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9-8 Castigliano’s Theorem for

9-7 Castigliano’s Theorem trusses


„ Castigliano’s second theroem or the method „ Sub eqn 9.9 into eqn 9.26, we have:
of least work applies to only structure that
∂ N 2L
have constant temperature, unyielding ∆= ∑
supports & linear elastic material response ∂P 2AE
„ The theroem states that the disp of a point is „ Re-arranging, we have:
equal to the first partial derivative of the strain ⎛ ∂N ⎞ L
energy in the structure wrt a force acting at ∆ = ∑ N⎜ ⎟ eqn 9.27
the point & in the direction of the disp ⎝ ∂P ⎠ AE
„ The slope at a point in a structure is equal to
the first partial derivative of the strain energy
in the structure wrt a couple moment acting at
the point & in the direction of the rotation
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9-7 Castigliano’s Theorem Example 9.12


„ Determine the vertical disp of joint C of the
U i = U e = f ( P1 , P2 ,...Pn ) truss shown in Fig 9.24(a)
„ The cross-sectional area of each member is A
∂U i
U i + dU i = U i + dPi eqn 9.24 = 400 mm2
∂Pi „ Take E = 200GPa
U i + dU i = U i + dPi ∆ i eqn 9.25

∂U i
∆i = eqn 9.26
∂Pi

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Example 9.12 Example 9.12 - solution
„ Fig 9.24 „ Table

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Example 9.12 - solution Example 9.12 - solution


„ A vertical force P is applied to the truss at „ Since P does not actually exist as a real load
joint C, Fig 9.24(b) on the truss, we required P = o in the table
„ The reactions at the truss supports at A & B above
are determined & the results shown in Fig „ Applying eqn 9.27
9.24(b)
⎛ ∂N ⎞ L 10.67 kNm
„ Using method of joints, the N forces in each ∆ cv = ∑ N ⎜ ⎟ = = 0.133mm
member are determined, Fig 9.24(c) ⎝ ∂P ⎠ AE AE
„ These results along with partial derivatives
are listed in the table

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9-9 Castigliano’s theorem for 9-9 Castigliano’s theorem for
beams & frames beams & frames
„ Sub eqn 9.11 into eqn 9.26, we have: L V 2 dx ∂U s L V ⎛ ∂V ⎞
∆=
∂ L M2
dx ∫
Us = K
2 AG ∫ 0 ∂P
=∫ AG ⎜⎝ ∂P ⎟⎠ dx
0
∂P 0 2 EI L T 2 dx ∂U t T ⎛ ∂T ⎞
L
„ Re-arranging, we have: Ut =
0 2 JG ∫ ∂P
=∫ JG ⎜⎝ ∂P ⎟⎠ dx
0
L ⎛ ∂M ⎞ dx
∆= ∫ 0
M⎜
⎝ ∂P

⎠ EI
eqn 9.28

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9-9 Castigliano’s theorem for


beams & frames Example 9.15
„ If the slope θ at a point is to be determined, „ Determine the disp of point B of the beam
we must find the partial derivative of the shown in Fig 9.27(a)
internal moment M wrt an external couple „ Take I = 500 (106) mm4
moment M’ acting at the point, i.e. „ Take E = 200GPa
L ⎛ ∂M ⎞ dx „ Fig 9.27
θ= ∫ 0
M⎜ ⎟
⎝ ∂M ' ⎠ EI
eqn 9.29

„ If a more complete accountability of strain


energy is desired, the strain energy due to
shear, axial & torsion must be included
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Example 9.15 - solution Example 9.15 - solution
„ A vertical force P is placed on the beam at B „ Using eqn 9.28, we have
as shown in Fig 9.27(b)
⎛ ∂M ⎞ dx
L 10 ( −6 x 2 )(− x )
„ A single x coordinate is needed for the ∆B =
0 ∫
M⎜ ⎟
⎝ ∂P ⎠ EI
=
0∫ EI
dx
solution since there are no discontinuities of 15(10 3 )kNm 3
loading = = 0.150m
EI
„ Using method of sections, Fig 9.27(c) we
have:

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Example 9.15 - solution Example 9.16


„ Determine the slope at point B of the beam
With anti - clockwise moments as + ve
shown in Fig 9.28(a)
∑M = 0 „ Take I = 60 (106) mm4
⎛ x⎞
− M − (12 x)⎜ ⎟ − Px = 0 „ Take E = 200GPa
⎝2⎠
∂M
= −x
∂P
∂M
Setting P = 0 yields M = −6 x 2 = −x
∂P

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Example 9.16 Example 9.16 -solution
„ Fig 9.28 For x1 , with anti - clockwise moments as + ve

∑M = 0

M 1 + 3 x1 = 0 ⇒ M 1 = 3 x1
∂M 1
=0
∂M '
For x2 ,

M 2 − M '+3(5 + x2 ) = 0 ⇒ M 2 = M '−3(5 + x2 )
∂M 2
=1
∂M '

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Example 9.16 -solution Example 9.16 -solution


„ Since the slope at point B is to be determined, „ Applying eqn 9.29, we have
an external moment M’ is placed at this point,
⎛ ∂M ⎞ dx
L
Fig 9.28(b) θB = M⎜ ∫ ⎟
⎝ ∂M ' ⎠ EI
0
„ Two coordinates, x1 and x2 must be used to 5 ( −3 x )(0) dx 5 − 3(5 + x )(1) dx
determine the internal moments within the =
0 ∫ 1
EI
1
+ ∫
0
2
EI
2

beam since there is a discontinuity at B 112.5kNm 2


=− = −0.00938rad
„ Using method of sections, Fig 9.28(c) the EI
internal moments & partial derivatives are
computed as follows:

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