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Technical Report Part 2

Fire Safe Design metro tunnels


Rapporteur Metro Tunnels, Daniel Gabay, RATP

Technical review:
Richard Bettis (HSE), Arnaud Marchais (RATP), Ulla Eilersen (Sund & Bealt)

Workpackage Members
Bruno Brousse (CETU), Didier Lacroix (CETU), Paul Scott (ARUP), Niels Peter Hoj (COWI), Enrique Fernandez (Dragados), Gabriel Khoury (FSD), Yngve Anderberg (FSD)Walter Frey (GRS), Hermann Otremba (Hochtief), Daniel Gabay (RATP), Arnaud Marchais (RATP), Giorgio Micolitti (RFI)Ilse Roelants (Traficon), Esko Mikkola (VTT)

Table of contents

Table of Contents
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 3.2.9 3.3 List of collected guidelines Table of references for tunnels (national guidelines) Table of references for stations ( national guidelines) Analytical summaries (national guidelines) France Spain Germany USA Comprehensive list of safety measures Structural measures relevant to safety Safety equipment Structure & equipments, response to fire Matrix of guidelines contents Structural measures relevant to safety S1 - Emergency passenger exit for users S2 - Emergency access for rescue staff S3 Emergency access for firemen rescue in tunnel S3 Drainage Safety equipment E1 Smoke control ventilation E2 Smoke control ventilation ( in station) E3 Lighting E4 Signage (permanent/variable) E5 Communication and alarm system E6 Traffic regulation - monitoring equipments E7 Power supply E8 Fire suppression (fire fighting equipment) E9 Others Electrical power outlet Structure & equipment response to fire 286 287 288 290 290 290 291 291 292 292 292 293 294 295 295 295 297 298 298 298 301 302 303 303 309 310 311 313 313

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4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2

4.1.3

4.1.4 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.5 4.5.1

Appendix 1: Tables of contents of national guidelines for tunnels and stations translated into English France IT 98-300 du 8/07/1998- Instruction Technique Interministrielle relative la Scurit dans les tunnels ferroviaires (in French only). Arrt du 20 fvrier 1983 modifi portant approbation des rgles de scurit et des modalits de contrle applicables aux locaux accessibles au public, situs sur le domaine public du chemin de fer et rigoureusement indispensables l'exploitation de celui-ci Partie :Gare Arrt du 25 juin 1980 portant approbation des dispositions gnrales du rglement de scurit contre les risques dincendie et de panique dans les tablissements recevant du public. Decree n2003-425 of May 9, 2003 Decree relating to the safety of guided public transport Spain Normes techniques sobre seguretat contra incendis a la xarxa ferroviaria sotterrada a Catalunya Fire safety on Madrid metro-Fire protection system and resources Germany BOStrab-E-Bau-RL Guideline for electrical equipment concerning to the Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 23th August 1990 BOStrab-Tunnelbau-RL Guideline for the Construction of Tunnels concerning to the Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 30th April 1991 BOStrab Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (TramwayConstruction and Operation Guideline BOStrab) 11th December 1987 Finland Fire Safety of Buildings USA NFPA 130 Standard for Fixed Guide way Transit and Passenger Rail Systems

318 318 318

319

320 322 323 323 323 324 324 324 325 327 327 328 328

List of collected guidelines

Metro Tunnels
In accordance with the description of work package 3.1 and the discussions at the network meetings, work package shall include: Structural safety facilities Safety equipment Reaction/resistance to fire The work in WP3 will include both a listing of relevant guidelines and comparison of selected guidelines. The specificity of the metros concerns the two following special features: the existence of stations and the rolling stock. The stations The strategy of fire protection in metros is based on the couple station-tunnel because the most important issue is to evacuate people and that is done generally by the accesses of the station. In fact, most of the rolling stock used by the undertaking companies in the metro network are equipped with overriding emergency brake system. This system protect the driver from an un voluntary stop between two stations. Moreover the time the train is running in tunnel is generally small, less than two or three minutes and the stopping time in station is more or less about one minute. Then the probability to find a train stopped in tunnel in fire is very low. The rolling stock The rolling stock (R.S.) is dedicated to a metro line; it is only used for passenger transportation. Dangerous goods are not allowed. For this reason, the risk is more easily analysable due to the fact that the R.S. is homogeneous. The main objective is therefore to reduce the risk at the source, using very efficient standards for the train design and materials used for this construction. The FIT analysis is only an infrastructure analysis so various Rolling stock standards are not taken into account even if rolling stock is a key component of the global safety..

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List of collected guidelines

LIST OF COLLECTED GUIDELINES

The list of standard and rules are established: for the tunnel ( few standards) for the stations ( more standards) This list is very incomplete and that for 2 reasons: 1 each new project defines new concept in fire safety and can be considered as the best practices of the moment 2 each new project includes the fire design concept taking in account the rolling stock dedicated to this line. In France and in others countries, stations are establishment receiving people and have to be in accordance with specific rules. The first level is a list of the documents including: title, reference and date of the document the administrative status of the document in the concerned country The second level includes: an analytical summary of the contents stating the essential items for the topics compiled by WP3 the table of contents translated into English (as shown in appendix 1)

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List of collected guidelines

1.1 Table of references for tunnels (national guidelines) This table shows the countries where national guidelines were collected in the FIT approch
Country Finland Austria France Instruction technique interministrielle N 98 300 relative la scurit dans les tunnels ferroviaires 8/07/1998 Ministrial instruction Title / Issued by Fire safety of buildings Guideline for construction and operation of new rail tunnels Reference E1 Date 2002 12/1998 06/1999 Administrative status Regulations and guidelines Guideline Comments No specific Used as background where applicable

Dcret n2003-425 du 9 mai 2003 Dcret relatif la scurit des transports publics guids

09/05/2003

Decree

General rules for guided transport system

Arrt du 23 mai 2003 relatif aux dossiers de scurit des systmes de transport public guids urbains

23/05/03

Arrt

Safety in rail tunnels

8/07/1998

Ministerial instruction

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List of collected guidelines Country Germany Title / Issued by Guideline for construction and operation of tramways Guideline for the construction of Tunnels Guideline for electrical equipment Reference BO Strab Date 11/12/1987 Administrative status Guideline Comments

BO Strab tunnelbau BO Strab E -RLbau

30/04/1991 23/08/1990

Guideline Guideline

Italy

Spain USA

Fire prevention in metro Fire prevention in metro tunnels, tramways and cable railway Fire safety in rail and metro tunnels of Catalunia Fire safety and protection in the Madrid metro Fixed guideway transit and passenger rail systems Critical fan plant facilities design guideline 302

11/06/1988 5/04/1991 1997 03/2001 2000 1997

Decree Decree Standard Guideline Standard Guideline

NFP 130 NYCT

1.2 Table of references for stations ( national guidelines) This table shows the countries where national guidelines were collected in the FIT approch
Country Title / Issued by Reference Date Administrative status Comments

Finland

Fire safety of buildings

E1

2002

Regulations and guidelines

No specific Used as background wuhere applicable

Austria

Guideline for construction and operation of new rail tunnels

12/1998 06/1999

Guideline

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List of collected guidelines

Country France

Title / Issued by Arrt du 20 fvrier 1983 modifi portant approbation des rgles de scurit et des modalits de contrle applicables aux locaux accessibles au public, situs sur le domaine public du chemin de fer et rigoureusement indispensables lexploitation de celui-ci. Rglement de scurit contre les risques dincendie et de panique dans les tablissements recevant du public. Arrt modifi du 25 juin 1980

Reference

Date 20/02/1983

Administrative status Arrt

Comments

25/06/1980

arrt Decree

Usable in addition with Arrt of 20 /02/1983 General rules for guided transport system

09/05/2003 Dcret n2003-425 du 9 mai 2003 Dcret relatif la scurit des transports publics guids Germany Guideline for construction and operation of tramways Guideline for the construction of Tunnels Guideline for electrical equipment BO Strab BO Strab tunnelbau BO Strab E -RLbau 11/12/1987 30/04/1991 23/08/1990 Guideline Guideline Guideline

Italy

Spain USA

Fire prevention in metro Fire prevention in metro tunnels, tramways and cable railway Fire safety in rail and metro tunnels of Catalunia Fire safety and protection in the Madrid metro Fixed guideway transit and passenger rail systems Critical fan plant facilities design guideline 302

