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Annie Anzieu Franoise Dolto Joyce Jenny Aubry Judith Dupont McDougall Piera Aulagnier Micheline Enriquez Catherine

Marie Balmary (seulement Solange Falad Millot en allemand) Laurence Juliette FavezMichle Bataille Anne Boutonier Montrelay Berman Marie Marcelle Sophie Bonaparte Franoise Geber (seulement Morgenstern Boulanger (Canada) Denise en Marie Braunschweig Elsa allemand) Florence Moscovici Breuer Janine Chasseguet- GuignardDominique Gisela Smirgel Maryse Guyomard Luce Pankow Choisy Margaret ClarkIrigaray velyne Catherine Williams Odette Kestemberg Julia Parat Codet Myriam Kristeva Paulette Ginette David Monique DavidLaforgue Ruth Raimbault Mnard Lebovici Rosine Blanche Lefort Anne ReverchonLevallois Maud Jouve Mannoni lisabeth Roudinesco Monique Schneider Eugnie Sokolnicka Anne-Lise Stern Maria Torok Nathalie Zaltzman

Les femmes et la psychanalyse Annie Anzieu ne Pghaire (* 1922?) Lien vers une photo d'Annie Anzieu

Annie Anzieu a tudi la philosophie et la psychologie (avec Daniel Lagache) Paris aprs la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. En 1947, elle a pous son condisciple Didier Anzieu (1923-1999), leur fille Christine est ne en 1950, leur fils Patrick, en 1953.Didier Anzieu tait le fils de Marguerite Anzieu, ne Pantaine, qui a t hospitalis Sainte-Anne en 1931 et est devenu connu sous le nom clbre affaire de Jacques Lacan de Aime. Didier Anzieu, qui n'avait aucune ide de ce lien, a commenc une analyse avec Lacan en 1949. Annie Anzieu a travaill comme psychologue, et a enseign la philosophie, avant qu'elle ne devienne un logopde et psychothrapeute l'hpital de la Salptrire Paris en 1958. En collaboration avec Daniel Widlcher, elle a fond le dpartement de la psychothrapie pour les enfants la Salptrire, o elle a men pendant de nombreuses annes. Elle a subi une analyse didactique avec Georges Favez et est devenu membre de l'Association Psychanalytique de France, fonde en 1964. Elle s'est spcialise dans l'analyse de l'enfant et a t prsident de l'Association pour la psychanalyse de l'enfant. En 1994, avec Florence Guignard , elle a fond la Socit Europenne for the Psychanalyse de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent (SEPEA), laquelle elle a t nomme vice-prsidente. Daniel Lagache, Melanie Klein et Donald Winnicott influenc la pense de Annie Anzieu . En collaboration avec Didier Anzieu, elle a dvelopp le concept de l'ego peau. En plus de l'analyse des enfants, elle est particulirement intress la sexualit fminine. Dans son livre La femme sans quality (La femme sans qualits), elle a fait valoir que le psychisme de la femme est influence par les reprsentations de l'intrieur de son corps, forms par une cavit sexuelle. Dans sa fminit opinion n'implique pas l'absence d'un pnis, mais les notions d'orifice et de passage. Annie Anzieu vit Paris. Sa fille Christine Anzieu-Premmereur est aussi un psychanalyste.

