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Diagraphies

L3P PPRS
Definition

Diagraphies (Logging)

Mesure des propriétés physiques


le long d’un forage,
pour estimer directement leur variation
avec la profondeur.

-> Complément des mesures de surface


2
Type de présentation 1

Courbes le long de z

3
Type de présentation 2: image

4
0 - Forage…………………………………………………slide 6
1 – Pratical logging……………………………….…slide 45
2 – Borehole geometry logging……………..…slide 30
3 – Nuclear log………………….………………….….slide 42
4 – Acoustic logging………………………………….slide 90
5 – Electromagnetic logging……………………slide 126

5
0- Forage
0- Pratique du forage
a) Forages
Objectif: forage terminé
Forage profond

Casing shoe
Sabot 8
Objectif: forage terminé
Forage d’eau
1 - Cône de ciment [grout]
Évite l'infiltration d'eau superficielle
2 - Centreur
Obligatoire
3 - Tube de soutènement
4 – Ciment [grout or cement]
Injecté par la base
5 - Joint d'étanchéité
Argile: Évite l'invasion de l'aquifère
et du gravier par le ciment
6 – Crépine [screen]
Adaptée à la formation aquifère sous
le niveau de l'eau en pompage
7 - Massif Filtrant [gravel pack]
Gravier calibré siliceux
8 - Base de Crépine

http://www.cotrasol.fr/ForNapLib.html 9
Exemple
Video Riser drilling (IODP _ Chikyu) _ Partie 1
0- Pratique du forage
b) Foration
Foration

Différentes échelles -> Différentes techniques

12
Puits peu profond

Peu profond Percussion

Petite infrastructure autour du puits

Forage par ciculation


13
inverse -> tube de boue
Forage profond continental

Forage profond
Grosse infrastructure autour du forage

14
Forage offshore

Forage Offshore
-Plateforme
Chikyu
-Bateaux

15
Foration

Foration:
-Creuser
- Oter les débris
- Stabiliser

Aménagement du puits [Completion]

16
0- Pratique du forage
a) Forage géotechnique, peu profond
Pratique de diagraphie / technique de forage

Plusieurs méthodes de forage

18
Choix des techniques

De ACF
19
Auger

Une vis sans fin (=tarière) remonte les remblais

20
Jetting

21
Forage par percussion: marteau fond de trou (DTH
Hammer)

« Matrteau piqueur » . Activation et évacuation des cuttings à l’air comprimé

22
Forage par percussion: marteau fond de trou (DTH
Hammer)

Vidéo de l’opération
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYfF_e9htOk

23
ODEX

http://www.dpmf.fr/Produits/Systeme_ODEX.html 24
ODEX

Forage à l’air aussi

La foration se fait avec le tubage

25
Forage par rotation:

Creusement: mat et top drive

Nettoyage cuttings + stabilisation: circulation de boue

Boue:
- densité: baryte
- bentonite (=smectite : argile gonflante)
- additifs: p ex KCl pour limiter gonflement argile
Forage par rotation: Mécanique

Rotation + translation

Top drive ou kelly drive + rotary table

Train de tige Tige de forage


= drilling string = drilling pipe

BHA: bottom hole assembly

Trépan = drill bit


Forage par rotation: trépan (drillbit)

PDC
Trilame, Tri-cone, (polycrystalline diamond) compact
terrain tendre terrain intermédiaire Terrain dur

http://explor-e.fr/forage/methodes-de-forage-proposees/forage-%C3%A0-la-boue/
Vidéo trépans 28
Forage par rotation: train de tige

L
e
s
t
i
g
e
s
d

u
n
e
m
ê
m
e
s
é 29
r
Forage par rotation: train de tige

Les filetages doivent


toujours être impeccables,
même dans la saleté d’un chantier de forage

30
Tubage

31
Forage par rotation:

Boue:
Eau (ou huile)
+ densité: baryte
+ bentonite (=smectite : argile gonflante)
+ additifs: p ex KCl pour limiter gonflement argile, ou polymère
Forage par rotation: boue

ACF
Video Riser drilling (IODP _ Chikyu) _ Partie 2 &3
0- Pratique du forage
b) Forage profond
Pratique de diagraphie / technique de forage
Pour les plus profonds
-> Boue
Plusieurs méthodes de forage: suivant taille