NFP 130 NYCT

11/06/1988 5/04 1991 1997 03/2001 2000 1997

Decree Decree Standard Guideline Standard Guideline

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Comprehensive list of safety measures

1.3 Analytical summaries (national guidelines)

1.3.1 France
1.3.1.1 IT 98-300 du 8/07/1998- Instruction Technique Interministrielle relative la Scurit dans les tunnels ferroviaires (in French only). Summary This document define the requirements for the tunnels according to the exploitation type (urban; urban and suburban ;passenger) and the length. It specifies all the requirements for lighting, ventilation, fire resistance and means of egress and rescue. 1.3.1.2 Arrt du 20 fvrier 1983 modifi portant approbation des rgles de scurit et des modalits de contrle applicables aux locaux accessibles au public, situs sur le domaine public du chemin de fer et rigoureusement indispensables l'exploitation de celui-ci, Summary: This is a comprehensive document concerning the classification of the station and the safety needs for design, equipments and rescue means. It defines also the obligations for the operator. 1.3.1.3 Arrt du 25 juin 1980 modifi portant approbation des dispositions gnrales du rglement de scurit contre les risques dincendie et de panique dans les tablissements recevant du public Summary: This is a comprehensive document in addition of the text ref 1312 for the design, equipments, and rescue services. 1.3.1.4 Dcret n2003-425 du 9 mai 2003 Dcret relatif la scurit des transports publics guids Summary: This is a comprehensive document covering all the subsystem of a transport system, from the beginning of the design to the end of use of the system.

1.3.2

Spain

1.3.2.1 Normes techniques sobre seguretat contra incendis a la xarxa ferroviaria sotterrada a Catalunya ( in catalan only) Summary : This document gives all the information concerning the carrying out of the emergency plan. 1.3.2.2 Fire safety on Madrid metro-Fire protection system and resources Summary : This document gives an overview of the activities and concept used in the Madrid Metro for fire safety.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

1.3.3

Germany

1.3.3.1 BOStrab-E-Bau-RLGuideline for electrical equipment concerning to the Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 23th August 1990 Summary: This guideline contains no fire safety relevant information except: Part 1 1.2.3 Emergency power supply Part 2 2.3 Safety/ Emergency Lighting 1.3.3.2 BOStrab-Tunnelbau-RL Guideline for the Construction of Tunnels concerning to the Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 30th April 1991 Summary: This document gives all the data concerning the construction of tunnels including safety requirements 1.3.3.3 BOStrab Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (TramwayConstruction and Operation Guideline BOStrab) 11th December 1987 Summary: This document gives all the information concerning the construction of the traffic system and vehicles, including also the operational aspects in normal or safety situations.

1.3.4

USA

1.3.4.1 NFPA 130 Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems Summary This standard now addresses fixed guide-way transit and passenger rail systems. The purpose of this standard is to establish minimum criteria that provide a reasonable degree of protection from fire and egress calculations.

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Comprehensive list of safety measures

COMPREHENSIVE LIST OF SAFETY MEASURES

2.1 Structural measures relevant to safety S1 Emergency passenger exit for users S11 Parallel escape tube S12 Emergency cross-passage S13 Shelter S14 Direct pedestrian emergency exit S2 Emergency access for rescue staff S21 Separate emergency vehicle gallery access S22 Cross passage vehicle access S23 Emergency lane S24 Direct pedestrian access (lateral, upstairs, shaft) S25 Turning area S26 Emergency siding S27 Firemen station at portals S3 Drainage of flammable liquids S31 Inclination of tunnel axis S32 Separate drainage systems S33 Liquid sump S34 Non porous surface course S4 Others 2.2 Safety equipment E1 Smoke control ventilation E 11 Natural ventilation by shafts E 12 Longitudinal E 13 Transversal E 14 Ventilation control sensors Opacity CO NOx Anemometers Counter pressure measurement at portals E2 Emergency exit and rescue access ventilation E3 Lighting measurement at portals E31 Emergency tunnel lighting E32 Marker light in tunnel E33 Emergency exit and rescue access lighting

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Matrix of guidelines contents

E4 Signage (permanent/variable) E41 Traffic signals outside the tunnel E42 Traffic signals inside the tunnel E43 Exit pedestrian signs E44 Rescue pedestrian signs E5 Communication and alarm system E51 Emergency telephone E52 Alarm push button (manual fire alarm) E53 Automatic alarm on equipments (exit doors, extinguisher, fire boxes) E54 Automatic incident detection E55 Fire/smoke detection (ventilation sensors or specific fire detection) E56 Radio rebroadcast tunnel users emergency team operator E57 Loudspeakers (in tunnel, in shelters) E6 Traffic regulation - monitoring equipments E61 Monitoring of traffic speed and intensity E63 Close circuit television E64 Remote control barriers E66 Thermographic portal detectors (trucks) E7 Power supply E8 Fire suppression (fire fighting equipment) E 81 First and fire fighting (extinguisher, hose-reels, etc ...) E82 Fire fighting media E84 Fixed fire suppression mitigation system (Sprinkler, Deluge) E9 Others 2.3 Structure & equipments, response to fire R1 Reaction to fire R2 Structure resistance to fire R3 Equipment resistance to fire cables fans

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Matrix of guidelines contents

MATRIX OF GUIDELINES CONTENTS

Detailed comparison between FRANCE, GERMANY and USA


Category Element Structural measures relevant to safety S11 Parallel escape tube S1 Emergency passenger exit for S12 Emergency cross-passage users S13 Shelter S14 Direct pedestrian emergency exit S21 Separate emergency vehicle gallery S2 Emergency access for rescue S22 Cross passage vehicle access S23 Emergency lane staff S24 Direct pedestrian access S25 Turning areas S27 Firemen station at portals S3 Drainage of flammable liquids S31 Inclination of tunnel axis S32 Separate drainage systems S33 Liquid sump S34 Non porous surface course Safety equipment E1 Smoke control ventilation E 11 Natural ventilation by shafts E 12 Longitudinal A1&2 E 13 Transversal O E 14 Ventilation control sensors E2 Emergency exit and rescue access ventilation E31 Emergency tunnel lighting A E3 Lighting E32 Marker light in tunnel O E33 Emergency exit & rescue access ligh A E41 Traffic signals outside the tunnel I E4 Signage E42 Traffic signals inside the tunnel I (permanent/ E43 Exit pedestrian signs A variable) E44 Rescue pedestrian signs A E51 Emergency telephone A1&2 E5 Communication E52 Alarm push button (manual fire alarmI O and alarm system E53 Automatic alarm on equipments E54 Automatic incident detection O E55 Fire/smoke detection O E56 Radio rebroadcast I E57 Loudspeakers (in tunnel, in shelters) E61 Monitoring of traffic speed and intensI E6 Traffic E63 Close circuit television O regulation E64 Remote control barriers monitoring E66 Thermographic portal detectors (truck equipments E7 Power supply A1&2 E 81 First aid fire fighting I E8 Fire A1&2 suppression (fire E82 Fire fighting media E84 Fixed fire suppression system fighting Structure & equipement, response to fire R1 Reaction to fire A R2 Structure resistance to fire A R3 Equipment resistance to fire A O O A O A I I A A A,3 I O O O A,3 I O A I A?3 A A A O O A O A I I A A A i O O O A I O A I A A A A

O I O I

A,3 O I O I

A O I O I

Legend: No available guidelines No requirements,little information Normative information Detailed information or models Reference to national guideline n

O A X ,n

Figure 1 Overview over types of requirements, amount of information and reference to the documents. Reference to

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.1 Structural measures relevant to safety

3.1.1 S1 - Emergency passenger exit for users

3.1.1.1 Role of the measure


To allow passengers to escape the danger zone the more rapidly.

3.1.1.2 Synthesis - comments


The concept for metros is very different. In fact all the evacuation concept is based on 3 main principles: the existence of stations very large with many corridors and accesses the short distance existing between the stations ( 4 to 6 hundred meters mean) the emergency brake override in tunnels So the last item signifies that the major fire safety case is located in the station with wide platforms and two or more exits . So, accordingly with the rolling stock and the evacuation mode, the pedestrian accesses are on the track side or on escape walkway.

