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The science of fairy tales : an inquiry into fairy mythology / by Edwin Sidney Hartland,...

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Hartland, Edwin Sydney (1848-1927). The science of fairy tales : an inquiry into fairy mythology / by Edwin Sidney Hartland,.... 1891.

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t1 ~~IRY











l,. a I 1 i ~y' i:1:

THE manner the

chief~ott~c~ acceptable to the


volume who



readers principles popular

of application guide investigations the most remarkable stitions the more 1 have trations of the Celtic discussed

are and methods to the

in exhibit, not specialists, which a few

into stories and



embodying Teutonic already But to




peoples. been dealt even in additional

superSome of with by cases illus-

competent sometimes of the

inquirers. been able conclusions



arrived previously at, and 1 hope, to carry the argument a step or occasionally, two ifurther than had been done before. 1 have thus tried to render the following not wholly valueless pages to students. A some Review considerable the portion articles and of the which extent incorporates I contributed to But book the The substance of a in have whose



Archaeological have been to that

wider process been attained. My

and it is hoped re-written and more accurate generalizations are has due been to the various in friends the

thanks hearty assistance generous and


to Professor Dr. George especially of the veteran and antiquary North, who have not measured their on behalf Fretton, pains of one whose claim on them was a common desire only to pry into the recesses of the past. 1 am under still

footnotes, the Stephens, Mr. W. G.



obligations deeper 83 readily acceded and proof-sheets, of the

greatest counsel and suggestions him than once enabled through 1 have do so to the press. been anxious verify doubt

who has F.S.A., t Mr. G. L. Gomme, read the that he would to my request been have repeatedly whose suggestions Ellis for the and to Mr. Havelock value which to give his experience as the book reader has was who more passing cares to

to enable


some of but statement made every reference. no have them Many books escaped the in similar cases and and are cited again, again for the in searching wasted time is frequently reader's its title and of a book, so as to ascertain first mention other times particulars. To avoid the trouble 1 have 1 have in this way, put experienced made use authorities a list of the principal an Appendix title them they are by which by the short of, indicating sufficient and giving bibliographical cited in the footnotes, and Classics to be identified. to enable them details I have not thought are in every one's hands works which it necessary

so many in together

to include
COURT, <?~

in the

list. E. S. H.


H. r
























R 0F






XI. 283

















The art of story-telUngUmty of human imaginationDennition of value of Fairy Tales-Variable and the Tradition-Story-telling various peoples-The story-teller among connection of folk-tales with folk-songs-Continuity of TraditionNeed o~ accuracy and good faith in reporting stories. cultivated in all ages and of which we have any it record is the outcome of an instinct in the implanted universally human mind. of a story the savage By means philoaccounts for his own existence sopher and that of all the which surround phenomena him. With a story the mothers of the wildest tribes awe their little ones into or rouse them into silence, And the weary delight. hunters the long silence of a desert beguile with night the mirth and wonders of a tale. T he imagination is not less fruitful in the higher races and, passing through forms sometimes more, sometimes the art of less, serious, unites with the kindred story-telling arts of dance and to form the epic or the song or develops drama, under the influences of modern complex life into the prose and the novel. romance These in their various ways are its ultimate and th lofticsf expression has genius


of story-telling all nations among









found beauty. But


fitter in

vehicle the most


convey refined



of truth


of the imaginaproducts tion the same substances are found which compose the rudest. been Something has, of course, in the dropped and where we can examine the process process stage by we can discern the point stage, whereat each successive portion gained. development has To been purged the change of living out into away. figure, it But much the has also been is like continuous


t first, by and things, amorphous monstrous by shooting and growths, unwieldy anon into half-organized, and beautiful settling compact of subtlest and most divine shapes power But suggestion. the last state contains more than was either nothing obvious Man's like imagination, other known works every the power, by fixed laws, and operation existence of which it is possible to trace i and it works the same upon external material,-the and moral universe, the mental constitution of man and his social relations. diverse as may seem at first Hence, the cultured sight the results among and the Europeans debased the philosophical Hottentots, Hindoos and the Red Indians of the Far West, on a close they present, features examination, identical. The outlines absolutely of a story-plot are wilder among savage races and more unconnned but one a vast unhidebound they are often corpse, that bears no distant resemblance to forms w think more reasonable we find it difficult only because to let ourselves down to the level of and savage ignorance, to lay aside the data of thought which have been won for us by the efforts of civilization. painful The incidents, all due allowance for these making differences and those of climate and are not physical surroundings, merely are often alike they It cannot, of indistinguishable. be expected that the characters course, of the actors in these stories will be drawn attention will be paid to with them. skill, or indeed that any is a or latent in the first.






late fact

development. that we have state distinguished simplicity to some of and

True to of and extent do


not ought with barbarous the


overlook ideals. like

the In the a

rudimentary are arts, but by account inconsistent beware conscious culture

civilization not by violence for what But


subtlety and of contrast. seems we must with in to above that

complexity, This may us repulsive, all things of degree advanced

or impossible. the crediting art which under is literary

story-teller only possible influences.


the reIndeed, searches which are constantly the history of extending human civilization into a remoter and remoter past, go to show that everywhere is an inevitable and storytelling unconscious wholly as we shall growth, probably arising, see in the next out of narratives chapter, believed to record actual events. 1 need not stop now to illustrate this position, which is no new one, and the main lines of which 1 hope will be rendered in the course of this volume. apparent But it is necessary, to point out that, perhaps, these although are the premises from which 1 start, the limitations imposed by a work of the size and pretensions of this one will not allow me to traverse more than a very small corner of the field here to view. It is, therefore, opened not to attempt my intention of the any formai proof foregoing Rather 1 hope generalizations. that if any reader deem it proper to require the complete evidence on which they rest, he will be led to further investigations on his own behalf. His feet, 1 can promise him, will wander along where flowery paths, will every winding him fresh bring and every surprises, discover new step sources of enjoyment. The stories with which we shall deal in the following are vaguely called pages Tales. These Fairy we may define to be narratives not in their present Traditionary form relating to beings held to be divine, nor to cosmoor national logical but in which the supernatural events,






plays such based from

an essential as those

part. of Hans

It will Andersen are and it from

be seen and

that Lord




Fairy be said both

they often Tales as thus

upon defined. would the of

tradition, Much no doubt concerning be

Brabourne, are excluded might these a of

brilliant thing Fairy with

interesting But works. different The


widely Tales.

literary scientific

criticism, treatment is concerned


and not with It finds its tradition, in the stories which have descended from mouth subjects to mouth from an unknown and if reference be past made of conscious to works occasionally literary art, the value of such works is not in the art they display, but the of the they yield and certain forms at periods of dtermination evidence, evidence and fixes priates this they are inferior in existence of givcn tales capable approeven in in places approximately in a word, which a pre-existing tradition. But

Tales Fairy literature.

where graphical works, of the utmost importance meaning Literature, the student of Folk-tales. in short, of Fairy

to historical or topoimportance we frequently meet with records in considering the origin and

of whatever kind, is of no value to as that is here used, Tales, phrase save as a witness to Tradition. Tradition itself, however, in value, if regard bc had alone to purity is variable and For a tribe be so isolated originality. may conceivably that that it is improbable influence can have any outside for a long series of gnrations affected its traditions or on the other hand it

of nations. may be in the highway It may be physically and unalloyed of a type unique by or it may be the progeny of a mingling of blood foreign Now it is obvious all the races on the earth. that if we the wide desire to reason or the concerning distribution, innate story, and the necessary testimony or of any any idea, of a given tribe or class of men will to its segregation from other tribes we can with most probability exclude character of

vary in proportion where and classes





there as a factor in its mental influence outside evolution, for the of the greatest value evidence we shall gather of our argument. purpose the art of storyhave some nations developed Again since some of than more others, stages telling highly to this development than are more favourable civilization others, further various and all nations may, are not therefore, in the be same put question stage. whether The these

may not stages of devlopment of manner in story-telling-differences if they do not cause, deep-seated dicate, of tlie traditions which the themselves. requires very words To a people in stories

differences produce which inmay differences in the make

value clear their

my meaning its story-tellers to relate in which been they have and the In allows least no deviation, blemish possible

from time immemorial, conveyed its traditions with will preserve and the least possible change. in

and is permitted repetition atone for want of memory, tradition Such latitude become uncertain. encouraged part c/b~, may the be worth mode of We in of, knowledge, by different and inseparable organization or the stage while to social the from, and customs

as latitude proportion invention is allowed to will be change and

may A states. sum which

differently social state is total we arts, call the of

of f~x'Ab~, a short spend and in of endeavour telling, differences Celtic the different

of a people. It time in examining requirements stages to and of appreciate to ascertain the value we find has received of civilithe in of a a

story-teller zation. differences

story-telling nations among shall the how first thus manner far these to some the

terms general the traditions. If we turn social state


of the art of


in which

a high degree of attention. to whom the science of

J. F. Campbell, Folklore owes an incalculable describes a condition of things in the Western debt, favourable to the cultivation of Highlands extremely

story-telling The late Mr.






folk-tales. collectors, and South English they other nights can he







assiduous of Barra

most says that Uist are Roman or write. borrowed.much

of the


or to read have

unable to speak Catholics, Hence it is improbable that from the literature of in the long winter people is very common. They of those who are reputed stories frequently relate to whose existence folk are English British in its army the emotions of the

gather to be good tale-tellers. Their th exploits of the Ossianic of heroes, convinced as ordinary they are as much of the most reciters existence recent wars. and deeds the of the tales During

nations. these Among the recitation of tales in crowds at the houses

are occasionally and so also very strongly excited, are those of the listeners, almost tears at one shedding and giving at another. A time, way to loud laughter in all the extravagance good many of them firmly believe of thse stories." Another of his a selfcollectors, educated workman in the employ of the Duke of Argyll, of of of more than writing thirty years ago to him, speaks what used to take Lomond place about Loch upwards is to say, about the beginning fifty years before-that the the present winter century. The old people other then would

each traditional evenings telling These concerned and tribal raids and chiefly freebooters, and included of the manners, dress quarrels, descriptions and weapons of their ancestors and the hardships they had to endure. The youngsters lso would and gather, amuse themselves with games or the telling of tales of a to story-tellers appear have been the tailors and shoemakers, who were literally journeymen, going from house to house in search of work. As they travelled numbers of about, they picked up great tales, made which the they telling their winter would repeated of these and as tales, and the country listening people to hear more romantic cast. But the chief

pass stories.

them, of them

night's amusement, In these tales be lost."

scarcely any part Gaelic words were





out of ordinary dropped parlance, of carefui adherence to the ancient giving proof 1 forms and the writer records that the previous he had year heard a story told identical with one he had heard forty miles away and years before from a digrent m~n thirty this story contained old Gaelic words the of meaning which the teller did not know. A gamekeeper from Ross-shire also testified to similar customs at his native the assemblies of the young to hear place their elders on winter the tales repeat, from nights, they had learned their fathers before and the renown of the trathem, tailor and shoemaker. When a stranger came to velling the village it was the signal for a general at the gathering house where he stayed, to listen to his tales. The goodman of the house usually with some favourite began tale, and the stranger was expected to do the rest. It was a common Th first tale by the goodman, and saying tales to daylight The minister, by the guest." however, came to the village in 1830, and the schoolmaster soon with followed, these delightful Not the inevitable times.' result of putting an end to





is the account different very given by M. Luzel of the F.M/ in which he has often taken in part In the farmhouse after the evening Brittany. lonely meal prayers are said, and the life in Breton of the saint of the all the assemble day with the read, family servants and labourers around the old-fashioned hearth, where the fire of oakcn the logs spirts and blazes, defying wind and the rain or snow without. The talk is of the oxen and the horses and the work of the season. The women are at their wheels and while they spin they sing love ditties, or ballads of more or martial tone. tragic The children about tired of their running grow games, and of the tedious conversation of their and elders, demand a tale, it matters not what, of giants, or goblins, or witches-nay, even of ghosts. They are soon gratified Campbe!), vol. i. pp. xii. xiv. Ivii.






be the narrator, man, as frequently happens, he is fortified and rewarded for the toil by a mug of cider One such depositary of tradition constantly replenished. is described as a blind a veritable Homer in beggar, wooden with an inexhaustible of songs shoon, memory and tales of every kind. He was welcome everywhere, in the well-to-do farmhouse as in the humble cottage. He stayed as long as he pleased, sometimes for whole and it was with weeks reluctance that he was allowed to leave in order to become for a time the charm of another where he was always with imfireside, awaited l patience. M. Braga, the Portuguese an old French quotes scholar, le Chapelain, Jean as recording a custom in Norsimilar to that of Ross-shire, that mandy the guest was to repay always expected tales or hospitality by telling to his host. And he states singing songs that the frcm Portugal to Brazil took this custom emigrants with them. In Gascony M. Arnaudin formed his collection of writer, a few years at gatherings like those ago by assisting in Brittany, as well as at marriages just described and at various festivals.2 agricultural Similar customs existed in Wales within living and in remote districts memory, exist they probably If they do not now continue in England, to-day. it is at least certain that our forefathers did not differ in this from their A writer respect of the sevenneighbours. teenth in enumerating the causes of upholding century, th damnable doctrine of witcheraft," mentions Old wives' and chatting of many false fables, who sit talking old stories of Witches and Fairies and Robin Goodand walking and the dead walking fellow, spirits again all of which fancies are more lying people naturally inclined to Hstcn after than to the Scriptures." And if we go further back we find in chapter clv. of the Luzel, "Vei)Ies,w. 2 Introduction to Romero, p. x. Arnaudin, p. 5. tales


if an old





an family inis

printed teresting

editions picture


th round time

"Gesta life. the

Romanorum" The stories. the all higher classes, whole fire in the winter

of domestic

portrayed gathering and beguiling the informed was, was the the on indeed, but England The Ages.

by telling among among

evenings Such we are classes. not the It only in Middle

custom custom the

Paul antiquary, Lacroix, of wakes, or evening speaks where parties, fairy tales and other were as having a very superstitions propagated, ancient He states that origin. they are still (as we have seen in Brittany and Gascony) the custom in already most of th French and that formed provinces, they events in the private lives of the peasants.~ important It is difficult to sever the occasion and mode of the from the character of the teller tale-telling nor would it be wise to do so. And in this connection it is interesting to pause for Agatuzza so large Messia, a number and whom a moment on the old woman of the stories Dr. in Pitr's his from of description whom he derived magnificent col-


Continent, French


lection, am tempted but

beautiful," an phrases, divine her

he regarded as a model 1 story-teller. to quote his account at length. Anything he says, she has facile speech, efficacious attractive manner of telling, whence you

and the sallies of her extraordinary memory natural wit. Messia reckons her seventy already years, and is a mother, and grandmother, great grandmother. As a child, she was told an infinity by her grandmother of tales which she had learned from her mother, and she in turn from her grandfather she had a good memory and never them. There are women who have forgot heard hundreds of tales and remember and there none are others who, though have not they remember them, the grace of narration. her companions of the Among Thomas Ady, "A Candte in the Dark" (1656) (Cf. Aubrey, Romaines," Gesta Romanorum," p. 67) Introd., p. xxv. (E.E.T.S.); Lacroix, p, 100.







a quarter of Palermo,'Messia the reputaBorgo, enjoyed tion of a fine story-teller and th more one heard her, the more one desired to hear. Almost half a century ago she was obliged to go with her husband to Messina, and lived there some time: a circumstance, this, worthy of never note, since our countrywomen go away from their own district save from the gravest necessity. Returning to her native she spoke of things of which the home, could not speak she spoke neighbourhood which no one could not ~Citade!, a fortress take, even the Turks she spoke of the Pharos of themselves which was beautiful, but dangerous for sailors Messina, she spoke of Reggio in Calabria, which, facing the walls of Messina, seemed to wish to touch hands with them and she remembered and mimicked the pronunciation of the Milazzesi, who spoke, Messia said, so curiously as to make one laugh. AU these reminiscences have remained most vivid in her memory. She cannot but she read, knows so many that no one else knows, and things gossips of the them with a propriety that is a pleasure repeats of tongue to hear. This is a characteristic to which 1 call my readers' attention. If the tale turns upon a vessel which has to make a voyage, she utters, without remarking it, or without which seamen and seeming seamen only are acquainted so to do with. and and so, sailors' those who If the takes and words phrases, have to do with heroine arrives, poor Messia's there, of the

desolate, is language

at a baker's

that that completely you would believe that the baking of bread had been her whereas at Palermo this occupation, an ordinary business, one in the families of the large and small communes of the island, is that of professional bakers As a alone. woman Messia was a tailoress when through toil young her sight became she turned to sewing winter weakened, But in the midst of this work, whereby she earns quilts. her living, she finds time for the fulfilment of her religious duties every day, winter and summer, in rain or snow,

a place of the trade






feast Whatever she goes td her prayers. gloaming she is solicitous to attend in the ohurch, is celebrated dell' Ammiraglio she is at the Ponte praying Monday, for th Souls of the Beheaded Wednesday, you find her in the at San Giuseppe Providenza keeping the festival of the Madonna she goes to San Francesco every Friday and di Paola, beads reciting by the way her accustomed to go to the when she if one ought Saturday pass and there another does not dei Cappuccini, Madonna can understand a devotion which none with she prays della who and collect to which grown before sincerity, the cold has held from her man nor not it. experienced me in her arms her mouth the name has Messia hence many and She to the lost witnessed 1 have beautiful has my birth been able to traditions to the

is appended. the tales she had told her narration

repeated child thirty

a shade

years of the old

and grce. The reader will only find vivacity, but Messia's narration conand naked words of the movement sists, more than in words, in the restless of the arms, in the gestures of the eyes, in the waving which the room, whole person, bends, rises, walks around her voice now and is again making soft, now uplifted, as it pornow sweet, now hoarse, fearful, and the action personages, trays the voices of the various 1 which these are performing." a woman as is here Such described is a born storyin the tales attributed and her art, as exhibited to teller excited, now her in Dr. Pitr's in Women point possible of the modern narrators of nursery tales. Most that of the brothers Grimm downwards, tions, from In the Panjab, their choicest treasures to women. ever, Captain Temple of telling power tales, to exercise after sunset, done and they huddle ascribes which when together he the to children they states collection, tradition. reaches the highest perhaps are usually the best collecowe how-

marvellous are not slow meal beneath is

scanty evening in their little beds

Pitre, vol. iv. p. xvii.








twinkling sings, and the Rev. mere Hinton apparently

stars, village Knowles'




air cools, at imaginary was gathered

dogs bark collection men and

the mosquitb foes. The in Cash-

from from the the

contributed, the barber that being influence.' But from


boys and

and they

day-labourer, should bc entirely told

but all classes only the pandit down to the only qualification free from European are far

nursery being and as

tales the

Savage is unknown, records

only barbarous are

for amusement simply kind of traditional to whom the art


narrative. of writing

professional believed to and their

for such dependent upon memory have of their and sometimes a they past class arises to preserve and repeat the stories embody these records. the is Among priests are have the the from are also Maoris great them

depositaries that Mr. White their collections. conversant filled with ancient The

kinsmen Polynesian of tradition. It and But the the the Rev.

principally W. W. Gill and and and deeds such chiefs their

obtained fully are




narratives to them,


difficulty of understanding quently on or

the relating of following

speeches with quotations from of their forefathers.

him addressing first induced, Governor results are

and conseallusions, the meaning of the chiefs when behalf of their fellow-countrymen, Sir George Grey, the inquiries on when whose


of New

to make Zealand, embodied in his work The Eskimo of

Mythology. end of the the ancient

divide world, and the modern.

Greenland, their tales into The former

Polynesian at the other two may classes be con-

Dr. Rink or less the property sidered, says, as more of the whole while the latter are limited to certain nation, or even to certain who daim parts of the country, people to be akin to one another. The art of telling these tales in this is pratised by certain persons specially gifted "Wide-awake Stories," p. Knowles, p. ix.





13 people there may favoured

respect generally with the

and be art

particularly besides several tolerable ~co/<'Mr, narrators." It is the narrators of the ancient tales who the more recent stories compose by picking up the occurrences and adventures of their latest ancestors, handed down of the occasionally by some old members and and them family, connecting embellishing by a addition of the supernatural, for which large purpose resort is always had to the same traditional and mystic I elements of the ancient folklore." of the of story-telling has not everywhere given rise to a professional class. When the Malagasy receive friends at their themselves recount the houses, they deeds of their which are handed down ancestors, from father to son, and form the principal of convertopic sation. Island So, too, the savage Ahts of Vancouver sit <' and the round their fires singing and chatting older i and bragging men, we are told, lying after the manner of story-tellers, recount their fcats in or the war, to a listening Mr. chase, Im Thurn group." has art drawn of the spend interesting Indian tribes the an picture of Guiana. of the of the The day habits at if at night home, men, in their But the

a hundred among found one or two

smoking, such articles has at day have

greater part and leisurely of last

hammocks, or some fashioning arrow-heads, use or of ornament. When the come to an and the end, women

wood gathered for together the enough nres the night, during themselves they, too, throw into their and all talk Till hammocks far into together. the the men tell endless night sometimes stories, droning them out in a sort of monotonous sometimes chant, them with a startling delivering amount of emphasis and gesticulation. The men add to boys and younger the noise by marching round the houses, horns blowing White, vol. i. p. vi. Sir G. Grey, p. vii. Gill, p. xx. Rink, PP. S.3, 85.







playing obtained in people


on an

flutes. Indian

There settlement

is but by

little night.





as dogs for brief sleep, do, without dimculty, but frequently and indifferently periods, by day or night as may be convenient. The at men, having siept intervals the day, do not need during the night-rest women are not considered in the matter. At last, in the of their the party very middle stories, drops off to sleep and all is quiet for a short while. some woman Presently the gets other up to renew fires, or to see to some domestic work. Roused she makes, by the noise which all the dogs of the settlement break a chorus into of barks to and scream. yelps. The This men wakes turn in the who children, their hammocks, begin and

resume their from the immediately stories, apparently at which left off, and as if they had never point they ceased. This time it is but a short to the interruption silence of the night and before long everything again becomes was the there are very middle some hours of quiet. But about an hour before perhaps some of the men to go out to hunt, dawn, having wake everybody about them effectually by playing flutes, or beating as they go to bathe before the drums, leaving I settlement." But from ment, were the the folk-tale cannot be with which, folk-song it is so closely connected. until recent years, everywhere in this inquiry separated in its origin and developIn India there are, or quiet, last. till some new outbreak In the is caused, of the night much as

professional bards and the stories told in Indian are frequently the villages substance of the chants of these bards. More than this, the line between and narration is so faintly singing that the bards themselves often drawn, interpose great of prose between the metrical of their patches portions recitations. and all over Fairs, festivals, marriages Ellis, toi. i. p. 264 History of Madagascar," Sproat, and Studies of Savage Life," p. g! Im Thurn, pp. 2:5, 2l6. Scnes






who are always are attended by the bards, already for pay and drink. Mr. Leland believes the to perform from the Christian of New stories he obtained Algonkins heroes the ancient of the race and concerning England, to hve once been delivered as other mythical personages, India to generation and always chanted. poems from generation warriors are handed down The deeds of Maori in song in Beowulf, as we find the of story Hrothgar's just before his own companions-in-arms ancestors was sung to the accompaniment of some instruby his gleemen ment after the mead The Roman cup had gone round. attests the prevalence the German historian tribes among which he expressly of ancient mentions as their songs, only their of memory or record,-thus showing or heroic, were tales, whether mythologie into form. cast metrical Some preservation the deeds as the of their battle, as far back in order were heroes, to arouse the warriors' of history, but Teutonic, actions bard kind that of all for better

enshrining into going And

these, chanted on courage.


not penetrates, only the nations loved to have their To a Welsh his domestic king his

or of literature, also the Celtic


celebrated thus. was as necessary as

or his court and in the chaplain, physician, his precedence, ancient laws his duties, his perquisites, and even the songs he was expected to sing, are minutely The bards were into a regular prescribed. organized or college, with or poets, merely singers we gather Mabinogion was one of the habituai, order, It the is needless of history who jongleur, an but official also chief. the tale-tellers that to songs and tales listening if not daily pastimes, of a court.' to follow the Middle through Ages the troubadour, the minstrel and the so large in the social life played part were They and from not

Temple, Legends of the Panjab," vol. i. p. v. Thorburn, p. t?2; Leland, p. t2; Taylor, p. 306; "Beowuif," lay 16; Tacitus, "GerLaws and Institutions of Wales" (Public mania," cc., 2, 3; "Ancient Record Commission, 184!), pp. t~, 3$, &c.







of those men and

times. kings

place to place, singing their their stories lays and reciting (for dealt in prose as well as verse), very they much in the manner of the Indian bards just mentioned. Their stock. in-trade must have been traditional and partly partly of their own In this composition. were respect they less hide-bound than their Indian probably brethren arc. For whether latter, as many- of them are, of wandering minstrels, the retainers or members are expected of grandees, of the humbler class to repeat their lays the native

Many but

of them others

were roamed

retainers about

of from


as they have received them. in the main But, although these adhere to the professional gentlemen traditional words which the temptation they know must by heart, be very strong to foist at suitable into their tales pauses described in stage impromptu passages-best language as will be acceptable gag "which to their they think audience. And whether or not this be actually the case with the Indian we are expressly told that it is so bards, with the Arab and that it accounts for much story-teller, of the ribaldry have become and filth which embedded in the immortal A viol having "Nights." one only the passages in verse with which string accompanies the stories are interlarded and a similar instrument seems to be used of by at Sir for the Richard like and purpose among the A orthodox Guslars given bazaar details, Africa he Bosnia Herzegovina.' Burton of a

Tangier may stand, except for that of an Arab reciter throughout and the Moslem East. "Th

description at the story-teller as to the external Northern market people," a stalwart man,

a ring about the reciter, says, "form little raiment besides a broad affecting waist-belt into which his lower chiffons are tucked, and noticeable only for his shock wild broad hair, eyes, grin, and generally vol. x. p. 163; "Revue Burton, "Nights," des Trad. Pop." vol. iv. p. 6. In Greece and Albania, however, the viol would seem not to be used. Women arc the chief reciters. Von Hahn, vol, i. r. ix.





disreputable and, when tiny taps


aspect. drummer

He and

usually piper

handles are absent,

a short hc Irish

stick carries

i a





opens he and slowly breaks comical

periods. the drama the and of with

This with

Scealuidhe, an extempore arc

as the



emphasis, abundant animation,

prayer, Moslems good the varying action

proving he speaks diction with and the

him, that



illustrating features,

Europeans divine the breathless

and wheels he advances, retires, about, his with and pantomime point every that even voice and gestures are so expressive a word of Arabic, understand who cannot of meaning and motionless, his tale. surprising of feeling The The audience stands strangers by the hidden under their

and freshness ingenuousness hard and savage exterior.

ends performance usually round for alms, actor and with the embryo gomg in the air every silver bit, the usual honorflourishing marvellous arium a few y'y, that of being money of a penny." one-twelfth worth Barbary, big coppers Another tales, man writer, obtained who could who eleven neither and The has modern published from out of twelve read His from old nor stories Arab folkhis cook, a possessed from his

an excellent


but write, were derived who tale

mother and aunts, his early home.. a sheikh with



though some, small, and this at bottom a genuine education, though tale, traces of literary folk-tale, presented manipulation.~ T he literary touches here spoken of were probably not impromptu. to insert local amongst teristic the of But it must colouring Arabs. tendency and is almost irrsistible gag Dr. Steere notices it as a characthe at Swahili, be admitted that the

frequented was dictated by to pretensions

the of story-tellers mixed Arab and Negro descent inevitable in a professional perhaps Spitta Bey, p. viii.

Zanzibar reciter whose audience, 2 Steere, pp. v., vii.

a people of 2 and it is








is restless in so high a degree and vivacious himself, The only case in which be certain to would any restraint be felt is where a narrative believed to be of religious is given. Under the influence of religious import feeling the most mobile of races and become conservative of all traditions of a sacred character are the most likely to be handed we get down Directly cuotom, powerful work force the of dislike have from to son. father unchanged outside the charmed circle of religious and story, the awe which has the most tradition preserving left to a somewhat retain the old Still form this forbids ceased because intact less force to of words ceases and to the conservative

precept, eSect and we habit to

in are



of voluntary change of formularies which have long and often lost. become ridiculous has been

is powerful amendment even be understood, their meaning

an uncommon for It is by no means thing to explain the rustic to be unable expressions, story-teller in any other Uncle and indeed whole episodes, way than was when called upon to say who Miss Meadows Remus, en de gals wuz, en tale, Miss Meadows Dr. Steere, de tale 1 give you like hi't wer' gun ter me." of Swahili tales by M. Jablonsky of a collection speaking tells us that which 1 think has never been published, and of some of almost all of the tales had "sung parts," She wuz in these the the even meaning. they who Here them could sang the we may observe scarcely explain connection with to exde

and folk-song ancient tradition. perience in these the

it is a strong

to be contained story seemed were connected snatches of song, which together of the intervening extemporized, apparently by an account, if the hypothesis of exIn these latter portions, history. would th words of course be were correct, temporization different, 1 suspect, like so but the substance that as the the might remain untouched. nothing but imagined, was however, complete extemporization writer learned

Frequently skeleton of the

evidence of adherence in Dr. Steere's own








as told with and narrative tale, song was in a state of graduai or transition mingled, decay from verse to prose, and that the prose portions were, to almost as great an extent as the verse, traditional. Bc this as it may, the tenacity with which the illiterate to the substance adheres and to the story-teller generally words of his narrative is remarkable-and this in very spite tion, of the freedom and the license sometimes to taken of dramatic occasional illustralocal and introduce



allusions and These are easily separable personal gag." from the tale. What Dr. Rink of genuine says th Eskimo holds more or less, ail story-telling good, over the world. "The he states, the art," "requires ancient tales to be related as nearly as possible in the words of the with a few very original version, only and otherwise arbitrary reiterations, only varied according to the individual talents of the narrator, as to the mode of recitation, &c. The real discretionary gesture, only allowed to the narrator is the power by the audience insertion of a few peculiar from other traditions passages but even in that materials case no used alteration in even the the of these elementary admissible. the original if any circumstance," an unaltered composition smallest deviation notice to for of and be thcir had the original of tales or is

Generally, version will person he adds, shape


be taken happens "accounts


corrected, This present. existence there of in been the every of

for through ages the slightest to variation on tendency or relish for it on that of the narrator, of these in such similarity tales, told would have been lost countrics, certainly centuries." Here the

part audience,

widely-separated in the course

wedded to the accustomed audience, is represented as controlling formularies, any inclination to variation on the reciter's How far such an attipart. tude of mind been have may produced by previous in the same words we need not repetitions inquire. Certain it is that would bc likcly to generate accuracy








and that to react so as to accuracy, again adherence to the form of words which the ear compel had been led to expect. Readers of Grimm will rcmember the anxiety woman of betrayed by a peasant near Cassel, her very words that and exNiederzwehr, pressions studied they from with have should the records be taken down. have assistance understood find collectors who have They made of the methods they have received and sympathized exceptional and in



and the adopted, narrators who have not

will purpose, this woman's conduct.' Nor must we overlook mimic action. At first



the effect

of dramatic

like that sight action, or the Arab seem to make for freedom in reciter, might narration. But it may well be questioned if this be so to extent. For in a short time certain any great attitudes, and gestures become looks, not only inseparably wedded, in the actor's of the audience mind, but also in the minds who and have the accustomed grown very words to which as the to avenues ear the of learns to them, they are with the appropriate. to expect, with values The of passages The results two

pantoof Messia

eye as well proportioned senses as


comparative knowledge. of our own any appear


the observation stage, with how much suspicion interpreting To sum in the an old it of up manner would

of the history will show nurseries, innovation on the mode of that national for the differences


is viewed.

are most story-telling part Whether told superficial. by men to men in the bazaar or the coffee-house of the East, or by old men or women to children in the sacred recesses of th European home, or by men tn a mixed the endless assembly during nights of the Arctic or in the buts of the tropical Circle, forest, and notwithstanding the license often taken by a professional the endeavour to render to the audience reciter, the speaker has himself just that which received from his Rink, p. 85 Grimm, Marchen," p. vii.





2t [

predecessors tradition

of the delivery all variation of underlying and it is not confined manner to any one race or people. It is not denied that do take as the story changes place passes from one to another. This indeed is the inevitable result of the two counteracting play of the forces just described-the conservative and the to tendency tendency variation. It is the condition it is what of development makes a science of Folk-tales both necessary and possible. Nor can it be denied that some changes are voluntary. the voluntary But are rare and the involuntary changes are only such as are natural changes and unavoidable if the story is to continue its existence in the midst of the social organism of humanity. ever-shifting The student know must, of therefore, the something the habits, natural and social and the modes of the surroundings, of the people whose thought stories he examines. But this known, it is not difficult to decipher the documents. There one caution--namely, is, however, to be assured that the documents are gathered direct from the lips of the illiterate and set down with story-teller, and accuracy faith. turn of phrase, good Every awkward or coarse it may. seem to cultured though be unreears, must and every lentingly reported each strange grotesquery, or incomprehensible word, or silly must be incident, without given flinching. to soften Any attempt down or stupidities, inconsistencies, vulgarities detracts from the value of the text, and may hide or destroy something from which th student be able to make a may discovery of importance to science. the collectors of the Happily present day are fully alive to this need. The pains they take to ensure correctness are grt, and their experiences in so doing are often very interesting. Happily, too, the student soon learns to distinguish the collections whosc is certain from those sincerity furbished up by literary art. The latter have of amusement may to purposes but beyond that they are of serve, Uttle use. comparatively

is paramount. is the principle





S A V A Cr


Tales based upon ideas familiar to savagesSagas and ~M'<Fairy The Doctrine of Spirits The Doctrine of Transformation TotemismDeathWitchcraftTh predominance of imagination over reason in savages Method of th inquiry.

two stories

Tales, heads. which

as defined Under relate of the to

in the

previous chapter, first we may place definite supernatural

fall all

under those or


definite exist, and

orders the locality.

supernatural scenes of which Stories

held to beings, really are usually laid in some to or this class do not Often believed to supernatural. persons


deal necessarily, however, they are told of historical

belonging with the heroes,

once For instance, have lived. the of Lady legends Godiva and Whittington and his Cat, however which, contain of the supernatural, must be nothing improbable, under this head reckoned with the story of the equally Luck asunder of Edenhall, of Heaven or and th Earth. Maori tale of the In other words, but includes Rending this class all

is by no means confined to Fairy stories which are, or at all events

up to recent in which years, and in the form they come to us, looked of actual occurrences. upon as narratives They are called The other class of tales consists of such as are Sagas. for amusement, told simply like Jack and the Beanstalk, Cinderella, may other and Beauty incidents embody stages the Beast, believed and Puss in Boots. in other countries, in fact but They or in in the

Tales, have been

of civilization,

to be true




form been neck

in which dropped. of the



them the

this reins



long upon

since the

In general,

are thrown

marvellous the imagination and, though because fail to find acceptance, story be, it cannot nobody asserts that its events ever took and place, nobody desires to bring down or experience. logic science neither of teller heroine or local has and no historical flights Uniike the nor name of or its to saga, listener fame, either the it level binds i its either by either the hero national of conor

probability, is to end called them

untrammelled being the one condition the Stories we have no

happily. -M~c~M.'

or history talc is expected to fulfil of this class are technically better two English name for

of tales is the species earlier in the history of culture, it seems that the priority must be given to sagas. The matter, is not quite indeed, free from doubt, low down in the scale of civilizabecause of Japan, the Ainos stories are told which tion, as among to be no more than Mofrc~M and because, on the appear even for experienced casier, to obtain than w~c~<?M. But collectors, sagas among the lower number of tales races, a vastly preponderating recorded who have lived with them on by Europeans the terms of the greatest is told to account for intimacy hand, times the of nature, or their own and phenomena history From we have no organization. many savage peoples other stories at all and it is not uncommon to find narratives at bottom identical with some of these told as ~M~c~M that have reached a higher nations among plane. In these it looks as if the tales, or cases, at all events, tales from which had been they had been derived, originally believed had received, or less altered, for mre to affirm this and to generalize frorn in which ~</'c~~ have arisen. way true, continued as ceased to be thus and, having in a shape to be repeated, more amusement. If we may venture such cases, this is the other it is at all

~7~. A~r~<7~ If we inquire which of these








the most ancient of perhaps are certainly tales, the most they persistent. By their attachment to places and to persons, a religious sanction is to them, a local frequently given and national pride is commonly felt in preserving them. Thus are they remembered when tales are forgotten nursery they are to strangers; more easily communicated find their they and so are rendered way into literature imperishable. Tales of both these Fairy classes are compounded of incidents which are the common of many property and not a few whereof nations, are known ail over the habitable In some globe. instances the whole a plot, more or less intricate races the most one, is found among diverse in civilization and character. Where the plot is or contains elements intricate, of a kind to have unlikely originated we may be justified in suspectindependently, from one centre. ing diffusion Then it is that the history and circumstances of a nation become factors important in the inquiry and the purity of blood upon and the isolation from neighbouring races may depend our decision as to the original or derivative character of such a tradition. Sometimes the passage of a story from one country to another can be proved evidence. by literary This is the case with markedly and Facetious Apologues Tales, two classes of traditions which do not corne within the purview of the work. But the present has then story passed the traditional or else such proof beyond stage, could not be given. In tracing the history of a folk-tale which has entered into the problem is to ascertain literature, how far the literary variations we meet with been may have influenced traditional by pre-existing tales formed upon similar lines. In general, it may be safely said however, of Fairy Tales (with which we are more conimmediately that the argument in favour cerned) of their propagation from a single centre lacks The incidents support. of which are composed are based they ideas not upon to any one people, peculiar ideas familiar to savages only







and of ideas transformed to modern the referred material to are as


modified only slowly and gives way to barbarism, savagery and civilization scientific knowledge phenomena of the universe. The



both in belief and culture expressed by races in the lower now amuse in custom. And which of the tales many our children believed to have grown out of myths appear in the most matter-of-fact forefathers i way by our remote customs and while others enshrine relics of long-forgotten modes There that of tribal is one to us, organization. habit of thought familiar tribes to savage of progressive

through long centuries and even seems in the highest absurd knowledge, degree As a matter of every-day we practice incomprehensible. state of if we would, to that infantine cannot, go back mind but own. To instinct which all not regards animate objects only our fellow and inanimate a men and akin of women, us, as to our things. day around


with This,

a consciousness, is the however, and


sea, the mountains, the wind, the sun, the clouds and the stars, day and night, the heaven are alive and posand the earth, sessed of the passions and the will they and the cunning feel within themselves. The only difference is that these and more than men. are vastly cleverer things powerful plants, the moon, Hence to be appeased-if they are to be dreaded, possible, to be outwitted-even, to be punished. We sometimes, in our nurseries this childish habit of thought may observe when one of our little ones runs today accidentally and forthwith to beat the the table, turns round against senseless caused his of window, wood pain adjures as if it or the had voluntarily and maliciously out when another, rain in the looking wistfully old rhyme

a large beasts and

proportion birds, trees

savage philosophy of human at the beings the


Rain, rain, go away 1 Come again another day 1

26 Poots, language ing apart too,






and and from in

orators modes this the



loftiest which

moods have move never


to of the their no

of expression belief in the world. utterances To the

no meanus take it some is for



every object moment by raptures figure deed, that the


They may but we savage, the sun


of speech to call or to declare that ocean

upon the moon

however, to behold her


or that the river rage, smiles, and overwhelms a wayfarer who is crossing it, or an unon its banks. These for him suspecting village phrases fit the facts of nature as closely as those which record that would what Nay, boy runs. seem incredible to him would be to deny that the sun can see or the moon smile or the hide her face, the ocean river become Conscious enraged. personality and human emotions are visible to him everywhere and in all things. human form It matters not to the savage that and are absent. Thse are not speech necessary, or, if they eats the are, they conditions. can be assumed For either at will or under certain one of the consequences, or at least one of the accompaniments, of this stage of thought is the belief in change of form without loss of individual identity. The bear whom the to appear cunning he could if he chose. women. Sun and in the is too meets woods savage and do battle with him as a man but The stars were once men and the man or

face swells with

great to assert

and the wind the waters, moon, all the functions of living beings perform they speak, and have children. Rocks and eat, they they marry trees are not always as immovable as they appear sometimes they are to be seen be, dimly as beasts retain. or men, whose shapes they still, it may It follows that have, union religious impressed in theory between

in this stage of thought cannot peoples at all events, the repugnance to a sexual man and the lower animais with which and higher the of civilization have growth races. Such peoples admit the

training all the




one party of a marriage wherein may be human possibility or even a of a different an animal and the other species, it as an event which If they do not regard tree or plant. can it neighbourhood, of the past i as an event does not incredible entirely on into a higher and sometimes customs are preserved for special of wedding, of culture-such as that degree take place seem in their own time and a man to a tree bespeaking unmistakably purposes, in the tribes beliefs. if not present, Moreover, former, to be hold themselves here described, stage of thought often the most from material descended objects actually are not onlyanimals diverse from human form. These (beasts, or vegeinsects) and tables, sun, the sea, the earth, ancestors other unendowed with life. Such mythic things is called as divine. This are worshipped superstition as the is known and the ancestor Totemism, mythic birds, fishes, reptiles, but occasionally the and even into a higher stage passes gradually laid on the human of culture, stress is constantly greater an at length of the Totem, until it becomes qualities To such deity the object previously anthropomorphic god. and and a new as a Totem is attached, reverenced modified for the connection. grows up to account legend Totem. As a people The subject Death most it as belief of in metamorphosis death which are involves worth a opinions moment's on the pause. to the

as is a problem to all men, to the savage Least of any can the savage look upon civilized. that he has extinction. He emphatically believes within frame. him that This survives the dissolution is his spirit, the seat of As has with all he himself He has a spirit. of his

something his outward

his real self. consciousness, so every object in the world universe, It is to him, owe tried all as he their the knows spirits phenomena it, that

a spirit, the peoples

akin to his own. spirits the varied around objects

by day or by night, the consciousness, the personality, I have already from the to describe. These are separable spirits








the When are clad. they advenvarious goes forth upon savage sleeps, his spirit but as dreams adventures he remembers tures. These and he awakes as his waking deeds they are as veritable he sees In his dreams returns to him. when his spirit and bears his his foes i he kills imaginary friends, that other men's therefore He knows venison. spirits adventures while their bodies travel sleep and undergo He often with his spirit. like his own, and in company and abroad of wild animais knows that the spirits range is death but the spirit his spirit. What encounter going rivers no more ? Rocks and forth to return perhaps exceeds their life immeasurably cannot die, or at least material form with which that can is the of men. cut them nature But down of the and a body trees burn to of the them. have of an forest Yet, for he may, as it inasmuch spirit, spiritmachinaor by


permanent occur naturally cannot of some tion enemy, sorcery. The

severing it must by

indwelling and body to the poison, by

be due


forth for ever is not, by has gone that spirit of power offensive its bodily tenement, deprived quitting hostile It is frequently defensive. and impelled by and it must, those to injure motives yet in the flesh or driven or deceived, be appeased, away. therefore, This is the end and aim of funeral rites this is the the in which ceremonies of many periodical meaning when the For the same reason, whole tribe takes part. and lays he apologizes hunter animal, slays a powerful or his spear, or on some one else. on his arrows the blame he cuts down a when the woodman, For the same reason tree, asks permission to do so and offers sacrifices, and he as soon as to stick into the stump a green sprig for the spirit it may be a new home falls, that is neither For since the spirit slain, nor thus dislodged. of the body, or by of power, by destruction deprived to dwell in. from the body, it may find another severance

provides the tree

SAVAGE IDEAS. Spirits of dead inen, like other spirits, my not necessarily it was and ssUme human.

29 fresh A that

new forms, and forms bodies, favourite form is that of a snake the of Anchises spirit appeared son. ings made by his pious of the dead are sometimes, spirits at other times respect, great. death. Another

as a snake

the offeraccepted In their forms the new as in this case, kindly, to for be treated with is their power misfortune,

but always malicious, to be conciliated always can in their turn cause They characteristic of the




1 am

must not be omitted. Connection of thought, describing even though is taken to indicate actual purely fortuitous, connection of the things in thought. This represented connection time For the that he This or often founded on is, of course, and once formed it is not place, once belonging any object of him. The connection is therefore be affected by looked the upon conduct as association of easily broken. to a man recalls him and and it.

example, thought object may

between still shown

existing, towards

with special of force to such objects as articles applies and still more to footprints and to spittle, clothing, hair, and excrement. to these with malicious nail-parings Injury intent will hurt him from In whom they are derived. the same name is looked as inway a personal upon from separable careful to guard its the owner and knowledge content to be addressed and spoken of by others, being a nickname, or a substituted The reason of this epithet. is that the knowledge of another's name confers power over that other it is as though an he, or at least essential of him, were in the of the part possession who had obtained the knowledge of his name. person It is perhaps not an unfair deduction from the same that endows s an image with the of premises properties its prototype-nay, identifies it with its prototype. This leads on the one hand to idol-worship, and on the other are frequently savages of their true names from








is said wizard and then to make a figure of a man, call it by his name, the nails or thorns, or burn transfix it with it, with death to the person of causing pain and ultimately object of thought Nor is a very different process represented. or other human that in the belief discernible by eating some of the flesh the spiritual (or at any rate spirit to the it can be transferred animating formerly qualities) of in the hope is devoured So a brave eater. enemy is denied woman his bravery and a pregnant acquiring it is animais whose the flesh of hares and other qualities her children should have. undesirable an accidental of inductive To minds guiltless reasoning Travelof cause and effect. is a sure proof coincidence to the rites of witchcraft wherein the lers' of misfortunes quite examples but attributed or control, by the savages foresight beyond to some narrators have whom the sojourned among to their or merely act on their innocent part, perfectly of their article or to some equipment. strange presence, of the gods is aroused the anger by these Occasionally have suffered in particular, and missionaries, things a more direct But sometimes account. much on this not always it is probably is- imagined, causation though are also Omens the two cases. to distinguish easy Th most coincidences. accidental lively founded upon between cause and effect may fail to trace imagination at setting out and a fruitless of a magpie the meeting of the condition or between a certain errand following, tales are full of entrails thereafter. If the the foretold gain of an But magpie animal the did sacrificed imagination not cause and a victory or is not to be beaten at all was is defeat thus. it of

and the look it or loss of the battle.

failure, of the entrails

events an omen a sufficient do if

Again, association Bushmen because

resemblance fanciful a merely connection. actual to establish fires in time of kindle great of the similarity in appearance

Why drought, between

the not






rain-clouds have


instance, legends already

fastened and rites

to give a familiar resemblances, on certain rocks and stones many in they and ceremonies conformity account for of with a vast the belief of variety nations all over

of transformation

discussed in the symbolism the world. The

topic is well nigh said to enable the reader human affairs is the belief more substantial nothing however this occasioned. It and is it belief.

but enough has been endless to see how widely in pervasive in real connection founded on than association of thought, is too fruitful absurd causes for of

Nothing, indeed, one of the most

superstition the higher

from only disappears very gradually civilization as the reasoning become powers more and more highly trained. In magic, or witchcraft, we find it developed into a system, with professional ministers ministers wonders spirits, immediate whom to and well-established themselves rules. able referred persons inflict to By these rules its declare all the perform to above, to command and things into their upon and thus

of transformation to bring distant presence, to to

they foretell

bestow please, the future. The

and death injury wealth and happiness, terror they under the have

and the horrors of inspired, influence wrought that terror, form one of the saddest of history.' chapters 1 do not of course that the foregoing is a pretend account of th mental of savage complete processes Still less have 1 attempted to trace the history peoples. of the various characteristics or to show the mentioned, order of their evolution. To attempt either of thse have not thought it necessary to illustrate at Icngth the characteristics of savage thought enumerated abovc. They are exhaustively discussed by Dr. Tylor in "Primitive Culture," Sir John Lubboek in The Origin ofCiviHzation," Mr. Andrew Lang in "Myth Ritual and Religion," and some of them by Mr. J. G. Frazer in Totemism," and more recently in The Golden Dough," published since these pages were written.







work. the scope of the present would be beyond things in the a few of the elements I have enumerated simply it of culture which in a low state of men psychology thc in order to understand is needful to bear in mind stories shall we find are about to examine. In those stories wc and absurdities impossibilitics, many our modes of to customs many repulsive The to our manners. and foreign explanation thought based on faris to be obtained, not by speculations to have existed in the speech fetched metaphors supposed but by soberly of early races, nor in philological puzzles, life and and savage into the facts of barbarian inquiring many traces of into are the the psychological The outcome. is to be found of which phenomena evidence of these facts scattered the and facts phe-

nomena of writers any ing,

subject such various

of every age, creed men of such have and

the pages up and down On hardly and country. of learndifferent degrees prejudices, nature bc affected left of by the us thcir subject

testimony-testimony more than ordinarily and by the limitations tion after and opportunities for all deductions

opposite from the liable of each of to



powers the truth.

prejudice, of observaBut

and mistake, inaccuracy prejudice, an inis left a strong, there other shortcoming, every and of testimony, consensus vincible honest, independent of to the development full of undesigned corroborations, the mind of all races in the lower culture along the lines remains of the numerous here indicated. more Nay, archaic advanced institutions, as well as of beliefs among the most nations, prove that they too have passed through we find the most backward the very same stages in which the less enlightened classes which still lingering-stages at the present even of our own countrymen day are loth to quit. gations, dences which And the are between still the more further we frequent the mental penetrate and striking savage in these are already peoples, the and investicoincithose described

phenomena by


&AVAGE IDEAg. of own Nor all which midst. need we be surprised these the evidence has not at yet disppered from

33 our

phenomena over reason imagination his experience is limited his on is divided his fellow-man for the one hand, life the and

this, for the root whence is the of spring predominance in the uncivilized. Man, while to a small tract with the of earth, nature to and and live,


a struggle and permission


of idleness, empty perforce of every opportunity and every desire for improving his on the other, cannot the materials of condition, acquire a real knowledge of his physical environment. His only data for interpreting the world and the objects it contains, so far is acquainted with sciousness and his own emotions. are unbounded and if he have origin shape bear, as he them, Upon are his these own about take form conthe the his drafts


any curiosity and government of things, his hypothses of tales in which th actors, whatever are essentially himself in motive and

and distorted to meet his wishes magnified or the conditions of the problem as presented to his limited vision. The which is the measure of thought his universe is as yet hardly disciplined by anything his passions. beyond Nor does th predominance of the imagination issue tales and in songs-the two modes of exonly in these we most attribute to the imagination. pression readily In practical and life it issues in superstitious observances, in social and institutions. Social institutions political are sometimes of great in the depth even of complexity, with political institutions savagery. Together they supply the model on which are framed man's ideas of the relationship beings to one another whom he and crtes ideas in of of the supernatural and in turn r eflect and they ceremonial and other observtherefore, for institutions Tales, cannot it often to himself

they but deed, or his fears,

those perpetuate ances. The student afford to neglect the

Fairy of study 4








a light altogether unexpected of a story. 'Tradition meaning must, as a whole. As with other its sciences, is natural and necessary but it should that out entire none reference circle of its can parts to the others. and



indeed, division never

and origin be studied into parts

be forgotten be rightly understood with1 mean the By Tradition

custom as well as practice, and other belief, ceremonies, tales, music, songs, dances the philosophy and the superstitions and amusements, the delivered of mouth and institutions, by word by from to generation unreexample generation through membered in a word, the sum total of the psychoages of uncivilized man. has logical phenomena Every people its own body of Tradition, its own Folk-lore, which comprises mental is not, records municated renders ensures But a slowly furniture, known. to be with diminishing or the part, as the art of according The invention of writing, and thoughts from and one of true to whole, writing of its is, or

of thought


by enabling facts to be comanother, first

possible a constantly

certainty the accumulation

in every civilized to whom and reading or at least unfamiliar the or the lives less sense even under of the the

and knowledge advance in civilization. accelerating nation there are backward classes are writing and there lettered of either are quite certain unknown, matters in remain more in Culture, and utilizing





of life guided by reason the discoveries and inventions that are the gift of science, finds its way but slowly and filters only among a people, its habits, its institutions and its creeds. sluggishly through it advances, Surely, like a however, though gradually tide which the beach, here rising undercreeps along and sand, there surrounding, isolating, a rock, here submerging swallowing up a pool brilliant with creatures and many-coloured living weed, there with and a rivulet that mingling overwhelming to its embrace, until all the shore is covered leaps down mining at last a heap of

of a mode





its waters. must the

its course windings,

he who Meanwhile, know the conformation crags

would of the


shape), the hollows, its currents these The analogy us to must

(their composition the sands, the streams are alike and its force not be

coast,-the as well as their for without inexplicable. but it will

too far pressed a fragment of a understand we find why help of a taie jumbled custom in one place, a portion up with in another a segment of dissimilar tales place, portions relie of a and again a worn and broken of a superstition, are the rocks and the once vigorous institution. They sands which the flood of civilization is first and at last overwhelming, undermining, our view. the figure) survivais They are (to change if regarded earlier state of existence, unintelligible secret made to render up their only by comparison other istence trace history whereof survivais, elsewhere. the and with Taken examples of a like isolating, and hiding then from of an singly, with of ex-


evolution and


us to collectively, they enable of civilization from a period before more recent times by channels through

gives no account. history whence These are the premises we set out, and the which will guide us, in the study on which we principles The name of Fairy Tales is legion are about to enter. i whose but they are made up of incidents number is comlimited. And it would be impossible though paratively to deal them with adequately in a work like the as to convey more than a small a selection fraction of still prsent, a reasonably may be of the results s inTh between

so treated

of the principles laid application to be obtained. In making such a selection of stories, unconnected teresting groups themselves, disadvantagc nature of the clusions this be chosen for might of this course would and is not mode be the

just notion down and of the as



discussions, arrived at. It in any


fragmentary of the conto but avoid it is


wholly possible of treatmcnt







to lessen possible a few of the most

to deal with therefore, relative to the Fairy interesting sagas so called. Mythology We shall thus confine strictly our view to a well-defined in the hope that we may area, obtain such an idea of it as in its main lines at all events to be fairly true may be taken to the facts, and that wc may learn who really were these who mysterious beings so large a part played in our fathers' As superstitions. we must not be yet, however, if we find that disappointed the state of scientific will not admit of many inquiry and such as we may reach conclusions, can at present be stated and only with caution. tentatively Science, like Mr. Fox in the all the nursery tale, writes up over doors of her palace Be bold, be bold, but not too boM." Many disregard a victim this has warning. found to his cost what it mcant to


1 propose,







Stories of midwives who have been summoned to the birth of fairiesHuman visitors to Fairy!and must not eat there-The reasonFairies' gratitudeTh conditions of fairy gifts.



of which

is laid


Beddgelert, way

as translated

a time, when had newly got to the Hafodydd Brithion to pursue her calling, a gentleman came to the door on a fine grey steed and bade her come with him at once. Such was the authority with which he spoke, that the poor midwife durst not refuse to go, however was. So she like the flight down much it was her mounted behihd of a swallow, through Nant duty him, she stay where and off they went, over the Cwmllan, the Gadair to Cwm had she lit saw up time with even to her such before to

in this by Professor Rhys, a midwife from Nanhwynan

runs, Once on

Bwlch, Hafod

say a magnificent lamps

Ruffydd Oh When as she

and over yr Aran, before the poor woman they got there, splendidly before seen.

entered the They and a crowd of servants in expensive court, liveries came to meet them, and she was at once led through the great hall into a bed-chamber, the like of which she had never seen. There the mistress of the to whom she house, had been fetched, was awaiting her. She got through her duties and stayed there until the lady successfully, had completely nor had she spent of recovered, any part her life so merrily there was naught but festivity day and and endless night dancing, singing, rejoicing

mansion, had never







reigned go, and order house same opened

as it was, she found she must the nobleman her a large with the gave purse, not to open it until she had got into her own then he bade one of his servants escort her the When she reached home she way she had corne. merry the to her happily from told great joy, it was on those earnings to full of to the



and, purse, and she lived money end of her life." 1 It where is a this long leap is story wife in

Carnarvonshire no great with

Lapland, A variation.

Swedish th cleverest clergyman's Lappmark, midwife in all Sweden, was summoned one fine summer's to attend a mysterious race and evening being of Troll called Vitra. At this unusual call she took great might, counsel with her husband, deemed it best who, however, for her to go. Her guide led her into a splendid building, the rooms whereof were as clean and elegant as those of illustrious and in a beautiful bed lay a still very folk more beautiful and quired, the midwife's and in a few all sorts factress. for whom woman, who was no other than care minutes Vitra had speedily her Vitra gave services herself. birth were reUnder girl, fetched beneVitra's

to a fair

of refreshments, The latter persuasion, Troll-wife

and entirely recovered, which she laid before her of eat, in spite further refused the Vitra upon her. on the table when and more sec of what the she matter to

refused and

reassuring which the her

home, bidding entered her cowherd's there. She thought following the table

pressed her look hut no

money then sent next she find the

would until

when on entering the hut she found on spring, half a dozen large spoons of pure silver with her name thereon in neat letters. These engraved spoons an heirloom in the clergyman's to long remained family the truth of the story. A Swedish testify book, published in 1775, contains a tale, narrated in th form of a legal '"Y Cymmrodor," vol, iv. p. 2~1. vol. v. p. 70, translated from "Y Brython,"








on the i 2th solemniysubscribed April 1671 the fortunate by midwife's whose name was husband, Peter and who also seems to have Rahm, been a clergyman. On the of this declaration we are called authority on to believe that the event recorded actually happened in the year 1660. Peter Rahm that he and his alleges wife were at their farm one evening latc when there came a little of face and clad in man, swart grey, who the declarant's begged wife to corne and help his wife then in labour. The that declarant, had to sceing they do with a Troll, over his wife, blessed prayed her, and bade her in God's name the stranger. go with She seemed to be borne After along her task by the wind. was accomplished like th she, wife clergyman's just refused the food offered mentioned, her, and was borne home in the same manner The next as 'she had come. she found on a shelf in the day a heap of sitting-room old silver pieces and which it is to be supposed clippings, the Troll had brought her." from the need of human Apart to all the aid, common with which legends we are the two dealing, points these emphasized Swedish tales by arc the midwife's refusai of food and the of the Troll. gratitude In a Swabian the Earthman, as hc is called, story apologizes for omitting to offer food. In this case the midwife was afraid to go alone with her summoner, and begged that her husband her. might This was permitted accompany i and the Earthman showed them the way the through forest with his lantern, for it was of course night. They came first to a moss then to a wooden door, door, and lastly to a door of shining whence a staircase metal, went down into the and led them earth, into a large and chamber splendid where the Earthwife When the lay. of their visit object was accomplished the Earthman r Poestion, p. m Gnmm, Tout. Myth." p. 457, note, quoting at th declaration length from Hu)pher, Samiingen om JamMand." A translation will be found in Keightley, p. 122.







thanked our else meat' upon

the and

woman drink,



said 1 will words

You bestow

do not


thee." of black the she

wherefore With these

apronful lighted way The home

coals, and midwife and slily said threw

taking her husband

he gave his lantern

something her a whole again On he the


away one coal after another. Earthman until he was about to take nothing his leave, when he observed Th less you merely scattered the more have." After he had might you th woman's husband remonstrated with gone her, her keep the coals, for the Earthman bidding appeared in earnest with his gift. When reached they home, however, behold The she had shook of instead now thrown she out coals, her apron glittering on the hearth, and true gold pieces. after the coals not.'


sought away, but

eagerly enough she found them

our attention for the moment to the refusai Confining of food, it would seem that the Earthman's in apology the foregoing narrative human is, as too many apologies excuse. The real reason for the midwife's are, a mere abstention was not that fairy food was distasteful, but that of never it, under penalty again to the light of day. A Danish tradition tells returning of a woman who was taken by an elf on Christmas Eve down into the earth to attend his wife. As soon as the elfwife was delivered her husband took married their the persons Paternoster, child in for if he could find two newly away the bridai bed, before they had repeated he could, the child between by laying it all the good fortune his absence her intended the for elfwife pair. During she durst not touch

for them, procure the newly wedded took the opporwhen

tunity of instructing he returned and was was down to eat herself into

as to her conduct helper the first and chief point of her advice that was offered her. The elfwife nothing a Christian woman who had been inveigled dwellings of the Meier, p. elves she had eaten, and










never the not Late

accordingly, They did thee legend that." of

escaped again. midwife refused thee on rabbinical





and food, the mouth who

return, he said taught a similar

cise, who to perform

a Mohel, a man was summoned one the ceremony

contain writings whose office it was winter's

to circum-


night by a stranger a child who would be

The led him eight stranger days old the following day. to a lofty mountain, into the bowels of which they passed, and after of steps found themdescending many flights in a great the Mohel selves Here was taken to city. a in one of palace, mother When lying. and told him weep, Mazikin, had been thither. refuse be thou We but And that she carried was the child's apartments she saw the Mohel she began to that he was in the land of the was a human a Jewess, who being, little him of meat from or home and to take good drink that brought heed to whose

away when she counselled whether For like

everything offered him wilt become i here

if thou taste anything one of them, and wilt remain a very ancient and

might of theirs here

for ever."


superstition, different parts be traced back

upon which we of the

may world.

to Waldron, of a .farmer who lost his way Peel, and was led by the sound where were a great number Among he took drink, known them when were one some of them of them, faces until no notice

to pause A Manx tale, narrates the night returning of music into of he little seemed in

widespread illustrate from which adventure home a large from hall can

people feasting. to know but folk offered not him unhim, seemed saw bc before as

the little

features to him, plucked him by the coat he did, to taste whatever he anything if you do," he added, "for will "you 2 return no more to your family." 1 Thorpe, vol. ii. p. t28, Keightley, p. 506. from Thiele,


and forbade

him 1 am, and

"Danmark's Folkesagn"; 2 Waldron, p. 28.







It is necessary seek the devil

story to go and in his own abode. The devil of popular a terrific is not the entirely imagination, though ogre, Evil One of in and one of his good points theologians the story referred to is that fair daughters, he bas three the fairest of whom him is compelled by the hero to help in overcoming him her father. instructs She accordingly to eat no meat and to drink no wine at the devil's house, otherwise us of he will be poisoned. This may remind Kan Pdi, his who in the Altaic with ballad descends for the hero of a Picard various monsters. There of the mounthe water tain forest through In both which he rode were poison. is to meant cases, what is probably is, that to eat or drink return no more and it from these abddes mysterious be to the intent to obviate may consequence any such that in sending a certain son down Sainte Pter, king's hole a hundred through a black and stinking toises deep in a Gascon underground, own tale, to fetch Saint Peter's him with just enough sword, bread in his wallet provides middle of the earth the grass and and encounters to prevent his bursting with hunger. An every morning extension of this thought sometimes even the prohibits hero from a seat or a bed offered accepting by way of on the part of the devil, or the hospitality to sorceress, whose his business dwelling may take him, or even to look at the fair temptress who may seek to entice him to eat.~ of the superstition meaning but it should be remembered that human civilization no distinction supernatural cnclosed in or spiritual The easy to trace, in the lower of stages is drawn between who have never been is not steed to the

beings human and the spirits of the dead. bodies, them in one phanSavage philosophy mingles together of grotesquery and horror. The line which tasmagoria

Mlusine," vol. i. p. 446 Rad)off, vol. i. p. 78 Blad, vol. i. p. i6t Revue des Trad. Cosquin, vol. il. p. !o CavaHius, p. 281 op." vol. iv. p. 222.

















teaching grown up through ages of Christian gradually as it may seem to us, it is occasionally hardly and, broad it is in thse now and then visible stories. Every found as in the case of the old friends among ignored, the than like little these, some Less startling farmer. by th Manx people in point, are the women, but quite as much off into who are carried already mentioned, where corne of the human we need they become back to their mortal midwife not to wives and mothers. They old life, though they retain mixture to require the advenrelieve their if the Accordpains. same incidents of time to ghosts of imaginaconfounded. We to the as to to the

Fairyland, can never enough turous ingly,

be surprised

story or fibres and at another tion, Both or are

of superstition attach to the non-human and Fairyland realm of

at one creatures are the often

if Hades

the equally whether may therefore inquire in the place chance sojourner the sojourner air. upper Proserpine in the grew in And ate

eating of the wish

supernatural. is forbidden dead to equally return

if he Fairyland, we shall find that seven grains of

it is. a pomegranate which so was to compelled

and Fields, in the Shades, remain the wife of "th king." grisly the Fay takes measures to get Thus, too, when Morgan the Dane into her she causes him to be Ogier power on a loadstone rock near to Avalon. Esshipwrecked from the sea, he cornes to an orchard, and there caping eats an apple which, it is not too much to say, seals his Elysian down Again, by the when Thomas of Erceldoune her realm, into Queen Fairy fruit of certain trees. is being he desires led to


eat of the

to pul the frute with his honde, presed As man for fode was nyhonde feynte; She seid, ht them Thomas, stande, Or ellis the fiend will the ateynte.








If thou Thi Hit But

pulle the sothe soule goeth to the never out ther ever in payne

to sey, fyre of heti til domusday, to dwene."


An old storypreserved the visit of some who rules a delightful

for us by Saxo Grammaticus Danish heroes to Guthmund, land

describes a giant crossed

a certain river beyond their conductor, a Scandibridge. by a golden Thorkill, navian for cunning, warns his companions of the Ulysses various must that must temptations forbear the that food will be set before them. of the country, and be satisfied with them they had brought moreover, they care not so much apart from the natives, taking them. In spite, however, of Thorkill's warnhis excuses fell last and modern and the allowed in their were to left behalf behind So found to the far when extant king, their we see in They with


keep as to touch

and ings to them, some of the heroes friends that the classic the were at

prohibition of Fairyland

dpart.' we danger folk-tales

and we have traced Hades into the Middle in French, Ages traditions to fairies and relating with a special existences, of Erceldoune. Thomas On the other side of like the believe, the dead, which a woman there. had Her was threat the

also to the apply them back a long way and Danish British, other supernatural in the case islanders of

of Hell the



in an underground of Greeks, kingdom a few years they call Panoi. Only ago been down who professed to have living had To rat been do this had She the to she been then visit her perfumed steeped, pulled hole thus brother, herself who with

recently water in which herself nest and

object died.

a dead

a death-like descended whom


so as to give up a bird's made. her Her to eat


through of course she

and by taking his nothing, 1 Thomas of Erceldoune," Child, vol. i. p. 319; Gesta Dan." 1. viii. Saxo, Text)

cautioned found, she was able advice

to return.

p. n (Cambridge







A similar who


is told enough

of to the

a New corne assistance

Zealand back of her

woman from the father

was lucky

of rank, of abode and his food Finns, of the it wiH


repeated of the dead. determined dead. suffice We

by spirits commands to

to avoid


the disgusting tasting the pie hero of the the his region voyage

to Manala, penetrate need not follow in detail

to say that on his arrivai, after a long with parley the maiden of Tuoni, the king of the island, daughter beer was brought to him in a two-eared tankard.
"Wamamoinen, Gaz'd awhile La 1 within Worms Words old upon and the trusty,

it frogs about its sides wise have

tankard were spa.wning, were laying. he utter'd hither

in this


Not to drmk From Not the

1 corne


to empty They who drmk Those who drain

of Manala, Tuoni's beaker of beer the can are are drowncd, ruin'd.'

words form a motto for concluding might our tectotallers and in any case his abstinence enabled him to succeed in his errand and return. A point is in the poem made of the loathsome character of the beverage referred cited. thus with the poison him, which agrees to in some of the narratives 1 have previously The natives of the Southern Seas universally the sustenance of spirits as filthy and abominremarkable beer occurs Islands, near was coincidence in a curious with story the descriptold on one Dante. that, as should offered



represent able. A most tion of of Tuoni's the Hervey

Being apparently soon as the breath

concerning this death, out

a Mangaian man directed

of his body, a cocoa-nut be cracked, and its kernel from the shell and disengaged his stomach placed under the upon grave-clothes. '~cw~M/ 7/M/. voL x. p. 282; Shorttand, p. t~o; of Kntewata," rune xvi. t. 293.

46 Having horrible

tH descended

SCIENCE to the



he beheld the Shades, Miru, and whose deformities need hag who rules them, not now be detailed. She commanded him to draw near. The trembling human and sat spirit obeyed, down before Miru. to her unvarying According practice she set for her intended victim a bowl of food, and bade him eat it quite up. with evident waited Miru, anxiety, to sec him swallow it. As Tekanae took up the bowl, to his horror he found it to consist of living centipedes. The mortal now recollected quick-witted the cocoa-nut kernel at the pit of his stomach, and hidden from Miru's view With one hand he held the bowl to his by his clothes. to swallow its contents lips, as if about with the other he secretly held the cocoa-nut and ate it-the kernel, bowl concealing the nut from Miru. It was evident to the goddess that Tekanae was actually someswallowing what bowl? eise could it be but the contents of the fatal contrived whilst the craftily eating cocoa-nut to allow the live centipedes to fall nourishing on the ground one or two at a time. As the intended victim was all the time sitting on the ground it was no difficult in this way to empty achievement the bowl completely waited by the time in vain to he had sec her finished intended the cocoa-nut. victim Miru in writhing Her on such practice to dive victim-spirit None that dived into excessive their would Hre anguish that thoughts and they cook in Tekanae

and raging with thirst. agony occasions was to direct the tortured in a Iake close by, to seek relief. that water ever came up alive thirst so distracting quenchless were invariably drowned. Miru and her eat her victims the at leisure. bowl of history

afterwards was a new event

had been disliving centipedes manifested no sign of pain, no posed of, and yet Tekanae intention to leap into the cooling, but fatal, waters. Long did Miru but in vain. At last she said to her wait Return to the upper world' visitor, (~ to life). Oniy remember this-do not me to mortals. speak against

fAlRY Reveal visitors. certainly and 1 will a second and fully have below/ The light and came not



HUMAM MIDWIVES. of treating do so, you to my

47 my will

and my mode my ugly form Should as to you be so foolish at some future time corne back see to it that time back you Tekanae do not escape


disregarded had the foregoing

my vengeance left the Shades, accordingly to life to say, carebut he, it Is needless not the hag's or we should injunction, veracious for the devil case account of what cast happens a weird

tortures reserved on the warning in drinking in to what the the latter

Miru's Picard may would

victims story offer. have

against eating But whether been the pre-

poisoning liminary

a hearty meal to be made off the unlucky or no, it is impossible to youth by his treacherous host, determine. What the tales is that do suggest, however, the food buried with the dead tribes may by uncivilized be them of the contingency provide against to partake of the hospitality and so having of the Shades, afford them a chance of escaping air. back to the upper this conjecture But, we have found the putting aside, that to eat of fairy food is to return supposition no more, to the worid equally of the dead as to Fairyapplicable land. In seeking its meaning, we must not be therefore, satisfied without an explanation that will fit both. Almost all held unite where join in over t.o him the a the confer earth the rite obligations ties by special notion of hospitality meal constitute, of blood has been hospitality on its to and recipient, to the even And giver. does often union of not been enter, held to to of meant to

relationship, hood, :and into a tribe or family adoption (ceremonies well known in the lower are usually, if culture), not always, cemented in this way. The modern wedding with its bridecake, is a survival ,breakfast, from a very I Gilt, p. 172. formai

symbolize, kind. The

common if not to formation


a very sacred or brother-








of solemnizing the closest tie of ail and when tasted a pomegranate she partook of a Proserpine fruit of a specially character to signify acceptance symbolic of her new destiny as her captor's wife. Hence to partake of food in the land of spirits, whether are they human is to proclaim one's union with dead, or fairies, them and to renounce the fellowship of mortals. The other in the Swedish tales point emphasized quoted just now his gifts to the TrolFs as evidenced gratitude, by successful midwife. Before considering let us note that these supernatural beings is the


this, however, do not like to be imposed A German midwife who upon. was summoned or Nix, to aid a woman by a Waterman, in labour, was told by the latter 1 am a Christian woman as well as you and 1 was carried off by a Waterwho changed me. When cornes in man, my husband now and offers you money, take no more from him than neck. Take you usually get, or else he will twist your care And in another of good tale, told at Kemnitz as he is there Nicker, wife how much he owes take no more from him the called, her, she than from when other he asks that people. demanded all her the she midwill That's more, that he safely answers

he replies hadst thou lucky for thee," it would have gone ill with thee But for her an apron full of gold and brought gave home.'