35
Forage par rotation

De brgm 36
1. Mud tank
Forage par rotation
2. Shale shakers
3. Suction line (mud pump)
4. Mud pump
5. Motor or power source
6. Vibrating hose
7. Draw-works (winch)
8. Standpipe
9. Kelly hose
10. Goose-neck
11. Traveling block
12. Drill line
13. Crown block
14. Derrick
15. Monkey board
16. Stand (of drill pipe)
17. Pipe rack (floor)
18. Swivel (On newer rigs this may be replaced by a top drive)
19. Kelly drive
20. Rotary table
21. Drill floor
22. Bell nipple
23. Blowout preventer (BOP) Annular
24. Blowout preventers (BOPs) pipe ram & shear ram
25. Drill string
De WP: forage avec kelly bushing 26. Drill bit
27. Casing head
28. Flow line 37
Forage par rotation
1. Crown Block and Water Table
2. Catline Boom and Hoist Line
3. Drilling Line
4. Monkeyboard
5. Traveling Block
6. Top Drive
7. Mast
8. Drill Pipe
9. Doghouse
10. Blowout Preventer
11. Water Tank
12. Electric Cable Tray
13. Engine Generator Sets
14. Fuel Tanks
15. Electric Control House
16. Mud Pump
17. Bulk Mud Components Storage
18. Mud Pits
19. Reserve Pits
20. Mud Gas Separator
21. Shale Shaker
22. Choke Manifold
23. Pipe Ramp
24. Pipe Racks
25. Accumulator
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/oilandgas/illustrated_glossary.html 38
Forage par rotation

De WP: forage avec kelly bushing


39
Forage par rotation: BOP

De WP: forage avec kelly bushing


40
BOP

41
Exp 319: 1st riser drilling
Riser ~ outer pipe
➪ mud drilling
➪Deeper drilling

From Ocean Leadership


Synthèse
Forage gaz de schiste
0- Pratique du forage
c) Carottage
Carottage

+ film coring truck


+ film operation iodp

45
Carottage

46
Carottage sédiments mous

Piston coring

47
Carottage

48
Organisation d’un chantier
1- Pratique des diagraphies
Résumé forage
Cas d’un forage avec boue

Surtout lors d’un forage profond


La boue stabilise le puits
et emporte les débris de
roche (cuttings)
Mais elle perturbe
l’environnement de forage
-> Mud cake
-> Invasion

52
Logging techniques

Wireline Logging While Drilling

Wireline

On the
drillstring

After drilling

53
LWD tool configuration
LWD Data transmission

No cable would resist


to drilling conditions
(vibrations, cuttings flow, cable
shearing)

-> Data is transmitted by modulation


of a pressure signal
LWD tool catalogue

Information while drilling


Useful for conducting
safe drilling,
But very expensive
-> Petroleum industry

-Gamma-ray
- Neutron
- Sonic
- Resistivity
- Imaging
Wireline

A wireline cable must


1)Support the tool
2)Transmit the data
Wireline methods (Geotechnics)

Winch

Datalogger

Cable

Tool connector
58
Wireline methods (Petroleum)

59
Logging Unit Overview
Winch

Wireline Heave
Compensation

Minimum
Configuration
Maxis =
datalogger
ODP Logging Services
Resistivity

Caliper

EM Induction

T, fluid resistivity
Orientation

Seismic

Gamma-ray

Triple Gamma-ray

Neutron

Flow meter

Density

Acoustic televiewer
Flow meter
Mount Sopris website
61
Slim hole tools
Depth estimations
-- Good reference zero for depth is necessary

Method 1: Measuring the winch rotation but


- Borehole tilt
- In deep borehole, cable elasticity
-> Cumulative error

Method 2: Fluid pressure mesurement


Varies with water table. Needs the borehole fluid density

Method 3: Scanning shoe of borehole casing. Very easy to locate


with caliper log.

Method 4: For comparing logs: use Gamma-ray log as fingerprint


for depth-correlation.
Especially, sharp increase at sea floor (mudline). 62
Depth estimations
-- Good reference zero for depth is necessary

Method 1: Measuring the winch rotation but


- Borehole tilt
- In deep borehole, cable stretech due to elasticity
-> Cumulative error

63
Tension
A good log is made with a free tool: its tension should be the
(tool + cable weight) – buoyancy force

If it is lower, the tool is lying on the borehole wall


If it is higher, the tool is stuck
Usually a log is made upward to avoid lying on the well wall.

The tension should not exceed a


specified tension value (~1ton)

The weak point


is set at the connection
between the wireline and the tool to
ease phishing operation
64
Beware of the zero
-- Good reference zero for depth is necessary.
- It is better to describe it in detail for comparison with latter logs

Bad zero

Ground level is often


Casing is a good reference a better reference,
if its collar fitting ensures it will not but the concrete may
be cut or welded. be removed afterwards65
But difficult access
Presentation d’un log
Entête: (Header) : description du puits

Corps: Données

Fin (Footer): Paramètres, Calibration, contrôle qualité


Presentation d’un log

Presentation du forage

Environnement du forage
Presentation d’un log

Calibration
tail
Calibration d’un outil

Primary calibration: Par rapport à un standard, une référence, pas toujours


mobile. Cf calibration de gamma-ray

Master calibration : En atelier

Verification : Test sur site. Avant ou après le log.

