Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 55

vincent gautrais

professeur titulaire
directeur du CRDP / RDCG
facult de droit
universit de montral
chaire Wilson
www.gautrais.com

droit + art de la rue


vision nord-amricaine
14/10/2016

vincent gautrais
professeur titulaire
directeur du CRDP / RDCG
facult de droit
universit de montral
chaire Wilson
www.gautrais.com

culture + numrisation
21/10/2015

imposteur encore...

1.

ti et non pi

2.

immatriel et non matriel

3.

nord-amricain ...

1. www.gautrais.com (2006 - 2016)


https://www.gautrais.com/?post_t
ype=talk&p=
2927

2.

phnomne des cloches vide

1- graffiti:
objet de
valeur +

2 - graffiti:
objet +
valeurs

1- graffiti:
objet de
valeur +

impermabilit des domaines du droit


copyright
droit
criminel / civil

il y a bien droit de lauteur

copyright is for losers


(Banksy)

US
17 U.S.C 102 (a). Copyright protection subsists, in
accordance with this title, in original works of
authorship fixedin any tangible medium of
expression, now known or later developed, from
which they can be perceived, reproduced, or
otherwise communicated, either directly or with the
aid of a machine or device. Works of authorship
include the following categories:
()
(5) pictorial, graphic, and
sculptural works;

US
17 U.S.C 101. A work is fixed in a tangible
medium of expression when its embodiment () is
sufficiently permanent or stable to permit it to be
perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated
for a period of more than transitory duration. A
work consisting of sounds, images, or both, that are
being transmitted, is fixed for purposes of this title
if a fixation of the work is being made
simultaneously with its transmission.

US
interprtation large de fixation
Advanced Computer Servs. of Mich., Inc. v.
MAI Sys. Corp., 845 F. Supp. 356 (E.D. Va.
1994)

droit dauteur sapplique


indpendamment de la lgalit de
loeuvre

US
Mitchell Brothers Film Group v. Cinema
Adult Theater, 604 F.2d 852 (1979)

copyright vs
obscnit

US
Mavrix Photo Inc. v. Allieiswired.com (C.D.
Cal. Oct. 12, 2010) (Penelope Cruz)

copyright vs
vie prive

US
pas de clause dillgalitdans
le copyright act
(Lerman (2013), #318)

Chine

US
fonction du copyright act
promote the progress of science and the
useful arts

US
application pratique du copyright act
copyright would give graffiti artists
greater incentive to paint legally.
(Lerman, 2013, #324)

US
applicable en terme de reproduction
Villa v. Pearson Educ., Inc., 2003 WL
22922178 (N.D. Ill. Dec. 9, 2003)

limites du droit de lauteur

1. limites sur la base du droit dauteur

2. limites sur la base du VARA


(Visual Artists Rights Act (1990))

1. limites sur la base du droit


dauteur
17 U.S.C 202. Ownership of a copyright, or of any
of the exclusive rights under a copyright, is distinct
from ownership of any material object in which
the work is embodied. Transfer of ownership of any
material object, including the copy or phonorecord in
which the work is first fixed, does not of itself convey
any rights in the copyrighted work embodied in
the object; nor, in the absence of an agreement, does
transfer of ownership of a copyright or of any
exclusive rights under a copyright convey property
rights in any material object.

2. limites sur la base du VARA


(Visual Artists Rights Act (1990))

VARA = raction
lgislative
Serra v. United States
General Services
Administration 847 F.2d
1045 (2nd Cir. 1988)
designed for the
Federal Plaza and
artistically inseparable
from its location
libert dexpression
(non)"

US
Visual Artists Rights Act (VARA) (1990)
paternit
(authorship)
intgrit
destruction

US

limites du VARA
English v. BFC & R East 11th St. LLC,
No. 97 Civ. 7446, 1997 WL 746444
(S.D.N.Y. Dec. 3, 1997)
VARA "does not apply to artwork that
is illegally placed on the property of
others, without their consent, when
such artwork cannot be removed from
the site in question.
destruction

limites du VARA
obligation de notification (auteur
anonyme)
paternit
(authorship)

US

Canada
originalit
LDA, 2. toute oeuvre littraire,
dramatique, musicale ou artistique
originale S'entend de toute production
originale du domaine littraire,
scientifique ou artistique quels qu'en
soient le mode ou la forme
d'expression

Canada
fixation
LDA, 3 (1). Le droit d'auteur sur l'oeuvre
comporte le droit exclusif de produire ou
reproduire la totalit ou une partie
importante de l'oeuvre, sous une forme
matrielle quelconque
Apple Computer c. McKintosh Computers,
[1988] 1 C.F. 673 (CAF): mon avis,
le programme des demanderesses, inscrit
sur une microplaquette ROM, est nettement
vis par les premiers mots de larticle 3 de la
loi. (). Jestime que le critre de la lisibilit
ou de la perception visuelle

Canada
phmre ou pas
Radio-Canada c. SODRAC, 2015 CSC
57

Canada
droits moraux
existants mais (LDA, 14)
cessibles
peu utiliss

Canada
exceptions possibles?
utilisation quitables?

non

Canada
exceptions possibles?
utilisation quitables?
32.2 (1) Ne constituent pas des violations du droit
dauteur :
b) la reproduction dans une peinture, un dessin, une
gravure, une photographie ou une oeuvre
cinmatographique :
(i) dune oeuvre architecturale, la condition de ne pas
avoir le caractre de dessins ou plans architecturaux,
(ii) dune sculpture ou dune oeuvre artistique due des
artisans, ou dun moule ou modle de celles-ci, riges en
permanence sur une place publique ou dans un difice
public;

Canada

jurisprudence moribonde

Canada

Canada

Canada

2 - graffiti:
objet +
valeurs

2a

contrle de
sa production

US
prolifration des lois anti-graffiti

US
1. criminalisation de lacte
NYPD Vandal Squad
+
Banksy

ex post acceptance
+
Haring

US
2. obligation deffacer

US
ex. New York City Administrative Code
(10-117.3) (2005)

US
ex. Los Angeles Administrative Code
(49.84.3) (ici)
It is unlawful for any person owning or
otherwise in control of any real property within
the City to permit or allow any graffiti to be
placed upon or remain on any walls, temporary
or permanent structure, places, or other
surfaces located on such property when the
graffiti is visible from a public street ...

US
protection du First amendment ?
Spence v. Washington 418 U.S. 410
intent to convey a
particularized
message
message would be
understood by those
who viewed it

2b

contrle de
son utilisation

Canada

ACAB

un flic; une balle

vincent gautrais
professeur titulaire
directeur du CRDP / RDCG
facult de droit
universit de montral
chaire Wilson
www.gautrais.com

droit + art de la rue


vision nord-amricaine