A Pomeranian the transition to a type of story marks tale wherein one special of elfin gifts is precharacteristic sented. For in this case, when the mannikin asked the midwife nothing what the her charge was, she modestly replied little trouble I have had does not "Now and it was then, lift up Oh, call for

any payment." answered hc

filled quickly that lay in the corner of the room. his lantern, Taking the elf then politely her home. When she shook guided out the contents of her apron, lo it was no rubbish which Keightley, p. 261 Kuhn und Schwartz, p. 93.

thy apron!" with the rubbish







minted gold. shining pure, thencehad been very poor father she Hitherto whole lives no more want their had long. forth they which turns worthless, apparently This gift of an object of the utmost on the conditions being observed, out, transactions. It is one of fairy value, is a commonplace of superhuman manifestations of the most obvious power incident in the been a favourite and as such it has always the We have only to do here with of all nations. stories fell on the ground, and her but in the group under gift as it appears In little variety. cases it presents of Zug the dwarf fills the woman's at which he bids and in these analysis a tale told on the lake apron look with something she is in

before her on no account is uncontrolHer curiosity, her own house. however, she peeps moment the dwarf vanishes and the lable to find simply black coals. into her apron, She, in a rage, two as evidence of the them only flings away, keeping but when she got she had met treatment with shabby less than stones. home these two were nothing precious She at once ran back to where she had shaken out the

So a recompense coals; but they were all gonc. supposed or shavings as of straws, birch leaves, becomes, dust, or thalers. Nor is elsewhere told, pure gold, pure silver, In Dardistan it is related to Europe. the story confined that a boy, taken down palace, He finds the Yatshes wedding. of a number of valuables to and in possession belonging in his own village. On his return his guide the dwellers he empties him with a sack full of coals, which presents as soon remains, reaches as he is out and home.' is of sight. transformed One into piece, a gold coin little however, when he underground by a Yatsh, to be is allowed or demon, into an at a Yatsh present in great assembled force

Bilder und KcighUey, p. 275, quoting MuHcr, Jahn, p. ?2 vol. Sagen aus der Schweiz," p. 119; Bu'imger, "VolksthumUches," i. p. 42; Kuhn, p. 82; Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 128 vol. iii. p. 54, quoting 5







Conversely, which seems in

when valuable


midwife out



with An

that Irish-

it turns


a professional woman, relating the experience among Good wound People, as follows up her The story five guineas king into my hand as soon as 1 was slipped on the ground, and thanked me, and bade me good-night. 1 hope l'Il never see his face again. I got into bed, and couldn't for a long sleep and when 1 examined time this morning, my five guineas that 1 left in the tabledrawer the last 1 found five withered thing, leaves of oak--bad scran to the giver This incident recalls the Barber's tale of his fourth brother in the Arabian This Nights." man went on selling unlucky meat to a sorcerer for five months, and the bright putting new in which the latter money paid him into a box by itself but when he came to open the box he found in it but a parcel of leaves, nothing or, as Sir Richard Burton bas it, bits of white to look paper eut round like coin folklore is full of similar hinese which we occurrences, cannot now stay to discuss. to western But, returning there is a way traditions, of counteracting the elves' Th wife of a farmer transforming magie. namcd Niels of Uglerup, in Denmark, Hansen, was summoned to attend a troll-wife, who told her that the her troll, would offer her a husband, of gold quantity but," she said, unless cast this you knife behind you when it will be nothing you go out, but coal when you reach home." The woman followed her patient's and advice, so continued to carry a costly safely home of present gold.I The of supernatural objection to iron, and its beings Mutlenhoff, "Sagen, &c.,der Herzogthumer Schleswig, Ilolsteiii und Kuhn und Schwartz, p. 173; Lauenburg"; Wratishw, p. 40; Wenzig, p. 198 Liebrecht, p. 100, citing "Resultsofa a Tour in Dardistan," part iu. p. 3. 'Kennedy, p. 106; Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 130, quoting Thiele, "Dan. mark's Folkesagn."







power future offers

due to



chapter. meantime her own been had

will be considered in a charms, The luck of Niels Hansen's wife good another of interest for it was subject kindness of heart. A short time before hay in between a field, when she caught the teeth of her rake. Poor thing 1 see that That attended toad her was she



a large and She gently released thou the needest troll-wife, was horrified

raking fat toad

help and

it, saying 1 will help thee." as she afterwards

down serpent hanging just above her head. Her fright led to explanations and an of gratitude on the of the troll-wife. expression part This incident is by no means but a very uncommon few examples must suffice here. the woman's Generally terror is attributed to a millstone over her head. hanging a maid Pomerania, saw, every time the cows, a hateful toad about hopping in the stable. She determined to kill it, and would have seized it one day had it not, in the very nick of time, succeeded in creeping into a hole, where she could not A few days after, when she was again busy in get at it. the stable, a little Ulk, as the elves there are called, came Grammendorf, she went to milk and invited her was her the to bottom services at descend On reaching she found whose time Fairyland. of a staircase with her conductor, were for an Ulkwife, required she her, her same, to with him into At in

to see a hideous

the Entering dwelling was frightened to observe a huge millstone above and the Ulk, seeing suspended by a silken thread told her she had caused him the terror, exactly when kill which piece it. she chased The girl the was poor toad and compelled When it was she was


to prserve for so carefully never be in want of money. long as she did so she would But her guide warned her at parting never to relate her otherwise the elves would fetch her experience, again, set her under the and which would then millstone,

followed. of gold, that

attempted to share in the feast over she was given a









crush of her


Whether this






very true story we do not After beliefs we have been considerit is, however, ing in the foregqing pages interesting to note that no ill attended her eating and drinking in and that the gold she received Fairyland, did not turn to dross, though it possessed other miraculous qualities which well have led her to the bad end might very threatened a portion of the story by the Ulk. Perhaps has been lost.' narrating some of the is given to the tale. A Swabian was once in the fields peasant-woman with her when servant-maid, The they saw a big toad. woman told her maid to kill it. The latter I replied No won't do that, and 1 will stand for it yet once sponsor more." Not long afterwards she was sent for to become and was conducted into the lake, where she found sponsor, the toad now in guise of a woman. After the ceremony was over, the lake-woman rewarded her with a bushel of and sent a girdle for her mistress. straw, by her hand On the way home the girl tried the girdle on a tree to see how it would the tree was look, and in a moment torn had toad. into a thousand devised by the wished to The This was the punishment pieces. lake-woman for her mistress, because she while in the form of a put her to death was, it all of course, Sometimes a different turn

sequence know.

but the pure gold cast a few stalks girl foolishly which away except to her dress. So a countryman who accidentally clung hot broth on a witch, as a toad, is spilt some disguised for his little presented by her another day with a girdle son. hc tries it on his Suspecting something wrong, at once sweHs up and bursts. This is a Saxon dog, which an Irish saga brings us to the saga from Transylvania Jahn, p. 64 cf. p. 74, where there are two maidens, one of whom had saved the toad when the other desired to kilt it. They stand sponsors for the fairy child, and are rewarded with sweepings which turn to gold also Bartsch, vol. i. p. 50, where a sword is suspended.









catastrophe. bloated, and

There kicks

painfully words

a girl meets it unfcdingly

a frog



May you never bc dclivercd to you Now th frog was a in a watcr-fairy dwcUing which th girl soon aftcr lake, into was convcycd and l to become the fairy's compelled midwifc. By way et' reward she is prescntedwithared cloak,which,onhcr she hangs way home, on a trec. Wc)l up in admiration was it for her that she did so, for it set th troc on th-c i and had she worn it, as she meant to do, on thc following at Mass, th chapet itself Sunday would havc in a becn blazer calculated mark, though on no trifling scale. thc rcwards Indccd, they bestowed were never niccty batanccd with thc good or ill intended to requite, they but were showcrcd in opcnhanded fashion as by those who coutd a!o!-d te bc !avish. Of this we have had several a fc\v already instances more At Paicrmo may bc given. a talc is to)d of a midwife who was one day in hcr own kitchcn cooking when a hand and a voicc appeared cried "Givu to me She took a plate and fitted it from thc food site was preparing. the hand rcturncd thc plate Presently full of golden This was repeated money. and thc daily the generous woman, seeing bccamc more and payment, more free with her portions of food. At the end of nine months a knocking was heard at the door; and, she found two giants, descending, who caught hcr up on their and shoulders, ran off with her. uncercmoniousiy her to a lady who needed They carried hcr onicca, and she assisted to bring into thc world two ~nc boys. The was fully alive to her own lady evidently for she dignity, a proper kept the woman human to th distress month, of her husband, what had become who, not knowing of the city night her, searched and day, and at last gave her Then up for dead. the lady (a fairy she was) princcss Meier, p. 69; MuMer, p. 140; "N. and Q. 7th ser. vot. v. p. 50!. The fairies' rcvengc hcrc misscd ils

th aaidc, with till .1 am midwitc









if she blows hour was

wished or

to go,

and The


she would


come, and said must die it would be better to die quickly so she chose blows. the princess called th two Accordingly giants, and sent her home with a large sack of money, which enabled her to relinquish set up her carriage, business, and become one of the first ladies in Palermo. Ten and one day a grand years passed her door. A lady and alighted When she had her face to face, the do you know me ? No, madam." not ten am was remember that 1 am the years ago, when these she who held out her the fairies' lady children hand carriage entered lady to said What whom

paid by her last


midwife deemed poor if she to herself that

at stopped her palace. Gossip, do you

you came were born ? I, too, and asked for food. 1

and if you had not been generous captive to give me to eat, 1 should have died in the night. enough And because become rich. you were generous you have Now 1 am freed, and here I am with The my sons." with tears in her eyes, looked at her, quondam midwife, and blessed the moment she had done a generous act. So they became friends.' lifelong 1 have because given it has tale almost at full length foregoing before in not, so far as 1 know, appeared than its native Sicilian and because dress, stories are not common in collections from countries. from any This absence be If its rarity of due the is the to not, 1 need th

any other analogous Mediterranean hardly material, formation wanting

say, and

it may perhaps of the collections. in Southern that the

mythological accident in the were we really be might




the permitted to be accounted

conjecture for by

in Sicily was presence Norman settlements there.

Pitr, vol. v. p. 23. The story in its present form does not say that the human food enabled the lady to return from Fairyland, but only that it saved her life. Probably, however, an earlier version may have shown the incident in a more prhmti\ e form.





is recorded from th Is!and of story, however, one of th Cyclades, but without th human Kimolos, in Elfland, th and without acts of charity, captivity without the Th Nercids of thc KhnoHotc gratitude. caves are of a grimmer humour than thc kindly-natured underground the heroine folk of Celtic and The Tcutonic human paytnent A woman whom help is no subject of jest to them. titcy once called in was told If it be rt boy you roundiy shall bc happy; but if it be a girl we wiH tear you in four and hang The unhappy !uidparts, you in this cave." wife of course determined be a boy and that it should when a girl arrived she made believe it was a boy, and went home. WIien, up tightly, eight the child was unpacked, tlie Nercids' days afterwards, and disappointment were and sent rage great they one of their number to knock at her door in the hope that she would answer the first sunmions. Now to answer Of this cheated the the them
6rst summons of

of Palermo.

lands, to their

or than



a Nereid awarc beings than on one

meant and her

madness. cunning

woman even

was of their


revcnge.~ bestow any such occasion, was should be granted success similar grcatStewart superIn like gifts of a of th fore-

Sometimes these supernatural more divine charactcr distinctiy A midwife in Strathspey, going.

desired to ask what she would, and it if in the powcr of th faines. She asked that attend herself and her might in ail posterity The was conferred and operations. her gift still grandson was collecting stitions of the

continued to exercise it when Mr. the materials for his work on thc

in 1823. Highlanders, published manner the Mohel, to whose adventure 1 have already and who was referred, an avaricious originaUy tnan, received the grace of benevolencc to thc poor, which caused him to live a long and life with happy his family, a pattern unto the whole world. The gift was sym bolized Bent, p. 46.







by the restoration which he found his

to with






conductor. held the uncanny of his being lord over the hearts of those keys by virtue who never at any time do good in other he was words, the demon of covetousness. Here we have an instance, more or less conscious, in of the tendency, so marked Jewish parable common indicate to literature, bears striking to many that the parable. But the form of the to its origin in a myth testimony races. The keys in particular probably at one time took the shape recompense This is not at all uncommon in the Von Ranzau was once summoned

others in the many This had personage

keys, of possession


of a palladium. tales. The Countess from her castle of

in Schleswig to the help Breitenburg of a dwarf-woman, and in return to according received, one account, a large of gold to be made into fifty piece a herring and two the counters, spindles, upon preservation depend. versions to them of which The of the the gifts tale, but on in the legend, fortunes are of the variously all the versions noble house family stated in were different to

as they in a Bohemian water-nix take hands fall care into

blessings were kept


The family. for receives

agree in attaching of Ranzau so long Frau Von Hahnen, her services to a to injunction go out of the family treasures would to her

three the pices* of gold, with of them, and never to let them own else the lineage, She bequeathed whole the

of her

poverty. three but the sons a light heart gave course, speedily It is quite possible the clergyman's upon

son took a wife, who with youngest of the fairy gold away. Misery, resulted from her folly and the race of Hahnen came to an end. 1 that wife the in spoons bestowed were by Vitra once re-

puted to be the subject 1 Keightley, p. 388, citing Stewart Thorpe, Mllenhoff and Thiele Grohmann, p. quoting vol. iii. p. 51.

Lappmark of a similar proviso.

So common,

vol. iii. p. 5o et seq., see also Thorpe,







was forsooth, was annexed

the to



in one





all fairy well-nigh gifts they brought luck to their for the time being. of possessor Examples this are endless one only will content us in this connection and, like Vitra's gift, we shall find it in Swedish A peasant who had one day been Lappmark. unlucky at the chase, was returning when he met a fine disgusted, who begged him to corne gentleman and cure his wife. The in vain that he was not a doctor. peasant protested The other would take no denial, that it was no insisting for if he would the lady matter, only put his hands upon she would be healed. the stranger led him Accordingly to the very where was perched a top of a mountain, castle he had never seen On before. it he entering found the walls were mirrors, the roof overhead of silver, the carpets of gold-embroidered of silk, and the furniture the purest The stranger took gold and jewels. him into a room where of princesses on a golden lay the loveliest with As soon bed, as she screaming saw the pain. she begged him to corne and put his hands peasant upon her. Almost with astonishment he hesitated to stupified so fair a dame. lay his coarse hands But at length upon he yielded and in a moment her pain ceased, and she was made whole. She stood and thanked up him, him to tarry and eat with begging them. awhile This, he declined to do, for he feared however, that if he tasted the food which was offered him he must remain there. The whom he had followed stranger then took a leathern filled it with small round purse, of pieces wood, and gave it to the peasant with these words So as thou art in possession long of this purse money will never fail thee. But if thou shouldst ever see me again, beware of speaking to me for if thou luck speak thy will depart." When the man he found the got home filled with and purse of its magical dollars by virtue he became the richest property man in the parish. As soon as he found the purse always he took full, whatever







of it, he began to live in a spendthrift the ale-house. One evening as frequented he beheld the stranger in his with a bottle round and gathering the drops which the from time to time out of their glasses. The


manner he sat hand

and there going shook

guests rich peasant was surprised did that one who had given him so much not seem was able to buy a single but himself dram, reduced to this means he of getting a drink. Thereupon went up to him and said me more Thou hast shown kindness than and 1 will other man ever any did, treat thee to a little." The words were scarce willingly out head again were poorer beggary.I This terested human conditions It gifts. nature-the men tion who of his that he both and mouth he came gone. poorer, fell to when himself From until he received to the that he the such a blow on his stunned and when ground and his purse stranger he became day forward was reduced to absolute infor

has has that story exemplifies every point us in this discussion the need of the Trolls help, the involved mentions objection refusai in one of food, fairy the acceptance further

and the gratitude, of supernatural of addressed the considerafairy by and But


are privileged of this requires another

to be recognized to see them. chapter. p. 119.








magical omtmentHum~n prying punishc(~ by fah'ics, and by other supernatural Dame Berchta Hcrtha beings I,ady stories in Europelu th EastReligions Godiva-Analogous ceremonies performed by women ontyLady Godiva a pag~n goddess.


quit the subject few more stories to discuss. tnor those general already one or other of the incidents are of The but led a to new a


fairy They

births, rcsemble but in

we in

have their

a of

noticcd considered

instead th

we chapter introduction Ointment.


gratitude, curiosity The and exceedingly typical alas not exactly in the language though, of Mrs. Bray in her Letters to Southey, -by midwife of Tavistock. One midnight, as she into bed, this good woman was summoned squint-eyed, and way,

plot upon human tale is told,

incident-that no longer

catastrophe of th

previous by thc Magical fairy toldnatives

hinges npon and disobedience. wcll the was

of a. certain getting by a strangc

hlin little, ugly old fellow to follow straightattend his wife. In spite of her upon instinctive she could not repulsion resist thc command and in a moment the little man whisked with her, a large coal-black himself, horse upon with eyes of fire, which stood waiting at the door. Ere she found long herself at the door of a neat th patient was a cottage woman who had deccnt-looking two children, already and all things were for her visit. Whcn prepared th







child-a the the

fine, midwife


babe-was bouncing born, its mother some to with directions ointment, it." Now the word eyes with dialect means not

gave strike in the

Devonshire or touch, the task of the change around

gently an odd was

to give a blow, but to rub, and as the woman she thought obeyed tried the effect one, and in her curiosity upon onc of her own eyes. of no At once a appearance appeared everything as a longer

ointment her.

in the wrought The new mother

but a beautiful in white homely cottager, lady attired the babe, fairer than before, but still witnessing with the elvish cast of its eye to its paternity, in was wrapped clothes of silvery the elder while swaddling gauze who sat on either side of the were children, bed, transformed mows were into busied flat-nosed to no imps, end in who with scratching ears with mops their and own

the fairy lady's their poils, or in pulling long and The silent about hairy paws. nurse, discreetly what she had done and the wonderful mtamorphoses she beheld around the house of from got her, away enchantment as quickly as she could and sourthe old fellow looking on his steed much next who faster had brought than they her had carried corne. her But back the

when she sallied forth to sell her eggs, market-day, whom should she see but the same scoundrel ill-looking busied in pilfering articles from stall to stall. sundry So she went and with a nonchalant air up to him, addressed after his wife and child, him, inquiring who, she hoped, were both as well as could be expected. What exclaimed the old pixy thief, do you see me in See you the skies to be sure and I see Do you see all this The ointment take you that shall 1 do, you so ? ? 1 as plain are busy cried "With the for he the ointment with more." as I see into the pray, right

to-day ? the sun

she replied. bargain," with which eye do you to be sure." eye, exclaimed what the old did not

fellow to you belong

meddling see me no







that hour till eye as he spoke, and from the day of her death she was blind on the right side, thus dearly for having paying gratified an idle curiosity in the house of a pixy.I
In this tale









vision the Her

her through gratifying number of instances larger

or itches and eye smarts it with a finger co'/crcd with the Magical Ointment. In a Breton a certain variant, hcwever, stone, perfectly and in ~he form of an egg, is given polished, to the woman to rub the fairy child's In order to test eyes. its virtue she applies it to her own thus right eye, the of seeing th elves obtaining when faculty they rendered themselves invisible to ordinary Somesight. the eye-salve is expressly times, for the moreover, given of being used her own eyes. purpose by the nurse upon This was the case with a doctor who, in a north country was presented with one kind of ointment tale, before he entered the realm and another when he left it. fairy The former a splendid in the gave him to behold portico side of a steep which he passed into the hill, through fairies' hall within but on anointing one eye with the latter to that ointment, restored to eye the hill seemed its natural in Nithsdale a fairy rewards shape. Similarly the kindness of a young to whom she had mother, committed her to Fairyland. her on a visit by taking A door in a green disopened hillside, a porch which the nurse and closing her conductor entered. There the three of a lady dropped drops dew on th nurse's left eyelid, precious and they were admitted to a beautiful land watered with meandering rivulets and yellow with corn, where the trees were laden with fruits which The nurse was here dropped honey. with magical presented a green dew had gifts, and when her right baptized to behold eye she was enabled further suckle, Mrs. Bray, vol. i. p. l~. babe to

but perhaps in curiosity it is acquired by accident. without she rubs thinking,







wonders. On returning, the fairy passed her hand over the woman's its normal eye and restored but powers the woman had sufficient address to secure the wonderhalm. she retained working for many By its means the of discerning the earth-visiting years gift spirits but on one occasion, to meet the fairy lady happening who had her the child, she attempted to shake given hands with her. What ee d' ye see me wi' ?" whispered she. "Wi' them answered the matron. The baith," breathed on her and even fairy accordingly the eyes of the box failed power afterwards to restore their enchanted vision. A Carnarvonshire story, probably makes no mention of the incomplete, ointment conbut when ferring the midwife supernatural is to sight be dismissed she is told to rub her eyes with a certain she at once finds herself salve, whereupon on a sitting tuft of rushes, and not in a palace and all had baby The shows disappeared. that sequel, however, by some means she had retained the power of seeing at fairies, least with one eye for when she next went to the town, lo and behold was the elf whose wife she busily buying had attended. He the usual at betrayed annoyance and on learning being noticed with which by the woman never more eye she saw him he vanished, to be looked A tale from upon by her. attributes the Guernsey to some of the child's magical saliva which faculty fell And a still more eye. extraordinary cause is assigned to it in a tradition from Lower Brittany, where it is said to be due to the sacred bond formed between the woman and a masculine elf when she became and he godfather to the babe.' godmother The differently effect of the described wonder-working in different tales. salve The or fairy water maiden is into the nurse's

"Revue Celtique," vol. i. p. 23; Th Keightley, p. 312, citing Local Historian's Table-Book," by M. A. Richardson. Cromek, p. vol. iv. p. 209; "Revue 242; "Y Cymmrodor," des Trad. Pop," vol. iii. p. 426 Revue Celtique," vol. i. p. 232.






Rockflower from Saint



it to


as Cast, clearing in al! cases. is evident!v to be undcrstood And this thc rcsult is that we find-tlie invariable According!y, fairies who were swarms of favoured mortal beholds and before. But their their clothing, invisible dweUings, their surroundings no means always in general the same. inhabitants, sufTcr A hovct howevcr a transionnation or a cavcrn ugly

in a Hrcton t.dc lover. his eyes like hcr own."

by bccotucs

thcy tnay bc. and courtiers, and arc scrvcd princesses hand a On the other with vessels of silver and gold. castle is changed babn into "a big rough by th magical and over th cdges of th stones, cave, with water ooxing the clay and th lady, and thc lord, and thc through a palace, whose are attired like child, skin This it is midwife ancient had weazened, and bone, is an much Irish the poverty-bitten and th rich picturc same. but Instead and crathursnothing dresses werc old in thc of a north ncat of but rags."

Kngtand tlie cottage of an

the large perceives hollow oak, whose mistaken




the supplied place when Mrs. Gamp incautiously with the finger she had used "then bundle she saw with and that of rushes

trutik s!~c moss-grown for thc fireplacc, where gtow-wortns of lamps. And in North Wates, rubbed to that rub thc an thc Itching baby' wifc )ay cye eyes, on a cave of

eyc withered

all round corno' big stones her, with of it and she also saw that th lady was only ~i)ian, her former whilst with thc othcr servant-girl, eyc she beheld th finest place she had evcr seen." More terrible inftucnccd still, in another story, evidently by the Wc)sh Methodist woman bchctd J)ersctf unhappy thc iadics and gentlemen surrounded by fcarful Hamcs; looked like devils, and the children like th appcared most hideous of hell, though with the other imps parts t of her eyes all looked as before." grand and beautiful revival, Sbiltot, "Contes," vot. ii. p. 3~; Revue des Tra'L )'f<~)." vf)]. iii. th

ferns, in a !argc a little firc in one







However nurse silence of her was


these discreet until But it

visions enough she got is not

very surprising sometimes of her, as in a story tongue got the better obtained at Ystrad by Professor There Rhys Meurig. the heroine said to the elf-lady in the evening, as she was the infant You have had a great dressing many visitors To this the today." How do lady sharply replied you know that ? Have the ointment you been putting to your eyes ? she jumped out of bed, and Thereupon blew into her eyes, saying Now you will see no more." The woman could never afterwards see the fairies, nor was the ointment entrusted to her So in the again. Cornish tale of Cherry of Zennor, that young damse], hired to keep being house for him, by a fairy widower has the assurance to fall in love with him. She touches her the unguent kept for anointing of master's little and in consequence eyes boy, catches her master a lovely When he next kissing lady. to kiss herself she slaps his face, and, attempts Cherry mad with jealousy, lets slip the secret. No fairy widower with any self-respect could such conduct as put up with and Cherry has to quit Fairyland. Her parents this had her dead and when she returned supposed they believed at first it was her ghost. it is said she was never Indeed, eyes her afterwards until The she to look right died, for her in her she would master.~ writer
Litt. "Y

generally them upon own home.

may have to maintain back to

been, the


perfect safety if her




and on moonlight head wander on to the Lady mentions a story of

nights, Downs this



106; Sikes,


428; This

SbiHot, p. 311; story


Ke!ght)ey, p. 87.

reference, impossible tains The 194 pages. peculiarities need very little comment. Y Cymmrodor," vol.

Cymmrodor," p. 166; to be quoted from purports Howells, that the volume in question seeing of Mr. Sikes' authorities, 120.

21; p. vol. vi.

Kennedy, Wirt p.


349an cononly howevcr,

vi. p.




FAIRY is Gervase who He wrote of


AND HUMAN marshal of the

MtDWtVES. kingdom thirteenth a woman of

65 Arles,

Tilbury, about thc to have

professes who was one

of the beginning himself met with

century. of Arles

clothes on the banks of the day washing when a wooden bowl floated In trying Rhone, by her. to catch it, she got out of her depth and was seized by a Drac. Th Dracs were beings who haunted the waters of rivers and dwelt in the deep often on pools, appearing the banks and in the towns in human form. The woman in question like Cherry One was carried down beneath nurse to the hcr stream, captor's to eat. of Zennor, made the Drac her gave and, son.

an eel pasty Her day became with the fat and she happened fingers to greasy to one of her eyes. Forthwith put them she acquired a clear and distinct vision under the water. After some she was allowed to return to her husband years and and going early one to the market-place family morning of Beaucaire, she met the Drac. at him Recognizing him and asked after once, she salutel the hc~Ith of his wife and child. With which eye do you sec me ? the Drac. The woman:. pointed inquired to the eye she had touched with the eel-fat and thrusting his finger into it, the Drac vanished from sight.' The sunered in thse only punishment cases is the of the power of seeing fairies, or banishment deprivation from their This seems mild society. much enough more was gencrally inflicted. Th first quoted story relates what seems to bc the ordinary form of vengeance for disregard of th prohibition to use tlie fairy eye-salve, loss of sight in the namely, or onending eye. Spitting is usually the means striking adopted to by the elves effect this end. the cyc is torn Sotuctimes, however, from its socket. WhcLher there is much to choose between these diHhrcnt th punishment w~ys of undergoing is doubtfui but it should bc noted that the last-mentioned mode is a favuuritc onc in and follows Brittany, Gcrv. THb. in. c. Sg. 6







not what

so much mortal thieves one


virtuous watched

recognition of the elf's fairies putting apron.




these of them woman's

thieving are her The

propensities. cried a woman who hand into the pocket of turned instantly bawled another result. In a Cornish house with the care

by the Sce

a country round and


out her

on a similar occasion, tale a woman is entrusted of an elf-child. The child to him. the house, and his

eye. with the

fairy Thieves same own

in her

brought foster-mother


that a certain water Finding to wash his face made it very bright, required she determined to try it on her own, and splashed some of it into her This conferred the of seeing eye. the little gift who played with her boy, but had people, hitherto been invisible to her and one day she was surprised to meet her nursling's father in the market-stealing. Recognition tfollowed, and the stranger exclaimed
Water You've for lost elf, not water eye, for self, child, and yourself."

prosperity fond of grew very in which she was



From she

that got

hour home who

she was the boy had once

blind was been



husband, wretchcd.* Here an eye,

gone so happy,

right and

When eye. she and lier poor loss and of


Northumbrian case the lost his charge and both eyes. So in a story foster-parent from Guernsey, the midwife, on the Saturday following her attendance on the lady, meets the husband and father in a shop filling his basket to right and left. She at once SbiUot, Contes," vol. ii. p. 42 Lift. Orale,"?. 23 "Trad. et But in these cases th operation was performed Super." p. 109. painlessly enough, for the victims were Hnaware of their loss until they came to look in the glass. In one of Prof. Rhys' stories the eye is pricked with a green rush Y Cymmrodor," vol. vi. p. t~S Hunt, p. 83. See also SbiHet, "Contes," vol. i. p. !t(). 1

poverty were

wretchedness, inflicted. In a


as well

as the







Comprehends dwelling. You see she

that in his reigned plenty Ah, you wicked thief, I see you how ? he inquired. With me In the that case I will soon put


mysterious she cried. my you eyes," out of

replied. to play power

he spat So saying, spy," he answered. in her face, and she became A Danish blind on the spot. a midwife, that who had inadvertently story also relates anointed her eyes with the salve handed to her by the elf-folk and for the usual purpose, was The by a rye-field. were busy clipping off the cars of ryc. Indigshe cried What are you doing there ? out nantly The little round and people thronged her, angrily answered If thou canst see us, thus shalt thou be and suiting the action to the word, served put they passed elves, who out eyes.I Human beings, in fairy ointment her however, betray other ways than their meddling with home afterwards going field was swarmitig with

The folby speech. curious as current at his native lowing story was related to M. Sbillot. place, by Dr. Carr of St. Jacut-de-la-Mer, A fisherman from St. Jacut was the last to return one at dusk from the scne of his labours and as he evening walked came the wet sand of thc seashore, along of sea-fairies in a cavern, upon a number with said. a sort vivacity, Hc beheld of pomade, though them suddenly and talking he could not hear rub their eyes and he

gesticulating what thcy bodies with

lo their when, appearance and they were enabled to walk in the changed, away of ordinary women. behind a guise Hiding carefully them out of sight and then, imlarge rock, hc watched he made straight for the cave. There pelled by curiosity, he found what was left of the pomade, and taking a little on his finger, he smeared it around his left eye. By this "Revue des Trad. Pop." vol. in. p. 426; Keightley, p. 3:0; In another DMish tale Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 129, quoting Thielc. given on the same page, the woman's bHndness is attributed to her having divulged what she had seen in Fah-yland.







various the penetrate of robbing assumed disguises by the fairies for the purpose as one of that or annoying mankind. He recognized whom he saw a few mischievous race a beggar-woman means he found himself able to from door to door demanding going He saw her casting houses, and charity. spells on certain for someinto all, as if she were seeking peering eagerly to steal. He distinguished, out in his thing too, when were real fish from fish which were in boat, fish which days afterwards reality nets and the to fair sumed ladies of the other playing of Ploubalay, sea," tricks in entangling the employed Attending upon the seamen. he saw several elves who had asshowmen, or gamblers, him to this permitted as he smiled to

the shapes of fortune-tellers, deceive the country and folk

him, some of the on a platform in of one of the booths, and he front caught sight of him in their looks that they had divined his saw by the anger he had time to fly, one of them, Before with the secret. of an arrow, struck his clairvoyant a rapidity eye with stick would Such fairies and learn was alone burst the the that it. That is what of the secrets happened sea-fairies.' of curiosity to nor him is it who

of their But clear keep temptations. on around himself at what was going themselves elves, who were exhibiting


is punished. Cranmere curiosity on Dartmoor scttlement for is, we are told, a great penal of the former of the inhabitants spirits. refractory Many ` are supposed to be still there their expiating parish Of the spirit of one old farmer it is pranks. ghostly related that it took seven to secure him. clergymen succeeded at last in transforming him into They, however, a colt, which to directions the brink was take given him pool to a servant-boy with charge to Cranmere on Pool, and there to slip off the halter and return in

by Pool

of the

without round. He did look round, in looking instantly and beheld the colt in the form of a spite of the warning, SebiHot, "L'tt. Ora!e,"p. 24.







ball beast

of fire

plunge he one



water. lad a


as the

plunged knocked out deprived was the New

gave of his


of his eye fate that overtook Eve, when

eyes, just in the Arabian

parting as the

mysterious which kick, was



Still worse Nights." a woman, on who, at midnight into wine, was all water is turned over it to

r l

to go to a well. As she bent foolhardy enough out her eye, saying draw, one came and plucked AM water is wine, And thy two eyes are mine." A variant disappeared, of the and story gives the relates rhyme that as the woman


AU water is wine, And what is thereby is mine." I At teristic the end of the last chapter we noted as a charac-

of fairy nature the objection to be recognized and addressed to see them. who are privileged We by men are now able to carry the generalization a step further. adduced in the foregoing For, from the instances pages, it is obviously without sonages, a common distinction, belief that even dislike supernatural not merely being perbeing or at all manitheir

and addressed, but recognized events and are being watched, fested own to humanity In purposes. not so much the at the their stories

only willing own pleasure of the

seen, to be and


Ointment it Magical is as the theft of the contravention into business implicit prohibition against prying fairy that rouses elfin anger. This will appear more clearly from the fuller consideration of cases like those mentioned in the last in which follows paragraph, punishment directiy upon the act of spying. In Northamptonshire,

Choice Notes," p. 170; Thorpe, vol. iii. p. 8. The latter form of the story seems more usual. See Gredt, pp. 28, 29, where we are plainly told that the hapless morta)s are fetched away by the devil,








frequented by who had fairies, and received from many favours them became smitten with a violent desire to behold his invisible benefactors. he one night stationed himself Accordingly, behind a knot in the door which divided the living-room of his cottage from the sleeping-apartment. True to their custom, the elves came to disport themselves on his and to render carefully-swept to the household hearth, their usual offices. But no sooner good had the man them glanced than he became upon and so problind voked were the fairies at this breach of hospitality that deserted his dwelling, they and never more returned to it. In Southern and Switzerland, a mysterious Germany as Dame lady known Berchta is reputed to be abroad on Twelfth She is admittedly Night. the relic of a heathen one of whose attributes goddess, was to be a leader of the souls of the dead and as such she is followed by a band of children. For her the peasants on Twelfth set a Night of which, if she be pleased, repast, she and her troop A servant partake. farm in the Tirol boy at a peasant's on one such occasion perceived Lady Berchta's approach, and hid himself behind the kneading-trough to watch what she would do. She immediately became aware of his presence as he peeped a chink, and called to through one of her children to go and stop that chink. The child went and blew into it, and the stark-blind. boy became Thus he continued for a year, nor could any doctor help until an old experienced.man him, advised him to go to the same place on the and falling down following Twelfth-tide, on his knees behind the kneading-trough, to bewail his He accordingly did so. Dame curiosity. Berchta came and taking again, pity on him, commanded one of her children to restore his sight. The child went and blew once more through the chink, and the boy saw. Berchta, and her weird troop he saw not however, but the food J set out for them had disappeared.~ Sternberg, p. 132 (sec also Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 12) Von Alpen-













The recently, Rgen.

tradition and She

of the perchance had her and which often maids

goddess lingers dwelling, yet, in that bathe from to

Hertha still, it is the clear

until lingered of in the island believed, in the out moonlight, a fair lady cornes lake at its foot.

Herthaburg of the forest surrounded After again awhile in their


by her they

hill, in the the

emerge white long

But to the trees. among of such there be, who looks upon this scne, it is a vision to the lake for he is drawn dread might by irresistible to be swallowed wherein the white up in lady is bathing, its depths. And it is said that every year the lady must So in the classic lure one unhappy mortal into the flood. if Ovid mythology, fate of transformation Actaeon met the fearful aright, report on divinity into a stag by gazing in pieces torn by his own hounds. to Tacitus, more terrible according was the penalty even when duty

and, waters, wrapt vanish flickering veils, they if any the belated wanderer,

and was disrobed," Hertha was, indeed, than Diana, since death called her slaves

sight.I the Magical These traditions have led us away from which to be only one aspect of the thus appears Ointment, theme of the objection on the part of supernatural larger beings strayed interesting Godiva to human prying. Nor need for we are brought naturally of our national that of Lady legends, namely, and it will well repay a little consideration. As regret having to one of the most we

to the awful

told today it bears an unmistakable resemblance generally to the foregoing but there seems somc difficulty stories in classing Tom is wanting it with them, because Peeping in the most ancient properly version Godgifu, known was to us. an undoubted historical Godiva,

burg, p. 63. See a. similar story in Grimm, "Tcut. Myth." p. 276, from Borner, Folk-taies of th Oriagau." In the latter case, howevcr, the punishment seems to have been inflicted for jeering. Jahn, p. 177, quoting Temme, "Votkssagen"; Ovid, "Metam." 1. iii. fab. 3 Tacitus, Germ." c. 40.







of Leofric, Earl of the Mercians, and Earls Morcar and Edwin, and of Edith, wife first of Gruffydd, Prince of North and afterWales, wards of King Harold the Second. The earliest mention of her famous ride is by Roger of through Coventry who wrote In the beginning of the thirteenth Wendover, or a hundred and fifty years or thereabout century, after her His death. account of the matter is as follows The countess who was a great lover of God's Godiva, to free the town of Coventry longing from the of a heavy oppression with toll, often urgent prayers her husband, that from besought to Jesus Christ regard and His mother, he would free the town from that service, and from all other and when the earl heavy burdens rebuked her for foolishly sharply what was so asking much to his damage, and always forbade her evermore to speak to him on the subject and while she, on the other with a woman's hand, never ceased to pertinacity, her husband on that exasperate he at last made matter, her this answer Mount and ride naked your horse, before all the people, the market of the town through mother, from and on your return other, you shall have your request.' On which Godiva But will replied if 1 am willing you give me permission to do It ? 'I the countess, wIH,' said he. beloved of God, Whereupon loosed her hair and let down her tresses, which covered the whole of her body like her a veil, and then mounting horse and attended she rode through the by two knights, market without place her fair legs; being seen, except and the journey, she returned having completed with to her astonished gladness and obtained of him husband, what she had asked, for Earl Leofric freed the town of and its inhabitants from the aforesaid Coventry service, and confirmed [ what he had done a charter." by According ) to the more modern version, of History," the inhabitants 1037. I of Wendover, Flowers Roger quote from Dr. Giles' translation. sub anno one end to the

the ~personage, mother of the









to enjoined Laureate's words







one low chuirl, compact of thanktess earth, The fatal byword of ail years to corne, Horing a little auger-hole in fear, Peep'dbut his eyes, before they had their will, Were shrivell'd into darkness in his head, And dropt before him. So th powers who wait On noble deeds, cancell'd a sense misus'd." It is not untrue my business or now to prove that the is legend its omission

in fact,

1 should

and Godgifu who writers, by previous and their various testimony good deeds, is strong negative a calculation made and 1 should against it show, from and founded on the record by the late Mr. M. H. Bloxam, of Domesday Leofric's time scarcely and fifty souls, all in a greater or less degree of servitude, and dwelling in wooden each of a single hovels probably There a door, but no window.* was, therestory, with of on th scale contemplated fore, no market by Roger Wendover,-hardly, could Godgifu been serfs. a town which through indeed, and a mere toll would have have ridden were all a matter of small moment when the people The in short, in the form tale, given by the could to whereof not have and been told until after wealth importance by and her husband were the Godgifu now asserts that however, Roger is to that And done to point she this is be taken seriously. in it is that out should what ride the that she naked historian rode and Coventry means of its Book, could that th population have exceeded of in Coventry hundred threc

insist, refer both

that first, to Leofric

chronicler, had risen monastery, founders. of What Godgifu's ~/or<? all understands

Nobody, Wendover's narrative therefore 1 was


bargain the ~o~/c. her

to have

for he states

See his Presidential Address to the Warwickshire Achseotogists' Field Club, iS6.








without being seen, except her market-place covered by her j~/r legs, all the rest of her body being hair like a veil. He tells us nothing about a proclamawithin and of tion to the inhabitants to keep doors of in this version course Tom is an impossibility Peeping through the the tale. Coventry by a periodical a girl dressed the manners was of it to was merely British cession mention then was the has for generations honoured its benefactress wherein she is represented by procession, as nearly like the countess on her ride as day have in it. instituted, seems to be the in permitted. is unknown. the year Great When The this proearliest

of the first

proclaim an incident Museum

Fair, The Lansdowne an account

Its object 1678. and Lady Godiva MSS. a visit in to of


of and ancient lieutenant, Coventry by the captain, in the of Norwich, who travelled the military company tourists Midland Counties in These August 1634. end Hall at the upper describe St. Mary's as adorned one with rich hangings, and all about with fayre pictures, whose lady (the Lady Godiva) for that shee purmemory they have cause not to forget, and chas'd and redeem'd their lost infringed liberties tributes and obtained remission of heavy ffreedomes, more especially of a noble impos'd a hard and unseemly by undertaking upon them, noone day task, w'ch was to ride naked openly at high the city on a milk-white steed, w'ch she willingly through strict It to her lord's injunction. according performed, his hatred or heere whether may be very well discussed Her fayre long hayre did much offend her love exceeded. In this record we have no the wanton's glancing eye." noone fact except the mention of "high additional day" as of the time of the wanton's glancing for the allusion to "the journey is too vague to be interpreted eye refer to does not and the writer It has been supposed, procession. times of Charles the Second

Tom, Peeping any commemorative that the therefore,









Tom Peeping to the legend. more that the likely procession is as old as the which was held under fair, a charter of Henry the Third, in 1217. Such granted were not uncommon in pageants municipal life, and were to the taste of the everywhere people. Whether Godiva was a primitive Lady of it is part another The mention of the procession question. in 1678 occurs in a manuscript volume of annals of the city, in a handwriting of the period. The in question entry is as follows "31 the great 1678 Fair at May being there was an Coventry th extraordinary [Hre bottom of the page is reached and in turning over the chronicler has omitted a word, for on the top of the next we read :] Divers of the page the Companies [~ set out each a follower, City Guilds] The Mayor Two, and the Sheriffs each one and 2 at the publick charge, there were divers Streamers with the Companies arms and Ja. Swinnertons l Son represented Lady Godiva." This brief entry is by no means free from ambiguity. all that we are warrahted in inferring Perhaps from it is that the annual procession of unusual was, that year, as has been conjectured, splendour. Whether, it was the MS. marked D. This entry is an interpolation in a list of mayors and sheriffs in a different There are several such interhandwriting. in the volume. polations Coventry possesses a number of MS. volumes of annals, one of which (see below) seems to date from the latter part of the sixteenth century, and the rest from the latter part of the seventeenth. In the MS. marked F. (considered by Mr. W. G. Fretton, F.S.A., to be in th handwriting of John Tipper, of Bablake, Coventry, a schoolmaster and local antiquary at the end of the seventeenth and of the eighteenth centuries), and also in the MS. beginning in the Bntish Museum (AdditionaIMSS. 11,364), the entry runs simply:MichaeM Earle (Mercer) Mayor; "1678 Francis Clark, George Allatt, Sherriffs. This year y severall Companies had new streamers, and attended y~ Mayor to proclaim ye faire, and each company cloathed one boy or two to augmcnt y~ show." The latter M S. elsewhere speaks of the story of Godiva's ride as and yearly "comonly known, comemorated by the Mayor, AIdermen, and y severall companies



procession But it is









first there
is no


Lady Godiva seems more doubt.





in supposing processions of Puritan

appearance, there from any evidence, that she may have formed it may be that during the show had been



ascendency discounand the lady in particular had been neglected it is difficult to account tenanccd. If this be so, however, for the manner to by in which her is referred figure the writer, unless were some personal reason conthere nected or his son, undiscoverJames Swinnerton, able by us at this distance of time. But whatever doubt exist as to Godiva's share may in the early processions, there no less as to the appears out of an upper Looking story is at the corner of Smithford King's Head, Street, an oaken tailor. figure called by the name of the notorious It is in reality of a man in armour, no dating a statue episode of the th Seventh and, reign of Henry as a local antiquary of his to favour the posture notes, out of window, the arms have been eut off at the leaning I This elbows." now generally to have believed statue, been intended for St. George, could not have been thus until its and adapted to its present appropriated purpose back than the had original design its costume passed been in question, Owen. It must 1678, was not when put been forgotten and the This unrecognized. a figure, identified up in Grey Friars that incongruity is said to the of have one in further of Peeping Tom. with

part th

of earlier period



Lane there

by Alderman

been may have of th legend, and from the first more than one version that a version unknown rejected by, or perhaps to, Roger him may have of Wendover and the writers who followed This statue used to be decked out on the occasion of the procession See T. in the long peruke and neckcloth of the reign of Charles II. Collections for the Continuation of Dugdale's Antiquities of Ward, Warwickshire" (2 vols., fol. MS., Brit. Mus., Additional MSS., Nos. 29,264, 20,26$), vol. ii. fol. 143.

be overlooked







always within the

included doors,

the of which





inhabitants Tom would

to seem wc

keep to be have

necessary accompaniment. no evidence on this point. a version in one appears already and it alluded to. is so much in the It at thirtecnth has

Unfortunately, The earliest record of the manuscript not been alikc hitherto with the

of such volumes printed legend


preserved the nineteenth

and the of century, poem that 1 quote it entire The century, Franchisment and Freedome of Coventry was purchased in manner Godiua the wife of Leofric Earle Following. of Chester and Duke of March of her Lord requesting freedome for this That obtained the same upon Towne, condition that she should ride naked the same through who for the Love she bare to the Inhabitants thereof, and the perpetuall remembrance of her Great Affection the same as Followeth. thereunto, In the performed forenoone all householders were Commanded to keep in their Familles their doores and windows close shutting whilst done without the she Dutchess rode naked performed through Coverture which good deed, the midst of the Towne, save only her hair. But her horse whereat neighed, this

any other about the midst of the Citty one desirous to see the strange Case lett downc a Window, 1 and looked fact or for that the Horse out, for which did as the cause neigh, all the Towne thereof, were Though were not toll-free to this day."I Franchised, yet horses The in which this passage occurs manuscript is copied from an older which to have manuscript been appears MS. marked E, Coventry, seventeenth A careful examicentury. nation of the language of Roger of Wendover, Matthew Paris, John of Brompton, and Matthew of Westminster, shows that Roger of Wendover's account is th source of the other three, Matthew Paris copying most closely, and John ot Brompton most freely. John of Brompton and Matthew of Westminster omit the escort. Their statement as to Gocliva's being unseen refers to the hair which covered her and the latter informs us, with a touch of that Leofric regarded rhetoric, it as a miracle.







in the compiled the latter ever, out at this certainty comprised that the glass, shutters, to the period and

sixteenth is

century. a imperfect,

Unfortunately, been leaf having say was

howtorn with ever

We cannot, therefore, very point. ride of the famous that the account made use in it. But the expressions were they were sills. came into closed either It is with shutters by letting or affixed that which were opened loose a


of imply than rather down by the a hinge at what in to the the

bottom glass

general Coventry.

question use for Down

exactly windows almost

houses at burgesses' middle of the fifteenth

all glass was imported century in the midlands it was not so common and consequently coast. the as near the south-eastem coast, especially that be on the safe side if we assume We shall probably at all events, in the early years of the sixteenth century, at Coventry dwelling-house ordinary It would of this lxury. destitute seem, cannot in the form here given, the story, than the latter years may be much earlier, the century. Failing becomes any reason. by that definite of evidence importance in other traditions In the of "History of Rudder parishioners Dean, have after the it carry us back further, are to inquire whether there from which we may places of Gloucestershire," printed Cirencester in 1779, we read to hard Briavels, a custom of distributing of St. divine by the yearly of bread defray parish is said no longer that therefore, and later, of the fifteenth be was


Forest upon and the

Whitsunday, to the cheese to

expenses pays a penny to be for the in Hudnolls. of of obtained Forest same

congregation householder of which every the privilege The tradition churchwardens of cutting of and

service, pieces at church, to in and the this

is that

some at

Earl the that

Dean, hard terms

Hereford, of instance Lady Godiva

th wood taking was the privilege then lord of the the upon the privi-


lady, obtained






79 appears that

leges Rudder, custom


th while

citizens in th


Coventry." main accurately


and tradition, has made the mistake that the was made to the payment churchwardens, whereas it was in all made to the constable probability of the castle of St. Briavels as warden of the Forest of Dean. The custom is now in a late stage of decadence, and local inquiries have failed to elicit any further details under throwing light on the point considration.i 1 am not aware of any other tradition that European will bear comparison with that of Godiva, but Liebrecht relates that he remembers in his youth, about the year 1820, in a German a story according to which newspaper, a countess frees her husband's from a heavy subjects punishment She undertakes imposed to walk a by him. certain course clad only in her shift, and she performs it, but clad in a shift of iron.2 The condition is here eluded rather than fulfilled and the point of the story is consevaried. It would quently be interesting to have the taie unearthed from the old newspaper, and to know where its scene was laid, and whether it was a genuine piece of folklore. tales, furnish us repeatedly however, with incidents in which a lady parades the streets of a city, and during her progress all folk are bidden to close their and withdraw into their shops houses on pain of death. The of the Princess example Badroulboudour will occur to every reader of the Arabian Nights." This, however, is by no means a In the story of Kamar solitary example. Al.Zaman and the Jeweller's one of the stories Wife, of th on moral Nights rejected grounds but by Lane, translated a dervish by Burton, relates that he chanced 1 Rudder, p. 307. The Rev. W. Taprell Allen, M.A., Vicar of St. Brevets, has been Innd enough to supply me with the correction from local inquiries and intimate with the traditions and acquaintance affairs of the parish extending over many years. See also Gent. Mac Lib." (Manners and Customs), p. 230. Liebrecht, p. 104. Eastern

both relating of supposing








to enter the city of Bassorah, Friday streets deserted. Th shops were open nor woman, girl nor boy, dog nor cat

and but was to

found neither

the man

be seen.

a sound of drums, and hiding himBy and by he heard self in a coffee-house, he looked out through a crevice and saw forty pairs of slave uncovered heads girls, with and faces displayed, corne walking the market, through and in their midst a lady riding unveiled and adorned with and In front of her was a damsel gold gems. in baldric a great sword with haft of emerald and bearing tassels of jewcl-encrusted close to th gold. Pausing the lady said to her maidens hear a noise of dervish, somewhat within so do ye search yonder shop it, lest be one hidden with intent to cnjoy a haply there there, look at us while we have our faces unveiled." Accordsearched the shop the coffee-house, ingly they opposite and brought forth a man. At the lady's command th damsel with the sword smote off his head, and leaving the corpse the procession lying on the ground, swept on, It turned out that the lady was the wife of a jeweller to whom the King of Bassorah was desirous of granting a the boon obtained was a proclaboon, and at her request mation that all the townsfolk should commanding every enter the mosques two hours before the hour of Friday so that none abide in the town, prayer, might great or or in the houses small, uniess they were in the mosques with but all the shops were upon them to be left open. Then the lady had permission to ride with her slave-women the heart of the town, through and none were to look on her from window or lattice and every one whom she found abroad she was at liberty to kill. A similar incident is related in the life of Kurthe robber-poet t passes in state through way to the mosque, rogl,
Burton, "Nights," vo!.




of Persia, where a beautiful princess the bazaars on her every Friday while all the men are banished.'
ix. p. 255 Burton, "Supp. Kights," vol.

ni. p. 570 (Appendix by Mr. W. A. Clouston). the second hatf of the seventeenth century.

Kurrogh't flourished in

















spy. A version of the incident, which can be traced further form than either back in literary of th foregoing, occurs in the Ardshi-Bordshi." This book is a Mongolian of a Sanskrit recension collection of stories concerning lived, secms to about the beginning of the Christian era. He was celebrated, like Solomon, for his wisdom and his and his name became the centre of a vast accremight tion of legends. Some of these werc translated legends into Mongolian late in the Middle and formed a Ages, Vikramditya, have flourished who, small hero. collection In the called story has a daughter Ardshi-Bordshi, to which 1 wish to direct after th nominal a attention, of Sunshine, a monarch if he ever

certain king of whom he was her his eyes were

the name bearing so jealous that if any one looked upon her put out, and the man who entered had his legs broken. the young apartments Naturally, and complained to lady got tired of being thus immured, her father of seeing that, as she had no opportunity man or beast, the time on her hands and she hung heavily him to let her go out on the fifteenth of the month begged and look about her. The to this king agrecd but, the was further from his intention sly old rascal nothing than to gratify his daughter's for masculine longing converse. Whcrefore he issued a decree that all objects for sale were to be exposed to the view, all cattle openly to be left indoors, th men and women were to withdraw into their houses and close their doors and windows, and if any one came forth he should be severely punished. On the surrounded appointed day, Sunshine, by her in a brand-new ladies, and seated drovc chariot, through the town, and viewed the merchandise and goods exposed for sale. The had a minister, named king who Moon, could not restrain his curiosity and hc peeped at her from a balcony. The princess, as he did so, caught sight of him and made to him, which were interpreted signs 7







by the pntration her clandestinely. ladies would deem pliance would and the

of his wife The "a wife proper

to be an invitation hardly

to meet

consequence been serious both to himself and to have trouble the princess, had it not been for the ready wit of the two an who over the difficulty women, got by contriving in other not unknown stories, ingenious equivocation by which the princess cleared herself and her lover on oath.* t It is true that in these tales the lady who rides forth is not naked be but to ride openly and unveiled would thought seclusion include almost is the as immodest upon Tom imposed countries AU women. in where these strict tales

what most displayed in advising comspirit" of taking that advice

and it Peeping incident appears, so obvious a corollary to the central of indeed, thought it is hardly adventure that Lady Godiva's likely to have From some tracenturies for its evolution. required it is absent. A story belonging to the ditions, however, a Cinderella found at Smyrna, relates that when cycle, the certain desired to marry his own king daughter, as the of her demanded maiden, Fate, by the advice of compliance dresses. three magnificent Having price (like go unseen to the to gratify her, Badroulbadour) king, his subjects on pain of death forbade to open their shops or to show themselves in the streets while she passed by. obtained these, she asked permission The bath. of escaping from the city, got an opportunity no doubt, of which she did not fail to make use,-greatly, also An Indian tradition to her unnatural father's disgust. under the tells us that the inhabitants of Chamba were necessity of digging a canal for irrigation, but when it She thus to

This story is edited by Ju)g in Mongolian and German (Innsbruck, 1867). Miss Busk gives a free adaptation rather than a translation of Prof. De Gubernatis, "Zool. the German version, "Sagas," p. gt~. interMyth." vol. i. p. 138, of course interprets it as a sun-myth-an pretation to which the names Sunshine and Moon, and the date of th adventure (the fifteenth of the mont)!), !end themselves.

1.URY was dug, owing of water at if the would last

BtRTHS to thc could



MIDW1VES. of an along spell young a evil spirit, its course. could be

83 not A disof

enchantments to flow that the

a drop magician solved Chamba the to After her

be got found out and



virtuous traverse vicw

plain cntirely lose her head much shame

naked, when

in full th


of given of the populace, and was accomphshed. triumphed But lo arose to right And over as she and

princess distance

her hsitation, and she undcrtook a thick line of

compassion thc task. trecs

advanced, left,

the completely hiding cynical eyes. canal is shown thc of shady today by good people Chamba as one of the most authentic monuments of thcir 1 history. So far the stories. winch it must bc Concerning observed that arc evidence that the of Lady they myth Godiva is widely in the diffused and that the East, spy is usually, not of tlie tale. The though always, part
Smyrnan version must

young her from







It reckoning. of the Cinderella to This get the


Is, as I have aiready mentioned, The of thc cycle. problem

unseen out

a variant plot is how clutches.




is commonly enbcted mechanism of by th simple a disguise and a night Other 1 necd escape. methods, not now sometimes detail, and are, however, adopted the excuse of going to the with the order to the bath, to close their and within people would shops keep doors, seem to reveal more than the unconscious nothing innuencc of Aladdin or some other of the Eastern stories. as accidentai, an overwhdmin" out, then, of the cited contains the proportion It analogues spy. would be dangerous to reason on thc that supposition the proportions of all the Asiatic variants extant correThrowing spond liberty with those of that the variants number, "Tour cited if not but th wc arc at to assume a large this


Von Hahn, vol. ii. p. 225; quoted by Liebrecht, p. to~.

du Monde,"

vol. xxi. p. 34~,







the incident comprise was known in Europe lation of the

Tom. None of theni Peeping until Galland his transpublished Arabian in the Nights 1704 year


of two centuries later than the latest at upwards period which the story as given in th manuscript Coventry can have corne into existence. But the stories, though they may go a little way to to the incident of Peeping throw help us in regard Tom, no light on the origin of the legend, or of the procession. Let us therefore turn to one or two curious religious rain was as actually bring reported the famine of practised during Gorakhpur 1873-4. It consisted of a gang of women themselves stripping and going out to drag the naked, perfectly by night a field. across The men were plough carefully kept out of the as it was believed that way, peeping by spell them trouble from to this have would on the belief not vitiate the only spell, It would not be village. to a story in which peeping but bring a long step was alleged ceremonies, A potent which to may have some bearing upon it.

with disastrous either to place effects, th of the deities intended to be (by favour to the culprit himself. At the festival of the propitiated) local in the village of Serdr, in the Southern goddess Mahratta the third and fourth country, days are devoted to private we are told, on these offerings. Many women, naked walk to the temple in fulfilment of vows, days relations by their female The of religious rites performance by women alone, men are required when under to absent heavy penalties not very uncommon in savage life. themselves, is, indeed, Nor is it confined to savage life. When Rome was at the of her civilization and her triumphs, the festival height of the Bona Dea was rendered notorious by the "Journal divorce Soc. N. and Q."vol. iii. pp. 41, n~; "Panjab London," N.S., vol. i. p. c8. Ethnol. but they were and surrounded covered with leaves and of trees, boughs 1 and friends."

taken or village,







of with


aristocratie her, Dea, Bona daughter scended

an against legal proceedings of an intrigue scoundrel, who, for the purposes ceremonies. had violated the sacred The the or Good Goddess, was a woodland deity, wife and by

f f

had deHer wife of Faunus. worship and festival and her annual from a remote antiquity and was attended of December, was held in the month families of The matrons of the noblest only by women. official of of the highest met by night in the house Rome of the the traditional ceremonies to perform the state of the Roman to pray for the well-being and goddess, of the most unsullied and those women, Only of to attend and the breach were character, permitted in woman's this rule by Clodius, garb, constidisguised from the the offence tuted a heinous state, against if we may believe of which he only escaped, penalties people. Cicero, by bribing At the village another procession place. Very little judges.' of Southam, in honour is known the not of about far it from Coventry, took formerly


save one now, in there were two Godivas that fact, namely, singular Southam was was black. and one of them the cavalcade, and it of the property Leofric by Earl part possessed for the that this is enough to account has been suggested commemoration excellent reason of for Godgifu. affixing It her would no doubt name bc renowned an to a it her of black a mere the

ceremony already periodical be a reason would hardly of privileges in extortion Southam lady did not unexplained. share She and may,

there. performed for commemorating which it the would inhabitants leave been


but the hypothesis anything though travesty, if we have recourse to free from dimculty. Here, again, we may obtain some light. the comparison of ceremonies, The information relating to the Bona Dea has been collected by Rom. Myth." vol. i. p. 398 and see the authonties he has Preller, ited.

have indeed, would be







of Africa the wives Coast a daily who have to war make procession gone all thc are stark town. naked, painted through They and decorated with beads and charms. over with white, Among of men the tribes Gold Any driven man who is found in the town is attacked and of a battle thc women And on the occasion away. to be performing, imitate the actions thc mcn are thought with guns, sticks, and knives. Th Gold Coast is a long off way themscives Britain dark riei ovcr do black women there paint only in their women in white sacred white rites, have if not black, at least a painted themselves, Pliny

of thc




Christian with


that both matrons and unmarrecords th Britons in the first ccntury of the were in the habit of staining themscives all and hc adds that, thus ~Ethiopians, they go on of nature. Wc are sometimes invaded were all the Britain, driven out or

rivalting these occasions taught natives massacred. ing has its have What tion of such that becn that whom

the juice of the woad the swarthy hue of thc in a state when the English found hre

they There are, this wholesale

imagined. termination a Celtic entered a

is more

for doubthowever, many reasons was as complete as destruction The name of Coventry in betrays and not this been could in the hardly neigh-


lment it had there than


considrable likcly and

British-speaking that at Southam

population. this popula-

continued customs

speaks ? Pliny it was performed. rite itself, nor th deity in whose honour of fancy to But it would not involve a great stretch we have a that in the black lady of Southam suppose survival that this of the performance. would explanation It is not the too much of to have merit say being

its customs, and that one preserved rite of which was that very religious he tells us nothing about the Unhappily

and adquate.' intelligible Nat. Hist." 1. xxii. c. t. For th inforEllis, p. 226 Pliny, mation as to th proce;sion at Southam 1 am indebted to Mr. W. G. Fretton, who formerly lived there.







In ail usually

countries dramatic.

actions represent, are performed. were into of this

a special character are or arc believed to They represent, of the divinities in whose honour thcy Th rites of th Bona Dea, we know, they consequently character. The degeneratcd



orgies Ccvcntry procession is admittedly of Godgifu's ride. a reprsentation It is not now, nor has it been so long as wc have any records of it-that is to say for two hundred years-connected with any professed act of worship but this is not incompatible some such introduction cuits. The with its observance of Christianity th long-descended being as those 1 have described. did not annihilate the relie of The older

and kind of a shameful

new religion some of them and Incorporated the rest were no longer as sacred, although regarded the feeling of obligation remained attached to them for centuries. were and deThey secularized, ultimately for the most Such as were graded part into burlesque. connected see in a municipal life, or, as we shall future with a measure of chapter, life, retained family solemnity long after it had passed away from rites which had been abandoned to an unorganized mob. This is well illustrated between the crmonial by the contrast at Coventry (whatver The hand strongcr its origin) and that at St. Briavels. of a municipality would have a to th~t of a village comrestraining power wanting or a parish-especially if the latter had munity, been had been governed shorn by a lord, who in later times of his authority, or had ceased to reside or take among, an interest in the affairs of, his tenantry. Somcthing like this 1 take to have been the history of St. Briavels. There does not appear from Rudder's account to have been, in his time at least, any pageant commemorative of the achievement of the lady to whom the parishioners reckoned themselves to owe their nor have 1 privileges been able to trace one by local inquiries. But the tradition is at St. Briavels connected with a unmistakably with







and social rite. The distribution of food on a religious in the church to th congreday of high and holy festival and paid for by a levy upon every househol.der in gation, the can point to nothing else than a feast of parish, the whole as a solemn act of worship. Its community in more rcent timcs has been thus described degeneracy to me by the Rev. W. Taprell AUen For many years it was customary to bring to the church on Whitsun-day afternoon baskets of the stalest bread and hardest cheese, eut up into small the size of dice. pieces Immediately after in th the the service the and bread it was and cheese were scrambled for church, a custom to use them as pellets, the pulpit.

in for his share as he left parson coming About a year or two later, the unseemly 1857, or perhaps custom was transferred from the church to the churchthe bread and cheese being thrown down from the yard, church outside A but becn Godiva few corne tower. th church Later on it was It now transferred lasts but to the road gates. all th a few minutes.

ago years over, and there it

now dying

is very out." From was whilc of

of the Forest used to roughs was much and fighting drinking different. The custom has in fact these by St. at later stages saved of decay the a municipal can watch

festival. th progress

pageant And

becoming we Briavels

from a point at which degeneration the religious character of the ceremony had not quite down to the most unblushing and to vanished, burlesque, its ultimate from consecrated expulsion precincts,-at we see but one phase, one moment, at which Coventry the rite, if it ever had any title to that to name, seems have been photographed and rendered permanent. It is obvious, that a fcast is not a dramatic however, of a ride and the point requiring elucidareprsentation tion with the is the a feast Intimatc relation of the feast at St. Briavels story ride. was so irrelevant as that of the apparently To explain that this, wc must suppose th concluding only part-doubtless part-"








of a ceremony, and that the of which the central cession, that if the familiar naked to us

former figure But

was portion was identical such

a prowith


at Coventry. in a sacred fcast, would


a procession, had no meaning

of flesh a creature merely lady represented on th hypothesis that and blood. It is only explicable of a heathen she was the goddess (or cult, such as Hertha hcr whose subject among Nerthus), progress periodical in a well-known tribes is described by Tacitus,' passage of as we have in th folklore and yet survives, seen, Rgen. Mother bration Now Earth, would th the historian goddess tells of the take us soil, that whose Hertha yearly was cele-j'

in th spring or; place be of the land would produce early summer. would and by her permission and in her name ascribed Such a goddess all agricultural be performed. operations it must bc who is honoured already by the ceremonies in India. Such a goddess, at any rate, was the `~ noticed we may readily believe Bona Dea and to such a goddess appropriately To hcr the would be ascribed the consistent with quite should household at St. Briavels of the forest, and that it should festival. goddess' tolls and burdcns We at are left Coventry, Pigs and privilege this that of cutting wood. It is th payment by every be made to the warden bc spent to surmise on by him what were the the

Roger of Wendover. in the exemptions different were not included sources, for this in the and the reason obtained by the countess for by the incident of Peeping latter case is accounted Tom. One Briavels nearly at other and the is worthy of mention point at Coventry the commemoration same time of year. The both takes Grt at

so vaguely referred to by we learn from two horses,


place Fair at

on th day after Christi Coventry opens Corpus Daythat is to say, the Friday after Trinity Sunday. Corpus was the day on which the celebrated Christi Day itself


c. 40; f/~ c. 9.







Miracle were performed and the Fair Coventry Plays the next morning. At the same time of year too opened on Ascension for which there -namely, Day-a custom, is no explanation in any record, was observed at St. MIchael's ale and brcad and cheese Church, York, when were yearly to the poor of thc given away in the church parish.I Although weeks from Corpus feasts heathen the same Christian instances would bridge observances season, calendar, on one her Ascension Christi, this gulf of th when they Day is scparatcd the movable character without same had any by threc of the and to the

nature, to be

difficulty and referring to


might day and husband

find easily in others were

and Godgifu the Benedictine the ruins

in some places on another day.. honoured as founders of

at Coventry, which rose upon monastery of an earlier house of Benedictine nuns founded

a lady of th royal house, two hundred by Osburg, nearly This had been destroyed in the years before. nunnery Danish wars about th 1016. if year Consequently, any legend, in or Coventry the name with weaith a debt record honour. On that the the whole, then, and there for supposing ground of Godiva procession Lady belief and worship located at was concerned with a being Hertha heris it. and was known or ceremony, connection with some traditional was the ready to hand to practised patroness, bc identified at

of Godgifu Through repute

of gratitude whether any

first rose to monastery Coventry and the townsfolk on this score owed to th foundress, there is no though special day was set apart in her

legend are survivals of a pagan that the legend Coventry awfui and

as Dame or mysterious Berchta, and that the incident of Peeping Tom was from the self from an early date, part of th story. first, or at all events The evidence these conclusions l'est may bc upon which thus shortly recapitulated Nicholson, p. g2.







i. other with


absence close and

of historical resemblance

foundation betwecn which

for th the

2. The stories

tradition. and tradition deal


superstitions such goddesses, close

unquestionably as Bcrchta and Hertha.

3. The equally and that described know, period instituted heathen home could when rites not the and

between the procession analogy so far as we in Eastern stories, which, latest have reached at the England could the possibly have and but as been certain near procession in thc East, in Britain

procession between

not only practised as Rome and Germany,-nay,


of a similar at Southam, 4. The occurrence procession in the same county, of a black thc special featurc having best as a survival of certain rites explained lady, ancient Britons. practised by the
betwcen the analogous at St. 5. The connection legend Briavel's and the remains of a sacred communal feast that can hardly bc anything else than th degradcd remnant of a pagan observance. Th want of historical vidence of course, bc cannot,

but wc must remember that in investigating overlooked traditions and traditional we are dealing observances with a phase of civilization of which rare history only yieids and indirect It is the absence of direct vidence glimpses. of Folklore, but also in the that, not only in thc science causes resort to the evidence afforded physical sciences, by of other structures and processes. On the comparison and th reasoning based upon evidence, it, all our scientific In spite, therenearly learning dpends. in the historical and in thc fore, of thc defects evidence, absence of vidence to the contrary, it c~n scarcely bc denied that th analogies in both custom and legend here validity brought in favour

of this

together of th

amount conclusions

to a fairly strong 1 have venturcd


to draw



1 may

formulate actually


as to the course of conjecture it would bc something like pursued, my







this. annual men been

The rite were

ceremony in honour excluded.

