deformation Tensor; (dx)2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 45 Greens Deformation Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4 Strains; (dx)2 (dX)2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4.1 Finite Strain Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4.1.1 Lagrangian/Greens Tensor . . . . . . . . . . .
E 46 Lagrangian Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4.1.2 Eulerian/Almansis Tensor . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4.2 Innitesimal Strain Tensors; Small Deformation Theory
4.2.4.2.1 Lagrangian Innitesimal Strain Tensor . . . .
4.2.4.2.2 Eulerian Innitesimal Strain Tensor . . . . . .
Victor Saouma
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Draft
CONTENTS
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4.3
4.4
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4.6
4.7
4.2.4.3 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 47 Lagrangian and Eulerian Linear Strain Tensors . . . . . . .
4.2.5 Physical Interpretation of the Strain Tensor . . . . . . . . .
4.2.5.1 Small Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.5.2 Finite Strain; Stretch Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6 Linear Strain and Rotation Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.1 Small Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.1.1 Lagrangian Formulation . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.1.2 Eulerian Formulation . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 48 Relative Displacement along a specied direction . . . . . .
E 49 Linear strain tensor, linear rotation tensor, rotation vector .
4.2.6.3 Finite Strain; Polar Decomposition . . . . . . . . .
E 410 Polar Decomposition I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 411 Polar Decomposition II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 412 Polar Decomposition III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.7 Summary and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.8 Explicit Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.9 Compatibility Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 413 Strain Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lagrangian Stresses; Piola Kircho Stress Tensors . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 414 PiolaKircho Stress Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydrostatic and Deviatoric Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Principal Strains, Strain Invariants, Mohr Circle . . . . . . . . . .
E 415 Strain Invariants & Principal Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 416 Mohrs Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initial or Thermal Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Experimental Measurement of Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.1 Wheatstone Bridge Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.2 Quarter Bridge Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Draft
04
6.4
CONTENTS
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8 INTERMEZZO
II
81
ELASTICITY/SOLID MECHANICS
Victor Saouma
83
ELASTICITY
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91
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95
Draft
CONTENTS
05
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Circular
9.5
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in a Plate
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111
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12 BEAM THEORY
12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 Statics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.1 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.2 Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.3 Equations of Conditions . . . . . . . . .
12.2.4 Static Determinacy . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.5 Geometric Instability . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.6 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 121 Simply Supported Beam . . . . . . . . .
12.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.1 Design Sign Conventions . . . . . . . . .
12.3.2 Load, Shear, Moment Relations . . . . .
12.3.3 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 122 Simple Shear and Moment Diagram . .
12.4 Beam Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.1 Basic Kinematic Assumption; Curvature
12.4.2 StressStrain Relations . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.3 Internal Equilibrium; Section Properties
12.4.3.1 Fx = 0; Neutral Axis . . . .
12.4.3.2 M = 0; Moment of Inertia .
12.4.4 Beam Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. 1213
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Draft
06
CONTENTS
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1
A1
B SECTION PROPERTIES
B1
C MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES;
C.1 Euler Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E C1 Extension of a Bar . . . . . . . .
E C2 Flexure of a Beam . . . . . . . .
D1
E1
Victor Saouma
Draft
List of Figures
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
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3.1
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Vector .
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32
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311
312
314
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
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4.8
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41
42
43
411
418
421
431
440
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12
12
13
14
15
17
18
Draft
02
LIST OF FIGURES
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
5.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
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63
66
615
616
617
9.1
9.2
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9.7
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92
93
94
97
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98
99
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
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. 102
. 1010
. 1011
. 1012
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
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. 111
. 112
. 113
. 114
. 115
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
Types of Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inclined Roller Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples of Static Determinate and Indeterminate Structures .
Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions . . . . .
Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design . . . . . . . . .
Free Body Diagram of an Innitesimal Beam Segment . . . . .
Deformation of a Beam under Pure Bending . . . . . . . . . . .
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. 123
. 124
. 125
. 125
. 127
. 127
. 1211
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
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132
138
1311
1313
1314
1316
1318
1319
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
test . .
mod1 .
vkv .
vis .
vis .
comp .
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1
2
2
3
3
3
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443
444
445
446
Draft
LIST OF FIGURES
03
14.7 epp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
14.8 ehs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
C.1 Variational and Dierential Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2
Victor Saouma
Draft
04
Victor Saouma
LIST OF FIGURES
Draft
LIST OF FIGURES
Symbol
05
NOTATION
Denition
SCALARS
A
Area
c
Specic heat
e
Volumetric strain
E
Elastic Modulus
g
Specicif free enthalpy
h
Film coecient for convection heat transfer
h
Specic enthalpy
I
Moment of inertia
J
Jacobian
K
Bulk modulus
K
Kinetic Energy
L
Length
p
Pressure
Q
Rate of internal heat generation
r
Radiant heat constant per unit mass per unit time
s
Specic entropy
S
Entropy
t
Time
T
Absolute temperature
u
Specic internal energy
U
Energy
U
Complementary strain energy
W
Work
W
Potential of External Work
Potential energy
Shear modulus
Poissons ratio
mass density
ij
Shear strains
1
Engineering shear strain
2 ij
Lames coecient
Stretch ratio
G
Lames coecient
Lames coecient
Temperature
Dimension
SI Unit
L2
m2
N.D.
L1 M T 2
L2 T 2
Pa
JKg 1
L2 T 2
L4
JKg 1
m4
L1 M T 2
L2 M T 2
L
L1 M T 2
L2 M T 3
M T 3 L4
L2 T 2 1
M L2 T 2 1
T
L2 T 2
L2 M T 2
L2 M T 2
L2 M T 2
L2 M T 2
L2 M T 2
1
L1 M T 2
N.D.
M L3
N.D.
N.D.
L1 M T 2
N.D.
L1 M T 2
L1 M T 2
Pa
J
m
Pa
W
W m6
JKg 1 K 1
JK 1
s
K
JKg 1
J
J
J
J
J
T 1
Pa
Kgm3
Pa
Pa
Pa
L2 M T 2
TENSORS order 1
b
b
q
t
t
u
Victor Saouma
N Kg 1
M T 3
L1 M T 2
L1 M T 2
L
W m2
Pa
Pa
m
Draft
06
u(x)
u
x
X
0
(i)
LIST OF FIGURES
L
L
L
L
L1 M T 2
L1 M T 2
m
m
m
m
Pa
Pa
TENSORS order 2
B1
C
D
E
E
E
F
H
I
J
k
K
L
R
T0
T
U
V
W
0
k
, T
T
W m1 K 1

Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
TENSORS order 4
D
Constitutive matrix
L1 M T 2
Pa
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L3
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m3
t
u
T
c
q
, V
Contour line
Surface of a body
Surface
Boundary along which
Boundary along which
Boundary along which
Boundary along which
Boundary along which
Volume of body
FUNCTIONS, OPERATORS
Victor Saouma
Draft
LIST OF FIGURES
u
2
07
T
Divergence, (gradient operator) on scalar
x
y
z
u
ux
Divergence, (gradient operator) on vector (div . u = x + yy +
Laplacian Operator
Victor Saouma
uz
z
Draft
08
Victor Saouma
LIST OF FIGURES
Draft
Part I
CONTINUUM MECHANICS
Draft
Draft
Chapter 1
MATHEMATICAL
PRELIMINARIES; Part I Vectors
and Tensors
1 Physical laws should be independent of the position and orientation of the observer. For this reason,
physical laws are vector equations or tensor equations, since both vectors and tensors transform
from one coordinate system to another in such a way that if the law holds in one coordinate system, it
holds in any other coordinate system.
1.1
Vectors
2 A vector is a directed line segment which can denote a variety of quantities, such as position of point
with respect to another (position vector), a force, or a traction.
A vector may be dened with respect to a particular coordinate system by specifying the components
of the vector in that system. The choice of the coordinate system is arbitrary, but some are more suitable
than others (axes corresponding to the major direction of the object being analyzed).
The rectangular Cartesian coordinate system is the most often used one (others are the cylindrical, spherical or curvilinear systems). The rectangular system is often represented by three mutually
perpendicular axes Oxyz, with corresponding unit vector triad i, j, k (or e1 , e2 , e3 ) such that:
ij = k;
jk = i;
ki = j;
ii = jj = kk = 1
ij = jk = ki = 0
(1.1a)
(1.1b)
(1.1c)
(1.2)
where
vx
vy
=
=
vi = v cos
vj = v cos
(1.3a)
(1.3b)
vz
vk = v cos
(1.3c)
Draft
12
v
= cos i + cos j + cos k
v
(1.4)
Since v is arbitrary, it follows that any unit vector will have direction cosines of that vector as its
Cartesian components.
7
v =
We will denote the contravariant components of a vector by superscripts v k , and its covariant
components by subscripts vk (the signicance of those terms will be claried in Sect. 1.1.2.1.
1.1.1
Operations
Addition: of two vectors a + b is geometrically achieved by connecting the tail of the vector b with the
head of a, Fig. 1.2. Analytically the sum vector will have components a1 + b1 a2 + b2 a3 + b3 .
u+v
a1
a2
a3 .
Victor Saouma
Draft
1.1 Vectors
13
Dot Product (or scalar product) is a scalar quantity which relates not only to the lengths of the
vector, but also to the angle between them.
3
ab a
cos (a, b) =
ai b i
(1.5)
i=1
where cos (a, b) is the cosine of the angle between the vectors a and b. The dot product
measures the relative orientation between two vectors.
The dot product is both commutative
ab = ba
(1.6)
(1.7)
and distributive
The dot product of a with a unit vector n gives the projection of a in the direction of n.
The dot product of base vectors gives rise to the denition of the Kronecker delta dened
as
ei ej = ij
(1.8)
where
ij =
1
0
if
if
i=j
i=j
(1.9)
Cross Product (or vector product) c of two vectors a and b is dened as the vector
c = ab = (a2 b3 a3 b2 )e1 + (a3 b1 a1 b3 )e2 + (a1 b2 a2 b1 )e3
(1.10)
e2
a2
b2
e1
a1
b1
e3
a3
b3
(1.11)
and is equal to the area of the parallelogram described by a and b, Fig. 1.3.
axb
A(a,b)=a x b
b
A(a, b) = ab
Victor Saouma
(1.12)
Draft
14
The cross product is not commutative, but satises the condition of skew symmetry
ab = ba
(1.13)
(1.14)
Triple Scalar Product: of three vectors a, b, and c is desgnated by (ab)c and it corresponds
to the (scalar) volume dened by the three vectors, Fig. 1.4.
n=a x b
a x b
c
c.n
=
=
(ab)c = a(bc)
ax ay az
bx by bz
cx cy cz
(1.15)
(1.16)
(1.17)
(1.18)
Vector Triple Product is a cross product of two vectors, one of which is itself a cross product.
a(bc) = (ac)b (ab)c = d
(1.19)
1.1.2
Coordinate Transformation
1.1.2.1
General Tensors
Let us consider two bases bj (x1 , x2 , x3 ) and bj (x1 , x2 x3 ), Fig. 1.5. Each unit vector in one basis must
be a linear combination of the vectors of the other basis
(1.20)
Draft
1.1 Vectors
15
(summed on p and q respectively) where apj (subscript new, superscript old) and bkq are the coecients
for the forward and backward changes respectively from b to b respectively. Explicitly
1 1 1
b 1 b 2 b 3 e1
a1 a21 a31 e1
e1
e1
e2
e2
e2
e2
= b21 b22 b23
and
= a12 a22 a32
(1.21)
3
3
3
e3
b1 b2 b3
e3
e3
a13 a23 a33
e3
X2
X2
X1
1
cos a12
X1
X3
X3
Figure 1.5: Coordinate Transformation
10
J=
x1
x12
x
x13
x
x1
x1
x22
x
x23
x
x2
x1
x32
x
x33
x
x3
=0
(1.22)
11
1.1.2.1.1
12
Contravariant Transformation
(1.23)
since the base vectors bq are linearly independent, the coecients of bq must all be zero hence
v q = bqk v k and inversely v p = apj v j
(1.24)
showing that the forward change from components v k to v q used the coecients bqk of the backward
change from base bq to the original bk . This is why these components are called contravariant.
Generalizing, a Contravariant Tensor of order one (recognized by the use of the superscript)
transforms a set of quantities rk associated with point P in xk through a coordinate transformation into
13
Victor Saouma
Draft
16
xq k
r
xk
(1.25)
bqk
14 By extension, the Contravariant tensors of order two requires the tensor components to obey
the following transformation law
r ij =
1.1.2.1.2
xi xj rs
r
xr xs
(1.26)
Covariant Transformation
15
(1.27)
We note that contrarily to the contravariant transformation, the covariant transformation uses the same
transformation coecients as the ones for the base vectors.
16
1.1.2.2
rq
r ij
xk
rk
xq
r
x xs
rrs
xi xj
(1.28)
(1.29)
If we consider two dierent sets of cartesian orthonormal coordinate systems {e1 , e2 , e3 } and {e1 , e2 , e3 },
any vector v can be expressed in one system or the other
17
v = vj ej = v j ej
(1.30)
To determine the relationship between the two sets of components, we consider the dot product of v
with one (any) of the base vectors
ei v = v i = vj (ei ej )
(1.31)
18
(since v j (ej ei ) = v j ij = v i )
19
(1.32)
which arise from the dot products of base vectors as the direction cosines. (Since we have an orthonormal system, those values are nothing else than the cosines of the angles between the nine pairing
of base vectors.)
Thus, one set of vector components can be expressed in terms of the other through a covariant
transformation similar to the one of Eq. 1.27.
20
Victor Saouma
Draft
1.1 Vectors
17
vj
vk
apj vp
(1.33)
bkq v q
(1.34)
we note that the free index in the rst and second equations appear on the upper and lower index
respectively.
21
n
Because of the orthogonality of the unit vector we have asp asq = pq and am
r ar = mn .
As a further illustration of the above derivation, let us consider the transformation of a vector V from
(X, Y, Z) coordinate system to (x, y, z), Fig. 1.6:
22
23
ax
Vx
Vy
= aX
y
Vz
aX
z
or
aYx
aYy
aYz
aZ
VX
x
aZ
VY
y
Z
VZ
az
(1.35)
(1.36)
Finally, for the 2D case and from Fig. 1.7, the transformation matrix is written as
T =
a11
a12
cos cos
cos cos
(1.37)
Victor Saouma
a21
a22
cos sin
sin cos
(1.38)
Draft
18
X2
X1
X1
1.2
Tensors
25 We now seek to generalize the concept of a vector by introducing the tensor (T), which essentially
exists to operate on vectors v to produce other vectors (or on tensors to produce other tensors!). We
designate this operation by Tv or simply Tv.
26
We hereby adopt the dyadic notation for tensors as linear vector operators
u = Tv or ui = Tij vj
u = vS where S = TT
(1.39a)
(1.39b)
27
ui
ui
= Tij v j ; ui
= Ti.j vj ; ui
=
=
T ij vj
T.ji v j
(1.40)
involving the covariant components Tij , the contravariant components T ij and the mixed components T.ji or Ti.j .
Whereas a tensor is essentially an operator on vectors (or other tensors), it is also a physical quantity,
independent of any particular coordinate system yet specied most conveniently by referring to an
appropriate system of coordinates.
28
Tensors frequently arise as physical entities whose components are the coecients of a linear relationship between vectors.
29
A tensor is classied by the rank or order. A Tensor of order zero is specied in any coordinate system
by one coordinate and is a scalar. A tensor of order one has three coordinate components in space, hence
it is a vector. In general 3D space the number of components of a tensor is 3n where n is the order of
the tensor.
30
31
1.2.1
Indicial Notation
Whereas the Engineering notation may be the simplest and most intuitive one, it often leads to long
and repetitive equations. Alternatively, the tensor and the dyadic form will lead to shorter and more
compact forms.
32
Victor Saouma
Draft
1.2 Tensors
19
While working on general relativity, Einstein got tired of writing the summation symbol with its range
of summation below and above (such as n=3
i=1 aij bi ) and noted that most of the time the upper range
(n) was equal to the dimension of space (3 for us, 4 for him), and that when the summation involved a
product of two terms, the summation was over a repeated index (i in our example). Hence, he decided
that there is no need to include the summation sign
if there was repeated indices (i), and thus any
repeated index is a dummy index and is summed over the range 1 to 3. An index that is not repeated
is called free index and assumed to take a value from 1 to 3.
33
34
35
a1
a2
ai = ai = a1 a2 a3 =
i = 1, 3
(1.41)
a3
assuming that n = 3.
2. A repeated index will take on all the values of its range, and the resulting tensors summed. For
instance:
(1.42)
a1i xi = a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3
3. Tensors order:
First order tensor (such as force) has only one free index:
ai = ai =
a2
a1
a3
(1.43)
(1.44)
xi
36
= ,i
vi
xi
= vi,i
vi
xj
= vi,j
Ti,j
xk
= Ti,j,k
(1.45)
Usefulness of the indicial notation is in presenting systems of equations in compact form. For instance:
xi = cij zj
(1.46)
x2
x3
=
=
(1.47a)
Similarly:
Aij = Bip Cjq Dpq
Victor Saouma
(1.48)
Draft
110
37
A11
= B11 C11 D11 + B11 C12 D12 + B12 C11 D21 + B12 C12 D22
A12
A21
= B11 C11 D11 + B11 C12 D12 + B12 C11 D21 + B12 C12 D22
= B21 C11 D11 + B21 C12 D12 + B22 C11 D21 + B22 C12 D22
A22
= B21 C21 D11 + B21 C22 D12 + B22 C21 D21 + B22 C22 D22
(1.49a)
Using indicial notation, we may rewrite the denition of the dot product
ab = ai bi
(1.50)
ab = pqr aq br ep
(1.51)
we note that in the second equation, there is one free index p thus there are three equations, there are
two repeated (dummy) indices q and r, thus each equation has nine terms.
1.2.2
Tensor Operations
1.2.2.1
Sum
38
(1.52)
1.2.2.2
39
Multiplication by a Scalar
(1.53)
Sij = Tij
1.2.2.3
Contraction
In a contraction, we make two of the indeces equal (or in a mixed tensor, we make a ubscript equal to
the superscript), thus producing a tensor of order two less than that to which it is applied. For example:
40
Tij
ui vj
Amr
..sn
Eij ak
Ampr
qs
Victor Saouma
Tii ;
ui vi ;
r
Amr
..sm = B.s ;
Eij ai = cj ;
Ampr
= Bqmp ;
qr
2
2
4
3
5
0
0
2
1
3
(1.54)
Draft
1.2 Tensors
1.2.2.4
1.2.2.4.1
111
Products
Outer Product
The outer product of two tensors (not necessarily of the same type or order) is a set of tensor
components obtained simply by writing the components of the two tensors beside each other with no
repeated indices (that is by multiplying each component of one of the tensors by every component of
the other). For example
41
ai b j
A Bj.k
i
vi Tjk
1.2.2.4.2
= Tij
= C i.k .j
(1.55a)
(1.55b)
= Sijk
(1.55c)
Inner Product
The inner product is obtained from an outer product by contraction involving one index from each
tensor. For example
42
ai b j
ai Ejk
Eij Fkm
Ai Bi.k
1.2.2.4.3
43
ai b i
ai Eik = fk
(1.56a)
(1.56b)
(1.56c)
(1.56d)
Scalar Product
T : U = Tij Uij
in any rectangular system.
44
1.2.2.4.4
= U:T
(1.58a)
= T:U+T:V
= (T) : U = T : (U)
(1.58b)
(1.58c)
> 0 unless T = 0
(1.58d)
Tensor Product
Since a tensor primary objective is to operate on vectors, the tensor product of two vectors provides
a fundamental building block of secondorder tensors and will be examined next.
45
Victor Saouma
Draft
112
The Tensor Product of two vectors u and v is a second order tensor u v which in turn operates
on an arbitrary vector w as follows:
46
[u v]w (vw)u
(1.59)
In other words when the tensor product u v operates on w (left hand side), the result (right hand
side) is a vector that points along the direction of u, and has length equal to (vw)u, or the original
length of u times the dot (scalar) product of v and w.
Of particular interest is the tensor product of the base vectors ei ej . With three base vectors, we
have a set of nine second order tensors which provide a suitable basis for expressing the components of a
tensor. Again, we started with base vectors which themselves provide a basis for expressing any vector,
and now the tensor product of base vectors in turn provides a formalism to express the components of
a tensor.
47
The second order tensor T can be expressed in terms of its components Tij relative to the base
tensors ei ej as follows:
48
Tij [ei ej ]
(1.60a)
Tij [ei ej ] ek
(1.60b)
i=1 j=1
3
Tek
=
i=1 j=1
[ei ej ] ek
= (ej ek )ei = jk ei
(1.60c)
Tek
Tik ei
(1.60d)
i=1
Thus Tik is the ith component of Tek . We can thus dene the tensor component as follows
Tij = ei Tej
(1.61)
Now we can see how the second order tensor T operates on any vector v by examining the components
of the resulting vector Tv:
49
Tv =
Tij [ei ej ]
i=1 j=1
vk ek
(1.62)
k=1
Tv =
Tij vj ei
(1.63)
i=1 j=1
(Tv)i =
Tij vj
(1.64)
i=1
50
Victor Saouma
(1.65)
Introduction to Continuum Mechanics
Draft
1.2 Tensors
113
A simple example of a tensor and its operation on vectors is the projection tensor P which generates
the projection of a vector v on the plane characterized by a normal n:
51
PInn
(1.66)
(1.67)
T(R + U) =
(R + U)T =
(TU) =
1T =
T(UR)
(1.68a)
TR + tU
RT + UT
(1.68b)
(1.68c)
(T)U = T(U)
T1 = T
(1.68d)
(1.68e)
1.2.3
Dyads
54 The indeterminate vector product of a and b dened by writing the two vectors in juxtaposition as
ab is called a dyad. A dyadic D corresponds to a tensor of order two and is a linear combination of
dyads:
(1.69)
D = a1 b1 + a2 b2 an bn
1.2.4
55
(1.70)
Rotation of Axes
The rule for changing second order tensor components under rotation of axes goes as follow:
ui
=
=
=
aji uj
aji Tjq vq
aji Tjq aqp v p
(1.71)
But we also have ui = T ip v p (again from Eq. 1.39a) in the barred system, equating these two expressions
we obtain
T ip (aji aqp Tjq )v p = 0
(1.72)
hence
Victor Saouma
T ip
(1.73)
Tjq
(1.74)
Draft
114
By extension, higher order tensors can be similarly transformed from one coordinate system to another.
56
cos sin 0
A = sin cos 0
0
0
1
Txx Txy 0
T = Txy Tyy 0
0
0
0
T xx T xy 0
T = AT T A = T xy T yy 0
0
0
0
2
2
cos Txx + sin Tyy + sin 2Txy
= 12 ( sin 2Txx + sin 2Tyy + 2 cos 2Txy
0
(1.75a)
(1.75b)
(1.75c)
1
2 ( sin 2Txx + sin 2Tyy + 2 cos 2Txy
sin2 Txx + cos (cos Tyy 2 sin Txy
0
0
0
(1.75d)
alternatively, using sin 2 = 2 sin cos and cos 2 = cos2 sin2 , this last equation can be rewritten
as
sin2
2 sin cos
cos2
T xx
Txx
(1.76)
Tyy
cos2
2 sin cos
sin2
=
T
yy
Txy
sin cos cos sin cos2 sin2
T xy
1.2.5
Trace
The trace of a secondorder tensor, denoted tr T is a scalar invariant function of the tensor and is
dened as
57
tr T Tii
(1.77)
1.2.6
58
Inverse Tensor
(1.78)
1
1
Tkj = ij and Tik Tkj
= ij
alternatively T1 T = TT1 = I, or Tik
1.2.7
Since the two fundamental tensors in continuum mechanics are of the second order and symmetric
(stress and strain), we examine some important properties of these tensors.
59
For every symmetric tensor Tij dened at some point in space, there is associated with each direction
(specied by unit normal nj ) at that point, a vector given by the inner product
60
vi = Tij nj
Victor Saouma
(1.79)
Draft
1.2 Tensors
115
If the direction is one for which vi is parallel to ni , the inner product may be expressed as
Tij nj = ni
(1.80)
and the direction ni is called principal direction of Tij . Since ni = ij nj , this can be rewritten as
(Tij ij )nj = 0
(1.81)
which represents a system of three equations for the four unknowns ni and .
(T11 )n1 + T12 n2 + T13 n3
T21 n1 + (T22 )n2 + T23 n3
= 0
= 0
= 0
(1.82a)
To have a nontrivial slution (ni = 0) the determinant of the coecients must be zero,
Tij ij  = 0
61
(1.83)
(1.84)
= Tij = tr Tij
1
(Tii Tjj Tij Tij )
=
2
= Tij  = det Tij
(1.85)
(1.86)
(1.87)
are called the rst, second and third invariants respectively of Tij .
62
For a symmetric tensor with real components, the principal values are also real. If those values are
distinct, the three principal directions are mutually orthogonal.
63
1.2.8
64
When expressed in term of the principal axes, the tensor array can be written in matrix form as
0
0
(1)
0
(2)
T = 0
(1.88)
0
0
(3)
By direct matrix multiplication, the quare of the tensor Tij is given by the inner product Tik Tkj , the
cube as Tik Tkm Tmn . Therefore the nth power of Tij can be written as
0
0
n(1)
n(2)
0
(1.89)
Tn= 0
0
0
n(3)
65
Victor Saouma
Draft
116
Since each of the principal values satises Eq. 1.84 and because the diagonal matrix form of T given
above, then the tensor itself will satisfy Eq. 1.84.
T 3 IT T 2 + IIT T IIIT I = 0
(1.90)
where I is the identity matrix. This equation is called the HamiltonCayley equation.
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 2
KINETICS
Or How Forces are Transmitted
2.1
1
body forces: act on the elements of volume or mass inside the body, e.g. gravity,
electromagnetic elds. dF = bdV ol.
surface forces: are contact forces acting on the free body at its bounding surface. Those
will be dened in terms of force per unit area.
2 The surface force per unit area acting on an element dS is called traction or more
accurately stress vector.
tdS = i
S
tx dS + j
ty dS + k
tz dS
(2.1)
Most authors limit the term traction to an actual bounding surface of a body, and use
the term stress vector for an imaginary interior surface (even though the state of stress
is a tensor and not a vector).
The traction vectors on planes perpendicular to the coordinate axes are particularly
useful. When the vectors acting at a point on three such mutually perpendicular planes
is given, the stress vector at that point on any other arbitrarily inclined plane can be
expressed in terms of the rst set of tractions.
3
4 A stress, Fig 2.1 is a second order cartesian tensor, ij where the 1st subscript (i)
refers to the direction of outward facing normal, and the second one (j) to the direction
of component force.
11 12 13
t1
= ij = 21 22 23 = t2
(2.2)
31 32 33
3
In fact the nine rectangular components ij of turn out to be the three sets of
three vector components (11 , 12 , 13 ), (21 , 22 , 23 ), (31 , 32 , 33 ) which correspond to
Draft
22
KINETICS
X3
33
32
31
23
13
21
X3
22
X2
12
X1
11
X2
X1
the three tractions t1 , t2 and t3 which are acting on the x1 , x2 and x3 faces (It should
be noted that those tractions are not necesarily normal to the faces, and they can be
decomposed into a normal and shear traction if need be). In other words, stresses are
nothing else than the components of tractions (stress vector), Fig. 2.2.
X3
X3
V3
33
t3
t2
13
21
t1
32
23
31
11
V2
X2
22
V1
X1
X2
12
Victor Saouma
Draft
2.2
23
7 Let us now consider the problem of determining the traction acting on the surface of an
oblique plane (characterized by its normal n) in terms of the known tractions normal to
the three principal axis, t1 , t2 and t3 . This will be done through the socalled Cauchys
tetrahedron shown in Fig. 2.3.
X2
t
1
t
t*n S
h N
S3
n
A
X1
t 2 S2
*
X3
The components of the unit vector n are the direction cosines of its direction:
n1 = cos( AON);
n2 = cos( BON);
n3 = cos( CON);
(2.3)
The altitude ON, of length h is a leg of the three right triangles ANO, BNO and CNO
with hypothenuses OA, OB and OC. Hence
h = OAn1 = OBn2 = OCn3
9
The volume of the tetrahedron is one third the base times the altitude
1
1
1
1
V = hS = OAS1 = OBS2 = OCS3
3
3
3
3
(2.4)
(2.5)
S2 = Sn2 ;
S3 = Sn3 ;
(2.6)
or Si = Sni .
In Fig. 2.3 are also shown the average values of the body force and of the surface
tractions (thus the asterix). The negative sign appears because ti denotes the average
10
Victor Saouma
Draft
24
KINETICS
traction on a surface whose outward normal points in the negative xi direction. We seek
to determine tn .
tn S + b V t1 S1 t2 S2 t3 S3 = V
dv
dt
(2.7)
(2.9)
We observe that we dropped the asterix as the length of the vectors approached zero.
It is important to note that this result was obtained without any assumption of equilibrium and that it applies as well in uid dynamics as in solid mechanics.
12
This equation is a vector equation, and the corresponding algebraic equations for the
components of tn are
13
tn1
tn2
tn3
Indicial notation tni
dyadic notation tn
=
=
=
=
=
11 n1 + 21 n2 + 31 n3
12 n1 + 22 n2 + 32 n3
13 n1 + 23 n2 + 33 n3
ji nj
n = T n
(2.10)
We have thus established that the nine components ij are components of the second
order tensor, Cauchys stress tensor.
14
Note that this stress tensor is really dened in the deformed space (Eulerian), and this
issue will be revisited in Sect. 4.3.
