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AN INTRODUCTION

TO

THE. HINDUSTANI LANGUAGE. -

COMPRISING
^

A GRAMMAR,

AND

A VOCABULARY, ENGLISH AND HINDUSTANI;

ALSO

SHORT SENTENCES AND DIALOGUES SHORT STORIES IN PERSIAN AND NAGARI


CHARACTERS, WITH SOME GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS HINDUSTANI
COMPOSITION, OR FACILITIES FOR TRANSLATING .
ENGLISH INTO HINDUSTANI,

AND

MILITARY WORDS OF COMMAND, NAGARI AND ENGLISH.

By JOHN SHAKESPEAR.

LONDON:

Wm. H. ALLEN & Co.


BOOKSELLERS TO THE HONOURABLE EAST-INDIA COMPANY,
7, LEADENHALL STREET.

1845.
J. & H. COX, BROTHERS (late & SONS),
PRINTERS TO THK HONOURABLE KAST-INDIA COMPANY,
74 & 75, Great Queen Street, Lincnln'e-Inn Fields.
/

f*.

Sir HENRY WILLOCK, K.L.S., Chairman. | g 4 J"


JAMES WEIR HOGG, Esq., M.P., Deputy Chairman.

WILLIAM ASTELL, Esq., M.P. WILLIAM BUTTERWORTH BAYLEY, Esq.


WILLIAM WIGRAM, Esq. JOHN SHEPHERD, Esq.
Sir ROBERT CAMPBELL, Bart. FRANCIS WARDEN, Esq.
JOHN MASTERMAN, Esq., M.P. MARTIN TUCKER SMITH, Esq.
JOHN PETTY MUSPRATT, Esq. Lieut.-Col. WILLIAM HENRY SYKES.
HENRY ALEXANDER, Esq. Major-Gen. ARCHIBALD GALLOWAY, C.B.
Major-Gen. Sir J. L. LUSHINGTON, G.C.B. Major-Gen. Sir JEREMIAH BRYANT, C.B.
Sir WILLIAM YOUNG, Bart. Major-Gen. ARCHIBALD ROBERTSON.
GEORGE LYALL, Esq., M.P. ELLIOT MACNAGHTEN, Esq.
RUSSELL ELLICE, Esq. Major JAMES OLIPHANT.
Sir RICHARD JENKINS, G.C.B. JOHN CLARMONT WHITEMAN, Esq.

DIRECTORS

JDoitouraolr %$ Company,

INTRODUCTION TO THE HINDUSTANI LANGUAGE,

is.

WITH GREAT RESPECT, DEDICATED,

THEIR VERY OBEDIENT,

AND VERY HUMBLE SERVANT,

THE AUTHOR.

London, \2tkMay, 1845.


ADVERTISEMENT.

The conviction that great advantage is likely to accrue to


Candidates for the Indian Service, from the acquisition of some
elementary and grammatical acquaintance, with the most common and
practically useful dialect of India, previous to their arrival in that
country, is now become so prevalent, that argument seems hardly
needed to extend or strengthen it. And, as in India a knowledge
of the languages of that region, but especially of the Hindustani,
is made indispensable to the attainment of staff, as well as of other
extraordinary beneficial appointments, no opportunityno time
should be let slip or lost by those about to go thither, for commencing
and continuing the study of that dialect. To facilitate this study, the
author or compiler of the following sheets has before prepared and
passed through the press, various editions of a Grammar, Dictionary,
and two volumes of Selections, the utility of which is best proved by
the uninterrupted public countenance shewn them ; and, for such
learners as can obtain the assistance of a fit instructor, these helps might
have sufficed. From the manner, however, in which some persons are
obliged, without much previous notice and with little or no instruction
in the language, to proceed to India, a compendious work, made as easy
as possible, has been judged still requisite for individuals thus circum
stanced : and, though some little instruction from a qualified teacher
is earnestly recommended where it can be obtained, to guide the reader
in the pronunciation and other particulars, yet it is hoped this book
may prove essentially useful to the assiduous student, whether aided
by others or obliged to rely solely on his own application and dis
cernment.
INDEX TO THE CONTENTS.

PART I.
Chapter I.Grammar 1 Present Participle 32
Persian alphabet, with the diacritical Past Conjunctive Participle ... 32
marks and the composition of the Past Tenses ... 32
letters 2 Present Tenses ... 34
Devanagari alphabet, with the com Future Tenses ... 35
pounds ... ... ... ... 6 Imperative ... 36
Pronunciation of the Persian and Na- Transitive and Causal Verbs . . . ... 38
gari, with diacritical signs adopted in Compound Verbs ... 39
them as well as in the Roman ... 9 Derivative Verbs ... 42
Chapter II.Nouns substantive ... 13 Passive Verbs ... 42
Gender... ... ... ... ... 13 Auxiliary Verb, conjugation of ... 43
Plural, how formed ... ... ... 14 Intransitive Verb, - j, Go ... ... 45
Cases, how formed ... ... ... 15 Transitive Verb, conjugation of, Active
Postpositions, how used ... ... 16 and Passive ... ... 49
Vocative ... ... ... ... 18 Chapter V.Indeclinable words ... 57
Persian and Arabic words, how con Postpositions, the most usual 57
structed 18 Adverbs 59
Declension ... ... ... ... 19 Conjunctions 61
Adjectives, how inflected and used ... 21 Interjections ... ... ... ... 61
Adjunct of Similitude, l> se ... ... 23 Chapter VI. Numerals, Cardinals ... 62
Chapter III.Pronouns ... ... 24 Ordinals and Aggregates 66
Chapter IV.Verb 30 Numerals, used distributively 66
Root 30 Fractionals ... ... ... ... 67
Infinitive ... ... ... ... 30 Chapter VII.Derivatives 68
Past Participle 30 Chapter VIII.Syntax 76

PART II.
Vocabulary, English and Hindustani ... 88 Things relating to Fire ... ... 93
Nouns, Celestials, Infernis ... ... 88 Things relating to Air 93
Fabulous beings. Some general terms 89 Things relating to Water ... ... 94
The Elements 90 Things relating to the surface of the
Heavenly bodies, signs, appearances, &c. 90 Earth 95
vin INDEX.
ocabulary (continued) Morals,moral and immoral Actions... 146
Minerals, Metals, &c . 97 Professions, Occupations 147
Trees, Shrubs, Plants, and Herbs . 99 People of Professions, Trades, &c. 147
Esculent Roots and Vegetables . 109 Meats and Drinks 165
Flowers . 110 Spices, Condiments ... ... ... 169
Fruits . 113 Apparel, Dress... 170
Grains, Seeds ... . 115 Buildings 172
Food in general for Animais ... . 117 Household Furniture ... 175
Worms, Reptiles, Insects, Spiders . 117 Country and Country Affairs ... 179
Fishes ... ... ... ... . 120 Society and Government 180
Birds ... . 121 War, Military Affairs 181
Beasts ... ... ... . 123 Naval Affairs ... 185
Man ... .; . 127 Divisions of Time 195
Human beings in relationship . 128 Other useful Nouns, alphabetically ar
The Body and what relates to it . 132 ranged ... ... ... 196
Hurts and Diseases of the Body- . 139 Verbs of frequent use, alphabetically
Persons employed in curing Diseases ... 143 arranged ... ... ... ... 293
Medical Means . 144 Adjectives, Adverbs, &c, of frequent
The Mind and its Attributes . 144 use ... ... ... ... ... 347

PART III.
Short Sentences of common use... ... 400 | Dialogue ... ... ... ... 423

PART IV.
Short Stories, in Persian and Nagari characters, with translation and grammatical analysis 467

PART V.
Hindustani Composition, or facilities for translating English into Hindustani 510

APPENDIX.
Forms of Letters and Notes, with verbal Military Words of Command, English and
translations ... 530 Hindustani, in Nagari and Roman
Grammatical Terms, with examples of characters 543
their application ... ... ... 537 Corrections ... ... ... 563
AN INTEODUCTION

TO THE

HINDUSTANI LANGUAGE.

PART I.

GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER I.

Alphabets, Orthographical Signs, and Pronunciation.

The most common dialects of India, whether that of Hindustan


proper, or that of the Dakhan, are often found written in the Persian
or Arabic characters, especially by the Musalman population of the
country ; by Hindus, however, the Devangari (a word often con
tracted to Ngari), or characters allied to the Devangari, are usually
adopted : the alphabets and other orthographical signs, therefore,
made use of in each of those two systems of writing claim the earliest
attention of the learner ; and, will in the first place be submitted to
his notice.
2 A Grammar of

Persian Alphabet.*

Letters Names in Usual Letters Names in Usual


uncon Persian and equivalents in uncon Persian and equivalents in
nected. Roman. Roman. nected. Roman. Roman.

1 t-Jll // a, a, i, . U t>Le s<f ?

. J> oL zd Z.

- \> t.

t. b i/js s' Z.

S- , , , , &c.
t

j- ghain g.
: t
LS*- C ch. ii xj fi /

h. .

. kh A.

Jb rfZ l. <_Jlf g5/

5- J Z.

j r. ^-^o .
1*
Z z. ^yj .
j
A zh. jlj ' w, V, , , au, &.
J
s. .
sh. , , e, ai, &.

* The characters of this alphabet are to be read from right to left.

+ Called h' hutti Q^a^ui ^)by way of distinction from the other he.

% Called h' hawwaz (jyk ug W) or h' mudazewara (y^* i_ >).


the Hindustani Language. 3

The Persian characters, as above described, are used when standing


alone ; and, the letters jjjj \ neither admit of junction to a fol
lowing one, nor are liable to any material change from another letter
being prefixed : the rest of the characters, however, become apparently
abridged, retaining their essential portion only or assuming some varia
tion of form, when used in composition ; as in

kk kl k kz ghf i* ssr shsh sr rs zr jd pch bb ba ab


jJ _> Ii Jl jK ^ ^ji> j y ^ I i3 or if
ym ye hhh h II we mm nn hy yh nw mn ma Ik l g
iXcs ks jjt \jib tj; - * iXsj-J <~^' '"""fi
k*d fkt ghghgh *** ttt 222 shst djd jjj ttt bbb
^ j^o JlJ J
AAA AAA mmm III khh kkk

To represent some sounds peculiar to the Hindus, additional marks


are commonly assumed with a few of the Persian letters, or certain
combinations may be adopted ; as,
t_-^J ^ ^< ^ ^ Jbj ja JO ^> ^) Jf j cJL
jpAaS / gA A rA dA * cAA j'A A th ph bh r d t

<~r*4*> 1 *? *t'
nhab mhab khab rhdb dhab chhab thab

In uttering <JL> or or J the point of the tongue is to be reverted


to the palate ; and the aspiration intended in ^> bh, &c. is to be ex
pressed at once with the preceding consonant.
Of the letters above recited, the term e^lc harf-i-illat (infirm
letter) is technically given to \ or j or ^j, as that of ^si <*j>- harf-

i-sahih (sound letter) is applied to each of the rest.


The short vowels are three, namely ' (yj) zabar or (issxi) fat'ha,
to which may correspond the Roman a ; , (yj) zer or (^) kasr,
4 A Grammar of

which may be represented by i ; and ' {{J^) psh or (**) xamm, by


: so, in Jo bad ; S> bid ; Jj bud.*
The long vowels and the diphthongs are formed by the adjunction of
the infirm letters (,_? j \) to consonants uttered with the short vowels ;
yet, at the beginning of a word or syllable, each of these infirm letters
may perform the office of a consonant; and, instead of writing \ \ (two
alifs) at the commencement of a word, one of those letters with the
sign "*~ (X*) madda, is commonly adopted : so,

jus- jus- Ju>- CJji e-Jjj iZJfx b aj s3 <_>T


jaid je%d fid baut bft bt b aub f b yah wah ab

5 l i ^ l/- t/* ^
yai ye% yi y sai sj si s

* These short vowels are but rarely marked by the natives in writing
Hindustani; yet, for the guidance of European learners in pronunciation,
they may with much convenience be frequently used ; the most common
of them, however, fat'ha or zabar, will be left generally unmarked in
this work ; and, must then be understood after a consonant, which is not
final, nor marked with either of the other short vowels, or with
jazm.
+ For the sound here intended there is no discriminating mark in the
Arabic orthography, because it is unknown in that language : and the
w' in such case termed ww-i mafhl (unknown w') is left without
any vowel accompanying the preceding consonant, which circumstance
will sufficiently distinguish it from the w' when following a vowel and
taking another sound.
J The y-i mafhl (unknown ) is, for the like reason as the
ww-i mafhl, left without any vowel accompanying the foregoing con
sonant.
the Hindustani Language. 5

Other orthographical signs are


(ij^Jb) hamza, which is always initial in a syllable and accompanied
or moved by a short vowel either written or understood ; as, in
* t *
c_\ (ai), 1/y> {hx), JjIc (e'/d).
or (fj-) Jazm shews that the subscribed letter has no vowel to be
' coo
sounded after it; so, in *J\ {ism), J*s ijC), /*- (fiarf).
" (joAiJ) tashdid, which shews that the letter underneath is to be
pronounced double ; as, in CA> {shiddai) : and the letter so
marked must be distinctly twice sounded.

"* (J*9j) wasl, which serves to join together two Arabic words, the latter
having the articleJl {at) prefixed, the vowel of which is dropped in
pronunciation ; as, inj^i \JA (khiru-l-amr) : and, the J {lm)
of the article becomes converted in sound to the following letter,
if this betUtliJJjj (./-t/ijjOuisljJor^, which may
then be marked with tashdid, and is to be uttered as double ;
so, in (jJ I p\y {wmmu-n-ns).
\* *S (ijijj) tanwin, giving the nasal sound to the final vowel ; as,
S >* P fi * fi fi
in .< (khussun). ^py2~ {khususin), Lya- (khussan).
Some few words, in which the use of these letters and signs will be
farther exemplified.
_ ^ j> ? *

siddha zhola khair jabbr buda bojh bud aur yat andar abad
^yi < J3 <V*S 1 jL jLc je Ju> ^Ji
l-snt lla ll gumbaz kghaz ghubbar iyar turra zidd shubha
w fi s w fi fi
jj& \ ^ <0J J^S \ (Jj \ . J*o
-l-faur alhamdu lillh mda-l-hakl maghrab muddat muzakkar
fi^ / * ^ (c~o

5 nujab kal' ts zu-l-fakr hakikatan fauran fi-l-haktkat


6 A Grammar of
* u V" ' fc i -b * '

shu'* dkndhn dbn thandh thor shhanshh shuhab

tam*bhf bismirl-lhi-r^rafimni-r-rahm

Devanagaei Alphabet.^
Vowels.

* a, ^ 5; T i, t; ^ m, ^5; ^ ri, ^r;|| * /ri, ||


W/ri;H 4 , tai; 5, ^ au.

Consonants.
Gutturals, ^ ka, ^ kha, ga, ^ gha, ^ nga.\\
Palatals, ^ cha, * cMa, ^ja, ^jha, .
Cerebrals, ^ to, 7 , * rfa,f ^ dha ^ .
Dentals, T ta, aj ^ da> 4 7f> .
Labials, ' j>a, ^ , ^ 5, ^ Aa, * ma.

Semivowels, f ya, \ ra, ^ Za, * .


Sibilants and Aspirate, sa, ** 4 sa,ft ' sa, ka.

* The () before <) (be) or <_> (pe) becomes in pronunciation.


+ When * (he) sensibly expressed is preceded by a vowel, it may be
thus represented to distinguish it from the h- mukfltaf (concealed he)
as in iKi ga, or from the aspirated compound as in ^ gha.
J Frequently called Ngar alphabet, and read from left to right.
II But very rarely, if ever, used in writing Hindustani.
1 and <o are often pronounced rather as ra and rha by reverting
the tip of the tongue to the palate ; and, to mark this variation, a point
may be subscribed, as , rha.
is a palatal sibilant ; and often adopted to represent the Arabic
(shin).
is sometimes uttered as kha.
the Hindustani Language. 7

la addition to the above are the two characters, anuswra ( * ) and


visarga (), the first of which placed over a letter imparts to the
vowel a slight nasal sound, somewhat stronger however than the
French n in bon ; and the latter placed after a letter denotes a soft
aspiration (not perceptible, and but rarely used in Hindustani).*
The forms of the vowels, as above described, are used when standing
alone or when initial in a syllable : after consonants, however, there
is no character for ^ (a), which is to be understood in case no other
vowel be noted, or no consonant be added as a compound, or no
mark called virma (rest) be appended, as in Yet, in Hindus
tani, this unwritten vowel is not to be understood at the end of a
word, where indeed no vowel, unless expressly marked, is to be
sounded.
After consonants, and as compounded with them, the rest of the
vowels are represented by the following forms :

T ; fi \ ; ^ ; ; ri; t ri; ^ Iri; Irl; l; ai ;

1 ; 1 au.

And the composition of vowels and other marks with consonants


may be exemplified in

TR ^ Tf f?Pt ^ WfT WS
k iki uku kri rlkri Iriklri Irklr

xKff ^1|- ^fctr: -


tkc aikai aukau aka akah kasah dis

* Though in repeating the alphabet, it is usual to say a, 5, , , &c.


ka} kha, ga, gha, &c. simply, as before noted, yet in naming the letters
41 1 ^ kra (or kr) is added to the sound of each ; so T*'<* ' ^ (akr)

the letter ^, 41 *K () the letter


8 A Grammar of

If two or more consonants come together without the intervention


of a vowel, they should coalesce and become one compound character.
Such compounds are formed in various ways ; either by placing the
body of the subsequent consonant under the first, as in kw ; by
arranging them in their usual order, omitting however the perpendicular
line in all but the last, as smy ; or, by varying somewhat the
elementary characters and blending them together, as in jn, *
ksh, ddh. With the semivowels " y, and T r, composition is
of most frequent recurrence : the adjunction of the first to a pre
ceding consonant does not much, if at all, change its original shape ;
as, in *H ky, ^ khy, *4 jy, 4 dy, 4 py, f phy, ^ sy, H hy :
but, the latter, when immediately following a consonant, usually takes
the form f beneath, as when preceding a consonant it is denoted by the
t
character placed above ; so, ' kr, " gr, ^ tr, T sr, sr,
Ar ; * r&, ^ rg, dharm.
Other compounds, of most frequent use, are the following :

^ kk, * fci, 'S , 481 fcw, t|, "SgAn^gA^W dich, * chchh,


^ cAcAAr, ^ jj, ^jm, jny, "^jhjh, T , ^ wrf, Ttt,
^ tty, T in, T fry, ^ AA, Aw, 1 dg, T <ZZ, <, J. dn,
eZAw, ^1 ddhw, dbh, <Zm, F ir, * da?, * ZAm, ^ ?,
^ tZAw?, nn, , ^ ntry, ^ rccZy, ^p, ^, ^, ^i?Z,
""^, ^ps, ^fjtc, ' Z>Z>, ^ 6;, W Z>Z, My, *e Z>An, ,
mZ, ^ ra, ^ , ' ZZ, ^ vor, wri, seh, * scAA, " sry,
41 ss, "4 SA, 'S sAi, shty, shtw, ' s<A, ^ sn, ^ , 3 Am,
W ?/,. ^ An, An, m,^IT Am, H Ay, ^ hl, >.
represent such Arabic or Persian letters as have no exact cor
respondents in the Ngar, the following characters, which approach
most nearly in pronunciation, are commonly used in writing this lan
guage ; and, though not the practice of the people of India, points
the Hindustani Language. 9

may be adopted beneath the letters, in such cases, to shew the extra
ordinary use made of them : thus,

for tl for ' for i_J


_ _ -

T (final) ^(/
? for ' (<>).

Pronunciation.

or * for 41 a, as in America.
or I' or T } as a in all.

or i or f4, as i in fin.

or * ort ^ as in peer.

1 or or 4 it, as u in pull.
I or i ^3f or ^ , as oo in cool.
ij\ or j ^ or e or , as ai in pair.
tj\ or ^ $ or a*> as e' in height.
j\ or * or T or 5, as in bone.

j\ or S or *^ au, as ou in our.

t_> or J b, as the English b.

* or g Vf bh, as in abhor.
_ or j 4 ^, as the English p.
ft or i 4 ph, as ph in up-hill.

CJ or j ri t, as t in tube.

f* f) /, as the last aspirated.


J!j or 5 ^ , as t in true.
oi ~Z \h, as the last aspirated.

10 Grammar of

a s, as s in sin.
or J for
or asj in judge.
r
er or jh, as the last aspirated.
er
or ^ ch, as ch in church.

or chh,* as the last aspirated.

or >- ^ h, as h in horse.

or A. ^ Jch, as the German ch.

J or A ^ d, as d in dew.

JO or V dh, as the last aspirated.


a tt
or ^ d, as d in dim.
a ^ dA, as the last aspirated.
or
1
J or z, as z in zeal.

or ^ r, as r in rain.
J
or ri, as ri in river.

or r, as the last prolonged.


or M r, as r in rim nearly.

A, or <g , as the last aspirated.

or z,asz in zeal.
j j
or zh, as s in pleasure.
J
or a) ? s, as s in sin.
or I[ s, as sh in shine.

or a0 4 s, as s in sin.
1 0 z, as z in zeal.
or
or rf t, as t in tub.

or z, as z in zeal.

* The Nagari compound ^ is occasionally represented by ^>-, and


similarly pronounced.
the Hindustani Language.

or for , , , as a, i, or u.*

*T gh, as the Northumberland .


g. or
i-J or i 4} /, as f in fin.

or A;, as peculiarly uttered .J


J
or , as in king.
*sT kh, as the last aspirated.
4 or
of or *T g, as g in give.
gh, as the last aspirated.
4 or 4
or ! I, as the English 1.
J
or m, as the English m..
r
or i n, as n in tint.

or i * n, as n in king.

or j T n, as n, in singe.

* With the Arabs, this letter is a guttural consonant of peculiar


utterance, which is hardly attempted in Hindustani ; and the mere vowel
used with it is noted, in the Nagari character, when it- occurs at the
beginning of a syllable : so, in that character, for may be
adopted ; for U, ^F; for , for ^fi, ^; for ^; for s , ^ ;
> _ - *\ > - v-
forjc, ; for yi, . In the Roman characters, this letter when
initial in a syllable will be here represented by a small form of itself
written over its subsequent vowel; and, when in the middle or at the
end of a syllable, by the same mark placed after the vowel which pre-
O G
cedes ; so, Jc akl, ma kL
+ Or, as the sound gha, gha, gha, formed in gargling.
J With the root of the tongue pressed back on the throat, so as to
check the voice gently and to occasion a clinking intonation.
The Nagari may occasionally be sounded like this and represented
by the same Persian or Roman letters.
12 A Grammar of

^ or j for
or j , a slight nasal.*
j or j 4 , or w, as V in voice.f
j or If h, as h in horse, how.%
or i ^ y, as y in yoke.

* The Nagari sign may be used for any nasal not initial in a syllable.
+ Pronounced as w when compounded with some other consonant. In
the Arabic orthography, moreover, this letter, subsequent to fat'ha be
comes au ; to zamm, ; and, when mafhul, it is sounded 5, as before
noted under the vowels. In some Persian words, j though written is
scarcely, if at all, sounded ; as in s\y>- (khwh) desire, (ichush)
pleasant. When thus used it is technically termed !jx^c jlj (jdw-
modula) ; and may in the Nagari translation be either wholly omitted,
or distinguished by a point underneath, as well as in the Roman, so
W or v. In a few instances, too, of Arabic words, this letter may take
the sound of alif ; so, jLs salt.
J When final, however, in Indian and Persian words, this letter is
sometimes, but very slightly, if at all, sounded, and is then termed
^ji^sr* i_s lb (h'e-mukhtaf) ; in which case, it may be denoted by ;
(visarga) in the Nagari character, and omitted in the Roman. At the
end of certain Arabic words, too, this letter may occur with two points
marked above it, when it takes the sound of t, as it is often transmuted
to CL ; so, in &*^\ idU- (khulsatu-l-hind).
In the Arabic character, however, this letter when secondary in
a syllable becomes, together with the preceding vowel, if fat'ha, ai;
if kasr, ; and, if it be maj'hl, it is sounded e, as before instanced
under the vowels. A final moreover, preceded by fafha, in Arabic
words, is sounded as alif; so J^iW (ja'dla) : but, when followed
by J! ia), as fat'ha only ; so, 1 ^c- {la-s-sabh).
the Hindustani Language. 13

CHAPTER II.
Words may be divided into Nouns substantive or Adjective, Pro
nouns, Verbs comprising participles, Prepositions, Adverbs, Conjunc
tions, and Interjections.
Nouns Substantive.
1. Nouns substantive may be, in gender, masculine or feminine; in
number, singular or plural ; and for case, are frequently liable to in
flection or change in the termination.
2. The gender of nouns is sometimes to be determined from the

nature of the beings to which words are applied ; as ~c (maro) man,
lzJjjz {aurat) woman : in numerous instances, however, the distinction
is conventional, and to be learned by practice in the language only ;
yet words terminating in n (a), \ (),* ^1 {an), are generally mascu
line, and those ending in ^$ (), (j), (), ji, (s), ^ (),
will most commonly be found to be feminine.
a. As marked exceptions to the foregoing rule, may be noticed
^3b {pant) water, (gA) clarified butter, (dahi) curdled
milk, (Jt) life, <^-* (mot) a pearl, which are perhaps the only
masculines, unless by nature, terminating in _s () ; and, many words
ending with <SJ (t), ^ (sA), or ^ (w) will occur in use as of the mas
culine gender,f

* Most of the pure {sanskrit and Arabic nouns ending in 1 () are


feminine, as well as some of the latter tongue terminating in (e).
Arabic verbal nouns ofthe form iJ^J (taf'l) are said to be all feminine in
the Dakhni of Madras; and, in Urdu or proper Hindustani, to exhibit but
one exception, j^j*J (tu*:;tz) an amulet, which in this dialect is masculine.

+ Some words are naturally of both genders; such as, (dmt)


f *
and ijjX* (rnnus) a human being, ^y^l (asmi) a client; whilst,
14 A Grammar of

3. To form feminine nouns from masculines, such of the latter


description as end in s (a), \ (a), or b (ya), usually convert those
finals to () ; such as end in u\ (an), or wb (yn), to (j) ;
and such as end in ^ () to ^ (an or in) : so ^\ (shahzdi) a
princess, from *-^/*> (shakzda) a prince ; i^j^p (ghrt) a mare,
from \jj(ghra) a horse ; (para'i), from \j\jt (prya) foreign ;
^yLs (satwl), from ^^' (siwii) seventh; (dhbin)
washerwoman, from ^jb (dhbf) a washerman.
a. Masculines, ending in other letters, may either assume certain of
the above-mentioned feminine terminations, or take \ (a), ^ (w), ^J>\
(am), ^ (yan), or ^1 (yan) ; so ^jjy* (harnt) a doe, from
(harn) a deer; IGU (nayaka) the female of tl&b (nyak) a
leader ; ^jy () a peahen, fromjye (mr) a peacock ; ^\^>
(mihtarni), from (mihtar) a sweeper ; ^U^J (banyyan), the
wife of a LiJ (banya) shopkeeper.
4. To form the nominative plural, masculine nouns ending in
(a) or \ (a) change the termination to ^ () ; as ^SLi (piyle) cups,
from dJU (piyala) ; ^JLi (bete) sons, from lio (ii) : other termi-
nations remain unaltered ; as (mard) a man or men ; (chr)
thief thieves.*
a. Certain nouns substantive masculine, as well as adjectives,
though ending in \ (a) remain unchanged in the nominative plural ;
such as, (khuda) God} (umara) nobles or a nobleman,

others, likeJj (fikr) care, ,^- (jn) life, may be used indifferently as
masculines or feminines. On the subject of gender, indeed, considerable
difference will be found to exist between the Hindustani and Dakhni; and,
even speakers or writers of the same dialect are sometimes at variance.
* In Dakhni, however, ^ (an) is subjoined to such nouns ; so, ^l*^*
(mardan) men, fj\fj>- (chr) thieves.
the Hindustani Language. 15

L (mulla) a doctor, \sAj (raja) a prince, ii (lla) master, bb (baba)


or b-> (pita) father, ^-> (sauda) melancholy, lilj (dna) wise, \\
(data), liberal, \Jui (paida) produced, and various others.*
. Feminine nouns ending in (_ () assume (ra) for the nomi
native plural, as those of all other terminations take ^ (en) ;f so,
^Llo (betiyn) daughters, from () ; (kitabe) books,
from _> (kitab).
. Persian nouns may form their plurals in ^ (w) b> (A) cj! (i)
or cyb>- (jai), or by changing a singular s (a) to ^if (gr') ; as,
yUSL (skiyn) cupbearers, from ^SL-* (sA) j L^L (sVA) years,
from JL> (sal) ; cubij (waujzisAi) favours, from (-
zsA). Arabic plurals, too, of various forms may occur ; as, jebc
(nsir) from ^s (wnsir), jblH (akhbr) from^-d- (khabar), 1^1
() from (amir).
5. Cases of nouns, excepting the nominative, are fotmed in this
language by the means of small words, generally placed after the
nouns, whence the term postposition is conveniently applied by
Europeans to these words ; and, such masculine nouns as have for
their final in the nominative singular (a) or \ () mostly change it
to (e) in the other cases of that number ; so, (darwaze
) to the door, from (darwza), l ^Sf (lark ka) of the boy,
from ISjj) (larka),^ ijjjp (ghrt par) on the horse, from (ghora).

* In the Dakhan, (n) is usually added to nouns ending in \ (a)


unchangeable, to form the nominative plural; so, ^. (khuda'n) gods.
+ In Dakhni, jj (n) or more rarely ^* (an) is added to feminine
nouns whose singular final is \ (a) to form the plural, whilst other femi
nines assume ^\ (n) or sometimes change () to jb (yun) ; so,
(ybe (ma'n) or ^jbc (mwn) mothers^ from bo (me), ^boo naddVn
(or naddyn) rivers^ from i^Jj (nadrfi).
16 A Grammar of

Masculines in ! (a) which are not liable to change in the nominative


plural, some of which are enumerated at paragraph 4. a., as well as
masculines of all other terminations, and all feminines, admit of no
inflection before postpositions in the singular ; so, ^> j (raja se)
from the prince ; l^ j (ghar men) in the house ; ^-j \jJ (daw se)
with medicine ; ^$~\ ijSjjp (ghor ge) before the mare.
a. The inflection for the plural is, in proper Hindustani, constantly
^ (on), though in Dakhni it is more usually ^\ (an) ; excepting,
however, the vocative, in which it is commonly _j () ; so, ^ ^
(larko he ta'tn) to boys ; jA ^$ u?"^^ (dn'n kps) near the wise;
J utfJjP (ghvTiy par) onmares; lj~o jjjjbS (kitbn men) in books.*
b. It may here be noticed that words of two syllables, the first of
which has any short vowel and the second is sounded with ' (a), drop
the latter when any termination beginning with a vowel is affixed ;
so, (baras) a year becomes ^fj, (barsn), -^>- (jagah) aplace,
\)pT (jag'hon) : and, on the contrary, nouns ending in \ (a) un
changeable may assume ^ (y) before the affixes of the plural ; as,
(ai ) mothers ! from U (ma) ; ^> yjAyi (dawyn se)
with medicines, from \j (dawa).
6. The simple postpositions used with nouns, inflected if capable of
inflection, are
For the Genitive case, IS (ko) ^ (k) ^ () of.
For the Dative, or 1 . . N *' . . .
. \ () (he ta'in), &c, to, for, &c.
tor the Accusative J '
j"^ (se) ^ (sen) ur> (son) (sit) from, by,

For the Ablative, \ with.


[jj (par) or <u (pa) on, at : {}ir* () in, among.

* jib (pnw) a foot, becomes contracted to ^y'b (p'n) in the inflec


tion of the plural.
the Hindustani Language. 17

Of these postpositions, l alone is liable to change, as above noted,


to agree with the noun to which it has reference ; and, most com
monly this noun follows immediately the postposition : thus, before a
masculine nominative singular, l is used; as, lio \ \^y* (saudgar
k bta) the merchant's son : before a masculine singular acted upon
by another postposition, or before a masculine plural in every case,
^ (k); as,^j ^^'U ^ (raja k hthipar) on the prince's ele-
phant; i^s'jp ^ ^J>\j (rani k ghofe) the princess's horses ; ^J>
^j-s t^gp^ (lark hthii se) from the hands of the boys : and
before a feminine noun in every case of each number, {) ; as

i_& ^J>j) (nauhar kl pagri) the servant's turban ; ^U ^


(ganwr kl murghiyn) the peasant's hens. The rest of the postpo-
sitions remain unchanged ; as (kutt ) or ^ (kutt
ke ta'in) to the dog or the dog ; ^ (bandar se) by the monkey ;
fa ?
j)^ j~o (mz par) on the table ; - {j-^ (us rs men) in that
space of time.*
a. Many other words, moreover, are adapted to the like postpositive
use ; and, as some of them generally take (ke), whilst others re
quire (kt) before them, they have been termed compound postpo-
sitions ; so, in (_/b
iLijb (badshah kepas) near the king; ^$jO

(dar ke upar) at the door ; ^-^j \J" j-Jl (waz*r waste) for the
vizir ; ^\ ^J> i^Sjj4' (ghor kt ge) before the horse; ^ ^
(dost k We) for the sake of the friend ; ^J^f^ , j4 (ghar ke
pchh) behind the house ; i_ija ^ (masjid taraf) towards
the mosque ; ^ ^ (**P^ tarah) in the manner of a sol-
dier : yet ^ (k) is sometimes omitted ; as, jJ (dar upar),

* tlio (talc, or dakh. C# tag), lL^Ij (talak, or dakh. i*Jk talag),


(ag\ ('f0 '> UP t> near, are also much used as simple
postpositive words ; so CSj j (ghar tak) up to the house.
D
18 A Grammar of

(jJj <J>jy$ (ghre ps) : occasionally, moreover, words of this descrip-


tion may precede the noun or pronoun ; as, tli^jj (nazdik us-ke)
near him : and two or more of the simple postpositions may occur
together ; as, ^ j (ghar mm se) from within the house. It
may be noticed, too, that with pronouns, such words require an inflected
masculine or a feminine genitive ; so, jJj (mere ps) near me,
i^jjo 1_$ (ter taraf) towards thee.
7. The vocative may be the same in form as the nominative; or, it
may be denoted by some one of the signs (ai), (e), (he),
j\ (o), v_Ja-! (a)) (abe), b (ya), or (are) before the noun
singular, inflected if capable of inflection ; but the usual termination in
the plural is_j (o); and, to a plural with this termination one of the
signs above-mentioned may be prefixed. The vocative may likewise
be expressed by CJy> (hot), jj (re), or ^ (be) after the noun ; but,
j\ (are) is changed to (art), as ^ (r) is to jj (rt) if applied
to a feminine : the interjectional words, moreover, or ? and ^jj
or ^jj, are generally used in a disrespectful or contemptuous sense,
and as well as ^! is perhaps always so applied. So, 12^ (beta), or
(_S- (a* befe) O son ! j* ^ ( mard) O man ! jl (o larke)
O boy ! \fj Jj\ (ar ramchera) holla servant ! <j>/ (ar
rand) O woman! jjb (yro) or (ai yro) O friends!
8. With Persian and Arabic words, the construction and preposi
tions peculiar to those languages are frequently adopted. Thus, to
shew the connexion between two substantives, or between a substantive
and its following adjective, the Persian izfat may be used ; and it is
denoted, if actually written, after a consonant by , (zer or kasr), after
s (he) silent, or after ^ (ye) by * (hamza), and after \ (alif) or
(w'o) by (y) : so, 1 js\~ j~<, (mushir-i khss-i shh) privy

counsellor of the king; \&- Joj (banda-i khuda) servant of God;


i_>j- i^j-5* (haw-e khub) good air ; a\j i_5Uj! (asn-e rh) midst of
the Hindustani Language. 19

the way. And, when two Arabic substantives come together, or a


substantive is followed by its adjective in the Arabic construction, the
latter of the two words has the article J! {at) prefixed, and they be
come united in pronunciation, the sign wasl being occasionally used
in writing ; so, jJjJ \ t-JU? (tlibu-l-ilm) a seeker of knowledge, a

student ; k+n-J 1 (lillhi-r-rahmn) to the merciful God.


9. Declension, according to the preceding remarks, may now be
formally exemplified ; as, with a masculine noun substantive ending
in i (he) silent, thus
Singular. Plural.

N. Jcj (banda) a slave. N. lJ<^ (bande) slaves.



G. ^ ^ of a slave. G. ^ i ^ f slaves-
D. to a slave. D. u}1^ io slaves.
Ac. a slave. Ac. y> slaves.
V. slave ! V. jiJ or jAU slaves !

Ab. ^-i from a slave. Ab. ^ ^J^J from slaves.
Or, as with a masculine noun ending in 1 (a) liable to inflection,
thus
Singular. Plural.
N. \jj(ghra) a horse. N. <-fjj& (ghore) horses.
G. ^ iJjjp of a horse.
D. <fi ij'jp to a horse. D. UJs t horses.
Ac. <f j>j4 a horse. Ac. ^ U9r Worses.
or horse ! V. jj^i or O Aora>s .'
Ab. jj-j lJ'^P from a horse. Ab. LT- /r<wn horses.

And nouns ending in (), the last letter being the obscure
nasal, change that termination to ^ (iti) in the inflection of the sin
ce
guiar as well as in the nominative plural ; so ^./^ (pnchwen), from
yljisrU (panchwan), fifth ; or, sometimes, to s(e), as ^-j (baniyt),
20 A Grammar of

from \~> (baniyan), a trader ; and they may convert it to (.on),


and j (o) if used, in the oblique cases and vocative of the plural.
Or, as with a masculine noun ending in \ {a), not liable to inflection,
thus
Singular. Plural.
N *- (r4/'*0 a, prince. N. (<) princes.
G. (_5^ ^ ^ 4"^J f a prince. G. ^ ^ IS /" princes.
D. jS o a prince. D. jS >/" o Vr^nces-
Ac. U>-^ a prince. Ac. jS UJj princes.
V. or prince ! V.j U-l^ orj*U-!^ princes !
Ab. (_5- / a prince. Ab. ^-^ from princes.

And, according to this example, are declined all masculine nouns


ending in a consonant, or in any vowel not liable to inflection ; as, j
(ghar) a house, IS j of a house, j$ houses, IS of houses ;
^Jl (dmt) man, IS of man, &c.

Or, as with a feminine noun terminating in (), thus


Singular. Plural.
N. (ghfi) a mare. N.y\j*jp(jrhoriy) mares.
G. /^// of a mare. G. of mares.
D. *-ji t0 a mare' D. utfji^ to mares.
Ac. y> ij>jy$ a mare. Ac. &} mares.
V. 0 mare! V. jjjj^f ,J\ 0 mares !
Ab. LS"- Srom a mare. Ab. ^ from mares-

Or, as with a feminine noun having any other termination than ^


(), thus

* This particular word has been met with inflected like Ijj^ pre
ceding, though this is very uncommon.
the Hindustani Language. 21

Singular. Plural.
N. di\> (bai) a word, an affair. N. ^jjjb (orr) words.
G. 0>b of a word. G. kJ1 id?V / words.
D. tub to a word. D. j 0 words.
Ac. cjb a wore?. Ac. j i^ijjb words.
V. cub ^ ti-ord .' V. or yb worcfe .'
Ab. a ?. Ab. (yb /rom words.

And a dissyllabic noun, which drops the short vowel of the second
syllable before affixes beginning with a vowel, as explained at para
graph 5. b., might be exemplified in the feminine *fis>- (jagah) aplace,
which becomes in the plural j^-^f- (jag'hn) places, l &}$&r (jag'k
ka) ofplaces, &c.
10. The affix c,j (on), or j (), is often taken, in an emphatic as
well as plural sense, by numerals, whether cardinals or aggregate,
whether in the nominative or in some other case ; so, ^y>y (dono) or
jJ (dno), all two, the two, both ; jyJi (tlnn) all three, j^>
(lkhn shahr) hundreds of thousands of cities. And, the nouns of
time, <j~j>. (baras) a year, (mahina) a month, ^ (din) a day,
(pahar) a watch, not unfrequently, and for the like purpose, as-
sume the adjunct ^ () ; as, (bursM giizre) years (many)
have elapsed; ^^-j (mahnm se) for (many) months, or months
ago.
11. Adjectives are generally liable to the same changes in their finals
for gender, number, and case, as substantives: in the plural, too,
they may assume the same adjuncts, with the exception of ^ (w) ;
yet when followed immediately by nouns in this number, the plural
signs ,1 (an), or (on) are usually, though not always, omitted, the
substantives for the most part alone retaining them, as may be ex-
emplified in (chhota larka) a little boy, thus
22 A Grammar of

Singular. Plural.

N.
G.
D. D.

Ac. .

V. V.
- " "
Ab. Ab.

Or, in Jtf>- (chhoG larki) a little girl, as

Singular. Plural.

N.

G.

D. D.

Ac. Ac.

V. V.
o
Ab. Ab.

The adjective, however, may occasionally stand alone, as when used


substantively, or it may follow its substantive, in either of which cases
it requires in the plural the affixes ^\ () or ().
12. The ordinals of numbers are declined and used as adjectives,
though they seem hardly capable, like the latter, of following the sub-
o -
stantives to which they relate ; sojb ^jf*- (chauthi-br) fourth time,
CO
^fiv* *A~** (.tisr darwze par) at the third door, liU ^jasrb
{jpanchwn bta) fifth son, ^.y^- (chhatwe bef se) from
the sixth son.
13. The comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives are
denoted by means of postpositions and adverbs, or occasionally by
reduplication : thus, for the comparative may be used ^> from, than,
the Hindustani Language. 23

among, ^ ^< from among, l of, after the noun to which com
parison is made, as well as *jbj (ziyda) or jj\ (aur) more, \j great,
(thora) or jJ (zarra) a little, &c. before the adjective ; so,
v_5* 4>W if- u^^ W *^* tambe* se bkrl hai) iron from copper
heavy is : for the superlative, such adverbs as i^-^ (bahut) much,
cuoly (nihyai) or CLJ> (nipat) or ^1 () extremely, (hadd)
for *^1 ( hadd) beyond bounds, excessively, Lj (basa) most, very,
\ji (bara) great, before the adjective; or, the expression ^ (ai
:) or \ (sa A) / aZZ, as well as a reduplication ; so W^l l^-^>.
(bahut nch) very high; j\jt>yt> (nipat hoshyar) extremely pru-
dent; \Jj> (nihyat burijagah) very bad place; \y l
(sab ic bara) or \y ^ t_^.-i (sab se bara) greatest; \>-\ \>\
(achchh achchha) very good, best.
a. With Persian adjectives, J> (tar) is at times suffixed for the
G f
comparative, as ^J> (tarin) is for the superlative ; so J^.y>- (khb-
" t f
tar) handsomer, ^jxjyi. (khubtarin) handsomest, from <-r>y>- (khub) :
and, Arabic forms, like JJM (azlam) more unjust, (zallm) most
of ' '
unjust, from jjij () injustice, may occur, though but rarely.
14. The adjunct of similitude, L> (so), ^> (se), ^-> (s) like,\
varying in its termination to agree with the noun to which it has re
ference, is much used after other adjectives, as well as after substan
tives and pronouns. To adjectives, which like it must be made to
accord in gender, number, and case with the governing noun, it seems
often to convey but little, if any, additional meaning, though in many
instances it corresponds to the English useful affix, ish, and in
m
others it imports a degree ofintensity to the expression ; so t_.- L>\S$

* Observe that ^ before -> or t_> is pronounced as m.


+ (sareka), of similar import, sometimesoccurs ; and in Dakhani,
(sartka) like, is extremely common in use.
24 A Grammar of

{khatt s mb) a sour or sourish mango ; i^J'ji?' ichht se


- <-
Icele) little plantains ; \j ^ sdjr^ (karici si dawa) bitter physic ;
L> {bahut s prii) much or very much water.
a. Before this adjunct, substantives or pronouns become inflected,
and its meaning is fully intended ; so, j* L> ^fb (bgh s mard) a
tiger-like man ; ^ji <>Ji {larki si larki) a boy-like girl, ^ .fs-*
Jjt (mujh si achchhi larki) a good girl like me : I1 (aisa)
for L' (is-s) like this ; Ljj (wais) for Lj (us-sa) like that ;
' *
and, upon the same principle, (kaisa) what-like? L-- (Jaisa)
which-like? L-J (taisa) that-like. Sometimes, however, it is sub
joined to pronominale in their uninflected form, when it has a dise
en s
minative meaning; as LJj (kaun-sa) which? what? what sort ofl
Lj}5- (jaun-sa) whichever, LJy (taun-sa) that, U S (k'i-sa)
* ^ >
some one, certain person.

CHAPTER III.

PRONOUNS.

15. Pronouns, in Hindustani, may be personal, demonstrative,


common or reflective, interrogative, relative, correlative, or indefinite.
Generally they are the same for feminine as for masculine ; yet, the
interrogative and indefinite exhibit each two forms, and each of these
forms is, in great part, appropriated to a distinct gender. In the
changes for case and number, pronouns differ essentially from
nouns ; as
the Hindustani Language. 25
First Person.
Singular. Plural.
N. tjs* (main) I. N. & (ham) we.
lbs-* (mer), (mre), ljU> (hamra), ^Ua (kam-
G.
I lSj? (fieri), of me, mine. re), j^U (hamri) ofus, our.

f ^> (mujh ko), or ^sr* D. "J ^ |Jb ( fco), or li)--*Jb


(mujhe), to me, me. Acj () io ms,

Ab. i<j (' se) from me. Ab. ^> (ham se) from us.

Second Person
Singular. Plural.
f
N. y (tu), or ^ (tain) thou N. *j (turn) ye or .
I <,r
(tumhra),^J^ (tum-
\\jf3 (tira), lJjJ {tare), j^j
G kre), lj\$ (tumhrt), of
I (tri) of thee, thine.
you, your.
IUP ofi if <-/>
(tujh ), or L5fsr D. |W (uk fco), or (tum-
Ac|(izyAe) to thee, thee. Ac.jw) to you, you.
s
V. y ,_$\ (ai tu) thou ! V. p> u\ (ai tum) you;
f
Ab. ^> (tujh se) from thee. Ab. j (mk se) from you.
Third Person.
Singular. Plural.
f
N. Sj (wuk) he, she, it. N. ijj (we) they.
f y !" f t
I ^ U\ (MS &<*), ^ /-' (MS Ii u! ( fc) ^ u! (un ) or
G
or^ ^! (uski) of him,her,it. wl (un ) of them, their.

y* V~\ (us ) or (--il (se)


jS" ^1 ( fco), or ^\ (un-
.
heti) to them, them.
Acj^l (ms fco),or ^1 (ws) .
Ab. .g-) ^1 (ms se) /row him, &c. Ab. ^j-j \ (un se) from them.
26 A Grammar of

And the same word is declined in like manner when used for the
t
remote demonstrative, Sj that, in contradistinction to which is the
proximate demonstrative, ~J (yih) this, declined as follows

Singular. Plural.
N. (yiti) this, it. N. .J (y) Aese.
*\ (is ), ^ (is kt), i d ( A) / ^ (* A) or
G. G. '
or ^J> <jJ\ (is ) of this. |l/ ( / these.

D. 1 j (in ) or (inhi)
Ac. to this, this. Ac.Jo Aese, iAese.
Ab. ^> (^\ (is se) from this. Ab. ^-) ^1 (' se) from these.

COMMON OR REFLECTIVE PRONOUN.


Singular and Plural.
N. t>T (p) seZf, myself, thyself, himself, ourselves, &c.

G. \ t_>! (p ft) ^ <-J\ ( ke) ^ _ ( ) or 1 (apna)
() (apn) of myself, &c, , &c.
D. j _ ( /) or j ^yj) () to myself, &c.
Ac. j t-M ( A) or ( ) myself, &.
Ab. t- (p s) or lS~ j^jjI ( s) /rom myself, &c.
This pronoun is applicable to each of the three persons, according
to the nominative, expressed or understood, with the verb in the same
sentence : (pas), moreover, is frequently adopted before post
positions, especially in a plural sense ; so, ^jI (pas men) among
themselves.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN.

This is of two forms, the one ^ (kaun) being generally applied,


whether absolutely or adjectively, to persons, as the other \S (kya) is
to actions or things ; yet, (Ais) the inflection of ^ may occa
sionally be applied to things ; and, \S in the uninflected state only
the Hindustani Language. 27

seems fitted to precede, as an adjective, the names of inanimate ob-


jects : so, ^ jj {tum kaun ho) you who are ? \t>
chahte ho) what desiring are you 1 J~- (kis chlz ) to which
(or what) thing 1 \ij> \> (ky karna) what (is) to do ? L (ky
chiz) what thing ?
Singular. Plural.

N. ^ (kaun) who ? which? what? N. ^(kaun)who? which? what?


( (kis k) (kis k) IS ^ (kin ka) ^ (kin ke)
G. G.
I ^Jj^S(kiskt)ofwhom1 whose? ^^(kinki)ofwhoml whose?

D. <fi (kis ko) or (kise) D. j> ^ (kin ko) orlj^ (kinhln)


to whom ? to whom ?

Ac. ijS (kis ko) or (kise) Ac.^j (kin ko) or^j^ (kinhen)
whom ? whom ?
Ab.(_su- (kisse)from whom,&Lc Ab. ^^(kin se)from whom,&Lc.

Singular and Plural.


N. and Ac. L (kya) what ?
G. ^jX (khl ko) J. ^ (khl ke) ^jt (khe ki) of what ?
D. ^j (kahl ) to or for what ?
Ab. ^j-j (kahe se) from what 1
RELATIVE PRONOUN.
Singular. Plural.

N.j>- (jo)* or ^>- (jaun) who, N. (jo) or (jaun) who,


which, what. which, what.

* In an indefinite sense, this pronoun may be repeated ; as,^=>-


(jjo) whoever, whatever ; l (j-sj- {jisjis ka) of whichever : and,
it is very frequently compounded with the indefinite pronoun; as, j y>-
(j ko'i) whoever; l ^jS j~>- (jis kisz ka) of whomever; -je? sy
(jo kuchh) whatever ; (_r^>- (jis kis ) to whatever.
28 A Grammar of

Singular. Plural.
^U=r (jis ka) ^^ (jiske) * urT ink)^J xfr (jinke)
G G.
i -*~ (jkt) ofwhom, &c. l/ cJ?~ 0 ) of whom, &c.
D. if t_r^- (jis ko) or (jise) D- / vfT (jin ) or (jin-
to whom. ), to whom, &c.

Ac.f^jj>- (jis ko) or l_s~i- (jise) Ac-/ urT 0'*5)^"0'*-
whom. ), whom, &c.
Ab. ^nj^-(jisse)from whom,&c. Ab.^j-j^p-^'iVi s) from whomfiic.

CORRELATIVE.
Singular. Plural.
N. (so) or (tauri) that, he, N. j- (so) or^jj (taun) those, they.
&c.
fa (jy-J (tis ha) ^ (tis ke) l ^ (iira ) Ji (tin kl)
G.
\S (tis ) of that, &c. ^J) J) (tin ) of those, &c.
D. ijj) (tis ) or ^j-J (tis) to D. ^ (tin ko) or ^pgJ (tin-
that. hn), to those, &c.
Ac. i-J (tis k) or (tise) Ac. ^ (tin ko) or j+J (tin
hat), those, &c.
Ab. ^j- ^-J (is s) from that,bx. Ab. ^jj (tin se)from them, &c.

INDEFINITE PRONOUN.
This is of two forms ; the one being more commonly applied
to persons, as the other is to things : and, for number, each form
admits of no change ; thus
N. J (ko!) a, an, any, some. N. ^s* (kuchh) some, a little, afew.
s >
^(kisik)J ^Jkist (kis k) JyJ (IS
G. I ke) (kis ) of any, G. ke) ^ (kisu k) of some,
some, &c. &c.
the Hindustani Language. 29
9
D. ^^(kisi ko) to any^omefac. D. (kis ko) to some, &c.

Ac. (kisi ) any, some,bic. Ac. (kis ko) some, &c.

Ab. ^j-i (kisi se) from any, Ab.^ (kis se) from some.
fcc.

16. In pronouns, the genitive terminations \j (ra) U (na) admit of


inflection, like l (ka), so as to agree with the nouns to which they
relate ; thus,^J (mere ghor par) my horse on ; cSjtf <Jy?>
'
(teri ghr) thy mare ; ^Ja~>\j ^ ( dost ke waste) on
account of his friend. When, however, any word intervenes between
? of. t
the pronoun and postposition, gjs.-* and -^sT as well as * and J are
I 9
then used with the genitive of the succeeding word ; as \ f?
(mujh gharb ka) of poor me. and ^ and too, when
separated from any postposition, may remain uninflected ; as, ^f
k_^>-ltf ( sAiJ A admi hat) what gentleman's ser
vant is it ? ^- j ^ t^*^ (kl din main chal

ja'ga) I shall depart on some day ; j>- $sr (kuchh chiz


men) in something. To ^ ^j>- ^ ^\ ^\ ^> j*a> the plural sign ^
(on) may still be subjoined, provided that no noun having the like
termination immediately follows ; the finals of ^ J> ^ ^ jJ
moreover may be aspirated, when used with, or without, the affix
(n)* ; so, (ham ) or ^^> (hamn ) to us ; ^ *> (tum
oy Of
se) or ^) 4*j (tumh se) or ^ ^tf (tumh se) from you;
^j~c ^j>j> jj\ or J (un or unh logon men) among those people.
of of
And, by the poets, ^s"0 and are frequently adopted in a posses-

* The word t_-~J (sab) all, becomes on the same principle ^jfc-"
(sabhn) for the inflection of the plural.
30 A Grammar of
9
sive sense, instead of the regular genitives ; as, JJ ^t* (mujh dit)
my heart, (tujh *shk) thy love.

CHAPTER IV.

VERB.
17. Verbs denote the motion or action intended in a sentence, and
admit of two principal divisions ; verb intransitive and verb transi
tive ; the latter of these, moreover, may be subdivided into active and
passive.
18. The most simple form of the verb, and which may be termed
the root, is the imperative in the second person singular : this form,
also, serves frequently as a verbal noun ; so,jlc (mr) beat or a beat
ing ; {bot) speak or speech ; *U- (chh) desire (thou) or the
desire.
19. The infinitive requires the addition of b (na) to the root ; and
before postpositions, when the infinitive often comes into use as a
gerund or verbal noun, this \i is changed to (ne) ; so, from jin beat,
comes lijUi to beat or a beating ; from Jy speak, ^ (pi) drink,
(boln par) on speaking or about to speak, ^j^J (pine
ko) for drinking : the same inflection also takes place when the
infinitive is in construction with certain verbs ; as, if) (kahn laga)
he was applied to saying or he began to say. This termination,
moreover, may be changed to (ri) ^ (rii) or ^Li (niyn) when
a feminine noun, singular or plural, is the object of the verb ; so,
U^J <*iS (*A zaban bolni) to speak a language.
20. The past participle is obtained by subjoining to the root, 1 (a)
lJ 00 d> , () ^ (bi) or jjl) ^ (iya) according to the gender and
the Hindustani Language. 31

number of the governing noun ; so, for a masculine noun in the singu
lar jt (bola) and in the plural (bole) ; for a feminine noun in the
singular ^Jy> (boll) and in the plural (blin) or (jUjj (bliyn)
spoken, from JjJ .
a. If the root, however, ends in \ (a) or () the letter ^ becomes
inserted before a subsequent \ (a) ; but, it may be either assumed or
omitted when followed by an affix consisting of, or beginning with, ^ :
so, from (la) bring, come W (laya), ^ (laye) or ^jl (l'e),
(ly) or / (ll), &c. brought ; from y (bo) sow, bjj (bya),
(boye) or ijji (b'e), (boyi) or (bo'i), &c. sown. And,
when to roots ending in ^j, an affix consisting of, or beginning with
(*) would regularly follow, to form the feminine of this participle,
one of the long vowels is usually dropped ; so, ^4 (di), ^J (din) or
J (diyn), from J (diya) given ; (li) ^ (fi?i) or (liya),
from U (liya) taken ; () ^ (km) or (kiyn), from Li
(kiya) made.
b. Roots consisting of more than one syllable, having any short
vowel in the penultimate and fafha (a) followed immediately by a
consonant in the final syllable, drop the latter vowel before all affixes
beginning with a vowel ; hence, \j&> (guzra) from i (guzar) pass ;
\*-> (samjha) from -^s^ (samajh) understand.
c. The few anomalies are L (gaya) gone, from U- (ja) ; L (kiya)
dowe, marfe, from j> (kar) ; !y> (hua) been, become, from _j> (ho);*
\y* (') dead, from j* (mar); b_J (diya) given, from (<&0; and,
U (liya) taken, from ,-1 (le).

* The regular forms, however, sometimes occur ; but, more especially,



\- (jya) and (), when used with \jj (karna) to form a
species of compound ; and \ (kara) under other circumstances, though
but very rarely.
32 A Grammar of

d. When used adjectively or substantively, this participle is often


followed by (') been, become; as \ \jb \$ (likh k'
kghaz) the become written, or the written, paper; \b 1 (kt h'a)
the cut.
21. The present participle is had by affixing to the root, \j (ta) ^
(te) ^J> (t) ^ (fin) or ^Li (tiyn), agreeable to the gender and
number of the governing noun ; so, from ab- (chh) wish, come

bj>l>- (chhta) he wishing, ^^- (chhtl) she wishing, ^\jb\&- (chh-
tiyn) they (females) wishing : and, to adapt it for use as an adjec-
tive or even substantive, Ij become is frequently subjoined, like as to
the past ; so, \jb bjU (marta h'a) striking, the person striking.
22. The past conjunctive participle may be the same in form as the
root of the verb, or it may be formed by subjoining to the root, 00*

(ke) (kar) ^J> (karke) or J>Ji (karkar) ; so, (kah) or ^J^f
(kahke) orjL (kahkar), &c, having said : and, from I (a) come, ^1
(an) or I (nke), as well as the regular I or ^ 1 , 8cc, having come.
23. The past indefinite tense is the same in form as the simple past
participle, explained at paragraph 20 ; so, {^r< (main bola) I (a
male) spoke, ^Jy) Sj (wuh bolt) she spoke, ^> (ham botn) we
(females) spoke, -f-^Uo (us rie mardi) he or she struck,
\\Ju> ^\ (un ne ) they (males or females) struck.

* With this affix, verbs become generally the same as for the inflected
past participle masculine singular ; so, $ (') from (ho),
() fromJ> (kar), (dlye) from i_fJ (de), ^ (%) from (le).
+ Before transitive verbs in any past tense, viz. any tense formed with
the past participle in the active voice, the particle (J (n) at once fol
lows, or is affixed to, the noun or pronoun denoting the agent, which, if
not the first or second personal pronoun, is inflected before it, if capable
the Hindustani Language. 33

a. The pluperfect or past past tense is obtained by adding the


auxiliary past to the past participle ; as, Ifi Sjj (main bol tha)
f
I had spoken? \ =?# ^^>^\ ^ {tum ne d dmiyn
bhej tha) you had sent two men.
b. The past definite or past present tense is had by the addition of
the auxiliary present to the past participle ; as, ^Js Sjj (tu bol ha)
'
thou hast spoken ; *{^t> l$SL>J (bill ne bghm dekh
hat) the cat has seen the tigers.
c. The past future is obtained by the addition of the auxiliary
future to the past participle ; as, ^gjb or lS^> ^Jj j (wuh bolt hwe
or hg) she may (shall or will) have spoken, or she might (should or
would) speak ;* oo y& or ^ ( ne rakh hwe or
hwega) they may (shall or >) have placed, or might (could or
would) place.

of inflection ; the verb being made to agree with its object, provided thia
be, as is most customary, in the nominative case : when, however, the
object is placed in an oblique case, or is not a word but a sentence, the
verb is then invariably constructed as the third person masculine singular.
Thus, \jlc \bj>- ^Jj (bill! rie chh ) the cat killed the rat ;
<-i^ 1. "P V (bagh ne ghr mart) the tiger killed the mare ;
i-$jS$ <^^i jb\y* (saudgar ne pnch ghr bch) the
merchant sold five horses ; \jVo <-5jjf tj> tp ^ (bghn ne ghori ko
) the tigers killed the mare; ^j^ ( '?*^ ^ clrl^
J^bte (larko ne pchh tum kaun-si kitb pafht ho) the boys
asked, "what book are you (female) reading?" In the Dakhani of
Madras, however, though ^ is often used, it does not interrupt the
agreement of the verb with the nominative or name of the agent ; whilst
the dialect of Bombay conforms to that of Hindustan in this respect as
well as in most other particulars.
* See note t on the foregoing page.
34 A Grammar of

d. The past conditional or optative is formed by the addition of the


present indefinite of the verb ji> (ho) be, become, to the past participle
of the verb conjugated, with a conditional or optative adverb, ex
pressed or understood, in the same sentence; so, jJ j>\ {agar
9
main bol hta) if I had spoken; bl j\ {agar wuh aya hta)
9
if he had come ; by> \^Lc ! (ksh us-ne hta) would to
God he had struck ! It may be noticed, moreover, that when any
plural feminine form of the auxiliary verb yt>, terminating in ^ (n) or
^\ {an), is used in construction with participles preceding, these
commonly drop the like plural signs ^ (n) or ^\ {an) ; as, ^Jy_ *S>
{ham bolt hain) we {females) have spoken ; (jJjyb i_Sjbe lSj {we
mri ga'i h'gln) they (females) may have been struck : yet, some
times, they are retained; as, (j-js ,jbJ^ ^ (ham bliyrt hain) we
(females) have spoken.
24. The present indefinite tense is the same in form as the present
'
participle, already explained at paragraph 21 ; so, UjjJ l^ (main
dawrta) I (a male) run ; ^J>] i (wuh tz) she comes ; ^- f& (ham
jte) we (males) go ; ^^y, jj (turn boltln) ye (females) speak.*
a. The imperfect or present past tense is obtained by adding the
CO s
auxiliary past to the present participle ; as, bJ h$ {^ (main likht
CO ? '
tha) I (a male) was
writing
fi ; - ^jj
-' v Sj (wuh parhtl th) she was
reading ; i^ ^J^y. f> (tum bltl thin) ye (females) were speaking.-]-

* The present indefinite tense, moreover, with a conditional con


junction or adverb of wishing, expressed or understood, is much used to
convey the sense of a past conditional or optative ; as, ij y bljj {j*<cj> \
CO
b.gl (agar main blt t wuh likhta) if I should speak, then he -would
write ; yet such sentences when rendered word for word are intelligible,
if I speak, then he writes.
+ When one or more feminine participles precede an auxiliary verb in
the plural, the plural sign ^ (n) or ^1 (n) is generally omitted in all
the Hindustani Language. 35

b. The present definite or present present is formed by the addition


of the auxiliary present to the present participle ; so, jyb
{main daurt hn) I (a male) am running ; ^y! y (t ti hai)
thou (a female) art coming.
c. The present future is had by the addition of the auxiliary future
J i CO
to the present participle ; so, uij^fc or ^ y> {main parhta
h' or ho'ga) I (a male) may (shall or will) be reading;
^J^^y* or 5* ^jj'^ *j (jamA gr or hwgi) she may (shall or
wilt) be singing.
25. The future indefinite or aorist* is obtained by affixing to the
root, for the first, second, and third persons singular of either gender,
() () ij (e), and for the like persons of the plural, ^ (en)
S 00 ^ (en) ; so, ^ (main ) I may do, ^j y (tu kare)
thou mayest dofJj Sj (wuh kare) he (or she) may do ; ^ * (ham
karen) we may do, j w (tum karo) ye may do, ^ ^ (we karln)
they may do : and, in a more strictly future sense, by subjoining if
\J Vf?, (sl") 0 ^ Cgy")i agreeable to the
gender and number of the governing noun, together with the afore
mentioned affixes, to the root ; so, \j - (main j'Mga) I (a
male) will go, L5&jl *j (wuh wg) she will come, ^~ *b (ham
kahlge) we (males) shall say, ^Zi^ ^> (ham kahlgln) we
(females) shall say.

but the final auxiliary, as above exemplified ; yet, sometimes, though but
rarely, the participle retains it, as t)W*b * (ham boltiyn thVn).

* This form serves for a subjunctive mood, and has occasionally an


indefinite present meaning ; so, ^ - Sj (wuh we to main
ja'un) (if) he should come, then I shall go ; ^j \^>^ ^t**" (khud
chh so kare) (what) God wills, that he does.
36 A Grammar of

a. To such verbal roots, however, as end in \ (a) j () ^ (e) or |_?_


(), the letter j may be optionally affixed, or not, before every future
termination beginning with () ; so, from t come, may be formed
iJjT (ato) (ii'n), &c. ; from jj sow, (bwgi) {)\J^jj]
(bdwtngiyn) : and, on the contrary, verbs ending in (_s () or j
() may admit of contraction or elision ; so, ^ (db'n) or {dun)
(l) may give ; lJ$ (dw) or J (e) ( or sAe) may give ;
l&jjj (de'ga) or (a*wg) (/) sAaZZ give ; jJ (ae') or ()
(/) / gtwe ; (dewen) or ^J (^) (> or Aey) way give ;
^jjA (h'n) or (5) (7) ; (hwe) or _y> (A'e)
or y (ho) (thou or he or sAe or it) may become ; {j^i^> (hdwngin)
or ^p&jji (h'ngn) or yo . (^jjjtgti'i) (we or Ae?/ females) shall

become; (l'un) or yjj (Zmw) (i) may iae; ,_fjJ (/) or J


(?) (Ae or she) may take ; jJ (Z') orj5 (Z) (ye) may take.
b. Roots of more than one syllable, having a short vowel in the
penultimate and fat'ha (a) in the final, drop the latter vowel when the
signs of the future are subjoined; so, (niklga) from J&
(nikal) issue ; lj (guzrtga) iromjs (guzar) pass.
26. The imperative for the second person singular is the mere root
of the verb ; and, for the second person plural, it is formed by adding
j () to the root; so, Jy (bol) or Jy y (t bol) speak thou; jly
(bolo) or *j' (tum bolo) speak ye. The other persons of each
number may be the same as in the aorist ; so, ^ [^^ (main bolun)
I may speak, or (if) I may speak ; ^Jy ij (wuh bole) (if) he or she
may speak : yet, to express the imperative sense in these persons, the
verb ijii (de) give (thou), or in the plural jJ (do), or in the respectful
form (-I^ (dijiye) be pleased to give, or - (dijiyo) you must give,
is more commonly used, like the English " let" ; so, ^j ^Jjj ^sr
f
(mujh ko boln de) let me speak ; ^j^- ^\ ( boln dtjiy)
the Hindustani Language. 37

be pleased to let him (or her) speak; y*s ^ j&l (- hoirie


dtjiyo) you must let them speak.
a. In this mood of the verb, moreover, and of very frequent use, is
the respectful or precative form j (iye) or in a future sense
(iylga), which some honorific term, such as l- (p) self (you, Sir),
^-- (hazrat) the presence, (shib) the lord or master, &c,
generally precedes; so, <>\ (p bliye) be pleased, Sir, to
speak ; ^^sJ c->l (p tjiyga) you, Sir, will be pleased to take :
but, the termination ^ ^ (iye) is at times adopted impersonally, and
- ? S-
as an indefinite future or present; so, J~~> ^.- j*> =^
^Jjj>- (jo marja!iye to sansr kb dukh se chhtiye) when one
dies, then one escapes from the trtmble of the world; ^^-al (chhiye)
one should desire, (one must). And, to give intensity to the impera
tive sense, or to express command respectfully, or even with a precative
or future meaning, the termination j ^ (iy) comes, also, frequently
into use ; as, ^JU (mera, kah mniyo) mind my saying ;
jjjj jL*\ (us-kd mera, paighm bliy) speak to him my
message; j*>j ^~^> jb \j~o (niera yar salamat rahiyo) may my
friend remain in safety !; (mar ja'iyo) may you die. After
words ending in () or j (o), too, it must be noticed that the affixes
.. (ye) or (iyg) and (iyo) become (jiye) or ^
(je), &xrT (jiyga), _j~r (jiy) or p- (jo) ; so, ^fifT 4^ (p
dtjiye) be pleased, Sir, to give ; i^gci^ t_- (sahib kijiyga) the
gentleman will be pleased to do ; fffd }1 (zm Ujiyo) you will take
(and) try. Before these terminations, we may add, the roots (ho)
j> () i^J (de) (le) usually become (Am) ^ (k) ^j (di)
() ; so, (hjiye) yjs (kijiyo) ^-=TJ (djiyl) ^ (llji-

)-
b. Another way of expressing an absolute command is by the use
38 A Grammar of

of the infinitive ; as, Ii I csjis- *j {tum jaldi ana) you (are) to come
immediately ; Ai j~\ (us-k na kahna) not to tell him.
c. In a prohibitive sense, i^-* (mai) is generally used before the

verb ; as, jjto jJ (us-k mat mro) do not beat him ; -fs5 pi
Li (m kuchh mat bdlo) do you not say anything ; lzj\j
y~ c^v< (us-ki bat mat suniyo) hear not his word : for the like pur
pose, however, < () may occasionally be adopted ; so, J J < $
(laga na dil kahtn) place not the heart (or affection) anywhere.
27. A transitive verb is formed from an intransitive, or a causal
from a transitive, by the addition of \ (a) or \j (wa), and sometimes of
j (o) to the root, the vowel of the primitive, if long, being frequently
shortened before those additions ; so, h>- (jala) burn (transitively),
ljls- (jalwa) cause to burn (by another), from J.p- (jal) burn (intran
et
sitively), be burnt ; (hila) move (transitively), ljb> (hilwa) cause to
move (by another), from Jjb (hit) move (intransitively), be moved ; h
off
(bula) call, \b (bulwa) cause to call (by another), from J^j (bol)
it "a
speak ; j> (dubo) drown, from iu (dub) be immersed or drowned ;
jL$> (bhigo) wet, steep, from &~# (bhig) be wet : and if the primitive
root end in I () , () (e) or (), the letter J () is to be inserted
before the transitive or causal sign, the vowel being shortened ; so,
\ (khila) feed, (khilwa) cause (another) to feed, from l$s (kha)
eat; (pila) give to drink, Ijb (pilwa) cause (another) to give to drink,
from ^ (pf) drink ; ilo (dila) cause to give, l^SJ (dilwa) cause (ano-
ther) to cause to give, from J (de) give ; & (dhula) cause to wash,
\j1aj (dhulwa) cause (another) to cause to wash, from (dho)
wash.
a. In other cases, these verbs are obtained by lengthening, if short,
the vowel of monosyllabic, or the last vowel of dissyllabic, roots ; as,
<JL>1 (kt) cut, from eU (kat) be cut ; w\.$s>- (chhld) bore, from
the Hindustani Language. 39

(chhid) be bored; J^> (ghol) dissolve (transitively), from J^i (ghuf)


be dissolved ; jy>- (jof) join, from Je- (jur) be joined; (nikal)
make issue, expel, from J& (nikal) issue : yet, when the termination
!j (tea) is used, the short vowel of the primitive remains; as, \&

(katwa) cause {another) to cut; (nikalwa) cause to be expelled,
&c.
b. In a few instances, especially if the root be a monosyllable ter
minating in an aspirated consonant, either \ (ja) or i (la), as before
described, or very rarely Jl (l) may be added to form the causal ;
(, Ol/ /
so, l^J (dikha) or i^J (dikhla) shew,irom (dkh) see; \~> (sikha)
* s
G CO
or L^Lj (sikhla) teach, from {sikh) learn ; \$b (bitha) or (bithla)

or Jl$5-J (baith) seat, from .Lj (jbaith) sit ; J^$~j (paithl) cause to
enter, from ^Lj (paith) enter, the long vowel being continued in the
syllable before Jl (ai). On a principle nearly analogous, too, are
formed iL^j (jiahla) cause to bathe, and (nahalwa) cause to cause
to bathe, from (nah or n) Jaie : and, a very few causals seem
to deviate more from analogy ; as, - (bch) sell, from CSj (bik) be
soZrf ; jrf*- (chhor) let go, from cU^*- (chhut) be let go ; j^i (phor)
>
and (phar) break or iwrsi, from (phut) and <JL-$J (phat) be
broken ; *y (tor) break, from c>y (f) 5e broken ; j--3 (niber) finish,
from JJ (raiiar) Z>e ended.
c. In dissyllabic roots, the short vowel of the last syllable, if it be
fat'ha (a), is dropped when \ (a) but not when \j (wa) is suffixed ; so,

l^^**- (samjha) inform, from (samajh) understand; (sarka)
mofe, and ly^-j (sarakwa) cause to move, from (sarak) be moved ;
lyj (bahla) amuse, from J^j (bahat) be amused.
28. Compound verbs may be formed in various ways. If regard
be had to the structure of the words, a compound may be obtained,
firstly, by the addition of some verb, regularly conjugated, to a sub
40 A Grammar of

stantive or adjective, which remains unchanged as a masculine singu


lar uninflected ; secondly, by the addition of a verb, regularly conju
gated, to the root, or the infinitive, or the past participle, or the pre
sent participle of another verb ; and, thirdly, by the construction of
two verbs, both admitting the usual changes of conjugation : and,
verbs of this description may, according to their import in English, be
arranged under particular terms, as follows :
99
1st. Nominis; so, \> CJb (bat ) to discourse; U s^-ii
(shur* karna) to begin ; <> (yd rakhna) to recollect ; li-J

(mol Una) to purchase ; li^Lo 4sjc (ghota marna) to dive ;^> fUJ
9
(tamm karna) tofinish ;\t> \jy (pura hna) to be complete.
2nd. Intensives; as, L>J (bl dina) to declare; U^J (de
dlna) to give away ; liJ Jlj (dl dna) to throw away ;
(mr dlna) to kill downright ; Uls^ (khjna) to eat up ; ^j^
(gir parna) to fall down ; Uta "y (tor dlna) to break to pieces ;
Ui.9
Jy (fil ?^) to speak out; liW- I (jn) to come suddenly.
3rd. Potentials, formed by the addition of (sakn) to be able,
to the root of another verb ; so, ^$3 (likh sakna) to be able to
write ; UCj J>- (chai sakna) to be able to walk.*
9
4th. Compltives, formed by adding \ib>~ (chukn) to be finished,
9
to the root of another verb ; as, \iL>- j (pi chukn) to have done
9 * *
drinking ; \ (kh chukna) to have finished eating.
5th. Inceptives or Inchoatives, formed by the addition of L (lagn)
to come in contact, to be applied, to begin, to the inflected infinitive
of a verb ; as, US (boln lagn) to begin to speak ; li3
.CO
(kahne lag) he began to say ; ^-bj^ (parhn lag) he began to

* Sometimes, however, especially in Dakhani, may be constructed


with an inflected infinitive, or even an uninflected one.
the Hindustani Language. 41

read: and, sometimes, though but rarely, l^J precedes ; as, ^U- lj
(Jogajane) he began to go.*
6th. Permissives, formed by adding bj J (den) to give, to let, to
permit, to an inflected infinitive ; as, J ^3 - {jane den) to permit
to go ; > ^yl (ant dena) to let come.
7th. Acquisitives, formed by the addition of lib (pna) to get, to
acquire, to an inflected infinitive ; as, bb ^yt (ne pna) to be allowed
to come; lib (jne pna) to be allowed to go.
8th. Desideratives, Requisitives, and Proximatives, formed by adding
LaU- (chhna) to desire, to require, regularly conjugated, to the past
participle of a verb, which remains unchanged in the state of the
masculine singular, whatever the gender and number of the governing
noun may be ; so, la>b>- ( chha) or ^jbb- \r< ( chh)
he or she wished to die, or was about to die ; LbU- bb>- (jy chhna)
to wish to go, to be about to go ; >1>- \] (likh chhna) to wish to
write, to be about to write.f In this compound, the regular past
forms \jk (mar) and - (jy) are preferred, as in the examples
> -y
above, to the more common \y* (m') and LT (gay).
9th. Frquentatives, formed by the addition of \>J> (karna) to do, to
make, to the past participle of a verb, which is invariably used as an
uninflected masculine singular, whatever the gender and number of
the governing noun may be ; so, li^ bl (y karna)) to make aprac-
tice of coming ; l$! (likh karna) to make a practice of writing ;
\ji bb>- (jy karna) to make a practice of going. In this com
pound, too, like as in the last described, bb>- is preferred to bf.

* In Dakhani, especially in poetry, the verbal noun in ^ may be


used with b$ ; as bl he began to open.
+ In Dakhani, or even in Hindustani occasionally, an inflected in-
c
finitive, or in Dakhani even an uninflected one, may precede bjfcl-.
42 A Grammar of

10th. Continuatives, formed by adding Ul- (jna) to go, or \&j


(rahna) to remain, to a present participle made to agree in gender

and number with the governing noun ; so, UU- Ujj (bltjna) to go
on speaking {a male) ; Lb> - (jt rahna) to keep going, to go
entirely away (a male) ; ^*- (rti jtt hat) she goes on
weeping; ^ ^U- jJb*i (parkte jte hain) or ^ ^jJt>j
(parkte rahte hain) they (males) continue reading.
11th. Statistical, formed by adding a verb regularly conjugated,
to a present participle used invariably as an inflected masculine singu-
c
iar; so, liU- ^J^tf (boite jna) to go (in the state of one) speaking ;
^ ^yl ^Jj^ (gte tl liai) she comes (in the state of one) singing;
'
^jb ^Jijj (rte daurt hai) he runs (in the state of one) weeping.
12th. Reiteratives, formed by using together two verbs regularly
CO CO
conjugated ; as, bJl>- U^j (bdln chaina) to converse ; > J
(dlkhn bhln) to see.

DERIVATIVE VERBS.
29. Verbs may be derived from either substantives or adjectives, by
affixing the verbal signs only in some instances ; or, more commonly,
by shortening the vowel of the original, if long, and inserting \ (a)
or b ^ (iya) before those signs : so, Wjj>j- (chaurn) to widen, from
\jf>- (chaura) wide ; liLsJ (latiyn) to kick, from aS$ (lt) a kick ;
liLlS' (galiyn) to abuse, from (gli) abuse ; ILj- (jutiyn)
to beat with ^^r 0*) a slipper.

PASSIVE VERBS.
30. The Passive voice is formed on the past participle of an active
verb, by the addition of lils>- to go, both parts of the compound being
made to agree in gender and number with the governing noun ; so,
i^ (main gaya) I was struck ; 1- i^U lj~c (main
mr jt ) I am struck ; &jU- 1* (main mr j'r'ig)
the Hindustani Language. 43

I shall be struck; ^fiy>- ^* jf$ (jarkt mart jaweg) the girl will
be struck.
AUXILIARY VERB.
31. The auxiliaries,* used in forming the definite tenses of verbs,
are to denote the
Past.
Singular. Plural.
I was. IA we were.
t(i)V". y thou wast. |J ye were.
9
\ he was. ,_j they were.

Present.

(hun) ^ lij-^> / am. (hain) ijJd jb we are.

{ha) ^jJb thou art. II {ho) jj ye are.

(jiai) ij he is. (hain) [ipS c they are.

Aorist or Future.

Singular.

(hn) or, (h'n) u3 y> j** I


9
(ho) y> or, (h'e) Jy> or, (hw) ^> thou a

()y> or, (h'e) ?> or, (hbwe) ^3y> j he, she)

* Which are, also, the substantive verb, answering to the English be,
am, art, is, are, was, wast, were.
+ The above is for the masculine gender : with a feminine nominative,
it would be (tht), and in the plural % (thin) or ^Ijf (th?n) ;
in Dakhani, the latter only.
Dakh. ij (wah) or j\ (), <&;c.
^ 9
I Dakh. ^rJb jJ (tum hai) as in the two other persons.
44 A Grammar of

Plural.
u
(hon) ^> or, (k'en) ^ or, (howen) ^ we

* (ho) or, (h'o) j pi ye > 0 S

(An) or, (') ^*j or, (howen) ^j^> ij Aey J

Future.
Singular.

+ (M?ig) \iy> or, (h'ga) l&jy> / I

(Aog) , (ho'ga) or, (jiwga) l&jg* y iAoa j

(hoga) \^ or, (A'g) or, (jiwtga) ^> *j Ae J "|

Plural.

J (hnge)^iybor{h'ge) ^fcjjor (Awwg) Jjyb pbwe I

(Ag) ^ or, A'g ^ jj ye j *


a
(A7ig)^ybor(A'ng)l_^iy>or(Azcwg)^_^jjyi) AeyJ s<

Conditional or Optative.
Singular. Plural.
X
I become. j we become.
(hta) \j> j 0 becomest. (htty^Jijb i ye become.
f
tj he becomes. \ (_j they become.

* Dakh. or ^ jJb or ^.jy* j-> like as in the other two persons.


Remark that the ^ in all these forms is the soft nasal letter ().
+ For the feminine, the termination If (go) becomes (gi) in the
singular.
For the feminine, this termination (g) becomes (g) or
(jl^(g/y0ij) in the plural ; and the latter only in Dakhani.
' . <-
Dakh. [Xjjj (wng) &c, like as in the first and third persons.
the Hindustani Language. 45

32. The intransitive verb UW. (Jana) to go, is much used in form
ing the passive voice of transitive verbs, as well as in other compounds
and it is conjugated as follows, for the masculine gender.
Imperative for the second person singular, or The Root.
(Ja) U go.

Infinitive and Gerund,


(jne) or, (jna) UU- to go, going.

Past Participle.
Singular. Plural.
*> ^ or, (gaya) I
\gone. gone.
(gaya h') J (ga' h'e) J

Present Participle.
s- -
\j& li'W or, (jta)
going.
(jt h'a) J

Past Conjunctive Participle.


Singular and Plural.
CO
j^U- or (J^V jl>- V having gone.

Past Indefinite Tense.


Singular.

(gaya) \ thou
Aoa wei
wentest.

ij he went.

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense.

Ilj~c I was gone, *fc we were gone.


9
thou wast gone. 2 ye were gone.

Xj he was gone. t_j they were gone.


46 A Grammar of

Past Definite or Past Present Tense.


Singular. Plural.
Lf {^ lam gone. ^ we are gone.

LT j ar gone. *y ye are gone.


- ij,
\ i} he is gone. yjjA ^^j-^ Aey are gowe.

Pas Future Tense.


jp\j.i Yay'shaii> r may, sAaZ, or
toe
^J ' [will have gone, Aaz>e gone,

. go. eA^u/s Aeyl^c. go.

Or,
sAaZl, mjZ, or \shall, will, or
may have gone; IwiayAawegorte;
l& Li y ! or, might, Sec. [or, might, Sfc.
\&jjb\J> Xj he Jgo.

Past Conditional or Optative Tense.

//, would to iy, would to


GW, /, frc, ^ God,we,Sfc,
V, had gone; or, Aaa* gone; or,
7, #<:., ") ice, $"c,
should have should have
*> 40
gone, #*c. gone, #-c.

* Dakh.^^-^j-i'j'. + Dakh.ynor^yb^^jJ. + Dakh.^/j^s'^',


But the conjugation of Dakhani verbs varies in many particulars from
the proper Hindustani, as may be seen in the 4 Short Grammar of the
Dakhani," appended to the author's more extended " Grammar of the
Hindustani Language."
the Hindustani Language. 47

Present Indefinite Tense.


Singular. i Plural.

IB*}* Ig- 1 we go.

y goes. p ye go.

j Ae goes. g3 they go.

Imperfect or Present Past Tense.

l^o I was going. | we were going.

thou wast going. ijf (_S"i^


^" {| > V were going.

j Ae teas going. i_S they were going.

Present Definite or Present Present Tense.

[j~< I am going, *}* lt'^ j*"1 we are ging-


9
^jn IjU- y thou art going. . J*' are going-

^ UU- j Ae is going. 3 are going-

Present Future Tense.


jo ^
LtfJ* ^V "* ^ may, sAaZZ,
or will be &Jbrye U will be
going. gOg.
tijy* L>- j Ae
J
Or,

^- ) shall,will,

bV^Ae \90ng- going.

* This form of the verb, if a conditional conjunction or an adverb of


wishing accompanies it, may be used in the sense of a conditional or
optative, like the tense immediately preceding : see paragraph 24, note *.
48 A Grammar of
Future Indefinite or Aorist.
Singular. Plural.
hi
5 &
(j'n) (jwen) wj jU- j we I
"S fee a
(jwe) ijj\>-y thou } " *
be
(jwe) ij he or she\ | *| (jwen) ^jl> ieyJ I =

Future Indefinite Tense.

(j'ng) -7 (^wwg)^XJjU- Jb we
. / i -
(jweg) o_j^>- J Aowf 5 (j'g) ^J}\ ye \ 5

(jweg) VSjW- Hj he J ^ (jweg)^i^.^}they) -|

Imperative.

(j'n) U- yjj^o Z go, Ze (jwen) jl\- ji> we may go, let


me go. us go.
(ja) U- go thou, (j'o) f go ye.
t
(jwe) <_)- let him or her (jwn) ^ Ze go.
go.
Respectful and Precatiue forms of the Future and Imperative.
(j'iye) . <>- ( . .
17 " W I * I3/0M, <, or excellency, of. may,
or, / i_^>-l<e ss^aZZ, or wiZZ go ; or, may you, Sir, go ;
{j'iyeg) l4Vl ^-) 0 11> &c- -

(j'iye) we may, shall, or will go ; or, may we go.

< mayest, shalt, or go ; or, go zAoa.


s
Xj he may, shall, or >ZZ go ; or, may he go.
V
jj ye may, shall, or will go ; or, go /.

iAey may, shall, or tciZZ go ; or may they go.

For the feminine gender, the masculine singular final \ (a) of the
infinitive, the participles, the auxiliaries, and the future, as above
the Hindustani Language. 49

described, must be changed to ^ () in that number, and to ^ _


(m) or (jb (iyn) for the plural ; but, where two or more feminine
plurals come together, it is usual for the last only to take the numerical
sign ^ (n) or ^ (an), the preceding participle or participles being
constructed in the feminine singular form : sometimes, however, the
plural termination is repeated, as shewn at note to par. 24. a.
33. Conjugation of a regular transitive verb for the masculine gen-
der, exemplified in U^U (mama) to beat or strike.
ACTIVE VOICE.
Imperative for the second person singular, or The Root,
(mr) jU beat, strike.
Infinitive and Gerund.
(marne) ^jj^ or (mama) U to beat, beating.
Past Participle.
Singular. Plural.
y
\fb or, () \J* beaten, ^ or, (mare) beaten,
(mr h'a) (mre h')
Present Participle.
\jjV< or, (mrta) lijb beating. |J>U or, (mrte) ^J>j\-* beating,
(mrt h'a) (mrte h'e) \j^t
Past Conjunctive Participle.
Singular and Plural.
A)^* ^J'j'J^_>^"* t_^* having beaten
Past Indefinite Tense.
Singular. Plural.
*l5^ *"* I beat. i* ^jj j we ra.
(mar) \J^ ^ thou beatedst. (mra) 1^tc < ye beat.
L ^ (jJ\ he beat. ^ji they beat.

* See the note to paragraph 23, for the reason of this particle in con
struction with the past tenses of transitive verbs.

50 A Grammar of

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense


Singular. Plural.

j ^j-^o I had beaten. ^ p&we had beaten.

j thou hadst beaten. via* ye had beaten.

he had beaten. ^\ they had beaten.

Past Definite or Past Present Tense.

' have beaten. > we have beaten.

thou hast beaten ?* ^* j ^ ^ have beaten.


9
he has beaten. 4lS^ ^ ^, beaten.

Past Future Tense.


Jf shall vnay, shall
bj* lip* 7 Jor w// have ja we lorwiZZAare
y^jj. |A* j thoulbeaten ; or, ye \beaten; or,
, |migAi,$"c,
meat. J theV )beat.

Or,
IsAaZZ, toi'ZZ \shall, will
we
or may have |or may have
J thou)beaten> or> \ ^ yg \beaten ; or,
? \should,Sc, > ]should,Sfc,
^ U~\ he \beat. {^J Jthey)beaU

Past Conditional or Optative Tense."


Tjf, would to If, would ta
5* ^ ^>God, I, ire, ^God,we,^c,
had beaten ; AacZ beaten ;
then I, Sfc, then we, Sfc,

f would have would have
LS3 -1 beaten, Sfc. beaten, Sfc.
/e Hindustani Language. 51

Present Indefinite Tense.


Singular. Plural.

we beat.

y thou beatest. > j ye beat.

Xj he beats. 2 they beat.

Imperfect or Present Past Tense.

[^o I was beating. i> we were


fi
thou wast beating, jj ye were beating.

he was beating. [ ijj they were beating.

Present Definite or Present Present Tense.

^ IJjU I am beating, jj- ^j^> wz o-re beating.

^jb \jj\*> thou art beating. ^Jij^o jJ ye are beating.

^Jb Ij^L aj he is beating. j^j- (^t* <_} iey are beating.

Present Future Tense.

ujj* * ^ ^ may, shall ^jU. we may, shall


* " . J
^} l^,L y or will be ) or 7/
beating.

Or,
eye - I
& ^/ ifl/Z) W7/

ISyfc bjU y Aom or may 6e or may e


beating.

* When a conditional conjunction or adverb of wishing precedes in


the sentence, this form of the verb is often used in a past conditional or
optative sense, like the tense last described : see the note to paragraph 24.
52 A Grammar of
Future Indefinite or Aorist Tense.
Singular. Plural.

Imay, shall or we may, shall or


will beat ; or, ' w?i# beat ; or,
beat, Sfc.
0 theyj

Future Indefinite Tense.


0 J>
/ , > or sAaZ/, will
may beat; or, may beat ;
6eai, Sfc. 6eai, Sfc.

Imperative.

^^Lo j> we may beat, let us beat.

jVe y beat thou. jjVc beat ye.

i_^Lo Hj he may beat, let him ^J^* they oeai> let them
beat. beat.
Respectful and Precative forms of the Future and Imperative.

(mriye) ( <_JT ) > Sir> excellency, Sfc, may,


! , I shall or will be pleased to beat; be pleased,
J i^^s-le \
j ' " [ Sir, to beat; may your excellency, fc, be
(.mriyeg) lL,L [ e^-b- J ^fe^ o Jea.

(jmriye) we , saZZ, $"c, ea ; may we beat.

thou mayest, shalt or wilt beat ; or, beat thou,


t
Sj he may, shall or will beat ; or, may he beat.
(mariyo) j>j\* 9
*ji ye may, shall or will beat; or, beat ye.

they may, shall or will beat ; or, ^ they beat.

* Dakbni ctij^* and ^SjjU


the Hindustani Language. 53

PASSIVE VOICE.

Imperative for the second person singular, as The Root.


\>- be beaten.

Infinitive and Gerund.


Singular, Plural.
^jibj- or lilsj- l^U to be beaten, ^- 01 4?J^> to oe beaten,
being beaten. being beaten.

Past Participle.
Li'i^U been beaten. \ been beaten.

Present Participle.
\i\=- \jto being beaten. j ,J;U- ewg beaten.

Past Conjunctive Participle.

J)^-ov j\pt j^r Vbu I Jk-*j)>/^-1*


having been beaten.

Past Indefinite Tense.

I was beaten. lJb we were beaten.


f i i '
1" < J Aom uw beaten. Li^ *> ye were beaten.

ij he was beaten. } Aey were beaten.

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense.

\j^o I had been beaten. & we had been


beaten.
y Aom hadst been
beaten. l^fi^r J } beaten.

Sj he had been beat- ^ they had been


beaten.
54 A Grammar of

Past Definite or Past Present Tense.

Singular. Plural.

^yt, \ I have been beat jb we have been


en. beaten.
^jS Lf thou hast been f V have been
beaten.
^jb \ bb> he has been beat ^jtc bjj they have been
en. beaten.

Past Future Tense.

will have i or will have


- . z. . ' \beenbeaten; [been beaten;
^\S\j\,ythou^ migAti i or, might,
$"c. Je -ea- <- *2 \frc. be beat-
\J> IjU *j Ae J . ^i^^hfJ^^fj they)en.

Or,

shall, Uit -f shall, will


^
may have I - 1
or have
been beaten;
Jfpj^fy* for, should,
Sfc. be beat-
L> I^U j ^ en. jyn^^^J^^they^en,
je

Past Conditional or Optative Tense.

//, would to //, would to


^ GW, 2, #<:. '*
"^S GW, we,
4^ /? iee h^Sfchadbeen
9
by* Lf ;^> beaten ; or, ^ beaten ; ,
y
^ 7, $"c. u thenwe,Sfc.
, would have i-^would have
beaten. been beaten.
the Hindustani Language. 55

Present Indefinite Tense.


Singular. Plural.

|tlj-^ I am beaten, we are beaten.

thou art beaten. jj ye are beaten.

Sj he is beaten. } they are beaten.

Imperfect or Present Past Tense.

J was beaten.
ig 1 we were

/om was jj ye were f

Ae was i4><s ijj they were J

Present Definite or Present Present Tense.


F '
VjIs*- {1p*o I am S^W" ^* i** we are
- ! y Aow ar ? ^
" ' I "1
jjb bU- j Ae is ) - i^flb V <jf^ tffj they are

Present Future Tense

t J^Vl^i^* ^ J I ttjijj* lib*- ij^U *fc we may to


I "I
I -=>
5 b'U- l^tc thoumayesv) IP,
j'yb tj\i>- jj ye
I "S
IjU- I^Lo *j Ae J ^ *4^ &>^> they may]

Or,

^Lc ^j;-* I shall "j -| ^6 S^^" -jj^> j*^ we sAa#

bjj)U'U-ljtc thou shalt 1^5* j1' ye AaZZ > .f


'S
I PCS
pO
9)
lijA - Ae sAaZZ * Aey sAa#
66 A Grammar of

Future Indefinite or Aorist Tense.


Singular. Plural.
may, shall 4 may, shall
Ii V !A* t?* 1 we
9 or will be or will be
) beaten ; or, ^ beaten ; or,
be beaten, be beaten,
- 1^to y he

Future Indefinite Tense.

jLfc^pwe \shall)Wi
sAaZZ, wiZZ
IjU y om >or may
> \ beaten. beaten.

Imperative.

\j\* let me be beaten. lJj\*> e ^e beaten.


* /
- \jVc be thou beaten. p-1 ^e V beaten.

ijjW- ^Lo X) let him be beaten. ^- (j^U Ze Aem bebeaten.

Respectful and Precative forms of the Future aud Imperative.

l/O^" , Sir, or, / excellency shall, will or may


or t-r%s^"* 1 6e beaten ; be you, Sir, beaten ; may your ex-

^/- ^* I ^* Vi*- cellency, Sc, be beaten.

^ - > we sAaZZ or w'ZZ e beaten ; may we be beaten.

J Aom mayest, shalt, Sfc. or e Aom beaten.


9
Ae may, sAaZZ, ^c. or way /e be beaten.

^ I |j ye may, shall, Sfc. or be ye beaten.

I they may, shall, Sfc, or may they be beaten.

For the feminine of both the active and passive voices, the singular
masculine final \ (a) of the infinitive, the participles and the auxiliaries,
the Hindustani Language. 57

where it occurs in conjugation, must be changed to () in the


singular, and to () or (iyn) in the plural : when, how
ever two or more words are constructed together, each of which might
assume the feminine plural sign ^ () or (an), as in many of the
definite tenses, whether active or passive, that sign is usually omitted in
all such words but the last; so, wLjy> or jJmjj ^- lJj they
{jemales) shall be going; ^,L&yi> or p&^b ^2- iJj^0 fb we {females)
shall be being beaten. Sometimes, though but rarely, the plural
termination is repeated : see in paragraph 23, d. also paragraph 24,
note f.

CHAPTER V.

INDECLINABLE WORDS.

To words of this description, answering to our prepositions, adverbs,



conjunctions, and interjections, the word i/>- {harf) borrowed from the
Arabic, is generally applied. The preposition, which in Hindustani usage
is mostly a postposition, may be termedj>- -JjS- (harf-i jarr) : and,
this is of two kinds : the simple (oyu mufrid) which follows the noun
it governs without the intervention of any other word ; and, the com-
pound (u--^-* murakkab) which usually requires ^ (ke) or ^J> ^ {la)
to intervene between the noun and itself.
34. Of the simple postpositions some notice has already been taken
at paragraph 6 ; to which reference may be made : and, the most
usual postpositions, which become compounds by taking ^ (.ke), or
the inflected masculine genitive of a pronoun, in common before them,
are
i
68 A Grammar of

(^Aj near, at the side, by. # near, to, as far as.



near, about, with, yLjJ between, among,

(yahan) at the abode, with. ^.j among, in, between.


i*
^jSa-l^ on account, for. i^^acy among, in the midst.

^ (liye) on account, for. (j^L-l round about.

>1 by reason. jAj! equal to, opposite to.

by reason. <J$ fit, suitable, worthy.

<-i-%cb by reason, Jj capable, worthy.


f
^^>-yo by means. i^y according to.

\ in front, before. (Jj^o conformable to.



,jifL> in front, before. jJo without, besides.

J^liUi in front, opposite. i^yJ besides, without.

l5=u in the rear, behind. jj'L: in company, with.

A*j after (in point of time). (jjC instead.


9
over, upon, above. Jjo (jbadat) in exchange, instead.

^^s^j beneath, under, below. -gi'lfc into the hand.

^Jj beneath, under, below. Jj over, across, through,

within, in the inside. by reason, for, to.

jb>\) orj&\> without, out.


besides.

clb' to, up to, till. jface to face, in the presence.

4fj
the Hindustani Language. 59

The most usual, too, of the postpositions, which become compounds


by taking (.k), or the feminine genitive of a pronoun before them,
are
i^j^s on the side, towards. > in relation, in respect.

in the manner, like. b on the subject.

^>\i-for the sake, for. * means, by.

35. Adverbs admit of various divisions ; and are too numerous to


be here fully detailed. The adverb of time or place is often derived
from the demonstrative, interrogative, or relative pronouns, though
many are of other sources ; and, a few of the words before described
as compound postpositions, are of frequent use as adverbs : so,
in front, before.
till when, until.
^jfsaj in the rear, back.

jS>\l out.

L-j] .

il$J or <_>! till now, yet.


\tillthen, so long.
d or l-J when ?

LS*^
"'> % ever, sometime.
orj~>)
<- i.
^^ &c- sometimes.

LS some time or other. hitherto, to this

since when ? how long ago ?



(j-y ^ never.

y>~ or J- or t^sf when.


fiO -4 Grammar of

exactly there, ever?/ where.

where ? ^jyO , within.

somewhere, anywhere. J~$> within,

P^ < somewhere or other, ijjj on this side, near,

{^^ nowhere, ijjj on that side, beyond.



t^fjb every where. jbjlj on both sides, across.

jj\ elsewhere. ^ to day.

ij\i>- where, which place. j yesterday or io morrow.

uV?" wherever. J j-t nowadays, shortly.



^?" here and there, every ^j-^j wo ays a^ro or io .
/
where. / ays ago or to come.

iP ^" wherever. / days ago or io <.

ijly there, that place. ^jJj ai Ae aww of day, early,

or^j! Aere, hither. in the morning, early,

or>1 there, thither. always, ever,

-^ or^j^ w/ ? whither ? i always, ever,

jbA*^- or_^- where, whither. always, eternally.

jJ-j' oryjj Aere, thither. ilS' some time or other.



,j> ^todS 8ic. whence? Jy-b yet.

^^'- Aere awa" Aere. also, too, moreover, even.

The most common adverb of interrogation is () or JjJ


(jtyukar) why? how? or ^JaJ^yS (kiswste) wherefore? why ?
the Hindustani Language. 61

The adverb of cause or reason, (kyki) because that, or


^a-dj-l (iswste) for this reason.
The adverb of similitude, \~-sj- (jaisa) as, like as, or bj^ (goya) one
might say, as it were.
" 9
The adverb of explanation, l$ L-s^- (jais ) or ^^>- (chunn-
chi) like as, so as, or * (mislan) for example.
The adverb of peculiarity, (ht) or ^pb (hi, used as an affix or
a separate word) or ^ (, as an affix only) very, exactly.
The adverb of assent, (hn) or (hn) or ^gb (JaZ) yes.
The adverb of negation, (na) or (nahm) no, not, nay, nor,
neither, (ahah) or () way, , o .
The adverb of prohibition, ti-vc (mat) not, do not.

36. The Conjunction (<-*>- <jp- harfijumla) may be

Conditional (jo) if, when, or^fl (agar) if.


Consequential (to) then (answering to the conditional).
Of exceptionji (par) but, moreover, jLb (lekin) but, yet, jL*
() but, unless, except, b (balki) but.
Of explanation (ki) that, because.
Conjunctive jj\ (aur) or () and : or (dakh.) jjB> (haur).
Disjunctive b (ya) or, x\j=- (khwh) whether, or, (ki)
that, or.

37. The Interjection may be

Of addressing or calling to <j\ (ai) or (e) or \ () or


(a) ! ijji (are) or ^1 (abe) you fellow ! &c,
j! (lo) look ! see ! there now !
Of astonishment or of applause \j (wh) or i\j i\j (wh wh)
well done ! bravo ! \$~\ (achchha) or ^- (khub) well !
excellent !
62 A Grammar of

Of grief or pain iT (ah) or ,_/lfi> (Ji'e) or /1> (w'e) or lj


() or L_jlj (wwaila) or ^'U (A' ') wo .' alas !
lackaday !
Of applause or exultation (^bL> (shbsh) bravo ! j^-s- LS=-
(jai jai kr) huzza !
Of blame or censure (chhz), <y &y (tauba tauba),
U>\ (/), tush ! fy !

CHAPTER VI.

NUMERALS.

38. The Cardinal numbers, from one to one hundred, with Indian,
Arabic, and European figures representing them, are as follows :

FIGURES. FIGURES.