UVRES CHOISIES Le psychanalyste DANS fils fauteuil. Dans G. Favez et al:. tre psychanalyste. Paris 1976, 148166 Psychanalyse et langage. Du corps la libration conditionnelle. Paris 1977 La Femme sans Qualit. Esquisse psychanalytique de la fminit. Paris 1989, 2004 La famille: l'indi-plus-un. Approche psychanalytique et approach Systmique.Boucherville, Qubec 1990 Beunruhigende Weiblichkeit. Zum Thema Adoleszenz. Psych 49, 1995, 886-902 Le travail du psychothrapeute d'enfant. Paris 2003 Hysterie als Erregungshlle. En Brosig B. et U. Gieler (d.): Die Haut als psychische Hlle.Gieen 2004 Propos sur la fminit. DP 69 (4), 2005, 1103-1116 QUELQUES rflexions sur d'ventuelles juin psychanalyse bbs des. La Psychiatrie de l'enfant 50 (2), 2007, 417-422 (Avec Simone et Christine Anzieu DAYMAS-Premmereur) Le jeu en psychothrapie de l'enfant. Paris 2000 [Das Spiel in der Kinderpsychotherapie. Tbingen 2006] (Avec Lose Barbey, Jocelyne Bernard-Nez, et Simone DAYMAS) Le travail du dessin en psychothrapie de l'enfant. Paris 1996, 2002 (Et Christian Grard) (dir.) Traumatisme et contre-transfert. Paris 2004

RFRENCES Braconnier, Alain: Entretien avec Annie Anzieu. Le Carnet / Psy n 91, 2004(05/02/2010) Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Jacques Lacan. Esquisse d'une vie, Histoire d'un system de pense. Paris 1993 [Jacques Lacan. Une Esquisse d'une vie et une histoire d'un systme de pense. Oxford 1999 Segal, Naomi: consensualit. Didier Anzieu, le genre et le sens du toucher. Amsterdam, New York 2009

Jenny Aubry , ne Weiss (1903-1987)

Jenny Aubry fut un pionnier de la psychanalyse des enfants en France. Elle est ne dans une population instruite suprieure de la classe moyenne de la famille Paris, sa mre, Jeanne Javal, tait d'origine juive et son pre, l'ingnieur Paul Louis Weiss, tait protestant. Sa sur ane, Louise Weiss, tait une suffragette clbre. Pouss par sa mre et contre la volont de son pre, Jenny Weiss tudie la psychiatrie mdecine, neurologie et de l'enfant. En 1928, elle a pous Alexandre Roudinesco (1883-1974), un pdiatre qui avait migr de Roumanie, dont elle eut trois enfants. Sa fille Elisabeth Roudinesco est galement devenu un psychanalyste. Jenny Roudinesco interns avec le neurologue Clovis Vincent et a t adjoint avec le pdopsychiatre Georges Heuyer 1935 1939. A cette poque, elle a rencontr l'enfant analyste Sophie Morgenstern. Aprs avoir obtenu le titre d'un mdecin de l'hpital en 1939, elle a travaill comme mdecin l'hpital de la Salptrire, l'hospice de Brvannes et l'hpital des EnfantsMalades. Pendant l'occupation allemande, elle rejoint la Rsistance et, protgs par de faux papiers, elle a utilis sa position pour cacher des enfants juifs et de prparer les certificats de la tuberculose chez les jeunes hommes susceptibles d'tre envoys dans des camps de travail. Jenny Roudinesco En 1946, devenu chef de la pdiatrie l'hpital Ambroise Par, laquelle la Fondation Parent-de-Rosan tait attach. Cet entrept bien public a t le foyer de jeunes enfants abandonns par leur mre. Face la souffrance des enfants de l'hospitalisme, elle est devenue intresse par les concepts psychanalytiques de Ren Spitz et John Bowlby. Encourag parAnna Freud et une visite d'tude aux tats-Unis, elle a finalement commenc la formation psychanalytique en 1948. Elle a subi une analyse didactique avec Michel Cnac et Sacha Nacht. L'un de ses analystes de tutelle tait Jacques Lacan, qu'elle suivit dans la Psychanalyse Freudienne de la Socit (SPF) en 1953 et par la suite dans le Paris cole Freudienne de (EFP). En 1952, elle a divorc et a pous Alexandre Roudinesco Pierre Aubry, un mathmaticien. (Haut de l'article) Dans son livre abandonnataire Enfance , publi en 1953, Jenny Aubry dcrit son travail avec les enfants hospitaliss et le succs de la psychanalyse dans la prvention et le traitement de la psychose. Elle s'est engage dans un travail de pionnier en introduisant la psychanalyse dans le monde de la non psychiatriques des hpitaux. Tout en travaillant la polyclinique sur le boulevard Ney partir de 1952, elle a tendu ses activits la prvention des problmes l'cole et mis au point une sorte de thrapie de groupe pour les jardins d'enfants. De 1963 1968 Jenny Aubry a t chef du dpartement de pdiatrie l'Hpital des Enfants Malades Paris, o elle a cr le service de la premire consultation psychanalytique en France. Aprs avoir pris sa retraite Aix-en-Provence en 1968, elle a contribu promouvoir lacanisme dans le sud de la France. Aprs la mort de Pierre Aubry en 1972, elle revient Paris, o elle a travaill comme analyste