3.1.1.3 Comparison S11 Parallel escape tube


NO in all metros

S12 Emergency cross-passage NO in all metros where twin bores are common only for American or Asian metros (very rare in Europe). In USA: twin bores, 244 meters distant or 381m in other tunnel (NFPA 130) S13 Shelters NO in all metros S 14 Direct pedestrian emergency exits YES, but only by the station accesses

3.1.2 S2 - Emergency access for rescue staff 3.1.2.1 Role of the measure
To allow rescue staff to arrive in the danger zone the more rapidly.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.1.2.2 Synthesis - comments


NO in normal tunnel in all the metros, but its possible by the station accesses and in terminus at the end of the tunnel.

3.1.2.3 Comparison S21 Separate emergency vehicle gallery access


NO, in all the metros

S22 Cross passage vehicle access NO, in all the metros, but: in case of incident without any damage on the track, firemen, under their responsibility, may use normal empty train to rescue passengers. S23 Emergency lane NO, in all the metros S24 Direct pedestrian access (lateral, upstairs, shaft) The direct pedestrian accesses are the same that for rescuing passengers. So, accordingly with the infrastructure, the rolling stock and the evacuation mode, the pedestrian accesses are on the track side or in special walkway.

The following table indicates maximum distance between two stations.


Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlamds Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Requirement; Maximum distance between stations/accesses 750m Max. 600 m------800m 600 m ----2140m ---------1000m 1700m 1717m ----1300m 800m 1000m; 615 m mean 600m 600m -----381m Comment

Between two stations or a station and a shaft

S25 Turning areas YES, if it is possible to consider the normal track area to change the traffic way every five or six stations as turning areas S26 Emergency siding (external for rail tunnels)

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Matrix of guidelines contents

In most of metro lines, to manage better the big number of trains, there are in several points of the line some special tracks: to park the trains except during peak hours in the normal tunnel to park and move or change the tracks in terminal point But, there are not special tracks to save train in fire or to stock special emergency train

S27 Firemen station at portals NO, in all the metros; but, for tunnel ended by stations, we can consider that each station is firemen station protected generally by ventilation against smoke coming from tunnels. Moreover, in the terminus , terminal tunnel are ended by special access with ladders going to the surface which are used like: emergency exit for drivers or operators emergency access or exit for firemen

3.1.3 S3 Emergency access for firemen rescue in tunnel 3.1.3.1 Role of the measure
To allow firemen to arrive close to the fire zone the more rapidly.

3.1.3.2 Synthesis - comments


For firemen rescue in tunnel, there are two possibilities: the use of walkway or track side or both the use of special firemen accesses for long tunnels In the following table, we consider only special firemen access.

3.1.3.3 Comparison tables


Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlamds Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Requirement; Emergency access for firemen rescue Comment No Fire brigade accesses Fire brigade access Fire brigade access, 800 meters distant Fire brigade access with places reserved, 600 meters distant Fire brigade access with places reserved, 500 meters distant No Fire brigade accesses Fire brigade accesses, 200 meters distant No Fire brigade accesses No Fire brigade accesses No Fire brigade accesses No Fire brigade accesses Fire brigade accesses No Fire brigade accesses, 500 meters distant Fire brigade accesses, 500 meters distant Fire brigade accesses No Fire brigade accesses --Fire brigade accesses, 762m

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.1.4 S3 Drainage 3.1.4.1 Role of the measure


To collect water and other products from the track under standard conditions and during fire intervention.

3.1.4.2 Synthesis - comments


For all the metros, there is not flammable liquids carried by wagons. In case of flammable liquids coming from the infrastructure, there are no special facilities but intervention of specialised firemen to evaluate risk and determine the operational procedure. By line , special sumps are needed to collect the water running in tunnel by infiltration or coming by natural or mechanical shafts. The number depends generally of the number of lower point of the tunnel profile. In some cases it may be use explosions detectors when you have got infiltration of flammable liquids from tanks outside (for example oil station industries).

3.1.4.3 Comparison S31 Inclination of tunnel axis


No requirement, but sometimes the discharge duct is located near the walls or in the middle of the tunnel

S32 Separate drainage systems NO in all the metros S33 Liquid sump In the workshops and in the maintenance areas for trains S34 Non porous surface course no in all the metros

3.2 Safety equipment

3.2.1 E1 Smoke control ventilation 3.2.1.1 Role of the measure


This measure allows passengers to escape from the dangerous zone to a safe area.

3.2.1.2 Synthesis - comments


As we consider underground stations and tunnels like a continuous underground environment, the role of ventilation is fundamental.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

So we find many systems like: tunnel ventilation + station ventilation (emergency + comfort or the same) only tunnel ventilation (close to the station or in the middle of each interstation ), allowing to treat also or not the station only station ventilation ( at each level or not: platform; mezzanine; corridors) allowing to treat also or not the tunnel ventilation in tunnel + air conditioning system in station air conditioning in station and tunnel More over, the ventilation can be carried out by mechanical fan or natural shafts.

The use of ventilation is very important but difficult. There is two main phases during an incident: from the beginning of the fire or incident to the decision taking after the decision taking During the first phase, the smoke spreading is due to: the stop of the train where incident takes place; this fact induces piston effect due to this train which is generally weak and in the direction of this running train the passing train in the other way at the normal speed; this fact induces important piston effect in opposite way of the stopping train the effect of the comfort ventilation in tunnel existing or not, working or not It appears rapidly that its not possible to forecast the smoke spread in this phase, except if a real time data system allow to know all the parameters of the incident situation. If this phase duration is not too long, the production of smoke is weak. During this second phase, the situation is steady and the smoke spreading direction prediction is possible. In metro tunnel, we find many systems: E 11 Natural - shafts E 12 Longitudinal (+ local blowing ? extraction ?) E 13 Transversal E 14 Ventilation control by sensors ( opacity, Co, NoX, anemometers, counter pressure measurement at portals)

3.2.1.3 Comparison tables E 11 - E 14 Smoke control ventilation


Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Requirement ----; noE14 E12 Comment, details + Overpressure in all shafts and emergency staircases. Direct smoke extraction from trains on station. Smoke from longitudinal ventilation are extracted through smoke-shafts in stations. 1or more fan per interstation; 60 to 120m3/s; reversible; one speed 1 fan per interstation; rversible;70m3/s; > one speed
.

Paris, France Rennes, France

No specific;E11; E12 ; noE14 No specific;E12; noE14

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Matrix of guidelines contents Network, Country Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlamds Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Requirement Specific; noE14 No specific; noE14 No specific; noE14 specific ;noE14 No specific; E 11; noE14 specific ; noE14 Specific; E 11 ;noE14 Specific; noE14 No specific ;E12; noE14 No specific; noE14 No specific; noE14 Comment, details ------------;1650m3/s *; reversible> one speed --------;-60 m3/S; reversible one speed --------;4001m3/s*;;reversible;> one speed --------;----------;no reversible;> one speed

Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA

No specific; noE14 No specific ;noE14 No specific; noE14 To provide safe conditions for passengers

-------;----------; no reversible;> one speed 2 fan per interstation;65 to 80 m3/s ;reversible;> one speed 2 to 6 fan per interstation; 120m3/s; reversible;> one speed 2 fan per interstation; 20 to 230 m3/s(average : 128 m3/s);no reversible; 1 or 2 speed; air speed 0,9m/s to 1,6m/s ------------; 50 to 100 m3/s;no reversible; one speed -------;4,2m3/s ;reversible; one speed 1 fan per interstation;.100m3/s; reversible;> one speed Defined by NFPA 130 : 3-2.2.2

* : for all the line

E 15 Command mode E15-1 Synthesis comments For this item, we consider two aspects of the command: HOW ? (151,152,153) WHO ? (154,155,156) The different command mode are : E151 automatic E152 manual E153 semi - automatic And the responsible manager: E154 Responsible technical staff E155 Responsible operating staff E156 Responsible fire brigade The table below shows all the data available.
Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden E151 automatic command mode E152 manual command mode E153 semi - automatic comm. mode E152E152 E151, E153 E151 E151, E152, E153 No E151, E152, E153 E154 Responsible technical staff E155 Responsible operating staff E156 Responsible fire brigade E154 coordinated with E156E155 E155, E156 E156 E154 E154 No E154, E155, E156-