15
Victor Saouma
Draft
25
7 5 0
t1
= 5 3 1 = t2
t
0
1 2
3
(2.11)
We seek to determine the traction (or stress vector) t passing through P and parallel to
the plane ABC where A(4, 0, 0), B(0, 2, 0) and C(0, 0, 6). Solution:
The vector normal to the plane can be found by taking the cross products of vectors AB
and AC:
e1 e2 e3
N = ABAC = 4 2 0
4 0 6
= 12e1 + 24e2 + 8e3
(2.12a)
(2.12b)
(2.13)
3
7
6
7
and thus t = 97 e1 + 57 e2 +
2.3
16
2
7
7 5 0
5 3 1 =
0
1 2
97
5
7
10
7
(2.14)
10
e
7 3
From Fig. 2.1 the resultant force exerted on the positive X1 face is
11 X2 X3 12 X2 X3 13 X2 X3
(2.15)
(2.16)
18
(2.17)
Draft
26
KINETICS
We generalize and conclude that in the absence of distributed body forces, the stress
matrix is symmetric,
19
(2.18)
ij = ji
A more rigorous proof of the symmetry of the stress tensor will be given in Sect.
6.3.2.1.
20
2.3.1
21 If we consider t1 as the traction vector on a plane with normal n1 , and t2 the stress
vector at the same point on a plane with normal n2 , then
t1 = n1 and t2 = n2
(2.19)
(2.20)
or in matrix form as
If we postmultiply the rst equation by n2 and the second one by n1 , by virtue of the
symmetry of [] we have
(2.21)
[n1 ]n2 = [n2 ]n1
or
t1 n2 = t2 n1
22
(2.22)
n
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
n
0
1
0
1
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
0
1
0
1
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00
11
0
0
1
0
1
0 1
1
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00
11
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00
11
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00
11
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00
11
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00
11
000
111
0
1
0
1
0
1
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00
11
000
111
0
1
0
1
0
1
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
0
1
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
000
111
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00
11
000
111
00
11
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00
11
00
11
0000
1111
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00
11
0000
1111
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
00 1
11
0
00
11
00000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111
0
1
00
11
0
1
00
11
00
11
0
1
00
11
0
1
0011
11
00
0
1
00
11
0
1
00
11
00
0
1
00
0
1
0011
11
00
11
011
00
11
0
1
00 1
11
0
1
00
11
0
1
00
11
0
1
00
0
1
011
1
00
11
0
1
0
1
0
1
n
0
1
0
1
n
tn = tn
Victor Saouma
(2.23)
Introduction to Continuum Mechanics
Draft
27
We should note that this theorem is analogous to Newtons famous third law of motion
To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
23
2.4
Principal Stresses
Regardless of the state of stress (as long as the stress tensor is symmetric), at a given
point, it is always possible to choose a special set of axis through the point so that the
shear stress components vanish when the stress components are referred to this system
of axis. these special axes are called principal axes of the principal stresses.
24
tn = t
12
n2
12
11
11= t
n1
tn
s
s =0
t
=
n n
t n2
n2
n1
t n2
n1
tn1
Arbitrary Plane
Principal Plane
(2.24)
(2.25)
(2.26)
(rs rs )nr = 0
(2.27)
or
in matrix notation this corresponds to
n ([] [I]) = 0
Victor Saouma
(2.28)
Draft
28
KINETICS
where I corresponds to the identity matrix. We really have here a set of three homogeneous algebraic equations for the direction cosines ni .
27
(2.29)
they can not all be zero. hence Eq.2.28 has solutions which are not zero if and only if
the determinant of the coecients is equal to zero, i.e
11 12
13
21
22 23
= 0 (2.30)
31
32
33
rs rs  = 0 (2.31)
 I = 0 (2.32)
For a given set of the nine stress components, the preceding equation constitutes a
cubic equation for the three unknown magnitudes of .
28
Cauchy was rst to show that since the matrix is symmetric and has real elements,
the roots are all real numbers.
29
30 The three lambdas correspond to the three principal stresses (1) > (2) > (3) . When
any one of them is substituted for in the three equations in Eq. 2.28 those equations
reduce to only two independent linear equations, which must be solved together with the
quadratic Eq. 2.29 to determine the direction cosines nir of the normal ni to the plane
on which i acts.
31
32
(2.33)
In 2D, it can be shown that the principal stresses are given by:
1,2 =
2.4.1
x + y
x y
2
2
2
+ xy
(2.34)
Invariants
The principal stresses are physical quantities, whose values do not depend on the
coordinate system in which the components of the stress were initially given. They are
therefore invariants of the stress state.
33
When the determinant in the characteristic Eq. 2.32 is expanded, the cubic equation
takes the form
34
3 I 2 II III = 0
(2.35)
where the symbols I , II and III denote the following scalar expressions in the stress
components:
Victor Saouma
Draft
29
I = 11 + 22 + 33 = ii = tr
2
2
2
+ 31
+ 12
II = (11 22 + 22 33 + 33 11 ) + 23
1
1
1
(ij ij ii jj ) = ij ij I2
=
2
2
2
1
=
( : I2 )
2
1
III = det = eijk epqr ip jq kr
6
35
(2.36)
(2.37)
(2.38)
(2.39)
(2.40)
2.4.2
36
(2.44)
then the stress tensor can be written as the sum of two tensors:
Hydrostatic stress in which each normal stress is equal to p and the shear stresses
are zero. The hydrostatic stress produces volume change without change in shape
in an isotropic medium.
hyd
p 0
0
p 0
= pI = 0
0
0
p
(2.45)
dev
2.5
11 12
13
22 23
= 21
31
32
33
(2.46)
Stress Transformation
From Eq. 1.73 and 1.74, the stress transformation for the second order stress tensor
is given by
37
Victor Saouma
(2.48)
Draft
210
38
KINETICS
xx
yy
xy
cos2
sin2
2 sin cos
xx
2
2
cos
2 sin cos yy
sin
=
(2.49)
3 1 1
= 1 0 2
1 2 0
(2.50)
(2.51)
Or upon expansion (and simplication) ( + 2)( 4)( 1) = 0, thus the roots are
(1) = 4, (2) = 1 and (3) = 2. We also note that those are the three eigenvalues of
the stress tensor.
If we let x1 axis be the one corresponding to the direction of (3) and n3i be the
direction cosines of this axis, then from Eq. 2.28 we have
1
n32 = ;
2
1
n33 =
2
(2.52)
Similarly If we let x2 axis be the one corresponding to the direction of (2) and n2i be the
direction cosines of this axis,
n2 + 2n2 n2 = 0
3
1
2
3
1
n22 = ;
3
1
n23 =
3
(2.53)
Finally, if we let x3 axis be the one corresponding to the direction of (1) and n1i be the
direction cosines of this axis,
6
n1 + 2n12 4n13 = 0
1
n12 = ;
6
1
n13 =
6
(2.54)
Finally, we can convince ourselves that the two stress tensors have the same invariants
I , II and III .
Draft
211
Show that the transformation tensor of direction cosines previously determined transforms the original stress tensor into the diagonal principal axes stress tensor.
Solution:
From Eq. 2.47
0
1
3
26
1
2
13
16
2 0 0
= 0 1 0
0 0 4
2.5.1
39
1
12
26
3 1 1 0
3
13
13 16
1 0 2
2
1 2 2
16
12 13 16
(2.55a)
(2.55b)
Plane Stress
Plane stress conditions prevail when 3i = 0, and thus we have a biaxial stress eld.
Plane stress condition prevail in (relatively) thin plates, i.e when one of the dimensions
is much smaller than the other two.
40
2.5.2
The Mohr circle will provide a graphical mean to contain the transformed state of
stress ( xx , yy , xy ) at an arbitrary plane (inclined by ) in terms of the original one
(xx , yy , xy ).
41
42
Substituting
2
2
sin2 = 1cos
cos2 = 1+cos
2
2
2
2
cos 2 = cos sin sin 2 = 2 sin cos
(2.56)
xx =
(2.57a)
xy
(2.57b)
43 Points (xx , xy ), (xx , 0), (yy , 0) and [(xx + yy )/2, 0] are plotted in the stress representation of Fig. 2.6. Then we observe that
1
(xx yy ) = R cos 2
2
xy = R sin 2
Victor Saouma
(2.58a)
(2.58b)
Draft
212
KINETICS
yy
yx
y
yy
yx
xy
xx
xy
xx
xy
xx
xx
yx
yx
xy
yy
yy
(b)
(a)
n
xy
xx
X( xx , xy )
xy
xx
x
O
yy
xy
X( xx , xy )
2 2
xx
D
yx
yx
1 ( + )
xx yy
2
yy
1 ( + )
1
2
2
1 (  )
xx yy
2
1(  )
1
2
2
(c)
(d)
Victor Saouma
Draft
213
where
1
2
(xx yy )2 + xy
4
2xy
tan 2 =
xx yy
R =
(2.59a)
(2.59b)
then after substitution and simpliation, Eq. 2.57a and 2.57b would result in
1
(xx + yy ) + R cos(2 2) (2.60)
2
= R sin(2 2)
(2.61)
xx =
xy
We observe that the form of these equations, indicates that xx and xy are on a circle
centered at 12 (xx + yy ) and of radius R. Furthermore, since xx , yy , R and are
denite numbers for a given state of stress, the previous equations provide a graphical
solution for the evaluation of the rotated stress xx and xy for various angles .
By eliminating the trigonometric terms, the Cartesian equation of the circle is given
44
by
1
[ xx (xx + yy )]2 + 2xy = R2
2
(2.62)
Finally, the graphical solution for the state of stresses at an inclined plane is summarized as follows
45
1. Plot the points (xx , 0), (yy , 0), C : [ 12 (xx + yy ), 0], and X : (xx , xy ).
2. Draw the line CX, this will be the reference line corresponding to a plane in the
physical body whose normal is the positive x direction.
3. Draw a circle with center C and radius R = CX.
4. To determine the point that represents any plane in the physical body with normal
making a counterclockwise angle with the x direction, lay o angle 2 clockwise
from CX. The terminal side CX of this angle intersects the circle in point X whose
coordinates are ( xx , xy ).
5. To determine yy , consider the plane whose normal makes an angle + 12 with the
positive x axis in the physical plane. The corresponding angle on the circle is 2 +
measured clockwise from the reference line CX. This locates point D which is at
the opposite end of the diameter through X. The coordinates of D are ( yy , xy )
Draft
214
KINETICS
n
o
=25.7
6.4
X(15,4) =0
4
15
=109.3
38.66
=19.3
15
15
80
41.34
4
4
=40
o
=90
=64.3
10
10.00
3.6
5.19
14.81
o
40
16.4
o
19.3
6.40
4.23
25.7
10.00
(2.63)
(2.64a)
R =
= 19.33o
(2.64b)
3. The stresses acting on a plane at = +40o are given by the point making an angle
of 80o (clockwise) with respect to point X(15, 4) or 80o + 38.66o = 41.34o with
respect to the axis.
4. Thus, by inspection the stresses on the x face are
xx = 10 + 6.403 cos 41.34o = 14.81
(2.65a)
(2.65b)
Victor Saouma
(2.66a)
(2.66b)
Draft
215
(2.67a)
(2.67b)
(1) acts on a plane dened by the angle of +19.3o clockwise from the x axis, and
o
o
(2) acts at an angle of 38.66 2+180 = 109.3o with respect to the x axis.
7. The maximum and minimum shear stresses are equal to the radius of the circle, i.e
6.4 at an angle of
90o 38.66o
= 25.70
(2.68)
2
2.5.3
46 There can be an innite number of planes passing through a point O, each characterized
by their own normal vector along ON, Fig. 2.8. To each plane will correspond a set of
n and n .
Y II
B
E
J
C
Z III
Figure 2.8: Unit Sphere in Physical Body around O
47 It can be shown that all possible sets of n and n which can act on the point O are
within the shaded area of Fig. 2.9.
2.6
For many applications of continuum mechanics the problem of determining the threedimensional stress distribution is too dicult to solve. However, in many (civil/mechanical)applications,
48
Victor Saouma
Draft
216
KINETICS
1 (  )
2
1 (  )
2
III
O
C
CII
1 (  )
2
II
C III
1 ( + )
2
1 ( + )
2
one or more dimensions is/are small compared to the others and possess certain symmetries of geometrical shape and load distribution.
In those cases, we may apply engineering theories for shells, plates or beams.
In those problems, instead of solving for the stress components throughout the body,
we solve for certain stress resultants (normal, shear forces, and Moments and torsions)
resulting from an integration over the body. We consider separately two of those three
cases.
49
50
2.6.1
Arch
Fig. 2.10 illustrates the stresses acting on a dierential element of a shell structure.
The resulting forces in turn are shown in Fig. 2.11 and for simplication those acting
per unit length of the middle surface are shown in Fig. 2.12. The net resultant forces
51
Victor Saouma
Draft
217
Victor Saouma
Draft
218
KINETICS
N =
+ h2
dz
r
h2
Bending Moments
M =
+ h2
z
z 1
dz
h
r
2
+ h2
dz
r
h2
Victor Saouma
Nxx =
Nyy =
Nxy =
Nyx =
Mxy
Myx
z
ry
z
1
rx
z
1
ry
z
1
rx
xx 1
h
2
+ h2
h2
+ h2
h2
+ h2
h2
yy
xy
xy
+h
2
dz
dz
dz
dz
z
dz
ry
z
=
z
1
dz
yy
rx
h
2
+ h2
z
= h xy z 1
dz
ry
2
+h
z
2
=
xy z 1
dz
h
rx
2
Mxx =
Myy
+ h2
Qx =
Qy =
h
2
+h
2
+ h2
h2
+ h2
h2
xx z 1
(2.69)
z
dz
ry
z
1
dz
rx
xz 1
yz
Draft
2.6.2
219
Plates
Considering an arbitrary plate, the stresses and resulting forces are shown in Fig. 2.13,
and resultants per unit width are given by
52
Membrane Force
N =
Bending Moments M =
V =
t
2
2t
t
2
2t
t
2
dz
zdz
dz
t
t
2
Nxx =
2t
t
2
Nyy =
2t
t
2
Nxy =
2t
Vy =
xy dz
2t
t
2
Myy =
Vx =
yy dz
t
2
Mxx =
xx dz
2t
t
2
Mxy =
t
2
2t
2t
t
2
2t
xx zdz
(2.70a)
yy zdz
xy zdz
xz dz
yz dz
Note that in plate theory, we ignore the eect of the membrane forces, those in turn
will be accounted for in shells.
53
Victor Saouma
Draft
220
Victor Saouma
KINETICS
Draft
Chapter 3
MATHEMATICAL
PRELIMINARIES; Part II
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
3.1
Introduction
A eld is a function dened over a continuous region. This includes, Scalar Field
g(x), Vector Field v(x), Fig. 3.1 or Tensor Field T(x).
1
i+
j+ k
x
y
z
(3.1)
3 We also note that there are as many ways to dierentiate a vector eld as there are
ways of multiplying vectors, the analogy being given by Table 3.1.
Multiplication
uv
dot
uv
cross
u v tensor
Dierentiation
v
divergence
v curl
v
gradient
Tensor Order
3.2
4
The derivative of a vector p(u) with respect to a scalar u, Fig. 3.2 is dened by
p(u + u) p(u)
dp
lim
du u0
u
(3.2)
Draft
32
1
2
2
1
ContourGraphics
Plot3D@Exp@Hx ^ 2 + y ^ 2LD, 8x, 2, 2<, 8y, 2, 2<, FaceGrids > AllD
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
0
2
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
2 2
SurfaceGraphics
u)
+
u
(
p
p (u)
Draft
33
(3.3)
dp
dt
is the velocity
dp
du
following relations
dp
= T
ds
dT
= N
ds
B = TN
curvature
1
Radius of Curvature
=
dp
ds
(3.4)
(3.5)
(3.6)
(3.7)
(3.8)
= 0.
Victor Saouma
Draft
34
d
dp
=
(t2 + 1)i + (4t 3)j + (2t2 6t)k = 2ti + 4j + (4t 6)k
dt
dt
dp
=
(2t)2 + (4)2 + (4t 6)2
dt
2ti + 4j + (4t 6)k
T =
(2t)2 + (4)2 + (4t 6)2
2
4i + 4j + 2k
2
1
= i + j + k for t = 2
=
3
3
3
(4)2 + (4)2 + (2)2
(3.9a)
(3.9b)
(3.9c)
(3.9d)
Parametric Plot in 3D
ParametricPlot3D@8t ^ 2 + 1, 4 t 3, 2 t ^ 2 6 t<, 8t, 0, 4<D
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
Graphics3D
3.3
3.3.1
Divergence
Vector
The divergence of a vector eld of a body B with boundary , Fig. 3.5 is dened
by considering that each point of the surface has a normal n, and that the body is
surrounded by a vector eld v(x). The volume of the body is v(B).
8
Victor Saouma
Draft
3.3 Divergence
35
v(x)
(3.10)
vndA
where v.n is often referred as the ux and represents the total volume of uid that
passes through dA in unit time, Fig. 3.6 This volume is then equal to the base of the
n
dA
v
v.n
cylinder dA times the height of the cylinder vn. We note that the streamlines which
are tangent to the boundary do not let any uid out, while those normal to it let it out
most eciently.
10
The denition is clearly independent of the shape of the solid region, however we can
gain an insight into the divergence by considering a rectangular parallelepiped with sides
x1 , x2 , and x3 , and with normal vectors pointing in the directions of the coordinate
axies, Fig. 3.7. If we also consider the corner closest to the origin as located at x, then
the contribution (from Eq. 3.10) of the two surfaces with normal vectors e1 and e1 is
11
lim
x1 ,x2 ,x3 0
1
x1 x2 x3
x2 x3
(3.11)
or
lim
x1 ,x2 ,x3 0
Victor Saouma
1
x2 x3
v(x + x1 e1 ) v(x)
e1 dx2 dx3 =
x1
x2 x3
lim
x1 0
v
(3.12a)
e1
x1
Draft
36
x3
e
e3
e
x3
e2
e1
x2
e
x2
x1
x1
Figure 3.7: Innitesimal Element for the Evaluation of the Divergence
v
e1
x1
(3.12b)
12
v(x)
ei
xi
(3.13)
or alternatively
e1 +
e2 +
e3 )(v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 ) (3.14)
x1
x2
x3
v2
v3
vi
v1
+
+
=
= i vi = vi,i
(3.15)
=
x1 x2 x3
xi
div v = v = (
13
14
(3.16)
i+
j + k (x2 zi 2y 3z 2 j + xy 2 zk)
x
y
z
2
3 2
xy 2 z
x z 2y z
+
+
=
x
y
z
v =
Victor Saouma
(3.17a)
(3.17b)
Draft
3.3 Divergence
37
= 2xz 6y 2z 2 + xy 2
= 2(1)(1) 6(1)2 (1)2 + (1)(1)2 = 3 at (1, 1, 1)
(3.17c)
(3.17d)
Divergence of a Vector
<< CalculusVectorAnalysis
V = 8x ^ 2 z, 2 y ^ 3 z ^ 2, x y ^ 2 z<;
Div@V, Cartesian@x, y, zDD
6 z2 y2 + x y2 + 2 x z
<< GraphicsPlotField3D
PlotVectorField3D@8x ^ 2 z, 2 y ^ 3 z ^ 2, x y ^ 2 z<, 8x, 10, 10<, 8y, 10, 10<, 8z, 10, 10<,
Axes > Automatic, AxesLabel > 8"X", "Y", "Z"<D
10
5
0
5
10
10
10
5
Z
0
5
10
10
5
0
X
5
10
Graphics3D
Div@Curl@V, Cartesian@x, y, zDD, Cartesian@x, y, zDD
0
3.3.2
15
SecondOrder Tensor
TndA
(3.18)
Victor Saouma
Tpq
eq
xp
(3.19)
Draft
38
3.4
3.4.1
Gradient
Scalar
16 The gradient of a scalar eld g(x) is a vector eld g(x) such that for any unit vector
v, the directional derivative dg/ds in the direction of v is given by
dg
= gv
ds
(3.20)
where v = dp
We note that the denition made no reference to any coordinate system.
ds
The gradient is thus a vector invariant.
To nd the components in any rectangular Cartesian coordinate system we use
17
dp
dxi
=
ei
ds
ds
dg
g dxi
=
ds
xi ds
v =
(3.21a)
(3.21b)
g
ei
xi
(3.22)
or
i+
j+ k
x
y
z
i+
j+
k
=
x
y
z
(3.23a)
(3.23b)
18
19
g(x)n gives the rate of change of the scalar eld in the direction of n.
(3.24a)
Draft
3.4 Gradient
39
= 8i j 10k at (1, 2, 1)
2
2i j 2k
= i
n =
3
(2)2 + (1)2 + (2)2
1
2
2
n = (8i j 10k) i j k
3
3
3
(3.24b)
1
2
j k
3
3
=
(3.24c)
37
16 1 20
+ +
=
3
3
3
3
(3.24d)
3x1 x2 5x22 0
0 2x23
= 5x22
0
2x3 0
(3.25)
Determine the stress vector (or traction) at the point P (2, 1, 3) of the plane that is
tangent to the cylindrical surface x22 + x23 = 4 at P , Fig. 3.9.
x3
n
x2
P
3
1
x1
Solution:
At point P , the stress tensor is given by
6 5
0
0 2 3
= 5
0 2 3 0
Victor Saouma
(3.26)
Draft
310
At point P ,
(3.27)
(3.28)
3
1
e3
n = e1 +
2
2
(3.29)
6 5
0
5/2
3
0 2 3 1/2
= 5
=
3/2 3
0 2 3 0
or tn = 52 e1 + 3e2 + 3e3
3.4.2
(3.30)
Vector
20 We can also dene the gradient of a vector eld. If we consider a solid domain B with
boundary , Fig. 3.5, then the gradient of the vector eld v(x) is a second order tensor
dened by
1
(3.31)
x v(x) lim
v ndA
v(B)0 v(B)
and with a construction similar to the one used for the divergence, it can be shown that
x v(x) =
vi (x)
[ei ej ]
xj
(3.32)
[x v] =
[vx ] =
vx
x
vx
y
vx
z
vx
x
vy
x
vz
x
vy
x
vy
y
vy
z
vx
y
vy
y
vz
y
vz
x
vz
y
vz
z
vx
z
vy
z
vz
z
(3.33)
(3.34)
that is [v]ij gives the rate of change of the ith component of v with respect to the jth
coordinate axis.
Note the diference between vx and x v. In matrix representation, one is the transpose of the other.
22
Victor Saouma
Draft
3.4 Gradient
23
311
We can interpret the gradient of a vector geometrically, Fig. 3.10. If we consider two
points a and b that are near to each other (i.e s is very small), and let the unit vector
m points in the direction from a to b. The value of the vector eld at a is v(x) and
the value of the vector eld at b is v(x + sm). Since the vector eld changes with
position in the domain, those two vectors are dierent both in length and orientation.
If we now transport a copy of v(x) and place it at b, then we compare the dierences
between those two vectors. The vector connecting the heads of v(x) and v(x + sm) is
v(x + sm) v(x), the change in vector. Thus, if we divide this change by s, then we
get the rate of change as we move in the specied direction. Finally, taking the limit as
s goes to zero, we obtain
24
lim
s0
(3.35)
v(x+ s m ) v(x)
v(x+ s m )
x3
v(x)
a sm b
x2
x1
Figure 3.10: Gradient of a Vector
The quantity Dv(x)m is called the directional derivative because it gives the rate
of change of the vector eld as we move in the direction m.
2
x1 /x2 x1 /x3
2
x2 /x3
= x1 x2 x3
x2 /x1
x3 /x1 x3 /x2
2
Victor Saouma
(3.36a)
(3.36b)
Draft
312
3.4.3
25
Mathematica Solution
PlotVectorField3D@vecfield, 8x1, 10, 10<, 8x2, 10, 10<, 8x3, 10, 10<, Axes > Automatic,
AxesLabel > 8"x1", "x2", "x3"<D
1
2
Gradient
x2
10
Scalar
10
f = x ^ 2 y z + 4 x z ^ 2;
10
Gradf = Grad@f, Cartesian@x, y, zDD
84 x3
z2 + 2 x y z, x2 z, y x2 + 8 z x<
<< GraphicsPlotField3D
PlotGradientField3D@f,
8x, 0, 2<, 8y, 3, 1<, 8z, 2, 0<D
10
10
0
x1
10
Graphics3D
MatrixForm@Grad@vecfield, Cartesian@x1, x2, x3DDD
i
x12 x2 y
2 x1 x2 x3 x12 x3
z
j
z
j
z
j
z
j
j
z
j
x22 x3 2 x1 x2 x3 x1 x22 z
z
j
z
j
z
j
z
j
z
j
2
2
x1 x3
2 x1 x2 x3 {
k x2 x3
Graphics3D
x = 1; y = 2; z = 1;
vect = 82, 1, 2< Sqrt@4 + 1 + 4D
2
1
2
9 , , =
3
3
3
Gradf . vect
37
3
Gradient of a Vector
vecfield = x1 x2 x3 8x1, x2, x3<
Figure 3.11: Mathematica Solution for the Gradients of a Scalar and of a Vector
8x12 x2 x3, x1 x22 x3, x1 x2 x32 <
3.5
Curl
26
Victor Saouma
Draft
curl
v = v =
313
e1
e2
e3
x1
x2
x3
v1
v2
(3.37)
v3
v2
v3
v1
v3
v1
v2
e1 +
e2 +
e3
x2 x3
x3 x1
x1 x2
= eijk j vk
=
(3.38)
(3.39)
i+
j + k (xz 3 i 2x2 yzj + 2yz 4 k)
x
y
z
i
j
k
x
3
xz
y
2
(3.40a)
(3.40b)
2x yz 2yz 4
2yz 4 2x2 yz
xz 3 2yz 4
2x2 yz xz 3
i+
j+
(3.40c)
k
y
z
z
x
x
y
= (2z 4 + 2x2 y)i + 3xz 2 j 4xyzk
(3.40d)
= 3j + 4k at (1, 1, 1)
(3.40e)
=
3.6
27
AdB + dAB
AdB + dAB
+
A + B
v
()A + (A)
B(A) A(B)
(B)A + (A)B + B(A) + A(B)
2 2 2
+ 2 + 2 Laplacian Operator
() 2
x2
y
z
(A) = 0
() = 0
Victor Saouma
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
(3.41a)
(3.41b)
(3.41c)
(3.41d)
(3.41e)
(3.41f)
(3.41g)
(3.41h)
(3.41i)
(3.41j)
(3.41k)
Draft
314
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Victor Saouma
Draft
Victor Saouma
315
Draft
316
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 4
KINEMATIC
Or on How Bodies Deform
4.1
We begin our detailed coverage of strain by a simplied and elementary set of denitions for the 1D and 2D cases. Following this a mathematically rigorous derivation of
the various expressions for strain will follow.
20
4.1.1
21 We begin by considering an elementary case, an axial rod with initial lenght l0 , and
subjected to a deformation l into a nal deformed length of l, Fig. 4.1.
l0
l
We seek to quantify the deformation of the rod and even though we only have 2
variables (l0 and l), there are dierent possibilities to introduce the notion of strain. We
rst dene the stretch of the rod as
22
l
l0
(4.1)
This stretch is one in the undeformed case, and greater than one when the rod is elongated.
Draft
42
23
KINEMATIC
Using l0 , l and we next introduce four possible denitions of the strain in 1D:
Engineering Strain
Natural Strain
Lagrangian Strain E
Eulerian Strain
= 1
= 1 1
= 12 (2 1)
ll0
l0
ll0
l 2 2
1 l l0
2
l02
2 l2
l
1
0
2
l2
1
2
(4.2)
1
2
we note the strong analogy between the Lagrangian and the engineering strain on the
one hand, and the Eulerian and the natural strain on the other.
The choice of which strain denition to use is related to the stressstrain relation (or
constitutive law) that we will later adopt.
24
4.1.2
25
Small Strains in 2D
The elementary denition of strains in 2D is illustrated by Fig. 4.2 and are given by
Pure Shear Without Rotation
ux
Uniaxial Extension
uy
2
Y
ux
1 u y
ux
X
uy
= 2 + 1
=
2
1
1 ux uy
xy
+
=
2
2 Y
X
xx
(4.3a)
yy
(4.3b)
xy
xy
(4.3c)
(4.3d)
ux
;
X
yy =
uy
;
Y
1
1
xy = xy =
2
2
ux uy
+
Y
X
(4.4)
We note that in the expression of the shear strain, we used tan which is applicable
as long as is small compared to one radian.
We have used capital letters to represent the coordinates in the initial state, and lower
case letters for the nal or current position coordinates (x = X + ux ). This corresponds
to the Lagrangian strain representation.
26
Victor Saouma
Draft
4.2
43
Strain Tensor
Following the simplied (and restrictive) introduction to strain, we now turn our attention to a rigorous presentation of this important deformation tensor.
27
The presentation will proceed as follow. First, with reference to Fig. 4.3 we will
derive expressions for the position and displacement vectors of a single point P from the
undeformed to the deformed state. Then, we will use some of the expressions in the
introduction of the strain between two points P and Q.
28
4.2.1
29
x3
t=t
X3
P
t=0
U
x2
P0
X
I3
O
I
i3
o
i2
i1
I2
1
Material
Spatial
X2
x1
X1
Figure 4.3: Position and Displacement Vectors
30
(4.5)
x = x1 e1 + x2 e2 + x3 e3
(4.6)
Victor Saouma
Draft
44
KINEMATIC
U = Uk Ik
u = uk ik
(4.7a)
(4.7b)
34
(4.10a)
(4.10b)
(4.10c)
x1
1 0 0
X1
x2 = 0 1 A X2
x3
0 A 1 X3
(4.11)
or upon inversion
X1
X2
X
3
1 A2 0
0
x1
1
0
1 A x2
=
1 A2
x
0
A 1
3
(4.12)
Draft
45
(4.13a)
(4.13b)
(4.13c)
4. For the circular surface, and by direct substitution of X2 = (x2 Ax3 )/(1 A2 ), and
X3 = (x3 Ax2 )/(1 A2 ) in X22 + X32 = 1/(1 A2 ), the circular surface becomes
the elliptical surface (1 + A2 )x22 4Ax2 x3 + (1 + A2 )x23 = (1 A2 ) or for A = 1/2,
5x22 8x2 x3 + 5x23 = 3 .