formateur. Une anthologie de ses articles a t publi en 2003 sous le titre Psychanalyse des Enfants Spars. Etudes Cliniques 1952-1986 .

TRAVAUX Enfance abandonnataire (1953). Paris 1983 QUELQUES Pas sur le chemin de Franoise Dolto. Paris 1988 Psychanalyse des Enfants Spars. Etudes Cliniques 1952-1986. Paris 2003

RFRENCES Geber, Marcelle: Aubry Weiss, Jenny. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 161f [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (09/03/2009)] Roudinesco, lisabeth: Gnalogies. Paris 1994 Roudinesco, lisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986, 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. Une histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 1925-1985.Chicago 1990] Roudinesco, Elisabeth et Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [ Diccionario de psicoanlisis (06/03/2008)]

PHOTO: Elisabeth Roudinesco

Piera Aulagnier ne Spairani (1923-1990)

Piera Aulagnier est n Milan, la fille d'une mre de seize ans. Aprs avoir pass ses premires annes en Egypte, elle a grandi avec ses grands-parents en Italie. Elle a tudi la mdecine Rome et

s'installe Paris en 1950, o elle a termin ses tudes en psychiatrie. De 1955 1961, elle a subi une analyse didactique avec Jacques Lacan et est devenu membre de la Socit franaise de psychanalyse.Plus tard, elle a subi une deuxime analyse avec Serge Vidermann. En 1964, elle a suivi Lacan dans le Paris cole Freudienne de, mais a quitt l'EFP en 1969 aprs Lacan avait propos le "pass", une procdure plus subjective de la nomination d'un analyste formateur. La mme anne, elle fonde avec ses collgues Franois Perrier et Jean-Paul Valabrega, l'Organisation psychanalytique de langue franaise (FBPO), le soi-disant Quatrime Groupe. En 1967, Piera Aulagnier a cr, en collaboration avec Conrad Stein und Jean Clavreul, la revue L'Inconscient , et deux ans plus tard, la revue Topique . Aprs la sparation de son premier mari, l'homme d'affaires Andr Aulagnier, avec qui elle a eu son fils Claude, Piera Aulagnier mari Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997), philosophe-psychanalyste d'origine grecque, en 1975. Ils ont divorc en 1984. Piera Aulagnier spcialise dans le traitement des psychotiques et a travaill l'hpital Sainte-Anne Paris, o elle a lu un sminaire hebdomadaire de 1962 1990. Plusieurs de ses publications ont t relis ce sminaire.Travail Aulagnier, qui s'inscrit dans la tradition de Lacan, est considr comme l'une des contributions les plus importantes la thorie psychanalytique franais, mais il n'est pas facile comprendre. Son point de dpart est la communication de la psychose et la question du sens de la psychose. Aulagnier a dclar que la psychose facteur sous-jacent spcifique d'antinomie irrductible entre ce que les expriences des enfants petits et le sens impos par le discours de la mre. Le systme de la pense dlirante est la tentative de rsoudre cette contradiction. Bas sur son exprience clinique de la psychose Piera Aulagnier agrandie sur la mtapsychologie freudienne et a tabli une nouvelle thorisation de l'I: L'agence appelle I est constitu par le discours et sa tche est la production de bon sens. Elle a dvelopp un certain nombre de nouvelles conceptions telles que le processus primaire (processus originaire), qui prcde les processus primaires et secondaires. Tous les trois sont des processus de psychique "mtabolisation": ils transforment ce qui n'est pas quelque chose de psychique dans psychique par des formes spcifiques de reprsentation.Le mode de reprsentation est diffrente pour chacun des trois processus: le processus primaire reprsent par "pictogrammes", le processus primaire reprsente par des fantasmes inconscients, et le processus secondaire reprsent par des annonces verbales. Lorsque les processus primaires et secondaires ne fonctionnent pas normalement, l'individu rgresse au niveau archaque du processus primaire, qui s'infiltre dans l'esprit et devient par la suite la source de processus de pense psychotiques. Piera Aulagnier dcd d'un cancer du poumon l'ge de 66 ans. ( Haut de l'article)