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Matrix of guidelines contents Network, Country Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlamds Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA E151 automatic command mode E152 manual command mode E153 semi - automatic comm. mode -----; -----; -------; No 151and 152 E153 E152 E152and 153 E153 E152 and 153 E151 and 153 E 151, E152 E154 Responsible technical staff E155 Responsible operating staff E156 Responsible fire brigade -----; E156 ---------; No156,154 and 155 E155 E155 E154 and156 E155 and 156 E154 E155 ---

3.2.2 E2 Smoke control ventilation ( in station) 3.2.2.1 Role of the measure 3.2.2.2 Synthesis - comments
The requirements for emergency exit ventilation are only briefly described if at all. The command mode for the fans in station is generally the same than for the fans in tunnels. The network are sometimes heterogeneous because of the type of line (new, old), the crowd during the day or others. So, we consider the mean situation. To simplify we note in the following table: No E2 when there are not smoke control ventilation E2 in the other case Maximum airflow (in m3/s) when ventilation exists
Network, Country Ventilation in stations Brussels, Belgium No E2 E2 Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France No E2 Rennes, France E2 Helsinki, Finland E2 Prague, Czeck Rep. -------; Milan, Italy -----; Stockholm, Sweden No E2 Hamburg, Germany ------; Berlin, Germany -------; Munich, Germany -------; Rotterdam, Nether-----; amds Lisbon, Portugal E2( 2 to 4 by station) Barcelona, Spain E2(2 to 6 per station) Madrid, Spain E2(2 per station) Vienna, Austria E2(7 per station) Moscow, Russia E2( 2 per station) London, UK E2(1 per station) USA Only objectives Maximum airflow (in m3/s) Overpressure 16 850 to 1650* 60

3333*

80 120 30; airspeed max 1,6m/s 50 to 100 100 100 rmined for each project

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.2.3 E3 Lighting 3.2.3.1 Role of the measure


To provide suitable lighting level to the passengers to escape from the dangerous area.

3.2.3.2 Synthesis - comments


For most of metros, emergency exits are in the stations and are lighted by normal lighting and emergency lighting in case of fire or power supply failure. The list takes into account: E31 Emergency tunnel lighting E32 Marker light in tunnel E33 Emergency exit and rescue access lighting To simplify we note in the following table for all the data available: No E + number when there are not the proposed equipment E + number in the other case Or yes/no. When the data are known, we precise also the height (in cm) and the mean illumination (in lux ). In case of an emergency it is important to have sufficient lighting in the tunnel. The light will provide visibility for the possible evacuation and for the rescue operation. In case of a fire additional marker lights may indicate the route to the exits. Also in the escape routes (cross passages, escape tunnel etc.) it will be necessary to have sufficient light in order to have an effective evacuation.

3.2.3.3 Comparison tables E31 - E33 Tunnel lighting


Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netheramds Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Emergency tunnel lighting E31; E31; E31; E31; E31; E31; E31; E31; E31; E31; E31; E31; E31; No E31; No E31; E31; E31; E31; Normal lighting 24h/24 no yes yes no yes no no ----; ----; yes yes yes no no no ------Normal lighting during operating hours yes no Yes Yes yes ----; yes No No ---; no no Yes Yes No no no No ------Height (cm) 120 50 225 ---; 100 to300 ----; 4 to 6 ----; ----; 100 ---; ----; 320 ----; 25 ----; -----; 150 NFPA70 Mean illumination (lux) 2 1 2 60 5 2 100 3 >3 1 ----; 10 10 >1 2 to3 20

2,69

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.2.4 E4 Signage (permanent/variable) 3.2.4.1 Role of the measure


To provide information to escape from the dangerous zone.

3.2.4.2 Synthesis - comments


This analysis takes in account that for running trains it exists normal signalling. E41 Trafic signals outside the tunnel YES, but it is normal signalling for train movement E42 Trafic signals inside the tunnel YES, but it is normal signalling for train movement But also, in case of evacuation in tunnel, specific signage for people: E43 Escape direction signs E44 Escape routes To simplify we note in the following table for all the data available: No E + number when there are not the proposed equipment E + number in the other case

3.2.4.3 Comparison tables

E41- E44 Signage


Requirement No E 43; E44 E43; E44 E43; E44 E43; E44 E43; E44 E43; E44 E43; E44 E43; no E44 E43; E44 E43; E44 E43; E44 E43; no E44 E43; E44 E43; no E44 E43; E44 E43; E44 E43; E44 -------; E44 E43; E44 Comment

Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA

3.2.5 E5 Communication and alarm system 3.2.5.1 Role of the measure


To inform operators, operator staff, firemen or other rescue services to make easier their intervention and to facilitate communications between them

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3.2.5.2 Synthesis - comments


For the metros there are many intervention people: during the alert phase: 1. the driver in the train 2. the station operators 3. the passenger during the intervention phase: 1- the chief operator 2- the firemen responsible 3- the station operator 4- the staff 5- the police So we have to consider these communication means during these 2 phases. More we have to separate communication means and alarm system. E51- Communication For communication during the incident and the intervention of rescue services, many facilities can be used : E510 Normal telephone system E511 Emergency telephone E512 Leased line E513 Mobile line E514 Direct line E515 Satellite network E516 Underground radio system E517 Communication means brought In the three following tables during the two main phases : rescue bodies firemen police Emergency telephones are available for nearly all tunnel, but the distance and detailed arrangements vary. Generally there is an alarm to the control room, when safety equipment is being used and radio coverage in the tunnel. Otherwise there is no general synthesis in the national guidelines.

3.2.5.3 Comparison tables

E51 Rescue bodies


Alarm phase 510;514 510;511 510;514 510 510;511;514 510 510;514 510;511;514 510;511;514 510; 514 510; Intervention phase 510;517 510; 511;512;513;515;516;517 510;511;516 510 510;511; 510;517 513;516 510;511;512;513.516 510;511;512;516 511;512;513.516 510;511;513; Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands

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Matrix of guidelines contents Network, Country Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Alarm phase 510 510 510.516 510 510;511;514 ------; Defined for each metro, but all the system can be employed Intervention phase 510;511;516;517 510;511;516 516 510 510;511;513 -----;

E51 Firemen
Alarm phase 510;514 + computer based alarmsystem 510;511;514 510;514 510;514 510;511;514 514 510;514 510;511;514 510;511;514 510; 511;514 510; 510;514 510 510;511;514 510;514 510;514 ------; Intervention phase 511;516 510; 511;512;513;515;516;517 510;511;512;516;517 510;511;513;516 510;511; 511 513;516 510;511;512;513.516 510;511;513;516 511;512;513.516 510;511;513 510;511;516;517 510;516;517 516;517 510;516 510;511;513;516 -----;

Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA

E51 Police
Alarm phase 510;514 510;514 510;514 510 510;511;514 511 510;514 510;511;514 510;511;514 510; 514 510; 514 510;514 510 510 510;514 510;514 ------; Intervention phase 510;517 516 510; 511;512;513;515;516;517 510; 510 510;511; 511 513 510;511;512;513.516 510;511;516;517 511;512;513.516 510;511;513;517 510;511;516;517 510;511;516 516 510;516 510;511;513 -----;

Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlamds Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA

E52 and E53- Alarm means in public area of the station and in tunnel
.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.2.5.4 Role of the measure


To alarm operator staff to allow passengers to escape the danger zone the more rapidly and to stop the traffic if it is required.