2 f
1
1 1 1 (k) Sj) 9 4 (waw) y

2 (d) j 10 I* (das)

3 r () ^ 11 1 1 (igrah) )J\
I
4 (cAr) jU- 12 ir (brah)

5 (pnch) 13 ir (trah) ^j

6 1 i (chha) q>- 14 IF ... (chaudah) s$>-

7 V (sai) CL>\~> 15 u 14 (pandrah) jMJ

8 t (fith) \ 16 11 (solah)
the Hindustani Language. 63

FIGURES. FIGURES.

lb r
1 S
17 IV a . . . (satrak) 38 (at'htis)

18 \ n (at'hrah) *,l3! 39 n 3* (untls) L^-Jlbil


9
19 n ... (unis) Lrr\ 40 p. ... (chlis) j~J\s*-

20 * ... (>7s) j~~ 41 PI (iktlis) ^~Jbt

21 ... (kkis) 42 83 (be'lis) (j-JLj

22 rr 33 ... (b'is) u~j\ 43 IT 83 (ttlis) ^-Jl^jJ

23 rr =4 ... (t'is) 44 ff- 88 ... (chau'lis)


i*
24 rr 38 (chaubis) (j~+jf>- 45 84 (paintlis) y^l^x*)

25 34 (pachis) v-fFf* 46 (ckhi'lis) ~2\$&~

26 M 4 (chhabbis) {J~^>- 47 8v9 ..(saintlis)


CO
27 rv 3\9 (sat'is) u~>*\i~ 48 8b ... (at'Malis) (j-Jb^jl
t.?
28 (at'h'is) j^'l^!
3* 49 f] 8 (unchs)

29 M 3 ... (untis) 50 fi* Mo (pachs) (_^^

30 r 4 ... (ils) (j~-J 51 Cl (ikwan)



31 ri ... (iktis) j~~\ 52 (bwan) j^jb

32 rr ^ ... (btis) ^rrr^ 53 cr (Arpara) ^

33 rr ... (ttis) 54 f 48 (chauwan) ^>-


c
34 3* (chautis) u-Jfs- 55 ce 44 ... (pachpan)

35 34 (paintis) (j~~-j 56 cl $ ... (chkappan) jtff-

36 ri (chhattis) ~>. 57 cv 4V9 ... (sattwan) ^I-j


^
37 rv (saintis) u~f.*~> 58 4t ... (at'hwan)
64 A Grammar of

FIGURES. FIGURES.

1 i 1
i
4 4
59 b\ 4 (unsat'h) 80 * to ... ... (assi)

60 V (st'ti) -L) 81 AI (iks)

61 11 (iksat'h) ^L\ 82 (b's)

62 ir (bast'h) Lsb 83 AT ... (tirs) i*^/>

63 ir ft ... (tirsat'h) -Ljj 84 Ap ta ... (chaursf)

64 IIe A
ft ... (chausat'Ji) ^Ly 85 ... (pachsi)
- ^
65 le ft ... (painsat'h) .fi.,.;,,, 86 Al t ... (chh's) ^-sL^>-

11 87 AV
66 ft (chhTsafh) ,$L>[*$>- t\9 ... (sais) ^j*cli3

67 IV (satsaVh) 88 M tt ... (at'hast) ^\$


ft
68 1A (at'hsath) ^L^i\ 89 vi te ... ('st) i->V
ft
. ^
69 \ ft ... (unliattar) j^i\ 90 eo (nauwe)

70 V ... ... (sattar) 91 ei ... (iknawe) oyll

71 vi V9<) (ikhattar) 92 ir (bnaive) i_s>jb

72 vr ... (jbahattar) j^) 93 ir ... (tirnawt) Ly]f

73 vr ^ (tihattar)J^j 94 es (chaurnawt)
m S *
74 . . . (chauhattar)j^>y~ 95 4c (pachanawt) ^

75 v V94 ... (pachhattar) 96 11 (chht'nawe) ,_cyl^js.

76 vi . (chhihattar) j^tf^- 97 iv e\9 ... (satnaioe) t^ybi


m ^
77 vv \9\9 ... (sat'hattar) j*~> 98 1 et ... (aVhnawe)
-
78 VA ... (aVhhattar) 99 11 ... (ninnawe) ,_<jjLi
*
79 vi \ (unsf) 1 100 ^00 (sau) j-o or (sai) ^j-

J
the Hindustani Language. 65

Some variations from the above occur in the dialects, even, of


Hindustan and Bombay ; and still more in the Dakhni of Madras :
for the latter, reference may be made to the appendix of the author's
Hindustani Grammar ; but the most striking differences discovered in
the former are here subjoined. So, j^f gyarah, 11; \J^\ at'hr,
18 ; \j~>\ unnis, 19 ; {j-^j) k!s, 21 ; ktls, 31 ; [j-*~J
s 9
taintis, 33; (_>rjja- chauntls, 34; ars, 38; yJls?!
<. -
unchalts, 39; ^-JbiLi! ktls, 41 ; ^^Jbi-J taintts, 43 ; ^^Jb^-
chhatts, 46; ^-JIj^I artlts, 48; ^Ml ekawan, 51; ^^j- chaupan,
54; \ffc$ pachwan, 55; ^SLil ksafh, 61; l!U^>-1^ chhchhat
ou
or ^L^>- chha-safh, 66; .L^l arsat'h, 6S ; j^A khattar, 71;
tirhattar, 73; jUb-$>- chha-kattar, 76; cfcs, 81 ;
>m, or birs, 82; ^bsi panchas!, 85 ; ^^f- chhsi, 86;
nauwad, 90 ; ^^ tkanawt, or iknauwe, 91 ;
bnauw or ty]/ birnauw, 92; ijyj/ tirnauw, 93, &. ; ^
panchnawe, 95 ; ^^- chhanawe, 96 ; | nau'naioe, 99.
a. The series after one hundred is continued thus, tl&J j-i ilX>j
saa &, 101 ; _j-> J o saw pach'is, 225 ; LUol jj! jlps >\
i hazar aur , 1001 ; l<r-l j^J uJ^ ek hazar panch sau
ikkis, 1521.
b. When the word CS>} is immediately subsequent to another
numeral or other numerals, it may convey the meaning of near or
about, one more or less than such number or numbers ; as,
about a hundred ; j y near two hundred and two : and, if
a noun is used, it generally precedes the numeral, when this sense is
intended ; so, <JS\ ^j<S\ about ten men ; am tlSo! _jj two
ghafis or so afterwards.

66 Grammar of

39. The Ordinals are


1st. L^ pabla. 6th. l<%>- chhat'h or ^^>~
chhatwa.
2nd. dsr.
G 7th. siwH.
3rd. tlsr. cc_
8th. ^ljfl t'kwn.
^
4th. Vj?" chaut'h.
9th. raaaicr.
5th. ^Ijq^b pnchwn. 10th. (^Ij-jJ daswn.
And so forth, by adding generally ^ (wra) or occasionally u!
(aw) to other cardinal numbers.
40. The common aggregate or collective numbers are

saikra, 100. $ lk'h, 100,000.


Jjb hazar, 1000. )sj> karr, 10,000,000*
41. In a distributive sense the numerals, whether cardinals or
ordinals, are repeated; as, <S>) cl>j one by one; j^-J by tens ;

u!A>Jj i^V^V ??' twelfth Proportionals and reduplicatives are
formed by adding \ guna, or, more especially with regard to the folds
or rows of any material, taha, or \jt lam, or \J^j part to the
modified forms of the cardinals as used in composition, and in some

cases to the unaltered forms ; so, single, double, l^-J treble,
f * ' '
quadruple, 12>=^ quintuple, Vji sextuple, septuple,
Us . octuple, U^y nine fold> tenfold. With Persian numerals,

* In the decimal arrangement of numbers, the rank or degree of


units is termed \ ek't; that of tens, l*^ dah'i ; that of hundreds,
VjSL-j saikr (or at Bombay, ^(.mi snkra) ; that of thousands, l^l^b
hazr ; that of tens of thousands, ^JjJb jj-.J das-hazr ; that of hundreds
of thousands, lakk'ha, &c.
the Hindustani Language. 67

is much used for the same purpose ; as, jojs-^J twofold, twice as
fi
much; Jki>- <Uj treble; ^>- jV?" quadruple; sus- j ninefold;
x tenfold: whilst or <0 may be subjoined in a like meaning
to the simple forms of the cardinals as before given, or to the Persian
nouns of number; so,^^J twice as much; 3 ^ threefold; ji\j> CuL
or j seuen fold.
42. The usual terms for fractionate are

4 jb p'. Ii 1j- saw (with


quarter).
Ii
f jb >j)j derh p'. lf jJ (quarter
less) do.
I bo c?A.
21 j saw rfo.

1 V iJ ^ tihal. 3 ^ sr'A (with a
half) .
19f y~+3 j^ijJ paune bis.

And with the aggregate numbers, these terms are used as follows

75 ~ (Jjj paun sau (100-^). f 1,250 Vj-s saw hazr.



125 Ij-: saw (+). 1,500 jlj JjJ derh hazar.

150^ rfr sa (100+). 1,750j^^J jijj paune do hazr.

\lby jt^paunt do sau(2Q0-^) 2,250 _jJ saw d hazr.

225j-,jJ saw ao sa(200+^) 2,500j|jJb ^ Uji afha't hazr.

250 ^-j ^ ljl arhl sau. 75,000 ^1 jj paun lk'h.%

750 L ^jJ'i-j sr si saM.J 125,000 ^3 \y> saw lk'L

* At Bombay, li^J paun. + At Bombay, ^^ sah.

% At Bombay,j^ Ij^J paun hazr. At Bombay, ^f Xi^paun lk'h.


68 A Grammar of

150,000 t*) derh lk'h. 225,000 jlyi \y* saw d lk'h.

175,000 ^patin do lk'h. 250,000 & J\$ afhl lk'h.

CHAPTER VII.
FORMATION OF DERIVATIVES.
43. Abstract nouns are often obtained from adjectives by subjoining

s?* (0* as iJ^jf*- breadth, Ijj. broad.

* (pa) f blb*j old age,


fatness,
(pan) \u\<L+> widowhood Ij-j widow.

U- (s) f^l^lc sweetness, s



cUa> (hat) iJUfcjf bitterness, fitter.

\j (t) bLo^ softness. > JcjS so/i.

deficiency,

u(n)

Sometimes, though but rarely, by subjoining to primitive


substantive
' {at) as l~wciM humanity, from ^-Jt .
^
(yai) c-%ilsu council, ,, ^\:five.

* When the original word terminates in i silent, i becomes substi


tuted for that letter before the affix (_$ () ; so, ^j^> freshness, from
ijfresh: and, in Dakhni, (ag) or i^>\ ('egt) occurs as an affix
to form abstracts.
+ A long vowel is sometimes shortened before the affixes, as in these
instances.
the Hindustani Language. 69

Abstract or verbal nouns, moreover, are abundantly derived from


verbs ; some having the same form as the imperative in the second
person singular ; others resembling the past or present participle in
either gender ; so, speech ; jjfear; jU beating; b!jj the faculty
of speech, from J^j speak ; ^jix> a reckoning, from ^ count ; a
saying or order, dictum, from -yS say. They are, also, to be obtained
from the second person singular of the imperative, by adding

as /bo pressure, from



il ascent, ascend.
i^V feeding, 14 feed.
*
/1 () t_i ijj a sowing, ) sow.

^ (an) i [^s>- a burning, J- .

lj () deception, ^Uj deceive.

tbj (wai) il tijbj contrivance, bj contrive.


9 9
L2-.4 (Aai) iJUbib a calling, h call.

And, to Persian adjectives, or to imperatives of verbs, ji. , {ish) is


often added to form nouns of this description, not unfrequently used in
Hindustani ; so, production, from \xj produced ; l-Pij^ know
ledge, from ^Ij know.
44. The name of the agent or doer is commonly obtained by sub
joining i\j (wla) or (jira) each liable to change for gender, num-
ber, and case, to the inflected infinitive of a verb ; as, lj ^J-^ writer,
smiter : nouns of the like use are, moreover, sometimes had
from verbal roots by affixing

S(ak) as tl^y a writer, from write.

(k) a swimmer, ^ swim.

(ha) W\"}ii a runner, jyl run.


70 Grammar of

\jj (jora) as a deserter, from i*f\#flee.

Gj (waiya) ,, \ a singer, ^ sing.


And, words denoting the manager or agent in anything, are occa
sionally formed from nouns, by the addition of
N
J ^ * i a wharfinger,from <J1>U/ a wharf.
j\} (war)
? !
\& (ha) a trotter, ^Jl a trot.
t >
(hr) j\?3)!?~ bracelet-seller, ,, lSj}!>- bracelet.

j\ (r) jtk>- a currier, lW leather.



\j (wa) l^s-* a fisherman,

j(S) a watchman, j^j a watch.



\j_ (ira) I ^1 snake-catcher, ,, i_^jL: snake.

^^.'.^^ a messenger, a message.

V. / $ butter-man, " Gutter.

bV. / (iyra) grass-cutter, grass.

' (ait) spearman, \q spear.


Jb (pe) " Jb^S a cowherd, cow.
(>) " U^.f a carter, >} LSj^cart.

,, Lbljbi ploughman, J> a plough,

() {Jj a porter, tt j a door.


coo
0CJ (band) iAJa a farrier, J*J a horseshoe.

j (bar) " a guide, *\j away.


? o;
jb (Jz) JtV* cockfighter,
n
^ (C*) i^fVJ^ a drummer, a drum.

jlj (d>) >, jtaiwcj a landholder,
the Hindustani Language. * 71

() as ujji? an archer, from j an arrow.

jL) {saz) jL> ^j- orator, ,, speech.



jl (&>) j&w evildoer, Jo em.

(gr) JJb\ sinner, l sin.

(gar) \yt a merchant Ij^-i trade.


45. The noun of place is sometimes the same in form as the infini-
tive of the verb; as, in it is a range or park for deer ;
but, it is more frequently formed from substantives by affixing
CO
ijc~>, (istn) as yl^Ji burying-place, from ^ a grave.
/ 9G
,^b-j (siw) ^b-jjiXA India, jAi Indian.
c^ -\
(si) J**?*
, \a temple, 3^ a god.
J~> (sthal) &~y J
SI (7) Slj-s Siva's temple, _j~> .

J ' (0 JjiJ temple, j* a god.

cfjfb
~> (5.r) c?Ul .
V , flower-garden, , ' flower.
J^j

(wan) i^ljjf* J

JL> (so7) a stable, a horse.

a cow-house, )b a cow.

4fj
- - proper
(nagar) JjAoA city of Ahmad, names.
jW (bd) ^- city of Haidar, jJus

^lo (dn) ,, ^ J**ii a pen-case, X> a pew.
jlj (zr) ,, a tulip-bed, a tulip.

(shan) ^- a rose-bower, ,, parse.

st(gh) s*J\j\ a resting-place, Aj\ rest.


72 Grammar of

46. The noun of instrument may be the same in form as the infi
nitive of a verb ; or, it may be obtained by adding ^ (an) or ()
to the second person singular of an imperative ; so, U-j or ^J^i a
rolling-pin, from (J-J roll ; \J>j& a Pair f scissors, fromj& clip. In
the instance of if a ball, this noun seems formed from the adjective
f round, by the addition of \ (a) : and, from substantives it may be
had by affixing
J\ (at) as JV.jt^ an hour-bell, from 'ghart.

Jj (l) ,, a camel's nose-stick tA$ a nose.



a (a) ,, <&~jJ a handle, ,, t^-jJ a hand.

j\ (na) jhj\ a thimble, u^tSi] a finger.

CJ (ak) aj>- spectacles, an eye.


47. A diminutive noun is obtained from the common noun by
adding
\ () as Lii a little daughter,irom ^JLj a daughter.

J>." (0 jji 1y. a tiger ,s whelp,


, , a tiger.
->\>
h(m) LJ
\.,(iy) \r asmallbedstead, db\ a bedstead.

\j (wa) a manikin, <^o a man.


CS(ak) Cjjji a musket, cy a cannon.
, (cha) sn_b a Zittfe garden, Ij a garden.

* >a kettle, Ci a caldron,


(cht) ^jfiJ

Or, by changing a final \ (a) to , (); as, a string, from L,


a rope; ^f a bullet, a pill, from ^a .

48. Adjectives may be formed from substantives by prefixing


the Hindustani Language.

K) as Ji>\ fruitless, from

\J (an) impossible, to be, being.


9
U (na) Ju^olU hopeless, Jwcl hope.

j(e) II jU- helpless, *,U help.

(ni) (1 jSj fearless, fear.

() disrespectful, ,, j\ respect.

M () undefiled, filth.

? jfisxj incautious, ,, j+- care.


8* (0
(Jad) t Jo ill-bred, tZi\ nature.
b b
^ (kam) ff lu-o;^ wretch, \j^ssTfortune.

1 {ham) ft C&Jl jjb concordant, ), iZJ>\ sound.


9'
V (U) ft <>jj~> well-formed, tJ)jform, shape.

cS(ku) ti JjS ill-mannered, t&AiS manners.


Or, by affixing
4^(0 as Kf])^i of the market, from jljlj market.

^)f- wooden, i?
b
<> , () silken, >>
<b , (iyna) dUL> annual, JL> year

i, (ja) juicy, ij-jjuice.

h () w hj domestic, j house.
b
j J-ijJ tusked,
b O b ^
J^e (mand) Ai^sJjJ wealthy, tz-rJjO wealth.
9
,jU (wmra) ^UbdJ wise, iJj wisdom.
b'b
(want) t> t^-jjb powerful, Jj power.
9 b
j (B) tt jlVpf- quarrelsome, >7 quarrel.
L
4 Grammar of

1(5)- as from hunger.

.<) lLj biennial, JL^t) -o years.

' () l^jj! golden,

() hindermost, If^U iAe rear.


f
,00 jjljoJ sightly, .

K(it) \S1 single, ul$\ .

Ij () IjjJ double,

\j(r) ^ Aree.

() >J ^Ij-J tenth, e/.
1 () aquatic, ^yb water.

(^.^jiLj marriageable, > U-Lj marrying.


jlj (wer) >i grievous, r> grief.

3j (band) Jcj armed, ^L^iA arms.

(mand) JoJig intelligent, J intelligence.

\ (na) <lL childish, Jib a /.

jb (dar) jIjUj faithful, \ij fidelity.



(sr) jL-s^ mountainous, t a mountain.

^jXj sorrowful, I sorrow.

C\ (nk) C/Uy> terrible, Jys> terror.

jj (war) J renowned, IU a .

j)\ (war) jA)jj strong, jjj strength.\try.

\j (za) \jsSj foreign-born, ^J^ foreign coun-

S\j (zda) *j|ji^sr -, >'>_^wsr 5? (man).

(gn) ^LLj blue-coloured, Jj Wwe, indigo.


the Hindustani Language. 75

(jam) as ^U^^fij saffron-coloured, from ^^iej saffron.

JjU (ma' il) JjU^Jy yellowish, ,, tJ^jj yellowness.

X> (kona) four-cornered, f>~'mcorap.four.


JL (gsha) ,, Ji^^jtJ> hexagonal six.

49. Adjectives of intensity may be obtained from verbs, by affixing


to the second person singular of the imperative Cil (k) 1 (ka) or
ISol ianka) or (waiya) ; as, /IjjJ a greai runner, fromJjJ ;
quarrelsome, from j! fight; bji eloquent, from jT speak.
50. Adjectives, as well as adverbs, *of which latter some notice has
already been taken at par. 35, may be derived from pronouns in
various ways ; and, like their originals, they are used demonstratively,
interrogatively, or relatively : so, from * (or Dakh. ^ yah) this,
are deduced UjI or Is1 orW or >! this-much, so much, so many ;

this-like, such; uj or j&j)t in this manner, thus : from ij (or Dakh.


op '
j waA) Aa, bJl or \ or Isjj or hjj that-much, so many ; l~Jj that-
Zie, so; or that manner, so: from who ? what?
tc/cA ? Li or bs- or b or ? .? many ? ^ how

many ? L-o what-like ? sor of? how ? uj orJy how ? in


what manner ? why ? somewhere, anywhere : from y>- or ,jj>-
who, what, which, or wAai quantity, as much as, as many as ;
as many ; what-like, as ; or ^f- or>&- as, like as :
and, from or ^i Aa, come orb-J so much, so many ; so
# ; L~J such, so ; or or ^jiJ so, in that manner.
51. Transitive and causal verbs have been already noticed at para
graph 27. They are generally formed from other verbs by the inter
position or addition of ! or } or or lj or 1 The letter \ is frequently
inserted after the first consonant of the root; and sometimes, though
but rarely, it follows the second ; in other cases, it is added to the
76 A Grammar of

last : so, L5l o ca, from o Je ca ; o tofe oa, from Ulj


o issue; liW1 o save, from lisr fo escape: and are used imme-
diately before the last consonant of the root ; as, to open, from
io opened ; to pound or grind, from I: io be ground : and
or 3 is always subjoined to the root ; so, toljjj o caMse io frighten,
from tjJ to fear ; liSo io cause to give, from >0 to give. When the
root, moreover, is a monosyllable ending in \ or j or , the last letter
is commonly dropped and J inserted before the causal sign \ or \j ; as,
and Uljl^ tofeed and io caase to feed, from Ijl^ o ca ; ULj and

IIjLj io caase to sleep and io caase to put to sleep, from to sleep ;


ILj and UIjLj o caase io sew and o cawse io be sewed, from L-~* io
set.

CHAPTER VIII.
SYNTAX.

52. The terms usually applied to grammar are ysr ii^e (sarf
nahw) which may be translated inflection or accidence and syntax :
the first has already been treated of, in Chapters ., III., and IV.
especially ; and the latter, with which practice in the language will
give the best acquaintance, seems not to require here any very minute
or lengthened explanation.
53. The noun in the genitive case usually precedes that with which
it is constructed, as does the adjective its substantive : with these
exceptions, and unless a conjunction occurs, a relative pronoun, an
interjection or vocative, or some word which by way of especial dis
tinction or of emphasis takes the lead, the nominative case to the
verb generally presents itself first in a sentence ; nouns in other cases
if required, a participle or adverb, may follow almost promiscuously ;
the Hindustani Language. 77
s * *
but, the verb generally finishes the whole : so, ^jt> ^ Joli ^^aS ^1
l Ma > ^ / 4>T ^ < *
or?/ ie advantage this is, that of the low bred the society (makes)
the free born a slave, and the slave ruined makes. In poetry, how
ever, but little regard is sometimes had to this arrangement: as,
' jJj ^bjj jU tirS-"' ' X~Jb lij-J!) jlOJs ^ (Jj~i studious of

language are the intelligent ; by language is the name of the good


exalted.
54. Nouns of various genders, coming together in a sentence, re
quire the adjective, verb, or participle, governed in common by them,
to have the masculine form; as, yj\> ^~>\ uji? <-?^# ^J* L*^
^jfi jj ^Ji her mother, father, brother {alt) the three in the
meditation of the marriage of her were. With regard to inanimate
beings, however, the adjective or participle usually agrees in gender
with the noun, nearest which it is placed ; so, <>h ^ ^JL)
i^* hfji u4 S son s book and paper are lying here.
55. Two nouns, having reference to the same person or thing, may
S- f
stand in apposition without any word intervening ; as, pJJ i_$ l^j \
his brother Bikram.
56. Notice has already been taken, at par. 6, of the changes to
which the postposition \ is liable in construction : and, though this
particle serves generally to link together words of various import,
yet on certain occasions it seems to be idiomatically dropped, and
especially after a noun of weight or measure ; so, Ganges-
bank-on; ^Jj j\j> a thousand tolas {of) gold: and, on the con
trary, its use in some cases may appear to us redundant ; as, in
ksl l Jj fikr's word, or the word fikr. This postposition, moreover,
is adopted to denote purpose, worth, size, possibility, totality, 8tc, as
well as mere relationship; so, ^ J\4 an eating room;
78 A Grammar of
la < \ j j-s jj of two hundred rupees a horse ; Jjjfj^f-
o/" a Zarge Aead a boy ; [^^> ^ [^rr^ -\l ^s (.female*) cannot live ;
l t^~ the whole field ; ^- l _^ aZZ together; jx&- \
all a picture; ^ CL>\j ^ cd\j in the dead of the night; cLfb
cub in the mere word; ^ ^jt^ concealed.
57. The nominative case is very often used when it is the object to
a transitive verb ; and, indeed, no inflection of a noun, except for the
nominative case plural, can take place without a postposition or pre
position immediately expressed or understood ; the latter circumstance,
however, not unfrequently occurs, there being many expressions which
from use are become idiomatical without the postposition : so, j^J
jbj y do tell me the name of this; U- j house go, go home;

li~> < l^J 1^^' neither seen (with) eyes nor heard (with)
ears; ^jJJs l&T Ganges bank (on) ; -Jo (in) good manner;
jP ^JLj j ^J> (at the abode) of him were two daughters, an
ellipsis of some word, perhaps occurring in this and generally
in similar sentences. The nominative case, moreover, supplies the
place of the accusative, when another word with the dative postposi
tion occurs in the same sentence ; unless both words happen to be
pronouns, when each may be followed by its casual sign : so,

^j jj lJj~ L5^S thou thy own daughter to my son give;


ISjjJ jj / will give him to you.
58. When two or more words in the same oblique case are used
together, the postposition is usually subjoined to the last only; as,
u 'jfi 3 * .> mines fgld> silver> copper,
iron, &.C. : and, if they are in an oblique case of the plural, though
even a conjunction intervene, the plural sign may be omitted in all
such words but the last; so, ^j> LS jfl how shall
we give a description of the elks and deer ?
the Hindustani Language. 79

59. The simple postpositions follow immediately the nouns they


govern; but, such nouns, participles, or adverbs, as are in common
use postpositively, may sometimes precede the words with which they
are constructed : so, {_^\ -gb or .Lj ^\ with him ; c^U
i or (j?>Lo ^J i^L&iS through fear {stricken of fear);
l U"4 or w4 l/ ^ horse.
60. Adjectives, if immediately preceding or following the substan
tives they qualify, must be made to agree with them in gender, case,
and number ; but, when separated by any other word, they may be
used in the uninflected form of the masculine singular, whatever the
state or gender of the substantives may be ; as, *j W ^
make his face black.
61. With numerals, the singular form of a noun, whether in the
nominative or any other case, is generally preferred to the plural ; so,
l^U j*o jU- ^jj ^L ^ three soldiers beat four men ; J^jSa

Isyb ^> ^s? there may be something less than a thousand horse:
yet masculine nouns capable of inflection usually take the nominative
plural form, as feminine nouns may occasionally take the latter, when
more than one in number is to be denoted; so, ^Jj ^ three
horses; four daughters.
62. When the feminine genitive of a pronoun or adjective, or even
some feminine form of a verb, is used without any noun expressed,
such common word as ob affair, matter, is generally understood ;
so, lii-j ^ j < he neither mentions his own {affair)

nor attends to {that) of others; l y> ff* whatever


was to be, that {has) happened.
63. In speaking of one's self with another, it is customary to give

* Yet jj may be regarded as a compound (nominal) verb : see


par. 28.
80 A Grammar of

the first person the precedence, and, for that person even the plural
is often adopted, though an individual only is intended; so, ^ j** or
^^ijjb- J! S> I and you will go.
64. If the saying of a third person be reported, the same pronouns
and the same words, in every respect, are commonly retained, as were
used by the first speaker ; so, ^jtf- < ^ he said that
I shall not go, meaning in our idiom, that he should not go ; U-lj
\)j*> jLo ^il^ S the king wished that striking the sword I
will die, meaning, that he would die.
65. The second personal pronoun is rarely used in the singular,
unless from motives of adoration, endearment, familiarity, or contempt:
in speaking respectfully to any one, the plural of this person at least
must be adopted ; but, when a dependant addresses his superior, or a
great degree of deference is intended, t->l self, master, <Jjs-
the presence, ^j\^o great prince, or some other such term of honour,
must be used, and generally with a verb in the third person plural.
In mentioning a third person, moreover, respectfully, the plural is
substituted for the singular, as it is not unfrequently done in the first
person ; yet, when any one speaks of his own actions or circumstances
with humility to a superior, or seeks even to address his friend with
great respect, it is customary to substitute such words as or *1
slave, ljA devoted, weak, ^J beggar, sinner, &c. ; or,
CO O
in the latter case, j\&~ij friendly, ij? sincere, aly^-- wellwisher,
&c. for the first personal pronoun.
66. When a possessive pronoun, referring to the same person or
thing as the subject of the sentence or the nominative case before the
verb, is required, the common or reflective 8tc. must then be used ;
as, tu tell thy name ; $ ^) the prince
began to say in his own mind: and this reflective possessive may even
the Hindustani Language. 81

be used substantively ; as, \J\jj ^ i^S^ y 1 ^yjl
/ yow sAa/ 7/ / very own, then the protection of whom will
you make ? In a second member of a sentence, however, the peculiar
possessive, and not the common, must be adopted ; as, t_>b \jro jj\
I and my father.
67. If used in a respectful sense merely, as noted at paragraph 65,
the word <_ does not admit of inflection before postpositions ; so,
^jb ^j^sr0 .i*; jrFfjf- <>l I have pleasure, Sir, in your
living a long life : and, to when used as a term of respect, the
Persian <^- (Jhud), of similar meaning, is at times subjoined ; or,
even the word people, or ^^jl if plurality be intended.
68. The interrogative, L what ? which ? seems not immediately
applicable to persons. It is often used by way of scorn, as well as to
express satisfaction, astonishment, or desire : and, in these senses it
may be followed by the appellations of human beings ; so, s\yo\j. L
what a scoundrel ! It may be, also, adopted discriminatively ; as,
^Uiwc j3& \J whether Hindu or Musalman.
69. The interrogative adverbs and are very emphati
cally used to denote non-existence, dissimilitude, or difference ; as,
LS^b lAv^ li>4^ where (is) that prince? where that princess?
meaning, that they exist not ; ^jLy \& \s>-\j where is
king Bhoj 1 where Ganga the oilman ? importing that there is no
resemblance between them.
70. Though the indefinite pronoun is generally applied to ani-
mate beings, as -fs* is to inanimate, yet this distinction is not always
observed ; as, inj>- ci <fc any thing, some man.
71. The verb commonly agrees in gender and number with the
nominative or subject of the sentence ; except, however, that to a
number of irrational beings, taken collectively, a singular verb may
be attributed ; and, that in general a plural verb is used with such
M
82 A Grammar of

terms of honour or respect in the singular as are often substituted for


the second personal pronoun : so, \i J *} he makes a practice
/ guarding ; ^j ^J^jJ the girl was reading a lesson;
\j\ or I ^jj^ a hundred horse or horses came ; -Aj\*>
I ^3~' >^ cu-je-* <_>! majesty has with
great labour come on my account. And, when two or more nomina
tives of different genders come together in the same member of a sen
tence, the verb and participles usually accord with the masculine in
this particular, as exemplified at paragraph 54.
72. Transitive verbs in any past tense of the active voice, in con
struction with which the particle must follow the subject or agent,*
if actually expressed, are made to agree in gender and number with
the object of the sentence, provided that it is a noun, either understood,
or stated as is most usual in the nominative case ; but if the object be
placed in the oblique case, or if it be a member of a sentence, the verb
has invariably the form of the third person singular masculine. In
this construction, the subject or agent, if actually expressed, is gene
rally inflected by if capable of inflection ; the first and second per
sonal pronouns being the only words liable to change for case, that
retain the form of the nominative, whether in the singular or plural,
before this affix.+ With the verb W to bring, however, which is in
fact compounded of take and lit to come, or with Ljy to speak,
though the former seems in all cases to convey a transitive meaning
and the latter sometimes so, this construction is never admitted ; as,
&>j>- jjjLo ^ f>- a Brahman purchased (and) brought

an egg-plant ; i he said that

* These remarks do not apply to the Dakhni, in which dialect the


particle ^ does not interrupt the usual concord of the verb with the
nominative case.
+ See, moreover, the note to paragraph 23.
the Hindustani Language. 83

73. The form of the infinitive serves for the gerund or verbal noun,
and in many cases for the noun of instrument or of place, as has before
been noticed : but, it is also not unfrequently used as an imperative, and
imports the absolute necessity of the action intimated ; so, Jilc ^> ^\
Lb; (it is necessary) not to remain neglectful of hint ; ^j^r
Lsiyj you (must) arrive quickly ; l ^j^L 4)V^ \s* I can ty
no means obey your (word) ; 1 ~v this (is under the abso
lute necessity) of not remaining.
74. The past and present participles, whether in the simple form or
compounded with \ , are much used in the state of the inflected
masculine singular, whatever the gender or number of the governing
noun may be, to denote some action incidental with, or preceding,
that which the subsequent verb declares ; as, (in the) taken
of him or for his sake ; ^jj\*o ^J^-^r (in the) stricken of which or
by reason of which; ^^i^-U jj> ^ j l1^jLs

having made to accord all the instruments in one tone (she) was
' s fib?
dancing ;jijV*y) j y \" <J>j& j{ <j~\ Lv ^* l5*^~ *J

on going away he had kept saying that (on) becoming mounted on this
do not use the whip nor strike the spur. With ^ the adverb of pecu-
liarity or identity, or with t^-J) time, subjoined, the simple present
participle, too, is thus very frequently brought into use ; as,
LS^ Li*- 1 * LS* \JflP immediately on seeing that she
remained as one aghast.
75. Both the past and present simple participles, moreover, are
often used absolutely, and sometimes substantively, in the invariable
state of the inflected masculine singular, when constructed with a
preceding noun, or even with a postposition or preposition, or with a
genitive case ; so, Li (on) the become evening ; (on)
the becoming morning ; ^ Jj (in) the striking an eyelid ; Lfs.'*~ Lj
84 A Grammar of

without having understood ; Uj without having heard a
word ; ^ja>j i_^ (in) the remaining of me or before me ; ^4 LS^*^
(at) the sight of which ; ^J^ ^ t-^-s (in) the sight of all ;
; < L5*-j~ 15 (*J one moment without the meditation
of deceit he rests not. It should be remarked, too, that both these
participles are occasionally used as nouns in either gender : and, by
the repetition of a participle, continuance of the action is frequently
denoted.
76. The indefinite future or aorist may not only convey a present
meaning, but it may be constructed with an auxiliary verb as a pre
sent participle even ; yet, when used in the latter way, it may be
often understood as retaining its future sense : so, ^y tj~
jS> 1 y ^j^-J UT Jj in this (space of time) he went forth
(many) kos, (when) he looks then evening is become ; ^j>j ^f> <0
*j ^jb neither cold nor hot pleases ; I am opening,
or / am about to open.
77. The adverb of prohibition c^v* as well as that of negation <
or (^1fj may be used either before, or after, verbs ; but, though
unfit for construction with an imperative, is more emphatical and in
more general use than < with other forms of the verb ; so, e^v<
j$f-)i do not ask; by no means forget ; J\s^ j do not
suppose. And, when the emphatic is adopted, it frequently
supplants the present of the substantive verb at the end of a sentence ;
as, jjj-^J |JJ ^ ^Ul tj^jj' acts of cruelty (are) not becoming thy
dignity.
78. The conjunctions and y>- that, are used at the beginning of
one member of a sentence, which explains the object or reason of
another generally preceding. The conjunction too may be used
in the way of comparison or distinction ; as, jx^i cj* ^-*^'
the Hindustani Language. 85

|Uj (that) one man die is better than a whole city ; y(~>\ jLJi
thou mayest take either this or that: it may, also, convey
the sense of saying that ; as, tl3 j" bl* ^1^1-; JL
j& ci-wjp-l <_>! jj blSj ^\ Jj saying this, he called for the
throne, and having given him pan and tilak seated (him) on it,
(saying) that you are now become invincible. At times, though but
rarely, may be adopted as the relative pronoun, after the idiom of
the Persians : and, in some cases, the application of it seems intended
merely to connect the members of a sentence, the meaning in other
respects appearing redundant.
79. The conditional conjunction \ or y>- if requires the conse
quential y or -j then in the following member of the sentence ; as,
u-\ =- y i^rjO ja* v~\ "/ j>\ if any one
should interrupt thee in this, then (fail not) to bring him to me : yet,
the conditional is sometimes idiomatically omitted ; so, *>\
J* ' * r "
j ^y y jrbV* (persn) said, Sir, (if ) you will
give, then why shall I not eat ?
80. The adverb ^y>- or ^y?? must in general be answered by the
correlative ^y or and ^y>- by ^y ^y ; in like manner,
the emphatic adverb of time t^y>- is followed by p'j ; so,
/^?" t&#33 j vflVfr as soon as the dog ate
it, at that very moment he tossing about expired. As adverbs of
9 ? 9 9 '
manner ^ypr and frequently assumeJ> ; so, ' j^ytT t>y jr*
9 s-' -
' jyP ^ lj~> ^5* f as I may say, so it is incumbent on
thee to perform the business.
81. The usual term of affirmation or assent is (h) yes; but,
9
this may be understood, and <dJ> or J^ or i^&X* or some
other appellation of respect only be expressed, especially in the reply
of a servant to his master, or of an inferior to his superior.
86 A Grammar of

82. The residence of any one is often denoted by ^lyj and, if more
than one place is mentioned, (jibj may be used distinctively for a
similar purpose ; as "> ^^s-\e jU- u-^^-e go to
the gentleman's house here, not to that there. Sometimes, however,
the mere genitive case is adopted, the adverb being understood ; and
the postposition (^-b may be applied in the same manner as ^; : so,
? ! s >
\ 1 U-4 J V* S J U~S fT >V Jj the
servants, who ran to her house, seized and took her away from it.
83. Two words of similar meaning, which resemble each other in
sound, are often brought into use where one alone might have sufficed,
as in the instance of ji[>- exemplified in the last paragraph : one
of such words, however, seems frequently to have little or no meaning,
and to be adopted for the sake of the sound chiefly ; so, ^iyo -f^#>-
falsehood, a whisper. By a repetition, moreover, of nouns
or pronouns, as well as of some other words, individuality may be
intended ; as, Jj l jO_j0 \jp * J* eacn man
having filled each a pitcher of milk; ^,^oj\ bjJ let us
each try his own skill : and, when two past participles of the same
transitive verb come together, the latter of them being in the feminine
gender, reciprocity of action is intended ; so, ^f^J$ pulling
and hauling ; ^ altercation ; ^sj^c \ scuffle ; ^jfi^ ^.^
competition, emulation. Here, too, may be noticed such idiomatical
repetitions of participles as bbj ready made ; U> l> ready
cooked ; ^ l^b in sitting still : or, of nouns ; as, ^^>
in the very midst; in the dead of the night; ,JS with
all {his) ears.
84. To the names of different classes or sects of men, different
appellatives are by way of distinction prefixed or subjoined ; thus
Brhmans take ^>- or ^jj\y or or ^ib ; Musalman Fakirs
the Hindustani Language. 87

are addressed with alb or or ; Hindu devotees or religious


people, with or c^jj or ^ or ^ L ; Rjpts, with \$ ; or
Rjpts and Sikhs, with ,^f\j or ; Moghuls, with before the
proper name, or tj after ; Saiyids, with or Ju> ; Shaikhs, with
*.i> ; Pathns, with ^U- ; Doctors, with C?Jj or (jj!^ or Lo ;
Merchants or Bankers, with iU or -$5^ ; Ladies, with or JLj or
t f Ii
^yU- or ylc- or <U-L> or , which are placed after the proper
name, as ^jU- t-^l , iU-le , -y ;J : and, some of the most common
terms of respectful address, used generally, are * \ ^^V*
or JU <dJ> your Majesty ! ^^ or jJ^A- Sire / t-^-le or ^L*
or ^j>- orjil^ or 1 or Sir.' Master! jj <--*/ cherisher of the
poor !
PART IL

VOCABULARY, ENGLISH AND HINDUSTANI.

NOUNS.

Celestials.
9 '
God, Deity, \je- khuda, j^^cji paramtswar, <d!l allh.

Lord,jjA tswar, -Jj rabb.

Creator, khlik, Jj kartr,JSs>4j\ frdgr.


9
Godhead, Divinity, i^>'\- khud', ^>jy>} tswart, t-~^l ilhiyt.

A god, a deity, dv, j~ sur, lJjj<J dvt.


Goddess, i_^>J dtwi, debt, jj> d'tin (f.).*

Angel, izJbJs firishla, malak, CLSjJ dt, i_ajla> htif.

Heaven, <jy swarg, ^UJ smn, e^-^ bihisht (f.).


s*
Sky, Firmament, Atmosphere, ^iTf &s (or jj-.lS! akas), ^U-j!
asman, falak.

Infernis.

Devil, Satan, ^1- shaitn, j^r-W iSZs.

* For the convenience of the learner, feminine words not terminating


in bj () will be marked (f.) generally ; as masculines ending in ()
will be marked (m.).
Vocabulary Nouns. 89
fi
Demon, asur, J dtv, t^oylc ifrit.

Ghost, Goblin, Fiend, trj^ bhut, bhutn, C-^J ^rtf.

Hell, (-ifi- jahannam, dozaMi, c)j> narak.

Fabulous beings.

One of the Genii, j>-jinn.

Fairy, lJj pari.

Some general Terms.

Thing, j*s- (f.), shai (f.), bast, darb.

Mode, Manner, ^~b dhab, jj& taur, uslb, was? (f.).

Kind, Species, ^-i^- jins (f.), *, |-J &, cjlj gi (f.).

Whole, &&- jumla, ^-As^-jam* (f.), sa.


' c a t"
Part,Jz?- juz, iUi- , ans, Jl ftwd, khand.

Cause, v_ sabab, 1_^-< mjib, kran, ti^cb b'is.

Nature, izj\ zt (f.), cuJy prakrit (f.), Z>/b, oLi nihd.

Essence,^^>-jauhar, tuli si (f.), i^-U mahiyat (f.), t^-- *oi.

Element, jca unsur, tat, (proper sphere) li\# thikn.

Fortune, Lot, t_ 1> nasb, </U? bhg,LZ Jismat (J.),^srbakht.


o O'
Fate, Destiny, 1^3 Zi/c, LS as (f.),J&i takdr, \^^Ji kismat (f.).

Beginning, ibtid (f.), J-^ pahal, jUl ghaz, shuru*.

End, ls>3^ aw,^M khir. intih(f.)9 *^5 (f.)

Time, ^; zamn, Jl Z, ^^^ samai, u^jj wakt,j& dahr,

Space (absolute), ^fel ad/har, IST fezs.

Order, tadbtr (f.), -^ rfAaJ, fariJ (f.).


90 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Number, dad, \j ti*dd (f.), W^-4 sankhy (f.).

Form, Figure, isJ srat (f.), J-> shakl (f.), cu Lb Aai'ai (f.).

Matter, Vft hayl, jbfr jauhar, iVe mdda.



Body, ^>-jism, 5^'^ kthi, (jjj badn, UJ dA (f.).

World, jL-i-j sansr, jjlc lam, l^>- jahn, Li J dunya (f.).


^ .
East, <_> purab, mashrik, jj-ii shark.

West, |=f pachchham, <-r^i-< maghrab, <-r^ gharb.

North,y 1 uttar, JU-) shaml (or shiml).


?
South, jj^J dakhan or dakkhan, t_>j^>- janub.

Spirit, Soul, j-jj (f.), (j-i /s, (jU*- Jt (m. f.).

Life, l5-j (.), C^U Aayi (f.), fj^-jan (m. f.), ^pran ox paran.

Light, U-l ujl,jy> nur, CL>y>-jt (f.), roshn't.


CO cl
Darkness, andher, ^J*j tr'iki, ts-vJ] zulmat (f.).

Heat, ^- harrat, ^ tapan (f.), ^o garnit.

Cold, Coldness, i> thand (f.), ^-5 sard, \j\s? jara.

The Elements.

Ether, (j-\^T frs (or aks),jJ\ asir.

Fire, ti/ 5g (f.), y-iT tas (f.).

Air, Lfe Aa? (f.), ^pawan or / (f.), /b 6' (f.).


Water, t_Jl &, Jsrjal, ^Jbprii (m.),^J wir.

Earth, j^j-^cj zamtn (f.), (JU ', ti/Ui. MA (f.), ^ 5 (f.).

Heavenly bodies, signs, appearances, fc.

Sun, ju> srcy, CJk.iT /ifi, Ju^p- khurshaid.


Vocabulary.Nouns.

Moon, JU- chnd, U mah,jA kamar, chandar.

New Moon, dJU-SU bl-chnd, Jib hill, JjU- Lj na?/ cAwrf.

Full Moon, j> ladr, punim, ^ ^jj pran-msl.

Star, tr, sitara, ss? najm.

Constellation, akhtar, kaukab.

Planet, )U-> saiyra.


t -
Saturn, ff~* sanlchar, zuhal, ^S kaiwn.

Jupiter, : brihaspat, i_r~~ mushtari.

Mars, Jx* manga, mirrkh.


CP * ' /
Venus,^-s sm/, tii^- sm, ^bj zuhra (f.), JuU nhid.

Mercury, Jo ZmrfA, J,lkc utrid.

Comet, jhr (m. f.), i_ e, I^ jJ rfam tara.

Meteor, 4->ly<> shihb.

Falling Star, luk, ->-& shihab.

Zodiac, rs-chakr, ^j^J I Aaki^i mintakatu-l-burvj .

Sign of the Zodiac, 0/, (^Jj rs.

Aries, the Ram, ao- -yJ burj-i-hamal, mkh.

Taurus, the Bullay ^ burj-i-saur, brikh.

Gemini, the Twins, ~ burj-i-jauz, mithun.

Cancer, the Crab, w%-> yJ burj-i-saratn, CJ kark.

Leo, the Lion, burj-i-asad, singh.

Virgo, *Li~j sumbula, kaniy (f.).

Libra, the Balance, Jj-* (f.), ^ < (f.).


92 Vocabulary Nouns.

Scorpio, the Scorpion, <_.yb akrab, yog1, bichchhu.

Sagittarius, the Centaur, (f.), dhan or dhanu.

Capricornus, the Goat, ^/ burj-i-jad,jL* makar.


O,/ Lb?
Aquarius, ^ij burj-i-dalv, kumbh.
9
Pisces, the Fish, cu^s- ^^ burj-i-ht, .

Milky way, Galaxy, ^J^J^ kahkashn.

Mansion of the Moon, nachhattar, manzil.

Zenith, ^J^l c^v*-j samtu-r-ras,J2\ samtu-n-nazar.

Nadir, -^v4J! j-laj nazru-s-samt, J^ ^Jj nazru-r-rijl.


' > .
Sunshine, tjys cZp (f.), p\ ghm (f.), ^U shu'* (f.).

Moonshine, ^yjuls- chandni, -jIsU mhtab.

Eclipse, gahan, (of the sun) kusuf, (of the moon) i_Jj-

Rainbow, ^.j (j.y kaus-i-kuzah (f.), ^ 65r5.


g
Cloud, a&r, Job badal, wieg (m. f.)-

Rain, , ^jb brn, brish (f.), (dakh.) ^j-f mhy.

Shower, ^jj>- jhar, ^..^yjhs, Ijj&jJ daungra, (jJu^~jhaps (f.).

Fog, Mist,ytij kohar, \jb kohra, kuhasa.


9 9
Vapour, jLi. ghubr, iW; bukhr.

Lightning, ^# (-

Thunder, ^fgarj (f.),jJoJ tundar, S&j raxd.

Dawn, Daybreak, ijj (f.), K*J terA, (f.), ^ arww,

^V5 su (f.).
Vocabulary. Nouns. 93
9 , 9
Twilight (evening), ^tfaf gdht, (jkL shafak, \ muh-
andher.
Things relating to Fire.
9
Flame, > shuxla, _-^5 lahab, (of a fire) ^ \ nch, (of a caudle or

lamp) p5 tern (f.).

Flash, uXy! lahak (f.), bhabhak (f.), LlX^- chamak (f.).

Blaze, ljf^J bhabhk, CJjg bharak (f.) : see Flame.

Spark, chingri, l5&*- chingl, <dl^ parkla, xJjZ sharra.


9 9 '
Smoke, dh'n, pj&J dhm, id.
^ 9 '
Soot, Ijjj-i saunr, <J$\ klik, ntyii duda, sawd.

Ashes, rkk (f.), chhr (f.), ^-^ bhasam (f.), ^-U-
khakistar (f.).

Cinders, (cold) / ', (hot) ^1

Embers, (J#_j# bhubhal, \j>\ angr.

Firebrand, <fc-^-) sokhta, ^J&} lukt, (dakh.) kblti.

Fireworks, ^JLi\ tash-bzi.



Firewood, Fuel, hezam (f.), ^JcjI indhan, <U*a> .

Coal, Charcoal, Lj k'el, JUj zughl.

Things relating to Air.

Wind, jb ' (f.), Jb (f.), otc (f.)


Gale,
Storm,
?
Squall, ^JT , uUjb tfn,jfes?jhakkar.

Tempest,
Hurricane,
94 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Whirlwind, i>b j gird-bad (f.), > bagl,jdiy bawandar.


9
Stormy Wind, 3 b bd-i-tund (f.).
9 9
Hot pestilential Wind, ^y*^> samm (f.), fy*~> Jb bd-i-samm.

Gust, Blast, Breeze, \)<>- jhakr, (^- jhk, CSif phnk.


9
Fair or favourable Wind, jl b bad-i-murad (f.).

Contrary or adverse Wind, islUr* Jb bd-i-mukhlif.

Zephyr, morning breeze, ob bd-i-sab (f.)

Things relating to Water.


9
Drop, Jy Jtwd (f.), ajh katra, (of rain) ILS tapk.
9<*9 -9 9
Bubble, Lb bulbul, bulla, ->>- hubb.
Foam, Froth, Scum, {^phen, i kaf(f.).
9 i*
Vapour, steam, Jvk? bukhr, ^jb bph (f.), 6p (f.).

Dew, s (f.), shabnam (f.), si (f.).


' > J>
Fog, Mist, jbj> kohar, \jbji khr,Jjkr , Lb kuhs.
Frost, Hoar-frost, Sb pl,j\$ thr.

Snow, uJ^J barf (. f.), b^>i,jb3 Aar.


Hail, Jj! Z, A] zhala, ^fj tagarg.

Ice, ^ yakh, <i barf (m. f.).

Wave, Billow, ; (f.), te-^ mauja}J^ lahar (f.).

Ocean, samundar, jX*~ samudr, ksr* yac; bahr-i-mufit.


J
Sea, ^<) , jJo*j samundar, bjJ darya,y\~> sugar.

Lake, J#>-j'AZ (f.), jj>y> sarwar, t-Jl tlb, pokhar.

Bay, Gulf, J^S kU,ja] bahr, khalij.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 95

Creek, Cove, kl.

Abyss, Gulf, jX ka*r, <j\f girdb, dLs! lujja.


9
River, t^jJ naddi, b^J darya, jj rd, \jj~t sarta (f.).

Rivulet, Brook, Canal, nahr (f.), ^li w/.

Pool, Pond, af &<2, ii.

Deluge, u^jb ffn, tjL*b tughyni.

Inundation, 11 <, -1~> sailab (f.) : see Deluge.

Whirlpool, Eddy, Vortex, girdb, bhawar, (dakh.)

bhaura.

Harbour, Haven, Port, bandar.

Tank, <_->Ul iZi, j/> sarwar, <^><f>- hauz.

Quagmire, JjJ^ daldal (f.), pnfc, ^jfci) dhasan (f.).

Bog, Slough, il&b pw, JjJj daldal (f.).

Fen, Marsh,^l$s>- jhbar (f.), (dakh.) **> .

Spring, Fountain, <U->- chashma, \y sota, Jc wrf.

Well, IjS ', *U- cA, (large one of masonry) \J,j\ indr, ^
b'l.
Pit, b>- cA.

Ditch, Moat, b/ M7, JJ^=- khandak (m. f.).

Shore, Strand, Beach, Coast, Bank, tir, iJ^S kinra, lab,

Things relating to the surface of the Earth.

Land, Ground, Soil, ^ bhm (f.), * mitt or ^JL* mat,


>
zamn (f.), .
96 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Dry land, khushkl (in opposition to i_$Ji tari, water).

Island, tpu, dip, xjjs*- jazira.

Peninsula, y>- jazira, i_-oJ dtp.

Plain, Level, musattah, ^X-yo maidn.

Field, khtt, ^)&+ maidn.

Park, Chase, ramna, ilfJLi> shikr-gh.

Mountain, jl^j pahf, kdh, J->- jabal, i-J^ parbat, (dakh.)

J>jyi dongar.

Hill, Mount, L3 i?Z, Jj , pahf, xfi kh, (dakh.)

dongr.
w t.
Hillock, L5 , JJ tall, (dakh.) \jLj tekr, cS^-^ tnkrl.

Rock, J~) siZ (f.), pahar, kh.


ut
Stone, jfj patthar, <~ sang, j& hajar, (dakh.) phattar.

Block of Stone, ^j&>- chatn or chattn (f.).

Pebble, *jl~> sang-reza, *jij&~> f gl sangriza.


o- o
Gravel, Grit, t#J patthri,JjS kankar : see Pebble.

Sand, (-i^j re (f.), j!b bl (f.), cl>j ''g (f-)> J*> ram-

Mould, Loam, ^JU mitf or : see Clay.

Chalk, khar or ^fjp khari-mitti, chhu'l.

Clay, gil (f.), ^JLv ^J^>- chiknl-mittt.

Mud, Mire, Dirt, jS^ kichar (f.), kick, chahl or chihl,


<

Dust, Jy>J tfZ (f.),jjJJ d/wr (f.), gardii.).


Vocabulary, Nouns.

Turf, jfU- chr (f.), cai.

Clod, Laj i?AZ, kulukh, dal, IIj pinda.

Minerals, Metals, Sfc.

A Metal, Mineral, Ore, A5, Jli ^.

Gold, Uj-j son, _j , ffS kanchan, ills iifi.

Silver, bjy , p~> sim, ^jijjU- chandra, xj nukra.

Tin, ^Jj kala', Kil^ ranga, arziz, jbej rasas.

Copper, tamba, mis.

Brass, Ji-J piaZ, birinj.



Pewter, i^^yjast, UL^-ag^j -jast, ranga.

Lead, L-~> sisa, -^~> swr, ^lo, ?-asas.

White Lead, IjujLj safed.

Black Lead, ^JLc ^11^ kali mitti.

Red Lead, jjA^ sendr, j>\ ingur.

Iron, Uj Z5A5, , cVJ^- hadid.


^
Untempered Iron, ^jl-f5 kach-lohi.
9
Steel, Sij)ilM (or faulct).
G
Zinc, Tutanag, Lapis calaminaris, "asa.

Lapis lazuli, ^y^ ljaward.


Mercury, Quicksilver, c-jU^-j sim-ab, \J para.
Salt, (jjl 5n, cliUi namak, .
Saltpetre, Nitre, Xjy> shdra.
L
Brimstone, Sulpkur, f gogird, t^-o^ kibrit.

Coal (fossil), 1>j ^^f^ patthar ka k'el, hj> k'l.


98 Vocabulary Nouns.
<> ,9
Alum, phitkart (.), zj-i-sufaid.
fie
Amber, b kah-rub.
9
Lime, chuna, (quicklime) CS&\ ahak.
9
Marble,^*^ marmar, j*yc \* sang-i marmar, ^>-j rukhm.
9
Alabaster, rukhm.
9
Porphyry, jU-j i~> sang-i sumk.
9 -
Ochre, L^U> ^J~j pili mitti, gern.

Loadstone, Magnet, ^JsU-o <J~> sang-i miknatis, ^*-!>bJL mik-


9 ^ 9 m9
ntls, bj^jjbl han-rub, lLX-**- chumbak, iJL*j>- chummak.

Jewel, Gem, j&>y>-jauhar, jawhir, ^ man, ratan.

Diamond, \~Jb hir, <_/.Ull almas.

Ruby, J^ la*l, CJyb ykt, i^jLc mnik.


9
Garnet, CUyb ykt : see Ruby.

Carbuncle, ^sxi shab-ckirgh.
it9 9
Emerald, J^j zumurrud, Uj pann.
Sapphire, ^JuJ nilam, ^ J-3 / mani,jJu> safir.
9
Topaz, pukhrj, j zabarjad.
Turkois, Beryl, sjjj+i ftroza.
9
Amethyst, f>y^f- jabalkm.
'9
Agate, Onyx, ^yU-Le <>-> sang-i sulaimni.

Jasper, Agate, (~> sang-i yashm.
m 9
Opal,^fj LbJjJ ddhiy patthar (?).

Cornelian, J^c Vi#.


>
Corundum stone, i^ kurand.
Vocabulary Nouns. 99

Crystal,jjb billaur, phatak.

Glass, shlsha, knch.

Talk, Mica, ^1 ara# or tijl ara/c, lis jfaZ/t, Jjys oraZ, Jj^J
/ra.
g -J.
Arsenic, jj zarw, ^Ul \ ^ sammu-1-fr.
, i<
Orpiment, jj zarnikh, J^/> hartal.

Cinnabar, Vermilion, <_jw> shangarf, jj dardar.

Blue Vitriol, Tutty, Ljy ttiy.

Naphtha, Bitumen, Lj / or k /.

Red Earth or Ochre, ger.

Armenian Bole, ^j^jl gil-i armant, ^JLc ^ multn .

Natron, , ..js- yj'.

Trees, Shrubs, Plants, and Herbs.

Tree, darakht,j~ipr (f.), .^s-^gcAA, (dakh.) ^*-jhr.


9
Shrub, *\p>-jhr, 6jj 55, ijif^rjhri.

Plant, Herb, C^Lj (f.).


f
Oak, aZ.

Chesnut, L>_jb li sAA 6.

Cypress, Cedar, sari?. Trees, foreign to India; and,


bearing foreign names.
Pine, Fir, jSy~e sanaubar.

Willow, Juj bed (f.).

Poplar or Plane Tree,jL&- chaar.

Teak tree, Tectona grandis, ^j^L sgaun (f.) or sgivn (f.).


S'
Bassia latifolia, mahu'.
100 VocabularyNouns.

Mesua frrea, </li ng-kesar.


Nauclea orientalis, pS kadam or kadamb.

Xanthyocymus pictorius, JtJ tamal.

Dalbergia Sisu, sis.

Lagerstroemia regina or Flos regina, Roxb. jj^-jaral.

Mango tree, Mangifera Indica, jl am, mb.


Embryopteris glutinifera, Roxb. <_>\? gab.
Melia Azedirachta, , nmb.

Melia sempervirens, bakyan.

Michelia Champaca, < * Cos- champak.

Cratva Tapia, or Capparis trifoliata, ^yj barun, U_ barn.

Amyris Agallocha, J^" ggal.

Mimosa Arabica, Jj-j babl(.), j^J babr (O

Mimosa natans, ^j^jj rthnl, jIU* Iqjl.

Mimosa pdica, j!U lajal.

Mimosa scandens, gel.


Mimosa Seris, /-y siris.

Mimosa Suma, samt.

Dillenia Indica, bL- chalt.


Echytes caryophyllata, mlat.

Shorea robusta, JU sal, JL> s/ii.

Ficus glomerata, udumbar.

Ficus Guleria,j^f guiar (f.).


Ficus Indica, C-*> bat,jJ bar.
Ficus religiosa, ppal.
Vocabulary Nmns..:. ' "' >: "'''101

Ficus venosa (or infectoria), jb pkar.


Zizyphus Jujuba, Z>eni.

Laurus Cassia, Cassia or wild Cinnamon, ^ taj.


Salvadora Prsica (also, in the Dakh. Careya arbrea), jLj pl.

Mimusops Elengi, lSj-^j* maulsarl.



Mimusops Kauki, khirri.

Cedrela Toona, Ji tun, or tun.

Celastrus (staff-tree) mlkangnl.

Morinda citrifblia, J I l.

Uvaria longifolia,^\JujO dlbdar, jjb^jJ devdr, <yJ\ asog.

Webera tetrandra, 1 Tiara.


Butea frondosa, palas, ci/US dhk.
i
Tamarix Indica, \#>- jh'.

Acanthus ilicifolius, c^-^ji> harkat.

Terminaba alata or glabra, ilfrJ* arjun.


Terminaba alata or tomentosa, ^\ asan.
Terminaba Beierica, Beleric Myrobolan, lj-^J balitra.

Phoenix sylvestris, wild Date,^s^ khajr.

Justicia Adhatoda, j~J\ arus.


Justicia Gandarussa, bkas.

Justicia nasuta, ^>- plakjh.

Achjrranthes spera, \rj~j^- chirchir, Ijl^T gr.


.
Tamarindus Indica, ^jLol iml, ^Jj^ tintirl.

jEgle Marmelos, bilb.

jEschynomene paludosa, shol.


102 ** : ' "'<" ' ' .Vbcbjilary. Nouns.

iEschynomene Sesban, *bZ~~~>~ jait.

Hyperanthera Morunga, Lsir" sahajn, ban.

Jack fruit tree, Artocarpus integrifolia, kat'kal.

Chironjia spida, ^^s- ckirnji, \jpiyal.

Plantain or Banana tree, Musa sapientum, l>-^ mocha, L kl.

Bombax heptaphyllum, J^- simal, J--- stmbal.

Bauhinia variegata, kachnr, kachnl.


Palm or Toddy tree, Borassus flabelliformis, j\J tr, Jli'Jj bal-tr.

Pinus longifolia, Jj-j saral.


Sappan wood, Csalpinia Sappan, ^su bakam.

Papaw tree, Carica Papaya, L-j papaiya.


Cane, Ratan, Calamus Rotang, t^-J bet (f.).
Creeper, J-j >e (f.), lata (f.).

Agrostis linearis, t-JjJ </&, |j~>- janew.


Alangium hexapetalum, a/.

Aloe perfoliata, J\^^ ghikuwr.



Alpinia Galanga, Galangal, ^J^^s- khlinjn.

Andropogon muricatum, khas (f.), j~\ uslr (f.).

Anethum Sowa, Fennel, Uc s'.


Annona squamosa, ai.

Argemone Mexicana, J^I^j bharbhnd.

Artemisia vulgaris, !a.


Arum campanulatum, J.l 5Z.

Arum Colocasia, i^jjl arwt, kachch.

Arundo tibialis, (J2-^3 narkat.


VocabularyNouns- 103
U .
Asclepias gigantea, Swallow-wort, cJJi ark, JJ^\ akwand.

Asclepias rosea, ^<^ dudhi.



Barleria longifolia, 13 tal makhna.

Boerhavia diffusa, bj^j 1> gadh-prn.



Bryonia grandis, Linn., Momordica monodelpha, Roxb., otZ.

Callicarpa Americana, kuj bastara.


t/t
Cannabis sativa, Hemp plant, ^f^^ gnjh, i*Jj\g bhang.

Carissa Carandas, Corinda or Caronda, 1^ karnd.

Cassia alata, << ta dad-mardan.

Cassia fistula, ^-bU amaltas.

Cassia Tora, ^j^- chakaunda, (or obtusifolia ?) jIjj panwr.

Cassia Sophera, ^j^j^S kasaundi.

Chrysanthemum Indicum, t/^j*^ J5 gul-i-d'd.

Cissus quadrangularis, Vy-jlb hr-jor.

Cleome ViscosajjJ^ib hurhur,


Chtoria ternatea, b-^ aparjit.

Cordia latifolia, IjyJ |^ ara lasor.

Cordia , \J^J lasor.

Crinum Asiaticum and Zeylanicum, ^jJ^Cj sukhdarsan.

Crotalaria juncea, ^ san (whence, a kind of flax).


CO
Cucumis Colocynthis, ^jAil indrayan.

Cucumis Madraspatanus, ~~> senrf (f.).

Cucumis momordica, phuti, <-bj^ pwi (f.)

Cucumus sativus, khira.


104 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Cucumis utilissimus, bjjf kakr.


p
Cucurbita citrullus, jyji tarbuz.

Cucurbita lagenaria, kadd, ghiy.

Cucurbita Melopepo, jJ ^jfi?* rmtht kadd.



Cucurbita Pepo, <Uj kadima, \&y kamrh.

Curcuma reclinata or Zerumbet,^^ kachr.



Curcuma Zedoaria, ^p~{j> nirbisi, jadwr.

Curcuma Zerumbet, ljj zurumbad, jy kachr.

Cuscuta reflexa, Air plant or Dodder, ^ jJ 1 ks-pawan.


.
Cyperus pertenuis or juncifolius, \$>f* ^f\j ngar-mth.

Cyperus rotundus, Igi^o motha.

Dolichos bifloras (kind of pulse), kurtl or ^jgAZ kulthi.

Dolichos pruriens (Cowitch or Cowach), <^<f kiwnch or

kewnch.

Dolichos Sinensis (kind of bean), Ujj! lbiy.


9
Echinops echinatus, Globe thistle, \Jci katara or \J&> \L}\ nt-
katr.
Echites caryophillata, mlafi.
CO
Eclipta prostrata, ^j/j^ bkringrj.

Elaeocarpus serratus, ^'[^.jalpl.


"s
Epidendrum tessellatum, Mistletoe, 1 banda, \j banda, \j
banda.
o# o
Euphorbia antiquoram, li^.-.- schund, \j\&S> tidhr.
Vocabulary. Nouns.

Euphorbia hirta and thymifolia, duddh.

Euphorbia neriifolia, Jb}4> thuhar.

Euryale ferox, makhn.

Feronia elephantum, t-~ kait.

Flacourtia cataphracta, paniyl.

Gsertnera racemosa, blybjU madholata, U mlti lata.



Gardenia florida, ^ gandhrj.

Gardenia latifolia, Vjjb papra.

Gossypium herbaceum, Cotton plant, j^t kaps.

Grewia Asitica, LJlgj^fo.

Grislea tomentosa, ^laJ dhari.

Hedysarum Alhagi, l-!}*- jawasa.


t 9
Helianthus annuus, Sunflower, ^4^ sraj-mukhi.

Helicteres Isora, marr-phal.

Hibiscus Phniceus, ^ sadsuhgan.

Hibiscus Populneoides, Jj-j wj1^ pras-plpal.

Jasminum auriculatum, ^j>y>-jul.

Jasminum grandiflorum, great flowered jasmine, ^Ji\^- jtt.

Jasminum Zambac, 5 bla.

Jatropha Curcas, ji; bagrendi.

Jonesia Asoca, ^ asok or ashk.


?
Ixora undulata, tli^b palahjht.

Kmpferia rotunda, Lj- ^jj bhn-champ.


I/O
Lawsonia inermis, ^^< mehdi, Lp- hinn l^f.).
106 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Linum usitatissimum, LS atasi, LS~-~> tlsi.

Luffa acutangula, jhng.

Luffa pentandra, jJ Uf> ghiy-tral.

Lycopodium imbricatum, - Ifta hth-jofi.

Menispermum glabrum, ^j gurch (f.), ^.Ji gurach, jl gilau.

Menispermum hirsutum, ^jj jj^i farid-bti.

Menyanthes Indica or cristata, ^y^ kamdini (or kamdam).

Momordica Charantia, \ karel.

Myrtle (Myrtus communis) ^\ s (in Arab.), j* murd (Gilch.).

Nelumbium Speciosum, Lotus, jJo padam, Jl*S kamal, Jy kawal.

Nerium odorum, sweet scented Rosebay, fcanr (f.), J^kanl (f.).

Nerium oleander, Oleander or Rosebay, xj^jj*- khar-zahra.

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, jbb singr-hr.

Nymphsea Lotus, ^ <fi kl, iJ^. srang,j^j nllfar, kamal,

kawal, ambuj.

Ocimum basilicum, sweet Basil, > sabza, sabzi.
9
Ocimum pilosum, mar', )srj , yjU nazbo.

Ocimum sanctum, Jj mZs, IoJ^j brinda, ^j-Aj ArZ7 mZs.



Oldenlandia biflora, l^jb c^o pit-ppr, sj a\> shh-tara.

Orange tree, kaunl.

Origanum Majorana, \f marw (?).

Ovieda verticillata, ^> ^-b bamn-hattt.

Pedalium murex, ^jjsty bara gdkhr.


Vocabulary.Nouns.

Pharnaceum Mollugo, \*< gim.

Phyllanthus Emblica, Emblic Myrobalan, !T amia.


go
Physalis flexuosa, iXS~i] asgandh.
Piper Betle, Betel plant, J^j t/li nag-bel.
Piper Cubeba, Cubebs, yJJ>- 4->L kabab chini, <u\S kababa.

Piper longum, long pepper, J-j pipal, ^Lj ^ipZI.

Plumbago Zeylanica, b*&- chitt.

Poa Cynosuroides, fcasA, <_j1j tfe (f.).

Pteris lanulata, ^UijL-^j parisiywashn.


r -f
Rhus coriaria, j\*~>sumak (prop. JjU-j summk).

Ricinus communis, O^1 arand, 3j\ and, i^mjj rend, Sij rand.
9bi*
Rosa Chinensis, i-J&gZ kathgulb.

Rottlera Indica, y\*Xj pindlu.



Rubia Manjith, ^Ls* majth (f.), l~s<> man/t (f.).
/ ^
Ruellia longifolia, gkhr.

Rumex vesicarius, \y>~ chk.


99 S9
Saccharum cylindricum, jjt ul, ^\ l (f.).
'
Saccharum Munja, gye mnj.
o >
Saccharum officinarum, m&.

Saccharum procerum, <--*j^j sarpat.
oo
Saccharum Sara, sar, ^ sentha, ^j^-'-^ senthi.
o
Santalum album, Sandal wood or tree, ^^f- chandan.

Serratula anthelmintica, bakchi.

Sesamum orientale, Jj Z.
108 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Sinapis dichotoma, a species of mustard, ^yj* sarsdn.


Solanum Jacquini, ^ bhat-katl.

Solanum melongena, {JL baigan, JL) baigan.

Solanum nigrum, Nightshade, mako, ^Jjk tuUdn.


<*
Sonchus, ^\ kmrj.

Sphranthus Indicus, ^<^< mund.

Strychnos nux-vomica, kuchl.



Symplocas racemosa, xj> lodh.
Thymus, Thyme, j\A ipr.

Trapa natans, singhr.

Trianthema pentandra, ^ bis-khapr.

Trichosanthes dioica,jy parwar, Jjb palwal.

Trigonella fnugrsecum, LS$2~* >.



Trophis spera, s'r.

Typha (a species ?), ^J>^ gndn : (elephantina) i^fc hugl.

Valeriana Jatamansi, Spikenard, ^JA^ov ^j-sU ^.jat-msior-mnsi.

Vallisneria spiralis or octandra, jsy siwr.

Vangueria spinosa, ^<\ madan.

Verbesina prostrata or scandens, ^fijtf bhringrj, bhangr.

Vitex Negundo, ^J>\ indrani, j!U~j saml.

Vitex trifolia, j!U-> saml.

Volkamria infortunata, L-*3^ bhnt.

Urtica interrupta, stinging Nettle, b'lgacr bichht, anjira (?).

Xanthium Indicum, \j\> ghghr.


Vocabulary Nouns.

Esculent Roots and Vegetables.


9_
Potato, ji 1 l.
9- f
Yam,j!l l, jfcj ratl.

Sweet Potato, J3 JJ* shakar-kand.

Turnip, jjt)-) shalgham.


Carrot,jsy ifgjar (f.).

Radish, ^Jy* .

Onion, JLj piyz (f.), UK A5nrf(?), J-oJ W(f.),V^ga?<A5.


<- .
Leek, Ujco gandan.

Garlick, ^ ^ lahsan,j~* sir.


/ J>
Beet, 1j^s*~ chichind, jJc- chukundur.

Ginger in the undried state, \jjj\ adrak.

A Vegetable, ^jjj> tarkrl.

Egg-plant, ^jCj baigan, {^-^. baingan, liDl# bhnt.


Greens, </L sg or tub L sag-pat, bhaji.

Cabbage, ^ karam-, ^ .
fi
Cauliflower, ^ ^^phl-kbl.

Cucumber, khir.

Gourd, Pumpkin, j kadu.


Vea,j~< matar, (dakh.) bl2j batana.

Bean, iljb bkl.
Kind of bean (Dolichos Sinensis) Ljj! lbiy.

Spinage, CJW^plak.
Mint, <u.;jJ podna.
1 10 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Parsley, ^abA ajmd.

Endive, ksrii, b> hindb.

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) kalm.


Ou
Portulaca olercea, Purslain, Uj! lona, IJj! loniy, noniya,

kand, khurfa.
Cresses (garden), CJ tara-tezak,j~s>- chansur, Jl ///.

Cresses (water), Ljj cjj lt-ptiy, jSj^yJ de'kndar.


f
Arum campanulatum (root), \)jy* sran.

Arum Colocasia (root),^!ls^ kachal, ^{^ ghyn.

Amaranthus Gangeticus, </Lj ll-sg.

Amaranthus oleraceus, mars.

Amaranthus polygamus, chaulai.

Basella alba and nigra, p'.

Chenopodium album, \*fJ bath'.

Convolvulus repens, Ly^ kalrr.



Dioscorea fasciculata (root of), ^J-^y sthm.

Dolichos Sinensis (kind of bean from), Ujj! lobiya, ^-Hjj rowans.

Hibiscus esculentus, cA^j bhindt, ^'ji \j rm-tura'.



Hyperanthera morunga (the root used for horseradish), Ixsir" sahajn.

Lathyrus sativus, ufj~ kisrt.

Flowers.

Althea rosea, gul-i-khaira.

Arghawan,
Vocabulary Nouns. Ill

Bassialatifolia (flowers of), ^J^>- J> gul chikn.


oo
Chndnl, , JAiU*- .

Chrysanthemum Indicum, ^Jj'Ij JS gul-i-d'di.


"y

Clitorea ternatea, ^^ ^ kaww-thenthi.

Cockscomb flower, Amaranthus cruentus, \J~Q gul-ksh, ^j*- ^


taj-i-kharos.
9,
Globe Amaranth, Gomphrena globosa, J*j* gul-i-makhmal.

Hibiscus mutabilis, i_-jbs? guli-aj'ib.

Hibiscus rosa Sinensis, jaw.


.
Hibiscus Syriacus, J^p gurhal.

Impatiens Balsamina, ^y0 l)^ gul-mihdt.
o
Jasmine, ^*- ysmin or ^jj^^-jb ysrrin.

Jasmine (white), a lily or an Iris (?), zambak.

Jasmine (a sort of), t/jflji niwf.

Jasminum auriculatum, ^>^- jithi.



Jasminum grandiflorum, ^jL*i- chambli.

Jasminum multiflorum or pubescens, Lj kath-blla.
Jasminum Zambac, J^j bel.
Jasminum Zambac, var. , Ujj^o motiya.

Jasminum Zambac, var. y, \J>y> mogr.

Kapr,jj.
Lily, ^^jj- ssan (f.), (of the valley) ljA~> saman.

Linum trigynum, i^/^jafarl, ^j>\ JS gul-i-ashrafi.

Madan ban, ^Jo ^Jui .


1 12 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Mango-tree (blossom of),^ maur.

Marigold, \<xS gend.



Michelia Champaca, L^- champ.

Mimusops Elengi, ^j^yo maulsarl.



Mirabilis Jalapa, Marvel of Pera, /-Le j gul-i-bbs.

Nafarmn, ^/^

Narcissus, Narcissus Tagetes, j-^j nargis (f.), yjj nargis-i-


shahl.

Nelumbium speciosum, Lotus, *Ai padam, kamal, Jy kawal.

Nerium odorum, sweet-scented Rosebay, j leaner (f.), J- karil (f.).

Nerium Oleander, common Rosebay or Oleander, sjbj ji. Miar zahra.

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis,j&~*j> harsingr orjl-^l hrsingr.

Nympha Lotus, ^j'k'e, Jj kawal, ij\~ srang, nilfar.

Pandanus odoratissimus, \jy k'r, ketaki.

Pantapetes Phnicea, dupahriy.

Plumera, (rj-^b gul-chin.

Poinciana pulcberrima, ) JS gul-i-turra.

Polianthes tuberosa, yJ* JS guiri shab-, or y t_^> shab-bo.

R'l-bl, J-J s'\j .

Ratan-ml, tc .

Ratan-manjar, ^jj^Xc .

Rosa centifolia, _^ gulb, JS gwZ.

Rosa chinensis, t_^l^S kathgulab.

Rosa glandulifera, ^3^ s'i, <Sj>, > sad-barg, > nastaran.


Vocabulary.Nouns.

White Rose of India, Rosa glandulifera (?), <r~j nastaran,

nasrin.

Sinapis ramosa, uy>j-> sarsn.

Sunflower, Helianthus annuus, LS^U mraj-mukhi.

Tagetes patula, i_g^ix- gul-i-ja*far.

TuHp, ! la, J^Ui shak'ik.

Vinca rosea, Ji gul-i farang.

Violet, <Cjj banafsha (f.).

Zizyphus Jujuba (flower of), <y*& khichr.

Fruits.

Mango, |l m, ^Jl wi.

Plantain (fruit), u eZ, kadali, jya mauz.

Custard apple, J^j sit-phal, b'l i, <> sharfa.

Annona reticulata (fruit of), Lij! 55, lji .



Jack fruit, J^2 kathal.

Barhai, Ja)? .

Rose apple, jman.

Hog Plum, L! .

Guava, ^j^ amrut, \ ^~ safr am.

Date, \ chhuhara, \*j~ khurm.

Pomegranate, J\ anr,j\j nr, darim.

Pineapple, (j~\x>\ ananns.

Cocoa-nut J/5 nriyal, J^^^ nrl.


Q
] 14 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Lemon or Lime, * , *^ .
ju '
Orange, ^ij nrangt, ^rj nranj, kaula, ij&~>

sangtara.
Citron, ^y turunj, JL galgal, U karn.
Pompelmoose, Shaddock, xjj>- chaktara.

Fig, j*sr\ anr.

Grape, jifj\ angwr, mab.

Mulberry, c-Jc^ii shahtut, CJy tut.


ft.
Musk Melon, karbza, ^Usj- jamli, ^.Jaj bitkh.

Water Melon, j}J tarbz.


Kind of Melon (Cucumis Momordica), Jjft phut, <-bjfc phut.

Gourd (Cucurbita Pepo) \s>Ja kamraha, kndh.


? - s
Gourd (Cucurbita lagenaria), jJ kad, or kadd, lj lauk.

Gourd (of uncertain species), IgiJ petha, parwar, (j~y~&

dheras.
* i
Apple, _ sb, sv.

Pear, ^y'Liti nshptl.

Quince, bihl, <D bih, Js>-yu- safarjal.

Peach, jlls shaftl, jj\ r, f\ l-bukhr.

Apricot, t zard Z.

Cherry, J I s f.

Almond, j!jb bdm, jj lauz.

Olive, ^jsjj zaitn, Lbf- jalp4.

Betel nut, from Catechu, ^t- suprt.


Vocabulary Nouns. 115
9
Cashew nut, fruit of Anacardium orientale, y>-^ kj.

Nut jf>-jauz. Filbert, ifinduk (f.). Pistachio, <J pista.

Tamarind, ^^J tamr-i hindi.


~ *r S S
Emblic Myrobalan, 1*\ ml.

Rottlera Indica (fruit of), $\<iJ pindl.

Scytalia Litchi (fruit of), licht.

Vangueria spinosa (fruit of), {^c main-phal.


Jujube, Zizyphus Jujuba (fruit), blr.

Phyllanthus Cheramela (fruit of), gfJji^Vffc harphrTri.

Cordia (fruit of), lasr.


Cordia latifolia (fruit of), Vfj-J VjJ bar lasr.
,
Averrhoa Carambola (fruit of), -4j> kamrakh.

Mimusops Kauki (fruit of), \_j>j4 khirni.



Chironjia spida (nut of), ^sTjj*- chirn.

Flacourtia cataphracta (fruit of), 1\~J paniyal.

Grains, Seeds.
Rice (in the husk), ^IaJ dhan.

Rice (cleared of the husk), J.3b~ chmiwal, > birinj, JxJ tandul.

Wheat, ^#~> g/, gandum, (dakh.) -^" ghyau.

Barley, _js>- Jaw.


to ^
Holcus Sorghum, j\y>- j'r, ^jjsjjs^- jaundri, (dakh. also)
ijj\>- j'rl.

Maize, Zea Mays, Indian corn, bhu, j; kukri, (dakh.)

ijyV ^^L makkijri.


116 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Rgee, Elusine Coracana, \}y~e manr', or ', (dakh.

TEL.) rg.

Millett (kind of), Panicum Italicum, china, ^J& kangnt,

(dakh.) \j rl.
Millett (kind of), Panicum colonum, Uli shm.

Millett (kind of), Panicum frumentaceum, lyU snw, Uli shm.

Millett (kind of), Panicum miliaceum (?), chaina.

Millett (kind of), Panicum pilosum, arzan.

Millett (kind of), Panicum spicatum, \j>\ bjr, L<1 laharr.

Pulse, Vetches, Jb dal.

Vetches, Lentils, 4L mth.

Vetch or Pulse, masin.

Pulse (kind of), Ervum hirsutum, masr.

Pulse (kind of), Cicer arietinum, L>- chana.


.
Pulse (kind of), Phaseolus Mungo, && mng (f.).
Vetch (kind of), Phaseolus radiatus, ^U msh.

Vetch (kind of), Dolichos biflorus, kulthi, kurthi.


CO
Vetch (kind of), Vicia sativa, ^Jj\ .

Coriander seed, LiAJ dhaniy, kishriz.

Cumin seed, ^jJ zra, 1;>->;', ^j^^ .

Anise seed, - , (_jj-> saunf(f,j.

Cardamoms, ^>^ ilchl, lilS kkula.



Serratula anthelmintica (seed of), ^^j- somrj.

Sinapis ramosa (seed of), rl.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 117

Food in general for Animals.


Grass, Hay, Straw, ghs (f.), \$ giyah (f.).
. m
Leaf, ^jupattt, ^j^J^j banspattt, ifj> barg.

Root, Jc kand, I f.

Flower, Jj^j /)/, Js gul.

Fruit, J$j phal, iy** mewa, &y fawkih.

Grain, Corn, <di ghalla, anj, <lj dana.

Milk, JbJjJ ddh, jJit shir,j*g>- chhir, j*jf g-ras.


G 1.
Honey, Jcy-i shahd, J-c asaZ, -AX< madh.
Sugar, ^Li> shakar (f.).
Insects, Reptiles, Grubs, Worms, k'ire, i^jf~* lj kre makr.
GG
Fish, L5l^f:* machhl.
g ^
Fowl, jJ^ parando, jy\s^ jnwar.

Flesh, i^fJLo rns, (j~to mas, ij^Ji>js gosht.

Worms, Reptiles, Insects, Spiders.


G
Worm, Grub, Maggot, Reptile, Insect, \jJ kir, kirm, \j
makdr.
gg
Earth-worm, |j=b kenchw.

Small Worm, CS^f kirmak, \yS kr.

Snail, ghng, &jI aint.

Leech, ul&js- ^& (f.), jllj / (f.), ljL>- jalauk (f.).

Snake, Serpent, t_jL smp.

Kind of Snake, jjS' ghna, u-o^ karait, j dorn, ^IJ tiA-


O/ G
min, jjKi-s sunktar, barwat (f.).
118 Vocabulary. Nourm.

Boa constrictor, >\ ajgar.


Coluber Naja, {f\j nag.
.
Dragon, jj\ azhdar, azhdaha.

Viper, ^j\ afi (.), i_^L> smp, <f\j nag.

Lizard, ljI^*- chhipka, U>LL- chilpsa, ^l^S girgit.


t > <-
Tortoise, Ijfs^ kachh', U-b bkh, \*Zj ^ sang-pusht.

Crocodile, JVjj^ ghariyl, j> kumhr, nihang.

Alligator,^ magar, \ grh, ^sfjLc magar-machh, xf goh.

Chameleon, girgit, jj^iiiy bukalamn.

Frog, cSai~o mldak or mduk, jjlj ddur, j ghk.

Toad, -$ kath-, <J_^ ghk.

Salamander (fabulous inhabitant of fire), jJc--o samandar.

Centipede, l^ys^ kankhajma, j^- gojar.

Beetle, jJj^'j gobaronda, gubraut.

Fire-fly, Glowworm, ^S^-jugni.

Grasshopper, !j m, Ulf phang.

Locust, t^jS fin, jl^- jarad.

Bug, J-*^3 khatmal, kth-klr, LUj ntny.


"y * * " ^
Bug (green), gandhi.

Cricket, ^l-^jAzHgMr, jhillt.

Mole Cricket, Gryllus gryllotalpa, ghurghur.

Butterfly, fiir, parwna.

Moth, tiL patanga, parwna.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 119

Caterpillar, \$s?\#>~ jknjh, \y .

Silkworm, <JL>\j pt-kirm, <d-j kirm-i-ptla.

Hornet, j^Jj zambr, (dakh.) dikf: see Wasp.


"
Wasp, birri,j) harr (f.), 1 hadd.
-
Bee (honey), ^^sU. mumkhl or UjiX* madhumkht, *(>

shahd-makkht or (_<$< ^ wV^i shahd makkhl.

Bee (humble or large black), bhringi.

Bee (large black), j^> bhawar or \j bhawrd, or lyj^j bhaura,



^1 , CL&^# bhring.

Ant, Pismire, mr, narnZ.


o >
Ant (black), ljj-^- chynt, (large) tlL pilak, (small) ^^^-

Ant (large), chnt, , (dakh.) Vj^SLo makhor.


^
Ant (small), chnti, ^J>- chin.

Ant (white), dimak (f.), cL&O dwak (f.).

Fly, ^e^Ce makkht, ijJLc magas (f.).

Gadfly or large Mosquito, ^brfares^dakh. gadfly) ^^Ljs gbmachi.


m m ?
Mosquito, Gnat, Midge,^s'* machchhar, <tj pashsha, ^ kutkl.
CO
Midge (that flies into the eyes at night), $&T nkh-phr.
f m y
Louse, i^j^j (f),jl>- chillar (f.). Lice, ^>- j', 8cc.

Nit, 1 , (f.)-

Flea, ~j piss, y phu, CS kaik.


/
Weevil (small insect in rice, corn, &c), \Sjy^ snda, i^J^{ pitan,
^ ghun.
120 Vocabulary Nouns.

Spider, i_fj-< makr, VjSU .

Scorpion, j$= bichchu, tlss^j brischik, kazhdum.

Fishes.

Fish, L5l^f:<' machhi, (ff* machchhi, , ^ , ^

Aw (f.).
el, |* 2><.

Lamprey, ^^ff-"* ^ tamb machhl.

Mango fish, Polynemus paradiseus, j^^ff-"* tapassl (or tapst)

machhU.

Bikt, ^jfi^ bhikthl.

Species of Herring, Clupea alosa, Lia i7s5 (f.).

Species of Herring, Clupea cultrata, \yu>- chalw.


fi
Cyprinus denticulatus, y&jj (f.).

A species of Silurus, tengr.
?,
Silurus pelorius, maguri.

Silurus pungentissimus, ^~~> singt.

Silurus sagittatus, pangas.



Mullet, ^Jj parhin (f.).
fi
Porpoise, jUw-jj~) ssmr, ~~> sus.

Sprat, or fish resembling a sprat, L^S* khair.

Prawn or Shrimp, l^gs- jhng (f.).



Crab, V , IsLS'ggf.

Oyster, kastr (f.).


Muscle, VL stpl ka (shell-worm).
Vocabulary. Nouns.

Birds.

Phoenix (fabulous), Lj> huma, lir nk, (_<rS kuknus.

Griffin (fabulous), ^/V simurgh.

Eagle, t_>\ kab.

Vulture, Jb giddh, JbJJ* gdh, kargas, j~i nasr.

Falcon (species of), j>- jurra or \j>-jurra (male ofjb haz).

Falcon (royal white), ^^bb shhn.

Falcon (female), j\> baz.



Falcon (Falco calidus), bahrt or <jy=< bahrl.

Hawk,jb bz, iJJu shikra, j=r jhagar.

Hawk (Falco cristatellus), ^Jtif kohl.


*
Hawk (Falco fasciatus or dubius), \J~*j> turmatt.

Hawk (Sparrow), Lib bsh,^\py* msh-gir.

Kite (Falco Cheela), J-a> chtl (f.), zaghan (f.)

Owl, j>\ ullu, J1 ulagh, bum, chughd, b^u pecha.

Sparrow, gauriy (f.) chir, (hen) bj^- chiriya (f.).

Lanius Boulboul (Nightingale of Persia, &c), JJj bulbul.

Turdus slica or Gracula religiosa (Moina), l^L srik.

Swallow, J-obl abbl.

Swallow (Hirundo apus Batassia), ^-> spbin.

Lark, bhadr, ^\ agin, (Alauda Aggia) agiy.

Starling (kind of), J^a sr (f.).

Raven, ^ ^JSs>- jangli kaww, \ J>J dhar-kaww.


122 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Crow, \fi kaww, f& kg, <--^ ghurab.

Rook, Jackdaw, \fi kawwa, &^ kg : see Crow.



Coracias Bengalensis, -$51J riil-hanth.
!
Hoopoe, Upupa, > hudhudfJ~> <U> shna-sar.
Hornbill, Buceros, dharis.

Woodpecker, ^ kath-phor,jypj$j patthar-phr.

Cuckoo (the black or Indian), JjS kkil (f.), Jjj koyal (f.), il&

pik.

Cuculus castaneus, \(* mahkh.

Cuculus melanoleucos, chtak.


> / * *
Parrot, \jy tota, \y> s', C~ suk, ^Je> tt}, ^jy .
9 } 9
Paroquet, \y s', -i sg, tf, hlrman.

Domestic Cock, kukkut, \f kkr, U^ murgh.

Domestic Hen, ^gfi , L5r< murghi.


. {
Peacock, jyt mr, ^Jbj barht, (j-j s t's.

Peahen, jy* worm. Peachick, hj* mrela.

Fowl, murgh, mkiyn.

Turkey, jjJ ^ JJ fil-murgh.

Pheasant, jjJJ tadarv.


Partridge (Perdix francolinus),^iJ Citar, durrj.

Partridge (unknown species), durraj, kabk.

Quail (kind of. Perdix olivcea), jf-iJ bater.

Quail (kind of. Perdix Chinensis), IjJ Zawa.

Pigeon, Dove, kapt, \j>J parewa,J>y& kabtar.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 123

Pigeon (green. Columba Hurriala), Jjy> hariyal.

Pigeon (tumbler), Ui\< mandaliy.

Ortolan (Emberiza hortulana ?) JJ>j bargel, lj~>j> pargirt.

Ostrich, g^ejJ* shutur-murgh.

Sort of Bustard (Otis Bengalensis), jy>- charz.

Crane, <& kulang, ^jr knj : see Heron.


, A
Heron (Ardea torra and putea), Kj aga or 5j bagula, aA,
jU-jjJ butimar.

Heron (Ardea Antigone), j^Lj sras.

Heron (Ardea Argala), Adjutant Bird, L^a> harg'ila, khags,

f/garur.

Heron (Ardea Indica), J$U>- jnghal.

Bittern (Ardea stellaris), ^jlL chamar-bagU, ^UJjJ btlmr.

Stork, laglag, jisi laklak.



Sandpiper (Tringa Goensis, Lath.), ijj~> tatirt, lJ/^ tatthrt.

Waterfowl, ^* murghab.

Coot or Diver, ^J pandubi.



Flamingo, ^ raj-hans (?).

Pelican, Js!j5>- hawal, (Pelecanus onocrotalus) ^gagan-bher.

Swan, A?w, -^ rj-hans.

Goose, Duck, ^-A , Lj 6a (f.), jl taz.


Gander, Drake, UaJ batp, j> j\s kaz-nar.

Beasts.
Beast, haiwn, nx>y>- charanda, j-j ^as.
124 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Horse, gkr, u-*J asp9 u~j* fat'as.

Mare, \J\y$ ghori, ^\>\*> mdiyn (f.), (dakh. also) mdwn.

Foal, Filly, ^jfsj? bachhrl.


-*
Colt, 'i-fsT bachhtr, n-kand, kurra.

Pony, Galloway, jjb yab, y*> tattu, c^jt tnghan.

Gelding, <fcH , L>. kutiy.

Mule,^?"" khachchar, astar.

Ass, \n> gadh, (she Ass) ^Jbgadh, j- , Jus- himr.



Wild Ass, Onager, Zebra, gr-khar, ^jiJLjj* khar-i-dashtt.

Camel, ljjl nt, j! shutur, ushtur.

Camel (female), ,_5^5^ , ^jJj^sndrii, (dakh. also) ^J-* samt.

Dromedary, ^yJLi sndri.

Camelus Bactrianus (camel with two humps) UjSjO d-kh-.


(- <*
Stag, IL-j i^b brah-sing, j\~i<x kandsr, harn.

Elk, Moose, jJLj sambar, ^jf gawazn : see Stag.


Spotted Deer of India (Cervus axis), J^>- chltal.

Deer, tj* mirg, ^Jb haran, *&\ ,^ klhar.



Buck, Hart, UfJb harn, haran.

Doe, Hind, ^Jjb harm.

Fawn, vyjb harnaut, sy jb\ h-bara.

Camelopard, or Giraffe (from Arab. >\jj zarrfa), d&b j\S gw-


palang.
Antelope, ^jb haran, \fc>~ chikr : see Deer.
i*
Antelope (painted or white-footed. Antilope picta), -#>-j rjh.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 125
fa
Goat (Caper aegagrus), \Jj bakr, (fem.) ^Jj , Js\>- chhgal,

(dakh.) chhl, (fem.) ^J^*- chhi.


faj fa
Kid, l<*^ mmn, <Jlc^ buzghla, halwn.
fa fa ^ /
Sheep, jf-# Mr (f.), gspand (f.), gdar (t.), (dakh.) \J*}
bakr.
fa
Ewe, J-^ bhr (f.), i_|-# iAr, (dakh.) lj/j .

Ram, Ijc-^o mendh, bhr, ^jt^t msh, (dakh.) \J* bakr.

Lamb, L> y^ bhr k bachcha, 5L lel, xj> bara.


Cow, ' g'e (f.),j\Tgw (f.), (cow or one of the cow kind) ^ g.

Bull, J-J j3j\ nd-bail, barad, war gw,jy saur.

Ox, Bullock, J-j JiZ, Lajo badhiya.


fa fa fa
Calf, ^= bachhr or V|$e bachhr, bchh, (female) Lfart

bachhiy, (dakh.) jjr, (fem.) i^j^pri.

Heifer, jijl kal5r,j~j\ sar (f.).

Steer, young bullock, dhn, \ khail.

Buffalo (male), bhains, l^-^ maihik, ^J~* ^ gw-msh.

Buffalo (female), (./-^J bhais (f.), ^J-^> maihiki, {J*~* jo gaec-

fa
Buffalo, (wild, male), , (female) ^jjjl .

Buffalo (calf), prhl, Ara, l/^j-s sngr, pf.


s- t
Bos grunniens, Yak, i3^*r sara-g' or j\f sara-g'.
fa
Hog (wild), Lj&jj barhel or u^j barhl.
if r f
Boar, Hog,j^js s'r, i^b brh, (y<. khuk.^y* skar.

Sow, c^j- '.


1 26 Vocabulary Nouns.
.
Pig, ght, (female) /^# gheti: see Hog, Sow.

Rhinoceros, gaind, ^J> kargadan.


ce
Elephant, ^jf^b hathi (m.), (female) hathni, J^fd.
<*9 9
Elephant (large) <Jss& kuvjal, (small) -^ kumedy.

Hare, Rabbit, bU! lamkan, If*] lamh, (Jf j- khar-gosh,
kharh.
/
Porcupine, ^^ibVa z, JjbL: si/, i^-*.j jU- khar-pusht.
9 ? 9b
Rat, bsj- chuh, \~>yc ms, ndur.
9 9 .
Bandicote Rat, Mus giganteus, Hardw., ghs, ghs.
9 9
Musk Rat, Sorex caerulescens, chhuchhndar.
9 V 9 f
Mouse, ,_<^- chuh, ^Jj^y* msrt, <J^y* msh.
/ J>
Squirrel, gilahrl, chlkhur, rkhi, (dakh.), c^-lS

giZr (?).
*
Cat, ib nZZ, (fem.) ^b nZZi, jb bil', (fem.) c_/ib nZa^, jj gurba,
^
jbsu manjar, jjU> mno, (dakh. also)j!jl> bilwar.

Kitten, <b Ii n'ZZ bachcha.


c>
Lion, singh, cr-^ ksarl, >Jj^ ktha,jJ> sher, asad.

Lioness, singhint, ^jJt> shernt.

Tiger, -$sb bgh,jJi> sher,jfi babar, nhar.


tj, o
Tigress, (^b baghan or ^^> b bghni, ^ shernt.
o, feo
Tiger's Whelp, baghel, jjjjb dahwru, (dakh.) Z>r (?).

Panther, b~- chtt,j yz, <b palang.
9b
Leopard, Lynx, b,J-J tend', <&b palang, (small hunting)
Vocabulary.Nouns. 127

Persian Lynx (Felis Caracal), j^ijf aU~ siyh-gosh.

Hyena, fgirir, lakr, Ja kaftr.


t
Ichneumon or Mongoose, ^jSQ blji, yJ\j rs, J^J newal, (dakh.)

mungs.

Dog, li kutt, kukar, (JL sag, ^\y> swan.

Fox, t_/*^ tmfi, i\>)j robah (f.).

Wolf, bj^J bhriy, \fjuS lndg, <j> gurg, jiteJb hundr.

Jackal, gdar, Jl*~i shaghl, JU~> siyZ.

Otter, jSoJjl d-bil', j t\* mhi-gir.

Weasel, Ferret, Fitchat, Marten, J^J riwal, jdj rs.

Polecat, ^l5g khats, Ji katr.

Bear, rchh, Jl# 5AZ, bhal, khirs.

Mole, chhuchhndar (which is the musk rat).


f
Hedge-hog, t^ jU- khr-pusht, smh.

Bat,Jj-t^- chamgtdar, bdur, Vi t-~i shab-para.


(, ce
Monkey, Ape,jJCJ bandar, (fm.) ^J bandrl, tijy bozna.

Baboon, jj&J langr, ^j**** : see Monkey.

fan.
*
Man, human being, j^wjU mnus, rfm, {^-jan, insn,
ff
(jLjj purush.

Man (in opposition to woman), mard.

Man (servant), naukar,J nafar.

Woman, ,_50^ randt, CJ^e urat, ^- istr, A) b'ik, zan.


128 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Old man, brk, ^ pir, ^-b shaikh, (dakh. also) Wxj buddha.

Old woman, LJj burhiya (f.), ptr-zan, (dakh. also) Uu bud-

hiya (f.), buddJi or ^/Jj 6?7.

Young man, ^^-y jatean, j gabr.

Young woman, ^Jy>. juvati, k'r, ij^>- chhkr.

Maid, Virgin, bakira, k'rt, dshiza, ^jj krt.

Boy, Lad, lark, ]y>>- chhkr, (servant) IjOj launda.

Girl, (>_sjJ larkt, t_/j$f- chhbkr,ji~ii dukhtar, (servant) t_?jj! laund.

Child, Babe, Infant, <fcs~ bachcha, (fem.) ^yxr bachchl, \> blak,

Jib i/?, jJjji farzand.

Giant, danav, ic^jyU t/ri: see Tall, Big.

Dwarf, 15^ bauna, (fem.) baunl, tli ni, (dakh.) thlngu.

A Human being by relationship may be

Husband, j*3- khasam, jb> shauhar, zauj.

Wife, ,jy>~j5r, zauja (f.), jj zan.

Father, <_jb bp, bb 66, \yb Jic, \sjpit. jJj pidar.

Grandfather, (paternal) cftzfti, Wl ya, (maternal) lilj nana, Jc>-

Great Grandfather, (paternal) bb^j par-dd, (maternal) bb^j ^ar-

nana.

Father-in-law (husband's or wife's father), j~~> sasur (or susar), 1^>

susr,j~~ khusar.

Adopted Father or God-father, <_jb dharm-bp.


Vocabulary Nouns. 129

Mother, U ma, ^U> man, li'L mata, jjto madar, ijJij wlida.

Grandmother, (paternal) > , (maternal) .

Great Grandmother, (paternal) ^\jjt par-dd, (maternal) .ili ^

-.

Mother-in-law (husband's or wife's mother), ss, ~*~


khush-dman.

Step-mother, cyU-J bernt, \$~yc maibha.

Brother, bh' (m.),^^ birdar,^ .

Own brother, (_s*l# tL sag bh'l, t,/l# sahdar bh'.

Brother-in-law (sister's husband), ij bahril, bahn'.

Brother-in-law (husband's elder brother), ^Ls>- jeth.



Brother-in-law (husband's younger brother), jjjJ dlwar.

Brother-in-law (wife's brother), L s/.

Brother-in-law (husband's sister's husband), i% nando'.

Brother-in-law (wife's sister's husband), _jJL> srh, i_a!j ^ -

Step-brother (brother by the father only), Ljj-j satl bh'.

Step-sister (sister by the father only), ^-^y^ sautt bahin.

Son, \!L> beta, CLiy^ put, j~j pisar.

Son-in-law (daughter's husband), oUlo dmd, ^ U>- jamcfi.

Adopted Son or God-son, 1!Lj j& dharm-bet.

Stepson (son by a former husband), j rabtb, (or dakh.) 1Lj i_-^j

Daughter, ^JLj bt,jn>~ dukhtar (f.), ^ju putr, ^jt dh.


130 Vocabulary. Nouns.
9 ft*
Daughter-in-law (son's wife), y bah, badh, ^j path.
Step-daughter, <-oj rabba, (or dakh.) ^JLi <U^ rabiba bfi.

Sister, bahin or bahan, ^ja> bhagint, yy .

Sister-in-law (wife's sister), ^L sali.



Sister-in-law (husband's sister), JcJ nand (f.).

Sister-in-law (husband's elder brother's wife), ^yl^Lj- jethunt.

Sister-in-law (husband's younger brother's wife), \J^J^ dt'rnt.

Sister-in-law (brother's wife), ^.jlgj bhwaj (f.), j^-ji*. bhau.

Sister-inTlaw (younger brother's wife), bhaihu, a^s bhwah (f.).

Grandson (son's son), l"^ pota, (daughter's son) \~>Sy naws.

Grandaughter (son's daughter), ^JS.j poti, pautri.

Grandaughter (daughter's daughter), ^\> ntin, ^j natni, (dakh.

also) ^ylj nti, ^j^i> naws.

Great Grandson, Ujj par-pota, \jiyt par-potra.



Great Grandaughter, ^Jy y par-, i^syy y par-ptrl.
i
Uncle (father's elder brother), y\j t', (dakh.) UJ taya.

Uncle (father's younger brother), Is?- chach (or dakh.) Is?" chicha.

Uncle (father's sister's husband), phph, yj^ phph.

Uncle (mother's brother), yc\*> mama, mama, (Jj'Lc matul.

Uncle (mother's sister's husband), jiU>- khl.

Aunt (father's sister), phuphi, (or dakh.) ^yJ phpi,


ph' (f.).
Aunt (mother's sister), ^ maust, ls- khl (f.).

Aunt (father's elder brother's wife), /l 1.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 131

Aunt (father's brother's wife, or father's younger brother's wife),

chacKi or ^j^f" chachchi, (dakh.) ^^?" chachan!.

Aunt (mother's brother's wife), ^*^> mam!, ^yU^i mumam.

Nephew (brother's son), bhatij, s\j j\j> biradar-zda.

Nephew (sister's son), bhnj, s\j j^=- Jdmhir-zda.

Niece (brother's daughter), bhatiji.

Niece (sister's daughter), 1>_5^\# bhn.

Cousin (dakh. father's elder brother's son), \j)3 ta'era bh'.

Cousin (dakh. father's elder brother's daughter), ^ ^jj>}J t'er!

buhan.

Cousin (father's brother's son), * /1 ]^f?" chochera bh'.

Cousin (father's brother's daughter), + ^ ^f?" chachen bahan.

Cousin (father's sister's son), X -f W phupher bh'.


?
Cousin (father's sister's daughter), ^ Lgfitfti phupher! bahan.