Coventry of a heathen This rite, like



survival from would



goddess, all such,

which have

a part of the tribal associated cult, and intimately with the tribal life and organization. SIde by side with it a myth would have been evolved, for the accounting as a dramatic of an event performance in reprsentation the goddess' career. This myth would have been similar in outline to those recited and would have comabove, an explanation of the exclusion prised of men. When the district the inhabitants spread through old custom and their old myth, cling to their as we know was done elsewhere, because it was bound up with their social life. But, if not violently put down by the rulers of the land, both custom and myth would, little lose their sacred character as the new by little, Christianity would still religion formed be slow, it would increased into in municipal centuries being be aided by and influence, ceremonies. would This become process transwould

for its completion but required the graduai of the development tribe first into a settled and thence village community, into a mediaeval With the loss of sanctity township. the reason for prohibiting the attendance of men would but the tradition of it would vanish be preserved in th incident of the which narrated Tom's story Peeping treachery.~ I 1 am indehted to Mr. Samuel Timmins, F. S.A., and to Mr. W. G. Fretton, F.S.A., for a great amount of local information and other assistance which they have spared no pains to render me, and to the Town Clerk of Coventry for permission to inspect the invaluaHe local manuscripts belonging to the Corporation.




in changelings-Precautions against changing-Motives frustrated-How changelings assigned for changingAttempts to lead physical characteristics-Devices may be knownTheir them to betray themselvesTheir subsequent treatmentJoumey to Fairyland to fetch back the true chi)dAdu!t changelings.


always for matter


babe, roused wonder

of all human

compassion if its helplessness assumption evils a

the beings and care.


helpless, Nor is it a

have led to the dangers to spiritual or supernatural At all events it seems it makes not a babe, when first must be protected of its more condition, subtle and

against physical that it is exposed more than its elders. that world,

widespread superstition its appearance in this

by this superstition in Changelings-a the present chapter.I By fairies the and belief other

the natural against merely perils but also against enemies of an even fearful The taken description. shape in north-western is the belief Europe belief in which I propose I mean to examine a belief in that


children, young even for adults, that seize and unguarded,

imaginary or (as we

are on the watch for beings shall see hereafter) sometimes if they can find them they may, them in their carry off, leaving

The belief in changelings is not confined to Europe, though th It is found, as we shaH accounts we have of it elsewhere are meagre. see further on, in China. It is found also among the natives of the Pacifie slopes of North America, where it is death to th mother to sucMe the changeling. Dorman, p. 24, citing Bancroft.







place their person. thefts. the and th Faith


of themselves, or a block of wood to resemble and made enchantments Wise These mothers precautions the display take arc same precautions tolerably

animated the against

by stolen such for First


part foremost them among little one is admitted in the

general is the rite of baptism, into the Christian

simple, character.


whereby Church.

from as a protection of baptism efficacy less strong the is not hostile to man among powers Roman than communities Protestant among nominally to bring and has doubtless many Catholics, operated who might children within the pale of the visible Church ensacred in reaching that otlierwise have been long of baptism in the power of the belief Examples be cited of fairies could the dprdations easily against Without from all Protestant countries. doing this, we was also rcckoned to note that baptism may just pause a relic of the old This is doubtless a remedy for disease. closure. creed other the which refers all human ailments Mr. north they to witchcraft spiritualistic notion prvalent never thrive origins. in th until Henderson, of England are speaking that sickly and. of

a relates christened, within whose to him by a clergyman, story communicated The He says it had happened. knowledgc personal in the West at Thorne, child of a chimncy-swecper infant infants was in a very weak state of health, of Yorkshire, Riding A neighbour looked and appeared to be pining away. On an if the child had been baptized. in, and inquired I 1 she gravely in thc negative, answer said, being given was taken, The counsel it christened.' would try having and both to by 1 believe in North a Scottish with and success." South The Wales. who illustrative same belief It is also moreover of it and is found testified the an of

following undefinable as an idea in the

clergyman, conversation as sort of awe which



of uncanniness

unbaptized in having them among

infants, without the

as well baptism labouring


is entertained




Oh, sir," said the wife of a working man to the minister, on asking him to baptize her child with whose mothers along others, were "this the warst present, the registration's thing it sud be deen awa' wee athegeethir queentryever saw asked the in astonishment "Why?" at the minister, woman's words and earncstncss of manner. It'11 pit oot kirsnin Ye see the craitirs athegeethir. gets their names, an wc jist think that an' we'rc in nae hurry aneuch, sennin for you." How far, as this anecdote dimly sugit was th giving of a namc gests, which was supposed to protect a child, 1 cannot more it was say probably the dedication to God involved in baptism. This is countenanced said to have been obby the prcaution served in Nithsdale when a pretty child was born to consecrate it to God, and sue for its protection by taking the Beuk" 1 and other acts of prayer and dvotion.'

in the


of Scotland.







there supposed were other distinctly Christian, looked as efficacious. Thus in Scotland upon it was deemed to keep an open Bible highiy judicious always near a child, and evcn to place the holy volume beneath the head of a woman in labour. In somc of parts it is enough to lay a single leaf out of a Bible Gcrmany or prayer-book in the cradle, until of the by the baptism infant th danger of robbery and a prayerpasses away book is also placed under the pillow of the newly-made who is at that time specially mother, liable to fall under the power of the underground folk. Indeed a prayerof a Paternoster, book, or the mre is equally repetition valuable with a Bible for these and if, by the purposes of any of these an opportunity neglect be precautions, 1 Sec a curious Scottish ballad givcn at length, F. L. Record vol. p. Fu N. and Q." vol. h. 235; Henderson, p. ig; "Cymm p. 144; Crcgor, p. n (f/: Harland aud WUkinson, p. 22!)"; Cromek, p. 247. See Webster, p. 73, where a witch carries away a child who is not blessed when it sneezes.

may be charms

to given Utterancc the


foe, the the name child

by the may yet be saved at the moment of of Jesus Christ and the when the change is being effected. Holy water in Ireland, or a rosary blessed of the cross, by a sign in Picardy, rputation.* priest, enjoy a similar of prevention are veneered with somc Ail these means are others which sort of Christianity but there display in a child Heathenism naked and unblushing. While remains it is necessary to burn Mecklenburg unbaptized confined in the chamber. Nor is the superstition a light and it is common all over to one district Germany in England it is found it was once common Denmark on the in Ireland it is found the Lithuanians among it was practised shores of the by the ancient Baltic Romans, anciently to be carried' and children and to be a relic of the sacred character appears to fire. In the island of Lewis fire used imputed and round before and from books and this infant women they was from were held evil before they to were both churched night and christened, effectual spirits,

morning mother the the keep


both preserve (in the case of

infant) sacred

a continuai

The Sad Dar, one of being changed. to of the Parsees, contains directions a woman's house fire in the during after the child is born to a lamp to is declared burn

pregnancy, for three be

better-" may not be and harm." able to do any damage By way of enforcing we are told that when Zoroaster was born, this precept and fifty other came at the head of a hundred a demon for three night nights, demons, every the by seeing they were put to night to hurt him.2 unable sequently to fire, slay him, and were but con-

and days-a fire, indeed, nights and fiends so that the demons

Napier, p. 4o; "F. L. Journal," vol. i. p. 56; Kuhn, pp. 365,196; 33; Kennedy, p. 95; Knoop, p. 155; "Zeits. f. Volksk." vul.it.p. F. L. Journal," vol. !I. p. 257. Carnoy, p. 4 Bartsch, vol. i. pp. 6~, 89 vol. ii. p. 43 Kuhn, p. 195 Knoop, Zelts. f. Volksk." loc. cit. Jahn, pp. 52, ?t Thorpe, vol. u. p. t~



Iron a pair



in an


shape pair



shape, In Bulgaria th to and it room discuss dislike should of

of tongs, if placed a for the iron. be the

of scissors, secured cradle, is placed reaping-hook open in the same The purpose. why reason

a key, a knife, or in any other the desired end. in a corner not stay of now


1 shall

is also in form a cross. metal,-it use of the cross in baptism was probably onc of the reasons for the efficacy of that rite against felonious fairies. At all events, over a vcry wide area thc cross is thought a potent nor is th belief protection by only The any means Innes tells confined us that to the Christian fear of lands. Mr. a Mitchellexists in changelings of nursing which dips babe's are her

observed, abhorred

dread supernatural beings of scissors, open pair however, has double for it is not power

China. "To avert the calamity dried banana-skin is burnt to ashes, with water. Into this the mother paints short from a cross time the the the sleeping upon demon soul returnsfor

dmon, then mixcd

and finger forehead. In a th soul wanders r,

to body during sleep and is free-but, failing the body thus flies off. The truc recognize disguised, has been for an opportunity, sol, which now waiting the dormant has been approaches body, and, if thc mark washed off in time, takes possession of it but if not, it, like the dmon, to recognize the body, departs, and failing l the child dies in its sleep." How to hit th exact
vol. ii. cil. W. Map, Dist. ii. c. 14 Brand, vol. ii. p. 8, note Lady

Wilde, vol. i. pp. ?t, 73 Schleichcr, p.93 Tc<h)Hian, Adv. Nationes," 1. ii. c. 11 Urand.vot. ii. p. 334 note, quoting Martin, of th IHstory Western Islands Sacred Hooks of thc East," Train, vol. ii. p. 132 vol. xxiv. p. 277. As to th use of fire in China, see F. L. Journa]," vol. v. p. 225 and generally as to the efficacy of fire in driving off evil spirits see Tylor, vol. ii. p. 177. Grimm, "Teut. vol. ii. p. 2, voL iii. Myth." p.~68~~Thorpe, F. L. Journal," p. 45 Train, vol. ii. p. 133 ;/Ga~t't, p]~ 315 vol. v. p. 225. In Eastern/Phissia a ste~rmsed for striking a light, a hammer, or anything else tliat wi)l/st~ke is used. This seems to combine th dread ofsteel wtth that ofnr~~emke, ). p. 41). ..8 j \'I-~







and the advent flight of the demon mother of the truc sol doubtless many a Chinese puzzles the two competing as much as the cross puzzles fully the evil she baffles souls. But when she is successful is made the instruof which the cross spirit by deceit, is that the child believe we may well ment though to the cross's rfrence not disguised in this way without inherent for it is a religious among symbol sanctity moment between the nations Spirits happily part who never heard baleful whose gospel of the Crucified. are feared influences by man are on their To this guilelessness the another

of demethod strange to be It appears their evil designs on children. feating the or on the bed beside to lay over the infant, enough A shepherd's clothes. of the father's a portion mother, in bed one day with was lying wife living near Selkirk a sound her new-born boy at hcr side, when she heard \vhat in the room. of taking and laughter Suspecting her alarm in great out to be the case, she seized turned was lying at the foot of the which husband's waistcoat, and the child. bed, and flung it over herself for it was they who were the cause of the Auld Luckic oui a loud scream, crying us o' our bairnie Soon afterwards the The noise, has cheated woman fairies, set up heard

tricked. easily be attributed must

out she and looking the chimney, fall down something full of pins, lying saw a waxen effigy of her baby, stuck to sub- < had meant thieves The would-be on the hearth. came home her husband When stitute this for the child. he made instead shouts tion leads present clothing, a right is not up a large of burning, fire and the threw the doll upon it flew up the chimney thing The suggesthe unseen visitors. clothes of the father's the siglit but, amid

from of laughter seems to be that the good

watching however, shirt-sleeve very clear

is that he himself to think people" of Some articles his offspring. over such as seem to have special virtue, wherefore or a left stocking, though and in China, about Canton, a fisher~



is employed with as little apparent reason. In Sweden the babe is wrapped in red cloth, which we may be allowed to conjecture is intended to cozen the fairies man's net fire.I by simulating certain Moreover, In Germany gift. marjoram, and are credited with plants orant that (whatever may black cumin and in Denmark a similar blue


to keep off-and enough nasty surely any beings are used. The salt in the cradle or Danes, too, place over the door. The Italians fear not only fairies who rob of their them but also witches who tear the children, faces of unbaptized infants. These are both old superplaces prey it is in some to keep a light in the chamber at customary burning and to affix at the door of the house the image of night, a saint, hanging to it a rosary and an unravelled napkin while behind the door are put a jar full of salt and a brush. A two-fold defence is thus built for the up witch, beholding will straightway she will of the saint and the rosary, image or if these fail to warn her off, retire on entering be compelled to count the grains of of the the stitions, dating To baulk the in one witches form of or other from classic times. their


threads salt, the broken the brush-a task that night, when attain

and the twigs of napkin, will keep her occupied from midwhen at the earliest she can dare appear, until dawn, she must slink been able to away without having her object. Among the Greeks witches are believed

to have great seek new-born babes to suck power. They their blood or to prick them to death with sharp instruments. Often inflict such that a child they injuries remains for ever a cripple or an invalid. The Nereids of the fountains and are also on the watch to springs one exchange mortal babe." of their own fractious Constant watchfulness, for offspring and baptism a as

Teut. Myth." /<?<< Grimm, Train, vol. ii. p. 14; "F. L. Journal," vol. v. p. 224; "Zeits. N. and Q." yth ser. vol. x. p. t8g. P. 33

~7. Henderson, f. Vo]ksk."vol. ii.







soon In

as the


by boiling a jelly. A part of this jelly they used to drink, and with the remainder their bodies. This they rubbed was the orthodox means of acquiring magical powers. It is a Sicilian belief that the hands of unbaptized children are used by witches in their sorceries.' As we might the reason babes expect, why unbaptized are held to be so liable to these attacks is that until the rite has been initiatory performed they are looked upon as heathen, and therefore under the dominion peculiarly of evil In Sicily and in Spain an infant until spirits. is called by the opprobrious of 7~ baptism epithets them to Even women will Ticrk, ~bor,<?w. a Moor, at all events in Spain, is sin to kiss an unbaptized hand, child, kissed these it, is sovereign little innocents not kiss though, if no one it, for to kiss on the other else have

it England that witches days before to baptism

permits seems to stole make an

it, are therefore have been held children oil or from unguent

necessary. in former cradles


Christians, their nature. the Church.

toothache. against By the Greeks are regarded not as not merely but as really less human than demoniac in This is said, indeed, to be the teaching of The lower

classes, at least (and, presumably not long ago the upper therefore, classes) believe it firmly; so that an unbaptized babe is called Drakos (feminine, that is to say, serpent or dragon. This is the Z~~OM/~), same opprobrious title that we found Gervase of Tilbury Henderson, < Hartsch, vol. it. p. ic)2 Pitre, vol. xv. pp. 1~4 note, tc;S; vol. xvii. p. 102, quoting Caste.;j,"Credenze ed usi" Horace, "Ep. ad Pison,"v. 340; Dorsa, p. 146; Wright, "Mid~te Ages," vol. i. p. 290; Garnett, p. 70; Mlusine," vol. v. p. 90, quoting English authorities. Map, Dist. ii. c. 14, gives a story of babies killed by a witch. St. Augustine records that the god Silvanus was feared as Hke!y to injure women in chitdbed, and that for their pro. tection three men were employed to go round the house during the night and to strike the threshold with a hatchet and a pestle and sweep it with a brush and he makes merry over the superstition (" De Civ. Dei, 1. vi. c. 9).



applying Rhone vey this an

the waters of th infesting spirits that it is intended to conand we cannot doubt The extent of of Satanic nature.' imputation to the evil would could be form Christian Spain much in an established interesting subject as existing now (and the superit of or

superstition If it inquiry. formerly stitions would

other among of Sicily and help to clear up


the subject of changelings, both fairies and witches infant rite,

to this) cited just point of the difficulty surrounding the motives actuating especially their depredations.

is by no means baptism exclusively research heathen nations would among the motive usually

as And, a Christian be equally

in to fairies assigned their northern stories is that of preserving and improving off human children to race, on the one hand by carrying be brought and to become united thc; elves up among with them, and on the other hand by obtaining the milk and care of human mothers for their own fostering offspring. and poet the Doubts have been Karl He expressed Simrock, suggests that mythologist, motive. primitive by the whether Gcrman this was

pertinent. Meanwhile

were looked as wholly spirits upon the theft of children was dictated best interests of mankind. Nor does down the that the to selfish them attributed

these originally and even beneficent, care for the by their he hesitate to lay it were first

manifested feeling into decay.2 falling It might be sufficient imagined rounded

designs just mentioned when with growing cnlightenment itself that the kindly were beings

in by men our Celtic and

to reply that no spiritual existences a state such as surof civilization Teutonic forefathers were ever

"F. L. Espan." Pitr, vol. xii. p. 304, note; vol. xv. p. l~; vol. ii.p. 51 De Gubernatis, Usi Natal." p. 219, quoting Bzoles, Le Baptme." 2 Bartsch, vol. i. p. 46; Jahn, p. 89; Grimm, "Teut. Myth." p. 468 Simrock, p. 418.







regarded dictiveness, charactcr. there there could we

as unswerving!y if not cruelty,

benevolent are always

caprice elements



of their however, fact that that belief to the

this general Bcyond is a further and conclusive is no warrant in tradition

considration, in the answer for strata the

supposition of mythical

we penetrate to the oldest should not discover selfish

The himself good people." distinguished is bound to admit that the belief in their need of human in th very roots of the Teutonic help is entwined myths. It is, indeed, but the mediaeval and Teutonic nothing form of tenets common to all the nations earth. upon The changeling superstition children and adults beloved and by this the gods classic of stories of and low high and inseparable

designs imputed commentator

are consistent with degree belief, from it. The motive is so far comprehensible what is is to know whether wanted such as relations, any special are pointed at by the Greek were held to epithet Drakos, exist between the mysterious world and newly-born babes which would render the latter more obnoxious to attack than elder or whether, as I have put it at the beginning their alone chapter, helplessness their To solve the riddle suggested exceeding danger. we must wait for a larger accumulation of documents.' There is another motive for the robbery of human creature, mentioned only, I think, in the Romance of Thomas the Rhymer, namely, that at certain seasons the fou! fiend fetches his fee, or tribute of a living soul, from among the underground folk. Several difficulties arise upon this but it is needless to discuss them until the motive in question be found imputed elsewhere than in a literary work of the fifteenth century, and ballads derived therefrom. Since the foregoing note was written has been my attention drawn to the following statement in Lady Wilde, vol. i. p. 70: Sometimes it is said th fairies carry off th mortal child for a sacrifice, as they have to offer one every seven years to the devil in return for the power he gives them. And beautifut young girls are carried off, also, either for sacrifice or to be wedded to the It is casier to generalize in this manner than to profairy king." duce documents in proof. And I think I am expressing the opinion of children or adults of this

CHANGEUNG3. But in the best


families it is not always posregulated sible to prcvent from the abduction being attempted, in spitc ofcvet'y and somctimes accomplished, prcaution. in her in a fright One a Welsh woman, night waking for it husband's missed her baby. She sought absence, and caught it upon had not succc~ded Another felt her the in boy boards above it the bed the fairies away. wherebearing being taken held him further any from her arms

and upon she screamed to her own expression, them." The child grcw A

woman in peasant without a light \vas attackcd sleep The scizcd thc child, but strangcr woman's for her determination and husband, always for when the she

and, according tightly, for God and me were too hard a famous up to become preacher. who venturcd to Mecklenburg by was an elf-woman. by thc shrieked the theft. baffled

and struggled he hurried in with a light who arrests the

fairy vanished.' Nor is it A trick


Germany and ear ran effect of time out the

frequently on the when to know

in Northern played by th dwarfs a cow's birth of a child was to pinch animal and the bellowed everybody why, a dwarf On one such out drew of slip indoors occasion the fathcr would the room. In himself. the it towards and saw nick The

change. being

his infant

dragged he grasped it and

left in its place was found in the bed and changeling this he kept too, defying the efforts of the underground folk to regain it. At a place in North it hapJutland room that th mother p3ned many years ago in a lying-in could thc lights werc So get no sleep while burning. her order

husband to keep

resolved strict


takc over



in as it


1 say

it so long
with all respect

in arm, was dark.




1 would rather not Jay any stress upon her general statemcnts. Indeed, those of anybody, however great an authonty, nced to be ehccked hy the evidence of particutar instances. 1 await such evidence. Sikes, p. 62 <~ Brand, vo!. ii. p. 334 note Hartsch, vol. i. p. 46.







he fell asleep and on being unfortunately, awakened of the arm, he saw a tall woman by a shake standing by the bed, and found that he had an infant in each arm. The woman and as he had forgotten instantly vanished in which arm he had held his child, there he lay without But, which of the two children was his own. A boy, knowing who was watching his younger while his parents sister were both from home, saw a small man and woman corne from behind the oven. told him to give them the They little one and when he refused to the cradle they stepped and endeavoured to take the babe The by force. boy, was strong and bold, and laid about him with however, such determination that the robbers at length took to flight. On the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic substanmore humour. There a tially the same taie is told with farmer's in the living-room of ths house is boy sleeping awakened of two or elves. by the proceedings fetch out of the bedroom the new-born They stealthily babe and swathe it in swaddling clothes of their own, while in its clothes the oven-broom. Then they wrap bedroom they were unable to agree to carry it together. they resolved No sooner had they into the inner disappeared apartment than the boy leaped of bed, picked out up his mistress' child and took it Into his own bed. When the /<7M/M~y returned the infant was not to bs found. were both and began to scold one They very angry another It's your fault." didn't No, it's your fault I say, You carry it, while I I stay here and keep watch ? said it would be stolen While they wrangled thus, ku crew the cock, and, foiled and enraged, kakary they had to make off. The boy had great in wakendifficulty who was in a deep sleep, dreaming ing his mistress, a horrible dream that a stock of wood had been placed on her what breast had so that happened, she could but breathe. He told her hardly she would not believe it until began they broom thus to quarrel rolled up which into of the them should carry and as the



she given

saw that birth,

she the

had other

two children-one fashioned out

to which of the

she had


and th utterance of a holy name are to the full Prayer as effectual as physical A fisherwoman in the strength. north-east of Scotland was once left alone in bed with her baby, when in came a little man dressed The and proceeded once with be atween to lay hold of the child. whom she had to do, you an' and mother A who were me and one when and green, woman knew at in

moment, molestation. smugglers

God ejaculated rushed the fairy in a Out further babe were left without is told of two in laying heard the child Strathspey a stock in of the



night they

at whiskey cradle give The mother, lads their they took way found

Glenlivat a piercing of course, no further their a fine with

shot. cry, just as if it had been blessed and the it Strathspey and soon afterwards went notice, had gone far Before goods. they all lying it as their friend's. child alone on the


and recognized saw at roadside, They once how the affair stood. The fairies had taken away the rcal infant and left a stock but owing to the pious of the mother, to drop ejaculation they had been forced it. As the urgency of their business did not admit of their return the child with and kept it they took them, until here they went said that last to Glenlivat they concealed. remarked one the about nothing In the course of the time disease On their arrivai again. the child, which they kept conversation had attacked the woman the little


had never left it, and they were there she had now scarce any hopc of its recovery. As if to confirm her statement, most piercing it continued uttering cries. The smugglers the real babe produced thereupon and healthy The mother hearty, and told her how was, of course, pleased next was to dispose of the thing vol. iii. p. 43 Thorpe, vol. it. p. t~ p. 92. they had found to recover and it For it. the this

changeling. Ktthn, p. t~








lads got an old creel to put him Strathspey in and some straw to light under it. the serious Seeing turn matters were likely to take he resolved not to await the trial, but flew up the smoke-hole and cried out from the top that but for the guests events would have gone


very diterently.' Two pixies of Dartmoor, in th shape of large bundles of rags, led away one of two chitdren who were following their mother homeward. It was eventually on found, a search made with being by the neighbours lanterns, under a certain to be pixy-haunted. large oak tree known This is hardly a changeling as no attempt was story, made to foist a false child on the parent. A tale from the Isle of Man contains two similar incidents of attempted without the stolen child of robbery replacing by one birth. The fairies there superhuman artifices adopted like those of the North German dwarfs above mentioned. A few nights after a woman had been delivered of her first child a cry of fire was and every one ran out raised, of the house to see whence it proceeded, the leaving mother alonc with her babe. On returning helpless they found the infant on the threshold of the house. lying The when another little had following year, stranger in an out-house prescntcd itself,. a noise was heard among the cattle. that was stirring, Again everybody including the nurse, hurried forth to learn what was the matter, But finding all got loose. safe, they came back, only to discover that the new-born babe had been taken out of bed, as the former had been, and on their coming in the middle of the entry. dropped It might have been that these two warnings supposed would have been enough but a third time the trick was believing and played, had previously out that one night is, except Gregor, thcn more happened, on hearing the mother, Kcighttey, p. 61 what successfully. Forgetting all who were in the house ran a noise in the cow-house-all, who p. 393 could not CampM!, move, and vol. ii. p. 64. the that the cattle had



nurse, former from She

who was thc


sleeping broad lying by invisible at once to

off the awake hands the

effects and and saw but


alcohol. her child clean to

The lifted away. arouse


carried failed



and when her husband an infant was her returned, indeed a poor, beside but lying her, lean, withered, deformed different from her own. It lay creature, very quite been naked, though the clothes of the true child had left considerately One of the difficulties three one occasions occurred little for it by the experienced here narrated at the door ravishers.* on two by the fairies in making off with of the house. That at as once of and all to pass events, that they should to attempt the which avoided

of the the

should have they tried, repeatedly out that way is almost as remarkable have been more than permitted theft. from by For the threshold been held is a part sacred, of old has

the dwelling is generally

uncanny were failure, and handed

beings. Wiser, those Irish elves the infant out.

still doomed to though who lifted up a window For it

that a happened who was coming to pay a visit that moment neighbour before the house, and exclaimed God keep all stopped here from harm No sooner had she uttered the words than she saw the child she did not and whom, know went up and took it away home with her. The next when she called to see how her friend fared morning was the moan made to her over the behaviour of great the child-so different from what it had ever been before ail the night and keeping awake its mother, who -crying it by any means. l'il tell you what quiet she replied you'M do with the brat," whip it well first, and then bring it to th cross-roads, and leave the fairy in th ditch there for any one to take that for pleases 1 have child at home safe and sound as hc was your

or by put forth, how, without hesitation she


Ilunt, p. 96 Wakh'on, p. 30. author by th mother hcrsctf.

This account

was given

to the






handed mother before one

out heard she

of the this, returned saw




to out had

me." to get



she just stepped the changeling

but a rod and no vanished,


or heard

Fairies, always sometimes down

however, baulked so

of it again.' when bent upon

is at work the

in the in th fields while.

easily. and house, and In

are not mischief, the effect exchange, They sometimes when the parent her offspring as grievous conduct changed

incautiously puts these circumstances,

from the may be the suspicion arising of the nursling, it is not always easy to be sure of what has taken have to be applied. place. Tests, therefore, Often the appearance is enough. A big head," mighty or an abnormally and neck, is in Germany thick head d~emed a case sufficient from credentials from where Lapland, as to become rapidly speedily and the child was unable to understood what readily from the course of nature vidence.~ was

in while Fairyland the hand and foot grew so half an ell in length nearly learn said she whereas speak, to her, these dviation? to upon as conclusive in shown to Waldron



A reputed changeling the Isle of Man early in the last century is thus described under a more heaven could have beautifui Nothing but though between five and six years face old, and he was so far from able to healthy, being seemingly that he could not so much as move walk, or stand, any one joint his limbs for his age, but were vastiy long smaller than an infant's of six months his complexion was perfectly and he had the finest hair in the delicate, he never nor cried, world spoke, and was very seldom seen to smile, him a fairy-elf, he would frown eat but scarce if any fix his and anything, one called eyes


Croker, p. 81. See a similar taie in CampheU, vol. ii. p. 58. Gregor, p. 6t, mentions the dog-holc as the way by which children are sometimes carried off. Bartsch, vol. i. p. 46; Kuhn, p. 196; Grimm, "Teut. Myth." Grohmann, p. !tg. p. 468; Poestion, p. t!

CHANGELINGS. earnestly through. on those His who said or



being very poor, frequently him a whole The of out together. day neighbours, have often looked in at the window to see how curiosity, he behaved when whenever alone, which, they did, they were sure to find him laughing and in the utmost delight. This made them judge that he was not without company more to him than could and pleasing any mortal's be what made this conjecture seem the more reasonable was, that if he were left ever so dirty, the woman at her return saw him with a clean face, and his hair combed with the 1 Luther utmost exactness and nicety." tells us that he saw and touched at Dessau a changed child which was twelve The account he gives of the child years of age. is that child as two touched "he he did clowns had his nothing or threshers eyes but and feed, were all members would to eat. like eat another as much one and able

look them it, as if he would at least his supposed mother, went out a-charing, and left


out. When it, then it cried any evil in the house, then it laughed and was joyful all went well, then it cried and was very sad." for the Reformer's of what he saw testimony told. His theories and generalizations are in not been less interesting than his expected, are an they to his own grim and killcrops," he that he testimony adaptation scheme goes on for as

happened but when So and their much was way have Such

might of the ordinary of to things.


changelings /M /OCM/K ~orM/M this thereof only above power, layeth they feed


say, ~~o/ the devil hath

and instead changeth children, devils in th cradles, which thrive not, and suck but such changelings live not or nincteen of laid years. women in their It in sometimes child-bed are falleth thus

eighteen out that the and changed,

children Devils

one of which stead, more fouleth itself than ton other children do, so that Waldron, p. 29. The same writer gives a similar account of the changeling mentioned above, p. 107.







the are

are much parents mothers in such sort are able

therewith sucked

to give suck no more." allowance for the influence Making there can be no doubt, on comparison that was the children were to whom invariably of th says the ascribed deformed

and the disquieted out, that afterwards they 1 of of or imagination,


these passages, of changelings diseased. of The the

author delightful West of England before the date of changelings. case they mesenteric And have diseasc."

"Popular that some


he writing his evidence sad After

or forty years thirty had seen several reputed in every is express that of the influence of



external their describing he adds with sometimes The wasted frame, symptoms, abdominal strumous and the unnatural enlargeswellings, ment which disease of mesenteric glands, accompanies gives a very sad, and often a most to the sufferer." Professor Rhys' one Ellis puted changeling, Bach, unnatural, description of Nant Gwrtheyrn, the kind showing appearance of a re-

in Carnarvonshire, is instructive as of the Welsh with nature. accredited being among fairy The professor is repeating the account to him of given half a century this poor who died nearly creature, ago. He tells us "His father was a farmer, whose children, like ordinary both folks, excepting boys and girls, were Ellis, deformed, body seemed only a few walked. His voice was who was his legs being so short inches from the ground also small and squeaky. that when his h


and could find his way among ever, he was very sharp, the rocks pretty well when he went in quest of his father's there used to be plenty there sheep and goats, of which formerly. changeling, that part Gwrtheyrn, of his is well in known saying of the country. When visited Nant strangers a thing which did not frequently happen, Everybody and one believed Ellis to have been a

"CoHoqum MensaUa," quotedby Southey, "The Doctor" (London, As to the attributs of greed, cf. Keightley, p. 12~. 1848), p. 62t.




when them

his to

parents eat,

asked he would






out drily squeak that is to 'M/M b'yta'r cwbwl,' sayatingthat means all. A changeling in Monmouthshire, eating described at the by an eye-witness of the beginning was an idiot of a forbidding present century, simply a dark, tawny and much aspect, addicted to complexion, pressed screaming.* But a changeling by his might physical be led to was defects; betray tale to be known in under careful other than


the tailor. pipes?' says below my head,' of the cradle. ~They're says the tenant Like Play me a spring,' the says the tailor. thought, little from the cradle, man, jumping round the played room with great glee. A curious noise was heard meantime outside and the tailor asked what it meant. The little elf called out It's my folk wanting me,' and away he fted up the chimney, the tailor more dead leaving than alive." In the neighbouring of Dumfries county the story is told with more gusto. The gudewife goes to the hump-backed and says 1 maun tailor, Wullie, awa' to Dunse about ken what my wab, and 1 dinna to do wi' the bairn till 1 corne back it's but a ye ken your whingin', screechin', skirlin' wallidregbut wc maun

Kirkcudbrightshire of a tailor, who charge him. hae '"Will, ye

he management himself in speech or action. A a child as once left in represents commenced a discourse with

Y Cymm Hunt,p.85 rodor, vol. vi. p. Rev. Edmundjone.s, "A Re!ation of Apparitions," quoted by Wirt Sikes, p. 56. Thicle relates a story in which a wild stallion colt is brought in to sme!! two babes, one of which is a changeling. Every time he smells one he is quiet and licks it but on smelling the other he is invariably restive
and strives ii. of p. to 17~.) kick it. Sir The John latter, men therefore, also th is th states vol. Idnd MaundevIIIe assay changeling. that in of their (Thorpe, is Sicily children. a



If the children be illegitimate th serpents bite and kill if them otherwise they do them no harman ensy and off-hand way of getting !-id of them ('- Early Trav." p. 13~).


1 2







1 wad wuss ye,' quoth dispensations. she, 'to tak tent till't till 1 corne sall hae a roosin' hame-ye o' the goodman's ingle, and a blast tobacco-pipe forbye.' Wullie was and back thenaething laith, they gaed Wullie sits down at the fire, and awa' wi' her gither. had she steekit the door, but scarce yarn gaes the wife and up wan half-way an' down in the the on its doup Wullie Tylor, wat back, l'se Wullie's ye cradle, ye winna close, when and rounds tell my the mither bairn cocks in Wullie's lug she when


cornes 1

tylors, himsel' fleetch again

ken, 'Fair fashions than bairn's Wi' pu's seen silver,

on the bag-pipes.' play ye a bonny spring heart was like to loup the hool-for are aye timorsome-but he thinks to are flyte still wi' best,' them' an' It's so he better rounds to to

fuies in the

naebody.' and strae, ne'er had gold, and ken what that

lug up, my doo, an' l'sc tell Play that the the cradle fairy ripes amang oot a pair o' pipes, sic as tylor Wullie in a' his days-muntit and wi' ivory, and dymonts, and what 1 dinna not. the nae fairy but played, goo o' his This maun this 1 ken weel, so

great performance to himsel' he sits thinkin' be a deil's get, himsel' Auld to rock his son's Waughorn may come and play me some foui so hc catches cradle, prank the bairn him into by the cuff o' the neck, and whupt 1 and a' the fire, bagpipes In Nithsdale the elf-child a superhuman displays

spring Wullie had

of work. The mother left it on one occasion in power the charge of a servant-giri, who sat bemoaning herself. nae for thy girning Wer't face 1 would knock the big, the winnow cradle and grun the corn, cried the band," child, an' l'M work wark." yere the wind the meal and With tent that Lowse the he

neighbours, started up,

was winnowed, the arose, the corn were foddered, the hand-mill around as moved outlyers and the knocking mell did its work with by instinct, Campbell, vol. ii. p. 58 Chambers, p. yo.



The lass and the elf amazing meanwhile rapidity. took their on th mistress's ease, until, he was return, restored to the cradle and began to yell anew.~ of the Most stories of changelings, in fact, assume the outward characteristics that, though might justify vehement were not suspicion, yet they absolutely and that to arrive at certainty decisive, the elf must be brought to betray himself. No great howsubtlety, was for the ever, needful varies stratagem employed but as the following will show. little, The examples child of a married in Mecklenburg at two years couple of age was no longer than a shoe, but had a mighty big was unable to learn head, and, to speak. withal, Its were led by an old man to parents that it had suspect been and their adviser told changed, them If you wish to become take an empty and in certain, egg-shell, the child's in new beer and cause presence it to pour ferment of yeast. If then the child speak, by means my is right." His counsel conjecture was and followed, had the beer fermented when scarcely th child cried out from the cradle
1 n~m as As Yet old gold, first time

Bohemian for the


1 see

Beer in an egg-sheli brew'd to be." HIng the babe into the river th following but when at midnight night they rose for the purpose in the cradle a they found strong, blooming child. In a Welsh tale from Radnorshire the egg-shell is boiled full of pottage in the children's arc sight (there twins in this case) and taken out as a dinner for the who happened to be cutting reapers the rye and oats. In Glamorganshire the woman declares she is mixing a for the An pasty Icelandic reapers. makes a legend set a pot woman food to cook on the fire containing Cromek, p. 2~6. 9 The parents determined to







and handle

fasten of









one appears above the topmost a spoon until in the she the bowl the when pot. puts chimney, to drive a in a Danish tale engaged Another woman and this is he troubled out of the house changeling how killed she set about it. In his temporary absence she of it, hide, hair a black a pig and made pudding and all. On his return she set it before him, for he was He began it up as usual a prodigious eater. gobbling and at last but as he ate his efforts slackened, gradually Then he exit thoughtfully. he sat quite still, eyeing claimed hair in it Tiis A pudding a pudding with Thrice but have with eyes 1 seen hide and a pudding with a pudding and with bones

Lake, devil will off and Of

stay never returned.I

a young wood spring upon 1 The never yet did 1 see such a pudding he ran And so saying here no longer

one is that of the normal however, devices, one egg-shell Sometimes the egg-shells. only is employed, number. At two-a dozen-or an indefinite sometimes like Normandy and the Channel seaside places, Islands, these to excite same, namely, that of the imp to such a pitch and wonder the curiosity akin to that of the to it in language he gives expression The tale North German or the Danish just quoted. in his exclamation is usually that of age given measure stories the of the the trees in the from forest, or indeed the forest gold itself. (2?~r In instance Mecklenburg, Bohemian egg-shells In all the are sometimes replaced end is the by shells of shell-nsh.~

is made the 6'o/~) of Low a number

and this runs measure, stories. There Dutch

through quite can be little

Cambrian Bartsch, vol. i. p. 42 Sikes, p. 59, quoting from the vol. vi. p. 209; Arnavol. ii. p. 86; "Y Cymmrodor," Quarteriy," Icelandic Legends," cited in Kennedy, p. 89 son's Thorpe, vol. Danmark's Folkesagn samlede." ii. p. 174, quoting Thiele, See also Keightley, p. 125. Revue des Trad. Pop." vol. in. p. 162. Fleury, p. 60;



doubt, however, form is, as given Forest (Behmer (Westerwald) the narrator known says the trees to his 1 am is in

that in


is a corruption,





a Schleswig-Holstein In Hesse Woelt).I in to

tale, Bohemian Wester Forest other some countries, wood well

and so on found, case referring each The



so old, 1 was Kamschtschen Wood

in already was planted,

elf, or /<?M~ the world before wherein great

is now laid waste again but grew, and that anyso wonderful 1 have In Normandy never seen." thing the changeling 1 have declares seen the Forest of Ardennes pots boil." burnt The seven times, astonishment but of 1 never saw so many a Scandinavian imp more graphically, for when he saw on the fire having one end of a crept still out of the and cradle stretched on inside, until he

itself even expressed an egg-shell boiling rod set in it, he measuring his feet his hands, leaving himself across Well out the longer floor and and


reached longer right when he exclaimed up the chimney, times have 1 seen the wood fall in Less till the now And child have the as 1 seen Danish so in big a ladle I have cited has seen fairies infants, a Welsh

but never Forest, so small a pot above represents

wood thrice upon young are curiously with youthful compared which is all th more remarkable exaggerations It is a modest of Cambrian daim only

saying Tiis Lake.2

story that he The these

hoary when the arc the

story-tellers to have seen

daring considercd. before


Cf. ~5w~-<7~, ibid. p. 47; Bartsch, vol. i. p. 22 ~< .Z?<M//< Gold, ibid. pp. 65, 79, andpresumably Kuhn p. 89 Z~c/< und Schwartz, p. 30; /MM ~w i'<c/f/(timber ~-o/< ibid. p. 3t and gotd), ihid. p. 105 Boelll MMholt (timber and wood), Jahn, p. 90 .Z~ o~M Wolt (firewood in the forest), and Z~w~ M~ Mutlenhon', cited Grimm, Tales," vol. i. p. 388. These variations while preserving a similar sound are suspicions. = Grimm, Tales," vol. i. pp. 163, 388 Schleicher, p. 91 Fleury, p. 60 Thorpe, vol. ii. p. ty quoting Asbjornsen, Huldreeventyr," u. p. 165. Cy. Sbillot, vol. ii. p. 78. vol. Contes Pop."








thc hen, yct that is all that egg before is put forward. In onc of the Lays of Marie de France the wood of Brzal as the spot where is indicated the oak was seen.I The formula thus used would variously to be a common one to describe appear great antiquity, and in all probability itself dates back to a very remote period. But conform to the more changelings frequcntly civilized of measuring itheir And usage age by years. various are the estimates Mteen hundred given us, from in the Emerald Isle down to the computation, years on the other erring perhaps side, of th young gentleman in the English who remarks Seven years tale, old was 1 before 1 came to the nurse, and four years have 1 lived since, and never saw so many before." milk-pans A yet more by She ha? been treated Brittany. of milk in egg-shells, and cries sight boiling 1 shall soon be a hundred saw so years old, but 1 never 1 I was born in Pif and in Paf, in many shells boiling thc country where cats are madc but 1 never saw anyZ To ail like it thing this disright-minded persons closure contained sufficient warrant for her reputed mother to repudiate her as a witch, cats arc no though less intimate with fairies than with conju-rers. in his work on German Simrock, mythology already inclines to the that the cited, of the opinion object dropped to the which the suspected ceremony is to produce He laughter. over-ripe something who beauty ridiculous must must child is made The says her keep be witness dwarf is no Rather him to to mysterious an imp in hint as to her earlier life is




age secret. done to cause

Sikes.pp.58, 59; Howells, p. t38; "Y Cymmrodor," \-o!. iv. vol. vi. pp. 172, 204. KeighUey, p. 436. p. 208, 2 A Pleasant Treatise of Witches," p. 62, Croker, p. 65 quoted in Hazlitt, Fairy Tales," p. 372 Sbillot, Contes," vol. ii. p. 76 Carnoy, p. 4 Thorpe, vol. iii. p. 157 Campbell, vol. ii. p. 47 Revue des Trad. l'op." vol. iii. p. t62. Cf. a Basque tale given by Wehster, where the Devil is trikcd into telling bis age (Webster, p. 58),

CHANGLlNGS. laugh, problem because set laughter before the


but compel laughter, in these changeling with it in

1 The delivefnce." brings is to of many folk-tales heroes that does not seem to be intended met 1 have stories. At least only

The is not common. one, and it certainly is draws forth confession of age which the ceremony more. It is a confession that the apparently really much in fact to a human babe is an imposture, that it belongs different tenderness. fraud taken race, and has no daim it is not on th mother's care and Therefore for th enough always be sometimes active means must burden and of their supernatural in which In Grimm's one. story, of elves comes the suddenly false one th bringing and in

to bc discovered to rid the family little a host

their own regain the child laughs, back many the true in the of the

away carrying German and Northern one We way or other arc sometimes had



disappears exclamation. words that underground child. And /~M/M~ accords which like who the are

immediately in told even

changeling its after so many and the

changeling folk were in the

straightway with entirely we have in dislike in

himself, betrayed the stolen to give back obliged Lithuanian story wc have cited the Such conduct falls sick and dies.~ the resentment at being recognizei found to be chapter It is much to than more beings any attributed invisible, a


a previous of spiritual existences. found of walking

of being the habit


effect of laughter. mystical If this bc so, still less do the stories whcre it is required the the learned to drive actually support imp away German's contention. The means taken in these stories are child very various. Sometimes in in it is as once alone, severely woman laid her child down cutting corn, and a fairy the the to let the enough a Isle of Man where she was field while it there and then.


Simrodt, p. 419. J~hn, p. 89 Schtelcher,

p. 9!.









prevented transaction found back. grave it until the

and when the fairy up that the true child was brought In the island was to dig a of Lewis the custom in in th fields on Quarter Day and lay the goblin the next one morning, babe would is advised time it was believed by which of be returned. In the north not overturn The elf to touch the must when child. there but to in the then cradle changeling so that the out will it on

it picking no notice was taken

by from

began a man

was but the mother scream, a witness to the who had been to


Germany with the child of the come the

but to hands, falls on the floor. door and with bring and an back


broom, the stolen

be swept the dwarfs Putting


practised only one a wizard we must cerned

successfully part of a long or "fairy-man."

it leaving in England and In

has been cry this is Ireland directed these are but with we by stories con-


ceremony with dealing not long merely past,

remember that always with sagas of something

and that the practices living superstition, mentioneven the most cruel and the most of them-so that people and well authenticated, to the actual respond instances of their occurrence as we shall writer far

a yet 1 am about to ridiculous of the


are quite recent see. An presently

but well-informed anonymous were by no means an unusual and to It seems the

as if it describes, that just referred ceremony, Kennedy gives the same in the shape of a legend. shovel and seating to consist in taking a clean

on its broad iron blade, and thus conveying changeling The assistants would the creature to the manure heap. and circle about the hcap thrice while then join hands in the Irish language. th fairy-man chanted an incantation At its conclusion all the leaving house, howl and cry as it pleased. Says Mr. soon felt the air around them sweep as if it was stirred by the motion would withdraw present been child where it had Kennedy this way of wings, into placed, and but th to They that, thcy




and silent for about ten quiet minutes. the door, then looked Opening they out, and saw the bundle of straw on the heap, but neither child nor fairy. 'Go into said the your bed-room, Katty,' fairy-man, and see if there's left on the bed She did anything soon heard a cry of joy, so, and they and was Katty them in a moment, among and hugging her own kissing was waking and rubbing healthy-looking child, who his and at the eyes, and all the wondering lights cager faces." 1 Whether incantation are left in however, to bring meaning starved it that doubt advised its real of the and was drcw the the noise made good by the child attention, woman or thc wc

by this story. was, to make her child cry lustily in order mother to it." And this is probably the tales in which the elf is beaten, many or to other

people's A Norman

or is threatened ill-usage, with death.~ Pnckenstein Lake in Bohemia wild women are believed to dwell, other attriwho, among butes common to elves or fairies, are believed to change infants. In order to compel a re-exchange, directions are to bind with a weed given at the bottom of the growing lake and to beat with a rod of the same, out calling therewithal "Take thine own and bring me mine." A mother in a Little Russian tale had a baby of extraordinary habits. When he jumped out of the cradle, alone, no Choice Notes," p. 27 (this seems to have been a common in Wates: see "Y Cymmrodor," prescription vol. vi. pp. 175, 178; and in thc Western Highiands: see Campbet), vol. ii. p. 64.) Brand, vol. ii. p. 335, note (this scems also to be the case in some l~rts of Ireland, Lady Wilde, vol. i. p. 70.) Thorpc, vol. iii. p. 157 Irish Folk Lore," p. 45. Kennedy, p. 94 2 of Marie de France, quoted ~<MM'Lay Keightley, p. 436 Costello, PDgrimage to Auvergne," vol. il. p. 294, quoted Keighttey, p. 471 Fieury, p. 62, citing Bosquet, "Normandie Romanesque"; Howetts, p. !39; Aubrey, "Remains," p. 30; Jahn, pp. 98, i0!; Kuhn und Schwartz.p. 29; Croker, p. 8!. ~A: ~<.M, ~f. Croker, p. 77. y~ "Trad. et Super" /Sebi]!ot, vol. i. p. n8 Contes," vol. i. p. 28, vol. ii. p. 76 Carnoy, p. 4. subjected In the




0F fAJRV old


a baby but a bearded longer out of the stove, and then babe. A wise woman who a block of wood and began feet. she He screeched and she

man, gobbled up the food a screeching again lay down him on was consulted placed his under to chop the block he screeched and

and until he old man chopped again made the enigmatical 1 have transformed confession not once nor twice only. I was first a fish, then I myself became a bird, an ant, and a quadruped, and now 1 have once better human more thus made than trial of being a human the being. but It isn't being among isn't worse ants Here the we among was chopping the may trust one. The Lithuanian

chopped an became

beings-it a threat to kill. if evidently Nor, was this threat an stories, always fashioned out of a broom changeling story advice, holy already cited, by hewing man was that it would disposed its head off. it was not be not was

empty in the

of, by the parish priest's The reason given by the hours yet four and twenty

old, and of that

alive until the expiration really time. when the neck was severed Accordingly but a wisp of straw was found nothing though inside, blood flowed as if there were veins.' But even more truculent are represented methods by the hold. the story-tellers Nothing we as resorted short There are th told into would were of the child's to to various a shovel face free the deemed amictcd housefor of fire is often sufficient

purpose. Sometimes and held on it and or again, the cross

methods being sometimes or to

it. of applying made red-hot he into mark is seated the the oven sign of


flung out the poker

dung-pit, be heated

on his forehead, or the tongs to take him by the nose. Or he is thrown on the fire, or suspended bodily over it in a creel or a pot and in the north of Scotland the latter must be hung of a from a piece of the branch hazel tree. In it was screamed

this case we are a changeling, and Wratishw, p. tt

told it was

that held

if the fast p. 92.

child to pre-

p. 135





vent its escape. it is related Generally, however, that the elf flies up the and when safely at the chimney, top he stops to make remarks his persecutors. uncomplimentary upon In the Nithsdale which I have story already cited, the servant girl at midnight covers up the chimney and every makes the embers other inlet, glowing hot, and undressthe changeling ing tosses it on them. In answcr to its the fairies yells are heard and rattling at the moaning window the boards, and the door. chimney-head, In the name o' back the bairn," God, bring she exclaims In a moment up flew the window, the human child was laid unharmed on the mother's lap, while its guilty substitute flew up the with a loud chimney laugh.' as this Frightful would seem to every one if cruelty on the mother's perpetrated own offspring, it was regarded with as applied to a goblin equanimity and it is not more than frightful what has been on actually perpetrated and that within young children, a very fcw years, under the belief that were they of a different beings race. Instances need not be it will be enough multiplied to show that one of the horrible methods of of disposing referred to in the last changelings came under paragraph notice no longer judicial ago than th month of May 1884 Two women were reported in th as Daily Telegraph been arrested having at Clonmel on the of that lyth with month, charged a child cruelly three ill-treating The evidence years old. given was to the effect that the fancied neighbours that the child, who had not the use of his limbs, was a changeling. th mother's During absence the her house prisoners accordingly entered and the child naked placed on a hot "under the imshovel, that this would pression break th charm." As might vol. il. p. 20 Kennedy, p. 90 Thorpe, vol. n. p. !74; N~er,p.4o; Lady Wilde, vol. i. pp. ~i. Keightley, 393 Revue des Tr.d. Pop." vol. p. ;C.~pbeH~p' 47. 6. Croker, p. 65 Chambers, p. 70 F. L. Journal," vol. i. p. 56 G regor, pp. 8, 9 Cromek, p. 246. Y Brython,"







have burnt, in a

been and,

the little expected poor were when the women condition. The




severely it was

on being prisoners, crowd. It might remanded, were hooted by an indignant be thought of the decay of that this was an indication much to be conin Ireland, however even superstition, and unconvicted demned as an outburst of feeling against as a it rather even untried But we must regard persons. precarious the protest against prisoners' their in either superstition of advancing civilization. witness of other sagas we find than against inhumanity the product case, of course, trust the For if we may the trial

by fire commuted to be men had to a symbolic begun act, as though revolted even when committed only on a by the cruelty, to found were who had been unwilling out, but fairy In in the power of the exorcism. abandon their belief the who hand and north-east had of Scotland, for example, a changeling, was diagnosed where allowed a beggar, to try his

at disposing held a black from his directions

man in a cunning over his big book, he tale. Glamorganshire poring a hen without client to find a black told his distracted of any other colour. This she was to bake single feather a before but dead, as appears (not living, by the sequel) are given After by and all usual, of peat), with feathers and opening was to be closed, intact. window Every and she was not the chimney one-presumably except until the hen had the cwM<~7, or changeling, to watch fire of wood (not, as which she would know enough, more knowing The off of all her feathers. the fact of the infant's Irish story, attributes been to the the Evil Evil mother and her directions Eye to watch for the woman her cloak. into the This who house piece of done by the woman, falling in an changed

escaped minute

of it, he made a large fire on the hearth and finally hen over it till she struggled, More out by the "lum." grasp, flying the

being for treatment has and the

Eye, inveigle out of her secretly

require given it the cut a piece cloak was



then him

to be burnt


to the



the this

smoke and her

made own

when the spell sneeze, child restored. The writer the following mode of namely and light to

would who

be broken records as

tale mentions one, cabin

the middle of the place a fire round it to be changed it, fully expecting into a sod of turf, but not intending to do manifestly harm to it independently of any such change. bodily In Carnarvonshire a clergyman is credited with a telling mother to cover a shovel with a cross in the salt, mark it in the chamber salt, and burn where the child was, the window first.' judiciously It is satisfactory opening to know that, so far as the recorded cases go, the ceremony lost nothing of its power down. by being thus toned was not the only element Fire, however, efficacious for to flight these troublesome turning aliens. Water's to witches is notorious antagonism and ample use was made of it in the old witch trials. It is equally obnoxious to fairies and their In a Welsh congeners. story from when the mother has been by the egg-shell Radnorshire, device convinced of the exchange of her own twin chilshe takes the goblin dren, twins and flings them into but thcir true Llyn Ebyr kinsmen clad in blue trousers (their usual garb) save them, and the mother receives her own again. In other tales she drops the twins into the but in one case the witch who has been river credited with the change bathes the child at a mountain or spout, and exacts a promise from the mother ~M~ to duck him in cold water every for three months. It is not morning to learn that very surprising at the end of that time 2 there was no finer infant in the Cwm." Dai)y Te!egraph," 19 May 1884 Gregor, p. 6l Lady W:)de, vol. i. pp. 38, 173; Y Cymmrodor," vol. vi. p. 209, vol. v. p. 72. = "Cambrian vol. i!. p. 86, quoted,Sikes,p.59; Quarter)y," "Y Cymmrodor," vol. iv. p. 208, vol. vi. pp. t~, 203. Mr. Sikes refers to a case in which the child was bathed in a solution of foxg)ove as occurred in Carnarvonshire having actually in 1857, but he gives no authority.

proceeding babe in the

a common







There Talk," Anhalt c~M/M been j in

is that upon



oft-quoted he relates werc a certain

in Luther's passage that he told the he would

Table Prince he the of had river ~OM/-

if he


into brought Moldaw. The great his countrymen in changelings, have already or

with changeling and throw it contact, Reformer their was only superstitions as they were

venture which into

on a lev el with to in reference

then called. 1 Killcrops, his opinion of them as devils and quoted the test of their true which he seems to have nature, was their inordinate nor did thought infallible, ppetite he attach to baptism as a means of exorcism. any value One excellent tale he tells on the concerns a subject ~peasant in Saxony. This Halberstadt, in accordance with was the good man, advice, taking child to Halberstadt to be rocked at the shrine of the when in crossing a river another devil that Virgin Mary, was below in the river called out Killcrop Killcrop the child in the basket, that had never Then, says Luther, before one answered The spoken word, Ho, ho devil in the water Whither art thou asked, going ? and the child replied, 1 am going to Halberstadt to our Loving threw to be rocked." In his fright the man Mother, the basket the child over the bridge containing into the the two flew away water, devils whereupon and cried themselves together Ho, ho, ha tumbling one over another, and so vanished.' This may be taken as a type of many a story current in North and Germany the neighbouring Slavonic lands. It is not, however, unknown in this Mr. Hunt has versified a country. Cornish chapel tale well to in which plunge the mother took and pass her brat to the it at dawn it round slowly who lived near

Miillenhoff relates a similar tale, see Quoted in Southey, loc. < Thorpe, vol. iii. p. 46; also Grohmann, p. 126; Kuhn und Schwartz, p. 30. Bowker, p. 73, relates a story emhodying a similar episode, but apparently connected with Witd Hunt legends. See his note, Ihid. p.25!.





in the month of May. Wednesdays the top of the hill on one of these occasions, Reaching she heard a shrill voice in her ear Tredrill Trcdrill, thy wife and children thee well." The little one of greet course much to her astonishment, replied, all repudiating concern for his wife and and intimating his children, of the life he was leading, enjoyment and the spell that was being in his behalf. In the end she got rid wrought of him by the homely of beating and leaving him process on the ground near the old church stile. A Sutherlandshire tradition tells of a child less than a year old who suddenly carried addrcssed run his a wild thus mother glen. in verse Translated, as he was the being youth's through lines impromptu

do on th

<M/ first three









Many is the dun hummel cow (Each having a calf) In the opposite dun g!en, Without the aid of dog, Or man, or woman, or gillie, One man excepted, And he grey At that moment woman his throwing remarks him were down interrupted in the plaid by the which

ternfied wrapt found

him, and scampering where to her joy she home, her true babe smiling in the cradie.' These verses carry us back to the from egg-shell episode, which the considration of the means to drive adopted has diverted away the intrusive us. goblin contain They a vague assertion of age like those then before us, but not a hint of laughter. Nor have we found anything the whole discussion throughout to favour Simrock's or to shake the opinion suggestion, that the dissolution of the fairy spell was derived either from th vexation of the supernatural folk at their own self-betrayal, vol. vi. p. !82. or from F. L. Journal,"

Hunt, p. f):







the statc

disclosure of the



human their

exorcise shall

facts, and the demon. we have that

of the foster-parents determination consequent stories to examine, this conclusion. first, treatment case the but

true to we The

It is true find

a few more

all confirm they cases we have yet to deal with, except a different and much more humane than the changeling foregoing. found in Carnarvonshire, where rid of the child was to getting one

exhibit of the is of



excepted method

it on the floor and place let all present in the house throw a piece of iron at it. The old woman who mentioned this to Professor Rhys was to convince that the object the Tylwyth conjectured of the intention to kill the babe, in Teg, or fairy people, order to induce them child to bring the right back.I This death would be the same motive as that which threatened in some of the instances by fire or other ill-usage, mentioned above. But we could not thus account for the that iron, and only iron, was te be used and requirement here while future we have, in its meaning quite passed we shall examine the chapter to may metals, content and fact, has a superstition carefully preserved, out of memory. In a attitude of mythical to iron in this noting met with of to

in folk-lore beings the meantime we addition to the

especially with ourselves

we have already examples with which they regarded the horror it. So far from its being deemed wise always injure { posed to thereby This was or the be and the changeling, it was not to take necessary means to by other course

neglect supof it, tribe.

infrequently the care greatest its elvish propitiate

with the best results pursued by a at Straussberg, and a woman in mother Devonshire was counselled to North by all her gossips Germany, and above all not to beat the imp, lest her lovingly, act one be beaten in turn own little by the underground tale mentioned folk. So in a Hessian a by Grimm, Y Cymmrodor," vol. vi. p. !8t.



~'c~w~ refused

caught to give






th woman up the babe until th changed one to her and nourished it for breast, once with the generous milk of human kind." In evcn when th child is placed Ireland, on a dunghill, the charm recited under the direction of the fairyman entertainment in future promises for the kindly if they will only undo crew," what they A method in favour in the north of Scotland is to take the suspected elf to some known haunt of its race, we are told, some where generally, spot sounds are heard, peculiar or to some soughing barrow, or stone and lay it down, certain incircle, repeating cantations the while. What the words of these incantations are we are not informed, but we learn that an of bread, offering and flesh butter, milk, cheese, eggs, of fowl must the child. The then accompany parents retire for an hour or two, or until after midnight and if on returning these things have disappeared, they conclude that the offering is accepted and their own child gambolling have donc. returned.I Neither pitiation, -harder back the nor ill-usage was sometimes than either-a nor proneglect and acted upon, but prescribed to Fairyland to fetch journey A man on the island of Rgen, whose occasioned the loss of his child, watched kindness, dwellers sallied forth on another neither

kidnapping had placed

captive. carelessness had until the underground

he hastened to the raid, when mouth of the hole that led into their and went down. realm, There boldly in the Underworld he found the and thus the child, robbers were forced to take their own again instead. In a more detailed narrative from Islay, the father arms himself with a Bible, a dirk, and a crowing and cock, found the hill where the Good People" having had their abode and sounds open, and filled with the lights 1 Mrs. Bmy, vol. i. p. 167 Kuhn, p. 196 Grimm, Teut. Myth." Irish F. 1, p. 45 Napier, p. 42. p. 468, note







of festival, threshold. entrance

he from

approached The object

and of

stuck this was

the to



the the


him. Then he steadily closing upon adfrom harm at his breast. vanced, protected by th Bible his boy (who was thirteen or fourteen Within, years of at the but age) was working when the man forge dcmanded him the elves burst into a loud which laugh, arouscd the cock in his arms. The cock at once leaped his. shoulders, his wings, upon and crowcd loud flapped and The elves long. cast the man enraged thereupon and his son both out of the hill, and flung the dirk after and in an instant all was dark. It should them be a day afterwards the boy did no work, but he ultimately became spoke a very famous the inventer of a specially fine and smith, sword. The changeling himself in one of welt-tempcred tales directs his fostcr-mother to Fairyland. Lady Wilde's The way thither was down a well and she was led by the portress, an old woman, into the royal palace. There th queen admits that she stole the chitd, for he was so beautifui," and put her own instead. The re-exchange is effected, and the good woman is feasted with food which because it has been touch, sprinkled with salt. When she found herself at home, she again fancied she had only been away an hour it was three years.I But going it was as far not always as the other necessary world. to hide to The of incur the risk of has to a the th fairies cannot added that for a year and scarcely and

whose successful woman, cooking bsen already referred to, had first place where four roads which met, and fairy procession of the midst beheld her

Glamorganshire a black hen

go at full moon herself to watch

There in the passed at midnight. and the ~?~ music <?M M~/M//MM she own dear little child. One of the most

stories was gravely in the related interesting changeling "Irish Fireside" for the 7th of January 1884., concerning Jahn, p. 52 CampM!, vol. ii. p. 47; Lady Wilde, vol. i. p. n<).



land-leaguer under the then a boy

who latest been been



Cosrcion stolen in his left

imprisoned Act. When by the fairies, The


a suspect this patriot of them.

was selves

he had


place. parish priest, and by a miracle he caused the elf however, intcrfered for a moment to disappear, and the boy to return to tell him the conditions on which his captivity be might ended. the regiven, goblin again the true but the good was now able son placed priest to deal with the matter. The was effectually imp in Lough thrice Lane accordingly dipped (a small lake in the eastern of Westmeath), when a curl came on part the and the deep came the naked form water, up from of the boy, who walked on the water to meet his father his overcoat about his wrapped his homeward son, and commenced march, accompanied of soldiers, who also came out of the lake. by a line The was enjoined not to speak until the boy's. mother rescuing spoke forced claiming cannot reaching hearth." would party and immediately himself out reach the home. son father's She dropped arms, mother accidentally a tear, and piteously spoke 1 exon shore. The father The information


of his

You Father, father, my me. I must Hc disappeared, keep go.' and, the father found the sprite home, again on th The father's services were called into ghostly second his like time direction the first. and after better the For luck awaited of mother that the car an a performance this time the

a requisition effort under second succeeded at every on which miracle in

her tongue, holding stream on the way home the

notwithstanding from the lake

was upset, and he himself boy was carried fainted.' This is declared to have no longer happened Th wi-Itcr, apparently a pious ago than th year 1869. Roman who vouches for th fact, probably never Catholic, heard the touching tale of Orpheus and Eurydice. The foregoing story, as well as somc of those previously t F. L. Journal," vol. i). p. 91, quoting the IrishFiresMe."







were shows that mentioued, fairy depredations by no to babes and young children. Indeed means confined this chapter were often carried adults off and, although far too long, 1 cannot close it without is already briefly aside a few such cases. Putting those, then, examining as already in which men have been taken, boys or young sufficiently distinguished with matrons. the watch the benefit discussed, from The all elfin the other or race In one cases of seduction illusion, were supposed instance the as robbery, are concerned to be on to have was captive in exchange was retained

for unchurched of their milk.

or unsained


freed herself to have reputed her husband's best mare under

until it was almost dead. by the captors of wood More the story relates that a piece is usually in the likeness of the lady and laid in her place, carved the husband and friends deceived into being believing it to bc the herself. A man hears supernatural Mak' it red cheekit an' red lippit catches the words o' Bonnykelly's wife." the like the smith Mastering and sains the situation he runs off to the smith's house, new for mother and her babe. finished out And than has he hardly outside. On going image wife. husband often on to both which sight his catch has the In fairies North who return them coolness home just one and into of as he is only just in time, a great thud is heard home at night overreturning He listens and at work. beings

by promising milk, which exhausted and

a piece of bog-fir is found,-the intended to substitute for the smith's German the and Danish tales it is the at work, and he their proceedings out upon them, their


enough and,

conspirators to watch bouncing are about


Thus, his wife he thrust and

to complete they in retaining fellow succeeded clever the image into her bed, already put the his oven her A talc to blaze until from he and crackle friends, in the who wife's assembled

supposed their astonished

hearing he was

burning gaze.

her to produced Badenoch represents



the So

man he


a woman

discovering of unrumed




piles up a great of the bed upon occupant has become of his own wife. latter has been carried but successor in recapturing Inverness." happens are gallantry A smith at out sobbing It by his his own

temper, suddenly fire and threatens it unless She then has he she

finding turned to tells been happily fairy confesses

his wife, a shrew. throw him that the what the

off, and she determination at a certain

appointed succeeds knoll near

that these victims of einn occasionally rescued men than their husbands. by other work one day hears a great and moaning of doors.

out he sees a troll Looking a pregnant woman before to her driving him, and crying A little further a little further continually yet yet He instantly forward with a red-hot iron in his springs which he holds between the troll and his thrall, hand, so that the former has to abandon her and take to flight. The smith then took the woman under his protection, and the same she was delivered of twins. night Going to the husband to console him for his loss, he is surto find a woman his friend's prised exactly resembling wife in her bed. He saw how the matter and stood, an axe he killed the witch on the seizing and spot, restored to the husband his real wife and new-born children. This is a Danish but there is a Highlegend land one very similar to it. A man meets one night a a prize of some sort. Recollecting fairies are obliged to exchange whatever they may have with any one who offers them no matter anything, what its value, for it, he flings his bonnet to them, calling out Mine is yours, and is mine The prize yours which turned out to be an English they dropped lady whom had carried in her place a stock, they off, leaving of course, died and was buried. The which, Sassenach troop that Gregor, p. 62 Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 1~9, quoting Thiele p. 41, quoting MuMenhoff} Campbell, vol. ii. p. 6y Cromek, vol. iii. p. 2. of fairies with








in the Highlander's years house, until the captain in command of an English regiment came to lodge in his house with his son, while the soldiers were new roads the country. making through There the son recognized his mother, and the father his wife long mourned as dead.' of changelings, as here, though, in the tales, are not often alluded occurring and there to are grounds for thinking them a special deduction of the Scottish mind. Sometimes the incident is ghastly to satisfy the devoted enough lover of horrors. The west of Scotland furnishes an instance in which the exchange apparent picion was death. not discovered It was buried until in due after the child's but suscourse and coffin were The death and burial


for some

been aroused, the grave having and not a corpse but only a wooden opened, figure was found within. A farmer at Kintraw, in Argyllshire, lost his wife. On the Sunday after the funeral, when he and his servants returned from the church, children, who had been left at home, that their mother reported had been to see them, and had combed and dressed them. The made the same following Sunday they statement, in spite of the their father had thought punishment to inflict for telling a lie on the first occasion. proper The next time she came the eldest child asked her why she came, when she said that she had been carried off the good and could by people," only get away for an hour or two on Sundays, and should her coffin be opened it would be found to contain but a withered nothing leaf. The who ridiculed the story, minister, however, refused to allow the coffin to be opened and when, some little time after, he was found dead near the Faincb' he was held by many to be a victim Hill, above Kintraw, to the indignation of the fairy world he had laughed at. Sir Walter Scott mentions the tale of a farmer's Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 133, quoting Thiele; Keightley, p. 391, quoting The Popular Superstitions of the Highlanders," Stewart,



in Lothian, who, after being carried offby the fairies, on Sunday reappeared to her children, and repeatedly combed their hair. On one of these occasions the husband met that there was one way her, and was told to recover in wait on Hallowe'en her, namely, by lying for the procession of fairies, and stepping out, and boldly her as she passed them. seizing At the moment among of execution, his heart however, failed, and he lost his wife for ever. In connection with this, Scott refers to a real event which happened at the town of North Berwick. A widower, who was paying addresses a view with to second was troubled of his former marriage, by dreams to whom he had been wife, attached. One tenderly he declared to the morning minister that she had to him the previous appeared that she was night, stating a captive in Fairyland, and him to attempt her begged deliverance. The mode she prescribed was to bring the minister and certain others to her grave at midnight to recite dig up her body, and certain after which prayers, the corpse would become animated and flee from him. It was to be pursued by the and if he could catch it church the rest were thrice, it swiftest before to corne runner it had parish, encircled the in the


its struggles, notwithstanding which it might be transformed. be redeemed. The declined to take minister, however, and indecent a proceeding.I part in so absurd Absurd and indecent it would have been undoubtedly to unearth a dead of any such body in the expectation but it would have been entirely result in harmony with current The stories and beliefs examined superstition. in the present that there has been no superchapter prove stition too gross, or too cruel, to survive into the midst of the civilization of the nineteenth and the century exhumation of a corpse, of the two, is less barbarous than Lord A. Campbell, Napier, p. 4! "Border Minstrelsy," vol. ii. p. ~j. Waifs and Strays," p. 71

to his help and hold and the into shapes In this way she would

the torture






by fire of an and transformation struggles, both in M<M~~ and saga will corne under our notice

innocent child. The flight, of a bespelled lady are found some of the latter examples in a future chapter.



Th tale of Elidorus-Celtic and Teutonic stories of theft from supernatural beings-The thiefunsuccessfutCases of successful robbeiy from the king of the serpents-Robbery of a drinking-Robbery horn of Oldenburg and similar vesselsTh cup, or horn-The Luck of Edenhall The cup of Ballafletcher These vessels sacrificial and pagan. THE tions members rendered earliest are of writers Giraldus that brilliant who allude to the and of Welsh Walter literary of the we fairy tradi-

Cambrcnsis constellation the

two Map, men which in

dynasty. Giraldus, this chapter, lays the scene of what famous and states story near Swansea, narrated occurred a short time before story sistent concerns one

early years with whom alone

Plantagenet have to do

is perhaps his most that the adventures his own days. whose The

a priest, Elidorus, upon perdeclarations it is founded. This good man in his ran away from the discipline and frequent youth stripes of his preceptor, and hid himself under the hollow bank of a river. There he remained for two days and fasting then him two men with full of pigmy them, stature and they to come and invited appeared, would lead him into a more to a powerful

country temptation schoolboy

of dclights and sports. A could not have been offered twelve and years old He accompanied he found the his a


runaway invitation was guides into a

speedily accepted. subterranean where land, stature but pure morals. sence of the king, and

of small people He was brought into the preover to his son, who by him handed

136 was then a







boy. he often used









to return

and on one of these day, known to his mother, declaring and state of the pigmy manners, to bring her a present of gold, and he accordingly that rgion while his at play with the king's mother, hotly on the stumbled fell two and tempt with into the pursued.

by various occasions to folk. which

to the upper. paths he made himself her She was a the nature, desired him plentiful in

stole and



bail golden ran off with it to his foot home, the bail, he The sitting. seized the bail their he never conkindness sought again

threshold, room where

who had pigmies off with made it, not for such the thief who

and, dropping his mother was him at once followed without had

expressing returned their though could

it carefully find the way Narratives beings are

and Elidorus, ingratitude with and shame, penitence into found the all of the

realm.' underground of valuables from theft the world of more of fire. over. than Such

in the mythology example, kind obtained the blessing throw therefore our but attention little be light on this more profitable to those

supernatural In this way, for manone nation tales, however, and it will

one of Elidorus in considering

it to confine


Celts and Teutons. among They the lesson te~ch is that is the best they usually honesty is all events, in regard to beings whose policy-at power not bounded human limitations. Beginby the ordinary South we find one of these tales told ning with Wales, by the Rcv. shire at the of two Edward beginning curious works Davies, of this a clergyman who century, antiquities, The learning. in the in Gloucesterauthor with stuffed tale was the

it current resembling and are very common

on Welsh lake

becauss useless, tion relates to Brecknock," every Mayday

misdirected, a small

in quesof mountains that was

which we are informcd concerning a certain door in a rock near ths lake 1 ratd.Cambr.,t.i.c.8.