3.2.5.5 Synthesis - comments


The alarm means are described and defined for each category of people located in station or tunnel (on the train). The two following tables precise the facilities used; the number used are defied in the list below : E52 passengers E521 Telephone E522 Emergency call E53 personal E531 Telephone E532 Emergency call E533 Radio( station) E534 Radio(tunnel) E535 TV-system E536 Push button alarm

3.2.5.6 Comparison tables

E52- E53 Alarm means in public areas of the station and in tunnel
Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Passengers 521 522 522 522 521;522 522 -----522 531;532 521;522 522 521;522 ----522 522 521;522 -----------Public adress system in stations only Personal 531 531, 532, 533, 534, 535 531;532;533;534;536 531;532;536 531;532;533;534;535;536 531;532;533;534;535;536 531;532;535 531;532;534 531;532;533;534;535 531;532;533;535;536 531;532;533;534;535;536 531;532;533;534;535;536 531;533; 531;532;533;534;;536 531;532;533;534; 536 531;532;533;534;535;536 531;535 531;532;533;534;535;536

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E52- E53 Where is the alarm addressed to


Control Centre yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes Fire Brigade yes yes no no yes yes no no no yes no yes no no ---; no yes yes no

Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA

E54 Automatic incident detection

3.2.5.7 Role of the measure


Fire detection to alarm operator staff to allow passengers to escape the dangerous zone quickly

3.2.5.8 Synthesis comments


In the metro, the fire risk is more important in station and for that ,detection is used in many technical rooms. E541 Automatic alarm on equipment (exit doors, extinguisher, fire boxes ...) No, in all metros 42 Automatic incident detection No, in all the metros E543 Fire/smoke detection (ventilation sensors or specific fire detection) Included in the next table: 5431 : storage rooms 5432 : sprinkler 5433 : garbage rooms 5434 : sprinkler 5435 : shops 5436 : sprinkler 5437 : escalator machine (U: upper end ; L: lower end ) 5438 : smoke detector 5439 : sprinkler

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3.2.5.9 Comparison table


Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA * : NFPA 130 2-7 5431 yes yes yes yes yes ---No yes yes yes No yes yes yes yes yes yes 5432 no yes --no no --no no yes yes no yes yes yes no --yes 5433 yes yes yes yes yes ---yes yes yes yes No No No yes yes ----yes 5434 no no ---No no --yes no no No No no no ?? No ----yes 5435 yes yes -----yes Yes ----yes yes yes yes No yes no yes ------No yes 5436 yes yes ---yes no -----yes Yes ----Yes No No No Yes ----No Yes 5437 U U;L U;L U;L U;L U;L ---L -------------------U;L ---U;L U;L 5438 Yes no no no Yes no no Yes no no no 5439 no no no Yes no no ---no no no no

yes

Yes

Yes

-----

E55Information to passengers

3.2.5.10 Role of the measure:


The means of information of the travellers make it possible to inform them of incident, to guide them in the stations and to direct them towards other direction in order to avoid an aggravation of the incident.

3.2.5.11

Synthesis comments

This point is very important because this transportation mode is often crowded and delay can present important other risk to create new accident. For that, we consider only 3 items: E551 passenger information E552 alternative means E553 alternative routes

3.2.5.12 Comparison table


Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Requirement: Information to passengers 551 ;no 552;553 551;552;553 551 ;552;553 551;552;553 551 ;no552;553 551;552;553 551 ;no 552;553 551;552;553 551;552;553 551;552;553 551;552;553 Comments

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Matrix of guidelines contents Network, Country Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Requirement: Information to passengers 551;552;553 551 ;no 552;553 551;552;553 551;552 ; 553 551;552 ;553 551;552;553 -----;----;------551;552;553 Comments

3.2.6 E6 Traffic regulation - monitoring equipments 3.2.6.1 Role of the measure


To allow to stop the trains if required near the incident location, to continue train traffic where it is possible and control and command all the equipment useful

3.2.6.2 Synthesis comments


In each metro network, a control and command centre allows to: know at each time the location of the trains stop each train in station if required know the energy distribution and cut if necessary E61 Monitoring of traffic speed and intensity YES in all the metros E63 Close circuit television See above E5 + exceptionally for trains when there is no driver. E64 Remote control barriers No (seeE61) E66 Thermographic portal detectors (trucks) No but in many cases, hot boxes detection The traffic regulation and monitoring is mainly a preventive measure. However, by monitoring the traffic, its speed and intensity as well as monitoring unwanted events, accidents and fires directly, the necessary actions to mitigate the consequences can be taken by the tunnel operator.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.2.6.3 Comparison table


Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Requirement: Emergency lighting Automatic activation no no no no no yes no no no no no no no no no no no yes Requirement: Emergency lighting Remote control centre yes no no no no yes yes yes yes yes no no yes yes ----; ----; yes yes

3.2.7 E7 Power supply 3.2.7.1 Role of the measure


Allow to keep all the emergency control and command in case of electrical power failure.

3.2.7.2 Synthesis - comments E700 traction current E701 lighting 3.2.7.3 Comparison table
Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia Requirement: Power supply 700;no701 700;701 700;701 No700;701 No700;701 700;701 No700;701 700;701 700;701 No700;701 700;701 700;701 700;no701 700;701 No700;701 700;701 Comment

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Matrix of guidelines contents Network, Country London, UK USA Requirement: Power supply ----:-----700;701 Comment

3.2.8 E8 Fire suppression (fire fighting equipment) 3.2.8.1 Role of the measure To reduce consequences of a fire 3.2.8.2 Synthesis - comments
In the metros, we are obliged to consider two adjacent spaces: the tunnel the station In tunnel, technical rooms with potential risk (electrical) can be installed. In stations,commercial rooms, mechanical equipment and technical rooms can be build. There are fire suppression devices in the public areas and in some places like technical or commercial rooms. These systems are used. E 81 First aid and fire fighting E810 : Extinguisher E811: hose-reels E812 : Hydrant

3.2.8.3 Comparaison tables E 81 First aid fire fighting (extinguisher, hose-reels, etc ...)
Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlamds Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Requirement: First Fire fighting equipment Comment No E810; No E811;E812 E810, E812 No E810 ;No E811; E812(100m) No E810 ;No E811 ;E812(60m) No E810;No E811;E812(100m) E810(10m distant) ;No E811;E812(50m) No E810; E811(50m) ;E812(36m) No E810;No E811;noE812 E810; E811(60m) ;E812(60m) E810; ;No E811;noE812 E810(45m distant);E811(120m) ;E812(120m) No E810;No E811;E812(60m) No E810;No E811;noE812 No E810;No E811;noE812 E810;No E811; E812(50m station distant) No E810;No E811 ;noE812 E810; ;No E811;E812(90m) No E810;No E811 ----------

E82 Fire fighting media

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3.2.8.4 Role of the measure To reduce time to extinguish fire. 3.2.8.5 Synthesis comments
The table give mainly the use of pipes in modern or old lines, the diameter of pipes( cm ). E 820: dry pipes E 821: wet pipes E 822: old network E 823 : platform E 824 : Communicating areas E 825: tunnels E826: dedicated fire brigade access E827: diameter

3.2.8.6 Comparison tables


Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Requirement: Fire fighting media 820;821;822;823;----;825;----; 820, 823, 825, 826 820;821;no822;823;824;825;826; 820;---;822;823;824;825;826; 820;821;822;no823;no824;825;826 ; 820;no821;no822;823;no824;no82 5;no826; 820;821;822;823;----;825;----; 820;821;822;823;824;no825;no826 ; 820;821;no822;823;no824;no825;n o826; 820;821;no822;823;---;825;826; 820;no821;822;823;no824;825;826 ; 820;821;822;823;824;825;---820;821;822;823;824;825;no826; 820;821;no822;823;no824;no825;n o826; 820;no821;822;823;824;no825;826 ; 820;821;822;823;824;825;826; 820;no821;822;823;---;825;826; 820;821;no822;823;824;825;826; See NFPA 130 Requirement: Diameter 100 100? 100 100 100 75 50-180 25 80-100 80 80 55-110 50 50 100;70;45 80 80-100 ----Comment

E84 Fixed fire suppression mitigation system (Sprinkler, Deluge)

Reference is made to the other chapter

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3.2.9 E9 Others Electrical power outlet 3.2.9.1 Role of the measure :


To allow to supply all the electrical facilities used by the firemen during their intervention.

3.2.9.2 Synthesis comments This table give also the distance between 2 outlets. 3.2.9.3 Comparison tables
Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Requirement: electrical power outlet E-9 E9 E-9 E-9 E-9 E-9 E-9 No E9 E-9 E-9 E-9 E-9 E-9 No E9 E-9 E-9 E-9 E-9 -----Requirement: distance (m) ---; 50 50 150 100 50 ----; 50 50 60 ---; 40 ---; ----; 50 50-100 60 ------Comment

3.3 Structure & equipment response to fire

3.3.1.1 Role of the measure


To avoid fire spreading in large spaces and prevent a catastrophe. For cables to avoid fire spreading in tunnel or stations where cables are very numerous and suppress risk of panic due to the toxicity. To avoid ventilation stop during the fire until the temperature is too high and during the evacuation phase.