uvres choisies (pour plus d', voir Quatrime Groupe ) Remarques sur la structure psychotique la. La Psychanalyse 8, 1964, 47-67 Le dsir de savoir DANS SES Rapports la transgression. L'Inconscient n 1, 1967, 109-125 Remarques Sur La fminit et avatars SES. Dans P. Aulagnier, J. Clavreul, F. Perrier, G. Rosolato, et J.-P. Valabrega: Le dsir et la perversion. Paris 1967, 53-79 La structure de la perversion Comme. L'Inconscient n 2, 1967, 11-41 Commenter may-sur NE PAS Persan tre? L'Inconscient n 8, 1968, 27-45

Socits de psychanalyse et psychanalystes de socit. Topique n 1, 1969, 7-46 Le sens perdu (ou le schizo et la signification). Topique n 7/8, 1971, 49-83 La violence de l'interprtation. Du pictogramme l'Enonc (1975). Paris 2003 [La violence de l'interprtation. De Pictogramme l'nonc. Hove, East Sussex 2001] Les destins du plaisir. Alination, amour, passion. Paris 1979 L'apprenti-historien et le matre-sorcier. Du discours identifiant au discours dlirant (1984). Paris 2004 Naissance d'Un corps, d'origine Une histoire. En Corps et histoire, IVme rencontre psychanalytique d'Aix en Provence. Paris 1985, 99-141 Un interprte en qute de sens (1986). Paris 2001 Sources somatique et discursives de Nos reprsentations de la Ralit. J psychanal enf n 3, 1987, 247-271 DANS Voies d'Entre la psychose. Topique n 49, 1992, 7-29 Topique n 74, 2001: Piera Aulagnier. L'Esprit du Temps

RFRENCES Benheim, David:. Piera Aulagnier et le concept de violence primaire de Montral 1995(09/04/2008) Bonnel, Jacqueline, et Hlne Troisier: Piera Aulagnier. Paris 1998 Leiser, Eckart: Piera Aulagnier oder der Ursprung des Subjekts im Krper. En DER:. Das Schweigen der Seele. Das Sprechen Krpers des. Psychoanalytische Zugnge Krper und zum Dessen Leiden. Gieen 2007 McDougall, Joyce, et Nathalie Zaltzman: Prface Aulagnier, La violence de l'interprtation, 2001, xvi-xxiv Mijolla-Mellor, Sophie de: Penser la psychose. Une confrence de l'uvre de Piera Aulagnier. Paris 1998 Mijolla-Mellor, Sophie de: Aulagnier-Spairani, Piera, ex-Castoriadis-Aulagnier. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 164F [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2009-03-09)] Mijolla-Mellor, Sophie de: Quatrime Groupe (FBPO). Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1441-1443 Quatrime Groupe (2010-02-12)

Rother de Hornstein, Cristina:. Piera Aulagnier PsicoMundo (2010-03-08) Roudinesco, Elisabeth et Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [ Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)] Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986, 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. Une histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 1925-1985.Chicago 1990]