Cousin (mother's brother's son), marnera bh'. \\

Cousin (mother's brother's daughter), ^ ^Jp^0 marner! bahan.^

* In Dakhni, said to be " father's younger brother's son."

f In Dakhni, said to be " father's younger brother's daughter."

J Dakh. lri?i phuper bh'.

\ Dakh. ^jjf) iJijrzQ phuper! bahan.

II Dakh. maulr bh'.

4 Dakh. ij^i Jj^y0 mauler! bahan.


132 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Cousin (mother's sister's son), <_/1# [pr^f* mausr bhl.*

Cousin (mother's sister's daughter), ^ iJjf'y mausert bahan.f

The Body and what belongs to the body.

Body, jj-i sartr, utj badn, < J dh (f.).



Limb, Member, Joint, ys. zv, ang, Ifi tukr.

Sense, (^-s- iss (plur. i^\>~ hawss, senses).

Sight, Ll^-bjJ HsA (f.), ^ Lj blnl, CJiLa basrat (f.), ^b cyJ

kwat-i-bsira, J> nazar.

Hearing, *^Lj ii>j3 kwat-i-smi'a, ii-tl-i sam't (f.).

Smell, <uli> Llij kuwat-i-shmma, <ul shmma.

Taste, z'lk, &A J CJy kwat-i-z'ika.

Touch or Feeling, ~<$ lmisa, <U~<H CJjS kwat-i-lmisa, ^-3 Zams.

Voice, Speech, Lti ntik, iAi kwat-i-ntika, wz.

Colour, <&j rcmg, ^ Zaan.

Stature, J arf, j j Aarfd o kmat, JjJ d/Z.



Skin, Hide, c^-jjJ psi, Jl^ MZ (f.), Vj**- chamr, jJj>- ^' (f.).

Cuticle, Pellicle, Membrane, ^J^-jhil, fy parda.

Pore, masm, (Pores) cjUL. masmt.


.
Flesh, 5, t^wjS gsht, Vj-A ra.

Bone, t'** haddi, jf\j> r, ^^sul ustukjhwn, ^z zm.

* Also, l# Mullera bh'.

f Also, ^jtf iJj^>- khalrt bahan.


Vocabulary Nouns. 133
ff * f
Blood, jj! lh,^ lah, (dakh.) $ lhau, tc-j rakat or rakt, ^ji-
khwi.
f s f '
Chyle, kails, /-ja-^ kaims.

Humour (of the body), khilt, ras.



Serum, mnj, ,_yb pni.
f ff
Saliva, Spittle, CJ^i thk, \j rl (f.), tuf, <-->Ui Zw'.

Urine, peshb, J^j bal, CLSy* mut, (jL\> shsh.


Sweat, pasma, pase'o, j^c- rak.

Phlegm, jiJj balgham, i_J kf(f.), kaph (f.).


O mi
Bile, Gall, p, J^le sa/r (f.), pitta.

Milk, >L>}J ddh, jJa shr,jg>- chhir.

Marrow, \j gd, j)u> maghz.

Muscle, Tendon, 1$2j patth, ^ , was (f.).

Nerve, Sinew, ^ saZi, \fb patth, ^ pai, ^ nos (f.).


Ci
Fibre, <tl^ rds/a, rag (f.), (jjT ns (f.).

Membrane, khalfl, (of the ftus) ^J^s-jhill, parda.



Artery, (^ shiryn (f.), rag (f.).

Vein, rag (f.), (f.).

Great vein in the arm, vena basilica, JuL>b bsak, &Sjy* shahrag,

+\\ ti-%ft* haft-andm.
-f ^ ff
Gristle, Cartilage, , -J^y-ic ghuzrf.

Gland, .Sgiltl, ghudud, guthli.



Joint, -^231> gni/ (f.), JbU band, j*>- jr, x girih (f.).

Hair of the head, Jb bal, Lrr kls (f.),f* m.


134 Vocabulary Nouns.

Hair, small of the body, rb'a, ^j rm, Vm, ^ pashm (f.).

Feather, par, pankh.


f M t / f - I
Head, j sir, iL mund, (J-.-.! sis, sar, kalla.

Crown of the head, chndi, taP> J^ rale, Jiy- ma-
frik.
o >
Skull, Pate, Pericranium, ^sj khpr, ~> <K~il ksa-e-sar.
/ . / t y j> ^
Face, g^c muh, mukh, (dakh.) , chihra, ^ .
_/
Forehead, Front, IgjL matha, Jl# >Aa (f.), ^^^ peshar, fj>^r
jabn (f.).
.
Horn, ).Cv;..i sing, shkh, kam.
_
Brain, bhej, guda,jx* maghz, Uti dimgh.

Pia mater,J<> aoy parda-i-maghz.


<-
Temple (of the head), JL kanpati, <UuLi> shakika.

Occiput, back of the head, l3 -<z/a (f.).


(. /
Eye, ^jl nA, ^ or nayan, *;- chashm, XtJ dida.

Eyebrow, ^jgJ (f.), & (f.), /^# bhirkuti.

Eyelid, y jsi, iLb jpafoi; (f.).

Eyelash, J- mizha (plur. ^l^ mizhgn), j> baran.


9 ! .PO
Pupil of the eye, ^ puti, C*f mardumak, ^Z>- mardum-

i-chashm.
9 / o
Tear, ns, _jfsrl njh, H ashk,j$ lr.

Nose, cJ\j (f.), ^-> </ (f.), 2>.



Nostril, Ufr-.j nathn,jsx< minkhar (f.)

Bridge of the nose, Lib bns.
Vocabulary Nouns. 135
/ J '
Snot, Mucus, pnt or pf, \2j renta, l2 wa, <_>U! Zw'ai.

Mouth, ^< muh, mukh, ^> dahan, ^\ anan.


9 /
Roof of the mouth, Palate, jSLi talti, ^ km, mazl.

Tongue, -$--s- j'& (f.), (dakh.) -->- ^'>, ^bj za&ra (f.), (jlJ

Zisw (f.).

Breath, jJ cfam, ^-JLs sns (f.), jJ nafas (f.).



Tooth, u^jlj cftzw, ^Jj J dandan, dasan.
9
Gums, masf, Ai) lisa.
/
Lip, hnth, c-J ZaS (m. f.).

Beard, ^j^ dr, ^jj rtsh (f.), ^a<.

^ Ear, ^JS , J.^ gosh, &)j~> srawan.

Lobe or tip of the ear, Jt\ bina-gosh, narma-e-gosh.

Drum of the ear, Tympanum, iy l^l k parda.

Cheek, j^ gl, rukhsr, kapl.



Jaw, \^>-jabr, \^>- jabhr, (jaws) kall.

Chin, ufJ^5 thuddi, (dakh.) ^jlp thuddi, Ji zakan, zanakh.

Pit or dimple in the chin, zanakh, ^1} zanaMidan, i\>~

chh-i-ghabghab.

Dewlap, u^*- ghabghab.

Throat, gaZ, ^^U- :, (yibs- halkm.



Larynx, Throttle, Windpipe, Gullet, ?^ narkhafi, \> tent',

^~&j> narkasi, ^Jj nat, j& guli, > gal.

Neck, ^j> gardan (f.), ^ gal, Ijjjb grw (f.), ghanch.

Nape of the neck, guddi, U /fco/5 (f.).


136 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Shoulder, kndh, \bSiyc mndh, J^j dsh, (dakh.)


/
/ /
Shoulder blade, <Ll fihna, isz katif.

Wing, y par, pankh, ^=f,pachh, j\ bz. t


/ /
Arm, ^jl) >w, ^jU Ai.

Arm (from the shoulder to the elbow), jjb bz, ^f ftAiy, jjJ a*and\

Arm (from the elbow to the wrist), pahunch.

Wrist, kal'l, bsiyJ pahunch, (dakh.) mangat.

Hand, ^jila hth, <L~i rfas, J^>- chang, (extended) &su panja.
-
Palm of the hand, ^J-&b hathlli, t_i kaff(f.), uuO kaff-i-dast.

Fist, i<$5*> mutthi,


" <^L*> musht.
// o^o
Thumb, IfjjxH anguthfj t^~zJj\ angusht-i-nar, ^\\ bham.

Finger, \J^>\ ungli or 5^1 awg, <^j\ angusht (f.).


o*-
Forefinger, tUjl^i <^~j\ angusht-i-shahdat, ^J&\ ^ kalme

ungti, sabbaba.

Middle finger, ^J&\ ^ ^ btch ungli.

Ring finger, (dakh.) J^>\ ^J> CUJly-b shahdat angl.

Little finger, (Gilch. ,A&I kn angli?), ^:>- chhingul (?).

Tips of the fingers, J^lil anmil.

Nail of the finger, &c, [j^> nkhun, ,j nakh, j nah.

Claw, J&>.>- chang, <lsj panja, nkhun.

Elbow, LS^ kuhnl, (jif* mirfak, ^> hm.


?
Knuckle, -$23b ^ ^^^ ungUyo gnth, Joj &*.
Vocabulary Nouns. 137

Armpit, Jjo baghal (f.), ^fj kakhr.

Breast, Bosom, ^'*- chht, sna.

Pap, Nipple, Teat, Dug, ^b-J sar-i-pistn, bhitnt, Vs=r

jijiy (f.), ^>>- chnchl.

Breast-bone, *~ sar-sna.
o
Back, -^/* (f.), CUJjJMsA(f.).

Backbone, rtrh (f.), Jub <?, (dakh.) ^Jb A bns.

Side, Ribs, j=\ pnjar, ^^L-j ^asie.

\' Bosom, Jjf grf (f.), i kaul, J kanr or kinr (f.), ^^1

aghosh (f.).

Belly, -J /ei, jL> shikam.


-
Stomach, *^ mi*da, ^-^-jhdjh, -p-^ /.

Maw, Craw, Crop, -^*. hausila, IS^j /wia.

Point of the sternum or ensiform cartilage, kauri.

Navel, / (f.), nbhi (f.), inrf.

Bowels, Intestines, tjjj\ ctntf, or plur. ^bjjjl antriy,

nten (f.)-

Mesentery, ^ ^tfjr^ antriyn kl thait.

Heart, \j> hird, Ara/, Jj efZ.

Liver, 2 kalja, t>- jigar, kabid.

Lungs, Lights, &j riya, or plur. riyat (f.), shush, ^jj^^j


.
phtphri (?), (dakh.) phps.

Spleen, Milt, ^ ftffi, JU.b iiAZ (f.), svpurz.

T
138 VocabularyNouns.

Pluck, Aj$\>j\ l {Jiyz>~ kaiwn k antary kalja.

Pancreas, <J oblaba.

Kidney, j> gurda.


i.? /
Bladder, \iL^phukn or phkn, <b< masara.
m
Gall-bladder, Gall, Bile, pitt, Xjbj zahra.

Abdomen, dU-J jXi* shikam, kkh (f.), AoM (f.).

Loins, Waste, ja kamar (f.), ^L miyn (f.). cU Aa? (f.)-



Flank, ^ij Zco (f.), Jj baghal (f.) ; see Loins.

Pelvis (lower part of the belly), jJ-j ptr, \ kkh.



Private parts, |*^' andm-i nihnl, ji~ satr.

Hip, Buttock, Ham, Haunch, Rump, if kl, ^>~ chutar,

surin (f.), -I pth, \gj putth.

Thigh, Jij ran (f.), ^iWjngh (f.), \=rjangh (f.).

Knee, LSf> ghutn, y\j zn, the'n.

Kneepan, \j khuriya, J^~ chakki, <> I 7na.


. t
Lap, f gd (t.),y\j zn.

Leg li^ s (*")> ^ pw> "y gT> philR.

Calf of the leg, Jjcj , J-J ff, (dakh.) c^-b/tf

A gsht.

Shin, Shin-bone, ^ haddi, (dakh.) ^Jj ^ ,j0j


^ nall.

Ankle, ghtl, Aa*>, <.&Jb-i shitlang, (joint) LsH takJin.

Pastern (of a horse), Uj-$j the'n, Jj ght.

Heel, >! en, bpashna.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 139
?
Instep, b CUnj puskt-i p.

Foot, yb paw, b pair, pag, ^y>- charan.

Sole of the foot, lyj' tal' or lyj talwa, b t__ p.

Toe, ^jl&l ^ yb ung, (great) j li^il angusht-i nar.

Hoof, sum,j khur.

Hurts and Diseases of the Body.

Blow, Stroke, Stripe, chapt (f.), <_yj zarb (f.), wr,J^

mr (f.).

Blow with the fist, i-w< musht, , ghs.

Bruise, Blow, Hurt, <-byj~ c^i (f.).


Sprain, Strain, ^-y , (dakh.) \jyo mora.

Cut, Slash, ]^=- /, jr-j zakhm.

Scratch, small wound, ^j>- chark.

Wound, Sore, j^s-j zakhm, j\f gh', ^'\ gh'e, jarhat

(f-)> J^ij rsh.

Ulcer, Abscess, jyJi nsr, >-Js karha, Vjj^ phr.



Fistula,jj-jU nsr.

Issue, Running sore, cu^Jcj bandarkhat.


Gangrene, Mortification, Vjs- khr, ,g*> sarn.
- j>
Imposthume, Bile, Blain, JJ dummal, phr.
Whitlow, Felon, ijj^>- chhalrt.

Pimple, Pustule, small Bile, JyJj baltr, ^^- phuns, chhl,

L-J pans (f.).

Blister, tfrfj phaphl, SU- chhl, VIq phulk, abila.


140 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Kibe, Chap on the foot, Chilblain, biwaTi.


.
Scar, Cicatrix, Mark, clj dgk, >- chink, chittt, li=>- ckakt.

Bump, gmr, Uf gathiy, (from the bite of an insect) JJjJJ

Swelling, Tumour, J*>J dummal,

Wen, gmr, (dakh.) ^j-*; ras.

Bronchocele, Goitre, ghg, \^> ghgh.

Scrofula, King's evil, SU ^L kanth mala, ^jb- khanzir.

Cancer, ^Jbj~> saratn, &*JL>-j\j& hazr-chashma.



Chancre, tnki, ti-o- chat (f.).

Wart, Excrescence, L< nass, ^-~< masbird, \ 7/.



Pain, Ache, Ail, ^0 dukh, JiJ dard, pr (f.), Jrfan.

Sickness, Illness, Disease, Disorder, Distemper, ^J^. bimr, ^J>j^


marz or ^,^ marass,j\j\ azar, <yj fbg.

Contagion, Infection, U-j saryat (f.).

Sickness at Stomach, Nausea, <JJ^ /c (f.), i^Xa> /, matlal.

Indigestion, l_5^> bad-hazmi, ^j^>-\ ajiran.


p
Fainting, Swoon, \J^ ghash, ^JL ghashi, \$>-j}<<> mrchh (f.).
Co *
Fit, ,A^r- blmri kt charht, c~Jj3 naubat (f.).
"^ s
Headach,^! OjO dard-i-sar, ^Ia-a suda', (dakh.) oj^y sir-phor.

Vertigo, Giddiness, Swimming in the head,y- ^j daurn-i-sar.

Ear-ach, O^J dard-i-gosh (?).

Toothach, ^-j t^-JJ dant-ptr (f.), ^IjJJ ^i dard-i dandn.


Vocabulary Nouns. 141

Ophthalmia, ~>- 4->j->l shb-i chashm, ^j>j<* ^ ^ol & ka maraz.
>
Quinsy, Jb- khunk.

Sore throat, J;J \ ^J gale k dard.

Ringworm, Herpes, olj daa", \ L~^j bhaisiya-dad.

Cold, f> thand (f.), sard, j zukam.

Catarrh, Rheum, dJ^3 nazla, zukam.

Cough, (^ji^ khnst, ij~ surfa, (dakh.) j^lbj dhns.

Hiccough, Hickup, ,Xs*


v ^ hichk.
Hoarseness, ^ giriftagl-wz (f.).

Fever, ap (f.), ip (f*), fr jar, cUj\j>- hararat (f.).



Ague, i^ji tap-i-larza, i-f'frjrl.

Ague, quartan, ^1*5- humm-e rb'l.

Ague, tertian, tib" tijrl, t_-* tap-i ghbb.

Intermittent fever, b^\ antriy, u^Jji iap-i naubat.

Hectick fever, jJ ap-i i/tA:, J-j siZZ.

Quotidian fever, <jlj^ t_^J fap-t muwzaba.

Burning fever, Jj^* c-^J ap- muhrik.

Madness, Phrenzy, diwnagi, !j~> saud, y> sir (f.).

Consumption, Phthisis, J-s siZZ, <jjj chhai-rg (or, vulg.

'-rg).

Dropsy, Hydropsy, ^!- jalandhar, U ... . istiska.



w CO
Anasarca, .Jij i~s->l istiska-i zikkl.
G ^
Tympany, j^Lt istisk-i tabU.
142 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Pleurisy, t_^JTcil ztu-l-jamb, p\-*j>-jirsm, ^L^j barsam.


*
Plethora, )oi>\ il ifrt-i akhlt, ifrt-i khn.
- *
Asthma, i^OLj sn (f.), j^^-Jlj;^ zku-n-nafas, <UJ dama.
O ti,
Palsy, tsy-. sitang, (or hemiplegia) JJ* ./5Zy, i^ajl adhang.

Paralysis, yS lakwa, it^j ra sha : see Palsy.
o^
Gout, (^yi nikris (improp. nakris), (dakh.) L$2S gathiyrb't.

Rheumatism, /b 67 or J' (f.), CL>b bat (m.), J-ell -sfj waja'



mafsil, (dakh.) cf'^^- jhanakwl.

Jaundice, Jj kawal or jb Jj kawal-bd, ylj yarkn.



Gravel, Stone, <b* t&~) sang-i masjna.

A stone in the bladder, Calculus, patthr.

To have a palpitation of the heart, U^JJ \^~ dharakn.



Smallpox, L- sfaft (f.), \\a mai (f.) or (dakh.) ULc mth, ^Jstf

gti, chchak (f.). A Pock, ^Jjj* gt.


_ JO
Measles, ij\^f garmi-dana (?), ^ pangt (Gilch. ?).

Chincough, khasi, (dakh.) khang.
ce
A sty on the eyelids. ^^ I 5wM anjari, ^b^sci anjanhrt.
/
Gripes, Colic, i^fi^nj peckish (f.), ^jj^-* maror, klinj.

Tenesmus, ^lt Aags (f.), plchish (f.),j^-s sr.


OJ s
Vomiting, ^ ll ubk' tai, (f.), istifrgh.

Cholera, <U- haiza, bj wai (f.).

Piles, Hemorhoids,^^!^ bawsir.

Stoppage of the nose, Coryza, Juj sudda.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 143

Hemorrhage, (from the nose) i_Jlcj ru'f, (from other part) ^\ J-*-
sailu-d-dam.

Polypus, Inflammation in the nose, Vb' nkr.

Obstruction of the liver, ?^xxa sudda-i jigar.

Diarrhoea, Flux, Dysentery, atisr, \j->j~~> sitras, JlyJ is'h,

ji> jiryn-i shikam.

Constipation, Costiveness, j^-a-J #ao? (f.), u^*~ kabziyat (f.) ^w-J

Jastag.

Venereal, . b o' (f.), i/3i bd-ifarang, CJ\ atashak (f.).



Gonorrhoea, d/Jj^ szk, parme'd, <U*^ pramth.
-
Diabetes, J^j JL $ilsil~i haul*

Dysury, Strangury, J^JI i,/"-*" habsu-l-baul, JjJ\ sru-1-baul.

Epilepsy, ^c^-o mirg, jU apasmr.



Rupture, Hernia, <U- jb a , i /

Leprosy, Jkjjs , f\>> juzm, ^--j pes, ^'--j svfaidi.



Elephantiasis, b iSz*ftl'P> -< wa /*.

Plague, Pestilence, bj (f.), l_crc .

Epidemie, jU\^ mah-mr, *lc (./r* maraz-i-mm.

Famine, las' aAf, ksi kaht-sli, Jl fcZ, ^JJ dubhuk.

Hunger, -g^jgJ bhukh (f.), gursinagi, ^js>-j*.

Thirst, ^-Uj piys (f.), irs (f.), tishnag, ^Jiac. tash (f.).

Persons employed in curing diseases.

Physician, - hakim, iaio, <xo oad.


144 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Surgeon, ^\j>~ jarrah.


Apothecary, Dmggist,j^as-ttr,j\^>\yidaw-sz, ijj\~jpansrl(iri.s).

Phlebotomist, iSj rag-zan, lilci fassd.

Cupper, (=!>" hajjm, flj ^--j sng-wl.

Bonesetter,yU kamn-gar.

Medical means.
y 9 *
Medicine, Drug, j daw (f.), dr (f.), xa>j\ aushadh (f.).
Remedy, Cure, ^le *Zy, chra.

Emetic, i^* mukaiy, IjJ ^ ^ kai dawa.


-9
Purge, <Asf-jullb,j\>-jhr.

Bleeding, s^ifasd (f.).

Electuary, ^ys*-* ma*jn, ,Jiy rish-dr.

Ointment, jfcte^ marham, /.



Plaster, Salve, marham, ep, iiU- zamad (f.).

Fomentation, i * senk, i)U kimd.

Embrocation, Jc3 tatar (f.), jU- zamad (f.), 5 .

Poultice, lopri, jj tikor.

Bandage, jU-j zamd (f.), patt.

Clyster, <fcjL>- hukna.

The Mind and its Attributes or Affections.


9 9 9
Mind, ^ man, ^>- bjh (f.), <t^Ju> mudrika, .

Intellect, Understanding, Jc <? (f.), JLjb As, JbJo JwdA (f.),


fahm.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 145

Reason, Jir kl (f.) ; reasoning faculty, Ja3 nutk.

Will, Wish, irda, \> ichchh (f.), bichar.

Desire, jy- shauk, aW- cAA (f.), <j-.y hawas (f.), (-ris>\p- khw-
hish (f.).

Avarice, llach, JT", bukhl. J>j>- hirs (f.)-

Ambition, (j~y> hawas (f.), c&-ot umang (f.), }:>- hausila.

Affection, vr^*-"* muhabbat (f.), jIj piyr, (f.), <J>jO rfard.



Love, (Ji^ *sA#, iU- cAA, jLj ^>yr, 1yi> Aat (f.).

Hatred, Dislike, Aversion, LZ)J nafrat (f.), * bad-khwhl,


Jl gurz.

Disgust, Abhorrence, {j^jt>\ karhiyat (f.), Ci^si nafrat (f.), ^


gAi, (f.), lSj]}^ bezrl.
-9
Anger, Passion, Rage, ~jj> brdh, ^tJ* chashm, <Ua ghussa, .-.^
ghazab, ris (f.), (./rr^ * (f.).
y 's.
Pleasure, Joy, Mirth, Gladness, ^>y>- khushi, J^c- aish, ^-^
99 -9
farhat (f.), (ji bils, nand, surr, - khurramt.

Happiness, Felicity, ^ji^cl^ kmrri, Jo! nand, ^jxsybyi- khiish-


wakti.
mfi _
Hope, J^l ummed (f.), ^1 5s (f.), s (f.).

Reliance, Faith, Trust, s (f.), jUc^ Ptimd, Lm^J bhros,
takiya,jLss\ ixtibr.

Fear, Dread, Apprehension, far, j^j-y wasws, bhai, l-


sank (f.).
! /
Doubt, Suspicion, X> shakk, -^.J^ sandeh, UjoJ dubdh (f.).
i shubha.
V
146 Vocabulary Nouns.
. f
Courage, Valour, iZ>\jZ>-jur'at (f.), c^J himmat (f.), dilri.
m Cp
Cowardice, ^j^ be-himmti, iJj*o U n-mardi.
i*
Shame, Bashfulness, Modesty, sharm (f.), ^.3 fty (f.), I*-
Aay (f.).

Jealousy, ^Jzann, <J$>~jkal (f.), i^S rfA (f.), CX> shakk.

Spite, Malice, Grudge, Envy, j^^Lj bughz, J*j rashk, S kina.

Animosity, Enmity,^ hair, <fi lag (f.), iSJ^Ss- adwat (f.).

Vengeance, Revenge, intkam,^ bair, jo badl.

Mercy, Compassion, Pity, ram, I0 day (f.).^ ?"" ()

Patience, sbr (f.), sabri, dhiraj.

Morals, moral and immoral Actions.

Morals, Manners, ti^-j sirat (f.), akhlk, _jj1 acaJ.

Ceremonies, Custom, Etiquette, t_>taT rf>, rasm (f.), JU- (f.).

Politeness, good manners, ij>- khulk, cl:^ muruwat (f.).

Civility, cl^La smZm/c, khulk, Ci-^JLil insniyat (f.).

Honesty, Probity, i/'lf- sachchl, ^j^Jj rst, i/j-*- sachaut.

Immorality, Dishonesty, L?iU^JJ bad-ma'ashi, adharm.

Knavery, Treachery, ^bUj dagha-bazi. ^ ^ be-imni.


fi
Falsehood, Deceit, JL< makr, QjJ darogh.

Temperance, Sobriety, parhez, sanjam, <^j% wara*.

Intemperance, Extravagance, ^ bad-parhtzi, ^Jy fazl.

Prodigality, Waste, t-i^t '??'^f> ^"J^~J3 war-kharchi, iab" aZa/".

Niggardliness, Stinginess, (^yaciS' kanjst, ^Jm^j tangdilt.


Vocabulary. Nouns. 147

Liberality, Generosity, iZi^s^ sakhwat (f.), >- jd, .


) -
Beneficence, ^L.^ ihsan, jJ\ upakr, uJ faiz.

Friendship, Kindness, ^jb-y* mihrbi, \Skirp (f.).

Professions, Occupations.
b
Theology, Divinity, tsi fikh (f.), ^ - .

Medicine (practice of), Physic, uuoUs tabbat (f.), i--^ ()

Law, Jurisprudence, < yM (f.), dalat (f.), Aar*.

Military Profession, iL- siph-gart.

Agriculture, Husbandry,^--s7r, ^jL> kishtkrl, v^sSjj zir'at (f.)-

Merchandise, Commerce, C^W1 tijrat (f.), saudagari,

jL-j baipar, banij,\yj>saud.

Servitude, Slavery, ^sAj bandagi, ^b>- chkari, ijf> naukri,

ghulmt, J^j iaAaZ (f.).

People of Professions, Occupations, or Trades.


Theologian, <ui falih, Jj>! aA- maxrifat, achraj.

Lawyer, <Ui fakih, J-^j l Sdlat k wakil.



Soldier, ^>|--> siphi, ^j-bb-i sipht pesha, lashkar.

Physician, i_ tabib, iXj a, j*^=>- hakim.

Author (writer), mu'allif, JS ^jj> granth-kr, musannif.

Cultivator, Husbandman, ^lS kisn, ^UbJ dihkan, 'yo muzan.

Merchant, Trader, \<Sy* saudagar,j>~ tajir, baipari (.).

Grain-merchant, ^1 banjr, <>1 ghalla-farsh.


148 Vocabulary.Nouns.
m
Banker, Moneychanger, [fr\^ makjan, t_J^ sarrf, ^L* sttk.

Broker, Salesman, J dallai, ^ .

Artificer, Artisan, krgar, kasb(m.\jj~j pesha-war.

Draper, Linen-draper, Mercer, Cloth-merchant, j\j> bazzaz.

Silk-mercer, ^jji <S-*->y1 abrshmtna-farsh, ybjjiJj>- harlr-farsh.


9
Weaver, ^'^, tntt(m.\ JcJb bfinda.

Embroiderer, jjiiy zar-doz,jii^j>- chikan-dz.

Carpet-weaver, i_Jb ^j^rJaJi shatran-bf.

Tailor, darz (.), s (.), bL- khaiyt.

Shoemaker, Cobbler, (_?&-j*o mcA (.), jjjJ kafshdz.

Saddler zngar, ^j^j* mchi (.), sarrj.

Tanner, Currier, chamar, dabbgh, j dabgar.

Grocer, JUb bakkl, pansrl, jlka aar.

Druggist, Apothecary, t_;UJ pansrl (.), jlks Sttr.

Ironmonger, (^jj/ ^> han-farsh.

Blacksmith, jbkj! lhr, hangar, haddd.


ce
Farrier, joJjw na*l-band, lJJ>^^> sltar: see Horse-doctor.

Coppersmith, Brasier, Tinker, jL~* misgur, kaslra, j^Sfr*

Jeweller, i^j^jT jauhari, bj- jariy, jj zwar-farsh.

Goldsmith, Silversmith, jLj sunr, j>jj zargar.

Cutler, kradgar, jbsj! Ar.

Needle-maker, j>jjy* szan-gar.

Arrow-maker, jJ r-gar.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 149
s-
Cartwright, Carpenter, Cabinet-maker, Lj->^ barha' (m.), ^J>\ kht

(m.\j\ss? najjr,j>jjJ dardgar.


<*'
Cook, ^jfyjV bwarchi (.), \yj ras'iy, U? tabbkh.

Sutler, Innkeeper, !J^ty bhathiyr.
O
Baker, Ljlj nnbl (m.\jJ\j nnpaz, tabbkh.

Butcher, t_>L kassb, /^^ kasl (.), zii.


i>
Poulterer, ^Lc^ murghbn, murghiwl.

Fishmonger, t/-j/ mhi-farosh, ^^^s^ machhl-wl.
/
Green-grocer or -seller, (J^f xj> tara-fardsh, kunjr.
if
Gardener, mal, ^U^V bghbn, (dakh.) ^b baghwl.

Architect, Builder, Mason, Bricklayer, jUjk mi*mr, ^j'jg thawa'l


Stonecutter, ^/Ijj/ sang-farosh.
0
Brickmaker, u^vtS- khisht-paz, "\j (JL-oM mt-wl.

Potter, jV*^ kumhr, JK MZZ, kas-gar.


.0
Plasterer, ^x-S kas-gar.

Accountant, Cashier, Clerk, Writer, ijXa^o mutasaddi,jjS^> muharrir


Village Accountant, ijfj^fji karamchrl (.).

Steward, <J}& bakwal, bhandri (.), ^^^ dwn.


O JO
House-Steward, Butler, wULJl>- khnsmn, Jik*<iS- khidmatgr,

uf;ljLi^J bhandri, .

Brewer, jfljjj iz-gar.


150 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Printer, UIj^jI^s- chhpt-wal, (of cloth) ^jfti>- chhtpl, j^ili


nakksh.

Engraver,J kalam-kar,J kanda-kr.

Carver, Sculptor, Statuary, JS tx kanda-kr, ^U nakksh.


-' )
Painter, Draftsman, JS>jx>- chitr-kr, j^z* musauwir, tJ&i nakksh.

Actor, Mimic, Player, S>\> bhnd, swngi, bahurpiy,

Jli nakkl.

Adjutant, Aide de camp, nak'ib, {^sXa^a mushib.

Administrator, Executor (of a will), wast.

Advertiser, Reporter, Intelligencer, j*s*> mukhbir, khabar-dr,



j^Jtt shahr-khabr.

Alchymist, u^y^ muhawwis, \^S klmiygar.



Amanuensis, c^Jt ktib, <j-\ likhni-ds, tl^J Ukhak.

Ambassador, Envoy, LS^i.\ tlch, JJj wakl, CJj dut,j*si~> safir.



Angler, jb ^j*.j banst-bz.

Annotator, y-Le mufassir, ^/-i> shrih.

Appraiser, Valuer, Assizer, ^j>~j nirkhl, pJL* mukim.


f
Arbitrator, Umpire, ci-Jlj salis, >- hakam, i_J-2i* munsif.
<- -
Archer, jljj^ tlr-andz,j}iSj\* kamn-dr,jSsi} tl&jbJ dhanuk-dhar.

Arithmetician, t-^W* muhsib, CS& ganak, ^\i3 jL-j siyk-dn.

Armourer, .S J~ mikal-gar.

Artist, j& vj^-J dast-kar, S~t\ ustd, ij^ krigar.

Ascetic, L5-J tapst (m.), <Lbjf gsAa nishbi.


Vocabulary Nouns. 151

Assassin, ktil, cS\L> saffk, iS^ thag.

Assayer (of coins), nkid, li nakkd, Wjy parakhaiy.

Assistant (in office), jJ ijLi ptsh-dast, ^jLj pesh-kr.


-9 99
Astrologer, Astronomer, munajjim, ^Jy^jotikhi (.),

nujml.

Attorney, i--olj na' ib, J-^j wakl.

Auctioneer, Slj ^Jt ^Lj nilm -wl.


, 9 9
Auditor (of accounts), * mustauf (.), u_^-ilsr muhsib.
9,9
Augurer, L3j> shugniy.
<9
Barber, A?*" hqjjm, t^-oli npit, wsi.

Bearer (of a letter, &c), J-*b- hamil, (porter) JU>- hammal, IJ^<

motiy, ^3 kuli, (chairman) mahra,Ju kahar, ^> bh'.

Beggar, >1$# bhikhrl (m.),jJi fakir, \ gada, JjL s'iZ.

Bell-founder, jLj jaras-saz.

Binder (of a book),^> A~jild-gar, uls.*8 sahhf.

Bird-catcher, nir-sAir^UjJ*- chirimr, Le saiyd.

Boatman, ^X mollah, L}\--"''( kishbn, ^jgs* mnjhi, (rower)

^jjii dndl (.).

Bookkeeper, yiy <>\~>- hisab-nawis, jjS^> muharrir.

Bookseller, uJUi0 sahhf, Jt}y kitb-farsh.

Bootmaker, moza-gar.

Bowmaker, kamngar.
9
Boxer, \~*c musht-zan, JU mal, J-< mall.
152 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Bracelet-maker,J^jy>- chfl-kr.

Buffoon, XjS!" maskhara, Ju\# bhnd.

Burnisher, jfjiu-tf saikal-gar.



Butterman, L'.^(< makhaniy.

Calenderer, j,^ kund-gar.



Camel driver or keeper, ^bjL srbn, jj shutur-bn.

Cardmaker, jL Just ganjifa-saz.

Carman, Carter, Coachman, dyf gfwn, ^[f gfibn.

Carpet-maker, i_ib ^jsrJbJt) shatran-bf.



Cashier, ^dJjjar tahwll-dr,j\ cy fta-dr, \>jfj rokariy.

Cavalier,jl^- sawr,JS sawr-kr, bjfj$i J# bhal-ghoriy.



Chairman (president), (j-ls-* ^- mir-majlis: (bearer) see Bearer.

Chandler, jLs sAam -.

Charioteer, ^b ^Jj rath-ban, ^i>j^> srathi (.).

Cheesemonger, j parir-farsh.

Chess-player, jLiS^k^ shatranj-bz, Je\> shtir.
/
Chiromancer, samudraki (.).
- *
Chronologer, Chronicler, )> mu'arrikh.

Chymist, kmiy-gar, ^}~>j rasyanl (.).

Clockmaker, jL c^-bj s'at-sz.


4
Coiner, ->^9 zarrab, (counterfeiter, forger) ^^j^bu taghallubi (.).

Collector (tax-gatherer), J-as^ tahsl-dr, JiteAi baj-dr.

Colonel, LSj\yt> hazari (.), jSL s&.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 153
99 Jb. -
Comedian, \->4)j* bahu-rupiy, ^_>^ sawngi, Jli nakkl.

Commander, j\j~> sardr, jL slr, ^U- hakim, amr.


m 9
Commentator, mufassir, ^'- shrih, J tlk-kr.

Commissary, JS \j sarbarali-kar, J darogha.
o* O/
Commissioner, amtn,JJc?> mukhtr-kr, f*^ muhtamim.
-it oo
Compiler, i_^4j mu'allifyj ^j granth-kr, ^U-jmi*.

Composer, _:,. musannif, )\Jt \->\ insh-pardz.


' 'it,
Conductor, l*j rah-numa, j lj rali-bar, \\ agw.

Confectioner, l/4jL>- halw'J, \s mitha'i-gar.

Conjurer,j\s- jdgar, \$>ji tnh, J}\j\- hazira, ^J^- jan.

Consul, wakl: see Commissioner.

Contractor, yS>-\i~~c mustajir.

Controller, is.^J\ti drgha, (of accounts) ^f~~c mustauf.

Cooper, bj L-j ^7p bannt-wal.

A Corporal, nayak.
9-9 Co
Counsellor,^-^ muslr, jX mudabbir, ^sjx-* mantri (m.).

Courier, t^-J ^ai, jueli #<md, a^l^i harkra.


; cl
Courtier, u;bj darbari, ^jy>- huzrl, JaI aAZ- majlis.

Cow-herd, Cowkeeper, Jb^gpZ, ^ gwl or igwla, j~thahr.

Crier, bj^JijobJ dhandhoriya, ^ck^a mundi.

Critic, ^-i />- barf-gir, uJUli^ -shigf.

Cuirassier, J^jj baktar-psh.

Cupbearer, s&7, bakwal.


154 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Darner, j rafu-gar.

Dervis, \jZ->,)j darwshjj^ fakir.


Devotee, b\j zhid, Jolc abid, riyza, ^j^jgi-

Dier, ^L<e sabbgh, jij <Sj rang-rez.

Digger, j\jJ-j bel-dr, kodgar.


! < f
Director (manager), j^^J j& kr-pardz, J& kr-kun, J J^
mukhtr-kr.

Disciple, siM, ) 1 shgird, )Lo- chel, talmiz.

Distiller, jK/f b-kr,$ kalr, >? snfi (m.), (dakh.) ^ kall.

Diver, (jo^ ghawws, Lp-^o marjiy,jy=- ghota-khdr.

Diviner, IJ *-^ ghaib dan, Ujj>-> shugniy : see Astrologer.

Doctor, jjlc maulawt (m.)> pandit : see Physician.


G
Doorkeeper, ^bjO darbn or darwn, ^J"*?^ d'rh-dr.

Drover, baldiy, <nb galla-bn.

Drudge, Ijly tahl', ^^e* mihnat (m. f.).

Drummer, Uys^ dholiy, tambur-ch, jly JJs tabl-nawz.

Embroiderer, jjJ ^^s- chikan-doz, zar-dz.

Enameller, jl mn-kr.

Enchanter,^ jd-gar, afsn-gar, j>-\~> shir.

Executioner, Js- jalld, badhik.

Factor, Agent, fc-bUS' gumshta, jlo^ jl kr-pardz, J\'& kr-


guzr.

Falconer, j^jb bz-dr,jjj> ,^-li> shhtn-parwar.

Farmer, ^-^ kisn, ^jiS- milkt, ^~ chs,j\ ^t^j zamin-dr.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 155

Fencer, Cudgeller, jb ^Jb pall-bz, jbjj) lakar-bz.

Ferryman, ^Vjs guzar-, ^jb patri, Li naiy.

Fiddler, LfijL. srangiy, j\y ^L> srangl-nawz.

Fisherman, j-i mhi-gir, 'j^f* machhw, Lb>- jaliy.

Footpad, rh-zan, j\j cUj bat-pr: see Robber.


Forester, (j~b ^ ban-bs : see Ranger.

Fortuneteller, ^J>jS*~ samudrik (m.), JU> rammal, ^j*? nu~

jtn (.).

Founder, Caster, L~ kasr, (dakh.) jL kasr : see Coppersmith.



Friar, j+si fakir, zhid, jJcl kalandar : see Monk.

Fruiterer, mewa-farsh.

Furbisher, Polisher, jfjjue saikal-gar.


9
Furrier, ^!ljjijj*~ samr-farsh.

Fusileer, ^>-jy) zambr-chl, ^j?jj bandk-chi.

Gambler, Gamester, ljJ1^ jwri (.), j\i J|$j phar-bz, j\i

kimr-bz.

General, J^ slr,Ji^ aL-i siph-slr, j\j~> sardr.

Generalissimo, l^oL^ snapat, \ \ -1-umar.


9
Geometrician, ^^x muhandis, <UJJt handasa-dn.

Gilder, XL til-kr, J>' kft-gar.

Glass-maker,^^!^ shlsha-gar.

Glazier, 'j lJFT shisha jarne-wala.


9
Governess (female teacher), ji't (f.).

Governor, jU. hakim, UUU <rai/, jjs nzim, J*<ij> sardr.


156 Vocabulary Nouns.

Grammarian, ^.Jysr i_J^e sarf-nahv-dn, ^J*^. bykaram.

Grass-cutter, \J*~~^> ghasiyr.

Grave-digger, ^jf gdr-kan.



Grazier, Wj^- charwh, 1\>)/>- charne-wl : see Sheplierd.

Groom, ^-j L s7s, yl) nafar, sa's.


ce.
Gunner, j\ glandz, Is" gulchal, ^ylfeJCJ bandhni.

Haberdasher, ^l-J Jsa or bistl, \j2j patw : see Pedler.

Harper, chang,j\y y barbat-nawz.


CG -^
Helmsman, , ^rto mnjht (.), sukkm (.) : see Steersman.

Herald, mundl, bj^jLJ dhandhriy.

Herdsman, ^\.<iigalla-bn, bjJj baldiy, charwh.

Hermit, i^pZJ&Z.^ gsha-nishln, l^LjiiJi^>- khalwat-nishtn.

Highwayman, slj rh-zan, (jjL kazzk : jb cL-o bat-pr.

Historian, mu'arrikh, _^j riei.


s 9
Horsebreaker,j^j-i il>l>- chbuk-sawr, J>y^Ji shah-sawr.

Horse-doctor, fjji\~ sltarl, J^j baitr.

Horseman (trooper), Jiy sawr,jJj brgir, J1^ &j turk-sawr.

Hosier, i^i\},_jyc mz-bf, ^joj^t mze-farsh.

Hostler, (j-j L Is iJUi- ^L^j bhathiyari khri k s's.


' "s s
CC
Housebreaker, Loo-^ slndhiy, ^ji^iw nakb-zan.

Hunter, Huntsman, jbjVJ* shikr-bz, iiL* saiyd.


.
Jailer, (jVv^ ^ tjU-t/A^ bandi-khnt k nigahbn.

Jester, i^s.^ mskhara, (funny fellow) j ta thatht-bz.


Vocabulary. Nouns. 157
- 9
Inlayer, ^lie^wo munabbat-kr.

Innkeeper, bhathiyr, & halr, (dakh.) JK kall.


9
Interpreter, ^\^- tarjumn, db-bhaslya.
- 9 s
Jockey, jLj CSj^>- chabuk-sawr, sawar, Js^^ shah-sawar.
* 9
Joiner, ^>y. barlialfja* sutr : see Cartwright, Carpenter.

Judge, i^j-^i kz (m.), \s>- hkim, imJLai* munsif, mufti.

Juggler, jbj>- hukka-bz, Joj -$5jj dth-band, j\i^J batte-bz.

Justice (of the peace), e kzi : see Judge.


Co t, y
Keeper, f^^j rakh-wala, nigh-bn.

Labourer, j .U> mazdr, ^r* mihnati (m. f.), /.

Land-steward, j\fispcttwr, J^> soztoaL


Land-surveyor or -measurer, ^lu-^j^- jarlb-kash.
t>p 9 t,9
Language-master, ^yi-x* munsht, khun, )-)1 Msfrf.

Lecturer, mudarris : see Professor, Preacher.

Lexicographer, ^y\^ lughat-nawis.

Librarian, l ijU-c_>b kitab-khn k darogha.

Lighterman, 'jjg bhar-wl, ^Lc l y bhar ka mollah.

\Amaer,cLljye srat-gar, j musauwir : see Painter.

Mace-bearer,jljjj>- chb-dr, ^j.^y* sntt-bardr.

Machinist, kal-sz,ji^M^ san't-gar (?).

Magician, ^- jdu-gar, >>\ afsn-gar, bhkas.

Magistrate, J\*-y faujdr, kzl, ^S\s- hkim: see Judge.

Major-domo, kulkuln, J i\jj~> sarbarh-kr.


]58 Vocabulary.Nouns.
PC
Manager, j\j\ kr-guzr, j&^J pshkar : see Director.

Manufacturer, J>iJ& hangar, Jz*> dast-kr: see Artificer.



Mariner, JL* mallah, ^La kish-ban : see Sailor.

Mathematician, ^^bj riyzi-dn, ^^ muhandis.


. 00
Mechanic,y^ krtgar, jj~ Jj>1 ahl-i-hirfa, psha-war.

Mendicant, gada, (^.jj^ darweshyjJfakr, ^s>- jangam.


/
Messenger, uuAS ksid, sjjb harkra, tZJj dt, ^^cVi-o sandsl.

Midwife, t^'lisj- (_?*^ dl-janl.


/ /
Milkman, UljJjo) ddk-wl : Milkmaid, ^lykJjJ ddh-wl.

Miller, V>\^-j plsan-hr.

Minister (of state), jjjj icaztr, y^J^ pardhan : see Priest.

Mint-master, Acjjlj l JLJo taksl k drgha.
-
Monk, uZjjj^ darwsh, jJ fakir, Aftlj zhid, iS]^ bairg.

Muleteer, kJiachchar-bn.
/ _ j> c^
Musician, <-J^2-<> mutrb, ^^- mughannt, e^-JjK kalwant.

Mustermaster, ^ aVis, karor, j *U- j'iza-glr.


00 /
Musketeer, J^Jjy barkandz, Joj bandkchi.
m CO
Navigator, ^.L mallah, ^l. kishtibn, ^jtsf^ mnjht (.).

Necromancer,^SjOU- jdgar, jb tone-baz, j>\~> sahxr.

Needle-maker, ^'jy* sdzan-gar.

Notary, ^-j dabir.



Nurse (of a sick person), j^U-j bimar-dar.

Nurse (of a child), , dd (f.), '.


Vocabulary Nouns. 159

Nurse (wet), / ^/ta d'i-pl'i, (dry) ^jtys / dl-khill.

Nurse (male), bta efy, Iii ann.

Oculist, JlsT kahhl, L~j sathiy (?).

Officer, -*< mansab-dr, j\ s^a uhda-dr, Jip, sardar.

Oilman, Oil-merchant, tl, ^ijy raughan-farosh.

Ostler, i^Lj s's, jIj^j*- chirwadar (?) : see Groom.

Overseer, \*^ karr, J\ drgha, ^s^Ui! ihtimmch.


et
Palmiste^ ^^*^ samudriki, ^jj^> bhadr (.).

Papermaker, kgha,^ l kghaz-gar.

Parcher of grain, ^ bharbhnj.


m '
Pastor, td^ galla-bn, ^^- chaupn, (jU-jU psbn, (spiritual

guide) guru, ij\s> hdt, dJbj* murshid.

Pastry-cook, halw'i: see Confectioner.

Patcher, J pra-doz9JS j^-j paiwand-kr.

Paver, Pavier, jcj Jj farsh-band.

Pawn-broker, ^-Jjj bandhak-gr, ^j** murtahin: see Banker.



Paymaster, ^f\j>- khazn-cht, l<^s bakhsht, (general) (^-^

mlr-baJchsh.

Pedler, ^l-J iisi (m), oJt3 dast-farsh, bjgj phariy.

Penman, /"}*' khush-naws, \b~ khattt.

Perfumer, gandhi (.), jlLc zttr, ^^ atr-farsh.

Pewterer, j-^ kaser : see Brasier.

Philosopher, uJyJu failsf, ^yili fasaf (.), haktm.


160 Vocabulary. Nouns.
9
Physiognomist, ^x*^ samudrikl, ,Jj <L3 kiyfa-dn.
<- 9
Pickpocket, \j 1^ jb-katr, j> kisa-bur.

Pilgrim, cu^jI aii, ijji\>-jtri (m.), ^X^saiy, (to Mecca) ^jr^-


A/ (.).

Pilot, jjjto mu'allim, ^>J\ arkti,j\&J krn-dhr.


9
Pioneer, Ljj! lniy, j\jLj bel-dr.
's '
Pirate, ^-^-> daka.it, dk : see Robber.

Plaiter,^j'l utt-gar, ^J\ urt-gar.

Planter, kjfjJijS 'er (.), mAssT nakhlband.; see Gardener.

Plasterer,^L kasgar.
m CO
Player (stage), Jli nakkl, pkhniy, ^J^^y swng (.).

Ploughman, ljy>-jA hal-jot, Wjb> halwh, Jjy>- jtr.

Plumber, (^ ^ v_s-~-a ss km-karnewl.


i '
Poet,jC.\> sh'r, kab, ..,. kabishar, ^~ijs? sukhan-sanj.

Polisher,^JJue saikal-gar,J*h>- jil-gar, ghotan-hr.


9
Porter, (carrier) j^jb brbardr, \J^ mtiy, ^J3 : see Door
keeper.
Postman, L1j dkiy, J-t ksid, (dakh.) !j JUS tappLwl.
o? .o o.?
Potter, kumhr,LS kasgar, (dakh.) jL kunbr.

Poulterer, ^^* murghJ-wl, (Jyj^s* murgh-farsh.



Preacher, lclj ', j*^} waxz-go, ^^Jb~ khatib.
(.9 9^ -
Preceptor, ustad, &> khun, k**> mu'allim.

Prefect, Afcim : see Governor.

Prelate, Primate, *U mm, .X^i^sT* mujtahid.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 161

President, b bl-nishin, (_/-Lsr-/o mir-i majlis.

Priest, jj> gurjj^ pir, vi^jkjji purhit : see Preacher, Prelate.

Professor (teacher), ^jb* mudarris, vLf>b pthak, jJjk mu'llim.

Prophet, naZu ^m.),^vLj paighambar, rikh.

Pursuivant, J^lJ yaswal, j\<X>f>- chb-dr.

Purveyor, oj^J^ bhandrt, Jz\jj~ sarbarh-kr.

Quarter-master, J^o^< mr-i manzil, Cj>jj~* mr-i-tuzuk.

Ranger (ofa forest), J^^S karwal, jlLi^o mr-shikr.



Recorder, sar-rishta-dar, \j~iy> J^i daftar-naws.

Renter, ^.g bharai, J\sJ*>-\ ijra-dr, J\j}J> kirya-dr.

Retailer, jA^i *jy>- khurda-farsh, \jJ^ phariy.

Robber, jy>- chr, chtt, dakait, rh-zan.

Ropedancer,^jjb bazi-gar, \j2j natw, jV^rf rasan-baz.

Ropemaker, J^^^ rasan-sz.

Rower, ^^ dandi, < ."j^ khewat, khwak.

Ruler, jU. hakim, <_L\c //, j^sli nzim, (or dakh.) j nimm.

Sailor, jX mallah, ^jj\^>- jahzi (m.), ^^. khalsi (m.).

Salt-maker, Ljj! lniy, ^^-o malangi, L3y nniy.

Sawyer, ^^/ arra-kash, karntl.

Scarifier, f\f*" fagjm.'

Scholar, sikh, \> shgird: see Disciple, Student.


-?
Schoolmaster, fchun, ^-^L^ miyn- (.), iL mull.

Schoolmistress, mullni, y \ at (f.), (dakh.) tn.


162 Vocabulary Nouns.

Scullion, j><^ deg-sho.

Sculptor, ^t\yi^j but-tarsh, nakksh, j!i\iS~> sang-tarsh.

Secretary, munsh (m.), mir-munshi, dabr.

Sentinel, Sentry, ^L"*^ psbn, pahriya, j\J^y>- chaukl-dr.

Servant, naukar, v>- chakar, Ichidmat-gr.

Shaver, fbs*" hajjm, cu^lj npit : see Barber.

Shepherd, IjlyjJ-^j bherihara, galla-bn, (dakh.) dhangar.

Shoemaker, ^>- mcht, j ^^J^ kafsh-dz, J^*~ chamar.

Shopkeeper, Lj baniy, ^Ij^Is dkn-dr, ^^j^ dknt (.).

Skinner, ^c^-j^J post-, )L> sallkh, jUs chamar.

Slave, Jcj banda, *i ghulm, cAZ, IjJjS laund, rfs.

Slave (female), bnd, $&> laundi, Cy& kanizak (f.).


b
Slave merchant, (jjjiijj barda-farsh.

Smuggler, ghat-mr, jVc^jf- chauk-mr.

Snake-catcher,j-^,L mar-gir, gunt (.).



Snake-keeper, |<r^ sampr.

Soap-boiler or -maker, ^^^jLo sbn-gar.

Soothsayer, bij ^1 gam-bakt, ^^ khin, JUj rammal.

Sophist, Li t-o bat-ban, LS=^>" hujjat (.), ?/.

Sorcerer, jS^^-il afsun-gar, bhkas, j>j\&- jd-gar.

Sorceress, j\s^ jd-garni, ^J^ kanklin, / <057.


* G
Spearman, : ~&>! barchhait, J^ji * neza-bardar.

Spinner, Spinster, charkh-zan, ^J^J^ htanhr (f.)
Vocabulary Nouns. 163

Sportsman, jbjlLb shikr-bz, ^JJ* shikari, b^jbl ahlriy.

Standardbearer, JiJjJ ^lJ nishn-bardr, ^>^ bairak- (.).

Stationer, ,_A1
** kghazi : see Bookseller.

Steersman jhingt, ijj\5& kandrl (.) : see Helmsman.


,
Steward ^ULjl^ khnsmn, $J\lug bhandr (.), bakawal.

Steward (agent), jjla krbri (.), ^^ dwn : see Factor.
i*
Stonecutter, (^ sang-tarsh : see Carver, Sculptor.

Student, jJjMi_J\b tbu-1-ilm or jLck_Js tlib-i ilm.


9 t.
Sugar-boiler, knd. Sugar-seller, shakar-farsh.

Sutler, };$2# bhathiyr, (dakh.) ^U^ bhaftara.

Sweeper,^i^o mihtar, ^J&jf^r jhru-kash, -^- jrub-kash.

Swimmer, Ci^-J pairk, jj\i> shinawar.

Swordman, Swordplayer, uj^^-b shamsher-zan, bJj talwariy.

Targetier, la^jiaj dhalait.

Tavern-keeper, jK kalr,j^ kalwr,\jJ-^i bhangr.



Tax-gatherer, jlo^-b ity-dr^^L-aasr1 tahsildr.

Tenant, jlj <u^ kirya-dr, <-~s-j ra'iyat, ^ bharaiti (ja.).

Tent-maker, J J<Uwo- khaima-dz, jyi *>b pra-dz.


j> - f
Testator, v_ysj-<! 7. Testatrix, -y msiya.

Thatcher, chhappar-band, b^^- chhawaiy, ^*)jp ghar-

ari (.).

Thief, j^- cr, chtt, OjJ duzd,jL taskar.

Thief-catcher,jb ^lj nazar-bz,j j duzd-gir.


164 Vocabulary Nouns.

Thrasher, bylisii dhnwaiy.

Tiler, Jcj khapre-band.



Timber-merchant, ^IJ lkarhara, J^j/ Kzam-farsh.

Tinman, jf^Jj kal'-gar, ; rasss.

Tirewoman, Az^c mashshta (f.), ^yj^v pahar'rii.

Tobacconist,Js \3 tambk-gar, JLjj\~j tambk-farosh.

Toll-gatherer, ^1-5 dandiy : see Tax-gatherer.

Torchbearer, ^cf^*""* mash'l-ch, <fcJi falta-bardar.

Toyman, (^j/ "^jV bazicha-farosh, rngbhar.



Trader, Tradesman, saudagar, baiprt : see Artificer.
^ 9 ' /
Translator, i^-Jjj ry tarjuma-nawis, ^-f-^ mutarjim.

Traveller,yL^i musfir, ^.U-s saiyah, bath (va.).

Treasurer, ^sr^- khaznch (m.), bj.j rokariya, jlj iy3^ tahvl-

dar.

Trooper, jl^-i sawar, \&y>-y ghur-charh, Jij~> <jjp turk-sawr.


9-
Tumbler, j^jb bazigar, na, jbK kala-baz, kautuki (.).

Turner, Jhard (.), ^5/- (.), kharrt.


9 -9
Tutor, Jbl atltk, ^y>-\ khiin, (patron) murabbi (.) : see

Professor.

Varnisher, lakhr.
s. s
Vicegerent, |liU k'm makm, <__>* u^oli '/ manb.

Viperoy, Jijye suba-dr, -J^ji nawwab: see Vicegerent.

Victualler <l.jlJ l -^ rasad k dargha : see Purveyor, Sutler.


Vocabulary Nouns. 165

Vintner, yjji ^j* mai-farosh : see Distiller.

Usher, ^JL) jjC rz-bgJ : see Mace-bearer.

Waiter, C-^J parsaiy, jlc- khidmatgr.



Warden, jj^j^ darvoazi (.), s.jj\j dardgha : see Keeper.

Warrior, L5^=r jang (.), jj\~c mubriz, bahdur.

Washer-man, ^^bJ dhb (.), CS^rj rajak, jjlf gzur.



Washer-woman, ^J^&O dhobin (f.), ^^2^ barlthan.

Watchman, J\J>- chaukidr, (^V*^ psbn, pahr.


o c.-
Water-carrier, l_="-^ bihish (.), jISjT abkr, U- sakk.

Water-cooler, <_> b-dr.

Waterman, u'j^ khwat, ^Lc maliah : see Water-carrier,

Wharfinger, J\tf ghatwr or ghatwl.


Wiredrawer, tr-kash.

Wizard, u>& bhkas, lSJ^t jantr : see Magician.

Wood-cutter, \J>jfl lakar-hr, J*> |jJb hzam-kash.

Woodmonger, hzam-farsh, ^U>j lakar-hr.

Workman, yoj^ krlgar, \^ kamer, Js~> dastkr.

Wrestler, ^j&^j^S kush-gir or -gar, j\i ^tS kushti-bz.

Writer, ^rsr* muharrir, lL^J Ukhak, ktib, rkim.

Writer (one in the Company's service), ^^ mutasaddi.

Writingmaster, ^-Jy khush nawis : see Master.

O/* Meats and Drinks.


Food, Victuals, khn, khtirk(f.), ! gfe (f.), ^-^
bhjan, iSyj ras'tfjjbi hr (or vulg. jU! ahr), tZJy m.
166 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Drink, UJjii shurb. Meat and Drink, <_>jZ> j JI akl 5 shurb,


Ljj Ul^ khn pina, ^ Ail J dna pant.

Fodder, sj>- chara, ghs, CJb gfis-pt.

Grain, Corn, <d ghalla, anj, j\ daa, ^s? tukhm.

Rice (cleared of the husk, but not cooked), JjU- chwal, JyU-
chawal, birinj, JocJ tandul.

Rice (boiled), JA, Ll~ khushka.

Rice-milk,^ klr (f.), firm, j> ^jS> hawikh-firni.

Wheat, geh, gandum, (dakh. also) ^^> ghyau.

Flour, Meal, f, rrf, ^^j 5;?, eA^ P^san-

Flour of Wheat, 13 1 l ^j^geA A t.

Flour of pulse (especially of Us- Cicer arietinum), saw.

Flour, fine or twice sifted, Jua> maida.


Bread, ^Jijj rti, ^Jj nn (f.).

Thick Bread, Loaf, <-bjj rt, ^Jijj rti.

Small loaf of bread, Cake, .Jj z, j> girda, kulicha.

Parched grain, Ij /, JgS / (f.), chabtn, thuddt.

Parched grain, reduced to meal and made into a paste, ^ satt.

Parched grain ofj\y>-j'r ^- bjr, parimal.

Milk, -OjJ dudh,*J* shir, ^pai, (j-y*> gras, ja$>- chhir.

Butter, li^Co makkhan, mkhan, wc maska, ^yJ '.

Butter clarified by boiling and straining, gAi (m.).

Buttermilk, <>A{- chhachh (f.), l^U matth, dgh.

Thick sour coagulated Milk, ^iO ? (m-)-


Vocabulary. Nouns.

Cream, ^fLc mall, ) sari.

Whey, \ U m'u-1-jubn, ^yb \ &) J ddh k pant, tor.

Curd, chakk, ->- chhen.

Cheese, j~j partir. Round (of a cheese), chakt.

Meat, Flesh, i-~> gosht, maws, (dakh. also) hem.


O O
Broth, Soup, b;j-b shrb or ^^-> shrw, ij~j>- jus, pareh.

Porridge, Pottage, laps!, s (f.) : see Broth.

Flummery, iJjlls flda : see Porridge, Rice-milk.

Gravy, ij^y _> b-i-gsht, jLj>-u-)\ b-jsh, ^j^kTyaMini.

Roast meat, <AS kabb, iAS LV sikhiy kabb.


?
Stew (of meat), dam-pukht, ^^l yakhni.
s .
Curry (said to be from the Arab. <Oi), slan, UJL sln.

A certain dish made of flesh and rice, pul'o.

Meat dressed dry with onions, dpiyza.

Minced meat, Hash, <U-S .

Pie, L>^mwj smbsa, u^*~: sarnosa.



Forced meat, t_jb /. Pounded meat, <fcj /a.

Beef, cl Ajf g'e fc gosht, ~* ^ 1? g'5 gosht.

Mutton, i^.>^'lJ-$J J/ gs/ii.

Veal, c^->j^ ^ iJSjf bachhr k gosht.

Pork, e^~>ji I j\j-9 s'ar gsA.

Ham, raw (f. .).


/ <-
Lamb, Kid, l ^^ halwn k gsht.
168 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Venison, e^.SjS'l^ ^Jb liaran k gosht.

Hare, Rabbit, J^ff*- khargosh, lambha.

Fish, (J^* machhti.


CS
Fowl, <j<o murgh.
L. ? CL
Wild fowl, y-c (J^r JawgZ murgh.

Turkey, JJ _/Z murgh, .

Peacock, j^ . Peachick, hj* mrela.



Goose, (j~3b> Aws.
Duck, Waterfowl, ^/< murghbl.

Partridge,^-! 7ar.

Pigeon, kabutar, .

Vegetables (esculent), Greens, ^^r1' tarkrt, ^>-\^ bh.
ci
Sausage, UK kulma, langch, <uls kulma.

Pastry, Pasty, sambdsa, Ig^^J paralha, khj.

Sweet cakes fried in butter, &c, gulgul.

Confection, Conserve, Jam, Preserve, <^ murabba.

Sweetmeat, ^ mithl, Ul>- halw, Sb ladd.

Egg, awrf, <t^j baiza.


Omelet, <^>- khglna.

Rice-water, Rice-gruel, -f==u pcAA (f.), (dakh.) gan/.

Barley-water, Watergruel, sh-i-jau.

Water, pw (m.), 55, Jr jal.

Wine, Spirituous liquors, t-J\j& sharb (f.), ^ (f.), Jt< ".


Vocabulary. Nouns. 169

Arrack (from the Arab, j^c , juice, spirit), tari (toddy),


f,
^Jc^-j sendhi.

Beer, IjjJ isr or xj boza.


Tea, U. (f.).

Coffee, kahwa, (unground) ^ bun.



Breakfast, lS/*^- hziri, cJ^ nn-i-nahri, b.-il3 nsht.

Luncheon, Tiffin, cold meat, i^-K kaUw, izJ& nashta, i^J*[>-


chsht (f.).

Dinner, khn (eating), ^lri. khssa.


Supper, t^Lj , sha, \>\ l tllj ri k khn.

Spices, Condiments.
Spices, Condiment, Seasoning, masalih,j\L baghr.

Salt, Zw, Saj namk, (rock) bnM^-i sendh.

Pepper, ^.^ (f.), Jili ^Z^Z (f.).

Pepper, black, Jj' gZ mirch (f.), fcZ mirch, ^


mirch (f.).
Pepper, red or Capsicum, mirch (f.).

Ginger (dry), sttiA (f.), J-^sQ zanjabtl (f.).

Ginger (undried), uL^O^ adrak (f.), loi cf.



Clove, ij$ laung (f.), Jjuy karanfal.

Mace, ^jy^r jwatri or jwitri, <S~jLj basbsa.

Cinnamon, ^>-J\ drchint.

Nutmeg, qS^ j'e phal, jf>- jauz.

Allspice, Jamaica pepper, Myrtus pimenta, <J~~> sital chn.


1 70 VocabularyNouns.

Turmeric, ^jA, haldi, <-r>j>- j) zard chb (f.), uyhi pitras.

Saffron,y~- ksar (f.), ijj&j zcffarn (f.).


" 9
Anise-seed, i_j_j-s saunf(t.\ ariisn.

Cumin-seed, l^-s- jira, \jj zira, .

Mustard-seed, /1^ r't, khardal, i_l>^ sarshaf, jjy tori.



Pickles, jl*- ! chr. Pickle (brine), ^^XtJ namkln pant (.).

Apparel, Dress.

Apparel, Clothes, Dress, ^ , j^U Zi&s, ti/L>jJ pshk (f.).

Hat, j^jp #5, *K mZ (f.).

Cap, wZA (f.), tj, tpi.

Turban, iJj^Jpagri, ^S^pg(.), \j>- chira, Jv~i dastr (f.).


99
Tiara, Diadem, Crown, Aj <y, mukut, j~\ afsar.

A kind of Turban, <uUx mama.

Ornaments for the turban, JjJ- mandil (f.), ^i^^-i sar-psh or

-^cA, b fjlfgdsh-pech or -wara, <tx*&-jlgha, kalght,


_?
i^a turra.
i.9 'S C
Veil (woman's), jJ burka%, LL~jrf> ghnghat (f.), ^JU makna*.
to
Veil or woman's cloak, ^^Jjl rhrii.
9 /
Handkerchief, JUjj rml, lf="-jH angchh; see Neckcloth.

Neckcloth, AiJjb guluband.

Necklace, ill* /, , -2 kanth, ,\s> liar, %* kanth-ml.

Shirt, Chemise, /frams <J kurta.

Long vest resembling a shirt, <U>- jubba.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 171
Co f
Waistcoat, ^>- ehlt, \fi>\ angarkk, ^- fathl.

Bodice, Stays, ^>- chl, \+>\ angiy (f.), ^jS? mahram.

Coat, wrii, \ cmg, angarkk.

Cloak, Great-coat, Jj/ farghul (f.), brm, sU lubda.

Gown (female's), jly^ peshwz (f.), Z/c (f.).

Gown (male's), Robe, <- jama, pairaban.


? <-?
Frock, jhagul, \i kurt, 1J daghl.
/
Jacket, c'l^< mirz', l&! ang, < kurta, angarkk.

Mantle, jU lubda, ^ pati : see Cloak.

Drawers, Trousers, Pantaloons, ubsrb p'yma, ^Uj tumbn or



tambn, shar', J'jJ* shilwr, Jij\ izr (f.), Jb>j- sirwl.
m
Garter, iJijye moza-band, ^Jjpattt.

Girdle, kamarband, l&b patk.

Breeches (short), \~>\i>- jnghiy, \i# kachhn, U^e- chama.

Breeches (that reach below the knees, and fit tight), (dakli.)

?
Cloth worn round the waist and passing between the legs, lung,

lungi, cfcj j tah-band, langdfi.



Belt round the loins, to which the langot is attached, <U~i tasma,
9
^jt) d'li.

Petticoat, liiyl lahang or t^ Ihang, ghaghr, <L> sy.


Night-clothes, ^V*- *-r~i> shab-khmbi.

Stocking or Sock, u-s^jurrb, kbjb p'etba.

Shoe, Slipper, y^jt, .J!^ jtt, Jijh ppsh (t.), kafsh (f.).
172 Vocabulary.Nouns.
g '
Boot, ifjp^o , <uC=- chakma : (leg of) ,_s lyJ pawl.

Glove, <k-jJ dastna.
O
Ear-ring, j\y*if gshwra : (kiad of), J^j karn-phl,

Ring, (worn on the finger) ^jjS^\ angushtari, (on the thumb)


?,0
<b^iij! angushtana.
G GC /
Ring, (worn in the nose) -^ nath, nathnl, Jjb bulk,
bsar (f.).

Bracelet, churi, ^S> kangan, bz-band.


gj> '>
Button, <Uj tukma, ^ gkundt.
G
Buckle, (_,J chaprs (f.) : (tongue of) ^J baks'.
G Go CG
Clasp, t/]^- chaprs, 1 ^ Jcj Z>and /carne Ai anJcf.

Buildings.
A Building, Edifice, ey>Ufi imarat (f.).

Wall, jljjJ (f.), Z/ (f.), J^.g> dwal (f.).

Roof, c^= cMa (f.), &\$f~ chhn (f.), (of thatch) j-f>- chhappar.

Arch, Vault, Dome, Cupola, js i, b gumbaz, Js Iubba.


S G -
House, Mansion, j ghar, L5b^- hawll, ^> ktht, J>sr* mahall.
G
Dwelling, Abode, , ^L^ maskan, Ul$3 thikn.
CG 7
Cottage, Cot, Hut, \Jjl?r jhompri, ^J, .
0_ G G G
Palace, <\s^Jjg> daulat-khna, j^s kasr, ja&Aj rjmandir.

Castle, Fort, <u!Ji #aZ' (Hind. kiYa), Jtff garh, jLas- hisr.

Tower, Bastion, Bulwark, ^ /.


G
Obelisk, Steeple, Minaret, cL-S Zi (f.), (f.), minar.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 173
9 ^9
Pillar, Column, &^ khambh, satn, ^yp thni, rulen.
o o
Temple (Mahommedan), iXsr~* masjid (f. a mosque), Ju4 maxbid.
"
Temple (Hind), Jjj J dwal,j~* mandir, LyJ dthra.
o
Shrine, alfp dargh (f.),j\j< mazr (m. f.).

Altar, (_$Ju icd, ^^byi kutbn-gh (f.), mazbih.



Church, Chapel, AJ kalsa, girja, mbid.

Bridge, Jj^aZ, ^~ si.

Inn, ^ ^ sar' (f.), <U-^iL~ musr-khna.



Storehouse, Magazine, Granary, y}sr makhzan, ^ef^ .

Cow-house, !^ gausla,j\~> sr, kharak, lf*j kth.


** -'
Stable, J^J^ ghursl, JJL^l istabal, Ljb tawela.

Elephant stable, fil-khana.
9 9
Shop, Warehouse, d/cw (f.), tila i (f.), tfoftra (f.).
^
Workshop, <U-jl kr-khna. kar-gah (f.), dkn (f.).

Gate, Door, tlkl^j phatak, darwza, paurt.

Gateway, Porch, Threshold,jJj&J dahliz (f.), Lj*Jji>i dewrht, (dakh.)



dt'ri.
.
Window, Casement, khirki, \'ypr jharkh.

Floor, (f. ground), (of cement) gach, (of plank) <&r

i^-Jcj takhta-band.
"

Chamber, Room, Apartment, \j kamar, \Jj$ kothrt, iSjsr* hujra.
C'C 9
Closet, Cabinet, j\s?^. khalwat-ldina, ^s?" hujra, gsha.
* . 1.9 ce
Cell, hujra, J* gosha, <ul kulba, kothri.
174 Vocabulary Noitm.

Hall, (jlj dln, aiwn, (of entrance) ^JjJ dar dln.



Dining room, j\s- ^U^o mihmn-khna.

Hall of audience,Juj darbar, ti\s- ^j0 diwn-khna.

Kitchen, *jU- ^j^ijb bwarchi-khna, ^3- matbakh.

Balcony, Gallery, <U- bl-khna. <b> shah-nishtn.

Verandah, j^I^j bar-amada.

Garret, b <Li? tabkabl, lJj$}* \J j* ^ ma^n upar


kthri.

Theatre, Playhouse, l^li>Uj' tamsh-gh (f.), <U- Ji nakl-khna.

Brick, (JUul Ini (f.), Misi (f.).

Tile, khapr, b nariy, la^** Mi^i (f.).


w
Stone, patthar, ^b/j pakhan, J-j siZ (f.), (&~> sang.

Mortar, Plaster, ^ gack, <fcsrj rtkhta.

Thatch, ghs (f.), J^ (f.).



Glass, knch, <C-j^> shsha : (pane of) ll^ parkla.

Beam, Bar, ^- shahtr, ^ kart, .


<
Rafter, Spar, &ar, 5*& kndt,jS , cJp tarak (f.).

Chimney, ^IjjybJ dhnwr, dd-kash.

Fire-place, bjj*- chlh, tash-dn, ^laijJ dtg-dn.


9 ti.
0\en,jjij tanr,jjj tandr, iJUgJ Mai (f.).
-
Shutter or fold of a door, fl^ ktwar, h palla, <Ji-o pat.

Palisade, Balustrade, Railing, l^S kathara.

Plate or clamp of metal,^> pattar.


? >
Hinge, kulaba, f>- chl (f.), <U=J> /raJza.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 175
9
Pivot on which a door turns, J^s- chul (f.).
cf
Lock, ,Jj kufl, iXi tola.

Key, kunjl, c kilid (f.), chbi.


m CC
Bolt, 6, ^$>- chhitkari, OJjJ dar-band.

Bar of a door, hurk, aujjJ darband, \j ^ ardanda.


e 9
Staple (of a lock), ^/- si'r?, <b kulaba.
9
Hasp, <j kulaba.
Ce -9
Hook, uf^il ankr, tA kullab : see Hasp.
Ce
Stair, Step, Ladder, ^jrr1 sirhi, ^.j nardbn, <Uj .

Stairs, Steps, *j zna. Staircase, Steps, c^i nard-bn.

Bedchamber, Dormitory, khwb-gh (f.), \j>j ^ sri


kthr.

Cellar, Vault, j\- 3 tah-khna, \j$# bhnghar.


9
Well, lj t', (large one of masonry) 1^ indura, ^ b '
^ -
Cistern, Reservoir, awz, Acs- chahbachcha.

Household Furniture.

Table, * miz (f.), ^1 l miz ka takhta.
9
Tablecloth, ^-^ dastar-khwn. yus sufra, j<x>- chaddar (f.).
9 '
Chair, Stool, L~^ , ^^j- chaukt, ^J^* sandal.
ce e
Footstool, IbJjj^c mndh, \&jyc morha.
e e
Shelf, jib i/c, Js tabka, takht, \Jj patr.
^
Trivet, Tripod, & <U si-yaya, ^ L-> sipaPi, cUy tirpad.

Clock, iJj$> gha, Jbjj^f ghariyl, i^*L> s'i (f.).


176 Vocabulary.Nouns.
o
Carpet, JLJt farsh, ^Xi , isa! 13 kltcha, ^srJsJii shatran.

Carpet, (to sit or pray on) ^\ san, (to pray on) wW" sajjada.

Carpet (to clean the feet on),j!jj\ b p-andz.

Cloth spread over a carpet, ^Jl- chndnt.

Cushion, ij gaddl.
S
Bed, Couch, sej (f.), bichhauna, <JL>\^ kht (f.).

Bedstead, bjW- cAerp',- plang, kht (f.).

Bedding, lijfs? bichhauna, JZ.J> farsh, bistar.


s
Mattress, ily tshak (f.), sznl, toj^s? bichhauna.

Pillow, Bolster, <l> takiya, Jb balish, usis.


"s S "s

Coverlet, Quilt, Counterpane, t/i^b bl-psh, ^jJ^/Jj palang-
pdsh.

Sheet, jtiU- chdar (f.),jA- chaddar (f.), rhn.

Blanket, <J<* kammal, ^J-* kamli, ^ 15'.



Curtain, O^ parda, (of a bed, against mosquitos) <_?/-< masahr.

Looking-glass, Mirror, <> t 'wa, darpan, <J\jc mir't{i.\


b ce
Picture,j>y taswr (f.), chitr, iJLs nksh.

Wash-hand bason, chilamcht, \ -^j*Ub /* dhri

k basan.

Goglet, Ewer, Water-jug, <bi| ftba, IjbiT ftw.

Towel, Jtcjj rmal, JU-j^ dastml, Jjw\~ mindll (f.).

Comb, ^jS^ kanghi, <l> shna.

Brush, (English) barash, ^=^^ knchl.


Vocabulary.Nouns. 177

Box, Chest, Trunk, Coffer, JjJ^ sanduk (ra. f.), <J~J plli.

Small box, Casket, s^jo-e sandkcha, & >, di.


a
Basket, \y tkr, jj>y tkri, Lb daliy, IjISj pitara.
LO -
Bellows, ^jjs dhaunkrii, JL khl (f.), <UJ c?am.

Spit (for roasting meat), Q~ sikh, (smaller) Af-*^ stkhcha.

Caldron, Boiler, Copper, dig (f.), !^> handa, V karh.

Kettle, Pot, dgcha, tatabra, ^Jula hndi, L-j tasl.

Lid, Potlid, liiaj dhakn, dhapna, (j!^j~> sarposh.

Chafing dish, ^^5\ angth, ^jI tash-dn.

Trivet or fireplace (for a kettle, 8tc), dgdn.

Fryingpan, karht, ay mhi-tawa, <b" (.



Ladle, Wooden spoon, fif', Vfir karchh, A^?" chamcha.

Skimmer, ^jf <_i kaf-gir, Xi^s*- jharna, (of iron) ^>-J> karchhani.

Dish, Platter, Salver, ^l^i /, c_> #i> (f.), il&^y-o sahnak (f.),

Js tabak.

Plate, rikb, rikb, Jjji bartan, CS^ sahnak (f.).

Plate (silver), ^j*^ iijj zurf-i-siml, l'j <~-ijJ zurf-i-nukra'i.



Spoon, Aj*?" chamcha, ^^~J> karchht : see Ladle.
*
Knife, Ljf- chhur, J krd (f.), (pen) Jj kalam-tarsh (f.).

Clasp knife, >- chakk, \Jj bakiy (f.).



Fork, 12 fcwi.

Saltcellar, namak-dn. Cuet, ^1*^ sirka-dni.

Bowl, (j-lb S5, i -..V as/, |U-jffl, (of brass) kalr.


2 A
178 Vocabulary.Nouns.
CO 9 f
Jug, Goblet, Ij^ii kulhr, ksa, j kuza, (^.\b ts.
f _
Bottle, Flagon, <~b shisha, [^>~]/B surhl, gulbt.

Cup, Glass, Can, JLj piyl, p\z~jm, (As ts, ksa.

Phial, small Glass, , eii> shishi.

Decanter, -> rni, 1-^> shisha, &~>\ bgina.

Water-pot, Pitcher, Jar, V^gAar, ^ sa&, l&U matk.

Porringer, L^c m*, jjb bdiya : see Cup.



Pan, Bason, ^b bsan, j> bartan : see Fryingpan, Bowl.

Funnel, b^>- chonga, nal], (dakh.) purni (?).


ce
Tub, kathr,j\*j taghr, u^Uj taghr1, \j> gaml (?).

Pail, Bucket, J?y$& kathau,j\x taghr, (milkpail) ^j&yi dhn.

Milkpan, dudh-handi.

Churn, bL mathaniy (f.), -* mihni.

Cask, Barrel, Pipe, ^j^.


CO
Tray, (^j- khwn, taci^- khwncha, \jf& kathr.
oo >
Trough, 1^ kathr, ^> ^rcg, Jb warad : see Tub.
^ j>
Besom, Broom, Jjfe-jhr (f.), i-J}j\*-jrdb, ljJ^. buhri.
c 4-^
Sieve, Riddle, Lj^b>- chaln, Jb^i ghirbl, <j-J pezna, b 1 fcA.
CC /
Mortar, yjbb hwan, khl, jjj> ktndl.
? fi
Pestle, ktak, J~^ msal, O dasta, l5jj-j snt, bsjj! lrh.
Lamp, chirgh, bj tfiy, t_^>o> c%>, CS^ dpak.

Oil, ulJ j^jj raughan.



Candle, Sa, sham* (f.), (of wax), mmfczt.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 179

Chandelier, Lustre, j\p^jhr.


f g
Shade (fora candle), ^.ylifans (f.), JJ kandl (f.)-
gg
Candlestick, ^0 sham dan.
f G
Lantern, (j~j\ifns (f.), JJ kandl (f.).

Torch, Flambeau, J* mash'l (),^ dmar.

Snufers, gul-gr, gul-tarsh.

Country and Country Affairs.


Gf - !
Country (not Town), culyjJ dihat, ^Li\sf^ btrunjat, ^ni^cmufassal.
^ g
Village, gwhw, J~~\ bast, gram, <$jJ A.

Field, Aei, ^1 Ju- maidn, J^i>- chhe.tr.


-?
Farm, cAa, *;-1 yara, (dakh. also) gMii : see Field.
G
Garden, Orchard, b gA, ^b r, (small) ^b bghcha, &^ib
gAcAa.
G? G t
Flower garden, iJ^^Q phulwr, ^b-JS gulistn.
G G
Forest, Wood, J&s- jangal, ^ ban, e^S>t) dasht.

Heath, Copse, Brushwood, i^j^prjhfi, "\$>-j/ir.

Hedge, Jb r, ^Jjj[$>-jhr-bandt, gher.


GG
Meadow, Mead, Marsh, \j> tarfft,J^ji-f marghzr.

Pasture, Meadow, *bLa- chargh,Jij&s- alafzr.

Park, Chase, <Jo^ ramna, *\f .L> shikr-gh (f.), mirg-sl.


' GG
Agriculture, Husbandry,^! sr, kishtkrt, ^^-^jj zira't (f.).

Cart, Waggon, gn, chhakr, < araba.

Plough, Jj> AaZ, < kulba, ngal, Jli nngal.


180 Vocabulary. Nouns.
O '
Harrow, \~J> htng, ', ^* sarwan.

Spade, Shovel, J-j , ^J\ kudli, \* 1$j ph'r.

Hoe, kudli, bllcha, \jj ph'r.

Dibble, ^^^ khan, ^Jt kudli.


J> OJ> ^,
Mattock, Pick, Pickaxe, Jlj^ kudl, kudr, ph'r,
gainti.
s
Ploughshare, chau, \jy tr, <>j>- hars, l Ja /aZ A phal.
.
Pitchfork, \j<\n>-jandr.
Axe, Hatchet, cfjk^ kulhri, tobar.
;i<
Sickle, Scythe, Ij.,,,'. hans', ^y^J/ darntl, ds.

Sieve, chalni, Jb^ ghirbl, tijj pezna, l^T AA.

Society and Government.

People, Nation, ijl pj* # (f-)> (f-)> *J>guroh.

Family, Tribe, J /, | (f.), *LJ> kabila.


oy -
Family, Household, L kumb, ^ kutum, gharn.

A Country, Region, rfs, tl^U wmZA, dip,j^ diyr.



Territory, lj,e) sar-zamn (f.), ds, kishwar.
9
Province, <js , jl^-j sarkr : see Country.

King, Sovereign, Monarch, Potentate, liiJb bdshh, \=Aj raja,

-^ ly-c mah-rj, \jj ^toy farmn-raw.

Queen, Empress, L malika, rni, ly -.


oj> <-
Prince, kunwr, jj rj-kunwar iS\j^i> shahzda.

Princess, ^jljLi shh-zdi, rj-kumrt, ^J\j rni.
Vocabulary Nouns. 181

Chief, Ruler, Prince, \s?\j raja, ^J\ wll, ra'is.

Minister (of state), jjjwzr, iJj-*> mantri (m.),j^ dastr.



Secretary (of state), ^sjii-c mantri (m.), diwn.
it
Officer (military), Commander,J, sar-dr, j]j -dr.

Officer (civil) c^flJ^i- Jj&l aAZ-i khidmat, j\ __^^ mansab-dr.

Judge, kzl, S\s>- hkim, LL&Lj nyyak.


-
Magistrate, chief officer of police, J\)j/ ktwl, J*J>-y faujdr.

Nobleman, Grandee, amir, (or plur.) \^c\ umar, s*. mda.

Of noble birth, u-sj tharlf, i-i^l ashraf, /.

Landholder, jljc^ zamndr, J*jJ>\>-jgirdr .


-
Plebeian, Commoner, <<* , rfw?.

Townsman, Citizen, c^^ shahr, ^J>L kasbti.

Villager, Peasant, ganwr, ljrc\f gramin, ^jUbJ dihkani.

War, Military Affairs.


War, i&~jang, ran, <-r^/- harb (f-)> tarai, ^-jadal.
Battle, ufljS lar't, Jb^judh, (>- jang, ^jj\s^> muhraba.
Peace, smA (f.).
Dissension, Discord, jti bigar, x fitna, pht (f.).
Pacification, Reconciliation, l_j}L> milp (f.), as)libc mumlaha.
Enemy, Foe, ,j*> dushman, durjan, <JL~SiJ dusht.
Adversary, Antagonist, ie^>- harif, ^j^j bairi (.), j>* ghanim.
Friend, Ally, .f*; pachchhi, ^J~ (.), miir, J^jj rafik.
Stratagem, Lo- Afo, ,Jj J^- chhal-bal, i_o _j ^ /anra farb.
Slaughter, Carnage, Jj aZ, ^jjijyi- khun-rtzi.
Massacre, see Slaughter : (general) Ju katl-i-amm.
Victory, Conquest, (_^s>- jai, ^sfath(f.), t~.>-jlt (f.),jS zafar.
182 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Triumph, ^j>- ^f? jai-jai-kr, ^-jai, bijai, ^ifath.


Defeat, Discomfiture, Loss, u^~L> shikast (f.),jb> har (f.).
Flight, u-v*Ji> hazmat (f.),jfbj bhgar (f.),j>J>gurz (f.),j\jirr.
Pursuit, \$sajplchh, <^\*j ta'kub, pairau'.
Pillage, Plunder, <JL>ji lt (f.), uu_vt^c ghanlmat (f.), <JL>b <JL>jJ
lt-pt (f.).
Onset, Attack, Assault, Charge, ~ hamla, charh'.
Incursion, Inroad, Invasion, u^o-U takht (f.), ^^- charh'i.
Devastation, Depredation, is~o-b" tkht-trj. ^JIaAj p'emTi.
Destruction, ^ia> halki, kharbl, ^U^ mismar.
Army, lashkar, b-j~> sn (f.), **p (f.), ^ji fauj (f.).
Battalion, ll>2b paitan, Is ^ji / k k hissa.
Brigade, Squadron, z~ dasta, J|j gfvl.
Troop, Corps, js>- jauk, ^yghl, (of horse), !> risla.
File, <e ajf (f.), jllaji jfcatr (f.), t^b ^ni (f.).
Rank, ti-ob pi or pnti (f.), < (f.).
Centre or main body (of an army), t-^li #a$.
Wing or Flank (of an army), ^pahl, -bs- janh (f.).
Right wing, <ti<*~ maimana. Left wing, maisara.
Watch, Sentinel, 1^ pahr, b^j pahriy, J*&y>- chaukldr.
Guard, Patrole, Uy> pahr, Ij^j pahr', b^ pahriy, jL^ shab-
gard.
Soldier, ^jJbb-j sipA (.), dsj^ lashkar (.).
Foot soldier, ^Lj piyda. Infantry, JjJ paidal, piydt.
Horse soldier, sawr, \&ya~Jp ghur-charh.
Pioneer, jIjIj beldr.
Ensign, Standard, Colours, ^lJ nishn, jhand, Jj+i bairak.
Ensign-bearer, j\j) ^lli nishn-bardr, Jiji lam-bardr.
Hostage, JUi^i yarghamal, ,JJi kafil, l.
Captive, Prisoner, j+~>\ asir, Jci giriftr, i^Ju kaidi.
Parade, ilf^ely kaw'id-gh (f.), xsu> saff-gh (f.), ^>V* maidn.
Muster, ^jJ> ginti, CL}\jy>-ytmaujdt({.), JA*j \~ifauj k taUka.
Vocabulary. Nouns. 183

Arms, jLff> hathyr or hathiyar (m. f.), ^}L> siZ (f.).


Sword, j\yj talwr (f.), IjoI^ khnd, j~~*~> shamsher, j_J egA.
Dagger,^s. khanjar, katr, chhur.
Spear, bhl, Lef=^/ barchht, sjj nza, jJj ballam.
Bow, lU^J dhanuk (f.), kamn (f.), jtaws (f.).
Arrow, ir, bn,j4i sar, <^ij- khadang.
Quiver, ^i^/ tarkash, ^J&i tukkash, ^y tn, nihhang (f.).
Bowstring, la- chilla, xj zih (f.).
Sling. ^/s5Phan (f-)> vf&sfalkhun (f.), b^f gopw (f.).
Poleaxe, Ul^ gands, \~ijQphars, bt belcha.
Shield, Target, Jl&S dhl (f.), ^^-j sipar (f.), phar.
Helmet, y~ khd, c_jy top, ^ mighfar.
Coat of mail, X>- jhilam, yLi baktar, i3 Jif=- chihal-tah.
Cuirass, i^>y>- jaushan, j&> baktar, (f.), jj\ \- chr-lna.
Musket, Firelock, JjJcj bandk (f.), C tupak (f.).
Swivel, large Musket, wall-piece, ^\>- jaz'il.
Barrel, Bore, Chase (of a gun), JU nl, ^Jj na.
Chamber (of a gun), ^py* kothi, khazna.
Pistol, <tsx*J tamancha, sxJ tabancha.
Bayonet, l^^ sangin (f.).
Pike, xjj nza, knt.
Flint, (for striking fire) sang-i-chakmak.
Powder, <-^jjb bart (f.)>jjV br (f.), jjlj (f.).
Ball, Bullet, (for a musket) ^j gli, (for a cannon) ^ gol.
Cartridge, liiy tonta, ^jyj& krts.
Match, (for a gun) Vjy tora, sAi falta, (brimstone) -j b diy-
sal'i.
Cannon, Gun, piece of Ordnance, t)y top (f.).
Ordnance, 1^ tpen (f. plur.).
Fieldpiece, ilX, rahkal, t-jy *jsy~> safari top (f.).
Park of Artillery, <U- L->y top-khna.
Arsenal, \d~ ^1~ silh-khna, <U- L-)y top-khna.
1 84 Vocabulary Nouns.

Gun carriage, j\j\ araba.


Cannoneer, Gunner, ijy top-andz, jljJj* glandz.
Bomb, Mortar, Shell, >Lc ghubra, (small mortar) Jj^ garnal.
Bombardier, ^f^iy tbp-chi (.), jljcJj^ glandz.
Fusileer, Musketeer, (-s?jJcj bandkchi, j\i barkandz.
Fort, Fortress, Castle, Jbj garh, dL hot, <ul hal'.
Redoubt, '-cha, ^jub garht: see Fort.
Bastion, Bulwark, ^y burj, As-j^ marhala.
Battery, k>-jy* morcha, <UnW> damdama, marhala.
Embrasure, xSij randa, l^jyp? t^jy top kjharkh.
Ditch, Trench, Fosse, Moat, JA- khamdak, tjf\ khl.
Trenches, Lines, JU-^yo morchai (f.), sangar, l\ khl.
Wall or intrenchments round a town, *^^ shahr-panh (f.).
Walls of a city, Jcj^i> shahr-band.
Rampart, Breast-work, Parapet, ^j^i fasti (f.), iy^S. kangara.
Ponton (bridge of boats), Jj l ^-*^ ^sA k pul.
Tent, Pavilion, \^J dira, <U-- khaima, yi tamb.
Camp, Encampment, xJj^l lashkar-gh (f.), y\b par'.
Decampment, March, ^ kch.
Halt, place of residence or encamping, ^\Lc mukm, y\>j rah'5.
Field of battle, pjj razm-gh (f.), iy^< mraka.
Drill, \ kaw'id-i-fauj .
Furlough, i^^ai-j rukhsat (f.), chhuttl, (f.).
Drum, Jib e?A/, J-L> <aZ>Z, Ll^jyi dhlak.
Kettledrum, xjjij nakkra, J dank, ^y* kos.
Trumpet, Jtijy" trhl or ^by turhi, singa, jJ nafir (f.).
Clarion, or karn', , i^^i shahnl.
Bugle, Horn, \~ijj narsing, jy> sur (f.): see Trumpet.
Hautboy, ^- surn'e.
Flute, Flagelet, Fife, Pipe, alghza, i^ib bnsri, ^Jj* murli,
^S^y^ pung, 6 (f.).
Vocabulary Nouns. 185

Naval Affairs.

Navy, Fleet, jssr bahr (f.), ^s ^j^j- jahzn kifauj.


Ship, jahz, kish, ^ wn, {^n\ whan. (Roebuck.)
Ship (or Man) of war,j\y>- jangl jahz.
Merchant-ship or -man,jly- saudgari jahz.
Boat, ^J~& kishf,j\j n' (f.), ^jji tarnl, \ machw. (Roeb.)
Barge, bajr, Ijfjy, niwf, ^j^^jyc mor-pankhi.
Barge, large Boat, Lighter, J# bhar,jg bhar. (Roeb.)
Brig, ^JjJ d-dljahz. (Roeb.)
Rudder, Helm, ^J~> sukkan,j\ja patwr kanhar.
Prow, Head of a ship, l$U> mth, j*> sir, tjoL mng. (f.)
Stern, Ly dabs, J#pichhil. (Roeb.)
Poop, i^fj^f- chhatri. (Roeb.)
Deck, zs? takhta, j** manzil (f.), iLsj tutak. (Roeb.)
Quarter deck, (JJJ 1 ^b jyi daur ke ps k tutak. (? Roeb.)
Main deck, CJcJ l l upar k blch k tutak. (? Roeb.)
Forecastle, U^j phan, bi j\ gal-fan (Roeb.), (dakh.) Jsl gal(j).
Mast, JjJ dl, Jjb- mastl. (Roeb.)
Afore, J^l giZ, J^ gaZ. (Roeb.)
Abaft, Aft, Astern, J^Jj plchhil, phichwr. (Roeb.)
Ahead, J.fl gil, J\ gal. (Roeb.)
Aloft, upar, ji^ JiJ dl par. (Roeb.)
Amidships, ^Asxj blch-a-bich, i^ ^> bich men. (Roeb )
Anchor,J^t langar, Jj nangar. (Roeb.)
Anchorage, -y&>- ^j langar kme kl jagah, l^&J langar-
gh. (f.)
Ashore, ljJ^S kinre, (aground) jj (j^US kinre par.
Ballast, niram, jLi nilm, jJJ lilam. (Roeb.)
Bank orShoal,^>- char,to}j>- kharba. (Roeb.)
Beam, bim, r. (Roeb.)
Bell, ghart. (Roeb.)
2
186 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Between decks, ^ <1&J tutak ke blch. (Roeb.)


Birth, ~^>- jagah (f.), ^\~ makn.
Boatswain, <6 C^Aj-j sarhang, ^A^iy bsmn, ^**> bochmn. (Roeb.)
Bottom (part of the ship in the water), -$Lj pith, (f.)
Bore or Boar in the Ganges, Uj> humm, \*a& humba, ban.
Broadside, Volley, shaljh (f.), vlL salak. (Roeb.)
Bucket, ?! bldl, bltl. (Port, balde : Roeb.)
Cabin, \ kmar (Port, cmara : Roeb.), L>y,J dabs.
Cable,jUa hamar. (Port, amarra: Roeb.)
Call (boatswain's), sifi. (Roeb.)
Callipers, <_->Uj map, (^-by' kps or fj~\*;fi kmps. (Roeb.)
Can (jug), 15jJ lt, lu\j pat (from Eng. pot : Roeb.).
Cannon, <_y top (f.) : to cannonade, li^U or ip or iop?i

marna.
Cap (for the head), topi or fopi. (Roeb.)
Cape, tlXJ A, < * SjbJ in, pont, ~~>> sis. (Roeb.)
Captain, (European) kaptn, (Indian, 8tc.) nlchud.
Cargo, ^Jj^> bhartl, jb bar, bjkl. (Roeb.)
Carpenter, ^ji^-c mistrl (m.), jb~> sutr, L?b/J barhai. (Roeb.)
Carriage (of a gun), t-Jy fp Tri gr.
Cartouch, ^\< tsdn.
Cartridge, (j-yjS krts, Ijy ii or bjy" w. (Roeb.)
Case shot, if chhlnta gol. (Roeb.)
To be cast away, (a person) UU tawal kliana, (a ship) Ulsj- cLy

ttjn, lib>- l^U mrjn. (Roeb.)


Catamaran, J^iS katmarl, katmarm, \=^\ 1.
Caulk, ^ Jl klpattl karna. (Roeb.)
Centry or Sentry, ?^-- santrl,J* \jy pora dar. (Roeb.)
Chain, jFfj zanjlr, J&Lj snkal,J>j\> snkar. (Roeb.)
Chain pump, Ljj lj~=j zanjtr k bamba. (Port, bomba : Roeb.)
Chain shot, if ^jj^sfj zanjiri gol.
Channel, jlJ dhar. Mid-channel, j\bsx< manjdhr. (Roeb.)
Vocabulary Nouns. 187

Chest, ^JL , JjJo^ sanduk, (for arms) JL ^ banduk


.
To clear for action, U^jLi ^ ^yjS / taiyr .
Coboose, ^jJl*- chuldn. (Roeb.)
Cockswain, lp~^ kksen. (Roeb.)
Coil (of a rope), KiL> snkl. (Roeb.)
Colours, toy vaut, lJJ baut, nishn. (Roeb.)
Compass, <b hukka, {~\~*fi kmps. (Roeb.)
Cook, t^Ailj bhndri, ^^-j^ bwarcht. (Roeb.)
Cooking place, Galley, ^jJ^- chuldn, j\- ^a^yb bwarchi-khna.
Cooking kettle, & deg. (Roeb.)
A Cot, ^Jy=r khtjli : see Hammock. (Roeb.)
A Crane, katri. (Roeb.)
Crew, iJj\^- jahz, J- laskar. (Roeb.)
Cuddy (in E. I. ships), ^s>- ^ Jz kaptn klin khne
kljagah.
To Discharge (unload), utrn, (a gun) ljj- chhrn, \>jU
mama, \u\ dghn. (Roeb.)
Discipline (regulation), c^Jj<xj bandobast, (punishment) \j~ saz
(f.), saj, c^-J^U mar-pt. (f,)
Dismasted, jcjJL lund bund, ljj jj nang bng. (Roeb.)
Dock, t_s g<. Dock yard, j\~>> l godi k bansr, lis lS>
JLj gdt k bansl. (Roeb.)
Double headed shot, ^f i\j ^jSj j or lJ^ dandi or dandi wl gola.
To Dress (a ship), Uj~> singrn.
To Drop anchor, Ulli^oJ nungar dln, Ii^ langar karn.
East, prab, ugman, Lr-< mashrik. (Roeb.)
Ebb-tide, I^^j bhth.
Eddy, J>%>. bhaunr, Sj*$ ghumri, ^ ghumt pai.
Ensign, Flag, nishn, IjjJ baut, vaut. (Roeb.)
Fair (as wind), IaOu-j sldh, muumfik, jhm. (? Roeb.)
Fair (not cloudy), 1$*-^ pharchh, i_JL s/, Ul^ khul-s. (Roeb.)
188 Vocabulary Nouns.

To Fall in with, miln, \>J> cl\L mulkt karn. (Roeb.)


False fire or blue flames, -^* mahtab, ^jye moram, moram.
(Roeb.)
To Fasten, bjS ^^.'f mazbt karn, XJ> band karn, LbJb
bndhn. (Roeb.)
Fathom, p\j wm, jb bm. (Roeb.)
Flag, see Ensign. Flagstaff, ^Sj waut kti, ^Xij*- chhar
bns. (Roeb.)
Fleet, is-J^j philit, <dib" kfila, bhr, jsrbahr. (Roeb.)
Float (of a fishing line), \jj> tarind, tirind. (Roeb.)
Flood-tide, the flow, Jjo- jawr, .^> bharf. (Roeb.)
Fore, Jf\ agil, j\ gal. Fore and aft, J^]j J^l gil pichhil.
(Roeb.)
Foreland, i-~ tth, t ' nk. (Roeb.)
Fore mast, JiJ <sJ>Ji trikat (or tirkat) dol. (Roeb.)
Fore sail, m-j trikat. (Roeb.)
Freight (hire), Jy naul, Jy nuwal, \>\j> kiry. (Roeb.)
Freight (cargo), JL Is Jy nuwal k mal. (Roeb.)
Fresh water, ^yb mith pni. (Roeb.)
Gale of wind, ^by tfn, ^_J*^\ ndht.
Quarter gallery, J kandl. (Roeb.)
Stern gallery, <UyJ dabusa.
Gangway, ,_j y*ol^ gngwa'e. (Roeb.)
Glass (hour), l_?~> ^J> ghaT* A shish.
Glass (spy or telescope), durbin or ^^eyO drtrin. (Roeb.)
Glass (spy or telescope for night), c^*yi> \ cii^ rt k drmin.
(Roeb.)
Grape shot, L^Jl$- gzrab chhnt. (Roeb.)
A gun-shot, L IS ^Jyf gU k tapp. (Roeb.)
Gun tackles, ^jiJ IS <_jy ip k laptt. (Roeb.)
Gunnel (of a boat), J** mez or ^-L.< rrich. (Roeb.)
Gust, jhapet, LbJ dhap.
VocabularyNouns. 189

To Hail, \> .--i J.jj bngal se bat karn. (Roeb.)


Half pike, \q> bhl, ^^-y, barchhi.
Hammock, ^J^-jli, ^J^pr jhoU, ^j^pr jhli. (Roeb.)
All hands, t_-v-i sab dmi, sab khalsi. (Roeb.)
Hand pump,
Handspike, c1Xm-JU> hnspik.
Harbour, jJkij bandar or bindar, Cb\> ght. (Roeb.)
Harpoon, jfjls lj ij^Ij <-L&) k dnt wl kwar. (Roeb.)
Hatch or Hatch way, t3lgj phlk or \iflk. (Roeb.)
Hatches, l phlke k klwr, sj\j ^fi^ fiilke k
darwza.
Hatchet, oj^ kuwfl, ^J\jfi kurll. (Roeb.)
Head (ornamented figure), hj putl, ^Jjyc mrat. (Roeb.)
To Heave the lead, U^J prum dln. (Roeb.)
A heavy sea, bjj Lfj^ khr dary, bjJ garni dary.
Heel, jlfcJ , S ^J^-* sukn dhr. (Roeb.)
Helmsman, Steersman, , 31-: sukkni.
Hold, ^ khan,y^ khanr. (Roeb.)
Hook (for fish), Js gal. (Roeb.)
Horizon, jlbO l yjLk-jl smn k dhr. (Roeb.)
Hoy, \js^ machw: see Boat.
Hull, \l~c> mund jahz, \Ai/o IaJ lunda mundjahz.
Jib, i^j>-jib. (Roeb.) Jib boom, jy i^+s-jlb bum.
Insurance, U-o bim, Lwj vim. (Roeb.)
Jolly boat, CJjj ^J\s>-jl bot. (Roeb.)
Journal, iLclij.j \ jahz k rbz-nma.
Island, Isle, ^jIj tp, \j1s^>- janfir (for j>j>- jaz'ira: Roeb.).
Jury mast, J.J ^JWj phlt dl, Jj3 ^Jb' yZiw doZ. (Roeb.)
Keel, ^l^u pathn, -^ rJ, iibl Irf. (Roeb.)
Key, Quay, l&J dank, <Jll$f Lj&Aib bndhel ght, JL\ pa&
gAi. (Roeb.)
Ladder, ^|^-= s/fA. Stern ladders, ^j^r- ^ dabst kl s'irhl.
1 90 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Land, jci kinra,Jj tar. (Roeb.)