3.3.1.2 Synthesis - comments


The item reaction to fire is very important. But, in many countries, national standard define all the requirements used to design a building according to his category : shops, theatre, stations, edifices receiving people, -------etc. So the comparison is not easy because standard test are not the same. The tunnel structure and the equipment should be able to resist the fire and perform safely for a period sufficient for the evacuation of the tunnel users. In addition the structure and the equipment should enable the fire fighting. Furthermore the structure and the equipment
.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

should be designed with the aim of minimising the economical damage from a fire.

3.3.1.3 Comparison tables R1 Reaction to fire


This table below gives the principle used for many rooms located in stations or in tunnels. R211 Public Areas R212 Non Public Areas R213 Waste storage room R214 Operating room R215 Ventilation rooms R216 Low-voltage room R217 Traction current switch R218 Substations R219 Signal boxes R220 Staff rooms
Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlamds Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA 211 yes no ----; ----; yes yes yes yes no yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 212 yes yes ----; ----; yes ---; yes yes no yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes 213 yes yes ----; ----; yes ---; yes yes yes yes no no yes yes yes ----; yes yes Requirement in specified location: 214 215 216 217 218 yes no yes yes yes no ----; ----; yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes no yes yes yes yes ----; ----; yes no yes yes yes yes ------; no no yes yes ---; yes yes yes ----; ----; yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes ----; ----; yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no ----; yes yes yes ----; ----; yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 219 no no ----; ----; ----; ---; yes yes yes yes no no ---; yes no ----; yes yes 220 ----; no ----; ----; -----; yes yes yes no yes yes no no yes no yes yes yes

R3 Equipment resistance to fire For the construction of a station or a tunnel it is necessary to be in accordance with specific fire resistance requirements.Theses requirements are defined for spaces and partition.or fire barrier. The table below gives the main requirements (resistance time in hour)used in underground spaces for separating walls: R30 Shop / public zone R31 Shop / shop R32 Shop / escape route R33 Doors between shop and public zone R34 Doors between shop and escape route R35 False ceilings R36 fire stops technical areas R37 separation technical room / shop

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And for technical rooms: R380 Walls R381 Doors R382 Floors R383 Ceilings

Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA * : See NFPA 130 2-2.3 30 1 1 -----1.5 2 0.5 --

Requirement Fire resistance (hours) in specified location: 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 380 381 382 0.5 1 1 0.5 1 No yes 1 0.5 1 1 ------1.5 2 0.5 1.5 1 ------1.5 2 0.5---1 -----1.5 1 0.5 ----0.5 -------------0.6 ---1 ------1.5 1 0.5 -----0.5 1 -------------0.6 -1 ------1.5 1 ------0.5 --------2 --1 ---yes --no --no yes yes --yes yes yes --yes ---yes --yes ---yes ---yes yes yes --yes yes yes ---yes ------yes --2 2 ---3 2 1 1.5 --1.5 -----1 2 ---1.5 ---1 2 ---1.5 1 1 0.5 0.5 to 1.5 0.5 ------1 1.5 ---1.5 ----

383 0.5

1.5 -0.5 -------0;7 5 ----

1.5 1 -----1 ---0.75 ---

1.5 -------------------

2 2 2 2 ---- ---3 3 2 2 1 1 1.5 1.5 0.5 0.5 to to 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1 ------- -----1 1 2 2 ---- ---0 1 -------

R31- Cables resistance to fire Numerous cable are existing according to the different functions: power, communication, control and command. So the structure is very important to analyse risk assessment. The next tables show the cables type used in each country / network and the laying mode A - Structure R310 PVC R311 Self - extinguishing R312 Halogen free R313 no smoke development R314 Toxicity R315 mineralization And Maintenance function(duration)
Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Structure no311;312;313;314;no315 311;312;313;314;315 312; 313 310;311;312;313;314;no 315 311;312;313;314; Function Duration(hour) Yes (0,5 to1,5) Yes (1) Yes (1) no Yes (1)
.

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Matrix of guidelines contents Network, Country Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA Structure No 310;311;312;313;314; 310;311;312;313 310;311;312;313;314;no315 No 310;311;312;313;314;315 310;311;312;NO 313;314;315 311;no 312;313;314; 311;312;313;314;no315 311;312;313;314;315 311;312;313;314; 310;311;312;313;314;315 -----; 311;312;313;314;no 315 NFPA 70 Function Duration(hour) no Yes (0,5) Yes (0,5) Yes (0,5?) Yes (0,25) Yes (1) Yes -----; Yes (1)

B Laying mode R3171 ground ducts R3172 concrete troughs R3173 metal supports R3174 plastic support R3175 conduits R3176 clamps R3177 individual R3178 bunched R3179 concealed All these items are classified by importance of use.
Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Berlin, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA 3171 3 1 2 1 3 2 2 5 3172 2 4 3 9 3173 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 3174 3175 3176 3177 3178 3179

9 5

7 4 3 4 4

5 6 3 3 3

6 6 2

3 8 3

1 5

1 3 4 1

10

10 4 3 3

3 2 6 2

9 1 7 4

10

8 9

2 6

1 8

5 5

9 7

R32-Fire resistance of fans The fire resistance of emergency fans is important and depends on the fire load , on the distance between fire and ventilation shaft, on the evacuation procedures. For the different network, the table give time and temperature resistance.

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Network, Country Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Paris, France Rennes, France Helsinki, Finland Prague, Czeck Rep. Milan, Italy Stockholm, Sweden Hamburg, Germany Munich, Germany Rotterdam, Netherlands Lisbon, Portugal Barcelona, Spain Madrid, Spain Vienna, Austria Moscow, Russia London, UK USA

Requirement: Resistant to fire temperature (C) (in station) 200 (400) 200 350 ----; ----; 300(100) ----; ----; ----; 300(300) 400(400) ----;(100) 250(60) ---;(0) 350(360) 250

Requirement: Duration (hour) 2 (1) 2 ----, -----; -----; 1,5 -----; -----; -----;(1,5) 1(1,5) 1(1) -----; 1,5 ---;(0,5) 1(1) 1

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Appendix 1

APPENDIX 1: TABLES OF CONTENTS OF NATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR TUNNELS AND STATIONS TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH

4.1 France

-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F- F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F--F-F-F-F-F-

4.1.1 IT 98-300 du 8/07/1998- Instruction Technique Interministrielle relative la Scurit dans les tunnels ferroviaires (in French only).
Contents 1Scope 1-1 field of applications 1-2 specification of the tunnels 1-3 classification of the tunnels 1-4 other specifications 1-4.1 urban lines 1-4.2 mixed traffic lines 1-4.3 passenger lines 1-4.4 rolling stock 1-4.5 dangerous goods 2Fire resistance and reaction 2-1 reaction to fire 2-2 fire resistance 2-2-1 fire resistance of principal structures 2-2-1-1 dug or submerged tunnels and covered trenches 2-2-1-2 tunnels integrated with an inhabited or occupied concrete structure 2-2-1-3 tunnels licensed for the passage of dangerous goods 2-2-1-4 light covers 2-2-2 fire resistance of secondary structures 2-2-2-1false ceilings and partition separating ventilation passages 2-2-2-2 technical premises and ventilation locations 3Communal requirements 3-1 civil engineering 3-1-1 emergency vehicle access and parking at tunnel portals 3-1-2 progress 3-1-3 safety of maintenance workers 3-2 general security equipment 3-2-1 electricity supply 3-2-2 lighting 3-2-3 identifying issues and distance/removal 3-2-4 fire fighting water supply 3-2-5 emergency service communication 3-2-6 resurfacing 3-2-7 call circuit 3-3 rail road security facilities 3-3-1 ground-train relationship 3-3-2 speed control system 3-3-3 lorries 4Particular requirements 4-1 civil engineering

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Appendix 1

4-1-1 4-1-2 4-1-3 4-1-4 4-1-5 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-4-1 4-4-2

system of approval emergency access in urban tunnels evacuation of passengers helicopter landing areas anti-recycling system of fumes in tunnel portals ventilation, smoke extraction limitation/separation of passengers and freight rolling stock equipment or arrangements of railroad security hot axle box detection

Total number of pages:18

4.1.2 Arrt du 20 fvrier 1983 modifi portant approbation des rgles de scurit et des modalits de contrle applicables aux locaux accessibles au public, situs sur le domaine public du chemin de fer et rigoureusement indispensables l'exploitation de celui-ci Partie :Gare
( in French only) Contents 1- Conditions and field of applications for safety rules 1-1 Conditions of application 1-2 Field of applications 1-3 Determination of people, category and activity of the stations 2-Technical rules concerning construction and internal facilities 2-1aerial stations 2-1-1 facilities concerning stations receiving more than 200 people 2-2 underground stations 2-2-1 stations with passage of goods transportation trains 2-2-3 stations with only passengers trains 3-3 mixed stations 3-Rescue means 3-1 aerial stations 3-2 underground stations 3-3 mixed stations 4- Complementary obligations for operators Number of pages:17 Summary: This is a comprehensive document concerning the classification of the station and the safety needs for design, equipments and rescue means. It defines also the obligations for the operator.