PHOTO: Jacques Sedat

Laurence Bataille (1930-1986)

Laurence Bataille tait le seul enfant de l'crivain Georges Bataille et la juive roumaine actrice Sylvia Bataille. Sa mre spare de Bataille en 1933 et a vcu partir de 1939 avec le psychanalyste Jacques Lacan, qu'elle pousa en 1953. Laurence a grandi prs de son beau-pre avec sa demi-sur Judith. l'ge de seize ans, elle devint la matresse du peintre Balthus, qui ont fait plusieurs portraits d'elle.Laurence Bataille premire entre dans une carrire d'actrice. Aprs une tourne avec sa compagnie de thtre en Algrie en 1954, elle a t membre temporaire du Parti communiste et impliqus dans la promotion de l'indpendance de l'Algrie. En 1960, elle a t emprisonne pendant six semaines pour avoir aid le Front de libration nationale, FLN. Familier avec les ides de Lacan depuis sa jeunesse, Laurence Bataille a tudi la mdecine et est entr en analyse didactique avec Conrad Stein en 1963. Elle est devenue membre de l'cole Freudienne de Paris, qui a t dissoute par Lacan en 1980. Aprs la mort de Lacan, elle a rejoint l'cole de la Cause Freudienne la (ECF), dirig par son frre-frre de Jacques-Alain Miller. De 1976 1978, elle a agi titre de directeur de la revue lacanienneOrnicar? , o certains de ses articles et des critiques ont t publies. En 1982, elle a quitt l'ECF, parce qu'elle dsapprouve le fait que JacquesAlain Miller a utilis les lettres circulaires de Lacan titre posthume que les textes juridiques. Laurence Bataille, que Lacan appelait son Antigone fidle, est mort d'un cancer du foie en 1986. Un an aprs sa mort, une petite anthologie de ses essais a t publi sous le titre L'ombilic du rve . Dans

son article du mme titre, elle a dcrit le travail d'interprtation en prenant comme exemple un rve qui a jou un rle important dans sa propre analyse.

UVRES CHOISIES Emma ou La Fonction D'UN fantasme. Ornicar? N 8, 1976, 21-31 Dsir de l'analyste et dsir d'tre analyste l'. Ornicar? N 20/21, 1980, 71-73 Fantasme et interprtation. Ornicar? N 25, 1982, 75-79 D'juin pratique. tudes freudiennes n 25, 1985 Praxis [einer von. Dans Bataille 1988, 75197] Incidences de l'oeuvre de Lacan sur la pratique de la psychanalyse. Compte rendu des Journes Figuration du Fminin. tudes freudiennes n 25, 1985 Das Begehren des Analytikers und das Begehren, zu sein Analytiker. Der Wunderblock Nr. 15 (Oktober), 1986 + 1988 chez Bataille, 11-14 L'ombilic du rve. D'juin pratique de la psychanalyse. Paris 1987 [Der Nabel Traums des.Von einer Praxis der Psychoanalyse. Weinheim, Berlin 1988]

RFRENCES Friedmann, Daniel et Jrme Blumberg: Laurence Bataille (Vido). CNRS audiovisuell 1983 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986, 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. Une histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 1925-1985.Chicago 1990] Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Jacques Lacan. Esquisse d'une vie, Histoire d'un system de pense. Paris 1993 [Jacques Lacan. Une Esquisse d'une vie et une histoire d'un systme de pense. Oxford 1999]

PHOTO Bataille en 1988

Anne Berman (1889-1979)