Pour vérifier la qualité d’un outil,


il est d’usage de faire une « repeat section »
2- Borehole Geometry Logs
3- Borehole geometry
a) Borehole inclinaison
Borehole orientation

Boreholes are
rarely vertical.
It may be an error
in drillstring pull force
or a deliberate
borehole tilt

72
Borehole dip measurement
3 unknowns:
- Azimuth
- Dip
- Internal rotation

Indispensable for imaging tools


Borehole dip measurement

Borehole orientation:

- Magnetometer
-> orientation relative to the magnetic north

- Accelerometer
-> orientation relative to the gravity
(1g=acceleration of ~9.81m/s2)

74
3- Borehole geometry
b) Caliper (diameter)
Caliper log
Arms follow
the walls of the borehole

-> Borehole caving


-> Borehole breakout

-> Depth determination


(casing collar)

-> Essential for other logging


interpretation
76
Geotechnical application

77
Borehole safety assessment

Washouts indicate It is easy to stuck tools


78
borehole stabily issues in key seats when tripping out
Breakout as stress indicator
Breakout as stress indicator

Stress near the


Chelungpu Fault
in Taiwan

(image from an
electric tool: FMI)
Creep in San Andreas Fault borehole

81
3- Radioactivity Logs
Radioactivity logs

- Gamma-ray logs
- Natural Gamma-ray emission
Fingerprint for depth correlation between different logs
Shale composition
- Attenuation
Density logs, lithology information (Pe)

- Neutron logs
- Attenuation
Water content estimate -> Density log

83
3- Radioactivity Logs
a) Gamma-rays
Radioactivity emission

85
Gamma-ray

86
3- Radioactivity Logs
a) Gamma-rays
- Natural emission (lithology marker)
Gamma-ray generation
Les roches peuvent être radioactives:
K, U, Th

En général, K, particulièrement présent dans les


argiles: En contexte pétrolier: K=argile

88
Detecteurs gamma-ray
-Scintillator: Crystal emits light when hit by a gamma-
photon.
Robust, better sensitivity -> ok for logging

- Geiger-Muller counter: a noble gas is ionized by the


gamma-rays. Not very robust device.
Can measure intense flux.

- Semiconductor crystals: a gamma-ray interacting


with the crystal induces a voltage drop.
89
Scintillation crystals

90
Measurement scale

API = American Petroleum Institute.

The API standard is set by the primary calibration test


pit at the University of Houston
where a radioactive cement calibrator is assigned a
value of 200 API units.

Shales give values of ~100 API


91
Total Gamma-Ray tools

Petroleum

92
Measurement tools

93
Gamma-ray geology

94
Spectral gamma-ray
U, Th and K radioactive decay emits gamma rays within
relatively narrow energy windows
It is possible to distinguish within the spectrum the
contribution of U, Th, K…
Cs K U Th

95
Spectral gamma-ray

96
Spectral Gamma-Ray tools

Petroleum

97
Hostile Environment Natural Gamma Sonde
(HNGS)
HNGS Description
- Uses 2 bithmuth-germanate detectors
Measures the natural gamma-ray
radiation of the formation
- 256-window spectroscopy

Applications
Clay typing
Mineralogy
Ash layer detection

Outputs
HSGS Total GR (GAPI)
HCGR Computed GR (GAPI)
HFK Formation K content (%)
HTHO Formation Th content (ppm)
HURA Formation U content (ppm)

ODP Logging Services


Measurement tools

99
3- Radioactivity Logs
a) Gamma-rays
- Attenuation (density)
Gamma-ray attenuation

The attenuation of a gamma-ray beam


passing through a medium:

- Increases with the density of the medium


- Increases with the atomic number Z of the
elements constituting the medium
- Depends on the energy of the gamma-ray
(different mechanisms)

101
Gamma-ray interaction with matter
A gamma-ray interacts with rocks by
- Compton effect
- Photoelectric effect

102
1 eV ~ 1.6 ×10-19J
Photoelectric effect
A gamma photon is absorbed by the atom. The
atom is then destabilized
and ejects an electron

Gamma-photon energy
=
Binding energy + Kinetic energy of the e-

103
Compton effect
A gamma photon interacts with the atoms.
It gives enough energy for an e- to be ejected.

The gamma-photon is still present,


but its energy is smaller and
its propagation direction is different.
-> Compton scattering (Z-independent)

104
Gamma-ray attenuation
40K gives off γ-rays at an energy level of 1.46 MeV; the
predominant energy level for Th is 2.62 MeV

-> Gamma-ray attenuation is controlled by


Compton scattering (poorly dependent on Z).
-> Density Measurement 105
Photoelectric effect
The gamma-rays are progressively slowed down.
They can then be absorbed by photoelectric effect.