He who was bold to enter was led open. enough to a small by a secret passage otherwise island, invisible, in the middle of the lake. This was a fairy island, a of enchanting inhabited garden beauty, by th Tylwyth and stored with fruits and flowers. 7~- (or Fair Family), The inhabitants treated their visitors lavish hoswith but permitted to be carried One pitality, nothing away. was violated who day this prohibition by a visitor, put into his pocket a flower with which he had been presented. The Fair Family showed no outward resentment. Their were dismissed with the accustomed guests but courtesy the moment he who had broken their behest touched unhallowed his senses. ground Nor has these the the disappeared, door ever mysterious thief flower and been he lost found

again.I In both punishment



of his crime is the the mildest form which perhaps could take. punishment But sometimes the c~z~~ ~y~? is lucky enough to secure his spoils. It is related that certain white were in the habit ghosts of playing at skittles by night on a level grass-plot on the Lningsberg, near Aerzen, in North A journeyman who Germany. was in weaver, love with a miller's but lacked the mcans to daughter, there could be no harm marry her, thought in robbing the ghosts of one of the golden balls with which they used to play. He concealed himself one accordingly and when the harmless evening came out he spectres seized one of their and scampered balls, ~ay with it,

is unsuccessful, and the loss of fairy intercourse

Davies, Mythology," p. 155. Mr. Wirt Sikes quotes this story the legend, "varying without acknowledgment, statingthat but little in phraseotogy, is current in the neighbourhood of a dozen different mountain lakes." As if he had collected it himself! (Sikes, p. 45). Compare an Eskimo story of a girl who, having acquired <7/ or underground power, visited the /w~ and received folk, from them but while carrying them homewards the presents gifts were wafted out of her hands and flew back to their first owners" (Rink, p. 460).








owners. A stream crossed his angry the plank which path, and, missing bridge spanned it, he into the water. This saved sprang him, for the spirits had no power and a merry was the there wedding of his adventure. In like manner a fairy, speedy sequel to winnow who, in a Breton saga, was incautious enough in broad in a field where a man was gold daylight by pruning beeches, excited and the the latter's man attention possessed it a hallowed singular proceeding the treasure by simply In Germany a good shoemaker. a nix on the shore rosary upon and a variant the owner wore he had caused the by this himself of rosary.


of being reputation a man, who once saw of the March a busy at his work, threw it. The nix disappeared, the shoe leaving states that the shoe was so well made that out to tweive other shoes which successively be made to match its being it, without

into flinging water-nix has th It is related that

any the worse.' We have already seen in the last that the chapter of Christian rites and th exhibition of performance Christian and sacred books a powerful have symbols effect fairies. But the or against further, invocation, indeed the simple utterance, of a sacred name has always been held to counteract enchantments and the wiles of all who are not themselves and supernatural beings part offence and for want of a parcel of what 1 may, without better and who may term, call the Christian mythology, therefore at times, if not constantly, be supposed to be hostile to the Christian and to persons under powers their These beliefs in one protection. are, of course, form The or another tales part of the machinery examples are just quoted A North German of a holy name. of every religion. of the pbtency of a emphatic that late as one

symbol. to the value

story is equally We are told

Thorpe, vol. iii. p. 120, apparently quoting I-larry's Sagen, Marchen und Legenden Nieclersachsens Trad. et Sup." Sbi!Iot, vol. i. p.JI5; Zeits. f. Vo]ksk." vol. ii. p. 413, quoting Vernaleken.





evening leaping. As he towards

a boy Now stood him

a great number of hares and dancing hares are specially animais. witch-possessed and watched them one of them sprang and tried to bite his leg. But he said Go of God, vanished My silver but of the but beaker, devil." he my heard silver Instantly a doleful beaker


thou art not away the whole company voice exclaiming On

home he told his adventure and his father reaching at once started back with him to the place, where they found a silver beaker inscribed with a name neither they nor the goldsmith, to whom for a they sold the goblet sum of money, could read. The district whence large this man story comes furnishes us also with an came who, being out late one night, rounded at a table. He by a large circle of women sitting ventured to seat himself them. Each one had among for the meal and a man-cook brought went something round them each what she had got. When he asking came to the hero of the struck him with story the latter his stick, I have a blow which our Lord God saying the devil." the gave whole disThereupon assembly behind but the kettle appeared, which leaving nothing over the fire, and which the man took hung and long of a account a fire surupon

to testify the truth of his story. preserved A Cornish fisherman was scarcely less lucky without the protection of a pious exclamation. For one night home he going found a crowd of little on the beach. people" They were in a semicircle their hats towards sitting holding one who was pitching number, gold pieces from a heap into them. The fisherman contrived to introduce his hat among them without and having being noticed, made off with it. got a share of the money, He was followed by the piskies, but had a good start, and managed to reach home and shut the door them. Yet so upon narrow was his escape that he left the tails of his sea-coat in their hands. x Kuhn und Schwartz, pp. 305, 306; "Choice Notes," p. y6. of their







is sometimes swift and sure upotl Vengeance, however, these robberies. It is believed in Germany that the king of the snakes is wont to corne out to sun himself at noon and that he then a prize for any one lays aside his crown, who can seize it. A horseman, at the opportune coming did so once but the serpent-king moment, called forth his and pursued him. subjects By the help of his good steed the man succeeded in arriving at home to and, thankful have escaped the danger, he patted the beast's neck as he jumped At that down, saying me Faithfully hast thou helped a snake, instant which had hidden herself unnoticed in the horse's and little tail, bit the man joy had he of his crime. In another story the girl who steals the crown is deafened and elseby the cries of her victim when the serpent-king is unable where, to reach the he batters his own head to pieces in ineffectual robber, he deserved rage. his fate in some of these Perhaps cases, for it seems he had a foolish to lay down his liking crown on a white or a white, or blue, silk handcloth, which the robber kerchief,-a did not fail to predilection him with the opportunity provide of gratifying, and of repenting.' Other tales represent the thief as compelled to restore the stolen Thus a man who found goods. the trolls on the Danish isle of Fuur their treasures out into carrying the air, shot thrice over and thereby forced the them, owners to quit them. He caught up the gold and silver and rode off with troll. But it, followed by the chief after he got into the house and shut the doors there was a storming seemed ablaze. such and hissing Terrified, vol. iv. p. t30; outside, he flung that the the whole bag wherein house he

Niederhoner, Bartsch, vol. i. p. 278 Thorpe, vol. P- 56, quoting MuIIenhoH'; Birlinger, vol. i. Volksthumiiches," p. 103 Grimm, Tales," vol. ii. p. 77. A Lusatian tradition quoted by Grimm in a note represents the watersnake-king's crown as not only valuable in itself, but like other fairy property, the bringer of Ibid. 406. Cf. a Hindoo story to the great riches to its possessor. same effect, Day, p. t7 and many other tales.






secured and

the he In fallen of

treasures heard a

out voice



night. Thou

The hast silver

storm still cup,


enough." which had farm went what offered casting servant at the out his drink


morning behind South in

crying he found

a chest

a heavy of drawers.

master's trolls from

in Kongerslev, on Christmas instance, hill

a Again, who Denmark, Eve, to see was and spot, doing, the cup, the

a neighbouring a golden cup.


its contents, On the hotly pursued. of a band of trolls at enmity had stolen ploughed him, and the cup. field, where so escaped. the

He took his horse from spurred the way back he passed with those from

dwelling whom he


Christmas following a tattered to beer in it. It is not wonderhelped beggar ful that both the cup and the beggar but we vanished are to understand that the beggar was a troll. Perhaps he was. In Thyholm, a district of Denmark, there is a of lofty mounds range inhabited formerly by trolls. Some peasants who were once passing mounds by these the trolls to give them some beer. In a moment prayed a little creature came out and presented a large silver can to one of the men, who had no sooner it than he grasped set spurs to his horse, with the intention of keeping it. But the little man of the mound was too quick for him, for he speedily him and compelled him caught to return the can. In a Pomeranian the underground folk story forestallcd the intention to rob them on the part of a farmer's thirst boy whose with a can they had quenched of delicious brown-beer. he hid th can Having drunk, the object of taking itself, with it home when his day's work was done, for it was of but when he pure silver r afterwards went to look for it, it had disappeared. Moreover, Thorpe, Folkesagn mortals are sometimes ungrateful vol. it. pp. 148, 146, t2i, quoting Thiele, Jahn, p. 75. punished, "Danmarks

he took to the by them, his pursuers were unable to follow The farmer until kept the goblet his wife imprudently Eve, when

142 even when






to secure their they are lucky enough prize. Thus it is told of a man of Zahren, in Mecklenburg, who was seized with thirst on his way home from Penzlin, that of terms at once a flask man he the heard music in a barrow folk. and known to be the haunt underground with the latter Nor did answered of the were then on familiar People the man cried out and asked in vain his appeal of a little fellow for was with

for a drink.

he ask

by the appearance delicious drink. After

opportunity but he was pursued by the of whom, and he had only one leg, succeeded him. The thief, however, up with managed a cross-road where could not follow One-leg the drink latter Thou then, mayst making a virtue the nask keep for it will never it." but into 1 The For one the some day, bottom


his thirst the slaking to make off with the nask whole troop of elves, only one in keeping to get over him cried and out always beware

of necessity, and henceforth be

thereout, of looking into was observed looked peasant a horrid toad

but empty the elf's injunction years in a fit of curiosity, the of the flask, and there and so did sat the


and the man fell miserably sick. liquor In a Norse tale, a man whose bride is about to be carried off by Huldre-folk, rescues her by shooting over her head a pistol with a silver bullet. This has the effect loaded f dissolving the witchery and he is forthwith enabled to seize to and when after her horn. rode and trolls, golden away, trolls, cried retard off, not gallop his night, held took away found their the with unpursued. out to him but horn unable cast and One the girl. to catch of the a well-filled liquor The him, cock

disappeared, in a short time


horn, both

The red exasperation And behold his house shall crow over thy dwelling in a blaze. a Swedish stood tradition relates Similarly, of the lady of Liungby, one of the serving-men in that one night Scania, the out to inquire of cause Christmas of the in noise the at 1490, rode year the Magie stone.

they him in










troll-woman and stepped horn and a pipe, praying he would health and blow in the He snatched pipe. and pipe from back to the her, and spurring delivered lowed and them begged to the into his to have lady's hands. lady's their treasures race if she and The

dancing forth


making offered

A fair merry. him a drinkingdrink the troll-king's the horn mansion, trolls fol-

prosperity She kept preserved But the after, been

back, promising would restore them. are of said the died the to three mansion be still adventure. days has

them, however at Liungby as who on the

they memorials took second them

serving-man and the horse

and the family burnt, after. prospered On the eve of the first of May the witches of Germany hold high revel. of Every year the fields and farmyards a certain landowner were so injured nocturnal by these festivities that one of his servants determined to put a mischief. to the stop to the he Going trysting-place, found the witches and drinking around a large eating slab of marble which rested on four golden and on pillars the slab lay a golden horn of wondrous form. The sorceresses him invited to join th feast but a fellowservant whom he met there warned wished to poison him. they only the proffered beverage away, seized home as hard as he could. Ail doors left open for him and the witches to drink, for Wherefore he nung the horn, and galloped and gates had been him not


day never

were consequently unable to catch him. The next day a gentleman in fine clothes and begged his master to restore appeared the in return to surround his property horn, promising with a wall seven feet high, but threatening, in case of refusai, to burn his farms down and that he thrice, just when himself richest. Three thought to the days were allowed landowner for considration, but he declined to restore the horn. The next harvest had hardly been housed when his barns were in names. Three times did this happen, and th landowner was reduced to poverty. By

i44 the king's then made sending







he effort for that



to the

every it about

to discover

but tinople Somewhat Elf-maiden horn to as

even purpose no one could be found to daim more courteous offered received as he rode He was drink the a Danish from and

and he rebuild owner of the horn, as far as Constanit.' boy whom an


one evening Siellevskov. in its contents, several of


a costly drinkinglate from Ristrup


them poured these stories, hair off.

but to horn, fearing out behind him, so that, fell on the horse's they The horn he held

the back, and singed and the horse probably the top of its speed. horse and man reached she could not Tollow

fast, needed no second hint to start at The elf-damse! until gave chase a running across which water,

herself she Seeing outwitted, the youth to give her back the horn, promising implored him in reward the strength of twelve men. On this assurance he returned the horn to her, and got what she had him. But the was not promised exchange very profitable for with the acquired unfortunately that may well be thought its appropriate abatement. Scotland certain purpose great akin and her the of strength the appetite the twelve men he Here had it of twelve.


cup was stolen and was honourably spell, was accomplished. Uistean,

supernatural gift only took In a story from the north of for the purpose of undoing a returned we are when told, the was a

slayer of to fairies. a beautiful home and

Fuathan, supernatural beings apparently He shot one day into a wreath of mist, woman fell down at his side. He took she remained in end and the butler, his of house the for year a light a year, he was in a

On a day at the specchless. in the mountains, benighted and found nigh, hill, he drew entered the hill, and heard the

seeing fairies

He feasting. as he was handing

Bartsch, vol. i. p. 83 (see also p. 41) Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 6, quoting ibid. p. 89, quoting Afxelius, "Svcnske Faye, "Norske Folke-sagn"; Kuhn und Schwa) tz, p. 26, Folkets Sago-Hafder




night's of Antrim. that she does this



that night She has the not is in handed hand, When ran speak my

round, say we lost the


is a

power a word till the

daughter of the draught she

from year of the Earl on her

hand." him

When cup.

from the cup that gets a drink the butler reached he Uistean, The on getting it in his latter,

until the cock crew. by the fairies he gave th lady in his house to he. got home, drink out of the and her cup immediately speech returned. She then told him she was the Earl of Antrim's stolen from daughter, child-bed. by the fairies off, pursued Uistean took back then the brought it, and and sound, the cup restored to the hill lady had to whence her he father had safe tbe who

been left in her fairy woman meantime in a name of nre.~ place vanishing There arc also in which a hat legends conferring or a glove, figures but the stolen article is invisibility, as in most of thc instances cited above, a cup or usually, a drinking-horn. such articles are still preserved Many in various Of these the most parts of Northern Europe. celebrated are th Luck of Edenhall and the Oldenburg horn. But before these 1 must refer to some discussing other the material evidence of which is no longer stories, extant. Gervase of Tilbury relates that in a forest of Gloucestershire there is a glade in the midst whercof a hillock stands to the height of a man. rising Knights and hunters were when with heat wont, and fatigued to ascend the hillock in question to obtain thirst, relief. This man had then to be done would and say singly and alonc. when a The adventurous would 1 thirst," him with a cupbearer

appear adorned

large drinking-horn with gold and gems, as, says the writer, was the custom the most ancient and containing among English, but most delicious liquor of somc unknown flavour. When he had drunk fled from this, all heat and weariness his 1 Sec ~so Keightley, p. 88 Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 142, quoting Thiele. Campbe]!, vol. ii. p. 97.








and the cupbearer body, to wipe his mouth withal his office nor city he disappeared, One day inquiry.

presented and then




waiting an ill-conditioned

having for neither


recompense of the knight

of Gloucester, to custom contrary Earl lest store wrote

of Gloucester, robber to death, and he of should if he his own the be wickedness near

the horn into his hands, having gotten and good manners it. But the kept heard of it, condemned the having gave the to the horn have rapine to King approved of another I., Henry of such to the

thought had added private

contemporary, but lays story, peasant

beginning William its scene

Gervase of Tilbury property. His of the thirteenth century. a similar of Newbury, relates in Yorkshire. He says that a

not very sober, and home late at night, coming and heard the noise of singing passing by a barrow, a door open in the side of the barrow, feasting. Seeing a great One of the he looked in, and beheld banquet. attendants not drink. offered Instead him a cup, which he took, of he of but out his would the conbeast of doing the vessel. distance the all so, he poured The fleetness pursuit, described of and as

and kept tents, enabled him to We are told of material, was presented

that unusual

extraordinary form, to Henry it to his brotherI., who gave of the Scots. After been David, in-law, King having in the Scottish for several it was kept years treasury the Lion to King II., who given by William Henry wished to see it.' 1 somewhat By a fortune down in the days written found has been lately East rare, this of th early story, having been

cup, colour and

escaped. unknown

The how, Riding. is Willey to have occurred How, near Wold mound the Bridlington road, a conspicuous

Plantagenet kings, the folk in the again among or barrow, where it is now said on Newton, about three

Gerv. Tilb., Decis. iii. c. 60; Guil. Neub. "Chromca Rerum Anglic." lib. i. c. 28, quoted by Liebrecht in a note to Gerv. Tilb.




feet in height. was an to

hundred The the inhabitant

feet rustic to


circumference whom the Newton,

and adventure who

sixty had

of Wold

happened been on a visit

neighbouring belated. Another

while at work in the servants, beautiful maiden fields, were approached by an unusually clad in black. nine or ten o'clock in day about Every the morning, and again about four o'clock in the afterthem a small of wine and a noon, she brought pitcher loaf of snow-white then a very even peasants brought bread-greater than they would silver to his be visits head knife sure to to luxuries, be now. to eut give the it until the to probably, She always bread, back to one and her, of the

is found saga the mysterious but a knife. Some

of North and was village Burton, tale the Gloucestershire resembling in Swabia, the object of which though benefactor was deprived was not a cup, farm

always begged else she were lost. servants he was took ungrateful

pretty them


continued keep

it into

to do in spite of enough all entreaties prayers. Finding vain, she uttered piercing cries of distress, tore her fair hair, rent her silken clothes, and vanished, to be seen again. never But often you may hear the sound was one on the spot l that a farmer's he where she once appeared boy sobs of weeping. A Cornish tale relates

which knife, her tears and


of Portallow some some use, of comthen were

sent to a neighbouring night household necessaries. On the way and by repeating the formula piskies, himself with first transported them, then to Seaton and Beach, finally France's panions passed where cellar," in tasting that through magnificent he joined monarch's rooms,

for village fell in with them

he heard to Portallow to the his

Green, King

mysterious wines. They the tables


Nicholson, p. 83. Mr. Nicholson in n. letter to me says that he had the story as given by him from an old inhabitant of Bridlington, and that it is current in the neighbourhood. Volkst." Birlinger, vol. i. pp. 3, 5.








By way of taking his travels he pocketed one of the which on one of the tables. stood stay the word found himself mented know'd piskies France's him where to was to passed at home. return, The You'd he replied and l've in five


a feast.

some rich After and good

memorial silver


goblets a very short he presently wife compli-

again on his despatch. l've been," Beach, and aIl the

say so, if you only l've been wi' the to o' the King The farmer



stared say 1 was he et," undeniable doubted. of wise coming


house, and said mazed,


answered, evidence

1 thought boy was ~M~< you'd so 1 brort to show vor away this mug the With such producing goblet. his not story could a natural enemy rather meritorious in it those the be any longer like the King otherthan

France and for


from Stealing was probably the goblet



though unfortunately the satisfaction of

for boy's family is no longer forthwho may still be

differs from the others 1 have in detailed, story a raid by supernatural on the dwelling narrating beings of a human raid in which a human creature potentate-a and joined seventeenth Duffus brought century an old silver cup, the following which away there a substantial was in the called th trophy. possession In of the Lord


conCup, Fairy tradition was related to John cerning the antiquary, from Aubrey, by a correspondent writing Scotlandon the 25th of March An ancestor of the 1695. then Lord Duffus was walking in the fields near his house in Morayshire when of voices crying exclamation from any fairies he heard Horse were and said the to noise use of a whirlwind This when they was and the remove Hattock

Lord Duffus was bold enough place." to cry Horse and Hattock and was immediately also, caught the air with the fairies to the King of France's up through aft'er he had heartily cellar at Paris, he where, drunk, Choice Notes," p. 73.

ROMERES fell asleep. Thcrc with the silver cup bcfore peated

FROM FAtRYLANt). found hand, lying and was the next

49 morning brought. he rehim, now

he was


promptly questioned, in dismissing it may be

th this

King, story
him with


on being whom, and the King, the cup. Where Aubrey's of it, it had

do us

not with




family.' there On this vessel, if it be yet in existence, therefore, the name of Fairy or to is nothing to warrant Cup, Nor does the it with the adventure connect just related. marks of authenany greater That famous vessel is still exhibited at the palace ticity. of Rosenborg at Copenhagen. It is of silver gilt, and of It bears coats ornamented in paste with enamel. for it was made arms and inscriptions, that showing Oldenburg King Kings middle Christian I. of Denmark cannot in honour of the Three the to of Cologne, and of the fifteenth therefore bc older than Horn itself bear

important beside the

any description remark that arms of the

furnish correspondent the but save negative engraven upon it


The legend century. The it daims for it a much greater antiquity. in Hamelmann's was narrated Oldenburger at the end of the sixteenth century, and


itself legend Chronik is even yet current

Hamelmann dates in the mouths of the Oldenburg folk. of Oldenburg the then Count it in the year 990. when He had followed was hunting in the forest of Bernefeuer. and had distanced a roe from that forest to the Osenberg, all his attendants. It was the twentieth of was weather for a draught when words, appeared the look and He out hot, and the count thirsty. uttered the of water, and had scarcely damsel hill and a beautiful the opened him drink in this horn. Not liking offered to drink. him and would 149. that with not the Whereit would whole believe July, cried the

he declined beverage, him to do so, assuring upon she pressed go well with him and his thenceforth, house of Oldenburg Aubrey, but if the count "Miscei!any,"p.

of the








be no unity from that time in the Oldenburg He had no faith in her words, family. and poured out the drink, which took the hair off his horse wherever it splashed him, and galloped away with the horn.' Other tales one are at drinking-horns, told, are still of to be which seen in precisely analogous Of the





it is related of Halsteengaard the robber, down to the ninth were aniicted, generation, as a penalty, with some blemish. This horn is bodily described as holding three and as being nearly quarts, encircled inches by a strong gilt copper ring, about three on which, in monkish are to be read broad, characters, the names of the Three of Cologne, Kings Melchior, and Caspar. It is further ornamented a with Baltazar, small the setting of an oval gilt copper plate, forming Another in the museum crystal. at horn, preserved was obtained in a similar manner. A father, Arendal, his daughter and her lover, was stopped pursuing by a troll, cast and out offered the drink in it. the Instead usual of with contents, his horse. He was drinking, and result, he put

Norway. that the posterity

to spurs who was not the rye and


on good terms with the not through the wheat impeded the cock tall by the before dawn

by another troll, first, to ride through but even when only him. his the The rye-stalks, rescued



of crowing is encircled vessel inscription, follows

reliquam 1 Thorpe, vol. iii. p. 128 Kuhn und Schwartz, p. 280. The latter is the version still found as traditionaL Its details are not so fut), and are in some respects different. Dr. Geo. Thorpe, vol. ii. pp. 1$, 14, apparente quoting Faye. Stephens of the University of Copenhagen very lcindly made a great number of inquiries for me with a view to obtain information, and, if possible, drawings of the Scandinavian horns and cups, but unhappily with little success. The answer to his inquiries in reference to the horns

silver an by three gilt rings, bearing which seems not quite as correctly reported, Potum servorum benedic deus aime tuorum 2 unus benede le un Caspar Melchior Baltazar."




attaches in by also Zealand, the and prayer in the besieged chalice been a peasant inherited probably, took in so mean is and made trolls vowed were Zealand, man by took the paten out whose some his an a to a is

The number one he to heard. possesses refuge trolls bslonging of a cup of had bestow

legend of these. robbed, the The another. in until the

of sacred The

which chalices. thief,

1 am

treating At Aagerup, overtaken in church his

nearly to God the of

prayed cup church In church, upon

distress, if his also case

Vigersted, latter he

the where In

was a to have by had

morning. to stolen was a her with At the church in the

Bornholm are same and said way who power of which

mother portion intercourse advantage. of

mermaid, supernatural the Viol, and trolls, near


hence, he



Halsteengaard of the Keeper Fie douhtless hands first of

sent Arendal, Museum Norwegian says refers the Mr. owner public in Hartland's tale of the to a local

interest. Norway in the It over was

Olaf by Prof. at Christiania, of notice about

the learned Rygh, with will be read Hatstengaard formerly Hallingdal. Beskriveke in

Holsteingaard, year !74-,

a drinking-horn Aal parish, in 'Ivar Wieis


Ringerige og Haiingdals Fogderi,' Part XXXI., Christiania, Norge,' 1804, more as to the fate of this horn than what

in 'Topografisk

it is said Fornlevninger,' p. 152, that Museum in 1845. Should this be so, it will be almost it among the many such horns in that collection. identify of the by Wie), it was merely a very simple spcimen common x x MELCHIOR inscription JASPAR This in the which class of hom was i6th 1 beg down 15th and Meanwhile bas corne largely centuries. to imported that in to Norway the oldest from

pp. 170-183. is said in Nicolaysen's' to have been sent to the

for Journal 1 know nothing Norske Bergen

to impossible As described kind with the

BALTAZAR. North Germany this kind

out point to us is found

boger og Reise-optegnelser, udgivne It was written or his by the bishop Tetemarken. 1595, in Flatdal parish, of by the bishop ~poken 1 have no idea of Arendal. 1 cannot what say. is meant

Biskop af Dr. Yngvar Nielsen,' his amanuensis during What Mr. bas become

of legend Nilssons Jens

Visitatsp. 393.

Visitation, of the horn to but



reference there, (Arendal,

it may concern in the museum Possibly something of which 1 never heard. The printed of the museum catalogue from the middle 1882) includes nothing age or later."







to the church, at belonging and, like the chalice of gold, of which it was it is narrated that Aagerup, full of a liquor buttermilk to a presented resembling man who was riding where the underground by a barrow folk off him were with holding it in the high usual festival. manner. He and rode emptied A cry arose behind


corne out he Three-legs, and, looking round, saw a monster him. this creature pursuing Finding unable to come he heard voices up with him, many corne out his horse But was calling Two-legs, swifter than Then was summoned, Two-legs. One-leg as in the story already cited from Mecklenburg, and came after him with and would have caught gigantic springs, stood open. him, but the door of his own house luckily He had scarcely and slammed it to, when Oneentered, The leg stood outside, banging against it, and foiled. beaker was presented to the church in fulfilment of a vow made by the robber in his fright and it is now used as the At Rambin, on the island of communlon-cup. is another of which relates that Rgen, cup, the story the man to whom it was offered folk by the underground did not refuse to drink, but having he kept the drunk, vessel and took it home. A boy who was employed to watch horses on a turf moor near the village of by night in Mecklenburg, the Kritzemow, annoyed underground folk of his whip. One night, by the constant cracking as he was thus amusing a mannikin came up to himself, him and offered him drink in a silver-gilt beaker. The but being openly on bad terms with boy took the beaker, the elves, argued no good to himself from such an offerSo he instantly on horseback and fled, with ing. leaped the vessel in his hand, Rostock. The mannikin, followed, but, coming a crossway, to was compelled to give up the chase. When the boy reached Biestow much of the liquid, as was to be had been shaken out of the cup, and wherever expected, on the horse it had fallen the hair had been burnt away. the along of course, road to Biestow and





the boy thanked God and this danger, of escaping In over to the church at Biestow. handed the vessel do I find any descripnone of these however, instances, tion of the goblet. x is one, and that the most celebrated there Fortunately Glad of all a fairy origin has been ascribed, cups to which delineated both with has been often and accurately which of Edenhall. It I refer to the Luck and pencil. pen of Edenhall, in Cumberto Sir George Musgrave belongs of whose for it has been family land, in the possession is that a butler, The tradition going generations. many the to fetch water from a well in the a company came upon Well, it from 'them. As the little, and snatched revels, an ineffectual after to folk disappeared, attempt Cuthbert's it, they cried If this glass do break or fall, Farewell the luck of Edenhall year Dr. Fitch, for The Scarborough Rev. 1880, by the for private cirfrom which it has been reprinted Gazette," in the shape of a dainty He speaks culation pamphlet. a personal as a glass a of it, from examination, stoup, six inches in height, about a drinking vessel, having two inches in circular base, flat, diameter, perfectly expanding gradually across. The inches upwards material till is it ends no in a mouth means fine four in by on close The most recent account of it was wr:tten in the St. called garden, of fairies at their ill-used recover

as it does several inspection, presenting, quality, hue is a warm or air-bubbles. The general small cavities the tone known as <~oz~ resembling by artists green, the transparent a geometric glass is traced Upon ~'M~. and blue somewhat in white enamel, raised, pattern Keightley, pp. t0<), Thorpe, vol. il. p. 144, quoting Thiele. 1 II, note; (The latter mentions another theft of a silver jug where the thief was saved bycrossing running water.) Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 140 vol. iii. p. 70, quoting Mullenhon' Jahn, p. 53 Bartsch, vol. i. p. 60.







It will, of course, and a little crimson. by gold stand on its base, but it would be far from wise to entrust is in accord Dr. Fitch to this it, when filled, support." in pronouncing with the common of antiquaries opinion Mr. Franks thought though it is kept as it Saracenic. He the case in which The of the same shape. made for it, being evidently fits the body rather lid of this case," he says, unevenly the fastenings it. There is no hinge by overlapping it to be of Venetian origin, describes are certain security a piece thong. century, and hooks better or catches, apposition not,unlike dates, made not in good condition of the lid is maintained boot-lace, from the or the by thin

of leather, The case as articles

a modern probably, of similar

fifteenth viz., cuir in use in

softened or boiled leather, ~OM/ varied This case bears an elegantly that age. pattern the of Henry in an inkstand that has been recognized the lid of this case, in very Seventh's, Upon yet extant. monois the sacred chaste and well-formed characters, gram form These I.H.S." a monogram, three letters, which do not

material, much were

surmise, a sacred

authorities, and and used and were, in fact, made by the church, Eut 1 can see no the Luck may have been such a vessel. is nothing to show that of it. There sufficient evidence date as the glass itself case is of the same the leathern The earliest and it may have been made long afterwards. relie seems to have been of the mention by Francis in 1783, and the antiquary, who was at Edenhall Douce, nor is there some verses wrote any authentic it upon of the goblet, to it. The shape attaching family history of drinking fuH, and the difficulty of which Dr. some of its contents, from it without spilling to its being some would Fitch had point experience, uses. than sacred intended rather for convivial its unsteadiness when

really rise to the have given possibly as was once used that the Luck or tradition, several Dr. Fitch on to quote vessel. goes of glass were sanctioned that chalices showing




been a chalice of the several

The explains


of the


nothing because, seen, to have been stolen from supernatural cups alleged beings are chalices to this day. what are we to think Moreover, of the drinking-horns of which the same tale is told ? Some of these mentioned the bear, not indeed already sacred Kings found but letters, of Cologne, in churches. prayers though, One and unlike the names the cups, of the sainted not was are they however,

having as we have


in the cathedral in Sweden, until preserved carried in 1570. This horn, stated to away by the Danes be of three hundred was received on colours, by a knight Christmas from a troll-wife, whose head he morning there and then cut off with his sword. The king dubbed him Trolle in memory of the deed, and bestowed on him a coat-of-arms a headless troll.* 1 How the containing horn came into at the all but know chalice. A silver possession events it of the cathedral never have I do been not a could

drinking-horn, at Wexiu,

still used for sacramental cup, perhaps at the parish church of Malew, in the Isle of purposes of the following A farmer Man, is the subject legend. homeward to the parish of Malew from Peel returning was benighted and lost his way among the mountains. In the course of his wanderings he was drawn by the sound of sweet music into a large hall where a number of little people were banqueting. them were some Among faces he thought he had formerly but he forbore to seen take any notice of them. Nor did they take any notice of him until he was offered when one of them, drink, whose features seemed not unknown to him, plucked him he did, to taste by the coat and forbade him, whatever he saw before him "for if you do," he added, anything you will be as I am, and return no more to family." put into when a large silver beaker Accordingly, his hand, filled with he found an opporliquor, Thorpe, vol. il. p. 91, quoting Afzelius. your was







to tunity forthwith the the


its contents the On





music leaving he told and him We the to are

cup minister with the

and ceased, in his hand.


latter, devote indebted Isle

finding of the parish what had occurred the instincts of his profession, advised service of the Church. well-known

disappeared, his way home,

cup to the to Waldron's

of Man," originally published story. A later Waldron's work rather more writer, annotating than a quarter of a century to the vessel in ago, refers as a paten he states that it was still preserved question in the church, and that it bore the legend engraved 1 There Sancte ora nobis." are no fewer Lupe pro than eleven of saints them Whichever in th calendar. Lupus was invoked the inscription here, for the vessel, whether origin cup inconsistent with its being of some named

Description in 1731, for this

of the

to a continental points or paten, and is not

antiquity. Mr. Train, who quotes the tradition in his account of the Isle of Man, states that several similar tales had been at his disposai in the island but it was placed by friends beneath the dignity of an historian to do more naturally than stition," (though give as a single specimen he calls it. He without the the cup of this shade does, however, of being conscious of Kirk of of supermention any close

apparently with relationship in goblet crystal Colonel fletcher, as larger


the proprietor Wilks, four or five miles from than a common

an antique Malew) when he wrote, of the Estate of BallaIt is described tumbler, and the urorna-

Douglas. bell-shaped in appearance, between

and chaste commonly light with mented floral scrolls, having on two co/M/M~/As sides, upright history of this cup is interesting. taken St. by Olave's Magnus, shrine. the On

designs, of five pillars. The It is said to have been of Man, from Norwegian King what ground this statement rests pp. 28, lo6.



does the not appear. What belonged the family, is really known about for at least a hundred owners of the


is that

Ballafletcher, sold with the effects of the last of the family in 1778, and was bought who gave it to his Caesar, Esq., by Robert for safe This nice niece the keeping. was, perhaps, old lady, a connection of the family of Fletcher," who is mentioned as having the cup to by Train presented Colonel to the ago, with Wilks. first of the the The Fletcher tradition is that it had been more than two family "that as long as he preserved it but woe to him who broke follow by the Ballafletcher. ~M'/M~~ & given centuries

having Fletcher

to years it was

psace and it, as he would or

injunction would plenty surely

bs haunted

of It was kept in "peaceful spirit" a recess, whence it was never taken on Christmas except Easter and to Train's at or, according days, account, Christmas alone. we are told, it was "filled with Then, off at a breath wine, and quaffed by the head of the house 1 to the spirit for her protection." only, as a libation Here from St. a glimpse is no mention of the theft but of the OIave's of the sanctuary real character yet I of the cups unless goblet think we have to which the

were They probably old pagan of worship of which we find so many traces the house-spirits, among the These had Indo-European peoples. house-spirits their chief seat on the family and their hearth great of the New festival was that celebrated at the Year, in early and mediseval times was to baptize to Christian uses as many Train, vol. ii. p. 154. and see a note by Harrison to his edition of Th cup is stated by Harrison to have been, when Waldron, p. 106. he wrote, in the possession of Major Bacon, of Seafield House. Mrs. Russell, of Oxford, kindiy made inquiries for me in the Isle of Man as to its present whereabouts, and that of the cup of Kirk Malew, and inserted a query In F~ ZKw .<M;MMa~, th organ of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, but without eliciting any information. policy winter solstice. The of the Church

1 am discussing attaches. legend sacrificial vessels dedicated to the







<' of the New versary history

heathen Year of that the as drink were

beliefs thus birth the to

and of

ceremonies became Christ used, and


as possible. united with the and it is to so matter their after

The anniof conthat

Danes Odin

of solemnly Our pledging His Apostles and the Saints. Such of the old Lord, beliefs and as the Church could practices, however, neither with a sacred nor impress character, destroy, on. them were the superstitions of the lingered Among fairies and the household and there is nothing spirits in the supposition that special vessels were kept unlikely for the ceremonies in which these beings were propitiated. For this purpose a horn would serve as well as any goblet it were not actually as being if, indeed, preferred, older, and therefore more sacred in shape and material. As thse fell into or were gradually desuetude, it would be both natural put down by clerical influence, and in accordance with that the cups devoted to policy the supposed rites should bc transferred to the service of Church.' They old-fashioned, quaint, of foreign and unknown provenance. in the minds of the people with the would all be ceremonies

to version, event they

previously the Anses,

in the


the and,

would be ascribed to origin and gift or robbery would be the them theory of acquisition most in a certain adopted. readily Now, theory is indistinguishable from narrative. stage of culture In this chapter 1 have dealt entirely with stolen goods or given by services rendered are by no means unknown. recall are now extant. however, any of such gifts which It were much to be wished that all the drinking-vesselsbut, and as other we have articles seen lent in previous chapters, elves in of cups for exchange 1 cannot, tales

many of them, connected Already a supernatural spirit worid,

l It is not irrelevant to observe in this confection that several of the chalices in Sweden are said to have been presented to the churches by priests to whom a Berg-woman had offered drink in these very cups or bowls (Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 90, quoting AfzeHus).




which legends of and upon with of is which them In








supernatural described. their true regard

were origin belong actually figured Much would be thrown light thereby 1 will now history. only point out, Luck of Edenhall, and what and of the three of Arendal, we know of

to the


of Halsteengaard, Oldenburg, we have full descriptions, that all in confirmation of the

the names of the the ticular, with a Christmas, or Twelfth which is Night, festival, what the theory of the sacrificial nature of these exactly vessels would lead us to expect. If we turn from the actual beakers to the stories, how many it is surprising of these we find pointing to th same festival. The cup of South was won and lost on Christmas Kongerslev Eve. The horn and pipe of Liungby were stolen one of Christmas." It was at Christmas-time that the night Danish his supernatural boy acquired strength by giving back to the elf-maiden the horn he had taken from her. The horn and the beaker of Halsteengaard golden were both reft from the trolls on Christmas Aagerup and the horn of Wexi on Christmas Eve, morning. The of St. John's as the time night Day is mentioned when the horn now at Arendal was obtained. The saint here referred to is probably St. John the Evangelist, whose feast is on December the z~th. And in more than onc case the incident is connected with a marriage, which would the be an appropriate household spirit. occasion The for the propitiation of any the only instance presenting is that of the cup at Kirk Malew and there arises from the name of the saint to whom

theory suggested. Three connect Kings



the difficulty was dedicated. Nor is it lessened cup apparently by the number of saints th name of Lupus. The bearing on which these men are respectively days comholy memorated the calendar from January to range through and until we know which of them was intended October it is useless to attempt an explanation. The question,







in the face of the probability is of small account however, that remain. called forth by the coincidences 1 would call matter to which is one other There of the type discussed that while stories attention, namely, Celts and to both are common in the foregoing pages a Teutonic is stolen the exclusively Teutons, cup record of the no authentic More than that, possession. save in the homes of the relie itself is found preservation Is this to be race. and conquests of the Scandinavian for by the late date of Christianity, accounted and, thererites of heathen recent survival more among fore, the Teutonic, and especially Scandinavian, peoples ?


The story of Rhys and Llewelyn-Dancing for a twelvemonth-British of time among the Siberian TartarsGerman variants-Lapse and Slavonic stories-The penalty of curiosity and greed-A mother leaving her child in the mysterious caveLapp tale-The Herla-The Adalantado Ripvan WintdeEastern variantsKing of the Seven Cities-The Seven Sleepers-King Wenzel and the smith-Lost brides and bridegrooms-The Monk Felix-Visits to Paradise-A Japanese tale. IN previous sometimes are there we have seen that human chapters taken into Fairyland, and by fairies or shorter kept for a longer period, permitted cases in to return to earth at are beings that they or, it may all. We

which are led down for they are enabled temporary purposes and, if they are prudent, to return when those are accomplished. We purposes have noted other cases in which babes or grown women have been stolen and retained until their kindred have compelled chapter different restoration. from Giraldus kind. he There character, pleased. The ths story describes visit and the to cited a in the of was able of to last a a seduction

be, are never have noted

more voluntary to and fro as

Fairyland hero was

We have also met with in which the of food, or more of temptation usually has been held out to the wayfarer drink, and we have learned that the result of yielding would be to give himself into the fairies' hands. 1 propose wholly now to examine instances in which of one kind or temptation

go tales

i6~ other cast has over

TH been man person but also


Ot- fAb~ or in not

TALES. a spell has been

successful, or woman, from


bewitched society, impervious flight. These cornes, is very

regaining him, of time

the merely preventing his home and human while and under unconscious the spell, of its

rendering to the attacks are as I of

stories so far


and we may call it, from widely its best-known th "Rhys and Llewelyn example, type." A story obtained between sixty and seventy years ago in the Vale of Neath relates that Rhys and Llewelyn were fellow-servants to a farmer and they had been engaged one day in carrying lime for their master. As they were their mountain before them going home, driving ponies in the twilight, called to his companion Rhys suddenly to stop and listen to the music. It was a tune, he said, to which he had danced a hundred and he must times, So he told his companion to go and have a dance now. and he would him. soon overtake go on with the horses and began to remonstrate Llew elyn could hear nothing, but away Accordingly and supper made a prtest morning master suspicion sprang he and he called after him in vain. Rhys, went ate his home, put up the ponies, went to bed, thinking that had Rhys only for going still to the alehouse. Rhys, But he when told his sign of Search of

know, only known in Wales,

The first types. from Celtic sources.

type It

and no came, what had occurred. fell on Llewelyn and he was neighbourhood,

fruitless, proving his murdered having A imprisoned. in fairy matters, that been, proposed the to the narrator place "Hush of where the he cried AU foot your

fellow-servant farmer in the guessipg himself story, parted how and should with

accordingly skilled

have things might some others, including accompany Llewelyn On

Llewelyn, but could listened, was on the outward

Rhys. "I hear

coming to it, 1 hear sweet music, harps." hear But Llewelyn's nothing. edge of the fairy-ring. Put









narrator. The he said to the David," the latter one after did so, and so did each of the party, and saw and then heard the sound of many harps, other, numbers within a circle, about feet across, great twenty them of little people round and round. Among dancing foot on mine, was he he. him he and time Rhys, came whom by are Llewelyn and him, horses let not caught pulled ? where said him been as by the smock-frock, circle. him out of the are the horses Rhys dance, more got in than him ? cried urged which five away of the melanAt who



indeed Horses, to go home and averred the he It was had

Llewelyn. finish his engaged force they not after told came


sequel that had

only by main was that he could in and are was and the soon

took choly, Variants Pwllheli, went out of fairies to

passed to his bed, of this taie

dance found

be persuaded he became died.* all of over two

Wales. youths upon

Professor fetch

Rhys cattle

at dusk

the One was drawn into dancing. at the other was suspected of murdering him, until, a wizard's to the same he went again spot at suggestion, his friend th end of a year and a day. There he found to a mere and managed to get him out, reduced dancing, man question put by the rescued at Trefriw, was as to the cattle he was driving. Again, a young man a belief that when Professor found Rhys took him the fairy damsels away got into a fairy-ring but he could be got out unharmed' at the end of a year skeleton. The first and them he would be found with a day, when dancing was to touch in the same The mode of recovery ring. him out at once. him with a piece of iron and to drag shall consider iron. of a hereafter In year this the reason for touching the after was recovered, way who had and a day, a youth

a party and circle


with captive the expiration

This tale is given hy Sikes, p. 70, of Croker, vol. iii. p. ?!g. It is also found in Keightley, course wlthout any acknowtedgment. P. 4!5.






wandered into a fairy-ring. He had new shoes on t the time he was lost and he could not be made to understand that he had been there more than five minutes until he was asked to look at his new shoes, which were time in pieces. Near by that Professor Aberystwyth, was told of a servant-maid who was lost while Rhys for some calves. Her fellow-servant, looking a man, was taken into on a charge of murdering her. A custody wise man," found out that she was with the however, and directions the fairies servant-man was by his successful at the end of the of twelve usual period months and a day in drawing her out of the fairy-ring at the place where she was lost. As soon as she was released dressed and in the saw her same fellow-servant clothes as he (who had on On and master when thc was bit never was when the carefully she left home

she asked about th calves. him), she told her master, the servant-man, she would until her stay with them her with iron. One day, therefore, her master to harness a horse ing and she that in Anglesea, disappeared time forth. In instantly another and



that others, should strike was seen helpher, from touched


case, said to have happened a girl got into a fairy-circle while looking, with her father, for a lost cow. man's" By a "wise he rescued her by pulling advice, however, her out of the circle the very hour of the night of the anniversary of his loss. The first inquiry she then made was after the cow, for she had not the slightest recollection of the time she had spent with the fairies.' found in a type of frequently the later story occurs. In on, sometimes Carmarthenshire it is said that a farmer out one going nor were any tidings morning heard very early was lost of him for more than twelve months until afterwards, one day a man passing by a lonely spot saw him dancing, and spoke to him. This broke the spell and the farmer, "Y Cymmrodor," vol. vi. pp. 17~ t<)6, 187. sequel, considered A ghastly more












out of waking are my horscs

a ~dream, exclaimed ? out Stcpping

Oh of the


and mingled his dust with circle, he fell down In North Wales a story was generally current a couple of since of two men travelling who gnrations together were benighted in a wood. One of them but the slept, other fell into the hands of the fairies. With the help of a wizard's some of his relatives rescued him at advice, the end of a year. went to the place where his They companion with the unfortunate that were he was not had fairies missed and him, there him out was the found of the same him dragged dancing The ring. night asked some and if it

magical the earth.

man, with

it imagining his companion,

to go home. which he began to eat but he had than he mouldered A similar away. to a certain near Mathafarn yew-tree Llanwrin. One of two farm-servants spot, and found circle. On being feel hungry. here in my before 1 fell again,


immediately He was offered no in was tradition the


food, done so


a year after, dancing out he was asked if he did not dragged and if 1 did, have 1 not No," he replied, wallet the remains of my dinner that 1 had He did not know that a year had asleep ?

of parish lost at that in a fairy-

His look was like a skeleton and as soon as passed by. he had tasted food he too mouldered away.~ In Scotland the story is told without this terrible end. For who enter buy rest in Sutherlandshire example, had been with a friend his first child's birth in we to the the learn town that of a man Lairg and to

to session-books, the christening, sat down to a keg of whisky against at the foot of the hill of Durch, near a large hole

'HoweHs, pp. 141, i~s; SIkes, p. 73. 1 have not been able to trace Mr. Sikes' authority for the last story but his experience and skill in borrowing from other books are so much greater than in oral collection that it is probably from some literary source, though no doubt are his own. Th foundation, however, many of the embellishments appears to be tradition~







from dancing.


they Feeling His

soon curious, friend 'and

he~rd he was


of the of

entered accused

piping cavern, murder,

and and but

disappeared. allowed being

a day to vindicate hc himself, used to repair to the fatal spot and call and pray. One day before th term ran out, he sat, as usual, in the seemed his friend's what glo~ming by the cavern, when, shadow within it. It was his friend passed himself, tripping succeeded out. Sandy with the fairies. The accused merrily in catching him by the sleeve and pulling could not let me finish "Why you my asked the bswitched man. Bless me ? man him reel, re-

a year at dusk

"have joined Sandy, last twelvemonth ?

of reeling this you not had enough But the other would in not believe this lapse of time until he found his wife sitting by the door with a yearling child in her arms. In Kirkcudone about Hallowe'en two brightshire, night young from an errand, ploughmen, returning passed by an old ruined of until them mill and heard in and within music and went was nothing his companion dancing. seen of him Onc again same

a year after, when went to the in hand, Bible and delivered him from the evil place, he had fallen.I into whose beings power The does not always to be captive, however, require for he is sometimes released sought by his voluntarily captors. nockshire, sheep weeks, his wife wife weeks. hours told usually spot ? her near A man going on the mountain, after search had had him given him where weeks he. had with the Van at Ystradgynlais, who lived out one day to look after disappeared. been made In in vain in Breckand his cattle

about three for him and


Three said he took

His up for dead, he came home. he had been for the past three Is it three weeks you call three to he nute at the had been, he he a a (which

say where been on his playing him on the mountain) Pool, Campbell, when he was


Llorfa, surrounded at

vol. ii. pp. 63, 5$.










like men, who closed nearer and beings nearer until a very small became circle. they and so affected him that he quite sang and danced, They lost himself. offered him some small cakes to eat, They he partook of which so well in his life. woman with more the is said to have and Near he had never enjoyed himself is a place a where Bridgend lived who was absent ten years she With not believe she was not out of the house a woman's her proverbial husband's asand ensued

by little to him

fairies, and thought than ten minutes.

she would persistency, surances that it was ten the was disagreement so notorious that it serious

since years between

disappeared them which

A happier they lived. an adventure that foreboded much worse to a man at in Sutherlandshire. He was present at a funeral Dornoch, in the churchyard on New Year's Day, and was so piqued at not being invited, as all the others were, to some of the New Year's that in his vexation, to festivities, happening see a skull said myself. invited lying at his feet, he struck Thou seemest to be forsaken 1 have been bidden by it with and his staff and like uncared-for, neither 1 have as he and night a venerable his share of

where gave a name to the place is believed result to have attended

1 now invite thee any his wife were sitting down alone to supper, old man entered the room in silence and took the feast delicacies was

none That

stranger's for six nights. At last the priest's advice sought his unwelcome laying supper, would speech spend the guest. bannocks the

In those provided. days the New Year's and the up for eleven kept days together in the same absolute visit was repeated silence the as The in the last-baked alarmed host, to how he was reverend basket one. for father the uneasy, to get rid of bade him, in seventh day's and

he declared, This, induce the old man to speak. It did and the was an invitation-nay, rather a command-to the remainder of the festival with him in the The priest, again consulted, advised corn'









pliance found

and in the




illuminated, and piping few and to

churchyard where he enjoyed After master home,

trembling a great

to the house,

He tryst. brilliantly drinking, lapse of a him, be married to

hours, bade him

dancing. the grey hasten and remains the in

himself, eating, the what seemed of the house came would

or his wife

another; the respect speaking

he parting of the dead.

advised-him Scarcely

to always had he done

the the guests, grey old man himself, the man leaving vanished, house, and all that it contained, alone in the moonlight to crawl home as best he might a year For he had been absent after so long a debauch. his wife in a and when he got home he found and a day bride's party. dress, and the whole house gay with a bridai his wife swooned, broke His entrance in upon the mirth But scrambled and the new bridegroom up the chimney. when had and her husband fright, of his year-long the fatigue recovered dance, they 1 ever after. made it up, and lived happily elaborated has been A story of this type by a Welsh into a little romance, as writer who is known Glasynys a fairy the hero is a shepherd in which lad, and the heroine This home with him. he weds and brings maiden whom when she got from over her need Vale called not of detain Neath us but a more authentic may bc mentioned. Griffith, Bach, or Little story from the a boy It concerns a farmer's son, who was heard nothing his mother, when for him as dead, sce sitting on the


disappeared. but of him who opened

two whole years During one morning at length mourned and bitterly had long she should whom the door,

"F. L. Journal," vol. vi. p. 191. (This story was told to the present writer and Mr. G. L. Gomme hy Alderman Howel Walters, of Ystradhero well and gave gynlais, who had it from an old man who knew the Trans. Aberd. Eistedd." p. 227 imp!icit credit to the narrative.) F. L. Journal," vol. vi. p. 183. A similar tale is referred to in Jones' "Account of the Parish of Aberystruth," 1779, quoted in "Choice 57. ~ptes/'p.









threshold was this dressed had time for he

but not

Gitto and


a bundle Wherc

under she have

his arm. last saw



grown asked his

exactly a bit. mother.

as when

1 went away," he replied terday he showed her a dress the little had given him for dancing them, was of white paper without seam. she put it into the nre.' 1 am not but among sometimes themselves. aware the feast On

"Why, and opening

you it was only the as

him, been all yes-

chiidren," with them. With

bundle, he called dress caution



of many foreign of this type cxamples Tartars Siberian their heroes extravagant with overlong one occasion friends as mythical ss

They caroused, they feasted. That a month had flown They knew not That a year had gonc by They knew not. As a year went hy It seemed like a day As two years went by It seemed Uke two days As three years went by It seemed like three days." Again, passed here-he had believed he was it when rapidly. had lived-he much a hero lived had was

married day he



a month lived two had to learn

thought two days

very naturally he had lived he believed days how he he And long three months."

he had lived-he surprised

months lived three from

his bride

time seems to have was, though really always gone with him. For after he was born it is recorded wrong that in one day he became a year old, in two days two after which he years, and in seven days seven years old some heroic performed feats, ate fourteen sheep and three cows, slept for seven days and seven Cymru Fu," p. 177 (a translation is g:ven by Professor Rhys in vol. v. p. 8t) Y Cymmrodor/' Croker, vol. iii. p. 208, lying and then down







other nights-in In a Breton tale become

words, a girl

until who

he goes

was down



old. to she


to a fairy godmother that she has been away returns, the meantime her god-child has in fact ten years. In a Hessian is seven Turning especially motive, German is rather curiosity mysterious Eldena, in let and or years.' away from the pleasure us look Slavonic at this

child, but two grown legend

underground, when thinks,

in days, though she has been big the time of absence

and type, in which pleasure, of music and is the dancing, what seem to be some specially tale. under the has ruins In the latter it compulsion), mortal into the power. At

an act of' greed, regions Pomerania,

types of the service (sometimes which where are leads time the

so little

of the ago, and inquired head of the police after a hidden door which led under the ruins. He lent them his servant-boy, under who, their direction, and found the door. removed th rubbish It opened at the touch of the monks, and they entered with the servant. several rooms Passing through they reached one in which were and many persons sitting Here they were courteously writing. and after received a good deal of secret conference between the monks and were dismissed. When the servant hosts, they came back to the upper he had been absent air, he found three whole years. Blanik is the name of a mountain in beneath which are lofty halls whose walls are Bohemia, the holy with a hero, King Wenzel, sleeps chosen band of his knights, until some day the utmost need of his country shall summon him and them to her aid. A smith, who dwelt near the mountain, was once RadIoH, vol. i. p. 95, vol. iv. p. iog p. 8; Grimm, Tales," vol. i. p. 162. Sbillot, Contes," vc!. ii. entirely Bohemian fashioned of rock-crystal. In these halls the their

church, formerly very wealthy, be some remarkable chambers. came from Rome many years

of a monastery and under which are said to Two monks Capuchin









mowing follow where horse, guide

his meadow, when a stranger him. The led him stranger he beheld the sleeping knights, his then head bent down the upon tools that

came into each horse's

and the one


him his His

mountain, upon neck.

him he might shoe the brought but told him to beware in his work of knocking horses, The smith skilfully against any of the knights. performed his work, but as he was shoeing the last horse he accitouched the rider, who started out dentally up, crying Is it time ? Not yet," he who had brought replied the smith the latter to keep thither, motioning quiet. When the task was done, the smith received the old shoes On returning home he was astonished by way of reward. to find two mowers at work in his meadow, whereas he had had a whole and when he opened his away year the old horse-shoes were all of solid gold bag, behold On Easter Sunday, during mass, the grey horse belonging to another at the foot of the Blanik dispeasant living While in quest of him the owner found the appeared. mountain ar rived in the hall where open, and, entering, sat round a large table of stone and knights slept. Each of them wore black save their armour, chief, who shone in gold and bore three herons' feathers in his helm. Ever and anon one or other of the knights would look up and ask Is it time ? But on their chief his shaking head he would sink again to rest. While the peasant was in the midst of his astonishment he heard a neighing behind and turning round he left the cavern. him His horse every at the shrieked year ? hour. heard It was was quietly one shrank table and He in asked grazing outside in fright away deep but from On you been horses when him. he got home His wife sat the only been left one there. From them he learned that he

thought A servant-man the the trampling knights

mourning. Where have he had only two and

him she seeing been for a whole absent over a single the Blanik played. combat

driving of steeds returning

a battle-march from their mimic










he was

to follow compelled then closed them. upon ten years had passed away, been as many days.' We shall have occasion

were so excited that driving with them into the mountain, Nor though to did he reach home he thought to as

he was which until only its

it had and



Parallel traditions knights. the Kyffhuser, a mountain Barbarossa at sleeps. Nordhausen, met by a little and going, him instead. drove by


is well

in Thuringia, where A peasant with corn going the KyfFhuser, him asked man till the led they whither him

to known, Frederick to market he was he was a to and and At time led he him again, there, for he him


grey man, who offered to reward him The little grey mountain from a hall he told

if he would


into the great gateway a castle. There he took horses, and filled with last went forth. and the led him into

through came at last


people, little grey and

where man

gorgeously was well him it

his waggon illuminated entertained. was now he Arrived

home, His

him rewarding bountifully and horses were given waggon well her pleased. eyes wide

to him

he trudged homeward his wife opened however, had dead. been It absent fared

a year, and she had not so well with quite

to see him, long accounted

Nordhausen, Thiele, by name joiner from mountain open, as it is every seven years, he saw the Marquis There John (whoever been), nails with grown his beard through whose hoops had formed John. fell remained

a journeyman who found the and he went in. may have and his table

over the spreading Around the walls it. and in wood the The had shell its own

wine-vats, but the wine A little the before

lay great alike rolled away and was blood-red. which bold awoke stood to drain again



wine-glass joiner made

it off, and thereupon he had slept for seven

When he asleep. years in the mountain.2

Jahn, p. 199; Grohmann, pp. 19, 20, t8., Kuhn und Schwartz, pp. 320, 222.







and greed caused man this to lose seven Curiosity of his life. This is a motive years often met with in these stories. A young the rest girl during midday left a hayfield in the Lavanttha!, to climb the Carinthia, whence there is a fine view over the valley. Schnofen, As she reached the top she became aware of an open door in th rock. She entered, and found herself in a cellarlike room. Two fine the on the black finest into chest stceds oats. a second handfuls stood at the fodderand fed off trough she put got there, and passed pocket, stood there, and on was a loaf of bread, how they Marvelling of the oats into her chamber. A chest

a few

Near him lay a black dog. in which a knife was stuck. With or recollected, the purpose ready wit she divined, of the and cutting a good slice she threw bread it to the dog. While he was busy devouring it she filled her apron from the treasure contained in the chest. But meantime the door closed, and there was nothing for it but to lie down and sleep. once made little whole She the awoke best to to find way that the she door had wide But of her learn home. open, and at she was not a gone for a

astounded year.I tale


A Lapp the sequel

this mysterious as presents lapse of time of an adventure similar to that of Ulysses with An old Lapp, lost his way while Polyphemus. having came to a cottage. The door was open hunting, and he entered to remain there the night, and began to cook in a pot he carried with him the game he had caught that a witch entered, and asked him day. What Suddenly is your name ? answered the Lapp and Myself," a spoonful of the boiling he flung taking it in her liquid face. She cried out me has Myself has burnt Myself burnt me "If you have burnt to yourself you ought answered her companion from the neighbouring suSer," mountain. The hunter was thus delivered for the moment from the witch, as she went however, exwho, away, Rappold, p. 3~.







claimed new lay year down

Self to


burnt the




provision-sack Nor could

and putrid. mouldy he got he understand this before home and l for six months. learned that he had been missing as it This story is unlike the previous ones, inasmuch as in no way the six months' disappearance represents or of supernatural due to any enticements, either beings nor dancing, Neither of the hero's own passions. music, aboriThe led him astray. neither nor curiosity, greed tell of a certain in like manner of Japan ginal inhabitants off man who went out in his boat to fish and was carried its contents land. The chief, an old man to an unknown by a storm for the night, him to stay there of divine aspect, begged on the to send him home to his own country promising sent The was fulfilled morrow. by his being promise who were some of the old chief's with going subjets in the to lie down was enjoined but the man thither his native he reached When boat and cover up his head. and re he him into the water threw place the sailors He and boat had disappeared. sailors came to himself and the chief appeared had been away for a whole year himself in a dream, afterwards to him shortly revealing the of the salmon, but the chief as no human being, to man thenceforth the and he required divine fish tale is to the Japanese similar him. Curiously worship Cast in of Saint to M. Sbillot a tale told by a cabin-boy the day the king of of a small fish, but was pergilded fishes, in the shape to send (such is the to let him go under suaded promise at all times of kings) in the unselfishness belief popular into his wanted as the fisherman as many of his subjects More than this, fulfilled. was royally The promise nets. boat was once capsized the fisherman's when by a storm Brittany. A fisherman caught one the king of the fishes gave its drowning appeared, "Archivio," vol. vi. p. 398. owner

repose. he found

had Lapp On awaking

sleep till the he his repast finished in his he rummaged shall








to drink and


a bottle



the to his capital,-a him under conveyed those of London beautiful streets, surpassing city whose in the traditions were paved of English children, peasant not only with gold but with diamonds and other gems. The filled his pockets fisherman with these pavingpromptly stones and then the you are tired of being us, you have only to say so." took the There is a limit to hospitality so the fisherman he should be to how delighted hint, and told the king remain there but that he had a wife and children always, at home called who would think he was him on see and drowned. to take a rock rescue the near him. purse, The the a tunny and commanded on his back and deposit him where with missed his six the the other fishers could king fisherman shore, Then, he disking with politely told him When

brought water

for the

parting gift of an inexhaustible his guest. When the fisherman he refer at found In the to be he had been away on chapter some instances time added in their here.

village months. to off instance

back to got more than 1 had

occasion carried such mians

Changelings of women lives. One

a critical may

being more

a mythical female called be dangerous to women who have population within keep and such women doors,

the BoheAmong is believed Polednice to recently added to ths to warned

after the especially On one occasion a woman, who in the evening. angelus was carried oit by scorned she had received, the warnings in the form of a whirlwind, as she sat in the Polednice to whom she had with the reapers, harvest-field chatting their brought she permitted In incident Bohemia, some occurs. dinner. to return.' German Beneath and the Bohemian Rollberg, the door tales near a curious in Niemes, of which stands vol. ix. p. 233 Only after a year and a day was

are accordingly and at noon

of the

is a treasure-vault,

F. L. Journal,"
Gohmaun, p.

vol. vi. p. 33;


open once There round she for found she






a short it


open saw a number

Palm every Sunday. thus and entered with Knights did They of Templars not notice

A her

woman child. sitting her them, so

a table, gambling. herself from helped

first set down having black dog, which barked knew that the third time wherefore self of the her she found red she child hastened it was

a pile of gold lying her child. Beside the from out. too late time When she to time. the door she had The door in tales a it barked


gold lay a The woman would close herin

bethought left it behind

and the vault was closed. haste, returned at the hour when the the little one safe and in to the sound, these child

following year was open, and hand beautiful a fair lady mother's


apple. comes and absence Darius at

Frequently ministers other

is believed

a man. times, to be buried beneath once found

its during The treasure the with

of King in Sattelburg her

Transylvania. babe in her There chests might answered child

A Wallachian arms,

woman, the door

sat an old, long-bearded man, full Qf silver and She asked gold. for herself. take some of this treasure as much as you he, filled her skirts with like." She

yearling in. open and went him stood and about him if she


Oh, yes," down th

gold, put the gold outside and re-entered. obtained she filled Having permission, and emptied her skirts a second when she time. But turned to enter a third time the door banged-to, and she was -in her whole left vain. case outside. Then before She him. cried He out her for her child, and she made way to the priest her to pray daily advised then get her child again. wept and laid for a


She year, and she would carried out his injunction and the following year she went again to the Sattelburg. The door was open, and she found the babe still seated in the chest where she had It was playing put it down. it held up to her, crying mother was to astonished with a golden apple, look and which The asked

Look, mother, hear it speak,








Whence old man,

hast who

thou has



The man me to eat was, given took and as the mother no longer to be seen however, her. l behind her child and left the place, the door closed the most weird and assuredly But the most numerous, we to a type which stories belong of these and interesting, of Diedrich Posthumous Writing may call, after the famous Here the the type." Knickerbocker, Rip van Winkle he until the spell of the supernatural hero remains under back to and he comes term of life the ordinary passes a dim but dead and himself find all his friends nothing memory. tale of It Rip will van be Winkle needless himself. here recapitulate Whether any to the such

apple too."



1 do mountains the Kaatskill about lingers legend really Washthat but 1 have a vehement not know suspicion Tradidons to Otmar's rather was indebted Irving ington in the year at Bremen of the Harz," a book published on the of the tale is laid In this book the scene 18oo. of such the exception and with Kyfhuser, of Dame van Winkle ments as the keen tongue of Peter in the adventures the incidents others, Goatherd Winkie." Of all the find the one Chih, Wang one of the holy men of the Taoists, wandering of K Chow to gather the mountains firewood, some in which grotto aged men were playing He size laid and down of which his one axe of and them watched handed their him course of this variants most resembling type it. it is in China one that afterwards day entered at in a we are absolutely the same as those of embellishand Claus Rip a few the van

chess. in the


him telling shape like a date-stone, and had he done so than hunger his mouth. No sooner one of some time had elapsed thirst After passed away. the players should go said home Il It is long since you Chih now." Wang came here you prop. 475. accordingly

in something to put it into

Grohmann, pp. 29, 289, 296, 298 Multer, p., 83. Yule Tide Stories," See Thorpe's translation ofthe story, 13







to pick up his axe, but found that had its handle mouldered into dust and on reaching he became home aware that not hours, nor days, but centuries had passed since he left it, and that no remained. vestige of his kinsfolk Another tells of a horseman legend over the who, riding old men hills, sees several with rushes. playing a game He ties his horse to a tree while he looks on at them. In a few minutes, as it seems to him, he turns to dpart but his horse is a skeleton, and of the saddle and already bridie rotten He seeks his home pieces only are left. but that too is gone and he lies down and dies brokenhearted. A similar of a man who story is told in Japan goes into the mountains to eut wood, and watches two ladies playing at chess while seven generations mysterious of mortal men pass away. Both these omit the legends food which supernatural seems to support life, not only in the case of Wang but also in that of Peter Chih, Claus. In another Chinese tale two friends, wandering ih the T'ien-t'ai are entertained mountains, by two beautiful on a kind girls, who feed them of haschisch, a and when they drug made from hemp return they find that they have passed seven generations of ordinary men in th3 society of these ladies. Another Taoist devotee was admitted for a while into th next where he worid, was fed on cakes, and, as if he were a he received dyspeptic, much comfort from all his having digestive organs removed. After awhile he was sent back to this world, to find himself much than his youngest younger grandson.' an unconscionable Fairyland occupy length of time. Walter in the latter half of the Map, writing twelfth relates a legend century, a mythical concerning British who was on terms of king, Herla, with friendship the king of the The latter to him one pigmies. appeared on a goat, a man such as Pan day riding have been might described to be, with a very large a iiery face, and head, Dennys, p. 98 Giles, vol. ii. pp. 89 note, 85 Brauns, p. 366. Feasts in

TM SufERNATURL a long red beard.




fawn-skin adorned his spotted but the lower of his body was exposed breast, and part and his legs degenerated into shaggy, feet. This goat's little fellow declared queer himself near akin to very foretold that the king of the Franks Herla, was about to send ambassadors his daughter as wife to the offering and invited himself to the wedding. king of the Entons, He a pact between that proposed when he had them, attended Herla's Herla should the wedding, following attend his. year at Herla's the Accordingly wedding pigmy king appears and numbers servants, he sends to bid Herla Penetrating into emerge innumerable whose a the with a vast train gifts. wedding. he and sun the or of courtiers The next and year of precious to his own cavern, not of and reach

mountain light,

Herla goes. his followers


with splendour Map compares of the palace of the sun. and Having given so charming, doubtless so accurate, a portrait of the pigmy king, it is a ecclesiastic has forgotten to inform pity the courtier-like us what his bride was like. He leaves us to guess that her attractions must have corresponded with those of her us simply that when the wedding stately lord, telling was Herla over, and the gifts which had been brought prehe obtained leave to depart, and set out for home, sented, he too, with which laden, are enumerated gifts, among horses, dogs, hawks, outfit for hunting himself cavern and or other requisites of the a handsome fowling. Indeed, them as far as the they had bridegroom darkness of the

but of moon, pigmies' dwellings, Ovid's description

to pass and at parting he added to his presentations that of a bloodhound, so small as to be carried, to alight forbidding any of the train until the hound should his beareT. anywhere leap from When Herla found himself once more within his own realm he met with an old shepherd, and inquired for of his queen The tidings looked by name. at shepherd him astonished, his speech for he scarcely understanding

accompanied which through





was told were

a Saxon, whereas Herla the king, had he heard

of a queen was said to Herla, a dwarf, and never ever, dred was

Nor, as he it unless a queen, of such whose the former husband, Britons, rock with at yonder have disappeared howto have been seen again. That, was a Briton.

two hunthan long ago, for it was now more out and the had been driven years since the Britons The had taken of the land. Saxons king was possession been for he deemed he had only away three stupefied, Some of his and could his seat. keep days, hardly followers, of the king's prohibition, forgetful pigmy without for the dog to lead the way, and alighted waiting Herla and those who into dust. were at once crumbled were wiser took warning by the fate of their companions. and that One still wandering story declared they were the beheld that had often asserted they many persons But Map conits mad, its endless host upon journey. cludes King that th last the Henry by many Welshmen shire.' Cases month thought fairy Two a in have which of was in the year appeared it was seen when Seeohd's coronation, to plunge into th Wye in Herefordtime it endures for a whole This twelve-

dancing been already length some have

a moderate but ball celebrated old hill

mentioned. of time for been

a ball, known to last

be might even for a longer. by a into the v


venerable little music

man, near

of Strathspey were inveigled to have known who ought better, Inverness, where they lasted supplied in fact

for a which assembly but a few hours. hundred to them it seemed years, though and on a Sunday into daylight again They emerged and of affairs, the real state had learned when they which at the miracle astonishment recovered from their in them, had been wrought they went, as was meet, to of to the ringing sat listening for awhile church. They the to read th clergyman but when the bells began Dist. i. c. 11. But see below, p. 234. Map, for a brilliant









gospel, dust. well

at This




he form

uttered of th





is a favourite but,

as Scotland versions are, they Often with the a sleep. Another Winkle.

pathetic no variations of importance.~ present is rounded festive visit to Fairyland stranger's of Rip van We have seen this in the instance legend has been form put into literary from a Portuguese time

in Wales as legend and beautiful as the various

this by Washington Irving, of a noble who It relates the adventures source. youth in which some of the former set out to find an island at the had taken inhabitants of the Peninsula refuge time ants seven king Cities. of the Moorish conquest, still The island dwelt. and cities of Portugal He the adventurer and was where believed was their to descendcontain by the Seven as

Adalantado, came to himself bound

or Adalantado, reached the isiand, was feasted, and then again he been was

appointed of the governor, and fell on was


When he asleep. a homewardboard

from a picked up senseless reached but no one knew Lisbon, drifting mansion was occupied him. by others He none of his name had dwelt in it for many a year. hurried to his betrothed, not, as he only to ning himself, at her feet, but at the feet of her great-grandthought, the supernatural of In cases like this daughter. lapse vessel, having He wreck. His ancestral time may enchanted According be conceived as taking rather than sleep, to a Coptic Christian the during place the festivities. during the romance, Abimelek,

the profavourite of King Zedekiah, preserved youthful and life when he was thrown into prison, phet Jeremiah's him charge of afterwards his master to give persuaded him to release him from the the prophet, and to permit him that he In reward, Jeremiah dungeon. proniised should experience never the see the destruction captivity, 123 of Babylonish Jerusalem, and yet that nor he

Croker, vol. iii. p. 17; Howells, p. iv. p. 196, vo!. v. pp. 108, 113.









The sun should tako c~rc of him, the nourish the earth on which atmosphere he slept him should him and he should give taste of joy for repose, until he should see Jerusalem seventy years in its again as before. glory, flourishing out one Accordingly, going the royal day, as his custom to gather was, into garden and figs, God caused him to rest and fall asleep grapes beneath the shadow of a rock. There he lay peacefully while the city was besieged slumbering by Nebuchadand th horrors of its capture nezzar, and the during whole of the seventy sad years that followed. When he it was to meet the prophet awoke, Jeremiah returning from the captivity, and he entered the restored city with him in triumph. But the seventy to him years had seemed but a few hours nor had he known of what anything while he slumbered. Mohammed in the Koran passed a story He is represented when Jerusalem) God revive this die for a hundred mentions to Ezra. referred by the commentators as passing by a village (said to mean it was desolate, and saying How will after its death ? And God made him




Then He raised him and asked years. How long hast thou tarried ? Said the man I have tarried a day, or some part of a day." But God said a hundred Look Nay, thou hast tarried at thy years. food and drink, and look at thine they are not spoiled for we will make thee a sign to men. ass And look at them and then bones, how we scatter clothe them with flesh." And when it was made manifest to him, he I know that God is mighty said over all." 1 Mohammed unconscious that this is to all probablywas intents and purposes the same story as that of the Seven to which he refers in the chapter on the Cave. 'Sleepers, Some of the phrases he uses are, indeed, identical. As Wolfert's Roost, and other Sketches," by Washington Irving (London, vol. ii. p. ifi; !8~5) p. 223; Amiineau, Koran, c. 2 Sacred Books of the Hast," (" vol. vi. Ma.snavi i ~.t) p. Ma'navi," p. 2~. the









told, this legend of Ephesu.3 usually speaks of seven youths who had fled from the of the heathen persecutions and taken in a cave, wherc emperor Decius, refuge they for upwards of three hundred In Mohammed's slept years. it should be noted, the number of the time, however, was undetermined were credited with a sleepers they dog who slept notion of the with time them, like Ezra's ass and Mohammed's they slept was only one hundred years. One of the wild tribes on the northern frontier of is said to tell the following Afghanistan story concerning a cavern in the Hirak known as the cave of the Valley, Seven A king bearing the suspicious name of Sleeper s. deceived Dakianus, by the devil, set himself up as a god. Six of his servants, reason to think that however, having his daim was unfounded, fled from him and fell in with a who agreed to throw in his lot with theirs and shepherd, to guide them to a cavern where all hide. they might The followed his master but the six dog on his being driven back lest he should their whereabouts. The shepherd that he betray begged as he had been his faithful commight go with them, for years but in vain. So he struck the dog panion with his stick, breaking one of his legs. The dog still and the shepherd the blow, breaking followed repeated a second that the dog continued leg. to crawl Finding after them the men were struck notwithstanding this, with pity and took it in turns to carry the poor animal. Arrived at the cave, they all lay down and slept for three hundred and nine years. the genuineness of the Assuming which rests on no very good tradition, perhaps authority, its form is obviously due to Mohammedan influence. But the belief in this miraculous is traceable sleep beyond shepherd's insisted fugitives Christian of classical of our and Mohammedan legends into in the of the the first Paganism antiquity.. era, alludes who, in that writing Pliny, to a story told when state a boy, fell for fifty-seven century Cretan poet in a cave, and asleep On waking j years.