Lantern, (^yli farms, or t^-y^ phns. (Roeb.)
Larboard, yij^i \j\ dw bwrda. (Roeb.)
Lascar, ^j^s- khalsl, khrw or khr'. (Roeb.)
To Launch, j\j^>- jahz utrn.
Lead (used to heave), ^ prum. To heave the lead, Ult ^ prum
dalna.
League, J dtrh ks (one and a half ks : Roeb.).
Leak, i^/Lj sulk, <A*f- chhd.
To spring a leak, Uy> Levels gamat hn, lijA Uj) bmb hn. (Roeb.)
Lee-side, L-ij> ,_c,l# JAr tara/, j ^re brd. (Roeb.)
Lee-shore, xJcS j~<> ijj^i bhre kinra. (Roeb.)
A Light (candle), ^ju batti.
Light-house, Ub.J^ kandiliy, Jyo Ii ^jj batti k mnra. (Roeb.)
Fishing Line jjl ^ ^jb*?* machhi k dor, jjy gal kl dort.
(Roeb.)
To Load (a gun) U) c-y top bharn, (a ship) l3> jl^sf- jahz
bharn.
Log, t^J tap. Log-book, <uli i^J tap-nma. Log-line, ^ ^
tap k Un. (Roeb.)
Low water, ^jb ^ k'im (for ^Xs k'im) pnt; (if in a river)
sr bhth. (Roeb.)
Lubbers hole, Uli Ii u^rfb pnjre k gl. (Roeb.)
Magazine, <U- CJNyb brt-fchna.
Magnet,jj 9- chamak pathar, la^l busj- j7i A. (Roeb.)
To Make sail, \> srh karn. (Roeb.)
To Make stern way, ^jf^J ptchhe parn, Uib ^ste ptchhe hatn.
Mallet, d>y* mgri, ijj&yo mngri. (Roeb.)
Marines, ^- j^r jahz kl sipht (lit. ship soldiers : Roeb.).
Mast, Jj4i dl, (by landsmen called) Jy:< mastl. (Roeb.)
Main mast, J^J Vjj bar dl. Fore mast, J_jJ tirkat or trikat
dl. Mizzen mast, JjJ kilml dl or J^J ^^^ kalml dl.
Vocabulary Nouns. 191

Mate (of a ship), jJU malam (for Arab. mu'llim: Roeb.).


Midshipmen, iip*s\ bchmn, cj~1U michlmen. (Roeb.)
Midships, l jahz h bich.
Mortar, ^\ haw', khll, CLy ktht top. (Roeb.)
Muster, ^j gint, ^Jj-\s>~ hzirl, hjiri. (Roeb.)
Mutineer, ^Ji dangal, i_fj\~sfasd, mutfarnl. (Roeb.)
Mutiny, \ J dang, CJjUj baghwat (f.), jL fasd, -^ shb.
Neap tides, j^p- bhang kajawar, Jb^j markatl. (Roeb.)
North, J\ ttar, t^lf gal, JU- shimal. (Roeb.)
Oakum, ^J^fgaAral, (Roeb.) t>jt~>\ istub, _^~>1 istap. (Port, estopad)
Oar, lJj> hales, dnd (Roeb.), rf>- chappu.
Officer (of a ship), jJU mlam : see Mate.
Over board, 1 \>j dary me gir.
To out sail, \A>~ u-j^ saras chaina, lil^- obj ziyda chaina. (Roeb.)
Packet, c^-^b pklt, j\>- ^ ksid k jahz. (Roeb.)
Paddle 1~Jj& ^U hth-haUs, <***- chamcha, pangai. (Roeb.)
Pass or Passport, <ly rawna, <!^j parwna.
Passage boat, Ij* l jb tart pr hone k machw. (Roeb.)
Pig of ballast, (if of iron) ^J~ ktl, (if of lead) cub pat. (Roeb.)
Pike (spear), ^j^-ji barchhi, i\f> bhl.
Pilot, Jr&J* arkti, (at Surat) tjs>) dwigvt, (with Arabs) ^bjj ruban.
Pirate (ship), jl^sj- ^ dakait kajahaz, \\^s>- ^ jjf- chr k
jahz.
Pitch,^cb dmar, ^fplchh. (Roeb.)
Pistol, <*Lj tabancha, Jj^j pistaul. (Roeb.)
Plank, zkr takhta, ,jj~ib patiy. (Roeb.)
Pleasure boat, l >|$> sawrl k machw.
Pole axe, khri,jZ tabar. (Roeb.)
Priming, CSsT) ranjak, ^ kn. (Roeb.)
Privateer, J lyp- jj>- chor k jahz, CLl \ >- chanchiy k
galwat. (Roeb)
Prize, j\^>- kaid'ijahz, jbrT pakarel jahz. (Roeb.)
192 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Pump, Lj bamb (from Port, bomba: Roeb.).


Punt, lji) dng, \j$ thpar, ^_J dlng. (Roeb.)
Purser, j\ \ jahz k kirni, j~j pasar. (Roeb.)
Quadrant, Sextant, kamn. (Roeb.)
Quicksand, jlbj^>- chr bl, Ja!j daldal zamin. (Roeb.)
Raft, parancha, \\y trapa. (Roeb.)
Reel, [_j!>~j!>- char/chl.
Rocket, ^\j!t> hawl.
Bread Room, <b- ^Jjjj ro chana.
Spirit Room, <L- <_J^ii sharb khna.
Ropes, lt. (Roeb.)
Rowers, \ ^cb hlese wl. (Roeb.)
Sail, srh, sj~>> srh, j* sar. (Roeb.)
To set sail, Ii Xj~> srh karn. (Roeb.)
Salute (from a ship or fort), ^j<b~> salami.
Scull, 1.1| Ii }* hot* hals, 1Jj> chhot hals. (Roeb.)
Sheet, lj^ daman, daman, daman. (Roeb.)
To Ship (put on board a ship), j\^>- jahz par charhn.
To ship a sea, ^y< mauj khn.
Shipping, Ii jl^>- jahz k bhr, lili Ii jahz k kfila.
Shipwright, o^~< j\^>- jahz kmistrl. (Roeb.)
Shoal, j!b bl char. (Roeb.)
Shore, kinra, dr. (Roeb.)
To shot the guns, "^ l^1r< topn gol bharn.
Shrouds, (JjJ labrn. (Roeb.)
Sick birth, lil> Ii t)]j\ zrik thikn. (Roeb.)
Side, jji burd, >Jj> brd. (Roeb.)
Signals, (J.vC.o sknl, J~c~j sitnl, Xj\>\ ishra. (Roeb.)
Skiff, i^jili kghz machw. (Roeb.)
Slack water, j> naram pnl. (Roeb.)
Sloop, jjL salp, i_-J^- salup. (Roeb.)
Smuggler, l J^Jbto mhsl k chutt. (Roeb.)
Vocabulary.Nouns. 193

South, dakhan, <-rJ)^>- janub, ^Jy suit. (Roeb.)


Speaking trumpet, J&j bungal, bhungal. (Roeb.)
Spring tide, j\y>- \j> barjawr, Jb Jjj bar katl. (Roeb.)
Sponge, (_5^1^ pinchi, l^i- sumbh (Roeb.), (ofa gun) \j\=ipuchara.
Squadron, ^Jy \^ j\^>- jahz k tl. (Roeb.)
Staff, Lcfil ljJ chht bauta ktht, '^r?" chhl waut
ktht.
Ensign staff, ^ VjJ Jar waut ktht. (Roeb.)
Jack staff, ^^l^jj cJ\=^jk waut ktht. (Roeb.)
A flag staff, ^j^i'l \ ^^^ upar k waut ktht. (Roeb.)
Stage (for carpenters or caulkers, &c), ^ parnch. (Roeb.)
Starboard, ^y U^jj- jaman burd, y /' burdu. (Roeb.)
To Steer, sa&n pakarn, jl^- jahz chaln.
Stern ports, ^^ or ^ ^-y^ dabs bri or briyn. (Roeb.)
Steward, istr or istr. (Roeb.)
Stores (naval), ^Is*^ or fbf^ ^^?" johzt sarinjm or saramjm.
Store-keeper, i_-o-U l J^j bansr k shib. (Roeb.)
Stowage, JU^ khaml, JU-j samal. (Roeb.)
A strait, f gl, ^ khuch. (Roeb.)
Studding sail, jf~> dastr, (lower) jj~i ^js nicli dastr. (Roeb.)
Supercargo, (if an Englishman) tarn, 3 tannl, (if a Musalman)
idc^U n-khud, (if a Parsee) ^\ kiram, <JU gumshta.
Surf,^J 1er. (Roeb.) Surge, mauj, mauja.
Surgeon, dktar, j daktar, ^4> hakim. (Roeb.)
Swivel, j^Ai>-jambra, *jy*>j zambra. (Roeb.)
Tar, alkatar (for Port, alcatram), J3 tr. (Roeb.)
Teak (wood), Wl/L sagwan. (Roeb.)
Tide, l ^jbprii k tn. Tide way,jta> dhr. (Roeb.)
Tier, j thar,Jjt> hr. (Roeb.)
Tiller (of a ship), \js bakr, t->U l ^&~> sukn k lt. (Roeb.)
Tilt, tr?" chhatri. (Roeb.)
Tonnage, ^jsj-j or ^jJS ^j\^-y bojh't k wazan or wajan. (Roeb.)
2
194 Vocabulary Nouns.

Trade winds, ^ maum haw, \y ^j^yemausami kaw. (Roeb.)


Trousers, <- p-jma, jW-l ijr,j\j\ izar. (Roeb.)
Trunnions, ZJyc <_jy top mt, ^ l LZJy top k . (Roeb.)
Turn of the tide,^J & ^Ju tan kpher. (Roeb.)
Vane, Jo-j blndh, ^ , <s\j katw'i. (Roeb.)
To Unmoor, \>j j> J eknangar par rahn. (Roeb.)
To Unship, nikln, \jj Jo br karn. (Roeb.)
Upper deck, tl&J l jij par k tutak. (Roeb.)
Watch, j por, chaukl. Dog watch, jy chht por.
Middle watch, j \j>>} dsr por, jj Isu bichil por. Morning
watch,J}j \jf goriy por, j ghariypr, jj b^fghuriy
por. (Roeb.)
Fresh water, ^yb \$L mlth pant. (Roeb.)
Salt water, \J khr prii, ^Ju \jy nonpni. (Roeb.)
Way (of a ship), rus, JU- chal,j rav, CJ/>- chark. (Roeb.)
Weather, ^>yo mausim : see Wind.
Weather or Weathergage (windward), j) Jj w' par, y Jo b' par.
To weigh anchor, JLj nangar uthn, Xtj oJ\ ti nangar
atrang karn. (Roeb,)
Wharf, ilApght, dhak. (Roeb.)
Wheel of the helm, ^j^-j^- ^ sukn k charkh. (Roeb.)
West, -^*< maghrab, pachham, ^J^Ji labia'i. (Roeb.)
Wind, \ haw (f.), Jj w', Jo b'. (f.) Fair wind, 1_jJ> \} yhm
haw, \ (*>- jliom haw, \ \j*> b b murd haw. Side
wind, ^*>y^- chaugst haw, \y ^*J>- chr gsi haw.
Head wind, \ JiJ^^ gostl haw, ^Jbji ^* muhpar haw.
Wind's eye, j l \jb haw k ghar. (Roeb.)
Windlass, JjJ chin't daur, ^Jo%b dhig. (Roeb.)
To windward, Jj w'par, \ haw k muh. (Roeb.)
Worm-eaten, VA ^ ghun-kh'll, b>\ ^ ghunk khdl.
(Roeb.)
Wreck, \jy khkhr, \js* khkher, jl^a- LSjS ttel jahz.
Vocabulary Nouns. 195

Yacht, Ii l>V*! sawr k machw. (Roeb.)


Yard (for a sail), ^jj> parwn, pirman. (Roeb.)
Zenith,^jjl ^ JL kapl kl upar. (Roeb.)

Divisions of Time.
A moment, As*^ lamha, ilb palak, ^aj nimikh, Jj />aZ, p<i dam.
Minute, *S-5*> daklka.
A twenty-four minutes (Indian hour)jf^gAan, ghant.
Hour (may be denoted by the Arab.) l^%L> s'i. (f.)
Watch (term of three hours), pahar, ) ps.
Day, din,jj rz, pji yaum, (in oppos. to night) din, nahr.
Night, cy\j ri (f.), _^ saJ (f.), JJ Zat7(f.), ram. (f.)
Midnight, ^jb\ dhl rt (f.), t^-i> jJ nlm shab. (f.)
Morning, Morn, subh (t.), jjs> fajar, (f.)
Dawn of day,jj$J bhor (f.), tjj tark,Jsr' sahar (f.), ^1 .
Forenoon, jj^j Jjl awwal-i-d pahar.
Midday, Noon, _jJ d-pahar (f.), uJ ^ jJ do pahar din, u_iL
misfu-n-nahr, jjj -rz.
Afternoon,^j -j si-pahar, lL& do pahar st sham tak.
Evening, -f=f^Lj siy' (f.), aIii sAm (f.), ^ sar-i-shm.
Twilight, ^J)> gdhli, \jJt>>\ muh-andhtra.
Week, athwra, fcJLb hafta.
Decade, ^-c shara.
Fortnight, z& jJ dd-hafta, pakh or -sr; pachh.
Month, li-^o mahin, ^Lc mas, iU mh, shahr.
Year, baras, JL) s7, ^ san, i-s sawa.
Age (period, cycle),^^ asr, ^ aAd, jwg.
To day, j, (adv.) ^ ^ j kl din.
To night, CL>\j ^\ j rt or ^1 j-rt.
Yesterday, J kal, jjjjJ diroz, ^Igg pichhl din.
Last night, kal rt, dsh.
Day before yesterday, or day after to morrow, pans. (adv.)
194 Vocabulary Nouns.

Trade winds, 1 \^y* maurni haw, ly> ^^ycmausami haw. (Roeb.)


Trousers, <- p-jma, jW ijr,J\j\ izar. (Roeb.)
Trunnions, Zyo i <_>y top mt, ^ IS tzJy top k kan. (Roeb.)
Turn of the tide, j-^j IS tan k phr. (Roeb.)
Vane, isx^J bendh, ^ , katw'i. (Roeb.)
To Unmoor, j ji cJo! ek nangar par rahn. (Roeb.)
To Unship, Ul& nikln, \jj jo bar karna. (Roeb.)
Upper deck, i^Jcj \S upar k tutak. (Roeb.)
Watch, j^j pr, chaukl. Dog watch, jjj chht pr.
Middle watch,j^j ly-sjJ dsr pr,jyj SU btchil pr. Morning
watch,j^j griy pr,j \>_j ghariypr,jji \j ghuriy
pr. (Roeb.)
Fresh water, ^yb biL<> liiA pnt. (Roeb.)
Salt water, ^J\) khr pnt, ,Jb Uy nnpnl. (Roeb.)
Way (of a ship), rus, JU- chl,jj rav, cSj>- chark. (Roeb.)
Weather, ^yo mausim : see Wind.
Weather or Weathergage (windward), ji jj w' par, jb b' par.
To weigh anchor, JUj nangar uthn, \jj nangar
atrang karn. (Roeb.)
Wharf, ilAgghut, \a dhak. (Roeb.)
Wheel of the helm, ,j>-j>- ^ ^J&~> sukn k charkh. (Roeb.)
West, i-JjM maghrab, ^^pachham, ^iL kibla't. (Roeb.)
Wind, \y haw (f.), jj w', j\) b'. (f.) Fair wind, ly> yhm
haw, ly> (*y*>b>- jhm haw, lys b b murd haw. Side
wind, iy* ^jfjf- chau gsi haw, lys ^-yfjb- chrgsi haw.
Head wind, 1 ^Ji\~j> gosfi haw, |^ -f* h par haw.
Wind's eye, j IS ly* gAar. (Roeb.)
Windlass, 'j t,/b~>- chln'i daur, dhtgl. (Roeb.)
To windward, jjjlj w' par, IS lyj haw k muh. (Roeb.)
Worm-eaten, \ yfi ghun-kh'll, \>4 ^ ^ ghun k khdel.
(Roeb.)
Wreck, khkhr, \ khkher, jly- LSji tutela jahz.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 195

Yacht, Ii sawri k machw. (Roeb.)


Yard (for a sail), parwn, pirman. (Roeb.)
Zenith, ^ JL kapl ke par. (Roeb.)

Divisions of Time.
A moment, &s.^ lamha, lLj palak, nimikh, Jj pal, p dam.
Minute, <t-j>0 dafika.
A twenty-four minutes (Indian hour),^^ ghar , ghant.
Hour (may be denoted by the Arab.) kji^eLo s't. (f.)
Watch (term of three hours), ^ pahar, ^-b ps.
Day, din,jj rz, |j yaum, (in oppos. to night) diw, nahr.
Night, d>!j rt (f.), sAaJ (f.), JJ lail (f.), ^j rain, (f.)
Midnight, ci^ ^5*"^ dhi rt (f.), c^^i j^J rim shob. (f.)
Morning, Morn, subh (.), js> fajar, (f.)
Dawn of day,j^J bhr (f.), tark,Jsr' sahar (f.), ^yl arwn.
Forenoon, j awwal-i-do pahar.
Midday, Noon, j^jjJ db-pahar (f.\ ti d pahar din, tia
misfu-n-nahr, jj ntm-rz.
Afternoon,^j *> si-pahar, Sj p\> (_j->rvi JJ ^ pahar s shm tak.
Evening, -f*^^ s/y'A (f.), jl> sA/ (f.), y; sar-i-shm.
Twilight, ijyjp gdhlt, munh-andher.
Week, Sj\tfj\ athwra, fcJi hafta.
Decade, jLs- shara.
Fortnight, <A j d-hafta, pakh or .^sc; pachh.
Month, \~y mahin, j^-U ms, U mh,j^!i shahr.
Year, baras, JL s7, ^ san, sawa.
Age (period, 1),^ , ^ "Arf, Jwg.
To day, ^ /, (adv.) ^ ^ 5/ din.
To night, dlj ^ \ j k rt or zj]j ^\ j-rt.
Yesterday, J kal, jjji dtrz, ^l^pichhl din.
Last night, iz\j j ^ r<*t, t/ij^ osA.
Day before yesterday, or day after to morrow, , (adv.)
196 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Three days ago, or to come, ^j-y tars. (adv.)


Four days ago, or to come, yj-y narsdn. (adv.)
To morrow, j kal, farda (adv.), ^ bihn.
Spring, e ->;.>,) basant (f.), j\i bahr (f.), rab'', (f.)
Summer, \*c gorma, ^jj girekham, ^bj\j tbistn, u.c..? sai/".
Autumn,Jp- li-o pat-jhar (f.), ^jd> khizn (f.), i_sjyi- khafif. (f.)
Winter, Vjl^-Jr, -> sarm, ^b-^ zamistn, bi> A.

Other useful Nouns alphabetically arranged.


Abatement, ^j^> ghatti, kamt, kamt, i,.rir takhfif. (f.)
Abbreviation, ikhtisr, jLail iktisr, ^y^yLi sanchhepan.
Abdication, i^/Lj tyg, tl^i* tar/c
Abhorrence, tlJy nafrat (f.), i^->l^ karahiyat. (f.)
Ability, jjjJJL makdr, ^^ tkat (f.), ,>y dast-ras. (f.)
Ablution, J ghusl, ^lis sn or ^liJ asnn, y waz.
Abode, thikn, ^ICo makn, Jj) bdbsh (f.),jj thaur. (f.)
Abroad,^Jsb bhir, i^ri^ pardts, bids.
Absence, <j>^J biyg, j- ghair-hzir ; (in the) ^e^V pichhe.
Abstinence, Abstemiousness, u^<bj riyazat (f.), ^JJJt^ parhz-
gri.
Abstract (abridgment), J^sr* mujmal, khulsa.
Absurdity, ^y^ bhdagl, i&12j t-patng, ywa-gl.
Abundance, ^ i/rjf, ^^ bahutt (f.), ir-^ kasrat. (f.)
Abuse (contumely), galt, zabn-darzi.
Abyss (cavern), jlc ghr, >$ dahak, y> khh, \s> garh.
Acacia, (gum) LStl akkiy, (tree) kkar, ^-*-* mvghailn.
Academy, <^< madrasa, JL L-^- chat-sl, maktab.
Accent, st) lahja,j* sur, -Jj* zarb (f.), ^jb dhqran.
Acceptation (of a word), , ^J>**e "Qj* ^ ^3 fyfs ^ mUm
rauwaj .
Accessary, Accomplice, madad-gr, sharik, ^j\~ sthl.
Accident, jUjl ittifak, djjU- hdisa, (f^sL* sanjg.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 197

Account, accompt, <_->L>- hisb, <U-jb=* muhsaba, (narration) ^Lj


hayan, khabar (f.), (value)jU-S> shumr, (sake, cause) ^<-^
waste, sabab, i^-ob babat. (f.)
Accusation, ^J nlish (f.), J^c^ dd*w, X<Sj> bar-amad, (f.)
Ace, (at dice) (f.), (at cards or dice) & nakk, (at cards)
\j l ^b' is k yakk.
Acquaintance, (familiarity) u^J\j wkiyat (f.), /-iil shnl,
(associate) b-H shn,j\pj>- chinhr, (j-li-b j -shins.
Acquisition, J-*a=^ tahsl (f.), i_ < kasb, 0-U kam'l.
Act, Action, <, kj, t^/ kartab, J*j y*/.
Addition, AsUl izo/a, (in arithmetic) i}j?< mlzn. (f.)
Address, (skill) ^31- chlki, (of a letter) <U>l3 j~> sar-nma.
Adjective, u^< ya (f.), (j^-jLe ism-i-sifat, i>^*j wa*. (f.)
Adjustment (settlement), Lui faisala : see Arrangement.
Admonition, l-^st^ naslhat (f.), lcj wa*z, upads.
Adoration, tSALe ibdat (f.), U-jJ (f.), ^-...^j parastish. (f.)
Advantage, (gain) ZiA, jJ /*, JjU f'ida, (superiority)
<uli ghalaba, ^Jy>- charhtl, c^-i^T" ^'i. (f.)
Adverb, i_J^s zar/, i_iy>- harf,j+*j <j^>- harf-i-tamlz.
Adversary, t_suj>- harlf, t-sllsr* mukhlif: see Enemy.
Adversity, ipa (f.), ^? bad-bakhtl, o-! falkat. (f.)
Advertisement, jlyii! ishtihr, <Uli jl^il ishtihr-nma.
Advice, ti naslhat (f.), (_~JJjl upads, ^.L salh. (f.)
Adulation, Jt! ^j- khmh-mad (f.), ^^^bl- chplsl.
Adulteiy, bj zin (f.), >^ zin-krl, Sb^- chhinl.
Affair, i, cub o (f.), <d.bt< mu'mala, <UJU mukaddama.
Affection, , t^sJI Z/a (f.),u^s--* muhabbat, (f.)
Affliction, <j-: sog, ;', dukh, --a> tasd*. (f.)
Age (time of life),y*c wrer (f.), Jjyj ayurbal : see Time.
Agent, (doer) J^b _/'/, \j kart, (deputy) Ju^j wakll : see Factor.
Agility, ^>- chlki, LS^>- chustl, ^JijQ phurtl, ^^ chabukl.
Agreement, (concord) jb! Ittifk, (compact) shart, <db kabla.
198 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Aid, kumak (f.), JJ^ madad (f.), ^j^Jc-O dast-girt.


Alacrity, J^ shauk, dildihl, ^Sb- chlala.
Alien, pardesi, ^<~* ajndbi, lJj\ .
Alliteration, |>rwu^' tajnls. (f.)
Almanac, ^^j takwim (f.), patra.
Almighty (the), jJIH al-kadir,jyL^oj^ parameshwar : see God.
Alms, (f.), khairt (plur. f.), da.
Aloes, (gum) tjbl lw,j~bc (f.), (wood) agar, >je d.
Alphabet, ^ t_s!l alifb (f.), ^-sV <ijj>- hurf-i-tahajji.
Amber, kalwrub. Ambergris, mbar.
Amount, iiusfjumla, ^Acr-jam* (f.), gathrt, wiA. (f.)
Amusement, Li>LJ tamsh, ^j'sCi tafarruj, J-$ eZ.
Ancestor, l^jpwrAAa, o-jadd.
Ancestors, ii!j>-\ b! ab-ajdd, purkh.
Ancients, ^p^jjJb-c mutakaddimin, purnt. (plur.)
Angle, <JU3j^ khnt, ij , gsha, jj\j zwiya.
Anguish, - azab, i-^>\ aztyat, (f.), jJl /, l-*^ kasht.
Animal, haiwn, y~i pas.
Answer, Ji\ uttar, <-^>- jawab, \J\ utr. r*
Anvil, nih'l, ^Ji~ sindn. (f.)
Anxiety, *^ andsha, J fikr, JJy taraddnd, udasl.
Appellation, *li /, lakab, (plur. l-jUJI alkb) : see Name.
Appointment, cJ*2 ta'Siyun, (office) sJy; , (promise) Jisj wa*da.
Argument, ci-^sc? JaAs, ^SsUaj munzara, JJj daffl. (f.)
Arithmetic, gart (f.), ,jU~> siyk, jL~i ^ fann-i-siyk.
Arrangement, ari (f.), u^w.> ^ j band-o-bast.
Art,^iA hunar, jjx "im, ^fann, i^xu*a san't. (f.)
Artifice,^* mar, *L>- , J$o- cMaZ, y ^ fann-farb.
Ashes, r&A (f.),jl^- cMr (f.),^iU- khkistar. (f.)
Assaftida, Ang, ij^H angza, c^-sls- 7.
Assembly, ju^sr"0 mama*, majlis (f.), J* mahfil. (f.)
Assessment, ^-l^s- khirj, J_yts-* mahsttl, Ja;.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 199

Assistance, iSX* madad (f.), upakr, >,1^~> sahyat. (f.)


Assistant, jlibjko madadgr, ^J* , c/l^~> sah'l. (m.)
Astonishment, hairnt, t_^s*^ ta'ajjub,j+s? tahaiyur.
Astrolabe, c_>^L.H usturlab.
Attendant, jlik^jcS- khidmatgr, pjLc mulzim.
Attention, ^^ hoshyrl, iz^ surt (f.); (to a guest) j-^j-i tawzu*.
Attraction, khainch (f.), kashish (f.), jazb.
Attribute, u^Le sifat (f.), ij icas/", c^eU- khssiyat. (f.)
Auction, jLj nllm, ^y& harrj, csjL bikri.
Authority, jLi-1 ikhtiyr, c^-<^>- hukmat. (f.)
Awe, dar, ru*b,jjp ghr, uu-wJb kaibat. (f.)
Axis, axle, axle-tree, tjsytO dAar ; (pole of the earth) c_JaS fcat.
Babbler, Ll#jb ba'bhak, uLS^-jb b'jhak, j&jb, ywa-g.
Babe, baby, bachcha, Zarft (.), crrA?. (f.)
Backbiter, J*>- chughul-khor, jU ghammz.
Badge, ^1^^*- chaprs, ^liJ nishn, lz^Ac lamat. (.)
Bag, !_)-^| thailt, kharlta, (sack to carry grain) ^ gon. (f.)
Baggage, asbab, JJ->- chiz-bast (f.), (slut) Lsu behay.
Bail, (surety) ^c^bs zmin-, (person) zmin.
Balance, ^Jj^-* mlzra (f.),jjly tarz (f.), (of account)
Bale,^$iga<ar, < (f.), ^1^ gnth. (f.)
Ball, 1<f gola, ^Jj? gl, (for play) gend, (dance) ^Ai ncA.
Bamboo, ^jb is.
Band, (bandage) LJ2^ pa, Jcj band, (company) Xj gurh. (f.)
Bane,^j zahr, bis, kharbl, ^tci nuksn.
Banishment, !Jlj jj-jJ des-nikl, ^jo-jil-watan.
Bank (of a river, &c), *>l kinra,jJ fir.
Bank (for money), <U>- cJUo sarrf-khna. bank.
Bankruptcy, Jl_jtb> dtwala, $j\k n-drl, jJi\ ifls.
Banquet, l^U- ziyfat (f.), CJy:J da*wat. (f.)
Bard, <3^j ZAi, k^-^js karkhait, i-oy bardait.
Bargain, Vid, Jj kaul-karr, \>jL shart. (f.)
200 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Bark (of a tree), J\$>- chhal, llf- chhilka, i~~y post.


Barm, j^>- khamtr.
Barter, jjjJ ^ len den, Sjo ilol adl-badl, jL< mubdala.
Bastard, bS\j ^\^~ harm-zda, s~ harami pilla.
Bdellium, Jjj ggal, JiU mukl.
Bead, \_ guriya (f.), b l U mZ daa, Iii. .
Beak, ^j^- chdnch (f.), cLil) w (f.), jUi^> minkr. (f.)
Beauty, ^jf^.y*- khbsrafi, \jj~> sundart (f.), JU*~ jaml.
Beginning, rambh, jJt> shur*, \c\ ibtida. (f.)
Behalf, karan, Js\~ khtir (f.), J^- hakk, ^ liye.
Behaviour, Jl>- chai (f.), JtaS JU- chal-dhl (f.), dhang.
Being, Lc> Aas, yfj wujd, ^^- andar.
Belch, j'ij dakr (f.), ^jjl argh.
Belief, iJuc kida, ^UjI imn,j\j bwar.
Believer, jJcjt< muxtakid, j\j^\aj) tmn-dr, mmin.
Bell, ghant, {j-j>- jaras, (small) ghunghr.
Belt, JJ and, (girdle) (_j2-j ^<7, jj kamar-band, (sword)

Bench, ^S>- chauki, zse? takhta, (of justice) <uCsr* mahkama.


Bend, Jcham. ^/ifcjJ trh', (twist) Jj Z>aZ, ^>ec/.
Benediction, j^^l asis (f.), tV (O, ob^-! shtrbd.
Benefaction, in'm, ihsn, ^J*, bakhshish, (f.)
Benefit, JjI fa' ida, i}^~>-\ ihsn, (profit) j- /.
Benevolence, ^ljr-,-- khair-khwhl, ^f^j nikl, \j kirp. (f.)
Berry, <b dna, J^J l ^ <* dne srat k phal.
Betel-nut, i_$^U~j suprl or lJj\^ supyrl.
Betel-leaf, pn, <J}~>j tambl.
Bier, xj\s>- janza, ci^jIj aM.
Biestings, ^jt* p's, -^ phenus, <j~% pys.
Bill, (of parcels) CS^> bijak, UL-i siyh, (of exchange) ,_cjLb
hundt, (account) c->l~- hisab, l^-l lekha, (of a bird) see Beak,
(instrument) jlo d'.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 201

Billet (note), chitthl, ixij ruk', lib pti.


Billet (of wood), \j>- chail, kunda.
Bin, it^ kothl, djpf kothrt.
Binding (of a book), <aL>- jild (f.), ,_cJojj>- juz-bandi.
Bird, b *>- chiriy (f.), pakhr, J^ parand, murgh.
Birth, pisfjanam, (^Ixj paid'ish (f.), jJjj tawallud.
Birthday, ^JL sal-girih (f.), ^ilf baras-gnth. (f.)
Biscuit, A/t, kulcha, ^J^ tikki.
Bit, (piece) Vj tukr, jj zarra, sjj> purza.
Bit (of a bridle), IJ dahna, *uJ lagm. (f.)
Bitch, ^^i? kuttt, Ls kutiya (f.), kkarl.
Bitterness, eUJbljj^ karwhat (f.), ^^j^"1 lalkhl.
A black (negro), ^<^>- habshi, ^fjj zang (.), hind.
Blackguard, luchch, 1 shuhd, jj rind.
Blade, (of grass) patta, (of a sword) j>AaZ, (a fellow) &b
bnk.
Blame, ds, cf/cA, mazammat (f.), fljll ilzam.
Blank book, bayaz, tJ~ safna.
Blemish, elJ dagh, tljl kalank, djj kht (f.), ib.
Blessing, Uli m' (f.), ass (f.), i^-~y barakat (f.),
nixmat. (f.)

Blindman's buff, 1^ -giol nA mndaur.


Blindness, ^IbjJ andhlpan, ^Sj^> krt, /.;0 n-b'm'J.
Block, (of wood) kunda, kth, (of stone) chatn.
Blockhead, i-Jfy^ be-wukf, ahmak, gwdl.
Bloodshed, i_f>j ^y>- khn-rz, kail.
Bloom, &ijLz> shigfa, ^i^phl, (of youth) J^fry nau-jawani.
Blossom, ,Jyj phl, ^ kali, (of the mango) jy> mam.
Blot, 1j dagh, <-^>- chhtt (f.), chinh.
Bludgeon, ^jpi lthl, sont, dunda.
Blueness, ^iJ ril', j kabd.
Blunder, Uj&J dhkh or \y>J dhk, <y?~ chk. (f.)
2 D
202 Vocabulary Nouns.

Board, fcr takhta, (table) j~< mez (f.), (food) b-j kkn pln.
Board-wages, , *\J \J^J^*~ .11 dam.
Boast, boasting, ^Jj i_JH lf-zanl, bar'l.,j>\s tafkhur.
Boaster, khud-farsh, j <_J lf-zan.
Boldness, ditr, jur'at (f.), dhith'.
Bond, (fastening) jj band, ^Jcj bandhan, (written obligation)
tamassuk, j}^a~> dast-awlz.
Bondsman, zmin, J-i kafil.
Book, pothi, <_>b /ci& (f.), ^*0 sahifa.
Boon, ^ ar, bakhshish (f.) : see Bounty.
Boor, gawar, ^J>- jangl (m. f.), .ylM dihknl. (m. f.)
Booty cJbj! (f.), ghanmat (f.), U> yaghm.
Borax, lb^ shg, Jj tinkr, ^j brak.
Border, (side) xjc kinra, jj$>- chhr, (edging)^ kr.
Botany, cjL jklc ilm-i-nabt, ^s- IS btn k *lm.
Bottom, tala, ^J tait, x\g thah (f.), pend.
Bough, da, \ d7 (f.), Ib . 0*0
Bound, (leap) Jj fcd (f.), (boundaiy) J. hadd (f.), <- sar-hadd
(f.), (limit, end) 1^1 intih (f.), kinra.
Bounty, uJ faiz, ^j kirp (f.), ^ , e^-^fi inyat. (f.)
Bow (obeisance), \Jjj krnish (f.), ^L-J tasUm. (f.)
Boyhood, larakpan, lark'l.
Brand, (burning stick) <t^-^ skhta, ^J&ji lktl, (mark) ^jj dgh.
Brat, liJjl laund, \y>- chhokr, %j> gurga,
Bravery, ij^Jj diUri, z-*&> himmat (f.), bahdur.
Brawl, \j$>-jhagr. Brawler, ^\^>-jhagrl, j! lark.
Breach, Jbjgjpi (f.),j\jJ darar, (quarrel) jt> bigr, Jl- khalal.
Breadth, l/\j)>- chamal., ^^jpahna', (of cloth or a river) <JL>\jpat.
Breech of a gun, ^ ^ i3i^4 bandk kth.
Breed, J-J nasi (f.), CJlo si (f.), asi (f.), kism. (f.)
Breeding, (education) (^jy tarbiyat (f.), (manners) (;;- chalan.
Bribe, rishwat (f.), ^-^ ghs, -*c muh-bhari.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 203

Brickbat, rora. Brickdust, ^> surkht.


Brick-kiln, pazawa (f.), n}\ssr pqjwa.
Bride, ^dulhan (f.), {j~jZ rs. (f.) Bridegroom, 1^0 dlh.
Bridle, *w lagm (f.), /b Jog (f.), ^bx . (f.)
Brightness, roshni, -l /, chamak. (f.)
Brim, Brink, kinra, vi_J Zai, karr.
Brine, ^yb ij-f^ namUin pai, ^ib khara prii.
Bristie, Jb i^jlj-o s'ar kl pith k bal.
Brushwood, ^j\^jhr,j\^-jhr, ^ *\$>- jhr but.
Brute, )\yt*- haiwn, ^L^-jwahshl, jyb>- jnwar.
Bud, kali, J-jj hnpal (f.), *=^i ghuncha.
Bulk, iJ^y* mtl, ?*^ barl, Jjii d/.
Bunch, (of fruit) $s? guchchha, ajj=- kfisha, (of ribbons) J^pZ.
Bundle, iJjz> gathri (.), /^-<! tri, <ts4 buhcha.
Bung, b5 dhatth.
Burden, -p-^J bjh, Jo bar, J-4o- haml: see Grief.
Bush, jjfjl$>- jhfi, j\>- jhr, Zy but, b> shkh.
Business, m, ^li <y, (avocation) see Calling.
Butt, (mark) l-j^ hadaf, <lJ nishna.
Buying and Selling, t-^^i kliarid-farkht. (f.)
Cage, pinjr, -a kafs, (large) \ katahr.
Calamity, iz-*s\ fat (f.), bipat (f.), L Ja?. (f.)
Calculation, <>L-=*- hisab, ginti, jU- shumr.
Calendar, ^ patr, .\ takwm. (f.)
Calling, JL^pesha, Ibjjjso dhandh, Jjb-> byohr.
Camphor, Camphire, kapur,j^ kfr.
Cane, (stick) * chhafi, id (f.), (sugar-) ^jl w (f.), Lf
gaww.
Canon, yji knn, WkclS Jf'ida', ^ \ .
Canopus, J-^-4 suhail.
Canopy, ^bob sayaban, <L<bi> shamiyna, chatr.
Canter (pace), to poya. To canter, bl- chaina.
204 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Canvass (cloth), dbt tat, *\s>-\ ajar, <J1>\3 Jij)} wilyati tat.
Capacity, (space) JliAsi gunj'ish (f.), (ability) i^Jj kbitt-
yat. (f.)
Capital, (city) s^kse? takht-gh (f.), (sum) pn.
Caprice, capriciousness, *j wahm, ^r^j* talauwun-miz.
Captive (prisoner), uiJu Iaid, asir, Jvsf giriftr.
Caravan, ^jj^ krwn, <i\5 kfila, (car) grl.
Caravansary, ^J krwn-sar, ij\j~> sar'e. (f.)
Carcass, jH lsh (f.), ^J loth (f.), **^< murda, maiyit. (f.)
Card (visiting), <Uj 1$ |5L> salm k ruk', j^warah.
Cards (playing), (jJj ts, (j-li \ ^jii-^ khln k ts.
Care, kii- chint (f.),Jjkr, andsha, \jj parw. (f.)
Carefulness, ^li^ui- khabardrt, ^Liy> hoshyrl.
Carelessness, e^JLc ghaflat (f.), ^^-s^j bekhabari, J**-^ susti.
Carnage, J> AaZ, Jb> AiiZ (f.), Jjljy*- khnrezi.
Carriage, J^j JaAaZ (f.), see Cart, (carrying) *J>j>j. barbardri.
Carrion, Jij* murdr : see Carcass.
Cascade, jharn, j'-> i_>\ b-shr, j\>- chdar. (f.)
Case, (covering) i_Ji ghilf, J^ MZ: see State, Condition, Box.
Case, (in grammar) ^- hlat (f.), <JJ& krak.
Cash, pais, J nakd,>j rkar. (f.)
Cast, (throw) ^jC-.^) phenk (f.), (form) Ali naksha, (tribe) <JLj\j
st. (f.)
Catalogue, u^w^yi fihrist{i.\ IfcL-i siyh, (list) uL^sb 5ya&.
Cattle, (^^l^o mawshi, jjbJ dhr, j<f \ g'e-gr.
Cave, cavern, x klih, j\ ghr, \ guph (f.), i_^ kahf.
Caution, ^> ihtiyt (f.), ja- hozar, ^Liys hoshyrl.
Celebrity, nmwart, shuhrat (f.).
Celerity, chlki, |__1 chustl, shitbi.
Celibacy, k'r-pan, lz-JW. ^ n-katkhud'i ki
hlat.
Cell, ilif gosha, i^sr*- //, <ul /6, fcMr.
Vocabulary. Nouns. 205
Censure, ilzam, ^jo taxn, l^-vXc malamat (f.), \> nind. (f.)
Cent, (hundred) sau, (or, per cent.) \%*~> saikr.
Centre, 'j* markaz, ^L^J darmiyan.
Certificate,^! dast-awtz (f.), <uSj wasik.
Cessation, i^Jy tawakkuf, farghat (f.), uuJu^ muhlat. (f.)
Chaff, ^ftf bhsi, phkar.
Chain, j^sfj zanjir (f.),jj\~ snkar (f.), <dLi silsila.
Champion, ^ pahlawn, jj~ sr.
Chance, (accident) jsUj! ittifk, (fortune) kismat. (f.)
Change, JjJ^J tabdil (f.),jJ taghaiyur, Jjj badal.
Change (small money), ^J>j>j rzg, ^Jjf L~o paisa kauri.
Chaplet, \jj^> sihr, (rosary) j tasbih. (f.)
Chapter, _> bb, <sL<^ adhyya, J-ai fad. (f.)
Character, (mark) nishn, ar/", (writing) l.-J as-
khatt, ^sj rakam (f.), (reputation) Ctibar, nam.
Charcoal, k'l, Jlc) zughl, i~-j\ ankisht.
Charge, (care, custody) t\^>~ hawla, Uni zimma, uu-U amnat (f.),
(office) tr-~<J- khidmat (f.), (expense) kharch, \J& lgat
(f.), (assault) <iL>- hamla, (accusation) jljJ\ ilzm, ^>j tf/c/i.
Chariot, i^Sjb grl, ghur-bahal (f.), ^jj rai. (f.)
Charity, (benevolence) ^^^1 j^- khair-andshi : see Alms.
Charles's Wain, jS\ <_>ii dubb-i-akbar, ^J~~> saptarikh.
Charm, (spell) ^\^-jd, j^c mantar, (amulet) si,y ta wis, \y
ttk.
Chart, <J naksha, iiJ l ^ bjj dary k kinrt k naksha.
Charter, oo-> sanad (f.), farman, <uU iX^c hd-nama.
Chase, (hunting) JLL shikr, (park) t*j ramna : see Pursuit.
Chastisement, \y saz (f.), ^\> goshml, tdib. (f.)
Chastity, ^y^JiSb pakdamani, paklzagt, i~~*~a smat. (f.)
Chat, ^gap (f.), bak (f.), f _JKj" ^ J takallufguftg.
Cheat, dagh (f.), Jf>- chhal, (cheater) jb IcJ dagh-bz, f>
206 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Cheer, CLlj~.< masarrat (f.), ^**f- khurrami, (food) tf^^ bhjan.


Chess, ^yoJti shatranj. (f.) Chess-board, LL-j ^ <^1~' shatranj
oist. Chess-man, muhra, y nard, got. (f.) King
at chess, \> shh, Liob pdshh. Queen, ^jj> farzin, jj
waztr. Castle or rook, ^ rukh. iJi-Ojl nt (?). Bishop, J^ipil,
^^U htht. Knight, asp, 'ghbra. Pawn, iSupiyda,
jjj baidak.
Chick, chicken, chuza, ^J&>- chingri.
Chief, chieftain, j\j~> sardar, j~* mir, u^ij ra'ls.
Chisel, f^j^J tnkl, j rkhni, ^^>- chhtrii.
Chitchat, gapshap, CJU bat-chit (f.), Jb>- JjJ bol-
chal. (f.)
Choice, (will) ikhtiyr, (selection) c_j\&1 intikhb.
Christianity, u^Jl^ai nasrntyat (f.), i^j^c isaw mazhab.
Chronicles, i^Jy tawrlkh..
Chronology, ^cjiy lm-i-tawrkh.
A Churl, j\j> ganwr, ^\&s>J dihhnl, (miser) J-r bakhil.
Chymistry, k'imiya, ^^\ -gari, rasayan.
Cipher, (in numbers)jLa fifr, li-i sunn, (letter) <if>- harf, A nk.
Circle, Jjc kundal, Xj\ da'ira, ghtra, aL>- halka.
Circuit, jj daur,jL>~ chakkar, (J^^f gardish (f.), s\&A ihta.
Circumference, gird, \^ ghtra, _^*J phtr, Sa^.-* muht.
Circumstance, ls-JU- halat, is JiS kaifiyat (f.), It_^>- chigunagi.
Citizen, tjg^-b shahr,j4(> ^JaI ahl-i-shahr, ii-jjjbt ahli-psha.
City,^i shahr, j nagar, sAi balda, \ madna.
Civet, libj zabad.
Civility, i^JLJ\ insntyat (f.), c>i^< murwat. (f.)
Claim, da*w, jsIsx-jI istihkk, hakk.
Clamour, j^i sr, U^c ghaugh, J g^M.
Clamp, pattar, (of bricks) sj\=f, pajwa.
Clap, (blow) chamela, khatk, (of hands) ^Ib" /.
Clasp-knife, ^3b>- chaku, chakk, Lj bakiy. (f.)
Vocabulary.Nouns. 207

Class, (division) iiiji firka, *~ kism, (degree) <fc^>J darja.


Clause, (sentence) iju fikra, A^-jumla, (condition) )sj~> short, (f.)
Clearness, ,_/lw> saf'l, shaffft, ujll.
Cleaver, (butcher's) bvghda, oU khnd.
Cleft, <s-j rakhna, jj darz, Jj darar, J^ii shakk.
Climate, clime, ^ii\ ikUm, \ ds, b-o-haw. (f.)
Cloth, J- kapaf, , j^j bastar, ^>-j^ parcha.
Clown, ganwr, ^UJ dihkri, H.^nH anchhl.
Club, l2i~j snt, Lac asa, . ^iU Zf, \b gada.
Cluster, <Li4^- khsha, guchchha, (crowd) /U>- jam'.
Coach, ^jj grt, ,_Lj bahal(f.\ J^J^ ghur-bahal. (f.)
Cobweb, l makfi k jl.
Cochineal, y*Js kirmiz, kirm-dna.
Coffin, ti7 kafan, jjJ-a sandk, cj^jIj tbt.
Coil, kundlt, Jj bal, j^phtr, khum.
Complaint, nlish (f.), j'.^i faryd (f.), <JL> wZa: see Disease.
Coin, aSLj s//ca, zar (f.), !^* mudra. (f.)
Collection, ^Ui?-! ijtim", majrna", (sum) jam'.
College, it-^iX madrasa, ULj pth-sl. (f.)
Collusion, (jiJ^o bandish (f.), ^3^ sa2^A (0> ^j saii a.
Collyrium, j^^*^ anjan, J^s AmAZ, surma.
Colour, &^ rang, baran, (pretext) - ja, AjLj bahna.
Column, i^y** sitn, ^! lath (f.), <b J-j pll-pya.
Combat, W lar't, muharaba : see Battle, Fight.
Combination, J^a mel, tLo milp (f.), jliul ittifk.
Comfort, LUj dil-s, smA, rm.
Command, Commandment, |~ hukm, \J>\ aggya,j^\ amr.
Commencement, ibtida (f.), -i> shuru, jl| ghz.
Comment, Commentary, ^.^-> shark (f.), <i (f.), <U>U- hshiya.
Commission, (warrant) ~j sanad (f.), (acting) -jIS^ irtikb.
Committee, uuol^ panchayat (f.), j_/-Lsr* majlis. (f.)
Commodity, j~is>-jins (f.), JU mZ, J*>- cz (f.), l-v-j Z>as. (f.)
208 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Common shore, jjSi badar-rau, (f.), lljj parnala.


Commotion, (tumult) Ijb balw, <Uii fitna : see Motion.
Community, (whole people) j jamhur: see Society.
Compact, J* J^S haul karr, \sj> shart (f.), ^- hd.
Companion, ^j>\~> sth (m.), J^ij rafk, *-Lte mushib.
Company, (society) z~S~ sangat (f.), l^jU; rifkat, (assembly)
t/Lsr* majlis (f.), (guests) WU^ mihman, (partnership) <J\jL
sharkat (f.), (body of people) is^ guroh. (f.)
Compass, ghtra, ihata, j*q plier : see Circuit.
Compasses (pair of), jl^J pargr (f.), or (dakh.) jl^j parkr.
Compassion, JjJ dard, j^pir (f.), bo day (f.), raAw.
Compensation, talfl, Sjj badl, \j-jaz. (f.)
Complaint, (lament) jhyfaryd (f.), nlish: see Disease.
Complexion, (colour) t^&j rawg-, ^ -?- chihr k rang.
Compliment, (salutation) A~ salm, (service) ^Jcj bandagi.
Computation, k~s.* muhasaba, \j tixdd. (f.)
Concern, (care) parw (f.), 1J\ andesha: see Affair.
Concord, (agreement) J- meZ, ij^Jii^- muwafakat (f.), t* milp
(f.), (harmony) ^^! ^ ham-hangt, U-> sam.
Concourse, (*^s- hujv,m,y*# bhrf.), (meeting) c-A. milp. (f.)
Condition, JU- A7, AVai (f.), (stipulation) \>jL shart. (f.)
Conduct, {J^>- chalan, CJ^L sulk,J\^a\ atwr.
Confidence, bhars, i>\Sss\ i*tikd, cSj diUri.
Congratulation, ^ob tl^L mubrak-bdi, tahniyat. (f.)
Conquest, fath (f.), yiis zafar, jjs-* taskhir. (f.)
Conscience, zamlr (f.), -fs-***1 samajh (f.), ^Uj^ man.
Consent, ^Ji^eLsj raz-mandi, kabl, ,J~o )Uj\ ittifk.
Consequence, nattja, (moment) AiLic , \^ parwa. (f.)
Conserve of roses, Jci jf gul-kand, lJJ&> S gul-shakari.
Consideration, ^LJ dhyan,j\=f, bichar,Jj fikr.
Consolation, LSLj tasallt, LJ dils, ^-.jlao dhras.
Conspiracy, lAxj Jaw^is (f.), <L>/ gsht (f.), ^;,L szisA. (f.)
Vocabulary Nouns. 209

Consternation, iS^bS^p ghabrhat (f.), <-^^>- hairat. (f.)


Constitution, mizj, c^-xJs tab'yat, ^^>- jibillat (f.), <*z~Jbj~>
sirisht. (f.)
Consultation, ^jf>~ salh-khwhl, CL2jt~< mashwarat. (f.)
Contemplation, J^Aj ta'ammul, ^LfcJ dhyn,jj ghaur.
Contempt, cl^Is- hikrat (f.)> apamn, c-JW ihnat. (f.)
Content, contentment, i^^^ khush, c--il kan'at. (f.)
Contract,^ # karr, hd, hr. (f.)
Contrivance, olrf^ y(Z, ii-~f&>- hikmat (f.),^oJJ tadbir. (f.)
Controversy, ci^sr oaAs (f.), JajJ> radd-badal (f.), JUm kaziya.
Conversation, cJ& gvftg (f.), CJb bt-chlt. (f.)
Copy, Jj raa# (f.), <J' nuskha, (first or foul) Oj_~ musauwada.
Coquetry, jU n2, Ijiir nakhr, atZ (f.), ^~>-j- chchl ^Jy^=r
jhwl.
Coquette, jb^ir nakhr-bz, ijLs. shwa-gar.
Coral, mng, ^-* marjn, (child's) ^^^>- chsrii.
Cord, rassi, j dor (f.), ljj-s>- jt'ra.
Cork, (plug) \$2J> dhatth, : thlnthi.
Corner, \jj kn, >j gsha, iJU5j$> khnt, kunj.
Corpse, XJyemurda, ytl lsh (f.), ^^ loth (f.), dyc mirtak.
Correction, (amending) ^sf^ tafhih (f.), (punishment) \j~>.saza. (f.)
Correspondence, (by letter) c^ASlas- khatt-kitbat (f.) : see Rela
tion.
Cost, J^< /, /* (f.), L^j &/, kharch.
Cotton, (undressed) kaps, (dressed) j r', pumba.
Covenant, <uU hd-nma, Jy /rawZ, sari. (f.)
Cover, dhkna, ij^j^ sar-psh, (shelter) 'j panait, (f.)
Covetousness, lalach, ^ lobh, u*r~ hirs. (f.)
Coulter, ^^-j was, j\q plir.
Council, (j-ls-* majlis (f.), saJA (f.), cu^l^u panchyat. (f.)
Counsel, u^s^i nashat (f.), ocj pawrf : see Counsellor, Attorney.
Countenance, *j*>- chihra, -f< muh, (favour) < tawajjuh. (f.)
2 E
210 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Country, (region) j~> sar-zamin (f.), bhim (f.), ilXl* mulk,


^/-J ds, (opposed to town) cuLjJ dht, J-sil mufassal, (na
tive land) ^ watan, *>-janam-bhm.
Countryman, (of the same country) ^s> ham-watan, ^\$> (j~>,
ds-bhl, (peasant) ^iltJ dihkrii, J>j gawar.
County (division of a country), j-L zll%, j^ pargana.
Couple, jii do, jora, u^-=>- juft.
Couplet, Ci-o bait (f.), dha.
Course, JjJ daur (f.), rfapa (f.), (race-couree)j?j>Jghur-dauf.
Court, (of justice) adlat (f.), dj*c kachahrl, (yard)
saw, (hall of audience) Joj darbar : see Palace.
Cracker, (squib) patkh, (boaster) laf-zan.
Cradle, SjJLa> hindl, tjyf gahwra, J^,* mahd.
Crane, (for raising goods) K^J damkala, (dakh.) CJ>jLe malst.
Crease, JJ! shikan (f.), ^j*** c/k (f.), ij->*- chunat. (f.)
Creation, 1_/~>/1 frinish (f.), ^^i^j^j paid'ish (f.) : see World.
Creature, y^"* makhlk, (irrational) haiwn.
Credit, i'tibr, p> bharam, -$L> skh (f.) : see Reputation.
Creditor, !\fi- ijji karz-khwh, >^ byohariy.
Crew, jjgj bhtr (f.), t^cUs- jam't (f.), (ship's) jly>- JaI aZ-t-
jahz.
Crime, j~a> takslr (f.), kgunh, t^ihpp, ^j>-jurm.
Criminal, jlj ^au takstr-wr, j^ gunh-gr.
Crisis of a disease, buhrn.
Critic, JS u-ilj wkif-kr, ^\J <&3 nukta-dn, <tAc llma.
Crop, (harvest) Ja /asZ (f.), (produce) Jel- AsiZ : see Maw, Craw.
Cross, salib, chap.
Crowd,J-^ bhtr (f.), oh\aj>- jam't (f.), ^js* hujm.
Crumb, (particle of bread) Vjf \ iwr, (soft) \pgd.
Crush, / dab', (shove, push) 1& dhakk,J5 takkar. (f.)
Crust, (shell) ll$=- chhilk, (of bread) js, V^j papr.
Crutch, LJ$J lathi, baiskh, Lac s, i^j/kj ph'ri.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 211

Cry, J6j pukr (f.),j^i shr, (lament) h^j wawaila.


Cub, < bachcha, h pill.
Cube, t_^* kab, jJ> shashdar.
Cubit, -ib hth, t>to jq) -gJl iA Aar , : ->0 as.
Cuckold, daiys, i^serj zan-jalab, } kaltabn.
Cud, ^J\- jug, \ pgur.
Cudgel, ^j lthtfjfi lakar, theng.
Cupping glass, l>_5&-~ sng. Cupper, ^J*~> sng-wl.
Curd, chakk, \~&>- chhn, dahi. (m.)
Curl, J kkul (f.), y4gs, _j zulf (f.) : see Bend.
Currency, (of money) rawj, i^>- chalan.
Currycomb, kharahr.
Curse, _j~> sarp, us.-) la%nat (f.) : see Calamity.
Custody, !\>- hawla, ^yL^ nigah-bnt: see Imprisonment.
Custom, Jl>- chai (f.), ^j>- chalan, cuAs. dat (f.), jy~* dastr,
(tax) Jj^s.-* mahsl.
Custom-house, >J^>- chabtara, j^*^ parmit-ghar.
Customer, CSs ghak, khardr.
Cut, (gash) kit (f.), zakhm, (shape) JjJ daul.
Cut-throat,jlj^f- khn-rtz. g thag, JjjJL-j bat-pr.
Cycle, jJ daur, xj>\ d'ira, daurn: see Circle.
Dalliance, jU-j^ r'-ch'5, nz--niyz: see Delay.
Dam, (bank) j&Aib bndh, Jj pul: see Mother.
Damage, iJ;L- khisrat (f.), ^Usi nuksn, ^y- kharbl.
Damask, (silk) ys"*"* mushajjar, (cloth) ^\>- jmdrii.
Dance, dancing, ^.U nach, ^jij raks.
Dancing girl, ^5^'^ kanchani : (band of) i_ taw'if. (f.)
Danger, jt2~ chaira, j L> dar, ^y>~jkhim. (f.)
Darning (s.), jij raf.
Date (time), s^t tfikh (f.), -f tA (f.),
Day-book, <tsr*lij^j 02-51, khasr.
Dearth, Jt\ oZ, ks? kaht, tang, kamt.
212 Vocabulary Nouns.

Death, iZJyc maut (f.), marg (f.), tZJ/ifaut (f.), J?H qjl. (f.)
Debate, t-i-sr JoAs (f.), <U*> kaziya, ia-L* mubaham.
Debauchery, (_-jb?^ aubshi, rind, jU>. khumr.
Debt, daire, jUt udhr, \J>j harz, .
Debtor, j^Ju^ Jcarz~dr, J\i< dain-dr, \j riniy.
Deceit, --/ fareb, li dagh (f.), jul, J^- chhal.
Decision, jLa\ infisl, ^i, ra/*, ^j\2-j niptr.
Decree, j>s- hukm, ^yii fatw, JLal infisl.
Deed, , ^jxifi'l, (written) jj^b-:J dast-wlz. (f.)
Defect, j^ai' , ib, j$> ghat.
Defence, c^isU- hifzat (f.), ibo panh (f.), *^>;j r/c. (f.)
Defendant, (in law) <uLi J^J^ mudda'q laihi, e^~>\ asml.
Deficiency, \J~ kamtl, ghat, jyci .
Defile, (narrow pass) , ^J galt, ghtt.
Definition, iJ^J bakhn, hadd (f.), t_sj toTrif. (f.)
Degree, <b^i> darja, t+Jj* martaba, jSi kadr (f.), &Jj rutba.
Delay, jiJ der (f.), rfr, t* bilamb, " \ r. (f.)
Deliberation, J^oU ta'ammul, j* fikr, y*> sch, j ghaur. (f.)
Delight, JojT nand, ^_<~>>~ khusht, ^j*j>- khurraml.
Delirium, ^j&jfc} -hshl, ^jjssx) b-IchudrJ~i sir. (f.)
Deliverance, delivery, ^ najt (f.), ^* bach' : see Birth.
Delusion, l^jAJ dhkh, farb, lio dagh. (f.)
Demand, (claim) l^cj daxw, (question) i_JJs aZaZ. (f.)
Demolition, flj^l inhidm, ^jbte- kharab-bdi.
Den, (lion's, &c.) Aar, AiU wnd (f.) : see Cave.
Denial, J&>\ inkr, naf (.), \ tanfi.
Dependant, d*i- muta'llik, j dman-gir, u-!j> parbas.
Depth, (J-*s- muk, j \j gahr', (dakh.) j dngn.
Deputy, -iiUS" gumshta, cJ psh-dast, ol n'ib.
Derision, ^J$ thathdl, < taxna, \$2i thatth.
Derivation, ishtikk, \jSsL>\ istikhrj.
Descendant, Jans, wbi~s santn, (plur.) Jjl auld.
Vocabulary. Nouns. 213

Desert, J$>- jangal, ^blo bayaban, <UJb bdiya.


Deserter, bhagr, lSj^j* firr, cJJ trik.
Design, (purpose) <D*3i^ mansuba, irada: see Plan.
Desire, chh (f.), ^ibLi- khwhish (f.), (j~s> hawas. (f.)
Despair, ^^Wj n-ummd, ys (f.), nirs, ^^A m-
yusl.
Destiny, jiaSJ takdir (f.), L kam (f.), y>.^-J kismat. (f.)
Destruction, |^>. p'eml, cSht>\ ihlak, kharbi.
Detail, J-aw tafstl (f.), (in detail) J^Le mufassal.
Determination, JwaS jfcasrf, jc. zm,J>ssr tajwlz. (f.)
Detestation, i karh (f.), cuy nafrat (f.) : see Abhorrence.
Detraction, t^-- ghbat (f.), ^^i bad-gl, <^-~^ tuhmat. (f.)
Detriment, ^Ia nnksn, tZJj* mazarrat (f.), lj fi.
Devastation, tiJ^lc gharat (f.), ^.^ p'ml, ^Jd\j tabh.
Deuce (at cards, dice, &c), \jJ d', (dakh.) la^J doga.
Device, (contrivance) hikmat (f.), (on a shield, &c.) ^bJ
nishn.
Devotion (worship), cyjLc ibdat (f.), U-jj (f.) : see Prayer.
Dexterity, e^-~"> dast-karl, chlkl.
Dialect, ^Jyi , bhkh : see Language, Idiom.
Dialogue, zs guftg (f.), JLv i-j\f>- jawb suwl.
Diameter, ^15 Atr, a- ^ d'ire ke blch k khatt.
Diary, <uU j}j rz-nma, *sAjj.j roznamcha, &>-J*\ wrja.
Dice, ps (plur. of Lb ps, a die), (dakh.) ^^ phnse.
Dice-board, LLj sai. (f.)
Dictionary, i*JJbji farhang (f.), <^-**5 lughat (f.), s.
Die (colour), rawg, (stamp) ~> sikka, thappa.
Diet, \ ghiz (f.), khurk (f.), liU/ khn, ZJy /et.
Difference, /, CJtU tafwut, \j bilag : see Discord.
Difficulty, ^jj\jJt> dushwrt, JlLiH ishkl : see Labour, Trouble.
Diffidence, ^^> sankoch, l^jAii dharka, Ji> shakk.
Digestion, wil hazm, <U-\a CJy /fctca--/<mia.
214 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Digit, angul, (of the moon's diameter) kal. (f.)


Dignity, \s*- jh (f.),jJ kadr (f.), JlJ^c martaba, ^Lb sn. (f.)
Dilemma, IJJ dubdh (f.), (dakh.) Jls^j# bhnjl.
Diligence, ^cj> j~> sar-garmi, ^ dhun (f.), tan-dihi.
Dimension, tU mp,J\&* mikdr, sj\j\ andza.
Diminution, ^Jip ghat, i_jftr takhfif (f.), -.
Din, j^-i sAr, Ji .gAuZ, (dakh.) \5L Ji- ghul ghapt.
Diploma, Ai-> sanad (.\jJL^ manshr, Jjjb^J dastwz.
Direction, (way) rA (f.), (label) pai, (of a letter) <uU
sar-nma.
Dirt, (filth) maiZ (f.), J*e /, (mud) ys kichar. (f.)
Disagreement, iz-i\y>\j n-muwfakat (f.), (discord) L^j>- Ii -
khusl, anban'o, jj bigr.
Disappointment, n-km-, l^ybJ dhkh, ^- hirmn.
Disaster, musbat (f.), ^^isC ^ bad-bakht-, fat. (f.)
Disbelief, ^IjH^j b-i*tikd, ljJ^^^ b-*tibr.
Disbursement, ^^- kharj, ^,J>- kharch, <u\sAjs-\ ikhrajt.
Discernment,J-^j tamz (f.), \ Sjij ztrak-, U.C.) Z>Z>A\
Discharge, chhutti, Sjoj>. bar-taraf-, (of debt) bl 5. (f.)
Disciple, ^>~> sikh, cAZa, j>\> shgird, S~j talmlz.
Discipline, c-^to irflJ (f.), ^Jy tarbiyat (f.) : see Punishment.
Discovery, c^ibjJ daryft (f.), i_Jli^j| inkishf: see Invention.
Discount, \5j 5aM, 15^- chota,
Discourse, ci>b ai (f.), <-^~*- &a cAI (f.), fij guftg. (f.)
Discretion, imtTyz, J a/tZ, ^ hdshyrl.
Discus, chakr or chakkar.
Discussion, t>\so mubham, Jaj J> ratZd badal, (f.)
Disdain, ^ ihnat (f.), dJ^l- hikarat. (f.)
Disease, jljl zr, <J^ rog, uar< maraz, dukh.
Disgrace, uJ^j rusw'l, jU r, (dismission) u^-j taghrl.
Disguise, ^/-^J bhs, bhkh, (sham) *La- hla.
Disgust, izij nafrat (f.), ^ ghin (f.), karhiyat. (f.)
Vocabulary Nouns. 215

Dishonour, ls'jj! --, ^J~*j>- ^ bt-hurmati.


Disk (of the sun or moon), jsji kurs : see Discus.
Dislike, Crz, -b=- chirh (f.),jij>gurez. (f.)
Dismission, ruldisat (f.), bar-taraf-1.
Disorder, ^^jj^j bt-tarfib-, (illness) u^W? 6bnr-.
Dispatch, shitab-i: see Messenger, Epistle.
Displeasure, zurdagt, ^t>^-\j n-khushl, ^>~ khafag.
Disposition, |s3 intizm, (nature) jrl- kh (f.), ^1^ mizaj.
Dispute, ui-%sc* 5a* (f.), (quarrel) Vj^>- jhagr, <Ui kaziya.
Disregard, Vj^ be-parw'I, ^bbJl ^ be-iltift-i.
Disrespect, ^jl ^ be-adab-i, <j\ cSji tark-i-adab : see Disregard.
Dissembler, \j riy-kr, j\Lc makkr, L<~ .
Distance, cjfy^ dr-, cJjUj tafwut, v-iL* masfat. (f.)
Distemper, maras,j\j\ azar, tS^j rg, lJj^ bimr. (f.)
Distich, a (f.), Uj rfA, J^fejJ dhr.
Distraction, t-j^k^l iztirb, sarsma-g.
Distress, \A iza (f.), l!U-^ asi, e>-J ipa (f.), /af. (f.)
District, jJ- z*, chakl, J^-* mahall, tsSji pargana.
Disturbance, <ulj& hangma, j* ^j> harj-marj.
Diversion, (turning aside) i_Jlya^ inhirf, (sport) L>Uj tamsh.
Divination, Cy-yc jJ- ilm-i-ghaib, ramal, s$M fcU-gol.
Division, j~-" taksim (f.), (share) kismat : see Difference.
Divorce, jilt iaZ# (f.), (_^*1>- ^ ^>~j jj^jr khasam kjud-.
Dizziness, j~> daurn-sar, ghumr.
Doctrine, ta'tm (f.), k_^s>jt< maz'hab, &Jo tarlka.
Doer, \Jv<j karri-hara, \i kart, JxU_/5'*Z.
Doings, m, ^ji kartt, L Aiy, JUit a/'/.
Doll (child's), bjf guriy(i.), LSbj paiZ7, Ijjl^ khilaun.
Domestic (a servant), teA* wabasta, j&*cs- khidmatgr.
Dominion, <*z~oif>- hukmat (f.), u^L*c mamlukat (f.), ^ ry.
Donation, Donative, ^'..-^ bakhshish (f.), y! J dw.
Doom, (sentence) ^j>- hukm, fatwa, (fate) L aza.
216 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Dot, dtiaj nukta, hunda, hindi, sn.


Double-dealer, toj do-ranga, j\> 1J dagh-bz.
Double-entendre, &&-janik, jlJuUb j d-ma'n-dr bt.
Doubt, jw shakk, ^J> shubha, guman, 1~j sank. (f.)
Dovecot, <L- kabtar-khna. ij^bbJ dhbfi.
Dough, ^Jjjf gndhan, kharnlr. ^j/'yt lui or Z'.
Down (hair, small feathers), rm,ji narmpar: see Plain.
Drain, ty- mn, n/, badar-rau. (f,)
Draught, (of liquor) ghnt, (of a carriage) yUc$ khtnch',
(plan) j naksha, (of a letter) Jj~~ musauwada, (of soldiers)
^ pifauj k ek gurdh, (for money) u/Jcj* hund.
Draughts (the game), ^l^b Jju> mughal palhan, 8cc.
Drawer, (of a bill) ^-y (_A> hund-nawis, (of a chest) <U. khna.
Drawing (delineation), ^1 nakksht, ^J> naksh.
Dream, c_>l^i. khwb, sapri, (fancy) JU- khayl.
Dregs, tirchhat (f.), dUfs^ talchhat (f.), t,J dard, (f.)
Drink, -jyi shurb, i^-~yi> sharbat, sharab.
Drollery, maskhar-pan, ^Jjfip thathll, khillt.
Dross, J-*> mail (f.), (JU- Ali, jij zangar.
Drove, (of cattle) <*ls galla, (crowd) bhlr (f.), c^*sU>- jam't.
Drudgery, Jy aAaZ (f.), c^xs-0 l^s-*- saM mihnat. (f.)
Drunkard, ^1^1 sar-i,ji^sx< mai-kjtr.
Dung, (JL-^ o< (f.), xjf gh (f.), (of the cow) gbar, (of the
horse or elephant) jJ lid (f.), (of birds) Jbs^J pikhl: see
Manure.
Dungeon, bhaksi, s\>- L-j si^ c/i, ^j^ gidangi.
Dunghill, mazbala, \y$ guhariya, ghr.
Dusk (twilight), ^srLjt dhur-snjh (f.), ^J)bj> gdhul.
Dust, J^J cZAmZ (f.),jj*J cZAr (f.), f gard (f.), jL ghubr.
Duty, (obligation) ^j farz, (service) ,Jy tahal (f.) : see Tax.
Dwelling (habitation), j ghar, ^<Lo mukm, ^J~~* maskan.
Earnest (money), <l*-J bai'ana, dadni.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 217

Earthquake, Jb>- bh-chal, <Jj!j zalzala.


Ease, rm, J kal (f.), chain, (facility) snl.
Eaves, (of a roof), ^jAj] , or, ^J^fyl parchhat.
Ebb (of the tide), bjl# bhth, jj>- jazr, Js ghattt.
Ebony, abnus.
Echo, gunj (f.), \a> iad. (f.)
Economy, ^jjT juz-ras : see Arrangement, System.
Ecstacy, Jc^j wajd, ^J^kX) b-khiid.
Edge, (of a blade),Jaj (f.), Jb br (f.) : see Border.
Edging,J\>-jhlar (f.), maghzi, <_JbsL sanjf. (f.)
Edict, farman, Sj rakam (f.), ssan.
Edition (of a book), bl$- chhp, iJ^^f- chhap'i.
Editor, (compiler) t_!^ mu'allif, (arranger) i murattib.
Education, e^jy tarbiyat (f.), parwarish. (f.)
Eel, |b Jam (f.), ^UjLo mr-mhT, LUf:< (* bam-machhli.
Effect, (impression) y! asar, tsir (f.), (result) JueU- AmZ.
Effects, JU ?^, <_jLJ asbb, j JU / mata*.
Effigy, jLi> shakl (f.), CJ^j-e srai (f.), mrat. (f.)
Effort, ^ys-i sa , {~> kshish (f.), ic-.tc mihnat. (f.)
Eft (newt), <^>j ^ i_^^~ chhipkali ek kism.
Egg, ^Jol anrf, <Ui-J baiza.
Egotist, ^ijji L>^> khifd-farosh, Ui y- khud-numa.
Egress, khurj. A*o\j> bar-amad (f.), rawnagl.
Election, ^^i'ji barguzidagi, l^Jj- makbliyat. (f.)
Elegance, _ Zw/, ^ latafat (f.), Li-^^i nazkat. (f.)
Elegy, ^ marsiya, jua3 l> j\djj~ sz-gudz k kasda.
Elevation, L^<Ab bulund-, ^^ji barht, ^ las?l -.
Elixir, ^-^ aAw : see Essence.
Elocution, ,_jjt ^bj zabn-war, u^sXas fashat. (f.)
Eloquence, lJjIJu u~f~ khush-takriri, e^t&j balght : see Elo
cution.
Embryo, cP?>- jarin, bsrL snch, gbh.
2 F
218 Vocabulary Nouns.

Emersion, ^!i> tul uth', <x*^ bar-amad.


Eminence, ^=f\ unchn, ^J/j buzurgi, J^jj fazl.
Emissary, u-jJe>- jss, b bhediy, Sj^yn harkra.
Emperor, illifcL shhanshh, ^j^y* mah-rj.
Empire, ^jbllil shhanshh-, i^ucJaL saltanat. (f.)
Employ, Employment, Ji-> shughl, m, j^c wArfa.
Emporium, (j^j^ arang, bazar, bandar.
Empress, ij^V maha-rani, aU^bl> btgam-i-shahanshah.
Emulation, <du ghbta, 1 hisk, <>j rashk.
Enamel, , <_j , ^- jtfi, mina-kari.
End, uuO aw, lj-> sr,^-l khir, (object) gharaz. (f.)
Engine, Ji ZraZ (f.), san'at (f.), ^^ hathyar.
Enigma, ^j^ pahti, ^. chistan, U* mu'mma.
Enjoyment, tamattu*, y* maza, - ish, ^>y>- khushi.
Enmity, cu>^ adwat (f.), v-J air, dushmani.
Entertainment, (JU^* mihmrii : see Feast, Amusement.
Entrance, -$5-j paith, Js*- dakhl, ^Lj psh-mad. (f.)
Entry, <L.b dkhila, <fc~y rasta : see Door, Insertion.
Environs, i atrf (f.), pairaman, as-pas.
Epistle, k- khatt, jj ruk', <uU nama, ob jai.
Epitaph, <ub hitaba : see Inscription.
Epithet, k_-> lakab, -j^xj naxt (f.), i/*a, jb .

Epitome, ikhtimr, us.* mukhtasar.


Epoch, ^jb" trkh (f.), , sambat, JL> sZ.
Equator, j^aJ k- khatt-i-istiw.
Equipage, <_>LJ asbb, ^LL saman, tsj>y> sawr, i-Jj rikab. (f.)
Equity, (_iUwl tnff, Jj^ <#, ^aJ; rsti, /- sach'.
Era, ^TjIj tarikh (f.), lL s, *-' sambat.
Ermine, jjI kkum, <_>-; sanjab.
Errand, L-jjii-j sandes, |^ paighm, *l m.
Errata (in a book), ulj kL ghalat-nma.
Error, ^jbLc ghalati, CJ>- chk (.),jy kusr, J^j JmZ. (f.)
VocabularyNouns. 219

Eruption, j~ khurj. ubhr, (of the skin) ^jx> rakt-pitti.


Essay, ^jt~> sa*l, j^Uyl zm'ish (f.), (treatise) risla.
Essence, tz\ zt {f.),j*> , (spirit) jy: araA, (perfume) ^kc Str.
Estate, (condition) JU- hl, (possession) <SLo milk : see Degree.
Esteem, cl/Lj tapk, izi^s- izzat,J^t pyar,j kadr. (f.)
Eternity, |!ji> dawm, &>) abad, ^***> hamsha-gi.
Ethics, jjU-l akhlk, J$>-^ jj-c ilm-i-akhlk.
Etiquette, d&, i^-J-s* cyliK takalluft-i-majlis.
Event, (incident) JjjU- hdisa, i^J^ij^ sar-guzasht. (f.)
Evidence, ^t>\ gawhi, JJ da/ (f.), (witness) JJsli shhid.
Evil, ^I^j bur4, ^J>^j zbm-, (calamity) L Z>af. (f.)
Evildoer, jl Jj bad-kr, j i\& gunh-gr.
Eulogy, iwye tarif (f.), ia? (f.), Uj tana, (f.)
Eunuch, -f>- khja. \^ te>-\j*- Jdiwja-sar, tes* AyV.
Examination, ^jlejl zm'ish (f.), ^*! imtihn.
Example, <j*j namna, ^ji^jS udharan: see Pattern.
Excellence, c^-jy faukiyat (f.), (as an address) CUj*>- hazrat. (f.)
Excess, fi"i> \J?\j ziydati : see Intemperance.
Exchange, j \ adl badl, J>f- waz, (place) <Jy>- chauk.
Excrement, i gih (f.), gh'it: see Dung.
Excrescence, i girih (f.), (fleshy) L mass, masbird.
Excuse, jbe- ?zsr, (pretence) <l^ bahna, hvjjat. (f.)
Execution, <i^l kr-gvzr-, (killing) Ji Aa?.
Executor, was? (m.). Executrix, <u>j wasiya. (f.)
Exercise, c-c mihnat (f.), (practice) J-ke mashk. (f.)
Exertion, ^j^jb kshish (f.), ^^j-j sa*, l-xs^ mihnat. (f.)
Exhibition, ^1^ iz'hr, ^jl^ dikhl'i, (show) liUi' tamsh.
Exhortation, ^^ nafihat (f.), lcj *2, targhib. (f.)
Exile, (banishment) ^"hs*- jil-watan, (banished) ^^-J lZ-watan.
Existence, ^yi hastl, js^j wujd, (life) ^^SjJj zindagi.
Expedient,^ojJ tadbir (f.), chra, up't.
Expense, s3 lgat (f.), ^/>- kharch : see Money, Cost.
220 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Experience, Experiment, toj=? tajriba, I zm'ish. (f.)


Explanation, ^Lj bayn, J^-af (f.), ^-> shark, (f.)
Express, (messenger) ksid, cICj paik : see Message.
Expression, lail talaffuz, cub ii (f.), (squeezing out) "y^ nichdr.
Extension, j%^)phail', ^^jllS kushdagl.
Extract,^) Air, *A- khulsa : see Essence, Selection.
Extreme, Extremity, sir, i^jl^i nihyat (f.) : see Distress.
Exuviae (slough or skin), J-ato kenchlt, J^u kenchul. (f.)
Eyesore, IS ^j^l jb>- Mar nkhn k.
Fable, L^olG- hikyat (f.), Ji3 wa/W (f.), ^yb^ kahnt.
Fabrication, cibjbj banwat (f.), >^> (f.)
Facility, san?, l^Jj^- sahlat (f.) : see Readiness.
Fact, (deed) <, Jxsjfl, (reality) c^-Jus*- haktkat. (f.)
Factory, , <U- j\ kr-khna.
Factotum, ^bys har-bb-, ^KIS kulkullan.
Faculty, CJj kwat (f.), (quality) gun, (skill) hunar.
Fair, (market) iL , c>b> hat (f.), ^5-j penth. (f.)
Faith, (belief) (jLH , Ju Skida, (religion) millat. (f.)
Falsehood, Falsity, ^^>-jhth, ^j dargh, l_j &.
Fame, jb nam, j\j^Jt>\ ishtihr, y-s^jas, ci^-i shuhrat. (f.)
Familiarity, SoL,! irtibt, c^^-?" mhbat (f.), ^% nZ/a. (f.)
Family, gharbr, \>\j gharan, (race) ^jJbi- khndn.
Famine, ks? kaht, JIS1 akal, cl#t> dubhuk.
Fan, 1j pankh, ^j^J pankh, (for grain) ^^j^ parti, c-Jj- sp.
Fancy, JU- khiyl. ^ wahm, (whim) lahar. (f.)
Fare, (food) khurk (f.), (hire) ljb bhara, t kirya.
Farewell, alwid*, SsU- khuda hfiz.
Fashion, JjJ daul,j$o taur, (form) J> sAaW. (f.)
Fast, i\ifka, ijj rza, <Jj> barat, (_/-b\ upas.
Fat (of animals), L^- charbi, <_/bil- chlknal.
Fate, jJJJu takdir (f.), L^vtJi kismat (f.), (death) ?<. (f.)
Fathom, -jU ^ _3la>jb>- cAr Aar , jj Jam. (f.)
VocabularyNouns.

Fatigue, i_S^" thak'l, ^h* mndagt, ^^y sus.


Fault, jje Jusur, ib, (crime) j^oa! taksir. (f.)
Favour, mihrbani, ^- tawajjuh (f.) : see Gift.
Feast, c^JLe ziyafat (f.), izJjs-J da'wat (f.) : see Festival.
Feature, jLi shakl (f.), <Ci naksha, rukh, chinh.
ajr, py^j rusum, <bis.-* mihnatna, ajra.
Feeling, lmisa, (sense) ^o- hiss, (affection) j\j pyr.
Feint, <^ bahna, l^ytJ dhkh, *=- hila.
Felloe, 1- U l J>- chakkar k ghr or halka.
Fellow, (equal) j*->- p& ham-chashm : see Companion, Manikin.
Fellowship, u^" suhbat (f.), , J-* /.
Felon, fjS* mujrim,j\} takstr-war : see Whitlow.
Felony, ij* b gunah-i-kabira, ^c- j>-jurm-irzm.
Fence, \^ gher, Uj panh (f.), tatrl : see Defence.
Fermentation, (JL^josh, JIH mJ7, (ferment) ^-^>- khamr.
Ferry, (passage) *jl guzra,j-*sc mbar : see Boat.
Festival, jlj-j te'hr, c-^j parab, Ju* zd. (f.)
Festivity, shdt, l^s>-jashn, J^z ish, i^y*- khush.
Fetter, Fetters, ^j^i bf, paikarh, ^bj-j btriya.
Fiddle, sarangi, kingrJ, jj\~> srinda.
Fidelity, ^^! -dar, bj wo/5 (f.), ^s^ sachaut.
Fight, ^/Vj! ?ar7, AA-judk, i^S^-jang, cy : see Battle.
Figure, (for number) tlio &, ^^ rakam : see Form, Image.
File, (instrument) ^^j- (f.), ^^j ; see Row.
Filings, jy>- chr, burada, (of iron) j-!S^ Ibh-chun.
Filth, mail (f.), <^f~ //, ^^^T l'ish. (f.)
Fin (of a fish) jjb k_Ji^sr* machhli k par or &.
Finance, iJ\ JU> ml-guzri, khirj, mad. (f.)
Firman, ^/ farman, parwna, <ul3 *>- hukm-nama.
Fish-hook, bansi, L2 katiy (f.), l5jl knt.
Fissure, t/b>- c, ^ terai, shigffjj darz.
Fitness, u^iU liykat (f.), u/|> sazawarl, ^,&**.<l> shayustagi
222 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Flannel, *jJ ll, LyJ dhs.


Flask, (powder-horn) \j^*~> singr, wta t?jV bart-dn : see Bottle*
Flattery, J^lij- khushmad (f.), ^-jLU- chplus.
Flavour, xjcmaza, \y*isawd, tijJ lazzat (f.), (j-bj^ m-Js. (f.)
Fleam, jitj nashtar.
Flight, (of a bird) jV^ parwaz (f.), (running away) Jj^f gurez. (f.)
Flock, (of animals) (^ galla, lu^-jhund, (of cotton) J^j pahal.
Flood, L)L sailab (f.), jb 5rA (f.), (tide) jawr (f.) : see
Deluge.
Flower, t phl, gui, (prime) jl^ bahr (f.), ^j=r jban.
Flowers on cloth, ljjj <_ bel-bt.
A Fluid, iS^pnt (.), Jys rak,j>- ^j^ bahne chz.
Fold, (plait) 3 tah (f.), {^>- chin (f.), (of a door) palla.
Folk, #>g, |4^<1 mardum, ^j>\s~'\ ashkhs.
Folly, Foolishness, Jiyj-? btwukuft, cu-jU= himakat. (f.)
Fondness, jLj shank, cAA. (f.)
Food, Ul^ khn, C\)~ khurk (f.), lcg/jis (f.), cyy .
A Fool (buffoon), HjS^ maskhara, Sj\> bhnd.
Footman, naukar, sjjb harkra, W\J piyda.
Footpath, i\j rah (f.), ^xiS^Jii^ pag-dandl, gal.
Footstep, Jj naksh-i-p, (step) pS kadam.
Fop, \&b bnk, iL#>- chhaila, albel, \&>- chikaniy.
Force, jj zr, Jj bal, iZf kwat (f.),^>- jabr.
Ford, <-rVj pyb, thh, (f.), <JL>\ght.
Forefather, -jadd, j^fj'/ buzurgwar : see Ancestor.
Foreman, j^t.^ peshkr, pshw, j\j~> sardr.
Forepart, agwr, \fT g, if1 agZ hissa.
Forerunner, j psh-rau, Ui jt^j psh-num.
Foresight, ^jXo ptsh-birii, ^^-j j dr-bini : see Prudence.
Forfeit, Forfeiture, dnd, <Uj^>. jarlmna.
Forge, <U- jlfcj! lhr-khna, ^c$> bliathl.
Forgery, (./Li Ztis, taghallub, '^" jl-ssi.
Vocabulary Nouns. 223

Fornication, i!b^>- chhinl, Uj zin (f.), J^-J fisk.


Fornicator, SL^>- chhinl. Fornicatress, Jb>f&- chhinal. (f.)

Fortitude, \>- jur'at (f.), 4$j*j\f>- jawnmardi : see Courage.


Fortune, (chance) kismat (f.), (portion) <f ^ >A5g, ^j*^
jaAez.
Foundation, (of a building) \m (f.), ^Ut ss. (f.)
Fraction, (bit) \j& tukr, xjj reza, (in numbers) j~ kasr. (f.)
Fragrance, > i^rf^- khush- (f.), JsJcjL su-gandh.
Frame, (plan) dhnch, (shape) JjJ dawi: see Shape.
Frankincense, jjlJ lubn, ,jb^ lbn, jfx? bakhr.
Fraud, i^jjh farb, l0 dagh (f.), chhal,jLc makr.
Freckle, magas (f.), ^ lahsan, b dgh.
Freedom, zdagi, [_'^>- khalsJ, euW1 najt. (f.)
Freehold, ^^-} ^oU- |_5H opn Mas* zamn, jgr. (f.)
Freight, Jy /, bhartl, (hire) Ijl^j bhf.
Friday, <U>- jum', dlna, j\^~> sukrwr.
Friend, t^-vjjj aos, muhbbfj^ yr,j~* mitr.
Friendship, dsti, c^wc muhabbat (f.), c^-sN //. (f.)
Fright, dar, <_Jy- khauf, dahshat (f.), |*y-> saAjw.
Fringe,^!l#>- jA/ar (f.), nchal.
Fruit, ,J$J j>AaZ, ij-^i mtwa, (profit) ^J samara, ^J na/*.
Fruition, ^L^ kmyabi, ^*> tamattu*, Jy- husul.
Fulness, Ljy*** ma*mri, ,_s'\j^) , lJj^ sri, <*i) bharti.
Fun, LUj tamsh, J^S AAZ, ,_jb z, ^y^j- shkhi.
Fund, (^yf^ pnji, <oU maya, <l< ^o sar-mya.
Funeral, j^-xj tadfin (f.), J^^sT taj'htz (f.), sj\^>-janza.
Fur, postn, samr, ^Zj pashm (f.), (scum) /'.
Furnace, bhathi, *l# JAr, tash-dn.
Furniture, <_ l j ghar k asbab, ^UL smn,
Furrow, k- lys Uj ^j-j Ja AaZ se 5aw A khatt, rtghri.
Fury, J&- jazba, <jj/>- Jif? jsh kharsh, ^^ ghazab.
Gain, (earning) kam', J*eU- htil, (profit) jJ /*.
224 Vocabulary.Nouns.

A Gallant, jb ishk-baz, rasiya, fj^p- iyash.


Gallows, j\ dar, ^Jf> suit, ^Sl^^j-Jl^ phnsl-kth.
Game, (play) ^b bazi, J-$ khll, (prey) shikar.
Gaming-house, <b- ijyr j'-khna, j> phar. (f.)
Gang, J^ ghl, ^>- jath, ISs t'ifa, -y>- jth.
Gaol, <b- i^Aj bandi-khna, <b>- JuS kaid-khna.
Garb, (JilijJ poshk (f.), (j>.U Zii, (guise) JAes.
Garland, l* J^j phl-ml (f.), sihr,j\> hr.
Garner, U-jLil ambr-Jchna, i gola, j\- Ac- ghalla-khna.
Gas, jls^ bukhar, -$jb Jp (f.), ^jI^j bhph. (f.)
Gauze, Jj^j^ kapar-phl, Jj^ kapardhl.
Gazette, <ubjLH akhbr-nma.
Gender, ^j^-jins: (fem.) ^'li' ?.? (f.), (mas.) tazkir. (f.)
Generation, jJy tawallud, (race) J-J nasZ (f.), c^iJ pusht. (f.)
Generosity, cljUs.*- sakhawat (f.), bakhshish, (f.)
Genitive case, c^jLH us-ll- hlat-i-isfat.
Gentleman, j* mard-i-dml, <fc*-\j#- khwja. t_^-Ls shib.
Gentlewoman, ashraf-zdi, l51^j bha btbi.
Geography, i^\yu>- jughrfiya.
Geomancy, J-*j ramal, ramml-.
Gesture, \~S>j>- harakat (f.), utM>- jumbish (f.), was*, (f.)
Ghost, (spectre) bht, k^-^ prt, (spirit) -j ruh. (f.)
Giant, ^jj jJi mard-i Szm tan, oJ daiyat.
Gift, |Ui in'm, \J-&?, baJchshish (f.), cftzn, L>
Gilding, ^J^^b til-krl, ijfjj zar-nigrl, hall.
Gills, (of a fish) \j$J gal-phar, (dewlap, &c.) ghabghab.
Girth (of a horse), <&j tang, pi7, (y.*.j pushtang.
Gladness, ^^-khushi, ^jLb shd,jjj~> surr, JcJI anand.
Glass, (substance) kanch, i~> shisha, (vessel) .
Globe, kura, i'gl, (world) jahn.
Gloom, Gloominess, ^jltO dhuml', (sadness) u^JSL malalat. (f.)
Glory, (praise) - hamd (f.), (splendor) jjj , Jjjj raunak. (f.)
Vocabulary.Nouns. 225

Glossary, (JJbji farhang (f.), &j^* zj\J lughat matrka.


Glue, sarsh.
Goodness, bhal'l, i^/^j nik'l, ^J>f>- khubT.
Goods, (furniture) t_->L~j\ l ghar k asbb, (effects) JU mal.
Gossip, CinjjSii harza-gard, (sponsor) U> \i ->b j^J dharam-bap or
-ma.
Government, <^~<j- hukmat (f.), raj, (state) jij* sarkr. (f.)
Grace, (divine) ^J-i fazl, (favour) tJ1ifaiz: see Beauty.
Gracefulness, i_aU lutj (f.), t/\ j z^bl, ljLs-' sajwat. (f.)
Grammar, =cr i^j^e sarf 5 naho (f.), *<Acl Iwfida.
Grandee, mda, amlr, ^j rukn, uj^i ashraf.
Grandeur, barl, ii-**kc zamat (f.), ^? buzurgl.
Grant, \j\ in'm, bakhshish (f.), af. (f.)
Gratitude, ji> shukr, ^jjSjJ* shukr-guzrl.
Grave, gor (f.), ^J> kabr (f.),j]y mazr (f.), ^x madfan.
Gravitation, uJ,!? markaz kl taraf rnailn.
Grease, ^j/>- charbl, ,_/L>- chlkn'l, jj raughan.
Greatness, ^\, barl, kalnl, ^$jj buzurgl.
Green (the colour) sabza, (grassy plot)^J j*> sabza-zr.
Greyhound, tazl kutt, b ^JSJ* shikari kutt.
Grief, ^ gham, j dukh, jjl alam, ^jU mtam, ranj.
Grimace, \j->^> khls (f.), ^IgjXj bandar-bh'.
Gripe, (grasp) jfapakar (f.), <UiJ kabza, (squeeze) "y^ nickr. (f.)
Grot, Grotto, a/", iy AA, <l>- 3 tah-khna.
Grove, Ij bgh, ^ kunj, li$>- l ^t^i-jJ darakhtM kjhund.
Groundwork, jLj bunyad (f.), J-el asZ (f.),y>- jar. (f.)
Growth, (vegetation) ^jj r'ldagl, (increase) ^>. barhtl.
Grudge, S klna, ix l DA muddat k klna : see Envy.
Guard, (watch) j\J>f>- chaukldr, (protection) klib- hifsat. (f.)
Guess, J3! aiaZ (f.), i/-^ yes,j!j\ awf?^,j!jcj pindr.
Guest, ,)tY<> mihmn, j\*e J\ wrid sdir.
Guidance, lj>\^Jij rahnum'l, ^ hidyat. (f.)
2 G
226 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Guide, Ui i\j rah-numa, \f\ agw, ^jlb hdl. (m.)


Guilt, A^gunh, ^ji) dokh, jy , ILri- khat. (f.)
Guitar, jbJ> ltr,Ja~i sitar.
Gum, Si^gond (f.), samagh.
Gutter, ^-^ muhr, &\jji parnla, ^joVi nabdn.
Habit, (dress) ^L) libas, (custom) irAiU aa (f.) : see Mode.
Habitation, j ghar, ^IC* makan, |\JLc mukm.
Haft, .Le wwA (f.), <t3-j kabza, <-.-t> dasta.
Hag, (witch) ^jii rf' (f.), (fury) Jjjf- churail. (f.)
Halo, <sSla> AZa, Jjc^ mandai, JL kundal.
Halter, (for a horse) j>!> i\ bag-dor (f.), (noose) plitm.
Ham (of pork), JjlT ^ J\~> su'ar namak-lda ran.
Hammer, (sledge) hathora, (small) ijjjjf* hathaurt.
At hand, ^f-j-< maujud, j\>- hazir.
From hand to hand, l^-wjJo i^l.o dast ba-dast.
Handful, muthi, j> lap-bhar, il-*~o musht.
Handle, to-O dasta, ciL-o-J &nf, <LJs kabza, -y<> math, (f.)
Handmaid, ^ji^- sahel, J*<H aji (f.), t^Jj! laundi.
Handwriting, k- Jhatt, \- c^ dast-khatt.
, (accident) jUjI ittifk, (luck) -%.....* kismat. (f.)
Happiness, , JcJT nand, .
Hardware, lokhar, ^j^>- ^ ^^bji lohe kichize.
Harm, ^ nuksn, jj zarar, ^bj ziyan, ranj.
Harmony, ml, jWI itiihad, szgrt.
Harp, ki^ barbat (f.), <A>- cang (f.), ^ 5. (f.)
Harvest, (time) jjJ ui*j wakt-i-dirau, (grain) ^ anaj.
Haste, ^jAsf jaldl, ^b- shitb, ^J/\j\ ut'li: see Rage.
Hate, Hatred, iSJji nafrat (f.), c^Ac adwat (f.), ^ ghin. (f.)
Haughtiness, jgj ghurr, &~t^ ghamand,jS kbr.
Health, tandurus, l^s" sihhat (f.), ^\\ aram.
Heap,^Jo dher, j\J>\ mbar, xy toda, jJj ras.
By heart, ^bj^LSjj nk-i-zabn.
Vocabulary Nouns. 227

Hearth, chauk, chlh, (dakh.) jo- chul.


Heat, ^c garm, CLsJ\y>- hararat (f.), ^jk- jalan: see Summer.
Heathen, j kafir, e^^ji^o but-parast, j gabr.
Height, i^W^l nch'i, charh', ^Jb bulandi.
Heir, wris, w, ^ wal-hd.
Help, X* madad (f.), ^- isti'nat (f.) : see Aid.
Hem, (border) maghzi, i_JbsL> sanjaf (f.), 5r. (f.)
Hemisphere, bol l /,? Zc dh, i \ adh-gl.
Hemistich <\j&> misr*, CSj tuk (f.), ^j>~ charan.
Heptagon, ^jyv musabba*, j zjL st-kn.
Herd, (flock) J nr, galla, (crowd) ghl, Jc^s>- jhund.
Heresy, l-^jo Jid'ai (f.), olsll i'Zd, ^ kupath.
Heritage, ^j\^ miras (f.), irs, ^^> bapauti.
Hermaphrodite, J^i^- khuns, l^s^ hijr.
Hero,j* bir, pahlawn, bahadur, ?* shuj*.
Hexagon, ^x^o musaddas, Ji-ii^l^j shash-pahl shakl.
Highlander, 1^^ pahriy, ^z~Jt kohistni.
Highness, (_b bulandi, (an address) CL^- hazrat (f.): see Height.
Highwater, l^J bharjawr, JUa< madd-i-kaml.
Highway, *lj L> sAA rh (f.), <&J^ Ijj bar rsta.
Hilt, -f^e wmA (f.), <UL kabza, i*S dasta.
Hinderance, atk', j^j ruk', JjU- ha!il, jT 5r. (f.)
Hint, >Li>! ishra, \aj\ tm (f.), kinya.
Hire, te?a6 (f.), jl^ kirya, Sjj>~\ qjra, \*\f bhr.
Hireling, j\Sjf>~\ ajradar,^ <> jjj rozina-dr.
History, ^Zj\j> tawrkh (f.), ^ijo trkh (f.), fc^-Aj rawyat. (f.)
Hive, li=>- chhatt, JL$C<. makhiyl, <U- zambr-khna.
Hock (of a horse) ^gjH ^ ^j> glwrc kl tri.
Hole, (pit) Ujfgarh, (rent) $- chhd, \j*> srkh.
Hollow, i . ..>*.> nasheb gh (f.), ijy>-jauf,jb khalr.
Holyday, <- td (f.), jUjjj' te'hr, t-jjj parab.
Home,j ghar, ^~c makn, ^0 der, ^-^ maskan, ^Jot watan.
228 Vocabulary Nouns.

Homicide, mardum-kusht : see Murderer.


Honesty, /^ sach', ^J^j rasti, <_ kharl, jJw sidk.
Honey-comb, \>- chhatt ^li shn, <U- Jyi shahd-khna.
Honour, LUJc izzat (f.), e^-j ^a (f.), (rank) j*> martaba.
Hoop, <tL>- halka, kundl,j~*>- chambar.
Horoscope, janam-patrl, zlcha.
Horror, d ~*Jb haibat (f.), Jy& haul, wahshat. (f.)
Horserace, "j^J^ ghur-daur. (f.)
Horseshoe, Jjc na*/.
Horticulture, ^jj^*^- chaman-bandi, ^yUcb bagh-bn.
Hospital, <U-jU-o btmr-khna, 11^'j dru-sh-shaf.
Hospitality, (jfjjjjyL*! musr-parwarl, ,_c,ljuU^< mihmndrl.
Host, (entertainer) mzbn, jIjU^ mihmndr: see Army.
Hovel, jhmpr, j+>- chhappar, .
Hound, i^tL shikr kutt.
Hour-glass, i^cLs ~> shtsha-e-s't, ' ^J> jib iV 7 ghaf.
Householder, ^bgirhist, ji j\~ khna-dr.
Hubbub, ,Lc J ghul-ghapra, ijy.jb harbaf.
Hue and cry, j\G titila hnk-pukr (f.), Jx g^w.
Humanity, i^weiM dmiyat (f.), CjL/d# bhalmanst. (f.)
Human kind, ^Ljl insn, ^^iJ dam.
Humility, (_<^ gharb, b-Jot adhint. (f.)
Humour, (juice) <^ ras, , (of the body) Lir- Mitf.
Hunger, (f.), ^rju (f.), ^p^ gursinag.
Hunt, Hunting, jlCi shikar, Ju-e said (f.), khader.
Hurry, ij^jald, shitbl, ^jfj> harbaf.
Husbandry, kisnal, kht, ,jsjz kishtkr.
Husk, chhilkj'K) bakl: see Chaff.
Hyperbole, AilL mubalagha, ighrk.
Hypocrisy, n'y, jj-jSL) s/s, jL* makr, cU-i kapat.
Jack, (engine) j kal (f.), (for raising weights) iiCcJ damkal.
Jail, <U- Ju kaid-khna. j\sTJj bandtkhna.
Vocabulary. Nouns. 229

Jalap, Js>- ^ (j,Lc JS gwZ- Jas ? j'ar.


Idea, JL- khiyl, jjoj tasauwur, ^LbtJ dhyn.
Idiom, ^ jja tarz-i-kalm (f.), ^-ik-el istilh. (f.)
Idiot, -^j-< ^g^^-janamt mrakh, ^sJ> gidl, J*b pgal.
Idleness (want of employment), lJ*> blkri, (laziness) r..i sws :
see Sloth.
Idol, ts^J Jwf, jie sanam, ^jy murat. (f.)
Idolater, but-parast, cSjL^c mushrik, jS gabr.
Jealousy, ^ zann, ^yUfjj bad-gumri, <Jj+ ghairat. (f.)
Jest, khill, y* mazkh, l$5$3 thatha.
Jesus Christ, ^ :r. hazrat-is.
Jet, Jet d'eau, j\j fawwra, ^j^ abkhezi, CDyisot.
Jew, <J>^j yahd, LSytf. yahd.
Jews-harp, i^is^ murchang, ^s"0 muchang.
Ignorance, jahlat (f.), nadar: see Folly.
Ill, (evil) ', (harm) t^iT /a (f.), L bala, (f.)
Image, ibj pwiZ, ^jy wrai (f.) : see Idol, Likeness.
Imagination, jyai tasauwur, JL- khiyl, dhyn.
Immodesty, ^{s^- be-hijbi, ^L^u bt-hayci.
Impatience, ?^^ bsabrl, ^ n-shikeb4.
Impertinence (disrespect), ^ -adabi, L5&-bf gustkhl.
Impiety, J~i fisk, ^j Ii n-khud-tarsi, >Jb\ adharm.
Import (meaning), ,j*- , mazmn.
Impostor, jb l0 dagh-bz, i*jt5 thag,j\L* makkr.
Impression, (mark) (^ri3 naksh, (print, edition) chhp.
Imprisonment, iXJ AaiJ, (j--. Aais, Jj Jand.
Improvement, bihtari, ^Jiji tarakkt, islh. (f.)
Inability, ^rilbli n-tkati, ^J> be-makdr.
Incarnation, (of a divinity) autr, (of a wound) JLcJal indiml.
Incendiary, ^Jl tash-afroz, (seditious) jJo\ ^1 tash-angz.
Incense, ^bj! toban, j^ss^bajdmr, je ud.
Inch,jJ tass, J^l ungalov J&! angul,jpor. (f.)
230 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Incision, <JL>l hat (f.), iJLj) burrish (f.), chira.


Inclination, iJL~* mailn, mail, (wish) raghbat.
Income, (rent) tA kiraya, (revenue) \ amad, (f.)
Inconvenience, u^i\y>\j n-muwfakat (f.), ujLKj taklif. (f.)
Increase, ^sJ^ barhti, ^jfi afzm, ^Jiji tarakki.
Incubus, (j-jJ^ kbs, (dakh.) <?~> stna-kndt.
Indenture, <u\i ^2 hd-nama, machalka, SUj kabla.
Index, (pointer out) Jlj , JJj ?, (of a book) t^-^i fihrist.
Indigo, (die) J-j ml, (plant) u^-jJ l J-i / darakht.
Indisposition, (disinclination) ^/^> nmarzl, (illness) ^JL> man-

Individual, j> fard, jas** iL>\ tk shakhs, Jo-|j wahid.