Anne (Annette) Berman, un pharmacien de formation universitaire, a travaill dans le laboratoire de l'hpital Sainte-Anne Paris jusqu'en 1924. Cette anne-l, elle a achet une pharmacie et ya travaill pendant plusieurs annes, avant d'entrer dans l'analyse deMarie Bonaparte et de devenir son secrtaire personnel. En 1927, elle a t admise comme membre de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) et administr au secrtariat de l'Institut de Psychanalyse depuis sa cration en 1934. Anne Berman tait connu comme traducteur d'uvres psychanalytiques. Elle a traduit plusieurs oeuvres de Sigmund Freud en franais: Neue Folge der Vorlesungen zur Einfhrung in die Psychoanalyse (1936), Der Mann Moses und Religion meurent monotheistische (1948), Abriss der Psychoanalyse (1949) et de Freud et Josef Breuer Studien ber Hysterie (1956 ). Anne Berman a eu une histoire longue (jusqu'en 1940) avec Adrien Borel (1886-1966), un psychiatre franais et, en 1926, co-fondateur de la PSP, et c'est elle qui l'initie la psychanalyse.

RFRENCES Bourgeron, Jean-Pierre: Berman, Anne. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 206 [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2009-03-09)] Lebovici, Serge: Anne Berman. DP 43 (3), 1979, 476 Mespoulhs, Nadine: Borel, Adrien Alphonse Alcide. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 233 [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2010-02-20)] Roudinesco, Elisabeth et Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004

PHOTO: AEJCPP (2008-04-09)

Marie Bonaparte (1882-1962)

Princesse Marie Bonaparte, reprsentant de Sigmund Freud en France, est n Saint-Cloud, prs de Paris.Elle tait la grand-petite-fille d'un frre de Napolon Bonaparte. Sa mre Marie-Flix Blanc, la fille du riche entrepreneur du casino de Monte-Carlo, mourut de la tuberculose quelques semaines aprs la naissance de Marie et lgu une vaste fortune son mari, le prince Roland Bonaparte. Marie Bonaparte a grandi dans les soins de nourrices et des gouvernantes et sous le rgiment grave de sa grand-mre. Comme une petite fille qu'elle croyait que son pre, dont l'amour qu'elle a essay en vain de gagner, avait collabor avec la grand-mre mal dans le meurtre de sa mre par appt du gain. De plus elle se sentait responsable de sa naissance la mort de sa mre. Ds l'ge de sept ans, elle remplit cinq cahiers avec des histoires fantastiques cruels, qui ont servi plus tard comme base de son analyse avec Freud. Son souhait d'tudier la mdecine est reste lettre morte. Envoi aux attentes de sa famille, elle a pous le prince Georges de Grce et du Danemark (1869-1957) en 1907, avec qui elle a eu deux enfants, Eugnie et Pierre. Elle souffrait de troubles somatiques et mlancolie quand elle a rencontr le psychanalyste franais Ren Laforgue en 1923, qui a crit Freud en son nom. Sa rencontre avec Freud en 1925 ne fut pas seulement le dbut d'une analyse - qui a dur jusqu'en 1938, avec des interruptions -, mais aussi d'un proche, longue amiti entre eux. C'tait Marie Bonaparte qui a aid Freud et sa fille Anna migrer de Vienne Londres aprs l 'Anschluss en 1938. Marie Bonaparte entra dans une analyse plus approfondie avec Rudolph Loewenstein et a t cofondateur de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) en 1926 . Elle a t lue vice-prsidente du PSP en 1934. Avec sa richesse, elle financ de nombreuses institutions psychanalytiques, entre autres l'Institut de psychanalyse de Paris et la Revue Franaise de Psychanalyse , et elle a sauv la correspondance de Freud avec Wilhelm Fliess de la destruction. Aprs l'occupation allemande de la France en 1940, Marie Bonaparte et sa famille s'exile en Grce et en Afrique du Sud. Sous sa prsidence du premier groupe d'tude psychanalytique a t fonde en Grce aprs la fin de la guerre. De retour Paris en 1945, Marie Bonaparte se voyait comme le porteur de la parole freudienne, et comme Anna Freudqu'elle s'opposait aux thories de Jacques Lacan et de Mlanie Klein . Elle a traduit l'uvre de Freud en franais et comme vice-prsident de l'IPA, elle dfend l'analyse profane. Les crits de Marie Bonaparte sont considrs comme n'tant pas aussi considrable que son rle minent dans l'histoire du mouvement psychanalytique franais. Le sujet de l'un de ses plus beaux papiers, publi en 1927, ce fut le cas de Marie-Flicit Lefebvre, qui a tu son enceinte fille-inlaw. Bonaparte a interprt cette assassiner comme un dsir inconscient de mort contre la propre mre de mettre en action, et elle a plaid pour une thrapie de criminels psychologiquement perturbs.