Epimenides, continued

184 he was greatly of everything slept for a few Welsh and






as him, and though hours Scottish tales, fall into

surprised around

at the

in the appearance change he thought he had only he dust, did not, as in the still old age came he had passed in

upon him in as many days as the years slumber.~ Nor is it only in dancing, or sleeping that the feasting, time passes with folk. A shepherd quickly supernatural at the foot of the Blanik, one of his flock, who missed followed it into a cavern, whence he could not return because dwarf King awoke, inquired received the came Wenzel and mountain and closed into with stay led him

him with a crash. A upon a large hall. There he saw his and would knights. clean the be too The armour. king One

sleeping bade him


day from to go, and a bag which he was told permission contained his reward. Wlien he reached the light of day, he opened the bag and found it filled with oats. In the all was changed, for he had been a hundred village years in the and nobody mountain, in getting a lodging, and on knew him. He succeeded his bag, lo again opening all the grains of oats had turned to gold pieces and thalers, so that he was able to buy a fine house, and speedily man in the place. became the richest This was a pleafate than that of the Tirolese santer who followed peasant his herd a stone, where under they had all disappeared. He presently came, and, gardener. began went that to be came into inviting He readily a lovely and there a lady garden him to eat, him as oHered to take assented but after some weeks he

the~~iticism how he knew


which carping the night-he

leave of his mistress, homesick, and, taking On he was home. there astounded arriving he knew no one, and no one knew him, save an old

Koran, c. 8 (" Sacred Books of the East," vol. ix. p. i~) Indian N. and Q." vol. iv. p. 8, quoting the Pli Mall Gazette (The story of the Seven Sleepers is atso localized at N'gaous in Ageria Certeux et Carnoy, vol. i. p. 63.) ri!ny, "Nat. Hist." 1. vli. c. 33.









came to him and said Wherc crone, who at length have been for you for two you been ? 1 have looking hundred Thus she took him by the hand years." saying, and he fell dead for the crone who had sought him so long was Death.' Save in the legends child treasure, women numerous come Danish in the we mountain have that tell from encountered of a mother her her leaving to gather of [

eagerness but few instances

being beguiled. as those where nor need we be

are, They the sterner detained

not so indeed, sex is thus over-

dancing and thoughtlessly elves drew wine. a The one home. were also as is usual near, She But noise

A by most of them. runs that a bride, during the tradition, however, and festivities of her wedding-day, left the room walked towards The on red a mound hillock pillars offered over was her she where the making merry. on such occasions, one drank, When alas and of the and the standing, and as she a to cup of in join hastened

company then suffered dance was



knew her exclaimed tion, an old woman at my grandfather's disappeared hundred At these ago?" years fell down expired. current story is widely maiden who bore an goodness and roses the garden was on about the and

was changed. house, farm, everything mirth of the wedding was No stilled. but at length, on hearing her lamentaWas words it you, the then, wedding, bride aged a more pathetic, Rhine. A for Shc and piety was fond of who a brother's

A prettier, if not on the banks of the excellent to be character married.

she stepped into morning to gather There she met bunch. a man whom she did not know. He admired two lovely she had, but said he had many finer blossoms which in his garden would she not go with him ? I cannot," wedding a small she "It said is not 1 must go to the church it the stranger. The far," urged 1 Grohmann, p. 16 Schneller, p. 21~. is high time." maiden allowed








to be persuaded beautifui flowers-finer a wonderful she she stand knew hastened mounted what not were rose

and she

the man had never


her beautiful, seen-and gave her Then When undershe

of which she was very proud. be too late. back, lest she should not the steps of the house she could happened playing within. there to her. people Children



she did not whom were And one ran away from recognize every in an antiquated to see a strange woman her, frightened She had stand there wedding-dress bitterly weeping. into the but just left her bridegroom to go for a moment and in so short a time and bridegroom garden, guests her bridegroom, and lud all vanished. She asked after knew him. At nobody folk around her. A man and knew nothing They took hundred had at her last said all and to the she of her told he had story the bought He her to the house, or her


parents. h~s church-books almost two

down, years

parish priest. there he found a certain

reached that recorded bride on the


father's house. from her disappeared of life, she lingered thus with two centuries on a few lonely and then sank into the grave years, and the good, simple that the strange whisper villagers who thus was no other than the Lord Jesus, gardener from a union for His humble child an escape provided woe. th source of bitterest which would have been wedding-day Burdened After this it is almost an anti-climax to refer to a Scottish away. a tall to the to him. be a bridegroom was similarly tzle in which spirited As he was leaving the church after the ceremony, him to come round dark man met him and asked b~ck When of the church, for he wanted man out. asked He a small to he complied, th to stand there should dark until burn speak him to

good-humouredly less than two The candie complied. took, as he thought, rushed off to overtake and he then minutes to burn his friends. On his way he saw a man cutting turf,

cnough hcld in his hand


good he of candie









and passed.


if it were The man



the he that

any wedding a long time. th other, a man to 1 went. The him

that replied had passed party was Oh, there and 1 am ths

wedding did not way

party know or

had that for


a marriage of

him go with 1 am now running

bridegroom. to the back to

said to-day," 1 was asked by the church, and the

turf-cutter, what date answer date

that feeling he supposed was he had in fact

party." this could not be, asked that The brideday was. two hundred short of years in those two thought, to that turf, a disappear-


groom's th real

two centuries passed minutes which the bit of candie took, as he burn. I remember," said he who eut the used to tell something of such my grandfather ance of a bridegroom, as a fact which well 1 then, a story which his

told grandfather him hc was when happened young." am the the "Ah, bridegroom," sighed unfortunate man, and fell away as he stood, until nothing remained but a small heap of earth. r loves the story of the Monk Every reader of Longfellow so exquisitely told in The Golden Its Felix, Legend." immediate the tradition in habitation source 1 do not know one, of and but has it is certain that a local is a genuine obtained

relates many parts Europe. Southey it as attached to the convent of San Salvador Spanish de Villar, where th tomb of the Abbot to whom the adventure was shown. And he is very severe happened on the dishonest and the monks lucre who, for the honour of their convent in its of gain, palmed this lay (for such it was) upon their as a true origin neighbours In Wales, the ruined at Clynnoglegend." monastery on the coast of Carnarvonshire, founded Fawr, by St. the uncle of the more famous St. Winifred, has Beuno, vol. i. p.257(f/: Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 138; Birlingcr, "Volkst." Bartsch, vol. i. p. 326, where there is no wedding, and curiosity is the lady's motive for venturing into the fairy cavern) Celtic Mag." Oct. t887, p. 566. 1








by a Welsh antiquary the same in memory whereof event, near is said to be called Clynnog Grove of Heaven. At Pantshonshenkin,






a woodland

Llwyn-y-Nef, in Carmarthen-

patch the

a youth went out early one summer's shire, morning and was lost. An old woman, Catti Madlen, prophesied of him that he was in the fairies' and would not power be released until the last sap of a certain tree sycamore had had dried been up. When that time came he returned. He all the while to the singing of a bird, listening and supposed a few minutes had elapsed, only though had in fact gone over his head. In the seventy years of Branwen, of Llyr, and his Mabinogi daughter Pryderi while the head of Bran the Blessed, companions, bearing to bury it in the White in London, Mount were entertained seven at Harlech, and listening to years feasting the of the three birds of Rhiannon-a singing mythical in whom Professor can hardly be wrong figure in Rhys In Germany and the Netherseeing an old Celtic goddess. lands the story is widely At the abbey of Amigspread. who was abbot towards the close of the hem, Fulgentius, eleventh received the announcement one day century, that a stranger monk had knocked at the and gate claimed to be one of the brethren of that cloister. His was that he had that with story sung matins morning the rest of the brotherhood and when came to they the verse of the Psalm where it is said "A 9oth thousand in Thy are but as yesterday," he years sight had fallen into and continued deep mditation, sitting in the choir when the others had departed, and that a little bird had then appeared to him and sung so sweetly that he had followed it into the forest, after a whence, short stay, so changed his about supposed had been he that had now he hardly abbot and the to be still dead for returned, knew it. name but found the abbey On questioning him of the whom he king found The that same both tale

reigning, Fulgentius three hundred years.








is told

of other


of the that hc a student concerning in on the fifteenth after was to preach Sunday Trinity as the Church of the St. John's now known Church, and on the he walked Franciscans, Saturday previous

Transylvania school at Kronstadt



is told

on the had it.

he catch

Kapellenberg learned it he It led him

to saw on and

rehearse a beautiful on into


sermon. and

Aftcr tried to


a cavern, where he a dwarf, who showed the astonished and curious met stored student all the wealth of gold and jewels up in the vaults of the mountain. When he escaped again air the upper and unknown room was trees faces and greeted the houses him were altered at the his school a different elapsed for the reit

to the other own rector since next

ruled he had day. on

changed-taken and in short forth

gone The old

by another a hundred had years his sermon to study bound He took in

of the student's the having quitted entry and of the caused school and not returned, difficulty at St. John's where he was to have Church, thereby the following the entry was preached day. By the time and the mystery it was noon. The student found solved, his hundred-years' and he sat was hungry with fast down But than he with had his the no he whole others sooner frame became His ere to said at he to at tasted an the common the old first a man his Watts, table spoonful change. in the had last. time Some commemorate to dine. of soup From a last to stage hurry pretty a

posed contained

the an

record-book, rector's shelves.

pigskin, it down

underwent scarce A. have

ruddy youth of decrepitude. him

comrades breathed Alaric

upon a bed attributed verses, similar who one incident, were nuns


after evening vespers. in a trance in the north were found tower. On declared aroused had been admitted they they Paradise, whither they would return before

to two sisters happened Minister. They disappeared After some months they being into








They called

died the




night Shrine meditations

and still


beautiful to

monument the truth of

witnesses we

any may pass without to a type of the story that long interval perhaps appears at its best in M. Luzel's collection of distinctively charming Christian of Lower traditions In this type we Bnttany. are given the adventures of a youth to who undertakes carry a letter to -M)/M~M~ le Dieu in Paradise. he is guided by out the road and which mountain an arid he will before meadow of a hermit, Proceeding by the directions a bail to the hermit's who points brother, describes the various difficulties through have to pass. he climbs the Accordingly him filled and with the path fat cattle, lean and an avenue then leads kine. him over across a lush and next sickly

theirstory.* From monastic

only by he enters damsels

they becomes

clad richly the traveller tempt and

where, are feasting

Having under the and

tenanted pasture left this behind trees, youths and

steep, and stones. Here he meets a rolling fire, but firm in the middle of the path, the fire passes standing over his head. has it gone harmlessly Hardly by, howroar behind ever, when he hears a terrible him, as though the sea in all its fury were at his heels ready to engulf him. subsides. him filled he but with faints He

narrow and nettles

and making merry then to join them. The path and encumbered with brambles

refuses to look back and the noise resolutely A thick of thorns closes the way before hedge he pushes through it, only to fall ~ito a ditch nettles and brambles on the other side, where with loss of blood. When he recovers and out of the ditch, he reaches a place filled with


"Y vol. in. and tt, Southey, "Doctor," p. 574; Brython," p. Cymru Fu, p. 183; Howells, p. 127; "Y Llyvyr Coch," p. 40 vol. iii. p. (Lady Charlotte Guest's translation, p. 381) Thorpe, 297, quoting Wolf; MuUer, p. 50 (cf. Jahn, p. 96). The reader will not fail to remark the record-book bound in pigskin as a resemblance in detail to Longfellow's version. Thorpe altudes in a note to a German poem by Wegener, which 1 have not seen. Nicholson, p. 58.









the the


river beautiful melody and there he sits upon a stone and bathes his cruelly land torn feet. No wonder he falls asleep and dreams that he in Paradise. he finds his strength Awaking, and his wounds healed. Before him is Mount restored, the Saviour still upon the cross, and the blood Calvary, from His body. A crowd of little children yet running
is alr eady

perfume of birds.

of flowers, A clear


butterflies, waters this





to climb




top they roll down again continually recommence the toil. They crowd and beseech him to take them with one three, with them again climbs and with on each shoulder get and one he cannot again. to the

ere they reach the to the foot, only to him the traveller, and he takes but back


himself at the ease, cross to pray and he sees before him a rising, to be Paradise itself. St. Peter, the palace that proves celestial receives his letter and carries it to its porter, destination. While the youth St. Peter's waits, he finds on the table and amuses himself them spectacles by trying on. to things they reveal takes off him back, and he hastily the glasses, to be scolded. St. Peter, fearing however, tells him "Fear You have nothing, my child. already been looking through my glasses for five hundred years But I have on my nose only just put them Yes, returned the door-keeper, it is five hundred my child," and I see you find the time short." After this it years, is a trifle that he spends another hundred years looking at the seat reserved for himself in Paradise and thinks them a moment. The Eternal Father's to only reply the letter is handed to him and since his master and the have both been king who sent him on the errand long dead and in Paradise on lower seats than that (though which he is to occupy), he is bidden to take the reply to his parish prices. The priest will in return hand him a and marvellous Many but the porter cornes are the

Leaving and throws On weep.

top, them therefore

by the hand for he is hurled

he behind, foot of the






hundred when enter see.

and to the poor, which he is to give crowns, he will die nd the last penny has been distributed to the seat he has been allowed to obtain Paradise, hermits As he makes his way back, one of the to and the he beheld sights I his outward he conquered during journey. of this traditional the allegories stop to unveil to from which is known Brittany Progress, him the various from Iceland of the time sun to In to Sicily. Other Breton of which In one tales the the a similar in all journey, is an incident. inquire another who her, turns

explains difficulties shall not

Pilgrim's Transylvania,

exist, describing miraculous lapse youth is sent to when morning to a mysterious Her her brother husband

it rises.

why it is red in the a maiden is married out to be Death.

stranger, goes to visit on his daily

sees a number parable.' A story two friends his another's kept came the

to accompany and is allowed he in the course of which flight, a of remarkable each one of them sights, at near New Brandenburg, Glienke, made mutual to attend promises One before but man had was married, the latter's into and turn want, his to and of one friend marry under

is told who weddings.

word the married


a crime for of need had committed robbery, pressure afterwards his friend which he had been hanged. Shortly was about to be married and his way a few days before, led him the in the transaction of his business, past As he drew ncar the body still swung. where gallows he murmured At me a Paternoster for the dead and cannot man, and said 1 enjoyed wedding your myself to corne to mine, and now you you promised A corne

vol. i. pp. 225, 216, 247, 249 Luzel, Lgendes Chrt." and vol. i. pp. 14, 40; cf. Pitre, vol. vi. p. i Contes," Gonzenbach, vol. ii. p. 171, in neither of which the lapse of time is an Dr. Pitr says that the tale has no analogues (~m'M/~) incident. outside Sicily by which 1 understand him to mean that it has not been hitherto found in any other Italian-speaking land.









voice corne."

from To

the the the

gallows wedding

distinctly replied feast accordingly

Yes, I will the dead man

with came, between the silence, groom and

round his neck, and was placed rope He ate and drank in pastor and the sacristan.

village noster, the bridegroom to him.

As he left, he beckoned the bridedeparted. and when to follow the him they got outside the hanged man said Thanks to your PaterI am saved." walked a little and They further, noticed that the was country and beautiful dead it unknown garden. they will here,"

were in a large They ? asked the Will you not return Oh let me stay miss you." replied cannot his friend. Know that go with me any man vanished. the dead but he did not back There all was changed. knew When books married her. he and He

man is so lovely

we are in Paradise you further. Farewell So saying Then the bridegroom turned reach the village for three days. He asked after and his bride found no one a stranger. searched the churchof his name had been

the pastor sought told his tale the pastor that a man discovered hundred for food of ashes The and


asked groom into a heap vanian upon and

The bridefifty years before. but when he had eaten it he sank pastor's feet. in Heaven The Transylalso turns

at the

to a dead man given thoughtlessly The is followed entertainment accepted. by a and the gravedigger is forced to pay a counter-invitation He is taken to Heaven, return visit. other where, among three leaves fall slowly he sees at intervals one things, off a large tree in the garden. from The after another a leaf falls at the end tree is the Tree of Life, from which of every century. it and thought years in Heaven an hour. The Icelandic scarce version His unjust are reproved a wicked concerns ways priest. who takes him to the place of joy and the by a stranger other and shows him wonderful things place of torment, such as the youth in the Breton ~4 tale is permitted to He was three hundred

legend of an invitation


i94 behold.








leaves him, he finds and his living is now

brought that he has held


and back, been absent priest. mention l


stranger seven years,

by another

is a fitting the Happy Here, perhaps, place to Islands of Everlasting Life as known tradition, to Japanese the story can hardly be said to belong to the type though we have just discussed,-perhaps not strictly to any of A Japanese the foregoing types. hero, the wise Vasobiove, in reaching and the Happy Islands, it was who succeeded in returning Brendan's visible mortal to bring sure tidings of them. For, like St. Isle in western be these islands lore, may for a moment and afar off to th seafarer, but a

foot has hardly ever trodden them. Vasobiove, in his boat alone, set sail from Nagasaki, however, and, in and waves, landed on the green of shore spite of wind Horaisan. Two hundred years he yet wist he not how long th period the same, where everything remained birth nor death, where none heeded in intercourse With dance and music, his days passed lovely women, away. grew weary for death-an unknown. found. To of this sweet round wish no impossible No poison, tumble down more like sojourned was, there there the was flight with wise But of men there i where neither time. and

of existence in a land

he at length he longed death was


rocks was no sharp Ifhewouiddrownhimself

were to be deadly weapons a chasm, or to fling oneself on than a fall upon a soft cushion. in the sea, the water refused a cork.

to death the Weary find In this no help. need a he caught struck him and tamed a giant stork thought and taught him to carry him. On the back of this bird he returned over sea and land to his beloved Japan, the news of the realm of Horaisan. His story bringing took that hold the of the story-tellers hearts of his might fellow-countrymen never forget it, it Powell and has been

its office, and bore him Vasobiove could poor

Bartsch, vol. i. p. 282; vol. ii. p. 37.

MuUer, p.46;

and Magnusson,








Nor the of

emblazoned can the




in a thousand


in Japan without seeing stranger go anywhere on his stork reminded and being old, old man depicted his voyage Islands.I to the Happy y
Brauns, p. 146.



(fOM/~M~). Ossian in the Tir na n'Og-The Island of HappinessTh Mermaid -Thomas of ErceldouneOJger the Dane-The Sleeping Hero Arthur-Don Sebastian-The -King expected deliverer-British variants German variants Frederick Barbarossa Nameless heroes-Slavonic variants. THE stories we have hitherto considered, to the relating have attributed motives. Compowers, aiso the and

supernatural the mortal's pulsion pleasure, formance mortal, thither Human the on

of time in fairyland, lapse detention there to various the part of the superhuman

sheer as curiosity, greed, folly, perand willing of just service on the part of the have been the causes of his entrance among and his amid its enchantments. sojourn nature could have been what it is if hardly

of love had been absent from the supreme passion list. Nor is it wanting, not found in the same though measure that will meet us when we corne to plenteous deal the with group maidens of superhuman birth. We may take as typical the In County as told in Ireland. when under start, beauty, he was a tree he saw in the to rest full the Swan-maiden myth-that of stories the concerning story Clare is to capture say, with by men of

vigour and fell

of Oisin, or Ossian, it is said that once of youth Oisin ay down

a lady richly on him. gazing

with a asleep. Awaking clad, and of more than mortal the Queen of Tir na She~was









the Country n'Og, in love with Oisin,

Youth. She had fallen Perptuai as the strange Italian lady is said to have done with a poet of whose we are someexistence she invited what better assured than of Oisin's and him to accompany her her to her own realm and share throne. all the Oisin was not In of Tir delights one part of the palace was a broad flat however, garden, he was forbidden to stand, under stone, on which penalty of the heaviest in misfortune. as is usual Probably, if he had these not been he would cases, forbidden, never of standing on it. But one day have thought himself near it, the temptation was to transgress finding he and stepping on the stone yielded, found himself in full view of his native land, the very moment. existence of which he had forgotten till that in the short Even of time since he left it much space Irrsistible. had it was changed suffering violence. Overcome with grief, queen and prayed for leave to go The tried help his people. queen in vain. She asked him how long been absent. Oisin three that replied since he arrived in Tir not enter that over him to dominion persuaded land, him her times thrice na n'Og it would if he that told from he oppression hastened to and the He long in making up his mind, na n'Og were laid at his feet. and


back, that to dissuade

he might him, but

he supposed he had She Thrice seven days." had passed seven years and though Time could assert its she length return to his back him on the no bridle to dwell a beautiful account to fall

immediately left it. At he would corne gave he was


for one day only, and then country with her for ever. She accordingly jet-black to alight, from his

from whose back horse, or at all events not to allow

and in parting she gifted him with hand wisdom and far surpassing that of men. knowledge the found himself he soon near his Mounting steed, former and as he journeyed he met a man driving home a horse, across whose back was thrown a sack of corn.







The Oisin

sack to

had assist

fallen him

a little in


and it





it good-naturedly stooping, caught heave that it fell over on the other side. at Annoyed his ill-success, he forgot his bride's and sprang commands, from the horse to lift the sack from the ground, letting the bridle at the same time. go Forthwith the steed vanished and Oisin

properly. and gave

Oisin, it such a

a blind, became instantly feeble, old man-everything lost but the wisdom helpless and bestowed him by his immortal bride.' knowledge upon A variant adds some particulars, from which it appears that Oisin was not only husband of the queen, but also monarch of Tir na n'Og. For in that rightful land was a strange custom. The office of king was the prize of a race every seven Oisin's had conyears. predecessor sulted a Druid as to the length of his own tenure, and had been told that he might the crown for ever keep unless his son-in-law took it from him. Now the king's was the finest woman in Tir na n'Og, only daughter or indeed in the world and the king naturally thought that if he could so deform his daughter that no one would wed her he would be safe. So he struck her with a rod of Druidic which turned her head into a spells, This she was condemned to wear pig's head. until she could one of Fin Mac Cumhail's sons in Erin. marry The went in search of Fin Mac young lady, therefore, Cumhail's and having chosen Oisin she found an sons to tell him her tale, with the result that he opportunity wedded her without The same moment her delay. as perfect as before deformity..was gone, and her beauty she was enchanted. Oisin returned to Tir na n'Og with and on the first race for the crown he won so easily her that no man ever cared to dispute it with him afterwards. So he reigned for many a year, until one day the longing seized him to go to Erin and see his father and his men. His wife told him that if he set foot p. 94. in Erin he would Choice Notes,"









a blind become her, and he would it he thought him how long and she asked old man About three was since he came to Tir na n'Og. years," Howshe said. hundred he replied. It is three years," to steed give him a white ever, if he must go she would the soil of or touched bear him but if he dismounted, never corne back to Erin and with he This a poor old man. the great to blow in his eagerness occurred catastrophe his friends in order to summon horn of the Fenians, Saint with adventures His around him. subsequent for though they are, are unimportant Patrick, interesting our present purpose.' is the Italian to this the nearest analogue Perhaps of Happiness. of the Island Swan-maiden ~~c~, her in and finds a youth sets out to seek Fortune, There he steals, clothes whose the shape of a maiden bathing, of command, of her book thereby obtaining possession But in his absence her to wed him. and so compelling her enables which his mother gives her the book again, Thither to her home in the Island of Happiness. to return of a variety after and to seek her husband her, goes AU goes smoothly to her. he is re-united adventures he that to visit his mother, he desires until supposing in whereas for two months, had only been in the island hundred two Fortune, there fact he has been years. than was more on going, he was bent prudent finding for she went with him on the the queen of Tir na n'Og, In their way they met with a lean woman magie horse. of shoes in travelling. out a carriage-load who had worn left to see if Fortune's to fall to the ground feigned out to cried But Fortune lift her up. would husband on further A little that is Death him Beware a lord riding of a great in the guise met a devil they F. L. Record," Curtin, p. 327. See also Kennedy, p. 240, and vol. H. p. 15, where th late Mr. H. C. Coote quotes the "Transactions She of the Ossianic Society." his foot, would be the steed would return that instant, inevitable







horse He also Fortune's

whose fell

worn out legs were from his horse. This

with was

much another

running. for trap

Beware hood and that none allowed

but she cried out to him husband again Il reached his own neighbourThen, having satisfied himself that no one knew and him, even of the oldest remembered his mother, he to lead him back to the Island of Happi-

his wife

he still dwells with her.' ness, where In an Annamite a to build saga a certain king wished town on a site he had fixed AU at once a tree upon. an unknown and strange flowers bearing foliage sprang up to one the A on the the spot. It was determined were A the to offer to these see flowers that out no in king and sentinels the blossoms. was placed rock still home

plucked north of Annam

pointed of a race

and maiden to young lovely belonging visited the tree, and was unlucky to touch one enough of the flowers and to cause it to drop. She was at once seized by the guards, but was released at the intercession of a certain mandarin. The mandarin's heart was he fell in love with susceptible her, and, pursuing her, he was admitted into the abodes of the Immortals and received of his dreams. His happiness by the maiden continued until the day when it was his lady's turn to be in attendance on the queen of the Immortals. Ere she left him she warned him the back against opening otherwise he would palace where they dwelt, be compelled to return and his present abode home, would be forbidden to him from that moment. He her. On opening the door he beheld once disobeyed more the outside and his family came to his world, An English version is given by Mr. Comparetti, vol. i. p. 2t2. F. L. Record," vol. ii. p. 12. Madame D'Aulnoy gives a similar Coote, Histoire d'Hypolite, Comte de Douglas," which seems story in her to be the original of a tale in verse quoted by Mr. Baring-Gould from Poetical Collection." See F. L. Record," vol. ii. p. 8 Dodsley's Baring-Gould, p. ~47. door of the

of genii. that race









remembrance. shot drove him

The out,

Immortals and forbade

who him

were to

within return.


he had only been there a few days, but he could thought no longer find his relatives. No one knew the name he asked for. At last an old man There existed said the reign of I do not now remember what once, under an old mandarin of the name, but you would sovereign, have some difficulty in finding him, for he has been dead three or four hundred An Esthonian tale repreyears." sents a mermaid, the daughter of the Water-Mother, as in love with a loutish son of a falling boy, the youngest and taking him down to dwell with her as her peasant, husband in her palace beneath the waves. The form in which she appeared to him was a woman's but she her Thursdays in seclusion, which she forbade passed him to break, never to call her enjoining him, moreover, Mermaid. After little more than a year, he however, and jealous, grew curious of peeping the through he beheld her swimming fish. might He had broken the to the temptation yielded curtain of her chamber, where half woman and half about, condition his happiness, Wherefore he was he had first met of and and

no longer her. cast stay with on the shore where the up again mermaid. and going into the village he inquired Rising for his parents, but found that had been dead for they more than thirty his brothers were dead years, and that too. He himself was unconsciously into an old changed man. For a few days he wandered about the shore, and the He ventured to tell his gave him bread. to one kind friend but the same he dishistory night and in a few days the waves cast up his body appeared, on the beach.' The foregoing tales all combine with the characteristics Des Michels, p. 38; Kreutzwald, p. 212. See also my article on The Forbidden Chamber," "F. L. Journal," vol. iii. p. 193, where the relations of the Esthonian tale to th myth of the Forbidden Chamber are discussed. charitable







of*the maiden In the

group group


group. of the Swan-maidens, as in some types of the myth hero weds of the Forbidden the human Chamber, myth an such a supernatural and a story containing bride to one to unite itself incident seems to have a tendency or other of these always two groups. last This The however, Chinese developed. in the cited tendency ladies two is in not, the

discussion, or those of the

either Forbidden


of the



legend, Swan-maidens nor fmale only tale from beauties human the

Bluebeards Land Flowery

chapter, and in which

were neither this is not the these super-

the developwithout promoting appear Nor do I find any hint of it in the ment in question. of Ireland, who Mac Fearbhall, tradition of Bran King On of fairy music. was one day lulled asleep by a strain of a tree by his side i he found the silver branch awaking him at his court and invited and a strange lady appeared He handed her the silver branch to a land of happiness. with a company of thirty the next persons s morning '~and sailed out on the ocean. In a few days they landed on he of whom the strange an island inhabited only by women, Here Bran Mac t lady appeared to be the chieftainess. to his several Fearbhall remained returning ages before An Arab tale in the near Lough Foyle. palace us a king's son at Paris shows Nationale Bibliothque on a strange lands who in his wanderings island,.where and becomes his father-inhe marries the king's daughter which was watered The law's vizier. by a river country from a great mountain. seasons flowed at certain Every the cavern, having duty to enter year it was the vizier's own first gift. the received At th from the king and a mysterious followed he reappeared, end of an hour by the time to flow during continued which When the of the country. the fertilization instructions

stream, needful for

he found a negro, who the cavern as vizier entered prince the queen of a people of Amazons. led him to his mistress, and she of the river In her hands was the management







203 exact a



tribute to purchase The th prince

periodical of date-stones which his forbearance


drought she had






to pass on to an Ifrit, towards her own subjects. with her she suppresses

and marries him. After two cenperiodical droughts turies of wedded life she dies, leaving him ten daughters, whom he takes back, together with considerable wealth, to the city formerly and governed by his father-in-law, now dred by his years great-great-grandson. old, and venerable The latter was a hunby the side of his greatover whose head the years had passed realm without effect. He made himwith years off any of abstract of At for found last he a long just had

great-grandfather, in that enchanted self known to his descendant and stayed ten but whether he succeeded in marrying him his daughters, of ages so very uncertain, the the story returned time.' In now been more good the one hero of the Island of Happiness returned to earth by of of his But 1 have before land, me does and not to his native reigned say. there


who, having taken back again lasting fortune. than enjoyment. Thomas some for

for a season,

supernatural he is not

to a spouse in his alone


is known chapter, His reputation lasting. from the Tree, Eildon These

to have

a personage less Erceldoune, those in this commemorated lived in the thirteenth century.

prophetic powers were

Fairy Queen. which stood on Hills.

has been wide and powers said to be, like Oisin's, a gift She met him under the Eildon the easternmost of the three she took

Having got him into her power, him down with her into Fairyland, where he abode, as he for three in reality but for three deemed, days, years. At the end of that time the him back to lady carries Eildon some Tree token and whereby bids he him may farewell. He asks her for he had been with say that Dennys, p. 98, "Gent. Mag. Lib." (Eng. Trad. Lore), p. 22; Revue des Trad. Pop." vol. iii. p. 566.







and she bestows on her cannot lie, and leaves him Banks. again on Huntley the older romance desert Walter Scott's of report neighbourhood, return to Thomas

a prophetic tongue with a promise to meet Here both the old ballads us the was but under if wc an tradition may current trust in


that him and Sir the

whenever he Fairyland while Thomas was with Accordingly, making merry his friends in the tower of Ercildoune, a person came marks of fear and astonishrunning in, and told, with that a hart and hind had left th neighbouring ment, and were, and slowly, forest, the composedly parading street of the village. The prophet instantly arose, left his habitation, and followed the wonderful animais to the whence he was never seen to return. forest, According to the popular drees his weird in Fairybelief, he still to revisit land, and is one ;day expected earth. In the meanwhile his memory is held in the most profound 1 respect." In the romance of Ogier, or Olger, the Dane, one of the Paladins of Charlemagne, it is related that six fairies

to obligation was summoned.

at his birth and bestowed various presided gifts upon him. the Fay, the last of the six, promised that Morgan after a long and glorious career he should never die, but dwell with her in her castle of Avalon. after Wherefore, he had lived and fought and loved for more a than caused him to be shipwrecked. Morgan AU men thought he had perished. In reality Morgan had taken this means of bringing him to Avalon, where she met him and put a ring on his finger, which restored years, a golden crown of myrtle and laurel crown of forgetfulness. His toils, his even his loves were forgotten and his heart was battles, filled with a new devotion, for the fairy queen namely, With her he dwelt in pleasures ever new for Morgan. youth, on his brow-th Thomas of Erceldoune," Minstrelsy," vol. iii. p. t~o. ~< Ch!!d, vol. i. p. ~t8 Border him to and hundred









two and

hundred Christendom

years, out that

until fell for into




a day when France and danger, and the Morgan heard them, She

cried peoples and resolved

a deliverer.

must go to fight for them. Olger lifted the crown from his brow, and his came memory back. She bade him guard weU his ring, and gave him a if that torch torch were lighted his life would burn out with the last spark. He returned to France, the fought and conquered, France and Christendom. Paynim freeing The him widowed but queen as she was of France on the then point intrigued of attaining him away. In when back to marry her purAvalon France on his

and caught pose Morgan appeared he still dreams in her arms and some day is in her direst will corne need, Olger famous to smite and to deliver charger Here we corne another upon type, of the expected superstition deliverer, scattered In this through Europe. noted his example name to is that the of King Arthur, her. the

and the story which is widely

type. King Arthur, in the Island romances, is, like Olger, indeed the romance of Olger dclares that the two herocs Il met. Sir Thomas tells us Some men yet say Malory in many parts of England that King Arthur is not dead, but had by the will of our Lord Jesu Christ into anothcr and men say that hee will corne place and he againe, shall winne the holy crosse. 1 will not say that it shall bee so, but rather 1 will say that heere in this world hee his life. But men changed there is many say that written his tombe this verse upon His' jacet Arthurus, rex quondam, futurus." This is a belief rexque dear to the heart of many an oppressed It was told of people. Harold that he was not slain at and that he would Senlac, yet corne back to lead his countrymen the hated against Normans. Even of Roderick, the Last of the Goths, stained as he was with crime, deeply men were loth to believe that he was dead. In the latter of the part

the most country who may fitlygive to the according of Avalon, where







sixteenth ill-fated

century, expedition took advantage of the

after to





in the of on

Spain the death

the Second Morocco, Philip of the failure of the male line

to his dominions, a popular party not Seven out really dead Cities,

to add Portugal cardinal-king, Henry, too large. His tyranny roused already whose faith was that Don Sebastian was he he was reigning would return in the Island of the

by and by to drive the Spaniards and their justly execrated Even king. in the year 1~61 a monk was condemned by the Inquisition as a Sebastianist, a believer and a disseminator of t false prophecies,-so In the long did the tradition linger. Spanish means has been by no superstition The Moors who were left in the mountains of Valentia looked for the return of their hero Alfatimi a green from his place of upon horse, concealment in the Sierra de Aguar, to defend them and to put their Catholic to the sword.' tyrants peninsula, confined to the indeed, Christians.


nourishes beliefs of this kind. It was under Oppression the Roman dominion that the Jewish of a Mesexpectation siah grew to its utmost and the manifestation strength of the Messiah was to be preceded by the reappearance of to Elijah, heaven. a prophet who And strange is to corne. was not dead are but the sometimes Only translated gods from ago, if we there was



a few years

may trust a Slavonic

Melchisedech of Roumania, Bishop was Napoleon sect, the object of whose worship the First. had not really He, said his worshippers, died he was only at Irkousk, in Siberia, at the head of where, an invincible, a powerful, he was ready once more army, the world.2 to overrun But, however the belief in a deity, or hero, who is to

Malory, vol. iii. p. 339 Braga, vol. ii. p. 238 Liebrecht in a note to Gerv. Tilb., p. 95, quoting Aznar, Expulsion de los Moriscos." Athenum," No. 2,400,23 Oct. 1873, giving an account of Bishop Melchisedech's book, entitled on the creed and cusLipovenismulu," toms of the Raskolnics, or Russian schismatics.








207 causes, tradi-





it is not dependent tions of a Culture has taught them them gone day the victory away from corne back to

be strengthened upon them. Many

by political races having

is, of a superior being who and the arts of life, and led agriculture over their enemies-add that he has them for awhile, and that he will some and are Viracocha, familiar inVishnu, incarna-


again. Quetzalcoatl culture of Mexico and gods Peru, stances of this. In the later Brahminism having already tions, for special one more avatar and the restoration age white

nine accomplished in the past, emergencies for the final destruction

of India, or avatars, was

of goodness at the end he would then be revealed in the sky horse and wielding a blazing sword. will be manifest that been considering

yet to have of the wicked of the present seated on a 1 need not traditions

it others specify of modern Europe


we have contain the same thought. is it unlikely Nor that been they have influenced Christian doctrine of the Second bythe Advent. of them have received the polish Many of literature. The stories of Olger and for example, Arthur, have descended to us as romances written men. by cultivated Don Sebastiafi was the plaything of a political if party, not the symbol of religious for nearly two cenheresy, turies. In all these stories we encounter the belief that the god or hero is in heaven, or in some remote land. Such a belief is the sign of a civilization comparatively advanced. The cruder and more archaic belief is that he sleeps within the hills. is more familiar in the folklore of than the other. Arthur Europe was believed to King lie with his warriors beneath the Craig-y-Ddinas (Castle in the Vale of Neath. lolo Rock) a wellMorganwg, known Welsh used to relate a curious antiquary, tradition this rock. A Welshman, it was said, concerning over London a hazel with walking staff in his Bridge was met by an Englishman, who told him that the hand, This cruder belief







on a spot under which were hidden vast if the Welshman remembered the treasures, show it to him he would place and would put him in of those treasures. possession After some demur the Welshman and took the Englishman consented, (who was in fact a ~izard) to the Craig-y-Ddinas and showed him the spot. tree on which the They dug up the hazel staff grew and found under it a broad flat stone. This covered the entrance to a cavern in which thousands of warriors on their arms. In the lay in a circle sleeping centre of the entrance a bell which the conjurer hung Welshman to beware of touching. begged the But if at any time he did touch it and any of the warriors should ask if it were day, he was to answer without hesitation thou on." The warriors' No arms were so sleep grew and brightly and one crown when of polished of them that had they arms his had illumined that side. the outshone This was whole the cavern rest, and and a


he carried

taken as much could the warriors, carry of the gold which lay in a heap amid both men passed out without the Welshnot, however, man's the bell. It rang but when accidentally touching the inquiry Is it day ? came from one of the warriors, he was prompt with the reply on." No sleep thou The conjurer afterwards told him that the company he had seen lay asleep ready for the dawn of the day when the Black and the Golden should Eagle Eagle go to of which would make the earth tremble war, the clamour so much that the bell would and the warriors ring loudly would the enemies arms, and destroy of th Cymry, who should then the island of repossess Britain and be governed from Caerlleon with justice and endured. When the Welshpeace so long as the world man's treasure was all spent he went back to the cavern and helped himself still more liberally than before. On his way out he touched the bell again it rang. again But this time he was not so ready with his answer, and up, start seize their

gold lay by the Welshman

Arthur as he









some beat covered


of him

the and the

warriors cast effects

rose him of that

up, took eut of the

from gold him, cave. He nevcr re-


a pauper to the end find the entrance to the charm

a cripple but remained beating, of his days and he never could cavern again. Merlin and the

Of woven paces and of waving hands I need three not miles do more eastward than mention. A recess in th rock

is generallyaccredited her treachery. Merlin's

of Carmarthen, called Merlin's Cave, as the place where Vivien perpetrated

is possessed of another encounty chanted On the northern hero. side of Mynydd Mawr Great near is a cave where (the Mountain) Llandilo, Owen of the Red Hand), one of the last Lawgoch (Owen chieftains who fought th English, lies with his against And there asleep. they will lie until awakened by the sound of a trumpet and the clang of arms on Rhywtheir Saxon 'goch, when they will arise and conquer foes, driving is the them from the land. belief A more in the famous Vale chicftain of Gwent. subject Considrable Glendower. disappeared in believed still live and of a similar obscurity What is from the lie Vale men

the fate of Owen overhangs certain him is that he about in the is What history year 141~. of Gwent their or is that arms Castle become he in Cave, and a cave where his men there, they but

on asleep called Gogov y Ddinas," will continue until England that then privileges, possessed

self-debased their they will sally forth to reconquer country, and crown for the Welsh, who shall be disof them no more until the Day of Judgment.~

Trans. Aberd. Eistedd. Recollections p. 227, quoting Waring's Black's "Picturesque Guide to Wales ofIoloMorganwg"; (1872), 1848), pp. 68, p. 279; HoweHs, p. 104. "lolo MSS." (Llandovery, 4~4, quoting from papers attributed to the Rev. Evan Evans, and said to be, when copied by Iolo Morganwg, in th possession of Paul Panton, Esq., ofAng!esea. 15







In There


Celtic in the Isle

lands called a great by the


same where six

is a hole that century been bound had and ever there


superstition Den at the it was believed never

occurs. foot of a in the death

mountain last had none In cave floor. the man stirred.

of Man

prince for spells



had found


courage enough it is said that many on their

but years to explore the hole. a man once entered a


They hall was put the He

huge men all asleep on the rested In the centre of elbows. a stone The table, and on it lay a bugle. all bugle to his lips and blew once. They blew a second blast, and one of the giants,

his eyes, said "Do not do that or you rubbing again, The fled in terror, and never will wake us intruder of the cavern found the mouth Earl Gerald of again. Mullaghmast the castle, down and heads the his sleeps or with his warriors in a cavern under runs of Mullaghmast. Rath, middle of the cave. The in complete on the table. armour A long table Earl sits at the


Their resting stand behind their masters bridled, was a leader of the side. The Earl skilful change always

head, on either side, their and saddled horses, in stalls on either

shape if during he would tions

at weapons, and deep in the himself into any shape he pleased. His lady was him to let her see him in some strange begging but he always her that put her off, for he told his not transformation recover were under the she showed form till the least fright generahis natural many

he was very Irish black art. He could

Nothing, however, of his powers do for the lady but an exhibition would he changed himself into a goldfinch. so one evening with her in this form a hawk he was playing While him. The hawk dashed sight of him and pursued caught itself given neither in against a loud a table scream nor the and at was seeing Earl did but killed her husband's she behold the round the lady had and Once of danger, again. Curragh

of men


goldfinch years












Kildare thick thin


on when

a horse he on



shoes When who blow their

were they is to his horses

half are be

an worn born

inch as with the the

as a cat's

disappeared. ear, a miller's each

will awake troopers Earl go forth to battle of Ireland King reign dealer the once Earl found was the

hand, and mount

son, will

trumpet, and with and A on the

the English against for twoscore years. lighted round cavern the open

he will horse-

riding at what In his astonishment The sound on the ground. of the cave aroused recesses to time but him and he The lifted man and the

and Curragh he saw he dropped of its fall echoing of the and to warriors asked

night went in. a bridle in "Is Not the it nearest


helmet down heavy while the man made the best of the table, more upon Island there is a ruin On Rathlin called his way out. In a cave beneath lie Bruce Castle. and his Bruce's chief will warriors arise and but some day they sleep the island to Scotland. unite Only once to the cave is visible. the entrance A man in an enchanted

yet ? soon will

up his head had the wit

say sank

yet, once

in seven

years and went in. He it on one of these occasions, discovered of these men in armour. in the presence found himself in the earth at his feet. He A sabre was half-sheathed one of the sleepers lifted his to draw it, but every tried The intruder fled put his hand on his sword. bchind him he but ere the gate of the cavern clatiged after him heard wc voices calling fiercely Why could 1 not be left to sleep ? and west of Yorkshire of the south is The population head and of Arthur seems A tradition to have Celtic. largely them to the effect that he and his been preserved among in the ruins of a castle, sit spell-bound believed knights who communicated it to Mr. Alfred by the clergyman it was, a man Castle. Wherever Nutt to be Richmond vol. vi. p. 164; Kennedy, Waldron, p. 68; "F. L. Journal," vol. i. p. l6t. p. ty2, Lady Wilde,







Thompson penetrated them hall, and found around sitting a sword and a horn. The man did Sutherlandshire and fled at once. for had he donc the intruder, to blow seems, have the it There, so he would as he crossed



into by chance a table whereon not the he venture, horn, made but like

the lay the


released threshold

a mistake Arthur from again a voice

And spell. sounded in his ears

"l'otter Thompson, Potter Thompson, hadst thou blown the horn, Thou hadst been the greatest man that ever was born." He had enchanted missed his chance, hall. By the and tweifth could not return into the

the legend of century Arthur had reached with the Normans. Sicily, perhaps Gervase of Tilbury tells us that a boy was in charge of th Bishop of Catania's when it broke loose and palfrey, ran away. He pursued it boldly into the dark recesses of Mount on a wide plain full of all delights, Etna, where, he found Arthur stretched on a royal couch in a palace built with wonderful skill. what Having explained him the hero brought caused the horse thither, to be given beheld him, there every In up to him, and added with astonishment moreover, on account 1 year. Teutonic lands gifts which were afterwards informed to out remain afresh Arthur by many. that he had been compelled of his wound, which broke the legends of the

host and sleeping th sleeping monarch are very numerous. Grimm in his has collected of them. Mythology I select for many mention a few only, adding one or two not included by him. Karl the Great lies in the Unterberg, near Salz. and also in the Odenberg, burg, where Woden himself, to other is said to be. according legends, the Siegfried, hero of the Nibelungen dwells in the mountain Lied, F. L. Journal," vol. i. p. 193 Gerv. Tilb., Dec. ii. c. 12. See Mr. Nutt's remarks on these in his admirable Studies on the Legend of the Holy Grail (London, 1888), pp. 12~, io6,








fastness of Geroldseck. Diedrich rests in the mountains of Alsace, his hand upon his sword, till the Turk waiting shall water his horses on the banks of the Rhine. On the Grtli, where once they met to swear the oath which frced their Federation priated country, in a cleft lie the three of the rock. founders The Danes of the have Swiss approto the

Grimm Olger, who, says, really belongs and in a vaulted chamber under the castle Ardennes of Kronburg he sits, with a number of warriors clad in mail, about a stone table, into which his beard has grown. A slave who was condemned to death received pardon and freedom on condition of descending to ascertain what was beneath the castle for at that time no one and knew, sometimes doorway his men. crossed the clashing of armour explain heard below. He passed an iron through and found himself in the presence of Olger and Their heads rested on their which were arms, When no one could

the table. upon the table burst asunder. to the slave but the

lifted up his head Olger Reach me thy hand," he said not venturing to give his latter, held out an iron bar instead, hand, which Olger squeezed so that the marks remained visible. At length letting it go, he exclaimed It gladdens me that there are still I men in Denmark But the one of all the which the names great has thus been appropriated made most When he in Asia by this myth, famous is that was drowned in the Minor, in his death, Poems which

of Frederick crossing

Barbarossa. river

of Germany to believe peasants and him to return. constantly expected to the middle of the go back fourteenth or century, within a century and a half of Frederick's death, prove the existence of a tradition to this effect. More than allusions to some of the details this, they contain about to be mentioned, and foretell his recovery of the Holy Grimm, "Teut. Myth." pp. 953, 955, 961; Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 222, translating Thiele Certeux et Carnoy, vol. i. p. 65.

Calycadmus refused







in Thuringia is the mounKyffhuser out as his place of retreat, pointed though other also claim the honour. Within the cavern places he sits at a stone and rests his head his table, upon hand. His beard the table twice already grows round has it made the circuit when it has grown round the third time the emperor will awake. He will then corne and will hang his shield on a withered forth, tree which will break into and a better time will dawn. leaf, Sepulchre. tain usually Gorgeous radiant cavern sunniest there, brook emperor's expected. A shepherd Fly replied hundred the the descriptions with gold deep in the The day. and through whose are and most the given of and shines the cavern. It is jewels it earth, it is a though within like the and shrubs stand Paradise flows a


trees splendid of this midst

mud is pure Here the very gold. rest is not so profound as might have been A strain of music easily seems to rouse him. once piped to him, Frederick asked having round the mountain still ? I sleep Yes," another


"Then must shepherd. murmured the emperor. The shepherd years," was taken into the armoury, and rewarded with the stand of a hand-basin, which turned out to be of pure gold. A party of musicians on their way home from a wedding a tune for the old Emperor passed that way, and played Frederick." a maiden and Thereupon stepped out, them the brought each of emperor's thanks, presenting them with a horse's head by way of remembrance. Ail but one threw the gift away in contempt. One, however, his to have a joke with his old woman," kept as he it home he put it under the pillow. phrased it, and taking In the morning, when his wife turned to up the pillow look at it, instead of a horse's head she brought forth a of gold. Other stories are told of persons who lump have into the and been penetrated emperor's presence enriched. St. John's found shepherd and entered. Day, A the He mountain was allowed on open to take









of of

the the

he found flax, went

which horse-meal, to be gold. Women same metal. A

when have

he been




of given knots who however,

The emperor's less lucky. lady-housekeeper of the he might take some made signs to him that he stuffed treasure on the table before him accordingly his pockets As he turned full. him not the best Forget which but lay on the table to go out she called after She meant a flower he heeded not, and the

in, was

behind mountain, slamming him, cut off his heel, so that he died in great pain.I to the KynSuch arc a few of the legends relating Barbe observed that Frederick but it should haser to the slumbering barossa's is not the only name given that one hero. We have already seen in the last chapter tradition him the calls him the Emperor is identified with in the traditions substance is older well-known as they of the and Otto his housekeeper. about names, Marquis and yet Another John. in another Dame Now while than this dubs Holle


superstition, more important have

indicates affixed

in the agree they that the substance the names, to the and that traditions



from time to time to strike the popular happened This is confirmed imagination. by the fact that in many no personal where similar traditions are located, places In the Guckenberg, name at all is given to the hero. a long <7~ <?/M~ror disappeared near Frnkischgemndcn, rolls once met an A boy selling ago with his army. The old old man, to whom he complained of bad trade. he could where man said he could show him a place no one tell his rolls but he must bring every day time thereof. where sat at he led the saying, there wcre many people. a table, his round which So the mountain, boy into himself The emperor twice beard had grown p. 217. Kuhn und Schwartz, and
und Schwartz,

Kuhn Gnmm, "Teut. Myth. p. 955; See also Thorpe, vol. iii. p. 101, translating Grimm.







it has grown round it once more he will corne forth with all his men. again The rolls were bought boy's and he daily repeated his visit. After a while, however, he could not pass th ancient coin wherein he was paid. The in the village, people made him grown suspicious, confess and he could never find his way to the all mountain In the again. under Auersperg Chronicle," the year 1223, it is recorded that from a certain mountain which Grimm identifies with the Donnersberg (Thor's near Worms, a multitude of armed mountain), horsemen used daily to issue, and thither A man, daily to return. who armed himself with the and sign of the cross, one of the host in the name of Our Lord, questioned was told by him We arc not, as you think, phantoms, nor, as we seem, a band of soldiers, but the souls of slain soldiers. The arms and and because clothing, horses, of sin, are now to us the they once were the instruments materials of our punishment for what you behold upon us is really on fire, although it with you cannot perceive We saw in an earlier your bodily eyes." that a chapter Methodist revival story influenced by the Welsh represented th midwife whose was cleared sight by fairy ointment as beholding herself surrounded and by flames, the fairies about her in the guise of devils. In the same not possibly orthodox him, a strictly form, and one calculated to point a pulpit moral. 1 Over against the last two legends we may place two from Alsace. A body of the Emperor Karl the Great's Upper warriors had become so puffed up by their successes that at last their and cannon they pointed guns against itself. heaven had they discharged their Scarcely pieces when the whole host sank into the earth. Every seventh on their exeryear they may be seen by night horses, taken, though und PP. 953, 954. Kuhn Schwartz, pp. 220, 222~ Grimm, "Teut. Myth." way have from here the wonders recorded by a pious ccctesiastic in the first instance










cising. daughter carrying a soldier place

Concerning of Ruffach, white she She bread could on a white

them in to horse sell the

it the who the




baker's was met to a a a

Ochsenfeld next village, offered to bread

valley, when she lead her


good price. subterranean

full of quite great camp Here she who were all fast asleep. long-bearded soldiers, sold all her bread, and was well paid and for several so that years she continued there, daily to sell her bread her father she was ill became a rich man. One day and unable the to go, scribing blocked place up the passage, The soon girl died after, entered the subterranean Pomerania Kronburg. to be an cornes A saga mountain castle, with the his choice way and a whereupon to him. and and she He he sent found could then From to that of since her it, brother, but a not open no one Btow dedoor it. has in

accordingly into a passage

for immediately him followed through

camp. similar in the


at Olger is held


ground passage was once offered

communicating castle of Btow. whether by the to die

by an underA criminal by the hangin question to written He proof succeeded

his man, or to make the enchanted castle, from the lord who sat in mission believed to be to According women who led his and up another him laid

bring enchanted the document

passage back a within he it.

the among account a into the

back is brought of the town. archives man once where met back A two after he found

a populous city. he had six spent referred

They hours

mountain, him brought within the

safely mountain.

to by Grimm relates how a shepherd ~MM sitting the cavern of th Willberg a table which his beard had grown through another malefactors are three unnamed In Sweden there is a Sutherlandshire of Billingen,

saga found in at a stone and in of. spoken us of the

may remind story that In a large cleft of the mountain legend. the Giant's in West called Gothland, Path,








a way leading far into th formerly into which a peasant once penetrated, and mountain, found a man on a large stone. No one lying asleep knows how he came there but every time the bell tolls for prayers in Yglunda he turns round and sighs. church, So he will stories person. Among told. In chanted some the calls the Servia hero. Slavonic and He peoples Bulgaria corresponding Marko King held sagas is the are encontinue hero until is the Doomsday.* identified with any In none of these known historical

is said



mysterious Iron Gates. to him

is variously or in island, The traveller

to be in a palace on a mountain not far from who crosses the mountain

dost thou live ? and in the cho Marko, he believes that Marko him a reply. Prince gives Marko is also believed by the Serbs to be in the mountain Urvina with his horse His sword Sharatz, asleep. is rising When it is fully slowly out of the mountain. Marko will awake and deliver his disclosed, people. If other accounts he has retired may be trusted, however, to the Alps since the invention of gunpowder, and now lives as a hermit in a cave. So great pity was it

This villainous saltpetre should be digg'd Out of the bowels ofthe harmless earth." 2 The Carpathian is Dobocz, mistress by a jealous where he perpetually hero the in counts robber a the chief. on He the he has

is bespelled Czornahora,

cavern gold

Meier, pp. t22,123 ;Jahn, p. 248; Grimm, "Teut. Myth." p. 96; In an Austrian i'/M~~M th Thorpe, vol. n. p. ot, from Afzelius. The king slept on a crystal table Sleeping Host is a host of serpents. in the centre. In During th winter serpents are believcd to sleep. the spring the oldest serpent awakes and wakens the others, crying It is time" (Vernateken, p. ti~). Grohmann, p. to. Marko was a shepherd, who for a service rendered to a Vila was gifted by her with heroism, beauty, and other good fortune (Krauss, "VotksgL" p. 103).









hidden. his followers mountaineers. dwelling on such heard. depths never


certain and

days of the then he has where she

year often his too

he cornes been wife is




he visits

by the in her rockand and the


festivities nightly Bold are they who endeavour to penctrate of the mountain where Dobocz dwells.

by Polansko, occasions the

enchanted may be seen

but are caught and return, by the robber his band. with these reinforcements his Strengthened will be with him shall one when the charm companions and he will issue forth to take vengeance day be broken, on the men who betrayed him. Some of the stories of Blanik where the king of Bohemia, Mountain, Wenzel, lies, self have been set before the and his followers stand the mountain reader. ever The horses of himand at saddled ready and the king

They added to

and his opens, ride forth to exercise the plain. But other knights upon heroes than Wenzel with him the honour of dispute the enchanted inhabitant of the Blanik. One being clear moonlight of spring the burgesses of Jungnight Wositz were aroused from their slumbers by the beating of drums, and the clang of armour, and the trampling of horses. Terrified at such a rout, and not knowing what it might their weapons and stood on mean, they seized the defensive. Nor were to see they a little surprised on the open meadows a troop of horsemen in engaged midnight knightly play. the troop drum, which mountain, offered burgesses the recesses of of the tidings ere the task of the kettleBy and by, at the sound formed into rank, and vanished into the closed behind them with a crash. The a reward to whomsoever would explore the mountain, horsemen. and bring them sure

Three ghostly years passed by was At last a clever man. attempted. Zdenko von Zasmuk, undertook the adventure. He was to find the mountain and riding lucky enough open in, he came into a vast lighted hall where on stone slept benches the knights of the mountain, now changed into















to the stood fastened ready saddled, and Zdenko knocked down a spear accidentally the clangour, the round th hall, awakened echoing and men. He explained to them corne, why he had if they wished, to attempt their deliverpolitely offered, horses, vault. ance. Ulrich fallen Their von leader Rosenberg, informed that him he with he was that in:reply his companions had

snow-white of the piers

in defence of the city of against Chichka, gloriously them into Paradise, Litic, and that God, instead of admitting had assigned them an abode in that place until Bohemia should then they would be at its sorest need sally forth, and bring he enjoined So saying, that certain be winter. when to the land. And peace and happiness Zdenko to make this known to the people. he sank again to sleep. It is said, moreover, shall the time of which Ulrich spoke corne, a back shall begin dnrent to blossom, alleges story is under the it will though that it is the His overall his


the plundering against ran the country took place there band perished. The next morning his friends searched departed of trace could be recovered thought somed. that At the foes had the their carried the from the horses

Knight last struggle

A quite who Stoymir,

spell at Blanik. hordes which and when he with the

battlefield, It was bodies. off to be them inhabitants slumber slain at The heroes the by the

had enemy but not a first ranthe noise

neighbourhood of a host and they told afterwards returned the

however, night, were roused and they watering to the beheld their


exercising beck before who



tale declared that he had been into the foregoing seen and his comand had himself mountain, Stoymir There can be no doubt, therefore, in their panions sleep. armies occur of buried Legends where encountered the Poles Silesia, Grohmann, pp. n, also the t~, 1$. at Trzebnica, and Turks, in at

of its truth.I









Matwa a girl

in the who


is admitted

province into the

of Posen. cavern



former against in the the

is warned

a bell touching entrance. She this command,

as in the Welsh that, tale, cannot resist the temptation and is ignominiously corn for the

hangs to transgress In


an old man latter, in buys troops. Again, the Carpathians, as in one of the sagas the concerning a smith is summoned to shoe the steeds. Blanik, The Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, in addition to these stories, the Folklore some years gave a chapSociety ago, from book of Posen, the following abstract of a legend 1 have not met with elsewhere Once upon a time, in Mazowere seven victorious leaders. wia, there After having won a hundred their beards had grown battles, finding their soldiers to build in their white, honour they ordered a very tower. The soldiers built and high but built, of the tower tumbled down. This lasted every day part a whole The after assembled year. leaders, at supper, the ruins of the tower. at the sound of lutes and Here, a tower songs, the earth immediately grew to up from and on its seven shone heaven, the seven pinnacles helmets of the seven leaders. and higher Higher they but and shone rose, till brighter brighter they they as the seven stars in heaven. The appeared soldiers sank down into which had been dug round graves the tower and fell asleep. The tower has melted out of view, but on fine nights we still see the seven helmets of the and the soldiers are till leaders, are sleeping they 1 wanted." F. L. Record," vol. iv. p. 67. Mr. Lach-Szyrma the seven stars are th stars of 6~M Majo; conjectures that








(COM~'M//<). weirdest developments The story not an early one-Its EuropeanStories of short time appearing long-Mohammed's night-journey Wild and its variants-The Sleeping Hero, a heathen god-The Hunt-The Enchanted Princess, a heathen goddess. VII diner in Chapter recorded to Fairyland visits mentioned in earlier in one from those respect only are visits of book. Like of this them, they chapters are summoned to perMortals business or of pleasure. whose for the form some service beings mysterious THE dwelling to their take back. which is beneath children, such as to stand earth, sponsor or they go to or to shoe their horses a message or to bring from this world, into the over are drawn regions they the

a message Or else the

of the by supernatural extends, power or else of pleasure, desire by th by the curiosity, or unconsciously superby the spell, of their invitation, at which the visits differ The point inhabitants. human and from a we have those from considered, previously is in all other others hundred respects, precisely parallel mortal the visit To the entrammelled in their length. under the fairy for while a moment In other of the flight of time. sway he is unconscious The midwife, is practised on the sight. stories deception like Thor is deceived the ointment, without by UtgardParents and to her. is as it appears Loki nothing seems to last but husbands are deceived by changelings they are made









to believe or the human



of dead these



magic a weirder, subtler, th dread of communion This horror is one of culture. history and be elaborated. savage who can

In corpses. is directed

on stories, the sense of against a more awful horror is thus with the supernatural.

living creatures, the other hand, time. added late first in A to the up A

arising The idea Time

comparatively of time must on five

anything Even the be an no the such

barely of stories which

is dependent count beyond deal with the period We have

grow number.



but vaguer, idea he cannot tales in to the and

shorter, grasp. lower the collect

lapse of centuries. of a generation will therefore found

Lapplanders been able have

and even savagery among Siberian tribes the stories we

of short speak only periods, from autumn such as the transition to spring, where a the winter, and the expansion man had slept of through In these a day into a month, or a year. two cases not of the moon and the measurement of only the phases time which must have been in developby them, early but also the of the seasons had been ment, cycle But the idea lying at the root of this group observed. of tales is as yet only in germ. The full terror of the as exhibited in the traditions of the more situation, societies of Europe and of the extreme organized highly Orient, is unforeseen. For it is in proportion to the of society that such a catastrophe as the loss organization and thereby of kindred of years, and friends, becomes dreadful. it would seem to have been really Indeed, for the nations reserved to the final European put and horror of gloom the canvas. It may upon be sufficient to refer this to the more sombre imagination touches of Western influence But peoples. of the Catholic the we ought Church not in to overlook darkening the the

tone of general tone of the fairy supremacy she

and the imagination, particularly and unquestioned sagas, by the absolute and the demanded, frightful penalties,







she invoked those who spiritual, upon in cuits she was unable to incorporate. indulge To men under such an influence, intercourse with fairies would be a thing and the greater the temptaunholy tions to it, the severer, should be the they would deem, temporal dared to This penalties. with shuddering, justice case-a of the frame is the frame of mind to which yet without doom suffered of mind a murmur, by Herla, of if would, in the acquiesce put an extreme by the forms of


commerce with reprobating unhallowed intercourse with spirits sanctioned spirits, by the Church was believed to bc almost equally possible, and was encouraged as much as the other was denounced. If such intercourse sometimes resulted in severance between the favoured mortal and his human this was only friends, an extension of the monastic idea and, as in that case, compensated abundantly by the favour of Heaven and the bliss received. At all events it is certain, from whatever the deepest cause, that depths and the loftiest of which this story-plot has been heights found have been reached Christian capable, only under influences. and the Taoist and the Pliny Mohammed, have recorded no tale that Shintoist, sways our emotions like Felix. But then the in the magical power over time now and operates a short time appear those of Herla, the Aged Bride, and the Monk the loss was held to be

equally uncompromising Protestantism. But,

undoubtedly claims while

counterianced various

contrary way, by making A few examples long. may bc interesting, though they will in no way affect the foregoing conclusions. In the tenth it will be remembered, part of a night Mohammed, was taken on the back of the beast up to Paradise and Alborac, the presence all passed through of Allah himself, could brought long not the with have back enough seven whom been heavens he a very he into had short had to give a

which conversation, one, and was then gone. He remained

by the way in each heaven

TH SUPERNTURAL a full, habitants, journey. Sultans so much truc and and Nor one



fM t.'AIRYLAND. of it how on the and of its

225~5 inthe the of a

particular performed will it be

account various




expressing happened of doctor

forgotten doubts to the the

during one of possibility in so short law him

time, a basin found on

having a learned of water into himself

his head the

to be brought it. When the Sultan in a strange country, He made

Apostle Mohammedan and requestcd

causcd to dip head he

his dippcd alone and friendless,

sea-shore. obtained years died,

town, seven grief,

employment, with his wife, and then he

wandering had first to cast

in despondency found and himself himself into the

his way to a neighbouring became lived rich, married, who afterwards, to his great lost all. One he was day the sea-shore, where he along in his despair he detcrmined had he donc

so Scarcely when he beheld his courtiers around his throne standing he was once more and the basin of water into Sultan, which he had dipped his head was before him. He to the learned doctor for began furiously rcproach him from his capital and him into banishing sending the midst of vicissitudes and adventures for so many Nor was it without that he was brought years. difficulty to believe that he had only just dipped his head into the water This it is and type known lifted again. of story is less frequent than the other, but in countries far A stripling, in apart. a fairy and found himself joined dance, with and pearls, where he glittering gold great enjoyment One restriction from a certain But fishes and folk for fairy was laid upon him he was well in the midst of the he could not forbear. In that well fishes of all colours. One day into with the it out


Pembrokeshire, in a palace remained in many years. not to dfink palace swam the gardens. golden

his hand youth, impelled by curiosity, plunged the water but in a moment fishes and all disappeared, ran through a shriek the garden, and he found himself 16







with again on the hillside In fact, he had never left him to be years had been fairy been spell had work of the Spanish Dean of

his father's the


around seemed which Lucanor,

him. to the a

and what sheep, during only minutes, over him. In Count

Santiago, of Toledo, to be made a difficulty, influence and

is a story of a century, who went to Don Illan, a magician instructed in necromancy. Don Illan stating that the dean was a man of


to a high attain consequently likely and that men when all position, they rise forget easily as well as the persons from whom past obligations, they received them. The no dean, however, protested that, matter to what eminence he attained, he would never fail to remember and to help his former and the friends, in particular. magician Illan led the dean into his but housekeeper not to cook to This a remote some she being the apartment, Don bargain, first desiring for supper, commands. the uncle, room the

procure them until

partridges had his special

had the dean and his friend reached Scarcely when two messengers arrived from the dean's archbishop, unwilling, to receive, Four letters days summoning to however, he contented afterwards him to his

death-bed. the lessons he was forego himself with a respectful other arrived messengers of the archbishop's

Being about reply. with

the dean informing death, and again at the end of other seven or eight days he learned that he himself had been appointed archbishop in his uncle's Don Illan solicited the vacant place. for his son but the new archbishop deanery preferred his own Don Illan and his brother, inviting, however, son to deanery refused uncles. accompany was again Don Two Illan's him vacant suit, in to his and see. After the one awhile, the again favour of archbishop of his own

the was named years later, archbishop cardinal and summoned to Rome, with to name liberty his successor in the see. Don his suit Illan, pressing more was again in favour of another urgently, repulsed









uncle. was

At chosen



pope Illan, him

to Rome, for not fulfilling

Don pope. then reminded the

died, who

and had




promises him. Th pope to put sought in earnest of the complained none of which had been made, he had

him accompanied that he had now no excuse he had so often repeated to him many kept, words. for of off but Don Illan he had promises and declared that The Illan he pope, thrown much into in that but

no longer any faith in his threatened to have Don angered, as a heretic and a sorcerer prison Toledo he had no other means the art of necromancy. practising how ill the pope and the had


support Don Illan,

his services, requited as if he had not already shown depart pope, sufficient refused even to grant him whereingratitude, with to support himself on the road. retorted Then," Don sincc 1 have to eat, 1 must needs Illan, nothing fall back on the supper." ordered

by seeing to prepared

I ordered for partridges to-night's He then called out to his housekeeper and her to cook the birds. No sooner had he thus Toledo, fact, he the way before

than the dean found himself in spoken again still dean of Santiago, as on his arrivai, for, in had not stirred from the place. This was simply the magician had himself chosen to his to test his committing crestfallen wherewith of the who character, the dean

and was so hands he had to reply to the reproaches nothing Don Illan dismissed him without even a taste from Cashmere tells of a Brahmin

partridges.' A modern folk-tale prayed to know

of the state of the something One morning, while in the river, his departed. bathing left him and entered the body of the infant child spirit of a cobbler. Th child his father's grew up, learned and had a large family, when business, married, suddenly he was made aware of his high caste, and, abandoning all, he went to another There the king had just country. Count Luc~nor," p. 77. Howells, p. 120








upon came to know where this or some other a cobbler and great of his low caste. performed themselves the

stranger his throne. In



was the



his place, of a few years


and his

put wife

In he was, and sought to join him. he was learned that way his people on account consternation prevailed Some of his subjects some fled indeed others burnt When

and his king the Brahmin's which spirit went and re-occupied corpse, still lay by the riverside. the Brahmin Thereupon got home to his wife, who only said How up and went ablutions this have you quickly performed your morning adventures, To crown came five to him days, all, The Brahmin about said he was not a word of his notwithstanding however, astonished. greatly a week afterwards a man he had eaten nothing for been away from Ail king. or burning an evil.

and great penances lest they should be excommunicated. heard all this, he too burnt himself

and said begging, which he had during because he a cobbler were the he said, escape while

his country the people,

had running

running been made

to themselves, The Brahmin, How can

consequences the man gave

away, of such

these be ? I have things 1 have reigned several years as a king for several ycars and this man confirms the truth of my thoughts. Yet 1 have not been absent from this house my wife dclares more than the usual and 1 believe time her, for she does not look any way." soul passes to a man's Hereafter thousand any Thus

food, thought been a cobbler for

is the place changed in older, neither were the gods teaching him that the various of existence through stages according and acts, and in the great thoughts, words, day is equal to a thousand years, and a

a day.I We in which the spell is types to be still powerful over heroes believed once mighty but within the hills, now hidden or in some far-off land, Knowles, p. ty.

are equal to years to the may now turn









in magical awaiting sleep, or in more than human delight, the summons that shall bid them return to succour their distressed in the hour of utmost need. As to the people of these heroes there can be no doubt. personality Grimm out that th red-bearded long ago pointed king beneath the Kyffhuser can be no other than Thor, the old Teutonic and that the long beardgod of thunder, sometimes described as white-attributed to other leaders was a token of Woden. The name of Woden is very to which Odenberg, and the hidden legends attach king called Karl the Great, and sometimes countries and Vishnu, we Quetzalcoatl the native cuits. and Oisin, Merlin, preservcd belong other to the old Celtic Pantheon. in the several there Woden. know, King And are of In such other of all is sometimes

gods Arthur if


or vanished heroes bear the names sleeping of personages who once had a real existence, are they but decked in borrowed In all these plumes. short, Hidden Heroes are gods of the earlier faiths, vanquished but not destroyed. by Christianity If this be so, it may be inferred that these gods were at one time conceived as presently and that it is only active, since the introduction of the new faith that they have been thought to be retired beneath the overhanging hills or in the all been regions Islands the of the Blest. chief activity But of this the was deities stories not has so. In always of the

in th past. the told placed Upon deeds of yesterday the belief of is founded. today Whether it be creation, or strife evil spirits, or against the punishment of men, or the invention of the civilizing endless arts, or the all is looked upon a state of rest, of cessation of open an amours as past of too and of susceptible The done. labour, or These stages or less from divinities, present at least is of

suspension and visible

abode. In men, require this abode is a Paradise on some mountain-top, or effectually

activity. the later more off

gods, like of culture


imaginary men by the







of the immeasurable or by the tempests main, and silent of heaven. But this exaltasupreme heights tion of ideas took long to reach. At first a strange rock, a fountain, the recesses of a cavern, or the mysterious of the enshrouded the divinity. In the depths forest, magical earlier it would be almost truer to say stages of savagery that these w~r~ very often the divinity at least they were often his outward and visible form. Mr. Im Thurn, who has had exceptional of observing the opportunities characteristics of the savage and has made excepmind, use of those in describing tionally good opportunities, the animism of the Indians of Guiana, says Every in the whole world is a being of body object consisting and spirit, and differs from other in no object every that of bodily or respect except form, and in the greater less degree of brute and brute power cunning consequent on th difference of bodily form and habits." bodily the lower animais and plants as discussing of body and and possessed soul, particularizing several rocks which are Indians to supposed by the like human he goes on It is possess spirits beings, to multiply further than by saying unnecessary instances, that almost rock seen for the first time, and any every rock which is in any way abnormal whenever seen, is Then, each believed many indeed consist that to consist of body and spirit. And not but also rocks, material bodies each of a body not all inanimate many waterfalls, streams, of every are sort, supposed and a spirit as does man dual only and to and after

avowedly the chance in any of the

have this objects attributed to them is probably all such objects that, while may ways above


due to only at any time,

of a spirit within presence been noticed in some cases."

show of the indicated, signs this spirit has not yet them, 1 From this belief to that

Im Thurn, pp. 352, 354. C/: Brett, p. 375. So Leland, p. 3 The Indian /M'~M/<M, or magician, distinctly taught that every created thing, animate or inanimate, had its indwelling spirit. Whatever had an idea had a sol."