4.2.1.1
When the continuum undergoes deformation (or ow), the particles in the continuum
move along various paths which can be expressed in either the material coordinates or
in the spatial coordinates system giving rise to two dierent formulations:
35
Lagrangian Formulation: gives the present location xi of the particle that occupied
the point (X1 X2 X3 ) at time t = 0, and is a mapping of the initial conguration into
the current one.
xi = xi (X1 , X2 , X3 , t) or x = x(X, t)
(4.14)
Eulerian Formulation: provides a tracing of its original position of the particle that
now occupies the location (x1 , x2 , x3 ) at time t, and is a mapping of the current
conguration into the initial one.
Xi = Xi (x1 , x2 , x3 , t) or X = X(x, t)
(4.15)
(X, t) and (x, t) are the Lagrangian and Eulerian variables respectivly.
If X(x, t) is linear, then the deformation is said to be homogeneous and plane sections
remain plane.
37
38
Victor Saouma
Draft
46
KINEMATIC
(4.17)
x1 + x2 (et 1)
x1 (et 1) x2
;
X
=
; X3 = x3
2
1 et et
1 et et
(4.18)
(4.19)
1 0 (e2 1)
0 1 (e2 e2 )
2
0 0
e
1 0 (e2 1)
X1 = x1 + (e 1)x3
2
X3 = e2 x3
0 0
e
4.2.2
Gradients
4.2.2.1
Deformation; (xX , Xx )
(4.20)
Partial dierentiation of Eq. 4.14 with respect to Xj produces the tensor xi /Xj
which is the material deformation gradient. In symbolic notation xi /Xj is represented by the dyadic
39
F xX =
x
x
x
xi
e1 +
e2 +
e3 =
X1
X2
X3
Xj
(4.21)
x1
F = x2
x
3
Victor Saouma
X1
X2
X3
x1
X
x21
X1
x3
X1
x1
X2
x2
X2
x3
X2
x1
X3
x2
X3
x3
X3
xi
Xj
(4.22)
Draft
47
Similarly, dierentiation of Eq. 4.15 with respect to xj produces the spatial deformation gradient
40
H = Xx
X
X
X
Xi
e1 +
e2 +
e3 =
x1
x2
x3
xj
(4.23)
X1
H = X2
3
41
x1
x2
x3
X1
x
X12
x1
X3
x1
X1
x2
X2
x2
X3
x2
X1
x3
X2
x3
X3
x3
Xi
xj
(4.24)
The material and spatial deformation tensors are interrelated through the chain rule
Xi xj
xi Xj
=
= ik
Xj xk
xj Xk
(4.25)
H = F1
(4.26)
and thus F 1 = H or
42
If we consider two material element dX(1) = dX1 e1 and dX(2) = dX2 e2 emanating
from X, the rectangular area formed by them at the reference time t0 is
43
(4.27)
At time t, dX(1) deforms into dx(1) = FdX(1) and dX(2) into dx(2) = FdX(2) , and the
new area is
44
(4.28a)
(4.28b)
where the orientation of the deformed area is normal to Fe1 and Fe2 which is denoted
by the unit vector n. Thus,
Fe1 dAn = Fe2 dAn = 0
(4.29)
and recalling that abc is equal to the determinant whose rows are components of a,
b, and c,
(4.30)
Fe3 dA = dA0 (Fe3 Fe1 Fe2 )
det(F)
or
e3 FT n =
Victor Saouma
dA0
det(F)
dA
(4.31)
Draft
48
KINEMATIC
dA0
det Fe3 dAn = dA0 det(F)(F1 )T e3
dA
(4.32)
which implies that the deformed area has a normal in the direction of (F1 )T e3 . A
generalization of the preceding equation would yield
dAn = dA0 det(F)(F1 )T n0
(4.33)
If we consider an innitesimal
element it has the following volume in material coordinate system:
4.2.2.1.2
45
(4.34)
(4.35)
in spatial cordiantes:
If we dene
Fi =
xi
ei
Xj
(4.36)
(4.37)
d = det Fd0
(4.38)
or
and J is called the Jacobian and is the determinant of the deformation gradient F
J=
x1
X1
x2
X1
x3
X1
x1
X2
x2
X2
x3
X2
x1
X3
x2
X3
x3
X3
(4.39)
Victor Saouma
Draft
49
Solution:
[F] =
det F
V
A0
n0
An
=
=
=
=
=
=
1 0
0
0
0
3
0 2
0
1 2 3
1 2 3
1
e3
(1)(det F)(F1 )T
0
0
0
= 1 2
1 2 3 0 0 13
0
1
0 12
0
An = 1 2 e2
4.2.2.2
(4.40a)
(4.40b)
(4.40c)
(4.40d)
(4.40e)
(4.40f)
(4.40g)
(4.40h)
Displacements; (uX , ux )
47 We now turn our attention to the displacement vector ui as given by Eq. 4.9. Partial
dierentiation of Eq. 4.9 with respect to Xj produces the material displacement
gradient
ui
xi
(4.41)
=
ij or J uX = F I
Xj
Xj
u1
J = u2
u
3
X1
X2
X3
u1
X
u21
X1
u3
X1
u1
X2
u2
X2
u3
X2
u1
X3
u2
X3
u3
X3
ui
Xj
(4.42)
48 Similarly, dierentiation of Eq. 4.9 with respect to xj produces the spatial displacement gradient
Xi
ui
(4.43)
= ij
or K ux = I H
xj
xj
u1
K = u2
u3
Victor Saouma
x1
x2
x3
u1
x
u12
x1
u3
x1
u1
x2
u2
x2
u3
x2
u1
x3
u2
x3
u3
x3
ui
xj
(4.44)
Draft
410
4.2.2.3
KINEMATIC
Examples
uX
1
X1
u
X2
X1
uX3
X1
X32
uX1
X2
uX2
X2
uX3
X2
= 2X1 X2
0
uX1
X3
uX2
X3
uX3
X3
(4.45a)
0
2X1 X3
2
X1
0
X22
2X2 X3
(4.45b)
x2
(4.46)
x3
and thus
F = xX
=
x1
X
x21
X1
x
x
x
xi
e1 +
e2 +
e3 =
X1
X2
X3
Xj
x1
X2
x2
X2
x3
x3
X1
X2
1 + X32
= 2X1 X2
0
x1
X3
x2
X3
x3
X3
(4.47a)
(4.47b)
0
2X1 X3
1 + X12
0
2
2X2 X3 1 + X2
(4.47c)
Deformation Tensors
xi
i
Having derived expressions for X
and X
we now seek to determine dx2 and dX 2
xj
j
where dX and dx correspond to the distance between points P and Q in the undeformed
and deformed cases respectively.
49
Victor Saouma
Draft
411
t=t
Q
X 3 , x3
t=0
u +du
dx
X+
dX
dX
P
X 2, x 2
X 1, x 1
Figure 4.4: Undeformed and Deformed Congurations of a Continuum
4.2.3.1
This tensor is the inverse of the tensor B which will not be introduced until Sect.
4.2.6.3.
52
53
(4.48)
Xi
dxj or dX = Hdx
xj
(4.49)
(dX)2 =
(4.50a)
(4.50b)
Xk Xk
or B1 = x XXx
xi xj
Hc H
(4.51)
Draft
412
4.2.3.2
KINEMATIC
55 The square of the dierential element connecting Po and Q0 is now evaluated in terms
of the spatial coordinates
(dx)2 = dxdx = dxi dxi
(4.52)
xi
dXj or dx = FdX
Xj
(4.53)
(dx)2 =
(4.54a)
(4.54b)
xk xk
or C = X xxX
Xi Xj
Fc F
(4.55)
(4.56)
1 0 0
= 0 1 A
0 A 1
F =
Victor Saouma
(4.57a)
(4.57b)
Draft
413
and thus
C = Fc F
4.2.4
1 0 0
1 0 0
1
0
0
2
2A
0 1 A 0 1 A = 0 1+A
0
2A
1 + A2
0 A 1
0 A 1
(4.58a)
(4.58b)
With (dx)2 and (dX)2 dened we can now nally introduce the concept of strain
through (dx)2 (dX)2 .
57
4.2.4.1
We start with the most general case of nite strains where no constraints are imposed
on the deformation (small).
58
4.2.4.1.1
Lagrangian/Greens Tensor
The dierence (dx)2 (dX)2 for two neighboring particles in a continuum is used as
the measure of deformation. Using Eqs. 4.54a and 4.48 this dierence is expressed
as
59
xk xk
ij dXidXj = 2Eij dXi dXj
Xi Xj
= dX(Fc F I)dX = 2dXEdX
(dx)2 (dX)2 =
(4.59a)
(4.59b)
1
2
xk xk
ij
Xi Xj
1
or E = (X xxX I)
2
Fc F=C
(4.60)
is called the Lagrangian (or Greens) nite strain tensor which was introduced by
Green in 1841 and StVenant in 1844.
To express the Lagrangian tensor in terms of the displacements, we substitute Eq. 4.41
in the preceding equation, and after some simple algebraic manipulations, the Lagrangian
nite strain tensor can be rewritten as
60
Eij =
1
2
ui
uj
uk uk
+
+
Xj
Xi Xi Xj
Victor Saouma
1
or E = (uX + X u + X uuX )
2
J+Jc
Jc J
(4.61)
Draft
414
KINEMATIC
or:
E11
u1
u1
1
=
+
X1 2
X1
1 u1
u2
+
2 X2 X1
=
E12 =
u2
+
X1
u3
+
X1
1 u1 u1
u2 u2
u3 u3
+
+
2 X1 X2 X1 X2 X1 X2
(4.62a)
(4.62b)
(4.62c)
1
0
0
2A
C = 0 1 + A2
2
0
2A
1+A
1
E =
(C I)
2
0 0
0
1
=
0 A2 2A
2 0 2A A2
(4.63a)
(4.63b)
(4.63c)
4.2.4.1.2
Eulerian/Almansis Tensor
Alternatively, the dierence (dx)2 (dX)2 for the two neighboring particles in the
continuum can be expressed in terms of Eqs. 4.52 and 4.50b this same dierence is now
equal to
61
Xk Xk
dxi dxj = 2Eij dxi dxj
xi xj
= dx(I Hc H)dx = 2dxE dx
(dx)2 (dX)2 =
ij
(4.64a)
(4.64b)
1
Xk Xk
ij
2
xi xj
1
or E = (I x XXx )
2
Hc H=B1
(4.65)
Draft
415
For innitesimal strain it was introduced by Cauchy in 1827, and for nite strain by
Almansi in 1911.
62
To express the Eulerian tensor in terms of the displacements, we substitute 4.43 in the
preceding equation, and after some simple algebraic manipulations, the Eulerian nite
strain tensor can be rewritten as
63
Eij =
64
1
2
uk uk
ui uj
+
xj
xi
xi xj
1
or E = (ux + x u x uux )
2
K+Kc
K c K
(4.66)
Expanding
E11
u1 1 u1
=
x1 2
x1
1 u1 u2
+
2 x2 x1
=
E12
=
4.2.4.2
u2
+
x1
u3
+
x1
1 u1 u1 u2 u2 u3 u3
+
+
2 x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2
(4.67a)
(4.67b)
(4.67c)
The small deformation theory of continuum mechanics has as basic condition the
requirement that the displacement gradients be small compared to unity. The fundamental measure of deformation is the dierence (dx)2 (dX)2 , which may be expressed
in terms of the displacement gradients by inserting Eq. 4.61 and 4.66 into 4.59b and
4.64b respectively. If the displacement gradients are small, the nite strain tensors in Eq.
4.59b and 4.64b reduce to innitesimal strain tensors and the resulting equations
represent small deformations.
65
For instance, if we were to evaluate + 2 , for = 103 and 101 , then we would obtain
0.001001 0.001 and 0.11 respectively. In the rst case 2 is negligible compared to ,
in the other it is not.
66
4.2.4.2.1
ui
In Eq. 4.61 if the displacement gradient components X
are each small compared to
j
unity, then the third term are negligible and may be dropped. The resulting tensor is
the Lagrangian innitesimal strain tensor denoted by
67
Eij =
1
2
uj
ui
+
Xj Xi
1
or E = (uX + X u)
2
(4.68)
J+Jc
or:
E11 =
Victor Saouma
u1
X1
(4.69a)
Introduction to Continuum Mechanics
Draft
416
KINEMATIC
1 u1
u2
+
2 X2 X1
=
E12 =
(4.69b)
(4.69c)
ui
Similarly, inn Eq. 4.66 if the displacement gradient components x
are each small
j
compared to unity, then the third term are negligible and may be dropped. The resulting
tensor is the Eulerian innitesimal strain tensor denoted by
68
Eij =
69
1
2
ui uj
+
xj
xi
1
or E = (ux + x u)
2
(4.70)
K+Kc
Expanding
u1
x1
1 u1 u2
=
+
E12
2 x2 x1
=
=
E11
4.2.4.3
(4.71a)
(4.71b)
(4.71c)
Examples
0 A 0
J uX = 0 0 A
A 0 0
Victor Saouma
(4.72a)
(4.72b)
(4.72c)
(4.73)
Draft
417
0 A 0
0 0 A
2E = (J + Jc ) = 0 0 A + A 0 0
A 0 0
0 A 0
0 A A
= A 0 A
A A 0
(4.74a)
(4.74b)
1 A 0
X1
= 0 1 A X2
A 0 1 X3
x1
x2
x
3
X1
X2
X
3
1 A A2
x1
1 2
A
1
A
x
=
1 + A3 A A2
x
1
3
(4.75)
Ax
+
A
x
)
=
(4.76a)
1
2
3
1 + A3
1 + A3
1
A(Ax1 + A2 x2 + x3 )
2
= x2 X2 = x2
(A
x
+
x
Ax
)
=
(4.76b)
1
2
3
1 + A3
1 + A3
1
A(x1 Ax2 + A2 x3 )
2
= x3 X3 = x3
(Ax
+
A
x
+
x
)
=
(4.76c)
1
2
3
1 + A3
1 + A3
u1 = x1 X1 = x1
u2
u3
A2
1 A
A
2
1
A
A
K ux =
3
1+A
1 A A2
(4.77)
A
1 A
A
1
=
A A2
1 + A3
1 A A2
2A2 1 A
A
2A2
=
1A
1 + A3 1 A 1 A
2
A A 1
A
A2 A
1
3
1+A
A 1
A2
1A
1A
2
2A
(4.78a)
(4.78b)
(4.78c)
as A is very small, A2 and higher power may be neglected with the results, then E E.
4.2.5
4.2.5.1
Small Strain
We nally show that the linear lagrangian tensor in small deformation Eij is nothing
else than the strain as was dened earlier in Eq.4.4.
70
Victor Saouma
Draft
418
71
KINEMATIC
(4.79a)
(4.79b)
but since dx dX under current assumption of small deformation, then the previous
equation can be rewritten as
du
dx dX
dXi dXj
= Eij
= Eij i j = E
dX
dX dX
(4.80)
We recognize that the left hand side is nothing else than the change in length per unit
original length, and is called the normal strain for the line element having direction
i
.
cosines dX
dX
72
73
With reference to Fig. 4.5 we consider two cases: normal and shear strain.
X3
x3
Q0
X2
dX
Normal
e3
n3
n2
X1
e2
X3
e1
M0
dX
Shear
P0
Q0
dX
X2
X1
Normal Strain: When Eq. 4.80 is applied to the dierential element P0 Q0 which lies
1
3
= dX
=0
along the X2 axis, the result will be the normal strain because since dX
dX
dX
dX2
and dX = 1. Therefore, Eq. 4.80 becomes (with ui = xi Xi ):
dx dX
u2
= E22 =
dX
X2
Victor Saouma
(4.81)
Draft
419
Likewise for the other 2 directions. Hence the diagonal terms of the linear strain
tensor represent normal strains in the coordinate system.
Shear Strain: For the diagonal terms Eij we consider the two line elements originally
located along the X2 and the X3 axes before deformation. After deformation, the
original right angle between the lines becomes the angle . From Eq. 4.96 (dui =
ui
dXj ) a rst order approximation gives the unit vector at P in the direction
Xj P0
of Q, and M as:
u1
u3
e1 + e2 +
e3
X2
X2
u1
u2
=
e1 +
e2 + e3
X3
X3
n2 =
(4.82a)
n3
(4.82b)
u1 u1
u2
u3
+
+
X2 X3 X3 X2
(4.83)
u2
u3
+
= 2E23
X3 X2
(4.84)
(4.85)
Therefore the o diagonal terms of the linear strain tensor represent one half of the
angle change between two line elements originally at right angles to one another.
These components are called the shear strains.
74 The Engineering shear strain is dened as one half the tensorial shear strain, and
the resulting tensor is written as
11
Eij = 21 12
1
2 13
2 12
22
1
2 23
2 13
1
2 23
(4.86)
33
We note that a similar development paralleling the one just presented can be made for
the linear Eulerian strain tensor (where the straight lines and right angle will be in the
deformed state).
75
4.2.5.2
The simplest and most useful measure of the extensional strain of an innitesimal
dx
which may be dened at point P0 in the
element is the stretch or stretch ratio as dX
76
Victor Saouma
Draft
420
KINEMATIC
2m
dx
dX
= Cij
P0
dXi dXj
or 2m = mCm
dX dX
(4.87)
Thus for an element originally along X2 , Fig. 4.5, m = e2 and therefore dX1 /dX =
dX3 /dX = 0 and dX2 /dX = 1, thus Eq. 4.87 (with Eq. ??) yields
2e2 = C22 = 1 + 2E22
(4.88)
78
2n
dX
dx
= Bij1
P
1
dxi dxj
or 2 = nB1 n
dx dx
n
(4.89)
= 1 2E22
2e2
(4.90)
dx dX
= E(2) = e2 1 =
dX
for small deformation theory E22 << 1, and
1
dx dX
= E(2) = (1 + 2E22 ) 2 1
dX
which is identical to Eq. 4.81.
(4.91)
1 + 2E22 1
1
1 + 2E22 1
2
(4.92)
E22
For the two dierential line elements of Fig. 4.5, the change in angle 23 =
given in terms of both e2 and e3 by
81
sin 23 =
2E23
2E23
=
e2 e3
1 + 2E22 1 + 2E33
(4.93)
is
(4.94)
Again, when deformations are small, this equation reduces to Eq. 4.85.
Victor Saouma
Draft
4.2.6
421
82
Not all kinds of relative motion give rise to strain (and stresses). If a body moves as a
rigid body, the rotational part of its motion produces relative displacement. Thus the
general problem is to express the strain in terms of the displacements by separating o
that part of the displacement distribution which does not contribute to the strain.
83
4.2.6.1
Small Strains
From Fig. 4.6 the displacements of two neighboring particles are represented by the
vectors uP0 and uQ0 and the vector
84
P0
0
or du = uQ0 uP0
dui = uQ
i ui
(4.95)
is called the relative displacement vector of the particle originally at Q0 with respect
to the one originally at P0 .
Q
du
Q0
dx
Q0
dX
u
P0
P0
Figure 4.6: Relative Displacement du of Q relative to P
4.2.6.1.1
85
Lagrangian Formulation
Victor Saouma
ui
Xj
(4.96)
P0
Draft
422
KINEMATIC
We also dene a unit relative displacement vector dui /dX where dX is the magnitude of the dierential distance dXi , or dXi = i dX, then
86
dui
ui dXj
ui
du
=
=
= uX = J
j or
dX
Xj dX
Xj
dX
(4.97)
ui
The material displacement gradient X
can be decomposed uniquely into a symmetric
j
and an antisymetric part, we rewrite the previous equation as
87
dui =
ui
uj
1
+
+
Xj
Xi
2
Eij
or
dXj
ui
uj
Xj
Xi
Wij
du = (uX + X u) + (uX X u) dX
2
2
E
or
E=
u1
X1
1
2
1
2
u1
X2
u1
X3
(4.98a)
+
+
W
1
2
u2
X1
u3
X1
(4.98b)
u1
+
X2
u2
X2
u2
+
X3
1
2
u2
X1
1
2
1
2
u3
X2
u1
+
X3
u2
+
X3
u3
X3
u3
X1
u3
X2
(4.99)
ui
uj
Xj
Xi
1
2
1
2
W = 12
12
u1
X2
u1
X3
u2
X1
u3
X1
12
or W =
u1
X2
u2
X3
u2
X1
1
(uX X u)
2
1
2
1
2
u1
X3
u2
X3
u3
X2
u3
X1
u3
X2
(4.100)
(4.101)
In a displacement for which Eij is zero in the vicinity of a point P0 , the relative
displacement at that point will be an innitesimal rigid body rotation. It can be
shown that this rotation is given by the linear Lagrangian rotation vector
88
wi =
1
2
ijk Wkj
1
or w = X u
2
(4.102)
or
w = W23 e1 W31 e2 W12 e3
Victor Saouma
(4.103)
Draft
423
Eulerian Formulation
The derivation in an Eulerian formulation parallels the one for Lagrangian formulation.
Hence,
ui
dui =
dxj or du = Kdx
(4.104)
xj
89
90
dui =
91
ui
xj
dui =
results in
ui uj
+
xj
xi
ui
uj
xj
xi
1
+
2
Eij
or
(4.105)
dxj
(4.106a)
ij
(ux + x u) + (ux x u) dx
du =
2
or
u1
x1
1
2
u1
x2
u1
x3
E=
1
2
92
+
+
1
2
u2
x1
u3
x1
u1
+
x2
u2
x2
u2
+
x3
1
2
u2
x1
1
2
1
2
u3
x2
u1
+
x3
u2
+
x3
u3
x3
u3
x1
u3
x2
(4.106b)
(4.107)
in matrix form:
1
2
ui
uj
xj
xi
or =
1
2
W = 12
12
u1
x2
u1
x3
u2
x1
u3
x1
u1
x2
12
u2
x3
1
(ux x u)
2
u2
x1
1
2
1
2
u3
x2
u1
x3
u2
x3
u3
x1
u3
x2
(4.108)
(4.109)
Victor Saouma
1
2
ijk kj
1
or = x u
2
(4.110)
Draft
424
4.2.6.2
KINEMATIC
Examples
2X1 X2
X12
0
ui
0
1
2X3
=
Xj
0
2X2 X3 X22
(4.111)
4 1 0
0
0
1
2
1
{du} =
0 4 4
0
1
= 1
(4.112)
(4.113a)
(4.113b)
uQ1 uP = e1 e2 + 3e3
1
(e1 e2 + 3.5e3 )
uQ2 uP =
2
1
(e1 e2 + 3.75e3 )
uQ3 uP =
4
1
(e1 e2 + 3.875e3 )
uQ4 uP =
8
(4.114a)
thus
(4.114b)
(4.114c)
(4.114d)
Example 49: Linear strain tensor, linear rotation tensor, rotation vector
Under the restriction of small deformation theory E = E , a displacement eld is
given by u = (x1 x3 )2 e1 + (x2 + x3 )2 e2 x1 x2 e3 . Determine the linear strain tensor,
the linear rotation tensor and the rotation vector at point P (0, 2, 1).
Victor Saouma
Draft
425
Solution:
2(x1 x3 )
0
2(x1 x3 )
ui
0
2(x2 + x3 ) 2(x2 + x3 )
] =
[
xj
x1
0
x2
ui
xj
(4.115a)
2 0 2
= 0 2 2
2 0 0
(4.115b)
2 0 2
0 0 0
[Eij ] + [wij ] = 0 2 1 + 0 0 1
2 1 0
0 1 0
(4.116)
(4.117)
ui
When the displacement gradients are nite, then we no longer can decompose X
(Eq.
j
ui
4.96) or xj (Eq. 4.104) into a unique sum of symmetric and skew parts (pure strain and
pure rotation).
93
Thus in this case, rather than having an additive decomposition, we will have a
multiplicative decomposition.
94
we call this a polar decomposition and it should decompose the deformation gradient
in the product of two tensors, one of which represents a rigidbody rotation, while the
other is a symmetric positivedenite tensor.
95
96
xi
= Rik Ukj = Vik Rkj or F = RU = VR
Xj
(4.118)
where R is the orthogonal rotation tensor, and U and V are positive symmetric
tensors known as the right stretch tensor and the left stretch tensor respectively.
The interpretation of the above equation is obtained by inserting the above equation
xi
dXj
into dxi = X
j
97
(4.119)
and we observe that in the rst form the deformation consists of a sequential stretching
(by U) and rotation (R) to be followed by a rigid body displacement to x. In the second
case, the orders are reversed, we have rst a rigid body translation to x, followed by a
rotation (R) and nally a stretching (by V).
Victor Saouma
Draft
426
98
KINEMATIC
(4.120)
U =
FT F (4.121)
R = FU1 (4.122)
(4.123)
V = FRT
99
(4.124)
x1
X
x21
X1
x3
X1
x1
X2
x2
X2
x3
X2
x1
X3
x2
X3
x3
X3
1 0 0
= 0 0 3
0 2 0
(4.125)
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
U2 = FT F = 0 0 2 0 0 3 = 0 4 0
0 2 0
0 3 0
0 0 9
thus
(4.126)
1 0 0
U= 0 2 0
0 0 3
(4.127)
R = FU1
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
= 0 0 3 0 12 0 = 0 0 1
0 2 0
0 1 0
0 0 13
(4.128)
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
V = FRT =
0 0 3 0 0 1 = 0 3 0
0 2 0
0 1 0
0 0 2
Victor Saouma
(4.129)
Draft
427
1 0
0
[F] = 0 0 3
0 2 0
(4.130)
1
0
0
1 0
0
21 0 0
2
0 2
0 3
= 0
0
= 0 2 0
0 0 23
0 3 0
0 2
0
1 0 0
[U] = 0 2 0
0 0 3
[R] = [F][U]1
1 0
0
1
= 0 0 3 0
0 2
0
0
0
1
2
(4.131)
(4.132)
(4.133)
0
1 0 0
0
= 0 0 1 (4.134)
1
0 1 0
3
Victor Saouma
Draft
428
KINEMATIC
2
mpolar.nb
In[4]:=
zzz
jjj
In[10]:=
= ,N@vnormalized
. Ueigen . vnormalized, 3D
Given
x1 =XU_e
0.4142
1. 2 ,0x{3 =X3 , a) Obtain C, b) the principal values of C and the corresponding directions, c) the
2 x2 =X
k1 +2X
1
matrix U and U with respect to the principal directions, d) Obtain the matrix U and U 1 with respect to the ei bas
obtain the matrix R with respect to the ei basis.
ij 0.707 0.707 0. yz
z
In[5]:=
LinearAlgebraOrthogonalization
jj<<
jj 0.707
2.12 0. zzzz
Out[10]=
jj
z
0.
0. 1. {
k
In[6]:=
vnormalized
= GramSchmidt@8v3, v2, v1<D
Determine
the F matrix
In[11]:=
In[1]:=
Out[6]=
Out[11]=
Out[1]=
In[7]:=
U_einverse = N@Inverse@%D, 3D
F = 881, 2, 0<, 80, 1, 0<, 80, 0, 1<<
0.92388 0 y
ij 0.382683
z
jjj 0.92388 0.382683 0 zzz
jjji 2.12 0.707 0. y
z
zz0 1. zz
jj
0
z
jjki 10.707
{
2
0
z
0.707
0.
zzz
jjj
zyz
zz
jkj 0 1 0.
0
0. 1. {
zzz
jj
k0 0 1{
CSTeigen = Chop@N@vnormalized . CST . vnormalized, 4DD
i 5.828
0y
jj R with respect
zz
Determine
jj
0 0.1716 0 zzzz to the ei basis
Out[7]=
Solve forjjj C
z
In[12]:=
In[2]:=
0
0 1. {
k
R = N@F . %, 3D
CST = Transpose@FD . F
ij 0.707 0.707 0. yz
j
z
jji 10.707
0 y 0.707 0. zzz
Out[12]=
jjj U2 with
zz respect
zz
Determine
jjk 2 5 0.
0 zzz
Out[2]=
0. 1. {
In[8]:=
zz
jj
k0 0 1{
Ueigen = N@Sqrt@CSTeigenD, 4D
0 0y
ij 2.414
zz
jj
jj
0
0.4142
0 zzzz
j
Determine
j Eigenvaluesz and
0
0 1. {
k
Out[8]=
Victor Saouma
Eigenvectors
In[3]:=
N@Eigenvalues@CSTDD
In[9]:=
Ueigenminus1 = Inverse@UeigenD
Out[3]=
Out[9]=
0. 0. y
ij 0.414214
zz
jj
jj
0. 2.41421 0. zzzz
jj
z
0.
0. 1. {
k
Draft
4.2.7
100
429
4.2.8
Explicit Derivation
If the derivations in the preceding section was perceived as too complex through a
rst reading, this section will present a gentler approach to essentially the same results
albeit in a less elegant mannser. The previous derivation was carried out using indicial
notation, in this section we repeat the derivation using explicitly.