tude de Bonaparte sur Edgar Allan Poe est considr comme sa contribution la plus importante. Elle a interprt Oevre Poe comme une tentative de se rconcilier avec sa mre morte qui obsd par lui et rendu impuissant. Son interprtation de Poe implique une auto-analyse: l'attachement ambivalent d'une mre morte tait aussi un traumatisme de l'enfance de son propre et sa frigidit un problme permanent. En 1924, dans son article Considrations sur les provoque anatomiques de la frigidit chez la femme , elle a soutenu que la frigidit chez la femme a souvent une cause anatomique - une distance trop grande entre le clitoris et le vagin. Elle a soulign que la transition de la fixation du clitoris pour le plaisir vaginal peut tre atteint que par un mlange de la cure psychanalytique et l'intervention chirurgicale -. Une opration qu'elle a subi plusieurs reprises sans succs plus tard dans ses essais sur la sexualit fminine Marie Bonaparte a continu de prendre une psycho- approche biologique. Elle a t le premier observer une phase active phallique chez la jeune fille, dont le clitoris correspond au phallus. Cette activit phallique envers la mre est prise en sandwich entre deux phases de passivit, d'abord vers la mre, puis vers le pre. Pour la fixation libidinale Bonaparte sur le masculin clitoris correspond un caractre essentiellement biologique masculin incorpor dans l'organisme fminin. Elle a vu cette constitution bisexuelle de la femme comme un obstacle majeur au dveloppement de la sexualit normale. Marie Bonaparte est mort de leucmie l'ge de quatre-vingts. (Haut de l'article)

UVRES CHOISIES Military Guerres Guerres et sociales. Mditations. Paris 1920 (Pseudonyme AE Narjani) Considrations sur les provoque anatomiques de la frigidit chez la femme. Bruxelles mdicales 27, 1924 Le Cas de Mme Lefebvre. DP 1, 1927, 149-198 Lefebvre [Der Fall. Psychoanalyse Mrderin einer. Imago 15, 1929, 15-62 ] Du symbolisme des trophes de tte. DP 1, 1927, 677-732 [ber die der Symbolik Kopftrophen. Imago 14, 1928, 100-141 ] L 'identification d' une fille morte sa mre. DP 2, 1928, 541-565 [Die Tochter mit einer Identifizierung ihrer Mutter toten. Stagiaire Zschr rztl Psychoanal 15, 1929] De la prophylaxie infantile des nvroses. DP 4, 1930, 85-111 [Die Sexualitt des Kindes und die der Neurosen Erwachsenen. Z psa pad 5, 1931, 369-412 ] Aus der Analyse einer mutterlosen Tochter. Zwei Beispiele zur psychoanalytischen Kasuistik. Wien 1931 Edgar Poe: Sa vie - son fils Oevre. tude psychanalytique, vol. 1 et 2. Paris 1933; 1958 (3 volumes) *La vie et l'uvre d'Edgar Allan Poe. Londres, 1949] La pense magique chez le primitif. DP 7, 1934, 3-18 [Das Denken magische bei den Primitiven. Almanach 1935] Passivit, masochisme et fminit. DP 8, 1935, 208-216 [Passivitt, Masochismus und Weiblichkeit. IZP 21, 1935, 23-29 ]