23 objects not of a

in which are body upward, looked and







inanimate spirits, is dweller, But to


soul, and perhaps

as having the relation but of dwelling and a long one. which would

step it is a natural

and one development, as the popular opinion and these grew, spirits stitions and civilization The development by the earthen huts, as the would Food moment offered races barrows their rection sagas was by the

take inevitably place of the power of certain spirits to themselves attracted superwhosc current the among people same slow movement

barrows, so now in their occupiers. be seen would to

too. growing of would be assisted perhaps spoken like piles of stones, or of monuments As formerly in their over the dead. be regarded and living, the spot. at the be

the dead would graves, were still Their spirits from time to time haunting with them and on subsequent occasions of time among process bc

be buried and of burial them. In


would illiterate

identity were not

superstitions But if the supposed objects invariably frequently of

and then forgotten, to attract attention large enough which had their seat there might would could them not be might In Denmark haunt overlooked, into merge the the some

if the the cease. spirits other

barrows to haunt reverence. regarded the case

as the in other

of fairies countrics.~ When

barrows are and this is men once

C~ Grimm, "Teut. Myth." p. 962, quoting Harry, "Nieders. Sagen Jahn, p. 228, quoting Temme. Many of the sanctuaries of the Celts were upon mounds, which were either barrows of the dead, or were expressly made for temples; and th god was ca)ted in Irish C't' both meaning th C'~7M~, in Welsh 7~"MMC/'MC (now /~M C~), Head or Chief of th Mound (Rhys, "Hibbert Lectures," p. 2oi). Many mounds in England, now crowned )~y churches, have been conSee an able paper by Mr. T. W. jectured to be old Celtic temples. Shore on "Characteristic Survivais of the Celts in Hampshire," vol. xx. p. 9. Mont St. Michel, near Carnac, in /y/ /<?M/M. ~M~c~. From Brittany, is a chambered barrow surmounted by a little chapel. the relies found in the tomb, as well as the size of the barrow itself,

232 became outward

THE SCIENCE habituated and visible to


FAIRY TALES. of a barrow as not the



of some

more, perhaps, the dwelling-place it, so that it became of many would be led by an easy transition spirits-they and other natftral to think of rocks, fountains, hills, once supposed in th same way. The to spirits objects inner would become b~ their identity perfectly separable dwelling-place-still took place within in thought Thus the because their tenants. them, merely would be bridged between the savage gulf of spirits described and the by Mr. Im Thurn, from of the heathendom, higher and Greece. travelled in the arrived represented by

its but simply spirit, if many interments

philosophy polytheism

Mexico, Scandinavia, But whether they road, certain heathendom that were certain the

it is that men had spots, abodes directly and

or any different by this, times of the higher remoter no further than the belief

developed remarkable

certain striking objects, preferably of their This was a doctrine gods. from that which the more regarded

of nature as the bodies of powerful objects Nor was it ever entirely for even after abandoned spirits. and thoughtful of the community had the more advanced reached the idea of an Olympus, or an Asgard, far removed still had to places above their where every-day and temples, events the earth sacred of humanity, still legends the gods attached

had happened. history some localities their of Consequently kept reputation of the That sanctity. they were really the abiding-places would not cease to hold, whatgods the common people ever that might be taught or held crudity. ever anybody And, indeed, renounced it by those who had renounced whether it may be doubted at all altogether. Probably,

of the divine

some person, or persons, of importance must have been buried there. The moumt may well have been a haunted, a sacred spot ever since the ashes of th dead and their costly weapons and ornaments were committed to its keeping far back in the Neolithic age. Instances might easily be multiplied,









most events, that the god at the same traditions how But The abroad the Wild

in believing sce no difficulty would persons and also dwelt on the sacred spot of earth both in heaven. would time accept They themselves as equally true, without troubling them. did always a tradition noise common beyond cannot here not remain of to doubt a in and their furious dwellings. host riding and the gods

to reconcile

Hunt, with a terrific

of shouts


of hounds, braying has been identified and his host. We

Germany and England, with Woden by Grimm discuss the

except subject conin ils relations now under with the group of stories is one of in mind, sideration. it will be borne Woden, in the Hidden the figures of the old mythology merged is more Hero beneath the German hills. Now, nothing of warriors is cona company all ceived as lying for a summons, themselves ready armed and their steeds harnessed at their sides, standing should be thought now and then to sally forth. they This was the sound which the good surprised burgesses and his of Jung-Wositz when Ulrich von Rosenberg natural than that, when train the plain. In this way by night upon Wenzel his followers, and the unfortunate exercises King vindicated his existence beneath the Blanik notStoymir his withstanding Diedrich is heard the on morning Gerald years Earl and every seventh Alsace death. In this for preparing th mountain rides year round the host way battle of the a war, too, before in at one o'clock in seven Ax. Once of Kildare in Upper their mentions horses. from his the rode out

Curragh at Ochsenfeld on

may be seen by night exercising On certain robber days the Carpathian cavern in the Czornahora. Grimm


of a blacksmith who found a gap he had never story before in the face of a cliff on the Odenberg, noticed and of mighty stood in the men, entering, presence as Rip there at bowls with balls of iron, playing at ninepins. So a van Winkle's friends were playing







saga connects terious forest castle built was cursed with banishment the society of Stones. host in the of men In the


a myswho by the Knight Sigmirian, for three hundred years from with the of the King daughter we must put the spectral




for refusing same category

and Herla's which Donnersberg, company, haunted the Welsh and is described marches, by Walter band of men and women on foot and in Map as a great chariots, advancing weapons time of train being words, with pack-saddles with trumpets for and and panniers, shouts, birds and and all dogs, sorts of

ready Herla's seen to

emergencies. but wanderings, was at noon. an one obtain to exact answer

was the usual Night the last time he and his who to their but and then saw them,

were unable


rose they troop nor was it ever seen again.' This is a different account from an earlier quoted part if it were irreconcilable appears since tradition, served, worth while with the it. host to have to

prepared did so the

by arms into the air of Herla from

challenge by the moment disappeared,


of Map's the spend

work time, it

previously but perhaps, not altogether should be oba Welsh, name of

The been

tradition, an English, the

and not

English Gervase of Tilbury, about the same Herlething. writing that Arthur was said by the foresters, or time, reports both in Britain and in Brittany, to be very woodwards, often seen at midday, or in the evening at moonlight full of the moon, of soldiers, accompanied by a troop and the sound of horns. This is manidogs, But these occasions are not the festly a Celtic tradition. on which last such have been seen and appearances hunters, heard a tract may believe published in 16~.3, spectral fights had taken place at Keniton, four in Northamptonshire, successive during Saturday and Sunday of the preceding Christmastide. nights By country. those who are to have witnessed the phenomenon reported 1 MuUer, p. 203 Map, Dist. iv. c. 13. in this If we










-and mentioned from the months men's

among by Oxford-it

them name was

were as



of Edgehill, on the before

despatched taken to be a ghostly repetition which had been fought only adjacent fields. The excitement

of credit gentlemen himself king by the of two of

of commotion has doubtless during periods much to do with the currency of beliefs like this. Saint alludes to a story of a battle between evil Augustine beheld the civil spirits upon a plain in Campania during wars was of Rome. As by goes in all the the the case of accompanied indeed the saint was men over and the noises the Edgchill, of a conflict that vision and after it


ground horses. On

of declaring length was covered with the the spot took where this not

of footprints is said to have

an actual happened These two instances

very long after.' arc with the Sleeping of the legends but declare the Host many explicitly exercises of the host when it emerges from its retirement to consist of a sham the legends confight. Although this account are not all found Teutonic taining among place unconnected be deemed it cannot irrelevant to draw attention peoples, to the fact that similar are mentioned as the daily fights of the heroes who attain to Valhalla, occupation just as of that the nightly feasts roystering paradise correspond to the the refreshments of may stone have tables it for the warriors provided in their subterranean been be the doubted creed around retreats.


Whatever races, of

is hardly to we have superstitions which the Eddaic development. But we may-nay, of traditional history popular Grimm, Gerv. gods the archaic as

an approach Valhalla was we

of other European in these that German to the primitive belief, a late further. and For have in idealized in been the as with


religions and if we gods in

goddesses are right the Hidden


TiH)., Dec. ii. c. 12; "Book De Civ. Dei," I. ii. c. 25. Augustine,

some Heroes, of Days," vol. i. p. tg4;







the corresponding mates, of them had We have glimpses goddesses. already Frederick's in Morgan the Fay, in the Emperor ladyin maid who and in the (a'M~M) housekeeper on his bidding. The lady-houseanother saga attended Dame Holle. in one is expressly called story keeper where we must find their Now Dame Holle herself is the leader of a Furious Host, and has been identified beyond Hunt, by Grimm as a pagan like Berchta. goddess, any doubt comthe female Let us take another story in which of the enchanted hero appears. Near the town of panion or Wild Garz, on the island of Rgen, belonged lies a lake to an stood. It formerly whose avarice heaped the vaults beneath. and ever its Christians, black dog still by which old heathen a castle king, jewels in by the a great he is

store of gold and up great It was taken and destroyed into owner was transformed his treasure. Sometimes

with helm, or golden seen crown, and the city and the coat of mail, riding a grey horse over in the forest, sometimes he is met with lake by night It is a white staff. a black fur cap and carrying wearing on to disenchant him, but only if a pure virgin, possible will twelve and one o'clock, St. John's between night wall and the castle naked and alone, to climb venture, wander light down then carry, to and backwards the spot where upon into and the what treasure to take be able fro the amid stairway the she until ruins, of the tower leads she she will can

watching in human form

chamber. as much

down, Slipping gold and jewels as

carry the old king will after her, so that she will be rich for the rest of her bring not and she must But she must return life. by sunrise, a single word, else not once look behind her, nor speak A she will will she perish miserably. fail, but only her obtained was accused of unchastity who princess she cannot herself father's prove gained permission the falsehood the vault, try this of the charge to which was adventure, her. with in order She to against illuminatcd safely a thousand







237 7

lights. treasure with it



little sent AU

her, and upon to follow her. when round

old man, bestowed grey a number of servants would have

the laden

she looked

but gone well, she had climbed a few of the old step3 to see if the servants were coming. At dog, that eyes. slammed sprang She just


the king changed into a great black and glowing upon her with fiery throat had time to scream out when the door steps sank, and she fell She has sat there now

back into the vault in for four hundred years,-waiting until a pure shall find his way down in the same youth manner on St. John's shall bow to her thrice and night, kiss her. He may thcn take her hand and lead silently her forth to be his bride and he will inherit such riches as a whole cannot kingdom buy.I do not goddesses In a wood in Pomerania But the Castle always stands play so secondary a part. a round, flat hill called lies a little lake known as

to, the darkness.

Hill, and at its foot the Hertha Lake. it is thus conBy its name directly nected with one of the old divinities, like that lake on the island of Rgen referred to in Chapter IV. And here, seen to wash, a young too, a mysterious lady has been and lovely clad in black-not in secret, as in the maiden, former attracting to. At ventured get her instance, attention last but as openly, from passers-by, if for and

the purpose of of being spoken Kramp, of day," and to him she was a been still the from waiting was spell time for by of named

a broad-shouldered

to give the maiden into conversation. who, with her

workman, th time She told had she was

princess, immemorial her

enchanted, deliverer. The mode her on his there back and

castle, and that of in

carrying Wusseken

loosing silence to her


not down, to look round the while; what would, he could for, happen take no harm, even if it were threatened to tear his head He undertook the task, and had nearly off. accomplished putting Jahn, p. 182, quoting Arndt.

churchyard being careful







it without which

troubling followed him,

in the least when


a hurricane churchyard, of his promise, he getful rose into the air, weeping never more king, be delivered picturesque. who leagued now. himself

suddenly, arose and took looked and round

troops as he drew


of spirits near the

Forhis cap off. and the maiden out that she could

crying A story told the other with

It concerns

is in Mecklenburg of a lakedaughter knights

a against the owner of a castle called the Glamburg, which robber, was a place of some strength, surrounded being entirely of the Lake of Glam. The confederates by the water and nine large round raised were defeated barrows were the slain, was the lakeamong whom day over His daughter her father's and grave, king. wept upon her tears, as they touched the earth, becam lovely blue of the These flowers still grow upon the loftiest flowers. of them. while the others are quite destitute nine barrows, the next The princess threw herself and and that night-it was year a bridge the lke night-into between twelve night, rises sighing The out of the for her typical now every one o'clock, the princess St. John's on St. John's of copper upon it,

lake, and deliverance.' form of


Buchenberg can only

by Doberan be released

is as follows In the the tale dwells an enchanted who princess, in a hundred on St. years, In the year 1818


twelve and one. John's Day between side of a servant on the eastern sheep boy was watching the day before St. John's About the Buchenberg day. he noon a white lady appeared to him and told him that could deliver the next her, if he would, day at the same hour, kiss her. of a toad with promised so horrified as between lady as but that twelve She a red the would band next then round corne to him The in the form shepherd toad he was the hour its neck.

day when he saw the he ran away. A variant records and one

at night, and the form of the to twine round the shepa snake which sought Knoop, p. o Bartsch, vol. i. p. 273.







239 would

herd's have will made on the

neck. been have

A great his had he until been that her. the and child save

treasure stood the a beech eut down, is rocked is in





to wait

spot th

but now the lady proof tree shall have grown up and of its timber a cradle in that cradle the the story will told have by of effect

to power Sir John Hippocrates, have been


Maundeville renowned


to who physician, on the island of Cos, or enchanted by Diana and given with so much of Mr. (as he calls it) Lango, I in Th Earthly Paradise." William Morris' power damsel in the ruined listen castle Then says the to the seaman whom she meets-

daughter was said

Then listen when this day is overpast, A fearful monster 1 shall be again, And thou may'st he my saviour at the last, Unless, once more, thy words are nought and vain If thou of love and sovereignty art fain, Corne thou next morn, and when thou seest here A hideous dragon, have thereof no fear,
But take the kiss the loathsome it, and wealth head up in thine hands,

And Of twice From And Of all

be master that

presently is in aU the


to the head of Italy Cathay master also, if it pleaseth thee, as so fresh and bright, thou praisest thou callest crown of all delight.

Of what **<<

Ah, me 1 to hold my child upon my knees, After the weeping of unkindly tears, of these four hundred And all the wrongs years." But for the the horrible adventurer's He cried of the was too much

apparition courage out eyes, with and and


his Shutting Ran swifdy, Batsch,

wildly turned and

at her and

smote, from the face," p. 138. place

a white

ghastly Trav.


i. p. 271








to die within


any woman's

a raving

go her


Never To seek her

durst again and end form,


It would




of the examples proportion able in Germany alone. to allude to a few of its chief features. When necessary the enchanted assumes a monstrous the princess form, usual ordeal of the would-be deliverer is to kiss her. A toad or a snake

even a small through of this tale, almost innumerit will be Fortunately, only



her favourite but is, perhaps, form she is half woman, half toad, or half woman, occasionally half snake. Further transformations now and then take as from a snake into a fiery dog, or from a bear place, into a lion, from a lion into a snake. Sometimes as a bear saga and alone then she wait threatens three at the her birch deliverer. rods at the In full a Carinthian of the moon, damsel he is to eut

in the guise approaches in her mouth, and menaces Unmoved by the creature's on the mouth. head with each In the Duchy

appointed of a snake, him, rage, rod and

The place. with a bunch

hissing he is to strike take the

of keys and snorting fire. her thrice her keys from favourite form

of Luxemburg the assumed is that of a fire-breathing by the princess snake, in her mouth a bunch of keys, or a ring and bearing the deliverer's task then is to take the keys or ring away with his own mouth. It is believed that Melusina, whose we shall deal with in the following is story chapters, enchanted beneath the There and puts Bockfels, she appears one a rock near th town of seventh every year in in a smock. When she

Luxemburg. human form shall but and have woe then


sewing to the town Men

monument. This as

she will be delivered for its ruins will be her grave have often undertaken her earlier at midnight, when she with the a key inouth

stitch the smock

deliverance. appears

is to be effected by taking

a snake,

TH SUPRNATURAL from her mouth and





it into the Alzet. No ninging has succeeded in doing and one, however, yet this meantime when a calamity threatens the town, whose faithful she is, she gives guardian warning by gliding round the Bockfels loud laments.I uttering But in many of the sagas the princess meets her hero in out her own formed proper varies much deep lake, shape, more. which and In then the a Prussian feat tale to she be percornes

of a

mighty castle, at sunset, The castle by a black dog. parents, and it who was wicked, on destroyed were

the site of a onceoccupies clothed in black, and accompanied belonged though account she of to the their young herself was evil lady's pious

doings. Since that time she has wandered some around, seeking bold and pious man who will follow her into the depths of the lake, and thus remove the curse. This would seem but another form of the tradition of the lake at the foot of the on the isle of Rgen. In another Herthaburg story kiss. dark the lady must another bc In yet brought the deliverer an unbaptized is led down child through to a

into a brilliantly underground passage where sit three black men at writing bidden to take one of two swords which and head strike of a off the the enchanted bewitched spell.

lighted a table, lie on the

room, and is table off the of the


To cut lady's head. is an effectuai means person Gaelic of So, in the story

1 Bartsch, vol. i. pp. 269 (citing NiederhoHer, below), 271, 272, 273, 274., 318. In this last case it is a man who is to be saved by a kiss from a woman while he is in serpent form. vol. i. Niederhoner, Kuhn und Meier, pp. 6, 31, 321 pp. 58, l68, vol. ii. p. 235 Schwartz, pp. 9, 201 Baring Gould, p. 223, citing Kornemann, Mons Veneris," and Prtorius, Weltbeschreibung Jahn, p. 220 &c. In one of Meier's Rappold, p. 135. Gredt, pp. 8, 9, 2t5, 228, Swabian tales the princess appears as a snake and flings herself round the neck of her would-be deliverer-a is to strike her woman--who Meier, p. 27. In one of Kuhn und lightly with a bunch of juniper Schwartz' collection, where the princess becomes a toad, no ceremony is prescribed Kuhn und Schwartz, p. 9. 17







Widow horse-ogre,


her who




returns to thereupon her. A large number king's son, and marries instances be given but they might easily us too far afield. The lady of the Princess Warin, in until in spite night of snakes, and toads which crowd dragons, threaten the adventurer. In the same to secure had to hold her desiring Thetis, her various and tale at cock a useless, Cretan seizes the a dog, magical returned the changes to her until true she form. Mecklenburg, one o'clock has to

decapitates his true form

the as a

of parallel would lead Hill, from near mid-

be held fast of all frightful

apparitions around and

way Peleus, fast through found resistance In a modern

enchanting his lady-love

of an old woman, hero, by the advice a Nereid her until night by the hair and holds in spite of her changes into crows, successively a camel, and fire. The of dissnake, process Tarn Lin, in the ballad of that name, was for to take him in her his transformation arms into into a and hold a snake, him, nota bear, a

withstanding lion, a red-hot when We have

and lastly iron, he was to be immediately

seen that already to a churchyard. At the Castle Hill of carry the maiden Btow she was to be carried to the Polish churchyard and there thrown to the ground with ail the deliverer's A castle is said to have stood formerly on the might. site of Budow Mill haunts who in Eastern the will place. her the their Pomerania. She in An enchanted be freed without but the in every now princess by a bachelor looking spirits behind which is only to and silence,

burning gleed," flung into a wcll.' the task is sometimes to

him, hold her

carry around under

churchyard spell will seek

her deliverance. On the Mggelsberg way to hinder is, a large or was (for it is said to be now destroyed), stone a treasure under which lies. It was called the Devil's Von Tettau, p. 220; Kuhn, pp. 66, 99; Bartsch, vol. i. p. 272 Metam." 1. xi. f. 5 Child, vol. i. pp. 336 Ovid, Jahn, p. 249 der Neugriechen," (citing Schmidt, "Volkleben p. tig), 340.









Altar ing drawing Kpenick, Princesses'

and village

at night it often of Mggelsheim, the another


from the neighbourseemed, to be in a blaze but on from fire would At vanish sight. the not far off, it was called village

but the lake at the foot of the hill was Stone, called the Devil's was said to occupy Lake. The stone the site of a castle, now enchanted and swallowed up in the earth. Beneath it a hole ran deep into the mountain, of an evening seen out of which a princess was sometimes to come, with a casket of pure gold in her hand. He who would round of Kpenick her thrice the church carry of gold without about win the casket looking him, would and deliver The names of the stone and of the her. are strong lake, as well as the attendant circumstances, in favour that we have in this vidence of the conclusion and a record a relic of heathen of times, superstition some to reside at that believed divinity clad in white and a golden having on her hand, was believed to appear at midday. Biesenthal, to a gardener who summoning frightened her to the him at the to Once had the spot. A princess, in at spinning-wheel the Castle Hill

she appeared at midnight often heard voices at night garden. At first he was


but at length consented to carry vision, stands near the hill. He took which church, the churchyard he entered her on his back but when drawn met a carriage he suddenly by coal-black gate was he that fire. So terrified he which vomited horses, the carriage and the vanished, aloud, whereupon For ever lost flew away In a moaning princess the feat was to a prince had been enchanted, case where l in succession. wrestle with him threc nights shrieked But the I German it was deliverer. way always that so hard a task was set before for the it says little To our thinking, that the difficulty in unbusiness of doing not Kuhn und Schwartz, p. r. on Orpheus when he went

Knoop, pp. 6, 57 Kuhn, pp. 113, ?2 The prohibition to look back was imposed to rescue Eurydice from Hades.







and the maiden Lossin, who was to a pair therein, of shoes without buy and bargaining their but to pay for cheapening price, them the of money exactly which piece the maiden handed to the youth who undertook the enterprise. In another case a maiden was seen to scour a kettle at a little lake. She was enchanted. The man who beheld her the kettle thought would useful at his approve proaching and borrowed it on the express wedding, condition of returning it at a fixed time. He failed to do so and the Evil One came and fetched and the maiden it had to wait for her deliverance. longer There are stories similar to this of fairies such articles on this lending condition. If the condition be not complied the with, fairies are never seen relates again. that in the Aubrey of Frensham vestry in Surrey, is a great Church, kettle, which was borrowed from the fairies who lived in the a mile away. Borough Hill, about It was not returned to promise, according and though afterwards taken back, it was not nor since that received, time had there been l there. any borrowing A man who was in the habit of meeting in a certain wood an adder, which sneezed thrice as he passed, always consulted his parish on the subject. priest The priest advised him to say the next time, as he would to a human friend who sneezed God help thee The man did the adder so, whereupon shot forth before him with fiery and terrible body so startling him rattling, that he turned and fled. The snake hurried after him, crying out that it would not hurt him, but that if he would take the bunch of keys hands) its neck, hung it would then lead the way and make great treasure him He turned a happy. ear to these and as he ran entreaties away he heard snake exclaim that now it must remain enchanted (not, however, about with naked that to deaf the until a

spelling dweit




Knoop, pp. 5t, 59 Keightley, p. 295, quoting Aubrey's "Natural of Surrey Gent. Mag. Lib." (Pop. History Supers.), p. 280.









yon little made out

had been grown great, and a cradle of the timber the first child that lay in that cradle would be able to deliver it. The same incident in another reappears some men saga, in which passing the forest hear a sneeze, through and one of them says God help thec! The sneeze and the are blessing but when the sneeze was heard repeated a third time, the man exclaimed "I believe Oh, go to the devil is making somebody But a game of us," said another. mannikia forward and said If you had said a stepped third time God I should have been saved. help thee Now I must wait until an acorn falls from yonder tree and becomes an oak, and a cradle is made out of its timber. The child that comes to lie in that cradle will be able to deliver me." In this case all that was required was a thrice-repeated Another curious means blessing. of deliverance is found in a story from Old Strelitz. There an enchanted haunted a bridge a short princess distance from one of the gates of the town, on the road to Woldegk. Whoever in going over this bridge uttercd a certain her if he would word, could unspell afterwards allow her to walk beside him the rest of the way over the without but the bridge was that speaking difficulty knew what the powerful word was.' nobody Two other be noticed on the legends mode of may the spell. The White undoing who haunts the Lady White Tower on the White Hill at Prague was married to a king. She betrayed and married his enemy, him, from whom she subsequently fled with an officer of his She was, however, and walled army. caught, up in the White Tower. From this she may be delivered if she can find any one who will allow her to stabs give him three a bayonet without a sound. uttering Once she prevailed on a young who was placed recruit, as sentinel before the magazine of the castle, to stand the but on receiving necessary the first blow trial he could Meier, pp. 209, 87 NiederhofTe! vol. in. p. 251. in the breast with










thou hast given Jesus Mary! has twelve in Bohemia castle it of the ladies enchanted by day as fish in the fountain truc in their and appearing castle garden, only at night unless can not be disenchanted by twelve They shape. months for twelve in the castle men who will remain outside the walls.~ without once going the in which of ~rc/~ us to a number These bring suffers who is released heroine by a youth bespelled tell on her account. Th torture gipsies Transylvanian a tale of a very by a dream, poor man who, instructed maiden a beautiful mountain and found climbed a certain She had hair. her own golden before a cavern, spinning not forbear me crying aloud Another old been sold compelled she could her sake, successive by her heartless parents but her to this labour to find any one willing an hour's nights. attempt torture The from man to she an evil could who spirit, if bc saved

undergo the evil

expressed the cave, and at midnight he entered make the and evil or a gigantic appeared, Prikulich, spirit, he wanted as to who he was and what him questioned the Prikulich to get any reply, there. flung him Failing The on him. about and danced to the ground madly the and at one o'clock a moan without man endured the man was The second Prikulich night disappeared. the that and so tortured a heavy with beaten hammer, maiden the third stay, the had great proof. Prikulich difficulty she While in was persuading him to stand

for in silence, on three spirit himself ready to

the with again made the goblin fellow tonnent deliverer. of space references uttered and This forbids in the

to him, however, praying the third time, and beat him appeared Then he was half dead. hammer until a fire not and flung him into it. The a single maiden in spite of sound, and wedded was saved poor all this her


is a tale

Want by no means uncommon. a few but it in detail, us to follow to do the reader note below will enable 1 Grohmann, pp. 56, ~o.









so if he please. 1 will only say that sometim.es Meantime, the princess who is thus to be rescued is enchanted in the form bird of a monster the hero of a snake, sometimes and in one of the like in a she-goat, sometimes in the stories she herself, of of a shape to tear

to that hand, in a haunted had the taken Briar

a hedgehog, comes out of a coffin is allied, on the one The pices.' group of Fearless th night who, passing Johnny or goblins, which the ghosts, house, expelled on the by Mr. other Burne hand, Jones' to that series of of

of it possession Rose, illustrated

paintings. The Briar

of Sleeping as Rose, or The Beauty Wood, it cornes to us from Perrault's is the story of a hands, maiden who was cursed by an offended fairy to pierce her hand with a spindle and to die of it-a curse afterwards effort mitigated was made into by a sleep of a hundred the king, her father, and castle for a whole in itself remained century the castle all years. Every to avert the the in princess a magical within it were

but in vain doom, and all her court sleep, while the


from intrusion magical protected by an equally growth of brambles and thorns, which not only prevented access, but entirely hid it from view. At length a king's son found moment the fated very period came to an end it in other he or, as we have versions, awakened the maiden In the old stories of with a kiss. the Niblungs has pricked and the Volsungs Odin the shield-maid with a sleep-thorn, and thus conBrynhild demned her to sleep within on Hindfell. the shield-burg way the Attracted of fire, Sigurd comes to the by the appearance her ~rom releases her shield-burg and, finding Brynhild, slumber with his sword. This by ripping up her armour is chronologically form of the myth of the the earliest Enchanted Princess with which we are acquainted and 1 Von Contes," Wlislocki, p. 76 Campbell, vol.ii. p. 293 Luzel, voL i. pp. 198, 217 "Annuaire des Trad. Pop." 1887, p. 53; Pitr, vol. v. pp. 238, 248; Grundtvig, vol. i. p. 148 Schneller, pp. t03,109. his in at

2~8 it is interwoven






fibres of the Teutonic very that the Germans It is no wonder, therefore, mythology. in their folk-lore. a place it so prominent have given in the folkit is less conspicuous So far as now appears of the exception races with lore of the other European it shows itself it does show itself and when the Slaves, of we know what as a ~M~c~M. although But, chiefly races may sugand Slavonic of the Teutonic the folk-lore we how rarely for this, we must not forget gest reasons with the can To dogmatize this rule characteristics. on national safety is no exception of a nation the folk-lore a double with the rule emphasis applies has so of which the scientinc investigation so little. and has yet achieved to a last we turn this speculation, therefore, with us, namely, Different the times

rather, nay, to a subject lately begun Declining point in the

time propitious of the year are for the it is Advent, In some stories of for this purpose. spoken or New Year's makes her appearnight, when the lady In a Pomeranian and be delivered. ance saga, may and they her seven cursed where a woman daughters who is of the same a woman, became age as the mice, sagas before disenchantment. with must corne the curse, she uttered when were when seven sons of the same ages as the daughters at noon, to the thicket on Good Friday they were cursed, round the mice are, and put her sons on a certain where mother stone shape marry, lives. the next there. and and The when seven the rich tale after mice children and will are happy then old the return to human enough they will for the rest of their deliverer to come

become A Carinthian full moon


and May-night "May-Sunday" But the favourite time case. is the date fixed in another Some of at noon or midnight.' is St. John's Day, either 26; Bartsch, vol. i. pp. 271, 272, 274; Jahn, p. 185; Meier.p. 272, 273, RappoM, p. 135; Bartsch, vol. i. pp. 269, 270,.27t, NiederhOffer, vol. i. p. 168, vol. n. p. 235, vol. iii. p. 283, 308, 3t8 and 171; Knoop, p. to; Jahn, pp. t82, 8$, 206, 207, 217, 220, 221; many others.








these only feast





has not superseded one which is Good The Friday. policy to Christian uses as many as consecrating the seasons and customs she found already the peoples she had conquered, among seized

the perhaps an ancient heathen of the in Church, of possible honoured


her own. And holy days and made them of Folk-lore has taught us anything, it is that the observances on these converted to the rites holy days external demanded are relics of the ceremonies by the Church in pagan performed deities. In none of days to pagan these instances has the proof been more conclusive than in that of St. or Midsummer John's, Grimm, Day. first, with abundant and more Mr. Frazer, learning, recently with a wealth of illustration that of Grimm surpassing and indeed inaccessible in his day, have himself, shown that the Midsummer festival was kept in honour of the that it consisted of the ceremonial sun of fire, kindling the gathering and use of floral garlands, the offering of human and other and the performance of sacred sacrifices, and that its object was to increase dances the power of the sun by magical to obtain a good harvest sympathy, and fruitfulness of all creatures, and to purge the sins of the people. It was, in fact, the chief of th ceremony the European races. year among Prominent the remnants of these among ceremonies continued down to modern are the Midsummer days bonfires. These were lighted on the tops of mountains, barrows. This situation hills, or even may be thought to have reference to the solstice symbolic but probably a still more powerful reason for it was the already sacred character of such But we need hardly places. consider whether the ceremonies of which the bonfires are the were observed on the hill-tops remnant, and other high because the latter were places already sacred, or, conthe hill tops and other versely, were held high places of the ceremonies sacred because enacted for in there

their upon if the science

250 either many objects which under case of the her







of them

sanctity still held when

remains. sacred, at the she an

Wells were



superstition Church,

in various ways Midsummer for festival chose to take the practices

too, the

excuse in St. John's ample mission Now, whatever spots were the haunt there it was doubtless of pagan divinities, that those divinities were expected to appear and by the same reasoning would be most likely to they the favoured appear during hours of the holy days. This is exactly what we find to be the case with Enchanted Princesses, and, so far as the with Sleeping days are recorded, Heroes. The heroes lie within the hills, which in many are only legends open on certain The days. princesses the hills, appear upon or by the sides of pools, the if we believe sites, the of ancient castles legends, where dwelt. Once in they the year, or once in a on a certain cycle of years, day, Midsummer or Midsummer usually Day Eve, they come to wash, or to fetch in their own water, either form, or permitted compelled of the curse by the terms that has bound and then it is that mortals them are admitted to an interview and may render them the service of disenchantment. The instances in which the are days are so frequent specified we may perhaps that suspect were originally mentioned they in all, but that time and other circumstances have caused them to be forgotten. However this may be, it is to conclude only reasonable in the number of instances that, we have a remaining, tradition of the honours long ago paid to these degraded divinities on the days appointed for their worship. Mag. Lib." (Pop. Superst.) p. 51 Brand, vol. i. p. 250, note; Pitre, vol. xii. pp. 304, 307; Bartsch, vol. ii. p. 288; "Antiquary," vol. xxi. p. 195, vol. xxii. p. 67. Cf. a legend in which the scene haunted by the enchanted lady is a on the top of Johannisberg which is a chapel dedicated to St.-John the Baptist, to which pilgrimages were made and the lady appeared on Midsummer Day (Gredt pp. 215,2t9,225,579). "Gent.

protection, to baptize.'










be going too far in suggesting be performed afford some confirmation

that the feats to of this conclusion is much to me there to be said for such an yet it seems The of a god in animal formopinion. appearance even in a loathsome animal form-would not derogate from his essential Where in these stories the godhead. deliverer task has to deal with ancient and wellprescribed. Kissing known act of worship, which survives us in many among a practice of the Roman Catholic as well as in Church, the form of oath taken and it daily in our law courts the more repulsive the object to be kissed, may be that the greater required matched drowned washed princess of kissing it. the lady who Again, to be followed into the depths of a lake may be with the whose slaves were goddess Hertha, in the self-same waters wherein had they her than nor to does wash it a seem more menial to carry a The of goddess. ceremony be the relic of a solemn procession, The words of blessing following and explanation time a borrowed the mortal. fetched that 1 am would doubt it. which anger the kettle omission would to retard by the and the the who be a to to to be the merit an animal, is a very a kiss is the usual

I may

carrying may indeed or of a sacred drama. on a sneeze need no return more the we at the promised likely to provoke deliverance of a that have word the the little need

of a god than This is implied the in kettle an

statement so story unknown haunted reminiscence There kiss, sagas place the


himself earlier form to the unless explain lady it


unable deliver Strelitz,

at Old bridge of an incantation. the demand the to which the

remain torture

for heroes


unbaptized of the two Pomeranian

child Bohemian tale

submit, seven

requirement brothers on the

in the stone


and the violence mice, lastly personal involved in striking her with a birch-rod and in beheadal. In all these we juniper

by the seven to the damsel or a bunch of probably have

2g2 traces of






to any one who enough most superficial rites. acquaintance with savage We have already seen that an unbaptized child is regarded as a pagan, and is an object of desire on the part of supernatural The same reasons which induce fairies beings. to steal it would render it an acceptable probably offering to a pagan No words need be wasted on the divinity. familiar, has the torture, violence, involves or th the tale the of if indeed personal remnant of a tradition of sacrifice, of the herself. This divinity the mice. But th

sacrifice. The offering if not comprehensible,

of an




slaughter be thought an insuperable might but it is objection not really so. absurd it may seem to us, For, however it is a very widespread custom to sacrifice to a divinity his or living whether in representative incarnation, animal or human form. It is believed in such cases that th victim's forthwith finds a spirit, released by sacrifice, home in another Th is too vast and body. subject to be discussed here at length the reader complex who desires to follow it out can do so in Mr. Frazer's profoundly interesting work on "Th Golden the custom and Assuming, however, belief, to be admitted, it will be seen that the underlying stated, is precisely that which we want in order thought to this mode of disenchantment. For if, on the explain one hand, what looks like murder be enjoined in a number of stories for the of disenchanting 'a purpose bewitched and if, on the other the result person hand, of solemnly a victim be in fact held to be slaughtering the release of the victim's if it was simply spirit-nay, the prescribed mode of releasing that seek a spirit-to sometimes a better, abode in a fresh new, we body, be satisfied that both these may surely have the same We then origin. and see in this may go further, unspelling Princess quently incident, in stories, on a day performed, this way, as at a in one the more Enchanted spot, proof frethat haunted Bough." as here

of special











princess traditions no

herself other

was than







the myth Princess has preFinally served in many of its variants a detail more archaic than any in that of the Sleeping Hero, and one which is decisive as to the lady's real status. If Frederick were to arise and come forth from his sleeping-place, the Kyffhaser itself would remain. If Arthur were to awake and quit the Castle the rock itself wherein he lay would Rock, still be there. But the lake or mountain haunted by an enchanted maiden often owes its very existence, if not to to the spell which holds her her, at least enthralled. When she is delivered the place will be changed the lake will give way to a palace the earth will open and a buried castle will reascend to the surface what is now but an old grey boulder will forthwith return nothing to its previous condition of an inhabited and stately building or what is now a dwelling of men will become desolate. One of the best examples of this is the superstition 1 have cited Melusina. When she finishes already concerning her and needlework the ruins she of will the be disenchanted, but town of Luxemburg only will to die be her

a goddess. of the Enchanted

In other the existence of grave and monument. words, the town is bound is to up with her enchantment,-that In the same way the bespelled say, with her life. damsel of the Urschelberg, near Pfullingen, in Swabia, is called name of the mountain-the Old Urschel. by the very of a belief in the enchanted This can only be the survival the soul, the real life of the lady as the indwelling spirit, a belief which spot she haunted goes back to a deeper of savagery than one that her as a local depth regards and out of which the latter would be easily goddess, developed.' Von Tettau, p. 220 Kuhn und Schwartz, pp. 9, 200 Meier, pp. 6, 8 Gredt, pp. 7, 228, 281. In another story, quoted by Meier (p. ~), from Crusius' "Schwab. Chron. the enchanted maiden is called "a heathen's daughter "pointing directly to pagan origin.

These but







1 have

by Let me, therefore, by every fresh discovery. recapitulate the results of the investigations contained in this and the two examined We have preceding chapters. rapidly several of fairy tales in which the hero, detained types in Fairyland, is unconscious of the flight of time. These. tales are characteristic of civilization. story of King rex y//<? lieved to be a far-on' of a high Connected with th Sleeping rather them than we have a low stage found the


the case exhaust by no means said enough in support of conclusions antiGrimm's and confirmed clear-sighted genius

Arthur, the hidden


deliverer, expected beneath the hills, at other

y~~ ~oy~/M, sometimes betimes in

the world land, or from time to time traversing with his band of attendants This as the Wild Hunt. is a tradition of a heathen god put down by Christianity, but not destroyed in the and memories of the hearts people-a but to enduring cerning Princess they have of political influences, independent which is apt to and give oppression special The tradition convitality. corresponding a heathen of goddess a thousand is discovered in the Enchanted if whose home, sagas, peculiar is in Teutonic and Slavonic countries. tradition




The //<<M'~fMof Hasan of Bassorah--The Marquis of the Sun-The feather robe and other disguises-The taboo-The Star's Daughter MelusinaTh Lady of the Van Pool and other variants-The Nightmare. THE narratives with which we have Sagas. again hitherto But to our refer been to the occuother

to the class called pied belong of them have led us once and class Tales there seen mentioned or is the .M~rc~M. no bridgeless same very in the second as

discussions of Nursery out, have or in


Chapter-that 1 have already between narrated

gulf incidents

pointed them. We in Wales

with breathless awe as a veritable occurrence Germany in India, or among the Arabs, which arc a mere play of well the case may be reversed, and what fancy. Equally is gravely told at the antipodes as a series of events in in France the life of a Maori anccstor, may be reported as a nursery or England tale. Nay, we need not go out of Europe itself to find the same plot serving for a saga in one land and a M~rc~<?M, detached from all circumstances of time and place, in another. An excellent example of this is furnished by the myth one of the most widely of the Swan-maiden, distributed, and at the same time one of the most stories beautiful, ever 1 shall been any of evolved take treated its from the with tale an the mind of man. As its where surpassed Nights," first of Hasan epic of Bassorah, type it has by and


grandeur hardly in the famous







perhaps splendid Hasan




of of old boy

the who

less falls

famous under

but the

equally influence

Mabinogion is a worthless


of a Magian, who professes to be an alchemist, and who at length him. used him with kidnaps Having great the Magian takes him fifteen on cruelty days' journey dromedaries into the desert to a high at the mountain, foot whereof the old rascal sews him up in a skin, with a knife and a small together of three provision cakes and a leathern bottle of water, afterwards retiring to a distance. One of the vultures which infest the mountain then on Hasan and carries him to pounces the top. In accordance with the Magian's instructions, the hero, on arriving slits the skin, and jumping there, out, to the bird's affright, picks up and casts down to the bundles of the wood which he finds around Magian him. This wood is the means the alchemy is perby which and having the Magian formed gathered up the bundles after of youth, despairing where dwell seven maidens, life, finds his way to a palace with whom he remains for awhile in Platonic friendship. When are summoned father for a they away by their two months' charging their wishes, enclosing come to cast of their "ten a absence, him not to and basin him their they leave keys, straitly door. He disregards open a certain finds within a magnificent pavilion leaves Hasan to his fate. The

who turns out to be a daughter damsel, of a of the Jann. On the return of the maidens of King the palace he is advised to watch the next timc by them the birds and to take of the feathercome, possession suit belonging to the damsel of his choice, for without this she cannot return home with her attendants. He succeeds in doing so, and thus compels her to remain

brilliancy the chief

of water, at which ten birds bathe and play. The birds for this purpose and Hasan is favoured with the sight feathers maids whose shamed the virgins, beauty of the moon." He fell madly in love with




with his bears

him own


become and sons.


wife. in



country him two shc

settles During her

Bagdad, his tcmporary

to dparts where his wife absence, unIIves



persuades for the happiness

mother-in-lawwho, of the household,

let her have the feather-suit young couple-to which her husband has left under her Clad charge. with this she takes her two boys in her arms and sails the air to the islands of Wk, a away through leaving for the hapless Hasan that if he loves her he message may Wk all come were and seven seek her there. wherein Now was the islands of islands, and the a mighty host, were peopled by various tribesmen



inner isles virgin girls, satans and marids and warlocks and of the Jinn, and whoso entered their land never returned and Hasan's wife was one of the king's thence daughters. To reach her he would have to cross seven and wadys seven seas and seven mountains. mighty Undaunted, wherewith he is threatened, however, by the difficulties he determines to find her, swearing never to by Allah turn back till he regain his beloved, or till death overtake him. of more or By the help of sundry potentates less forbidding and supernatural to whom aspect power, he gets letters of introduction, and who live in gorgeous amid and are served palaces deserts, by demons only and less mighty than he succeeds in uglier themselves, the Land of Birds, the Land of Wild traversing Beasts, the country of the Warlocks and the Enchanters, and the Land of the Jinn, and enters the islands of Wk there wife's to fall into eldest sister. the hands After of that masterful virago, his a preliminary outburst against this amiable creature as is the wont of Hasan, pours, the full torrent of her wrath her erring women, against sister. From the tortures shc inflicts, Hasan at length rescues his wife, with their two sons, by means of a cap of invisibility and a rod conferring over seven authority tribes of the Jinn, which he has stolen from two boys t8







his sister-in-law When over them. quarrelling the subjects with an army of Jinn pursues the fugitives, of the rod overcome His wife begs for her sister's her. life and reconciles her husband to her, and then returns with her husband in Bagdad, to quit him to his home no more.' l who are Such variants which shall in meagre outline is this wonderful are legion, and I can are of special interest. my attention only refer In dealing to the essential Its story. to a few of them with points these of the 1


such details as are germane to the plot, touching only thus We shall evoked. questions pass in accordingly and review th maiden's and capture, disguise her' flight of her recapture and afterwards to other turning types the tale, we shall look at the corresponding be met with for another therein, reserving of the meaning of th myth, considration can be traced. The foregoing bird whose tale is is shape assu~ed not specified~ but and incidents chapter so far as to the it

and grace beauty the swan, several

find purity of the most important

in the by the Jinn in Europe, where in so apt an emblem variants have

that majestic form to~'the heroine, naturally appropriated of and have thus a name to the whole given group stories. In Sweden, for example, we are told of a young hunter who beheld three swans descend on the sea-shore and the lay their plumage water. When he aside looked before at the they robes plunged so laid into aside

like forms that were and the linen, appeared they of dazzling in the waves were damsels whiteswimming he secures the linen ness. Advised by his foster-mother, not and fairest. could of the youngest She, therefore, follow her companions when they drew on their plumage she and being thus in the hunter's away power, his wife. The hero of a story current became among a forof Transylvania like Hasan, the Germans opens, and flew Burton, Nights," vol. vili. p. 7.


swan-maids contained taken the until bathing in satchels satchel he has in a on

bidden blue its

door, pool.

and Their and

finds clothes when not

threc are he look has

margin, This

of the reached

youngest home.

he must


there the maiden and done, he finds the Mikilo her him. to marry Ivnovich, persuades wanders hero of a popular Russian ballad, by the sea, swan a white out a quiet bay, beholds and, gazing upon He draws his bow to shoot thre. her, but she floating him prays her white Surprised herself as baptized, a forester to desist wings, with love, a heathen and then sees a fair over the blue and rising into a beautiful she turns he offers to kiss and princess she will wed him. swan but her demands In sea upon maiden. to bc

she reveals first

a Hessian

lake. on a lonely floating or it him to desist, is about to shoot it when it warns was transthe swan will cost him his life. Immediately she was bewitched, him formed into a maiden, who told for her but could be freed if he would say a Patcrnoster every silence hard, The Sunday for concerning and he lost twelvemonth, his adventure. her. 1 a and The meantime test proved keep too

story He

the monopolizes however, by no means swan, In a Finnish form. honour of concealing the heroine's in dreams a dead father taie from sterbotten, appears to his three. night the sons, gecse to them commanding The on the sea-strand. watch two by singly elder are so

Haltrich,?. ~; IJapgood, Thorpe, vol. i). p. ~quotingAfzclius; p. 575. Ko p. 39; Baring-Gould, p. 214; Meier, "Volksmarchen," authority is given by Mr. Baring-Gould, and 1 have been unab!e to Ile niso cites trace th Hessian tale; but 1 rely on his correctness. an incohrent Swan-maiden tale from Castrn, of which he manages to make more sense than 1 can (Castren, "AItaischenVolker," p. 172). In an Irish taie Oengus, the son of th Dagda, falls in love, through a dream, with Caer ib Ormaith, who is one year in the form of a swan After union with her he seems to and the next in human shape. vol. iii. have undergone th same alternation of form (A' C<yw, p. 342, from a MS. in the British Musum).







frightened But the till strip into most the




give herself ducks

youngest, despised dirty, boldly, at the first flush of dawn three geese fly thither, off their and as lovely feathers, plunge, maidens, th water to bathe. Then the youth chooses the beautiful of the three of wings he finds on pairs hides and awaits shore, nor does he them, events them to the owner until she has betrothed up again to him. but Elsewhere a more common the damsels are described as

that and


scamper watches


is that of doves. A shape in Bohemia of a boy whom story is current a witch leads to a spring. Over the spring stands an old elm-tree haunted white by three doves, who are enchanted princesses. one and plucking out Catching her wings, he restores her to her natural and she brings him condition to his parents, whom he had lost in the sack of the city where dwelt. Th Magyars of three they speak pigeons noontide to a great coming white lake, where every they turn somersaults and are transformed into girls. They arc really and a boy who can steal fairy-maidens the dress of one of them and run away with the it, resisting to look back when she calls temptation in caressing succeeds in winning her. In the "Bahar tones, Danush a merchant's son perceives four doves at sunset alight of water, their by a piece and, natural form resuming are Peries), forthwith undress and plunge they into water. He steals their and thus clothes, compels the one whom he chooses to accept him as her husband. The extravagance characteristic of the Arabian Nights," in the story of Janshah, it represents when, the ladies as (for the their to the size of eagles, doves, expands with figures far less effect, than where however, retain more they moderate dimensions. No better illustration of this can be given than the story from South Smaland of the fair Castle east of the Sun and north of the versified so Earth, in Th Earthly Paradise." There exquisitely a peasant, that the fine grass of a meadow finding to him belonging



was set

constantly his three



during another, as usual keeps

the to in

summer watch these in the

trespassers. but unsuccessfui, th sun is about birds, their begin step then feathers to dance that they

sons, one after The two elder, the to youngest rise. A the

nights, for the


tales, are awake until air, as of who cast maidens do they To the

heralds and

flight fair become

rustling of three maidens. and the

doves, These so featly

on the scarce

watching than all

possession other every plumage, the fairest

ground. more beautiful one among thein looked youth, other and he pictured to himself the women for than that of of her as more to be longed in nor did the world. So he rose the and king's troth stole their he restore it until daughter, to him.'

green grass, seem to touch

her all, had plighted and Asia. The story is by no means confined to Europe of Guiana, The one of the aboriginal tribes Arawks, relate that a beautiful was once captured royal vulture by a hunter. She was the daughter of Anuanima, sovereign of a race whose is above the sky, and who lay country of birds for that of humanity. aside there the appearance Smitten with love for the hunter, the captive divested herself of her feathers and exhibited her true form that him of a beautiful above the clouds, girl. She becomes his wife, bears and, after much trouble, persuades and family to receive AU then goes well, her father him. a wish to visit bis aged until he expresses when mother, him, and set him 'on the top of a very high they discard the trunk of which is covered with formidable tree, He all to the prickles. appeals pathetically living creatures around. Then spiders spin cords to help him,

of them

Schreck, p. 35 Vernaleken, pp. 274, 287 Jones and Kropf, p. vol. ii. p. 2:3 (an abstract of this story will be 95 "Bahar-Danush," found in Keightley, p. 20); Burton, "Nights," vol. v. p. 344; Steere, p. 349; Cavallius, p. 175, freely translated by Thorpe, "Yule-tide Stories," p. 158. Mr. Morris turns the doves into swans. Cf. a SouthSlavonic tale from Varazdina, Krauss, vol. i. p. 4.00.








fluttering reaches the

extcnding tenderly by his

descent, in safety. Then ground over several years, to regain loves. Her seek to family and






at his



follow his wife,

efforts, whom he but

he sagacity every encounter. The birds at length his espouse cause, assemble their forces, and bear him as their commander above the sky. He is at last slain'by a valiant young himself in person and features. warrior, It resembling is his own son, born after his expulsion from the upper and brought in ignorance regions, of his own up there father. The ends with the conflagration of the legend strength house of the royal vultures, in by crowds who, hemmed of hostile to use their and forced birds, are unable wings, 1 This to fight and die in their human forms." tale, so in form, can hardly primitive have travelled round half the globe to the remote American Indians whom among it was discovered. And of its features it yet in many the most likeness to several presents of the striking versions current in the Old World. as in the tale of Hasan, Sometimes, the however, is left undescribed. the species Eskimo the Among heroine is vaguely referrcd to as a sea-fowl. The Kurds have a strange tale of a bird they call the Bird Simer. His daughter has been ensnared when she and by a giant three other birds were out flying but she is at length rescued one of whom she weds. When she by two heroes, becomes homesick she puts on her feather-dress and flies away.2 A Pomeranian the saga forms an interesting and the legends link between

destroy is victorious

him in

Swan-maiden of Enchanted group Princesses discussed in the last chapter. A huntsman, his rounds in the forest, a pool which drew near going lies at the foot of the Hhnerberg. There he saw a girl Brett, Legends and Myths," p. 29. further details by Im Thurn, p. 381. Rink, p. ~s Prym und Socin, p. 5!. This legend is told with






that up her When hastened





he picked ing village, of playing her a trick. she left the water and give back an her was clothes-or not to

with clothes, she saw what after any and

neighbourthe intention he had done, him to He, him =

at moved

him, begging rate her shift. she then told

however, she was


and without her shift she princess, could not return. Now he was fully determined not to article of apparel. She was, theregive up the precious to follow him to his hut, where his mother fore, compelled for him. The huntsman there kept house put the shift into a chest, maiden could of not which he took the and after escape and to position, agreed several children by, and so that key, some time the she


the become his wife. accepted Years had been passed born, when one day he went out, leaving the key of the chest behind. When the heroine saw this she her begged mother-in-law to open the chest and show her the shift could not herself for, we are told, the enchanted princess She begged so hard that her motheropen the trunk. at last complied in-law and no sooner had she got the shift When into the her hands than returned she husband vanished and heard out what of had sight. hapSo he climbed

he made pened, the Hhnerberg found Before there.

to seek her. up his mind and let himself down the opening he He soon arrived at the underground castle. gate

black dog, around whose lay a great neck a paper which contained direchung conveniently tions how to penetrate into the castle. Following these, he found himself in the of the presently presence his wife, who was right and princess, glad to see him, to strengthen him for the task gave him a glass of wine before for at midnight the Evil One would come him to drive him out of the castle and prevent the lady's deliverance. At this the reciter's point, unfortunately, failed hence we do not know the details of the memory rescue. But we may from the conjecture, precedents,

its closed

264 that was the that






huntsman he was





The out

issue of the

and earth, the from This story differs in many important respects the incident, and it contains very rare in a modern type of the recovery to this group, European saga belonging to the to revert I shall have occasion of th bride. the to open of the enchanted curious princess inability let me shift. the wonderful chest containing Meanwhile, or the feather-dress, that in most of the tales observe is committed the bride may escape, talisman, by which of a kinswoman to the care of a third person-usually and that the the husband, and in many cases his mother it when it is given to her, or wife as a rule only recovers it has been opened at least when that which contains by it herself. of finding she seems incapable another There which is another to appears it is also of the type be the favourite to be met with Swan-maiden of the among Latin other myth, nations,

the castle ascended successful, and wife were reunited.I husband

peoples. best be given from the nursery may, perhaps, The of the Sun, as told at Seville. tale of the Marquis A man Sun was a great of the gamester. Marquis his with him and lost all he had, and then staked played if he instructed The lost it. him, soul-and Marquis to him when he had worn desired to recover it, to corne of his wanderings In the course out a pair of iron shoes. whose on over a dead a struggle he finds man, going until his debts not allow him to be buried creditors would Iron Shoes pays them, and one shoe goes had been paid. a cavalier, who reveals meets He afterwards to pieces. debts had been paid, and as the dead man whose himself though Its outline He therefore that favour. of requiting where three of a river to the banks Iron Shoes directs and bathe. into doves white princesses, corne, change and thus of the smallest, Iron Shoes is to take the dress this he has to go. whither Obeying get her to tell him Knoop, p. !0~. who is desirous



is that the Marquis he learns from the princess direction, him the way to his castle. and she shows her father it Before his soul. he demands conceding Arrived there, an inconvenient tasks to level sets him the Marquis to on the castle the sun may shine so that mountain, with fruit trees, and gather sow the site of the mountain to find a piece of in one day for dinner the fruit of them had dropped the Marquis's great-grandfather plate which is no a horse which and mount to catch into the river a bride and to choose other than the Marquis himself The damsel his daughters. the princesses, from among the way to the palace Iron Shoes who had shown perhim and she teaches forms the first two of these tasks how to eut her diately the others. perform up and cast her into rises whole For the the river, third, whence he she has to imme-

the lost bringing triumphantly again, he has, her In butchering of plate. however, piece on the a piece of her little finger clumsily dropped when she rises from It is accordingly wanting ground. Iron Shoes the rivera and this is the token by which a bride; he has to choose her when for, in recognizes of to see the little he is only allowed fingers choosing, afterHe and his bride for matrimony. these candidates wards In flee from now.I of this stories the castle but we need not follow their adventures

are the shape doves usually type but swans and her comrades assumed by the heroine tale we are and in a Russian are often and geese found, 1 have Nor do the birds even introduced to spoonbills. mentioned under this stories comprised supernatural all ~rc~M but are nearly and the foregoing type more where we corne to other when sagas become types to animais we find other favoured, well-nigh numerous, there is no In the latter of birds. the exclusion types her she has once abandoned of the wife when recovery "F. L. Espan." vQl.i.p. 87. by any means The ladies. exhaust the disguises of these







husband. Islands,

inhabitant beholds a number


of Unst, of the


of the

Shetland by lie


on the shore of a small moonlight bay. several seal-skins. He snatches as up one, the property, it turns who thereupon becomes out, of a fair maiden, his wife. Years one of their children finds her after, and runs to display it to his mother, not sealskin, it was hers. She puts it on, becomes a seal, knowing and into the waters. In Croatia it is said plunges that once, watching a shc-wolf divest herself enter, out of it a damsel. She hangs a soldier in of the a haunted her skin, skin on saw mill, and corne a peg and the soldier

dancing them Near

the fire. While she sleeps goes to sleep before takes the skin and nails it fast to the so mill-wheel, that she cannot recover it. He marries and she her, bears him two sons. The elder of these children hears that his mother is a wolf. He becomes and inquisitive, his father at length tells him where the skin is. When he tells his mother, she goes away and is heard of no more. who fell A in in Sutherlandshire love with into story a fisherman. the of a mermaid speaks As he did not want sea he, by fair means or foui, of her and on pouch beit,

to be carried succeeded


hold getting which her power of swimming and so retained depended, her on land and she became his bride. But we are not to hear that her tail was always in the way surprised her silky hair grew tangled and glass too, for her comb were in the mocked day in her down for her pouch her. Thus husband's dogs teased her, and rude people her life was made wretched. But one absence the labourers were pulling As she watched them, weeping and pouch the the

a stack lost

of corn.

she espied her precious freedom, which had been in and built buried belt, among sheaves. She caught it and leaped into the sea.I

of the Shetland Keightley, p. 169, from Hibbert, "Description F. L. Journal," vol. vi. p. 165. As a Islands Wratislaw, p. 290; point of resemblance with the Lady of the Van Pool, quoted further



In simply





is no


of form



himself of something without the which possesses maiden has no power to leave him. Even supernatural in the truc Hasan of Bassorah type, the magical change does not always occur. A variant translated by Jonathan Scott from descending her robe is taken her Syrian damsels in a the manuscript merely enwraps robes of light silk. When green the chosen is kept from following beauty

in their return Similar to this is companions flight. the Pomeranian cited. In the New Hebrides saga already is a legend there of seven women whose home winged was in heaven, and who came down to earth to bathe. Before the them them this bathing, version told to they put off their wings. According in Aurora one day, seeing island, Qatu thus took the wings of one and buried bathing, at the foot of the main of his house. In post he won their owner as his

and she so wife until she found her wings In modern again. Greece it is believed that Nereids can be caught by seizing their their or even their handkerchiefs. wings, clothes, The who hve similar call the superBulgarians, tales, natural ladies and are captured Samodivas they by way remained means been of their cited from raiment. various A number of parallels have sources a few of by M. Cosquin, which A Burmese for instance, may be mentioned. drama, sets before us nine of the city of th Silver princesses who wear enchanted that enable them Mountain, girdles to fly as swiftly as a bird. The youngest of these princesses is caught while bathing, of a magical by means slip-knot. A divine Celebes panions a tribe inhabiting the Bantiks, came down from the sky with seven comIslands, to bathe. A man who saw them took them for ancestress of the

on, it may be noted that these seal-women (the legend of their capture is a common one in the Shetland Islands) had the power to conjure up from the deep a superior breed of horned cattle, many of whcs.; off. Rcv." 1881, springare still to be seen (Dr. Karl Blind in "Contemp. quoted by Mac Ritchie, p. 4).

268 doves, but






He was surprised to find that they were women. himself of the clothes of one of them, and thus possessed her to marry him. In a story told by the Santals obliged of India, the daughters of the sun make use of a spider's thread to reach the earth. A shepherd, whom they uninvite to bathe with them to blushingly them, persuades of them all can remain under i try which longest water and while he scrambles they are in the river out, and, the upper of the one whom he loves, garment taking flees with it to his home. In another Indian tale, five or celestial are conveyed in an enchanted apsaras, dancers, car to a pool in the forest. Seven supernatural maidens, a Samoyede are brought in their reindeer ~~c~M, in chariot to a lake, where the hero possesses himself of the best suit of garments he finds on the shore. The owner of marriage, If 1 give saying Il thec the garments wilt fare up again to heaven." In none of these stories of (and they are but samples does the feather dress occur many) yet it has left reminiscences which are unmistakable. The variants hitherto have all betrayed cited these reminiscences as articles of or conveyance, or in the pardonable mistake of clothing, the Bantik forefather at the time of capture. I shall refer pledge thou to cases whence the plumage has faded entirely presently out of the story-and that in spite of its picturesquenesswithout a trace. But let me first call attention to leaving the fact that, even where it is preserved, we often do not find it exactly how and where we should have expected it. Witness the curious Algonkin tale of How one of prays obtains him to give them up but he refuses, until he a definite

Rev." vol. ii. p. 90; Schmidt, p. 133; Kirby, p. 319; "Arch. Bent, p. 13 Von Hahn, vol. i. p. 295 (< vol. ii. p. 82) Garnett, p. Chansons Populaires Bulgares" 352, translating Dozon's Cosquin, vol. ii. p. t8. Cf. Ralston, "Tibetan Tales," p. 53; Landes, p. !23 translated "F. L. Record,"vo!.ii. Comparetti, vol. p.2t2, p. !2; Grimm, Tales," vol. ii. p. 331 Poestion, p. Vernaleken, p. 27~ i vol. iv. p. !~o; Sastri, p. 80. Pitr,

SWAN-MAIDNS. the Partridge's we are hunter, beautiful moccasin. jumped however, return to takes the husband his bow to beat escape wives told, became a Sheldrake his river, Duck." canoe,

269 A saw a

girl sitting He paddled into the water who the lived hunter in the

home in returning on a rock by the

a making but she her up softly to capture Her and disappeared. mother, her to at the bottom, compelled be his wife. of the The legend myth deprives out he seize jumped should she who then for her seizes in to be Bluebeard

and direction

a turn woman

and thus to curiosity, yields of his luck. When he finds this to beat her. When she saw him she ran at down his to the river, and it water

his bow

her death

drowning..But sheldrake duck."

hands, though as she fell into the The

by a became this

is set boundary The who dwelt the lower animais. maiden, amphibious could not be drowned in the bottom of the river, by that she only into the stream and it is evident jumping her resumes form in escaping from her true aquatic husband, Partridge that species. found hardly zation that lucky it should who, and seems to bc A still more of on be added, is himself is called a fowl of to be regarded as, in fact, remarkable instance Carnarvonshire, a very different

story, have hardly yet in which no steadfast

Passamaquoddies, out of the passed


stage of thought between men and

the Welsh among be said, are now from when that the of the fairy she

who, it need level of civiliThey tell her air us unand

Passamaquoddies. of Corwrion bride

at once flew husband, and one account into the lake plunged describes her as flying away hke a M'OQ~<?/ been many generations since she was spoken into a bird ?l changing

quitted the through

significantly Can it have of as actually

Le!and, p. 300. C~ ibk). p. t~o, where the maidens are called Y Cymmrodor," vol. iv. p. 201. weasels, and ultimately marry stars. In a tale rendered from th modern Greek by Von Hahn the name Swan-maiden is preserved in the title, though the plumage has disap-







We tradition. appears,


pass In all th whether as or a in veil the or


different wholly stories where the feather-skin, modified form other wife's in symbol, recovery, a of the



of of a

the dress a

magical the hide wings,

quadruped, an apron, brought accidentai, that where of the means. but breach in


by the of the article the incident

question. of the dress must

catastrophe more or less usually But it is obvious is wanting, the loss by other or the caprice, for this purpose is caused adopted by from the the about

robe, is

supernatural In some of her the most of a /~oo.



traditions, fate, is deemed developed T~~oo

be brought the woman's enough stories it word

is a

set Polynesian languages, signifying, first, something thence and holy and inviolable, lastly something apart, forbidden. It is generally used in English as a simply ) verb of which the nearest is another curious equivalent A person or thing /<~oo~ is one verbto boycott. avoided or tacit on the part of any by express agreement class or number of persons and to taboo is to avoid in pursuance the word includes an agreement. is used in a different sort of prohibition, every of such In Folklore, and wider from the however, sense. It social or

to which it religious (if 1 may use the word), boycott would be more down to any injunction properly applied, addressed to the hero or heroine by a supernatural being of a tale. Folklore students of the anthropological school are so apt to refer these last prohibitions for their origin to the of the former general prohibitions kind, that tins indiscriminate use of the word perhaps may be held to beg somc of the questions at issue. It is certain, howwho originally ever, that the scholars applied it to what 1 had no such in prohibitions, thought minds. it a convenient They found term, applicable stretch of Its ordinary and they by n3 great meaning, Stress can hardty be laid upon this, as th title peare.l from thc tcxt. is n ) part of thc tale. Von Hahn, vol. i. p. 131. may their private call more



appropriated fore use it and without Having shortly taboo, another An basket maidens but th then will

it to the without any

purposes scruple as

of science. a well intent. 1 will

1 shall recognized


question-begging so much, premised balder the type fuller of the

be dealt

type. with in the

to set forth proceed there is no where story, relations to one Their next that chapter. a hunter twelve beheld young to approach, the basket a

Algonkin descend

relates legend from heaven, beauty. him they

of ravishing

containing He attempted

re-entered quickly Another and day, up again out of his sight. himself as a mouse, he succeeded, however, by disguising whom he in capturing the youngest of the damsels, But nothing could married and by whom he had a son. she of her sisters, which console his wife for the society and a small had lost. So one day she made basket on perceiving were drawn she sang the charm entered it with hcr child having once she and her sisters had formerly used, and ascended she had corne. It is added more to the star from whence that when two years had the star said to his elapscd daughter therefore, him to This th "Thy to the son earth wants and to see his thy the father husband, animais with fetch go down, and tell he his kills." wife to

us bring was done. and he the The his wife 1 will there

of all specimens The hunter ascended

sky animais who with falcon.I took animais.


a great feast was given, in which the were served Those of the guests up. or the tails were transformed into paws and hunter himself took a white feather, and child metamorphosed remark on the latter was into a

of now part only the tale that it is told by the same race as the Sheldrake that the Duck's and if we deem it probable adventures

La Tradition," March t88o, p. 78, quoting th Abb Domenech, "Voyage pittoresque dans les dserts du Nouveau Monde," p. 214. Mr. Farrer gives th same story from "Algic Rescarches" (Farrer, Primitive Manners," p. 256).







narrative resumed her simply pnstitle form in becoming a duck, the same will hold reasoning as to the falcons good here. This wc type of the myth Star's may call th Daughter type." Th other be named after type may the Melusina, famous Countess of Lusignan. The earliest writer to mention th legend which afterwards became identified with her name, was Gervase of Tilbury, who relates that the lord of a certain castle Raymond, a few miles from AIx in Provence, alone on the banks of the river, riding met an unknown unexpectedly lady of rare beauty, also on a splendidly alone, riding On caparisoned palfrey. his saluting her she replied, him by name. addressing Astonished at this, but encouraged, he made improper overtures to to which she declined her; to assent, in the most intimating, unabashed however, that way, she would him if he liked. He agreed marry to this but the lady imposed a further that condition, namely, he should never see her naked for if once he did so, all th prosperity and all the happiness with which he was about to be blessed would and he would depart, be left to drag out the rest of his life in wretchedness. On these terms were and every earthly they married felicity followed,-wealth, the renown, bodily strength, love of his fellow-men, and children-boys and girls-of the greatest But one day his lady was beauty. bathing in the bedroom, when he came in from and hunting with and other fowling, laden While partridges game. food was being the thought struck him prepared that he would go and see her in her bath. So many years had he enjoyed if there unalloyed ever prosperity that, were any force in her threat, he deemed it had long since passed away. Deaf to his wife's he tore pleadings, from the bath and beheld away the curtain her naked but only for an instant, for she was forthwith changed into a serpent, her head under and, putting the water, she Nor ever was she seen disappeared. but again







Sometimes in the darkness of night the nurses would hear her busy with a mother's care for her little children. Gervase one of her daughters adds.that was married to a relative of his own to a noble of belonging family and her descendants were living Provence, at the time he wrote.' l The substance does gains mond with not for her story, as told differed forbid absolute this lower her of Melusina, little from husband privacy covenant to on was th amplified, but but in its barRaybath

foregoing. see her naked,



Saturdays. he finds her into

When in her

a serpent's tail. The lady appears of her husband's disand nothing covery happens until, in a paroxysm of anger and grief, arising from the murder of one of his children he cries out upon her as an odious by another, serpent, the contaminator of his race. It will be remembered that in the Esthonian tale cited in Chapter VIII the is forbidden to call his mistress youth and all mermaid into goes well until he peeps the locked where, chamber, she passes her Thursdays, and finds her in mermaid form. Far away in Japan we learn that the hero Hohodemi changed to be unconscious wedded built birth near in her


Toyotamahimc, a house for her to her the child. happy

a daughter on the strand strictly event was and on no She

of the where forbade over she

Sea-god, might him to

and give corne



he was
to attempt

to remain

His curiosity, was however, too much He peeped, and saw his wifc to and fro on the floor in the writhing shape of a dragon. He started and when, later back, shocked on, Toyotamahime called him to her, she saw by his countenance that he had discovered the secret she had thought to hide from all mankind. In spite of his entreaties shc into the sea, never more to see her lord. plunged Her boy, notwithstanding, was still the object of her care. Ger~. Tilb. Dec. i. c. !$. 19


dwelling, she sent for him. for his happiness.










her the

sister father

to watch of the




he grew


first Emperor of Japan. Maori tale the hero loses his wife through prematurely down a screen he had erected for her convenience tearing on a similar occasion. A Moravian tale speaks of a bride who shuts herself up

up to In a

her every eighth day, and when husband looks the he beholds her through keyhole, clad with hair and her feet those of goats. This thighs is a /!7~~<?// and in the end, having paid the penalty of his rashness like those of adventures by undergoing the hero his love. A Tirolese w<7'~<?M Hasan, regains tells us of a witch who, in the shape of a beautiful girl, took service with a rich man and made a conquest of his son. She wedded him on condition that he would never look upon her by candlelight. The youth, like a mascubreaks linc Psyche, on her cheek, falling out the taper \blew the morning she was soles stood by the and a drop of the wax, taboo awakens her. It was in vain that he and lay down. When he awoke in gone but a pair of shoes with iron the

a paper him to bed, with directing seek her till the soles were worn out, and then he should find her again. of invisibility, By the aid of a mantle and a chair which bore him where he wished, he arrived in the nick of time to prevent her marriage with another bridegroom. true husband was his reconciliation and her proper follows, bears her home in triumph. Not so happy the hero of a Corsican on seeirig saga, who insisted wife's naked shoulder and found it nothing but skeleton l foot of the steep clins of the Van Moungrassy lies a lonely pool, called Llyn y scene of a variant of Melusina, of their love which he had thus The

bones-the murdered. At tains Fan less the

in Carmarthenshire which is the Fach,

but equally romantic and far more celebrated, indeed, beautiful. The legend may still be heard on the lips of 1 Bmuns, p. 138 White, vol. ii. p. t~t Vernaleken, p. 294 Schneller, p. 23 Ortoli, p. 284.



has found and more than one version its peasantry The most complete was written down by way into print. Welsh antiMr. William Rees, of Tonn (a well-known of two old and publisher), from the oral recitation quary where the hero natives of Myddfai, men and a woman, the of the legend who lived story is to at is said the to have dwelt. encct The Stated son following the shortly, of a widow

about threea little Blaensawdde, village his of a mile from the pool, was one day tending quarters to his astonishment, mother's cattle upon its shore when, its unrumed he beheld the Lady of the Lake sitting upon out she used as a mirror while she combed which surface, She imperceptiblyglided graceful ringlets. the his grasp and refused him, but eluded he held out to her, bread and cheese that her dived and disappeared Cras dy fara Nid hawdd fy nala (" Hard-baked is thy brcad It is not easy to catch me An offer of unbaked or tocs, dough, She exclaimed 1
is thy bt'ead

nearer bait


of barley as she saying








Daithdyfam! Ti ni fynna'
(" Unbaked

1 will not have thee.") the youth subsebaked which bread, slightly was accepted he advice, took, by his mother's quently her to become his hand and persuaded seized the lady's fetched her father bride. into the lake she then Diving a hoary-headed man of noble mien and extraordinary But the and strength all the force otherwise having and with two ladies rose from the depths "who the young to the match, was ready to consent provided him of the two ladies before which man could distinguish stature, of youth but








of his Sections. This was no small test object of love, inasmuch as the maidens were alike in exactly form and features. One of them, thrust her however, foot a little forward and the hero recognized a peculiarity of her shoetie, which he had somehow had leisure to at his previous interviews. The father admits the correctness of his choice, and bestows a dowry of sheep, and but in th cattle, most goats, horses, stipulates business-like these animais shall return with way that the bride, if at any time her husband unkind and prove strike her thrice without a cause. So far Mr. "Cambro-Briton" damsels appear Rees' version. A version is somewhat different. from the pool, and are repeatedly but in vain. farmer, They always him and taunted him with in the published Three beautiful pursued reached couplet notice


by the young the water before


"Crasdyiara, Anhawdd ein dala

One ashore.


some The







and devoured seized youth it in catching the ladies. following day he was successful The one to whom he offers consents on the marriage that he will recognize her the next understanding day from among the three sisters. He does so by the strapand she is accompanied ping of her sandal to her new home by seven cows, two oxen, and a bull from the Iake. A third version the maiden as rowing on New presents Year's Eve up and down the lake in a golden boat with a golden oar. She disappears from the hero's gaze, without replying to his adjurations. Counselled by a soothon the mountain, he casts loaves and sayer, who dwells cheese after from Midsummer Eve to New night night Year's Eve into the water, until at length the magic skiff and the fairy, stepping again weds her appears, ashore, wooer. persistent

floating and the



In strike


three three

versions causeless

is bridegroom blows." Of course version for a fair, he desired horse. her Finding


forbidden he disobeys.