Indolence, ^jS> sust, khil, (_/L> dhll.
Industry, ; -.'..-41 mihnat (f.), -^ S^-jidd jahd.
Infancy, bachpan, c^-JjiL tufliyat (f.), ^^ib </?.
Infection, siryat (f.), l^Jjc fnat. (f.)
Inference, *> natija, <Jsls*- AmZ, J&l atkal. (f.)
Infidel, yl^ kafir,j gabr, ^.-j bedin, cSjt~c mushrik.
Infidelity,^ Am/", iL^> sirfc, i^Uj^ be-imni.
Inflammation, ^ji- jalan, ij^jy~> szish (f.), < iltihb.
Influence,^! asar, j\ tslr, s>~ hukm, <J^> byp.
Information, ^o- khabar (f.), ittax (f.), -bJ^ smc?A. (f.)
Informer, |U nammm, khufya-nawis.
Infraction, fas/ch. (j^-X> shikast (f.), bhang.
Ingot, , lf> thakk, dl A int. (f.)
Ingratitude, i^/->^ n-shukrl, cu-**j i}J& kufrn-i-nixmat.
Inhabitant, ^L skin, ^JLn mukim, m>{> bashanda.
Inheritance, lj\ irs, cJij** miras, ^j-J bapau.
Injury, (hurt) i, \ jj! (f.) : see Detriment, Injustice.
Injustice, ^bw! be-insf, (wrong) ^ zulm.
Ink, ^U-i siyahi, ,_s\Jijj rshn'J, (red) ^^ surklii.
Inkhorn, Inkstand, dawat (f.), ^Ij jji kalam-dan.
Vocabulary Nouns. 23 1

Innocence, ^Jt\^ bgunh, ^^^ ismat (f.), S^ pkl.


Inquiry, 4>-ji pchh-fchh (f.), t~i pursish. (f.)
Inscription, j\ hitaba, likhat (f.), pj* .
Insertion, Jli-iM idkJil, indirj, d-lj dkhila.
Inspection, ij nigh (f.), J nazar (f.), bis) likz.
Inspector, arriin, ^*s^o muhtamim, jj!j drgha.
Inspiration, (drawing in the breath) ^^p damkashi, (divine) ^>-j
wahi. (f.)
Instalment, (to office) ^JJ^otLi- khil'at-dihi, (portion) k-.j> kist. (f.)
Instance, (entreaty) >\j-j darkhwst (f.) : see Affair, Example.
For instance, masalan, \-~c>- jais ki.
Instruction, ^-luu ta*ltm, (f.), sikh't: see Education.
Instrument, <Ut ala, jx^>- jantr, J^fJt> hathyar, ti-^b bcs.
Musical Instrument, - bj,j\~> sz.
Insult,J-$>- chJir (f.), JiL tanz (f.), c^U> shamtat. (f.)
Insurance (against loss), U-j ma.
Insurrection, \b blwa, <u\> hangama, fosad.
Integer or Integral number, adad-i-sahih.
Intellect, Intelligence, Jc kl (f.), As, -bj^ Jmc?. (f.)
Intelligence (news)j^S- khabar (f.), ^SW ittil*, ^1^1 ght.
Intent, Intention, si kasd, i\j\ irada, i^-w ntyat. (f.)
Intercession, c^U^> shaf'at (f.), c^-SsL wastat. (f.)
Intercourse, > <xl mad-shud (f.), <Glc alka.
Interest, (for money) sd, byj : see Concern, Benefit.
Interference, J-0 dakhl, t^Jjl C^-J dast-andzi.
Interjection (in grammar), lju<_Jy>- harf-i-nid, <ij=- harf.
Interim (in the), is darmiyn men.
Interposition, Intervention, ts-LLj wastat (f.), L-y wasila.
Interpretation, Us^y tarjuma, tashrlh. (f.)
Interrogation, istifsr, p\ija~f\ istifhm.
Interruption, harakat (f.), JL>- khalal, ^jS> harj.
Interstice, A^Mfsila, (between fingers or toes) ^\ gh*.
232 Vocabulary Nouns.

Interval, ^J^*)^ darmiyn, bch,j\ antar.


Interview, zXsL* mulkt (f.), uiUbgfl bhnt. (f.)
Intimation, Xj\>\ ishra, &>Li kinya, U1 . (f.)
Intoxication, liJ nash, mastt, ^ytf bhsk.
Introduction, JU-l idkhl, (of a book) dibuja.
Invective, gft, ) ^bj zabn-darzt.
Invention, bibfCl jd, ikhtir*, C-*:>-L> skht. (f.)
Inventor, Jcj-j-< mjid, wzi*, ^ ni.
Inventory, lL-j siyh, J /ard (f.), <&Jju taxlka.
Investigation, tlsh (f.), ^...j taftlsh. (f.)
Invitation, e^JjcJ da*wat (f.), b^J nyota, talab. (f.)
Invoice, ^bj^ i^~>j* fihrist-i-ajns, C\> bjak.
Job, (work) Jy teAa/ (f.), l-$S <AA &, (stab) Jy& mZ. (f.)
Jointure, mahr.
Joke, 1^2^ thath, ^ khilli, ^j* mazakh.
Jolt, iCbJ dhakk, cJprjhok (f.), jLs.a hachkl.
Jot, Iota, zarra, bi nukta, <Jj 7.
Journal, <Clj r^-nma, <^1 wrja, khasr.
Journey,^i- safar, iZiJ>\~~ musfarai. (f.)
Journeyman, kamra, xj kranda.
Joy, ^ khush, ^j<j>- kJiurramJ, bils, ^g-jai.
Irony, ^Lc ^s. ; waZzA (f.XjSZ-^ tasaklikhur.
Itch, (disease) ZcAy (f.), khujU : see Desire.
Judgment, (decision) i_la3l h?/, (sentence) hukm : see Intel
lect.
Judgment (day), c^^U kiyamat (f.),jts>- hashr. (f.)
Juice, ijmj ras, jjS- rak, XjJt> shira, ^y>-js, ^Jb pai, (m.)
Jump, kulnch (f.), kd (f.), is-w>- jast. (f.)
Junction, j^rjf, ^ paiwand, J^^wasl.
Juncture (time) ts-Jj >, ij^-SU- hlat (f.) : see Junction.
Ivory, ic-Jlo ^' hthi-dnt, y, w!jJjL fil-dandn.
Jurisdiction, hukm, cu-vjSo. hukmat (f.),^jjj kalam-rau.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 233

Jury, iju-jIsL panchyat (f.), panch.


Justice, i_JLi3^ insf, Jac dl, jLi nyw>: see Judge.
Kalendar, tkwim (f.), I^j patra.
Kali, ^Ij fcaZ,
Keepsake, ^ifjb ydgri, yob yd-bd, ^lJ nishnt.
Kennel, (for dogs) iU-^jlj tzt-khna : see Gutter.
Kermes, J^ kirmiz.
Kernel, J< maghz, \f gd, (of cocoa-nut) xjs gari.
Kick, 1 St (f.),J)$ thkar (f.), Mad. (f.)
Kiln, bhathi, (especially for grain) j\g bhr, (potter's) \j\ w.
Kin, j\ \j\j nata-dar, lf-s saga, j\<2>j rishta-dr.
Kind, (genus, race) i-r^-jins, CL3\ zt (f.), *.
Kindness, ^yb/v* mihrbri, &-y tawajjuh. (f.)
Kindred, jj u/^ bh'-band, byl akrib, ^.f- khwsh.
Kingdom, <^-ikL: saltanat (f.), i^li Jb bds/ihat. (f.)
Kinsman, J\iz>j rishta-dr, ^J^]/ karabat.
Kiss, tej^- chuma, <t~ijj 65sa, ^ef^0 machhi.
Paper Kite, ^jS guddi, *Jsj patang, J>" tukkal. (f.)
Knack, (habit) _-> dhab, iA~> saUka : see Dexterity.
Knapsack, jhl, Li thail, ^<- jma-dnl.
Knave, jbliJ dagh-bz, J^s. iyr,j\Lc makkr.
Kneading-trough, 1^2 kathr,j^ taghr, kathauti.
Knight, j\> bahdur, \j^o mirz, (at chess) ghr.
Knob, gnth (f.), (dakh.) gundl.
Knocker (of a door), L>- halka, .s- halka-dar.
Knot, -$S3lf gnth (f.), , igirih (f.), ^ ^ec.
Knowledge, -fcAJ Smc?A (f.), tsJIj dnist. (f.)
Label, pata, (_<$2-j- chitthi, <ub^-s sar-nma.
Labour, c-o4 mihnat (f.), rfwfc, (in birth) j J)J dard-i-zih.
Lace, (gold or silver) Vj gt, ^jj^ kinrl, (cord) dri.
Lacker, (varnish) Cjb luk, f-jj ravghan.
Lady, bibi, )f\>- khtn (f.), khnam. (f.)
2
234 Vocabulary Nouns.

Lamentation, Sli nala, zart, s-y nauha, & giriya.


Lampblack, J^-l kajal, JjJ dda, hJ kajl.
Lampoon, jjs*1 haj (f.), bhandauw.
Lancet, jitj nashtar. (f.)
Landlord, jljc-^j zamtndr, (of an inn) mezban.
Landmark, <lj-: siwna, 5~ mend (f.), ota dnd.
Landscape,^yi b is mulky sawdki taswlr.(i.)
Lane, ^^jls go, r^ C^Oi ^ 55.
Language, ^bj zabn (f.), ^y ?, bhkh. (f.)
Lap, gd(i.), ,_sj> gdt, ^/)\ ^J> y^i / Spar kjagah.
Lappet, <sL*-> shamla, pairman.
Lard, !_^=- L5& ^ s'ar pakki charbi.
Lascar (from (_J lashkarl, soldier), ^gois- khalsi.
Lash, (thong) \j kr, (stroke) ^ s-^r* zarb-i-chbuk.
Lass, (young woman) 2^ dshlza (f.), ICiU n'tk. (f.)
Last (for a shoe), (>/ i_-Jl klib-i-kafsk, oJl klbud.
Lathe, ad (f.), ^ kharrt. (f.)
Latitude, .-'Jjy^- ckaur't, jj^c (f.), ^^cto-jJ darja-e-rz.
Lattice, cliLii shabak, ^^- jhanjhr, J^~jl, khirki.
Laudanum, jj^c /7 k ra/.
Laughing-stock, ^s^ maskhara, lL^s.*^0 muzhik.
Laughter, Laugh, t^C^ tazhlk (f.), ^^-Jb hasi.
Law, (rule) k'ida, (statute) ', ^yt knn.
Lawnjjl^^ marghzr, maidn : see Muslim
Lawsuit, IjJ daxw, *a> kaziya, UjJU mukaddama.

Laziness, ^j^ susti, ^J^ maj'huli, J-Jt (f.)


Leader, lyt-j plshwa, j\<j~> sardr, x^j*> sar-gurh.
Leaf, patt, ij\jpat, (fj barg, (of a book) jjj warak.
League, (alliance) J~ /, (three miles) <~ji farsang.
Leanness, bLo dublapa, lghar : see Poverty.
Leap, kd(f.), ^~~>- jast (f.), Jobj phnd: see Jump.
Learning, J-s bj^ iirfya (f.), <^--* fazlat. (f.)
Vocabulary Nouns. 235

Lease, &>}j> kiraya, *> ijara, (deed) l5; patta.


Leather, chamra, ^j>- charm, jild. (f.)
Leave, > ijzat (f.), , (f.), (to depart) ^-j rukh-
sat. (f.)
Leaven (ferment), j^>- khamir. <oU maya.
Leavings (offal), jhlh, ij y>- ^ pas-khurda.
Legacy, <Ub hiba, c^-j-y wasyat. (f.)
Legerdemain, u^Xj -$2jJ dth-band, ,_s}yJuJb> shaxbada-bzi.
Leisure, fursat (f.), CL^cl^i farghat (f.), ^f- chhutti. (f.)
Length, lambci, Jjb Z, iMjc^I imtidd.
Lesson, Jm-s sabak, dars, (precept) Jj pand.
Letter, <_>j>- harf, (epistle) la:*, khatt, ^2- chitthi.
Lexicographer, <~Jkyo mu'allif-i-lughat.
Liberality, j>-jd (f.), ^^\ li-himmatl : see Generosity.
Liberty, (freedom) ^Jlj I zdt, ^*> riA^ ; see Leave.
Library, <l- kutub-khna, c^-*~*>- jam't-i-kutub.
License, js>- hukm, ^J^c^ farman, j\jj parwna : see Leave.
Licorice, Ms, (_/-j-J! aslu-s-ss, JXo ^<$L>- jetl-madh.
Lie, ^}>- jhth, CiyJ dargh, c_> &.
Lieutenant (deputy), ^liU jjlj '/ makam, 57.
Life, (m.),^^, J*- jan, (living) ^Aij ^iwdagi.
Lighter, (large boat) JAar.
Likelihood, ihtiml, ^->jy> rat (f.), ^Uf gumn.
Likeness, <^bLb shabhat (f.), c^JjU^ mumsalat (f.) : see Form.
Limit, Limitation, Jo- Aarfd (f.), dkW ihta, Ulj- siww.
Line, (string) j. dr (f.), (_-^ 5, (streak) jJ] lakr (f.), (of a
book) Ja~> atar (f.), (hemistich) r^-* misr*, (equinoctial)
k>- khatt:i-istiw : see Limit, Row, Lineage.
Lineage, Jj was (f.), ,Jij\- khndn, nasab.
Lineament, JU- Mai, L- M see Feature.
Linen, kattn or kaan, \jJ kapr.
Lining,^-^ astar, marhan. (f.)
236 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Link, (of a chain) iS& halaba, ^j~f kafi, (torch) J*i< mash'l.
Linseed, L?JI alsi, ^JsS ^kr tukhm-i-katn, atasl.
Liquefaction, pighl', ^ galn, l^-Ij^ gudakht. (f.)
Liquid, Liquor, J^c ral, tjb prii (m.), ras, shurb.
List, (roll) ij^-^j fihrist (f.), L*ji fard (f.), (bandage) ^Jb pattl,
(border) kinra, (palaestra) Vj\ \ akhr : see Desire.
Litharge, iS*> murdr sang, t*> y murda sang.
Litter, (chair) plkt, (straw) jy>-\ khr (f.), (brood) ^y^-jhl.
A Little, .fs? kuchh, ijS zarra, JJj j*\> kadr-i-kaRl.
Livelihood, rbzi, jjjj rizk, ma'ishat. (f.)
Load, ^- bjh,j\# bhr, Jiyo mi (f.), Zd. (f.)
Loaf, ro, jjjj rti, y\j pnw ro.
Loan, #, i^OjI riyat-diht, J&i\ udhr.
Lock, (of a door) Ji /?, i/, (of a gun) <-^^ chmp (f.),
J* / (f.), (of hair) uJj zmZ/ (f.), 2 (f.), (for water)

Lodge (small house), ^jfr?- chhot ghar, i*S> kthr.


Lodger, aJLc mukim, iJ*\ bshanda,J\tj\ kirya-dr.
Loftiness, (height) lS&^. bulandl, (pride) ghurr.
Log, kunda, <U tana : see Block.
Logic, Jai- mantik (f.), xj\i^e ^s. ilm-i-munzara.
Logician, (__sla^<! mantiki, >\*> naiyyik.
Longitude, JjL tul, ,^Li lamban.
Looby, ^as^ XA~t\y\j n-tarshlda shakhs, (dakh.) \jA~Jb htndra.
Loom, i^\ tnt (f.) : see Instrument.
Loop, ^jJ^j pha, <uj tukma, &- halka, LS phnsl.
Looseness, ^jll^ kushdag, i_SJLj bekaid : see Diarrhoea.
Lord, (master) i^U> mlik, c^o-L sahib, (nobleman) ^U- M,
C&J ig, j^o ; see Husband, God.
Lordship, L5-s-Us shib, c^U! inirat (f.), cu~i3U malikiyat. (f.)
Lore, jLc , liJo (f.), ^afazl.
Loss, ^jLii nuksn, c^jL^i. khisrat (f.), (defeat, q. v.)^I Aar. (f.)
Vocabulary Nouns. 237

Lot, t_ ...n't nafib, l^-.*"> kismat (f.), (share) <Uaa- hissa.


Lottery, ^Jsj> shartl, isji kur'a-bazi, J-$ i_c*?- chitthi k
mi.
Lover, ashik, t-^JUs tp,lb,jyt yr, jsr' sajjan. (m. f.)
Lowland, L. i jrr*') zamtn-i-nasheb, ,;b nichn.
Lowness, ,_/5 rich', pust, (meanness) c^-Ji zillat. (f.)
Lucifer, (the planet Venus) a^j zuhra (f.), swAr : see Devil.
Luck, (chance) jjUil ittifak, (fortune) t_.w?> mosJ : see Lot.
Lucre, ^J naf\ xAj) f'ida, j^ sd, ^ lbh.
Luggage, chiz-bast (f.), <_jLJ \^ sair k asbab.
Lumber, 1 J-^- lJ&\ nakri ckiz-bast,jt^\ agarbagar.
Lump, dal, tukr, tl53 buk, (of sugar, meat) ^JS dal.
Lunacy, ^j\g diwnagi, J-o sir (f.), saud.
Lunch, Luncheon, LJ kalew, b-i>lj nsht, ^^j tafannun.
Lust, < masti, shahwat (f.), /-y* _j ly> / hawas. (f.)
Lustre, jy nr,C*&- chamak (f.), l>-jil (f.), sy\s^jalwa.
Lute (instrument), barbat (f.), tambur, ^ bin. (f.)
Luxury, ^^ ms shrat (f.), ^^^ aiyshl.
Lyre, laJ barbat (f.) : see Harp : (constellation) jl_j!L nasru-l-
wki*.
Mace, (club) l23j~s snt, Lie asa, jj> gurz : see under Spices.
Machine, J aZ (f.), - jantr, ST Za, t-^c-e san'at. (f.)
Madam, ^^g--? J7Zz, u-^L shib, <Us>-L begann shiba.
Mademoiselle, ZarI, <jf&>- ch/, &~*e sablya. (f.)
Madness,J-j sir (f.), ^yj>- junn, j^Lo diwnagi.
Magazine, (store) jlj- khizna, ^j^* makhzan, (book) &L>j risla.
Magi (one of the), majs, ^* mugh,jJ>gabr.
Magic, tulj\s- hzirt (f.), jOlsj- jdu, jS" sihr, \5y ttk.
Magician, j>y&>- jdgar, jL <^^J nairang-sz, j>-\~> shir.
Magistrate, faujdr, ^W- hakim, J^lt
Majesty, (royal title) Lj ^U^r jahn-panh, e^*- hazrat: see
Grandeur.
238 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Maintenance, (protection) ^^. lwhargiri, (food) ^jj{ par-


warish. (f.)
Majority, (greater part) CLij& kasrat (f.), (full age) jb bulugh.
Make, (form) Jo daul, (structure) cIjjUj banawat (f.) : see Fashion.
Maker, \i harta, SLjU bannhol: see Creator.
Malady, ^/yo maraz, i_f;U-J blmrt, tj rg, azar.
Malice, &S kina, i^iu bughz, cu^Iac dawat (f.), ^jj Jaa7.
Mallet, \j>yc mgr, \j?y mgri] y>- -ch, kba.
Mam, Mamma, UU mama, W amm, U ma, L maiya. (f.)
Manacle, jji hath-kari, (Manacles) ^b^^i hath-kariya.
Management, ^Lyo sarbarhl, ^J\j karguzari : see Care.
Mane, Jb yol (f), JbJ ayl (f.), J-'jf- chnt.
Mange, J^J~ khrish (f.), ^jLs^ uVf^ jnwarn khujlt.
Manger, ^Jj khurl, Lf2 kathr, ^Ifi than.
Manhood, ^y>- jawni, .>L> shabab, lS^/* mardi'
Manikin, UJb b'n, cJj* mardak, Zar ; see Dwarf.
Mankind, ^bjl insn, 5 adam,jL bashar.
Manna (in medicine), shirkhisht, iip^JJ taranjubtn.
Manner, ^ jfaraA (f.), Jj.j ?aZ, ^- rfa, jjL <.
Manners, (morals) akhlk, (politeness) c_>ljt dJ.
Manufactory, <Uyl krkhna. Manufacture, karlgar!.
Manure, ^b pws, cub/ khat (f.), u>b Mat? (f.): see Dung.
Manuscript, (writing) k.~>o daskhatt, (book) <t-iy i~*~dast-nawishta.
Map, 4 naksha, iJJjL J nahsha-i-mulk, ei-o |>ai.
A Marble (for playing with), l2\ ani, gU.
March, (journey) kch, J>~> safar, (month) t-->- chait (?).
Margin, <!Ui>U~ hshiya, kinra, t__-J lab.
Mark, (sign) ^liJ nishn, (stamp) dgh: see Coin, Butt.
Market, dSj*- chauk,j\jb bazar, <JL>\s> hat (f.), .$2^ penth. (f.)
Marriage, iL? Jy, nikh, shdi, ,_/|jc-j kadkhudl.
Martingal, Jcj ^jj zlr-band, ocj plsh-band.
Martyr, J^i> shahtd.
Vocabulary Nouns. 239

Mass, (lump) Ijcj pind, dal, (multitude) j*Uc^ jam'o.


Massacre, Jii katl, \s- Ji katl-i-mm : see Carnage.
Master, (proprietor) cLU malk, (lord) (-o-L? jiJ, (teacher)
h~i\ ustd.
Mastich, ^Lk mastaki.
Mat, bjjJ briy, ij*&>- chatn, sq/f (f.), ^ta .
Match, (contest) LUu mukbala, <_sj\ bz, (an equal) ^-lii wazlr.
Mate, (comrade) ^jL siA, juft : see Husband, Mate (of a
ship).
Materials, asbb, ^ULi smn, <U^j! lawzima.
Mathematics, ^^^^* ilm-toiyz.
Matrice, Matrix, (mould) W'Lj snch, (womb) s-j rihm.
Matter, (substance) yJb hayl, (pus) t_^-J p& (f.) : see Affair.
Maxim, (axiom) iAclS k'ida, (adage) sl< makla.
Meadow, J^'fj* marghzr, tarai, chargh.
Meal, (flour) 15 1 t, j\ rd, (eating) lil^p khana.
Meaning, *, f\j\ irada, ^J\ arth, asuo makmd.
Measure, ^/jU-j paim'ish (f.), t_>l> wp (f.), c_U np, (in verse)
^jj wazn, }js*> mlzn, (in music) J\j ta?, (portion) - hissa,
(means) J^J aawZ, i tarkib (f.), (a land measure) <
jano (f.), a, (for cloth) jfgaz.
Meat, (flesh) <*z~Jiij> gsht, wrls, (food) 01^ khn: see Food.
Mechanics, JJO ^Jls ilm-i-jarr-i-sakll.
Medal, <UiJ taghma, L sikka, \jX mudra. (f.)
Mediation, j'UsT" bich-bich', wastat. (f.)
Meditation, wLfcJ dhyn, (thought) jZjfikr, JcIj ta'ammul.
Meed, L> sila,j=A ajr, \j>.jaza(f.j, titssr tuhfu.
Meeting, sabh (f.), j'\a- jam', u: -^u>- jam'yat. (f.)
Melancholy, Uj-U mkhliy, ljj-> saud, JL malal.
Melody, <Ux3 naghma, jj* sard, c^&JM hang.
Memoir, y tawrlkh, t^.> c&j* sar-guzasht (f.), i^jJ tazkira.
Memorandum, L^-wi> ob yd-dsht (f.), yd-war.
240 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Memorial, jUjb yad-gar, (petition) c>->^ rz-dsht. (f.)


Memory (faculty of), dliU- hafiza, )ak=- hifz, (remembrance) Jl yad. (f.)
Mendicity, gadl, ^jJ fakirt.
Mending (repair), c^-^yc marammat. (f.)
Mensuration, (_;U-j paim'ish (f.), (of land) ^ji^ j>- jarib-kasht.
Mention,^J zikr, - charcha, mazlmr, tsj bat-kah'.
Merchandise (goods), JU mal, u-u^jins (f.), rakam. (f.)
Meridian, (noon) t-i-ai nisfu-n-nahr, (line) lJu
khatt-i-nisfu-n-nahar.
Merit, ^gun,j^ kadr (f.), jauhar, ls-jU liyakat. (f.)
Mermaid, ^jUlis-JaZmraKS (m. iMer-wai),^c\!tc--: bintu-l-bahr. (f.)
Merryandrew, ^r-* maskhara, Ju\# bhnd, ^>\y* swngt. (m.).
Message, jLj paym, paighm, L-jA-j sandsa.
Messenger, paighmbar, Jo-s sands, njb harkra, Jw>l3

Messiah, ^ maslh, \ssx~,< mash, J^ CJ^i- hazrat ts.


Metaphor, ^ isti'ara, majz, (simile) Uj\ upam. (f.)
Metempsychosis, tansukh, autr, jjf^ wgawan.
Method, (order) <--jLn uslb, (manner) tewr, JjJ rfaaZ, <LLj

Metre, ^^j-* nz11 (?)> bahr (f.), jj nazm (f.), wazn.


Metropolis, c;UJIjb dru-s-saltanat, il&r takhtgh. (f.)
Mettie, cUjQ phurt (f.), l^v* himmat (f.), ^IjU-jnz?.
Mice, ^L^s- chhiyri, ^j^- chuhz.
Mien, ili kiyfa, >- chihra, ^0 </, ?. (f.)
Might, CJy kwat (f.), Jj bal, jj z0r,j>&* makdr.
Mildew, ULj lndh, ls2ls chit, ^JjS grul, ]jS> hard.
Mile, J- /, UjI cZ As.
Milestone, jli* manor, ^^ rnnr, jljolJ J^e mZ nishn-
dr patthar.
Mill, chakki, cLAs- chk, *5- junta, L- siy, (wind)
^s^jj pawan-chakki, (water) L5^ pan-chakkl.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 241

Minaret, manr, xj[u* manara, J~* minar.


Mine, ^ khn (f.), kn (f.), (under walls) Jjj~> surang.
Mint (place of coining), JLiu taksl (f.), -^JJ daru-z-zarb. (f.)
Miracle, oolfi ,i- khark-i-adat, ~ karmat (f.), mu*jiza.
Misbehaviour, ^^ bad-sulki, ^j&jsA^ kudhangi.
Miscarriage, (failure) ^b\j>jJ na-sarbarahi, (abortion) J*i*- \s\'iJ\
iskt-i-haml.
Miscellany, Jj^f-^ kachkol (f.), {^S^-jung (f.), ic-y*~sr majmu'.
Mischief, ^ iffi, bur', ^La nuksn,jj zarar.
Misery, t]/>- kharabl, olj (f.), pareshni.
Misfortune, ^jssTJj bad-bakh, c^-j bipat (f.), L; bala, (f.)
Miss, (young woman) , ^^io /, (lady) ^jljv^-o-le shib-
zd.
Miss, <^>- c (f.), J^j oZ (f.), (loss) jj-ai kusr, nah.
Mission, ts-JL; rislat (f.), ^Jj^aj^j paighambari, JLj^ irsZ.
Mistake, Iki- Ma.'. (f.), / (f.), Jjfl (f.)
Mistress, <U-L> shiba, btbt, (sweetheart) ^ pyari.
Misunderstanding, SaLc ghalat-fahmi : see Disagreement.
Mite, (particle) Xj3 zarra, xj>j rza, (insect) ^ ghun: see Weevil.
Mixture, Lo mil', {J^*\ mzish (f.), (compound) l-^^c -
raMao.
Mob, br (f.), fjjsb hujm, Xj\ ambh, te-jojs* majm'.
Mock, Mockery, Ls^ maz'haka, chir', \g thatth.
Mode, (custom) JLjj rawish (f.), ^ 'in (f.), (form) CJjyo mrat
(f.) : see Manner.
Model, <tiJj naksha, ijy , J.S daul, kalib.
Moderation, J^Jocl i*tidl, kanoVat (f.), jb parhz.
Modesty, ^ lj (f.), fj> sharm (f.), La- haya (f.) : see Chastity.
Moistness, Moisture, rutbat(f.), iSJj\Jitarwat({.),^*j nanit.
Mole, (spot) Jj iiZ, JU- khl, (mound) <lj pushta, Wb bndh.
Molestation, is-Kj fa/" (f.), Iji! z (f.), j_>J* todi* (f.), Jl=>-
janjl.
2 i
242 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Monarchy, ^Jkli.jb bdshhi, i -obLi saltanat (f.), ; r;.


Monastery, IjU- kfinkh (f.), ^Ij da'ira.
Monday, <Ui-_jJ do shamba, pir,J\yoj~ smwr.
Money, jj zar, ^-J pais (plur.), ^j rupai (plur.), LS5 take.
(plur.)
Monk, (^jjj darwcsh, j& fakir, jJoJi kalandar, rhib.
Monument, jl^ib yd-gr, (pillar, &c.) ^j^-a sutin, (tomb) <Ljy
ra.
Mood, (state) i^-JU- A&zi (f.), was* (f.), (in grammar) ,w
Aa.
Moonlight, Moonshine, ^yJjU- chandra, <_>1 mhtab.
Moor, (negro) ^joj awg (m.), .-- habsh (m.) : see Marsh, Bog.
Moral, (of a fable) i^-*sx^ nafihat (f.), <LLi- khulsa, <tsn.ii natija.
Morality, Morals, jLiH akhlk, <i\ adab, nk-sulk.
Morsel, <U! lukma, y' nawala, Jj kawal, \j& tukr, xjo para.
Mortality, Iii fana (f.), chhai (f.), (deaths) maui.
Mortgagee, rfj* murtahin, j$ b girau- or bandhak-gir.
Mortgager, rahin, J\} giraudar, \j ^li ul&bJCJ bandhak
dn-wal.
Moss, t'li /', jlj-j siwr (Vallisneria spiralis), (dakh.) rim
(? Harris).
Mother (on vinegar, &c), ^Jt> tiy> j> ^j* y>- ^JJ^J phaphnd
jo sirk^ar ht hai.
Mother of perl, <_JJw9 sadaf (f.), ^j** sipi.
Motion, e^ip- harakat (f.), ^/^r jumbish (f.), _j1ta> ' . see

Proposal.
Motive, yicb o'?s, -t-^-^ mjb, L-y sabab, IxJj wsita.
Motto, i-ob kitbat (f.), 0-vJfi lmat. (f.)
Moveables, <djv< Jl ml-i-mankla, c^v-J cAlz oas. (f.)
Mountaineer, bjl pahriy, ^Jb khl, ^ju^t parbatl, /.
Mourning, (grief) ji gham, jjU matam, (dress) j^-U ^^'^ mtaml

libs.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 243

Mouse-trap, ^bjf~ chuht-dan, jL dbkar. (f.)


Mouth, muh, (of a river, &c.) muhana, (of a water-bag)
lUbj dahna.
Mouthful, <U! lukma, <0|y nawala, Jji kawal. <
Mucus, chitk, <_>U1 Zw'i, lS-oj^ rewi, j*L balgham.
Mud wall, jljJ kachchi diwr, J\ ^ ^JLc mittt dwr.
Mullar (for grinding colours), lib batt, Ljj! lrhiy, l|j! fr.
Mulatto, I masis (m. f.) : see Mongrel.
Multiplication, (in arithmetic) zarb (f.), \J?jJ>- jrtl, (table)
pahr.
Multitude, (great number) iZJji kasrat (f.), J^ ghl : see Crowd.
Mummy, \~oyo momiya, (a medicine) ^'L^ mmiyl.
Munificence, tU^ls.-' sakhawat (f.), itys- jwc? (f.), w"> Ja-
sisA. (f.)
Murder, khn, Ub Aaiy (f.), jjc ^j> ^^io baghz se katl.
Murderer, khirii (m. .),jij ^y. khm-rez, {jt j* mardum-
kush.
Murrain, \ij ^ oi^i jV" chr-pyon wab, \}ys- Jbj wabl-i-
haiwn.
Mushroom, Jjg l ^Jjjb dhar k phl, jjU- samrgh, (dakh.)
^Jj kudratt.
Music, L5%~^ msik, <U naghma, l^\ alhn, <f\j rag.
Musk, CJ~* niushk, LLL-< tosA.
Muslin, J*L< malmal (f.), j!^ shabnam, iJ\ ab-i-rawn.
Mustaches, -$>-* mchh (f.), (plur. f.), O^ -
ri. (f.)
Muzzle, 4c muh (f.), muhr, (bore of a gun) lJjy muhr, (for
cattle) i)\s>-jb.
Myriad, (ten thousand) j^ j- das bazar, ^Uy toman.
Myrrh, (a gum-resin) j* murr, Jy bol.
Mystery, j\j raz, t_^-i ghaib, dug Med, (trade) u-^ AasJ.
Mythology, tcj-O de'-ml, J> i>/^)! dwt' kahm.
244 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Nag, jih\yabu, j2 tatt, ghr.


Nail, (of iron, &c.) y mtkh (f.), J- kil (f.), (in measure) if
girih. (f.)
Nakedness, ^^^J barahnagi, ^j^jZ uryan'i, l/^*> nangl.
Name, jl3 nam, y\j naw, ism, (title) t-^! lakab: see Fame.
Namesake, ^ ham-, ly^-> samt, sanmt (?).
Nap, (short sleep) Jou3 gpjjf iAr wncZ (f.), (of cloth) JLij resha.
Napkin, JUi-jJ dastmal, JUjj rumal, \>-fj\ angchh.
Narration, Narrative, J-i nall (f.), ts-o&- hikyat (f.), A=3 sa.
Narrator, rM, Jli n/riZ, jii #, (_/^ k.
Narrowness, ^J3 tang, ^*] sakr't, (meanness) l>_5s-"i i&> tang-
dastt.
Nastiness, ciW najsat (f.), J-*> 7, ^fi ldagi,
ghilzat. (f.)
Native country, watan, ^j- des, pi <i\j zad-bm.
Nativity, jJy tawallud, ^s>- janam, (place) jJj* maulid.
Nature, (constitution) tab't (f.), ^l^o mt#/ : see Custom,
World.
Navigation, ^y-^ mallhi, ,_/\si~\> nakhud4, ^Jj^rjahazi /.
Nearness, ^j nazdiki, l-jJs Jcurb, JLaJt ittisl: see Covetousness.
Necessaries (things needed), ijjjj* <--)\~>\ asbb-i-zarrt, <uj!j! la-
wazima.
Necessity, <Jjj zarrat (f.), <-r>j>-} wujb, (need) u^o-U- hajat
(f.) : see Force.
Necromancy, _jjU- j'dw, ^jU- jdgart, (jf^-> shirl, j^sr^
taskhir. (f.)
Nectar, CJ^I amrit, \jy^> ^ sharaban tahr,Jj> _>1 ab-i-kausar.
Need, ^W1*^ fytiyj (f. .), gharaz (f.), OJ\J ltparj : see
Necessity.
Needle, (for sewing) sw', ^jj-s szaw (f.), (packing) I^j s',
(of the compass) ^ U _- kutb-num s'i, l2l knt.
Eye of a needle, 1U nka,Jiy sfr. (m. f.)
Vocabulary. Nouns. 245

Negation,J\ inkr, ^j nafl (m.), i_^L salb, Jj radd.


Neglect, Negligence, l^-J. ghaflat (f.), ^Jj^Z khili, sust.
Negotiation, L*\x^o mu'mala,j[>jj krbbr.
Negro, |>_?~>*' babsh, ^jj zangi, L-j siyh, sidi or ^aJ*
shid (?).
Neighbour, < hamsya, ^>jjJ parsifjiys** hamjawr.
Neighbourhood, <j~jj> paros, y>- jawr, Awt hamsya.
Nest, Lj^ ghnsl, lJj^ khndh, AiLil shiyna, Lb is.
Nestling, ljuf gtd, ^Lil ashiyni, IjJ Zerf.
Net, Jb^'Z, bbiS dhb, dam.
News, akhbr, (sing.) khabar (f.), luUSIj wki'at.
Nib, (point) Cijj (f.), ijl , (beak)^^j thr. (f.)
Niche (recess in a wall), jjlL, fA, tkcha.
Nickname, t^^J jj 5ad lakab, p\j ^JjC- vrfi nam.
Niggard, (J-s? bakhil. C~^> mumsik, kanjus, sum.
Nitre, Saltpetre, ij shora,*\ abkir or abkar (?).
Nobility, c^jl^- sharfat (f.), t^jlasT nqjbat (f.), (nobles) U^i

Noble, Nobleman, j~<\ amir, j\j~*z~* mansabdr, Sas- umda.


Nobody, ^- ' nahi, (figurt.) J-*- n-chiz.
Noise, jj> shr, &b ing (f.), j\\ (f.), J ^mZ, 1j
ghaugh.
Nomenclature, to |b* nm-ml, ^Si&jifarhang (f.), lughat, (f.)
Nominative (in gram. ), *fi.% cudils ^\s~hlat-i-fi.'yat.({.)
Nonce (purpose), irada, 5 ted, t_.Jd* matlab, Joji
gharaz. (f.)
Nonentity, Nonexistence, e dam, ^ *, <_<^U -?.
Nonsense, ^pjb b-ma*n bten, <^*j^*jb ywa-g'i.
Nook, bj , iljs gsha, (narrow place) *s*- i^*f>- kam-
chaufijagah.
Noose, ^i-jW^J phnsi, ^bJ phnd, a kamand. (f.)
North-east, jS sn-An, \~>} tsn.
246 Vocabulary.Nouns.

North pole or star, t-^L kutb-irshimti, t-Jjb dhrub.


North-west, k_-J,b byab.
Nosegay, <fcjli gul-dasta, sjs turra, ^s? l pkln k
guchchha.
Notch (in a log of wood), khandn.
Note, (mark) ^li-i nishn, (letter) ^fif- chitthl : see Comment.
Nothing, kuchh nahm, ^t> hch, (worthless) }^f^> n-chiz.
Notice, (attention) jyi ghaur, cuUJl iltift (f.), (information)
ittil* (f.), (notification) |! flm,j+~ khabar. (f.)
Notion, c^bjii daryft (f.), jlj^J pindr (f.), r'e (f.), Jl;-

Novel (tale), <Li\ afsna, <U fsa, kahnl, ^- dstn. (f.)


Novelty, JArsr tajaddud, naya-pan, jjjb y -tarzi.
Nought, j^jj^i ^s.^ kuchh nahm, ^t> hch.
Novice, jy\ y nau-mz, ,_Oa~c mubtadi, anri, kfim,
kachch.
Noun, , nm.
Nourishment, (Jy^ parwarish((.), \ ghiz(f.), cJ\j<- khork. (f.)
Nuisance, J*>- j&Vj ziynkr chiz (f.), Jbj wabl, jgj l ^V?-
chhti k patthar.
Number, dad, tl \ nk, (reckoning) ^jx ginti, jU-> shumqr :
(in gram.) singular, whid; dual, <Uii tamiya ; plur.
jam*, (f.)
Numbness, (JUfc};^!) thithrhat (f.), b-hiss, ^^ysjj -
harakati.
Numeration, t_L.-- hisb, gint, ti*dd (f.),jl*ii shumr.
Nuptials, Lj JyA, shad, nikh.
Nursery, <\rfb dl-khna, (for plants) bihnaur, bl'ar. (f.)
Nursling, shir-khwra, Jib Uj JJjJ ddh-piy tifl.
Nutriment, Nutriture, 1 ghiz (f.), (j^J parwarish. (f.)
Nymph, l^asgl apchhar (f.), (f.), t)j>- #.
Oaf, C^jl , jll ull, ahmak : see Idiot, Dunce.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 247

Oath, kasam (f.), jc^-j saugand (f.), -y snh (f.), (dakh.)


sapat. (f.)
Obedience, u^cllH tt'ai (f.), ^ tabi%dr, I^JI dlnt. (f.)
Obeisance, <_IjT dJ, \Jj krnisk (f.), jJL salm, ejyuj **-
ica. (f.)
Obelisk, jb* , <JLtf (f.), kands.
Object, (purpose) JwLo maksad, u/ gharaz (f.) : see Affair,
Meaning.
Objection, ^ i*tirz (f.), JSj pakar (f.), (argument) t-vsf- -
jai. (f.)
Oblation, jLj (f.), jjj (f.), ,5 kurbn, Jj JaZ.
Obligation, (contract) Is^i sAari (f.), aAc?, (duty) ^jffarz, <>y>-j
wujib, (favour) ^Lj-! iAsn, nihr.
Oblivion, ^j>yo\J> farmshi, ^L-J nisyn, cL^^-j bisrwat.
Obloquy, ^^L taxn, ^" ^^S ta* tashri* (f.), lzam.
Obsequies, ^j^i^j ^J^^sr tajhz 5 takfin (f.), *j kriy-karm.
Observance, (respect) ikrm, (attention) <a-l< mulhaza.
Obstacle, jJto mni ', JjI>- A'/'^ f (f-)> / muzhamat. (f.)
Occasion, (cause) ci^cb bafis, (need) <jjj> zarrat (f.), (time)
u~e>j fersat, (f.)
Occupation, (business) m, IfeJcJtui dhandh : see Calling, Abode.
Occurrence, <u3lj wki', jW hdisa, &aer\~ sniha.
Ode, J^ ghazal (f.), (long) Ju> kasda, (Hindustani) *m5<j

Odour, J bo or J (f.), iJkif gandh (f.), lLX^ mahak (f.), ^L-i


subs. (f.)
Offal, Lis fuzla, jyi-\ akhor (f.), *<^> (j-J pas-khurda.
Offence, jj-aiu (f.), i\ gunah : see Injury, Displeasure.
Offender, J^s>\^gunhgr, ^j^^s taksirwr, L5ebi .
Offering, ^b^s kurban, Jj ai, (present) jjj wasr, >> hadtya.
Office, (service, duty) khidmat (f.), A^c wAda, (room) i^rV^
ftacAa/-?.
248 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Offset, IbJjj paudh, kagh (?).


Offspring, (child) oJ^i farzand (m. f.), (children) ij\ aulad (f.) :
see Lineage.
Oil, J-ji tel, ravghan, (scented) <JJ^ phull.
Oil-press, yi kolh, J>\ ghani.
Omen, u^ shugn, JU/Z. (f.)
Omission, CJjf- chk (f.), bhl (f.), sah (f.\jyo> kusr.
Omnipotence, iZJji kudrat (f.), vJj^s kdirl, ^Ji CDjZ kudrat-i-
kull.
Omniscience, <UJ> hama-dm, J jj* ilm-i-kull.
Openness, ^jbi kushdagl, (candour) sadagl, i_ U* safil.
Operation, J^c. maZ, j\ Aar, (effect) asar, ^Jl tslr. (f.)
Opinion, r'e (f.), .p-jJ / (f.), JW*- Mkayl, ^ zann,J
fikr.
Opium, yjJl (f-)> ^ a/*m (*")> j\_/ tiryk.
Opportunity, cu--s,i fursat (f.),jj\3 Aa&, uuJj wa#, gaun. (f.)
Oppression, jjlj zhZw, sitam, jjs>- jaur, 3 ta'add.
Oppressor, zalim, jL*t sitamgar,J\j\ pj* mardum-azar.
Optative (mood, in grammar), 15 mutamann.
Option, ikhtiyr, \- chh (f.), LSr marzi, pasand. (f.)
Opulence, cs-JjO daulat (f.), jj&^y tawngart, i^~~a~ sampat. (f.)
Oration, |K kalm,j)jj takrr (f.), uJrs sukhun, bt. (f.)
Orb, * , charkh, gardun, JjL mandai: see Globe.
Orbit, d'ira, (of the eye) |^-<L>- halka-e-chashm.
Order, (command) hukm,j amr, (method) i-wJ tartib (f.) :
see Class, Rank.
Ordinance, ^j> shar*, ^yit , (rite) ^ rasm: see Law.
Orifice, chhed, srakh. shigf, manfaz.
Origin, J-e! a?Z (f.), oLj bunyad (f.), M (f.) : see Root, Family.
marnent,^J zwar, i-^jJ < (f.),jl&-j singar, {J)j\ r'tsh. (f.)
Orphan, *~j yatim, by* murh.
Orthography, rasm-i-khatt, 5L! iwZ, achhravtl.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 249

Oscillation, j'il dul', j\$>-j/iul', ^j>^ thartharl.


Outcry, jj> shr, lj ghaugh, <J ghul, xJLc. <J ghul ghapra.
Outrage, ^zulm, ^z~ sitam, \sc^-jaf (f.), jjs~ jaur. (f.)
Outside, baliar, ujjs bhar taraf, ji par,j^ zhir.
Outworks, IjjS bhar kt, t\ artal, s-j* marhala.
Owner, <^j3lc mlik, j\s>~ hakk-dr, khwind.
Oxymel, j+fS&j sikanjabin. (f.)
Pace, (step) 3 kadam, (gait) Jaij raftr (f.), ^b>- chane
kl waz*.
Pack, (bundle) l$SS gatth, <fcj basta, y> moth (f.), (of cards)
<Lsf ganjifa, (of hounds) lJ Undh, ^>- jhund: see
Crew.
Package, Parcel, gathri, <_5^ ^<5, <J aste : see .
Packcloth, l:^2-J bethan, isU) liffa.
Packet, (mail) *^=>- kharlta, ^ ^j^" chitthl thaiti: see
Package.
Packhorse, ^^t Jjy partalk gh5r,j l lSj^Jj^1. brbardri k
tattu.
Packsaddle, gadd, ^Sb pln, khgr.
Padlock, Ji &w/?, <__1 AaZa/ or kulaf, b' tof.
Pagan, cu^c^ but-parast, jS gabr, (JJ^L* mushrik, kafir.
Page (of a book) s.^ safha, (servant) f^y>- hhawss,j\s>-jilaudr.
Pagoda, ij^jj but-kada, <bk but-khna. Hlj- shiwl: see Idol.
Pain, -^J ?&, J^O dar-rf, ^-j (f.), ^ ; : see Labour.
Pains (toil), mihnat (f.), ^^jX-j , (of labour) xjj dard-i-

zih.
Paint, tjj rang, baran, raughan.
A Pair, \*)S>-j5r, juft, <>- jug; (one of a pair) <JL>y>- jt.
Palanquin, Ji\jplkt, ^ nlki.
Palisade, kathar, kathghar, mutakka (?).
Pall (for the dead), chaddar (f.), ^ kafan.
Pamphlet, J^f- chaupati, jJL^ risla.
2
250 Vocabulary Nouns.

Pan (broad vessel) \"y>~ chaura hartan, (of a gun-lock) <s)Lj


piyla.
Pancake, IjJU mlpu', \*> p', ff .
Pane (of glass), <JIS^ parkla, Jf>- Xi.Jt> shiska-e-chaugsha.
Pang, j l-jI^ nihyat dard, sL-i siysat (f.), (of death) ^JJ
was*.
Panic, j 13 nagahan dar, i^-^-A haibat (f.), Jy!> //.
Paper, 1 kghaz, (_^Ji kirts.
Par (equality), tj!jL<i musawat (f.), barabari ; (at par)
SarSai1.
Parable, J-*j tamsll (f.), Ji^ masaZ (f.), e^-j&;^ drishlnt.
Paradise, ^jS firdaus, ^Ac aw, t^i-^ bihisht. (f.)
Paragraph, nifikra, ixhi kit'a, ^fjj prakaran.
Parallel, Parallelism, cfj>\j> barbarl, ,_jL.j tos.
Paramour, li^il shn, (JJt>\s ashik,Ju yr, jr, \j&b dhagr.
Parasite, ijXc\jt>y>- khushmad. j~ e^L< muft-, J-it tufail.
Parasol, chht chht, f^>~ chhatr, lSJ^ chatri.
Parcel, (bundle) bukcha, ^jj gathrt, (part) <JUa>- Aiwa.
Parchment, raM, |-lye ms (?).
Pardon, ti^o mu'fi, f, fj^jj*\ murzish. (f.)
Parent, _b U m (f.) or bp,j\* b jJo pidar or mdar.
Parents, <_jb U m 6p, 0t!^ wlidain, jj pitarau.
Part, <Uj;>- Aissa, l^r bakhr, iJUib iwf, (duty) ra.
Parterre, sabza-zr, 1ja>- chaman.
Partiality, ^jjSiJo taraf-dri, palla-kash, pachh.
Participle, (active) J*li ism-i-f'il, (present) <u!U- ~>\ ism-i-hliya,
(past or passive) J;*^ J ism-i-mafl, (past conjunctive)
<ji uJjkjb< ijt m<m ma*tf laihi.
Particle, tLo m, ji serra, ^ aw, (in gram.) uJ/>- Aar/".
Partition, p*~Ju taksm (f.), J^/j ia/r/: (f.), (fence) jT r. (f.)
Partner, CSiji* sharlk, jloLc; bakhrdr, ^^- swjh : see Com
panion.
Vocabulary. Nouns. 25 1

Partnership, sharkat (f.), sjh, <Jsj2 shirkat. (f.)


Party, (of men) J^c ghl, i^ gurh, (in a suit) ^Jt farlk : see
Assembly.
Pass, ^J galt, <JL>l$fght, s\) rah (f.) : see Passport.
Passage, tj\ & guzra, ta*>j rasta, Cy sarak (f.) : see Paragraph.
Passenger, ^iLc musfir, rahgir, ^Jbjb batoht. (m. f.)
Passport, tj^^b'j parwna-erhdrt, rawna.
Paste, ^ '7, ahr, (j"le mrri, khamr. li-J /i.
Pasteboard, daftln (f.), ^j-sj wasZ7.
Pastime, cjljl aukt-basarl, C< kautak, jlyJ bahl' : see
Fun.
Pasturage, ^f- c/ar, tslc //, (or Pasture) >^]y>- chargh. (f.)
Patent, sanad (f.), farmn, parwna.
Path, Pathway, ebb J (f.), <fcu, rasta, tl5j-: sarak (f.), rA. (f.)
Patriarch, ^j* ^ <j>\j$ gharari k sardr, <^fjj>, buzurg.
Patrician, i_bj> sharif, A*c mda, ^llJU lishan.
Patrimony, mirs (f.), ijj-j bapautt, Cj,! ir.
Patriot, i^jJ watan-dst, ^jio^\^^>~ hdbbu-l-watam.
Patriotism, habbu-l-watan, bJL-J desplt. (f.)
Patron, ^r* murabb, jJc~ dastgir, ^*^>- hrrii, ^ kadrdn.
Patronage, ~s^.j* tnurabbt-gar, c^jU>- himyat (f.), tA;J
parwarsh. (f.)
Pattern, <j-j , ^j^> bangi, (leader) jjJi kidwa: see Leader.
Paucity, jj*^ kamt, ghattt, kam, c^-i kllat. (f.)
Pavement, farsh, \=fj kharanj, j\2j pat'.
Pay, (payment) !j! ad (f.), (wages) tankhwh (f.), i^Jb
talab. (f.)
Peace, smZA (f.), L_J=-i>l sAil, (ease) |^| rm, (concord) J-

Peak, (top of a hill) ^J&>- chbntt,j~ sikhar, (point) ijjy nk.


Peal, \ly3 thahk, iJUV^p gargarahat (f.), dhamk.
Pearl, ye mti (m.), jJ dur, jb gauhar, ll.
262 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Peasant, jljif ganwr, kisn, (JIaJ dihknl.


Peasantry, blcj ri'y, <y ijUfcJ dihknl log, rayat. (f.)
Pebble, J kankar, ay^ gl sangriza, \j rr.
Pedestal of a column, (j^.- i_ p'e sitn, ^y~> ^ bun-i-sitn.
Pedigree, _^~3 nasab, LLi silsila, (table of) Uli -*-.j nasab-nma.
Peel, t-.-!jJ j>5s, Jl<*- cZ (f.), chhilk, oa.
Peer, j ham-sar, (nobleman) ewnr, i-o-L> : see No
bleman.
Peg, rrizkh (f.), khntt, khnt.
Pellet, <tLL ghuUla, ^J> glT, girdgn.
Pellicle, L5ip- jhill, ^J\$>- chhali.
Pen, jJJi kalam, <uUi- khma? (enclosure) <?U-1 iAia.
Penalty, saz (f.), twn, >\j dnd, <Uj^>- jarlmna.
Pence (money), ^j^ paise, take : see Penny.
Pencil, (of lead) ^'Lo salal, (of hair) yo -kalam.
Pendant, *>jl weza, jhumk, latkan.
Penitence, < tauba, l^v1j nadmat (f.),jUe-l istighfr.
Penny, L-o l ^Js ilX>.^ ^ $*5 angrtzi pais.
Pension, <) wafa, j\>- jaglr (f.), ^l-XiJ bandhn.
Pentagon, (^^f^Ksr* mukhammas, *>jb J> shakl-upanj-gsha.
Penury, ^-;^' tangdastl, ^~iJuy tihulast, lsu> muflisi.
People, Zog, yoU-^l ashkhs, JjI~ khal'fk. (f.)
Perception, t-iJbjJ daryft (f.), ^>~y bjh (f.), c^jLaJ basrat. (f.)
Perch (for birds), chakkas, \\ adda.
Perfection, J-^j takmil (f.), JU kaml, (completion) jUj1 itmm.
Perfume, fJLy> Jmsh- (f.), Joe tr, subs. (f.)
Period, (circuit) j daur, (time) <Lj zamna : see Sentence.
Perjury, ^Jjjga- jhthl kasam, <_>il ^j- saugand-i-kzib.
Permission, CJjW ijzat (f.), ^Jl izn, is. %t>> rukhsat. (f.)
A Permit, ,^2*- ^ niksi chitth, <1^ parwna.
Person, ^ sha/dls, ^<\ dmJ (.), (in gram.) <~e slgAq : see
Body, Form.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 253

Perspicuity, eu*~;La salsat (f.), \~o^j>e sarhat (f.), '\su> safl.


Perturbation, tJU^-gf ghabrhat (f.), (^j--i tashwish. (f.)
Petal, ^ J^ pAZ kl patft, iJjffj pakhrt.
Petition, ^jjS- rz (f.), , v~\j\ ardas, (f.)
Petitioner, l^J ^JijC- arz-karnewaXa, J dd-khrph.
Phantasm, Phantom, J^w namd-i-bebd, chhaya.
Philology, ysrj | ilm-i-sarf nah.
Phrase, cyb Ja (f.), istilh (f.), CU,Ue \barat. (f.)
Piece, (bit) ^3 iwAr uJ3 <m, A>yb parcha, (patch) J^-jor.
Piety, ^jjiu takw, ^j^&tf bhagt't, (to parents) ^ji-^jjUijjJ^

Pilgrimage, \j\&- jtr (f.), <^bj ziyrat (f.), (to Mecca) Aay.
Pill, ^J glt, habb, ^jjf S > / gl.
Pillory, ^lijfi. chambar-i-gardan, >\>j doshkha.
Pimp, 1}J$j bharw, bs kutn, sl kultabn.
Pimple, (on the face) Lil^ muhs, (on the skin) L phunst.
Pin, j^yj sm', li\ knt, (peg) : see Peg, Straw.
Pincers, ^jJiJc~i sandsi, ^...tf-,,.1 sangst, ^-* mchn.
Pinion, ui^f guddi,j^ par, ^jb J5zm, (quill) shahpar.
Pinnacle, jyJi kalas, tj<>> kangra, (peak) sikhar.
Pipe, (tube) Jj waZ, ^Li nali, (musical) ij^jb bMsrt: see Cask.
Pitch, (resin from the pine) rZ (f.), kir : see Degree.
Pitfall, tlfcJ> dahak, j>- chor-garha.
Pith,^ maghz,j\~> sr (f.),^Jb , gd.
Pity, j*>-; raAjM, j dard, tars, bJ aya (f.), ji gham.
Place, *L>-jagah (f.), ^IC makn, (office) *^ hda.
Plainness, ^$/ hamwari, (sincerity) sdagt : see Clearness.
Plaintiff, ijSvJ farydi, s\y>- \ dad-klmah, mudda'i.
Plait, i3 tab (f.), JJa shikan, chin (f.), (plaits) ts-o^ -
nat. (f.)
Plan, (scheme) <yo^ mansba, jiysr tajwlz (f.): see Model.
Plane (joiner's tool), >j randa, (tree) J>- chaar.
254 Vocabulary Nouns.
Plank, fcr* takhta, ^ lauh (f.), \i paira, ^Jjpatr.
Plantation, (place planted) ^Lkr" nakhlistn, (colony) bast.
Plaster, (cement) tsTj rkhta, ^ gach, (salve) bj* rnarham.
Play, J-$ , bazi, JjJj kalol (f.), kautuk.
Plaything, lijl^ khilaun, c^-^x! laxbat (f.), <;^ bzicha.
Plea, (argument) t^^sf" hujjat (f.), (suit) l^cJ da*w: see Excuse.
Pleading, is>-L<> mubhasa, j\Jj takrr (f.), ti^s?" hujjat. (f.)
Pleasantness, t^-jlU latpfat (f.). Pleasantry, mazakh.
Pleasure, ^_g*f>- kJiusht, ij^s- ish, Si>- Aasz, (assent) ^y^r* marzi.
Pledge, giro, iSs><j bandhak, jbj rihn: see Bail.
Pleiades, by suraiy, ^j{ parwin, kachpachiy.
Plenty, Lj^il ifrt, jjhj wajur, (enough) jyj# bhar-pir.
Pliers, Ii*, chimt, ^>\li~> sandsi, che'nt (?).
Plot, ^Joj bandish (f.), Uj-ai^ mansba, (of ground) L faz. (f.)
Plug, \!b datt, ^ggSvjg" thnthi, ^& thpi.
Plume, (ornament) turra, kalghi : see Feather.
Plummet, JiybLs sh, Jj^~ sahol, (plumb or lead) latkan.
Plunge, dubki, <( ghota, burkl (?).
Plural (number), jam* (f.), -*^**- slgha-i-jam*.
Ply, j ia (f.), cAra (f.), parat, jLb shikan. (f.)
Pocket, i^^s-jeb (f.), khlsa, ^- kharlta, ^Jy^jht.
Pod, ^^^s- chhtmi, ^J^j phal, ^^>- chhilk, post.
Poem, jj^i ghazal (f.), Ju^ kaslda, iJj-< masnawi.
Poesy, Poetry,_yb> sAi*/", jjaj wasm (f.), c^-^
Point, (end) cSy nk (f.), til , (stop) i_JSj\dai nukta-e-wakf.
Poison, ) zahr, bis, bikh, JjbA halhal, ^ samrn.
Pole, 1 lth (f.), - cJ, (of the earth) kutb.
Polestar, _- kutb, ^JU-i" ^_-4a kutb-i-shimll : see Guide.
Police, laJj j \z~ ^ shahr kl zabt 5 rabt, ktwl.
Polish, iJUbXs. chiknhat (f.), JJu-j saihal, (of manners) khulk.
Politics, c^-)U jlc ilm-i-siyasat, lz~Lk*> jyc\ umr-i-mamlukat.
Polygon, JLb shakl-i-kasiru-z-zwiya.
Vocabulary Nouns. 255

Poppy, J^f kknr, (head) <^-w^ post, (seed) ^J^s^*^ khashkhask.


Populace, (_/-U\ jJj wmmu-n-ns, j jamkr, mm.
Population, abdi, ^j^J bast, ^jjybx* ma*mri.
Portion, iUas hissa, \jk? bakhr, (bride's) y^(s^- jahz.
Portmanteau, ^p>-jj- Jchurn, jmadm.
Portrait, <U~> shabh (.),jj^ taswtr. (f.)
Position, ^s^jagah (f.), J-sr* mahall, l^-!U- hlat (f.), tarah. (f.)
Possession, t-iy^y tasarruf, (J^c mal, <LdJ> kabza, zahl.
Possessor, i^$Le mlik, i_^s-L> sahib, is^-c mutamrrif.
Post, (stump) khambh, <-rJj^~ chb, (business) sx^ hda, *l
A5i, (for conveying letters) i^Jl5 d, (post office) j
dk-ghar, (man) LSb dkiya, AjIs ksid, \ dk.
Postage, Jjs."* ^ lISI dk k mahsl, rusm.
Posterity, Jl l (f.), J! auld (f.), santat, Ji was/.
Posture, was* (f.)> '^j*' srai (f.), i^J nishast. (f.)
Potash, jl^ Mr, ^JU ^j**' sajyl m_<7.
Potsherd, \jL thikr, JU-i siyaZ.
Poverty, ifls, ^j-Jic muisi, ^j~!&3 tangdasti.
Pound, (weight) dh-sr, Jbj rati, (fold) +> btrh.
Powder, ^jSj , (medicine) iiL> saff, (gun) cu}j\> brt. (f.)
Power, / tawn'i, (authority) jLkH ikhtiyr: see Force.
Practice, (use) J~e mashk (f.), (custom) CJlc adat (f.), J^-**-<
*/.
Praise, i_bj taKrif (f.), (^~L-> sips (f.), Uj san (f.), <x< madh. (f.)
Prayer, (request) ^USI iltims, (to heaven) jUj namz. (f.)
Precaution, ^^IjjJI c^-Jili kibat-andsh, CS)\S1 tadruk.
Precedent, <j^j , J-**!^jU~i> dasturu-l-mal.
Precinct, =- Aa<M (f.), \y* siwna.
Precipice, ^fj\>J dhng (f.), ^ sring, Ujc kandal.
Predecessor, ^^J peshin, <jjl-> sbik, jjJU mukaddam.
Predestination,^>jJu takdir (f.), e^-iy^ sar-nawisht. (f.)
Preface, <^ViJ dibja, (f.), <to-Lo dtbcha, <UJU mukaddama.
256 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Preference, ^y>j> tarjih (f.), faukiyat (f.), * sarsl.


Preferment, ^J&j] barhti, Jij tarakkl, j~> sarfarzt.
Pregnancy, Ja>- haml, ^> garbh, ^J-^-J^ bistam.
Prejudice, i_^-3*j ta'ssub, ^Jisijb tarafdrl : see Detriment.
Premises (houses, lands), ljiu* }\yo\ amwal-i ghair mankla.
Premium, (on bills, &c.) ^J^> btshl, chota : see Gift, Bounty.
Preparation, ijj^ taiyari, ijj^ banwart, t^-~yj' tahtyat. (f.)
Prepuce, ojl^ khalf, csLc ghalf, chhichm.
Prerogative, J^- khss hakk.
Presage, Jli fal (f.), shugn, i^Jti dallat. (f.)
Prescience, ^ylju-i ghaib-dnt, ^\;..> plshbini.
Prescription, (medical) i.^ nuskha, (custom) ^ rasm : see Custom.
Presence, hari, j>jy=*- huzri, (view) dtdr.
Present, ^ttjsr balthshish (f.), (in gram. ) JU hl: see Gift.
Preservation, ^ bach'o, t^lsU>- hifzat (f.), ^1 sra.
Press, (for oil) klh, (for bookbinding) shikanja, (for
printing) J chhaprit kal : see Crowd.
Pressure, (weight) -> dJ, <_.>W- cp, (urgency) LsU takz.
Presumption, (arrogance) ,^\bj dhithl, ^~ gustkhl : see
Guess.
Pretence, Ol^ bahna, l^-L; skht. (f.) Pretension, da'w.
Preterimperfect, ^l^^^l ^b wzl istimrrt.
Preterite, mz, teJb guzashta.
Preterperfect, y-^i ^j-sUi im karib.
Preterpluperfect, Jux) ^j^* mzi ba'd.
Prevarication,^-* j>- chakar-makar, <d^>-<iiL&- h'a-hawala.
Prey, lt (f.), ghantmat (f.), (game) Ju^ said, (f.)
Price, J^e mol, ^--*^ klmat (f.), \^ JaA, (reward) _^ <y'r.
Prick, Ju>- chhtd, iXJ bindh. Prickle, knt,j\~ khr.
Pride, ^j-j tijii- khud-bri, jjj ghurr, Js>\ ahankr.
Primogeniture, ^/^JuJ J^l awwal paid'ish (f.), c/^ barl.
Principal, (head man) j\j~> sardr, ^j~*>j ra!is, (sum) ^sr^jpun.
Vocabulary. Nouns. 257

Principle, J*e! asl (f.), y>- jar (f.), (tenet) J\j ra'l (f.) : see Canon.
Print, ijZm naksh, ^liJ nishn, (_.>\$>- chhp.
Prison, j\~ Ju5 kaid-khna, \=1<xj bandt-khna. j\jj zindn.
Prisoner, i_iV> kaid-, \^ bandh', j~A asir.
Privilege, jJ (jOyas-* makhss f'tda, s>~ hakk.
Privity, (secrecy) bhed, (collusion) ^jbj szish. (f.)
Prize, (reward) in'am, (winnings) ,_fjb Jz : see Plunder.
Probe (surgeon's), ,_*Lj ^ ^Ir?" jarrah kl sal'l, J~<> mZ. (f.)
Problem, Jlj-j suwl, A~~* masla.
Proboscis, Jkij-j ^ lS^^ Aii fc snrf, (jt^b. khurtm.
Procedure, \^>- harakat (f.), Jls cAZ (f.), *L<\*< mu'mala.
Proceeding, Process, /, ^ kartt (f.) : see Method, Affair.
Proclamation, mandl, (by drum) ^^ dhandhr.
Procuress, ^ei kutni, <s)b dllala, (f.) Procurer, bharw.
Prodigal, ^x? -j>- bj ziyda kharch -wl, \j\ ur'.
Produce, Product, Production, J-eU- hsil, ^jJjw paid'ish. (f.)
Profit, jjIs f'ida, ^J naf*, lbh, ^ib^> rnanfi*.
Progeny, Ojl (f.), J-J nasZ (f.), bans.
Progress, Progression, J,\jj~) ptshrawni, ^yy tarakkl.
Prohibition, c^jOU mumna't (f.), i*> *.
Project, jjrfi^c mansuba, yy=? tajwiz (f.) : see Invention.
Promise, Jy kaul, ^ bachan,J\J>\ ikrr, waxda.
Promotion, J^y. barhti, Jiy tarakkl, ij'j^/j^ sarfai'azi.
Prong, 12 knt, l> shkh. Jjj sl.
Pronoun, j** zatrir, (demonst.) j\J*\*Ji ism-i-ishra, (interrog.)
^Lyi-i! jS- harf-i-istifhm, (relat.) Jj*- ^ ism-i-mauml.
Pronunciation, liilj talaffuz, makhraj, uchchar.
Proof, {J\*j\ zm'ish (f.), (confirmation) cjLjI isbt, JJ dalil. (f.)
Prop, (Jjg tlmni, ttkan, Xj tk (f.), t-~.J pusht (f.).
Property, c^-weU- fhassiyat (f.), (possession) l1L / (f.), JL
/.
Proportion, andza, j\Ssl* mikdr, ^J}~* sudauli.
2 L
258 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Proposal, i~~Jiy>~j darkhwst (f.). Proposition, <-~< masa.


Proprietor, malik, khwind, t__^>-Ls sahib.
Prose, jiJ nasr (f.), ^ kalm-i-mansur.
Prosecution, (suit) <U3 kaziya, <UAU mukaddama.
Prosody, ijjjZ jJ* ilm-irrz, niizn. (f.)
Prospect, (view) nazar (f.), Jk madd-i-nazar : see Hope.
Prosperity, (^V*^ kamyabi, ^jjfcjkr bakhtwarl, cjjU-j sa'adat. (f.)
Prostitute, Ss (f.), Jb^=>- chhinl (f.), -e9 kahba. (f.)
Protection, u^-oU&- himyat (f.), ^ bach'o, y parwarish. (f.)
Protector, , ^Lbl nigh-bn, liW /ts.
Provender, chara, daa, U^J Uhna, ghs. (f.)
Proverb, Ji-< 7w.?aZ (f.), CJ>jly kahwat (f.), Ji^4_-y zarbu-l-
masal.
Providence, (of God) khudl. razzaki : see Foresight.
Provision, (food) khn, \& ghim (f.) : see Preparation.
Proximity, i-j kurb, nazdk, ^_c??*~> samipi.
Prudence, js>- hazar, ^>\A ihtiyt (f.), ^j^ ^Ji^j plsh-bm.
Psalm, astut (f.), pk sard,jyj zabr. (f.)
Puberty, i^-*cjb bulghat (f.), li^jT jawm, t_>U^> shabab.
The Public, jiii- MaZ (f.), J^U- khal'ik (f.) : see People.
Publication, ', (of a book) U ^^jlg- clihapke zhir
karn.
Pulley, charkhl, ^SjQ phirki, Ji> ghirri.
Pulpit,^--* mimbar, ^Igk> singhsan.
Pump, pichakk, jqf pachuka, bamba.
Pun, izJa-jugut (f.), Jjj zaa. (f.)
Punch, (the instrument), L5~^>- chheni or li^f- chh'ri.
Puncheon, (instrument) <-V?" chhp (f.) : see Punch, Cask.
Puncture, chhd, ^jy^ srkh.
Punishment, \j-> saz (f.), ->! as5, (i^Li siysat. (f.)
Puppet (doli), \}j/griy, ^ pwifi.
Purchase, J^,- khartd (f.), JisA. (f.)
Vocabulary.Nouns. 259

Purchaser, j\lj>- khartdr, CS&t ghak, mushtar. (m.)


Pureness, Purity, pk, safl, liL<y nirmalt. (f.)
Purport, |_5^* ?a, A*2u maksad, murad, (f.)
Purpose, irada, kasd, i^-w riyat (f.), (j/ gharaz. (f.)
Purse, ^jl^fi thai, <H- 7sa, ^-e surra, l?y ffS.
Pursuit, c_~JUj ta'kkub, t^it** pairmoi, <i>j raged, (f.)
Putty, ^j kala'i-i kushta, W, ^>^> saresh (?).
Pyramid, jL manar, minar, fjli gaw-dum. (f.)
Quadrangle, ji shakl-i-chaugosha.
Quadruped, &^1>~ chrpya, jy sutr.
Quality, c^-> si/a (f.), t-JLsj! ausf, (rank) <^-< martaba.
Quantity, j\&c mikdar, (heap) j^ dhr,js kadr (f.) : see Part.
Quarantine, chilla, (after the death of a relative, &c.) ^j-JU-
chlsT.
Quarrel, \j$>-jhagr, <UJ5 kaziya,*& bigr.
Quarry, j ^j^i patthar , c,b^v..i sangistn.
Quarter, i^j^ chauth', (district) As* mahalla : see Abode, Pardon.
Quean, ulk kuttpma, t^*-\i fjira, zan-i fhisha.
Query, Question, JIj-j suwl yt-tjt pursish (f.), istifhm.
Quest, khj, ^? talash (f.), y>-jc^w>- just-b-j. (f.)
Quickness, ^L shitab, >>- jald, chlak, ^jJJ ttz.
Quietness, Quietude, (y^- sukn, p\^1 , ^ karar.
Quill, jjj par Zc kalam,j+Y* shahpar, (porcupine) l2J\ knt.
Quintessence, <>- khulsa, t^~> sat,j\~> sr. (f.)
Quire, (of paper) <-jJ dasta, IfLo &7fA, (choir) jIL t'ifa.
Quota, <Ua- , |^? bakhr, ^j^i bihr, ijt bahra.
Quotation, ^Uil iktibs, ^jS^J\ istikhrj, <d-ta dkhila (?).
Quotient, ,J-\- AsiZ, j-L-< mblagh.
Race,JjJ daur (f.), i^J^JjjJ daum-daufi : see Breed, Family.
Rack, (engine of torture) shikanja : see Anguish.
Radiance, shu'* (f.), fjjpartau, ^Jssr tajall, iZJjS>-jt. (f.)
Rafter, barga, ^Ju^ knd,jjji .
260 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Rag, ]jfi- chiihra, bJ lata, ^^sPj dhajjl, "j? gdar.


Rail, Railing, kathara, kalhghar.
Raillery, thatth, j\y* mazfch. Ihathl.
Ramrod, jtgaz, thasrit.
Rank, (row) jlki katr (f.), <sue mff (f.), (degree) <>^ darja.
Ransom, \ fid (f.), toAifidya, ,_$JcJjc na*lband.
Rap, JytO dhaul (f.), ^-$3 thappar, b>-bw tamacha.
Rapture, wajd, >'d>-jazb, Jb>- AZ, ^if-j wajdan.
Rascal, i\j*\f- haram-zada, cSj^ mardak : see Base.
Rate, (price) t^~*-> kimat (f.), jby ', y nirkh : see Tax.
Ratio, ijijl andza,j\# bh', y nirkh.
Ray, rara, (f.) Rays of the sun, _1* a'a . (f.)
Razor, ustura, \j>- chhura.
Readiness, <_)by taiyrl, ^oUl mdagt: see Alacrity.
Ready money, raaM, cljj rk,j . (f.)
Rear, lf=U pchha, piclihwara, ^l^^; pichhr.
Receipt, (reception) b pana, (for money, &c.) s*~>j rasid. (f.)
Receptacle, j ghar, ti\i- khana, -y^>- jagah. (f.)
Reception, ^S^ giriftag, A-\ akhz, u^ib yaft. (f.)
Recess, rawanagi, ^-^ rihlat, (respite) Jj wakfa, &\j
ngha.
Recipe (medical prescription), nuskha.
Reckoning, ^ gintl, <_L>- hisb,J^t> shumr.
Recollection, lib yad (f.), # yadavoari, --> s?/a7. (f.)
Recommendation, <^U-! sifrish (f.), <-y.^ takrib. (f.)
Record ,jJ daftar, tawrikh.
Recovery, c^-ibjb bz-yft (f.), (from illness) bL> s/i/H. (f.)
Recreation,^.' bahl', j~> sair (f.) : see Amusement.
Recruit, (soldier) ^b-i bJ raay sipaht, (supply) ^^j* sarbarhl.
Redemption, \J&$>- chhutkr, ^/>lsxJ istikhls.
Redness, ^j>-j~> surkhl, J llt, (pale) ^J\'gural..
Redress, ^fjL ij>- chra-szt, <^j\*2- himayat (f.), iJJ*< tadruk.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 261

Reel, (frame) ateran, (dance) l k kism k nach.


Reference, ruj*, j\ lag', <lc alka, uu^J nisbat. (f.)
Reflection, (throwing back) ^ISUil in'iks, & ks : see Thought.
Reform, Reformation, ^LA islh (f.), tashih. (f.)
Refuge, Uj panh (f.), ^1 aran, \jA sr, SLc malz.
Refulgence, ^sf tajall, s^>-jalwa,jy nur, CL>y>-jt. (f.)
Refusal, Jj\ inkr, ^J naft (.), ib, ^< man*.
Regard, mulhaza, tawajjuh (f.), (look)^la nazar. (f.)
With Regard to, is. *~J ba-nisbat, j** (J>- hakk mt.
Region, Le mulk, ^^jj^ sar-zamln (f.), j-ll .
Register, (book)j daftar, (oflicer), j\ >jj~i sar-rishta-dr.
Regret, afss, hasrat (f.), i_jL ta'assuf: see Grief.
Regulation, intizm, lz-wJjJoj bandbast: see Law.
Rein (of a bridle), inn (f.), </b ig (f.), ras. (f.)
Reiteration, takrr (f.), jJysjJ dhr'.
Relation, (recital) jij takr (f.), (affinity) c-,-^,...3 nisbat. (f.)
Relative, jljib-i^ rishta-dr, ^J^] karbatl, ^}- kfapsh.
Reliance, oUit i*timd, i%tibr, \jA sr, ^\ s. (f.)
Relief, *o madad (f.), ^J^^ pushtl, lJu&? takhfif. (f.)
Religion, yjjJ dw, -- maz'hab, dharam : see Piety.
Relish, ^< maza, <JU<iS lazzat (f.), t>!j-> sawd, ^>y>- khusht.
Remainder, ^yb JA, bach, <Uaj' tatimma, L5t mabak.
Remark, iawZ, CJb Ji (f.), (note) sarA (f.) : see Regard.
Remedy, xj^>- chra, ^.Ic /; (f.), / ', tl^JJ tadruk.
Remembrance, lib yarf (f.), ci, Jb~> sadA. (f.)
Remorse, ijbfss; pachhtw, ij~y~\ a/ss, i_J-jIj ta'assuf.
Rencounter, <$bUU mukabala, ilfU HjJ barz-i ngh.
Rennet (for curdling), &U j^pamr-mya,jJ^iA< mya-i-shlr.
Renown, nm, cfjyk nm-warl, <^-^ shuhrat. (f.)
Rent, (split) <JjW chkfj+s- chlr, (hire) kirya, \j>- kMrj.
Repentance, ljbf=; pachhtw, <J^-*-- pashlmnl : see Regret.
Repetition, takrr (.),j\jb} dhr', (rehearsal) Ju bayn.
262 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Report, jJ~ khabar (f.), (rumour) Xjy* shuhra, (sound) j\ wz. (f.)
Repose, >\j\ , ^^^1 s'lsh (f.), chain, sukh.
Reprehension, Reprimand, e^~c)L malmat (f.), bJ trn.
Reproof, taxn, . ^J\a*)? gsh-mli, \J~>j j sar-zanish. (f.)

Reputation, ^LJ -, jj\ abr (f.), X> nam.


Request, i~~>\f-j darkhwst (f.), ^Usll iltims : see Question.
Research, taftisA (f.), iJ~J taftsh (f.), khj.
Residence, ghar, ^u makm, (jibj'ty bd--bsh. (f.)
Resin, Rosin, IiyJ dhna, rZ (f.), t_jy>J (. (f.)
Resolution, Resolve, ^a^ Juai kasd-i-.
Resource, Xj\&- chara, ^.Ic *fty, ^ up'e, i-v>- hkmat. (f.)
Respect, ^kJxj ta*zm (f.), ^^o takrm (f.), >| ac?aJ: see Re
lation.
Respite, Aij wakfa, Jj l JiS aZ k wakfa, li nagha.
Rest, ^jLa sukn, (quiet) rm, j|^ karr : see Remainder.
Result, (J-eU- AtmZ, XjAj samara : see Consequence.
Resurrection, jLj j ci^u Z>a*s o nashr : see Judgment (day of).
Retaliation, Revenge, |I1 intikm, ^^s. iwaz, j badl.
Reticle, Jls>- j^>- chhtjl, ^_^> ^^>- chhiti thaili.
Retinue, ^-jilau (f.), sawr, CJp tuzuk, jjs kr. (f.)
Retirement, Retreat, ijL- khalwat (f.), l^Li. khalwatgh. (f.)
Revenue, dml iad (f.), Ji4-Iji^ madkhil, Jj^as.-* mahsl.
Reverence, takrm (f.), (^> ihtirm, (bow) j^iJ taslim. (f.)
Reverse, (opposite side) pAr, l_r-^ fe : see Adversity.
Revolution, (going round) (J^-^ gardish (f.), (change) -31 inkilab.
Reward,^?-! ajr, \j=^jaz (f.), sawb, fjttjsr bakhshish, (f.)
Rhetoric, t^ib b | jjx- ilm-i-kalm or -balaghat.
Rhyme, <U kfiya, tj^ radJ/, j-sr- sq/*, cl& m/c. (f.)
Ribaldry, ijls? fuhshfjL^ phakkar, ^^pch.
Riband, Ribbon, t-j \S ^.jJl brsham ka fita, jji kor. (f.)
Riehes, i^-JjJ daulat (f.), JU wiZ, JU mal mata*, (f.)
Rick, Oy tuda, J\5 , SIj , dlir,j\j\ mbar.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 263

Riddle (enigma), pahe, \ mu'mm, chistan.


Ridicule, j^A hasi, js^ maz'haka, ^Jj^p thath.
Right, (js- hakk, lysO da*w, (hand) Laj dahln: see Property.
Ring (circle), As>- halka, ^J& kundl : see under Apparel, Dress.
Ringleader, <U- j~* sar-halka, xj> j~> sar-guroh : see Chief.
Ringlet (small ring), J?)&?~ angthl : see Curl.
Riot, jIa hullar, <ul&a> hangma, \J*~~ khar-mastt.
Ripeness, lS& pukhtag, pakaTi : see Perfection.
Risk, xjb- khatra, ^y>-jkhim (f.), ba- chint. (f.)
Rite, jjjl '- ?, t2-j rt (f.), tfejb arA (f.), ~>j rasm.
Rivet, mekh (f.), ^jjs^pachr, andheri (?): see Nail.
Road, z~j rosta, <Jy* sarak (f.), s\j rah (f.), t!> bt. (f.)
Roar, ^garj (f.), gnj (f.), J^. ghurrish. (f.)
Robbery, chri, ^j duzdi, J~? dakaiti, ,jyo\j rahzam.
Rocket, (used in battle) ban, (skyrocket) ^/\a> hawal.
Rogue, s\j >\f- harm-zda, <- thag, Is! luchch.
Room, (space, place) ~^-jagah (f.), \* makm: see Chamber.
Roost, Gl add, chakkas, \j~~> basera.
Root,Js>- jar (f.), yo mul, bekh (f.) : see Origin.
Rope, ^j-y rassl, iJjyrT fi'ofi, Jj dr, rasan.
Rosary, (of beads) tasblh (f.), (rose bed) ^Jc^jgulbistn.
Round, (turn) ijtJ> gardish (f.), jyi daur : see Circle, Ring.
Row, (_e saff (f.), jUaji katr (f.),jy A> (f.), i^-ob pa, (f.)
Rubbish, tjUS^ kurkut (f.), il/li>U- khshk, \* kr.
Ruffian, ^Ir9- harmt, JlJ=- chandl, j& katar, jalld.
Ruin, ^>\f>- kharbi, ^> p'mll, tabht.
Rule, jjyjIS , AcU kcda, (sway) j=- hukm, J-*e <zma.
Rumour, ljil afwh (f.), <-^jf-> shuhrat (f.), gap. (f.)
Rupture, darr, <JL>y tt (f.), (hernia) Ii! and-ks.
Rust, O&j s'ang, jlj zangar, &>-jy mdrcha, /. (f.)
Sabre, j~*-> shamshr (f.), l*J ttgha, ^La** samsm. (f.)
Sack, (bag) gn (f.), ^jj br, (plunder) .^.- takht-trj.
264 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Sackcloth, !> , ^^* mekht, <13 mtami tat.


Sacrifice, kurbn, Jj bal, zabh (f.), \ d. (f.)
Saddle, zn, ^Jj^ , (pack) pln, (camel's) ijLs^
Jajwa.
Sadness, udasi, j* gham, JLc matai, ^Jj& dil-giri.
Safety, salmati, ^\ amn, bach', \$>-j rachchh. (f.)
Sage (person), dana , jjlc lim, ^JiMfzil, ^ muni.
Sago, <ta ^Lj sg-dna. (From the pith of the Sagus Rumphii).
Saint, ^Jj well (m.), J>Jw> sidh,^ ptr, cL>j ghaus.
Sake, kJj wsta, sabab,Jb\. khtir, (f.), ^- Aior A.
For the sake, (_~1^ waste, i_ w sabab,Jo\~ khtir (f.), .
Salad, (English) <tfL> saZta (?).
Salary, <UL) sliyna, sj wafa, s\sj tankhwh. (f.)
Sale, bik', j;j>J bikr, {^-ji farkht (f.) : see Auction.
Salvation, d>L<" /i (f.), u^Cc /ci (f.), ^tL*, rastagrt.
Salutation, jLj salm, ytyf krnish (f.), ^Jj bandagi.
Sample, <yJ , bangt, mdari.
Sandal, $1 aZg, kharp, (pair of sandals) na'lain (?).
Sandal wood, Sanders, chandan, Jjc^ sandal.
Sap, jj*^ ras, jj^ raA, tjb (.), Aiij ddh.
Sarsaparilla (Smilax, sp.?), <Uc shba, lJ^~* mak'e.
Sash (for dress), JU- ^'Z, \b patk, ^?-> seit, baddhi.
Satiety, aghl, ^J>jH bhar, sr, chhakl.
Satin, uJ\s\ atlas, pLj pilm, b' tfta, stin (?).
Satire, sP hqj (f.), Ij^J bhandauw, 13 nind. (f.)
Satisfaction, (content) Jb\- khtir-jam'i : see Retaliation.
Saturday, jl*u~> sanchar, <L shamba, < hafta.
Sauce, ^jJel. clishn, chalrit, ^ binjan.
Saucer, tashtari, i)~> sakr, pirich (?).
Savour,^ bo or (f.), gandh (f.), ^c , sawd.
Saw, c^-j]/ karant, Sj\ ara, \j\ r, jlli* minshar.
Saying, ^ kahwat (f.), Ji^ wasaZ (f.), cub a. (f.)
Vocabulary.Nouns. 265

Scab, ^if4 khtht, khasr, i-iU^- chat (f.), ^j-o papfi.


Scabbard, p\j niyam, kth, i_jl ghilf, miyn.
Scaffold, (^^f--* machan, =}^ daunj, ^j\j pyath,j\j pr. (f.)
Scale (of a balance), ^affi, Vb paira, (fish) lg- chhilk.
Scalp, \ bjj khoprl k chamr.
Scammony, Ljj*~i sakmniy. (From Convolvulus scammonea.)
Scandal, ib, dagh, d&J Jtalank, badnnii.
Scapula, <_? ^ ^ kndhe hadd.
Scarceness, Scarcity, kamtt, , tang.
Scarf, orhni, -patta, <t2jt> d-patta, \jjA uparn.
Scene, Jjii did,J<x* madd-i-nazar, (theatre) Ijl^l akhr.
Scent, jJ b or (f.), bas, Jtx gandh (f.), iS^> mahak. (f.)
Sceptre, ^fcili ^Lic s-i-shhi, : ^LL -aJi kabza-i-saltanat.
Scheme, (plan) <tJ naksha, (contrivance) c^~*=>- liikmat (f.): see
Project.
School, maktb, ~>jii~o madrasa, ^Jc^i dabistn.
Science, ^c-ilm, boj bidya (f.), hikmat (f.), jfann.
Scissors, ^1jL< mikrz, l_yfiJ kainch, katarn.
Sconce, ^ shamxdn, diwr-gir, j\>-jhr : see Head.

Scope, (space) .^>-jagah (f.), jL$> phail', (aim) JuoiU maksad.


Score, (notch) ULv.g'C khandn, (line) la- khatt: see Account, Twenty.
Scorn, I^Y*-^ istihz, c>JU>! ihnat (f.), ,1- ikrat. (f.)
Scoundrel, Jjl~<> kurramsk, ljy> shuhd, Jo bad-zt.
Scourge, r, <bj\j taziyana : see Punishment, Affliction.
Scout, (^^- jss, bhldiy, sjjt harkra.
Scrape, L5&j tang, u!^ kashmakash (f.), eU^s^- jhanjhat.
Screen, Skreen, tati, L-~\p?jhamp, CJbJi kant. (f.)
Screw, ^-j^ec, ujj-jH1 mafbfi: see Nail.
Scrotum, <d? pia.
Scrutiny, (^Ij talsh (i.),y>-jUi^>-justj (f.) : see Examination.
Scuffle, taUftlaeffi khaicha-khaichi, LbJ J^b dliaul-dhappa.
Sculpture, LS->l nakkshi, (work of) <tJ ^ \ khd h' naksha.
2
266 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Scurf, \h baf (f.), papr, rust, ~>~ sabsa.


Seal (stamp),j^c muhr (f.), >\>- chhp (f.), f>\>- khtim.
Sealing-wax, ^i lkh, * Z.
Seam, c^>-jJ &' (0 1^*^ s*wan> jf?jT> )j darz.
Season, ^yc mausim, cl>j rit or rut (f.), J-ai /asZ (f.), jbl aiyam.
Seat, (chair) j^j*- chauki, (mansion) makan, (place) jlU makam.
Secession, J]jicl ftizl, <-2^ (f.), i_J]^=M inhirf.
Secrecy, U4 ikhf, parda, raz-dart, e^jl- khawat. (f.)
Secret, raz, j~> sirr, J^d, ^ '^i ? bt.
Sect, cyta z (f.), Hj firka, o>ct>- jam't (f.), wAX maz'hab.
Section, <u5a iTa (vulg. kaVa), S khand,y>- juz, ^}^si fasl. (f.)
Sedition, <U& hangma, \Jj balwa, jli/aid, ifiJ dang.
Seduction, 11 ighw, bhatka, ,_jl~J!>ljjj badrahsazi.
Seed, oy, tukhm, bihan, (sperm) aj nulja.
Segment, tukr, (of a circle) *>- <>1 d'ir k
hissa.
Selection, _>Is&! intikhab, ijL\$>- chhnt (f.), bchh. (f.)
Seif, t_>! p, j- khiid, p-ri, iz\ zt (f.), ^^Jj na/s.
Semicircle, *}p -d'ira, \j+ib\ adh-ghtr.
Senna, L~! saw, san-.
Sense, Sensation, l^rs>~ hiss, ausan, sudh (f.) : see Meaning.
Sentence (decision), ^pifatw, &>- hukm, L> haza, (f.)
Sentence (period in writing), jumla, iifikra.
Sentiment, ^i fikr, r'e(f.), ^ zann, ^>-jJ bujh. (f.)
Sepulchre, gor (f.)fjrJ kabr {t^),j\y mazar, us-Jy turbat. (f.)
Sergeant, (military) J\jjwj daj*dar, (at law) J-^j .
Series, izJbfS sarishta, <sLLj silsila,jj daur.
Sermon, Sicj ica*2, -L- khutba, <i~*sXaj nasihat. (f.)
Service, naukari, ljJ^>- chkarl, ls-~.ScS- khidmat. (f.)
Set, **fs ganj, jr, j^U-c jZ, ilb tu1ifa.
Seton, _^jU tw, ^ gxd.
Settlement, uuji jj band-5-bast, JLoiUl infisl : see Abode.
Vocabulary,Nouns. 267

Sex, ling, Lri^jins (f.), Cjlj si (f.), culsf-jai. (f.)


Shackles, jt=j zanr (f.), >r7, Ji Icaid (f.), anc.
Shade, y^f~ chhaw (f.), <uL: sya : see Darkness, Shelter.
Shadow, ,J>}ify> parchh'in (f.), jj- ks : see Protection.
Shaft, (column) c^ situn, (pit) jj^4 khnkhar : see Arrow.
Sham, <-i>jbj banwat (f.), ptkhn, ^^>- jhth.
Shambles, maslakh, <Olsk~Ui kassb-khna.
Shank, ^l^j philR,j3>y narhar, (of a tool) J dandi.
Shape, jCi sa/tZ (f.), *Jjye srat (f.), ji ai*, (f.)
Share, eUjb , <U- hissa, (plough-) Jl^ phl, ijy tora.
Shark, j\s> hangar, S^> nihang, t\i grh: see Artful.
Sheet, (cloth) chdar (f.), (of paper) jtfard (f.), \i t',
takhta.
Shell, >_... o sip (f.), ly^ ghong, ^jjf kauri: see Case, Husk.
Shelter, /\ bach, panh (f.), jT er (f.), <t>Ls sya.
Shift, Jl5 tl (f.), J^*- Lo- hila-hawala : see Contrivance, Shirt.
Shillishalli, ^fsnj if I g-pchh, j w*> pas--pesh.
Shot, (shooting) ic^j ^Aen (f.), t_ys ari (f.), (bullet) ^Jj> gli.
Shroud, ^ kafan, sU! f/o/z : see Shelter.
Shutter, (of a window) J^A#>- jhilmil, (y^*- chilwan, chik(f.\
(of a door)jf1j- kwr, (matted) ^3 <, jhmp.
Sickness, bimri, J\j \ azar, ^ marz, i^fjj rog.
Side, jl^j pahli, j=f\j pnjar, (_J,k </ (f.), (party) djy firka:
(on this side) i-J^b /1 is taraf (t.), (on all sides) jjl ?"
charo or.
Siege, a^W* muhasara, \pp gtra, ^jj^^ girdwar.
Sigh, T (f.), uj'U 'e (f.), ^JL sns (f.), j-Jj^ daregh.
Sign, (^^ Slmat (f.), ^liJ nishn, (hint) |lb\ ishara, l*A . (f.)
Signal, tijLH ishrat (f.), jLs>- jan', JJj daZF7. (f.)
Signatare, SaisLsO dast-khatt. cbjl^3 likhwat (f.) : see Mark.
Signification, ^jiJt< ma*rii, j\ arth, ^y*^ masmn.
Silence, ^jyc\~ khmdshi. CJjCi sukt (f.), ^j^o maun.
268 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Silk, (thread) fZ*},j>\ abrsham, (cloth) rshm kapr.


Silliness, bhl-pan, anr-pan, <J^U ndnl.
Similarity, j barabari, CJljL^o muswt (f.) : see Likeness.
Simile, Ji*c masal (f.), Jli-c misai (f.), tashbih. (f.)
Simpleton, j*ll -^ za'ifu-1-kl, -y- mrakh.
Simplicity, y nirl, sdag : see Folly.
Sin, aUTgwnA, t_>bpp, j>- jjurm, LZ~**a**o ma*siyat. (f.)
Singer, \J> gawaiya, <^jj> sard, ^if ga'', kalwant.
Singing, gn, jj~ sarod, laghanr : see Song.
A Sink, panbah', ^0 n, ijj^o <_] paiZ muhri.
Sinner, gunah-gar, ^jkpp, Jj badkr, ^>\s- asi.
Sir, i^s-Xe sahib, ^L miyan, \ 56, ^j>-.
Sire, Z>Z>, c-jIL- L\ \ ^jlob pdshhon k k khitb.
Sirius (the star in the great dog), j*> shi*r or shi*r.
Sirname, t_^! b t-ja- l gharari ka khitb or lakab.
Sirup, sra, 4_J) 5, ->^ rZ> (f.), IgiL* ras.
Site, Situation, jagah (f.), bl$5 thikn: see Condition.
Sitting, i- ..'j nishast (f.), baithak (f.), (j~}>- juls.
Size,jlj& mikdr, Jj3 a77, J kadd: see Bulk, Starch.
Skein, lj2i;^J phen, I ra, kalwa, larchh.
Skeleton, ijf^Sfi thathrl, \Hj tidd.
Sketch, Alii naksha, WL> snch, \yf kharra.
Skewer, s5^ slkhcha, ^ sikh.
Skill, shu'r, 5* ras7, hunar, ^ gun.
Skirt, jb kinra, daman, jjJ zaiZ.
Skylight, ^Jj\j tbdn, ^\a>jj raushan-dn, \jj>- jharkha.
Slander, tuhmat (f.), (jJJ bandish (f.), u^*? ghibat. (f.)
Slavery, ^^iU ghulmi, b-jJJj! laundi-pan.
Sleep, Jc-j wind (f.), ->^>- khwb, /^}1 ngkl : see Rest.
Sleeve, jj^^-H sim (f.), kharita. \$& hatth.
Slight, (indignity) u^i khiffat (f.), (sleight) Ju*-> shu*bada.
Sliness, siyn-pan, ^]j^ chatur't, ^j^z aiyargt.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 269

Slope, JlfcJ dhal, j\ utr, ^jl))/* sarzr.


Sloth, ' sus, ^^i-bl kahili, u^J\ askat (f.), alas.
Slough, (of a snake) ^J^f^f knchl, (of a sore) ]}fif~ chhichr.
Slowness, histagi, J-*> dhl (f.), ^J*-* sus, ^Jji^0
majhli.
Sluice, i*Sjf> muhri, l-Ajy- khurb : see Drain.
Slumber, nghl, JJ .j-f-^ kachchi nlnd: see Sleep.
A Slut, J^j phuhar (f.), ^Jli! anrin (f.), JjJ>- churail. (f.)
Smallness, ^(^- chhtl, ^jj>- k/iurdi. kchakl.
Smell, ^jtusngh (f.), (odour) Jc^gandh (f.), y bo (f.), t/b 5s. (f.)
Smile, iL~2>\jL~c muskurhat (f.), J tbassum.
Smut, (spot) tL$lS klak, (obscenity), cuUl^- khurit (f.) : see
Mildew.
Snare, Ijjl^ phnd, (dakh. ) Cj~ sarak.
Sneer, i^y>- t-i/U nk-charhi, istihz, thtsr.
Snout, ^J4t>& ththni (?), (elephant's) oj~s snd (f.), (crocodile's)
lJj*> tumr.
Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), tjjl- j gul-i-chndm. (?)
SnufF, (of a candle) j gwZ, (the powder) ks (f.),
snghr.
Snuffbox, ^Ij^-U ns-dn.
Soap, (yjle sbn, ^jL> suklikarm.
Sobriety, <_$>^*^ parhzgri, jJuJL^b hshyrt : see Moderation.
Society, j^rJl mms, iji^+si0 suhbat (f.), e^-^>^~<> mushrakat (f.) : see
Company.
Soda, khr, ^JU ^jsr1 ^J, ^Js JJ\ k jfism sajji mitft.
Softness, ^j*J> naririi, bL>j kmalt (f.), ^^Jh mulyamat. (f.)
Solicitation, uu*JjyJ darkhwst (f.), (.--Als talab (f.), tr-v* -
(f.)
Solitude, s"l^j tanh't, ikffi : see Desert, Retirement.
Solution, pighl', y& gal', Je- AaZZ : see Explanation.
Somnolency, ^jJiXJ ninds (f.), .jSJjfi <>\j>- kjmb-ldagt.
270 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Song, git, ^ gan, )j~i sard, <U*J naghmu, <f\j rag.


Sorrow, (jy~s\ afss, gham, ^!c^ kurhan (f.) : see Grief.
Sort, kism (f.), l- bhnt (f.), ^jb tarah (f.), j^s>-jins. (f.)
Sound, jljl wz (f.), satZ (f.), (JUT Aaf, <^&b ng. (f.)
Space, kef rsa, L>li fsila: see Room, Distance, Interval.
Span, L-*Jb bsht (f.), bj Jt, i_p-j wajab, AiL bilnd. (f.)
Spasm, J*>- jakar, ^5A ainth (f.), ^r^i-J peckish (f.) : see Twist.
Spawn, i_\ ^ (j^jjw^o ^1 ^jJ^s.-"0 machhliyo aur mndak kt
and.
Speaker, jj^c mutakallim, bji^j bolwaiya: see President.
Specimen, <yj , bangt, ,_^> madar.
Speck, ta dgh, \ chitkara, (in the eye) phuli.
Spectacle, 1>UJ tamasha, ~> i_ jaJ nwmSish.
Spectacles, <U-s>- chashma, CS-*>- chashmak, inak. (f.)
Spectre, . U> sya, bht, ^\~ shaitn.
Speech, ^bj zuban (f.), JZ, jdw $, b/b bhkh. (f.)
Speed, t/b- jald, cj^J harbar, ^b- shitabi.
Spell, ji>c mantar, jb>- jad: see Turn, Time.
Spendthrift, Jljl ', Jy^fazLkharch.
Sperm, ^y^c , dAi (f.), ^.j %' : see Seed.
Sphere, see Globe. Spheroid, j>- ^j^j baizawi chiz.
Spike, (of corn) Jb bl (f.), ^- jhsha, (nail) ^> mekjk.
Spindle, Kj takl, \Jj tak', chamrakh.
Spinning, ^Jj charkJirZarii, (-wheel) />- charkh.
Spirits, (liquors) <-J\j& sharab (f.), tz rak: see Mirth.
Splendour, ijb>- jalwa, chamak (f.), pjj raunak. (f.)
Splinter, ^ ircA (f.), snA (f.), ^^ khapch. (f.)
Spoke (of a wheel), !jl l chakkar k r, ^j*) .
Sponge, Jjb \yo mia badal isfanj.
Sport, (of the field)jL> shikar, (play) J-$ khel, ) bazi.
Sportsman, ^JJ* shikari, jbj\i> shikar-baz, ^j-jA ahlri.
Spot, (speck) dgA, (disgrace) uUcii kalank: see Place.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 271

Spout, ^J^p tnf, Sli-J paini, (pipe) <JL>j} pt (f.), Jj nal.


Spread, phaii', <JsW ihata,j~ gher : see Extension.
Sprig, Sprout, ^JiQ phungt, &f^L> shkhcha, ^J\j da.
Sprightliness, chlki, ^j-*^ achpalt, l^-vAIIj bashshat. (f.)
Spur, \5 knt,jA er (f.), j~*-Y mahniz. (f.)
Spy, u~yJ>- jss, V.1^ bhediy, j\iJj nazar-bz: see Scout.
A Square, ^-yo J-i> shakl-i mttrabbS, \j>- chauk.
Squib, (firework) patkh, (lampoon) _yss> /. (f.)
Squire, mirz, \j l_^*-Ls shib-zda, .
A Squirt, ^J^ipichkrt, damkal, \=g pichukk.
A Stab, Jy> (f.), (f.), khnch.
Stability, Jiji karr, fhahr', ^j^A ustuwr.
Stack, J\3 tl(f.\ Jl5l atl (f.),j\Jl ambr, iy tuda.
Staff, L2C s, lathi, >Jj>- chhafi, <-r>f>- ckb. (f.)
Stage, iju* manzil (f.), (platform) machan, (of a playhouse)
ilf LiU tamsh-gh (f.), Ijl^l akhr: see Station.
Stain, 1j dgA ui fi (f.), tlioJ kalank, (on cloth) LJ dhapp.
Staircase, paif, ^bjy nardban, phark. (?)
Stake, (post) khambh, l5jj^ khnt: see Peg, Wager.
Stalk, , dath, <L~j> bnt, JcJ tona, ^jgSi^ dnth.
Stall, (for a beast) ^I^j fAw, luL tawela, \^\ rgar (?): see Bench,
Shelf.
Stallion, JuL sawa*, l > bij k ghr.
Stammerer, Stutterer, \a>it> haklh, luknafi.
Stamp, (instrument) bl^s- chhapa, muhr (f.) : see Print.
Stanchion, 15> danda, thnt, ^-^ fkni, ^J^^J pusht.
Stand, (stop) jl31 atk', (station) UlS^ thikn: see Cessation.
Stanza, <Uz> kit'a,jX> shi*r bait (f.), bsjJ dh.
Starch, <fclij nishsta, i_>J kalap, IjU mw. (f.)
A Start, / (f.), S$s#>r jhijhak (f.), tifl bharak. (f.)
State, is.JU>- AVai (f.), was" (f.), jJU lam: see Kingdom.
State, Stateliness, Jj^a*]? tamtark, JuJJ dabdaba.
272 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Station, ^s~jagak (f.), thikn: see Place, Degree.