101
102
103
(4.135)
105
(4.137a)
(4.137b)
(4.137c)
(4.138)
ds2
Victor Saouma
Draft
430
KINEMATIC
t=t
X3
dX
i3
o
i2
i1
X+
d
Spatial
X 2, x 2
x1
Material
X 1, x 1
X1
LAGRANGIAN
Material
Position Vector
x = x(X, t)
Deformation
F = xX
Displacement
xi
= X
ij or
j
J = uX = F I
EULERIAN
Spatial
X = X(x, t)
GRADIENTS
i
H = Xx X
xj
H = F1
ui
Xi
xj = ij xj or
K ux = I H
TENSOR
dx2 = dXCdX
Green
xk xk
Cij = X
or
i Xj
C = X xxX = Fc F
C1 = B1
STRAINS
Eulerian/Almansi
dx2 dX 2 = dx2E dx
xi
Xj
ui
Xj
dX 2 = dxB1 dx
Cauchy
1
k Xk
Bij
= X
or
xi xj
B1 = x XXx = Hc H
Lagrangian
dx2 dX 2 = dX2EdX
Finite Strain
Eij =
E=
1
2
1
2
xk xk
Xi Xj
ij
Eij
=
or
(X xxX I)
E =
Fc F
u
uk uk
ui
or
Eij = 12 X
+ Xji + X
j
i Xj
1
E = 2 (uX + X u + X uuX )
Small
Deformation
Small
deformation
X2
I2
Deformation
dx
x2
P0
u +du
Q
U
t=0
P
t=0
I3
O
t=t
Q
X 3 , x3
x3
Xk Xk
1
2 ij xi xj
1
2 (I x XXx )
or
Hc H
uj
uk uk
ui
or
Eij
= 12 x
+
xi xi xj
j
1
E = 2 (ux + x u x uux )
J+Jc +Jc J
K+Kc Kc K
uj
uj
ui
1 ui
Eij = 12 X
+
E
=
+
ij
Xi
2 xj
xi
j
E = 12 (uX + X u) = 12 (J + Jc )
E = 12 (ux + x u) = 12 (K + Kc )
ROTATION TENSORS
u
ui
ui
[ 12 X
+ Xji + 12 X
Xji ]dXj
j
j
1
1
[ (uX + X u) + (uX X u)]dX
2
2
E
Finite Strain
F = RU = VR
First
Second
PiolaKircho
T
T0 = (det F)T F1
= (det F) F1 T F1 T
T
1
2
ui
xj
uj
xi
1
2
ui
xj
uj
xi
dxj
1
1
[ (ux + x u) + (ux x u)]dx
2
2
+
STRESS TENSORS
Victor Saouma
Cauchy
Draft
431
Tensorial
X1 , X2 , X3 , dX
x1 , x2 , x3 , dx
u1 , u2 , u3
Eij
Explicit
x, y, z, ds
x , y , z , ds
u, v, w
ij
Victor Saouma
Draft
432
106
KINEMATIC
107
(4.139a)
(4.139b)
(4.139c)
Substituting this equation into the preceding one yields the nite strains
2
ds ds2
u
1
= 2
+
x
2
x
1
u
+
+ 2
y
2
y
1
u
+
+ 2
z
2
z
v
+
x
v
y
+
+
v
z
w
+
x
+
w
y
w
z
dx2
2
dy 2
2
dz 2
v u u u v v w w
+
+
+
+
dxdy
x y x y x y
x y
w u u u v v w w
+
+
+
+
+ 2
dxdz
x
z x z x z
x z
w v u u v v w w
+
+
+
+
dydz
+ 2
y
z y z y z
y z
+ 2
(4.140a)
ds ds2 = 2xx dx2 + 2yy dy 2 + 2zz dz 2 + 4xy dxdy + 4xz dxdz + 4yz dydz
(4.141)
where
Victor Saouma
Draft
433
xx
u 1 u
+
=
x 2
x
yy
v 1 u
+
=
y 2
y
zz
w 1 u
+
=
z
2
z
1
2
1
=
2
1
=
2
xy =
xz
yz
v
+
x
v
+
y
v
+
z
w
+
x
w
+
y
w
+
z
(4.142)
(4.143)
v u u u v v w w
+
+
+
+
x y x y x y
x y
w u u u v v w w
+
+
+
+
x
z x z x z
x z
w v u u v v w w
+
+
+
+
y
z y z y z
y z
(4.144)
(4.145)
(4.146)
(4.147)
or
ij =
1
(ui,j + uj,i + uk,iuk,j )
2
(4.148)
(i = j)
(4.149)
2. If the strains are given, then these straindisplacements provide a system of (6)
nonlinear partial dierential equation in terms of the unknown displacements (3).
3. ik is the GreenLagrange strain tensor.
4. The strains have been expressed in terms of the coordinates x, y, z in the undeformed
state, i.e. in the Lagrangian coordinate which is the preferred one in structural
mechanics.
5. Alternatively we could have expressed ds 2 ds2 in terms of coordinates in the
deformed state, i.e. Eulerian coordinates x , y , z , and the resulting strains are
referred to as the Almansi strain which is the preferred one in uid mechanics.
6. In most cases the deformations are small enough for the quadratic term to be
dropped, the resulting equations reduce to
Victor Saouma
Draft
434
KINEMATIC
u
x
v
y
w
z
v u
+
x y
w u
+
x
z
w v
+
y
z
xx =
yy =
zz =
xy =
xz =
yz =
(4.150)
(4.151)
(4.152)
(4.153)
(4.154)
(4.155)
or
ij =
1
(ui,k + uk,i)
2
(4.156)
In nite element, the strain is often expressed through the linear operator L
= Lu
or
xx
yy
zz
xy
xz
yz
4.2.9
x
0
(4.157)
ux
uy
uz
(4.158)
Compatibility Equation
If ij = 12 (ui,j + uj,i) then we have six dierential equations (in 3D the strain tensor has a total of 9 terms, but due to symmetry, there are 6 independent ones) for
determining (upon integration) three unknowns displacements ui . Hence the system is
overdetermined, and there must be some linear relations between the strains.
110
It can be shown (through appropriate successive dierentiation of the strain expression) that the compatibility relation for strain reduces to:
111
2 ik
2 jj
2 jk
2 ij
+
= 0. or x Lx = 0
xj xj xi xk xi xj
xj xk
Victor Saouma
(4.159)
Draft
435
23 31 12
+
+
x1
x1
x2
x3
23 31 12
+
x2 x1
x2
x3
23 31 12
x3 x1
x2
x3
2 12
x1 x2
2 23
2
x2 x3
2 31
2
x3 x1
2 11
x2 x3
2 22
x3 x1
2 33
x1 x2
= 2
(4.160a)
(4.160b)
=
=
=
=
(4.160c)
(4.160d)
(4.160e)
(4.160f)
(4.161)
=
2
(1
+
)
x22
x22
x21
x21
x1 x2
(4.162)
2
X 2X+X
2
1
2
X1
2
2
2(X1 +X2 )
X1
2(X12 +X22 )
0
0
(4.163)
E11
(X 2 + X22 ) X2 (2X2 )
X22 X12
= 1
=
X2
(X12 + X22 )2
(X12 + X22 )2
E12
(X12 + X22 ) X1 (2X1 )
X22 X12
2
=
=
X1
(X12 + X22 )2
(X12 + X22 )2
E22
= 0
X12
Victor Saouma
(4.164a)
(4.164b)
(4.164c)
Draft
436
KINEMATIC
2 E11 2 E22
2 E12
+
=
2
X22
X12
X1 X2
(4.164d)
Actually, it can be easily veried that the unique displacement eld is given by
u1 = arctan
X2
;
X1
u2 = 0;
u3 = 0
(4.165)
to which we could add the rigid body displacement eld (if any).
4.3
In Sect. 2.2 the discussion of stress applied to the deformed conguration dA (using spatial coordiantesx), that is the one where equilibrium must hold. The deformed
conguration being the natural one in which to characterize stress. Hence we had
113
df = tdA
t = Tn
(4.166a)
(4.166b)
(note the use of T instead of ). Hence the Cauchy stress tensor was really dened in
the Eulerian space.
However, there are certain advantages in referring all quantities back to the undeformed conguration (Lagrangian) of the body because often that conguration has geometric features and symmetries that are lost through the deformation.
114
Hence, if we were to dene the strain in material coordinates (in terms of X), we need
also to express the stress as a function of the material point X in material coordinates.
115
4.3.1
First
df t0 dA0
(4.167)
117
t0 = T0 n0
(4.168)
dA
t
dA0
(4.169)
Draft
437
dA
TdAn
Tn =
dA0
dA0
(4.170)
T0 n0 = T(det F) F1
n0
(4.171)
T0 = (det F)T F1
1
1
T0 FT or Tij =
(T0 )im Fjm
T =
(det F)
(det F)
(4.172)
(4.173)
and we note that this rst PiolaKircho stress tensor is not symmetric in general.
To determine the corresponding stress vector, we solve for T0 rst, then for dA0 and
n0 from dA0 n0 = det1 F FT n (assuming unit area dA), and nally t0 = T0 n0 .
118
4.3.2
Second
actual force df on dA, it gives the force df related to the force df in the same way that
a material vector dX at X is related by the deformation to the corresponding spatial
vector dx at x. Thus, if we let
119
df
= tdA0
and
df = Fdf
(4.174a)
(4.174b)
where df is the pseudo dierential force which transforms, under the deformation
gradient F, the (actual) dierential force df at the deformed position (note similarity
with dx = FdX). Thus, the pseudo vector t is in general in a diernt direction than that
of the Cauchy stress vector t.
120
such that
The second PiolaKircho stress tensor is a linear transformation T
0
t = Tn
(4.175)
(4.176)
(4.177)
Draft
438
KINEMATIC
(4.178)
which gives the relationship between the rst PiolaKircho stress tensor T0 and the
121
= (det F) F1 T F1
T
(4.179)
and we note that this second PiolaKircho stress tensor is always symmetric (if the
Cauchy stress tensor is symmetric).
rst, then for dA0 and
To determine the corresponding stress vector, we solve for T
1
T
0.
n0 from dA0 n0 = det F F n (assuming unit area dA), and nally t = Tn
122
4.4
The lagrangian and Eulerian linear strain tensors can each be split into spherical
and deviator tensor as was the case for the stresses. Hence, if we dene
93
1
1
e = tr E
3
3
then the components of the strain deviator E are given by
1
1
Eij = Eij eij or E = E e1
3
3
(4.180)
(4.181)
We note that E measures the change in shape of an element, while the spherical or
hydrostatic strain 13 e1 represents the volume change.
4.5
Determination of the principal strains (E(3) < E(2) < E(1) , strain invariants and the
Mohr circle for strain parallel the one for stresses (Sect. 2.4) and will not be repeated
94
Victor Saouma
Draft
2
mpiola.nb
439
mpiola.nb
3
MatrixForm@Transpose@FD . n detFD
Second
PiolaKirchoff
Stress
Tensor
PiolaKirchoff
Stress
Tensors
i0z
y
j
The deformed
of a body is described by x1 =X 1 2, x2 =X2 /2, x3 =4X3 ; If the Cauchy stress tensor is
j
z
j
z
4configuration
j
j
z 0 y = Inverse@FD . Tfirst
100
0z
Tsecond
jij k
0
{ zzz
j
z
j
given byjj 0 0 0 zz MPa; What are the corresponding first and second PiolaKirchoff stress tensors, and calculate the
z
j
k 0 0 0{
25
980,
0, t0<,
90,
F tensor
MatrixForm@%D
0 y
i
z
j
z
j
z
j
j
z
j 00 z
0 y0, 0<, 80, 0, 0<, 80, 0, 100<<
i
CST
={0880,
j
z
25
k
j
z
25
j
z
j 0
z
0z
j
4
j
z
j
z
0
0
0
k
{ 80, 0, 0<, 80, 0, 100<<
880,
0,
0<,
We note that this vector is in
the same direction as the Cauchy stress vector, its magnitude is one fourth of that of the
Cauchy stress vector, because the undeformed area is 4 times that of the deformed area
F = 881
2, 0, 0<, 80, 0, 1 2<, 80, 4, 0<<
Cuchy stress
vector
PseudoStress vector associated with the Second PiolaKirchoff stress
tensor
Can be obtained from t=CST n
1
1
99 , 0, 0=, 90, 0,  =, 80, 4, 0<=
2
2
tcauchy
. 80, 0,
1<D1, 0<D
t0second==MatrixForm@CST
MatrixForm@Tsecond
. 80,
0 y
Finverse
= Inverse@FD
i
i
z
j 0 y
j
z
j
z
0 z
25
j
z
z
j
zz
z
j
4 z
j
z
j
z
100
{
k
1
k 0 {0, 0<, 90, 0,
982,
=, 80, 2, 0<=
4
We see that this pseudo stress vector is in a different direction from that of the Cauchy stress vector (and we note that
the tensor F transforms e2 into e3 ).
det F
Tfirst
= Det@FD CST . Transpose@FinverseD
detF = Det@FD
880, 0, 0<, 80, 0, 0<, 80, 25, 0<<
1
MatrixForm@%D
n = 80, 0, 1<
0 0 0y
i
j
z
j
j
z
0 1<
0z
80,
j
z
j 0 0,
z
k 0 25 0 {
Victor Saouma
Draft
440
KINEMATIC
III
II
here.
3 IE 2 IIE IIIE = 0
(4.182)
where the symbols IE , IIE and IIIE denote the following scalar expressions in the strain
components:
IE = E11 + E22 + E33 = Eii = tr E
2
2
2
+ E31
+ E12
IIE = (E11 E22 + E22 E33 + E33 E11 ) + E23
1
1
1
(Eij Eij Eii Ejj ) = Eij Eij IE2
=
2
2
2
1
=
(E : E IE2 )
2
1
IIIE = detE = eijk epqr Eip Ejq Ekr
6
95
(4.183)
(4.184)
(4.185)
(4.186)
(4.187)
96
The Mohr circle uses the Engineering shear strain denition of Eq. 4.86, Fig. 4.8
Draft
1
3
3 0
0
0
441
0
1
(4.191)
Solution:
The strain invariants are given by
IE = Eii = 2
1
(Eij Eij Eii Ejj ) = 1 + 3 = +2
IIE =
2
IIIE = Eij  = 3
The principal strains by
(4.192a)
(4.192b)
(4.192c)
3
0
=
3
0
0
0 1
1 + 13
1 13
= (1 )
2
2
1 + 13
= 2.3
= (1) =
2
= (2) = 1
1 13
= (3) =
= 1.3
2
Eij ij
E(1)
E(2)
E(3)
(4.193a)
(4.193b)
(4.193c)
(4.193d)
(4.193e)
(1)
(1)
1+ 13
(1)
n
+
3n2
1
1 1+2 13
3
0
n
(1)2
1(1)
(1)
1+ 13
1+ 13
3n1
n2
3
2
0 n2 =
(1)
(1)
0
0
1 1+ 2 13 n3
1 1+ 2 13 n3
0
=
(4.194)
which gives
(1)
n1
(1)
n3
n(1) n(1)
1 + 13 (1)
n2
=
2 3
= 0
1 + 2 13 + 13
+1
=
12
n(1) =
(4.195b)
(1) 2
n2
= 1 n12 = 0.8;
0.8 0.6 0
(2)
1
1
3
0
n1
(2)
3 1
0 n2
0
0 1 1 n(2)
3
Victor Saouma
(4.195a)
(4.195c)
(4.195d)
(2)
3n
(2) 2 (2)
= 3n1 n2
0
= 0
(4.196)
Draft
442
KINEMATIC
0 0 1
(4.197)
Finally, the third eigenvector can be obrained by the same manner, but more easily from
e1 e2 e3
n(3) = n(1) n(2) = det 0.8 0.6 0
0
0 1
Therefore
n(1)
0.8
j
ai = n(2) =
0
(3)
0.6
n
and this results can be checked via
0.8 0.6 0
1
3
0
0
1
[a][E][a]T = 0
3 0 0
0.6 0.8 0
0
0 1
= 0.6e1 0.8e2
(4.198)
0.6 0
0
1
0.8 0
(4.199)
0.8 0 0.6
2.3 0
0
0.6 0 0.8 = 0 1
0
0 1
0
0 0 1.3
(4.200)
0 0 0
3
5
0
0
3 3
(4.201)
Solution:
s
1
2
60o
1
Victor Saouma
Draft
443
We note that since E(1) = 0 is a principal value for plane strain, ttwo of the circles
are drawn as shown.
4.6
97
T
0
0
T
= (1 + )
T
0
0
T
(4.202)
Plane Stress
Plane Strain
note there is no shear strains caused by thermal expansion.
4.7
Typically, the transducer to measure strains in a material is the strain gage. The most
common type of strain gage used today for stress analysis is the bonded resistance strain
gage shown in Figure 4.9.
98
These gages use a grid of ne wire or a metal foil grid encapsulated in a thin resin
backing. The gage is glued to the carefully prepared test specimen by a thin layer of
epoxy. The epoxy acts as the carrier matrix to transfer the strain in the specimen to
the strain gage. As the gage changes in length, the tiny wires either contract or elongate
depending upon a tensile or compressive state of stress in the specimen. The cross
sectional area will increase for compression and decrease in tension. Because the wire
has an electrical resistance that is proportional to the inverse of the cross sectional area,
R A1 , a measure of the change in resistance can be converted to arrive at the strain in
the material.
99
Bonded resistance strain gages are produced in a variety of sizes, patterns, and resistance. One type of gage that allows for the complete state of strain at a point in a plane
to be determined is a strain gage rosette. It contains three gages aligned radially from a
common point at dierent angles from each other, as shown in Figure 4.10. The strain
transformation equations to convert from the three strains a t any angle to the strain at
a point in a plane are:
100
Victor Saouma
cos2 a +
(4.203)
Draft
444
KINEMATIC
b
c
=
=
cos2 b +
2
x cos c +
x
(4.204)
(4.205)
Due to the wide variety of styles of gages, many factors must be considered in choosing
the right gage for a particular application. Operating temperature, state of strain, and
stability of installation all inuence gage selection. Bonded resistance strain gages are
well suited for making accurate and practical strain measurements because of their high
sensitivity to strains, low cost, and simple operation.
102
The measure of the change in electrical resistance when the strain gage is strained is
known as the gage factor. The gage factor is dened as the fractional change in resistance
R
R
divided by the fractional change in length along the axis of the gage. GF = L
Common
L
gage factors are in the range of 1.52 for most resistive strain gages.
103
Common strain gages utilize a grid pattern as opposed to a straight length of wire
in order to reduce the gage length. This grid pattern causes the gage to be sensitive to
deformations transverse to the gage length. Therefore, corrections for transverse strains
should be computed and applied to the strain data. Some gages come with the tranverse
correction calculated into the gage factor. The transverse sensitivity factor, Kt , is dened
GFtransverse
as the transverse gage factor divided by the longitudinal gage factor. Kt = GF
longitudinal
These sensitivity values are expressed as a percentage and vary from zero to ten percent.
104
105
The change in resistance of bonded resistance strain gages for most strain measurements is very small. From a simple calculation, for a strain of 1 ( = 106 ) with
106
Victor Saouma
Draft
445
a 120 gage and a gage factor of 2, the change in resistance produced by the gage is
R = 1 106 120 2 = 240 106 . Furthermore, it is the fractional change in
resistance that is important and the number to be measured will be in the order of a
couple of ohms. For large strains a simple multimeter may suce, but in order to
acquire sensitive measurements in the range a Wheatstone bridge circuit is necessary
to amplify this resistance. The Wheatstone bridge is described next.
4.7.1
Due to their outstanding sensitivity, Wheatstone bridge circuits are very advantageous
for the measurement of resistance, inductance, and capacitance. Wheatstone bridges are
widely used for strain measurements. A Wheatstone bridge is shown in Figure 4.11.
It consists of 4 resistors arranged in a diamond orientation. An input DC voltage, or
excitation voltage, is applied between the top and bottom of the diamond and the output
voltage is measured across the middle. When the output voltage is zero, the bridge is
said to be balanced. One or more of the legs of the bridge may be a resistive transducer,
such as a strain gage. The other legs of the bridge are simply completion resistors with
resistance equal to that of the strain gage(s). As the resistance of one of the legs changes,
by a change in strain from a resistive strain gage for example, the previously balanced
bridge is now unbalanced. This unbalance causes a voltage to appear across the middle
of the bridge. This induced voltage may be measured with a voltmeter or the resistor
in the opposite leg may be adjusted to rebalance the bridge. In either case the change
in resistance that caused the induced voltage may be measured and converted to obtain
the engineering units of strain.
107
4.7.2
If a strain gage is oriented in one leg of the circuit and the other legs contain xed
resistors as shown in Figure 4.11, the circuit is known as a quarter bridge circuit. The
1
1
circuit is balanced when R
= RRgage
. When the circuit is unbalanced Vout = Vin ( R1R+R
R2
3
2
Rgage
).
Rgage +R3
108
Wheatstone bridges may also be formed with two or four legs of the bridge being
composed of resistive transducers and are called a half bridge and full bridge respectively.
109
Victor Saouma
Draft
446
KINEMATIC
Depending upon the type of application and desired results, the equations for these
circuits will vary as shown in Figure 4.12. Here E0 is the output voltage in mVolts, E is
the excitation voltage in Volts, is strain and is Poissons ratio.
In order to illustrate how to compute a calibration factor for a particular experiment,
suppose a single active gage in uniaxial compression is used. This will correspond to the
upper Wheatstone bridge conguration of Figure 4.12. The formula then is
110
Victor Saouma
Draft
447
E0
F (103 )
=
E
4 + 2F (106)
(4.206)
The extra term in the denominator 2F (106) is a correction factor for nonlinearity.
Because this term is quite small compared to the other term in the denominator it will
be ignored. For most measurements a gain is necessary to increase the output voltage
from the Wheatstone bridge. The gain relation for the output voltage may be written as
V = GE0 (103 ), where V is now in Volts. so Equation 4.206 becomes
111
F (103 )
V
=
EG(103 )
4
4
=
V
F EG
(4.207)
Here, Equation 4.207 is the calibration factor in units of strain per volt. For common
4
values where F = 2.07, G = 1000, E = 5, the calibration factor is simply (2.07)(1000)(5)
or
386.47 microstrain per volt.
112
Victor Saouma
Draft
448
Victor Saouma
KINEMATIC
Draft
Chapter 5
MATHEMATICAL
PRELIMINARIES; Part III
VECTOR INTEGRALS
5.1
20
Integral of a Vector
R1 (u)du + e2
R3 (u)du
(5.1)
(S(u)), then
d
(S(u)) du = S(u) + c
du
R(u)du =
5.2
d
du
R2 (u)du + e3
(5.2)
Line Integral
Given r(u) = x(u)e1 + y(u)e2 + z(u)e3 where r(u) is a position vector dening a
curve C connecting point P1 to P2 where u = u1 and u = u2 respectively, anf given
A(x, y, z) = A1 e1 + A2 e2 + A3 e3 being a vectorial function dened and continuous along
C, then the integral of the tangential component of A along C from P1 to P2 is given by
21
P2
Adr =
P1
Adr =
A1 dx + A2 dy + A3 dz
(5.3)
If A were a force, then this integral would represent the corresponding work.
22
23
Adr =
A1 dx + A2 dy + A3 dz
(5.4)
Adr
P1
C
Adr = 0
(5.5a)
(5.5b)
Draft
52
5.3
24
Integration by Parts
5.4
v(x)u (x)dx
(5.6)
25
vd =
v.nd or
vi,id =
vi ni d
(5.7)
That is the integral of the outer normal component of a vector over a closed surface
(which is the volume ux) is equal to the integral of the divergence of the vector over
the volume bounded by the closed surface.
26
27
qT nds
(5.8)
5.5
28
qdA =
Stokes Theorem
Adr =
(A)ndS =
S
(A)dS
(5.9)
5.6
29
Victor Saouma
S R
dxdy
x
y
(5.10)
Draft
Example 51:
53
C
V
P(X,Y,Z) H
X
B
a)
S
dV=dxdydz
n
Vt
dS
dS
b)
c)
vx x,y,z vx
(5.11a)
1 vx
x AFED
2 x
1 vx
vx x+x/2,y,z vx +
x GHCB
2 x
The net inow per unit time across the x planes is
vx
Vx =
=
xx/2,y,z
vx +
vx
1 vx
1 vx
x yz vx
x yz
2 x
2 x
vx
xyz
x
(5.11b)
(5.11c)
(5.12a)
(5.12b)
Similarly
Vy =
Victor Saouma
vy
xyz
y
(5.13a)
Draft
54
Vz =
vz
xyz
z
(5.13b)
Hence, the total increase per unit volume and unit time will be given by
vx
x
vy
y
vz
z
xyz
xyz
= div v = v
(5.14)
Furthermore, if we consider the total of uid crossing dS during t, Fig. 5.1b, it will
be given by (vt)ndS = vndSt or the volume of uid crossing dS per unit time is
vndS.
Thus for an arbitrary volume, Fig. 5.1c, the total amount of uid crossing a closed
vndS. But this is equal to
vdV (Eq. 5.14), thus
surface S per unit time is
S
vndS =
S
vdV
(5.15)
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 6
FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of
CONTINUUM MECHANICS
6.1
Introduction
We have thus far studied the stress tensors (Cauchy, Piola Kircho), and several other
tensors which describe strain at a point. In general, those tensors will vary from point
to point and represent a tensor eld.
20
We have also obtained only one dierential equation, that was the compatibility equation.
21
In this chapter, we will derive additional dierential equations governing the way
stress and deformation vary at a point and with time. They will apply to any continuous
medium, and yet we will not have enough equations to determine unknown tensor eld.
For that we need to wait for the next chapter where constitututive laws relating stress
and strain will be introduced. Only with constitutive equations and boundary and initial
conditions would we be able to obtain a well dened mathematical problem to solve for
the stress and deformation distribution or the displacement or velocity elds.
22
In this chapter we shall derive dierential equations expressing locally the conservation
of mass, momentum and energy. These dierential equations of balance will be derived
from integral forms of the equation of balance expressing the fundamental postulates of
continuum mechanics.
23
6.1.1
Conservation Laws
Conservation laws constitute a fundamental component of classical physics. A conservation law establishes a balance of a scalar or tensorial quantity in voulme V bounded
by a surface S. In its most general form, such a law may be expressed as
24
d
dt
AdV +
Rate of variation
dS
Exchange by Diffusion
AdV
V
Source
(6.1)
Draft
62
where A is the volumetric density of the quantity of interest (mass, linear momentum,
energy, ...) a, A is the rate of volumetric density of what is provided from the outside,
and is the rate of surface density of what is lost through the surface S of V and will
be a function of the normal to the surface n.
Hence, we read the previous equation as: The input quantity (provided by the right
hand side) is equal to what is lost across the boundary, and to modify A which is the
quantity of interest. The dimensions of various quantities are given by
25
dim(a) = dim(AL3 )
dim() = dim(AL2 t1 )
dim(A) = dim(AL3 t1 )
(6.2a)
(6.2b)
(6.2c)
Hence this chapter will apply the previous conservation law to mass, momentum, and
energy. the resulting dierential equations will provide additional interesting relation
with regard to the imcompressibiltiy of solids (important in classical hydrodynamics and
plasticity theories), equilibrium and symmetry of the stress tensor, and the rst law of
thermodynamics.
26
The enunciation of the preceding three conservation laws plus the second law of thermodynamics, constitute what is commonly known as the fundamental laws of continuum
mechanics.
27
6.1.2
Fluxes
Prior to the enunciation of the rst conservation law, we need to dene the concept of
ux across a bounding surface.
28
29
Volume Flux =
vndS =
S
vj nj dS
(6.3)
30
Victor Saouma
Draft
63
vn dt
vdt
dS
Figure 6.1: Flux Through Area dS
Mass Flux
vndS =
S
Momentum Flux
vj nj dS
v(vn)dS =
=
S
Heat ux
1 2
v (vn)dS =
S2
qndS =
S
Electric ux
JndS =
=
S
6.2
6.2.1
vk vj nj dS
1
vi vi vj nj dS
S2
(6.4)
(6.5)
(6.6)
qj nj dS
(6.7)
Jj nj dS
(6.8)
31
(x, t)dV
M=
(6.9)
where (x, t) is a continuous function called the mass density. We note that this spatial
form in terms of x is most common in uid mechanics.
32
=
dV
t
V t
(6.10)
The Law of conservation of mass requires that the mass of a specic portion of the
continuum remains constant. Hence, if no mass is created or destroyed inside V , then
the preceding equation must eqaul the inow of mass (of ux) through the surface.
The outow is equal to vn, thus the inow will be equal to vn.
33
Victor Saouma
(vn )dS =
vndS =
(v)dV
(6.11)
Draft
64
must be equal to
Thus
+ (v) dV = 0
t
(6.12)
since the integral must hold for any arbitrary choice of dV , then we obtain
(vi )
=0
+ (v) or
+
t
t
xi
34
(6.13)
vi
(vi )
=
+ vi
xi
xi
xi
(6.14)
It can be shown that the rate of change of the density in the neighborhood of a particle
instantaneously at x by
d
=
+ v =
+ vi
(6.15)
dt
t
t
xi
where the rst term gives the local rate of change of the density in the neighborhood
of the place of x, while the second term gives the convective rate of change of the
density in the neighborhood of a particle as it moves to a place having a dierent density.
The rst term vanishes in a steady ow, while the second term vanishes in a uniform
ow.
35
36
Upon substitution in the last three equations, we obtain the continuity equation
vi
d
d
+
+ v = 0
= 0 or
dt
xi
dt
(6.16)
The vector form is independent of any choice of coordinates. This equation shows that
the divergence of the velocity vector eld equals (1/)(d/dt) and measures the rate of
ow of material away from the particle and is equal to the unit rate of decrease of density
in the neighborhood of the particle.
If the material is incompressible, so that the density in the neighborhood of each
material particle remains constant as it moves, then the continuity equation takes the
simpler form
vi
(6.17)
= 0 or v = 0
xi
37
Material Form
If material coordinates X are used, the conservation of mass, and using Eq. 4.38
(dV = JdV0 ), implies
38
V0
Victor Saouma
(X, t0 )dV0 =
(x, t)dV =
V
V0
(x, t)JdV0
(6.18)
Draft
65
or
V0
[0 J]dV0 = 0
(6.19)
and for an arbitrary volume dV0 , the integrand must vanish. If we also suppose that the
initial density 0 is everywhere positive in V0 (no empty spaces), and at time t = t0 ,
J = 1, then we can write
J = 0
(6.20)
or
d
(J) = 0
dt
(6.21)
39
40
The more commonly used form if the continuity equation is Eq. 6.16.
6.3
6.3.1
The momentum principle states that the time rate of change of the total momentum of
a given set of particles equals the vector sum of all external forces acting on the particles
of the set, provided Newtons Third Law applies. The continuum form of this principle is
a basic postulate of continuum mechanics.