According that one

go to the

to the


in dilatory her arm thrice with his glove, saying, doing so, he tapped half in jest The blows were slight, but Go, go, go they were blows contract and, the terms of the marriage the dame departed-she and her cattle with being broken, her-back into the lake. The other two accounts agree in spreading the blows over a much of greater length time. Mr. Rees' version relates that once the husband and to a christening in the neighbourhood. The seemed reluctant to go, making lady, however, the feminine excuse that the distance was too far to walk. Her husband told her to fetch one of the horses from the field. gloves, 1 will," which 1 said left she, in the if you house." will me my bring He went, and, she had not gone her shoulder with wife were invited

day, preparing field for his

it happened his wife to

with the gloves, found that returning for the horse, so he jocularly slapped one of the gloves, she saying Go, go Whereupon reminded him of the condition that he was not to strike her without a cause, and warned him to be more careful in future. Another at a time, when they were together she burst out sobbing amid the joy and mirth wedding, of all around her. Her husband touched her on the shoulder and inquired the cause of her weeping. She Now people are entering into replied and trouble troubles are likely to commence, as you have your the second time stricken me without a cause." how Finding she put upon the very wide an interpretation causeless blows," anything blow. the unfortunate which could one husband give occasion did his best third to and avoid last for the

were at a funeral, day they together in the midst of the she appeared where, in the grief, and in highest immoderate spirits fits of indulged Her husband was so shocked that he touched laughter.


278 hcr, that






hush Hush, saying she laughed because Th and, rising last blow


of trouble ing contract ing off Even the

people, up, she left been

laugh when the

She they house, our die,

retorted go out exclaim-


is broken, and at an end she called all her fairy home, together with them to the lake, and vanished a little black descended summons calf, slaughtered alive and well and four plough and

struck Farewell

marriage Hurrywalked waters.

cattle, in its

hook, mistress' ploughing, went, day some

the dragged a well-marked leaving if 1 lie." to witness differences on the of detail, insight husband's of the

grey behind

on suspended his to obey again which were oxen, them remains as they to this

that furrow, The remaining represents part the

with version, same eccentric

pessimism the greater as the and three


spiritual cause of the

attributable to (presumably of her supernatural character), not unwarranted She had annoyance borne him

of his breach fair

for ever, and them, predicting many country.' Such

sons she continued gave that

agreement. and although she had to manifest instruction and the their issue most them

her husband quitted herself to occasionally in herbs and medicine, would become physicians during in the


generations is the


of variants, of which been

of the Van Pool. legend and elsewhere, both in Wales for the

It has a number the examination

1 postpone in the guided

by the desire chiefly into another. merges examination may be called

1 have Hitherto present. mention of variants of this myth of showing how one type insensibly The only type 1 have now left for the "Nightmare type." It is

The Physicians of Myddvai-Meddygon Myddfai," translated by and edited byRev.John Williams ab John Pughe, Esq., F.R.C.S., vol. ii. p. 3~; "Cambro-Briton," Ithel, M.A. (1861), p. xxi. 1 Sikes, p. 40. Mr. Sikes gives no authority for the third version. have assumed its genuineness, though 1 confess Mr. Sikes' methods are not such as to inspire confidence.





so the

much Van

to Pool

the as

stories to

of stories

Melusina like that

and of

the the

to German and According Slavonic belief the is a human nightmare being-freone whose love has been and who in quently slighted, this shape is enabled to approach the beloved It object. the keyhole, or any other slips through hole in a building, and presses its victim sometimes to death. But it can be caught by has entered. morning room. On quickly stopping A certain man he found the did hole so one through which it and in the night a young and lovely maiden in the her whence she came, she told him hid used her conchildren.

of Lady Croatian


asking from He Engelland (angel-land, England). married and had clothes, three her, by her The only thing about her was that she peculiar to sing while spinning stantly

Nowcalls my mother (or, blows my father) in


Mary Catharine, Drive out thy swine." One came home and found that his wife day her husband had been telling the children that she had come as a nightmare from Engelland. When he reproached her for it, she went to the cupboard where her clothes were hidden, threw them over and vanished. Yet she could herself, not quite forsake her husband and little ones. On Saturunseen and laid out their clean days she came clothes and she appeared while others and every night slept, the baby eut of the cradle taking The allusion to the nightmare's but it is an unmistakable link In other considering. and she is shape of a straw the stopper out of the hole account she gives of herself England, that the pastor been tales generally whereby is that had been quieted clothes with she the is it at her breast. is uncommon types we have

in the caught released by taking she entered. The has guilty come of out of some








omission hence would In one origin, she

in cure

the her.






a nightmare, but She often hears her on

and baptized, to be re-christened mother call her. her a

story she vanished and in another on tale

with being reproached being asked how she became

nightmare.' An Esthonian little over was boy one night the bed a hole

his of a father who found speaks in an unquiet slumber. He noticed wall he which through it was this which the was wind dis-

in the

whistling, him. turbing sooner had he

thought Wherefore done so than


little girl, boy's side a pretty The child him so that he could not sleep in peace. thus forced to stay in the house. She grew up with other and and industrious children, being quick beloved whose married laughing the over She refused by bed Specially she was found her. One Sunday during husband to tell the inquired all. was in what she dear when church After she and

it up and no stopped he saw on the bed by the and played with who teased was the was

to the boy in he grew up he she burst out service was at. laughing of his telling house. she told a great the writing and full


the was

him, save on condition her in return how she came into his father's When she had extracted from him, this promise him she saw stretched on the wall of the church horse-skin, names of paid no on heed to which who God's the Evil One was all those slept or chattered word. The skin

in church, was at last

Jahn, p. 364, .f~y. Knoop, pp. 26, 83, 103 Kuhn, pp. 47,197, 374 Kuhn und Schwartz, pp. 14, <)t, 298 Schleicher, p. 93 Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 169, quoting Thiele. Note the suggestion of Pope Gregory's Elsewhere a pun in the name of the native land of the nightmare. child becomes a nightmare who is born on a Sunday and baptized on a Sunday at th same hour, or one at whose baptism some wicked person has secretly muttered in response to one of the priest's questions some It shall become a nightmare (Lemke, p. 42). wrong words, or Similar superstitions attached to somnabuHsm see Lecky, History of Rattonalism," vol. i. p. 8t, note 2.



of names and in order to find room for more the Devil had to pull it with his teeth, so as to stretch it further. In so doing he bumped his head the wall, and against a wry face made whereat she, who saw it, laughed. When her husband out the piece they got home pulled of wood which his father had put into the hole and the same instant his wife was gone. The husband was dishe saw her no more. but It was said, howconsolate, that she often to his two children ever, in appeared and brought them secret, In Smaland a precious gifts. is current, to legend which the according of a certain was an elf-maid who came family into the house with the sunbeams a knot-hole in through the wall, and, after being married to the son and bearing him four children, vanished th same way as she had In North come. it is believed that when Germany parallel ancestress seven among A man unnightmare. wedded such a nightmare found that she knowingly from his bed at nights and on watching disappeared her he discovered that she slipped the hole for through the strap the latch was lifted, the by which returning same So he stopped and thus way. up the opening, retained her. After a considerable time he to use the latch, and thinking she had forgotten her bad habit and he might safely take the peg out, he did so but the next night she was missing, and never came the back, though man every Sunday morning found clean linen laid out for him as usuat.~ l A Pomeranian tradition relates the adventure of an always wanted officer who was much troubled her in the usual manner caught he could not persuade her to say whence she came. After some years she induced her husband to open the holes he Jannsen, vol. i. p. 53 Thorpe, vol. iii. p. 70, quoting Afzelius, vol. ii. p. 29, quoting Multenhoff. It is a common Teutonic belief that ~not-hotes are attributable to elves (Grimm, Teut. Myth." p. 46t), He by the nightmare. and wedded her, although boys, them or is seven a girls, are born in succession, who had one













But he found written on the table appeared. the words If thou wilt seek of me, the Commander London is my father." He sought her in London and found her and having taken the precaution to rechristen her he lived happily with her ever after.' This is the only instance is recovered. England spirits. "Am Urds.Blunnen," vol. vi. p. 58. is 1 have It assigned met would as with he the where th interesting home of nightmare-wife to know why these perturbed

morning in chalk








The incident of thc recovery of the bride not found in all the storiesNew Zealand sagasAndrianoroMother-rightThefather represented under a forbidding aspectTasks imposed on the heroThe Buddhist theory of th Gratefui Animals-The feather-robe a symbol of bride's superhuman characterMode of capture-The TabooDisHke of fairies for iron-Utterance of name forbiddenOther prohibitionsFu!n!ment of fate-The taboo a mark of
progress in civilization-The divine ancestress--Totems and

of mother BansheesRe-appearance of the Van Pool an archaic deity. 1 HOPE 1 have between made the clear various in the

to her children

-The lady



offolk-tales. The one group all is that of a man wedding a supernatural unable to retain her. She must return and her own kin and if he desire country he her must by pursue undergoing her thither superhuman and conquer penance which

types idea running

the conchapter of the Swau-maiden them through maiden and to his or it her own her to to to recover right

of tasks,-neither men to do. It follows that ordinary is told of men who can be conceived superhuman limitations we have been

performing is given the

only when as released

story from the

the learning gradually during of civilization to regard as essential to humanityprogress only when th reins are laid upon the neck of invention,is it possible to relate the narrative of the recovery of the bride. These conditions are twice fulfilled in the history of a folk-tale. that early are fulfilled, They first, of thought in which stage when the men limitations are in of







of the when unknown, spculations and illustrated kind touched upon in our second chapter, as are received in the course of this work, repeatedly when are fulfilled again undisputed opinions. They of the and the memories the relies of these opinions, such with events believed in accordance mythical no in the mind, are still though opinions, operative man's nature are with the vividness of primitive longer hold but for of them still together, are faded gather moment the believe repeats But to histories decaying rags round to pieces, falling robe of a once splendid its and when some times the most they part like the and are only which a child may for the

that of thc the the of


believe form and make puny To the genuine it is a king. credulity of makeand conscious to the Islander, Arab modern same his story-teller and all the the ~M~c~M, when peasant things who peasant are possible. traditional

mediaeval and grave neighbours, are possible, some though many things chronicler, only The slow and more than are possible to us. things some superstitions of knowledge advance destroys partial of of the tree branches others later. Some sooner, life long flourish with marvel unimpaired apparently have and others again only withered, the adventures to fade. where of Tawhaki, Hence, begun of the legend are incredible, the mythical New Zealander, from the Lady of Myddfai of the Physicians the origin of Gervase of the Lake accepted. may still be gravely after others have Tilbury Hasan's but who the the he had the have treated probably in the islands of Wk adventures tells us he has seen and conversed would been to the captives while a relative of the Dracs of his beneath own of story as what it is with women wild the had of that waters married castle of a in is or

relating to the

Rhone, descendant genuine valley Accordingly, ever scarcely


of Trets. of the bride of the recovery episode found in the sagas of modern Europe, the



of any riation that has progressed beyond mark in civilization. But it is common in their as well as in the sagas of more backward nations. sagas of the advanced races, with rare exceptions, \ve get is what looks like a reminiscence of the the her if occasional children, it be one, reappearance or as a Banshee. for the aside of the bride's of the


a certain ~~c~ In the th most episode wife in

to supernatural this reminiscence, Putting we will first discuss present,


aspects the natural order though shall in effect clear the standing Many among of the variants the Maories. main of the

In recovery. doing so, to be inverted, we may seem for the proper underground features of the myth. legend of Tawhaki are current

to that According adopted by Sir renowned for his courage, George Grey, he was a hero whose fame had reached to heaven. There Tango-tango, a maiden of heavenly him from race, fell in love with report down and by his one she descended night side. She continued to the to do earth this and lay nightly, home. But

before dawn to her stealing away again when she found herself to become a mother she likely remained with him openly and when her daughter was born she gave her to her husband to wash. Evidently he did not like the work, for while carrying out his wife's Tawhaki made a very rude remark about instructions, the child. to sob Hearing this, Tango-tango began and at last rose up from her place with the bitterly, child and took to the Her husband deflight sky. termined where roots to seek her. It He down was found from a creeper into the hung earth. way to heaven and his the place struck its

there guarded by a blind old ancestress of his, whom he restored to sight, and from whom he obtained directions how to climb the in heaven, Arrived he disguised himself and had plant. to undergo the a mighty chieftain-of indignity-he, enslaved for whom he was being by his wife's relatives, compelled to perform menial work. At length, however,

286 he her. Another wife vain version friends. and to manifested He






himself in


his and




reconciled as


is still version taking follow

heaven, represents her away.

is wrshipped a cloud swooping Tawhaki on a kite. returned the the

a god. the upon in third to or her his had she more settleA




ment, own son, formerly

relates simply lady Her on arriving at husband, where she dwelt, found among

mounting that the

children she and A

who determined by Hine-te-iwaiwa, to set her cap (or whatever be its quivalent in her might at him. She obtained an interview with costume) scanty the conduct of the ladies in him, by a device recalling The Land East of the Sun, for she broke and destroyed some bathing-pools to the hero. A quest of belonging the work smoothly husband necessary doing when this lo intruder took of her until to Tini-rau naturally her to rivais, Hine, an in followed, live with his one elder with him. wives the She and day, result made all asked that short went her as In

eventually interesting of Tini-rau

he sent his wife a love-token by whom him. This led to recognition, given returned with him to his home. variant was tells heard us that the fame of th



perform as familiar he made

operation some strata

her head upon of civilization.

of which Tini-rau, after his cries he

observations about disrespectful her, a mist settled down upon from the midst them, her elder brother came and took his sister away. unable to endure her absence, determined to go wife, accompanied by a flight of birds, by whose was informed, as he passed one settlement after

whether or not his wife was there. At length another, he discovered her whereabouts, and made himself known to her sister which Hine understood. Then by a token he came to her, and she announced his arrivai to all the who assembled and wetcomed him. He abode people, and when his wife's relatives that hs there complained did not go and get food, hs obtained it in abundance by


and so they lived happy

the ever

exercise after. let l Now

of magical us turn to

powers the

tale of the way in Malagasy which Andrianro a wife from obtained heaven. There three whose is in heaven, sisters, dwelling-place frequent a lake in the crystal waters whereof they swim, taking of any human flight at once on the approach being. By a diviner's advice the hero into three changes lemons, which sister desires to take but the others, youngest a snare, hcr to fly away with them. fearing persuade Foiled the hero into bluish water in the thus, changes midst of the then into the seed of a vegetable lake, and ultimately into an ant. growing by the waterside, He is at length successful in seizing the youngest maiden, who consents to be his wife in spite of the difference of race her darts for, father forth while is a man on the earth, captor living dwells in heaven, whence the thunderbolt if he speak, and she herself drinks no spirits, even touch her the

1 die." After some my mouth his absence, his father and mother force time, during or rum, into the lady's and she dies but mouth, on his return he insists on her opening grave, and, to his But she will not now stay on joy, finds her alive again. earth she must return to hcr father and mother in thc sky. sign upon her. are grieving for They of their grief. Finding her to stay, he obtains hcr, and himself the unable thunder to is a prevail

for if spirits

to accompany permission She warns of the dangers he will him, however, to encounter,-the have thunderbolt when her father and the tasks her father will him. speaks, lay upon Before he goes he accordingly calls the beasts and the birds together he slays oxen to feed them he tells them the tests he is about to undergo, and takes promises from them to accomplish the things that trouble him. Obedient to his wife, he displays 1 Grey, p. 66 Tay!or, p. !j8 White, vol. ii. p. !27< ~'yy. great humility vo). i. pp. 9$, n$, to his .f~



SCIENCE 0F by eut thc aid

FAtt~ of

tALEg. the lower animais he with the the the

and father-in-law comes triumphant their beasts Crocodile thousand alike the tusks and plough birds Lake spades

of every The trial. beasts fields of heaven up the spacious the trees i from uproot giant the crocodiles themselves bring between cattle which arc

the cows cattle-fly distinguishes and the little on the nose of the calves fly, settling heroine's enables the hero to point her out among mother, her daughters. The wife's father is astonished, and gives his daughter anew to the hcro to be his wife, dismissing them with It will Andrianro the Maori to submit reunited of oxen, slaves and money.' be observed that the adventures undergone by in heaven are very different from those of heroes. Tawhaki and Tini-rau have certainly to hardships and to their wives indignities and they before perform actions are not are the they can actions be of a dower

exactly from the

But these superhuman power. as the condition of reunion nor laid upon them indignities by any the parental ogre is as conspicuous the of this New to Zealand stories and the as Andrianro

performed tasks and the In fact ogre. absence from in those

parental by his

be explained? organization its present of to civilization, the mother his

different attained period through related found traces nations we might distance. and

is How The reason seems to lie in the of society under' which the tale form in either case. At an early is reckoned kinship even thc father is This is a its consequences, customs and in the stage but exclusively in no way ever the

he is by his presence of the Sun. Marquis

children. in all in th

complete remain who

hardly of which lore


expect, Such traces

long since passed fainter and fewer are abundant

of many from as it, becoming, as it recedes into the in Maori tradition emergence from

to a comparatively they point F. L. Journal," vol. i. p. 202 P. 305.


Revue des Trac!. Pop." vol. iv.



female the tango than

kinship. father heavy and mortal

Among from

these the were

traces stories both

is the before maidens

omission us.



Tangoof more

and presumably their would race parents be conceived of as still alive. But they are not so much as alluded to-a sure that there was no paternal sign to which these ladies would be accountable. authority if accountable at all, they are so to the whole Indeed, circle of their or to their tribe in general. It relatives, is their brothers who assist them in time of need. Tawhaki becomes the slave of his brothers-in-law. To her she people their as Hine announces announces it is nor her does simply consent on place tribute whole One at husband's it appear Tini-rau arrivai that any his


part required. a tribesman, and and skill to

by his labour brotherhood. of the

takes is expected to conthe sustenance of the

of reckoning descent consequences only which the through females, may be noticed here, is that children to the mother and the mother's belong family. A trace of this lingers about the story of Tawhaki in the affront to Tango-tango caused offensive by her husband's remark their little one. In a society where the upon are the father's, or even where, as in modern offspring civilized are treated as belonging to life, they both and partaking c~ Lhe nature of both, no such parents offence could be taken. Another is that in consequence the of society the wife still organization to reside with, and to be part of, marriage to which she belongs The by birth. father and his mother and cleaves to his would kindred, there. be natural and for for him her to to seek return her continues after the community man wife. to leaves Hence her his it own


and dwell with her This is illustrated not only in the Maori legends just cited, but also in the Arawk story given in the last where the husband is received into the vulture chapter, he desires race until to visit his mother. He is then

290 discarded breach former of as








had and

committed he cannot

some be


the Greeks Although dawn to practise ceased a trace mother-right, of it lingers in a modern folktale from Epirus. There a man had by the ordinary device obtained au elf as a wife and she bore him a child. After this her own kinsmen came and begged her to return to them but she refused on the ground that she had a husband and child. privileges. of history Then she bring took her them husband with they replied. Accordingly, and child, and went back with them elves. It seems, however, to be felt you,"

unpardonable restored to his had before the

to dwell

the among that this was an unusual otherwise it would proceeding have been needless to plead with the lady to return, and to extend a special invitation to those whom she wpuld not abandon an indication, this, that the story has been to a higher in which it was adapted plane of civilization, no longer th custom for the husband to go and dwell J his wife's people. among On the other Andrianbro's wife lives under hand, patriarchal further 6n at the much The Malagasy have advanced government. the path of civilization than the Maories and the father is stage of progress they have reached, more like an absolute monarch. In the story

Von Hahn, vol. ii. p. 78. In illustration of these remarks on mritt relations in a society where female kinship only is recognized, let me quote the following paragraph concerning Maori customs. The it must be borne in mind, have only recently emerged from Maories, this stage and many relies of it remain. Sometimes the father simply told his intended son-in-law he might corne and !ive with his daughter she was thenceforth considered his wife, he lived with his father-in-law, and became one of the tribe, or ~M, to which his wife belonged, and in case of war, was often obliged to fight against his own relatives. So common is the custom of the bridegroom going to live with his wife's family, that it frequently occurs, when he refuses to do so, she will leave him, and go back to her relatives; several instances came under my notice where young men have tried to break throush this custom, and hive so lost their wives (Taylor, p. 337).



referred consent. lover has




had her




Accordingly to perform

is ignored, marriage a number of services for his formai reader consent that when to the to her of their

father's and her fatherunion. of

and in-law, Nor will it the he thunderbolt dismisses

so purchase the escape at last them

wielder husband, the latter. to

gives his daughter back to the home we story

Hasan, too, it will be remembercd, with his wife and children, though form of the survival of an older with her redoubtable in an Arab sister. This


probably in his

Bagdad have a relations

impossible shadow, so much tion Sun history, attach to are

hardly more substantial the match. found

kingdom. mentioned but is her variants among habits paternal of this The

lady holds Her father to save

a position is a mere

power of the

appearances and her opposiMarquis of the whose nations,I lead them to In the tasks

chiefly and institutions, great value to

European of thought authority. and type,

in ~M~c~~ the precipitate performed which takes on the wedding flight usually place night from the ogre's secret it would sem that we have wrath, a reminiscence of the archaic institutions of marriage by and marriage alike incidents purchase by capture,-both of the period when of mother-right (as th reckoning is called) descent females has ceased to solely through exist into The stage. Marquis more recent than the other of type is, therefore, types the Swan-maiden none of which so uniformiy tradition, in all their variants the father's recognize supreme position.2 Not entirely:.see
L. Journal," vol. i. p.

in a pure form, the patriarchal





or is passing, of the Sun

284; Sastri,

Suppl. Nights,"
p. 148.

vol. \I. p. ~6j


In speaking of a type as more or less recent than another, it must be recollected that 1 am not speaking of chronological order, but of the For aught we know, the story of the Marquis order of development. of the Sun may as a matter of date be actually older, could we trace







If the and



why nearly father under vendor,-her

the flight be a reminiscence of purchase we may find in that reminiscence a reason all the stories concur in representing the a forbidding aspect. As his daughter's from guardian


her unwilling vendor,-as he would be the natural foe of her lover. He capture, is not always so ready as the Bird Simer to give up to another his rights over her but perhaps the Bird Simer's readiness may be partly explained by the husband's having the feat of rescuing the maiden from already performed a giant, beside his own brother for her sake. slaying the father is a frightful not inUsually ogre or giant he is no less a personage than the Devil himfrequently self. And the contrast between him and his lovely would be more and more daughter felt as strongly and capture ceased to be serious methods of purchase bride-winning. relationship often be hands We we can that are these Hence, probably, would be abandoned, conceived of as enchanted discuss being. stop to the and thought the maiden captive tasks in of real would in the dtail

and the

of a malevolent will not now only afford


of distinguishing three chief means to identify the

to glance at one of them, the maid from her sisters. by which object the of his lover or

namely, There husband is Two of


the lady herself she slily dpend upon her lover in the other he recognizes an insignihelps ficant of her or attire. The third peculiarity person means is an indication given by one of the lower animais, which has better means of knowledge than th suitor, due probably to its greater cleverness-a as 1 quality, have out in Chapter already pointed II., universally in a certain credited of culture to thse creatures. stage We will deal first with the second means. But the society in it, than th far more archaic story of Tawhaki. which it took shape was more advanced than that disclosed in the Maori legend.

devotion. in the one



of the damsel is personal idiosyncrasy the want of a finger, or some deformity in it, the result of her previous efforts to aid the hero. in a Basque Thus, tale the lad is set to find a ring lost by the ogre in a river. This is accomplished and maiden by cutting up the the pieces into the stream but a part of the throwing little finger sticks in his shoe. When ,he afterwards has to choose between the ogre's daughters with his eyes shut, he recognizes his love by the loss of her little finger. The giant's in a West a daughter, Highland tale, makes ladder fetch with her fingers for her lover to climb a tree to she leaves her and, in the hurry, little This accident arises sometimes, of the Sun, from the dropping as. in the Marquis of a when the hero cuts up his piece of flesh on the ground to a story of the Italian beloved or, according Tirol, from some of her blood. In the latter spilling case, three of blood fall into the lake, instead of the bucket drops to receive and thereby almost cause the prepared them, of his task. failure When the magician afterwards leads the youth to his daughters and bids him choose, he takes the youngest 1 choose this one." by the hand, and says We are not told maidens' Milanese chooses by hands, story his wife there was any difference in the but this is surely to be inferred. In the of the King of the Sun the hero also blindfold from the king's three daughters that a magpie's eggs at the top. finger




and here, hands too, we must supor concert, it lias disappeared pose previous help though from the text. In a story from has to John Lorraine, take the devil's to pieces to find daughter, Greenfeather, a spire for the top of a castle that he is compelled to touching and in putting her together he sets one of build again her little fingers With clumsily. bandaged eyes he has to find the lady who has assisted and he succeeds him his hand on hers. The lad who falls into the by putting strange put the hands in a Breton to gentleman's tale, forgets little toe of the girl's left foot .into the caldron








and veiled knows son and

when and her

she clad

and in

her other


sisters their






at once a red

in Denmark to wind

by the the enchanted silken

loss of her

ordinary toe. As

he garb, it is told

princess agrees with the king's thread around her little finger her, though and in the form she-ass,

by this means of a little grey-haired, wrinkled, sorceress, story the maid's will one

he identifies long-eared old palsied

again of a into which the toothless, woman, whose captive she is, changes her. In a Swedish damsel informs her lover that when the merin appear into a little The heroine having he stole India heroine the former saga, various repulsive cat with her side y~rc~M forms burnt she and

daughters be changed ear snipped. the lover when the cats


represents from her accident Journal in into their the which black

as wanting a joint torn off some of her her robe. Monk

of Joanescas of her finger, feathers Lewis by in his

of a West

Proprietor and her two latter a blue the bore

tale gives an Ananci sisters are changed scarlet threads According round to by the of she their will


the necks, Carmarthenshire

thread.' lady cited, her

is recognized many suitor how she will be and

of her sandal. strapping In several of the stories the congeners, be disguised, Sometimes, The spot. forward a Russian 1 have Water maiden or by

just forewarns




she makes a sign to him on the however, Pool her foot Lady of the Van only thrusts that he may notice her shoe-tie but Cekanka taie is bold of the enough to wink of the is in the at Sun, him. to In which of the he variant Marquis the hero to that

in a Bohemian

already King.

referred, On his





Webster, p. 120; p. 446; "F. L. Espau." p. 411 Cosquin, vol. i. Grundtvig, vol. i. p. 46 F. L. Journal," vol. i.

vol. i. Campbell, vol. i. p. 25; "Mlusine," vol. i. p. 187; SchneHer,p.yi; Imbriani, vol. i. p. 197 pp. 9, 25 Sbillot, "Contes," Cavallius, p. 25~ Maspons y Labros, p. !02 p. 284, quoting Lewis.



had, and

and, turnalighted, spoonbills of bathing. for the purpose had unrobed ing into maidens, maiden's the eldest Then he had stolen shift, to restore the her father, to aid him against it only on her promise for the pledge She redeems Water by performing King. thc is to choose him the usual tasks, the last of which until twelve same The wave bride first her thrice time she among secretly handkerchief and her dress to the king's with agrees the second the third third the twelve daughters. him that she will time she is to be time of he will see a

by the watched


of the




to the


arranging fly above her head.' Here we are led The incident of


by one or help rendered is a favourite one in folk-tales to man lower animais of the argumentative a large portion and it has furnished for their who contend of those scholars stock-in-trade Indian contains source, fluence. doctrine is said come to origin. this or of at This We incident least theory love for has is are assured must been be every referred to to that tale a Buddhist to to which Buddhist

recognition. more of the


inthe over-


by reference supported all living creatures which The command promulgated. love, the


and of self-sacrifice precepts in the Buddha's good were not limited be correctly to if those discourses reported, discourses, all our fellow-men towards our conduct they included which enforced creation. And by parables they were to men by all sorts of good as done in turn represented Stories and the most savage. even the wildest creatures, to us in Androcles of the type familiar of grateful beasts, of the disciples became favourites and the Lion, among have told us that of Asia. the Light therefore, Scholars, his muzzle in,to the thrusts a grateful beast wherever and must must have corne from India, story story, that the rise of Buddhism. have corne since Nay, they go R. F. Tales," p. !20, from Afanasief. Waldau, p. 248; Ralston, hatred by to others' devotion








as appears the hero, we are taught the to presume that helping hero has first helped the beast, even no trace of though such an incident be actually found. It must have been the beast would have had no motive for so, otherwise the hero,-and, it may be added, the theorist helping every would for claiming the story as ground from a Buddhist source. proceeding Now all this would have been seen at once to be very but for one fact. A number, sufficient poor reasoning, to be called have made their large, of parables, actually way the from age India of to Europe The and in historic literary it must times, and since Gautama. bc traced their of these history be acknowledged been some of adopted doctrine. of them various have had no





can parables that, whatever into Buddhist

works it seems demonstrated Further, have descended into oral the nations in Europe, Asia, much as this is conceded, spread of the and

origin, they and adapted

have that tradition

to Buddhist

story of the for the incident of the Beast-helpers where there signally, is no gratitude in the case. examination A very slight of the incident as it appears in the group of legends now before us will convince us of this. First

even Africa. But when so it still fails to account for th Grateful Beasts and, even more

of ail, let it be admitted that in several of these tales th service rendered is in requital for by the brute a good turn on the part of the hero. as we Andrianoro, have seen, begins friends with various animais by making in the unrighteousness in the narrative shape of a feast. Jagatalapratpa, already cited from the Tamil book translated into English under ~l the of title Th Dravidian Nights Entertainments, by one of Indra's four daughters, is compelled pursuing her father, after three other to choose her out trials, her sisters, who are all converted into one shape. prays assistance from a kind of grasshopper and by from He th means of the mammon of




in return for a previous creature, benefit, hops upon her foot. But it is somewhat if the theory be curious, even in stories told true, that among peoples distinctly under Buddhist influence thc gratitude is by no means an invariable Thus the princess in the Burmese point. drama is betrayed to her husband, by "the king of nies play gives us no hint transaction between the puny monarch previous and the hero and it is worthy of note that the Tibetan version of the same from the plot given by Mr. Ralston knows of this entomological Kah-Gyur nothing agency. There the hero is a Bodisat, who, if he does not recognize his beloved the thousand who suramong companions round has a spell the utterance of which her, at least her to step out from them. It does not compels among that Kasimbaha, the Bantik is required appear patriarch, to undergo this particular test. But he is indebted to a bird for indicating the a glow-worm lady's rsidence though of any places which uncover. itself at her of a number chamber of dishes and a fly shows door set before him he must him not the abstract we have of the

M. Cosquin, who is an adherent of the Buddhist in relating this is compelled exhypothesis, instance, to say that one does not sec why these animais pressly should render such services. on M. Cosquin's Neither, in the Arawk the why, story, should to help the outcast husband spiders spin cords down from heaven, or the birds take lus part against the vulture-folk to enable him to recover his wife. The proof of Buddhist influence must rest heavily on its advocates of the absence of motive for gratihere, both on account principle, tude, India The and and of the the utter of distance disparity








from of

of civilizations.
when attributed


to one .f/

p. 286. p. The 145). (Rin~,

th assistance
Eskimo where hero is the

is conveyed Buddhist

hy the birds to Tini-mu,

to his wifc on a sahnon's incident, pedigree oF this

or thc

evidence of Buddhist influence which produced

it ? p








is ordinarily an insect but the reason animais, is, as often as not, a prior arrangement with the lady, as in the Russian of the Water The Polish story King. ~M~c/~ of Prince follows this line. In it, Unexpected the princess warns .her lover that she will have a ladybird over her right When a thousand all maidens eye. alike has are produced to poor Hans in a Bohemian no difficulty in selecting the right for one has bidden him "choose her on whom, from the roof of the chamber, a spider descends." These considerations are sumcient to prove that the incident of the Helpful as found in the SwanBeasts, maiden Buddhist We group origin. have now of stories, dealt with cannot an to be attributed to tale, he a witch


narrative, necessary, certain only under We have seen this respective culture.

indeed, conditions

of the mythical episode its completion, but found 1 have out. pointed forms whose stages of ~M~c~M than that


in two distinct pisode sources we have assigned to two distinct The form characteristic of the European more barbarous in several respects

is apparently

of the Southern but th yielded by the islanders Ocean latter bears to a state of society more archaic testimony than the other. it represents Presumably, therefore, more the primitive form of the nearly story. We chapter relation of the substitute no more From the a turn next to the taken the it. central incidents. to show of 1 have between omission for than pains different In the previous the unmistakable the or the myth, indeed in spite of any is


of the The

feather-robe, truth is that


frequently of that the

a symbol of the wife's more archaic variants form the true of the member creation." of what Men

nature. superhuman it is absent but lady is held to be call have


we contemptuously in savagery, as we

Sastri, p. Se; Cosquin, vol. li. pp. tt), 18; Ralston, "Tibetan F. L. Journat," vol. ii. p. 9 Vernaleken, p. 280. Tales," p. 72



have already seen, quite of contempt for brutes. tain the highest respect

different On the and

feelings contrary, even awe

from they for

those enterthem.

trace their descent from some of them; They and a change of form from beast to man, or from man to beast, while still preserving individual would identity, not seem at all incredible, or even odd, to them. By and the number of creatures by, however, having these would as the circle astonishing powers decrease, of experience widened. But there would a belief linger in remarkable as at Shan-si, in China, where instances, it is believed that there is still a bird which can divest itself of its feathers and bccomc a woman. Not every swan would then be deemed of turning when it capable into a fair maiden and when pleased this change hapit would be attributed to enchantment, pened, which had caused the maiden to assume the appearance of a merely swan for a time and for a special This often occurs, purpose. as we have seen, in where the contrast bctween th heroine and is very master, to other types. a man had a pet of casting power father, It strong. A /~rc/~M her or, as it is then often put, her occurs, too, in tales belonging told by Dr. Pitr relates that

had the by enchantment a woman. She becoming this power in his absence always practised but he came home one day and found her wings on the chair. He burnt and she remained a woman them, permanently and married him. In a saga from Guiana a warlock's near a hunter whom she loves. He accordingly her a skin, which she draws gives over her shoulders, and thus becomes a hound. When th hunter finds her in his hut as a maiden, the charmed skin her secret, he flings hanging up and revealing the skin into the fire and weds her/ "F. L. Journ~ vol. vii. p. 318; Pitr, vol. iv. pp. 391, 410. A variant given by Prof. De Gubernatis is nearly altied to the Cinderella group (" Novelline," p. 29) Brett, p. 176. daughter dog that her persuades she may venture father to transform her into a

which magpie, its wings and







But lady


is not


like Hasan's may, bride, race to men, superior though In either case the peltry would true for a while. individuality distinct the There so magical efficacy maiden would be unable instance a man, who at of this

only explanation. be held to belong

Th to a

in human form. properly be a mere veil hiding the a acquire that when of it, deprived to effect the change. A occurs in an Arab saga. puts to death his three It would thus


to a guitar-player and daughters, appear dance to his playing. As they dance they throw him the rind of the oranges in their and this they hold hands rind is found the next into day changed gold pieces and into The the maidens jewels. following year appear again their He manages to get hold of guitar-player. which he burns. corne shrouds, They thereupon back to life, and he weds the youngest of them. This is said to have no longer happened ago than sixty years before the French of Algiers.' conquest of the of New sort is found no in the Maori tales. To Zealand to the

Algiers, afterwards

seemed needful change the lady was of supernatural birth and could fly as she The same pleased. may be said of Andrianro's wife, that the Malagasy as a whole, notwithstanding variant, a higher level of culture than the adventures of bespeaks Tawhaki and Tini-rau. As little do we find the magical robe in the Passamaquoddy and the story of the Partridge Sheldrake Duck. The Dyaks of the need of it in the saga /M, boat which was caught of Borneo of their are unconscious ancestral fish, the laid in his

Nothing the natives

by a man, and when turned into a girl, whom he gave to his son for a bride. The Chinese have endless tales about foxes which assume human but the fox's skin plays no part in form

Cours de langue Arabe." Basset, p. t6!, quoting Bresnier, In a Maya story given by Dr. Brinton, the husband prevents his wife's transformation in different waynamety, by throwing salt (" F. L. Journal," vol. i. p. 2~t).



them. under

into lady changes back again into a lady without of peltry.' any apparatus in the tales of the higher Again, nursery races, th dress when cast seems an article of human clothsimply but a girdle, and it is ing, often nothing veil, or apron donned only when by th enchanted lady, or elf, that it is found to be neither more nor less than a complete Thence it easily passes into a mre instrument plumage. of power, like the mermaid's belt and in the pouch Scottish or the book of command in the y/M~c~M story, of the Island of Happiness, and is on its way to final disappearance. The maiden's talc where th of the garment. tion we will capture enchanted These is effected garment cases will in those types of the by the theft our atten-

in a Japanese the consideration,





the group a fox and

is worn, not detain

to the discussion of those pass at once where there is no transformation to be effected or dreaded. the most of all are the Perhaps interesting Welsh and of these not the least sagas remarkable is the suit of food. Andrianbro by offerings tried this in the Malagasy device but it was unsuccessful. story from Llanberis, th youth analogue 2 entices his beloved into his grasp of an apple by means in the Van Pool variants the offering assumes almost a sacramental character. Until the fairy maiden bas tasted or until her suitor has eaten of the food earthly bread, which sustains be united to hcr. her, he cannot Hre we are reminded in on a former the one hand of th elfin food conto partake of which sealed chapter, the adventurer's fate and him for ever from prevented to his human and on the other home returning hand of the ceremony of eating which so many together among nations has becn part of thc marriage rites. "Journ. Ethnol. Soc." N. S.,vol. p. 388. 2 Y Cymmrodor," vol. v. p. ()~. ii. p. 26 GHcs,/r/ Brauns, sidered In a Carnan'onshire







of Llangorse Lake story for the Land East of the Sun, and still having more with one of the Maori Wastin of Wastiniog sagas. the writer tells us, three clear moonlit watched, nights and saw bands of women in his oat-fields, and followed them until into the pool, where he overthey plunged heard them conversing, and saying to one another If Map affinities he did so and he one. capturing in many of the stories, the lady has obviously of opposite designs upon the mortal sex, and deliberately throws herself in his way. But she lays a taboo upon to serve him and with all him, promising willingly obedient until that strike her in devotion, day he should with his bridle. After the birth of several children anger he was unfortunate on some occasion, the details enough instructed, as Hre, of has forgotten, to break the condiMap she fled with all her offspring, of whom tion whereupon her husband was able to save one before she barely with the rest into the lake. This plunged one, whom he called Triunnis the Nagelwch, grew up, and entered service master's of the King of Triunnis North once Wales. led At his a marauding of the of Brecknock. pedition territory King A battle when he was defeated and his band eut ensued, to pieces. It is said ttnt Triunnis himself was saved by his mother, and thenceforth dwelt with her in the lake. adds the truth-loving I think But, indeed," Walter, it is a lie, because a delusion of this kind is so likely to J account for his body not having been found." In spite, however, of such unwonted incredulity, Map, command, into the having another believing. once this story, proceeds to tell begun by telling like it, which he seems to have no diniculty in The second tale concerns a hero of the Welsh one there of royal exwhich Walter catch so, he would of course succecded one in of us." Thus



a curious

Wild of whose historic as border, Edric, reality the EngHsh rebels William the Conqueror against Map, Dist. ii. c. tt.



is ample

that from appears Edric, returning of Dean, hunting, and accomway in the Forest panied about a large only by one boy, reached midnight house which turned out to be a drinking-shop, such as the English, On approachMap says, call a ~~o~. ing it he saw a light, and looking a number in, he beheld of women in countenance, dancing. They were beautiful and taller than ordinary women. He noticed bigger one them fairer than the rest, and (Walter, among perhaps, had Fair Rosamund in his mind when he says) more to be desired than all the darlings of kings. Edric rushed round the house an entrance, dashed in and and, finding with the help of his boy dragged her out, despite a furious resistance in which th nails and teeth of her companions made themselves felt. She brooded in sullen silence for three whole days but on the fourth day she exclaimed to her new master "Bless and you will you, my dearest, be blessed and prosperity too, and enjoy heaith until you me on account of my sisters, or the place, or the reproach whence me away, grove or anything you have snatched connected with it. For the very do so your day you will forsake 1 shall be taken happiness you. and away you will suncr and long repeated misfortune, for your own death." He himself to fidelity and pledged to their nobles came splendid from far and near. nuptials heard of the wonder, King William and bade the newly wedded to London, where he was thcn holding pair his that he might test the truth of the court, talc. They it to him proved witnesses from by many their own proof. lost his country was that of the testimony lady's and he dismissed superhuman them in admirabeauty tion to their home. After of happiness many years Edric returned one late from evening and hunting, could not find his wife. He spent some time in vainly for her before she came. Of course," calling he began, not been angrily, you have detained so long by your have you ? The rest of his wrath sisters, fell upon the but the chief








for at the mention of her sisters air empty And neither her husband's self-reproaches, nor any search could ever find her again.' A point far more is the taboo. capture remains with her

she nor

vanished. his tears,

than the actual mode of interesting The condition on which the heroine

of the Hasan captor-spouse is, in stories his preservation of Bassorah of the feathcr-garb type, in those of the Melusina we are now type (with which his observance of the taboo. In the tales just dealing), cited from Walter two important forms of Map we have the a taboo, third. of Melusina legend is an example The latter on the part of supernatural than dealt added just with to other of how in what two Wastin and when and in the herself of the we have ordinary to be seen

objection otherwise we need have be


which please, a previous and little chapter 1 hve said on the already they are, however, worth some

The subject. consideration. In that Let "the the account

he was forbidden this us compare bottomless

of Wastiniog we are told to strike his wife with the bridle. with that of the fairy of prohibition of

took place on two conditionsmarriage was not to know his wife's name, first, that the husband he might he chose give her any name and, though if she misbehaved towards he might that him, second, not now and then beat her with a rod, but that he should him at once. her with strike iron, on pain of her leaving in repeating the covenant," says Professor Rhys was kept for some years, so that they lived happily tale, of whom and had four the two children, together, a boy and a girl. But one day, as they were youngest in the direction went to one of the fields of Bryn Twrw, a pony, the fairy wife, being to catch of Penardd Gron, ran before him and than her husband, so much nimbler This Map, Dist. ii. c. !2.

Carnarvonshire, The Corwrion.

in UpperArlIechwedd, pool of Corwrion," who wedded the heir of the owner




in no time. She called out to her husband a halter but instead of that he threw towards her a bridle with an iron bit, as bad luck would which, have her. The wife it, struck at once flew through the air, and plunged into headlong Corwrion Lake. The husband returned and sighing towards Twrw weeping and when Bryn (Noise he Hill), reached there was greater it, the /a~w than had (noise) ever been heard that of weeping after before, namely, and it was then, after he had struck Belene' her with iron, that he first learnt what his wife's name was." Il The perusal of this saga will raise a suspicion that the form of the taboo in Wastin's original case was a prohibition against with the prohibition striking iron, and that was eventually of a bridle. infringed by means Whether the alteration was due to a blunder on Map's part in relating the story is of no importance but the suspicion will be raised to a certainty to some other by turning sagas in Professor admirable collection. It is related Rhys' at near that a youth Waenfawr, Carnarvon, like broke, Wild into a dance of the fairies Edric, on the banks of the near one Gwyrfai, moonlit Cwellyn Lake, night, and carried off a maiden. She at first refused to wed to remain his servant. him, but consented One evening, he overheard two of her kindred however, of speaking her name-Penelope. her, and caught When she found that he had learnt her name she gave way to grief she now knew that her fate was sealed. evidently On his she at length being renewed, consented to that he should not strike marry him, but on the condition her with iron. Here was broken again the taboo by the of a bridle while chasing a horse. flinging A similar tale was related in the vale of Beddgelert, wherein the stolen to be the servant lady would of her ravisher only consent importunity "I' Cymmrodor," vol. iv. p.20t. Nothingtumsontheactuainames in these stories have been evidently much they corrupted,probabty all recognition. pa.st 21



in the

mane pony's to throw her







if it,

he could she asked

find in







0 mortal, astonishment to thee ? trayed my name Then, lifting up her tiny folded she exclaimed Alas hands, my fate, my fate Even then she would him on condition that only marry if ever he should touch her with iron she would be free to leave him and return to her family. as Catastrophe, before. In a variant the maiden, pressed by her human to marry, he can find out her lover, promises provided name. When he succeeds in doing this she faints away, but bas to submit to her doom. In doing so, she imposes one more proviso he is not to touch her with iron, nor is there to be a boit of iron, or a lock, on their door. The in another servant-girl, story cited in Chapter VII., who was rescued from could Fairyland, only stay, it will bc in her master's service so long afterward, as remembered, he forebore to strike her with and the fatal blow iron was struck with a bit. J accidentally Mr. Andrew has remarked, Dr. Tylor, Lang following that in this taboo the fairy mistress is the representative of the stone age." This is so and the reason is, because to the realm of the supernatural. belongs use of metals was discovered, stone implements carded in ordinary but for ages afterwards life stone were used she When were knives the disof

discoveredwho has be-

for religious Therc is evidence, purposes. for instance, that the Hebrews, to seek no further, emthem in some of their sacred an altar of ployed rites stone was forbidden to be hewn and when King the temple, Solomon built there was neither hammer, nor axe, nor any tool of iron heard in the house while it was in building." there be no direct Although may evidence of such a practice the Cymric among Britons, were probably no exception to the rule, which seems they been to have the worid and th general throughout Druids' custom of cutting the mistletoe with a golden, not with an iron, sickle, points in this direction. The retenIbid. p. 189 vo!. v. pp. 59, $6 vol. vi. p. 196.



tion The

of stone

less due

instruments to the intense been

in religions conservatism served with

to change naturally objecting whose use had continued so through revolutions in ordinary many human would utensils, have a divine thereby acquired character. of Changes in time changes religion, however, even in these brought was bound to no special usages. Christianity reverence for knives and arrowheads of flint but seem to they have been still vaguely associated with the discrded or their allies, th2 deities, and Oreads and Fairies Nymphs of stream or wood or dell, and with the supernatural A familiar of this generally. is the example name of Elfbolts in this and other given by the country people lands to these old-world whenever turned objects, up by the harrow or the spade. Now the traditional preference on the part of supernatural for stone instruments beings is only one side of the which as its reverse thought would, a distinct abhorrence side, show by the same mythical for metals, and chiefly personages we have (since long out of the bronze for iron. passed Not age) do only witches and spirits to the object axes and horseshoe iron wedges are equally distasteful to themat all events in Denmark. So in Brittany, when men go to gather the herbe d'or, a medicinal of plant extraordinary virtue, in a white robe and fasting, they go barefooted, and no iron and though all the may be employed necessary ceremonies be performed, only holy men will be able to find it. The magical of this plant, as well as propcrties the rites requisite to obtain its sacredness it, disclose to the old divinities. It shines at a distance like gold, and if one tread on it he will fall asleep, and will come to understand the languages of birds, dogs, and wolves., In previous we have alreadyhad chapters occasion to note PHny 1. xvi. c. 95 Thorpe, vol. ii. pp. 275, 277 Stephens, Barzas Breiz." p. 248, citing the

gods, having would be conceived and th implements

was doubtworship of religious feeling. stone for so long,

of as







this dislike and fire-steel

for iron



Hence babe's


in an unchristened

placing cradle. behind

of scissors Hence the her when for his

for the midwife's reason a knife casting she left the troll's laden with dwelling the father's the precaution Islay taking dirk into the threshold when he

his gifts and of striking his son

bathed fairy hill. So, too, in Sweden sea were gravely advised to cast into it close to them a a knife, or the like, to prevent from fire-steel, any monster them. The bolts and locks to which the fairy hurting of Beddgelert would have her free objected prevented into and out of the house. passage In the Pomeranian in the last chapter, the saga quoted enchanted contains her princess magical is unable shift she to the trunk which open must wait for another to

sought who people

in the in the

it and give her the garment. In the same open way Hasan's bride could not herself go to the chest and get her feather-dress. The to her motherkey was committed in-law's and was forced from the old woman care, by the Caliph's nor did it ever corne into Zubaydah, wife the fairy's for her dress was fetched for her by hands, Masrur at Zubaydah's It is not unlikely that bidding. the reason for the supernatural wife's in these difficulty and analogous cases is the mtal lock and key. But we must not forget that the robe is not always locked up in a chest. times Sometimes in a stack it is hidden in a hole of corn, sometimes of the wooden hut in which the wedded pair are dwelling. we must not leave out of account that in the Moreover, herself take the wooden Nightmare type the wife cannot out of the hole through which she entered but stopper is removed she vanishes. by another such things go to show that supernatural beings themselves undo charms expressly performed them. So evil spirits cannot a circle penetrate directly it around of the him cross These cannot against drawn the sign and in the wall, somebeneath the main-post

them. by one who invokes So, too, is an efficient protection against them

SWAN-MAtDENS. it is therefore of consecration. But the made upon churches and altars at the

39 time

made by the lady of Corwrion was stipulation twofold. Not only was her bridegroom to forbear striking her with to know her name. iron, but he was not even It is so difficult for us to put ourselves into the mental attitude tion names. and of savages, almost they The that all we do not to is, not itself understand the mention well the entertain objecof their known



manifested in always cases a man only refuses to utter his own name, while he will utter another's name Sometimes it is deemed an unreadily enough. to call another he must bc pardonable thing by name widely the exactly of by an epithet. And frequently spoken real name is a profound known to secret, only all others him only by some epithet or himself, knowing title. Sometimes it is only forbidden to relatives by to speak one another's names. Thus in various marriage has a number of customs ways etiquette prescribed addressed, a man's and among savage all the world over. The of peoples origin these ruies and customs seems to have been the dread of A personal name was held to be a part of ils sorcery. of a lock of another's owner and, just as the possession of his nail, was believed to confer hair, or even a paring over so was the of his name. power him, knowledge limiting barbarous Similarly men in the lower culture their likenesses having with the belief that taken a witch, a great fear of and everybody is familiar who has made a waxen have the utterance of names or

but it is spread same form. In some

it the name of any one whom she wants image and given to injure, it in a can, by sticking pins in it, or melting flame, inflict pain, and even death, upon the person whom the doll represents.' The above paragraphs had scarcely been written when the London papers (June tSo) reprinted extracts from a letter in th Vossische th adventures of Dr. Bayo), th Governorof Kotenon, Z~?7/retatlng







Illustrations plied from every

of this

superstition might nation under heaven.

be multieasily But we need not in the cited story from

for if we compare the taboo go so far afield of Corwrion with the other stories 1 have the same ourselves stage may county, as to we shall its have no difficulty It can only with by dread an on

of thought be made in

meaning. looks which name the

in satisfying to the belong the use that of stage fear for a

of one's


thought man of

fairy might naturally another her to become albeit husband, race, of her real name. What else can we infer from possessed the evident ladies terror and grief with which the captive hear their names from their suitors' It lips ? name conferred This tale than power


is clear

of the fairy's t that the knowledge i over her which she was unable th interprtation whom a Hill-troll Riding crowd home late also had one of the stolen night no

to resist. fewer


is surely of a man from three wives.

he saw a great afterwards, of Hill-folk and and dancing making merry them he recognized his three wives. One of thse among was Kirsten, his best beloved, and he called out to her and named name was her name. The whose troll, or Hurry, came Skynd, up to he presumed to call Kirsten. she tears had to been his favourite him The and man and asked him explained him begged why that with

The troll her back to at last congive but with the proviso that he should nevcr sented, hurry a long condition was her. For time the (~~M<~) in fetching but one day, as she was delayed observed for her husband something her Make haste (~'y~ the words hardly spoken from ~~), when loft, Kirsten the the he cried And was out to he had gone,

wife, him.


who was recently imprisoned hy th btoodthirsty King of Dahomey. The king was too suspicions to sign th letter written in his name to th President of the French Repub)ie. In all probabDity he was unwitting to let the President have his sign manual, for of course M. Carnot wou)d have no hesitation in hewitching h!mhy its means.



to return to the troll's abode. Here we have compelled the phenomenon in a double for not only does the form husband his wife from the troll regain by pronouncing her name, but hc loses her once more by inadvertently her captor. It is a German that summoning superstition a mara, or nightmare, can be effectually exorcised if the su~erer surmises who it is, and instantly addresses it by name.' Wecan now understand how, in the Carmarthenshire mentioned in Chapter the farmer was story VII., spell he had been A man caught sight of him dancing on the mountain and broke the spell by speaking to him. It must have been the utterance of his name that drew him out of the enchanted circle. Returning, observe how is the taboo to the legend howcvcr, much narrower and less on him Yet had laws was in Shc than th of Wastin, we may likely to be infringed that on the imposed of the some not Van relics Pool, of oldrescued from the for twelve months. fairies under whose

imposed of Blaensawdde. youth whatever her practice, fashioned chastisement to bestow. for three his hand


wifcly duty. which the A husband causes and

theory did

of Wales permitted any other

to the object allowed a husband to beat his wife occasion he raised

if on

in the shape against her, she had her remedy of a M; or fine, to be paid to her for the disgrace. But a .MT<~ would not satisfy this proud lady nothing less than a divorce would mect the case. The Pa! tridgc's wife, as we have seen, was still more exacting she declined to be struck at all. In the same way the fish who had become a girl, in thc Dyak her husband story, cautioned to use her well and when he struck her she rushed into the water. In another screaming Bornoese which is quoted the tradition, heroine by Mr. Farrer, is taken her husband up to th sky bccause had struck there been no previous her, having A prohibition.2 Keightley, = Ancient p. !2t, quoting from Thie!e; Thorpe, vol. iil. p. 155. Lnws and Institutes of Wa!cs (rnb)ic Record Comm. back







different Bantik forbidden

sort legend to


is violence personal cited above. There out one white hair

resented the which


the is

husband adorns


his wife's she has head. He disobeys after Outahagi, and she vanishes in a tempest and given birth to a son returns to the sky, where her husband is forced to seek her again. The more Her stipulation made by to to Wild our Edric's bride is still according arbitrary, husband was forbidden than these. notions, her on account reproach her her the of a

of her

or the place from which he snatched sisters, In other he was forbidden to charge away. words, with her supernatural character. When Diarmaid, of King comes in the form daughter Underwaves, beggar becomes to Fionn and insists on

his couch, she sharing a beautiful to marry him on girl, and consents condition that hc does not say to her thrice how he found In a variant, her. the hero, out shooting, meets going with a hare, which, when hard pressed by the dogs, turns into a woman. She promises to wed him on his entering into without proviso), found her th three not to ask his king to a feast vows, namely, her know first letting (a most housewifely not to cast up to her in any company that he in the of form only and in that of a hare, one man. the given and not of to these the In morning an leave are taboo her in Both West they

company tales resemble

Highland closely

manner by found at Map. one her


story, a Vila is by a youth in the grass. He is astonished for her. When she a shade asks less what than he he wants to take herself for her to such

wakes kindness. and him must

beauty, she is pleased, and He asks nothing she to is content, utter that him but, name, at once.

sleeping and plants

avowing for if

a Vila, should do so

wife forbids she


1841) pp. 44, 2~2. (The Dimetian code was the one in force at Farrer, Myddfai; but that of Gwynedd was similar in this respect.) p. 256.



Keats and ciation words it Lamia's


glorified was a true



these that not but


instinct follow, character,

disappearance of her real serpent What matter against the foui in A

guided on Apollonius' on the

by his touch him to make denunof the echo

Lycius. a charge repeated

her astounded husband, by make that the philosopher should her ? when her lover It was only The word that she forsook him. one of it the will stories be mentioned on on the in the

nightmare-wife last chapter reproached asked how the Esthonian Mermaid.

vanishes, with her she In tale this title

origin, became a nightmare warns her connection Eumenides, to the parallel it

remembered, in another and and is against obvious

being being lady in


her calling to refer to

the euphemistic on the Furies, Fair the Family, thought narvonshire utterance a generic scorn.' The

by the Greeks and and Good People names, for fays in this country. In all these cases of the Caris distinguishable from that for the offence is not given sagas by the bestowed name, which but by incautious reproach, Coast Her was use if of not conveys

of a personal appellation


fish, but was sworn to her home wife down or had to her

of a saga of the Gold in the form of a woman. that he would not allude

a really husband had

relatives disclosed her her home.

in any way to her on this promise, his and, relying him true nature to him and taken was

but received there, kindly and only with difficulty was speared by some fishermen, rescued who enjoined him when lie by his new relatives, his wife to keep the returned to earth with spearhead concealed. carefully and by its owner It was, to escape howevcr, th charge found of and theft claimed the hus-


CampbeU, vol. iii. p. 403; Mac Innes, p. 211 Wratislaw, p. 314. Cf. a similar story told by a peasant to Dr. Krauss' mother no longer ago hc "knew th than 1888, as having recently happened at Mrkopotje
parties!" (Krauss, "VotksgL" p. 107).











consequences But vow. one

immcdiately he had lately with

No evil whole adventure. from this breach of his ensued a second first her wife and wife and taunted for she her

taken the

day quarrelled a fish. with being revealed the secret, resumed The Ghost her former Wife, husband to corne back with himself and her a second of the wife, who first wife.

Upbraiding the latter


shape. a wife who from child. turns

into th plunged So in the Pawnec had died

having sea and story of

is persuaded by her the Spirit Land to dwell again AU goes well until he takcs and out jealous ill-tempered

reproaches The next wife was

with her one day, she Quarrelling a ghost. with but the latter being nothing his first when the husband awoke, morning to She had returned no longer by his side. and their the following night both he and the to first wife sleep-called by the us back to that of Melusina, sagas bring the it will be recollected, not when but taboo, when, by his guilty knowledge. and disappearoffence

the Spirit Land in child died herself.' who These

disappears, her breaks the husband, count, he betrays her a serpent, calling A name, is the cause of indeed, ance

The chieftain of the in many other of these stories. on the lake of of Inchiquin who owncd the Castle Quins, in Ireland, found in near the town of Ennis that namc, a lady who one of th many caves of the neighbourhood no his bride, only stipulating that consented to become one th bearing enter the castle name gate. of O'Brien When this should be allowed was her to inchild prohibition with a window has and long amid since the

she sprang through fringed The into the lake. property of the O'Briens the hands castle when the the fatal window is still

into passed ruins of th as perfect it into form and as the of that



through lady leaped supernatural It may be safely said that th primitive waters. the taboo has not corne down to us in this talc, Ellis, p. 208 Grinnell, p. 129.

SWAN-MAtDENS. it owes present the acquired the But the now its form estates of of to the once some name the fact that hateful may have the by the

3~5 O'Briens Quins. name was been able



Probably forbidden. to disturb we are understand goat-footed taie narratcd exclaimed

utterance whatever

equanimity familiar enough

a holy name fairy wife of Don Diego Lopez by Sir Francis Palgrave. the as he witnesscd Don, why

of Inchiquin, Lady with these to superstitions should bc tabooed by the in the Holy an Spanish Mary

his dogs, quarrel who ever saw among His wife, without more her daughter ado, seized the air to her native glided mountains. through did she ever return, she afterwards, at her though an enchanted horsc to relcasc request, her supplied
band when in captivity to the Moors. In two

unexpected the like ? and Nor son's husof


variants the lady forbids l the name of Death. high-born sensibilities. loped a tribe of American These






devehad, forsooth, high!y The wife of a Teton are (thc Tetons deserted abandoned natives) him, her infant to her younger brother's and care, plunged into a stream, where she becamc what wc call a mermaid, and all because her husband had scolded her. In another American the wife was a snake, she talc, where deserted him from jealousy. A Tirolesc of saga speaks a man who had a wifc of unknown extraction. She had bidden him, whcnevcr she baked to pour water for bread, her with his right hand. He pourcd it once with th would He soon left, to sec what happen. saw, to his Choicc Notes," p. ~6 citcd above, p. 27~. Jahn, p.64, (Kennedy relates th story of th Lady of Inchiquin difTcrentty. According to him the husbnnd was never to invite company to the castle. This is probabty more modem than th other version. Kennedy,
p. 282.) KuighHey, p. 458, quoting the


Sir Francis t'a)gravc, though unpardonabie sin of invariabty

p. 485, quoting Md)!c. Bosquet,





an accurate Mriter, was guilty ncg!ccting to give his authorities.

La Normandie Romanesque."

of thc Ibid.







cost Sheba,



flew to




of China King on this wise. Her father, met hunting, a black one and a white, snakes, struggling together combat. He killed thc black one, and caused deadly white one to be carefully and carried to his palace daughter came about his private day, he was herself apartment. surprised as a Peri, and her entering to find a lovely
thanked him

according of the

a celebrated

of Queen Arab was the writer, Her and a Peri. birth two in the into next







lady, who announced for delivering her the snake. sister he in As a proof marriage, should never

day before from of her gratitude subject, question

enemy, she offered

th him

black her that or

to the proviso however, her why she did this be to seen be again.

to never vanish, had every reason A son was born

put it in the fire. The his beard, but said king wept nothing. Then a daughter of lovelinessafterwards singular of Sheba-was born a she-bear Balkis, Queen appeared at the door, and the mother her babe into its jaws. flung Th king tore out not only his beard, but the hair of his lady head, course days' came the in A climax, came however, of a war, he and his army had to across a certain desert. march On queen, a large knife in her and the waterskins, the and ground, with death. silence. in the when, effect a seven the fifth day

to them and tore

pleased but th

that, else she would The and king agreed, with his beautiful bride.


provision-bags of the food upon his army face

hand, and, slitting strewed the whole and king could no

to face

the brought Her husband

himself from questioning restrain her. Then she longer had poisoned told him that his vizier, bribed by the enemy, the food and water in order to destroy him and his army, his son had a constitutional and that defect which would him from living three have prevented days if she had not The who was no other put him in the fire. she-bear, old nurse, brought back his daughter at her than a trusty herself and he saw her but the queen call disappeared,



no more.










IX obstinately rcfused to speak, her Chapter although lover had fairly conquered her. But after she bore him a son, the old woman of whom hc had previously taken counsel advised him to heat th oven and threaten his mistress that if she would not speak he would throw the The Nereid seized the babe, and, crying out boy into it. Let go my child, tore it from his arms and dog vanished. It is related that Thetis, who by Apollodorus was also a Nereid, wished to make her son immortal. To this end she buried him in fire by night to burn out his human and anointed him with ambrosia elements, by her was not informed of the Peleus, day. husband, reason for this lively his child proceeding and, seeing in the fire, he called out. thus abanThetis, thwarted, doned both husband and child in disgust, and went back to her native element. In the great Sanskrit pie of the Mahbhrata a riverside we are one day, him told met that and King Sntanu, walking by fell in love with a beautiful was the river and Ganges, `

that she girl, who told could him on condition that he never only marry questioned her conduct. To this a truly he, with royal and she bore him several all gallantry, agreed children, of whom she threw into the river as soon as they were born. At last she bore him a boy, Bhishma and her husband her to spare his life, whereupon she begged into the river and instantly flowed changed Ganges of temper, as evidenced by three was a sufficient of divorce simple disagreements, ground for the fairy of Llyn Nelferch, in the parish of Ystradyin Glamorganshire, from her human fodwg, husband. In a variant of the Maori 1 hve more sagas, to which than once referred, the lady quits her spouse in disgust away. Incompatibility because hoped Truly he from turns out ~o~ to name, instance be a cannibal, as she confidence Schneller, had r p. his truculent Kai-tangata, of misplaced or man-eater.

a heartrending "Journal Amer. F. L.

vol ii. p. ;37

vol. i. p. 76







Many type,-that in every ever

of these is to variant

stories say, of the

to belong are wanting Swan-maiden

the in

Star's the group,

Daughter But taboo. to whatso-

is inevitable the catastrophe it may belong, type on the or not it depends Whether from the beginning. of the work it is equally breach of an explicit taboo, this Islands of the Loo-Choo doom. A legend expresses sees a bright A farmer form. light in its baldest feeling a woman beholds on drawing in his well, near, and, Her clothes, in the water. strange and washing diving on are hanging sunset in shape and of a ruddy colour, and thus He takes at hand. near them, a pine-tree She lives with him for ten him. her to marry compels At the end of him a son and a daughter. bearing years, a tree during she ascends that time her fate is fulnlled her children bidden her husband's and, having absence, in Both and disappears. off on a cloud glides farewell, of Bassorah to the Hasan type and in its approximation and wifc to fate, of husband the separation its attributing the Lay of Weyland with this talc agrees remarkably From the south through we are told where Smith, their fates, the young to fulfil fairy maidens Mirkwood, to rest on the sealadies southern The alighted flew. linen. First their and fell to spinning goodly strand, to her bright took Egil fair daughter, Cear's Alh-une, But took Slagfin. The Swanwhite, bosom. second, neck of Weyland. the white her sister, clasped Lathgund, in peace, but the eighth there Seven winters they stayed must needs the ninth part. to pine, they began they to fulfil to Mirkwood hastened The fairy maidens young in the KathA Vidydhari, too, who, fates." their dwells in the orthodox is caught manner, sarit-sgara, She forth a child. she brings ascetic until with a certain vol. i. p. !2 Child, vol. i. p. 337. quoting Schmidt "Rosenol," 2t0 and Apollodorus Panjab N. & Q. vol. ii. p. 207. (In this form the derived from the Mahabharata.) story is found as a tradition, probably Trans. Aberd. Eistedd." p. 225 White, vol. i. p. 126.



curse remarks to her holy paramour "My cahuly If with to an end by living has been you. brought of of me, cook this child to see any more you desire to be reunited mine with rice and eat it you will then The ascetic she vanished. said this, me Having to fly after and was thus enabled followed her directions, thcn her. that The In the same one time of the New Zealand variants to return we to her are told came for Whai-tiri home.

to the wife in a Tirolese is indicated thing hears as he her husband tale by means of a voice, which Tell Mao The voice cried the forest. passes through this to his When he repeated is dead." that Mamao of her and he never saw or heard wife she disappeared after. doubt In as view to the of these narratives there can be little tradition of thc of the Arab meaning one of th clans was descended. from whom she-demon, came suddenly to an father their human Her union with l a flash of lightning.' end when she beheld returned to the sky The Star's however, Daughter, because of these not she tales was homesick. did Nor is she the who but homesick so and 1 pass to one who had is The her love. saga of only heroine heroines are a nobler told at

very interesting, reason for quitting of a girl Rarotonga

who white complexion dazzling She became and was caught. came up out of a fountain of the inhabitants It was the custom the wife of a chief. to th she came from which world of th perform who were on females Csesarean ready to give opration birth death. that so that When the she birth found of a child on the involved the mothcr's to her surprise, earth, th mother its course as

nature to take by allowing she persuaded her husband was saved, well as the child to put to endeavour her to the lower world to go with He was ready to accompany a stop to the cruel custom. Corpus Poet. Dennys, p. 140 sarit-sgara," vol. ii. p. 453, If. p. 577 Robertson Smith, p. 50. p. 2to 1

KathaBor." vol. i. p. 168 White, voL i. p. 88 Schneller,







her through


after the

five fountain

several to the



dive below

with he

her was


to abandon the attempt. obliged Sorrowfully embracing each other, the one 1 alone will go to said peerless the spirit-world to teach what 1 have learnt from you." At this she again dived down into the clear waters, and J was never more seen on earth. It will not have the reader's that escaped attention, the more backward races the taboo among appears in or is absent generally simpler form, altogether. who tell stories Among most, if not all, of the peoples i wherein this is the case, the marriage bonds are of the loosest description and there is, therefore, nothing very remarkable in the bride's conduct. We supernatural might expect and to find that as advances more more are made in the comcivilization, reason for marriage would separation becomes become regarded, and more

Am 1 going too far in suggesting plex and cogent. that the resumption of her bird or beast by the bride shape marks a stage in the development of the myth beyond the Star's and the formai where Daughter type taboo, the human is not abandoned, a stage later figure still ? In our view, indeed, the taboo is not less irrational, as a means of putting an end to the marriage, than the retrieved robe or skin. But we forget how recent in civilization is the of the marriage-tie. Even sanctity Christian nations divorce was practised among during the Middle for very Ages the slight reasons, despite of popss and priests. In Eastern countries the authority husband has always had little check on his liberty of or no cause putting at all away a wife for any cause, and, though which unrecognized by the religious books, have enforced the husband's 's rights with so stern a this liberty on his part sanction, may have been counteroftener than we think, balanced, by corresponding liberty on the wife's doubt this has been so in part. Beyond cm, p. 265.