Statue, CJy* mrat (f.), C-o m, J^piZ, c^-S la*bat. (f.)
Stature, iX> fcadd, Jj<$ , kmat (f.), jljJt andaza.
Statute, , J^l k'ida, ^j 57, c^Oj ri. (f.)
Stay, j\3 tik', (_/ibjJjj bdbsh (f.), (^) rah'ish. (f.)
Stead, *s>- jagah (f.), mauka*, (instead) y^i .
Steak, tikk, bti. Stealth, chr, cSj duzdl.
Steed, ghr, bob bdp, samand.
Steeple, J&~o minar, <JL>$ lat (f.), \jbj^ dhaurahr. (?)
Stem, (stalk, twig) bi shkh, ,^2^3 dnth: see Lineage.
Step, |*Jj kadam, ^ gam, t-; dig, (of stairs, &c.) strht.
Sterility, *]/ sar'l, kallar'l, ^^^ bnjhpan.
Stick, ZaAn, lthT, lac as, <-r>^- cAi, IjuJ dand.
Stigma, b i/gA, -$^- chinh, (disgrace) ul&K kalank, i_ip- Aar/".
Stillness, (JL-i~ sunsrii, <JL~b~j sunhat (f.) : see Silence.
Sting, tloJ dfimft, tlX^S rfwfc, j^^iJ wsA, L(*j>- chabhak. (f.)
Stink, ^jjj bad-b (f.), durgandh (f.), (i?*J ta'ffun.
Stipulation, shart (f.\ Jijs kaul-karar : see Contract.
Stirrup, 4-lj rikab (f.). Stirrup-leather, Jb,0 rikb-d'l.
Stitch, &13 tnk, ^JJ\ lapkt, (pain) tasak. (f.)
Stock, <tij na, (gun-) a kunda, (capital) J^e /.- see Cattle.
Stocks, (wooden) har, -ilj MA, (funds) ^s^ 1>_5- (.y05"
kisl pnj .
Stop, Stoppage, jl3\ atk', atak (f.), (in gram.) |^J bisrm.
Store, (plenty) j-bJ fAr, (house) j\j>- khazna. bhandar.
Story, (tale) <UaS kissa, <JL^ kahani, (floor) <J* manzil. (f.)
Stove, j^ gul-lum, jj tanr, ^&&\ angtthi,f^> bhr.
Stranger, t-~jb>-^*c ghair-jnib, ^g-ji^j par-ds : see Guest.
Strap, (of leather) Jb,ii rf'Z, (razor) ^^y^- chamti: see Belt.
Stratum, CJfj parat, 3 tah (f.), jj? tabak, jbi> iiJ:.
Straw (stalk of grain), ^b nli, JljJ puwl (f.), &' .
Streak, ^- laklr (f.), ^3 lahar(f.), k- : see Line, Ray.
Vocabulary.Nouns 273

Stream (current), ^b>J dhara (f.), jl dhar (f.) : see Brook, River.
Street, j>-<[> kcha, z~>j rosta, ^J gall, cSy> sarak. (f.)
Strength, jj zr, Jj bal, CDjs kwat (f.), ^>>~* mazbtl.
Stress, jjj zr, <-bj- cht (f.), ^>.y bjh,j\) bar.
Stretch, ^L$iphail',j\~j pasr, 4tL- kas' : see Effort.
Strife, liii tenia, l}f>- jhagr, Kjj i-iAI : see Dispute.
String, (jryS aor, rassl, stl, J^>-jZ: see Row.
Strip (slip), ^jS^ dhajjl, katran, \Ji tukr, ^jpattl.
Stripe, (line) j- lakir (f.), (from a whip) jL> (f.), Ar.
Stroke, mr (f.), <-Zjj>- cht (f.), thnk: see Stripe.
Strophe, lko matlax, <uL kit' : see Stanza.
Structure, j**j ta*mlr (f.), (edifice) CJjUc imarat (f.) : see Shape.
Stubble, JrfA (f.), ^jpjjV thnthl, ^jj\ nrt.
Stucco, IS usi?" k Up.
Stud, (of horses) J-o- khail, \f pg, (button) J^j p/Z.
Study, <$511 mutflla', (room) <U- <Ulk mutla'a-khna.
Stuff, aj* madda, rakht, jL\a3 kimsh : see Nonsense.
Stump, i^f&y tund, Xiy <^, thunth : see Root.
Stupefaction, ^y^ bt-hsl, mrchh. (f.)
Stupidity, ^jiyj b-wukif, ^ himkat (f.), ^Jo kund.
Style, (idiom) ^- istilh (f.), c^,Lc tbrat (f.) : see Title.
Subject, ra'iyat (f.), -^^ (f.), (matter) U madda.
Sublimity, J lwiyat (f.), <^Jb bulandi : see Height.
Submission, ^^jc zr-kkwhl, J dab' : see Obedience.
Subpoena, |^f> 1 Us talab-chitthl, <- safna.
Subscription, (signing) L=cL:J dastkhatt, (sum) ^J^>- chand.
Subsidy, ^lJc* ^ j madadgari : see Aid, Tribute.
Subsistence, (being) to /as!, Jj^-j wujd: see Livelihood.
Substance, (being) (_5^> , (matter) *jU madda: see Body,
Goods.
Substantive, j-! ism, .
Substitute, ^\iu k'im makm, iwaz : see Agent.
2 N
274 Vocabulary Nouns.

Subtleness, Subtilty, (fineness) 1_5^.jb brlkl : see Artifice.


Subtraction, ^- harn, waz* (f.), ghatl.
Subversion, i_Ai\ inkilb, \Jj>jJj zrzbari, ^JUb p'ml.
Suburbs, dman-shahar, \j j^J* skahar-pr.
Success, kmybt, bj\> uhda-bar't.
Succession, J.J...." tasalsul, \fl lag' : see Series, Lineage.
Successor, ^^lils- j-nishln, ^ k'cm-makm.
Sucker (a shoot), (J?3^ kmpal, karil: see Sprig.
Suckling, I j+> sKir-khwr, < l JtJ^J ddh k bachcha.
Sufficiency, <i-oU kifyat (f.), ^^ij wufur, \ij waf. (f.)
Suffocation, (j~ftM ~?>- habsu-n-nafas, dambastagi.
Sugar, JL shakar (f.), (coarse) ^J~>- chri, khand, (cand
t^bc misrt, Jci kand, (-cane) kh (f.), Uf gann, 1^

Suggestion, ,li>l ishara, lJj\ gsh-gvmrt, ^La salh. (f.)


Suicide, Jp-. khud-kushl, (murderer) i>y. khud-kush.
Suit, Vfys- Jora, (retinue) hashmat (f.) : see Lawsuit.
Suitor, (plaintiff) ^-iilo dd-khwh. (wooer) <_<S>^ shik.
Sum, jJ-^i mablagh, , (summary) Jas-* mujmal.
Summerhouse, brah-dar, SJcj bangl.
Summit, {Jix^i phunang (f.), Jp*- chnti, <d fcaZZa.
Summons, t^]]? aZao (f.), ^j^b- talab-chittht.
Sunbeam, kiran, y l <_->liil /o & partau.
Sunday, Jy\ itwr,j\*jj rabibr, <Ui-> X>! A shamba.
Sunrise, t_-)biT ^jlb m' ftb, ij<\ y sraj-udai.
Sunset, c_->bl ghurb-i-ftab, K~-~i>] sraj-ast.
Superficies, ^3~ sath (f.), wus't (f.) : see Outside.
Superfluity, bjjl izdiyd, lJtS kasrat (f.), tr-sb^j bahutt. (f.)
Superintendence, ^yL^o nigahbnt, ^thjj* sarbarhi.
Superiority, bartari, iz~Jijh fauklyat (f.), i_>^ barl.
Superstition, Jlsb ^.o din-i-btil, ta'ssub.
Supplement, &*;J tatimma.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 275

Supplication, IcjcjJ isticC (f.), IcJ du'a (f.), zari.


Supply, ^Jijg bharti, rasad (f.), J^ amad (f.), t.-^ . (f.)
Support, (prop) oliu! istda, (sustenance) lAy^J parwarish. (f.)
Supposition, (Jl aiaZ (f.), ^,~U kiys, sj\j\ andza.
Suppression, dab', chhip'.
Suppuration, 5, U\---j plbiyhat (f.), /.
Supremacy, awwallyat (f.), ^jj^j^ sardari.
Surcingle, , c^&J Ta bl-tang, ^ JJjS ktal-kash.
Surety, (bondsman) ^-l* zmin, (bail) Ly-l< zmirii.
Surf, Surge, ^a7 -.^ mauj-i-bahr, Xjh> hilkra,j^ laliar. (f.)
Surface, ^3-J sajfA (f.),^j ",& bhar, LLj Sisi. (f.)
Surfeit, (y*sH ajlran, \A aphr'l, kacha'.
Surgery (practice of a surgeon), ^^-1j^-jarraht.
Surplus, Js, j^s-b^J barh, bachtl, J-li /ziZ.
Surprise, c-^*-1 ta'jjub, ngahm, achnak.
Survey, ilfj nig (f.), jli (f.) : see Mensuration.
Surveyor,jlU nzir, nighbn : see Land-surveyor.
Surviver, JU-j pasmanda, jJJ pas-zinda.
Suspense, khauf raja (f.), UjoJ dubdh. (f.)
Suspension, y\) latka, (putting off) ^J;j*-< ^ \J"jiJ hand
' roz kt IVI mazli.
Sustenance, J&\ ahr,cS^*s- khitrk (f.), \L^k: see Livelihood.
Suture, (seam) siwan, ^J\* sil't, (of the skull) *y>- jor.
Swain, ^yy- jawn, }f>- chaupnl jawn, uJ^li nyak.
Swamp, JjJj daldal (f.), l^Jt: dhasan (f.), jjf- chbr zarnin.
Swarm, Ai^s- jhund, Ja:* mandai, j*l>-Oj\ izdihm.
Sway, \^os>- hukmat (f.), ^-'l^Ufi farmn-rawl.
Sweepings, ^j\>- jhran (f.), (y^J buharan (f.), ^ r.
Sweetheart, I^Lj pyara (m.), jjjc4 mshuka (f.) : see Beloved.
Swell, phlan, ifr)~> sjan, (wave) mavj (f.) : see Increase.
Swiftness, ijjj ftzi, LjSJ^*- jald, ^J^- chlki, ^- shitb.
Swindler, t-^i fji> mardum-fareh, jVr^ butthbz.
276 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Swing, j&&>~ jhul', (machine) Sj(Sf jhl, HycA kindl.


Swoop, jhapat. (f.) Swop, Jo Sj! adl-badl.
Sycophant, ijXc\ji>y>- khushmadl, j~ J**- chughul-kfwr.
Syllable 15* Ay, <ul kalima. Syllabus, see Abstract.
Syllogism, i~ kaziya, kiys, JJii dalil. (f.)
Symbol, nishn, \^~ lmat (f.), murd. (f.)
Symmetry, )Ji harina, ^JjX-i sudauli, j\>\ andz.
Sympathy, ^^^ ham-dard, ^jj-Jj dil-sz, l-^-~>j rikkat. (f.)
Symphony, ^&aU ham-hangi, ,j^Ua ham-wzi.
Symptom, c^~cL lmat (f.), nishn,Ji\ asar.
Syncope, see Fainting ; (in gram.) ^=* ls^ ^ ^ tarkhim.
Synopsis, jsck* mukhtasar, J-^sr* mujmal, Jt>-\ ijmal.
Syntax, jsr nah. (f.) Syringe, pichkri, ib- hukna.
System, , Aclis kcda, (plan) Ju naksha.
Tablet, ZawA (f.), ^yb ^<, |__5=^ takhti.
Tackle, Tackling, sar-anjm, l5jls (J-S kil-knl.
Tactics, t^i^-^ fann-i-jang, i-e saff-rl.
Taffeta, toilJ tfta, <_/bj darya'i, ^y^~ ch'dl.
Tail, jJ dam (f.), -= pnchh (f.), JLi^ dumbal.
Taint, (stain) dgA, (corruption) m (f.), (^b Jas. (f.)
Tale, <Ua fo'ssa, ^V^ kaharii, JJ waA (f.) : see Calculation.
Talebearer, jj~ (J*** chughul-kfwr, jtk ghammz.
Talent, (weight) ^jjj wazn, (coin) siMa : see Faculty.
Talisman, j~lb tilism, (or plur.) C?Uil> tilismt.
Talk, CJb (f.), t^-~>. tub bt-chtt (f.), JU) *. (f.)
Talkativeness, >j ziyda-gl, j\~~> bisyr-gl.
Tallow, ^^=>- charol, (f.) : see Fat.
Talness, i^*U^J ^ Aadif A lamba'!, nch'.
Talon, j^e-U nkhun, < , nakh, panja.
Tambourin, ^^. khanjar, AJb tabla, jS fopA.
Tameness, hil'l, rami, s \y* psw4.
Tap, -jlfi' A/7 (f.), ^$}' thapki, thok, takr.
Vocabulary. JVouns. 277

Tape,jji kr (f.), ^Jbpatt, (coarse) j\ niwr. (f.)


Tapestry, ^jjfjL>J dwar-gr, js~~* mushajjar.
, ^^a kitran, r/, (sailor) ^e-ebi- khals.
Tardiness, histag, ^J~~~> sustl, drT : see Sloth.
Tare, (weed) (j~\$> ghs, (in weight) dhar, Zi^ dhart.
Tariff (Arab. i^Juj), <uli-y l J^as.- mahsl k nirkh-nma.
Tartness, ^>Ji turshl, l/*^ karw't, sakhti.
Task, wazifa, ^ kam, chukaut, izjj kt.
Tassel, \^>-jhabb, XiuQphundn, latkan.
Taste, j* maza, C^jJ lazzat (f.), z'ika : see Discernment.
Tattler, bakki, gappl, barbariy.
Tavern, <U- . sharb-khna, <U- j-# bhanger-khna.
Taunt, ^jIs cTn, ^Jj tana-zani, mihna, tanz, (f.)
Tautology, takrar ((.), jjj takarrur.
Tax, Jjiss* mahsl, UUU- AsiZ, khirj, j\j~ khazna.
Teacher, ^X** mu'llim, i\z~>\ ustd, (j~j*> mudarris, j> guru.
Teacup, l*- cA klpiyli. Teapot, ^bU- ch-dn.
Te Deum, \^ja^ k& g**-
Telescope, ^j-j dr-bin.
Teller, lj-i^ kahnwala, ginntwala : see Accountant.
Telltale, j^d- J-*=- chughul-kMr, \j lutra, ^j*^ ntsh-zan.
Temerity, ^j+iXi+ be-tadbiri, jy tahawwur.
Temper, Temperament, mizaj, u^S>jj> sarisht. (f.)
Temperance, Temperateness, JIocjH i*tidal, jJbj) parhz.
Temperature, JIjcjH tidal, ^^/* *-^>- hlat-i-sardT
garmt.
Temptation, .*, targhib (f.), ighwa, ylsrul imtihn.
Tenacity, cL~>L.U laslashat (f.), (JULsos- chipchiphat. (f.)
Tendency, J-^i mai, ^1?- mailn, jhuk'.
Tenderness, ^y^j narmi, bL^ kmalt (f.) : see Pity.
Tendril, sm, rsha, (of a vine) J-j , ^^-j e/L
Tcnour, (continuity) rawish (f.), (drift) \js'fahw: see Meaning.
278 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Tense, &kt*e sgha, Jj <U) zamna-i-ftl. Past, l_^Lo mzi. Pre


sent, JU- hol. Future, JJb.,,. mustakbil.
Tension, Tenseness, j*L kas',j khick', tn. (f.)
Tenter (hook), ^^\ ankr, anks.
Term, (limi0 >- hadd (f.), (word) db ai (f.) : see Condition.
Termination, Je- hadd,j- \ ahhir, (of a word) ^j>-\ uJf- harf-i-khir.
Terrace, ^y^- chabtara or chautara, A?w.
Terrour, dahshat (f.), J|y> haul, dar, ijp- khauf.
Testament (last will), <uli U-w-y wastyat-nma.
Testicle, <1*. a, <Ua- khusya, aw, VjLj pelr.
Testimony, tSJtil^) shahdat (f.), .Jb^ gawhl : see Evidence.
Tether, garnwan, \j pagh or l pag.
Tetter, jlj rfa", dinal, \y*~> slh',
Text, matn, JH sZ (f.), Jj*> mu, rawn.
Texture, <-!->jlJ binwat (f.), CJjUj bunwat, <jUi kimsh.
Thanks, Thanksgiving, ^Li> shukr, ijjte J*> shukr-guzrl.
Thaw,j*SL^ Ii ^J\j plt k pighl', <^>\ gudkht- (f-)
Theft, t_;^- chri, iJj duzd, j~~~ taskari, j~t sarika.
Theme, \t*c mansha, masdar, ci.^fC^< mab'has.
Theorem, 1< masa, kiys. Theory, /Ij kiys.
Thermometer, <s!t t_lX>^ l ^5"^ s^'ir' LfV*' garnit sard k
ek la.
Thicket, fa- jhund, "^>- j\$>- jhr-jhr (f.), js>- jangal.
Thickness, kj'^ye mtl, lsil kamfat (f.), ^jjl^is'gwTywI.
Thimble, angushtna, <p.
Thinness, tunuk, ^ patl', rikkat. (f.)
Thong, U~J tasma, jLj : see Strap.
Thorax, (JLj pi, < i^is iJJ~*> ^ ^^*"" chhit kl bhtr taraf.
Thorn, (tree) \l*>-j l i^-^ jfcnie k daralcht. (spine) 12 knt.
Thought, l^>-j~ schn, Jl>- khiyl, <4jjJ andesha, ^J^Jb dhyn.
Thraldom, Thrall, ghulmi, ^.iy^c. ibudiyat. (f.)
Thread, sf, </^ tag, icJj rishta, l^l&J dhg.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 279

Threat, Threatening, !*>J dhamka, j j^J tahdd (f.), jS>-j zijr.


Thrift, juzrasi, t>j*- kam-kfiarcht. wr.
Throe, jJ \b bam dard, j+j ptr (f.), sj j dard-i-zih.
Throne, i^sT takht, ^\^^> singhsan, u~~c masnad. (f.)
Throng, J-^J bhlr (f.), jJI ambh, fb-Jj! izdiham, ^jsl hujm.
Thrust, \=f)4 khnch, J-$j thtl (f.), \Jt dhakk, C>&> bhnk. (f.)
Thump, Thumping, ICtJ dhamka, & dhamak (f.) : see Stroke.
Thursday, jum'a-rt (f.), i^J^ssx^panj-shamba.
Ticket, ^j$>- chittht, tip (f.),JjjL-J dastwez. (f.)
Tide, (flood) jlj^- jawr (f.), madd (f.), (ebb) I^jI^ bhth,
jazr.
Tidings, akhbr, L-jJi: sandes, jUUj samchar.
Tier (row), <U ia (f.), CJ^ parat, t2o tabica, Jiss katr.
Tightness, kas't, v_j^> tang, chus,j Uj tan'5.
Tillage, <_?*b>- jut't, ^^J halwht, kisnal.
Tiller, WJtfc halwh, \j^>-J-i hal-jt, <i kulba-rn.
Timber, ZaAy, ^l <f gl-kth, i gola, c. (f.)
Timbrel, U? a&Za, tJot),* mirdang, ^j^J pakhwaj. (f.)
Timidity, (_Jj- khauf, <^J dahshat (f.), ^ kam-jur'att.
Tincture, (extract) Jy: aVa#, (colour) ^ rawg, (quality) gun.
Tinder, sdkhta, jf gZ, bb> shula.
Tinsel, j cfbj raunak-i-be- o baha, 1&~" jagjag.
Tint, j rang. Tip, sir, dijj wo/c, (blow) - ^5^

Tippler, J*~>~ chusakkar, piwakkar, <e>}j& sharahl.


Tissue (brocade), c^wjj zar-baft, \j bdl, . ^UJ tammi.
Titbit, y <Ui! lukma-tar, ni mat (f.), i\y> <-r>j>- carZ? nawla.
Tithe, (^LjJ dasnSjjLs- vshr, tlijit) dahyak.
Titillation, ,_<Jifj gudgudi, lj~>j> sursur.
Title, 4__>lk- khitb, i_^! Zofca or (plur.) _!1 alkb.
Titlepage, <ulj j*> sar-nma, j) sar-i-lauh.
Tittle, (dot, particle,) sarra, Kj' ', sar-i-.
280 Vocabulary. Nouns.

Tittletattle, <--~-/ gapshap (f.), -jhak. (f.)


Toast (dried bread), ^b> ^J~~> senkt h' rti.
Tobacco, .^ tambk, lL^j bhls, Jlf gal.
Toil, cuis^ mihnat (f.), <_>y>0 jyi daur-dhip (f.), (Jv* ta^a^- (0
Token, ^liJ nishn, pai, (memorial) u^lftib ydgri.
Tolerance, Toleration, ^ bardsht (f.), sah'.
Toll, /, LS&- chungi, rhdr!,j> .
Tomb,^ Aar (f.), gor (f.), makbara : see Grave.
Ton or Tun, ^Jj -^J ^ (r* (^~~> 1-^.^ karb fis man k k wazn.
Tone, awaz (f.), sad (f.), ^ lahja, J Zai. (f.)
Tongs, ta dast-panh, ^IjL-j sandst. (f.)
Tonsil, ijyy' kauft, ^J& gilf. Tonsure, (^Jc^o mundan.
Tool, jLgiA hathyr, ic!t lat(f.); (tools)jljjl auzr.
Topj^-StV, lL'>{ phunang (f.),j~sikhar, J^y*- chnt.
Toper, j^jj pwakkar, j~>> dabs (?) : see Tippler.
Topic, ^ mazmtin, <yy* *, [es* mudda'.
Topography, (jLj l ^^f- jagh k bayn.
Torch, uUi~c mash'l (f.), teAi falta, dmar.
Torment, L-j siysat (f.), (^-ool aztyat (f.), Ijoj ez. (f.)
Torpor, ^ji^sJiJ be-harakatt, ^^ l-jumbisht, .
Torrent, \j\> \J tez dhr, sai/ (f.), J'y for, ^jj nadt.
Torture, ^y!> ^W- jn-kant, i^- ukbat (f.), ^^-9 s/.
Total, Totality, &*&-jumla, ^*s>- jam* (f.\ jjyc moth, (f.)
Touchhole, ^ ^-^fj ranjak k srkh.
Touchstone, J^y- kasautt, mihakk (f.), jLc ^ sang-i-ayr.
Tour,jjJ daur, j*~ sair (f.), fjtj gardish (f.), (tum) ,_^ r.
Tow, cJbb ^L) lys ^JVr jhr h' sn or ^)i.
Town,^^ shahr, kasba, balda, y\s gw.
Townsman, ham-shahrt, (of a town) ^Jj^> shahrl.
Toy, Uy^ khilaun, 4=*qjb bazicha, ^s>- ^ khlne kl chtz.
Trace, Track, C lik (f.), b*<CJ naksha-i-p : see Footpath.
Tract, (of country) i^u^-jamb, ^.ly nawh (f.) : see Country,Treatise.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 281

Trade, ^sj&J^ saudgari, CJjbxT tijrat (f.), psha.


Tradition, t*z~i))j riwyat (f.), Jl tadwul, ti-o Jo- kadis.
Traffic,jLo baipr, ZjJ&r tijrat ({.), ^fb^-> saudgari.
Train, dam (f.), (skirt), ^J dman : see Retinue, Series.
Traitor, jb IiJ daghbz, namak-karm, ^b bghi.
Trammel, jb^- chhnd (f.), Jb>- bJ lambjl, bvjj paikarh.
Trance, sa/cta, ^bji lauhr, (ecstacy) Jo-j '' : see Swoon.
Tranquillity, rm, ^y>\ sdagi, J kal (f.), u-^ rhat. (f.)
Transaction,jbjjl^ krbr, Lobv* mu'mala, ^j> kartt. (f.)
Transfer, <Jjj=^ tahwil (f.), j^Jj tasllm. (f.)
Transformation, J> b <^/>^* J^.'V' tabdtl-i-srat or -shakl.
Transgression, ^jbs^ tajwuz, jy tr, ta'dd : see Fault.
Transit, Transition, guzr, j^s- br, JjA-j tabdl.{(.)
Translation, (version) <U^-y tarjuma, (removal) JUsj! intikl.
Transmigration, ^ICc Jj nakl-i-makn : see Metempsychosis.
Transparency, ^bLii shafff, yj*\j> barrki: see Clearness.
Transportation, JI! intikl: see Banishment.
Trap, J kal(f.\ Jj dabkar (f.), ^j\=^-jnti : see Snare.
Trappings, ^^};! r'ishen (f. plur.), (dress) ^j^bii^j pshkhl.
(f. plur.)
Trash, Jxjjfl gor bagar, (unripe fruit) bs kachch phal.
Travail, see Throe. Travel, y) safar, CJ^iL* musfarat. (f.)
Treacle, gwr, 15^- cht, <_j^ rJ (f.), jby tiryk.
Tread, kadam, > kadam-zanl, Jb>- cAZ.
Treason, ^\^~^ namak-harmt, t^Jjbu baghwat. (f.)
Treasure, <|^- khazna, *j rkar(f.), i^--J zakhra.
Treasury, <l. khazna, khazbia, &~& ganjna.
A Treat, i^iL ziyfat{{.\ CDyz dawatif^fjj^j'nr. (f.)
Treatise, Jbv; risla, s1 nuskha, <ub , c_>bi kitb. (f.)
Treatment, <^ijL> sulk, (JJtO dhang, LsJbm mu'laja.
Treaty, J-bc< mu'mala, sulh({.), J\J J^ kaulrkarr.
Tremour, l_s-- kapkapi, jtjji larzisk{f.), JLs-j ra sha.
2o
282 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Trencher, \Jfj& kathaufi, (trench-digger) khl-gar.


Trepan (saw used in surgery), $U mh (?), U^j parmh (?), <t=U
pecha. (?)
Trepidation, ijj$j$ tharthari, ijj lorza, JU JjS dol-mal. (?)
Trespass, \L>- Mai (f.), j-^S takstr(f.\ x\if gunh.
Tresses, t_j!j zulf(i.\ J kkul({.), ges, ijy-J babrl.
Tret (an allowance), l^1jJ)\ parlap, ^js-y skhtan, /\} ph'.
Trial, ,jjL<)! zm'ish (f.), ^Isi^l imtihn, (legal) J*5ae? tahk'ik. (f.)
Triangle, L- khatt-i-musallas. >js~i si-gsha.
Tribunal, cu-JIac adlat(f.), uXs.-* mahkama, >< masnad. (f.)
Tribute, >?', Mirqj,j bar, J&Z^j peshkash.
Trice, <tlJ lahza, J aam ; in a trice, l_s-> i j'ap se.
Trick, *Ls>- AZa, Jy J\5 tl-tl, <-^t.j> fareb, ^ /, J^*- chhal.
Trident, tirslor trisl.
Trifle, J^lj n-chiz, thrbt({.\ ^s> htch.
Trifler,jLo (^^j^-o makkht-mr, b'jjb tpt'iy, J& sjj* harza-kr.
Trigger, J^,_/ Jj1^ bandkki kal.
Trill, ^3 lahr, lJjPjP ^ j\ aiez tharthar.
Trimming, jy j^j zark-bark, (J^-%>- jhaljhal. (f.)
Trinity, <i-JJ asZ7s (f.), C-Jt slis-salsa.
Trinket, jjjj zewar, gahn, ^patt: see Toy.
Trio, </|j tlSj l ^J^JLc {Jas^'ljJ tin shakhsmilkar gan k ek rag.
Trip, (stumble) lachak (f.), /j$ thokar (f.) : see Error, Journey.
Tripe, ^xil anir, (ji-jT w (f.), raa, cL-o ai, ?^=>-jl jhaft.
Triplet, musallas, doy tripad-kabit.
Trituration, iJL~3b\Jj ragrhat (f.), pisa 5.
Triumph, ^j>-jai, fath (f.), ^jj^rozl, c^/ ^jai-glt.
Trollop, Ja^j phuhar (f.), ^Jjy , ^l^o ggZ.
Trope, jlsr* majz, cljLa ibrat (f.), <l kinya : see Metaphor.
Trophy, ^liJ l /aiA & nishn, ^s. ghanimat. (f.)
Tropic, (of Cancer) ^Ib^ k>- khatt-i-saratn, (of Capricorn) ^- la-
Ma<-t^'a7.
Vocabulary Nouns. 283

Trot, dulkl, JU- -chl. (f.)


Trouble, 4 dukJl> -*!^ taklf(f.), j-JJwa asdi* (f.), '1 ?z. (f.)
Trowel, kamt, ^If" thpt, ^<j^ surma'l. (?)
Truce, ^ ^ 4; ufj^ iAr zamarit k liy sulh. (f.)
Truck, ?\j! ^j-^j ^f" chhte-pahiye-dr grt : see Barter.
Trull, <_^\; ml-zdt, kasbt, btsw. (f.)
Trumpery, <J f*)/* harza-go', J& jjfl agar bagar : see Trash.
Trumpeter, ljjW;^Ju naftr-bajnewl, yz-^J* karncht.
Truncheon, ^Lafi s-i-hukm, tjy- cA& (f.) : see Club.
Trunk, (of a tree) <j tona, dby>- jarwat : see Box, Proboscis.
Truss, (of straw, 8cc.) S^j , (bandage) ^jSj patti, \Sjj langt.
Trustee, ^tacuJW amnat-dr, t^*\ amin,J\*ci zimma-dr.
Truth, sacA, ^J^-Aj rost, Xo sid: see Fidelity.
Tube, ^Jj nali, chng, ^ nai (f.), ^^y-fjgJ phkni.
Tuesday, mangal, <u> <u si-shamba.
Tuft, turra, S$>- jhund, ^s5 guchchha, (of hair) chanda.
Tug, khainch (f.), (f.), ^--^ kashish. (f.)
Tuition, (jLl nighbrii, (j^jfj^ parwarish (f.) : see Instruction.
Tumbler, tSJ nai, jbK kala-baz, (pigeon) Jjghirni : see Glass.
Tumult, bakhef, <u'la> hangma, shb.
Tune, jljl (f.), Jj^j sard, sur, lai (f.), ^Ij tan. (f.)
Tunic, ^j- , j kurta, (membrane) ufjl^ khalfi.
Tunnel, (funnel) chonga, (shaft) s\j rh (f.) : see Chimney.
Turbulence, -^*^ iztirb, khalbali, ^jj\ti dangabz.
Turn, plier, jU^f ghum', (tour) bar: see Change.
Turncoat, jLi<\^| zamna-sz.
Turning, iJLgardish (f.), j^J phir', (of a river) d^ib Jn.
Turpentine, fyji tc ganda birza.
Turret, kangra, jlx manar, ^>y. bur, jJZ kalas.
Tusk,^ bir (f.), ij\ khang, nah.
Twang, tankr (f.),jjL5 tankr (f.), ^ tan, ijfj*;* harhari.
Tweezers, \^>-y* mchn, \Saj>- chimt.
284 Vocabulary Nouns.

Twig, jj-J lais, L,fjf>- chhari, pallo, J>\ dl.


Twine, ;^ sutl, t,UJj rlsmn, (twist) pch : see Twist.
Twinkle, Twinkling (of the eye), ^~>- nkh kljhapkt.
Twist, (wrench) ^L\ ainth (f.), 'j* (f.) : see Bend, Thread.
Type, (mark) ^ lamat (f.), (emblem) tamfil. (f.)
Types (printer's), <j/>- i_<W" ^ Z: hurf.
Typographer, ^jI^j- chhapgar. Typography, ^j\A^>- chhapagar.
Tyranny, jjis zulm, jhr, andlitr, ^ fcahr.
Tyrant, jJU zj,lim,j*s~> sitamgar, J\b>- jafkr.
Tyro, j nau-triz, c5Jc--< mubtadi. (m.)
Vacancy, Vacuity, jL>- khul, Li- khal, i^Jy>-jauf: see Leisure.
Vacation, iU ngha, ju>\ antar, JJmJ ta*l. (f.)
Vagabond, Vagrant, j^ibj! aubsh, i^T wra, Ls5 luchch.
Valerian, |5 JU-jZZar7, ^jbL bil-lotan.
Valet, ^lii^Jci- khidmatgr.
Valetudinarian, ,jfly*Jljjtj d'imu-l-maraz, ^^j^>- janam-rgi.
Validity, (jf^jS-H ustuwri, jKLj1 istihkm, ^J~&{ yakirii.
Valley, Vale, nichn, ^Ji\^ ghtt, wdl, ij dara.
Valuation, ta'ln-i-kimat (f.), _}*1 ank'.
Value, ktmat(.), mol, bah,ji kadr. (f.)
Valve, kwr, ^Jj^ khirkl, (lid) ^^a dhakr.
Van, Vanguard, 1^ muhra, harawal, f\ agari.
Vane (weathercock), Uijb badnuma, pharahr.
Vanity, \^^>- jhthfakhr, ^s^i shlkhi : see Boast.
Variance, cJlxiU ikhtilf, ^jSs- aks, * zidd (f.), <-2^ pA. (f.)
Variation, JjJu tabdtl(t.), (of the compass) c^jy furkat.i. ?)
Variety, ^jifark, (mixture) ykj ^Jb tarh ba-tarah: see Sort.
Varnish, Zm/c, raughan, $ lakh.
Vase, iJJl Is ^jy ig bartan srat k k naksha.
Vassal, -*^ amrrii, tbi^dr. Vassalage, ^^ ghulmt.
Vat, (j>- , t^V^ chahbachcha.
Udder, l^J fw, /taw, khir'i.
Vocabulary.Nouns. 285

Vegetation, j^&Jb ^ CiilJLi nabatt blidagl, .


Vehemence, iZJJ* shiddat (f.), sakhti, jjj zr, ^cjoj tund.
Vehicle, >^> sawari, i>^jb barbardari, l*-rj* markab.
Velocity, tj^J tzi, ^b^-jald, ^j tund, *j)jj~> tzrawi.
Velvet, (Jas* makhmal.
Veneration, |j^\ ikrm, ^Jj takrtm (f.), - joiiy. (f.)
Venom, ^bj , ^ samm, bik/t, bis.
Vent, chhed, y- svtrkh, wis : see Breath, Sale-
Ventilator, l-fi^b bdkash. Ventilation, ^i^jb bdkasht.
Venture, ijh~ kliatra, ^j>- jkhim (f.), (of goods) \Jo\S tanda.
Veracity, [_J^\ rstl, /^ sacha!, t^-JlJw! sadkat. (f.)
Verb, ^jJL Verdict, jj^^ tajwiz{{.), JLul infisl.
Verdigrise, j\j zangar, pitra!, (dakh.) Jlj zangal.
Verdure, 4jrJ-o sabzi, sarsabz, ^'\ har't.
Verge, (border) c^J lab, j\i kinra, (wand) chhar.
Vermicelli, ^Jc^^yU^ kirmrii gandum, Jly~> stwa!. (f.)
Vermilion, i_J/Li shingarf, ingur.
Verse (line), misrct, tl> mA, t^i jfard (f.) : see Poesy.
Versification, 2j tanzim (f.), <^$-> <H-i^ kfiya-bandi.
Vertebra, *j> ^$ 3\! dnd girih, (of the neck) \~* .
Vespers, jljU namz-i-shm, l^sd-s sanjh(f.), lix tsh.
Vessel, (cask) Lj pip, (bason) Jij bartan, (ship) j\^>- jahz : see
Tube.
Vestige, b*AJ naksha-i-p, ^lU nisn, ^ai.
Veteran, SJytj\ Ss>- jang-zmda, L5>b~J purana sipah.
Vexation, j-JJbi tasdf (f.), \joj s (f.), dukh.
Ugliness, ^Jijyo^ bad-sra, ^j'jj lsi>j zisht-ru!.
Vibration, lSj&j tharthart, CJfa pharak (f.), ^->r jumbish. (f.)
Vice, cJo iarf, /!^ bur'i, i, ^^ sharrat. (f.)
Vicinity, j|y>- j awr, karbat{.\ paros.
Vicissitude, c^jy naubat (f.), Jr, j'Ij d' ; see Change.
Victim, ^Jjji kurbn, Jj balyjA^nichhwar.i.)
286 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Victor, yUs zfir, ghlb, ~ fath-mand, ghazx.


View, ato nigk (f.), Ji nazar (f.), eUjJ drisht (f.) : see Prospect.
Vigilance, t_f^J-J bedrt, ^S- khabardri, ^Lj hshyri.
Vigour, j^J zr, CLy kwat (f.), Jj aZ, u^Je i/tai. (f.)
Villa, b >ag-A. l3b btik, ilj <U- Mina-bgh.
Villain, Jlj^s- haramzada, <J^<i>- chandl, <_5* p- (m.)
Villany, ^g^j^j>- haramzadagi, ^yjblcj daghabz.
Vine, lL^Ij i, c^y lj^fjl angr k darakht.
Vinegar, sira, J- . Vineyard, ^li-^&t angristn.
Vintage, Jis ^ angr fash
Violation, ^* fasldi, ^JL-Jii shikastagl, bigr.
Violence, j}j zr, "y^tr, j^-jabr, t_. ~c ghazab,
Virginity, ti^Kj bakrat (f.),J bikr (f.), ^j-jJ dshzag.
Virility, uS^r mardi, ci^Jj^ rajliyat (f.), ab &A. (f.)
Virtue, ^ji &, ', (efficacy) ^ gun: see Effect.
Virulence, shiddat (f.), t_<^*- sakht, ^joj uwdl.
Visage, jij rw, n"t',jldoJ dtdr, chihra.
Visibility, Visibleness, jj^ls zuhr, ^jSjytj namdari.
Vision, t_s'b.j , (phantom) JU- Jchiyl : see Sight.
Visit, Cjli)Lc mulakat (f.), -.^ < (f.), l^^r* mujra.
Visitant, Visitor, ^s'^je* mujr't, byL^ bhentwaiy.
Vitality, ^ ^jj rh-parwar, jndrt.
Vitriol, ^.Ij 2y, (blue) Ljjj ttiy.
Vivacity, JJ ajjj zinda-dil, ^j\> JJ dil-shd.
Vixen, larnk. Vizard, Vizor, t^ -e^-* mukh-chhp.
Umbrella, b"l$>. chht,ji>- chhattar, tr#f- chhatr.
Umpire, ti-J sZz'i, ^V*^ darmiynl, i*Jiai* munsif.
Unanimity, jl'l ittifk, ^JJ\ ek-dili, ek-mari.
Unbelief, ^oljcjH ^ b-i*tikd, J& kufr, ilhd.
Unbeliever, Asc*.< j ghair mutakid, & kafir: see Infidel.
Uncertainty, ijtjj-* ghair mukarrari, shakk.
Uncleanness, ^bU n-pki, n-sfl : see Filth.
Vocabulary Nouns. 287

Unction, ^iiU mlish (f.), /^-* J~> tl-mal'l : see Ointment.


Underling, cz>J,jJ ztr-dast, IjLyS tahl', y^i talihr.
Undertaker, (of funerals) jjJ kafan-doz : see Contractor.
Und.erwoodjJl^jrj^jl^p-jAHfcar, ijifarjhrl.
Underwriter, 3\j l5*j btme-wl.
Undulation,^! lahar (f.), I^V hilr, hilkr. (f.)
Uneasiness, ^y^'^ -rmi, ^buJ betabi, ^^sX) btchaim.
Unevenness, ^lytl n-hamwrt, ^yuJLj nashbfarz.
Unfavourableness, ^j\j*X> n-murdt. Unfitness, ,_/|13 n-rasi.
Ungracefulness, {jQij n-ztb'ish. (f.)
Ungratefulness, ^-iL~>U n-sipsl.
Uniformity, tJL.CA k-sn, ^jjAji barbarl, mtl.
Union, \Jj&i yagnagi, jfb-jr, y_S^>^l paiwastagi.
Unit, yakl, ahad, ikk.
Unitarian, Jo-^c muwahhid, i*L~J\!:" munkir-i-tasUs.
Unity, e^.^^ ahadiyat (f.), ,_/bL> yakil, yagnagl.
Universality, tu-1 hulllyat (f.), i^-wej* mumiyat. (f.)
Universe, jJU am, CJbJ^ k'int (f.), CL^y tri-lk.
Unkindness, jJb^O n-mihrbrii, i^nc^ b-mihri.
Unlawfulness, l;-^jU n-durusti, ^yLl^ be-insft.
Unreasonableness, ^Jjx^U n-maxkul.

Unruliness, ^^ ^ -zab, ^^^ b-lagaml, ^j\J^> magr't.


Unseasonableness, ^ b-wakf, ^<&2 ^> b-hangm.
Unsteadiness, i^fj\ b-karr, ^y^jj b-sabtt.
Unsuccessfulness, ^^ b-maksadl, ^Lotli n-kmybi.
Untruth, ,^~>^ n-rsti, jhth : see Falsehood.
Unworthiness, ijj ^J bt-kadri, |_/> n-rasl.
Vocabulary, t^&J^i farhang (f.), c^ii lughat (f.), 31 jU nm-ml.
Vocative (case), IjJ nid (f.), ^ii^*^ sambdhan.
Vociferation, ^--ijjji shr-pushti, Uji ghaugh : see Noise.
Vogue (fashion), ritoiy (f.), JU- cAi, ^jl- chalan.
Void (empty space), ^SU- khlljagah, Li- khal, ^U- khul.
288 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Volcano, ^jfL*1\)>- jwl-mukhl, J\iJ\uL\ kh-i-tashafshn.


Volley, ^ shaikh, j^ dhur (f.), (dakh.) jjjj dewar. (f.)
Volubility, (aptness to roll) ^^ lurhl : see Eloquence.
Volume, >- jild (t.),j daftar, (compass) phail'5.
Volunteer, -**^ najtb. Voluptuary, j^L^ iysh.
Vomit, ^Ja~~c mustafrigh,jj\ ^ t-/^ daw-i-kai-war.
Voracity, q>- j'ii-l-bakart, ^j-l^ll y>- ju'-l-kalbi.
Vortex, jL>- chakr, <-r>\jb girdb, bhawar.
Votary, ^jjAsfidw, dcj banda, j*l ghulam, (jJi das.
Vote, kaul, CJb bat (f.), ^Jy bl : see Consent.
Voucher, s\ gawh, dtil (f.), dastwez. (f.)
Vow, i^-w niyat (f.),jjJ (f.), i^Ji-j sankalp.
Voyage, yLs ,_/bjO dary'l safar, yL> Ii ter safar.
Upholstery, <_>L-)\ lj ghar ka asbab, ti\- ^ULj smn-i-khna.
Upland, |_5^^ zamin. (f.)
Uproar, *)U Jx ghuhghapara. \j ghavgh, <ulj> hangma.
Upshot (result, consequence), aWcM anjm, natlja.
Upside, uJjs^jj}\ upar taraf. Upstart, L^ij^j nau-daulat.
Urbanity, Ojrf murwat (f.), ^'I^j bhalmansl.
Urchin, see Hedge-hog ; iXij laund, =g bachcha.
Urethra, ajjli n'izha or n'iza, ^Jy< mutni.
Urgency, LUj takm, ^J^-"* sakhti, <Jj)s xarrat. (f.)
Urinal, y_) karra, JjJ baul-dn, ylJ -'^^ peshb-dn.
Urn, t/^=- charas, j! daZit', ^oAS guldn,j\y~ satlwr. (f.)
Usage, cL^Lj suluk, ts-^j ri (f.), Jb- cAo7 (f.), iji-O dastr.
Use, JUjc-j! isti mal, amaZ, ^t Am : see Custom, Need.
Uselessness, ^^013 -bakrl, ^LsU- l-hsilt, ^JS) akj.
Usurer, jjri- byj-khor,jyi- tij-j sd-khr, ^j>-\ tyji.
Usurper, jl^J ij^dJ dast-darz, l-~>J ^Jj zabar-dast, fc_~pl ghsib.
Usury, ^lo Jya/, or (dakh.) jLj Jy- j^i-Juj bdastr sud.
Utensil, bartan, i-jjs sarf, hathyr : see Tool.
Utility, Usefulness, kam, AjI fa'ida, jj na/*,
Vocabulary.Nouns. 289

Utterance, uchckr, la)j talaffus, Ass^j lab-o-lahja.


Uttermost, Utmost, ^-,\ nihyat (f.), u-jI ghyat (f.), <-^;j

Vulgar, (^UJI wammu-n-nas, kunjre, Jljj! arzl.


Uvula, \<fi l s- aZit k kaww, ol^i Zai (? ), Sj! Z/ (?).
Uxoriousness, ^y jj zan-murldi, jj)>- jr-parasii.
Wad, Wadding (of a gun), <ly nawla, asaw (?).
Wafer, v_slo iifc, chapr, \Jj tikiy, 1L~ chipt.
Wager, Ly. sarl! (f.),jj* hr (f.),jb cf', c^-b J burd-. (f.)
Wages, i^^Us talab, Le4 mihnatana, ij>ki~o mushhara.
Waggery, ^Ju.J garf, thathbz, ^-^ hasi.
Wail, Wailing, ^ JU nla--zrt, >- nauha.
Wainscoat, ^<xj ss? takhta-band, i_joJ|JU. khtim-bandi.
Walk,^- sair (f.), c:-.,..,^ gasht, (gait) JW- cA/, (path) alj r/. (f.)
Wallet, i^jhl, J-Jj zambl (f.), ^J^jhti.
Walnut, <-bjy>H akhrt,^c\>- chr-maghz.
Wand, (j>f$*- chhari, Lie es, Lf:4J kamchi, l^Sjpatkan.
Want, ihtiyj, i^~o~\s>- hjat (f.), ^g&J tang, db\ ght.
Ward, (guarding) chaukt, (of a lock), Jf>- JAar : see District.
Wardrobe, ^b-AJ libsdn, <U-<Liy tsha-khna.
Ware, Wares, !>j-i saud, {tJ^j>-jins (f.), Jto 1,^>- chz. (f.)
Warfare, ^jjis*- jang-war, ^j\Js>- jangbzt.
Warmth, garnit, <-Z->j)/>- hararat (f.), (ardour) <-L/Uj tapk.
Warning, ittil* (f.),j-- khabar (f.), ght.
Warp (the threads lengthwise in a loom), tri,j3 tar.
Warrant, dastak (f.), farman, (voucher) j^-j sanad, (f.)
Wash, (cosmetic) ^jiMwitow, <^gulgna, (washing) ^jlbJ dhull.
Waste, (land) <bj wlrna, kharba : see Ruin.
Waste-book, IjI^ kht, ^> ^jfi>\- jnkar kl bahi, \j~4> khasr.
Watch, cS^^ bedrl, (guard, watching) ^)>- chauk, (guard,
sentinel) b^J pahra, i^V*-^ psbn, (time piece) iSj$>'ghar.
Watchhouse, U-^ijs- chauki-khna.
2 p
290 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Watchmaker, ^.J^J ghari-banant-wala.


Waterfall, JJ\ bshr, li^s-jharn, chdar. (f.)
Wax, mom, ^a> sham* (f.), (sealing) lkh, cS lk.
Way, (road) *]j rh (f.), s~ij rasta, cSy sarak (f.) : see Method.
Wayfarer, ^t\j rahi (m.), ^j&>& batjhi (m.), jS^j rhgtr.
Weakness, kamzdrl, ij^y ntawrii, ^?*** za'fi.
Weal, e^-ibU) rafhiyat (f.), Jiji tarakki, ^Jo^L! ikblmand.
Wealth, t^-Jj daulat (f.), dhan, JL> mZ, LS-*ef lachhmi.
Weapon,jL$i hathyar, &ij>- harba, silh. (f.)
Weariness, ^ib mndagl, iJUli thakhat (f.), ^sf-bi '.
Weather, mausim, aiyam, dJj rit (f.), din.
Web, ^J\s?jal, -^jUj binwat (f.), ^l^i iAn, (film) ^s^jhilti.
Wedding, iyA, ^jLi shd, (feast) ijts>- jashn.
Wedge, j^, pachchar (f.), ^*q phani, mekh (f.), thk.
Wedlock, e^JU- hlat-i-nikhl.
Wednesday, jsjo JadA, <Ui->jU- chr-shamba.
Weed, chikhuran, ~\ ghs, (widow's weeds) La!j rndsl.
Weight, (for weighing) bat, !^iJL*j bat-khar, i~> sang,
wazn, (heaviness) bhar, (importance) jSi kadr. (f.)
Welcome, cu^jjT 'bhagat (f.), tawzu* (f.) : see Respect.
Welfare, bhall, ijJ^J bihtari, J^Z chhlm-kushal. (f.)
Welkin, aks, \jt> haw (f.) : see Sky.
Wellbeing, bihbd_^-- khar : see Welfare, Prosperity.
Wellwisher, s\f-j~>- khair-khwh, Hjs^H -khwh.
Wench, lAj u)b" jaw^n rand, ^j^>- chhkrl, ^Joj laundi. -
Wetness, ^b^J namnkt, (_s'L^ gl', >2--^)> rutubat-dr,
tari.
Whale, ^s.-^e magar machchh (?), izi^- Am (f. ?).
Wharf, dL>\p ght. Wharfage, Jj\f ghatwrt.
Wheel, ^Cs- chakr, \^pahiy, (potter's) cL/l>- cA;.- see Spinning.
Wheelwright, \ ijbj pahiy-banrii-wl.
Whelp, h pill, taft<~> sag-bachcha, (tiger's) baghel.
VocabularyNouns. 291

Whetstone, ^Lj sn (f.), ^Li sill, ^jj^jpatthri, fisn.


Whiff, (jjL sns (f.), |*J dam, Qphnk (f.), CJ>j$>~jhrak (?)
While, (time) l-^ wakt, (length of time) OJi^o muddat. (f.)
Whim, Whimsey, JL- khiyl, lahar (f.), tlJ lalak (f.), ^
;, (f.)
Whip, chbuk, \^tf kr, ^jf^ kamcki, bjlji tziyna.
Whirl, ij^ gardish (f.), ghum', JLjj\) bd-resha.
Whiskers, 4>-y mchk (f.), CUjj> burt (f.), ggf gchh (?).
Whispering, phasphashat (f.), ^-^j^-^ kkusar-phusar.
Whistle, (musical pipe) <_?-^ bnsri, (whistling) ^S-*0 s7j*.
Whit (point, jot, tittle), <2 nukta, ^Jj rati, Jj t*i7, ISoJ tink.
Whiteness, uJuL sufaidi, bayz (f.), 5*^>-1 ujl'i.
Whitewash (a compos, of lime and water), ^JZ kali.
Whiting, j^J^fsr* ^ j*~5 t^_So\ eA # ft machhU: see Chalk.
The Whole, <U kulliya, ^*-jamx (f.), *&-jumla: see Total.

Wick, ia, ^yb Jail, &xbifalita.


Wickedness, ^jj 6aa7, ijyj zabnl, <->j\f* sharrat. (f.)
Wicket, khirki, daricha.
Widow, blw (f.), Xi^ rnrf. (f.) Widower, Ijljj rand'.
Widowhood, bljuj randp, bewagi, btwapan.
Width, kj\*f>- chaur'l, ^oli^ kushdagi, (of cloth) ei>b pt,ji bar.
Wi L5<y l/ 1 * P*> <Jj *
Wight, i**o\ admi (m. f.), -jan, ijos* shakhs, kas.
Wild, Wilderness, ^bLj bayban, \jS? sahr, j>- jangal.
Wildgoosechase, *0oU-j bef'ida sai, v^+sr ob^ barbad mih-
nat. (f.)
Wile, <nL=- 7, makar, CJ^ks ^jra (f.), bj butta.
Will, (choice) ^^* marzi, b>- chah, (last) <ub i^-v-ej wasiyat nma.
Will-o'-the-wisp, chhalw, hkri (?).
Wimble, l^j barm. Winch, <fc-jj Ii (j.^ charkht k dasta.
Windegg, ^Jk>- khki and. Windingsheet, kafan.
Windfall, \y>- ch', J$j ^paraphai, (figur.) jbljci. khud-dd.
292 Vocabulary.Nouns.

Windlass, ^1^ argbd (?), J^isx* manjarik.


Wink, ^J~&? jhapk : see Hint. Wipe, ponchh : see Stroke.
Wire,j\j' tar, s*j rishta. Wire chain, i^J*~*> silcri, sa'i.
Wisdom, J kl (f.), danTi, AAi budh (f.), JdZ gyan.
Wise, ^Jb tarah (f.) : see Manner.
Wiseacre, &fjj> If? kachcha buzurg,^ssrti lal-bujhakkar.
Wisp, ift pula, (_sSjl 3n<7, \jy>- jun, ^jbj grh (?).
Wit, ^j^jj-J tz-fahml, ziArt : a Wit, Ci^J admi.
Witch, doten (f.), ^j> dankani, jadgarni.
Witchcraft, _;^- jd, \j tn,js?* sihr, ,_/\>-j\ jh'i (?).
Witness, (testimony) CJjl^ shahdat (f.), (person) >1> shhid.
Witticism, nukta, ^Jj zrak, J bazla, ls-X>- jugat. (f.)
Wo, j gham, Sjj\ andoh, (J^ sog, j~y~>\ afsos, jjU matam.
Womankind, CLi\ lJ^j rand-zt (f.), Li pile lam-i-nis.
Womb, - rihm, bachcha-dn, ^ kkh (f.), <^^ pe.
Wonder, L-^ ta'jjub, \&>-\ achambh, clj>- hairat. (f.)
Wood, (the substance) //, kth : see Forest, Timber.
Woof, pud, ^j&> bharm, lib bn.
Wool, n (f.), ^Lj pashm (f.), r're, t_iy> m/.
Word, Si (f.), bachan, ^sz* sukhan : see Message, Pro
mise.
Work, /, ^.li Ay, d^o/r* mihnat (f.) : see Book, Workmanship.
Workmanship, <jsij& karigari, ^ san'at (f.), masriu.
Worship, t_pi-^J parastish (f.), CJjL ibdat (f.), ^fSfc' bhajan.
Worth, t^-v*-3 kimat (f.), Jj^ ml,jM kadr (f.), is-L3j fazlat. (f.)
Wrangle, Wrangling, l^p- jhagr, dL^^jy jhanjhat, ragr.
Wrangler, j>\j$>-jhagrl, l&lj! larnk, hujjat.
Wrapper, iU! liffa, cJ$2-J btthan, s*? <^~ dast-bukcha.
Wrath, .(, ghazab,j* kahr, js-jazba, <_Jj p.
Wreath, (garland) L>> siAr, j^ , (thing twisted) ^j .
Wreck, (of a ship) \ khakhr (?), ^J>J ^ kish gha-
rati : see Ruin.
Vocabulary Verbs. 293

Wrench, (instrument) jU^JS> tl&j ^ ^ i'c^ ^ Aaf-


yY: see Twist.
Wretch, i^Jsx^ kam-bakht. \jj nigr, (^- n-kas : see Poor.
Wretchedness, ^^ kambakhfi, ^llJ^J parshm, u-J zillat. (f.)
Wrinkle, ^j-- (f.), ^^Sl shikan (f.), ^5>- jhuri, j~> sikr. (f.)
Writing, Writ, ^/ss? tahrr (f.), tbjl^fl likhwat (f.), 1_8;,;.} tes-
n/. (f.)
Wrong, jjis SM?m, ^j-^ na-hakki, l^J bid'at (f.).
Yard, (measure) gaz, zir*, (enclosure) i^s? sahn, lil angn.
Yarn, clj> l ft s, clj~ st.
Yearning, ^ibl^ b ib>- ijjj or khwhish, j dard.
Yeast, (tit* maya, j*>- khanr, j^J tari : see Leaven.
Yell, chkh (f.\jb>- chikkar (?) : see Roar.
Yeoman, (fji L5& milkt log, jljle mlguzr, kisn.
Yoke, ija-^u', $\y>- j'th, (pair) \"y>-jr, L^Ju>-juft.
Yolk, (or Yelk) of an egg, ui^J ^ awde A zard, IjU mawa. (f.)
Young (of any creature), bachcha, JiL jfi/ : see Child.
Youth, ijlj- jawani, t_>L shabab, ^y^jban: see Young man.
Zeal, ^t garmi, c: hamiyat (f.), ^ej^ sar-garmi.
Zone, (girdle) Joj kamarband, (frigid) *<lai^ mintaka-e-
mabruda, (temperate) ! jcjk '<tai^> mintaka-e-mutadila, (torrid)
s^sr* *L. mintaka-e-mahrka.
Zoology, cvlijj-a- Ix ilm-i-haiwnt.

VERBS OF FREQUENT USE.

To abandon, bsT tajn, Ii^ d> tark-karn, bjfj^s- chhrn.


To abase, bjl^; pachhrn, \>\j> 'girn, JJi karn.
To be abashed, UlJ lajn, UU^i sharmn, Ujs~' sukuchn.
To abate, bl^gAaJK, kimat kam karn.
294 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To abdicate, tygn, chhorn : see To abandon.


To abet, \j JA* madad karn, bjJ b himmat or tar-
ghib dtn.
To abhor, liStfi ^yO eftir bhgn, ZJji b ts^-JS!^ karhiyat or
nafrat rakhn.
To abide, L~j basn, ^ thaharn, Lb, rahna.
To abjure, b (_1^ inhirf karn, \>j ti-oJo- AatfJ.? karn : see
To reject.
To be able, bX-j sakn, pj '/ Aon, b^| cuJlb ia rakhn.
To abolish, bjJ lg5t uthden, liliU mitn, \> iJyo maukf'karn.
To abound, UjL! umadn or bjL*c\ umandn, Ujb jy**-* mmur hdn.
To abrade, (act.) bjfj ragarn, bb~$f ghisn, (act. or neut.) L-$f
gAisw.
To abridge, ^j^iM-* mukhtasar karn, ^ jLaH ikhtisr karn.
To abscond, Lfc; U^- chhip rahn, Ufbj bhgn, UjA (j^fijj rcpsh
hn.
To absolve, b_ Lvc mubarr karn, \j ulu m'f karn.
To absorb, L$j~j skhn, i>s>-jazb karn, bL khapn.
To abstain (from), Iii jb b^j Jar or iz w, parhtz karn.
To abstract, <_jll intikhb karn : see To select, extract.
To abuse, (revile) UjJ ^jgli den, (ill treat) b ^^jLj jj bad-suluk
karn.
To accept, bJ Un, b^ JjJ kdbl karn, Libe mnn.
To accept (a bill of exchange, &c), bjlL- sakrn.
To accommodate, b ^>- khabar-glrl karn, bb* mann.
accompany, > L* hamrh hn, \>J> rifkat karn.
To accomplish, b^ |^ pwr karn, LfebJ nibhn, bjLo srn.
To account, (compute) b^U-i shumr karn, (answer for) ^jb<b>\f>-
\>Jtjawb-dihi karn,
To accuse, b^j dkhn, b^JjjcJ da*w karn, bJbbj dhnsn.
To accustom, b Ljj b ^jbs? b UJlc dat or muhwara or raJ/
Vocabulary. Verbs. 295

To ache, Ljii dukhn, UL pirn, Ii j dard karn.


To acknowledge, ^ j\J>\ ikrr , LU- mnn.
To acquaint, UjJ- b ^o\ ittil* or khabar karn : see To inform.
To acquire, \j (J-sl^- hsil karn, \j\iiTi/ paid karn, 0L kamn.
To acquit (of crime), 1^ *Lj be-gunh thahrn : see To absolve.
To act, U^ karn, (a character) Ii^ Jj nakl karn.
To actuate, UJ ^j>- harakat dina, IjI^-j sarkna.
To adapt, 1^ c_-~iLo b JL muwfik or munsib karn.
To add, lil lagn,\j"^>- jorn, (up figures) \j gathri karn.
To address (a letter), L$3 b,-.- l (_^>- chitth k sarnma likhn.
To adduce, Uj Zn, \jhj batln : see To bring, relate.
To adjust, Lo -r^y tarb den, chukn, \i ci-^J durust
karn.
To admit, 0 tJT n den; (to allow) JLJ Aa&Z karn.
To admonish, bLe-*-- samjhn, uu^su nasihat karn.
To adopt, b ^ y-r5-* mutabann k ikhtiyr karn, (use)
^ ..Lfcc maZ ln.
To adore, L>-.jpM;re, Ls bhajn, \j tirs# bhajan karn.
To adorn, b^^i-s sawrn, \jj\&~ sudhrn, bbj bann.
To advance (v. .), barhn, \j tarakkl karn.
To advance (v. a.), Vjbbjj barhn, bl>- chaln: see To propose.
To advance (money), li0 ^^ pshgt den.
To advertise, b ishtihr karn, \jJi zhir karn.
To advise, Lo oscUaj nasihat den, b^ karn.
To afflict, Uli-i satn, Li> uO takUf den.
To agitate, bl> hiln, Lo yl> jumbish den, (in the mind) U^j
jfir .
agree, bjb J^Lc b ^-^ or muttak hn, LLc mnn.
To agree (to stipulate), b liJsr b J\J\ b I?,-! sAarjf or ikrr or
bachan karn.
To aim, LbJjb ; - * shast bndhn, LCi takn : see To guess.
To alight, utarn, by> J'farod hn.
296 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To allow, LiU manna, \>_f JjJ kabl ; (to permit), UJ dina;


(to abate) IjlS^griiw, ii-er takhff den.
To allure, >0 fareb dina, UlgJ lubhn, UL~$j phusln.
To alter, UIjj badaln, \j Jr'^ tabd'd karn, \j jJ taghir karn.
To amass, jJ>\j farham karn, ti^ 7* karn.
To amaze, bhachkn, \j djf- hairn karn.
To amuse, Ul^ bahln, UjJ ^^j tafrh den.
To animate, U5L>- jiln ; (to encourage) >J ^Jlbi dhras den.
To annex, li$ lagaa, jrn, \j Jj-j paiwand karn.
To annoy, liLs^* khijn, 0 ^.J^' tasd* den.
To anoint, li ^^^' > (if or tadhin karn, UL< maln.
To answer, IjJ ^j! Ij <__>- Jatci or uttar den, (to suit) Iii _C$3
iAz w.
To appear, Uf*^-> svjhn, U^lj nazar n, lJ ^^4^ dikhll den.
To applaud, / karn, IaI^ sarhn, Lu (^bUi
shbsht den.
To apply, (v. n.) li lagn ; (to suit) Ul tlfi *7 n; (v. .) \w
lagaa, t>jj^- jrn; (to address to) U u^wJjiyJ darkitwst
karn.
To appoint, Ul thahrn, U^ mukarrar karn.
To appraise, Ujj ktn, USol nkn, UV^^ / thahrn.
To approach, \3 c-^y . C-^ V. ^ity nazdlk or ^?s or karib n.
To approve, ^ Jej pasand karn, bj&U- chhn, U^i kabln.
To argue, U i^~s?~ hujjat karn, \ i^ssr bahs karn, \j <l\j bad
karn.
To arise, U$31 uthn, "|*- charhn.
To arrange, UJ t_..y tartib den, \jj\j-> sanwrn.
To arrive, ^^j pahunchn, Ol n, lijA ^lj wkT hn.
To ascend, charhn, toy> \L buland hn, L&L bilangn.
To ascertain, Jm=e? tahklk karn, lij^f thahrn.
To ascertain (a disease), (>^a;~j tashkhls karn.
To ask, pchhn, 1aI>- chhn; (ask for) UoL mngn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 297

To assault, \j c^-ti L*r>- hamla or takht karn.


To assist, \j JJuj madad , ^--> sambhln: see To help.
To assuage, L>J cLiakT takhff dn, U^ iJo^S thand karn.
To assume, UJ ln, (grant, admit) \>j> ^J> farz karn.
To assure, Ii j\J\ ikrr karn, (to comfort) L> J ^^lJ tasall dn.
To astonish, li^ ^,1 hairn karn, \j\~p-jhabkn.
To attain, (v. n.) lis^j ^ baham pakunchn, (v. a.) U ^j lb/i"
karn.
To attempt, \j iXa5 b ^gX-i b ^J^ kshish or or kasd karn.
To attend, (wait on) Lb> ^U- < rahn, (observe) \i ^LaO
dhyn karn, (as a physician) b \j b <^1 mu'laja or
ifeir karn.
To attest, UJ ^1)^ V. i_*^~> shhidl or gawhi dn, (to sign)
U^ ?a karn.
To attract, bjcL$ khainchn, \j ij'e^jazb karn: see To allure.
To avail, Ut fcm w, \j x\if'ida karn.
To avert, \i Jj V.jj^ or daf* karn, bJ .
To augment, \i\>y_ barhn, \> ijbj ziyda karn.
To avoid, Uji j\j>-\ \)_ JJkji parhz or ihtirz karn, bs? bachn.
To avouch, avow, kahn, \j J\Js\ ikrr karn, \j^lls zAir
arw.
To awake, (v. n.) U^U- jgn, \&>-jagn, (v. a.) b^-jagaw.
To babble, Lj bakn, Uio Jjjfl bakn, barbarn.
To back, (mount a horse) sawr , (second) ^ i.^1-^
pushti karn.
To backbite, blg ^5^**- chughU khn, \>j i^-.* ghibat karn.
To bait, (a hook) b^> j\j>- chra rakhn, (take food) b <-blj
nshta karn.
To bake, , (to make bread) bjjpra.
To balk, bjj Sb bl dn, \j r** b ^ n-ummd or mahrxim
karn.
To bang, b mrn, Ulo pitn, \ JjA dawZ lagn.
2 Q
298 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To bar, IjLj bcnd lagaa, (obstruct) rokn, \)J -j sadd


karn.
To banish, 0 b- jil-watan , \O ^0 des-nikl den.
To bargain, (promise) b J^j wa*da karn, (to buy) bJ J^. /

To bark, (as a dog) bhaunkn, (v. a. a tree, 8tc.) -$>- chh'iln.


To bate, UlS^g/iaiH, l^ ^ ^ kmat k kam karn.
To bathe, (v. n.) lily nahn, (v. a.) Ij^s Ji ghusl karn, \>\
nahln.
To bawl, ^jlG pukrn, chilln, lijU &b> An mrn.
To be, to become, Uyb An, Ua> rahn, \ut bann, U\=>-y> Kjn.
To bear, (endure) sahn, l3^ (_^->'i^j bardsht karn, (carry)

To beat, LiLj pltn, Ii mrn, \ fne : see To conquer.


To beckon, Ii Uj! b *,li>l ishra or iw karn.
To become, (suit) lijA muwk or f'/jfc : see To be.
To beget, UUis- janmn, \j Ijuj paid karn.
To beg, b&U JA/cA mngn, \j suwl karn, \i>\&~chhn.
To begin, (v. a.) \j ^jJL shur* karn, (v. .) 1 lagn, bjbJcJ
nandAw.
To begird, LfeJJb kamar bndhn, UiL-i lapetn, U^ Jj iand karn.
To beguile, lit^J bahkn, boJ i^iji fareb den, UjJ jJ da? /.
To behave, bl- (^- chalan chaina, b>>Lj nibhn.
To behead, UjLo gardan mrn, \1>1^-i sir ktn.
To behold, b>$jO dekhn, bjb bilkn, b^^kj nasar karn.
To behove, bjb i__-~A~<> b j3\j- muwk or munsib hon.
To believe, bJU mnn, ^>j^i bwar karn, bjU- jnn.
To bellow, bjl$ dakrn, b)L>- chilln, \jjji> shr karn.
To belong, lagn, bjA jjje muta'llik hn.
To bend (v. a.), b |>- b IJ-j irA or / karn, bVfy nihurn.
To benum (v. a.), \j\^5^j thithurn or thithirn, \> ^ sun karn.
To bequeath, b^c ,.$0 de marn, b <U b c^^j wafiyat or A> karn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 299
To beseech, \>\vpj> girgirn, \jj ^J/>-^- V. [J^. binti or jizi karn.
To beset, \>j*p ghern, \ ^ls4 muhsara karn.
To besiege, UJ j*$ gher Un, \>J> iSjs* muhsara karn.
To besmear, U-J lepn, ^Jf^- chuparn, Xiji'&i til karn.
To bestow, > ijZs? bakhsh den, \>J* ac at karn, J den.
To betoken, U ic-JJ dallat karn, \ batln.
To betray, UJj~> ^ ojbliJ dagh-bzt se sompn, (a secret) Uj}^
phrn, b bjjxjj parda-dari karn.
To betroth, l^S V. ^-> nisbat or mangn karn, \> c_>j~-<
mansb karn.
To bid, kahn, lib-o sunn : see To command, invite.
To bid for (offer a price), U noZ karn.
To bilk, t^jblij daghabzi karn, Xiji -rV^ farb karn.
To bind, LbJjb bndhn, bj?- jakarn, UjI^s- chhndn.
To bisect, Ii^ tj^*" JJ barbar d hisse karn.
To bite, ktn, UjI t^-ta dni s ktn, t'U>- chabn.
To blab, t^S ^J i^j parda-dari karn, \>J> Ji\i jVj ras; /s
karn.
To blame, U^jJ dkhn, Xi^ cs-vcl* malmat karn.
To be blasted, lil^y murjhn, kumhln.
To blaze, LXJJSJ dhadhakn, (blaze forth) bj$i bharakn.
To bleach, nikhrn, \j t_jle b 7 or s/ karn.
To bleat, bL*< mimiyn, (dakh.) U c^ ^-^j bli karn.
To bleed, (lose blood) L>J ^1 M ?<, (let blood) Uj$ Xnifasd
kholn.
To blemish, |__<b dghi karn, U V lagn, \ij> c,\*3t
nuksn karn.
To blend, bLo miln, tyls.-* V.Jr*' or makhlt karn.
To bless, > J dw' rfra, (^-?-^ den, \>J> cJj^o mubrak
karn.
To blight, > J (_r^- jhulas den, b^ pazhmurda karn.
To bloom or blossom, kliiln, phln, I; G bikasn.
300 Vocabulary Verbs.

To blow, (v. n.) L^J bahn, - chaina, (v. a.) LOjj phnkn.
To blunder, ki^s- chkn, L3^# bhln, \>ji i- .
To blush, l3l$j\ e^-Ls1*- khijlat uthn, Uj Jjs^ khajil hn.
To boast, brag, bj ^yj (_JH lf-zam karn, X>j> jk? fakhr karn.
To bode, liJO shugn den, Ii^ dallat karn.
To boggle, thithakn, UifsFT jhajhakn.
To boil, (v. n.) khauln, LW ubaln, (v. a.) UbJ ubln, (cook
by boiling) > (jLyf-jsh dna.
To book, dar; karn. To boot, U jJI f'ida karn.
To bore, to Oui*- chhedn, bJbJuJ bedhn, ULy barmn.
To be bom, lr>- jann, b~>- janamn, \jy> ljuj paid hn.
To borrow, bJ joto w?/ig fiin, 1J ^y jfcars Zn.
To bounce (jump up), lijj chaunkparn, \>> ^sf>- chaukaf
bharn.
To bound (jump up), kdn, ^ uchhaln.
To bound (limit), bJbJjb Jo- aaVi bndhn, b\ Joj and karn.
To bow, (v. n. to stoop) Ujy nihurn, \^jhukn, (v.a.) see To bend.
To box (strike), lijLc ghs mrn, lijtot-Uj tamcha mrn.
To brace, LiL*-j sametn, \u~ kasn, (a drum) OIaJ- charhn.
To braid, LJJjf gndhn, Uj bunn.
To brand, L>t> b dg- dre, blfl gui lagn, Leb dghn.
To brandish, b'U^ ghumn, tolCo- chamkn, \i\> phirn.
To bray, (to pound) 1^ ktn, (as an ass) LCj^ renkn.
To break, (v. a.) Ijjjj frn, UJ^j phrn, (v. n.) Ujjj tin.
To break (become bankrupt), lib>- jb^AL* mufls hjn.
To break (v. a. break in, tame), \jj> rm karn, LfejL sdhn.
To break (v. a. dismiss), Uy> Jjy*- maxzl karn.
To breathe, (draw breath) UJ jJ dam Un, (expel breath) bj&- jJ
dam chhrn.
To breed, (produce) bL^-Jaww, by? liXo^aid karn, (nourish) b
pln.
To bring, to / (v. n.) or b I ^ U-n, (v. a.) LT .
Vocabulary. Verbs. 301

To broil, U3jj bknn, b _-!> kabab , \j * garni karn.


To brood, sewn, (over) b^ <11jJ\ andesha .
To browbeat, bljJ dabkn, nkh dikhln.
To bruise, bis? kuchaln, U^ ptsn, UI3 dln.
To brush, bjl^sf- jhrn, \j <_-iU> barash se sf karn.
To bud (v. .), blA kaliyn, bl^j konpal phtn.
To budge, L2a hatn, b taln, Ui^-j sarakn.
To build, b^ ^~**J taxmlr karn, X> bj karn.
To burden, I. ^ i/A ldn or rakhri, \jj> jb ^jj zr ir
karn.
To burn, (v. n.) >- jaln, bJj baln, bbO dahn, (v. a.) b^U-jafttw.
To burnish, b\L?- jhalkn, bl*>- chamkn, b^ J~ saikal karn.
To burst, (v. n.) 'gj$j phtn, phatn, (v. a.) bj1^ phrn.
To bury, bjlfgra, ^ da/n karn : see To hide.
To buy, bJ mZ Zen, bjo^- kharidn, kinn.
To buzz, UUfc.:.fl bhimbhinn, (whisper) bl phusphusn.
To cajole, bL-gj phusln, bjJ t_ b jJ dam ov fartb dtn.
To calculate, b^ginw, b^ ->~*- Ais6 karn : see To guess.
To calk (a ship, &c), b^ l kl-patti karn, gbn.
To call, bL buln, (send for) i iaZa karn, bs^j 5b ZmZ
bhejn, (name) b^ jb rakhn, (cry out) bj& pukrn.
To calve, (v. n.) bbj byn, bs>- j bachhre kjann.
To calumniate, b\ tuhmat lagn : see To revile.
Can, biL) satt : see To be able.
To cancel, bJL^o metn, b ^sr > karn, bliU mitn.
To cannonade, bl>- b b^L jj-Jjj' ipr mrn or chaln.
To canvass, (examine) bJb- chhnn, b^U- jnchn, Ulstr baham.
To caper, bc^ kdn, blf>-l uchhaln.
To captivate (to charm), bJ j^> 5 Zn, b zmJs farefta karn.
To card (comb cotton, &c), UicjsJ dhunakn, Lao dhunn.
Tocare, bJj fikr karn, (care for) U3 ^!sb>- khtir ln.
To caress, b^jbj^yr karn, \> Jtyf nawzish karn.
302 Vocabulary Verbs.

To carry, UUsrJ Ujn, dhn, uthn.


To carve, \jy!i kkdn, jo hunda , Lily tarshn.
To case, bfcjU marhn, LfcAi* mandhn, \i < it ghilf .
To cashier, \j isje bar taraf , Jj*- rna'zl .
To cast, pkenkn, dln, \i3^>- jhnkn, \>\ girn.
To catch, Ujfj pakarn, bJ jj pakar Una, bb$j phansn.
To cavil, Ii^ ^j$^jjs>- b ^y-- nukta-chri or harf-gir karn.
To cause, bb^ karn, \> karn, Uli!) nikln, b Zn.
To cauterize, Lelo dghn, bjJ J^b ^j dgA or gw rfna.
To cease, (v. n.) La> jlj az rahn, bj ^Ij^oJ dast-bardr liona.
To cease, (v. a.) chhrn, uJjiyc maukf karn.
To celebrate, L&Lj scirAw, bj t_by taxrf karn.
To challenge, biolc Zar' mngn, b&b>- mukbala chahn.
To change (v. a.), b Jj>x tabdil karn, \ badln.
To charge, (load) b^j bharn, (impute) bL^! thahrn, (attack)
\j L*- hamla karn, (enjoin) \j tkld karn.
To charm, (bewitch) b jOb>- jdu karn, (enchant) bJ iyo mh
len.
To chastise, chasten, b^ i--~>Jb V. *s"^ tambih or id karn.
To chat, bi bakn, bjL i^J> gap mrn, \>J zJo guftg karn.
To chatter, bVjjjjj barbarn, L bakn, Xi\y>-y>- chirchirn.
To cheapen, V. lV" nnlorkimat karn, lllSpiivL' klmat
ghatn.
To cheat, Lt^5 thagn, Liga- chhaln, \j ^jblcJ daghbzi karn.
To check, lilSu! atkn, bijj rkn, bbo dabn, bJl dntn.
To cherish, b pln, \j b (j^/J parwarish or sSw karn.
To chew, bol^- chbn, bL- chabn, (the cud) bJl&>- jugln.
To chide, bSjlj dntn, \&fe>- jhirakn, b^jJ dkhn.
To chirp, ^- churagn, j / karn.
choke, \^jj^ gal ghntn, b-Jbj 1^ gal phnsn: see To
obstruct.
To choose, pasand karn, bx=- chunn, >1- clihn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 303

To chop, Uli <*>\ Ik cht si kln, ^ phrn: see To


exchange.
To churn, L^-o mathn, mahn, L*~< maska nikln.
To circulate, (v. n.) Ij^j phirn, \x*t$> ghmn, (v. a.) li^J phirn.
To claim, lj^ Lslj b Jgj ? or takz .
clang, lifti kharakn, (dakh.) b'U$s$- chhanchhann.
To clap, (to place) lil lagn, (strike hands) 1 tl bajara.
To clarify, U i_JLtf sfkarn, / chhntn.
To class, tarfib mim rakhn.
To clatter, kharkharn : see To chat, gabble.
To claw, b*>-jJ nchn, liL^o nakhiyn, L>-^^ kharchn.
To cleave, (to split, v. a.) l^=- chrn, l3jl$J phrn : see To cling.
To climb, charhn, oL bilangn.
To cling, U2j lipatn, 12>- chimtn, li < rahn.
To clip, Oji katarn, \->jy tarshn, l3l ktn.
To close, (v. n.) liA^ mundn, (v. a.) UjJj. mandn, \>J J^J 5?*
/.
To clothe, Ij^J ^ kapr pahnn or IHy^ .
To cloy, chhakn, Ii^ sr karn.
To coagulate, (v. n.) li^sj-Janm, (v. a.) \jb>- jamn.
To coalesce, UL> miln, liyb -ij-j paiwasta hn.
To coax, phusln, \>\> bhuln, ^> rfam
To cock, (set up) li^ khar karn, (a gun) |jfj^ ghr
charhn.
To collect, (v. a.) \jj \#A b j_*-^'am*or karn, Ii Us-jamn.
To colour, (v. a.) liSjj rangn, U> j rang bharn : see To blush.
To combine, (v. n.) UL miln, \>y>- jurn, (v. a.) Iii miln.
To come, Ul area, (arrive) pahunchn, (out) Uiio nikaln.
To comfort, J ^jL-J tasall den, J ^^^ khtir-iam'i den.
To command, li^ hukm karn, liUy farmn.
To commence, (v.n.) Ijj shuru hn: see To begin.
To commit, (entrust) ^J\&- hawle karn: see To imprison, do.
304 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To compare, Ii <djl> mukbala karn, \>\ miln.


To complain, \j \jji faryd karn, (against) ^iili nlish karn.
To compose, libj bann, (a book) U i. tasnlf karn.
To compound, liLo miln, \j <~j*> murakkab karn.
To comprehend, Ufs-*"*' samajhn, \j c^ibjJ daryft karn.
To compute, lif ginn, \j <_>L-- bjbi> shumr or AisJ karn.
To conceal, \j> chhipn, UjlJ dhmpn.
To conceive, liy> LeU hmila hn, (think) lul^-Jcimn.
To conclude, (v. n.) - chukn, Ly> tamm hn, (v. a.)
IUj tamm karn.
To concur, lij Ja* muttafik hn, (agree) bJL mnn.
To condemn, bl^^ JL gunahgr thahrn, Lvo J^jsi fatw den.
To conduct, Ij^ ,_f*Lj rh-' karn, ! le-chaln.
To confess, Li Le mnn, Uyt> Jo 13 /fc'/Z 55, U jlyil Arar karn.
To confine (v. a.), 1)^ J> b Jo band or /taiiZ karn.
To confirm, (prove) Ii^ wli sabit karn, (establish) \>j> jyu mu-
karrar karn.
To confiscate, \j js k~ zabt or # karn.
To confound, (mix) Iii miln, (perplex) \j ^JJLijjpareshn karn.
To confuse, \j pbj) darkam barharn karn: see To confound.
To congeal, be congealed, L\*s>- jamn, \5 ^ munjamid hn.
To congratulate, b cS/\~o mubrak-bd kahn.
To connect, conjoin, \j"y>- jrn, miln, U\ lagn.
To connive at, \j ^UjM ighmz karn, bLU matiyn.
To conquer, bi^sj-j'taa, U ^.'s fath karn.
To consent, UjL mnn, lys ^^^rtm , bj J^J kabl karn.
To consider, l*-_y schn, & kl daurn.
To consign, Ii^ ^y*- hawll karn, ^-> smpn.
To console, LJ tf~~i V. tasalU or taskn den.
To construct, lita bann, \ <tJ Uj Jin or naksha karn.
To consult, Ii^ c^i-x> b i^J-3-* maslahat oxjmashwarat karn.
To contain, rakhn, Uy> J*:x~ mushtamil hn : see To restrain.
Vocabulary Verbs. 305

To be contained, UU-j samn, UU\ amana, Lit antn.


To contemn, 1>- j*%>- hakir jnn, \J> t^-Jlb! ihnat karn.
To continue, Lb; rdhna, Lb> b JW1 ba-hl or bar-p rahn.
To contract, (v.n.) I'JU.,^ simatn, (bargain) LaoJb Ly sari bndhn.
To contribute, (give) Lj cien, (bear a part) L> J I chanda dena.
To contrive, l3j ^^! yed karn, UJlj nikln, Xij>_c& tadbtr karn.
To cook, litj pakn, LfcjJij rndhn, OL iSyj rasl bann.
To copy, Ii^ JJ 7 karn, U^ nakl-naws karn.
To correct, Ii^ <^x?f> b ^? or thtk karn : see To punish.
To corrode, Ll ktn, bJ \ kh Un, bb>- \ khjn.
To corrupt, (cause to rot) sarn, (spoil) bflw bigrn.
To cost, b b bjj <-^-~^ kimat parn or lagn, Ul ra, Lg5j bailhn.
To cover, L-jLj dhmpn, 1$- chhn, LCUJ dhnkn.
To covet, Ii/ llach karn, lalchn.
To cough, (v. n.) L-JlgS khnsn, khnkhn.
To count, L^girew, U jU shumr karn, (sum up) bjjjsj- jrn.
To counterfeit, b^S jJJu taklid karn, b'^ (_r-# Aes karn.
To crack, (v. n.) L> tarakn, L2^ phatn, (v.a.) ljp tarkn.
To crackle, L&L>- chatakn, b!^"^ charcharn.
To cram, L^l^ thsn, L=sry$ khnchn, L-jjJ dhsn.
To crave, b&L mngn, Lfcb>- chhn, Ii^ c^c minnat karn.
To creak, \jl^>-J=- charcharn, bbsr^-f* machmachn.
To create, U paid karn, Ls-^-j sirajn, ^ karn.
To creep, b&, ringn, (as a snake) IL-j^-j sarsarn.
To crop, L5l ktn, Lb>- chhntn, Lily tarshn.
To cross, (pass over) ^ jb^V karn, (lay across) Lgj \JI ra rakhn.
To crouch, LGj dabakn, (to fawn) b ^^LU- chplsi karn.
To crow, b^lc <&b 6ng mrn. To crowd, bj!$J bhirn, \^As^jamn.
To crush, LLs^ kuchaln, (squeeze) ? nichorn.
To cry, (out) bl- chilin, b^ta pukrn, (weep) b>j rn.
To cull, L>- chunn, <_bk\j\ intikhb karn.
To cultivate, (till) LjSf- jbtn, \ib>- Ja ? chaln : see To people.
2 R
306 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To curb, rkn, liAilfi thmn : see To restrain.


To cure, Uf ilj , Lj J s//5 den : see To heal.
To curse, ksn, sarpn, \>j> t^-od la*nat karn.
To cut, ktn, \i>\jj tarshn, ti^ jJa Aal!* karn : see To carve.
To dally, (delay) U deri karn, (trifle) \>J> t,/jjb\j tpt!
karn.
To damage, \J c^L-- khisrat karn, lijto bigrn.
To dance, L=-lj nchn, \> ^ij raks karn, (jump) Uiij kdn.
To dangle, latakn, U&fe hilagn.
To dare, U uubj>. jwr'at karn, (defy) dhamkn.
To darn, ji, / karn, UJ ^ JAar dew.
To dash, b2j patakn, \j rfc mrn, (sprinkle) ^- chhirakn.
To daunt, li^j darn, UtCtJ dhamkn, dabkn.
To deal, lyj tJL-Ob 6wf Jena, 1<^ A*- Aissa Aar rfen.
To debate, (think) U^ J-\j ta'ammul karn, (dispute) \jJj\J3 takrr
karn : see To argue.
To decamp, tj^ kch karn, (move off) liU- chale jn.
To deceive, UJ ly dhokh den, U$s>- chhaln, L^j thagn.
To decide, 1^5 thahrn, JLJ\ infisl karn, Ul>- chukn.
To deck, U,lji> sa?iwrn, U <ts->^,l rsta karn, singrn.
To declare, U^ kahn, ljl>- jatn, Ujl^l Arar karn.
To decline, (as the sun) LLao dhaln : see To bow, refuse.
To decoy, UjJ i^iji farb den, liL$j phansn.
To decrease, ghatn, liys ^ .
To dedicate, i_aj b jUi niyz or traft/ karn, lib^ |U ^J <
anana.
deduct, icaz* karn, Ut /cZ dln.
To deem, bj -jnn, \jj)jss? tajwiz karn, \>J> Iciys karn.
To deface, L;J Ii mit den, lj^ j* mahw karn, bjl& bigrn.
To defame, ^liJo bad-nm karn, U$ lagn.
To defeat, L>J shikast den, harn, (frustrate) ktn.
To defend, ^jjJL^ti b c^-U>- kimyat or dastgr karn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 307

To defile, \ij cJ\j b b U. mail or n-pk karn.


To deform, bj\& JL saZ bigrn, \>J> JjJ^J btdaul karn.
To defy, ,_/^f! Zar' chhn, /j If^l angth dikhn.
To deign, jfc te>rf~* mutawajjih hn, \i J^J kabl karn.
To delay, (v. n.) b deri karn, (v. a.) bi tln.
To deliver, (free) Ii^ jljT b \s>j rih or zd : see To give.
To demand, (claim) \j \jC*i da*w karn: see To ask.
To demolish, bjb>-l ujrn, \>\ girri: see To destroy.
To deny, b^ Jj\ inkr karn, bjb na-mnn.
To depart, 0- ^^ji^- chale-jn, to^1-! sidhrn.
To depend, bS5 latakn, (upon) li^S ^r*^ dman pakarn.
To depopulate, bjUJ ujrn, ^J,} wirn karn.
To deposite, b-jj~> smpn, i^^JL! amnat rakhn.
To depress, bjlj dbn, \>j c-wJ pas karn, Ub J dabn.
To derive, (v. a.) bJ& nikln, (v. .) by> J. mushtakk hn.
To descend, Uy\ utarn, bb>- ^ysai rcht jn, bys Jjto waziZ .
describe, bJbJ bakhnn, \>J> js takrlr karn.
To desert, b <1^> iar/c karn, bjj>- chhorn.
To design, (intend) U jljl rada karn, (plan) \i naksha
karn.
To desire, La>\- chhn, b ^L^fi. khwhish karn.
To desist, Lbj jb bz rahn, bb>- rahjn.
To despair, despond, } Ju^b n-ummed hn, bjfc ^Jy wiVs .
To despise, LiU-^Jb- hakir jnn, \> cuj*- hikrat karn.
To destroy, bjjjb^ dn, tojs jj\> b 3 west* or halk
karn.
To detain, b^> jb rakhn, bjj rokn, \i JuS kaid karn.
To deter, bljj darn, b^ ts-**^-J be-himmat karn.
To determine, bl^^ thahrn, \jj thtk karn: see To decide.
To dethrone, bjbl c^T tafci s utrn.
To devise (by will), wasyat karn : see To invent.
To devote, b (jb/> b \a b jbj niyr ord or kurbn karn.
308 Vocabulary Verbs.

To devour, bhakhn, Iii- l khjn, b~J / Ma Zw.


To die (colour), \&j rangua, ^ rang charhn.
To die (expire), b^ mama, Cil* b di^ faut or Aaffc An.
To differ, by> CJ>jlj tafwut hon, (quarrel) bjg&- jhagarn.
To diffuse, biLgj phailn, j bistrn, b4$=sr bichhn.
dig, Ujj^ khdn, \>j grn, (up) bjb/l ukhrn.
To digest, b j-ib karn, \j\=gpachn: see To arrange.
To dignify, \jj> j~i sar-farz karn, bbvjj barhn.
To diminish, (v. n.) l2$f ghatn, (v. a.) bl5^ ghatn.
To dine, bb bb/ khn khn, ^ ^-- chsht karn.
To dip, (v. .) 0 dubn, (v. a.) lib j dubn, boO dew.
To direct, (shew) dikhln, (command) ^/?.
To disagree, ^b^b n-muwk hon, (quarrel) bj& bigarn.
To disallow, b^ j^> b jbO! inkr or karn, bjb brn : see

To, deny.
To disappear, ^- chhipn, bjA : >*'<> champat hon.
To disappoint, b t>|^ b w murd karn, blao dahkn.
To disapprove, bj >~J n-pasand karn, \>Ji j radd karn.
To disband, bJ L->\y>- jawb dln, c^r cftiw.
To disbelieve, bJUJ na-mnn, \jj>j\ inkr karn.
To discern, bjl~^ imtiyz karn, b^SjJ dekhn.
To discharge, bMj^- chhurn, \j r^/ bar-taraf karn.
To disclose, bJj^i khdln, \J> jbylst iz'hr karn..
To discontinue, U b ngha karn, <-Jyj-<> mukf karn.
To discover, b^ Iau paid karn, b^^>> zAir karn : see To show.
To disembark, (v. n.) byl utarn, (v. a.) bjbi utrn.
To disengage, b \&-jud karn, >$ khdln.
To disfigure, bjlj bigarn, b^ _/>- kharb krn.
To disgrace, bjy cuvtp- hurmat trn, \J, JjJ*^ ma*zl karn.
To disgust, bbvj kurhn, Xi J*j+i bezr karn.
To dishonour, bjb'l arw utrn, \>ji c^^sro bhurmat karn.
To dislike, LaW1 na-chhn, Jo-jb n-pasand karn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 309

To dismiss, \i e^t-j rukhsat karn, t-jjs bar-taraf .


To dismount, (v. n.) bjj\ utarn, (v. a.) bJ\ utrn.
To dispatch, b rawna karn : see To kill, waylay.
To dispel, \j j) dur karn, \j dajx karn.
To disperse, bl2$>- chhitkn, \j jtx*> muntashir karn.
To displease, \j ^^-b n-khush karn, \j aJ)T zurda karn.
To dispose, b^ <te-J^I rsta karn: see To arrange, give.
To dispute, bahasn, (quarrel) \i^>-jhagarn.
To dissipate, blj^ urn, \> isr/ karn, LJ Ijt am dew.
To dissolve, (v. n.) bJj galn, blgf ghuln, (v. .) ^ pighln.
To dissuade, jb rakhn, \j wre* karn.
To distil, (v. n.) b^- chn, bXJ tapakn, (v. .) b!^>- ch'n, Sfc.
To distil (as spirits), bj^kiU mukattar karn.
To distinguish, b, ^ji fark karn, \jj\~~*\ imtiyz karn.
To distribute, Llib bntn, \> <u=- karn.
To disturb, b t^kyic muztarib karn, bj-f>- chhern.
To dive, ^Lc <d>^ ghta mrn, Ujj5 dubn.
To divert, (amuse) biL^j bahln, (turn away) bl^j phirn.
To divide, &> taksm karn : see To distribute.
To divulge, ^ fsh karn, bibj batln.
To do, b^ karn, bbo bann, bx^ 5y ana.
To dodge, bL kaniyn, ^j^u ptchh lagn.
To dofF, bjbl utrn, (to doff clothes, b apr utrna).
To doubt, U Xi shakk karn, bbsT li?J na-jnn.
To doze, nghn, ^J^>- jhapkl men hn.
To drag, (v. a.) ghastn, (v. n.) biL^f ghasitna : see To draw.
To drain, bil^s- chhnn, Ub J& (Jbpw wiZ dln.
To draw, bbgj;^ khlnchn, (a sword) bjbjl krhn, (out) Ullio nikln,
(on, as a garment) bbvja- charhn.
To dread, b^J darn, bb/ u^J>J dahshat khn.
To dream, ^ <-r>)j- khwb dkhn, (dakh.) li^t> ;1-J bashra
dlkhn.
310 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To dress, li^j pahann or pahinn, (food) UIj pakn.


To drink, U-j /, \2j}$> ghntn, Ul$ 1J nask khn.
To drive, (v. n.) l}jfiJ daurn, (v. a.) \L= chalana, UlJ^J daurn.
To droop, 1>^-<> nturjhn, liy> j*^ pazhmurda hn.
To drop, (distil, v. .) 13^- , (v. a.) tapkn : see fall.
drown, (v. a.) dubn, (v. n.) bJ> dbn.
To drum, ^ JJ? teJZ bajn, L&jfS ^jr^5 tambur thnkn.
To dry, (v. n.) skhn, (v. a.) li\$~j sukhn.
To dwell, U-J basn, Lfe> rahn, \j t^~jL suknat karn.
To earn, liU kamn, \j J-eW b paid or AsiZ karn.
To eat, khn, \>j> JjbJ tanwul karn: see To corrode.
To educate, tarbiyat karn, libelo sikhn,
To efface, li2- metn, lilil mitn, IL(> chhiln.
To effect, b karn, W <_Lfce .
To eject, >0 Jli dew, li^ j^J ? karn.
To elapse, li^jo'gwsam, <-iijf guzashta hn.
To elect, bJ ^jj- Zew, U :j pasand karn.
To elevate, libj] uthn, jJj buland karn, UI&Jj barhn.
To embark, bU=- b LJs-^j j\^>- jahz par charhn or charhn.
To embellish, bj&- singrn, Ii^ jbj ban' karn.
To embrace, ^-^ J*J baghal-gtr hn, ^J gale lagn.
To embroider, Ii^ ^^f- kr-chbi karn.
To emigrate, by> ls>- jil-watan hn, bjjf- chhrn.
To employ, b JUjc-J isti*ml karn, US ^j-rc ftiw.
To enable, bjJ ! "' V. kwat or takwiyat dln.
To encamp, U, b J^O b <U-- kliaima der or mukm karn.
To enchant, b bjS b j^U- V. afsn orjd or <n karn.
To encircle, ^eW* b girrf or muhsara karn, b ghern.
To enclose, b^f ghern, \>J> \= ihta karn, UJjb bndhn.
To encourage, > J LjSj b ei-vt himmat or dils den.
To end, (v. n.) bj> |U by-T A/tir or tamm hn.
To endanger, Ut t^la- khatre min dln.
Vocabulary Verbs. 311

To endeavour, U *c^~ } V i_s*",s sa ^ 01 jidd--jahd karn.


To endure, (v. n.) \j&j rahn, (v. a.) c^>!jj bardsht karn.
To engage, (in service, &c.) bJ ^ rakh Una : see To employ, allure.
To engrave, \>y khdn, l3^ (>/j kanda or naksh karn.
To enjoin, U Jl^Ij faHci karn, ^f^"" karn.
To enjoy, lib pn, Xi\>\ uthn, \z$> bhugatn.
To enlarge, liWjJ barhn, Ii^ Jli^ kushda karn.
To enlighten, 0^ 7 or munauwar karn: see To teach.
To enrage, Ii^ b ^j^c ghusst or ghazab-nk karn,
To enrol, Ii/ Jib t;ire^b> daftar rrit dkhil karn.
To ensnare, LJl^ phnsn, bl^s? bajhn, blgJ balbhn.
To entangle, bL^pAasw, bjJlgj phndn, lil^sl uljhn.
To enter, (v. n.) 1$Lj paithn, Ji-b dkhil hn.
To entertain, U^ V. siW"* mihmrii or ziyfat karn.
To enthrone, IH^-j^j o^r takht par baithln.
To entice, OL-^j phusln, Ul$-S lubhn: see To allure.
To entrap, liJj\^pAiin, b'l~j phansn.
To entreat, b^S !! ifty karn, (dakh.) b~y tarasn.
To equip, bj* (^ULs j jLi smn den, \i\s^ sajn.
To erect, bb>! uthn, li^ *jI jfr'/nt karn: see To build. 1
To err, bi^s chkn, l^> gum-rh hn, }# bhln.
To escape, b= bachn, bfl# J& wi&aZ bhgn, chhtn.
To espy, b^SJ dekhn, Lj takn, U!b ditn.
To establish, b jJ 7m karn, bb^ thahrn.
To estimate, bil atkaln, Ljj? ktn, b^ t^J> karn.
To evacuate, b ^b. karn, bH& nikln, bjj$>- chhrn.
To evade, U115 iZw, liljfl urn, bi$>- chhaln.
To exaggerate, b^ <U!L mublagha karn, bbVjj barhn.
To exalt, b JcJj buland karn, UIjj barhn, bbVj- charhn.
To examine, bUjl zmn, (as money) parakhn.
To excavate, bjj kfn, b^ bj klidkh karn.
To exceed, jbj ziyda hn, L^j barhn: see To excel.
313 Vocabulary Verbs.

To excel, bJ U ~su.* sabkat Una, \jb i__Jl ghlib hn.


To exchange, Ujj badaln, \>J ^Js \ adl-badti .
To excite, \jj?$>- chhlrna, bjJ i_. targhib dena.
To exclaim, li^L>- chillara, Lgj] pukr uthn.
To excuse, (_Jl* mu'f , (make excuse) li jc uzr .
execute, li^ , \> (^f^ anjm karn: see To kill.
To exhibit, li^J dikhln, Iij yulls sAir karn.
To exist, Uyti n, liy> j^y* maujd hn, ackhn.
To expand, (v. n.) bl^J phailn, (v. a.) li)L$J phailn.
To expect, Ii/jUtl intizr karn, r dtkhn.
To expel, Li J Jlj wi/iZ dew, l^i jSi sAar ba-dar karn.
To expend, kharch karn, uthn, urn.
To expire, ^jj^>- p dam chhorn, (to die) l^c marn.
To explain, lil^s*"' samjhn, libj batln, X>J>jbfe zhir karn.
To explore, bo-j$ khjn, bjL (jt^ chhn mrn: see To seek.
To express, (utter) Iij\j>-\ uchchrn, (squeeze out) ^*f=f nichrn.
To expunge, 2^ mitn, \> ^sr mahw karn.
To extend, Ii^Lj pasrn, (v. n.) LL$j phailn : see To spread.
To extinguish, bujhn, ^jjz gul karn : see To destroy.
To extirpate, \jj\\ ukhrn, y^^p- jar khd uthn.
To extort, UJ j^j ba-zor len, UJ Jjasr nichr len.
To extract, ^^sdJ istikhrj karn, bJ khainch len.
To extricate, blj^- chhurn, \> ,_is~ khals karn.
To face, ljyi> ^^^ smne hn, (oppose) X) JjILc mukbala karn.
To fail, >- chkn, (become bankrupt) \j> L/_ll mw/7s /w.
To faint, (_ ghash n, libj bjs-^e mrchh khn.
To fall, Xi girn, \ijjparn, (decrease) b2$f ghatn.
To famish, (v. n.) l^o i^^^J b ^jli fkn or bhkhA marn.
To fasten, ^jeWc mustahkim karn, (tie) LbJJb bndhn.
To father, bl^ c_jb Jap kahln, Ub J U pln: see To apply.
To fear, byj darn, bhai khn, U^-j sahmn.
To feed, bi^ khiln, IjO <-^\jj*- khurk dtn : see To graze.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 313

To feel, (touch) l^yf- ckhn, \j (J^ lams : see To know.


To feign, totoj bann, Xi \* bahna .
fell, Ub dL> kt dln, bj l>\S kt dina : see To cut.
To ferment, (y. n.) L$3I -ib ^ (J^^-jsh ke sth uthn.
To ferry over, tojtol jto pr utrn, \j jb pr kam.
To fetch, Ii I J le-n, to \ JJb Ukar n : see To reach.
To fight, toj! lama, \> <&- jang kam: see To quarrel.
To fill, ^ bharn, UjO JAar ^, j^jj pr kam.
To filter, nithrn, bJl^s- chhnn.
To find, tob pn, USlii / nikln, Ul& nikln.
To finger, tatln, tojgi- chhn, to\Ji!i\ ungliyn.
To finish, Ii^ to |Uj tamm or khatm kam.
To fire, (a gun, &c.) tojfj$>- chhpi, Ujsta dghn : see To kindle.
To fish, to^jtel 1$ ,J^e* machhU k shikr kam: see To seek.
To fit, (v. n.) Iii i ' SLjS <A7A w, (v. a.) \j z~>\j\ rsta kam.
To fix, Lfcjjb bndhn, b$ lagn, \jjjL mukarrar kam.
To flame, <d*- shu*la uthn, bilp- jhalakn.
To flap, big- jhaln, (the wings) lil5$-2$j phatphatn.
To flatter, tij j^-sjbb- chplst kam, to)Lgj phusln.
To flee, b/bj bhgn, \ijigurez kam, liybJ\J> jirr hn.
To flinch, Ua> hatn, bJ3 ia/n, to^j phirn.
To fling, bi-^ phenkn, tola- chaln, biG dln.
To float, Lyj bahn, U^j bhasn, to^jJ tairn.
To flog, tojU (JJotos- chbuk mrn, tojb ^ Af mrn.
To flounder, bjjp tarapn, to\2-%- chhatpatn.
To flourish, (v. n.) toj i)to j y tor 5 ira An, (v. a.) tobt^ ghumn.
To flow, to^j bahn, by> <lfe- b ^bj rawan or jri hn.
To flutter, bV^Jjp tarpharn, to^jj^j pharpharn.
To fly, toj^ , \jj\jiji parwz kam: see To flee.
To foal, toUj byn, \s>- jann, tolo b-#= bachher byn.
To fold, toly tahn, bilJ lapltn, X> 3 tah kam.
2 s
314 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To follow, UU- b Ul pichhe arm or jn, \i ^Jj^i pairau'l


karn.
To forbid, \>J -ir< man* karn, rkn, bjb brn.
To foretel, lita- ^^-j I ge se jatn, \x gam kahn.
To forge, Uj^^^Lj garhn, bj Zi&s karn.
To forget, bhuln, U jLy\j farmsh karn.
To forgive, U (_Jbbo mu'f karn, lijfyf- chhrn.
To form, ljuj paid karn, libj bann, b'^ karn.
To forsake, chhrn, UJ\j tygn, Ii^ tl^J ter/: karn.
To forswear, (swear falsely) lil^ j~ ^^-jhtKi kasam khn.
To fortify, (make a fort) ^ * kal'-bandi karn.
To frame, UUj bann, bjbJb ^_^J> ^ JjJ dawZ 5 dAaZ bndhn.
To free, Uj >- b djjl ^d or khals karn, bj^$=>- chhrn.
To freeze, (v. n.) \iAo-jamn, ^ thand sejamn.
To frighten, \j\j> darn, (scare) blj# bharkn.
To frisk, UiA> kudakn, $; phudakn.
To front, Uj Jjbu> b ^j-I-j smne or mukbil hn.
To frustrate, \i mahrm karn : see To disappoint.
To fry, bj}$ bhnn, \i ^b^j biryn karn, J aw.
To fulfil, (complete) b^ l^jj ^ karn, (perform) \jj> \\ ad karn.
To furl, liiLj lapetn, by .^ khainchn.
To furnish, pahunchn, b^ <-s^i rsta karn.
To gabble, b dio a: >a& karn, \>J ^ l;J-c ghepe karn.
To gain, (earn) bU kamna, (get) bb pn, b^ J-eU- AsiZ karn.
To gall, (v. a.) J/*-?" \ ghiske chamr chhiln.
To gallop, (v. n.) bJb.S dapatn, (v. a.) U&-$j ,-2-*r) sarpat phenkn.
To gamble, -^ \^>-j' kheln, b /jbjU kimr-bzi karn.
To gape, (yawn) bJ />- j'am' Zn, (with surprise) U^L-j ^<
munh pasrn.
To garnish, U^lbJwj sudhrn, X>j> zJ\j\ rsta karn.
To gasp, bJ ^jSlI ij-j^-i ws ulfi Una, lil^l^J lakhlakhn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 315

To gather, X> jani* harria, lij^b batrn, b>- chunn.