41
tdS +
S
bdV =
V
d
dt
vdV
(6.22)
Tij
+ bi dV
xj
V
Tij
dvi
+ bi
dV
xj
dt
dvi
dV
dt
= 0
(6.23a)
(6.23b)
(6.24)
Victor Saouma
Draft
66
42
(6.25a)
We note that these equations could also have been derived from the free body diagram
shown in Fig. 6.2 with the assumption of equilibrium (via Newtons second law) considering an innitesimal element of dimensions dx1 dx2 dx3 . Writing the summation
of forces, will yield
43
(6.26)
Tij,j + bi = 0
where is the density, bi is the body force (including inertia).
yy+ yy d y
y
dy
yx+
yx y
d
y
xx+
xx
xy
xy+
xx d x
x
xy x
d
x
yx
yy
dx
Figure 6.2: Equilibrium of Stresses, Cartesian Coordinates
2
2
2
2x1 x2
x1 + (x2 x1 )
0
0
0
(x21 + x22 )
(6.27)
Draft
67
Solution:
T1j
xj
T2j
xj
T3j
xj
(6.28a)
(6.28b)
(6.28c)
6.3.2
The moment of momentum principle states that the time rate of change of the total
moment of momentum of a given set of particles equals the vector sum of the moments
of all external forces acting on the particles of the set.
44
Thus, in the absence of distributed couples (this theory of Cosserat will not be
covered in this course) we postulate the same principle for a continuum as
45
(rt)dS +
(rb)dV =
6.3.2.1
d
dt
(6.29)
(rv)dV
V
We observe that the preceding equation does not furnish any new dierential equation
of motion. If we substitute tn = Tn and the symmetry of the tensor is assumed, then
the linear momentum principle (Eq. 6.24) is satised.
46
(rmn xm tn )dS +
(rmn xm bn )dV =
d
dt
(rmn xm vn )dV
(6.30)
rmn
xm Tjn
+ xm bn dV =
xj
rmn
d
(xm vn )dV
dt
(6.31)
rmn xm
Victor Saouma
Tjn
+ bn + mj Tjn dV =
xj
rmn vm vn + xm
dvn
dV
dt
(6.32)
Draft
68
rmn Tmn dV = 0
(6.33)
rmn Tmn = 0
(6.34)
T23 T32 = 0
T31 T13 = 0
T12 T21 = 0
(6.35)
establishing the symmetry of the stress matrix without any assumption of equilibrium or
of uniformity of stress distribution as was done in Sect. 2.3.
48
The symmetry of the stress matrix is Cauchys second law of motion (1827).
6.4
The rst principle of thermodynamics relates the work done on a (closed) system and
the heat transfer into the system to the change in energy of the system. We shall assume
that the only energy transfers to the system are by mechanical work done on the system
by surface traction and body forces, by heat transfer through the boundary.
49
6.4.1
We dene L as the spatial gradient of the velocity and in turn this gradient can be
decomposed into a symmetric rate of deformation tensor D (or stretching tensor)
and a skewsymmeteric tensor W called the spin tensor or vorticity tensor1 .
50
Lij = vi,j or L = vx
(6.36)
L = D+W
(6.37)
1
1
(vx + x v) and W = (vx x v) (6.38)
D =
2
2
this term will be used in the derivation of the rst principle.
6.4.2
First Principle
If mechanical quantities only are considered, the principle of conservation of energy for the continuum may be derived directly from the equation of motion given by
51
1 Note
Victor Saouma
Draft
69
Eq. 6.24. This is accomplished by taking the integral over the volume V of the scalar
product between Eq. 6.24 and the velocity vi .
V
vi Tji,j dV +
bi vi dV =
vi
dvi
dV
dt
(6.39)
vi
d
dvi
dV =
dt
dt
1
d
vi vi dV =
dt
V 2
1 2
dK
v dV =
dt
V 2
(6.40)
which represents the time rate of change of the kinetic energy K in the continuum.
Also we have vi Tji,j = (vi Tji ),j vi,j Tji and from Eq. 6.37 we have vi,j = Lij + Wij .
It can be shown that since Wij is skewsymmetric, and T is symmetric, that Tij Wij = 0,
is called the stress power.
and thus Tij Lij = Tij Dij . TD
52
If we consider thermal processes, the rate of increase of total heat into the continuum
is given by
rdV
(6.41)
Q = qi ni dS +
53
Q has the dimension of power, that is ML T , and the SI unit is the Watt (W). q is the
heat ux per unit area by conduction, its dimension is MT 3 and the corresponding
SI unit is W m2 . Finally, r is the radiant heat constant per unit mass, its dimension
is MT 3 L4 and the corresponding SI unit is W m6 .
54
We thus have
dK
+
dt
Dij Tij dV =
vi bi dV + Q
(6.42)
We next convert the rst integral on the right hand side to a surface integral by the
divergence theorem ( V vdV = S v.ndS) and since ti = Tij nj we obtain
55
dK
+
dt
Dij Tij dV
dK dU
+
dt
dt
vi ti dS +
dW
+Q
dt
vi bi dV + Q (6.43)
(6.44)
this equation relates the time rate of change of total mechanical energy of the continuum
on the left side to the rate of work done by the surface and body forces on the right hand
side.
If both mechanical and non mechanical energies are to be considered, the rst principle
states that the time rate of change of the kinetic plus the internal energy is equal to the
sum of the rate of work plus all other energies supplied to, or removed from the continuum
per unit time (heat, chemical, electromagnetic, etc.).
56
57
d
dU
=
dt
dt
Victor Saouma
udV
(6.45)
Draft
610
where u is the internal energy per unit mass or specic internal energy. We note that
U appears only as a dierential in the rst principle, hence if we really need to evaluate
this quantity, we need to have a reference value for which U will be null. The dimension
of U is one of energy dim U = ML2 T 2 , and the SI unit is the Joule, similarly dim
u = L2 T 2 with the SI unit of Joule/Kg.
58
dU
dt
Source
V
Exchange
Source
vi bi dV +
rdV
qi ni dS (6.46)
dW
dt
we apply Gauss theorem to convert the surface integral, collect terms and use the fact
that dV is arbitrary to obtain
du
dt
du
dt
=
or
T:D + r q
(6.47)
Tij Dij + r
qj
xj
(6.48)
This equation expresses the rate of change of internal energy as the sum of the
stress power plus the heat added to the continuum.
59
In ideal elasticity, heat transfer is considered insignicant, and all of the input work
is assumed converted into internal energy in the form of recoverable stored elastic strain
energy, which can be recovered as work when the body is unloaded.
60
In general, however, the major part of the input work into a deforming material is not
recoverably stored, but dissipated by the deformation process causing an increase in the
bodys temperature and eventually being conducted away as heat.
61
6.5
The rst principle of thermodynamics can be regarded as an expression of the interconvertibility of heat and work, maintaining an energy balance. It places no restriction
on the direction of the process. In classical mechanics, kinetic and potential energy can
be easily transformed from one to the other in the absence of friction or other dissipative
mechanism.
63
Victor Saouma
Draft
611
The rst principle leaves unanswered the question of the extent to which conversion
process is reversible or irreversible. If thermal processes are involved (friction) dissipative processes are irreversible processes, and it will be up to the second principle of
thermodynamics to put limits on the direction of such processes.
64
6.5.1
Entropy
The basic criterion for irreversibility is given by the second principle of thermodynamics through the statement on the limitation of entropy production. This law
postulates the existence of two distinct state functions: the absolute temperature
and S the entropy with the following properties:
65
1. is a positive quantity.
2. Entropy is an extensive property, i.e. the total entropy is in a system is the sum of
the entropies of its parts.
66
(6.49)
ds = ds(e) + ds(i)
(e)
(i)
where ds is the increase due to interaction with the exterior, and ds is the internal
increase, and
ds(e) > 0 irreversible process
ds(i) = 0 reversible process
67
(6.50a)
(6.50b)
6.5.1.1
Statistical Mechanics
68
6.5.1.2
Classical Thermodynamics
In a reversible process (more about that later), the change in specic entropy s is
given by
dq
ds =
(6.52)
rev
70
Victor Saouma
Draft
612
71
(6.53)
where R is the gas constant, and assuming that the specic energy u is only a function
of temperature , then the rst principle takes the form
du = dq pdv
(6.54)
du = dq = cv d
(6.55)
wher cv is the specic heat at constant volume. The assumption that u = u() implies
that cv is a function of only and that
du = cv ()d
72
(6.56)
dv
v
(6.57)
v
d
+ R ln
v0
(6.58)
or division by yields
s s0 =
p,v
dq
=
p0 ,v0
cv ()
which gives the change in entropy for any reversible process in an ideal gas. In this case,
entropy is a state function which returns to its initial value whenever the temperature
returns to its initial value that is p and v return to their initial values.
6.5.2
ClausiusDuhem Inequality
We restate the denition of entropy as heat divided by temperature, and write the
second principle
73
d
dt
r
dV
V
Sources
Q
dS
=
+ ;
dt
q
ndS +
;
S
Internal production
0 (6.59)
Exchange
(6.60)
74
Victor Saouma
Draft
613
The previous inequality holds for any arbitrary volume, thus after transformation of
the surface integral into a volume integral, we obtain the following local version of the
ClausiusDuhem inequality which must holds at every point
75
ds
dt
76
r
q
Sources
(6.61)
Exchange
We next seek to express the ClausiusDuhem inequality in terms of the stress tensor,
1
1
1
1
q
= q q = q 2 q
thus
(6.62)
1
1
r
ds
q + 2 q +
dt
(6.63)
1
ds
q + r + q
dt
(6.64)
where q + r is the heat input into V and appeared in the rst principle Eq. 6.47
du
= T:D + r q
dt
(6.65)
6.6
ds
du
1
q 0
dt
dt
(6.66)
In the preceding sections several equations and unknowns were introduced. Let us
count them. for both the coupled and uncoupled cases.
77
d
vi
+ x
=0
dt
i
Tij
i
+ bi = dv
xj
dt
du
= Tij Dij + r
dt
Continuity Equation
Equation of motion
q
Coupled
1
3
Uncoupled
1
3
1
5
78 Assuming that the body forces bi and distributed heat sources r are prescribed, then
we have the following unknowns:
Victor Saouma
Draft
614
Coupled
Density
1
Velocity (or displacement) vi (ui )
3
Stress components
Tij
6
Heat ux components
qi
3
Specic internal energy
u
1
Entropy density
s
1
Absolute temperature
1
Total number of unknowns
16
ds
dt
1 div
Uncoupled
1
3
6
10
q
79
6
3
2
11
constitutive equations
temperature heat conduction
thermodynamic equations of state
Total number of additional equations
The next chapter will thus discuss constitutive relations, and a subsequent one will
separately discuss thermodynamic equations of state.
80
81
6.7
One of the relations which we will need is the one which relates temperature to heat
ux. This constitutive realtion will be discussed in the next chapter under Fourriers law.
82
However to place the reader in the right frame of reference to understand Fourriers
law, this section will provide some elementary concepts of heat transfer.
83
84
Conduction: takes place when a temperature gradient exists within a material and is
governed by Fouriers Law, Fig. 6.3 on q :
Victor Saouma
T
x
T
= ky
y
qx = kx
(6.67)
qy
(6.68)
Draft
615
where T = T (x, y) is the temperature eld in the medium, qx and qy are the
componenets of the heat ux (W/m2 or Btu/hft2), k is the thermal conductiv, T are the temperature gradients along the
ity (W/m.o C or Btu/hftoF) and T
x y
x and y respectively. Note that heat ows from hot to cool zones, hence the
negative sign.
Convection: heat transfer takes place when a material is exposed to a moving uid
which is at dierent temperature. It is governed by the Newtons Law of Cooling
q = h(T T ) on c
(6.69)
where q is the convective heat ux, h is the convection heat transfer coecient or
lm coecient (W/m2 .o C or Btu/hft2 .o F). It depends on various factors, such as
whether convection is natural or forced, laminar or turbulent ow, type of uid, and
geometry of the body; T and T are the surface and uid temperature, respectively.
This mode is considered as part of the boundary condition.
Radiation: is the energy transferred between two separated bodies at dierent temperatures by means of electromagnetic waves. The fundamental law is the StefanBoltmans Law of Thermal Radiation for black bodies in which the ux is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature., which causes the problem
to be nonlinear. This mode will not be covered.
6.7.1
Simple 2D Derivation
(6.70)
2. Heat ux across the boundary of the element is shown in Fig. ?? (note similarity
Victor Saouma
Draft
616
qy +
qx
qy
y dy
qx +
qx
x dx
dy
qy
dx
qx +
qx
dx qx dx dy +
x
qy +
qy
qy
qx
dy qy dy dx =
dxdy +
dydx
y
x
y
(6.71)
From the rst law of thermodaynamics, energy produced I2 plus the net energy across
the boundary I1 must be equal to the energy absorbed I3 , thus
86
I1 + I2 I3 = 0
qy
d
qx
dxdy +
dydx + Qdxdy c dxdy = 0
x
y
dt
I2
I1
6.7.2
87
(6.73a)
(6.73b)
I3
Generalized Derivation
The amount of ow per unit time into an element of volume and surface is
I1 =
q(n)d =
D.nd
(6.74)
Victor Saouma
Draft
617
88
vnd =
div vd
(6.75)
div (D)d
(6.76)
89
Finally, we dene the specic heat of a solid c as the amount of heat required to raise a
unit mass by one degree. Thus if is a temperature change which occurs in a mass m
over a time t, then the corresponding amount of heat that was added must have been
cm, or
I3 =
cd
(6.78)
90
I1 + I2 I3 = 0
div (D) + Q c
d = 0
t
(6.79a)
(6.79b)
=0
t
(6.80)
(6.81)
qx qy
+
+ Q = c
x
y
t
(6.82)
div (D) + Q c
or
div (D) + Q = c
This equation can be rewritten as
1. Note the similarity between this last equation, and the equation of equilibrium
2 ux
xx xy
+
+ bx = m 2
x
y
t
yy xy
2 uy
+
+ by = m 2
y
x
t
Victor Saouma
(6.83a)
(6.83b)
Draft
618
2. For steady state problems, the previous equation does not depend on t, and for 2D
problems, it reduces to
kx
+
ky
x
x
y
y
+Q=0
(6.84)
(6.85)
(6.86)
=
kx
+Q
t
x
x
(6.87)
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 7
CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS;
Part I LINEAR
ceiinosssttuu
Hooke, 1676
Ut tensio sic vis
Hooke, 1678
7.1
7.1.1
Thermodynamic Approach
State Variables
The method of local state postulates that the thermodynamic state of a continuum
at a given point and instant is completely dened by several state variables (also
known as thermodynamic or independent variables). A change in time of those
state variables constitutes a thermodynamic process. Usually state variables are not
all independent, and functional relationships exist among them through equations of
state. Any state variable which may be expressed as a single valued function of a set of
other state variables is known as a state function.
20
The time derivatives of these variables are not involved in the denition of the state,
this postulate implies that any evolution can be considered as a succession of equilibrium
states (therefore ultra rapid phenomena are excluded).
21
Draft
72
of state
u = u(s, , X)
(7.1)
In general the internal energy u can not be experimentally measured but rather its
derivative.
24
For instance we can dene the thermodynamic temperature and the thermodynamic tension j as
25
u
s
u
j
j = 1, 2, , n
(7.2)
s,i(i=j)
where the subscript outside the parenthesis indicates that the variables are held constant.
26 By extension Ai = i would be the thermodynamic force and its dimension
depends on the one of i .
7.1.2
27
Gibbs Relation
28
u
s
ds
dp
+ p
dt
dt
(7.3)
1
ds
du
q 0
dt
dt
(7.4)
we obtain
T:D +
u
ds
dt
s
+ Ap
dp 1
q 0
dt
(7.5)
but the second principle must be satised for all possible evolution and in particular the
thus the coecient of ds
one for which D = 0, ddtp = 0 and = 0 for any value of ds
dt
dt
is zero or
u
=
(7.6)
s
thus
T:D + Ap
dp 1
q 0
dt
(7.7)
Victor Saouma
(7.8)
Draft
73
du = ds + p dp
29
u
s
u
v
(7.10)
s
From the caloric equation of state, Eq. 7.1, and the the denitions of Eq. 7.2 it follows
that the temperature and the thermodynamic tensions are functions of the thermodynamic state:
(7.11)
= (s, );
j = j (s, )
30
(7.12)
and substitute this into Eq. 7.1 to obtain an alternative form of the caloric equation of
state with corresponding thermal equations of state (obtained by simple substitution).
u = u(, , bX)
i = i (, , X)
i = i (, , X)
(7.13)
(7.14)
(7.15)
The thermal equations of state resemble stressstrain relations, but some caution is
necessary in interpreting the tesnisons as stresses and the j as strains.
31
7.1.4
Thermodynamic Potentials
32
Potential
Internal energy
Helmholtz free energy
Enthalpy
Free enthalpy
h
g
Relation to u
u
= u s
h = u j j
g = u s j j
Independent Variables
s, j
, j
s, j
, j
Victor Saouma
Draft
74
Fenchel transformation on the basis of selected state variables best suited for a given
problem.
By means of the preceding equations, any one of the potentials can be expressed in
terms of any of the four choices of state variables listed in Table 7.1.
33
34
=
=
=
=
ds + j dj
sd + j dj
ds j dj
sd j dj
(7.16a)
(7.16b)
(7.16c)
(7.16d)
and from these dierentials we obtain the following partial derivative expressions
u
;
s
s=
;
=
h
;
s
g
;
=
=
j =
j =
u
j
s,i(i=j)
j =
j =
(7.17a)
h
j
s,i(i=j)
g
j
(7.17b)
(7.17c)
(7.17d)
where the free energy is the portion of the internal energy available for doing work
at constant temperature, the enthalpy h (as dened here) is the portion of the internal
energy that can be released as heat when the thermodynamic tensions are held constant.
7.1.5
Green dened an elastic material as one for which a strainenergy function exists. Such
a material is called Greenelastic or hyperelastic if there exists an elastic potential
function W or strain energy function, a scalar function of one of the strain or deformation tensors, whose derivative with respect to a strain component determines the
corresponding stress component.
35
For the fully recoverable case of isothermal deformation with reversible heat conduction
we have
(7.18)
TIJ = 0
EIJ
36
37
W (E)
TIJ =
EIJ
Victor Saouma
(7.19)
Draft
75
and W (E) is the strain energy per unit undeformed volume. If the displacement
gradients are small compared to unity, then we obtain
Tij =
W
Eij
(7.20)
which is written in terms of Cauchy stress Tij and small strain Eij .
We assume that the elastic potential is represented by a power series expansion in the
smallstrain components.
38
1
1
W = c0 + cij Eij + cijkmEij Ekm + cijkmnp Eij Ekm Enp +
2
3
(7.21)
where c0 is a constant and cij , cijkm, cijkmnp denote tensorial properties required to maintain the invariant property of W . Physically, the second term represents the energy due
to residual stresses, the third one refers to the strain energy which corresponds to linear
elastic deformation, and the fourth one indicates nonlinear behavior.
39 Neglecting terms higher than the second degree in the series expansion, then W is
quadratic in terms of the strains
W =
We next apply Eq. 7.20 to the quadratic expression of W and obtain for instance
T12 =
W
= 2c6 + c1112 E11 + c2212 E22 + c3312 E33 + c1212 E12 + c1223 E23 + c1231 E31 (7.23)
E12
if the stress must also be zero in the unstrained state, then c6 = 0, and similarly all the
coecients in the rst row of the quadratic expansion of W . Thus the elastic potential
function is a homogeneous quadratic function of the strains and we obtain Hookes
law
7.2
Experimental Observations
We shall discuss two experiments which will yield the elastic Youngs modulus, and
then the bulk modulus. In the former, the simplicity of the experiment is surrounded
by the intriguing character of Hooke, and in the later, the bulk modulus is mathematically related to the Green deformation tensor C, the deformation gradient F and the
Lagrangian strain tensor E.
41
Victor Saouma
Draft
76
7.2.1
Hookes Law
Hookes Law is determined on the basis of a very simple experiment in which a uniaxial
force is applied on a specimen which has one dimension much greater than the other two
(such as a rod). The elongation is measured, and then the stress is plotted in terms of
the strain (elongation/length). The slope of the line is called Youngs modulus.
42
Hooke anticipated some of the most important discoveries and inventions of his time
but failed to carry many of them through to completion. He formulated the theory of
planetary motion as a problem in mechanics, and grasped, but did not develop mathematically, the fundamental theory on which Newton formulated the law of gravitation.
His most important contribution was published in 1678 in the paper De Potentia
Restitutiva. It contained results of his experiments with elastic bodies, and was the rst
paper in which the elastic properties of material was discussed.
43
Take a wire string of 20, or 30, or 40 ft long, and fasten the upper part thereof
to a nail, and to the other end fasten a Scale to receive the weights: Then with
a pair of compasses take the distance of the bottom of the scale from the ground
or oor underneath, and set down the said distance, then put inweights into
the said scale and measure the several stretchings of the said string, and set
them down. Then compare the several stretchings of the said string, and you
will nd that they will always bear the same proportions one to the other that
the weights do that made them.
This became Hookes Law
(7.24)
= E
Because he was concerned about patent rights to his invention, he did not publish his
law when rst discovered it in 1660. Instead he published it in the form of an anagram
ceiinosssttuu in 1676 and the solution was given in 1678. Ut tensio sic vis (at the time
the two symbols u and v were employed interchangeably to denote either the vowel u or
the consonant v), i.e. extension varies directly with force.
44
7.2.2
Bulk Modulus
45
46
det F =
det C =
(7.25a)
det[I + 2E]
(7.25b)
therefore,
V + V
=
V
Victor Saouma
det[I + 2E]
(7.26)
Draft
77
(7.27)
IIE
IIIE since the rst term is linear in E, the second is
but for small strains, IE
quadratic, and the third is cubic. Therefore, we can approximate det[I + 2E] 1 + 2IE ,
hence we dene the volumetric dilatation as
V
e IE = tr E
V
(7.28)
7.3
7.3.1
From Eq. 7.22 and 7.23 we obtain the stressstrain relation for homogeneous anisotropic
material
47
T11
T22
T33
T12
T23
T31
Tij
c1111
c1112
c2222
c1133 c1112
c2233 c2212
c3333 c3312
c1212
SYM.
c1123
c2223
c3323
c1223
c2323
c1131
c2231
c3331
c1231
c2331
c3131
cijkm
E11
E22
E33
2E12 (12 )
2E23 (23 )
2E31 (31 )
(7.29)
Ekm
(7.30)
49 In general the elastic moduli cij relating the cartesian components of stress and strain
depend on the orientation of the coordinate system with respect to the body. If the form
of elastic potential function W and the values cij are independent of the orientation, the
material is said to be isotropic, if not it is anisotropic.
Victor Saouma
Draft
78
50
c1,1,1,1
c1,1,2,1
c1,1,3,1
c2,1,1,1
c2,1,2,1
c2,1,3,1
c3,1,1,1
c3,1,2,1
c3,1,3,1
c1,1,1,2
c1,1,2,2
c1,1,3,2
c2,1,1,2
c2,1,2,2
c2,1,3,2
c3,1,1,2
c3,1,2,2
c3,1,3,2
c1,1,1,3
c1,1,2,3
c1,1,3,3
c2,1,1,3
c2,1,2,3
c2,1,3,3
c3,1,1,3
c3,1,2,3
c3,1,3,3
c1,2,1,1
c1,2,2,1
c1,2,3,1
c2,2,1,1
c2,2,2,1
c2,2,3,1
c3,2,1,1
c3,2,2,1
c3,2,3,1
c1,2,1,2
c1,2,2,2
c1,2,3,2
c2,2,1,2
c2,2,2,2
c2,2,3,2
c3,2,1,2
c3,2,2,2
c3,2,3,2
c1,2,1,3
c1,2,2,3
c1,2,3,3
c2,2,1,3
c2,2,2,3
c2,2,3,3
c3,2,1,3
c3,2,2,3
c3,2,3,3
c1,3,1,1
c1,3,2,1
c1,3,3,1
c2,3,1,1
c2,3,2,1
c2,3,3,1
c3,3,1,1
c3,3,2,1
c3,3,3,1
c1,3,1,2
c1,3,2,2
c1,3,3,2
c2,3,1,2
c2,3,2,2
c2,3,3,2
c3,3,1,2
c3,3,2,2
c3,3,3,2
c1,3,1,3
c1,3,2,3
c1,3,3,3
c2,3,1,3
c2,3,2,3
c2,3,3,3
c3,3,1,3
c3,3,2,3
c3,3,3,3
(7.31)
But the matrix must be symmetric thanks to Cauchys second law of motion (i.e symmetry of both the stress and the strain), and thus for anisotropic material we will have
= 21 independent coecients.
a symmetric 6 by 6 matrix with (6)(6+1)
2
By means of coordinate transformation we can relate the material properties in one
coordinate system (old) xi , to a new one xi , thus from Eq. 1.27 (vj = apj vp ) we can
rewrite
1
1
1
W = crstu Ers Etu = crstu ari asj atk aum E ij E km = cijkm E ij E km
(7.32)
2
2
2
thus we deduce
cijkm = ari asj atk aum crstu
(7.33)
51
that is the fourth order tensor of material constants in old coordinates may be transformed
into a new coordinate system through an eighthorder tensor ari asj atk aum
7.3.2
Monotropic Material
52 A plane of elastic symmetry exists at a point where the elastic constants have the
same values for every pair of coordinate systems which are the reected images of one
another with respect to the plane. The axes of such coordinate systems are referred to
as equivalent elastic directions.
If we assume x1 = x1 , x2 = x2 and x3 =
dened through
j
ai = 0
0
53
0 0
1 0
0 1
(7.34)
where the negative sign reects the symmetry of the mirror image with respect to the x3
plane.
We next substitute in Eq.7.33, and as an example we consider c1123 = ar1 as1 at2 au3 crstu =
= (1)(1)(1)(1)c1123 = c1123 , obviously, this is not possible, and the only
way the relation can remanin valid is if c1123 = 0. We note that all terms in cijkl with
the index 3 occurring an odd number of times will be equal to zero. Upon substitution,
54
Victor Saouma
Draft
we obtain
cijkm =
c1111
c1122
c2222
79
c1133 c1112
c2233 c2212
c3333 c3312
c1212
SYM.
0
0
0
0
c2323
0
0
0
0
c2331
(7.35)
c3131
we now have 13 nonzero coecients.
7.3.3
Orthotropic Material
If the material possesses three mutually perpendicular planes of elastic symmetry, (that
is symmetric with respect to two planes x2 and x3 ), then the transformation xi = aji xj
is dened through
1 0
0
aji = 0 1 0
(7.36)
0 0 1
55
where the negative sign reects the symmetry of the mirror image with respect to the x3
plane. Upon substitution in Eq.7.33 we now would have
cijkm =
c1111
c1122
c2222
c1133
c2233
c3333
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
c1212
SYM.
c2323
0
0
0
0
0
(7.37)
c3131
We note that in here all terms of cijkl with the indices 3 and 2 occuring an odd number
of times are again set to zero.
56
Wood is usually considered an orthotropic material and will have 9 nonzero coecients.
7.3.4
57
cos sin 0
(7.38)
substituting Eq. 7.33 into Eq. 7.41, using the above transformation matrix, we obtain
c1111 = (cos4 )c1111 + (cos2 sin2 )(2c1122 + 4c1212 ) + (sin4 )c2222
c1122 = (cos2 sin2 )c1111 + (cos4 )c1122 4(cos2 sin2 )c1212 + (sin4 )c2211
+(sin2 cos2 )c2222
c1133 = (cos2 )c1133 + (sin2 )c2233
Victor Saouma
(7.39a)
(7.39b)
(7.39c)
(7.39d)
Draft
710
But in order to respect our initial assumption about symmetry, these results require
that
c1111 = c2222
c1133 = c2233
c2323 = c3131
1
c1212 =
(c1111 c1122 )
2
(7.40a)
(7.40b)
(7.40c)
(7.40d)
yielding
cijkm =
c1111
c1122
c2222
c1133
c2233
c3333
SYM.
0
0
0
1
(c
c1122 )
1111
2
0
0
0
0
c2323
0
0
0
0
0
(7.41)
c3131
we now have 5 nonzero coecients.
It should be noted that very few natural or manmade materials are truly orthotropic
(certain crystals as topaz are), but a number are transversely isotropic (laminates, shist,
quartz, roller compacted concrete, etc...).
58
7.3.5
Isotropic Material
An isotropic material is symmetric with respect to every plane and every axis, that is
the elastic properties are identical in all directions.
59
To mathematically characterize an isotropic material, we require coordinate transformation with rotation about x2 and x1 axes in addition to all previous coordinate
transformations. This process will enforce symmetry about all planes and all axes.
60
61
cos 0 sin
1
0
aji = 0
sin 0 cos
(7.42)
(7.43a)
(7.43b)
Draft
62
711
1
0
0
j
ai = 0 cos sin
0 sin cos
(7.44)
it follows that
c1122 = c1133
1
c3131 =
(c3333 c1133 )
2
1
c2323 =
(c2222 c2233 )
2
which will nally give
cijkm =
c1111
c1122
c2222
(7.45a)
(7.45b)
(7.45c)
c1133 0 0 0
c2233 0 0 0
c3333 0 0 0
a 0 0
SYM.
b 0
(7.46)
cijkm
+ 2
+ 2
0 0 0
0 0 0
+ 2 0 0 0
=
0 0
SYM.
0
= ij km + (ik jm + im kj )
(7.47)
(7.48)
and we are thus left with only two independent non zero coecients and which are
called Lames constants.