India, ments.

of marriage settle' by means In Bengal, for instance, a bridegroom is some. times compelled to execute a deed in which he stipulates never to scold his wife, the penalty a divorce and being deeds are not unknown the wife to get a empowering divorce if her husband ever so much as disagree with her. Even This the is incompatibility fairy of Llyn of temper with a vengeance Nelferch was willing to put up and no taboo in story has gone,



is effected

with two disagreements or could go, further. some of th taboos are such as the etiquette Moreover, of various would peoples entirely approve, though breaches of them not be visited so severely as in might the the tales. Van out that the Lady of pointed Pool had a legal remedy for blows cause. The lies in the romance wide intershe gave to the blows, and their disproportionalready would have These to the laid transfer the hearer's wife husband. upon Precisely Hohodemi, Iknow sympathies seems parallel by Toyotawhat may 1 have


pretation ate punishment. from to be the the


of the Sea-god. not daughter rule in Japan but it is probably not different from that which obtains in China. as we learn There, from the L Ki, one of the Confucian a wife in classics, condition even among the poor, Toyotamahime's would, be placed in a separate and her apartment husband, it would be his duty to send twice a day to ask though after would not sec her, nor apparently her her, enter room until the child was presented to him to be named. mahime, be the Curiously identical fay, the of Jean the prohibition in the enough with that imposed by Pressina, mother of Melusina, according d'Arras at the end of written Melusina and the Esthonian rule Japanese herself to the the tale a waterromance fourteenth laid is

century. down another during



a recurring they demanded period be free from marital intrusion. they would Indian N. & Q." vol. iv. p. 147. 22







India irrelevant



Europe to observe

but that



be more


thought than

quite is this

of India. in many parts to a bride secured commonly it is expressly settlement For by the agreed marriage as often as she house she is to go to her father's that in she Is empowered and if her husband object, likes for false imhim to bring an action the deed against prisonment.' Hre we thing, divine or two may leave of the taboo. Somesubject Swan-maiden as must be said on the to one But first of all, let me advert the

however, ancestress. cases where

without is ascribed progenidivinity are worheroine and her husband The Maori torship. actual to be considered do not appear They shipped. at all but the husband of any New Zealand clan parents one of the same blood. be deemed events would Passing we find a remarkable over to New saga conGuinea, cerning the moon. The moon of born village earth, by the assistance of Port about miles to th eastward of Keile, twenty than usual, A long while ago, digging deeper Moresby. a round, he came smooth, shining object, silvery, upon it up, grew he had after got it out and lifted which, He and larger until it floated away. larger rapidly set he out came to search for it nor did he desist river bank He She her wife. until and a large pool in the upon On the woman bathing. where she had cast it off. when her attention was one'day found a grass upon by his moon, of the daughter of the a native is a of the

beautiful petticoat and it

lay her sat down to was up him the out If I


one another. dogs, they recognized and he was the man who had dug and he claimed her as his earth she replied, you," touched my clothes for one day 1 will Sacred Booksofthe N. & Q." vol. iv. p. ~. "you you marry must must

you, East," vol. xxvii. pp. 471, 47~6

marry have but as you die die in any case, and so and then go you must Indian



home ingly then

and your village were married they


went home, made moon in due course married

for death." Accordprepare for one and the man day his funeral feast and died. The the sun, as it was rendered for their her their conduct doom union of one ever

to do but so wretched another since.

his intolerable jealousies that they at last agreed This accounts

to see as little

relates that a woodcutter legend found some fairies bathing at a lovely fountain. He took of the raiment of one, and hid it at the possession bottom of his rice-barn. In this way he compelled its owner happily when, rice. She in On bade to for her become some his years. husband's out to the and wife they Their son was absence, the barn she her sold clothes lived three their were together years old stock found. of

as possible. An Annamite

left her comb stuck in his child, donned her clothes and flew away. When her collar, husband returned and learned how matters he stood, took his son and repaired to the fountain, where happily fell in with some of his wife's servants who were they sent thither to draw water. them in conEngaging he causcd his son to drop the comb into versation, one of means his wife recognized water-jars. By this and sent an enchanted handkerchief which them, enabled him to fly and follow her servants to her home. After awhile sh~ sent him and her son back to the earth, to get permission in a short time to return promising and live with them. of one of her By the carelessness both father and son were servants, however, dropped into the sea and drowned. of the catastrophe Apprised the fairy transformed her servant, by ravens, by way of into-or to a variant, punishment, became according herself-the father and son became morning star, while the evening star. And now the morning star and the evening again can star perpetually they meet.~ seek one another, p. 12~. but never the

clearing farewell

RomiHy, p. 134;








Turning find that "the

to the the chiefs

instances of the

where Ati

is claimed, we ancestry clan are descended from

one" of Raratonga. The Arawk Indians of peerless Guiana reckon descent in the female line. One of their families takes its name from who daughter on a previous and was provided Another page. its foremother, the warlock's with the dogskin mentioned deduces family married to whether its one name of its

from an earth-spirit pedigree but it does not ancestors appear maiden attaches to her. The myth among cause the they from descended ~M. In of the family manner like whose the Dyaks. would the other town to On be no eating lady whose

any Swanfish ~M~'M is sacred will they eat it, beaccount their for they are relations, first and is Gold the last their Coast form totem. claims was a A in of to of

the ~M/y/ words, of Chama on the be descended an from

fish-woman legend town

given story 1 hve is current same effect nor dare their in either of the case ancestress in the to eat

and a outline at the neighbouring do of the the kind members

Appam family believe

instance fish

of the they

to which

is manifest

The totem belonged. of the Phnician, or


who was represented Derceto, goddess downward fish. She was believed waist and thence a woman, the mother of Semiramis, and have been have shippers offered thrown herself in from despair into a lake. Her abstained

Babylonian, as woman to the to to


fish were eating fish though and golden fish suspended to her in sacrifice, in of the family Melusina was the mother her temple. of and shriek on one of the She used to appear Lusignan. as often as the head of the family, or a King castle towers of France, was to die, or when or to the of Luxemburg. to the realm, She happen of certain of plenty or famine. was also the author presages of Argouges are told of the castles and Similar legends Rnes minutely in Normandy. examined, If the Irish Banshee that they tales would could be it is probable resolve any town disaster was about to



themselves the Vila


To of supernatural ancestresses. of the Illyrian story, and ~~e fairy of Sir Francis their noble families attribute Spanish story, into stories in the her Tirol is descended from husband's water pouring Greek of a noble veins.' lady with his family the

A family origin. who insisted on right have

and the members hand the blood of a Nereid in their

the of the Van Pool never heroine Though might return to her husband, she was drawn back to carth by the care of her three of her instrucsons, who, by means became celebrated On one occasion tions, physicians. she accompanied them to a place still called Pant-yand or dingle, of the physicians), Meddygon (the hollow, there out to them herbs which the various pointed grew and It is revealed their medicinal virtues. around, added that, in order that their should not be knowledge the same ~o committed the lost, physicians wisely for the benefit all ages. of mankind writing throughout A collection of medical to be this very recipes purporting work still exists in a manuscript at Jesus preserved which is now in course of publication College, Oxford, by Professor and Mr. J. Gwenogvryn and is Rhys Evans, known as the Red Book is called, was Meddygon Myddfai," published by the Welsh MSS.'Societythirty years ago, with an English translation. It professes to have been written under the direction of Rhiwallon the Physician and his sons Kadwgan, and they and Einion Gruffydd, are called "the ablest and most eminent of the physicians of and their the time lord and of the time of Dinevor, the whole unto privileges was Prince century; of of Rhys nobleman Gryg, who their kept was meet." th lord, their of Hergest. An as this collection edition of the

and rights This nobleman part

as them, in South Wales and

early cmgy

of thethirteenth

his monumental

Bent, p. !3. The Nereids in modern Greek folklore are conceived in all points as Swan-maidens. They fly through the air by means of magical raiment (Schmidt, p. 133).









the than

cathedral whom the the

of there


David's. is no



that opinion the fourteenth years youth have after of


century-that date at which and

higher was written at the end of is to say, about two hundred the marriage between the

Gwenogvryn is of authority,

love is alleged to fairy taken and it is believed of the place by the editor volume to be a copy of a still more published ancient now in the British Museum. manuscript Yet it contains no reference to the legend of the Van Pool. The volume in question includes a transcript of another of manuscript the work, which is ascribed in the colophon to Howel the Physician, in th first person, daims to who, writing be descended in the male line from the said regularly the son of Rhiwallon, the physician Einion, of Myddfai, in Cilgwryd, in Gower." being resident This recension of the work is much later in date than the former. A of it cannot be older than the end of the fifteenth portion and the manuscript from which it was printed century was probably the result of accretions over a extending of time, down to the year 17~.3, when long period it was "from the book of John copied of Jones, Physician the last lineal descendant of the family." Myddfai, The remedies it contains, are antique though many of them and superstitious are of various enough, dates enough, and sources and, so far from being natural are distinctly origin, they proved to be the the his best three and sons. most and The body through wallon and the the research attributed said to for to a superhave been the human study of Rhievidence of to show that the Physicians



suitable diligent negative tends with

Meddygon Myddfai," connection of the Van

is of comparatively recent And an exyet it is but natural (if we may use such that a mythical creature like the Lady of the pression) 1 See my article on th 0!d Welsh Meddygon Myddfai," entitted Fo!k Medicine," Y Cymmrodor," vol. ix. p. 227.

therefore, Pool story date. J




should the and line had



spring. of clans, families to monsters long legend were


of an extraordinary progenitor seen her sisters we have the of nations, th


goddesses renowned

of ugliness of nobles. two sons all in his

personages. and evil, So and The the two

of great parents Melusina birth gave and through them to a of the Llanberis of a son invented the whom great for was the a



all daughters, elder son became were The the second

and physician, their proficiency Welsh small wheel. Tubal-cain. ten-stringed Thus,"

descendants of


medicine. One

and harp, we are told,

daughters the other were


spinning the arts

of medicine, and woollen work manufactures, music, were a family at Myddfai celebrated for If, then, there their and possessed of lands as leechcraft, and'influence, we know was the fact, their skill would seem to hereditary an ignorant to demand a supernatural peasantry origin and the their wealth and material additional of the consideration would power which a connection not with refuse the

legend But

them. neighbouring pool would bring for all that the incident of the reappearance by to her children the. mother been of the may have part The Carnarvonshire fairies of various original story. to that of the Van tales analogous Pool are recalled by maternai the dow hapless chanting love to the hears scnes of their voice wedded outside father his wife's life the and win-

pathetically If my son should feel it co!d, Let him wear his father's coat If the fair one feel the cold, Let her wear my petticoat






of these



A certain German family used to excuse its faults hy attributing them to a sea-fay who was reckoned among its ancestors Birlinger, Aus Schwaben," vol. i. p. 7, quoting th Zimmerische Chronik."







seem to us sufficient tions, they hardly to have brought the lady up from the bottomless to pool of Corwrion utter. There is more sense in the mother's song in a i Kamr tale. This woman was not of purely supernatural She was born in consequence origin. of her (human) mother's Married to eating pellets given her by a bird. a chief by whom she was greatly it was noticed beloved, that she never went out of doors In her husby day. band's absence her father-in-law frced her to go and fetch water from the river for him in the Likc daytime. the woman of the Rhone, she was drawn by the waters down into the river. nurse singing That took and the piteously middle of the night, evening it to her the child in cried the stream

It is crying, it is crying, The child of SIhamba Ngenyanga It is crying, it will not be pacined.' Th wailed mother this came thereupon song as she put the out child of the water, breast and

to her

It is crying, it is crying, The child of the walker by moonlight. It was done intentionally by people whose names are unmentionable,' They sent her for water during the day. She tried to dip with th milk-basket, and then it sank. Tried to dip with the ladle, and then it sank. Tried to dip with the mantle, and then it sank." Th was result her in these words conveyed ultimate husband with the recovery by her of her mother, who was a skilful sorceress.2 of the information


Namely, her husband's father, whose name she was not permitted See above, p. 309. by tiquette to utter. Theal, p. ~4' The Teton lady who became a mermaid was summoned, by singing an incantation, to suckle her child Amer. "Journal F. L." vol. ii. p. 137.



Finnish the who will

represents an ogress her care sings babe he the

to belonging as changed heroine tale takes not be her place comforted carries

the into so

Cinderella a reindeer-cow and mother.

group by But

as wife him

is committed, following

to whose a woman, and into the forest,


Little Hue eyes, little red-fell, Come thou thine own son to suctde, Feed whom thou hast given birth to l Of that cannibal nought will he, Never drinks from that bloodsucker For her breasts to him are loathsome, Nor can hunger drive him to them." She casts her appeal. This her child. form to suckle skin, and cornes in human the in the husband's after two rptitions burning results, like her in his arms. reindeer hide and clasping But, transher fast in spite of various he has to hold Peleus, and has the charm he has overcome until formations, J her once more in her pristine shape so much as boldness and tenacity It was not strength the husband's here. In the Kaffir story that conquered The reindeer cannot withstand this first attempt force failed. already when hair on she a to pull his wife out of the water by his sheer stories wife Thus, mentioned returns, too; in one of the Tirolese lies in wait for the husband as to comb usual, her He catches her little


by the hold him that if he can tells she enters she will otherwise she must her for a little while stay too Ail his strength never corne is, however, again. her. The mother's with little to struggle successfully to th a frequent visits to her children sequel are, indeed, her to the tie which and occasionally compels story Saturday. and she return obtain advantage of her possession is taken of by the forsaken But fraud, again.

girl's arm as

husband not force,

to is








as in the Lapp story of the Maiden employed, clothes are once the mermaid's out of the Sea, where of Llyn y Dywarchen more confiscated. In a legend (the the far from not Lake of the Sod), Beddgelert, very conto her husband, subsequently appears water-nymph on turf while he stands with him from a noating versing is the of the reappearance Here the motive the shore. affection. rather than parental, one of conjugal, unusual the neahs 1 must not omit in the of to add that the to first the is kept August the anniversary believed that neighbourhood return the fairy's of the Sunday Van Pool lake. It in as is

takes on that day a commotion annually the approach its waters boil to herald place in the Iake in It was, and still is (though of the lady with her oxen. of people for large numbers force), the custom decreasing and it to witness the phenomenon to make a pilgrimage form in mermaid the lady herself is said that appears little 1 have her tresses. and combs the surface, upon the relic of a we have in this that doubt superstition whose of an archaic in honour festival divinity religious She has, perhaps, abode was in the lake. only escaped rather a Welsh an enchanted by being princess being be of form If the mermaid than a German goddess. to a lurking 1 confess which antiquity,-about genuine the Scottish with is another bond stories, suspicion,-it and with Derceto.' Il with Melusina of the the principal now considered We have points from ail or skin, we found absent The feather-robe, myth. of form no change archaic its more There, examples. by simple occurs, or when it does occur it is accomplished the robe is a mere symbol When transformation. present, of or else th result of the lady's nature, superhuman Portion, Cymru Fu," p. 474. p. 55 = "Y vol. iv. p. t77, vol. vi. p. 203. 1 have also Cymmrodot," made inquiries at Ystradgynlais, in the neighbourhood of the lake, th results of which confirm the statements of Professor Rhys' corresponbut 1 have failed to elicit any further information. dents



enchantment. These or nearly all, y/M~ of Melusina and the absent





are all, In the later sagas, such as those of the Van Pool, it is again Lady of the change of form frequently types,




of the Swan-maiden is effected Capture proper by theft of her robe in other types either by main force, or more with her consent, more or less willingly frequently given, or by her own initiative. to the more of the passed important subject taboo. The taboo, where strictly speaking, only appears the peltry is absent. Several of its forms correspond with rules of antique Others recat.' etiquette. special connected with points of savage life, such as the dislike iron and steel, and the prejudice the mention of against a personal name. Other are against reprohibitions the wife with her origin, proaching against reminding her of her former or against her condition, questioning conduct or crossing her will. But whether the taboo be or absent, the loss of the wife is present equally inevitable, foreseen from the beginning. equally It is the doom of the connection between a simple man and a superhuman female. Even where th feather-robe is absent the taboo is not always found. the marriageAmong savages bond is often very loose in the more backward notably races. And among these the superhuman wife's excuse for flight is simpler and sometimes it is only an arbitrary exercise of will. The taboo grows the advance up with in civilization. Lastly, ancestress. her The we We considered found her we found the Swan-maiden in the heaven, totem as of divine a clan. We then

stories are widely spread,-so widely, as to afford a presumption that we have indeed, in them a due to the whole of the myth. For not only meaning we the complete have totemistic as among the form, and the tribes of the Gold Coast Dyaks but we find th

worshipped, totemistic

resident her as

we found







the goddess fading through superstition mother of the supernatural modern sagas owe extraordinary who to her sometimes watches. fate she continually over whose

Derceto ofafamily, powers,

into and

myth must close. then, our study of this beautiful Here, is exhausted. the subject that 1 am far from suggesting that I and so complex it is so large On the contt'ary, more than a very from abstained have anything rigidly On some features. of its principal examination imperfect have some1 shall discussed here of the points partially when discussing more to add in our final chapter, thing on the fairy beliefs. certain theories



fairies of Celtic and Teutonic races of the same RetrospectTh nature as the supernatural beings celebrated in th traditions of other nationsAU superstitions of supernatural beings explicable of savagesLiebrecht's to the conceptions Ghost by reference Finn TheoryTheory of some Swan-ma:den mythsMacRitchie's founded on too narrow an The amonnt of truth in themBoth induction-Conclusion. WE have in the preceding of tales examined pages and superstitions the Elves some of th to of

principal Fairies Celtic

groups proper,-that and Teutonic

is to say, tradition.

relating and Fays

with the sagas found in the first instance in Dealing or in Germany, our investigations this country, have by for in order to understand ended no means these there occasion to refer again and again to sagas, we have found the ~Mvc~ as well as the nations,-nay, our own in South America. most stitions. the great details distant Sea to the traditions geographical the Islanders, we have parts of the of other sagas, of races as wide and and the European from apart as the of the

position Ainos, found



Incidentally, of archaic of

globe too, we have

among similar stories learned have and and

Aborigines in peoples and something found the practice,inall the

superof two

practices, Tradition,-belief to have


interwoven. separably 1 do not pretend










and the defined and Mischievous and Puck, the Household Spirits Want been so much as mentioned. have scarcely Demons, howIt is hoped, further. our of space forbids going to give the has been said, not merely ever, that enough as far as it correct an idea of th Fairy readers Mythology the method pursued that, to vindicate goes, but, beyond in our second as laid down chapter, in the investigation, human of essential the identity demonstrating by the stories all over the world, and by tracing imagination barbarous to a more we have been dealing which with It and a more archaic state of society plane of thought. ascerwe have what to recall now remains, therefore, of the Fairies, and origin the nature tained concerning two rival theories. and briefly to consider facts of savage from some of the ascertained We started formed of Spirits life. The doctrine and savage thought to be the belief we defined This our first proposition. that of body and spirit that man consists held by savages the body and roam at to quit for the spirit it is possible to the the world, returning will in different shapes about absence in the spirit's that home body as te its natural and that it dies if the spirit return not the body sleeps, embodied with swarms that the universe spirits further, has a in the world because and disembodied, everything of the human are analogues and all these spirits spirit, from th same will and acting the same having spirit, be if by chance and that spirits any of these motives a to exist without from its body, it may continue ejected a new body, not necessarily or it may find and enter body, different. but one quite such an one as it occupied before, of our was another of Transformation doctrine The in held is to say, the belief that by savages premises the while of form of a change preserving the possibility was the belief in WitchA third same identity. premise to cause the transof certain persons craft, or the power of and to perform by means formations just mentioned, referring Kobolds to Fairies, as thus strictly



spells, other were which and of

or feats




beyond ordinary others to which 1 need were assumed and in the to social be

various words, mystical And there human power. not now expressed and political all of refer, in tales the institutions, the hyposavagery. of animal


savages. thesis of

with Along the evolution

we assumed these, of civilization from

orders By this 1 mean that just as the higher and vegetable life have been developed from germs which on this planet incalculable so during appeared ages ago a past of unknown the civilization of the highest length races of men has been the gradually evolving through various stages of savagery and barbarism up to what we know it arisen barbarous, which it is found, and to something processes, does which hypothesis and bility of temporary have taken place in the to-day has and no matter how every nation, from a lower than that in stage is on its way, if left to its natural and better. This is an higher not, partial of course, relapses, of every exclude such as civilized the possiwe know country, so

of the decay any more than and possibility death of empires but upon the whole it daims that and not is the law of human progress retrogression The different of this have society. stages progress left their mark on the tales and songs, the everywhere and superstitions, the social, religious and political sayings institutions-in of mankind. we have examined five premises, or cycles, of tales th Fairy groups, concerning MythWe have found human in its ology. Fairyland very Its inhabitants sometimes organization. marry, among sometimes into mankind. have themselves, They children born to them and they require at such times female assistance. steal children from and They men, their own miserable leave brats in exchange they steal Starting women, and sometimes leave in their stead blocks of from these other words, c:~ ~hc belicf and practice

history it excludes the







animated wood, by themselves. In the usually to die. to men. until home, great sumably, last very long, Their females Unions thus

magical former and

art, or sometimes case the animation the women in turn are, is then become

one does

of not

supposed captive

sometimes formed

not lasting, however, the husband has followed the wife to her own his right and conquered to her afresh by some is not always adventure. This in the story pre-

not always On the other therefore, possible. he who enters and of fairy hand, Fairyland partakes food is spell-bound he cannot return--at least for many for ever-to the land of men. Fairies years, perhaps and resentful are grateful to men for benefits conferred, fail to reward never injuries. They a kindness but their them gifts usually which detract from their value attached, become to a source of loss and themselves on revenge to watch them, when they do not is a mortal offence. Their chief distinction in their unbounded magical misery. those who Nor those have and who conditions sometimes do


do they forget offend and them desire to be manifested, from men is

whereof we have had powers, several illustrations. make things seem other than They and disappear at will they make they appear they are or short seem time short, long they change long time and keep their own forms they cast spells over mortals, them for ages. spell-bound and all these are asserted Ail these customs powers so called. And when we look the Fairies properly races of other superstitions our to which inquiries Teutons, we find the same things directed, the creatures. animais nations to those of all of Deities, every over the the ancestors, are kind, world than have asserted the been Celts of at and

primarily of all sorts of as of

witches, endowed with

ghosts,' as well belief by the


and with to

similar powers precisely natures with and social those the of men. origin These as 'th same

organizations beliefs can

corresponding be referred only



1 i 1


of and all arise out of the doctrine superstitions in the doctrine of transformations, and the belief spirits, held by savage tribes. witchcraft, But here 1 must, at the risk of some few repetitions, a theory on the enunciated by Liebrecht. his ation book on and and of the for Folklore, group of the notice of the Swan-maiden myth subject That ita writer, distinguished a section to the considerdevotes us in the last two occupied with his accustomed wealth of that some at ingenuity, arc nothing more nor less than of rescued from the kingdom bound



chapters, allusion least

maintains, his accustomed

of the

Swan-maidens departed,

ghosts darkness

a short it is clear into

a while, but here with respite that all other fairies





if Swan-maiden and of the reasons


Now they love. are to be resolved beings, gods and will turn out to bj of his A summary it, will, thereour discussion but subject it

ghost stories, devils as well as nothing argument, fore, not of will His terms is to the but

supernatural ghosts, dead.

spectres and of the

only fill up incidents main a wider

any of the and

for rejecting serious gaps in myth include


of the


sweep, volume.

in question the whole

as 1 understand argument, of the taboo. The object avoid any remark being

it, is based, first, on the of the taboo, he thinks, made,

any question being which would remind asked, being presented, any object and awaken these spirits of their a longing proper home, cannot withstand to return. There is an old they of a knight Teutonic who came in a little boat legend by a swan to succour on whom he laid a charge or in what country he was commandment So tales mare. the the swan nightm~re-wife, on being vanishes Again, the fay drawn and never born. wed to ask a distressed whence lady, he came, breaks this him away. of the

reappears as we have asked of how

she When and fetches

Argouges 23

scen, in one she became a nighton the disappears







name maiden the Bheki water. doom tale not

of Death in an

being Indian forbids she


neighbourhood (Frog), When is

tale, who of a fountain, her

presence. is found by the and bears to the let ever

in her

A fair hero name her in of see



is thirsty and on his bringing

from may be added mention it. A man

Ireland, who lived

the begs him for water, A similar it to her. does Liebrecht though near Sheelin, Lough his corn eaten and to his lake and that and of the

in County was annoyed Meath, by having after night. So he sat up to watch night astonishment a number of horses came up out driven

beautiful whom he seized woman, by a most induced to marry him. She made the stipulation she was never to be allowed to see the lake again for over

she lived with him, till twenty years happily on and out to look at the haymakers, day she strolled a loud cry she water. With caught sight of the distant flew straight to it, and vanished beneath the surface. J Liebrecht's the In maiden this on his next reason is based is found,-a connection he the borders and forest, refers to of the upon the place or a house in the the tavern, where where forest.

shop, found given words, forest, world. Middle

bride, by Walter to have he fancies, Lastly,

points Map, in which been is he snatched the

forest, to a variant

or drinkingWild Edric

place numerous gives found

story, also she is said, in so many 2 the ~?~ The from of the dead, the underlegends their way of into the the

of the

storehouse of floating great tales, and other works of imagination, as well as into literary more instances from modern chronicles,-and folklore, wherein a mistress or wife dies, or seems to die, and is from the tomb, and recovered buried, yet is afterwards if a maiden, and to bear children. lives to wed, He to the vampire these by references superstitions, supports F. L. Journal," vol. vii. p. ~tz. Liebrecht, p. 54; Map, Dist. iv. c. to.

Ages,some that Decameron,"

of which



and Isis

to and

the he the



of Osiris, who returned the father of Horus. the sleepthorn, and Brynhild, stake which




Uhland, pricked magic


And, following with which Odin so a put her into driven into the

Valkyrie, to the slumber, of


corpse suspected any more from Now plausible, it may


a vampire, to prevent its rising the grave and troubling the living. be admitted that there is much that is being even that

is true, in this It theory. be urged in its behalf that had more might (as we have than one occasion in the course of this work to know) is frequently not to be distinguished from the Fairyland world of the dead. Time is not known and the there same eating of permanent consequences the food of the dead and abode the food follow of the by fairies, upon fairies. mere

when are stolen Further, living persons dead are sometimes left in their images arguments, Liebrecht's midable case fails ations. insisted to take and and was account the such it not of these, be would made some strongest as might hard rather to And

These place. well be added to say yet that the a fortheory considerpoint The


that of the taboo. great power-is case of the lady of Argouges is certainly very striking, taken it is far from conclusive. It though, by itself, well be that a supernatural in remight very being, to mortality, be obliged to submit here, would maining contrary might horrible not leave to fly from so impulse a fate. 1 do not say this is the explanation, but it is as feasible as the other. In the Spanish story it was the her utterance name husband. of of the name of Death, but of name-the Mary-which Here she the compelled was unquestionably a holy wife to reto its nature perhaps fill it with an irresistible and to remind it of this

Perhaps on with

important made-a point

not as a spirit of the dead, garded by Spanish orthodoxy, what form it but as a foui fiend, able to assume bodily of inquiry but bound to none. The prohibition as would,










former the





a desire

as from recollection, of impertinent which we have seen curiosity, arouses excessive in supernatural annoyance bosoms. The resentment of equally or a remiimpertinent reproaches, niscence of savage that avoids etiquette the direct at least as well for other name, may account forms of the taboo. Liebrecht most suggests that assault ingeniously and battery must strike the elf still more unhappy than as a difference strongly reproaches, between her and former present and remind her still more condition, of her earlier and that this explains importunately home, the prohibition of th three causeless blows." It may be there is no hint of this in the so, though and yet stories her former condition need not have been that of a ghost of the dead, nor her earlier home the tomb. By far the number of these greater stories the maiden as represent a water-nymph but it is the depths of the earth rather than the water which are commonly as the regarded of the dwelling-place the corredeparted. Moreover, 1 have tried to point out between spondence the etiquette of various and the peoples for instance, as taboo,-such, the ban upon a husband's into his wife's sebreaking clusion at a delicate moment in his family history,-would on Liebrecht's remain, accidental. Nor theory, purely would the theory account for the absence of a taboo in the lower nor for the totemistic savagery, character of the lady, of all, for the nor, least which is the peltry most picturesque, if not the most incident in important, this group of tales. In fact, the only direct evidence for Liebricht's contention is the variant of Wild Edric's alluded to by legend His words Map. of Alnoth, are, speaking Edric's son, a great benefactor of the see of Hereford "The man whose mother vanished air openly into in the sight of many persons, at her being indignant husband's reher that he had carried proaching her off by force from

to avoid

so much from the resentment



the dead (~o~ among this it is to be observed use of cannot

/Mor//<~ that the

~~?~M~/)." here

as one be regarded accidentally out of the narrative but it is dropped previously given to an independent and inconsistent an allusion version, that in in forgetfulness the writer had already given of his work related the story at large and another part with -th comments. and heir his his There he had of offspring wonder that such inheritance he made miraculous restored his which for the for called Alnoth explicitly a devil and had (~s/~o~), a person should have the manor of (namely, over to the see of Herecure of his palsy) to

expression which had

Upon made

expressed given up


North, Ledbury ford in gratitude in return Christ

and the health, spent writers Mediaeval rest of his life as a pilgrim. (especially in a dinculty in describing were fairies. ecclesiastics) as having an objective them existence They looked upon them. Fairies were and yet they knew not how to classify neither certainly these two kinds departed of spirits, of no saints nor the only the wicked claims to Beside holy angels. choice left was between dead, or, at most, of

and ghosts devils the dead who had did not They be identified wonder, believe with


in any these elves. mysterious if they were occasionally

extraordinary other creatures

goodness. which could It is no

sometimes inconsistent, occasionally denouncing them as ghosts. at other times dismissing devils, to Map. This is what seems to have happened

perplexed, them as l In the

sect of the Cabalists, indeed, believed in th existence of spirits The of nature, cmbodiments or representatives of th four lments, which To they called respective!y gnomes, sylphs, salamanders, and ondines. this strange sect some of the savage opinions on the subject of spirits seem to have been transmitted in a philosophical form from classical They taught that it was possible for the philosopher by antiquity. austerity and study to rise to intercourse with these elemental spirits, But the orthodox regarded the and even to obtain them in marriage. See Lecky, Cabalists as magicians and their spirits as foui incubi. vol. i. p. 46. Ilistory of Rationalism,"









legends these relates who found

immediately each illustrating the

preceding, horn of the of Henno




two given One of

marriage a lovely maiden She

Normandy. silk, and the she


about her father story having all unwilling as she brought her, was, by sea to be married to the King of France but having been driven on the shore, she said she had landed, and by a storm then her father had taken of a sudden advantage change of wind was her. her law, an to easy sail away, conquest her to her fate. Henno leaving he took her home and married he had a mother who had however, She noticed that her fair daughter-inoften late, as regularly So one Henno to church, some always upon so as to avoid being sprinkled left this before virtuous the old and consevixen she

gallant knight, told a cock-and-bull

With-the-Teeth, in a grove on the coast of was sitting in royal alone, apparelled Her and her tears attracted beauty in response to whom, to his questions,

Unluckily, suspicions. though

she went came and watch after

excuse trumpery with holy water, cration of the determined discovered transformed to that into


a serpent, a cloth while, issuing upon out for her, she tore it into human form. resuming the like performance, through

Sunday morning had gone to church, entered a bath, and which her maid her pieces with The maid her mistress

his wife, in a little had spread before went


afterwards waiting

upon her. Ail this was in due course confided to Henno, who, in company with a priest, burst in the next unexpectedly time upon his wife and her servant, and sprinkled them with water. Mistress and maid with a holy thereupon out through the roof and disappeared. great yell bounded these Clearly with self-respect and such constant ladies would were devils no other creatures be guilty of such transformations of the proprieties at church. disregard turn in Map's other narrative. It conwife had died. After sorrowing long

Ghosts cerns

get their a man whose



a deep and a number of With solitary great her off, lived with her joy he seized her, and, carrying again for many years and had a numerous Not progeny. a few of her descendants were when living Map wrote, and were known as the c~<?M ~o/M~M. o/' the dead This, of course, is not a Swan-maiden at all. At story the end of Chapter V. I have referred to some similar and what we learned our discussion of the tales during of Changelings that we subject may lead us to suspect have here in an imperfect form a story of the exchange of an adult woman for a lifeless and her recovery image, from the hands of her ravishers. This is by no means the same plot as that of the stories recounted by Liebrecht in which the wife or the betrothed is rescued from the Those at least in warm climates where grave. stories, burials are hurried, and in rude medical skill ages when is comparatively are all within the bounds undeveloped, of possibility. There of mythology,-hardly would of their fact be a bold may not man does not even who would in them appear of the supernatural deny that of them. any trace and he



he death, dale amid




in night women.



a substratum To establish

with the group we are now considering, relationship links of a much more vident character are wanting. The fact that they are traditional is not of itself sumcient. The of the Forest of Dean had not revived after fairy or supposed nor had she been death, recovercd death from Map's may other. become supernatural account, is point, Rather the beings to whatever inconsistent she was stolen of him who had stolen her away. his expression /ro/M thc with either the one or thc from had her won own her to kind.red, by his own



right arm. But a single and that instance either inconinstance, sistent with the analogous or unable to supply traditions, a cogent or consistent of them, is not a explanation a very safe basis for a theory. What is it worth when it







is it with

inconsistent were consistent another

even instance

with with the




we might theory, irreconcilable. wholly marries just the Christian th one

Indeed, match Mikilo

if it

in the Russian ballad Ivanovitch unike some of the ladies who, first baptized upon being makes the stipulation that other into shall go living there enters abide the for three into when the

a Swan-maiden, insists mentioned, faith. dies the She the of them


with grave She herself

dead, and Mikilo dies. a dragon is dragon by means to life. so herself

conquers grave with her, and there The which comes to feast on the dead bodies. to fetch the waters of life and death, compelled of which the she the that hero White after acted brings Swan, awhile the his dead !ove back Marya, ungrateful and twice however, she took proved another

part of Delilah in self-defence to time she tried it he was compelled third This is off her head. put an end to her wiles by cutting There is no mistaking it. But death. honest, downright was the White then it is impossible that Swan, Marya, a mere Yet the ghost filched from the dead is equally story, story of Marya on as Map's variant and is just as good to build a theory of Wild Edric.' of so learned to the arguments In replying, however, it is not enough to point as Liebrecht, and acute a writer inconsistencies it is not these distinctions and out enough warrant that If he has be able I hold, philosophy parisons variants. to the show failed that the terms he has of put the taboo do not construction to account the clear an the upon nor them, incidents. we should It the arises, archaic comto eager a Swan-maiden and return.

husband, The to Mikilo.

he has

mistaken from

for very significant of the legends, meaning source of his error. of apprehension narratives.

to make

imperfect the underlying


limited to European one exception, are, with were thus too narrow to admit of His premises Hapgood, p. 2!




making in hardly sources of


deductions. to do

a position

Perhaps but this

even at all

yet we events

are the

error are diminished possible by the wider and from the evidence of area we are able to survey, We have the stories, both we reason. which compared and modern, mentioned with mediaeval by Liebrecht, and sagas told among nations outside M<rc~~ European influence of civilization, down to the degrees of Kaffirs and Dyaks. We have succeeded in savagery and in spite of them their differences, we have classifying in substantial are found all the tales agreement. They aIl built on the same the same backbone general plan runs through them thought is no greater there divergence realm mammal separates physical of reptile. recently a distant rude It is inevitable discovered to folktale and than between that them all in the which from bird, or bird from conclude that the most even of them has corne to us from in of and the No same actual in various

when our forefathers were period state as Dyaks and South Sea Islanders. of Wild Edric stories. or English names the must to learn Raymond patriot whereon above vapours therefore in what rise to these were about

adventure gave dian -the gathered in the Count

Lusignan Burgun-


only the which towered their heads We Ages

they fastened, and the plain already go manner floating back far we are

beyond to understand

atmosphere. the Middle these

to the state of savagery stories,-back whence the inhabitants of Europe had long emerged when and Gervase but of which the relies Map wrote, us even yet. linger among The necessarily of some of the most meagre exposition salient started some 1 need briefly relevant characteristics has extent been in the of savage we with which thought illustrated and its outlines filled in to course do to and of the more those foremost, subsequent than draw characteristics we have discussions. attention that found as are some

not, therefore, as possible here. First







of the the



of totems worship to be ingrained appear reason for thinking

boldly professing and so thoroughly in the myth that that here we have

to account for does totemism there a due is some to the

and meaning. myth's But the intellect origin to which totemism is a credible draws no line of demarcatheory tion between and the life and consciousness humanity it recognizes in the whole universe. To it, encircling a story of union between a man and a fish, accordingly, a swan or a serpent, involves no When difficulty. and with advancing knowledge, knowledge repulsion from such a story, begins to threaten belief it, another advances to its defence. For is casier to nothing creatures as clever as the lower animais than a change of form. They can, whenever assume the they please, of man or woman appearance it is as natural to them as the shape under which seen. they are usually Again, the life that swarms about the savage does philosopher not manifest itself It is often always unseen. visibly. The world is filled with of whom some have spirits, inhabited human have not. To th savage bodies, others are all alike for those they who have not hitherto inhabited human bodies do so at will, or may may inhabit other either animal or vegetable, bodies, and those who have once done so may do so again. Ail these the and Totemism, essential equality of nature between man and all other identity objects in the the doctrine of Transformation, universe, the doctrine of Spirits-are of savage phases thought, every one of which has been incorporated in the myth of the Swan-maidens, one special and every one of which, except and very limited of the doctrine of Spirits, development is ignored in Liebrecht's The theory. theory is, indeed, an admirable illustration of the of reasoning danger without a sufficiently wide area of induction.. Liebrecht's mistake on the present occasion was twofold he only dealt with one or, at most, two of the myth and types




ignored consideration of the Sun,


variants. savage other types-such Star's Daughter all over the

Had as





of the savage variants formed a theory so inconsistent little fitted to solve the problems propounded, the phenomena of the Swan-maiden by those In of other tales in which supernatural the greater

the Marquis Hasan, he been aware ;had would not have world,he with the facts, and so not group, merely but by

reasoning by induction, number of facts taken into the greater the account, of probability sound reasoning and therefore the greater the number of facts a theory will explain, the more likely it is to be true. Had Liebrecht's touched theory only the Swan-maiden it would have been more convenicnt group, to discuss it in the last But inasmuch as its truth chapter. would involve much wider better to reserve issues, it seemed it to be dealt with here. For if the be valid for theory the Lady of the Van Melusina, and other waterPool, it is valid also for th '< water-woman nymphs, who, in a Transylvanian dwelt in a lake in the story, forest between and Reps. She had two sons, whose Mehburg father was a man, and the of whom younger became king of that land. But when the Saxon took immigration the incomers place cut down the wood the lake dried up, and as it dried up, the lives of the water-spirit and her son gradually sank lower and lower, and at last were with the extinction extinguished of the lake. l Now I will venture to say that this story is to be explained satisfacon no theory torily unless yet broached, it be the theory that we have in it a survival of the savage doctrine of Least of all it is to be Spirits. explained by any adaptation of what 1 may call the Ghost that the theory,-namely, and her son were water-spirit the spirits of dead already human beings. this one example of the value of Liebrecht's Leaving as applied to water-spirits, theory, to stand for all, 1 turn Mutter, p.

beings the










referred Witches. variant

with beings supernatural to several times in the foregoing pages 1 adduced in Chapter X. a Tirolese the Melusina



powers 1 mean tale, was that the th a a

wherein the wife type, reader witch. It will have been obvious to every with the tale is simply that of Cupid and Psyche of parts witch this witch stories that and I might reversed of precisely were beings for the moment, however, takes the the plac of the group. name m'c~ of the But (~M~ and that that urge Cupid the same nature. no one


Swan-maiden, it perhaps

Waiving will deny that the or fairy, in other suggested the got into in our sense of be

not story by accident is really meant. the word, but a ghost from the dead, There be something to be said for this if there might between were substantial distinction to be made any and superand witches In the tales and fairies. ghosts stitions discussed in the no distinction. tion, objects, midnight Whether meetings, or

Hexe) a witch

may has

found we have volume present transformait be child-stealing, and gift of enchanted possession whatever it will or habit, or function, be found to be common


be predicted of one, power to the three. 1 conclude, of the same nature. three of the

are all that therefore, they This is what a consideration

of savages would lead me to expect. superstitions is a survival of The belief in fairies, and witches ghosts, in equal not found those It is, of course, superstitions. of all its parts, logic (if 1 equal cohrence, equal strength We must not so express it) everywhere. by the if, as it is gradually penetrated prised of civilization, it beeomes forces fragmentary, of supernatural of these orders attributes various may begin so one to and be the differentiated. proof of this They is that are never be surgrowing the and beings

time, or by one people, at another another time, place, The order. ascribed to another

completely what is at one place, at is at ascribed to one order, or by nature another of the people, classical



deities of th


identical tale of the a few

too are same

and the



Cupid masculine

and and on




counterparts Lastly, different


conception. must be expended

theory lately put forward by Mr. This is not altogether a new one it has theory before the world for many years. But Mr. MacRitchie first in The Archaeological and since then Review," in a separate elaborately of Tradition," worked array of arguments and traditional. fairies nor and of the less drove than Celtic the book, it out entitled and The fortified

a totally MacRitchie. been has, more

Testimony it with an

philological, He claims to and

historical, topographical, have established that the Teutonic races are neither more tribes lands whom they with they conquered now possess. He


the Picts of Scotmysterious beings of the Scottish land, the Feinne and of Ireland, Highlands and the Finns and Lapps of Scandinavia. And he suggests that th Eskimo, the Ainos, and 1 know not wh~t other dwarfish races, are relies of the same people while Santa the patron saint of children, is only a tradition Klaus, of the wealthy and beneficent character borne by this ill-used folk. his arguments are concerned with SctPrimarily land and Ireland. called bear and in the He Scotland builds Picts' much on the which howes in or both barrows, countries or dwarfs, houses, of being the seem

back, these

prehistoric and whose

reputation some of which

haunt of fairies to have been in fact

He quotes Dr. Karl Blind to show that dwelling-places. FInns intermarried with the Shetlanders, and that they were believed to corne over in the form of seals, casting aside their sealskins when they landed. In this connection he relates how of the their Finn women were without sealskins, from their He also shows away that captors. inimitable, riches and magical were ascribed to powers the Picts and to the Finns, and that the Lapps were in witchcraft. pre-eminent possession not get captured which by taking could they







1 shall MacRitchie's torical Now history attention






to and to

deal with one the

with his or

Mr. histwo


etymologies myself aspect undervalue 1 have

arguments, on observations 1 should

confining the traditional be the last to in tradition.


to be found

any elsewhere.drawn

theory. traces of

to the importance of the study of this element l and in folk-tales 1 am quite to admit that ready is more the transfer to the mythical nothing likely than of Celtic of some features derived beings superstition from alien races. and barbarians are in the Savages habit of imputing to strangers and foes in greatly extended for measure the And themselves. of witchcraft claim might they the wider the differences between to mysterious of the latter, and the Ail this might them. more

and the themselves them are the habits more

the foreigners, and appearance

do they believe powerful account for many details that we are told concerning the dwarfs, the Picts, the Finns, or by whatever other names the elvish race may have been known to Scots and Irishmen. But further than this 1 cannot go with Mr. MacRitchie. 1 hold already tion. appears works written to be discussed, This volume will that like error, founded on too have been his that of Liebrecht an inducnarrow


myths law and astonished

the vastly of Dr. Tylor and Mr. Andrew have been Lang in vain, unless 1 have made it clear that the of nations all'over the world follow one general common characteristics. display to find the Shetland tale of reproduced of Borneo. on But for me the Mr. he Gold MacRitchie can in to hardly these find 1 am marriage Coast and with

for Mr. MacRitchie

in vain, as it more important


a seal-woman the

Dyaks astonished very much historical Finns were It places. and Ireland seems fairies to

ought show that

among to be the

known natural in

out-of-the-way that in Scotland and



and in Annam barrows, vol. i. pp. 113, n6.



Arabia and in

in hills th far

and East

rocks they






inveigled unhappy their dwellings and kept them for generations-nay, for centuries. That the Shoshone of California should dread their infants or dwarfs, being changed by the Ninumbees, in the same way as the Celts of the British and Islands, the Teutons their infants too, dreaded being changed, does not seem at all incredible to me. That to eat the food of the dead in New Zealand a living man prevents from returning to the land of the living, just as Persephone was retained in Hades of the pomegranate, by partaking and just as to eat the food of fairies hinders the Manx or the Hebrew adventurer from rejoining his friends on the of the earth, surface is in no way perplexing to me. But all thse things, and they might be multiplied indefinitely, must be very perplexing to Mr. MacRitchie, if he be not to prove that Annamites and Arabs, prepared Hebrews and Shoshone, New Zealanders and classical Greeks alike, were acquainted with the Picts and the Finns, and alike celebrated them in their traditions. The truth Mr. MacRitchie does not reckon with no theory will explain the nature and origin which does not also explain superstitions the of every other origin or supernatural being worshipped dreaded mankind the world. by uncivilized throughout And until he shall address himself to this task, however his guesses, however ingenious his philology, amusing however wild his and historical delightfully literary he will not succeed in arguments, convincing any serious student. Obvious are the differences pause. between the nations of mankind differences of physical is to say, of race of conformation,-that divergences mental and moral is to say, of civilizadev elopment,-that tion. Hitherto the task has been attempted by folklore to show that ail these differences there is a underlying broad foundation of common that distinctions agreement Here then we must is, that of the fairy nature and

country mortals into







of race that the climbed

do not

extend nation same


mental on the



the lowest are yet rung on which and that the absurd and incongruous customs standing and institutions and the equally absurd and impossible stories and beliefs found imbedded in the civilization of nations th more advanced as relies of the phases only, are explicable, and wherethrough of savagery. terms that explicable those nations the evidence

highest from the


constitution of culture


passed from th depths have If it be admitted in general collected and marshalled

time has up to the present established sure scientific facts so much of the past among of humanity, this achievement is but the beginning of toil. A wide field has been opened to the student for the collection and arrangement of details, before the truc of many a strange custom and stranger tale will meaning be thoroughly understood. I have tried to do something of the kind in the foregoing But this pages. beyond is the more there dlicate of th ethnie investigation element their in folklore. Can we assign to the various races shares in the development of a common special Can we show what tradition ? direction each race took, and how and why it modified the general inheritance ? On the other it is not asserted that the status of hand, was the primitive condition of men. Of course savagery it may have been. But if not, there is work to be done in endeavouring started questions of folklore into based the not civilized upon to from pure ascertain this what point lies but behind across it. the wander The border

psychology and introspection

man, developed that have been acting and reacting untold during years of arduous and often cruel, but a upward struggling, always which must be painfully reconstructed from psychology the simplest and most archaic disclosed phenomena by research. Who can say what light anthropological may not thus be thrown as well on the destiny as on the origin

it is a psychology of the mind of analysis under the complex influences


~< del' t888. L.

ALPENiiURG. AMLiNEAU. Amlineau. ~M; ~w F. L.


Contes 2 vols. See~M~

Alpenburg. et Romans Paris,







Urds-Brunnen. Kunde. ~<<

volksthumiich-wissenschaftticher volumes entitled ~M/ !88t-89. ~M/ Past. Archivio. The 22 vols. Archivio diretta Antiquary, London, per !o da M~w/a'M~M~

Mittheilungen 6 vols. 0/~M A~M~.]

fur [The

Freunde first two

Rendsburg, study of






still proceeding. 1880-00, studio dlie Tradizioni G. Pitre e S.

Trimestrale Palermo, ~4r~. Rev. ARNAUDIN. Born 1887. AuBREY,M~

Popolari Salomone-Marmo.

Rivista 9 vols. 1888-90. Lande Paris,

still proceeding. 1882-90, The Archaeological Review. Contes recueillis

Populaires les Petites-Landes et le Marensin Miscellanies

4 vols. dans par

London, la Grande Arnaudin.






By By by

John John

F.R.S. Aubrey, 4th dition. London, ~M~M~. Romaines of Gentilisme Aubrey, Britten, ~Aa;Z)d'/<M~. ental Romance. Scott. Curious R.S.S. F.L.S. 1686-87. London, Bahar-Danush Translated 3 vols. t88f. from Edited or Garden the

1857. and Judaisme. and annotated Socie'y.)

James An Ori-


of Knowledge. Persic of Einaint

Oollah. S. BaringGesam-

By Jonathan BARiKG-GouLD. Gould, BARTSCH. M.A. Sagen,

Myths New edition. Marchen und

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1879-80. BASSET. Contes Ren BENT. Basset. The

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Thodore BtRLJNGER,


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Ortsneckereien, Birlinger. aus and


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collected 3 vols. By James 0 por Povo

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Portuguez Braga.


Observations of our vujgar

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chiefly illustrating and Superstitions.

the By with

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By th 7,<~i'/M~ Indians William ~5c~. BuR'roN, V and F.


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Brett, Henry See F.~y/M.

JV~f. a Night, Burton.


A plain and literal translation of the Arabian now entituled The Book of the Thousand introduction, 10 vols. Privately Nights by Supplemental and a Night Richard F. with explanatory printed. Nights with notes notes, 188~. to The &c. by

Nights' Nights Richard of

~M~ Thousand explanatory 886-88.



the and

anthropological Privately


6 vols.






Traditionary by the author 1873. CAMPBELL. with a 1860-62. CAMPBELI., CARNOY. Paris, CASTRE~, Lord

from the Sagas Tales. With of Patranas, Tales by See Orale Ff7~ die St.


East historical &c.


Kalmouk and H.

preface R. [Miss

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Popular translation A.

of J. Lord

the F.

West Campbell.

Highlands 4. vols.


Littrature 1883. ~4/~M~<?/~ uber und

A. CampbeU. de la Picardie M. Alexander Volker



Henry Carnoy.

Castren's nebst

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Tartarischen Petersburg,

Heldensagen. !857. und und

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kritischen 1848. CERTEUX ET

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by [The

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London, CoMl'ARETTl. Domenico

1850. Noveltinc Comparetti. Bor. Corpus

Roma, pubtished. 187~. of the Old Poet. Poeticum The Poetry C/~?~ Northern from the earliest times to the thirteenth Tongue century. Edited Gudbrand and F. York M.A. M.A., Vigfusson, Powell, by 2 vols. Oxford, 1883. only Boreale. COSQUIN. pares Emmanuel avec Cosquin. les Contes des 2 vols. Count Written Paris, Lucanor by th York, Contes autres N.D. or Prince The Don M.D., Fifty Juan !868. Pleasant Manuel Stories and of first Populaires Provinces de de Lorraine France et des comPays

Popolari First

Italiane vol.

trangers. C<?MMi' ZM<'a/M/ Patronio. done CROMEK. and into

English by James Remains of Nithsdale Notices


t888. London, and Galloway with Historical Song relative to the Manners and Customs of




Peasantry, 1810. London, Myths See Fit. nghyda gweithiau October





Reprint: Paisley, and Folk-Lore of

by R. 188o. Iretand








London,1890. ~<< (.K y<7~w~ Fu a yn cynwys Hanesion, Cymreig Wrexham, Fu the Notes Border and Traddodiadau, yn ]afar gwlad a (oddiar N.D. dated [Prface to the Cardiff, Druids t8oo. London, raccolte Cymru Chwedlau y prif



<~w;-M past

1862.j 7'M N. aM~ Q.

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relating 2 vols.





e presso Zoological Gubernatis. of Races.

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Aborigines :88!. Greco-Latina citeriore

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Thomas of West &c.

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&c. London, M.A., F.S.A., 1848. Esq., of the Go!d Coast ELLIS. The Tshi-speaidng Peoples Their laws, manners, customs, language, religion, Ellis. t./FARRER. London, F. L. ~~M. London, Primitive 1887. Manners
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a quarterty Review of Fotk-Lorc, and Custom. Institution, London, 1890, of th Folk-Lore [Organ Society.] The .F-Z.~fW~M~. FolkLore Journal. 7 vols. 7". [Organ L. ~< Organ

Myth, still

Tradition, proceeding.

London, N.D.


of th The of the Littrature

Folk-Lore Folk-Lore Orale

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[1878-82. et Vat-deM.


Society.] de la Basse-Normandie Paris, 1883. and

(Hague Folklore 1890.

Saire) GARNETT. J. C*g/

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Turkey Christian Women. Gentleman's chief Edited 1883-90, by the von

their London,



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a classiMagazine Library being contents of the Gentleman's Magazine Lawrence F.S.A. by George Gomme, still proceeding. title of their Otia [Vols. contents.] Imperialia. In hegleitet from by th einer von Latin not num-


bered, GERV. TiLB. Auswahl Felix G'a by

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Margaret Grimm






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edition 4 vols.

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Stories Character York, Bohmen



Tales Pawnee

with People

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tS~o. Masnavi ~t'~MM. Maulna

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18 vols.

Lapplandische Marchen, Nach lapplandischen,

von J. C. Poestion. Quellen POWEHAND MAGNUSSON. Arnason) nusson. PRELLER, Translated 2nd ~cM. 2 vols. sries. by

norwegischen 1886. Wien, Legends E. J. Powell


George 1866. London,

(collected by Jon and Eirikr Magvon L. Preller. und 3te LIeder

Romische Berlin, Kurdische t88t-83.


Auflage. PRYM UND SociN.






dialekte von





ubersetzt !887. in the RADLOFF. Sibiriens, [the RALSTON, M.A. yY~/aM

und Albert Eugen rrym [A second part, by Socin only, consisting dialect of Bohtan, has since been published, Proben der Volkslitteratur und P. bersetzt der V. der von der gesammelt two entitled St. Dr.

und herausgegeben St. Socin. Petersbourg, of tales and songs Sd6 vols.

Turkischen W. Nordiichen

t8oo.] Stamme Radloff.




1866-86. Petersburg, 7< Russian Folk-Tales Tibetan the into Tibetan English 1882. Tales derived

by from


R. Indian F. by und


Ralston, Sources.

London,1873. Tales. from Done M.A.

Translated Schiefner. Ralston, RAPPOLD. neu Revue

of the from

by Kah-Gyur the German

Anton W. R.

von S.

Sagen erzahlt von 7~ 1886-90,

London, aus Karnten. Professer Pop. still


theilweise vols. des


1887. J. Rappold. Augsburg, Revue des Traditions Populaires. proceeding. The Hibbert of Rhys. of by 'on [Organ Lectures, as London, the the the Eskimo author. 1888. by Dr. Henry Edited by Dr. of By W. collegidos Guinea des the Semites. of the

5 Socit

Paris, Traditions RuYS, the

Populaires.] Z~/M~ and

1886. illustrated

Lectures by

on Celtic Rink.

Origin Heathendom. RtNK. Tales Translated Brown. RoBRi'soN Sries. M.A., ROMERO. Romro. ROMILLY. tions .A'<w~

Growth By John Traditions the Danish


and from

Robert First Smith,

Edinburgh, 1875. SMITH. Lectures The LL.D. Contos Fundamental Edinburgh, Populares


Institutions. 1889. do Brazil in New

Robertson Dr. and 1880.

pelo Sketches

Sylvio Tradiaus 2 vols.

Lisboa, t883. From my Verandah

by Hugh Rosenol

Hastings Romilly, und oder Sagen und

C.M.G. Kunden


Morgenlandes gesammelt. Cirencester,

arabischen, Stuttgart, A RuDDER. Rudder, SASTRJ. of

persischen 1813. New History



of GIoucestershire. Entertainmnts By Grammatici Strassburg, Pandit Gesta !886. S.


1770. The Dravidian


Madanakamarajankadai. t886. Madras, SAXO, C' Dan. Alfred Saxonis Holder. Litaiiische und von

being a translation M. Natesa Sastri.

Danorum, Ratsel

herausgegeben und Lieder. 1837.

ScHLE:CHER. Gesammelt

Marchen, Sprichworte, von August Schleicher. iibersetzt




ScHMinT. iibersetzt ScHNELLER. Christian SCHRECK. 1887. SBILLOT,

Griechische und

Marchen, Sagen erlutert von Bernhardt und Sagen ans




Schmidt. Walschtirol.

Marchen Schneller. Finnische C~

Leipzig, 1877. Gesammelt von

Innsbruck, Marchen Paul

1867. iibersetzt von EmmySchreck. Contes 2 me srie. Do. de gme la de des

Weimar, la


1880. Do. Paris, Bretagne. des Pcheurs. 1881. Paris, 1882. Paris, Litt. Sbillot. 7/ par Paul SHORTLAND. illustrations M. A. SIKES. Legends StMROCK. nordischen. StR G. GREY. 2nd British and Sbillot. Traditions of their dition. Goblins Traditions. der Karl Von Orale. Paris, Littrature Orale

Populaires Contes srie. Haute



et Paysans des Marins. Paul

Bretagne de la Haute


Traditions 2 vols. and et Superstitions 1882. Paris, Bretagne

of the New Zealanders with Superstitions manners and customs. Shortland, By Edward London, 1856. Welsh By Wirt Deutschen Simrock. Folk-Lore, Sikes. Fairy London, mit Mythologie 3te Mythology, t88o. Einschluss der


History of and Chiefs. SPITTA STEERE. English S'i'EPHENS. the BEY. Guillaume

Polynesian Mythology, th New Zealand Race, By Sir George Contes Arabes

Bonn, 1869. Aunage. Traditional and Ancient as furnished by their Priests

London, 1855. Grey. Modernes recueillis et 1883. by natives Steere, of LL.D. Zanzibar.

traduits With

par an

Spitta-Bey. Swahili Tales, translation. The Literature

Leide, as told By Edward of the



of the history twelfth and two 2nd dition.

Language succeeding

a critical on essay Kymry being and Literature of Wales the during centuries. By Thomas Stephens. of Northamptonshire. By


London, The Dialect

1876. and Folk-Lore

Sternberg. London, 1851. TAYLOR. Te Ika a Maui; or New Zealand and its Inhabitants. th Rev. Richard 2nd dition. London, Taylor, M.A., F.G.S. The of the Panjb. TEMPLE, Z~/M~ of ~i' Legends R. C. Temple. 2 vols. N.D. Captain [Prface Bombay, i. dated TETTAU. THEAL. current Still May 1884.] See Von Tettau. Kanir Folk-Lore the amongst a people proceeding. Slection on living M'Call Theal. from th the Traditional border N.D.

By 1870. By to vol. j 1

Tales of th [Prface


eastern London,

CapeColony. dated Jan.

By George


THOMAS OF EXCELDOUNE. printed notes, Text or, by


The from

Romance five


Prophecies Edited, LL.D.

of Thomas with introLondon

ofErcetdoune, duction and


manuscripts. A. H. Murray, Frontier. th

t875 (Early Eng. TnORliURN. Bannit London,1876. THORPE. Northern traditions th and

Soc.). Our Afghan


S. S. Thorburn.

Mythology, superstitions Compiled of by



principal popular North and Scandinavia, Germany, 3 vols. London, Benjamin Thorpe. Stories. Tales 1853. y~-< y< Account date. A and collection Traditions. of ScandiEdited

t85i-52. VM/<?-7M~ navian and

Stories. North

YuIe-TIde German Popular

by Benjamin 7~'<7<)~M'M. See 7)' TRAi~. from F.S.A. y)-t!/M. dion a 7~. An the Revue

London, Thorpe. La Tradition. ~y. See and times 2 vols. Statistical to the

Historical earliest Scot.

of the By y

Isle Joseph


Man, Train, Cofnot885.



Douglas, Eistcdfodd

1845. Genedtaethol

Chyfansoddiadau of the Transactions !885. TYLOR. Caerdydd, Primitive

Eisteddfod Buddugol of National Eisteddfod Researches into and the

Cymry. Aberdar,


Aberdare, of Edward Austria

1887. Culture

development By from l8So. und herausZiirich, Gesammelt Leipzig,

Mythology, B. Tylor. VERNALEKEN. and ~MM~. VoN Bohemia

Art, Philosophy, Religion, 2 vols. London, 1871. In by See the Land of Marvels. Theodor f. Vernale~en. Ff/M~ und Sagen Tirols. RI.tter albanesiche J. G. von


Folk-Tales London,


ALPENBURG. gegeben von

Mythen Johann

Gesammelt von Atpenburg.

Nepomuk und von


'857. HAHN. ubersetzt

Griechische und ert~utert Die

Marchen. Ilahn. 2 vols.

!864. TETTAU. VoN Westpreussens. D. H. Temme. VON WusLOCKi. Gesammelt Berlin, WA~DAU. Prag, WALDRON. Gent. 1886.

Vo)kss~gen Gesammelt vo:i Berlin, J837. und Sagen von

Ostpt-emsens, W. A. J. der Dr.

Litthauens von Tettau und

und J.

Marchen und

Transsilvanischen Heinrich von von


Zigeuner Wlislocki.

Bohmisches 1860.


Deutsch of Man Esq.



of the Isle Description Edited Harrison, by William A



Waldron, 1865.



chiefly 2nd edition. in the Labourd by von


Legends: Basque Rev.WentworthWebster,M.A. Westslawischer



London,1879. Deutsch bearhe!tet

Neue 1886. Joseph Wenzig. Ausgabe. Leipzig, Wnn'E. The Ancient of the his Maori, History Traditions White. by John 4 vols. Wellington, proceeding. Wide Awake told and 1884. WILDE. WIRT Stories. children, By Wilde. Sikes. Von WHsIodd. Folk-Tates brief from introductions 1889. Essays on subjects and History M.A., exclusivety and notes, F. Wide Awake Stories. sunset and and R. A

Mythology 1887-89, collection in the of

and still


by little Kashmir.

between A. Steel

sunrise, C. Temple.





Lady See See

WLISLOCKI. WpATiSLAW. Translated, law, M.A. WRIGHT, Literature, Middle 1846. K .<w. y Parch. y C)'ww/'c~

Sixty with

Slavonic by A. I-I.

sources. Wratisthe in the

London, Ages. Popular

connected of England 2 vols.



Superstitions Thomas By Wright,



Y Brython D. Silvan Y

dan Cylchgrawn Llenyddol Cymru Evans. 5 vols. Tremadog, 8$8-6j. the Transactions Cymmrodor, embodying of London. 10 vols. London,

olygiad of the 1877-90, of of

Cymmrodorion still proceeding. F 7. the C~. Mabinogion edited Hergest Oxford, The t887.


Y Llyvyr Coch o Hergest. and other Welsh Tates by John Rhys, M.A. and

Y gyvrol I. The Text from the Red Book J. Gwenogfryn Evans.


from the Welsh of the Llyfr Coch o Hergest Mabinogion, in the Libraryof Oxford. (The Red Book of Hergest) Jesus College, with notes, Charlotte Guest. Translated, London, by Lady 1877. fur Volkskunde ~c//M. Zeitschrift in Sage und Mar, Schwank






herausgegeben still 1889-90,

von~P~blitt~md prpeeo~g. i' ,t< )

Sprichwort, Veckenstedt.



Brauch Leipzig,

2 vols.

D E X.
J '

Acton, Afghan Alsatian American 268, Ananci Animism, Annamite Arabian 69, Arab

71 legend, tales, Indians, 271, tale, 25 tales, Nights 79. S4, tales 200, 3:4, 294 3i5 tSj 213,


Ballafletcher, Bantik. See Bards, of North, Baptism, 94.101 Barrows, 231 Welsh,

up of, Celebes 15


216 Tales

superstitions haunted, tale,

concerning, 141, 142, 146,

323 50, Nights 300, 316, 267

Basque Bcrchta, Blanik Blood 47 Bohemian

29} 70, go 18~, 2tg, 220 savages, ~5, 184,

Entertainments, 255, (see 26o, Arabian 202, 81 205, 207, i, 5 8 ti 2H, 20,

Dame, mountain, retationship ta!es,

among 56, n,

Entertainments), 3'9 Ardshi-Bordshi, Arthur, 234 Art of King,

212, In

Story-tetling, Western Highlands, 7 Wales, Sicily, mre, Portugal, England, 9 New Panjab, Zealand, 12 Ahts, 13


Brittany, Gascony, France, CashPolynesia, the Malatribes :4 among of

2t9. 245, 25r, 2o, 294 Bona Dea, 84, 87 Bornoese tales, 300, gu, 324 Breton tales, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, n6, 138, t74, 190, 192, 293 Briar Rose, 247 Buddhist inHuence ~</?Bulgarian Burmese Burton, Nights Cabalists, Carinthian Cashmere, tales. taie, Sir 267, Richard See SIavonIc 297 F. on tales,




Greenland, gasy, Guiana, the

among Indian

in India, ancient ancient 16; 90 148, 260 244


(see Arabian 16

Algonkins, Guslars,
12, tQ.

Germans, Welsh, Swahilis, 15 17 the, a mediseval sect, 341 tales, 173, 240 tales from. See Indian Islands, tale from, 267, 98 299, 300 297

Anglo-Saxons, Arabs,

Ascension Aubrey, Bahar

Day, John, Danush,

Celebes Changelings, Chinese Chinese

93, et seqq. superstitions, tales, t77, 97, 178,



Christmas, 14!,

See !2,

Baptism 157, 49 149, 89 267, t~o 159






37, et seqq., Fairy!and, 43, Tales, Fairy divisions of, explanation Feather-robe,

59, et seqq. 47, i6i, 196, 222 definition of, 22; of, .258, 32 267, 268, 298, See principles 3; of

Coals Cologne, Coptic Corpus Corsican Cosquin,


to gold,

ThreeKingsof, 181 tale, Christi tale, Day, 274



300, Femates,

301 kinship 259, 78 Art with of Story-telling), folksong, 21 l~. through. 329 respecting, 96, 97

See Godiva Coventry. Cretan tales. See Greek Cyclades, Danish Danish tale from. See 96, 50,56, t40,141, 294 tale from, Greek 99, 2~1 67, t44.15~ log,

Kinship Finnish tales, Fire, superstitions Forest of Dean, Folktale connection how (set

superstitions, tales, 40,44,

114,t3o,13:, !85, Dardistan, Davies, Dean, Death, Derceto, Devil, Diana, Diedrich, Dobocz, Dracs of Duffus, Dyak. Edenhall. Edgehill, Edric the Eggshells, 153, Elidorus, English English 69, 146, << tale of, Forest 2:3,

to bc reported,



Edward, t36 of. See Forest beliefon, 27

Frazer, J. G., 31, 249, 252 Frederick Barbarossa, 172, 2!3 French French 65,!i4, Frog, superstitions, tales (see tt9, as. Fairy 96 Breton), 42, 47,

savage a Phnician the, 71 213, 233 the robber the 42, 47,

goddess, 324 69, 263, 280

272,293,324,342 See Toad.


Rhone, 65, of Lord, !48 story See Bornoese See Luck Battle Wild, of, 302, 235

218, too


Gae)ic Gerald, German o8, German ranian,

tales. Earl,

See 210,

Scottish 233 95, 28i 96, 99,


!40, t43, 279, tales (see Alsatian, Riigen, 126, 130, i49. 212, 241,

PomeTranH4, t77, 2l6, 244. !CO, tt8, 140, iS5. 2!7, 259.

Swabian, 103, 137, 152. 214, 242, !l3,

sylvanian),48, t24, by, !88, 238, tco, 64, t42,143. 192, 240,

changelings t25 135

338, 340 detected

t38,139, i72, 2!5, 243.

superstitions, tales, 106, !47, 59, 6i, t24, 189, of, 178, tale 116,

96, 63, 126, 2H,

205 66, 68, 145, 244

281,327 Gervase 212, Giraldus St. of Tilbury, 234, 272,2~4 135 (see Forest of Dean, Cambrensis, 65, 145,

!39, 234,

Epimenides, Eskimo tales, Esthonian Etiquette 32t Ezra, 182 of

137, varions

t83 262 273, 280 309,

Gloucestershire Briavels),




145 of Lady, Godiva, legend 7r, Gotd Coast, custom at, 86 Gold Gold, Coast, fairy, tales turns of, 313, to dross, 324

et ~y.



GratefuI Gratitude, Greek Greek 290,3t7

Grey, Sir

animais. fairy, superstitions, tales, 55, 48,

See 2i8, 99, 82,

Buddhist 312, ioo 267, 316 269,

Japanese 301 Jewish Jeremiah Kaffir tale, Piidai,

taies, tales. the

174, See




Hebrew t8t






328 42 318

Grimm, Guiana, 299, Guernsey,

120, tales 324

140,212, from, from,

213, 261, 62,

2t6, 289,

233 297,


Katha-sarit-sagara, Keats, 313 through Kinship














43, 44, 45. 47 Harold IL, King, Hasan Hebrew Helpfui Herla, Hero, 205, Hertha, 90 Hindoo Highland HoIIe, of Bassorah, tale, beasts. 4!,

72, 205 tale of, 255, 55 See Buddhist 178, the 235 goddess, tales. See See Scottish 71, 234

Kir]{Ma]ew,Cupof,t~j; Koran. See Mohammed Kurdish tale, 262, 292 Kurrogt, KyfThuser, the robber-poet, 172, 2! 2t~, 80 229


tale of, King, the Hidden, ~j~ a 228, German

Lady Lapp Lapp 89,

Wilde. superstitions, tales, 38,

See Wilde 108 57, 173, 79, 329 his


Liebrecht, Theory, LIthuanian Lithuanian Li Loo K, Choo

Felix, 337


customs, tales. Dame, 215,


superstitions, tales, to~, classic, tale Islands,

96 t20, 321 from, 318 220, 22!


a Chinese

Icelandic Imagination Im Thurn, Indian Indian



193 savages, 13, 230 2, 33

among Everard, 84 82, 227, 207

Longfellow, 187 Luck of Edenhall, 133 Luther on Changelings, Luxemburg, 240, Luxel, F. M., 7, Mabinogion, 188 David, et M~. tale, 317 260 his 253,

109, 324


customs, tales,




3t8,338 lolo Morganwg, Irish superstitions, 2H Irish tales, 128, 314. dislike 50. 97,




MacRitchie, 349,



50, 52, 63, 196, 198,

107, 202,

116, n8, 2!0, 2n,

Mahbharata, Magyar

122, 259. Iron, to, Irving, Italian Italian

324,338 of supernatural 126, t64, 306 177, t8i


Matagasytate,2S7 Sir Thomas, Malory, Manx Manx Maori superstitions, tales, customs, tales, 45, 41, io6, 290 274,

205 108, !!7, 210 t~g 288,


superstitions, 99 tales (see Corsican, 199, 293

Sicilian, j 2 5








Map, Marko, Marquis 291,

Walter, Prince, of 293



302, tale

338, of, 2t8






340.34' or King, the Sun, tale of, 264,

90 Coventry, See Oisin Ossian. Ovid,7i Owen Owen Glendower, Lawgoch, See Sad Tom. See 247 Dr., 9, 53.'92 183 tales, 243, ta!es, 48, 251, 44, ~l, 262, 45. !4t< 281 267, 206 3t9. 2J7, Thetis

209 209 Dar

Marriage 322 MaundevUle, Meddygon Melusina, 324.3~7 Merlin, Messia,

settlements, Sir Myddfai, 240, 253,



John, 325 272,


239 3~

Parsees. Peeping Peteus. Perrault,

See Godiva


209 the Sicilian 26, Day. adventures story-teller, 31 See of. St. See 9 John's Fairy


Metamorphosis, Midsummer Day Midwives, Births Minstret Mohammed, Mohe!, Moravian Morgan Morris,

86, Pliny, Pomeranian 237~ 242, Polynesian 324 Portuguese Portuguese Princess,

in Middle 182, adventure tale, the Fay, 274 43,

Ages, 224 of a, 4!, 204


superstition, tale, !8t the Enchanted,



~262 Proserpine, 43, 48 Fairy, 52, 37, 231, 177 Fairytand, 135, 59, et 66, 330 65, no,


Mother-right. Myddfai, gon

239, 26o, See Kinship of.




See Meddy-

et seqq. Professor, Rhys, 188, 163, !64, Rip van WinMe,

64, 325,

Names, Napoleon Nereids, New New New

feeling Savage I.,2o6 55,


309 325

Robheries ~y. Roger Roman Russian 248 29S,344 Rugen,Is!andof, t27, 152,


Netherlands, Guinea, Year's Zealand.

99. 242, 267, 317, t88 tale from, tale from, 322 Eve and See the, Night, Maori 69,

of Wendovcr. superstition, tales, t t9, tales 236 book 96

See Godiva







Norwegian See Woden Odin. the Ogier Ointment, Oisin, 196, Dane. Magical, 198 Horn, Dane,

278, et tales. See Scandinavian

Sad See Olger 59, et seyy. 96


a sacred 268 22;



Samoyede Savage

tale, ideas,

evidence among, 44 (see

of, 2


Oldenburg the Olger Omens, 30

t49 43, 204, 213

imagination Savages, Saxo Grammaticus, Scandinavian tales




Danish), 2!?, Scottish '33

Scottish tales,


Il5, 294,

142, 3t8 94,9$,



Tawhaki 285,

and et seqq. 242,








Thetis, Thomas


329 43,102, )apse 222, of, 161, et ~y< J03

ofErceMoune, =upernatural






Time, ~y.,

JI2, 130,








t65,!66, 3:2

167,i8o,186,24t,266,293, 206 Don, Sebastian, Sbillot, Seven Siberian Sicitian Sicilian Siegfried, Sikes, Simrock, Slavonic Slavonic sian, 298, Southam, Southey, Spanish Spanish 3'5. Wirt, Paul, Sleepers, tales, tales, 67 the, 42, 182

Tini-rau, Tir na n 'Og. Tirolese tales,

196, et tale of, 286, See

et ~y. Oisin

70,184,274,293,3:3, as (see 33t, Princess), 346

325. 329. 34S Toad or frog, fairy 5~ 52, 53. 27, 338 m I 299 247 165, 279 Rus267, Ultich Van von Pool, Rosenberg, Lady 266, 278 Totemism, Tradition, 324, definition

169 too, 212, 2t2, 137, !t6 206, Bohemian, 218, at,

superstitions, 53,192, 64, 123, t0!, or Sigurd, Karl,

of, 34 variable value Traditions, of, 4, 24 doctrine Transformations, of, 26, 3: Transylvanian 246, 258, 347 220, 274, 233 325, 330 tales. 52, 176, t89,

superstitions, tales (see Lithuanian), 3J2 procession 187 superstitions, tales, 325, 339 doctrine 187,


100, 226,

205 264, 294,

Vikramditya, Vitra, 38 Wainamoinen,

of the, SI

45 io8, tale 1:0, 156 of, 302 126, 207,

Spirits, St. Augustine, St. Briavels,

of, 25, 235 at, Dr.

42 78, Geo., 87 150 248

100, custom

Waldron, Geo., 41, Wastin of Wastiniog, Welsh superstitions, 209 Welsh n5, 162, 187, 245, 294, Wenze!, Western tales, t22, 163, t88, 30!, 37, t23, t64, 207, 302, 62, t26, t65, 209, 304, 184,

Stephens, St. John's Story-telling, Stoymir, Swabian 253 Swan-maidens,


63, t28, t66, 225, 305,

Day, 214, 236, 238, Art of. See Art the tales, Knight, 39, 52, 202, 337 See 220, 233

103, 167,

113, !68,


269,274, 3!7, 325,

147,244, 255, et


283, et Swedish tales. Swiss tale, 49

2t9 story-telling in,

Scandinavian 5 Weyiand Wilde,

Highlands, Smith, See 3t8 102,

Taboo, 309, Tacitus, Tam

270, 3n,

302, 3:2, 3i8,

304, 320, 242

305, 337


Wild Wild

Lady, Edric.

t28 Edric 234, 146 236

15, 7;, 89 Lin, baDad of,

Hunt, the, 233, William of Newbury, Witchcraft, 29




99, t43,
2!2, 233,


336, 348 339 ~<





.~orkshtre, ~-4)aster,

t89, 96 c~6




dmon, wedding, ~9 -!<



























Note by







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