-> One can define the photoelectric potential Pe


-> Lithology assessment
106
Photoelectric effect

107
Emitter –receiver configuration
Single: ambiguity.
Multiple: distinguish between
Passage through borehole fluid
borehole, mudcake, formation

108
Emitter –receiver configuration

Note: gamma-ray emitter is radioactive


(60Co -> 60Ni or 137Cs ->137Ba).
and its use in small–scale geotechnics is
problematic

109
Tools

HLDT: plus proche des mesures physiques sur carottes.


110
Sur carbonates, HLDT et APS donnent des résultats similaires (cf Site report IODP 180)
Tools

111
3- Radioactivity Logs
b) Neutrons (porosity)
Neutron logging

The logging principal is similar to the gamma-ray


density log, except that here we look at the
attenuation of a fast neutron beam.

The attenuation increases with the hydrogen


content of the formation.
As hydrogen is concentrated in the water filling the
pores, it is another estimate of porosity.

113
Neutron energy classification

Typical neutron energy spectrum 114


Neutron energy classification

In borehole logging,
we use fast neutrons.

These neutrons will


interact with matter

-They will slow down


- They induce nuclear reaction
That will emit gamma-rays
115
Neutron interaction with matter

The interaction mechanisms


depends on the
energy of the neutron

-They will slow down


E  mv v  2 E /m
2

- They induce nuclear reaction


That will emit gamma-rays

116
Neutron interaction with matter
Radioactivation

117
Neutron interaction with matter

Fast Energy of the neutron


diminishes

Prompt

Epithermal Thermal

Delayed 118
Interesting properties of elastic collision
The elastic collision is more efficient
when the target atom has the size of the neutron
-> H is more efficient -> H detection
-> Water content, Hydrocarbon identification

119
Porosity estimation
Water is mainly present in the pore

The neutron porosity log is often a good


estimate of
the true porosity,
except
- in clays
(lots of incrystalline water)
- gas content
(pores are not filled with water)

The neutron log is often coupled with a


gamma-ray density log
120
Neutron interaction with matter
Energy decays as the neutrons cross matter

121
Interest of the different regimes

122
Emitter configuration
Note: neutron emitter is radioactive
(241Am,9Be,).
and its use in small–scale
geotechnics is problematic.

Built in accelerator of particules is


safer but much more expensive

123
Receiver configuration
The receiver may be
a neutron receiver (n-n tool)
-> 3He (light element)
or
a gamma-ray receiver (n-γ tool)
-> scintillation crystal

124
Measurement tools

125
Tools

126
Accelerator Porosity Sonde

127
Measurement tools

128
Combining nuclear logs

129
4- Acoustic Logs
4- Acoustic Logs
a) Along hole
Principe

132
Principe

133
Borehole source frequencies

134
Borehole specific waves

The borehole is an interface between the solid


walls and inner fluid.

The presence of this boundary induces the


generation of several waves:

-Interfacial waves:
-> Head waves
-> Stoneley waves

- Guided waves 135


Seismic wave induced by a monopole

When a wave hits the interface at a critical angle, a head wave appears.

Slow

Fast

136
Reminder : head wave

137
Stoneley Waves

Stoneley waves=
Flexural surface waves
due to the coupling between
the S waves of the solid
and the P waves in the fluid

138
Influence of the source frequency

Stoneley waves are best


Generated by dipoles

139
Guided Waves

In the borehole
tube, the head
waves will be
Recorded.

140
Guided Waves
The head waves
and the multiply
reflected waves
are coupled into
‘head waves’.

The borehole acts


as waveguide
and filters the
signal
141
Influence of the source frequency

142
Trapped modes

143
CBL, VDL tool

144
Typical acoustic signal

145
Emission- Reception
Emission

Monopole: piezoelectic crystal


Reception:
Piezoelectric crystal
Hydrophone

Dipole: magnetic excitation

146
Typical acoustic signal

With a variable density plot, the waves


are easier to follow.