To gaze, ghrn, , C tak rahn, Lbj J deich rahn.
To gesticulate, bbj Jl# A' batana.
To get, lib pna, ljuj b AcmZ or paid karn.
To gild, li^ Ja- b 5Lyjj- snahl or AaZZ karn.
To gingle, Ubi^^-w^'Aa^'Aaraw, bLgSi^j thanthann.
To gird, LbiXib ^~l lapetke bndhn : see To tie, reproach.
To give, bJ cZn, LiLck^ bakhshn, b-jj~a smpn.
To glad, gladden, b khush karn, bLla> halsn.
To glitter, b*a~ chamakn, Lig- jhalakn.
To glow, blfj dagdagn, LGo dahakn.
To gnash (the teeth), kichkichn, L~-j ptsn.
To gnaw, bjla- chbn, 1 ktn, bL=- chabn.
To go, - jn, bis- chaina, <\jj An.
To govern, b^ cu-^yle- hukmat karn, (actuate) bi>- chaln.
To graft, b jujj paiwand karn, li$ *li kalam lagn.
To grant, bjJ (?, Li-sT bakiishn. Libo mnn.
To grasp, bjj pakarn, gahn, \>J u^ip girifi karn.
To gratify, ^ kkiish karn, (requite) l^-ja^ karn.
To graze, ^- chama, bfs- chugn, (touch) - j>- chhjn.
To grin, bJlj kji-b e/nf nikln, L!lj ^^-^ nihln.
To grind, L-. ptsn, bkn, (afflict) Ii L: satn.
To groan, Lfc^ karhn, \>J ^Jij s\ h 5 karn.
To grope, bJjj tatln, by <5, i_sy !p i'-i'i karn.
To grow, (vegetate) bol wgw, (increase) Lj: barhn.
To grub, bJlj Oy/ AAd dln, b"b/l ukhrn.
To grumble, bl*j jj barbarn, \j\j tarrn, \j\*jj> kurkurn.
To guess, bi! atkaln, \jj> ^~bS jfciys karn.
To guide, b ^/U^ rahnum'l karn, ba- chaln.
To gush, (^)b>- yLjo-jsh sejri hn.
To hail, (v. n.) Ujj Jy* t parn, (salute) b^ jOL> saZwi karn.
To halt, (limp) bVj&J langrn, (stop) La, fcAar rahn.
316 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To hang, (v. n.) VJ latakn, (v. a.) tilJ latkn : see To choke.
To happen, tijJ ^1 nparn, titi>- \ ajana, bitn.
To harrow, ti~^J heng phern, (disturb) UjJ ^ / "<.
To hasten, ti^ ^jAs>-jaldt karn, (v. a.) 11>- ^L> shitbtar chalana.
To hate (detest), ti^ nafrat karn, UiU- ^-< makrh jnn.
To have, ti$) rakhn, ti ti pn, tijL pakarn, tiyb .
heal, (v. .) tijJb jLil1 iltiym hdn, (v. a.) ti^ ti^s- changa
karn.
To heap, ti^ ^-^'* karn, titi3 ^*ao * lagn.
To hear, hearken, l-> sunn, ti ^l dharn.
To heat, ti garm karn, ti^ I g karn : see To enrage.
To heed, take heed, ^ti ti yti&J dhyn or ps rakhn.
To help, ti^ u^0Ui->! ti JXc madad or isti'nat karn.
To hem, ?;** maghz lagn, tiLjS lurhiyn.
To hesitate, ti (ji-J j t/~iPas pes karn, hichkichn.
To hew, U3l ^-j ojtii^ kulhri se ktn, LUj tarshn.
To hide, titila- chhipn, til! lukn, (v. n.) ti-$>- chhipn.
To hie, titi>- Js>- jaldjn, titi- shitbtar jn.
To hinder, L>jj rkn, tiK3\ alkn, jj~e man* karn.
To hire, bJ <Sj1^ kirya len, (to let) ti^ kir'e karn.
To hit, (v. a.) ti^U mrn, tijii -y ?ar& rfen, (v. n.) tifl lagn.
To hold, ti^ rakhn, tijjS pakarn, gahn : see To think.
To honour (shew respect), ti^ trJfc ti aai or szai karn.
To hop, ti Jj ^^j ^iti LLS/ A; pmv se kdn, ti!ji langrn.
To hunt, ti^ jtili shikr karn, tijjJ^ khadern.
To go a hunting, tiJu^jtil> shikr kheln.
To hurry, tij lS'^t jaldi karn, tiLJj> halbaln: see To hasten.
To hurt, (pain) titi/j dukhn, (injure) ti ^Lai nuksn karn,.
To jabber, U& bakn, (dakh.) ti\jj!u watwatn.
To jeer, ti^ ^jJs te*n tashnf karn, ti\"- chirn.
To jest, tij ti ti;tio l$2$3 thath mrn or karn.
To illumine, ti !ti>H ti rshan or w// karn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 317

To illustrate, (explain) \j ^J^j tashrih karn : see To illumine.


To imagine, \>J>jy tasauwur karn, b^-j-s schn.
To imitate, (follow, ape) b 4-c.j tatabbu karna : see To copy.
To immerse, Uy<S dubn, Xify born, \j j^i ghark karna.
To impart, (inform) l^ kahn, li'hj badana : see To grant.
To impel, chalana, l^JjJ daurana.
To imply, U -Jb dallat karn, > ^J"**0 ** rakhn.
import (as merchandise), US JU ^j\y^ saudgart mal lana.
To importune, Ii^ L>li" takz karn, 1J pichhe Una.
To imprison, JCJ b i^j+s* b aJ jfcairf or mahbs or and karn.
To improve, (v. n.) Uj^^j bihtar hn, (v. a.) bjbbA-i sudhrn.
To impute, 1 lagn, b^,gj thahrn, Lbjjb bndhn.
To incite, b ^-r^J targhib den, bb>\ uthn, bj->- chhern.
To include, J-lj dkhil karn, (surround) ghlm.
To increase, (v. n.) L^j barhn, (v. a.) liljj barhn.
To indicate, b^ u^JJ dallat karn, bibj batln.
To induce, Uj ije>j=? b t-r"?4/ targJb or tahris den, b ln.
To inflame, }- jaln, $ cf g lagn, bJjjgj phnkn.
To inflate, li&gj phuln, ^ nafkh karn, b&j^j phnkn.
To inform, bb^-jaiw, Ijl^s.'*-' samjhn, \i ilf gh karn.
To ingraft, 3>J paiwand lagn, (fix) bJLij baithln.
To inhabit, b~j basn, b&> rahn, \j i^Jj-> suknat karn.
To inherit, bjA <-J)^ teris Aw, bJ C-^l irs :.
To inject, UlG dln, (with a syringe) bjU ^J^f,pichkri mrn.
To inquire, b$-jj pchhn, \j (_>~>/4 pursish karn.
To instigate, bJLiy warghalnn, UL! uksn : see To incite.
To instruct, US^L sikhln, \j ^Ixj ta'fim karn.
To intend, b *2 b iJ^l tYarfa or #srf karn, - chhn.
To interfere, b dakhl karn, b$ ^j'lb iA lagn.
To interpret, Ii^ &> tarjuma karn : see To explain.
To interrupt (hinder, stop), ^, rkn, U!il 6i ktn.
To intimate, b^ ^bH ishra karn, bjJ ^- khabar den.
318 Vocabulary Verbs.

To introduce, (to a person) cu\js! mulkt karn: see To


include.
To intrude, \jj> J-4 dakhl karn, \jJj ghus parn.
To intrust, U-3j-i smpn, \>j> <UO b sipurd or zimma karn.
To invade, X> c/bVj- charhl karn, Jsja- cAar w.
To inveigle, bjby^ ubhrn, \31$- balbhn, bls^ lalchn.
To invent, Uj ^^ y'fld karn, Uf nikln : see To feign.
To investigate, l^ b taftsh or tahkik karn.
To invite, bJjJ nybtn, ^ CUjcO da*wat karn.
To involve, (wrap) LJb laptk bndhn: see To entangle.
To join, (v. n.) US- jutn, \>y>- jurn, (v. a.) jrn.
To jostle, li0 1 dhakk dtn, UlJlbJ dhakln.
To irrigate, sinchn, \> J tar karn.
To irritate, UU# khijn, bj-^- chhern, bb~j satn.
To issue, (v. n.) UKj nikaln, (v. a.) nikln.
To judge, b^SjU b J-aJ b uJLul insf or faisal or nyu.' karn.
To jumble, b^S L^lsr0 makhlt karn, (dakh.) bK kaln.
To jump, bjj kdn, (over) bi\j\$j pMwow.
To keep, rakhn, (preserve) bachn : see To protect.
To kick, liUJ latiyn, U^l* j^jf b CJ Zi or tlikar mrn.
To kill, bJljjte mr-dln, b^ t?**" V. d3-' or ^ karn.
To kindle, (v. a.) li\fLj sulgn, (v. n.) U^Lj sulagn.
To kiss, -<^- chmn, bu! b )> <Uy osrt or Zw.
To knead, \>j gndn, IjLj snn, bjuU> mndn.
To kneel, bLj ^ d-zn baithn.
To knit, boj binn, Lu ^ uub baghair tnt ke binn.
To knock, li&j^i thnkn, (at a door) bl2$g khatkhatn.
To know, LiU-^'imn, (recognise) UiLs-v pahchnn.
To labour, Up (j^s* mihnat karn, bj# wftA bharn.
To lack, ^b^s.-* muhtj hjjn, bj J&j darkr hn.
To lament, ! / karn, rn, \*j> nauha karn.
To land, (v. n.) \jj>\ utarn, (v. a.) JG\ utrn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 319

To lapse, (pass) \jj guzarn, (err) \j>- chukn : see To fall.


To last, L5 tikn, l^/f thaharn, rahn.
To laugh, , . hasna, (deride) \j^ 1$! thath karn.
To lay, rakhn, IjyiO dharn, (eggs) L>J ljul awrf dn.
To lead, ^ It chaina, ^i-j ptshw hn.
To lean, Uy JJU m'il hn, (on) Ul <u> talaya lagaa.
To leap, lit)j kdn, (over) IjJI^j phndn, U-3 tapn.
To learn, U^L-j sikhn, U^ ,JeU- Zm hsil karn.
To leave, chhorn, X> CS iark karn, (by will) \j <U iia
Ztrn.
To lend, J >^= ariyatan dn, ujJ &ars rfra.
To lengthen, liWjj barhn, UL] lambn : see To delay.
To lessen, (v. n.) ghatn, (v. a.) li\5$f ghatn.
To let, (permit) L>0 dn, (let go) luJ cMr tin: see To hire.
To lick, chtn, J ZesHa, (to beat) U^L> mrn.
To lie, (rest) l2j , parn, \unj rahn : see To lean on.
To lie (speak falsely), u lily -fr^f- jhth boina or kahn.
To lift, uthn, bJ 1^1 MiA Zn, lilbjj barhn.
To light, (kindle) liL>- jaln, (make bright) U ^^jj roshan karn.
To lighten (v. n. to flash), bil^s- chamakn, \L^ lahahn.
To lighten (make light), \3 lfc AaZa karn : see To descend.
To like, J^Js b J-J pasand or jfcaZ karn, 1>- chhn.
To liken, b^ V. "^UU mukbala or barbarl karn.
To listen, b:.-i sunn, \jjb b Ulf! lagn or dharn.
To live, (exist) -^', (dwell) >, basn.
To load, ldn, b^s-jj bjhn, bharn.
To lock, lil Jiji &w/Z lagn, L>J UVj ia/ dw : see To fasten.
To lodge, (v. a. to place) ULj basn, bll^y baithln : see To dwell.
To long, L-y tarasn, UU^ lalchn, > Jfbi~ mushtk hn.
To look, (v. n. to seem) }~> sjhn, (v. a. to behold) ^^Sai wasar
karn, b^o dekhn, b> takn, (for) ^ dhndhn, (to
expect) li^ j\lil intizr karn.
320 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To loose, loosen, khln, bjjjf^- chhr den.


To lop, bibj*. chhntn, in, b-i!^ tarshn.
To lose, Uj^ khon, (at play) hrn, (err) chkn.
To love, >- chhn, \>J* J^j pyr , JJUs- ishl rakhn.
To lounge a horse, Uj J Jj>- ^Jj^ghr ko chakkar dn.
To lower, bc nich karn, (the clouds) U^f ghirn: see To
depress.
To lug, (drag) bJL ^ ghasitn, (by the ears) ^^/j tn pa-
karke lana.
To lull, IjLj suln, b jkiJ wwd Zw.
To lurk, ^*> CL>\$> ght men baithn, USJ dabakn.
To maintain, (defend) Ul^-i sambhln, (rear) b pln: see To
defend.
To make, bbj bann, \>J> IduJ paid karn : see To do, cause, get,
reach.
To mar, bjl& bigrn, b -|/>- b Jlri- khalal or kharb karn.
To mark, 1}^ ^1J nishn karn, (brand) L)J iftigA <ire.
To marry, bj slo JyA karn, bj>Lj byhn, bj JyA Zre.
To measure, 1 mpn, bjb npn, j j^U-j paim'ish karn.
To meditate, b^ ^bj>J dhyn karn, (think) bj*-j-> sochn.
To meet, UL< miln, U culSl* mulkt karn, Uy>jb>-jO du-chr hna.
To melt, (v. n.) galn, UA^j pighaln, (v. a.) biL& pighln.
To menace, blyo dhirn, bL*J dhamkn, bSjlj dntn.
To mend, b i^-y marammat karn, bj\>~ sudhrn, bjL> srn.
To mention, b ^ii sifcr karn, b^ kahn, X>j> J\!t Jijs gsh-gugr
karn.
To milk, lijj dhn, Ul& tijJ ?? nikln.
To mince, (hack) li^sLg- chhenchn, (mince meat) b <uJ m
ftarw.
To mind, (regard, notice) b\ l?ls3 lihz karn, (remind) bb ob yd
diln.
To mingle, b)L miln, Xiji b bjLs.-* makhlt or karn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 32 1

To mislead, bhalkn, Utl^j bahkn, kjZ s\yib gumrh .


To miss, (not to find) na-pn, (mistake) li^ lSa>- khat karn.
To mistake, (v. n.) chkn, bhln: see To miss.
To mitigate, IJkifi b ^L* norm or mul'im or thand karn.
To mix, (v. n.) 1L* miln, (v. .) 01 miln, \s \}^ makhlt
karn.
To moan, kurhn, \jj <j~y~\ l> JU a or afss karn : see To
lament.
To mock, (make faces at) lita muh bann, (gibe) ^y>- chirn,
\j\j> birn.
To molest, lib-j satn, UU# khijn, UJ iXj taklf dn.
To mortgage, . Sj- j (ir~cj zamn 5 ghaira girau rakhn.
To move, (stir, v. .) hiln, ^-> sarakn, (go) - chaina, (v. .)
lila> hiln, Vi)L>- chaln, lil^-i sarkn: see To excite, propose.
To mount, (v. n.) kjbj*- charhn, (a horse), \jy> sawr hbn,
(v. a.) charhn.
To mourn, Ui kurhn, ^ .*U SU j si / n/a or mtam or
gham karn.
To mow (cut with a scythe), (^Jp i/s se ktn.
To multiply, (as in arithmetic) li^S cjy>- b. -^ ?ar^ orjrfi karn :
see To increase.
To mumble, mutter, k_^J ^jJ zr /ai kahn, li'^jj barbarn.
To murder, U ^^i- karn, J ^ t_/i baghz st kail
karn.
To murmur, kurkurn, (mutter) barbarn.
To muse, schn, \>J> b JL>j\ jii fikr, andlsha or khans
karn.
Must, ^ aJ hai, ^^"- chhiyt, hg, ^ zarwr .
To name, fb' rakhn, (mention) b'^ J^cli nmzad karn.
To nauseate, feel nausea, bile* ^j>- matln, Ii Uli haliyn: seo
To abhor.
To need, bl>- chhn, bj jt^J b b^s.-* muhtj or darkr hon.
2 T
322 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To neglect (act carelessly), \j c^Jii ghaflat karn, 1- bhl


jn.
To negotiate, \j Lclx.* mu'mala karn, (a bill) Iiis- ^- hund
chalana.
To neigh (as a horse), \jL$> hinhinn.
To nibble, bil^ khutakn, L&y tngn, kutarn.
To nip, &- nchn, bJ chutki Una.
To nod, b#>- jhukn, b"l$^- - sar jhukn, (from sleep) b^&j!

To nominate, bJ V. n^m batln or rfe/i : see To appoint.


To note, (observe) \j j^i. ghaur karn, (set down) bJ ^5 likh
Una.
To notify, (declare) \>J> ^Le\ i*lm karn, (tell) \j\z&-jatn: see To
inform.
To nourish, Lib pln, L-jjJ pdsn, Uf ^Jjji parwarish karn.
To number, bf ginn, b b jU-> shumr or hisb karn.
To nurse, (the sick) ^ ^1j,U-j bimrdr karn, (a child) ->jJ
b)b ?h pln, ^ J d'-gart karn.
To obey, bjb mnn, ^Ij^jb' b ^Ii^JU^ farman-bardri or
tbixdrt karn.

To object (urge against), ^ ^1^\ i*lirz karn, bjj pakarn.


To oblige, (bind) b <fc-Jj b diJ band or wbasta karn, (bind by
gratitude) u^i^^y^ -- karn: see To
gratify.
To observe, (watch) s\ nigh karn, (look to) bb^sT nijhn.
To obstruct, li^jj rkn, lijf 1 Yn, ^j-* muzhim hn.
To obtain, b^ J-elo- AsiZ karn, bb , (be current) r'y

To obtrude, J^-1j dkhil karn, - ghusn.


To obviate, bachn, bJlj tln, \ij jii /* karn.
To occur, by> 55, liy>j-lj wki* hn, bjA Jj^-j sar-zad hn: see
To meet.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 323

To offer, (present) \ij ^J^*^ smhnl rakhn, (sacrifice) b ^by


kurbn karn.
To ogle, b^SLo ?$^ kankhiyd dekhn, bJ Jylf?- jhnw Una.
To omit, lijj>- chhorn, bb>- bhljn, \j il->\ j faro
gumsht karn.
To ooze, nikaln, bj- chuna, U-y mw, ^- chhann.
To open, (v. n. be opened) khuln, (v. a.) kkln.
To operate, by' Ara karn, (upon) by* asar karn.
To oppose, 1)^ cu^bs.-* mukhlafat karn, Ujj rkn.
To ordain, toj^yfi thahrn, \jjso mukarrar karn: see To fix.
To order, (command) by' hukm karn, (regulate) L J <^~>y
tartlb den.
To organize, \j b\^ tarkib karn.
To ossify, (v. n.) bU- ^ haddi hjn, (v. a.) bjG hadd
kar dln.
To overawe, liljj darn, bjJ us-wJbJ dahshat den.
To overcome, b^ /ai karn, uu%& shikast karn.
To overflow, (v. n.) bL>- clthalakn, bj-j bah parn.
To overlook, (inspect) I^jJ dekhn, (excuse) \> j&j dargvzar
karn.
To overset, (v. a.) boJ l-J! ulat den, (v. n.) bl>- ei-J! ulat jn.
To overtake, bT , barbar n, UJ pakar len.
To overthrow, (overturn) boO lLJ! wZa de : see To overcome.
To overwhelm, (crush down) bo J by daia den, (immerse) by' Jy
ghark karn.
Ought, i^eJbb^ chhiye, ^Jb pfl b zarr or lzim hai.
To oust, nikln, bjJ U1 wiA din.
To outroot, bJtj Jb^\ Mr dln, bjb/\ ukhrn.
To outstrip, b^ isJLj sabkat karn, bJ yj L5' I ge dhar Una,
^^s dln.
To owe, byJO dhrn, by J\jJi karz-dr liona.
To own, (possess) by uL3U wZi/c /ww, b^, rakhn: see To confess.
324 Vocabulary Verbs.

To pacify, U lL$5 thandh karn, Lo {^^> taskn dn.


To pack, LbJb gathr bndhn, L-! lapetn.
To paint, U (_^1x< munakkash karn, Lu- chltn.
To palpitate, Li\ kmpn, ^> pharakn, dharakn.
To pant, Lg~Jb hamphn, b'L^-a haphhaphn.
parch, L)j$j bhnn, \>J> Joj> b'vryn karn.
To pardon, jjkf)J b uJbt mu'f or darguzar karn.
To pare, LL^- chhiln, katarn, Li^j' tarshn.
To participate, bSjb bntn, \jjt>J\a>- hissa-dr Kn.
To pass, (v. n.) bjj>T guzarn, L^j bahn, (v. a.) b^^gt/zrw.
To pat (strike lightly), Libi thpn, Ii tamch mrn.
To patch, \jjj>- jorn, blfl jyj paiwand lagn, LG tnkn.
To pawn, L, Jj gir rakhn, L$, bandhak rakhn.
To pay, Ii^ 1Jl ac/ karn, L> J Mar aera : see To beat.
To peck, bJoy tngn, bl^j thngn, b^Ljl^o minkr mrn.
To peel, (v. a.) LL^- chhiln, _^\Jl l$>- chhilk utrn.
To peep, b'y> b>yj ^^i^pahl namd hn, (v. .) LClgs-j'An/cn.
To penetrate, LCi^s. chonkn, \~g>- chhtdn, (affect) \> j>\ asar
karn.
To people, liLJ basn, bjjy***> V. eftc? or karn.

To perambulate, phirn, b saiY karn.


To perceive, b sibjJ daryft karn, bb ^CuJ rfeA pn.
To perfect, (finish) b jUj tamm karn, b^jj nibern.
To perform, b karn, LbLj nibhn, bSUsr baj ln.
To perish, b^ marn, by> / An, Lb, b'U-Ji rahn.
To permit, Lo dn, Lo i^jU-l y'zatf dew, Lg, Ijj raw rakhn.
To perplex, U ^Lo- hairn karn, U13 dln.
To persevere, persist, Lb, jjl ' rahn.
To perspire, b^c,~j pasijn, LKj L~j pasln nikaln.
To persuade, OL mann, \i J.5U t'/Z karn, L>0 ^Xe saZaA dn.
To pervade, LjSgj paithn, LLjj phailna, Iii c/ar na.
To pervert, blll ulln, Ul& bigrn, \jj < kharb karn.
Vocabulary Verbs. 325

To peruse, b^ <u!Hk> mutla' , LbO parhn.


To pester, Libs satn, khijana, ) J t__LKj taktf dn.
To petition, \Jj u^j** <*? : see request.
petrify, (v. .) bj^ pathrn, Ub*-y> patthar h-jn,
(v. a.) b^^4 patthar , ^ us^i?- L^fj patthar-s sakht
karn.
To pick, - chunn, UJ cww Zre, chugn : see To choose.
To pierce, bjj>- chonkn, U1L: saina : see To bore.
To pilfer, U-jj^j msn, b'^f- churn.
To pinch, nchn, UJ chutk Una, (press) buta dbn.
To pine, lijjp jhrn, aj~i\ afsurda hn, \uj yo mar rahna.
To place, \^j rakhn, bJbLj baithln, bl thahrn.
To plan, (scheme) b jiff tajwiz karn, (design) bj>Jb <CJ
naksha bndhn.
To plant, (set) b$ lagaa, rmpn, (settle) UbiLj baithln.
To play, UL^ kheln, (to toy) b jU- >\j r' ch' karn, (music)
bajn.
To plead, <^~sr>~ hujjat karn, JJ J da/i Zn : see To argue.
To please, b u^f- khush karn, rijhn, (v. n.) b.>y ruchn.
To pluck, UJ |JS4>- / /n, (as a fowl) bjb\^ pr ukhrn.
To plunge, (in water) bjbc <(S^ ghta mrn, bjjL> dubn, (v. a.)
bb dubn.
To polish, 0^ b&- b t_Ls b Jiu< saikal or s/ or chikn karn.
To pollute, 13^ C/bb npk karn, bj\ bigm.
To possess, b^, rakhn, b^s c-^j' tasarruf karn, \>f> dharn.
To postpone, bJl5 , b^^^b' tkhir karn.
To pound, } ktn, bijj^i thnkn, bjj*- chrn : see To confine.
To pour, UI5 dhln, bJj\ undlln, (flow) bahn.
To practise, b^ karn, b \ kiy karn, Xtj Jh~c mashk karn.
To praise, bjb^-i sarhn, \j <-JjyO" ta*rtf karn : see To applaud.
To prance, b^ yb-i! lambiyn karn, b'jlo <&J-> shalang mrn.
To prate, prattle, b b gapshap or bakbak karn.
326 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To pray, (entreat) L&L mngn, (to heaven) jUi amz karn.


To preach, b lcj ira*s karn, \>jj <uk>- khutba parhn.
To precede, Iiis- gejn, ^jJU mukaddam hn.
To precipitate, UjO 1^ gir den, . J^A^ dhakel den : see To
hurry.
To preclude, jb z rakhn, L^ ktn, by rkn.
To predict, b^j b Ly ^j; g s kahn or bailara.
To prefer, bjt> -^y tarjih den, bJb>- ^^--1 ahsan jnn: see To
advance.
To premise, ly? J^-1 tamhid karn, ~ ^^j ^fl ge se jatn.
To prepare, U jLj taiyr karn, bta banana, \>J> Jj\j kbil karn.
To prescribe (medically), bibj IjJ b J nuskha or aica batln.
To preserve, blsr bachn, (as fruits, &c.) b\S <^ murabba karn.
To press, (squeeze) >- chpn, (out) bj^sT nichrn, (down) bbj
dabn, (to distress) Ij^ <jJ ang karn, (urge) b ub" i/cJd
ftarw.
To presume, b Jb- khiyl karn, (be bold) b ^j>\x~J guslkhi
karn.
To pretend, b'bj cub Jf bann, b^ b^j bahna karn.
To prevail, (be current) by> ^jj^>-jrl. hn: see To extend, conquer.
To prevent, b^j rkn, Ulo atkn, bjl rn: see To hinder.
To prick, (v.n.) bfrg- chubhn, (v..) ^- chubhn, b&j*- chnkn.
To prime, bL ranjak piln, (in painting) Ubj ^^-J zarriin
bann.
To print, bjl^s- chhpn, bj bl>- b ^ naksh or chhp karn.
To proceed, (on) bl>- g Jana, bis- chaln, (from) bKi nikaln.
To proclaim, bj^-frs sAir karn, b^j \^yiJu> dhandhr phern.
To procrastinate, bJ i/n, b^ b J j-kal or cfr karn.
To procure, ^ |juj paid karn, ^ ^ baham pahunchn.
To produce, (bring forth) b>- jann, (make grow) ^ upjn.
profess, bjj^l Arar karn, kahn, bb*- jatn.
To prohibit, b^ ?* karn, jb rakhn, by rkn.
Vocabulary Verbs. 327

To prolong, JjjL tawil karn, barhn, phailn.


promise, ikrr karn, UjJ ^g bachan den.
To promote, bbsjj barhn, ^Jtji tarakki karn.
To prompt, bjJ .^i kah den, Ubj batln, bb>>- jatn.
To pronounce, Iijb>-\ uchchrn, iaii talaffuz karn.
To prop, biLS tekn, L*bj thmn, bjl 5 : see To support.
To propose, b^jb^lsl isAr karn, b ^^^c ar karn: see To intend.
To prosper, ^Xjtf b <_->L\ km-yb or bahra-mand hon.
To protect, b^> rakhn, bbx? bachn, \> himyat karn.
To prove, (try) bUjl zmn, (evince) e^ob sJii karn.
To provide, b muhaiy karn, >0 rfera ; bjo badn.
To pry into, bJ Jl^j Ad Zn, U-O^s-JAaraftwo.
To publish, b^jy-*> mashhr karn, (a work) ^?" chhpn.
To pull, LsL^ \^ji'j zr se khlnchn, bb tnn.
To punish, Lu) I^-j saz den, bJblj dndn.
To purchase, bjS Jo^i. khartd karn, bJ J^ jwZ fre.
To pursue, bJ b \> ptchh-karn or -len : see To hunt.
To push, ULXiO dhakeln, LLj theln, ULj peln.
To put, b^, rakhn, \jyt> dharn, bS^j dln.
To put off, (as dress) ?\ utrn, (defer) bi //w.
To put on (as dress), Lx^j pahann or pahinn, bjbjM rhn.
To put out (extinguish), \$ bujhn, KiJ> j gi<Z karn.
To put up with, sahn, b otlj^ bardsht karn.
To putrefy, (v. n.) bj-j sarn, bif galn, (v. a.) blj-i sarn.
To quake, 1J\ kmpn, larazn, .
To quarrel, bj^-j'Aagarn, bj! Zarw, b <U fozsiya /carn.
To quaver, bX^l lahakn, ^"f wz marrn.
To quell, bbj dabn, \jjyt torn, \i ^Jj raf* karn.
To quench, bbas^ bujhn, \i 1a> thand karn.
To question, J1j~j suwl karn : see To debate, To doubt.
To quit, bj^*- chhrn, bar a;w<, ^ t^j' tark karn.
To quiver, kapn, bj^S larazn : see To quaver, quake.
328 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To quote, b (kJX>\ iktibs , darj , b j^-j sanad


lana.
Quoth (said), \ kah, \p kath.
To rain, (v. n.) L--J barasn, bjjj (Jb pnl parn, (v. a.) bL bar-
sn.
To raise, uthn, \j b^j bar-p , ^- charhn.
To ram down or in, L-A^j tksn, b kasn, L.. .^ thtsn.
To ramble, U^j phirn, b!j ddln, \j sair kam.
To range, (place in order) batarfib rakhn: see To
ramble.
To ransack, bjbc ^1$- chhn mrn, (pillage) U5j! Zwiw.
To rattle, bVj^sJ^ kharkharn, \jji>- jhankrn.
To raze, b^bw mismr kam, bjUH ujrn, blw dhn.
To reach, lib ^.ibb AA s pn, lagn, bs^ pahunchn.
To read, Lbjj parhn, => bnchn, ^ ullli mutla'a karn.
To reap, UjI J*ai /asZ ktn, ^ J diraw kam.
To rebuke, ^ l-~cLo malmat karn, \i3j\j dntn.
To recede, - />> jn, bb>- dab jn, b!Lfe hatn.
To receive, bJ n, lib pn, \j J.JS kabl kam.
To recite, b ^L) bayn karn, \jJj takrr kam.
To reckon, b ginn \j j\a> shumr karn: see To deem.
To recognise, bjls-v pahchnn : see To allow.
To recollect, b'^ jb karn, bjj (j^0 pakarn.
To recommend, bj (_.jbLj b Ju takrlb or sifrish kam.
To reconcile, bL*> mann, \jJ s?/ZA kam, b!*> miln.
To record, b Ji-U) jJ daftar meii dkhil karn, likhn.
To recover, bb^j pn, (from sickness) bb iLi shif pn.
To rectify, bo j .Ls! isZA d, b^1-! sudhrn.
To recur, b I ^ n, (to the mind) 1 jb yd n.
To reduce, ghatn, \j kam: see To subdue.
To reflect, bjbsr; bichm, (throw back) b0 ks denn.
To reform, ^X>\ islah karn, ^'-! sudhrn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 329

To refuse, \i b inkr or man* karn : see To abstain.


To refute, \j j b Jbb ajfiZ or radd karn, \$>-jhutln.
To regard, \j cyUsll iltift krn, biU manna : see To behold.
To register, ^ {^ jii daftar min dkJiil karn.
To regret, bb^at; pachhtn, \i afss karn.
To reject, b,-^ phtrn, \j CJj^o b J, radd or matrk karn.
To rejoice, b^xT^ rijhn, bjA (^ij>- khush hn: see To glad.
To relapse, bj^;^ phir pachharn, bjjjjU-.ijftphir bimr parn.
To relate, (tell) kahn, (relate to) b^> <lc lka rakhn.
To release, b\j$s- chhurn, bjJ ^/ ' ifw.
To relieve, (ease) bjJ dln, (help) bbv thmn: see To
help.
To relinquish, bjfj$>- chhrn, bfUj tygn : see To leave.
To rely, b^, Lj bhars rakhn, b^ <L& takiya karn.
To remain, > rahn, 3 tikn, ^ygj thaharn, ubarn.
To remember, ^ ob karn, b^ ^LU- khatir min rakhn.
To remind, jb 7 diln, ^- chitn.
To remove, ^jjJ d?tr karn, ^-j sarkn, \> jJ taghlr karn.
To rend, bjl^ phrn, b^>- chirria, bbL_c maskn, bj^j plirna.
To render, (give back) boj Ljj phir dln: see To give, make,
translate.
To renew, renovate, b Li wa^ karn, bS ^ .
To rent, ^ db kirya karn, (take at rent) bJ <ul^ kirya Un.
To repair, b^ uuv^ marammat karn, \i uu.^J durust karn.
To repeal, b i_y^o b manskh or maukf karn.
To repeat, b *,b V^C mukarrar or d-bra karn: see To teil.
To repent, bb^s^pacAin, ^L-wiJ pashlmn hn.
To reply, bb> <|^>- b y\ war or jawb dln, kahn.
To repose, (v. n.) bj-> sh, \j jjjl r karn, (v. a.) bjJ J^l
.
To represent, b ^J>jZ rz karn, (personate) b Ji nakl karn.
To reproach, b i^^Le b (j*b taxn or malmat karn.

2
330 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To request, lU- chhn, \j ^^Js^j darkhwst karn.


To require, LfL mngn, \j i_JA> talab karn: see To need.
To reside, \u>j rahn, Uj basn, \jj ghar karn.
To resign, liJj-s smpn, U^ J taslm karn : see To leave.
To resound, l^f^f gnjn, Lb> gunj rahn: see To praise.
To respect, Ii^ ^11 b li^c *22a or taxzim karn : see To relate to.
To rest, l3^ ^ rm karn, UJ jJ dam len : see To sleep, lean on.
To restore, \ jphir ln, UjJ j+Qphtr dtn : see To cure.
To restrain, ljj rokn, 131 atkn, > jb 5 rakhn.
retail, Uu V,1^ Ijfj^J Mora Mora // btchn.
To retain, b^ rakhn, UUj tikn: see To keep, hire.
To retreat, Lj pasp hn, L2 hatn.
To return, (v. n.) bis- b Ii! j^phir n orjn, (v. a.) 15^/<.
To reveal, Ulj$ khln, (divulge) \i ^Mfsh karn, \\S kahn.
To revenge, \J 3jj b ijs^t b ^ intikm or ? or ada n.
To review, revise, Ii ^ib1Ja> nazar-i-mni karn.
To revile, liLK* galiyn, boj J gli den : see To reproach.
To revoke, bjJ bwl (Zn, bJ iJl-w wii : see To repeal.
To rid, lilj^s- chhurn, i_jL> sf karn : see To free.
To ride, jl^-s sawr hn, Lb**-^ ghrt par charhn.
To rinse, ^&^ ghanghln, Ubl$S khanghln (?).
To rip, bjfbj phfn, bj^iil udhern, b t^b>- / karn.
To ripe, ripen, (v. n.) bJ pakn, (v. a.) pakn.
To rise, uthn, \ barhn, bjbjr- charhn, (the sun or moon)
lijfc hn, }> kZ* Aon, (the moon) U' gn.
To roast, lj <-r>\ kabb karn, \i ^b^ biryn karn.
To rob, churn, bjbe i\j rh mrn, bjj! ltn.
To roll, (v. n.) b^ phirn, liJ^l lurhn, (v. a.) b^j phirn,
lurhn, \}\^> ghumn, (roll up) bJL-J lapetn.
To roof, l5b ptn, *- chhn, bjJ chhappar den.
To rot, (v. n.) U^j sarn, blf galn, (v. a.) liVj-j sarn.
To rouse, (v. n.) b/b>- jgn, uthn, (v. a.) bl>- jagn.
Vocabulary Verbs. 331

To row, khe'na, \>Jut uG dnd marna.


To rub, (v. n. chafe) ghisn, (v. a.) X>^fj ragarn, ULo maln.
To rue, Uligs^ pachhtn, rn, \> nadmat karn.
To ruin, \j ^IjLi-) b lj tahal, or satyns karn, \j"y torna.
To rule, l^ (j^oj>- hukmat karn, (lines) Ii^^k mistar karn.
To ruminate, b'lj& pagurn, U^ ^J^-jugl karn : see To muse.
To run, lijjJ daurn, IjlJ dhn: see To flee, dissolve.
To rush, lijfjJ daurn, \b^ rZn, (upon) \L$>- jhapatn.
To sacrifice, >- charhn, \j ^0 ^l^ kurbn or saSA karn.
To saddle, li>jjb bndhn, UjO <uU- chr-jma dn.
To salivate, W ftzw, Ul^j thukn.
To sally, b ^tj^ Jhurvj karn, bjj J& nikal parn.
To salute, U^ {J^jf V. j*^-* * or krnish karn.
To sap, <jj surang karn, b'j\* &tX~~i slndh mrn : see To ruin.
To sate, satiate, U^j bharn, b'l$- chhakn, (v. n.) bb/^ aghn.
To satisfy, ^ ^b khush or rsi karn, \>\u* mann.
To save, 1 bachn, b$> i~~cL salmat rakhn, rakhn.
To say, kahn, boln, \J> c^b Z> karn, bLij batiyn.
To scald, Iii- i^c j ijb garm pni ghaira sejaln.
To scan, (measure) b y-JaJ tak* karn : see To examine.
To scare, bl darn, bljj$J bharkn, b&sr bichkn.
To scarify UjJ li^Jv pachhn den, liLsr^S khnchiyn (?).
To scatter, b^$- chhitrn, \>- chhitkn, bithrn.
To scoff, b^S ^^jtL? b 1^5 thath or te w karn, \\^galiyn.
To scold, U^^-jAiran, UIC^J dhamkn, bjti ^Jgli den.
To scorch, (v. n.) L-l# bhulasn, (v. a.) ULA^- jhulsn.
To scour, LrsrL mnjn, b^ i_iL> s/ karn, (purge v. .) bis- uIU-J
ji chaln.
To scowl, b j^^ trhl karn, bbvj>- tl/b wA charhn.
To scrape, bL$>- chhiln, ^>-j khurachn, b^f- chhln.
To scratch, L>-^ khurachn, \j\s khujln, lis-j nchn.
To scream, bLs?- chichiyn, 1>- chilln, \$\ 5U- ciZZ uthn.
332 Vocabulary Verbs.

To sculk, Lb> -4?" c^Aip rahn, Lb> lLJ dabak rahn.


To seal, Ii karn, \j ocj (_5i^ // aw" .
seclude, t_;b kinre rakhn, bJ& nikln.
To seduce, b'L$j phusln, bwicy warghalnn, lilig bhatkn.
To see, b^SjJ dkhn, \j v nazar karn, bjly nihrn.
To seek, LajujO dhndhn, b jji^J talsh karn, \^-4 khjn.
To seem, ^-j-j svjhn, fj^v maxlm hn, \i\ Jbj nazar n.

To seeth, bbisr- sijhn, bjU vsnn, (v. n.) Is^-j syn.


To seize, pakarn, \> jJ kabz karn : see To confiscate.
To select, b- chunn, bJ chhn Un : see To cull.
To seil, bechn, \i \z^-j farokht karn, J^* mi demi.
To send, li^j bhejn, ^ JLyl irsZ karn, b)U- chaln.
To separate, lijy trn, lij^asT bichhrn, U^ Jcj-jada karn.
To serve, ^c^-^cJo- b- ^ naukari or khidmat karn: see To help.
To set, (place) U$> rakhn, b^O dharn, (plant) UI^sj bithln, (as
the sun) b <>^ ghurub or as Ara, (set up) bU5l
uthn, see To raise, (set on) Ijjl&A hulkrn, see To excite,
(set on fire) b\ fl g lagn, boiJ CSj^phunk den.
To settle, (v. n.) b^ILj baithn, (v. a.) Ub&o baithln, bJlgj thnn,
(an account) ViVSC^ chukn : see To fix.
To sever, tor>- chirn, bjJ Jbu pAr cfra, ljc>- Jwd karn.
To sew, sn, bj dkhht karn, ULj siln.
To shake, (v. n.) bis iZn, J duln, (v. .) b&A hiln : see To
quake.
To shape, bbj bann, \ubgarhn, La>jb JL shakl bndhn.
To sharpen, b JJ tz karn, bbj*- chkhn, JJfb &r dre.
To shave, ^ mndn, \j <bs?" hajmat karn.
To shear, bji katarn, \>j> <j\jb* mikrz karn, UjK ktn.
To shed, (v. n.) bj^s-JAara, bjs girn, (v.a.) UljrfaZna, bi^girn.
To shine, b*>- chamakn, bXlj- jhalakn, bji laukn.
To shiver, kmpn, (to shatter) chur-chr karn.
To shoot, (let go) bjj^s- chhrn, (bud) bLl kaliyn : see To hasten.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 333

To shorten, \>j> koth karn, bl2$f ghatn : see To abridge.


To shove, LLCfcO dhakeln, bl-^ theln, LLj reina, LLj peln.
To shout, terna, (huzza) b^ ^- ^j>- jai-jai-kr karn: see To
cry.
To show, dikhln, bbj batana, \J Jbs zhir karn.
To shrink, shrivel, \j*f~ sukarn, UL*-j savitn.
To shrug up the shoulders, ! ljjli kndh hiln.
To shudder, Ul^fi thartharn, IMjAjfc harharn: see To quake.
To shuffle, UC tlna, \) J^UJb tlmatjl karn : see To mix.
To shun, U tln, rgardn hn, lib) jb J^ rahn.
To shut, U Jcj aw karn, bl lagn, mchn.
To sift, UU- chln, jhpi, \x>\$>- chhnn.
To sign (ratify by writing), Ii^ ^t" b Ls-sJ dast-khatt or saAA

To signify, bl^sT bujhn, ^ jatn, (_5^ rakhn.


To sing, Ij^gw, bjl alpn or lpn, \i Jgn karn.
To sink, .5 dubn, Ui-JbJ dhasakn, L^f ghatn.
To sit, L^Lj baithn, ^ i,-*~J nishast karn : see To fit.
To skim, (v. a.) ^^ kchhn, \j\~jpasn, (v. .) Ub>- cMw

To skin, JU/ khl khmchn, (a wound) b^jl^f gA' bharn.


To slake, bl^sT bujhn, \>j sard karn : see To quench.
To slap, bUybJ dhauliyn, bjU &=e"Ui> tamncha mrn.
To slash, Uli ktn, U chirn, b katkat karn.
To slaughter, slay, U Js Aa karn, bJljU mr-dln.
To sleep, \j}-> sema, UJ / len, bJ**> stn.
To slight, t-i-Ji.r. ghaflat karn, UjU- lLb halkjnn.
To slip, Ug khisaln, L2jj rapatn, bichhaln.
To slit, ^j^il Uil fam Zam ktn, b^s. chirn, bjl$j phrn.
To slop, b&j^b ^b pmdlkl bhign.
To smart, ^>- charparn, UVjj parparn, U^J dukhn.
To smell, b^ij-; snghn, bJ y J Z, (v. n.) bly b'n.
334 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To smile, muskurn, U tabassum karn.


To smite, (strike) IijVo mrn, (kill) Lib jU> mr-dln.
To smoke, (emit smoke) UUjJjJ dhtiwrn, (tobacco) \~jpln.
To smuggle, UjU db\> ght marna, lijU chauki mrn.
To snarl (a dog), gurajn, \jghurakri, \\j ghurrn. (?)
To snatch, 1J (j^rfs- chhin len, l ci jhapat Una.
To sneak, (creep slily) U b UU- dabak jn or w: see To
beseech.
To sneeze, L->- chhmkn, \>j> L-kr tsa .
snub, liib dntn, U-JLj snsn, Li'l ktn.
To snuff, (a candle) UJ Ji" gZ Ze, (inhale) Lu$ khinchn.
To soak, (v. n.) Ijj -^-- serai hn, (v. a.) bj# bhigon.
To soar, Ijj! urna, b s)W buland parwzi karn : see To mount.
To sob, l'.C i sisakn, U> thunukn, b' bisrn.
To solicit, La>b>- chalina, b \ciJ\ b minnat or istid' karn.
To solve, b Jj>- karn, U <_iU> s/ karn : see To explain.
To sooth, 0^ JbclAji- khushmad karn, ULc mann, bj^<*>- cAaw-
krn.
To sow, IjjJ in, Ub y /, b fjjj tukhm-rezl
karn.
To spare, (v. n.) bj t/^rT juzgas hn: see To save, forgive.
To sparkle, bjg- b b5j$- ching chhutna or jharn.
To speak, bJy , kahn : see To pronounce, praise.
To specify, bL^ thahrn, jIjL^j tafstl-wr kahn.
To spell, U^ b l_efe b Lo\ imZ or Aaj or tahajj karn.
To spend, b kharch karn, urn, uthn.
To spike, mrn, \j ; ^ mkh se band karn.
To spill, dhln, lil^ chhalkn, bb bhn.
To spin, ktn, (out, protract) lilbjj barhn.
To spit (eject), bij^i thkn, b&^j lL^^j tfc phenkn.
To spit (meat), b\ sM lagn, gthn.
To split, (v. a.) b^*- chtrn, bjbj phrn, (v. n.) b.2$J phatn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 335

To spoil, (v. n.) UjA >\j~ kharb hn, (v. a.) bigrn, ->^-
U kharb karn, (to plunder) L5j! ltn.
To sport, UL^i khtln, Jjl J^!l all-kall karn.
To spout, Ljj^s- chhtn, bl^s-! uchhaln, (v. .) ^>- chhrn.
To spread, (v. .) bichhn, \jj\~^pasrn, (v. n.) UL^ phailn.
To spring, lifSl uthn, \^\ ugn, (a mine) lijj vrn : see To leap.
To sprinkle, chhirakn, l~>- chhltn, lij^j bhign.
To spur, ljjU b Jj) er or knt mrn, h>- chaln : see To
incite.
To spurn, b^L ZJ lt mrn, (reject) U tln: see To despise.
To spy, \>\>- jhnkn, b tkn, bl^sT nijhn: see To seek.
To squander, |1 urn, \>\y ganwn, \>J> i^jJ\ isrf karn.
To squeeze, (press down) libo dabn, (crush) bjjjss" nichrn.
To squint, b^J \$>-jj tirchh dtkhn, \> al l5*H trhi nigh karn.
To squirt, \jj>- V. * krt/*4f pichkrt-mrn or -chhrn.
To stab, U3^J bhnkn, Mdn, \>jf>- chnkn, ^=f knchn.
To stagger, b\> dagmagn, (be staggered) lils^f> hichkichn.

To stain, Ii^ ^eta dghi karn, \ Lao dhapp dln.


To stammer, hakln, bVyS larbarn.
To stamp, (with the foot) Lio ^^-s u/b p'ti se pitn : see To print.
To stand, La, b byb khar hn or rahn : see To stay.
To starch, bjbbl ahrn, blf! b luJ fcaZap dtn or lagn.
To stare, b^ ghrn, Lb tkn, Lbj b l tlio toA lagn or rahn.
To start, (up) bjj b lifl! <-^&jf- chaunk uthn or parn : see To pro
pose.
To startle, (v. n.) chamakn, (v. a.) bl*- chamkn: see To
scare.
To starve, (v. n.) b^ bhkhn marn.
To state, (settle) bjJL muharrar karn, (tell) b^LJl iz'hr karn.
To stay, L, rahn, L tikn, L~j na : see To prop, stop.
To steal, bL- churn, blsil La- chur lejn, L~m msn.
To steep, ti^j bhign, L^ y!) Jl J dl-dub rakhn.
336 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To steer, bl>- chalana, bbx*5 U-jn : see To direct, guide.


To step, bbi!l b li^ J*5 kadam rakhn or uthn, bis- chaina.
To stew,lj^ c^-at; *J dam-pukht karn, bl^ff- sijhn : see To seeth.
To stick, (v. .) bJL>- chipatn, bU>>- chimatn, (in mud) l^
phasn or U...:.,^ phasn, (v. a.) bl2-- chiptn: see To stab.
To stimulate, Iiis- chalana, bVjjJ daurn, chhern.
To sting, bjU (^^^J nes mrn, LfcJCJ bindhn, \j\Jj dankiyn.
To stink, b^ b jjjo bad-bo or durgandh karn, b'n.
To stir, (v. n.) Ii?,-; sarakn, bla> hiln, (v. a.) Ul^-s sarkn.
To stitch, sin, bjy turapn, bXi\5 tnkn.
To stone, Ujto patthr mrn, b^J^JL~> sangsr karn.
To stoop, b>- jhukn, b,y nihurn, (submit) bile mnn.
To stop, (v. n.) Ui3! atakn \& tikn, (v. .) bl5l atkn.
To storm, U ei^-b" tkht karn, b^tcjj^ i/awr mrn.
To straddle, >- ^1^^- <>$ <wg chhitrke chaln.
To straggle, b^ ^byj' ^^- jahn tahn phirn : see To ramble.
To strain, (filter) bJb^- chhnn, (sprain) blLs.^ kachkn.
To strangle, U.-vL^ <UJ tasma khainchn, bJj^o ga/ ghntn.
To stray, U# bhatakn, bXyj bahakn, UJ ^j bhln.
To strengthen, b\ ..^^ b ijrp #< or mazbt karn.
To stretch, bJb" tnn, ^Lj pasrn, bugj phailn.
To strew, l5-$- chhtntn, ^ barsn, bl^ssr bichhn.
To strike, bjbo mrn, bjJ jto wir dere, USo^j thnkn.
To string, $ rfr lagn, (as pearls) b\^j parn.
To strip, (off dress) b^bi utrn, (make naked) ^ lfj nang karn.
To strive, b^ j s>-jidd jahd karn, jy zr mrn.
To stroke, blyj sahln, 0 -^i ^jU M phern.
To struggle, UjL^-j .lb iA pair mrn, b kusht karn :
see To strive.
To strut, ligSij ainthn, \i\j\ itrn, bj^ akarn.
To study, b *!lk< mutla'a karn, \j> jjfikr karn.
To stuff, L-jb? thsn, b^j bharn, (the belly) ^\ aphrn.
Vocabulary Verbs. 337

To stumble, l>\$ thokar khn, r~gj fhes khn.


To stun, \i <i*~j>-\ LS- V '-r'j-*' ?arb or wzst achtt karn.
To stutter, UK> hakln, btajS larbarn.
To style, Jj*\i nmzad karn, bj J khitab dtn.
To subdue, b <^->ji*-< maghlb or i&i* karn, b marna.
To submit, (v. n.) by> tasltm hn, (v. a.) b^ rakhn.
To subscribe, ^ ^s?' V. acL) dastkhatt or karn.
To subsist, lij , ^-^', b\ ^Jij guzrn karn.
To substitute, ^JjiJ b > or iatffi rakhn.
To substract, subtract, bJ Aissa Zen, Ii j_-j * karn.
To subvert, ^J b b j <G tah--bl or zlr-zabar karn.
To succeed, bis*, b bl ^j^snj ptchhl n orjn: see To prosper.
To suck, b~ij- chsn, (as a child) OJ ddA ;?.
suckle, USj b )J ?? dn or piln.
sue, L.'Mj.gC cJrr adlat men khainchn : see To entreat.
To suffer, li^-s sahn, b"^^- b J-*ac" tahammul or saJr karn.
To suffocate, bifjj jJ b (^JLj sms or dam rkn: see To strangle.
To suggest, Ly ^j- k_f;b)l ishre sc kahn, bb- chitn.
suit, Iii ? thtk n, by J^c muwfik hn, I-^j phabn.
To sully, U iL mail karn, bJ^j dgA dln.
To sum, \jjjs^ jrn, \j ^-*>-jarn karn, \i mujmal karn.
To summon, b^ t^JJs aZa> karn, lisn^ Ijb bulw bhcjn.
To sup, bl$ / l tiJ^i ra k khn khn.
To superintend, b^ j-> b nazra or sarbarht karn.
To superscribe, ^- b^jjl par or sar-khatt likhn.
To supersede, b >U b <J> b Jkb 65iZ or /? or kinra karn.
To supervene, bjj b 1 ^jb^f ngahn n or n-parn.
To supplicate, Ii^ ^-Lsll b IcJ-jI istid' or iltims karn.
To supply, b^j bharn, \i ij^J bharti karn, boJ dw.
To support, uu-iljy bardsht karn, \>\>\ uthn, Lfcby nibhn.
To suppose, (admit) bj ^^^i / karn : see To guess, think, know.
To suppress, k rakhn, bl! alkn, > dabn.
2 X
338 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To suppurate, \jpakn, bL-jj plbiyn, ln.


To surfeit, (v. a.) bl^l aphrn, \j j~* ser karn, (v. n.) bbjfl
aghn.
To surpass, bis- Jkjj 6arA chaina, bJlj L5$^u pichhe dln : see To
outstrip.
To surprise, UJ uLxH ek--ek Una, V^j 1 1&4 achnak -parn.
To suiTender, U^ j-!"-" taslim karn : see To consign, resign.
To surround, X>j^ gherna, b tLU-l b j* gird or iAia karn.
To survey, b^ ^1 nazar karn, (land) b^ l>_y^ t"/'T jartb-kasht
karn.
To suspect, b <_l> shakk karn, shubha rakhn.
To suspend, bl5l latkn, (to stop) b i_ maukf karn.
To sustain, bJbv/tw-o sambhln, LfcilgJ thmbhn: see To support.
To swagger, b^ b t^*^ shaikht or lf-zant karn: see To strut.
To swallow, U3j nigaln, LU ZZne, bij^i ghntn, surukn.
To swarm (as flies, &c), b# bhinakn.
To sway, (incline) ^ te>-j~ mutawajjih karn : see To rule.
To swear, bb kasam khn, (make) bJ j kasam diln.
To sweat, (v. n.) b^l-j pasijn, (to toil) bj i^^us* mihnat karn.
To sweep, bjb>- jhrn, b^Lj buhrn, LMo j\&>-jhr dln.
To sweeten, UbjiU mithn, bji biL* b shrn or mlth karn.
To swell, bJ^j phln, b>-j-> sjn, (look big) b^ bar'J karn.
To swim, b^-j pairn, X>Ji tirn, (float) b^j bhasn, U^J bahn.
To swing, (v. n.) bJ^-JAZri, bJ.0 dln, (v. a.) bS^-j'MZw.
To swoon, bb b bt mrchh n or khn.
To swoop, .be b bJ iL*~>- jhapat len or mrn.
To swop or swap, U Jo M atZZ a<ZZ karn.
To tack, Li\j tnkn, \j*}o~jrn, b^j jb^>- jahz phirn.
To taint, (stain) b dghi karn : see To corrupt, spoil.
To take, bJ Zw, bjj pakarn, (away) bbsO lejn: see To think.
To talk, bJy boln, bLu batiyn : see To prate, chatter.
To tally, bl< miln, b j> ^L> b X^5 or barbar hn.
Vocabulary Verbs. 339

To tan, \jJ> C-a1jJ dibghat karn, (in the sun) bi^i$^- jhanwn.
To tantalize, liLy tarsana, U&to dahkn, b'Ls^ lalchn.
To tap, Ul$5 thakthakn, VjV^j thpn : see To pierce.
To tarry, bjjrfj Ihaharn, \> tikn, bilambn.
To taste, ^=- chakhn, UJ i*> : see To enjoy, feel.
To taunt, \j taxn karn, bb>b- chirhn : see To revile.

To tax, bW ^/>- khirj lagn, (accuse) bji> ilzm dn.


To teach, bb~> sikhn or Ul^Ls sikhln: see To instruct.
To tear, bjb^ phrn, b^ chima, (v. n.) bi masakn, &c.
To tease, bb~j satn, bjj j-o^' tasd* dn : see To vex.
To tell, kahna, bb~j sunn : see To count, betray.
To temper, b Jjc*^ mu*tadil karn : see To mix.
To tempt, bjiy warghalnn, bbs^ lalchn: see To excite.
To tend, (incline) JjU m'il hn : see To attend, aim.
To tender, b^ jAi b -^ly tawzu* or karn : see To offer.
To terminate, (v. n.) bjA ^.1 & , (v. a.) tamm
karn.
To terrify, \j\> darn, bJ ; ^UtJ dahshat dn : see To frighten.
To testify, bjJ ^j\j gawht den, \>j> ti-J)L> dallat karn: see To
prove.
To thank, return thanks, \j jL shukr karn, biU dhan mnn.
To thaw, (v. n.) blg& pighaln, 1$ tighaln, (v. a.) big3o pighln.
To thieve, Iij ^i^^ b - cAr or duzdt karn.
To think, b>*-^-s sochn, b^y bjhn, b Jjfikr karn.
To thirst, by> L>Lj pys k, b! <^.bj pys lagn.
To thrash or thresh, Lblf ghn, Ute maln, bJLj pttn.
To thread, b^j pirn, bbj! lariyn, gthn, tgn.
To threat, threaten, b\CJ0 dhamkn, \if>- jhirakn.
To thrive, bj& barhn, b~j panapn, \> ^Jiji tarakki karn.
To throb, IiJ <, bjl* <is mrn, b*>J dhamakn.
To throng, b V. jjs# ^7r or hujm karn, bl n.
To throw, LCv.^t phenkn, Ul3 dln, (down) bjb^; pachharn.
340 Vocabulary Verbs.

To thrust, (shove) 1J la>ti dkakk dina : see To stab, shove, stuff.


To thump, li&jf! thnkn, US-j pitn, (v. n.) dhamakn.
To thunder, \s^J> garajn, \j> karakn, (in menace) lj\$l*J dham-
Jcn.
To thwart, (oppose) \>J> elids.-* b A sido* or mukhlafat karn.
To ticket, lijj tlX^U iya aen, Ub>- ^ ^liJ nishn sejatn.
To tickle, \)\S& gudgudn, b'l^-s sahln, b'L-i hansn.
To tie, UJb bndhn, \j^fj>-jakarn, U$2ilf gnthn.
To tighten, kasn, X>*jL>- jakarn, \** khainchn.
To tili, \jys^ jtnci, u~\f~ chs phtrn.
To tincture, tinge, lh J>j! I atera karn, UjO j rawg de.
To tingle, b'UcjJ tantann, bUs-4"^ chamchamn.
To tinkle, bb$s$~ jhanjhann, UUg*^" thanthann.
To tire, (v. n.) thakn, (v. a.) b jjU mnda karn, bli
/.
To titter, L'.h dabk hansn.
To toast, Li*! senkn, bhnn, ^Ju,J, biryn karn.
To toil, i^-o,<r< mihnat karn, IS^j c?m/c bharn.
To torment, kalpn, bb>j kurhn, bb/j dukhn.
To toss, I^^j phenkn, l^s-l uchhln, jhnkn.
To totter, & dagmagn, .5 ln, bj^1 larazn.
To touch, (feel) bj$- chhn, ^ l_<r mass karn, (come in contact)
lagn, liL> miln, (handle) b^- chhern.
To tow, rass laght khainchn.
To toy, blf^ kheln, ^ r'o-ch' karn.
To trace, track, lj^ ^ b iJ naksha-i-p kl pairawl karn.
To trade, 13^ jLj b ^Syj, saudgari or banij-baipr karn.
To traduce, tuhmat lagn, \J> |bjj badnm karn.
To trail, L",;~i$f ghasltn, ghisiyn : see To draw.
To train, bjV** V. t^^i{p tarbiyat or hamwr karn: see To teach.
To trample, LL* ^tb p'r se maln, bis5 kuchaln.
To transact, chalana, LU^ mu'mala karn.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 341

To transfer, (make over) l-iy* smpn, Ii ^J..." taslim karn.


To transgress, Ii^ V.J^Wr ^ cb1^ or tajwuz or khat karn.
To translate, Ii^ J nakl karn, (interpret) Ii^ <U>-y tarjuma karn.
To transmit, li <^j rawna karn, bhejn.
To transport, lillSo des se nikln ; see To banish : (put
into ecstacy) j** Jtf^-j wajd men rakhn.
To travail, be in travail, lilgS <-^i> dard khn.
To travel, Ii jL* safar karn, \ji phirn, >- chaln.
To traverse, (lay athwart) li\ Ijfl r lagn, (pass) phirn.
To tread, jib kadam paw rakhn, (thrash) lijb d'n.
To treat, \j tl5jL) sulk karn, (of) U^i zikr karn : see To feed.
To tremble, kmpn, daldaln, \>j^ larazn.
To trick, Uf^i thagn, chhaln : see To cheat, adorn.
To trickle, \j\js*-j>- jhirjhirn, bb<JJ bundiyn.
To trifle, IijLo l_J$-< makkhi mrn, \> ^Jp b\3 tp-tl karn.
To trim, Ui\$>- chhntn, \>j> tzJ\j\ rsta karn: see To shave.
To trip, (stumble) UU/ j tlikar khn, (up) li^U langt
mrn (?).
To triumph, liLsT <\jU> shdiyna bajn : see To conquer.
To trot, UU. L liU- ^Jlj dulk'i jn or chaln, \\jy khdrn.
To trouble, lili-> satn, Uj i..1J taklf den, \jj$>- chhern.
To trundle (v. n.) IiJ dagarn, (v. a.) lij^ dagrn, liU*5 lurhn.
To trust, Ii^ jjb bwar karn, i*libr rakhn, (sell on
credit) Lsu^j yy Aarz pr bechn: see To consign.
To try, ^^^)! zm'ish karn: see To attempt, examine.
To tug, (pull along) \s^ khainchn, (strive) Ii^U j}j zr mrn.
To tumble, (act as a tumbler) li^ ^jb kal-bzi karn : see To fall.
To tune, liU miln, Ii j\~,^n> ham-sz karn, (the voice) Uj! alpn.
To turn, (v. n.) phirn, ghumn, (v.a.) lil^j phirn.
To tweak, (pinch) nchn, (twist) marrn, L-*< mlsn.
To twine, bb.Jujj baundiyn, (to plait) \i&jj gndhn : see To fold.
To twinkle, liUiUj timtimn, (move the eye) lili matkn.
342 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To twirl, (v. n.) ghmn, (v. a.) ,_s<As~jald phirn.


To twist, (v. .) $!>! ainthn, lilg Ja ai khn, (v. a.) L>ii Jj >aZ
dtn, marorna, \ijyo mrn.
To twit, \jjVc js taxna mrn, Ii iS-~cL<, malmat karn.
To twitch, ^ nijhtn, khastn : see To snatch.
To tyrannise, U jj V.jr?~ V. ?M^m orjabr or 2r karn.
To value, mZ thahrn, LC nkn, ;- JjJ* zlzjnn.
To vanish, Lb, \Jb>- ji rahn, ljyt> t-^Jbi b c^w*- champat or
k'ib hn.
To vanquish, bcue-jiK, li? torn, \iS ^^~L shikast karn.
To varnish, bU&- iliO^u/c charhn, bj-*- chuparn: see To cover.
To vary, ^ 0 rangrang karn, b^J phtrn : see To change.
To vault, (leap) biij kdn, see To leap, (arch) bb>; <u fcw&Ja banana.
To vaunt, bjbc uJ]j^<-JS lf-guzf mrn, \j Jij ujH lf-zam karn.
To veer, b^j phirn, \*c ghmn, bJjo badaln.
To vegetate, Lf^ ^j-j ^ c^Li wai s7 wgn, U-*.=j- jamn.
To veil, Ulli jjj burka* dln, \j (J!-^^ ghnghat karn.
To ventilate, b IbjLg ^ |y> se thandh karn.
venture, Vj V5\ j>- jkhim uthn : see To dare.
To verify, Ii^ c^L5\ b u^-ot iiii or isbi karn.
To versify, b jjj karn, L$l jj3 / men likhn.
To vex, b^ jjJ rfiM karn, bjj-^- chhern, bk-j satn.
To vibrate, (v.n.) bl^j^i thartharn, \\fj> tirmirn: see To shake.
To vilify, * b |*U jj bad-nm or mazammat karn.
To vindicate (justify), b i_i-ot b Uj bgunh or karn.
To violate, bJ c^-^- hurmat Itn, (infringe) ^ faskh karn.
To vitiate, bj\& bigrn, b^ -*!^ kharb karn, bL.5 nasn.
To vivify, OL- jiln, X> xjjj zinda karn.
To unbind, khln, bandhan khln.
To unbolt, >J Jj^ ^^ b hurk or Z efw.
unbosom, Uj^jlj khln, \ jL\i fsh karn.
To unbuckle, \yS> baks' khln.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 343

To unbutton, }^ ghundl kkln.


To uncase,
To undeceive, bl^s-**- samjhn, b'^ j^y> kshyr : see
advise.
undergo, ulhn, b^ bkarn, V.y .^ khainchn.
To underline, b^L^S i^s?^ niche khatt or ZaHr khainchn.
To undermine, liljjO surang daurn, b5\ / ktn.
To underrate, \jl5^ l-vJ klmat ghatn, Lib*- ^^Ji- haklr jnn.
To understand, b^s*-' samajhn, b$>-jj bjhn, bjb>- jnn.
To undertake, 13^ karn, lil -fiU AiA lagn: see To accept.
To undervalue, biU- j?**- J1^ kam-kadr or haklrjnn.
To underwrite, V. likhn or sA7A karn.
To undo, (ruin) Ij^ 4->}/- kharb karn, (open) UlS khldln.
To undress, utrn. To undulate, li^S lahrn.
To unfasten, khln, bj^- chhrn. To unfix, kkln.
To unfold, } khln, udhern: see To discover, explain.
To unfurl, kkln, udhern, (spread) b^L-j pasrn.
To ungird, blj^S <&J b kamarband or fang khln.
To unharness, Ojbl jL s utrn, bjJ AAZ .
To unhinge, lij^ <UjJ b Jj- cAiiZ or 6? ukhrn.
To unhorse, Ul^f ^j-i Lfj^f ghr se girn.
To unhusk, bjW ^ff- chhilk utrn, b!l3 nikln.
unite, ULo miln, Jsc^c muttak hn, (v. a.) bLe miln.
To unlace, bJj$ drl khln, ^*^ bandhan khln.
To unlade, unload, lijbl Z>/A utrn, bjl#\ ubhrn.
To unlatch, }$ iZZ khln. To unlock, Ji kufl khln.
To unloose, 0 J^ rAZ cZn, b^ yd- Jcj band se khals karn.
To unmask, ^s^j burka* utrn, \jj> zhir karn.
To unpack, }$ b JcJ b \$2^ gatth or Jaste or mZA khln.
To unravel, (v.n.) b^s^"4 sulajhn, (v.a.) li\fs)-*J suljhn : see To open.
To unriddle, b J- AaZZ karn, khln.
unrol, bjj-ao^ udhern. To unroot, lijl^ Js- ^ ukhrn.
344 Vocabulary Verbs.

To unscrew, }$ ^ pch khln. To unseal, muhr torna.


To unsheath, larn , L5f jL5 niym s nikln.
To untie, bJj$ khln. To untwist, pecA khln.
To unveil : see To unmask. To unyoke, 1j=- J' wir dn.
To vouch, L J gawhi dn, l^ c^ot sbit karn.
To vouchsafe, li^ ^^-jY" mihrbrii karn, 1 farmn.
To upbraid, Ij^ t_i-..5U fjZJjj~> sarzanish or malmat karn.
To uphold, (support) lifcjV thmbhn : see To support, raise.
To urge, Ii JuIj b 1Uu takz or /? karn, urn.
To use, bJ bartn, X tijr< Am Zra : see To treat.
To usurp, LJ chhtn lena, UJ Js-b' n-hakk len.
To utter, kahn, b^UH uchchrn, b^ z/:r karn.
To waddle, b lL=j batak- or dagmagl-chl chaln.
To wage, b^, Ispi sari rakhn, (war) b cS^rjang karn.
To wail, biLL bilbiln, \i ,_gj\j j ib n?a zr karn.
To wait, 0^ ^lliy! intizr karn : see To expect, attend.
To wake, (v. n.) b>- jgn, (v. a.) bl>- jagn.
To walk, &- chaln, (go about) b^ phirn, \ij> j~* sair karn.
To wallow, Lj J ^^>- chahl lotn, tfj^j dbji lt-pt karn.
To wander, b-c^ ramn, Lj^ phirn, (stray) bhatakn.
To wane, Ugf ghatn, \j*s> ^ kam hn, bjj> Jljj zawl
hn.
To want, (be wanting) JI. khlt hn, (need) bj>U- chhn :
see To wish.
To war, bj! larn. To warble, lilSLJ lahkn, blf gn.
To ward off, UjJ i dn, UW; bachn : see To protect.
To warn, bb- chitn, U.O ^j*^ ghi den, libs- jatn.
To warp, (v. n.) by> ^ fey kharn hn, (v. a.) LjO jj* marr
den.
To warrant, \*pj$\>-j'fz rakhn, j\~>-\ iklitiyr den.
Was, iA5, lys ', lb, rah, \ gay.
To wash, lijJtO dhn, X , u^i Awsi sw karn : see To bathe.
Vocabulary. Verbs. 345

To waste, (v. n.) LS^f ghatn, Lis gaina, (v. a.) Wjfl urn.
To watch, L J i_S^*" chaukt den, (not sleep) Lb> bedr rahn.
To water, OLiJ paniyn, l0 ijb ^ rfn, bsn^> schna.
To waver, toys J^i^e jlyj bekarr or mutaraddid hn.
To wax, (v. a.) Ij^ , (become) on : see To
grow.
To waylay, Ii s\j rh mrn, Ii cl>\ ghat karn.
To wean, JbJj ddh chhurn, y>. kh chhurn.
To wear, (rub, v. n.) L^-f ghisn, (v. a.) UL^f ghisn, (dress) I^j
pahann, (hold out) La^ rahn, 1! tikn.
To weary, tliakna, JL mnda .
weave, Ij or bunn, LJ\ ^Jh^jU krhn.
To wed, LfcU byhn. To ween, L>U-jrt: see To think.
To weep, Ujy rn. To weigh, tbln: see To consider.
To welter, L5j5 ltn. To wend, UU-^'n, 1^ phirn.
Went, \$ gay, (out) wiAZ. Were, iA, ^j^a hue.
To wet, (v. .) baigna, (v. a.) li^jj bhign, nam karn.
To wheedle, liL-^j phusln. To wheeze, U':. sansann.
To whet, LiLs sanna, \iS -^y*- tz or chkh karn.
To whine, U^-^g- jhlkhn. To whinny, LacLb hinchn (?).
To whip, I tl^jW- chabuk or ora lagn.
To whirl, (v. .) ^, ghmn, (v. a.) lU$f ghumn.
To whisk, l^fiyyj shathn. To whisper, 01.,.^....$* phusphusn.
To whistle, ^jS--! 7< bajn. To whiten, li ^ iXjL: /1 karn.
To whitewash, ^eli kali pliern, chhuhn.
To whiz, pinpinn. To whoop, jL>jlli kilkr mrn.
To will, chalina, \j^ j! rada karn : see To command.
To win, ^>-^<, l ^~^>- jit lena, lejn.
wince (from pain), ljliLs^>- J^j dard se chhatpatn.
To wind, (v. .) ghmn, phirn : see To twist, fold.
To wink, U&U matakn, (v. a.) \iliU matkn : see To connive.
To winnow, UW usn, &^ phatakn, ^fy->- jhrn.
2 Y
346 Vocabulary. Verbs.

To wipe, ^ pnchhn, b^ t_iL s/ karn.


To wis, ^=rjJ bjhn. To wish, >>- chhn: see To desire.
To wit (adv.), ^jii yaxn,
To withdraw, (v. n.) Lib hatn, > jb Saz rahn: see To take away.
To wither, bib^ kumhln, bbjfy murjhn, b>- jhurn.
To withhold, b jb z or per rakhn, &~$- chhtnkna.
To withstand, bj t , bjj rkn, U^bj thmbhn, bJS .
To witness, UJ gawhi den, shhid hbn.
To wonder, ^ i_^ ta'jjub karn. To be wont, ^ karn.
To woo, b\ Jti-c *sM karn, b l_sbc mngrii karn.
To work, b /cam karn, (ferment) bbs? gajn : see To embroider.
To worry, bj|j$J bhambhrn, bb^JbjpAr khn.
To worship, bc>-jj pjn, Ls bhajn, b^ parastish karn.
To worst, (foil) bl2i> hatn, blys harn, bblp bhagn.
To wound, bL- chutiyn, \i zakhmi karn.
To wrangle, bj^- jhagarn, ? bahasn, bj[fi> takrr karn.
To wrap, bilJ lapetn. To wreak (revenge), bJ |Uil intikm Un.
To wrench, wrest, bJ ^"'J* marT^ khaich Un.
To wrestle, b^ (^j5-^ kush karn. To wriggle, bjjp tarapn.
To wring, bjj^1 nichorn, bjt^o marorn, bjJ ^ jjecA <fn5.
To write, bg likhn, b i^-tii 1\yf^ tahrir or kalamband karn.
To writhe, bjl akarn, bj| ainthn, jj tarapn: see To twist.
To yawn, bb^^-^'amra, bJ jamh'i Un.
To yearn, b^ c^--> shafakat rakhn, bjj^ marorn.
To yell, b)b>- chilln. To yelp, b&} bhaunkn.
To yield, bJ& nikln, \>J Iouj paid karn : see To give, resign.
To yoke, bJ.s>- jotn, bj>ob ndhn, X>\i>- jutn.
VocabularyAdjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 347

ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, &c, OF FREQUENT USE.

Aback, i^jjs pichhli taraf, ^pfu pichhe.


Abashed, cu-J lajjit, ^U-^j pasheman, i*jt sharmanda.
Abject, JJj zalil, patit,j\y* khwr. c_>\j- kharab.
Able, ubli kbil, ^^Lj smarth, J^3 /'/jfc: see Capable.
Aboard (a ship), jahaz me, jahz par.
Abominable, !j~* makrh, \jy^ ghinaun, ij karih.
Abortive, birtha, ^jL 57*, J^WI l-hsil.
Above, j^)] par,ji par,jij zabar.
About, fjJ^tjJ, s-ps, \jL^ gird-plsh, (j^ps.
Above-cited, above-mentioned, mazkr, jjb~~* mastr.
Abreast,jAjt barabar, jv jb ham-kinr, ^J.\ ^ lage-lag.
Abridged, ^r. fe* mukhtasar. t_ sanchlip.
Abroad, jb\ bahar, j^jiij par-ds, j** CLc 1 ghair mulk men.
Abrupt, j^J behar,j\p nisheb-farz, (sudden) tl&UH achnak.
Absent, Ijcs- jud,j\a~j*. ghair-hzir, (in mind) Jil ghfil.
Absolved, i_JU-< mu'af, c^X* mukt.
Absolute, (supreme) J&k'6 mukhtr, (sole, complete) Uk mutlak.
Abstemious, Abstinent, jlij-Aj parhezgar, ^j*^ neml.
Abstruse, JUj daklk, jli-c mughlak, {J^J^ ghmiz, grh.
Absurd, JJsb batil, ^Ji\ anarth, JyLn^lj n-ma*kl, ijjb harza.
Abundant, l^^yJ bahutera, j\ aksar, tyj firwan, iJbj ziyda.
Acceptable, J^iU makbl, ^j^e matbu*, uuiyJ bar-wakt.
Accidental, ^SUi'l ittifki, ij^-v^ ngahni.
According (to), fj\yt muwk, ^jUo mutabik.
Accurate, thik, ^s6 sahih, (person) \j-$>- chaukas.
Acid, l5$ khatt, JJ ami, Jji tursh.
Acquainted, wkif, lfT gh, (intimate) v5^ ^.
Across, Kl r: (adv.)jb pr,Jj\ war-par.
348 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, fe.

Active, tl/SU- chalak, man-chal, \>j>- charphara, is chust.


Actual, sachch, ,<->- hakik'i. Actually, <^L^\fi-l-haktkat.
Admirable, ,;. jb, j\j nadir, (interj.) < L Aya
Affable, ^Ll- milansar, ^Jc*- halim, cl>jj<\i b-'murwat.
Affectionate, J(-i-> shafk, (Jj-sbb) day-sil, l_5Jb_}j- chhh.
Aforesaid, jjiiX %,^^~~ mastr.
Afraid, ly> *ar A', J^UJ dahshat-zada.
After, (^efsu pichht, a*j Sa*a".
Afterwards, < 6a*d, Sxj ba*"d is-ke, JJ tad.
Again, m phir, phtr, ijlc lwa, xJj > d-bra.
Against, u-^< khilaf, (over against) ^~> sanmukh.
Aged, IIj buddh, purana, kadm : see Old.
Ago, ^ 1 age, pshtar, J^L sabik.
Agreeable, <M~j Jj dil-pasand. Agreeably (to), (ji\yo muwfik.
Alert, jlj^. khabardr, jlJfo> hoshyar. Alien, ^ pardls.
Alike, ^ barabar, ^LlUoI k-s, )1*~= saman, <u-> shabh.
Alive, b-r>-j7, jJj zinda, jljJU- jan-dar.
All, c_^o sa, |Uj tamam, j^Li sr, J- sakal,^ bhar.
Almost, i__^iyi nkarb, i_-~>^ karlb, j^jJiJ nazdlktar.
Alone, Ll , l^J tanh, %\ ikl, iije sirf.
Although, <>^1 agarchi, $>- har-chand-ki.
Altogether, <_lk<> mvtiak, ^s* mahz, \y nir.
Always, sac/, - hamesha, /ar &.
Ambiguous, CjjjLso mashkk, JiSsJj pechdar, mubham.
Ancient, i^jj kadm, #>-)j> paracln, puratam.
Anew, Afresh,^ phir, y^-i sar-i-nau, ^>j~^ naye sir se.
Angry, ^^ ghusse (in anger), <- khafa, ^^jj krdh.
Angular, jljuJj^ knedr, j\a+jS>J> gshedr.
Animated,^-! dir, dil-garm; (as language) namkn.
Annual, ULj sliyn, ^y*j> baras-w, Ljys har-sla.
Another, \j~ dsr, jj\ ek aur, clX^jjl aar .
Anterior, )j iJ^j pesh-ruu, JJ AaZ. Antique : see Ancient.
Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, fc. 349

Anxious, x^ejj fikr-mand, j^o mutaraddid.


Any, kl, js kuchh, k'.
Apiece, jb har Ik .
Apt, $ l'ik,j\j taiyr, JjU kbil, <Si\&- chlk.
Aquatic, pariih, ab,j^r jalchar, >J>\j daryl.
Around, ^-b^~l s-ps, gird, pairman.
Arrogant, j)j*< maghrm, ^jauS gustkh, Sz** mutakabbir.
Artful, jLc aiyr, ^j^fann-farebi, ^J^>- chhali, CJ%>- chlk.
Artificial, *^i-Lj sakhta, \ bbj bany h'.
Artless, anfi, yu bhl, <&-Lj be-skhta, jLj s<?a.
As, L-^-j'ais; (conj.) kyki: as much, as many, U^-Jii/i.
Ashamed, Ai^-i sharmanda, lajjit, ij*sr*- khajil.
Aside, (apart), alag, \ss>-jud, i^j^ kinre.
Aslant, ^j- / tirchhl st, <_ il&l tpraf.
Asleep, 1 Ijj-> sota h', j^^-c rm me.
Astonished, ghbrjfJLjbX^madhsh, u^L^-chakit, ^j^hairn.
Astray, bhatk, i\y& gumrah, i^i bhl, \}^J: bt-rh.
Asunder, \sfjud, iJ\\ alag : see Separate.
At all, (b* ?nutlak, Ulk. mutlak.
At all times, e^Jjjb har wakt: see Always.
At length, At last, j- \ khir, pas.
Atrocious, jijit o^y nihyat sharir, c-^ju o^J bahut ma*yb.
Attentive, {j-$f>- chaukas,j\+>jb hoshyr, &>-<p~* mutawajjih.
Averse, islls." mukhlif. tj);^ n-rz.
Austere, u^s^ sakht, e^-bjJ durusht, j tund, Vfi kar.
Auxiliary,jlfo.X madadgr, kumaki.
Awake, jgt, bedr, j\J*> hshyr.
Aware, <*J\j wkif,J*j*>- khabardr, \f I gh.
Away (absent), j\>-j ghair hzir,^ c^jUj tafwut par, \>-jud.
Awhile, > Ai- chand muddat, bejt \*^ thr rsa,
Azure, ^jUw| smrii, jj\ azrak, j J-3 riil-gn.
Back, (adv.)^j phtr,j\) bz, -} wpas.
350 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Backward (loath), -gardn, Ju kashtda, sust.


Bad, \j> bura, bad, ^jjj zabn, <-r>\j~ kharb, j_jL sharir.
Bald, chandl, ganj, (unadorned) LijU na-zeba.
Baneful, Jbj zahr-dr, muzirr.
Bankrupt, UljJJ devwliya, ^& mufls,jbli na-dar.
Barbarian, (adj.) ^jj>-jangl, ^J^j wahsh, f>-j be-rahm.
Bare, (naked) l&J nanga, (plain) jL scfo, (void) ^J^- khfi.
Barren, (land)^-yl sar,) hallar, (animal) -fsrb banjh.
Base (adj.), p/, kamina, , ^yj .
Base-born, *1^e>- haram-zada, barn-sankar.
Bashful, ^cj-i sharrril, Lsi lajila, ^j>-~> sankochi.
Bay-coloured (a horse), ll--w kumait, samand.
Beastly, L) ^j^s*- haiwn-sa, ti/b n-pk, s ganda.
Beautiful, iZJjpaiji- khbsrat, <~ sundar, t^mj^ surp.
Because, l^ij ki, liXyJ lihaz, tijy kyki.
Becoming, J.I l'ik, <jL> shyasta, U (j-^- khiish-num.
Before, g, samnt, ^J^pesh.
Behind, ^pfo pichhe, . Jb #5 ?, 5a*.
Beloved, pyr (.), ,_$j\jpyrt (f.), < >* mahbb,jjj& ziz.
Beneath, ^t^ niche, (unworthy) J$ Ii n-l'ik.
Beneficent, Jbj dayal, ycLi faiyaz, lilj di.
Beneficial, JLo mufid, Jo^cJ^i sidmand, > bal.
Beside, Besides, /:, Sjle lwa, ^jj^ kinare, j> nazdk.
Best, jjl uttam, 1$) sa6 se bhal,Jiij\ aultar.
Between, Betwixt, ^> btch, ^,1**^ darmiyan.
Beyond, ijji pare, j\j par, ^~\ ge.
Biennial, JL^J d-sla, l > c? s tak rahnt k.
Big, 1*j bar, mola, halan, (pregnant) *LU- hmila.
Bigot, bigotted, muta'ssib, hathi.
Bilious, Ly\jbe safr', ^1yi*> safrw, zardabi.

Bitter, karw, -j la, ^ ZAA : see Cruel, Sharp.


Black, ls kl, iyh, (complexion) iT^K kalt, Ul kliy.
VocabularyAdjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 351

Blamable, ^j^o mulzim, kusrwr. Blameless: see Innocent.


Blank, (white) JL> sufd, (unwritten) oL sda, 1$Lj b-likh.
Bleak, (cold) j~> sard, l&JOfi thandh, (pale) jj sard, Lj pil.
Blear-eyed, \^>- chipra (.), tlao dhalk (.).
Blessed, CSJ^ mubarak, JU- khush-hl, bihishti.
Blind, > andha,jf kr, Lo lj n-bin, (of one eye) 1 Aw.
Blinkard, IbJiX- chundhla, \>&Jb dhundhla.
Bloody, ^LJ jj! lh-luhn, x\ ^^>. khn-lda, ^y>- khrii.
Blue, Li /, iL! , ^^xLj ml-gn, J kabdi : see Azure.
Blunt, (dull) J Awna", \$ bhbta, (unpolite) jV><^ ^ be. imtiyaz.
Boisterous ^y*>jy* ) zor-shor-karntwala, JoA> shadid, JoJ tund.
Bold,^Jj dilr, j dilwar, bahadur, L^u mnchala.
Born, \i&-jan, paid, (in compos.) aj\j zda, \j za.
Both, yjj dorn or dnn, Ja har do.
Bounteous, bountiful, data, *i karim, ^L faiyz.
Brackish, khr,jyi> shr, lijS lona, j^aj namkin.
Brave, j\> bahadur, c^-OjLs swant, j\j* mardna : see Bold.
Brawny, \&**jlt hurmusht, kungr, ^J^>- chahkaith.
Brazen, L-j pitia, ^fy. birinji : see Impudent.
Brief, 0(f kth, ^ai* mukhtasar, ^Us* mujmal.
Briefly, ikhtisr se, (in short) Jojb gharaz, ^> algharaz.
Bright, rshan, L>-1 ujl, i_Jte sf : see Illustrious.
Brilliant, j\j (Jjjj raunak-dr, tbnk, L^>- chamkil.
Brimful, i_-JU lab--lab, bhar-pr.
Brisk, L>- jald, shkh, tl$ll>- chlk, eu-w.>- chust,jj tes.
Brittle, cJj\j nzuk, L&Jj barik, Lj paila, CS tunatt.
Broad, \jf>- chaur, jC rlz, (vulgar) kamina.
Brown, <jj gandum-rang, ^ gandum-gn.
Brutal, . haiwni, (savage) <J^-} wafishi : see Cruel.
Bulky, j*> mota, ^*~s>- jasim, Vjj bar, ijj^ bhri.
Busy, J^*i~ mashghl, j* sar-garm, i_J^b<i masrtif.
But, (except) \y* siw, j>- juz, (conj.) ^magar, l^J\ llkin.
352 Vocabulary. Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

By, ^ se, t_ ..> & sabab, j ba : see Near.


Calamitous, sj fat-zada, i}^ij> partshn : see Wretched.
Callous, iji-.s."' sakht, gathil, jy5> kathdr, J,J be-dard.
Calm, UJni dhim, Jjcjk mu*tadil, Aj 5awa", l> .
Cancelled, Lf blLc mity gaya, j-* ft$ gay.
Candid, (_Jle so/", jb v^~>^ rast-baz, j*$ ^ b-lag'.
Capable, ,Jj15 kabil, Jj l'ik,J!\j ptr, jog.
Capacious, x\ kushda, ^ji farkh, Ijjs- chaur.
Capital, (as a crime) jimr, (principal) \j) bar, zim.
Capricious, ^Js^^Ij talauwun-tab*, chh.
Cardinal, a*zam, jS\ akbar, Jj\ awwal.
Careful (cautious), khabar-dr, jLy& Kshyr.
Careless, Jil ghfil,JJu be-fikr, ^j>-y^ aschi.
Carnal, tjL nafsni, ei ^jy^ shahwat-parast, kmt.
Carnivorous, gsht-khpr, ^Ibjl ms-adhri.
Casual, ^jSlu! ittifaki, ^j\ ariz, tS\& ngahni.
Cautious, jL-y* hoshyar,Jubj>- khabardr. (jjjj- chaukas.
Celestial, ^JZ^tf bihish, ^J^>- jannaf, tiU-sl sm<mz.
Censorious, ^-t-^- ib-jo,jt^jj>- harf-gir, CicJ nindak.
Central, Centric, (JL^J darmiyri, ^>? bichon blch.
Certain, cjJi yakln, i ' ^* be-shakk, jJl* mukarrar.
Certain, (some) ,<iu baxz, ^ k% (person) ^Jfuln, <i fulna.

Certainly, <fcl albatta, LJb yaklnan, mukarrar.


Charitablej^sr* mukhaiyir, data, LS^ sakhi, ^eX faiyz.
Charming, Ujy<> mohn, b^L^ suhwan, i_ - J dil-chasp.
Chary,jLijj> hshyr, khabardr, (frugal) l^^ kifyati.
Chaste, clSb ^, ^s-j pabitr, *A> swdA, <ti-i* /^ (w
Cheap, bj sosia, manda, arzan, l^J ^ kam-balm.
Cheerful, jj Airi. khanda-r, ^Lk~&> has-mukh, (j^y>- khush.
Cheerless, (^Ijl Mtfas, sn, (dreary) jO j jtf ZaM *".
Chief (principal), Jjl awwal mukaddam, \y_ bar.
Chiefly, Ule ghalban,J&\ aksar, L>ars- khumsan.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 353

Childless, ^^J. -aulad, jJjS l-walad, nipt.


Chill, Chilly, thand, sard, LA3L$5 thand-s.
Choice, (select) <UsU- khssa, (careful) Jjxo ma*kl, ^J^ kifyatl.
Christian, i^sy-^A isawl, nasrnt.
Chronic, Chronical, muzmin, ^jIj d'irni, b^J dr-p.
Chubby, S^Ji galphl. Churlish, be-tamiz, dabang.
Circular, j)X< mudauwar, ^<f gol,j\ <tiL>- halka-dwr.
Circumjacent, (J"32-* muttasil, >~-~iJ* karib, ~ aspas, CjL^j
nazdik.
Circumspect, {j^>>- chaukas, j\^yt> hoshyar, ^>- chaukann.
Civil, (sociable) ^LLc milansr, (political) L5^-< mulki, (not military)
mal.
Clammy, jIa-J las-dr, L-LJ laslas, \-=^>- chipchipa.
Clandestine, W^^jJ pshida, L$- chhip, gupt-
Clean, <_Jl* sf, jS\ pakiza, \sA ujla, nirmal, cJ^pk.
Clear, (bright) <_JUi shafff, uJL sa/", (not cloudy) l$>^ pharchh,
(evident) shkr, jib zhir, (free) J^- khli.
Clearly, i_JU> s/, sarhan: see Evidently.
Clever,ji- chatur, chlk, J^Jt>4 hshyr, J^oli kmil.
Close, J^j awf, Ijc^c mund, ghana, ^> bhir.
Cloudless, \1 khul h', \ ^ abr. Cloudy, j^-^ghanghr.
Clumsy, (_jLil anf, nii-Li ^> be saltica, JjJ bad-daul.
Coarse, \L mota, !> gunda, (rude) cu-bjJ durusht.
Coeval,j*s- ji> ham-mr, ^ pJb ham-sinn, >= ham-jl.
Cold, Ijo^j thand, j~> sorc?, L^- khunuk, Js-~! sJia/.
Comical, Comic, jL^',' thathbz, Jj~> hasdr.
Commercial, ^Oj-s saudgarna, ^ tijratl.
Common, cl^3~ mushtarak, (inferior) <i~* kaniina.
Commonly, ji^l aksar, jJL*> blshtar.
Compact, ths,j) pur-kr, (_/-i ghafs.
Compassionate, J>-> shaflk, JUi dayl, J^/ narm-dil.
Competent, J> S A/7, Jj /fciiZ, ~1 bas.
2 z
354 Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Complete, pr, jUj tamam, (ready) j\J taiyar.


Compound, compounded, murakkab, i^^cj sanjukt.
Conceited, ^ji- khud-btn, dimghi, j\i*f\ akarbaz.
Concise, jk4 mukhtasar, sanchhep, s kth.
Confessed,(declared)jj^cmash'hr. Confessedly, ^^juAf'tirfse.
Confident, isic man-chala, dhith, mu*takid.
Conscious, <*J\j wkif, agah, j*-f- khud-.
Consequently, \} lihz, ^aJ\y^\ us-wst, zaruratan.
Consistent, i^wili^c munasib, J.}) l'ik.
Conspicuous,^bllj zhir, J>\z laniya, mashhr, \ khul.
Constant, t:\j sbit, )J\ atal, issx~* mustahkim, karari.
Constantly, c^j nit-uth, ^\ yt> har an, ^IjjJl^^Lc ala-d-dawm.
Contagious, ijj\~> sar.
Contemptible,^Jb>- hakir, JJj altl,j\y> khwr, i J - subuk.

Content, contented, rzl, khush, ^^r.,v..i santkht.


Contiguous, J.3^< muttasil, 1 51 mi/ Ait', 2^ paiwasta.
Continual, jjlj da'im, (continually) > hamsha.
Contrary, ills-* mukhlif, ulla, zidd, isls- khilf.
Convenient, Z'/r, ^'^ munasib, th'ik.
Convex, jlj gumbaz-dar, j\ Js kubba-dr.
Cool, jc^j thand, J- site?, J^-s sare?.
Copious, ci-^ bahut, \)j ziyada,j> kafir, jbJ bistar.
Cordial, (jTj< mukauwl, (sincere) Is.*- sachch, JW sdik, -ya.
Corporeal, (jl^-*. jismnl, i^f" sarlrl.
Corpulent, +^^-jasm, wi, jJj daldr,jfc3 tanwar.
Correct, ^ saAA, thlk, durust, JU&=r tahlfik.
Corrupt, durfli fsid, \y sar, ubs, \jL bigr, -y. kharab.
Costly, ^Jb*~> ktma, ^~a*s^Ju> bsh-ktmat.
Covetous, laicht, \j^f^ harts, ^fc'j! lbht.
Counterfeit, ^-jUI libs, \j>- jhth, kht.
Country (adj.), cJlJ dihkri, ^jyt gnwl, ganwr.
Courageous, J ditr, jA^i bahadur : see Brave.
VocabularyAdjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 355

Courteous, t-JJy mu'addab, jL^^i- khnsh-akhlk, jlyjXj -


ni/id.
Coward, Cowardly, dar-pkn, J}J buz-dil.
Coy, L-^ sharmil, c-ls?"^ pur-hijb : see Bashful.
Crafty, jLc aiyr, ^Jijai fitratt, lL-> syn, ti^Ajfailsf.
Creditable, mu*tabar, jyc\j nmwar, J^i r-dr.
Crimson, ij!j* kirmizi, ^-J* arghawnt, lfc^s su ha.
Cripple, langr, !U ZmZ, pang.
Crooked, lajJ trh, kham. \$>-y tirchh, ^ kaj.
Cross, !jl r, tirchh, (peevish) \r>^*- chirchir.
Crude, Is? kachch, Ai- kham, z=s?\j n-pukhta.
Cruel, j=y ^ bt-rahm, kathr, JJ sang-dil.
Cumbersome, bhri, ranjwar.
Cunning, UV.- syn, jLc aiyr, ISo pakk,jx>- chatur.
Curious, y>-j\j rz-j, (rare) 1$3\ anth, (nice) ^Ju brlk-bin.
Current, (customary) r'ij, (flowing) ^jj^-jrl, rawn.
Customary, ^j* murauwaj, LS-*~y rasm, ^j^i dastr, ^}j r'ij.
Daily, i jjj rz ba-rz, jjjS> har roz, j)j jj rz rz.
Dainty, (squeamish) cS\jf>- ^p- khush-khurk : see Delicious.
Damp, \S gil, y tar, ''j^r< martub, nam.
Dangerous, Jni- khatar-nk, c^iljJ pur-fat, ^jJ pur-blm.
Dark, l^J^ andhtr, lLX;j^ trik : see Blind, Abstruse.
Darling, iji lrl, pyr,j)jz ziz, t_^.sr* mahbb.
Dauntless, jlj nidar, ti/Lj btbk, jXj bdar.
Dead, \ mu', sj.t> murda, mar, (insensible) ^ sun.
Deadly, JjI ktil, cLly* muhlik, fot> halk, Jjbb> hlhal.
Deaf, bahr, ^> summ, kar.
Dear, (costly) mahang, ^ girn: see Beloved.
Deceitful, jb\J dagh-bz, ^>- chhali,J~< makkr.
Decent, s~~A> shyasta, l'ik, wcii, z~\j\ rsta.
Decisive, ^>\i kti*, uJU sf, \j pr, ^jJ yakin.
Declinable (in gram.), u-i^is* mutasarrif, t^ij*~* munsarif.
356 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Deep, \j$ gahra,jf^ gambhir, (coloured) ghr-rang.


Defective, kht, (_>aU nkis, \j n-tamm.
Deficient, S kam,jJi ksir, ei^ nkis.
Definite, JjAs^ mahdd. Definitive, ^^ muta'aiyin.
Deformed, J bad-shakl : see Ugly, Humpbacked.
Dejected, fj~\\ uds, ij zurda, ^^ gham-gln.
Delicate, (exquisite) nafis, (fine) cJft nzuk : see Dainty.
Delicious, jji j maza-dr, khush.
Delightful, dil-chasp, > Jiy- jmsh-yand.
Delirious, jLjb^j! -hdsh, . be-khud, \>< diwana.
Dense, t Aas//, tir^~> sangln, bhar, lJlS' grh.
Desirous, mushtk, i^j rghib, shauktn.
Desolate, wirn,jbA ujr, fyzQ, -chirgh, ^J^>- khlt.
Desperate, (hopeless) ~o\ U na-ummd: see Hopeless, Mad, Rash.
Despicable, JJj zalll,jJ- hakir, ^j>-\jp, .
Destitute,jls- l-chr, JU^ darmnda, khtt.
Detestable, *jL* makruh, tJ> karth, \j\u$> ghinn.
Devilish, ^1 shaitan-, Sj*>\ sur-i, ^Jj zabn.
Devious, il^-J be-rah, s\jj bad-rah, \ gumrah, ye kaj-rau.
Devoted, jlij ^- jn-nisr, ^jjh fidwl, ^ mu'iyan.
Devout, iXMso muta'abbid, ufj^ namz-, < ij^- rif.
Dexterous, uL/l- chlk-dast, J cu^-jJ dast-kr, o**- chust.
Different, s-JL-* mukhtalif, IjLi nyr,jj\ aur, <J\\ alag.
Difficult, J~c mushkil, j\j dushwr, jgZ katliin.
Diffident, ^Jji> shakkl, ^*>j wahmi, <~^ be-himmat.
Diffuse, yl^o muntashir, <JjjL tawl, lys vq>- chhitka h'.
Diligent, sar-garm, Jyti~ mashghl, chaukas.
Dim, >\ andhl, IbJjj*- chndhl, ^jsjJjJ dhndhr.
Diminutive, iS>-if kchak, \j nannh, chht.
Dire, bj\j> darwn, L^wJb ha.ibat-nk, t-^-^ muhib.
Direct, UtXj-j sldh, /-* mustav, (open) (_JL> so/".
Directly, c^j ar, Jlsh ^ -l-hl, ^\ abhi: see Direct.
Vocabulary. Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 357

Dirty, (filthy) L mail, j-sf* najis, S-Li ghaliz : see Base.


Disaffected, ^Lvf jj bad-gumn, s\j- bad-khwh.
Disagreeable, Jo-j U n-pasand, n-khiish.
Discontented, ylj Ii n-rz, t/i^ U n-khmh. .La sft.
Discordant, hL ^ n-muwk, (in music) JLj be-tl.
Discreet, b b-tamiz, J*J> hshyr, 1_5~J bibk-.
Dishonest, U n-rst, ^>1 be-mn, ^jfarb.
Disloyal, <_ + ' namak-harm, be-waf.
Dismal, tlAiLfc haul-nk, tlL^ bhaynak, (jJ\\uds.
Disobedient, ^Ly ^ n-farman, ,jZ> j~ sar-kash.
Displeased, (_/^>- U n-khush,j\jj bezr, azurda.
Disputatious, \J~?~ hujjat-, <j>\srbahhf, jljj^f- jhagrl.
Disrespectful, _ ^ be-adab, shkh, tub -lihz.
Dissatisfied, " n-rz, (J^f- b" n-khtish, J^j bezr.
Dissimilar, c;iL<\j n-muwk, i_ab-sr< mukhtalif.
Dissolute, aubsh, JuJ -kaid, wra, &>j rind.
Distant, jj dur, Juju Ja'!/ : see Bashful, Shy.
Distinct, \e>-juda, Ja-* mutafarrik, (clear) i_jL> sf.
Distracted, i)^a^maztarib, ghbr, teJt\ shufta.
Ditto, Li! aizan, mazkr.
Divers, <i>- chand, ^JS kal ', <-^j e^syj bahut bahut.
Divine, (_; rabbnt, ^>^\ ilhl, rahmni.
Diuretic,j\ idrr-war,j&* mudirr.
Dizzy, i^jIJjS sar-gardn, ,jt>Xc madhsh.
Docile,^ jj tarbiyat-pazr, jJ tez-zihn.
Domestic, ^>\~ khngi, ghar-el.
Done, L kiy, Lb L kiy h', chuk : see Good, Well.
Double, UjJ dn, LbjJ dhr, Aj- do-chand.
Doubtful, lL^C-* mashkk, ..rJL* mushtabih.
Doubtless, X> ^ bl-shakk, L-b yakinan : see Certainly.
Down (prepos. or adv.), ^^snj niche, ^Jj tale, jLA At.
Downcast, sar-nign: see Bashful.
358 Vocabulary. Adjectives, Adverbs, 6fc.

Dreadful, haul-nk, uJoU# bhaynak, cS\ij}- khaufnk.


Drowsy, Li\oj ninds, iOjTf -- khwb-lda.
Drunk, %f*t matwl, e mast, ^JlS kaif-l.
Dry, (arid) iliw- khushk, I^j-j skh : see Thirsty.
Dull, (blunt) Jai kund, Ijjgj bht, (stupid) <_* afimak.
Duly, ^-ffir jais cJiahiye, i * $j f/.
Dumb, uiji gng, gung, *j .
Dunce, ahmak, bhakw, jJj batid, $\ ull.
Durable,jlJob^'-iir, ^15 k'im, b^iJ- dr-p, ^yb /c.
During (postpos.), Ai, , raht, WL^) darmiyn.
Duteous, Dutiful, j-Ja^j mui, (child) rashld: see Obedient.
Dwarf, Dwarfish, lib b'n, \5l n?, H*g5 thumk.
Each, > har ek, lL>) CS>\ k ek, {y>^^ s do trim s:
Eager, *J> j* sar-garm, shaukin, ~<yjj\ rzmand.
Early, (in the morning) <_~> sawere, (as fruit, &c.) L*f\ agmana.
Earnest, a?, ba-jidd, s'T, Ju* mukaiyad.
Earthen, gil-l, ^^2- mitti k, (as ware) ^U-j sifl-.
Earthly, arz-, (worldly) Jj\j duny-w.
Eastern, ^Jjft , j shark, ^J^-< mashrikt.
Easy, ^Lcl sn, sahl, (at ease) JU- aJyel sda-hl.
Economical, L5~>U kifyati, (j~jj=r juz-ras.
Effectual, Efficacious, j kr-gar,ytc mu'asdr.
Effeminate, zan-sifat, J^o Ii na-mard, LjJuj randi-s.
Egregious, \y bar, i^->~' sakht, i_^s? jab, mash'kr.
Eightfold, lif-fiT th-gun.
Either, >) ^ )>}^ dnn k Ik, k't, (conj.) i!j=- lvwah.
Elastic, chimtk, ]}^~ chimra,j\ * dam-dr.
Elder, \jj bara, \L>-jtth, JbS kaln, <jy. buzurg.
Elegant, i. laff, cJj nzuk, bf~> suthr, <>>- khb.
Eloquent, fasih, u^f>- kliush-g, ^bj ^jJt shtrin-zabn.
Else, (other)^l aur, dsr, (conj.) 1\ illa.
Eminent, jJj buland, al,j^<\j nm-war, iSjfo buzurg.
Vocabulary. Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 359

Empty, ^\~ khl, ^>->- chhchh, sn, tih.