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4.1.3 Arrt du 25 juin 1980 portant approbation des dispositions gnrales du rglement de scurit contre les risques dincendie et de panique dans les tablissements recevant du public.
Decree of June 25, 1980 carrying approval of the general provisions of the safety regulations against the panic and fire hazards in the establishments receiving of the public ANALYTICAL TABLE DELIVER FIRST PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL THE ESTABLISHMENTS RECEIVING OF THE PUBLIC Single chapter Section I. - Classification of establishments Section II. - Adaptation of the safety requirements and particular cases of application of payment Section III. - Controls of establishments Section IV. - Work Section V. - Standardization DELIVER II PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO THE ESTABLISHMENTS OF THE FIRST FOUR CATEGORIES TITLE FIRST - General provisions Chapter first General information Section I. - Control of the establishments Section II. - Technical Checks Chapter II. - Construction. Section I. - Design and service road of the buildings Section II. - Insulation compared to the thirds Section III. - Fire resistance of the structures Section IV. - Covers Section V. - Frontages Section VI. - Interior Distribution and partitioning Section VII. - Buildings non accessible to the public, buildings at the particular risks Section VIII. - Conduits and sheaths Section IX. - Releases: Sub-section 1. General provisions Sub-section 2. Exits Sub-section 3. Staircases Section X. - nondismountable Platforms and steps Chapter III. - Interior Installations, decoration and furniture. General information Section I. - Coatings Section II. - Elements of decoration Section III. - Hangings, doors, curtains, nets curtain Section IV. - Large furniture, principal fitting, installation of light floors in superstructure Chapter IV. - Smoke clearing Chapter V. - Heating, ventilation, refrigeration air-conditioning, air conditioning and installation of domestic hot water. Section I. - General information

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Section II. - Apparatus Installation of of production of heat Section III. - Fuel storage Section IV. - (Repealed). Section V. - Heating with hot water, vapor and hot air Section VI. - Domestic hot water Section VII. - Treatment of air and ventilation Sub-section 1. Ventilation of comfort CH 29 to 40 Sub-section 2. Controlled mechanical ventilation CH 41 to 43 Section VIII. - Equipment self-contained of production, emission of heat CH 44 to 56 Section IX. - Maintenance and checks CH 57 and 58 Chapter VI. - Installations with fuel gases and liquefied hydrocarbons. Section I. - General information GZ 1 to 3 Section II. - Storage of liquefied hydrocarbons (commercial butane and propane) GZ 4 to 9 Section III. - Devices of relaxation and counting GZ 10 and 11 Section IV. - Conduits, switchgear and relaxation GZ 12 to 19 Section V. - Ventilation and ventilation of the buildings, evacuation of the products combustion GZ 20 to 25 Section VI. - Appliances GZ 26 Section VII. - Conformity, maintenance and checks of the installations of gas GZ 27 to 30 Chapter VII. - Electric Installations. Section I. - General information EL 1 to 4 Section II. - Rules of installation EL 5 to 11 Section III. - Installations of safety EL 12 to 17 Section IV. - Maintenance, exploitation and checks EL 18 and 19 Section V. - Installations temporary EL 20 to 23 Chapter VIII. Lighting. Section I. - General information: EC. 1 to 5 Section II. - Normal Lighting EC. 6 Section III. - Emergency Lighting EC. 7 to 15 Chapter IX. - Elevators escalators and travelators. Section I. - Elevators ACE 1 to 3 Section II. - Particular Provisions concerning the elevators intended for the evacuation of the physical handicapped people ACE 4 and 5 Section III. - Escalators and travelators ACE 6 and 7 Section IV. - Maintenance and checks ACE 8 to 11 Chapter X. - Installations of boiling apparatuses intended for the restoration. Applicability GC 1 Section I. - General information GC 2 to 11 Section II. - Great kitchen isolated from the buildings accessible to public GC 12 to 14 Section III. - Great kitchen open on a room accessible to public GC 15 Section IV. - Boiling apparatuses not forming part of a unit great kitchen but installed in the rooms accessible to public GC 16 and 17 Section V. - Maintenance and checks GC 18 and 19 Chapter XI. - Backup facilities against the fire. Section I. - General information ms 1 to 3 Section II. - Various means of extinction ms 4 to 40 Sub-section 1. Mouths, private posts of fire and water points ms 5 to 7 Sub-section 2. Connections and drains ms 8 to 13 Sub-section 3. Equipped fire valves ms 14 to 17 Sub-section 4. Columns dry ms 18 to 21
.

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Sub-section 5. Pipes fire it (known as wet standpipes) ms 22 to 24 Sub-section 6. Installations of automatic extinction or with hand drive operation ms 25 to 30 Sub-section 7. Specific outfalls ms 31 to 34 Sub-section 8. Irrigated structural components ms 35 to 37 Sub-section 9. Mobile apparatuses and various means ms 38 to 40 Section III. - Provisions aiming at facilitating the action of firemen ms 41 to 44 Section IV. - Service of fire protection ms 45 to 52 Section V. - System of fire protection (IF) ms 53 to 55 Sub-section 1. System of detection fire ms 56 to 58 Sub-section 2. System of setting in fire protection (SMSI) ms 59 and 60 Sub-section 3. Warning system ms 61 to 67 Sub-section 4. Maintenance and operating instructions ms 68 and 69 Section VI. - Alarm system ms 70 and 71 Section VII. - Maintenance, checks and controls ms 72 to 74

Number of pages : 185

4.1.4 Decree n2003-425 of May 9, 2003 Decree relating to the safety of guided public transport 4.1.4.1 TITLE Ist: GENERAL PRINCIPLES 4.1.4.2 CONTAIN II: SAFETY OF THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT GUIDED IN ILE-DE-FRANCE AND
IN A PERIMETER OF URBAN TRANSPORT.

Ier chapter: Design and realization. Design and building Section 1: General provisions. General rules Chapter II: Exploitation. Section 1: General provisions. General rules Chapter III: Control of the State. State control Chapter IV: Various provisions 4.1.4.3 CONTAIN III: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SYSTEMS. Mixt systems 4.1.4.4 CONTAIN IV: SKI LIFTS MENTIONED IN ARTICLE 45 of the LAW of JANUARY 9, 1985.
4.1.4.5 TITLE V: GUIDED SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT WITH TOURIST OR HISTORICAL VOCATION.