64
(7.49)
ij Tkk
Eij =
Tij
2
3 + 2
or
or
T = IE + 2E
(7.50)
1
IT + T (7.51)
E=
2(3 + 2)
2
It should be emphasized that Eq. 7.47 is written in terms of the Engineering strains
(Eq. 7.29) that is ij = 2Eij for i = j. On the other hand the preceding equations are
written in terms of the tensorial strains Eij
65
Victor Saouma
Draft
712
7.3.5.1
Engineering Constants
The stressstrain relations were expressed in terms of Lames parameters which can not
be readily measured experimentally. As such, in the following sections we will reformulate
those relations in terms of engineering constants (Youngs and the bulks modulus).
This will be done for both the isotropic and transversely isotropic cases.
66
7.3.5.1.1
Isotropic Case
7.3.5.1.1.1
Youngs Modulus
67 In order to avoid certain confusion between the strain E and the elastic constant E,
we adopt the usual engineering notation Tij ij and Eij ij
68
If we consider a simple uniaxial state of stress in the x1 direction, then from Eq. 7.51
+
(3 + 2)
= 33 =
2(3 + 2)
0 = 12 = 23 = 13
11 =
22
(7.52a)
(7.52b)
(7.52c)
Yet we have the elementary relations in terms engineering constants E Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio
(7.53a)
11 =
E
33
22
=
(7.53b)
=
11
11
69
1
=
; =
E
(3 + 2)
2( + )
E
E
=
; = G =
(1 + )(1 2)
2(1 + )
70
(7.54)
(7.55)
212 =
G
(7.56a)
(7.56b)
Victor Saouma
Draft
72
ij kk or =
I
ij +
+
1+
1 2
1+
1 2
1+
1+
ij ij kk or =
I
=
E
E
E
E
ij =
(7.57)
ij
(7.58)
73
713
xx
yy
zz
xy (2xy )
yz (2yz )
zx (2zx )
1
E
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0 1+
0
0
0
0
0
0
1+
0
0
0
0
0
0
1+
xx
yy
zz
xy
yz
zx
(1+)(12)
1
0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
xx
yy
zz
xy
yz
zx
xx
yy
zz
xy (2xy )
yz (2yz )
zx (2zx )
(7.59)
(7.60)
7.3.5.1.1.2
We can express the trace of the stress I in terms of the volumetric strain I From
Eq. 7.50
(7.61)
ii = ii kk + 2ii = (3 + 2)ii 3Kii
or
2
(7.62)
K =+
3
74
= KeI + 2
p
1
=
I+
3K
2
(7.65)
(7.66)
Draft
714
7.3.5.1.1.3
76
(7.67)
(7.68)
substituting p = Ke and ij = 2GEij , and integrating, we obtain the following expression for the isotropic strain energy
1
W = Ke2 + GEij Eij
2
(7.69)
and since positive work is required to cause any deformation W > 0 thus
2
+ GK > 0
3
G > 0
(7.70a)
(7.70b)
77
1
2
(7.71)
+ 23
(3+2)
+
2(+)
1
2
implies G =
(7.72)
E
,
3
and
1
K
= 0 or elastic incom
E,
E,
K,
E
(1+)(12)
E
2(1+)
E
3(12)
2
12
(E2)
3E
2(1+)
3(12)
3K
1+
3K(12)
2(1+)
E
3(3E)
2(1 + )
E
E
2 1
K
3K(1 2)
79
Victor Saouma
Draft
E (MPa)
196,000
68,000
61,000
2,900
2
60,000
60,000
715
0.3
0.33
0.34
0.4
0.5
0.2
0.27
80
=
=
=
=
=
=
(7.73)
and
a11 =
1
;
E
a12 = ;
E
a13 =
;
E
a33 =
1
;
E
a44 =
(7.74)
where E is the Youngs modulus in the plane of isotropy and E the one in the plane
normal to it. corresponds to the transverse contraction in the plane of isotropy when
tension is applied in the plane; corresponding to the transverse contraction in the plane
of isotropy when tension is applied normal to the plane; corresponding to the shear
moduli for the plane of isotropy and any plane normal to it, and is shear moduli for
the plane of isotropy.
7.3.5.2
Special 2D Cases
Often times one can make simplifying assumptions to reduce a 3D problem into a 2D
one.
81
7.3.5.2.1
Plane Strain
For problems involving a long body in the z direction with no variation in load or
geometry, then zz = yz = xz = xz = yz = 0. Thus, replacing into Eq. 5.2 we obtain
82
xx
yy
zz
xy
Victor Saouma
E
(1 + )(1 2)
(1 )
(1 )
0
0
0
0
0
12
2
xx
yy
xy
(7.75)
Draft
716
7.3.5.2.2
83
84
Axisymmetry
(7.76a)
(7.76b)
(7.76c)
(7.76d)
rr
zz
rz
7.3.5.2.3
E
(1 + )(1 2)
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12
2
rr
zz
rz
(7.77)
Plane Stress
xx
1 0
xx
1
yy
1
0
=
yy
1 2 0 0 1
xy
xy
2
1
(xx + yy )
zz =
1
7.4
(7.78a)
(7.78b)
Linear Thermoelasticity
86 If thermal eects are accounted for, the components of the linear strain tensor Eij may
be considered as the sum of
(T )
()
(7.79)
Eij = Eij + Eij
(T )
()
where Eij is the contribution from the stress eld, and Eij
temperature eld.
Victor Saouma
Draft
717
Inserting the preceding two equation into Hookes law (Eq. 7.51) yields
Eij =
Tij
ij Tkk + ( 0 )ij
2
3 + 2
(7.81)
(7.82)
(7.83)
for linear theory, we suppose that ij is independent from the strain and cijrs independent
of temperature change with respect to the natural state. Finally, for isotropic cases we
obtain
Tij = Ekk ij + 2Eij ij ( 0 )ij
(7.84)
which is identical to Eq. 7.82 with =
E
.
12
Tij =
91
Hence
E
1 2
(7.85)
Tij
2
(7.86)
7.5
p
+ 3( 0 )
K
(7.87)
Fourrier Law
Consider a solid through which there is a ow q of heat (or some other quantity such
as mass, chemical, etc...)
92
93
Victor Saouma
Draft
718
qx
= D
= D
(7.88)
q = qy
y
94
1 0 0
D = k 0 1 0
0 0 1
Anisotropic
(7.89)
(7.90)
kxx 0
0
D = 0 kyy 0
0
0 kzz
(7.91)
Note that for ow through porous media, Darcys equation is only valid for laminar ow.
7.6
95
d
vi
+ x
=0
dt
i
Tij
i
+ bi = dv
xj
dt
du
= Tij Dij + r
dt
Continuity Equation
Equation of motion
qj
xj
Energy equation
T = IE + 2E
Hookes Law
q = D
Heat Equation (Fourrier)
= (s, ); j = j (s, ) Equations of state
Total number of equations
Coupled
1
3
1
6
3
2
16
Uncoupled
1
3
6
10
Victor Saouma
Draft
719
Coupled
Density
1
Velocity (or displacement) vi (ui )
3
Stress components
Tij
6
Heat ux components
qi
3
Specic internal energy
u
1
Entropy density
s
1
Absolute temperature
1
Total number of unknowns
16
ds
dt
1 div
Uncoupled
1
3
6
10
q
Hence we now have as many equations as unknowns and are (almost) ready to pose
and solve problems in continuum mechanics.
96
Victor Saouma
Draft
720
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 8
INTERMEZZO
In light of the lengthy and rigorous derivation of the fundamental equations of Continuum
Mechanics in the preceding chapter, the reader may be at a loss as to what are the most
important ones to remember.
Hence, since the complexity of some of the derivation may have eclipsed the nal
results, this handout seeks to summarize the most fundamental relations which you should
always remember.
X3
X3
V3
33
t3
32
23
31
t2
13
X2
22
V1
X2
11
V2
X1
21
t1
12
Stress Vector/Tensor
Strain Tensor
ti = Tij nj
Eij =
Engineering Strain
Equilibrium
1 ui uj
uk uk
+
2 xj
xi
xi xj
(8.1a)
(8.1b)
11 21 12 12 13
1
= 2 12 22 12 23
1
1
33
2 13 2 23
23 sin 23 = sin(/2 ) = cos = 2E23
Tij
dvi
+ bi =
xj
dt
(8.1c)
(8.1d)
(8.1e)
Draft
82
INTERMEZZO
Boundary Conditions
Energy Potential
Hookes Law
Plane Stress
Plane Strain
Victor Saouma
= u + t
W
Tij =
Eij
Tij = ij Ekk + 2Eij
E E
xx
E
yy
E E1
zz
E
=
0
xy
0
0
yz
0
0
0
0
0
0
xz
zz = 0; zz = 0
zz = 0; zz = 0
(8.1f)
(8.1g)
0
0
0
1
G
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
G
0
0
1
G
(8.1h)
xx
yy
zz
xy
yz
xz
(8.1i)
(8.1j)
(8.1k)
Draft
Part II
ELASTICITY/SOLID
MECHANICS
Draft
Draft
Chapter 9
Preliminary Considerations
(9.1)
(9.2)
6 Geometric (kinematic) equations: i.e. Equations of geometry of deformation relating displacement to strain (6)
1
E = (ux + x u)
2
(9.3)
In addition to these equations which describe what is happening inside the body, we
must describe what is happening on the surface or boundary of the body. These extra
conditions are called boundary conditions.
22
9.2
23
Boundary Conditions
Draft
92
2. Not all boundary conditions specications are acceptable. For example we can not
apply tractions to the entire surface of the body. Unless those tractions are specially
prescribed, they may not necessarily satisfy equilibrium.
u
Figure 9.1: Boundary Conditions in Elasticity Problems
Displacement boundary conditions along u with the three components of ui prescribed on the boundary. The displacement is decomposed into its cartesian (or
curvilinear) components, i.e. ux , uy
Traction boundary conditions along t with the three traction components ti =
nj Tij prescribed at a boundary where the unit normal is n. The traction is decomposed into its normal and shear(s) components, i.e tn , ts .
Mixed boundary conditions where displacement boundary conditions are prescribed
on a part of the bounding surface, while traction boundary conditions are prescribed
on the remainder.
We note that at some points, traction may be specied in one direction, and displacement
at another. Displacement and tractions can never be specied at the same point in the
same direction.
Various terms have been associated with those boundary conditions in the litterature,
those are suumarized in Table 9.1.
26
Often time we take advantage of symmetry not only to simplify the problem, but also
to properly dene the appropriate boundary conditions, Fig. 9.2.
27
Victor Saouma
Draft
93
u, u
Dirichlet
Field Variable
Essential
Forced
Geometric
t, t
Neuman
Derivative(s) of Field Variable
Nonessential
Natural
Static
C
AB
BC
CD
DE
EA
u
ux uy
?
0
?
?
?
?
0
?
?
?
t
tn ts
?
0
0
0
0
?
0
0 0
Victor Saouma
Draft
94
9.3
28
(9.4)
(9.5)
(9.6)
(9.7)
(9.8)
Body Forces
Displacements
bi
ui
Equilibrium
Tij
xj
Kinematics
E =
i
+ bi = dv
dt
+ u)
1
(u
2
Stresses
Tij
Constitutive Rel.
T = IE + 2E
Strain
Eij
Natural B.C.
ti : t
9.4
Compacted Forms
29
Victor Saouma
Draft
95
unknows.
9.4.1
NavierCauchy Equations
One such approach is to substitute the displacementstrain relation into Hookes law
(resulting in stresses in terms of the gradient of the displacement), and the resulting
equation into the equation of motion to obtain three secondorder partial dierential
equations for the three displacement components known as Naviers Equation
30
2 uk
2 ui
2 ui
+
+ bi = 2
Xi Xk
Xk Xk
t
or
2u
( + )(u) + 2 u + b = 2
t
( + )
(9.9)
(9.10)
(9.11)
9.4.2
BeltramiMitchell Equations
Whereas NavierCauchy equation was expressed in terms of the gradient of the displacement, we can follow a similar approach and write a single equation in term of the
gradient of the tractions.
31
Tpp,ij =
ij (b) (bi,j + bj,i ) (9.12)
1+
1
or
1
Tpp,ij =
ij bp,p (bi,j + bj,i )
Tij,pp +
(9.13)
1+
1
2 Tij +
9.4.3
9.5
For the isotropic Hookes law, we saw that there always exist a strain energy function
W which is positivedenite, homogeneous quadratic function of the strains such that,
Eq. 7.20
W
(9.14)
Tij =
Eij
32
1
W = Tij Eij
2
(9.15)
The external work done by a body in equilibrium under body forces bi and surface
traction ti is equal to
bi ui d +
ti ui d. Substituting ti = Tij nj and applying
Victor Saouma
Tij nj uid =
(Tij ui ),j d =
(9.16)
Draft
96
but Tij ui,j = Tij (Eij + ij ) = Tij Eij and from equilibrium Tij,j = bi , thus
bi ui d +
ti uid =
bi ui d +
(Tij Eij bi ui )d
(9.17)
or
bi uid +
ti ui d = 2
External Work
Tij Eij
d
2
(9.18)
that is For an elastic system, the total strain energy is one half the work done by the
external forces acting through their displacements ui .
9.6
Because the equations of linear elasticity are linear equations, the principles of superposition may be used to obtain additional solutions from those established. Hence, given
(1)
(1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)
two sets of solution Tij , ui , and Tij , ui , then Tij = Tij Tij , and ui = ui ui
(2)
(1)
with bi = bi bi = 0 must also be a solution.
34
35
(1)
ti ui d = 2
(2)
= 0 on u , and ui = ui
u d but
(1)
ui
= 0 on
But u is positivedenite and continuous, thus the integral can vanish if and only if
u = 0 everywhere, and this is only possible if Eij = 0 everywhere so that
36
(2)
(1)
(2)
(9.19)
hence, there can not be two dierent stress and strain elds corresponding to the same
externally imposed body forces and boundary conditions1 and satisfying the linearized
elastostatic Eqs 9.1, 9.14 and 9.3.
9.7
This famous principle of Saint Venant was enunciated in 1855 and is of great importance in applied elasticity where it is often invoked to justify certain simplied
solutions to complex problem.
37
Victor Saouma
Draft
97
For instance the analysis of the problem in Fig. 9.4 can be greatly simplied if the
tractions on 1 are replaced by a concentrated statically equivalent force.
38
dx
t
F=tdx
9.8
Cylindrical Coordinates
So far all equations have been written in either vector, indicial, or engineering notation.
The last two were so far restricted to an othonormal cartesian coordinate system.
39
Victor Saouma
Draft
98
9.8.1
41
Strains
P*
ur
ux
(9.20a)
(9.20b)
substituting into the strain denition for xx (for small displacements) we obtain
ux
ux ux r
=
+
x
x
r x
u
ux
ur
=
cos ur sin
sin u cos
ur
u
ux
=
cos
sin
r
r
r
sin
=
x
r
r
= cos
x
sin
ur
u
xx =
cos + ur sin +
sin + u cos
r
u
ur
cos
sin cos
+
r
r
xx =
(9.21a)
(9.21b)
(9.21c)
(9.21d)
(9.21e)
(9.21f)
ur
r
(9.22)
Victor Saouma
(9.23)
Draft
99
+
2
r
r
r
43 In summary, and with the addition of the z components (not explicitely derived), we
obtain
ur
r
1 u ur
+
r
r
uz
z
1 1 ur u ut heta
+
2 r
r
r
1 u 1 uz
+
2 z
r
1 uz ur
+
2 r
z
rr =
=
zz =
r =
z =
rz =
9.8.2
(9.25)
(9.26)
(9.27)
(9.28)
(9.29)
(9.30)
Equilibrium
Whereas the equilibrium equation as given In Eq. 6.24 was obtained from the linear
momentum principle (without any reference to the notion of equilibrium of forces), its
derivation (as mentioned) could have been obtained by equilibrium of forces considerations. This is the approach which we will follow for the polar coordinate system with
respect to Fig. 9.7.
44
T
T + d
Trr
d
Tr
fr
Tr + Tr d r
r
Tr + Tr d
Tr r + Tr r d r
r
r
r+dr
Victor Saouma
Draft
910
Summation of forces parallel to the radial direction through the center of the element
with unit thickness in the z direction yields:
45
Trr
dr (r + dr)d Trr (rd)
r
T
d
+ T dr sin
T +
2
Tr
d
+ Tr +
d Tr dr cos
+ fr rdrd = 0
2
Trr +
(9.31a)
(9.31b)
T T d 1 Tr
+
+ fr = 0
r
dr r
(9.32)
Similarly we can take the summation of forces in the direction. In both cases if we
were to drop the dr/r and d/r in the limit, we obtain
46
Trr 1 Tr 1
+
+ (Trr T ) + fr = 0 (9.33)
r
r
r
Tr 1 T 1
+
+ (Tr Tr ) + f = 0 (9.34)
r
r
r
It is often necessary to express cartesian stresses in terms of polar stresses and vice
versa. This can be done through the following relationships
47
Txx Txy
Txy Tyy
cos sin
sin cos
Trr Tr
Tr T
cos sin
sin cos
(9.35)
yielding
Txx = Trr cos2 + T sin2 Tr sin 2
Tyy = Trr sin2 + T cos2 + Tr sin 2
Txy = (Trr T ) sin cos + Tr (cos2 sin2 )
(9.36a)
(9.36b)
(9.36c)
(recalling that sin2 = 1/2 sin 2, and cos2 = 1/2(1 + cos 2)).
9.8.3
StressStrain Relations
48
Trr
T
Tr
Tzz
Victor Saouma
=
=
=
=
e + 2rr
e + 2
2r
(Trr + T )
(9.37)
(9.38)
(9.39)
(9.40)
Draft
911
with e = rr + . alternatively,
1
(1 2 )Trr (1 + )T
E
1
=
(1 2 )T (1 + )Trr
E
1+
Tr
=
E
= Ez = Ezz = 0
Err =
(9.41)
(9.42)
Er
Erz
9.8.3.1
49
(9.43)
(9.44)
Plane Strain
rr
zz
E
(1 + )(1 2)
(1 )
(1 )
0
0
0
0
0
12
2
rr
(9.45)
and zz = rz = z = rz = z = 0.
50
Inverting,
rr
E
r
9.8.3.2
51
1 2
(1 + )
0
2
0
(1 + )
1
0
0
0
2(1 +
rr
zz
r
(9.46)
Plane Stress
rr
1 0
rr
E
1
0
=
1 2 0 0 1
r
r
2
1
(rr + )
zz =
1
(9.47a)
(9.47b)
and rz = z = zz = rz = z = 0
52
Inverting
rr
Victor Saouma
1
0
rr
1
1
0
0
0 2(1 + ) r
(9.48a)
Draft
912
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 10
20
21
10.1
SemiInverse Method
Often a solution to an elasticity problem may be obtained without seeking simulateneous solutions to the equations of motion, Hookes Law and boundary conditions. One
may attempt to seek solutions by making certain assumptions or guesses about the components of strain stress or displacement while leaving enough freedom in these assumptions so that the equations of elasticity be satised.
22
If the assumptions allow us to satisfy the elasticity equations, then by the uniqueness
theorem, we have succeeded in obtaining the solution to the problem.
23
This method was employed by SaintVenant in his treatment of the torsion problem,
hence it is often referred to as the SaintVenant semiinverse method.
24
10.1.1
Let us consider the elastic deformation of a cylindrical bar with circular cross section
of radius a and length L twisted by equal and opposite end moments M1 , Fig. 10.1.
25
(10.1)
or
u1 = 0;
u2 = x3 ;
u3 = x2
(10.2)
Draft
102
X2
MT
a
n
X3
X1
MT
L
Figure 10.1: Torsion of a Circular Bar
where = (x1 ).
27
28
(10.3a)
(10.3b)
(10.3c)
The non zero stress components are obtained from Hookes law
x1
= x2
x1
T12 = x3
(10.4a)
T13
(10.4b)
We need to check that this state of stress satises equilibrium Tij /xj = 0. The rst
one j = 1 is identically satised, whereas the other two yield
29
d2
= 0
dx21
d2
x2 2 = 0
dx1
x3
(10.5a)
(10.5b)
thus,
d
= constant
(10.6)
dx1
Physically, this means that equilibrium is only satised if the increment in angular rotation (twist per unit length) is a constant.
Victor Saouma
Draft
103
We next determine the corresponding surface tractions. On the lateral surface we have
a unit normal vector n = a1 (x2 e2 + x3 e3 ), therefore the surface traction on the lateral
surface is given by
30
x T
0 T12 T13
0
1
1 2 12
x
0
0
{t} = [T]{n} = T21 0
=
a T
a
0
0
x3
0
31
31
(10.7)
Substituting,
(x2 x3 + x2 x3 )e1 = 0
(10.8)
a
which is in agreement with the fact that the bar is twisted by end moments only, the
lateral surface is traction free.
t=
32
(10.9)
this distribution of surface traction on the end face gives rise to the following resultants
R1 =
T11 dA = 0
R2 =
T21 dA =
x3 dA = 0
(10.10b)
R3 =
T31 dA =
x2 dA = 0
(10.10c)
M1 =
(10.10a)
M2 = M3 = 0
(10.10d)
(10.10e)
We note that (x22 + x33 )2 dA is the polar moment of inertia of the cross section and
is equal to J = a4 /2, and we also note that x2 dA = x3 dA = 0 because the area is
symmetric with respect to the axes.
33
M
(10.11)
J
which implies that the shear modulus can be determined froma simple torsion experiment.
=
34
[T] = MJx3
M x2
J
MJx3
0
0
10.2
10.2.1
M x2
J
0
0
(10.12)
35
Victor Saouma
Draft
104
then the body is said to be in a state of plane strain. If e3 is the direction corresponding
to the cylindrical axis, then we have
u1 = u1 (x1 , x2 ),
u2 = u2 (x1 , x2 ),
u3 = 0
(10.13)
E11 =
(10.14a)
E22
(10.14b)
E12
E13
(10.14c)
(10.14d)
and the nonzero stress components are T11 , T12 , T22 , T33 where
T33 = (T11 + T22 )
(10.15)
Considering a static stress eld with no body forces, the equilibrium equations reduce
to:
36
T11 T12
+
= 0
x1
x2
T12 T22
+
= 0
x1
x2
T33
=0
x1
(10.16a)
(10.16b)
(10.16c)
we note that since T33 = T33 (x1 , x2 ), the last equation is always satised.
Hence, it can be easily veried that for any arbitrary scalar variable , if we compute
the stress components from
37
T11
T22
T12
2
=
x22
2
=
x21
2
=
x1 x2
(10.17)
(10.18)
(10.19)
then the rst two equations of equilibrium are automatically satised. This function
is called Airy stress function.
However, if stress components determined this way are statically admissible (i.e.
they satisfy equilibrium), they are not necessarily kinematically admissible (i.e. satisfy compatibility equations).
38
Victor Saouma
Draft
105
39
E11
E22
E12
2
1
1
2
2
2
=
(1 )T11 (1 + )T22 =
(1 ) 2 (1 + ) 2(10.20a)
E
E
x2
x1
2
1
1
2
=
(1 2 )T22 (1 + )T11 =
(1 2 ) 2 (1 + ) 2(10.20b)
E
E
x1
x2
2
1
1
(1 + )T12 = (1 + )
=
(10.20c)
E
E
x1 x2
For plane strain problems, the only compatibility equation, 4.159, that is not automatically satised is
2 E11 2 E22
2 E12
+
=
2
(10.21)
x22
x21
x1 x2
thus we obtain the following equation governing the scalar function
40
4
4
4
(1 )
+2 2 2 +
x41
x1 x2
x41
=0
(10.22)
or
4
4
4
+
2
+
= 0 or 4 = 0
x41
x21 x22
x41
(10.23)
Hence, any function which satises the preceding equation will satisfy both equilibrium
and kinematic and is thus an acceptable elasticity solution.
We can also obtain from the Hookes law, the compatibility equation 10.21, and the
equilibrium equations the following
41
2
2
+
(T11 + T22 ) = 0 or 2 (T11 + T22 ) = 0
x21 x22
(10.24)
Any polynomial of degree three or less in x and y satises the biharmonic equation
(Eq. 10.23). A systematic way of selecting coecients begins with
42
Cmn xm y n
(10.25)
m=0 n=0
43
Txx =
m=0 n=2
Tyy =
n(n 1)Cmn xm y n2
(10.26a)
(10.26b)
m=2 n=0
Txy =
mnCmn xm1 y n1
(10.26c)
m=1 n=1
Victor Saouma
Draft
106
44
m=2 n=2
(10.27)
but since the equation must be identically satised for all x and y, the term in bracket
must be equal to zero.
(m+2)(m+1)m(m1)Cm+2,n2 +2m(m1)n(n1)Cmn +(n+2)(n+1)n(n1)Cm2,n+2 = 0
(10.28)
Hence, the recursion relation establishes relationships among groups of three alternate
coecients which can be selected from
0
0
C20
C30
C40
C50
C60
0
C11
C21
C31
C41
C51
C02
C12
C22
C32
C42
C03
C13
C23
C33
C04
C14
C24
C05 C06
C15
(10.29)
(10.30)
(10.31)
(10.32a)
(10.32b)
(10.32c)
These can be used for the endloaded cantilever beam with width b along the z axis,
depth 2a and length L.
47
Victor Saouma
(10.33a)
(10.33b)
(10.33c)
Draft
107
This will give a parabolic shear traction on the loaded end (correct), but also a uniform
shear traction Txy = 3C13 a2 on top and bottom. These can be removed by superposing
uniform shear stress Txy = +3C13 a2 corresponding to 2 = 3C13 a2 xy. Thus
48
(10.34)
a
a
Txy dy = 3bC13
hence
C13 =
a
a
(a2 y 2)dy
P
4a3 b
(10.35)
(10.36)
=
Txx
Txy
Tyy
(10.37a)
(10.37b)
(10.37c)
(10.37d)
We observe that the second moment of area for the rectangular cross section is I =
b(2a)3 /12 = 2a3 b/3, hence this solution agrees with the elementary beam theory solution
50
P
3P
xy 3 xy 3
4ab
4a b
P
y
M
= xy = M =
I
I
S
P 2
= (a y 2 )
2I
= 0
= C11 xy + C13 xy 3 =
Txx
Txy
Tyy
10.2.2
Polar Coordinates
10.2.2.1
51
(10.38a)
(10.38b)
(10.38c)
(10.38d)
In polar coordinates, the strain components in plane strain are, Eq. 9.46
Victor Saouma
1
(1 2 )Trr (1 + )T
E
1
=
(1 2 )T (1 + )Trr
E
Err =
(10.39a)
(10.39b)
Draft
108
1+
Tr
E
= Ez = Ezz = 0
Er =
(10.39c)
Erz
(10.39d)
= 0
r r
r
r
1 Tr 1 T
+
= 0
r 2 r
r
52
(10.40a)
(10.40b)
Again, it can be easily veried that the equations of equilibrium are identically satised
if
1
1 2
+ 2 2
r r
r
2
=
r 2
1
=
r r
Trr =
(10.41)
(10.42)
Tr
(10.43)
In order to satisfy the compatibility conditions, the cartesian stress components must
also satisfy Eq. 10.24. To derive the equivalent expression in cylindrical coordinates, we
note that T11 + T22 is the rst scalar invariant of the stress tensor, therefore
53
1 2 2
1
+ 2 2 + 2
r r
r
r
(10.44)
We also note that in cylindrical coordinates, the Laplacian operator takes the following
form
1 2
2
1
+ 2 2
(10.45)
2 = 2 +
r
r r r
54
55
10.2.2.2
56
= 0 or 4 = 0
(10.46)
and
57
1
1 2
2
+
+
r 2 r r r 2 2
1 d
;
r dr
T =
d2
;
dr 2
Tr = 0
(10.47)
1 d2
1 d
d4 2 d3
+
+ 3
=0
4
3
2
2
dr
r dr
r dr
r dr
(10.48)
Victor Saouma
Draft
109
DSolve[phi[r]+2 phi[r]/rphi[r]/r^2+phi[r]/r^3==0,phi[r],r]
= A ln r + Br 2 ln r + Cr 2 + D
58
(10.49)
Trr =
(10.50)
(10.51)
Tr
(10.52)
+ (3 4 2 )B + 2(1 2 2 )B ln r + 2(1 2 2 )C
r
r
E
r2
= 0
Err =
(10
(10
Er
Finally, the displacement components can be obtained by integrating the above equations
59
1
(1 + )A
ur =
(10.56)
(10.57)
10.2.2.3
If we consider a circular cylinder with internal and external radii a and b respectively,
subjected to internal and external pressures pi and po respectively, Fig. 10.2, then the
boundary conditions for the plane strain problem are
60
Trr = pi at r = a
Trr = po at r = b
(10.58a)
(10.58b)
These Boundary conditions can be easily shown to be satised by the following stress
eld
61
(10.59a)
(10.59b)
Tr
Victor Saouma
A
+ 2C
r2
A
= 2 + 2C
r
= 0
Trr =
(10.59c)
(10
Draft
1010
Saint Venant
po
a
p
i
These equations are taken from Eq. 10.50, 10.51 and 10.52 with B = 0 and therefore
represent a possible state of stress for the plane strain problem.
We note that if we take B = 0, then u = 4rB
(1 2 ) and this is not acceptable
E
because if we were to start at = 0 and trace a curve around the origin and return to
the same point, than = 2 and the displacement would then be dierent.
62
63
p
0
(b2 /a2 ) 1
1 (a2 /b2 )
(b2 /r 2 ) + 1
1 + (a2 /r 2 )
p0
= pi 2 2
(b /a ) 1
1 (a2 /b2 )
= 0
Trr = pi
(10.60)
(10.61)
Tr
(10.62)
64 We note that if only the internal pressure pi is acting, then Trr is always a compressive
stress, and T is always positive.
If the cylinder is thick, then the strains are given by Eq. 10.53, 10.54 and 10.55. For
a very thin cylinder in the axial direction, then the strains will be given by
65
Victor Saouma
1
du
= (Trr T )
dr
E
1
u
= (T Trr )
=
r
E
Err =
(10.63a)
(10.63b)
Draft
1011
dw
= (Trr + T )
dz
E
(1 + )
Tr
=
E
Ezz =
(10.63c)
Er
(10.63d)
It should be noted that applying SaintVenants principle the above solution is only
valid away from the ends of the cylinder.