Endless, eu-Ayi ^jJ -nihyat, de- ^ be-hadd, mudm.
English, ijlj^\ angrez, ^Lll& inglishtani.
Enormous, jtjc m, u^s^ sakht, > J^i> shadd.
Enough, u~j bas, ^ kf, bahut: see Sufficiency.
Entire, jUj tamam, uUl amt, ^.j ^r, ^.s*" ..
Entirely, y-j^-s sar-a-sar, JL bilkull, lJ k-kalam.
Envious, JwW. hsid, aa/i, bad-chashm.
Equal, barabar, (jLsuJol h-si, j-s^b ham-sar.
Equitable, ; rsi, A munsif, js- hakk, thik.
Equivocal, mub'ham, j\ do-ma*nl-dr.
Erect, fj\i-)\ istda, mustakim, khar.
Ere long, iJUj i^jfjf iAr zamne mm.
Ere now, J-J aW a-z-, ^_^ ge is-e.
Erroneous, kl ghalat. Erroneously, ghalatan, \yr> sahwan.
Esculent, kjmrdarii, JjI ^ hhri kbil.
Especial, yoU- khss. Especially, ^yas- khuss, }.. khususan.
Et caetera, wa ghaira, lL$1j_^ ghair zalik.
Eternal, abadi, J]>1 la-yazal, d'im.
Even, (level) j^jaa hamwr, u~jf>- chauras: see Equal, Straight.
Even (adv. or conj.), ^ sacA, ^*^ waki', ^ju bhi.
Ever, (at some time) Li$- kabht, kadht : see Always.
Every, har, ^js Aar &, sai '.
Every where, > har kahi, >-J& har jagah.
Evident, ^Lc yan,jSii zhir, 1 khul, \jLi>\ shkr.
Evidently, sarihan, lybj zhiran, s/".
Evil, \j> bur, Ja bad, ^jjj zabn,j\^- khwr.
Exact, ilfi thtk, durust,jAj barabar: see Nice.
Exactly, ba-ini-hi, **^n> h-ba-h, .
Exalted, jl^j^-) sar-faraz, joJo^-j sar-buland.
Exceeding, nipat, w\jJ ziyada, bahut.
Excellent,^i^ bihtar, j;5U f'ik, uttam, c-^Jli ghalib.
360 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Except, \y* siw,j=? ba-juz, jJu ba-ghair, 5 siw'.


Excessive, jlJ ziyada, adhik, u^jly nihyat.
Expeditious, j\i As>- jald-bz, z-, cSf>- chlk.
Experienced,^ to/if tajriba-kr, JSi.Ji\j wkif-kr.
Expert, jJbte mahir, phurtil, pakk.
Express, _JL> sf, yi zhir. Expressly, \* kasdan.
Exquisite, (j-J nafls, j^) bihtar,j\j nadir.
Extempore, ^jJ^J fi-l-badiha, J^Aj^j be-ta'ammul.
Extensive, j-^-y wast*, t\ZJ> kushda, \b bara.
Exterior, External, ijjye mri, ijj&b zhir, ^jjj> .
Extra, \ U> ma siwa, sh- lawa, x\ j ziyada.
Extraordinary, \y\ anth, i^s? jab, nadir.
Extravagant, Jj-s fazl-kharch, j^x be-dastr.
Face to face, ^^oLi^i.*! amne samne, r-ba-.
Facetious, ^bfjtyi- khush-tabx. Jj-* hansr, J^2 thathl.

Facing, jjijj r-ba-, JjI^ mukbil, LS^^-> samne.


Fair, (in complexion) \^ gr, (honest) ti*]j rst : see Beautiful.
Faithful, jbtlu\ Imn-dr, waf-dr, sachch.
Faithless, U^-j -waf, ^\jS- <J*j namk-haram.
False, \}p>-jhth, Jib btil, (forged) ^^m taklid.
Famous, ^0 nami, j^JuU namdar, mash'hr.
Far,jjJ dur, Jujw ba'id, (much) u^^j bahut, *jbj ziyada.
Farther, yjjO durtar, (besides, moreover) *jlc lwa.
Fast, (firm) mazbt, Wjj paurh or prh : see Swift.
Fat, \jj4> rai, < farbih, jasim.
Fatal, il^L^ muhlik, Jj'lS AiiZ, (fated) \jJ arf..
Faultless,^2J b-takstr, ^>- l-jurm, ^^s-^i b-ib.
Faulty, ^j-jjJ , ^-oJ taksir-wr : see Bad, Defective.
Favourable, ^^< mihrbn, (suitable) muwfik.
Fearful, (afraid) m J dahshaUnk, (awful) i_-^-o muhiib.
Fearless, Cib be-bk,jjj ni-dar: see Bold.
Feeble, ^ly U n-tawn, tsg ?a'f/j jjj ^ kam-zdr.
Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 361

Fell, Jj) sangdilfjiykry. khnkhzior,J& katar.


Female, Feminine, JU mda : see Effeminate, Soft.
Ferocious, ^j^-j wahshl, f-j^j! be-rahm: see Cruel.
Fertile,^>-jj zar-khz.J~~ sansgar, s>- jaiyid.
Fetid, isx ganda, jix^o muta'ffin, IxjblJ bishind.
Feverish, sjj>^3 tap-girifta, garm, JjLh__^j tap-m'il.
Few, thr, ^jy> thof, chand, ^f kuchh.
Fickle, chh, ^^^^ talauwun-mizj, J^f- chanchal.
Fictitious, -L skhta, \$>- jhutha, taghallubi.
Fierce, jcJ tund, ^> shadid, c^w^ti durusht, ,_>jj .
Fiery, tashi, ^jj nri, (passionate) tez, x tund.
Figurative, i_;bsr* majazi, ^jl-^ tamsili.
Filthy, mail, ^j-=f najis, cl/b b -pk, li-li ghaViz.
Final, lJjs-\ khirl, khir, pichhl, uLc\ kmil.
Fine, (not coarse) tlX^b ir/, (showy) j\SL>- jildr : see Elegant.
Finite, iJjd^* mahdud, j\j\ andza 5 pyn-dr.
Firm, mazbt, u^- sakht, kam, CLJjJ subt.
First, ) pahl, \ aga, Jj\ awwal : see Chief.
Fit, ilXjfi fAt&, '/#, e^-p durust, >_^-jL^ munsib.
Fixed, k'im, jsx~* mustahkim, skin.
Flabby, Flaccid, Lb pilpil, narm, Laj </.
Flagrant, (burning) szn, (enormous) jojJ shadid.
Flat,^j^ barbar, Jiyb) hamwr, (insipid) IL^j phik.
Flexible, in*- chimr, 5Ls5 lachil, narm: see Soft.
Flimsy, pai, J-sj pai, jj^ kam-zr, ^>-bp.
Fond, <Jjti> sh'ik, J^ils shik, JjU m'<7 see Fool.
Fool, Foolish, ahmak, -wukf, >jy mrakh.
Forasmuch, jf>- chnki, iL*>- jabki, ztrki.
By Force, Forcibly, \^ jabran, ^ jjj zor si, jjjt ba-zr.
Fore, Sbl ag/, psA, peshin, L^j pahl.
Foreign, Foreigner, ^j pardsl, ^j~>-\ ajnab, 1_s0^ bidisl.
Former, I aga, Lj pahl, ^-^ pshtn, j^jLj sbik,
3 A
;

362 Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Formerly, ^ \ age, j^j peshtar, jj-^e J^Ls sabik rri.


Formidable, ^+ muhlb, cl/b" c^- haibat-nk.
Forth, (forwards) <jA age, (abroad) y>b bahar.
Fortunate, i^-o^cLCJ nek-bakht. l^-Jjs^ bhgwant.
Forward, (early) b-*^l gman, (bold) fait shkh: see Before.
Foul, 5L maila, (_iL> Ii n-sf, najis, OjST aluda.
Fragrant, jljjJ j^iji khtish-b-dr, Jax^o mu'ttar.
Frail, (weak) > (not durable) ^ kamp, 5.
Free, Jljt zd, j\xs^> muMitr, tz~tj,j wrasta.
French, ijh+J^ farsis, ,<-~j* farstsi, \ frans ka.
Frequent, Jt\ aksar, ^jpaiham, i^-^J bahut.
Frequently, ij&\ aksarya,j\>j\> br-br, bshtar.
Fresh, (new) Li naya, xj\ taza, (not salt) bj!l alna : see Cool.
Fretful, Ijf^r?- chirchir, Us- khaf, n-khush.
Frightful, Li/Liys haulnk, bjl darawna, i^^s.-* muhlb.
Frivolous, halk, -, lL,.< subuk.
Frosty, JuS iijJ barf-dar, L l ^Jb _pe sa.
Fruitful, mwa-dr, brwar: see Fertile.
Fruitless, J^jI aphal, j~j be-bar, (profitless) a Sa.
Full, (complete) 1jjJ pr, (replete) ^ bhar, j) pur,j~ sir.
Fulsome, bj-^f ghinaun, j\J*\j n-gawr, Jojb n-pasand.
Furious, Mj tund, JOiXii shadid, ^/- ghazab-nk.
Further,^ijii durtar, (furthermore) ji tis par.
Fusty, x*$tf>phaphund, ^A> bast, 1j>Lj bishind.
Future, JLSa^ mustakbil, JcJ t a!inda, agam.
Gamesome, chulbul, j^ khilrl, Ljj rasiy.
Gaudy, -^ bharkll, L&b- chatkll, \j rangtl.
Gay, khush, ^tejbi shdmn: see Gaudy.
General, |lc am, ^.^o murauwaj,j&\ aksar.
Generally, <b^l aksartya,j>\ aksar, Ujac umman.
Generous, LJri , di, *J .
Gentle, (tame) h> hila, (well-bred) J~a\ asll.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 363

Gently, 4> histe, s_j^ dhirri, fj> narm narm.


Genuine, J-^l asil, (pure) \&- khlis, chkh.
Giddy,Ji^Jij^ghurri-dr, (volatile) J-=p*- chanchal.
Glad, {jy- khush, tili shad,jjj~~* masrwr, j* khurram.
Gladly, ^^jbf- khushi se, ^ JcJI nand se.
Globular, Globous, Jjf gl, L>^gZ-s, kurawi.
Glorious, J-L>- jalil, jAlJJ>- jalilu-l-kadr, Jur* majid.
Glutinous, Lxto- chipchip, LAJ laslas, jljuJ las-dr.
Glutton, Gluttonous, yi-J jjiii, ^^.j pttrth, J ll akkl.
Golden, y^-s snahl, ^jj zarrin, ij l? til'i.
Good, achchha, 1& bhala, ->^- "^> <-^ .
Graceful, Ljst1 sajlla, J~*>-jamJl, j\o-ja tarah-dr.
Gradually, ^j> -tadrij, <Uij zij rafia rafia.
Grammatical, is.\s b-ka'ida, marbt.
Grand, \ji bar, ^a 5zm,j~!> kabir, i^Stf, buzurg.
Grateful, JJ* shukr-guzr, (jJcJifj- hakk-shins.
Gratis, Gratuitously, oJu mufi, jjj be-zar kharid.
Grave, Lti dhir, Xii^sx* sanjida, \ gambhir.
Greasy, charbi-dr, L>- chkna, <Ji-^- chikkat.
Great, \y bar, Ac aztm, ^Sjj> buzurg, j+S kabir.
Grecian, ^^j -.
Greedy, j_^a)j>- haris, Lcf-'^ llchi, (ravenous) mar-bhukkh.
Green, Lb har,j~> sabz, (fresh) up tza, (raw) Ls? kachch.
Grey, U- khkistari, \jS kabr, i_^>1 ash'hab.
Grievous, JJJi shadid, oi"4 sakht, y>\ JjJ dard-anglz.
Gritty, L kirkir, (as bread) LX.. kaskas.
Gross, \3^o wi, ~~A-jasi.m, lsJ^> bhri : see Stupid.
Guiltless, *Lj bl-gunh, <ybj nirdokh, jj> bar.
Guilty, gunahgr, j\jaSJ taksirwr.
Hairy, (full of hair) jL\y m'edr, (made of hair) (>_s^iJ pashmi.
Half, IfcJl iiA, i84a't wis/-, jJ .
Half and half, in halves, ^^^ nisf nisfi.
364 Vocabulary. Adjectives, Adverbs, Sec.

Handsome, ^*.s- hasin, suthr : see Good, Beautiful.


Happy, (lucky) ^j^S kmrn, (at ease) JU-^j-j- khush-hl.
Hard, iz-Js?" sakht, \j kar : see Firm, Difficult.
Hardly, (with difficulty) ^ i^-i'j dikkat se: see Scarcely.
Hark ! jUm> j~> surio suno, j dkh dkh.
Harsh, e^jJ durusht, l~^s~s sakht. (sour) jLy tursh.
Hasty, (quick) b~jald, phurttl, (rash) J tund.
Haughty, jijk< maghrr. I_s^ ghamandi : see Proud.
He, (pron.) *j wuh, yih, (male) y nar.
Healthy, Healthful, t^w,dcJ tan-durust, \s>- Aaf changa.
Hearty, (sincere) bj* be-riya, so/"; see Healthy, Strong.
Heavenly, ^U-ol smrii, ^\^> samwi, ^Jli falaki.
Heavy, bliri, girn: see Grievous, Stupid, Sad.
Hebrew, ^1^* tbrni, t/<^ yahd.
Heedless, be-parw, Jilc ghfil, ^ fiet.
Helpless, j l-chr, j^sX be-chara, be-bas.
Hence, (adv.) ^l^t yaha se, (conj.) ^j-U is-liye.
Hence ! (interj.), y>jjJ dr A .' y> jJJ d/* ^5 .'
Henceforth, Henceforward, ^ <__ s, ^"\ ge, xs \ 'inda.
Her, ^ ^ ^(_/-^ V. ~ *-^, -e, -ki, ifu-\ us-k.
Hereafter, ^^- duo bctdisk, ge, 'Inda.
Hereditary, ^jjy maursr, bl, CJj^j paitrik.
Hideous, l-^^c muhib, tl/Uyt haulnk, ii karih.
High, Ab buland, nch, (proud) ^-Sa mutakabbir.
High-born, i\jj~o\ amir-zda, ^jJU-^lc li-khndn.
Highly, c^-lyj nihyat, lSwJ nipat, x{ij ziyda.
High-mettled (as a horse), jLiU-^'rtw-Jz,^ .
High-seasoned, chirpir, J\ maslih-dr.
Hind, Hinder, Hindermost, Si$=;picAA/,yM khir.
Hitherto, ilicH ab-tak, > yaha tak,jfJb hariz.
Hollow, chhchh, iys^ mujauwaf, khkhl.
Holy, (jwALc mvkaddas, j&s thir, 1 pk.
Vocabulary. Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 365

Honest, \jp kkar, jb rast-baz, &4L> sadh.


Honourable, jj** mu'zzaz,jyc\j nmwar: see Honest.
Hopeless, A+*>\ U na-ummed, <jJ/ nirs, {j-^}^> myus. ,
Horrid, Horrible, *--^e muhib, haulnk: see Dreadful
Hot, garm, tatt,JJ tz: see Eager, Furious.
How long ? d> ftaJ talc ? How oft ? ^-j ^ kai ber ?
How many? ^zZ kitn (m.) ? How much 1 \u kitn (m.) ?
However, (conj.), ^jJ lkin,JLc magar, ji par.
Human, insnl, bashar.
Humane, J^f/ narm-dil, f^>- halm, jLs saUm.
Humble, pyjt farotn, gjiarlb, j*Ac jiz.
Humid, L\X> namnk, l->^sjc martub, y tar.
Humpbacked, \j kubr, i^tjj kz-pusht.
Hungiy, bhukh, ~f gursina.
Hurtful, Jj\j ziyankar,j*> mvzirr, Jisr* mukhill.
Hypocritical, Hypocrite, ^JJ kapafi, J&\ij riykr.
Ideal, (Jl?*- khiyl, ^j*^>j wahmi, ^j* farz.
Idle, (unemployed) Ji~i be-kar, (lazy) i sust.
Jealous, iJ&JJ bad-zann, (emulous) ^tZcLij+l ghairt-kash.
Ignorant, n-dn, fJsxi be-khabar : see Fool.
Ill, (bad) \j bura, M bad, (sick) jU-j bimar : see Evil.
Ill-behaved, kuchll,j\jb\J bad-atwr: see Rude.
Illiterate, jjlj- n-khwnda, ^1> b-ta^lm, ansikh.
Ill-natured, ^bjj bad-btin, d^JJ bad-nihd.
Illustrious, nml, mashhr, j\s**~c mumtz.
Immediately, ba-mujarrad, cuj turt, [(fj tabhi.
Immense, JcsAj be-hadd, b-Jiys: see Infinite.
Immoderate, be-andaza, *\>j ziyda, S be-hadd.
Immodest, b-sharm, Lscu bt-haya.
Immoral, fjL\x<J bad-ma'sh, _< ma'yb: see Bad.
Immortal, j*\ amar, <Sj**j be-marg, lyazal.
Immovable, achal, JjI atal, cJf\.< j+z ghair mutaharrik.
366 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Impartial, ^J>f~, b-gharaz, ^a< munsif, Jtta dil.


Impatient, j~n+> -sabr, n-shikb, garm.
Imperfect, jtjlj n-tamm, j^U nkis,j*\s ksir.
Impious, ^.^ b-din, J~jI fsik, ^ycjb\ adharml.
Important, ahamm, ^jj^} bhri, \j) bar.
Impossible, {f^<> j- ghair mumkin, lij^l anhn.
Impotent, (unable to propagate) J^li n-mard: see Weak.
Improbable, J^^s^^-c ghair muhtamil, jj^^js- khilf-i kiys.
Improper, Ueu ^', Jybb<>\3 n-maxkul, Jij*&\j n-hamwr.
Improvident, Imprudent, ijLj\j kotah-andshfj^sx^ b-tadbr.
Impudent, b-sharm, (bold) $2*Q dhith.
Impure, i_Jl^\j n-sf, ^j-sf* najis, tl/blj n-pk.
In, , bich, bhttar, (dakh. also) ^j~q mane.
Inaccurate, jr^- ghair sahth, n-durust.
Inactive, e>~> sust, L3 <, rmi.
Inadvertently, ^> :- ghaflat se, bhulkar.
Inanimate, Inanimated, ^ -jan, b-namak.
Inattentive, Jil ghfil, CiUJI^ b-iltift, V^-j b-parw.
Incapable, fcmr, JjIjs. ghair kbil, > n-ras.
Incentive, iJi^-^! targhib-dih, cSjS* muharrik.
Incessant, J>^j^ mutawtir, J$ lagtr, paiham.
Inclined, JjU ma'il, (desirous) -^Hj rghib, J^lii sh'ik.
Including, Inclusive, J^^e mushtamil, J-\> shmil.
Incomparable, ^-li-J b-naztr, <jt l-sni.
Incomplete, jUj\J n-tamm, nJcis.
Inconstant, -sabt, -karr.
Incorrect, n-sahih, jb<xJ\ asudh, LL ghalat.
Indebted, j\j>J karz-dr, (obliged) ^^i.*.-* .
Indecent, Indecorous, _^^ -adab, *jZ~> b-sharm.
Indeclinable (in gram.), Cjfsx*j* ghair mutaharrik.
Indeed, wki', g* sack, <Jl abatta.
Indefinite, U ghair mukarrar, (noun) xjj nakira.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 367

Independent, j5-...i mustakill, y>-^ sar-khud.


Indiscreet, )>\s^. b-lihz, j\~<c\ b-imtiyaz.
Indisposed, (disinclined) jLAi -saz, (sick) s^j&Jb kasalmand.
Industrious, J~s?* mihnat-, ^>-\Lii^ kmkjl, s'.
Inestimable, b-bah, m -..,*^ b-klmat.
Infamous, jU At bad-nm, \yj rusw, &Z\ apajas.
Inferior, \s\j nicha, chht, jjj fartar, \>\ adn.
Infinite, Jicy b-hadd, ^bL-J -pyn, L^jl^ b-intiha.
Infirm, za'f, t> dubia, ^y^j n-tawn, rgi.
Ingenious, ^J zak, pb zahn, chatur.
Initial, pahl, jjJu> mukaddam, J^l awwal.
Inlaid, c^-r^ munabbat, yy*-jar'.
Innocent, lIAj pk, I^j -gunh, (harmless) c--o^ gharib.
Innumerable, jU^-j b-shumr, i^\ anginat.
Insane, diwana, V\ b'l, majnn.
Insatiable, l> Jij na-sr-hn k, \^yjj^ marbhkh : see Greedy.
Insensible, (_r-s^ b-hiss, (J^y^, b-hsh : see Gradually.
Inside, ji*$> bhitar, ^j^S andarn, andar.
Insipid, bt-maza, ISLgJ phik, lLX^xj -.
Insolent, magra, J&j sar-kash, gustakh.
Instantly, abhi, ist dam, fi-l-faur.
Instead, ^s- iwaz, Jjj badal, /^ ba-j'.
Intelligent, JjU kil, fahm, hoshyar.
Intemperate, J-^JkJ bad-parhz, ^j>\^> sharbi.
Intentionally, kasdan, amdan, ^jL>-y ^- jn bjhk.
Interior, Internal, LSj~ bhitri, ^j^ darum.
Intmate, p^b ham-dam, js* mahram, -jyo munis.
Intransitive verb, ^y J*j fi*l-i-lzim, il*c\ akarmak.
Intrepid, CJ\~J b-bk,j$j nidar, jn-bz.
Intricate, j\j^ipZch-dar, >^j ^pch dar pch.
Intuitive knowledge, JjJjJ* lm-i-ladunn.
Invalid, (null) Jtb btil, (sick) uJ^i\^\ d'imu-l-maraz.
368 Vocabulary. Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Invaluable, bt-baha, Jy<\ aml,j>jz ziz.


Inverse, Inverted, IS! ult, Ujjjt aundh, maklub.
Invincible, ajtt, Jj'l atal, ^<j. ghair maghlub.
Invisible, ^.J^l andkh, t-^J^ gh'ib, JJ-wli n-padid.
Involuntary, t_.f;^Ll iztirrt,J^-\ bt-ikhtiyar.
Jocular, Jocose, J^2$j thathl, j^-i> hansr, ibj zarlf.
Jolly, Jovial, khush, JojJj zinda-dil, bligl.
Joyful, khush. Jchurram, ^UjI shdmn.
Irregular, J^al ^ be-kafida, ^LSi-JiU- khilf-i-kiys.
Irremediable, IjjS l-daw, <^^ -ilj.
It, j wm, or yah. Its, s-/i, lJ is-.
Judicious,jLiyfc hshyr, Ai^Jc klmand, parbtn.
Jugular, \ ^Jgal k ; vein, JjjSIJ-o. hablu-l-warid.
Juicy, \j rasl, rasdr, <_j1jL> shdab.
Junior, chhot, >-fi kchak, saghlr.
Just, JjU <, ^ rsi, Ls.*- sachcha, ilX?f> thik.
Just now, ab-hi, Jls^l aZ/, a5.
Keen, (eager) Jjl- sh'ik, (sharp) ., (severe) JcJ tant/.
Kind, (jb^ mihrbn, tj^-jjbj daywant, (J-ji> shaftk.
Knotty, Knotted, \g gathl, (abstruse) iJ^n mughlak.
Knowing, 4_S!j wkif, ifH, j}J> gyari,j\<e mhir.
Laborious, jus4 mihnafl: see Industrious, Difficult.
Lame, langra, t lang, ^! lunj, (of the hands) S^l Zt.
Languid, iLxJ: za'f, jjU manda, Jj>\ /, c^w sms.
Large, \jj bar, y> mola, Sjt farakh, bhari.
Lascivious, masti J?)y* shahwatl, \\^>- chul/ir.
Last, t^l pichhl, khir, akhlr.
At last, ^>-| khir, ^IjJ nidn, cu-U akibat.
Late, (after time)^jJ der, (deceased) py* marhum, (past) ifl agla.
Lately, ^yj i-?j> thorl dino se, j darbt wil.
Laudable, qa*c mamdh, Jjl ^ i_ji ta*rif ke kbil.
Lawful, shar', (allowable) Ji\o-j'iz, Jlb hall.
Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 369

Lazy, Lz. > sust, Jjbl khil, ^j nikhatt.


Lean, h dubia, j^i lghar, j*&2- halar : see Poor.
Learned, jjlc alim, J<li fzil, J*oK kmil, cd$j pandit.
Least, ^j- sab se chht, ^J-^ kamtarn.
Left, (opposite to right) ^ byn, (remaining) 1.
Lenient, Lenitive, {^< mulaiyin, jZ** musakkin.
Leper, Leprous, krht, l_? y^- jazm.
Less, kam, I3j>- chht, kamtar, kihtar.
Lest, (that not) mabd, (for fear that) ais nah.
Level, j\j barbar, JiyMb hamwr, ^3*~* musattah.
Liar, l^i>- jhth, <_jJl kzib, ^j dargh-g.
Liberal, (munificent) L-"*> sakh, Wo data : see Generous, Free.
Libertine, JuiLj b-kaid, \ luchch, jj rind, t\j\ wra.
Licentious, O-o b-kaid, \J&j sarkash, j^S badkr.
Lifeless, ^ku be-jan, (inactive) > sust, J^^0 maj'hl.
Light, (bright) $s>-\ ujl, rshan, (not heavy) lb halk.
Like, (equal) J?U* muwfik, (similar) L s, tksn.
Likely, (probable) jLjj* honhr, (probably) ^> hw, Uli ghliban.
Likewise, (adv.) bh, JJ z, ^J~>\ jji -isk.
Liquid (fluid), Scj paila, JU- saiyal, cjlj^ muzb.
Little, Ijj^i thr, (small) chht, jf>- khiird.
Live, Living, L>- Ji, OJj zinda, (burning) garm.
Lively, JoajJj zinda-dil, > shkh, khush-tab* : see
Cheerful.
Lo ! j^jo dkh, Ja, -$jO dlkh.
Loath, ,j^ n-rz, A kashlda, i^^fjj rgardn.
Lofty, (high) Jib buland, (proud) maghrr : see Conceited.
Lone, Lonely, \ ikl, IfJ tanh, 1S\ akl : see Solitary.
Long, L*l lamb, j^j darz, (time, dilatory) tjj dirang.
Loose, ^ khul, chht, 5LfcJ <#, juj b-kaid.
Lost, gum, <-rLi- kharab, \S gay, i_-~jI gh'ib.
Loud, tjfyi> sAr, Hjl Job buland awz, nch.
3
370 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Loudly, with a loud voice, ^Jpukrk, jyS> shr se.


Lovely, pyr, nzrin, jl dilbar.
Lovesick, zioj farefta, f* maftin, ^y^s^ majnn.
Lousy, chilrh, ^s*- j'H-bhar : see Base.
Low, Isnj riicfi, iz.' past, (weak) i (uxJ> za'Jf: see Base.
Low, (adv. not loud) ^ju1 histl, dhirri: see Down.
Lowly, farbtan, ls>- halm, t-^ gharb : see Humble.
Loyal, JLv-tlX*j namak-halal, *c~~ mustakm : see Faithful.
Lucid, cJLs so/", ^\j barrk, rshan, (_U-> shafff.
Lucky, i_ khush-nasib, ^ bakhtwar : see Fortunate.
Ludicrous, ijjS!-*0 maskliari, jUL iawnaz, jJoUjcci- khanda-angez.
Lukewarm, ^_fjt^ shir-garm, (dakh.) U* kumkum.
Lunar, ^^ mahtabi, , (day) iA. (f.)
Luscious, IgSLc miA, L*^ rasil, jjJ Zagg : see Delicious.
Lusty, (stout) j^liJ tanwar, s kawi,j>\jj zrwar: see Corpulent.
Luxuriant, asr, y^j wr, jbj ziyda.
Luxurious, (_/iUc iysh, ^\*^>- khush-ma'sh, JLi , <Jl>
na/sn7.
Mad, tljjJ diwna, jb b'l, (enraged) (jJU^af. ghazabnk.
Made, 1 bany h', <fcii-L> skhta, \i\j karwy.
Magnificent, zmu-sh-shn : see Grand.
Main, (chief, principal) Jjl awwal, pSL* mukaddam: see Important.
Major, 1^ ar, </J buzurg, Jjl awwal, sardr.
Male,y war, narkh, tjj narma, j\j* mardna.
Malicious, Malevolent, <J$tJ -kash, *\yj bad-Jdaph.
Manifest, wazih,jS&> zhir, l khul, \j&JiA shkr.
Manlike, Manly, ti\dj* mardna, j*j\y>- jawnmard.
Many, bahut, ^XyJ bahufre (m. plur.), jL-j bisyr.
Marine, Maritime, bahrt, dary'.
Marvellous, c--ws* ajb, U~*-l achambh, toys? jba.
Masculine, (in gender) 'x<> muzakkar, 1* puling : see Manly.
Material, (of matter) <jl*~>- jismrii : see Important.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 371

Maternal, Motherly, u^jL madari : see under Grandfather, &c.


May be, Joli shyad, i_iy> hw, l^b hg, ho.
Mean, <~ kamna, pa, (middle) L* miyna.
Meek, jQ bhola, halim, j-Li salim, k-^ gharib.
Meet, i_--*~jb^ munsib, *j durust: see Fit.
Mellow, & pakk, norm, *Ju~y rasda, khush.
Mercantile, ^^ tijrati, s\y*> saudgarl, mahjan.
Merciful, rahim, JJ |^< -dil, cu^bd daywant.
Merciless, ^-^ bc-rahm, iiJuj bt-dard, JJt& sang-dil
Mere, (pure) 1 wtY, 31/ nirl, (merely) uJ^ sir/, ^s^ .
Merry, ^Uolii shdmn, hasor, magan, (jy>- khush.
Metaphorical, Jua~~<> musta'r, ujW* majzi, (adv.) |jls^ majazan.
Methinks, ^t> mujh sjht hai, ,Jb li ^ '
lagt hai.
Mid, Midst, l adh-bch, ^ bichon Vieh.
Middle, Middling, <L miyna, ^Ja^j wasatj, i^sf majhl.
Midway, i\js'\ij\ asn'e rh, i)j dhi rh mm.
Mighty, t-Jjb balwant, ^jy kawi, ^^fyoL smarthi, (dakh.)
mukhand.
Milch (giving milk), jlaJjJ ddhr, Jj>JJ dudhail.
Mild, jJL) mui'im, py norm, ^S- halim, komal.
Military, ijjj^ lashkari, ^S^r jangi, skari.
Million, das lkh, ^5, nijut: ten millions, *j karr.
Mine, ^- V. i-fji*1)/?* , mre or , ^A 1 , ,
apni.
Minor, JLi)yr. khurd-sl, (yes') jJb Ii n-bligh (shakhs).
Minute (very small), tjf>- <^V nihyat chht, [^y" mihin.
Miraculous, jb, toys? juba, ^J~*) karmti, (ju^jjI
adbhut.
Miser, J-st; bakMl, C-~** mumsik, pJ> shm, ~?& kanjs.
Miserable, JJi zalil, JUA^. khasta-hl, uAiu mufls.
Modern,y>\^< muta'akhkhir, Ai^jadid, ^\>- hii : see New.
372 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Modest, (bashful) )LJ lal, j-L- hafim, (chaste) j^* mahjub.


Moist,y tar, ^ nam, cS^ namnk, \ gil, Ijjl od.
Mongrel, cj dghla, <sLJjJ d-nasla.
Moral, (of manners) l JjiUH akhlk k, (virtuous) JtJ*- khalik.
More, j\ aur, Jbj ziyda, iS>\ adhik, btsh.
Moreover,^-J" tis-par, upar isk, Xjlz alwa.
Morose, c^-ijJ durusht, jjbji tursh-, V kam.
Mortal, iJU fri, ^Jy> mautt, (deadly) tl^Ly^ muhlik, JjU ktil.
Most, JiS>\ aksar, bahut, iObj ziyda,Z**> bshtar.
Mostly, for the most part, J\ aksar, bshtar, Ul ghliban,
<kl aksarlya.
Motherly, ufjiiU madar, LsL> m-s, j\jVc mdarna.
Much, u^yJ bahut, jL-J bisyr, (adv.) ^> nihyat.
Muddy, (foul) 5L mail, gadl, (stupid) ^jb gwdi.
Murky, iL&tJ trik, \jtt>\ andher, j^-^ ghanghr.
Musty, \j sar, nx^) bsda, \~a!> gums.
Mute, (dumb) l&f gung, J lal, (letter) ^^.-uJp- harf-i-makhf.
Mutual, Mutually, ^ d-tarfi, ^^- jnibain.
Myself, y- j^** khud, c_;l p, <_j1 main ap.
Mysterious, makhf, *Ju>jJ pshida.
Naked, &i nanga, Jbji barahna, (^/1 ryn : see Bare.
Namely, Lji*;> yaxn, khususan. rnamlan.

Narrow, (j^J awg, ' chust, \j/L sakr, is, ~..1 sakt.
Nasty, L< mail, dub palid, J? najis, iiji l aluda.
Native, jc-iIj ^ l1L rj~ m mwZ/c k asi bshanda.
Natura], tab', ^J>\ ztt, LSil- khilk, (unaffected) fc-L-j
-skhta, (illegitimate) Uti^yAjS- harm-zda.
Naval, bahrt, Lfj\>- jahzi.
Naught, Naughty, jj bad, \ bur, <-r>\/>- kjmrab, jjL sharlr.
Nauseous, \>j*$ ghinaun, *)J~* makruh, to karlh.
Near, Nearly, (postpos.) w^ps, nazdk, (adj.) karlb,
J^ muttasil, \ lag.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 373

Neat, <_JL> sf, <Jjb pk, \ suthr, pkiza.


Necessarily, ^jjj zarratan, j S l budd, fj>- ljaram.
Necessary, Needful, zarr, ^ lzim, wjib.
Needy, Necessitous, muhtj, kangl, ^Asl muflis.
Negative, ^Jc^o manf, (sentence) <L> sliba.
Neglectful, Negligent, JiU ghfil, jJsx -khabar, t_^_ sust.
Nether, Nethermost, J tarl, ^Jj zern, JJ asfal.
Never, ^^Jijb hargiz nahm, yS kabh nahm,j\^ij zinhr !
Nevertheless, ^ j) tis par bhl, ^ tau bht, ^> lJ t ham.
Neuter, (in gram.) napunsak, (a verb) ^ lzimi.
Neuter, Neutral, yt>j\ < yo1< na idhar na udhar, alag.
New, Li naya, , (fresh) sj\J tza, (modern) jadd.
Next, (postpos.) u-kps, *^i karb, (second) \j>J dsr, jt snl.
Nice, X;f> thk, ^s* sahih, ^y^jj* mirz-mizj: see Dainty.
Nigh, (postpos.) pas, iL&J> nazdik, (adj.) c-^^y karb.
Nightly, ~> shabina, l Zi\j rt k, (every night) ys har rat.
Nimble, ti/U- chlk, ^-jald, c^. chust,JJ tz.
Noble, fi^-> sharlf, t_ -ff* najtb, - mda: see Brave.
Nocturnal, <t-~> shablna, ^JJ lai, ^jJi shab.
Noisy,j^^j pur-skdr, shor-pusht, \y- ghaughcF.
Nolens volens, dysr* s\y* khwh ma-khwak, Jv-\> chr n-chr.
None, (no one) ^j-y tSfi kl nahm, (nothing) kuchh nahm.
Northerly, Northern, ^Usi shimali, jj JU-> shimal-, W\y\uttrh.
Notorious, (well known) mash'hr, i_^ maxrf: see Infamous.

Notwithstanding, i^yrj b-wujde , Jj>-y> har chand ki.


Novel, Li naya, jadd, L>**^ achambh, badi*.
Now, U\ ab, J*sJb bi-l-jfl, \j\ alhl, ^y&\ aknn.
Nowadays, J ^\ j kal, ^ in dino.
Nowhere, kahm nahm.
Nowise, ^j-) ^Jb ^J kisi tarah se nahm.
Noxious, X~jL mufsid, muzirr, Jwili fsid: see Hurtful.
Nugatory, J-el^- l-hsil, U& nikamm, .
374 Vocabulary. Adjectives, Adverbs, fc.

Null, jjlsb btil, raddi, mansukh. JeW l-hsil.


Numberless, jUwj be-shumr, anginat, <__;Lj be-hisb.
Numerous, bahut, kar, y\y wfir.
Nuptial, nikhl, <bjlb shdiyna, ^f- rust.
Obdurate, c^s.**' sakht, (j~j>\j -tars, magra, -g2-aS dhith.
Obedient, ^a-* mufi*, j\jj*jVcji farmnbardr, p\j ram.
Objective (case), Jj*< maful, ^Jy* maful.
Obliging, ^L-s-lj-^: amimu-l-ihsn, Jchalk.
Oblique, kqj, l3 terh, ^f~J tirchh, <j>ft> knknt.
Oblong, ^j>^ kitbi, JJas-^cj-^ murabba*-i-mustatll.
Obscene, fiihish, ^y)pch,yi>^) phhar, cIAjU n-pak.
Obscure, C>j$ trik, \jJbt\ andhlr, (abstruse) (Jt* mughlak.
Obsequious, adhin, J\)3 tbi*dr, j\jj\~ khya-bardr.
Obsolete, Cjn\j^< matrk, manskh, ^j^ be-rawj.
Obstinate, 1~c magr, is=< machia, hath.
Occasional, ^! ittifkl, ariz, ^yl^lj d'-ghtl.
Occult, bjj pshida, L^- chhip, L5sr* malchf. t~-J> gupt.
Octagon, Octangular, [^> musamman, J^j ls-vJ> hasht-pahl.
Odd, (unpaired) (JU$J phut, jll? (in number) jfard: see Strange.
Odious, makruh, ghinaun, tJ karlh.
Odoriferous, Ji khush-b-dr, Jax^o mu'ttar, ^~L subs.
Off, (distant) J dr (f.), ^> se; (be off!) bj dur ho ! CL3 dut !
Offensive, (unpleasant) Jo~j n-pasand, & karih: see Hurtful.
Oft, Often,jiS\ aksar, l,b brh,Joj\i br bar, bJ daf'atan.
Oily, j\jj raughan-dr, L^j raugharii, chikn.
Old, Ul^j purn, ^si kadm, (as a man) \t>jy bfh.
Omnipotent, bcjiilS kdir-i-mutlak, J5I LjU zbitu-1-kull.
Omnipresent,^!lj j j\i>- hzir nzir, \~j j UIj dn 5 bina.
Omniscient, t^^SUlc limu-l-ghaibr ^i^jb hama-dn.
Once, j\> <1j\ k br, &xiJ tl&J k daf, (formerly) ^\ ge.
At once, all at once, ^j\ il k brgt, tliol ek lakht.
Oneeyed, kn, k chashm.
Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 375

Only, (adv.) uJj-e sirf, js? mahz, (adj.) iklaut: see Single.
Onward, age, barhke, jS>\ udhar, ^j^j ba-tadrlj.
Opaque, i_L kastf, i_JU-> jj^ ghair shafff.
Open, 1 khul, kushda, j\j wz, (evident) jis zhir.
Openly, \ybU zhiran, \ barmal, khul khul.
Opiniative, ,_s'\j iiy- khud-r', AimJyi- khud-pasand, \-* magr.
Opportune, Opportunely, u^Sj^J bar-wakt, ^>y>j> bar-mauka*.
Opposite, ,Jjle^> mukbil, u-ls.-* mukhlif, ^-i^ smhne.
Ordinary, rasmi, ^jb>- chalan!, (middling) *&* maddham.
Organic (constitutional), ^bIj- khilk, zti, ^ asti.
Oriental, ,J*jZ> sharki, ^J*jZ~* mashraki, ^jft prbi.
Original, ^jLel asl, lyJ pahl, (as writing) ts- Jjx mankil nhu.
Other, jjl aur, y+y dsr,Jj^ ctgar, j*c. ghair,j par.
Otherwise, -rjjj\ our tarah, ^ war na, jj\ kuchh aur.
Oval, (jLb <ULj baiza-shakl, baizaw.
Over,^jj! par,jj par, bl, (across) ^j* \ are, jb par.
Overboard, _ j\^>- jahz se bhar.
Overcast (clouded), j^-^ ghanghr, \j*>j\ andhera.
Overhead,^ sir par,\ upar, % bl.
Out, jbb bhar or bhir, ^j^ , -j^- khrij, ^> se.
Outcast, mardd, wra, ^)b- khrij.
Outlandish, ajnabi, ^jJJu bidesi, (queer) ^jy} be-rawj.
Outright, uJle sf, pr, hi, c_y h bil tawakkuf.
Outward, <fij\ bhar ko, cf/bb bhari, ^jj^ berni.
Outwardly, !^> zhiran, <_>LJyfes zhir asbb.
Own, 1 apn, \ ^ nij k, l khud k, \- khss.
Pale, Pallid, jj zard, pil, l$2-~> sith, phk.
Parallel, j)\j barbar, muswi, u/^bs.-* muhzi.
Partial, (jel- khss, (biassed) t-^axx mata'ssib.
Particular, ^oU- khss. maMims : see Intimate.
Particularly, \*>y&. kjiussan, t*_j3l afog a&zg, Lai* mufassalaii.
Passionate, jt*u. ghussa-war, tund-kh.
376 Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, fc.

Past, 1 ' guzashta, Li gaya, 'guzra, (in gram.) ^j-te mazi.


Pat (fit, exact, fitly), lSJ> thtk, Jj} Ja7, jLj' taiyar.
Paternal, lJjJ pidarl, <tf Ljj pidarna, bwi.
Patient, j\> sabir, L.Cb shikb, (one sick) (./i^* martz.
Peace ! i_- chup ! ^y>\d~ khmsh !
Peculiar, yL. Mass, ^pyosr0 makhss, 1 ^ nij k.
Peevish, chirchira, i^j^jj zd-ranj.
Penitent, jhxi~~* mustaghfir, nadim, ^U-iJ pashmn.
Penultimate,^! JJ> U ma kabl khir.
Peremptory, (decisive) jJj (absolute) J> la-radd.
Perfect, J^li kamil, pr, (faultless) u^-e^ bb-aib.
Perfectly, J)b bi-l-kull, JU j |Lv tamam kaml.
. Perfidious, j*L-tlj namak-haram, Uj-j bl-waf.
Perhaps, JoLi shyad, jb hoga, ISUjI ittifakan.
Pernicious, muzirr, iX-Xo mufsid, zabun.
Perpetual, ^*^)^ d'imt, Jfa bfl, ^jJ^jM^A istimrr, ^jl ka'lm.
Perpetually, A.-a hamsha, Ijws sad, |L,jJ! la-d-duwm.
Persian, l5-^I _/.
Pert, ^yi shkh, J^^- chanchal, .$~5 dhlth, Is* machia.
Pertinent, JjS '/7c, <fc~Li shyasta, i^-jL^ munsib.
Perverse, ^sX ziddt, LgSfr hathll, machia.
Petty, ^> chht, khurd, ^ kam-mya, .
Piebald, JjI ablak, \j kabr, \^^~ chitkabr.
Pious, ^^* muttal, sZi, eu^J bhagat, ^*Jt> dharm.
Pish ! /, y^j phish, ^j- chhi.
Piteous, Pitiable, Pitiful, jJjI J>J dard-angz.
Plain, barbar, j\y*Jt> hamwar, (simple) oLj scfo: see Clear.
Plain, Plainly (adv.), La>lk zhiran, <_JL? s/, ^^-i rsi se.
Playful, jJI aZ, )^50>- chanchal, <J--l achpal, > shkh.
Pleasant, (j!iy>- khush, \#>-\ achchh, j jJ Zaz : see Cheerful.
Plenteous, Plentiful, i=~<^j bahut, j~> kasr, JLU mlml.
Plump, \jyo mt, 515^ mtl, Ji tar 5 iza.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 377

Pointed, j\jy nk-dr, \j nkll,j~\js> haj-mez.


Poisonous, j\jibj zahr-dr, ^jj&>) zahfi, samrni.
Polite, J?-b>- , J-\jLf>. tush-akhlk.
Politic, Political, ^5^- mulki, ^Jj^^ tadbiri : see Cunning.
Poor, (weak) t_iL* ?a'f/", (lean) Jl&S kangl, (needy) jj-lLc mufls.
Popular, jb har dil aziz, (usual) <pj*> murauwaj.
Populous, bd, *, jtfi lg se bhar-.
Positive (certain), ^--2 , j& la-radd, i ' ^ :; -shakk.

Positively, - , cljjJ\> bi-z-zarrat : see Certainly.


Possible, [^^o mumkin, j\>}& hnhr, shudan.
Potbellied, tndail, ^Li>^> sabrshikam.
Potent, zrwar, <~] tkatmand, > kawt.
Powerful, <-^jjb balwant, ^ shah-zr, C^wt^J} zabardast.
Precious, ^Jf*i? kimati, \tf besh-bah, jijz ziz.
Precise, (exact) lL^ thk, J^Jj daklk, (formai) ,Jjl knm.
Pre-eminent, c>li f'lk, J-il afzal,j\iA~* mumtz.
Pregnant, LW hamla, ^ s^> \$ bhar.
Present, j\s>- hsir,j)ji)j rbar, fry maujd, ^^-> smn.
Presently, ^\ ab-hl, >\ ab, jf^^j fi-l-faur.
Presumptuous, ^> shkh, ^c*J> gustkh: see Bold, Arrogant.
Pretty, suthr, see Beautiful, (in some degree) kuchh.
Prevailing, Prevalent, (common) <g)f murauwaj : see Victorious.
Previous, Previously, J-i kabl, ^1 ag, ^J.^ pahl, ^-^J pshn.
Primitive, Primeval, asl, ^t palil,j\ dau: see Ancient.
Principal, (_ awwal, \y bam, 1^ pahl, (essential) asl.
Principally, pahl, Ls^a- khumsan, Ul ghliban.
Private, Ufa- chhipa, <tiy nihufta, (own) ^/>\- khss, ^ nij.
Probable, jly> hnhr, J^isr* muhtamil, ghlb.
Probably, JjLi shyad, ho', Uli ghaliban, ^->>- chahiyt.
Profitable, Jii^jli f'ida-mand, JujU> mufd, jo^j^-j sdmand.
Profligate, -Ai fsik,y>-\i fjir, jJj rind,j^Sj badkr.
Prolix, Jjjis tawtl, |K J^L tl-kalm, ljJ^~*> bistri.
3
378 Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Prompt, j\j taiyar, j\=>- hzir, chlk, tj~y>~ chaukas.


Proper, ^ nij, <jfil- khss, (fit) ^^ munsib, uS+p thik.
Properly, (_5-*^>- L..^ jais chhiye, ^J^ US kam yambaghi.
Proud, jjjbo maghrr, jS^i mutakabbir, \jL* magr.
Prudent, j\~>& lishyr, CJjj zirak, \j>>- chaukas.
Pshaw ! ijt) phish, uf, chh.
Public, (common) jU amm, J^l> shmil, (manifest, q. v.) yib zhir.
Pugnacious, ISVjl lark, jangl, \j#>- jhagrl.
Punctual, < * thik, *5 sachch, Uj wada-waf.
Pungent, \>- hddfJJ tz, jj tund, IJjJj parpara.
Pure, khlis. sf, J~<y nirmal: see Genuine.
Purple, arghawnl, j~*L L \$ ll-nllmez.
Putrid, \y* sar, % gala, s& ganda, *J^-"^ bsida.
Quadrangular, -Jp* murbb\ J^^~ chau-gsha.
Quadrilateral, ^^ chau-pahl.
Quadriliteral, ^gj>-jf- chau-harf.
Quadruple, ^fj*- chaugun, chr-chand.
Quarrelsome, j>\j#>-jhagrl, y>- Uw kaziya-jd.
Queer, t_- jab, c.^;^ jib,j\sJt>\^j tamshedr.
Quick, j\L>~jald-baz} cL/U- chlk,jj tz: see Alive.
Quickly, ij<A>- jald, i^iji turant, cL~%>- jhatpat.
Quiet, Quiescent, ^Lo skin, (silent) i- chup : see Still.
Quietly, ^jt^b dhm, ^j~tb\ hist, <-1 hista.
Quintuple, \tsx>> panchgun, pnchtah.
Quite, jlb bi-l-kull, L->y>- khbr \jj> , < bi-inih.
Radical, asli, ^Ji\ ztl, t_s^U\j bunydt.
Random, J-a-j -kasd. At Random, y^; J3I atkal pachch.
Rapid, jJ tez, jjJ tez-rau, jJj>- jld, <x tund.
Rare, jjU ndir, <l^ kam-yb, c.-^^ jb, j birl.
Rash, ut'l, lils^ -lihz, As>-jald,j tez.
Rather, J^l awwal, L^yJ pahl, peshtar, J-S kabl.
Rational, J^i*- ma'kl, ^Jc kli, ^Lli ntik.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 379

Raw, kachcka, <fcrk;U n-pukhta, (as skin) ol^O -jld.


Ready, jLj taiyar, &iU>l amada, >>-..,. musta'idd.
Real, ^j&Jb- hakikt, ^~su yakini, Is- sachch, as.
* "
Really, ^ sacA, biu- hakkatan, Jlj!!^ fi-1-wki*.
Reasonable, ^jic kl, i^*~j durust, i * ji &: see Rational.
Rebel, Rebellious, bgh, sarkash, ^cli' taghi.
Recent, Lj way, , >AJ^- jadd, *j'J iza, l25 ia/.
Reciprocal, do-tarfi, 1J-JU>- jnib'in.
Reciprocally, j-j\ opas men, ^> C^-Jb>- jnibain se.
Recumbent, muttakt, ijuJJ takiya-zada.
Red, J3 , j*> surkh, rata, ahmar.
Redundant, iobj ziyada, <-^V bahut, Cjis\ adhik.
Regular, iiisb b-k'tda, kiyst, i J $5 .

Relative to, jJjcui muta'allik, ba-nisbat.


Relaxed, Ljm <, l-v sust, AiZ.
Remediless, l-iljjj^-'i lrchr, j\&~b -char.
Remiss, dhil, lz sks, J^-ir?* rnaj'hul, Jilc gkfil.
Remote, ^jJ eir, ts-w-iJjjd dr-dast, Juu Ja'fcf.
Renowned, ^yU -war, ^> lLCj -,^^^ mash'hr.
Repeatedly, jbjb bar-bar, L*it> daftan, ^jQjQ phir-phirke.
Reprobate, gay-guzr, <_j!^ kharb, Jj^ rinrf.
Resolute, J,ib~.< mustakill, \jy~* mazbt, j\ji~\ ustuwar.
Restiff, Restive, Resty, \sr machia, \jbJb>- chalbidhr.
Restless, ^ be-rm, be-karar, JLj be-kal.
Reverend, tS^ buzurg, pjL mukarram, ULij^io- hazrat.
Rieh, Jc^JtJ daulatmand, Jijj zar-dar : see Fruitful, Sweet.
Right, ij^rip durust, ilCg" , o*-^ rsi, (hand) UJ dahn.
Righteous, tlXy nA, bhal, jbsJ^ rast-baz, J"bs sadk.
Riotous, Rioter, jbJjt> dangebaz, j fitna-angz.
Ripe, \jpakk, izss$ pukhta. a^^j rasida, \j^pr.
Rotten, \y sar, gala, Ju^ bsida, s ganda.
Rough, kharkhara, (rugged) yj\ arbar: see Harsh.
380 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Round, Jj^ gol, chakrtl, j*<. mudauwar.


Royal, ^-fcli shhi, ^Lijb pdshhi, <tlli> shhna.
Rude, <_->>1^ be-adab, gustkh: see Ignorant, Clumsy.
Rural, Rustic, dh, gw: see Peasant.
Russet, i*jj gandum-rang, ^Ji<xj finduk.
Rusty, a>jSTi&j zang-lda, \s\-j^ murchh.
Ruthless, b rahm, J jJL: sang-dil, j Juj b-dard.
Sacred, (j-JJU mukaddas, tl/b j>/c, J^* majtd, j^j pabitr.
Sad, arfas, gham-gin, Jjbo mall, (m^r* mahzn.
Safe, (yeto mamn, Ijjsr* mahfz, <*~A~> salmat.
Sallow, jjL snwl, \L$j , 5U , llJ-L malin.
Same, wuh-1, yih-, ^fe} ek-hi, ^Ua hamn, j>\j> barbar.
Sandy, Sbjj reta, Lsjj rea, ^.j rgi, \Jj bal', kirkir.
Sanguine, ^j-^ pur-khn. JSjy>. khn-dr : see Confident.
Savage, (wild) jangli, ^^-^-j wahsht: see Cruel.
Saucy, jkJb gustakh, .g&JbtJ dhtth, ! ^ b-adab, skkh.
Save, Saving, l^-s si'm>5, chhrk : see Except.
Savoury, jta^o maza-dar, o laziz,ji^y>- khushguwr.
Scabby, LJs-iijUi- khrish, )^-& khasr-pur : see Mean.
Scandalous, -Jj^*- b, py**c mazmum, zabn.
Scant, Scanty, Scarce, kam, JJJi kalil, thora : see Rare.
Scarce, Scarcely, kam,jA kamtar, ^ us-J>J dikkat se.
Scarlet, (JaLi sultni surkh, tjj Ljj^ kirmizi rang.
Seasonable, <--}J. bar-wakt, b mauka*, iS^ji bar-mahall.
Second, \j*yi dsr, ,J\j srii, ^>J doyam, (inferior) ^ kam.
Second-hand, J^jc musta'mal, \ utr, istCmli.
Secondly, ijj-'j dsr, L3li sniyan.
Secret, J^jJ pdshida, L5rc makhf, Ls- chhip, l_^A gh'ib.
Secretly, bJb. khufyataii, <U- khufya, chhipake.
Secure, maman, )ksr* mahfz, ijas-^j be-khatra.
Sedate, Aia>T hista, dhlm, dhr,Jji karr.
Seemly, &ti shyasta, dikh', taJj\ rsta.
Vocabulary. Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Seldom, ^ kam, oli> shzz, )j^> thr, i_s**^ kabhl kabhi.


Selfish, X~**j gharazmand, lry- khud-gharaz.
Senior, Ijj bar,j~ kabir, kaln, kadim.
Senseless, ij~^y be-hiss, ^ sun, ^^ be-jn : see Stupid.
Sensible, ~-,^> kabil-i-hiss, mahss: see Intelligent.
Sensual, \-J nafsrii, J?y* shahwati, L-y rasiy.
Separate, \<x>-jud, alag, CJjIj tafwut, nyr.
Separately, 1- \s~judjud, tj3l &\ alag alag, iL)\ Jj tk
Septuple, \jj~~> sat-part, Lf-j sat-gun, i^u-ib haft-tah.
Several, Jjyb-<> mutafarrik, (many) <--^j bahut, l5*j ba*z.
Severe, JcJ tund,j tz, sakht, eiS^J durusht.
Shabby, pajr, ^Ijijj gudar-psh (?): see Mean.
Shallow, uthl, (Jas. ^ kam-muk, (silly) chh.
Sham, \$$>- jhth, Small, ^>\y^ swngi, ^ nakl.
Shameful, ^ sharm-war, Is) laj': see Bad, Vitious.
Shameless, b-sharm, LU be-haya, gustkh.
Sharp, J-j tez, burrn, chkh: see Acid, Pointed.
Shocking, jJoJy nafrat-angz, wahshat-angz.
Short, Cjf- chht, Gifi kth, \"^ thr, <.
Shortly, Asf-jald, ^-ijs^ an-kartb, (iJ~c |J ' am men.
Showy, ^j^-jUj num'ishi, j\y namdr, 4~>j# bharkil.
Shrewd, tez-hsh, pakk, IjL-j siyn.
Shrill, jJ tz, Y0 mihin, Ll&jb brik.
Shy, J-j$J bharkel, ^j^-j wahshl, tsys^ mahjub.
Sick,jU-J btmr, zrl, rgt : see Displeased.
Signal, i_~.s. jb, l$~*>-1 achambh, mash'hr.
Silence! (interj.), 1 chup, ^j^li- ktimsh.
Silent, (ji^cl>- khmsh, <'^ < >> chup-chp, i^Lj skit.
Silken, Silky, reshmi, ^Jjb ptl, ^Jjif^ hariri.
Silly, L# bhl, n-dn, oLj soda, \ kachch.
Similar, barabar, iLA ek-sn, ^jLa* mutaswl.
Simple, (plain) jL sda, (single) jk* mufrad: see Silly, Mere.
382 Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Since, (conj.) Sa-^j-H is-wsteki, ~s>-jab-ki, (adv.) age.


Sincere, ^~\j rast, jol* sdik, jUi^j rst-bz, Is.-' sachch.
Sinful, gunh-gr, ^j*^ st, Cibli n-pk.
Single, Ll akel, l^J tanh, (not married) ^* mujarrad.
Singular, (uncommon) i_>vjf (*n gram0 whid: see Rare.
Sirrah ! , ^ ar, ^ 6, ^ r, (fem.) ari, ,_sj .
Situate, jJlj wkt1, %yy> mauzu, \>j rakh, ^) para.
Skilful, \ mhir, i_j\j wkif, , JjI , ^j gum.
Slack, LjO dhil, c>~~> sasi, (as a knot) ^^J phusk : see Loose.
Slant, Slanting, 1$-^ tirchh, irA, ^lJ> dhl.
Sleek, chikn, i_jU> /"; see Smooth.
Sleepy, LjIiXj ninds, cJ\j^js- khwb-nk, Llgj! nghs.
Slender, ibj^aft, ?^- chhln, Ll&jb brlk, nzuk.
Slight, Scj paila, ,_\ kghazi, CSJ tunuk, chht.
Slim, &y patl, tl>j\i brk, bJ dubia, Cjj nzuk.
Slippery, chikn, phislah, (uncertain) j\J Ii n-karr.
Slope, Sloping, jSlbJ dhl, J\ utr, j,)]/-* sarzer.
Sloppy, L&o pankil, Lsi kuchail, J^J Je- jal-thal : see Dirty.
Slothful, : v... j sms, Jj>\ khil, i^Ma j\ rm-talab.
Slovenly, <&J~-J b-salka, laJii ghaliz, ^j>- chirkin.
Slow, <&~J>I hista, u: * ' sms, iLso dhl, dhim.
Slowly, <ttJl hista, ^jb^jb hauU-haul, ^> dense.
Sluggard, Sluggish, ^^^- askati, t^Mb p\ rm-talab.
Sly, UL siyn, chatur, .) failsf, ghaddr.
Small, 13^*- chht, \$~c nannh, >- kchak, jf>- khiird.
Smart, (active) J\i> shitb-kr, ^J^J phurl : see Keen.
Smoky, jljjlybj dh'n-dhr, Jjil JjJ dd-lda.
Smooth,^^ barbar, j\f*Jt> hamwr, chauras, ^JLs sf.
Smutty, (obscene) kl ghaliz, ^J>\*\f>~ khurft'i : see Dirty.
Snappish, katah, chifchir, L^Jfc harkiy.
Snug, (private) o^^J pshlda, (neat) 1 suthr : see Fit.
So, LjJ ais, L->j wais, ^ so, is-tarah, ^j> yunhi.
Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 383

Sober, jLiyb hshyr,j^jJbjjparhezgr, (grave) i*&~ sanda.


Sociable, jliL milansr, ^J** milpl, i^~jt\Jb\ shn-parast.
Soft, narra, j5Lc mul'im, \Xi pilpil, kmal: see Easy.
Solar, Solary, ^- shamsi, ^bJI ftbi.
Sole, Kl ikl, L! akel, l^J tanh, ^/-^e mujarrad.
Solemn, (grave) *JuL> sanjida, bhrl, (awful) ibratl.
Solid, Jl*sXc munjamid, V^3 \5 tnth, ths, ti^s-"*' sakht.
Solitary, \3 tanh, i\ ikl, f\j nirl : see Sole, Hermit.
Some, -fs? kuchh, kl, cl&i \S * /c, Jc^>- chand: see Few.
Sonorous, Jy^j par-wz,jtjl jJj buland-wz.
Soon, t_l=>- jald, (-jli-i> shitb, &~> beg, AZz, .
Sore, pur-dard, dukh'. Sorely, ^j- isjx> shiddat sc.
Sorrowful, jjftJ dilgir, jS^ ghamgin, <_jjL malul: see Sad.
Sorry, (jU-iJ pasliemn, (worthless) n-kra: see Vile.
Sound, ^sr" sahih, ti-vo5Li salmat, bhal chang: see Firm.
Sour, jjjy tursh, l2 khatt, CJf>- chuk, (>/lo- hmiz.
South, Southerly, Southern, ^^^J dakhn, i>j>>- janib.
Spacious, ->lj xosC, i\zS kushda, L^j phail, ji farkh.
Spare, JJJs aZ7/, ljj> iAr ; (to spare) ajbj ziyda : see More.
Sparing, ^> kifyatl, ^j- ^ kam-kharch : see Economical.
Special, (jflU- khss, ^yas^ makhss : see Great.
Specious, Uj<jo zhir-num, p\j.(Jjye surat-harm.
Speechless, ^bj-j be-zubn, j^bj zubn-basta, Jj-jl anbl.
Speedily, ^ ^jb-jaldJ se, ^ j\j daur-dauri se.
Spick and span new, 5 tatk, jjS^i tah-darz, \ kr.
Spirited, j\j\s>- jn-dr, JJ jjj zinda-dil, j2 dilr.
Spirituous, Spiritous, J-J tez, Jj tund, chokh.
Spiteful, kma-war, lgt, ^JiS kapafi.
Splendid, chatkil, L^J bharktl, ^ rangll.
Spoken, bl-h', ^ kah-h', si' gufta.
Spontaneous, ^LiH ikhtiyrl. Spontaneously, ^^c-l p-s.
Sportive, khmh. ^JsyLy- khush-tab*. J-*-1 achpal.
384 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Sprightly, i^-~>- chust, >- cfibuk, y> shkh, jy*A hasor.


Spurious, \^t^-jhth, ^\>-jl, libsi, teJ*\~i skhta.
Square, -ij-* murabba*, ^^}f- chau-kn, i>y>- chau-gsha.
Stable, J\J>j> bar-karr, jjli k'im, j\AjU p'tdr : see Firm.
Stagnant, Jj band, \j n-rawn, skin, thir.
Standing, \j khar, Xi k'im, b^j bar-p : see Stagnant.
Stark, (adj.) t^-s-**' sakht, ^ luch, (adv.) <_$1 mutlak, {jsK mahz.
Stately, IjjJ bar, mda, ^llJlc ti-shn.
Stationary, skin, ~>\ asthir, X k'im : see Standing.
Steadfast, jJlS k'im, |Xs?** mustahkam, Jj'l atal.
Steady, mazbt, ustuwr, |J uu-ob" sbit-kadam.
Steep, khar, .J^j iArA, nch, <L~\ aughat.
Sterling, <^-s sMa, ^/\- khlis, nirl, b/_j*- chkh.
Stern, CL>jye^j)j rkhi-mrat, \<> karw, talkh-r.
Sticky, (viscous, adhesive) >- chipchip, LJ.-J laslas.
Stiff, V] a/cr, V ar, ^rsr Ja/V, (stubborn) magr.
Still, fir, ^ khar, (silent) sunsn, .
Stillborn, Up- ^ m'jan. Stingy, tang-chashm.
Stomachic, hzim, ulf-b pchak, ^^-< mushtahl. (?).
Stormy, (jtejb tfnl, IbLJol andhiyh, <J\u~s- ghazabnk.
Stout, )sf~< mazbt, ^jji , chau-dant.
Straight, IbJu-: sldh, c^-oK rsi. Straightways, c^-Jy turant.
Strait, ^^C-j sakr, ij tang, 1^j b n-pahan, ci cws*.
Strange, (foreign) <l^ btgna, (unusual) t_-ws? q/'I.
Streaked, Streaky, ^IfeJ dhri, b^l lahriy, j!k- khatt-dr.
Strenuous, JusT ba-jidd, ff* sar-garm, mazbt.
Strict, l^s."5 saM, tS^J iawg, (exact) Jj daklk, l^'' thik.
Stringy, Jtbtjj rtsha-dr, (viscous
Strong, , j^jjj zrwar, ^ bait, mazbut.
Stubborn, L$2 hathil, \JLo magr, Jjj! aryaZ, ^Ju sfcJ.
Studious, cu ilm-dst, c^-yJHjJlk mutala'-dost.
Stupendous, <-^s. q;'>, jjU ndir, l^>S\ adbhut, >Jc asm.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, frc. 385

Stupid, (J*>-\ ahmak, (JZ-y^J -hbsh, u.i^j b-wukf.


Sturdy, il:-:-.-o mustanda, c^-JJj>- chaudant, t^-^jb balwant.
Subaltern, nicha, tab*, kihtar : see Inferior.
Subject, j'jjuU tbCdr, ->^1 maghlub, J**cu mutahammil.
Sublime, (JjliK mu'll, ^Sle <z/t, *. mda, jJa buland.
Submissive, <ib>- AaZ&a ba-gsh, J^J dabei: see Humble.
Subsequent, ILjexT/ncAAZa. Subsequently, LSf=FJj pichhe.
Substantial, ^-e^ asli, ijjbfr jauharl, jismni : see Real.
Subterranean, zcr-i-zamn, ^^lij^se? tahtu-l-arz.
Subtile, Subtle, J^ dakik, (witty) fofi/, chatur: see
Fine, Thin.
Successful, (lijJb) c^-^Ao -*^ km-yab or bcdr-bakht (hna).
Successive, y 'y:*! mutawitir, ^J\s*e mutawlt, Jj\& lagtr.
Successively, ^ >a* dar pai, tbartr, ^j paiham.
Succulent, j\Juj, ras-dr, c-bli shdb, ! ras-bhar.
Such, Ljj wais, ats, L-j^-^'atsa, Ii is <arA &.
Sudden, i^jb^b nght. Suddenly, tl>U-l achandk, ngahn.
Sufficient, ^-j 6as, 4^ kafi. Sufficiently, ^^U- \~~c>~jais chhiyc.
Suitable, j\j]j~> sazawar, (^y muwfik, J-*-j sumel.
Sullen, jiaCc mukaddar, &j> barham, n-khush.
Sultry, khamas, khams (?), ukhmaj (?).
Sundry, do tin, CSA kal k, L5w ba'z, Ai*- chand.
Superb, jJc zjm,j~ kabr, ^LJlfi lishn, mda.
Superficial, 'jA uparla, upraunch : see Shallow.
Superfine, ^-^-V ^a'iM mihin, ilXjb ^ CSjJo brtk se brtk.
Superfluous, dJtj z'fd, ^Li-!fl jJlj z'idu-1-ihtiyj.
Superior,^ bartar, ij\ aula, JiU f'fk, \y bara, ^Ls\ al.
Superlative, J-l afzal, \j b # ^ t__^-s sai s /aZe or bar.
Supernatural, fauiu-l-dat.
Superstitious, i^r^)o^i muta'ssib, lj*&} wahm.
Supine, utn, .^--bJjjl rdh-muh, chit: see Lazy.
Supple, , lachk, ^Lc mul'im, \y*&- chimr.
3 D
386 Vocabulary.-Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Suppliant, Supplicating, -& multamis, J^j\J niyzmand.


Supreme, \c\ a*la,Jij> bartar, \j> bam, jXa sadr.
Sure, ^jJu yakin, \J\ wki'. Surely, see Certainly.
Surly, ^ talkh, \ kar, chirchir, ji^ talkh-.
Surreptitious, J|/-< masrk, \ ^ t--^ fareb st py h'.
Suspicious, shakk, cJ\j AIjjJI andsha-nk, iL,^J bharmil.
Swampy, (^jJ daldal. Swap, ^ jhap se: see Hasty.
Swarthy, SyL snwl. Sweet, l^L-< mith, shrn.
Swift, j1s>- jald,jj tz,jjjJ tz-rau, <XJ tund, big.
Symmetrical, <>> b-karlna, jldlb b-andza.
Synonymous, i.Jii\jx^c mutardif, ^ kam-ma*ri.
Tacit, ij^SL skit, , (implied) l^>^o mutazammin.
Talkative, \>y\> btniy, ^Jj bakkl, j\j ziyda-g.
Tall, LJ lamb, Jjjb tawl, Wr^l ncha, JoJj bulahd.
Tame, 1 AiZ, |^ rm, ^X=- halim, (dull) i .
Tangible, fj~f~A*c mamss, ~!\\^^> mumkinu-l-mass.
Taper, pjtfgw-dum. Tardily, Lg*~bl histe, havl.
Tardy, 5L5 dhll, khil, Ijc^c manda, ii-Jl hista.
Tart, (jiy arsA, l2g khatt, \<j karw, os.*- sakht.
Tasteful, jl J ir^< maza-dar, jo jJ &> ^c^*" khush-z'ika.
Tasteless, be-maza, aJ ^ be-lazzat, pliik.
Tawny, \j>^>- jhawkra, \jpila, <>j\j# bhr-rang.
Technical, ^^-^ istilhl, LP~*- hikmat, ^j^x. ilmi.
Tedious, Laj d/iZ, iAr, Jjj!? tawll,/^i thak'.
Temperate, Jjcju> mutadl, maddham : see Sober.
Tempestuous, ^i^jL tufri, JjjJ tez 5 wwd: see Stormy.
Temporary, j;jj&- chand-rza, ^J& ariz, ^aifasli.
Tenacious, ^Jks.*- sakht-gir, (viscous) L-LJ laslas.
Tender, ji narm, *jjLo mul'cm, tl^ : see Kind.
Tenth, . Tepid, fj?* shlr-garm, gunguna.
Terrestrial, arzi, khk, ^J*~*j , dunywl.
Terrible, Terrific, LL/bJy> haulnk, i^.JbO dahshat-angz.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 387

Testy, Tetchy, \js~y>- chirchir, ^.jj-ctliJ tunuk-mizj.


Tete-a-tete, J{j rvrba-, j> d-bar-d.
Than, ^-s s, {jr sen, son or (dakh.) s, t> ki,j\ az.
That, (pron.) ij wuh or (dakh.) wah, us, (conj.) ki, ky-ki.
Thee or to thee, josT tujh or ^i=f tujhl. Their, &f \ unh-ka, &c.
Them, jf^>\ unh-k or tp^\ unh. Themselves, _>1 j w p, &c.
Then, _^J tab, JJ tac?, y . Thence, ^ ^Ifcj wahn se: see Therefore.
Thenceforth, Thenceforward, l^jLj tis ptchh, ^ St tad se.
Theoretic, Theoretical, khiyl, ^\^ kiysi, lnit.
There, wahn, Jn\ udhar. Thereabout, t^S^ lag-bhag.
Thereafter, ^1 jl Jju baxd az an. Therefore, -\ us waste.

These, ,<J ye. They, w, ^ ye, unhn ne.


Thick, (not thin) Cj* mota, JjJj daldr, (close) \ ghan.
Thin, hj patl, h dubia, uJJ tunuk, ^ij rdkik.
Thine, \j terfjy) tor. Third, -J tlsr, |*j-~> siym.
Thirsty, L>Lj pys, <U tishna, t-J <UJ tishna-lab.
This, ^ ^ or dakh. yah. Thither, jt\ udhar : see There.
Thorny, kafil, j\J,U- khrdr, (arduous) kathin.
Thorough, jJl-oV kmil, \j> pr. Thoroughly, jJ\^ sarsar.
Those, we. Thou, y tu. Though, tS\ JU- hl-nki : see Although.
Thoughtful, **j fikr-mand, cS\j <-jJI andesha-nk.
Thoughtless, jiu b-fikr, '^-J be-parw, JiU ghfil.
Threefold, li tigun, tilar, Jo>-<U> si-chand.
Threescore, ^-J /, -$jL si. Thrice, ^ n 2>r.
Thrifty, (j-j^r juz-ras, ^J*>\& kifyati, ( kam-kharch.
Through, j^jHi sarsar, Jujj wrpr, (by means of) ^ se.
Throughout, b \jj~ sar-t-p, j# bhar, jUj tamm.
Thunderstruck, 1 _^ bylt-mr, \Jic ^ gj-mr.
Thus, ymi, ^c&*>, yhl, LjI ais, is-tarh.
Thwart, Ijl r, trh, \>-y tirchh: see Across.
Thy, IjJ ter,jy tr. Thyself, t_>T y p, ^JjJ i-i.
Tidy, A^sljT rsta, iiJa! /, 1_^i-> suthr.
388 Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, 6fc.

Tight, < tang, <*z-~~f- ckust, xxS kashda, iz^i* sakht.


Till, tli tak or dakh. 3 tag, i3i talak or dakh. t\j talag.
Timely, i^-^J bar wakt, J. bar mauka*: see Early.
Timeserving, jL <L) zamana-sz, ^Uj Ja! ahl-irzamn.
Timid, Timorous, dar-, darl.
Tiny, ^- iaAw chht, l^J nannh, Oy khurd.
Tipsy, cu- mas, SljiKi matwala, J-yi- sar-khush.
Tiresome, thak'u, /\^> sihr', waas.
, j 5 or dakh. , ^ ^ ke tain, Cj tak, CJ^> talak.
Together, ->'L S>\ Ik sth, baham, bZ~Jb* samet, ikatth.
Tolerable, /ly- sah', jlf^- sahanhr, (passable) ^ ^ bain-bain.
Tonguetied, j ^bj zabn-band, ic girifta-zabn.
Tonic (giving strength), ^j* mukawwl.i-mi*da.
Too, bj ziyda, bahut, lU-J nipat, ^ - arfd .
Toothless, Ljj ppl, y* murl. Toper, ptwakkar.
Topsyturvy, l2b ult-pult, iS tah bl.
Torpid, \%> thithar, ^ sun, \j*"SX b-hiss, is sust.
Total, |U tamam, J AaW, v_^~ saZ>, \j^pr: see All.
Totally, ^-: sarp, J j j>- juz--kull, Jflb bi-l-kull.
Tough, cMmr, i^-s? sakht, L>^-< mazbt, chimth.
Toward, Towards, t^jjs ^ taraf, cT-^- ^ kijnib, (jJj ^ kepas.
Tractable, hukm-bardr, narm, ^1- halim: see Docile.
Traditional, ^ybj zabri, ^bw-i sam'f, ^J naklt.
Traitorous, jbliii daghbz, ^j be-waf, ^\s- kha'in.
Tranquil, i thir, JjJf osuda, yjL-i-) sansn, ^^- sukhi.
Transient, Transitory, J\ Job na-pcedar, ^\sfnt, J-sp*- chanchal.
Transparent, <_JUA shafff, j^j barrk, i_iL> so/.
Transverse, Ijfl r, V^>yj tirchh, lli-J bend, \j\ ira (?).
Treacherous, ^>! be-tmn, JuS ghaddr. ^Ji kapatt.
Treble, Triple, Uvi tigun, \* tikr, j>-~ si-chand.
Tremendous, muhb, / haulnk, '^ dar'n.
Triangular, i_iJ^ musallas, Ljj tikniy, Ji>~ si-gsha.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, $*c 389

Tributary, khirj-guzr, ^.b bj-guzr: see Subject.


Triennial, L ~i si-sla, JLJ ti-sla, L ^ n-barsa.
Trifling (trivial), halk, \'_ $w subuk, chh.
Trim, fc^jjt rsta, L>j zeb, _:. latlf,j\jjLi sz-bz.
Trite, lil^j purn, fc^J drina, (common) jlc /wm.
Trivial, halk, lLX-> subuk, j^j be-kadr, acfo.
Troublesome, ranjwar, ijjty bhrJ, mushkil.
Truant, i sms, *>y wra, j jjb harza-gard.
True, Is-* sachch, ^* sack, <^~>\j rast: see Just, Faithful.
Truly, (jlj wjfci'f, .:^ fi-l-hakikat, g* sack.
Trusty, Trust-worthy, ^~**o muxtdbir,J\ c^-jtel amnat-dar.
Tumultuous, l_jbs^a> halchali, ,_<?j-i>l shb, dangait.
Turbid, gadl, jL mukaddar, grh : see Dirty.
Turbulent, ubng&J dangait, j\i dange-baz, lj^b hur-dang.
Tush ! Tut ! ijtyphish, V_J$*- cAA. Twain, jJ ao.
Twice, jj d-bra. Two-fold, l^J d-tah, dugn.
Typical, Jlj , tamti. Typically, L*j tamsilan.
Tyrannical, jJUi zlim, sitami, kathin : see Cruel.
Vacant, khal, ^ tiki, (unemployed) Jia*^ mu'ttal.
Vague, ghair mu'iyan, fjbt* li n-maxlm : see Doubtful.
Vain, (fruitless) JoLLj be-f'ida, Jisb J-oUJ l-hsil.
In vain, ti-Y* ias, (X^ r'egw, jb^ bar-bd.
Valiant,^-! J ditr,j\* bahdur, ^bsr* shuj*, Lsb dil-chal.
Valid, jJlS k'im, fxsL** mustahkim, t^jb" jtJii : see Firm.
Valuable, kitnafi, <U giran-maya, ^Js girn-bah.
Vapid, ^ b-maza, phik, \g*~> slth: see Insipid.
Variable, Jjui^e mutabaddil, mutalauwin : see Inconstant.
Various, mutafarrik, \s>- \jc>- jud-jud, u-sbe* mukhtalif.
Vast, Vasty, 1^ Jara, |-1 , wast*, jb\ apr.
Vaulted,jb JU*^ gumbaz-dr, j\ kubbe-dr.
Vehement, JOtXii shadid, c-js.-*' sakht, \j kara, j3 tez, JoJ iMnrf.
Vendible, <^- blchne-jg, bJ.^- chalanti, ^ rawj.
390 Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Venerable, pjL* mukarram, jm mu'zzaz, <fjj> buzurg.


Venomous, clj*) zahri,j\j jbj zahr-dr, (noxious) ijy* mz.
Venturesome, Venturous, j\i jn-bz : see Bold.
Verbal, ^jjb) zabnt, ^! V. ty. muh- or -akhr.
Verbally, Verbatim, U! lafzan, laib lis! lafz ba-lafz.
Verbose, J^b tl-kalm, JjL> tul-tawil, jfjj pur-go.
Verdant, sabz, \jb hara,j*~> sar-sabz.
Verily, see Truly, Certainly. Veritable, ^ sach, t-^J durust.
Vernacular, dsl. Vernal, ^J^> bahrt, L5*^j rab'.
Versed, kr-dn,j\ sycj\ zmda-kr: see Skilful.
Very, (adj .) ^* sach, see True, Real : (adv.) i^-^ bahut, nipat.
Vexatious, zr-dih, dil-kharsh. \ ^iJ dukh-di.
Ugly, 4*jy> i bad-mrat,jj ^^lj zisht-r, JtJ bad-daul.
Vicious, Vitious, ?*0 ibl,j)jt sharr, A~\i fsid: see Bad.
Victorious, jttu, <>b faih-yab, wJU ghalib, jjs ftrz.
Videlicet, yd*ni, jn. Vigilant, \f gh : see Cautious.
Vigorous, zrwar, kawi, J>) zabar-dast.
Vile, ^5 nich, past, JJ<3 zaltl,j\y>- khwr, .
Villanous, (_5* p5/T, , rzala,j&s*- hakir : see Base.
Vindictive, -war, jtS Jj - wail-kash.
Violent, JJO> shadd, c^sr* , JcJ am?.
Violently, Li-s.**" saM-
Virile, ilj^ mardna. Virtually, ^ fi-l-hakikat.
Virtuous, dharmt, , # bhal, s/.
Virulent, iXiJbi shadd, ^-- sakht. Viscous, lajlaj.
Visible, ^fc\3 zir, . Visibly, l^lls zAiraw.
Visionary, ^j^Jbj wahm, ^J\- khiyl, i^j^ tasauwurt.
Vital, irjkij zinda, ( cl?L>- hayat-mansub, j\j\>- jan-dar.
Vivacious, JJ jJj zinda-dil, *ili> J*> dil-shd, [^c magan.
Vivid, (bright) jj^yj rshan, (splendid) ^LXb- chatkil : see Lively.
Ultimate, khir. Unabfe, jjJJU j -makdr : see Weak.
Unacceptable, jcjU w-2>asanrf,^jl3^li n-mansr.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sc. 391

Unaccoutred, jLj^jJ be-sz. Unaccustomed, iajj^ b-rabt.


Unacquainted, i__ljU n-wkif, ajan.
Unaffected, Aii-L^j b-sakhta. Unanimous, J^>j k-dil.
Unanswerable, oj la-radd. Unarmed, nihatth.
Unasked, i^Ab^ be-talab. Unassisted, x*^j b-madad.
Unavoidable, JoS l-budd. Unauthorised, b-sanad.
Unaware, Unawares, ul&U-l achnak, iLA tk--ek.
Unbecoming, tJj to n-zcb, \aj Jj bad-num : see Improper.
Unbidden (uninvited), WLjl an-buly, cu^eiXJ be-da'wat.
Unblamable, ^jfi^j nirdkh, >Jt~>jj -svfaid: see Faultless.
Unblemished, ^IjuJ b-dagh. Unblown, <fc> lj na-shigufta.
Unborn, li=cil anjan, liXo U n-paid, (future) JcjI ayanda.

Unbound, (a book) aLst* ghair mujallad: see Loose.


Unbounded,jbl apr, b-hadd, ^ss* ghair-mahdd.
Unbridled, b-lagm. Unburnt, \=f\ anjal.
Uncertain, jJl*j ghair mukarrar, Cjt~c mashkuk.
Unchangeable, JjJuj b-tabdil, JljJ j b-zawal, tJU^I <.
Unchaste, Jfyyb shahwatl, ^\^\> n-pkdman.
Uncivil, -JJ bad-khulk. jfiji.^ kaj-khulk, J^-.-J e-sH.
Unclean, see Filthy. Uncomfortable, na-khush.
Uncommon, 4->b(*^ kam-yab, l$5y\ anth, jjli nadir.
Uncompounded, l--*^-* ghair murakkab, an-mil.
Uncontrollable, ^^ -zabt, Juo b-kaid, CJjj\ ark.
Uncouth, IJuj^J bhnd, _-~*>^ b-dhab, t-j^L.-!^ b-aslub.
Uncultivated, ghair mazru, ^Jjy^ parti, ^Js- jangl.
Undaunted, tl/^ b-bk, ^g-JbL shas.
Undecided, jyUU n-mukarrar.
Undefiled, see Pure, Clean. Undefined, ^^asr^lj n-mushakhkhas.
Undeniable, JjJuJ b-daregh. Under, ^^f niche, ^Jj tal.
Underhand, ^V^J pinhani, tJ-^ mukhfl. Undermost, j>j>) zrtar.
Undeserved, \^sA j ghair tcjib, >-lj n-hakk.
Undesigned, ^^^ b-kasd. Undesigning, ij>J*~ b-gharaz.
392 Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Undetermined, j^tjfi. ghair mukarrar, ^yo^jjt shakki-mizj.


Undigested, ^^cj ghair munhazim, .^ n-murattab.
Undisciplined, Ac\^j> -kawiid, )a,j^_ bc-rabt.
Undisguised, <fcs-L<-J -skhta, khul, jj-LLj be-libs.
Undone, (ruined) .Aj kharb, (opened) \j>\ udhr, (not done)
\jjb\ adhr.
Undoubtedly, i* * b-shakk, L jj\ aur , <-* ^ -shvbha.
Undutiful, ^j*Ls-\> n-hukm, (son) i_l-b n-khalaf, CJjj kapt.
Uneasy, fyl ^ K-rm. Unemployed, Jiut* mu'Sttal.
Unequal, Uneven, Jf*> n-hamwr,j\ji i^-vJJ nashtbfaraz.
Unequivocal, n-mashkk, <_JL> sf, ^ji ghair mubham.
Unerring, achuk, Uiicu be-khat, ^liJ nishn-andz.
Unexampled, Jli*^ be-miml. Unexpected, ^J^f^> ngahnt.
Unexperienced, fitojs?\> n-tajriba-kr, 4_i3b,b n-wkif.
Unexplored, Ifcjuywul an-dhundh, Oj^jl U n-zmda.
Unfading, an-murjh'. Unfair, \j^\J n-rst.
Unfaithful, Uj-j bhwafa. Unfashionable, ^jt> be-rawj.
Unfathomable, Unfathomed, Ifil ath, \ agam.
Unfavourable, ^b^b n-mihrbn, i\x^o\j n-mus'Sd.
Unfeathered, Jb jj) ^ be par bal. Unfeeling, see Cruel.
Unfeigned, (_5^ abhagli, <^-^y be-hila, bj*) be-riy.
Unfelt, u~y~s*jji ghair mahsus, ^bf\ anjan.
Unfinished, n-tamm, ^W1!^ be-anjm, adhr.
Unfit, (Jj b n-l'tk, <feuJLi) b n-sh'csta, Jjb" b n-kbil.
Unforeseen, JjlyiU n-psh-dida, JaJlj n-dida.
Unfortunate, ^-^? bad-bakht. abhgi, (JJjluU mqflk.
Unfounded, 1$3^ bt-thikn. Unfrequent, see Uncommon.
Unfriendly, b-i>l j*L ghair shn, ^^ n-mihrbn, rkh.
Unfruitful, aplial, J^if^U n-bahramand : see Barren.
Unfurnished, J bt-sz, ^ be-asbb, zJ\j\ n-rsta.
Ungain, Ungainly, ei-^ <J -nazkat, t/Jb^ anr : see Uncouth.
Ungenerous, i^jU^-lj n-jawnmard. Ungenial, Jl_j-*b n-muwfik.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, fyc. 393

Ungenteel, fjL- ^j-U n-khnsh-khulk, <ts-JL>t n-sh'ista.


Ungovernable, Ungoverned, kjj \z~ -xabt rdbt: see Disobedient.
Ungraceful, bad-saj, *_-Na>Li bt-dhab, ^J>\y^i be-nazakat.
Ungracious, be-nazkat, j\\> n-gawr, jjlb sharir.
Ungrateful, ^LiO n-shukr, <^~ajJ kafir-i-nimat, I^j -waf.
Unhandsome, iSJjyedJ bad-srat, ^jyu^olJ -ma kl.
Unhappy, jjip-k n-khush, jyp~U n-khushnd : see Unfortunate.
Unhealthful, Unhealthy, is_~j>jj'lj n-tandurust, JVu n-muwak.
Unheard, ansun. Unholy, ^.<13 n-mukaddas.
Unhurt, JIjjs-^jJ -cKt, b-zakhm, ^L-j b-nuksn.
Uniform, e-sw,^^ barabar. Uniformly, ^ ^j)j> barubaris.
Unimportant, ^-i ghair ahamm, i subak, halk.
Uninformed, jJlx ^-i ghair muMali*, jJs& b-khabar, ^talj nadan.
Uninhabitable, J^li J>J C-Vj'ty bd--bsh karn k n-kbil.
Uninhabited, L~jl anbas, j^-f nirjan, obi U n-bd.
Uninjured, ^Lafti-J -nuksn, Ju-^^ljt Ii n-zr-rasida.
Uninstructed, UjCJl ansikh, ^Ij ^ b-ta*lm, >jy mrakh.
Unintelligible, ^sr*~- b-samajh, na-danistani.
Unintentional, Unintentionally, J^-j b-kasd, O^^j -irda.
Uninterested, ^jj\y~*t b-swrth, l-gharaz, Oj.j -sd.
Uninterrupted, an-antar, LAi h bil-fsila.
Uninvited, iZJjC^j b-da*wat, ljijO b-nauta, bJUl anbulaya.
Unique, b yakt, ^\ ikk, Jui l-srii, j\L J5, wahid.
Universal, <_$> mutlak, ^ kulli, L5^^*-c , ? .
Unjust, n-hakk, uJlaH ^ b-insf, o\juJ -dad.
Unkind, i_i-viLi> ^ -shafukat, b-mihr, ^b^b n-mihrbn.
Unknown, |*jl*c na-m'lv.m, ! anjn, |jb=w^ anpahchn.
Unlawful, ^x_Jl>- kMlf-i-shar*, n-ja'iz, harm.
Unless, S! /a, ^-j baghair, <^ agar-na,JL< magar.
Unlike, Ajl-l5 n-mushbih, uL*i^ anml: see Dissimilar.
Unlikely, i_-Jll n-ghlb. Unlimited, Jesu b-hadd.
Unlooked for, cjl^b n-gahni. Unlucky, ^^Lc manhs.
3 E
394 Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Unmanageable, k bt-zabt, sarkash, bt-lagam.


Unmanly, <^yl) n-mardna. Unmannerly, -jS^ bt-adab.
Unmarried, U>L1 anbyh. Unmeaning, LSi*-*Li bl-ma%ni.
Unmerciful, be-rahm. Unmindful, bt-lihz.
Unmixed, 1J I anmil. Unmoved, J*-l achal, Lj b-rikkat.
Unnatural, ^j-k<b na-matVu, <^~*~o t-i^U- khilf-i-tab'iyat.
Unnecessary, lj w-zarwr. Unobserved, U->^ andekh.
Unoccupied, J^~lJ n-mashghl, Ma : see Vacant.
Unpalatable, yc> bad-maza, n-gawr.
Unparalleled, jkiiL ^ be-manand. Unpared, anchhil.
Unpardonable, Unpardoned, jyb**j*c. ghair-ma*zur.
Unperceivable, ^yJuJli n-dldam. Unperceived, jujU nrdtda.
Unperishable, JljjS la-zawal, (JUS l-fni : see Eternal.
Unpleasant, j^^b" n-khmh,j\j>\j n-gawr: see Disagreeable.
Unpolished, Jju*^ be-saikal, (rude) Ju^i^j'U n-tarshida.
Unpolite, ilJjj*^ b-murwat, U-jj bad-khulk.
Unprecedented, J-as-j be-taml, Jj***>^j> bt-ma*ml.
Unpremeditated, ^jo-^-j-j b-peshband, L^>,^. badlhi.
Unprepared,jLjI) n-taiyr, ..\*r-.<^c ghair-musta'tdd.
Unprincipled, tu Jj bad-st,jifJ bad-guhar, \j be-rh.
Unprofitable, JsU- l-hsil, JoU-j -f'ida.
Unpromising, jUjjfl anhnhr. Unpropitious, bad-yumn.
Unprotected, -J bt-sya, ^o^ bt-wafila, asaran.
Unprovided, ^LL^^ Z>e-sar--mra, c-jLJ^ -asbab.
Unqualified, $0 n-l'ik, j\j\j*\j n-sazwr.
Unquestionable, ^\js\\ bil-i*tirz, .^b^ b-shubha.
Unquiet, ^pSU be-chain, ^" chanchal, t-^L^i* muzlarb.
Unread, Ia^-J^ anparh, JoLi-b n-khwnda : see Ignorant.
Unreasonable, bsu Je-^', J|jjuA3 n-ma*kl, b\$Lj -thikn.
Unreserved, ufl&uJ b-takallvf, Jji_JU sf-dil, b^ be-riy.
Unrestrained, Jus-j b-kaid, -lagm, la.J,;t be-xabt.
Unrighteous, ^^ ghair-slih, (_*^ be-insf, ^b ppi.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, frc. 395

Unripe, anpak, toatjli n-pukhta, Ju-^li n-rasida.


Unrivalled, jli-J b-nazr, be-rakib, i__i>^>- ghair-harlf.
Unruly, be-zabt, be-lagm, jXs^j bt-hukm.
Unsafe, i^i-AiLjlj n-salmat, ^Jai-b b-khatra. ^\ ^ be-amn.
Unsatisfactory, tj^U n-sawb, jLAj n-sz.
Unseasonable, be-wakt, bsu be-j, |(_5? bt-aiyam.
Unseasoned, bt-namak. Unseemly, !_*-Ai*iU n-munsib.
Unseen, V^.^ andkh, t_i-.bj! adisht, jJ n-dlda.
Unsettled, j^i-J b-karr, w >^ ^ be-band--bast.
Unshod, tiy^L5^ nange p'on. Unsightly, UJjj bad-num.
Unskilful, i_jsi^lj n-wkif, j^j be-hunar, ^Jt nirgun.
Unsound, i-Xi shikasta, JiA~c- ib-dr, c^s^ii -sihhat.
Unsparing, j-ijJ^J -daregh. Unstable, j^-j be-karar.
Unsteady, cA.j bt-mbat. Unsuccessful, AaiU*j be-maksad.
Unsuitable, n-muioafik. Unsullied, t-^c^ b-ib.
Untamed, lyj! anhil. Untasted, V^T^ anchakh.
Untaught, <fc-^cl lj n-mkhta. Untimely, c-j^-j b-wakt.
Until, tlX i-^*- jab-tak, lag. Unto, ^ 5, c- ke-ta'l.
Untold, 1^1 ankah. Untouched, anchh.
Untoward, see Perverse. Untrue, c^-j^ 13 n-rst.
Unusual, ji^^J bt-dastur. Unwary, j^ste be-khabar.
Unwearied, uJ^j'l athak. Unwelcome, AiJ Ii n-pasand.
Unwholesome, n-gawr. Unwilling, ^J&j li -rz.
Unwitting, anjn. Unwittingly, U n-dnista.
Unworthy, Jfj lj 7i-l'ik,j\ij\y*'\i n-sazwr.
Vocal, jbjljT wz-dr, ^Jye , ^<y~ skabdl.
Vociferous, j^i shor-pusht, lS^-^- ghavghl.
Void, khjjU, tihi, ^sun, (null) JLb a/i/.
Volatile, (winged) aj^j paranda, (playful) J-^v>- chanchal.
Voluntary, ^LirsH ikhtiyari, ^s^ii kasdt, y*-j\ az khiid.
Voluptuous, iysh, SL-y rasll : see Luxurious.
Voracious,y\ f>- j'-1-bakar, j* mar-bhukkha.
396 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Up, upar, % bala, (out of bed) \\ uth : see Standing.


Upon, jj par, jij upar. Upper, yb bltar al.
Uppermost, ^1 V>ib {J^ -~> sab se bltar or nch.
Upright, (erect) \ khar, (just) jjL sdik : see Honest.
Upward, Upwards,^! upar, (more than) ii\jj ziyda.
Urgent, zarr, lzim, c^s.-' sakht, xr bajidd.
Useful, l? km k, ^Ji^J kr-mdam : see Profitable.
Useless, \J&\> nkr, Ui nikamm, *<X>U*> be-i'ida.
Usual, r'ij, murauwaj, ^jk>~ chalrii, jj^-jarz.
Usually,J\ aksar, i_~l1 aghlab, beslitar.
Utmost, Utter, - nihyat, cU-i nipat, (b; ghyat.
Utterly, JL j |*Uj tamm kaml, o- hadd, nihyat.
Vulgar, (common) le <, ^jC- rf, (mean) .
Uxorious, Jo^e zan-murid, \ karlag'.
Waggish, ii^ls zanf, maskhara, {j^y>- khush-tab*.
Wan, J)j zard, Lj ^>, ^j&j za*farnz.
Wanton, ij> shkh, jb lahar-bz, <J-~-' achpal, kmt.
Warlike, jangi, razm-pesha, l&ljl larnk.
Warm, pj> garm, bi tatt,j\*~ hrr, (ardent) ^ sar-garm.
Wary,j\*>ji>kskyr, ^>y*\ agraschi, bij*- chaukann.
Waspish, chirchir, >j zd-ranj, gkn.
Waste, <j\j- kharb, j^* wirn, Jbob p'eml, ujr.
Wasteful, ur', tij~~o musrif, ^/>- Jy> fazul-kharch.
Watchful, jljuJ be-dr,j\Jt>j> hbshyr, w>>- chaukas : see Cautious.
Watery, ^1 ab, K^u^panih, (tasteless) \~^jpans: see Insipid.
Wayward, y shkh, hathll, ,_J ziddi.
Weak, jJ ^ kam-zr, za'f, zer-dast : see Feeble.
Wealthy,jljJbc mldr,j\Ojj zardr, <A*JjJ daulatmand.
Wearisome, thak', ijfy bhri. Weary, jJU mnda.
Wedded, bjbj byht (f.), b>bj byh (m.). Wee, see Small.
Weekly, AJt. jb har hafta, & <fcia> hafta hafta.
Weighty, ^Jjj wazni, ^Wj bhri. Welcome, CJJ^* mubrak.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs,- Sf. 397

Well (adj.), \>\ ackchh, \# bhal, 41 bhal-chang.


Well (adv.), e^-^i durust, lg bhal, -*- khb, ^Jo achchh-
tarah.
Wellbred, Ju- khush-khulk, j\s\ nek-atwr.
Well done ! shbsh, ^J>j zahl, farin.
West, Westward, <i -pachchham k, ^*-* (_ taraf-i-maghrib.
Westerly, Western, LS^s pachchham, ^>j**> maghrbt.
Wet, l# bhlg, XJ> gil, Ji tar, J nam, J\iaj namnk.
What? L ky, ^ kaun. Wbet,y>*j5. Whatever, ^ s>-j kuchh.
Wheaten, geh ka. When ? ^J> kab. When, s^^-jab.
Whence ? ^ kaha se, (from what source ?) ^J^j ^r-^ ^s
waste.
Whence, ^ *?* jahn se, (from which source) ^"]) ~=" fa
waste.
Where ? U\S kaha. Where, ,J^>- jaha, jidhar.
Whereas, L~)j\ az-bas-ki, <&_y- chun-ki. Whereby, ^ j-s^-jisse.
Wherever, ,J^>-jahm jahn. Wherefore, ^jbJj <j~\ is waste.
Wheresoever, jaha kahl. Whereupon, ~J\ us-par.
Whether, <t> ki, \S ky. Which ? kaun. Which,
Whichever, j-ki. While, Whilst, <*s? jab-tak, o-jad.
Whimsical, p j& har-dam-khiylt, lahri.
White, J-i~ sufld, o-y set, (fair) \j gr, (bright) ujl.
Who ? ^ kaun, -S kis-n. "Who,jo-j, ^y>-jaun, ^^^jis-n.
Whoever, ^-j-kl. Whomever,^ ^J jis hisl .
Whole, (sound) |L~< musallam, (entire) jU tamm: see All.
Wholesome, j\ ^s.' sihhat-war, muwfik : see Useful.
Why ? , kh ko, ^~>\) kis vmst.
Wicked, \ji bur, ppijjjJ^ sharir, bad, zabun.
Wide, \y>- chaur, Ks>- chakl, \^>pahn, 1j farakli.
Wild, ^J&s>-jangl, ^j^-j wahsht, j^ZxS dashti: see Licentious.
Wilful, y- khiid-pasand, j~ y- khud-sar : see Perverse.
Wilfully, z~j\ JJ dda dnista: see Intentionally.
398 Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, fc.

Willing, ^j*>\) rzi, joai Ls!j ram-mand, ij^y- khiish : see Desirous.
Wily,jb <d-*- hlla-bz, jb ihjj robh-bz : see Cunning.
Windy, i_/ly> hawl, ^jjb bdt, (puffed up) iyjphl : see Stormy.
Winning, ba>^ tnhn, bjj dil-rub, Jo dil-kash : see Charming.
Wise, Jc*bb klmartd, Jilc |<, b'j dn, CJyj zr.
Wishful, jbi mushtk, <n*jjj\ rzmand, i_-^j rghib.
With (prepos. or postpos.), ^ se, (along with) ^jL siA, *.
Within, bhttar, jJu! andar, - , .
Without, (adv.) ysb bhar, ^yf brn, (prep.) ^ e, Sj .
Wittingly, ^i=ry {Jt'rjn bjhk, <Jc-Jb j a>j dida 5 dnista.
Witty, jJ tez-fahm, y- chatur, <_sujo zartf: see Jocular.
Woful, ti/li jc gham-nk, ^}~~> santp, jT tjj-> sg-war.
Wooden, l / k, jljf- chbln. Woody, ^J^-jangtt.
Woollen, ^jj! , ^tjpashmi, pashmtna.
Worldly, jIjUJ dunya-dar, CJ>J^~~> sansrik, u/jbjJ dunywi.
Wormeaten, xjf>- * kirm-khnrda, Lgi ghun, klrah.
Worse, y JJ badtar. Worst, \y ^ _$y burl se bur.
Worthless, b-kadr, n-kr, J+&-\j n-ckiz.
Worthy, (Jj l'ik, Jj\5 kbil, \^s>-y mustaujib, lg bhal.
Wrathful, / ghazab-nk, CJ\j khashm-nk. ^ kop.
Wretched, b-nasb, ^li-y pareshn, Jl& kangl.
Written, \ 1^3 likh h', z>y> nawishta, >yy .
Wrong, t_j^.b^clj n-munsib, J>-b n-hakk, . ghalat.
Wrongful, (_ ^ji be-imf, iy>-\> n-hakk. Wroth, see Wrathful.
Wrought, bj ban, Wf garh. Wry, b&jJ ierh, ^ kaj.
Yclad, \ U^j pahri h'. Ycleped, j jU nm-zad.
Yea, ^li hin, ^b . Yearling, ^JLJ! ek-s.
Yes, /, ^^ bU, re, tau,
Yet, (conj.) tau-bht,y par, (adv.)^j tis-par: see Beside.
Yon, Yonder, ij wuh or (dakh.) wah, parl, \ ^jy pare k.
Of yore, l tZJX< muddat k, \ agl, ^ kadlm se.
Young, yjiy- jawn, JL jf>- khurd-sal, : see Small.
Vocabulary.Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc.

Your, tumhr, apn. Yourself, t- jj tum p.


Youthful, jawn, xjXj tza, .
Zealous, garm, j*> sar-garm, JcJ tund, ^\~> s'l.
Zigzag, UjJ ttrh, j ^ kaj 5 pich, bakr (?).
PART III.

SHORT SENTENCES OF COMMON USE.

I t)\* kaha se'eh . . . . Where are you from ?


^Sj'^fj2"-^ kidhar j'ge Where are you going ?
ji> ^ jj tum h Who are you ?
y> / kis waste 'l h . . . . Why are you come ?
^yf -frf^ (_5^^ mujhe kuchh kahg . . Will you say something to
me?
^J* ^ Sj wuh hai Who is he ? Who is that ?
I jbO\ idhar ' Come here.
j* I Jijj nazdk ' Come near.
Uf t_l^- jaldj Go quickly.
fe- ,_4x1>- jaldi chalo Go (or move) quickly.
ij t_*> chup rah Be silent.
y (^-U- hzirt l' Bring breakfast.
yi khn l' Bring dinner.
rofi l' Bring bread.
j jOjO ddh l' Bring milk.
jj lJj-^o misrt d Give some sugarcandy.
j\ lil^i khn kh' Eat (your) dinner.
Jjj -bJjJ ddhpi' Drink milk.
j Ir?" chirgh jal' .... Light the lamp.
battjal' Light the candle.
^-^ gulgtr l'