Ist chapter: Application field and definitions Chapter II: Safety requirements and authorization 4.1.4.6 CONTAIN VI: SPECIFIC MEASURES FOR OTHER PUBLIC GUIDED SYSTEMS OF
TRANSPORT. 4.1.4.7 CONTAIN VII: Miscellaneous

Number of pages: 9

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4.2 Spain

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4.2.1 Normes techniques sobre seguretat contra incendis a la xarxa ferroviaria sotterrada a Catalunya
(in catalan only) Contents 1- Objectives and field of applications 1-1 objective 1-2 field of application 1-3 terminology 2- Stations 2-1 stations 2-2 construction materials 2-3 ventilation and smoke exhaust 2-4 electrical fittings 2-5 escape routes 2-6 fire protection 2-7 Command and control centre 2-8 Maintenance 2-9 Disabled people 3- Total or partial underground line tunnel 3-1 preliminary 3-2 underground tunnel 4-Communications 4-1 preliminary 4-2 radio 4-3 telephone 4--4 megaphone 4-5 portable phone 4-6 recordings 5-Emergency plan 5-1 internal emergency plan 5-2 description 5-3 emergency communications Number of pages: 65

4.2.2 Fire safety on Madrid metro-Fire protection system and resources


Contents 1- introduction 2- fire protection system and resources 2-1developments and actions for intervening in emergency cases 2-2 fire protection systems and installations 2-3 systems assisting and supporting installation management and fire protection system operations 2-4 communication systems 2-5 installation and passenger safety 2-6 supervision, control and train operating safety

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2-7 personnel training and educational activities Number of pages: 21 4.3 Germany

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4.3.1 BOStrab-E-Bau-RL Guideline for electrical equipment concerning to the Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 23th August 1990
Contents This guideline contains no fire safety relevant information except: Part 1 1.2.3 Emergency power supply Part 2 2.3 Safety/Emergency Lighting

4.3.2 BOStrab-Tunnelbau-RL Guideline for the Construction of Tunnels concerning to the Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 30th April 1991 Contents 1. General 1.1 Scope 1.2 General demands 2. Design of tunnels 2.1 Driving tunnel 2.1.1 Tunnel cross section 2.1.2 Safety space 2.1.3 Emergency exits 2.2 Stations 2.2.1 Platforms 2.2.2 Connections 2.2.3 Information equipment 2.3 Tunnel drainage 2.4 Fire safety 2.4.1 Structural parts 2.4.2 Wall- and ceiling coverings, floors, built-in parts 2.4.3 Rooms with increased fire danger 2.4.4 Emergency/rescue ways in stations and operation areas 3. Construction work of tunnels 3.1 Basic demands 3.1.1 Structural calculations 3.1.2 Load assumptions 3.1.3 Environmental protection 3.1.4 Materials 3.1.5 Durability of tunnels 3.1.6 Minimum reinforcement 3.1.7 Sealing 3.1.8 Electrical measures 3.2 Cut and cover methods

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3.2.1 Excavation 3.2.1.1 Load assumptions for excavation/auxiliary bridges 3.2.1.2 Excavation support 3.2.1.3 Earth pressure reduction 3.2.1.4 Measurements 3.2.2 Tunnel 3.2.2.1 Earth pressure on tunnel 3.2.2.2 Dynamic loads 3.2.2.3 Influence of dewing salt 3.3 Tunnelling methods 3.3.1 Tunnel cross section 3.3.2 Structural analysis 3.3.3 Measurements 3.3.4 Safety measures during excavation

-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-

4.3.3 BOStrab Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (TramwayConstruction and Operation Guideline BOStrab) 11th December 1987 Contents First Chapter General 1 Scope and general definitions 2 Basic rules 3 General demands concerning the construction of the traffic system (track, buildings, signals) and the vehicles 4 Generals demands concerning the operation 5 Technical controlling 6 Exceptions Second Chapter Operational management 7 Contractor 8 Operation manager 9 Acknowledgement as operation manager Third Chapter Operational staff 10 General demands on operational staff 11 Special demands on driving staff 12 Education and examination of driving staff 13 Behaviour during service 14 Behaviour on disease Fourth Chapter Traffic System 15 Route planning 16 Track 17 Superstructure and road-bed 18 Definition of clear space 19 Safety space 20 Crossings 21 Signals 22 Train steering and controlling equipment
.

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23 Communication equipment 24 Power supply equipment 25 Power supply for vehicles equipment 26 Earth connection 27 Lighting equipment 28 Pipes 29 Bridges 30 Tunnels 31 Stations 32 Escalators Fifth Chapter Vehicles 33 Vehicle design 34 Vehicles measures 35 Wheels, wheel systems 36 Brakes 37 Driving power 38 Steering 39 Current collector 40 Signals 41 Track- and rail clearer 42 Couplings 43 Doors for users 44 Driver seat 45 Lighting, heating ventilation of vehicles 46 Information equipment 47 Writings and symbols 48 Emergency equipment Sixth Chapter Operation 49 Driving regulations 50 Speed limits 51 Signals 52 Usage of operational staff 53 Usage of driving staff on trains 54 Driving 55 Interaction with road traffic 56 Reaction on minor defects in trains 57 Maintenance of system and vehicles 58 Using and entering the track system an the vehicles 59 Endangering actions Seventh Chapter Guidelines of proceedings 60 Examination of design papers for constructions 61 Controlling of the construction process 62 Inspection and approval Eighth Chapter Infringement of regulations, final and interims guidelines 63 Infringement of regulations 64 Berlin clause

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65 Coming into force and interims guidelines

4.4 Finland

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4.4.1 Fire Safety of Buildings


This document is not specific to metros but used as background reference where applicable. Contents Definitions 1- General 1-1 Scope 1-2 The essential requirement 1-3 Verification of satisfaction of the requirement 1-4 Recognition of mutual acceptance 2- Fire load 2-1 Determination of the fire load 2-2 Fire load categories 3- Fire classes of buildings 3-1 Fire classes 3-2 Restriction on the size of buildings and of the number of occupants 4- Prevention of ignition 4-1 General requirements 5- Limiting the fire into the fire compartment 5-1 General requirements 5-2 Compartment area 6- Maintaining the load-bearing capacity of constructions 6-1 General requirements 6-2 Design based on classification 6-3 Design based on fire development 7- Prevention of spread of fire from a compartment 7-1 General requirements 7-2 Class requirements for fire-separating building elements 7-3 Fire doors, windows and shutters 7-4 Penetrations 7-5 Ventilation devices 7-6 Attics, voids, external walls and balconies 8- Limitation of fire development 8-1 General requirements 8-2 Internal surfaces 8-3 External walls 8-4 Roof coverings 9- Prevention of spread of fire to neighbouring buildings 9-1 General requirements 9-2 Fire walls 10- Evacuation in case of fire 10-1 General requirements 10-2 Distance to exits 10-3 Number of exits 10-4 Dimension of exits .

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10-5 Fire separation and construction of exits 10-6 Opening of doors and lighting and marking of exit routes 10-7 Calculation of evacuation time 11- Organisation of extinguishing and rescue operations 11-1 General requirements 11-2 Access to objects of extinguishing operations 11-3 Smoke detector and automatic fire alarm installation 11-4 Smoke extraction 11-5 Fire extinguishing devices 11-6 Limitation signs 11-7 Safety assessment Annex : Information for guidance 4.5 USA

USA-USA-USA-USA-USA-USA- USA-USA-USA-USA-USA-USA-USA-USA-USA-USA-USA-USA-USA USA-USA-

4.5.1 NFPA 130 Standard for Fixed Guide way Transit and Passenger Rail Systems
Contents 1- General 1-1Scope 1-2 purpose 1-3characteristics of fire safety 1-4 applications 1-5 1-5 definitions 2. Stations 2-1general 2-2 construction 2-3ventilation 2-4 wiring requirements 2-5means of egress 2-6 emergency lighting 2-7 fire protection 3. Trainways 3-1general 3-2 underground 3-3 surface 3-4 elevated 4. Emergency Ventilation System 4-1 general 4-2 design 4-3 emergency ventilation fires 4-4 devices 4-5 shafts 4-6 emergency ventilation system control / operations 4-7 power and wiring 5- Vehicles 5-1applicability 5-2 construction 5-3 electrical safety requirements 5-4 ventilation 5-5 emergency egress facilities

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5-6 protection 6- Vehicle Storage and Maintenance Areas 6-1 general 6-2 open areas 6-3 structures 6-4fire protection suppression system 6-5 operations and maintenance 7- Emergency Procedures 7-1general 7-2 emergencies 7-3emergency procedure plan 7-4 participating agencies 7-5 central supervising station 7-6liaison 7-7 command post 7-8 auxiliary command Communications post 8-1general 8-2 central supervising station command post relationship 8-3radiocommunication 8-4telephone 8-5 portable telephone and lines 8-6messenger service 8-7public address system 8-8portable powered speakers Appendix A Explanatory material Appendix B Ventilation Appendix C Emergency egress Appendix D Suggested test procedures for fire hazard assessment Appendix E Creepage distance Appendix F Referenced Publications Total number of pages:38 pages

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