66
10.2.2.4
We consider next a hollow sphere with internal and xternal radii ai and ao respectively,
and subjected to internal and external pressures of pi and po , Fig. 10.3.
67
po
ao
With respect to the spherical ccordinates (r, , ), it is clear due to the spherical
symmetry of the geometry and the loading that each particle of the elastic sphere will
expereince only a radial displacement whose magnitude depends on r only, that is
68
ur = ur (r),
10.2.2.5
u = u = 0
(10.64)
Analysing the innite plate under uniform tension with a circular hole of diameter a,
and subjected to a uniform stress 0 , Fig. 10.4.
69
The peculiarity of this problem is that the fareld boundary conditions are better
expressed in cartesian coordinates, whereas the ones around the hole should be written
in polar coordinate system.
70
First we select a stress function which satises the biharmonic Equation (Eq. 10.23),
and the fareld boundary conditions. From St Venant principle, away from the hole,
the boundary conditions are given by:
71
Txx = 0 ;
Tyy = Txy = 0
(10.65)
Recalling (Eq. 10.19) that Txx = y2 , this would would suggest a stress function of
the form = 0 y 2 . Alternatively, the presence of the circular hole would suggest a polar
representation of . Thus, substituting y = r sin would result in = 0 r 2 sin2 .
Victor Saouma
Draft
1012
b
o
rr
rr
b
rr
b
II
72
Since sin2 = 12 (1 cos 2), we could simplify the stress function into
= f (r) cos 2
(10.66)
Substituting this function into the biharmonic equation (Eq. 10.46) yields
1 2
2
1
+
+
r 2 r r r 2 2
d2
1 d
+
dr 2 r dr
73
1 2
2 1
+
+
r 2
r r
r 2 2
4
4f
d2 f
1 df
+
r2
dr 2
r dr
r2
= 0
(10.67a)
= 0
(10.67b)
The general solution of this ordinary linear fourth order dierential equation is
1
+D
r2
(10.68)
1
+ D cos 2
r2
(10.69)
f (r) = Ar 2 + Br 4 + C
thus the stress function becomes
= Ar 2 + Br 4 + C
Trr =
(10.70a)
(10.70b)
Tr
(10.70c)
Next we seek to solve for the four constants of integration by applying the boundary
conditions. We will identify two sets of boundary conditions:
74
1. Outer boundaries: around an innitely large circle of radius b inside a plate subjected
to uniform stress 0 , the stresses in polar coordinates are obtained from Eq. 9.35
Trr Tr
Tr T
Victor Saouma
cos sin
sin cos
0 0
0 0
cos sin
sin cos
(10.71)
Draft
1013
yielding (recalling that sin2 = 1/2 sin 2, and cos2 = 1/2(1 + cos 2)).
1
(10.72a)
(Trr )r=b = 0 cos2 = 0 (1 + cos 2)
2
1
(Tr )r=b =
(10.72b)
0 sin 2
2
0
(T )r=b =
(1 cos 2)
(10.72c)
2
For reasons which will become apparent later, it is more convenient to decompose
the state of stress given by Eq. 10.72a and 10.72b, into state I and II:
1
0
(10.73a)
2
(Tr )Ir=b = 0
(10.73b)
1
(Trr )II
(10.73c)
0 cos 2
r=b =
2
1
(Tr )II
0 sin 2
(10.73d)
r=b =
2
Where state I corresponds to a thick cylinder with external pressure applied on
r = b and of magnitude 0 /2. This problem has already been previously solved.
Hence, only the last two equations will provide us with boundary conditions.
(Trr )Ir=b =
(10.74a)
(10.74b)
Upon substitution in Eq. 10.70a the four boundary conditions (Eq. 10.73c, 10.73d,
10.74a, and 10.74b) become
75
6C
b4
6C
2A + 6Bb2 4
b
6C
2A + 4
a
6C
2A + 6Ba2 4
a
2A +
76
0
;
4
B = 0;
4D
b2
2D
2
b
4D
+ 2
a
2D
2
a
+
a
b
1
0
2
1
=
0
2
=
(10.75a)
(10.75b)
= 0
(10.75c)
= 0
(10.75d)
C=
a4
0 ;
4
D=
a2
0
2
(10.76)
77
Victor Saouma
Draft
1014
stresses were derived in Eqs. 10.60 and 10.61 yielding for this problem (carefull about
the sign)
0
a2
1 2
2
r
0
a2
=
1+ 2
2
r
Trr =
(10.77a)
(10.77b)
Trr =
(10.78a)
(10.78b)
Tr
(10.78c)
78 We observe that as r , both Trr and Tr are equal to the values given in Eq.
10.72a and 10.72b respectively.
79
Victor Saouma
3
2
(10.79)
Draft
Chapter 11
THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF
PERFECT CRYSTALS
This chapter (taken from the authors lecture notes in Fracture Mechanics)
is of primary interest to students in Material Science.
11.1
Introduction
In Eq. ?? we showed that around a circular hole in an innite plate under uniform
traction, we do have a stress concentration factor of 3.
20
21
( )=0,
=0 = 0 1 + 2
a
b
(11.1)
We observe that for a = b, we recover the stress concentration factor of 3 of a circular hole,
and that for a degenerated ellipse, i.e a crack there is an innite stress. Alternatively,
x2
= o
2b
2a
Draft
112
Strength (P/A)
Theoretical Strength
Diameter
the stress can be expressed in terms of , the radius of curvature of the ellipse,
( )=0,
=0 = 0 1 + 2
(11.2)
From this equation, we note that the stress concentration factor is inversely proportional
to the radius of curvature of an opening.
This equation, derived by Inglis, shows that if a = b we recover the factor of 3, and
the stress concentration factor increase as the ratio a/b increases. In the limit, as b = 0
we would have a crack resulting in an innite stress concentration factor, or a stress
singularity.
22
Around 1920, Grith was exploring the theoretical strength of solids by performing a
series of experiments on glass rods of various diameters.
23
He observed that the tensile strength ( t ) of glass decreased with an increase in diam1
in., t = 500, 000 psi; furthermore, by extrapoeter, and that for a diameter 10,000
lation to zero diameter he obtained a theoretical maximum strength of approximately
1,600,000 psi, and on the other hand for very large diameters the asymptotic values was
around 25,000 psi.
24
(11.3)
Furthermore, as the diameter was further reduced, the failure strength asymptotically
approached a limit which will be shown later to be the theoretical strength of glass,
Fig. 11.2.
Clearly, one would have expected the failure strength to be constant, yet it was not.
So Grith was confronted with two questions:
25
Draft
113
The answers to those two questions are essential to establish a link between Mechanics
and Materials.
In the next sections we will show that the theoretical strength is related to the force
needed to break a bond linking adjacent atoms, and that the size eect is caused by the
size of imperfections inside a solid.
26
11.2
Theoretical Strength
We start, [?] by exploring the energy of interaction between two adjacent atoms at
equilibrium separated by a distance a0 , Fig. 11.3. The total energy which must be
supplied to separate atom C from C is
27
U0 = 2
(11.4)
where is the surface energy1 , and the factor of 2 is due to the fact that upon separation, we have two distinct surfaces.
11.2.1
We shall rst derive an expression for the ideal strength in terms of physical parameters,
and in the next section the strength will be expressed in terms of engineering ones.
28
, thus F = 0 at a = a0 ,
Solution I: Force being the derivative of energy, we have F = dU
da
Fig. 11.4, and is maximum at the inection point of the U0 a curve. Hence, the
slope of the force displacement curve is the stiness of the atomic spring and should
be related to E. If we let x = a a0 , then the strain would be equal to = ax0 .
1 From watching raindrops and bubbles it is obvious that liquid water has surface tension. When the surface of a liquid
is extended (soap bubble, insect walking on liquid) work is done against this tension, and energy is stored in the new
surface. When insects walk on water it sinks until the surface energy just balances the decrease in its potential energy. For
solids, the chemical bonds are stronger than for liquids, hence the surface energy is stronger. The reason why we do not
notice it is that solids are too rigid to be distorted by it. Surface energy is expressed in J/m2 and the surface energies
of water, most solids, and diamonds are approximately .077, 1.0, and 5.14 respectively.
Victor Saouma
Draft
114
Energy
Interatomic
Distance
Repulsion
Attraction
Force
Interatomic
Distance
Furthermore, if we dene the stress as = aF2 , then the curve will be as shown
0
in Fig. 11.5.
From this diagram, it would appear that the sine curve would be an adequate
approximation to this relationship. Hence,
x
theor
= max
(11.5)
sin 2
theor
would occur at x = 4 . The energy required to
and the maximum stress max
separate two atoms is thus given by the area under the sine curve, and from Eq.
11.4, we would have
x
dx
0
2x 2
theor
max [ cos (
)] 0
=
2
2 = U0 =
theor
max
sin 2
(11.6)
(11.7)
1
theor
2
max [ cos (
) + cos(0)]
=
2
2
2
=
theor
max
(11.8)
(11.9)
Also for very small displacements (small x) sin x x, thus Eq. 11.5 reduces to
theor
max
Ex
2x
a0
(11.10)
elliminating x,
theor
max
Victor Saouma
E
a0 2
(11.11)
Draft
115
E
a0
(11.12)
Solution II: For two layers of atoms a0 apart, the strain energy per unit area due to
(for linear elastic systems) is
U = 12 ao
= E
U=
2 ao
2E
(11.13)
If is the surface energy of the solid per unit area, then the total surface energy of
two new fracture surfaces is 2.
For our theoretical strength, U = 2
theor )2 a
(max
0
2E
theor
= 2 or max
=2
E
a0
Note that here we have assumed that the material obeys Hookes Law up to failure,
since this is seldom the case, we can simplify this approximation to:
theor
max
=
E
a0
(11.14)
theor
max
(11.15)
(11.16)
(11.17)
Draft
116
11.2.2
We note that the force to separate two atoms drops to zero when the distance between
them is a0 + a where a0 corresponds to the origin and a to 2 . Thus, if we take a = 2 or
= 2a, combined with Eq. 11.11 would yield
29
theor
max
30
Ea
a0
(11.18)
a theor
max
(11.19)
31
E
a0
(11.20)
However, since as a rst order approximation a a0 then the surface energy will be
Ea0
10
(11.21)
10
(11.22)
11.3
In his quest for an explanation of the size eect, Grith came across Ingliss paper,
and his strike of genius was to assume that strength is reduced due to the presence of
internal aws. Grith postulated that the theoretical strength can only be reached at
the point of highest stress concentration, and accordingly the fareld applied stress will
be much smaller.
32
33
(11.23)
act
.
is the stress at the tip of the ellipse which is caused by a (lower) far eld stress cr
a
1, for an ideal plate under tension with only one
Asssuming a0 and since 2 a0
single elliptical aw the strength may be obtained from
theor
act
max
= 2cr
Victor Saouma
a
a0
(11.24)
Draft
117
theor
act
max
= 2cr
E
a0
(11.25)
Micro
Macro
E
4a
(11.26)
=
=
E
4a
Ea0
10
act
cr
a
a0
E 2 ao
40 a
=
act =
= 2, 500 cr
E2
100,000
100 10
(11.27)
0
Thus if we set a aw size of 2a = 5, 000a0 in Ea
this is enough to lower the
10
E
theoretical fracture strength from 10 to a critical value of magnitude 100E10 , or a factor
of 100.
As an example
a
theor
act
max
= 2cr
ao
a
= 106 m = 1
ao
= 1
A = = 1010 m
theor
act
max
= 2cr
106
act
= 200cr
10
10
(11.28)
Therefore at failure
act
=
cr
theor
max
=
theor
max
200
E
10
Victor Saouma
act
cr
E
2, 000
E
2,000
30,000
2,000
(11.29)
= 15 ksi
Draft
118
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 12
BEAM THEORY
This chapter is adapted from the Authors lecture notes in Structural Analysis.
12.1
Introduction
In the preceding chapters we have focused on the behavior of a continuum, and the 15
equations and 15 variables we introduced, were all derived for an innitesimal element.
20
In practice, few problems can be solved analytically, and even with computer it is quite
dicult to view every object as a three dimensional one. That is why we introduced the
2D simplication (plane stress/strain), or 1D for axially symmetric problems. In the
preceding chapter we saw a few of those solutions.
21
Hence, to widen the scope of application of the fundamental theory developed previously, we could either resort to numerical methods (such as the nite dierence, nite
element, or boundary elements), or we could further simplify the problem.
22
Solid bodies, in general, have certain peculiar geometric features amenable to a reduction from three to fewer dimensions. If one dimension of the structural element1 under
consideration is much greater or smaller than the other three, than we have a beam, or
a plate respectively. If the plate is curved, then we have a shell.
23
24
Hence, this chapter will focus on a brief introduction to beam theory. This will however
be preceded by an introduction to Statics as the internal forces would also have to be in
equilibrium with the external ones.
25
Beam theory is perhaps the most successful theory in all of structural mechanics, and
it forms the basis of structural analysis which is so dear to Civil and Mechanical
engineers.
26
1 So
far we have restricted ourselves to a continuum, in this chapter we will consider a structural element.
Draft
122
BEAM THEORY
12.2
Statics
12.2.1
Equilibrium
27
28
29
Fx = Fy = Fz = 0
Mx = My = Mz = 0
(12.1)
30
(12.2)
Fx = Fy = Mz = 0
31
For reaction calculations, the externally applied load may be reduced to an equivalent
force3 .
32
33
Summation of the moments can be taken with respect to any arbitrary point.
Whereas forces are represented by a vector, moments are also vectorial quantities and
are represented by a curved arrow or a double arrow vector.
34
35
Equations
Fx
Fy
Fy
Mz
Mz
Fz
Fx
Fy
Fz
Alternate Set
MzA MzB
Fx
MzA MzB
A
Mz
MzB MzC
Mx
Mx
My
My
Mz
2 In
3 However
Victor Saouma
Draft
12.2 Statics
123
37
38
If your reaction is negative, then it will be in a direction opposite from the one assumed.
Summation of external forces is equal and opposite to the internal ones (more about
this below). Thus the net force/moment is equal to zero.
39
40
The external forces give rise to the (nonzero) shear and moment diagram.
12.2.2
41
Reactions
Once the reactions are determined, internal forces (shear and moment) are determined
next; nally, internal stresses and/or deformations (deections and rotations) are determined last.
42
Depending on the type of structures, there can be dierent types of support conditions,
Fig. 12.1.
43
Draft
124
BEAM THEORY
Equations of Conditions
If a structure has an internal hinge (which may connect two or more substructures),
then this will provide an additional equation (M = 0 at the hinge) which can be
exploited to determine the reactions.
44
Those equations are often exploited in trusses (where each connection is a hinge) to
determine reactions.
45
In an inclined roller support with Sx and Sy horizontal and vertical projection, then
the reaction R would have, Fig. 12.2.
46
Rx
Sy
=
Ry
Sx
(12.3)
12.2.4
Static Determinacy
47
If the reactions can not be determined simply from the equations of static equilibrium
(and equations of conditions if present), then the reactions of the structure are said to
be statically indeterminate.
48
49 The degree of static indeterminacy is equal to the dierence between the number
of reactions and the number of equations of equilibrium (plus the number of equations
of conditions if applicable), Fig. 12.3.
Failure of one support in a statically determinate system results in the collapse of the
structures. Thus a statically indeterminate structure is safer than a statically determinate one.
50
For statically indeterminate structures, reactions depend also on the material properties (e.g. Youngs and/or shear modulus) and element cross sections (e.g. length, area,
moment of inertia).
51
Victor Saouma
Draft
12.2 Statics
125
12.2.5
Geometric Instability
The stability of a structure is determined not only by the number of reactions but also
by their arrangement.
52
53
54
12.2.6
Examples
Victor Saouma
Draft
126
BEAM THEORY
Solution:
The beam has 3 reactions, we have 3 equations of static equilibrium, hence it is statically
determinate.
(+ ) Fx = 0; Rax 36 k = 0
(+ ) Fy = 0; Ray + Rdy 60 k (4) k/ft(12) ft = 0
(+ ) Mzc = 0; 12Ray 6Rdy (60)(6) = 0
or through matrix inversion (on your calculator)
1 0 0
36
Rax
36 k
Rax
1
Ray
= 108 Ray
= 56 k
0 1
52 k
0 12 6 Rdy 360
dy
12.3
12.3.1
55
k
k
Before we derive the ShearMoment relations, let us arbitrarily dene a sign convention.
The sign convention adopted here, is the one commonly used for design purposes4 .
With reference to Fig. 12.5
56
Load Positive along the beams local y axis (assuming a right hand side convention),
that is positive upward.
Axial: tension positive.
4 Note
that this sign convention is the opposite of the one commonly used in Europe!
Victor Saouma
Draft
127
Flexure A positive moment is one which causes tension in the lower bers, and compression in the upper ones. For frame members, a positive moment is one which
causes tension along the inner side.
Shear A positive shear force is one which is up on a negative face, or down on
a positive one. Alternatively, a pair of positive shear forces will cause clockwise
rotation.
12.3.2
Let us derive the basic relations between load, shear and moment. Considering an
innitesimal length dx of a beam subjected to a positive load5 w(x), Fig. 12.6. The
57
58
Since dx is innitesimally small, the small variation in load along it can be neglected,
therefore we assume w(x) to be constant along dx.
59
60 To denote that a small change in shear and moment occurs over the length dx of the
element, we add the dierential quantities dVx and dMx to Vx and Mx on the right face.
5 In
this derivation, as in all other ones we should assume all quantities to be positive.
Victor Saouma
Draft
128
61
BEAM THEORY
or
dV
= w(x)
dx
(12.4)
The slope of the shear curve at any point along the axis of a member
is given by the load curve at that point.
62
Similarly
(+ ) Mo = 0 Mx + Vx dx wx dx
dx
(Mx + dMx ) = 0
2
(12.5)
The slope of the moment curve at any point along the axis of a
member is given by the shear at that point.
63
w(x)dx
(12.6)
x2
w(x)dx (12.7)
x1
The change in shear between 1 and 2, V21 , is equal to the area under
the load between x1 and x2 .
and
M =
V (x)dx
M21 = M2 M1 =
(12.8)
x2
V (x)dx (12.9)
x1
Note that we still need to have V1 and M1 in order to obtain V2 and M2 respectively.
It can be shown that the equilibrium of forces and of moments equations are nothing
T
i
and moment of
else than the three dimensional linear momentum xijj + bi = dv
dt
d
(rt)dS +
(rb)dV =
(rv)dV equations satised on the
momentum
dt V
S
V
average over the cross section.
65
Victor Saouma
Draft
12.3.3
129
Examples
Solution:
The free body diagram is drawn below
Victor Saouma
Draft
1210
BEAM THEORY
12.4
Beam Theory
12.4.1
Fig.12.7 shows portion of an originally straight beam which has been bent to the
radius by end couples M. support conditions, Fig. 12.1. It is assumed that plane
crosssections normal to the length of the unbent beam remain plane after
the beam is bent.
66
Except for the neutral surface all other longitudinal bers either lengthen or shorten,
thereby creating a longitudinal strain x . Considering a segment EF of length dx at a
distance y from the neutral axis, its original length is
67
EF = dx = d
and
d =
68
(12.10)
dx
(12.11)
Victor Saouma
dx
(12.12)
Draft
1211
O
+ve Curvature, +ve bending
d
ve Curvature, ve Bending
Neutral Axis
F
Y
dA
dx
x =
=
EF
dx
(12.13)
or after simplication
x =
(12.14)
where y is measured from the axis of rotation (neutral axis). Thus strains are proportional
to the distance from the neutral axis.
(Greek letter rho) is the radius of curvature. In some textbook, the curvature
(Greek letter kappa) is also used where
69
(12.15)
thus,
x = y
(12.16)
It should be noted that Galileo (15641642) was the rst one to have made a contribution to beam theory, yet he failed to make the right assumption for the planar cross
section. This crucial assumption was made later on by Jacob Bernoulli (16541705), who
did not make it quite right. Later Leonhard Euler (17071783) made signicant contributions to the theory of beam deection, and nally it was Navier (17851836) who claried
the issue of the kinematic hypothesis.
70
Victor Saouma
Draft
1212
12.4.2
BEAM THEORY
StressStrain Relations
So far we considered the kinematic of the beam, yet later on we will need to consider
equilibrium in terms of the stresses. Hence we need to relate strain to stress.
71
72
x = Ex
where E is Youngs Modulus.
73
12.4.3
(12.18)
Just as external forces acting on a structure must be in equilibrium, the internal forces
must also satisfy the equilibrium equations.
74
The internal forces are determined by slicing the beam. The internal forces on the
cut section must be in equilibrium with the external forces.
75
12.4.3.1
76
Fx = 0; Neutral Axis
Since there are no external axial forces (unlike a column or a beamcolumn), the
internal axial forces must be in equilibrium.
77
Fx = 0
x dA = 0
(12.19)
x dA =
EydA = 0
(12.20a)
But since the curvature and the modulus of elasticity E are constants, we conclude
that
ydA = 0
(12.21)
or the rst moment of the cross section with respect to the z axis is zero. Hence we
conclude that the neutral axis passes through the centroid of the cross section.
Victor Saouma
Draft
1213
M = 0; Moment of Inertia
The second equation of internal equilibrium which must be satised is the summation
of moments. However contrarily to the summation of axial forces, we now have an
external moment to account for, the one from the moment diagram at that particular
location where the beam was sliced, hence
78
Mz = 0; +ve; M =
Ext.
x ydA
(12.22)
Int.
x ydA
x = Ey
80
y 2dA
M = E
(12.23)
We now pause and dene the section moment of inertia with respect to the z axis as
def
I =
y 2dA
(12.24)
I
c
(12.25)
S =
12.4.4
Beam Formula
We now have the ingredients in place to derive one of the most important equations
in structures, the beam formula. This formula will be extensively used for design of
structural components.
81
82
M = E
A
y 2dA
y dA
I =
EI
==
(12.26)
which shows that the curvature of the longitudinal axis of a beam is proportional to the
bending moment M and inversely proportional to EI which we call exural rigidity.
83
x = MI y
(12.27)
Hence, for a positive y (above neutral axis), and a positive moment, we will have compressive stresses above the neutral axis.
Victor Saouma
Draft
1214
BEAM THEORY
Alternatively, the maximum ber stresses can be obtained by combining the preceding
equation with Equation 12.25
M
(12.28)
x =
S
84
12.4.5
12.4.6
Example
0.25
20
Solution:
1. Steel has E = 29, 000 ksi, and from above Mmax =
wL2
,
8
max =
wL4
,
185EI
and I = r 3 t.
(12.29)
max =
I = r t
=
=
=
wL4
185Er 3 t
(1) k/ft(20)4 ft4 (12)3 in3 / ft3
(185)(29,000) ksi(3.14)r 3 (0.25) in
65.65
r3
(12.30)
=
=
M
r 2 t
(50) k.ft(12) in/ft
(3.14)r 2 (0.25) in
764
r2
(12.31)
764
r=
r2
764
= 6.51
18
in
65.65
= 4.61
(12.32a)
in
0.67
(12.32b)
Draft
Victor Saouma
1215
Draft
1216
Victor Saouma
BEAM THEORY
Draft
Chapter 13
VARIATIONAL METHODS
Abridged section from authors lecture notes in finite elements.
Variational methods provide a powerful method to solve complex problems in continuum mechanics (and other elds as well).
20
Since only few problems in continuum mechanics can be solved analytically, we often
have to use numerical techniques, Finite Elements being one of the most powerful and
exible one.
22
At the core of the nite element formulation are the variational formulations (or energy
based methods) which will be discussed in this chapter.
23
For illustrative examples, we shall use beams, but the methods is obviously applicable
to 3D continuum.
24
13.1
25
Preliminary Denitions
def
F.ds
(13.1a)
dW
26
= Fx dx + Fy dy
(13.1b)
The change in energy is proportional to the amount of work performed. Since only the
change of energy is involved, any datum can be used as a basis for measure of energy.
Hence energy is neither created nor consumed.
27
28
Draft
132
VARIATIONAL METHODS
U0
A
U0
A
U0
A
Nonlinear
U0
A
Linear
The timerate of change of the total energy (i.e., sum of the kinetic energy and
the internal energy) is equal to the sum of the rate of work done by the external
forces and the change of heat content per unit time:
d
(K
dt
+ U) = We + H
(13.2)
where K is the kinetic energy, U the internal strain energy, W the external work, and H
the heat input to the system.
For an adiabatic system (no heat exchange) and if loads are applied in a quasi static
manner (no kinetic energy), the above relation simplies to:
29
We = U
13.1.1
30
The strain energy density of an arbitrary material is dened as, Fig. 13.1
def
U0 =
31
:d
(13.4)
def
32
(13.3)
:d
(13.5)
def
U =
def
Victor Saouma
U0 d
(13.6)
U0 d (13.7)
Introduction to Continuum Mechanics
Draft
133
To obtain a general form of the internal strain energy, we rst dene a stressstrain
relationship accounting for both initial strains and stresses
33
= D:( 0 ) + 0
(13.8)
where D is the constitutive matrix (Hookes Law); is the strain vector due to the
displacements u; 0 is the initial strain vector; 0 is the initial stress vector; and is the
stress vector.
The initial strains and stresses are the result of conditions such as heating or cooling
of a system or the presence of pore pressures in a system.
34
35
(13.9)
1
2
T :D:d
T :D:0 d +
T : 0 d
(13.10)
36
U=
37
1
2
(13.11)
E d
When this relation is applied to various one dimensional structural elements it leads
to
Axial Members:
d
2
U=
= PA
P
= AE
d = Adx
U=
1
2
U=
1
2
P2
dx
0 AE
(13.12)
M2
dx
0 EIz
(13.13)
Flexural Members:
U=
1
2
Mz y
x = Iz
zy
= M
EIz
d = dAdx
A
Victor Saouma
y 2 dA = Iz
Draft
134
13.1.2
38
VARIATIONAL METHODS
External Work
We =
uT bd +
uT td
(13.14)
where b is the body force vector; t is the applied surface traction vector; and t is that
portion of the boundary where t is applied, and u is the displacement.
39
We =
40
P d +
(13.15)
Md
P = K
We =
P d
We = K
1
d = K2f
2
(13.16)
(13.17)
13.1.3
(13.18)
Virtual Work
42 We dene the virtual work done by the load on a body during a small, admissible
(continuous and satisfying the boundary conditions) change in displacements.
def
:d
(13.19)
tud +
t
bud (13.20)
where all the terms have been previously dened and b is the body force vector.
Note that the virtual quantity (displacement or force) is one that we will approximate/guess as long as it meets some admissibility requirements.
43
Victor Saouma
Draft
135
Next we shall derive a displacement based expression of U for each type of one dimensional structural member. It should be noted that the Virtual Force method would
yield analogous ones but based on forces rather than displacements.
44
Two sets of solutions will be given, the rst one is independent of the material stress
strain relations, and the other assumes a linear elastic stress strain relation.
45
Elastic Systems In this set of formulation, we derive expressions of the virtual strain
energies which are independent of the material constitutive laws. Thus U will be
left in terms of forces and displacements.
Axial Members:
U =
d = Adx
U = A
dx
(13.21)
Flexural Members:
U =
x x d
M
=
y
A
y =
=
y
x ydA
M=
d =
L
0
x dA
dAdx
A
U =
Mdx
(13.22)
U = d
du
x = Ex = E dx
= d(u)
dx
U =
du d(u)
Adx
dx dx
d = Adx
(13.23)
Flexural Members:
U =
x =
M=
x x d
My
Iz
d2 v
EIz
dx2
x = Ex =
d = dAdx
x =
d2 v
Ey
dx2
d2 (v)
y
dx2
or:
Eq. 13.24
Victor Saouma
U =
U =
y dA = Iz
2
L
0
d2 v
d2 (v)
Ey
ydAdx
dx2
A dx2
EIz
d2 v d2 (v)
dx
dx2 dx2
(13.24)
(13.25)
Draft
136
13.1.3.2
46
VARIATIONAL METHODS
qdx +
(i )Pi +
(13.26)
(i )Mi
We dene the complementary virtual work done by the load on a body during a small,
admissible (continuous and satisfying the boundary conditions) change in displacements.
47
def
13.1.5
48
:d (13.27)
td
u
(13.28)
Potential Energy
We =
uT bd +
uT td + uP
(13.29)
where u are the displacements, b is the body force vector; t is the applied surface traction
vector; t is that portion of the boundary where t is applied, and P are the applied nodal
forces.
Note that the potential of the external work (W) is dierent from the external work
itself (W )
49
50
= U We
=
U0 d
(13.30)
utd + uP
ubd +
(13.31)
Note that in the potential the full load is always acting, and through the displacements
of its points of application it does work but loses an equivalent amount of potential, this
explains the negative sign.
51
13.2
The principles of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work relate force systems
which satisfy the requirements of equilibrium, and deformation systems which satisfy the
52
Victor Saouma
Draft
137
requirement of compatibility:
1. In any application the force system could either be the actual set of external loads dp
or some virtual force system which happens to satisfy the condition of equilibrium
p. This set of external forces will induce internal actual forces d or internal
hypothetical forces compatible with the externally applied load.
2. Similarly the deformation could consist of either the actual joint deections du and
compatible internal deformations d of the structure, or some hypothetical external
and internal deformation u and which satisfy the conditions of compatibility.
53
Thus we may have 2 possible combinations, Table 13.1: where: d corresponds to the
1
2
Force
External Internal
p
dp
d
Deformation
External Internal
du
d
u
Formulation
U
U
Derivation of the principle of virtual work starts with the assumption of that forces
are in equilibrium and satisfaction of the static boundary conditions.