This diagram can be directly used to


Assess the quality of the coupling of a
casing with the bedrock

CBL=Cement Bounding Log

147
Vp, Vs estimation

With different shading,


It is often more visible

148
CBL, VDL tool

CBL: Cement Bonding Log:

VDL: Variable Density Log

149
BHC

Often the tool combines several


pairs of transmitter-recevers

-> Compensate for tool tilt


-> redundance and stacking

150
Sonic tools

151
Full Waveform tool
)

152
APS (SDT) tool

Array tool for receiver

Direct measurements for shear, compressional,


and Stoneley wave valuesy

153
Acoustic tool

154
Dipole Shear Sonic Imager (DSI)

Description
- Uses Monopole and crossed dipole
transmitters with 8 Receivers
to measure P-wave,
DSI S-wave & Stoneley
Dipole Shear
Sonic Imager
Applications
Synthetic seismograms
Lithology
Porosity

ODP Logging Services


Dipole Shear Sonic
The DSI has both
monopole and crossed-dipole transmitters

-> borehole compressional, shear and


Stoneley slownesses
-> Anisotropy

156
DSI data

157
Sonic Scanner
SonicScanner
provided
VP and VS
even for the
soft
sediments

158
4- Acoustic Logs
b) Acoustic imaging
Sonic imaging

160
UBI

161
UBI

162
UBI image

Often rougher than


FMI
but full 360°
image

163
UBI

164
Imaging tools

165
Imaging tools

166
5- Electromagnetic Logs
5- Electromagnetic log
a) Spontaneous Potential
Spontaneous Potential setting

Voltage measurement,
without any current
injected inside the formation

169
Diffusion potential
Ions diffuse because of gradient of concentrations.
As the ions move at different speeds, a difference in potential appears.

170
Streaming potential
Membrane potential
-> Clay favored

171
Spontaneous Potential
The shale has a different
Spontaneous Potential response.
It can also highlight oxides and
mineralization

Like gamma-ray,
SP could be use a fingerprint
for depth correlation,
but the signal is much more
distorted after casing

172
5- Electromagnetic log
b) Resistivity
5- Electromagnetic log
b) Resistivity

log
Resistivity measurement in borehole

175
Normal resistivity tools

176
Lateral resistivity tools

177
Focused resistivity tools

With focused system,


one samples directly
the formation
with a better
spatial resolution

178
Focalisation

En jouant avec
les électrodes
de garde, on
pénètre plus ou
moins loin dans
la formation

LL:laterolog
D = deep
S = shallow

179
Resistivity tools

180
Dual LateroLog (DLL)
Description
2 resistivity measurements
- deep (LLd)
- Shallow (LLs)
A focused current is passed between
2 electrodes and the potential drop
between them provides a measure
of the formation resistivity.
- DLL response 0.2 to 40 000 (Wm)

Applications
Porosity estimate (Archie’s equation)
Fracture porosity estimate
Outputs
DLL LLD Deep Laterolog (Wm)
LLS Shallow Laterolog (Wm)

S ODP Logging Services


Laterolog

182
Resistivity conclusion

183
5- Electromagnetic log
b) Resistivity

imaging
ARI
Azimuth resitivity imaging

Like a laterolog, but with


A full 360 images

(intermediate between
laterolog and FMI)

185
ARI

186
30 m
Formation Micro-Scanner (FMS)

High resolution electrical


micro resistivity
measurements

FMS
Formation
Micro- Scanner

0m

ODP Logging Services


Formation MicroScanner (FMS)

Image Processing

Core-Log Integration
• Improved lithology interpretation
• Better sample depth constraints
• Structural information

ODP Logging Services


FMI/FMS corrections
1 – stick and slip correction

2a – Normalization of value
on the whole scan

2b – Normalization of value
on a local short segment

189
1 2a 2b
FMS images
in basalts

Electrical image showing detailed


structures, such as vesicles and
fractures, within the subaerial erupted
basaltic lava flows.

Kerguelen Plateau Hole 1137

ODP Logging Services


FMS images
in basalts

Individual pebbles in the


volcaniclastic conglomerate as well
as in the sandy volcaniclastic
interbed are clearly seen in the FMS
image.

Kerguelen Plateau Hole 1137


ODP Logging Services
From plane to sinusoid…

Leg179: Indian Ocean gabbros


ODP Logging Services
5- Electromagnetic log
e) Résonance MagnétoNuncléraire
(the new magic tool!)
NMR: the swiss-army log

-H detection
- H chemical environement
- Porosity
- Permeability

194
Principe de la RMN
MRI (in french IRM) is sentitive to H

Skeleton

Fluid

195
196
Normal resistivity setting
N
B

This setting
is named
Normal-resistivity

M
A

Zone of influence

197