54
55
(13.32)
(13.33)
where b representing the body force. In matrix form, this can be rewritten as
xx
yy
xy
bx
by
=0
(13.34)
or
LT + b = 0
(13.35)
= t + u
t = t on t Natural B.C.
on u Essential B.C.
u = u
Victor Saouma
(13.36a)
(13.36b)
(13.36c)
Draft
138
VARIATIONAL METHODS
Figure 13.2: Tapered Cantilivered Beam Analysed by the Vitual Displacement Method
57
T :d
uT bd
Wi
uT td
(13.37)
= L:u
u = 0
in
on
(13.38)
(13.39)
We
Note that the principle is independent of material properties, and that the primary
unknowns are the displacements.
58
x
v2
2l
x 2
x
3
2
L
L
1 cos
(13.40)
3
v2
(13.41)
Draft
139
2. These equations do indeed satisfy the essential B.C. (i.e kinematic), but for them
to also satisfy equilibrium they must satisfy the principle of virtual work.
3. Using the virtual displacement method we evaluate the displacements v2 from three
dierent combination of virtual and actual displacement:
Solution
Total
Virtual
1
Eqn. 13.40 Eqn. 13.41
2
Eqn. 13.40 Eqn. 13.40
3
Eqn. 13.41 Eqn. 13.41
Where actual and virtual values for the two assumed displacement elds are given
below.
Trigonometric (Eqn. 13.40) Polynomial (Eqn. 13.41)
v
1 cos x
v2
2l
1 cos x
v2
2l
2
cos x
v
4L2
2l 2
2
cos x
v2
4L2
2l
v
v
U =
x
L
x
L
2
2
2
2
x
L
x
L
6
12x
L2
L3
6
12x
L3
L2
L
0
3
3
v2
v2
v2
v2
v EIz v dx
W = P2 v2
(13.42)
(13.43)
Solution 1:
12x
x
2
x
6
cos
v2
3 v2 EI1 1
dx
2
2
2l
L
L
2L
0 4L
3EI1
10 16
+ 2 v2 v2
=
1
3
2L
= P2 v2
U =
(13.44)
which yields:
v2 =
P2 L3
2.648EI1
(13.45)
Solution 2:
4
x
2 x
cos
v
v
EI
1
dx
2
2
1
2l
2l
0 16L4
4 EI1 3
1
=
+ 2 v2 v2
3
32L
4
= P2 v2
U =
(13.46)
which yields:
v2 =
Victor Saouma
P2 L3
2.57EI1
(13.47)
Draft
1310
VARIATIONAL METHODS
Solution 3:
U =
12x
6
L2
L3
L
0
x
EI1 v2 v2 dx
2l
9EI
=
v2 v2
L3
= P2 v2
(13.48)
which yields:
v2 =
13.2.2
P2 L3
9EI
(13.49)
Derivation of the principle of complementary virtual work starts from the assumption
of a kinematicaly admissible displacements and satisfaction of the essential boundary
conditions.
59
Whereas we have previously used the vector notation for the principle of virtual work,
we will now use the tensor notation for this derivation.
60
61
62
1
(ui,j + uj,i)
2
(13.50)
(13.51)
The principle of virtual complementary work (or more specically of virtual force)
which can be stated as
63
ij ij d
Wi
ui ti d
(13.52)
in
on
(13.53)
(13.54)
We
ij,j = 0
ti = 0
Note that the principle is independent of material properties, and that the primary
unknowns are the stresses.
64
Victor Saouma
Draft
1311
Figure 13.3: Tapered Cantilevered Beam Analysed by the Virtual Force Method
65
Expressions for the complimentary virtual work in beams are given in Table 13.3
Example 132: Tapered Cantilivered Beam; Virtual Force
Exact solution of previous problem using principle of virtual work with virtual force.
L
M
dx =
EIz
Internal
P
External
(13.55)
Note: This represents the internal virtual strain energy and external virtual work
written in terms of forces and should be compared with the similar expression derived in
Eq. 13.25 written in terms of displacements:
U =
L
0
EIz
d2 v d2 (v)
dx
dx2 dx2
(13.56)
M
Here: M and P are the virtual forces, and EI
and are the actual displacements.
z
See Fig. 13.3 If P = 1, then M = x and M = P2 x or:
L
P2 x
x dx
0 EI1 (.5 + L )
P2 L x2
dx
=
EI1 0 L+x
2l
P2 2L L x2
dx
=
EI1 0 L + x
(1) =
(13.57)
(13.58)
2P2 L 1
(L + x)2 2L(L + x) + L2 ln(L + x) L0
EI1 2
Introduction to Continuum Mechanics
Draft
1312
VARIATIONAL METHODS
2P2 L
L2
2L2 4L2 + L2 ln 2L
+ 2L2 + L2 log L
EI1
2
2P2 L 2
1
=
L (ln 2 )
EI1
2
3
P2 L
=
2.5887EI1
=
(13.59)
Similarly:
=
L
0
M(1)
EI1 .5 +
1
2ML
ln(L + x) L0
=
EI1
0 L+x
2ML
EI1
2ML
2ML
ML
(ln 2L ln L) =
ln 2 =
EI1
EI1
.721EI1
13.3
Potential Energy
13.3.1
Derivation
66
x
L
67
(13.60)
(13.61a)
(13.61b)
ij
0
ij dij
dU0 = ij dij
(13.62a)
(13.62b)
thus,
U0
= ij
ij
U0
= ij
ij
68
(13.64)
69
(13.63)
U
ij = ij ij
ij
(13.65)
Applying the principle of virtual work, Eq. 13.37, it can be shown that
1 Note
U =
that the variation of strain energy density is, U0 = ij ij , and the variation of the strain energy itself is
U
0 d.
Victor Saouma
Draft
1313
k= 500 lbf/in
= 0
(13.66)
def
= U We
=
70
(13.67)
U0 d
utd + uP
ubd +
(13.68)
We have thus derived the principle of stationary value of the potential energy:
Of all kinematically admissible deformations (displacements satisfying the essential boundary conditions), the actual deformations (those which correspond
to stresses which satisfy equilibrium) are the ones for which the total potential
energy assumes a stationary value.
71
For problems involving multiple degrees of freedom, it results from calculus that
=
1 +
2 + . . . +
n
1
2
n
(13.69)
It can be shown that the minimum potential energy yields a lower bound prediction of
displacements.
72
As an illustrative example (adapted from Willam, 1987), let us consider the single dof
system shown in Fig. 13.4. The strain energy U and potential of the external work W
are given by
73
1
u(Ku) = 250u2
2
= mgu = 100u
U =
We
(13.70a)
(13.70b)
(13.71)
Draft
1314
VARIATIONAL METHODS
Energy [lbfin]
20.0
0.0
20.0
40.0
0.00
0.10
0.20
Displacement [in]
0.30
d
= 0 500u 100 = 0 u = 0.2 in
du
(13.72)
(13.73)
RayleighRitz Method
Continuous systems have innite number of degrees of freedom, those are the displacements at every point within the structure. Their behavior can be described by the
Euler Equation, or the partial dierential equation of equilibrium. However, only the
simplest problems have an exact solution which (satises equilibrium, and the boundary
conditions).
74
u1
u2
n
i=1
n
c1i 1i + 10
(13.74a)
c2i 2i + 20
(13.74b)
i=1
Victor Saouma
Draft
1315
u3
c3i 3i + 30
(13.74c)
i=1
where cji denote undetermined parameters, and are appropriate functions of positions.
76
(u1 , u2 , u3) =
i=1
1 2 3
c +
c +
c = 0
c1i i c2i i c3i i
(13.75)
for arbitrary and independent variations of c1i , c2i , and c3i , thus it follows that
=0
cji
i = 1, 2, , n; j = 1, 2, 3
(13.76)
Victor Saouma
Draft
1316
VARIATIONAL METHODS
Figure 13.6: Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam Analyzed by the RayleighRitz Method
(13.77)
for this particular solution, let us retain only the rst term:
v = a1 x(L x)
(13.78)
We observe that:
1. Contrarily to the previous example problem the geometric B.C. are immediately
satised at both x = 0 and x = L.
Victor Saouma
M2
dx
o 2EIz
L
vmax
wv(x)dx
= 0.
(13.79)
Draft
13.4 Summary
Recalling that:
1317
M
EIz
d2 v
,
dx2
L
0
EIz
2
dv
dx2
wv(x) dx
(13.80)
EIz
(2a1 )2 a1 wx(L x) dx
2
0
L3
L3
EIz 2
4a1 L a1 w
+ a1 w
=
2
2
3
3
wL
a
1
= 2a21 EIz L
6
=
If we now take
a1
(13.81)
= 0, we would obtain:
4a1 EIz l
wL3
= 0
6
a1 =
wL2
24EIz
(13.82)
wL4
24EIz
L
:
2
x2
x
2
L L
a1
wL4
96EIz
(13.83)
4
5 wL
wL
exact
= 384
= 76.8EI
which constitutes
This is to be compared with the exact value of vmax
EIz
z
17% error.
wL2
& a2 =
Note: If two terms were retained, then we would have obtained: a1 = 24EI
z
w
exact
and vmax would be equal to vmax . (Why?)
24EIz
13.4
79
Summary
Starts with
KAD
SAS
Ends with
SAS
KAD
In terms of virtual
Displacement/strains
Forces/Stresses
Solve for
Displacement
Displacement
80
A summary of the various methods introduced in this chapter is shown in Fig. 13.7.
Victor Saouma
Draft
1318
VARIATIONAL METHODS
+ b = 0
D:u = 0
u = 0 u
t t = 0 t
def
U0 =
Natural B.C.
Essential B.C.
ij
1
2
(ui,j + uj,i ) = 0
u i u = 0 u
def
U0 =
:d
ij,j = 0
ti = 0 t
Gauss
Gauss
T
T
u bd t u td = 0
Wi We = 0
Principle of Complementary
Virtual Work
ij
ij d u ui ti d = 0
Wi We = 0
Principle of Stationary
Potential Energy
= 0
def
= U We
U
d
( ui bi d +
0
ui ti d)
RayleighRitz
n
cji ji + j0
uj
i=1
cji
=0
i = 1, 2, , n;
j = 1, 2, 3
Victor Saouma
Draft
13.4 Summary
1319
Principle of Stationary
Complementary Energy
Principle of Complementary
Principle of Stationary
Potential Energy
Virtual Work
The duality between the two variational principles is highlighted by Fig. 13.8, where
beginning with kinematically admissible displacements, the principle of virtual work provides statically admissible solutions. Similarly, for statically admissible stresses, the
principle of complementary virtual work leads to kinematically admissible solutions.
81
Finally, Table 13.3 summarizes some of the major equations associated with one dimensional rod elements.
82
Victor Saouma
Draft
1320
VARIATIONAL METHODS
U
Axial
Flexure
1
2
1
2
P2
dx
AE
M
dx
EIz
Virtual Displacement U
General
Linear
L
L
du d(u)
dx
E
Adx
dx dx
0
0
L
M dx
0
d v d (v)
EIz 2
dx
dx dx2
W
i 21 Pi i
i 21 Mi i
P
M
M dx
0
Virtual Displacement W
i Pi i
i Mi i
w(x)v(x)dx
0
Virtual Force U
General
Linear
L
L
P
dx
P
dx
AE
0
0
Virtual Force W
i Pi i
i Mi i
w(x)v(x)dx
0
M
M
dx
EIz
w(x)v(x)dx
0
Table 13.3: Summary of Variational Terms Associated with One Dimensional Elements
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 14
INELASTICITY (incomplete)
F
t
Creep
t
Relaxation
Draft
2
INELASTICITY (incomplete)
Strain Hardening
Relaxation
Creep
Creep
Creep
Perfectly Elastic
Relaxation
Viscoelastic
Relaxation
Elastoplastic Hardeing
Draft
E
0
E
E1
Ei
En
Linear Elasticity
Linear Visosity
.
=
Nonlinear Viscosity
Stress Threshold
. 1/N
Strain Threshold
s < < s
s< < s
0
Figure 14.7: epp
Victor Saouma
Draft
4
INELASTICITY (incomplete)
pi
Si
Ei
Sj
Ej
Em
Victor Saouma
Draft
Appendix A
w L
R
R
L / 2
L / 2
= V
Vx
= w
at center Mmax =
Shear
M max.
Mx
max
Moment
L
x
2
wL2
8
wx
(L x)
2
5 wL4
384
wx EI 3
(L 2Lx2 + x3 )
24EI
Draft
A2
R1 = V1 =
R2 = V2 =
Max
Vx
at x = .577L Mmax
=
=
Mx
at x = .5193L max
x
=
=
W
3
2W
3
W x2
W
2
3
L
.1283W L
Wx 2
(L x2 )
2
3L
W L3
.01304
EI
W x3
(3x4 10L2 x2 + 7L4 )
2
180EIL
for x <
L
2
R=V
Vx
at center Mmax
for x <
L
2
Mx
for x <
L
2
max
W
2
W
(L2 4x2 )
2
2L
WL
6
1 2 x2
Wx
2 3 L2
Wx
(5L2 4x2 )2
2
480EIL
W L3
60EI
=
=
=
when a + b < x Mx
at x = a +
R1
w
Mmax
wb
(2c + b)
2L
wb
(2a + b)
2L
R1 w(x a)
R1 x
w
R1 x (x a)2
2
R2 (L x)
R1
R1 a +
2w
Victor Saouma
Draft
A3
max
R1 = V1 =
R=V
at x =
L
2
Mmax
when x <
L
2
Mx
whenx <
L
2
at x =
L
2
max
wa
(2L a)
2L
2P
PL
4
Px
2
Px
(3L2 4x2 )
48EI
P L3
48EI
at x =
when x < a Mx
at x = a a
when x < a x
a(a+2b)
3
Pb
L
Pa
L
P ab
L
P bx
L
P a2 b2
3EIL
P bx
(L2 b2 x2 )
6EIL
P ab(a + 2b) 3a(a + 2b)
27EIL
R=V
Mmax
max
when x < a
= P
= Pa
Pa
=
(3L2 4a2 )
24EI
Px
=
(3La 3a2 x2 )
6EI
Pa
=
(3Lx 3x2 a2 )
6EI
Victor Saouma
Draft
A4
R1 = V1 =
R2 = V2 =
Vx
M1
M2
Mx
Mx
=
=
=
=
P
(L a + b)
L
P
(L b + a)
L
P
(b a)
L
R1 a
R2 b
R1 x
R1 x P (x a)
at x = 38 L
at x = .4215L
Vx
Mmax
M1
Mx
max
3
wL
8
5
wL
8
R1 wx
wL2
8
9
wL2
128
wx2
R1 x
2
wx
(L3 3Lx+ 2x3 )
48EI4
wL
185EI
R1 = V1 =
R2 = V2 =
Mmax
L
2
Mx
<x
Mx
max
at x = L
when x <
when
L
2
at x = .4472L
5P
16
11P
16
3P L
16
5P x
16
L 11x
P
2
16
P L3
.009317
EI
Draft
A5
R1 = V1 =
R2 = V2 =
at x = a
M1
at x = L
M2
at x = a
L +a
when a < .414L at x = L 3L
2 a2
max
a
2L+a
max
P b2
(a + 2L)
2L3
Pa
(3L2 a2 )
2L3
R1 a
P ab
(a + L)
2L2 2 3
Pa b
(3L + a)
12EIL32
P a (L a2 )3
3EI (3L2 a2 )2
a
P ab2
6EI 2L + a2
at x = 0 and x = L
R=V
Vx
Mmax
at x =
L
2
at x =
L
2
max
wL
2
L
w
x
2
wL2
12
wL2
24 4
wL
384EI
wx2
(L x)2
24EI
R=V
at x =
L
2
Mmax
when x <
L
2
Mx
at x =
L
2
max
when x <
L
2
P
2
PL
8
P
(4x L)
8 3
PL
192EI
P x2
(3L 4x)
48EI
Victor Saouma
Draft
A6
at x = L
at x = 0
R=V
Vx
Mmax
Mx
max
8
W
3 2
x
W 2
L
WL
3
W x2
3L2
W
(x5 5L2 x + 4L5 )
2
60EIL
W L3
15EI
R=V
Vx
Mx
at x = L
Mmax
x
at x = 0
max
= wL
= wx
wx2
=
2
wL2
=
2w
(x4 4L3 x + 3L4 )
=
24EI
wL4
=
8EI
at x = L
when a < x
R=V
Mmax
Mx
at x = 0
max
at x = a
when x < a
when a < x
= P
= Pb
= P (x a)
P b2
(3L b)
=
6EI3
Pb
=
3EI2
Pb
(3L 3x b)
=
6EI
P (L x)2
(3b L + x)
=
6EI
Victor Saouma
Draft
A7
at x = L
R=V
Mmax
Mx
at x = 0
max
x
= P
= PL
= Px
P L3
=
3EI
P
(2L3 3L2 x + x3 )
=
6EI
R=V
Mx
at x = 0 and x = L
Mmax
at x = 0
max
x
Victor Saouma
= P
L
x
= P
2
PL
=
2
P L3
=
12EI
P (L x)2
((L + 2x)
=
12EI
Draft
Appendix B
SECTION PROPERTIES
Section properties for selected sections are shown in Table B.1.
Draft
B2
SECTION PROPERTIES
Y
x
A
x
y
Ix
Iy
X
y
=
=
=
=
=
bh
b
2
h
2
bh3
12
hb3
12
h h
A
x
y
Ix
Iy
X
y
b
b
= bh b h
= 2b
= h2
3
h3
= bh b
12
3
b3
= hb h
12
X
y
A
y
=
=
Ix
h(a+b)
2
h(2a+b)
3(a+b)
h3 (a2 +4ab+b2
36(a+b)
A
x
y
X
Ix
y
Iy
=
=
=
=
=
bh
2
b+c
3
h
3 3
bh
36
bh 2
36 (b
bc + c2 )
r
X
A =
Ix = Iy =
r2 =
r 4
4 =
d2
4
d4
64
A =
Ix = Iy =
2rt = dt
3
r3 t = d8 t
b
X
b
a
A =
Ix =
Iy =
ab
ab3
3
ba3
4
Victor Saouma
Draft
Appendix C
MATHEMATICAL
PRELIMINARIES; Part IV
VARIATIONAL METHODS
Abridged section from authors lecture notes in finite elements.
C.1
Euler Equation
is stationary. Or,
= 0
(3.2)
21
22
23
(3.3)
calculus involves a function of one or more variable, whereas variational calculus involves a function of a
function, or a functional.
Draft
C2
u, u
u(x)
C
B
u(x)
du
dx
x=a
x=c
x=b
(3.4a)
(3.4b)
and (x) is twice dierentiable, has undened amplitude, and (a) = (b) = 0. We
note that u coincides with u if = 0
The variational operator and the dierential calculus operator d have clearly dierent
meanings. du is associated with a neighboring point at a distance dx, however u is a
small arbitrary change in u for a given x (there is no associated x).
25
For boundaries where u is specied, its variation must be zero, and it is arbitrary
elsewhere. The variation u of u is said to undergo a virtual change.
26
27
F (x, u + , u + )dx
(3.5)
28
29
(3.6)
From Eq. 3.3 and applying the chain rule with = 0, u = u, we obtain
d()
d
30
=0
=0
=
=0
b
a
F
F
+
u
u
dx = 0
(3.7)
It can be shown (through integration by part and the fundamental lemma of the
Victor Saouma
Draft
C3
u
dx u
(3.8)
This dierential equation is called the Euler equation associated with and is a
necessary condition for u(x) to extremize .
31
32 Generalizing for a functional which depends on two eld variables, u = u(x, y) and
v = v(x, y)
(3.9)
u
F
v
F
F
F
F
x
y
+ x
+ xy
+ y
= 0
2 u
2 u
u,x
u,y
u,xy
,xx
,yy
F
F
2 F
2
2 F
F
x v,x y v,y + x2 v,xx + xy v,xy + y2 v,yy = 0
(3.10)
We note that the Functional and the corresponding Euler Equations, Eq. 3.1 and 3.8,
or Eq. 3.9 and 3.10 describe the same problem.
33
The Euler equations usually correspond to the governing dierential equation and are
referred to as the strong form (or classical form).
34
35 The functional is referred to as the weak form (or generalized solution). This classication stems from the fact that equilibrium is enforced in an average sense over the
body (and the eld variable is dierentiated m times in the weak form, and 2m times in
the strong form).
Euler equations are dierential equations which can not always be solved by exact
methods. An alternative method consists in bypassing the Euler equations and go directly
to the variational statement of the problem to the solution of the Euler equations.
36
Finite Element formulation are based on the weak form, whereas the formulation of
Finite Dierences are based on the strong form.
37
38
F
F
u + u
u
b
a F dx
b
a
F
F
u +
u
u
u
dx
(3.11)
b
a
d F
F
u
dx u
(3.12)
dx
39
=0
Similarly, it can be shown that as with second derivatives in calculus, the second variation 2 can be used to characterize the extremum as either a minimum or maximum.
40
Victor Saouma
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C4
41
Revisiting the integration by parts of the second term in Eq. 3.7, we obtain
b
a
F
F
dx =
u
u
b
a
d F
dx
dx u
(3.13)
We note that
1. Derivation of the Euler equation required (a) = (b) = 0, thus this equation is a
statement of the essential (or forced) boundary conditions, where u(a) = u(b) = 0.
2. If we left arbitrary, then it would have been necessary to use
b. These are the natural boundary conditions.
F
u
= 0 at x = a and
For a problem with, one eld variable, in which the highest derivative in the governing
dierential equation is of order 2m (or simply m in the corresponding functional), then
we have
42
Essential (or Forced, or geometric) boundary conditions, involve derivatives of order zero (the eld variable itself) through m1. Trial displacement functions are
explicitely required to satisfy this B.C. Mathematically, this corresponds to Dirichlet boundaryvalue problems.
Nonessential (or Natural, or static) boundary conditions, involve derivatives of order m and up. This B.C. is implied by the satisfaction of the variational statement
but not explicitly stated in the functional itself. Mathematically, this corresponds
to Neuman boundaryvalue problems.
These boundary conditions were already introduced, albeit in a less formal way, in Table
9.1.
43
Table C.1 illustrates the boundary conditions associated with some problems
Problem
Dierential Equation
m
Essential B.C. [0, m 1]
Natural B.C. [m, 2m 1]
Axial Member
Distributed load
2
AE ddxu2 + q = 0
1
u
du
dx
or x = Eu,x
Flexural Member
Distributed load
4
EI ddxw4 q = 0
2
w, dw
dx
d2 w
d3 w
dx2 and dx3
or M = EIw,xx and V = EIw,xxx
Draft
C5
=
0
EA
du
du
2
dx P u(L)
2
dx
dx
(3.15)
=
0
d
du
du
EA
udx + EA u P u(L)
dx
dx
dx 0
L
0
d
du
du
u
EA
dx + EA
dx
dx
dx
= EA
du
dx
(3.16a)
P u(L)
x=L
u(0)
(3.16b)
x=0
The last term is zero because of the specied essential boundary condition which
implies that u(0) = 0. Recalling that in an arbitrary operator which can be
assigned any value, we set the coecients of u between (0, L) and those for u at
x = L equal to zero separately, and obtain
Euler Equation:
du
d
EA
dx
dx
=0
0<x<L
(3.17)
du
P = 0 at x = L
dx
Solution II We have
EA
F (x, u, u ) =
2
du
dx
(3.18)
(3.19)
(note that since P is an applied load at the end of the member, it does not appear
as part of F (x, u, u ) To evaluate the Euler Equation from Eq. 3.8, we evaluate
F
F
=0 &
= EAu
u
u
Thus, substituting, we obtain
d F
F
u
dx u
du
d
EA
dx
dx
Victor Saouma
(3.20a)
= 0 Euler Equation
(3.21a)
= 0 B.C.
(3.21b)
Draft
C6
=
0
1
M pw dx =
2
L
0
1
(EIw )w pw dx
2
(3.22)
F
F
w dx
w +
w
w
F dx =
0
L
= =
0
(EIw w pw)dx
L
= (EIw w )0
(3.23b)
[(EIw ) w pw] dx
(3.23a)
(3.23c)
Or
(EIw ) = p
for all x
Natural
or EIw = M = 0
or (EIw ) = V = 0
at x = 0 and x = L
Victor Saouma
Draft
Appendix D
10 2 0
= 2 4 1
0
1 6
determine the traction (or stress vector) t on the plane passing through P and parallel
to the plane ABC where A(6, 0, 0), B(0, 4, 0) and C(0, 0, 2).
4. (5 pts) For a plane stress problem charaterized by the following stress tensor
=
6 2
2 4
use Mohrs circle to determine the principal stresses, and show on an appropriate
gure the orientation of those principal stresses.
5. (4 pts) The stress tensor throughout a continuum is given with respect to Cartesian
axes as
3x1 x2 5x22 0
0 2x23
=
5x22
0
2x23 0
(a) Determine the stress vector (or traction) at the point P (2, 1, 3) of the plane
that is tangent to the cylindrical surface x22 + x23 = 4 at P ,
Draft
D2
3
1
2
2
0
0
(x1 + x2 )
where is a constant, satisfy equilibrium in the X1 direction?
13. (2 pts) From which principle is the symmetry of the stress tensor derived?
14. (2 pts) How is the First principle obtained from the equation of motion?
15. (4 pts) What are the 1) 15 Equations; and 2) 15 Unknowns in a thermoelastic
formulation.
Victor Saouma
Draft
D3
T11
T22
T33
T12
T23
T31
c1111
c1112
c2222
c1133 c1112
c2233 c2212
c3333 c3312
c1212
SYM.
then,
c1123
c2223
c3323
c1223
c2323
c1131
c2231
c3331
c1231
c2331
c3131
E11
E22
E33
2E12 (12 )
2E23 (23 )
2E31 (31 )
1 0 0
aji = 0 1 0
0 0 1
show that under these conditions c1131 is equal to zero.
19. (6 pts) The state of stress at a point of structural steel is given by
6 2 0
T = 2 3 0 MP a
0 0 0
with E = 207 GPa, = 80 GPa, and = 0.3.
(a) Determine the engineering strain components
(b) If a ve centimer cube of structural steel is subjected to this stress tensor, what
would be the change in volume?
Victor Saouma
Draft
D4
Victor Saouma
Draft
Appendix E
MATHEMATICA ASSIGNMENT
and SOLUTION
Connect to Mathematica using the following procedure:
1. login on an HP workstation
2. Open a shell (window)
3. Type xhost+
4. type rlogin mxsg1
5. On the newly opened shell, enter your password rst, and then type setenv DISPLAY
xxx:0.0 where xxx is the workstation name which should appear on a small label
on the workstation itself.
6. Type mathematica &
and then solve the following problems:
1. The state of stress through a continuum is given with respect to the cartesian axes
Ox1 x2 x3 by
3x1 x2 5x22 0
0 2x3
Tij = 5x22
MPa
0
2x3 0
Determine the stress vector at point P (1, 1, 3) of the plane that is tangent to the
cylindrical surface x22 + x23 = 4 at P .
2. For the following stress tensor
6 3 0
3
6 0
Tij =
0
0 8
(a) Determine directly the three invariants I , II and III of the following stress
tensor
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the principal stress directions.
(c) Show that the transformation tensor of direction cosines transforms the original
stress tensor into the diagonal principal axes stress tensor.
(d) Recompute the three invariants from the principal stresses.
Draft
E2
(e) Split the stress tensor into its spherical and deviator parts.
(f) Show that the rst invariant of the deviator is zero.
100 0 0
Tij = 0 0 0 MPa
0 0 0
(a) Determine the corresponding rst PiolaKircho stress tensor.
(b) Determine the corresponding second PiolaKircho stress tensor.
(c) Determine the pseudo stress vector associated with the rst PiolaKircho stress
tensor on the e1 plane in the deformed state.
(d) Determine the pseudo stress vector associated with the second PiolaKircho
stress tensor on the e1 plane in the deformed state.
9. Show that in the case of isotropy, the anisotropic stressstrain relation
cAniso
ijkm =
Victor Saouma
c1111
c1112
c2222
SYM.
c1133 c1112
c2233 c2212
c3333 c3312
c1212
c1123
c2223
c3323
c1223
c2323
c1131
c2231
c3331
c1231
c2331
Draft
E3
reduces to
ciso
ijkm =
c1111
c1122
c2222
c1133 0 0 0
c2233 0 0 0
c3333 0 0 0
a 0 0
SYM.
b 0
30
Eij = 50
20
50 20
6
40 0
10
0 30
and the material is steel with = 119.2 GPa and = 79.2 GPa.
11. Determine the strain tensor at a point where the Cauchy stress tensor is given by
100 42 6
Tij = 42 2 0 MPa
6
0 15
with E = 207 GPa, = 79.2 GPa, and = 0.30
12. Determine the thermally induced stresses in a constrained body for a rise in temerature of 50oF , = 5.6 106 / 0F
13. Show that the inverse of
is
xx
yy
zz
xy
yz
zx
1
1
=
E 0
xx
yy
zz
xy (2xy )
yz (2yz )
zx (2zx )
E
(1+)(12)
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1+
0
0
0
0
0
0
1+
0
0
0
0
0
0
1+
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
xx
yy
zz
xy
yz
zx
(5.1)
xx
yy
zz
xy (2xy )
yz (2yz )
zx (2zx )
(5.2)
and then derive the relations between stresses in terms of strains, and strains in terms of stress, for
plane stress and plane strain.
14. Show that the function = f (r) cos 2 satises the biharmonic equation () = 0 Note: You
must <<CalculusVectorAnalysis, dene , and SetCoordinates[Cylindrical[r,,z]], and
nally use the Laplacian (or Biharmonic) functions.
15. Solve for
Trr
Tr
Tr
T
cos
sin
sin
cos
0
0
0
0
cos
sin
sin
cos
(5.3)
Victor Saouma
Draft
E4
p
1
r
0
0
2p cos
r
cos
2p sinr
cos
2p sinr
2
2p sinr cos
(5.4)
Determine the maximum principal stress at an y arbitrary point, (contour) plot the magnitude of
this stress below p. Note that D[,r], D[,{,2}] would give the rst and second derivatives of
with respect to r and respectively.
Victor Saouma
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