Cinq cahiers crits nominale juin petite fille entrepre Sept ans et demi et Dix ans et Commentaires Luer, vol. 1: Paris 1939, vol. 2: Londres 1948, vol. 3 et 4: Londres 1951 [Cinq cahiers crits par une petite fille ge de sept ans et demi et dix, vol 1-4. Londres 1950-1953] Mythes de guerre. Paris 1946 De la sexualit de la femme. DP 13, 1949, 1-52 + 161 227, Paris 1951 [Femme Sexualit. London 1953] Monologues devant la vie et la Mort. Paris 1951 Introduction la thorie des instincts et des Prophylaxie des nvroses infantiles. Paris 1952 Chronos, Eros, Thanatos. Paris 1952 Psychanalyse et biologie. Paris 1952 Psychanalyse et anthropologie. Paris 1952

RFRENCES Appignanesi, Lisa et John Forrester: Les femmes de Freud. Londres 1992 [Die Frauen Freud Sigmund. Mnchen 1996] Bertin, Clia: La dernire Bonaparte. Paris 1982, 1999 [Marie Bonaparte. Une vie. New York / Londres / San Diego 1982] Marie Bonaparte im Wartezimmer Sigmund Freud (Filmaufnahme 1937). Sigmund Freud Museum Wien (11.11.2011) Bourgeron, Jean-Pierre: Bonaparte, Marie Lon. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 231F [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2009-03-09)] Stephan, Inge: Die Grnderinnen der Psychoanalyse. Stuttgart 1992 -Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Wien - Paris. Die Geschichte der Psychoanalyse in Frankreich, Bd.1: 1885-1939. Weinheim, Berlin 1994 Roudinesco, Elisabeth et Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [ Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)] Stein-Monod, Claude: Marie Bonaparte 1882-1962. Le problme de la sexualit fminine.Dans F. Alexander et al. (Ed.): Les pionniers psychanalytiques. New York 1966, 399414 Thompson, Nellie L.: la thorie de Marie Bonaparte de la sexualit fminine. Fantaisie et de la biologie. Amricaine Imago 60, 2003, 343-378 Wikipedia (2010-10-15)

PHOTO Bertin en 1989, 351

Denise Braunschweig (1918-1998)

Denise Braunschweig-Demay tait un partisan de la psychosomatique psychanalytique en France. Elle a tudi le droit, la psychologie et de la mdecine, avant de se tourner vers la psychanalyse et est devenu un membre de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris. Elle a travaill plusieurs annes en psychiatrie de l'enfant, par exemple, au Centre Georges-Amado Vitry et, avec Serge Lebovici, l'Hpital de jour du 13e arrondissement de Paris. En 1972, elle fonde avec Pierre Marty, Catherine Parat, Michel d ' Uzan, Michel Fain et Christian David, l'Institut de psychosomatique, o elle a travaill jusqu' la fin de sa vie. En outre, elle a t un membre de la rdaction de la Revue franaise de Psychosomatique partir de 1991.Debout dans la tradition classique de Sigmund Freud, Denise Braunschweig apport une contribution essentielle la thorie psychanalytique de la sexualit fminine. Ses crits, pour la plupart publis en mme temps que Michel Fain, a port sur des sujets tels que le narcissisme, ftichisme, changement d'objet chez les filles, cathexis des organes sexuels fminins, ainsi que l'impact de la diffrence sexuelle sur la relation la ralit. Denise Braunschweig et Michel Fain a eu l'ide de censure de l'amante dans sa" [censure de l'amante], ce qui signifie que la vie de la mre comme un amant "censeurs" les sentiments rotiques suscites par les soins maternels.Ses rveries sur sa vie amoureuse avec le pre de l'enfant d'introduire le tiers dans la relation mre-enfant. Cet tat au dbut de la triangulation est la base pour l'avenir de l'enfant organisation dipienne.

UVRES CHOISIES Le narcissisme. Cliniques aspects. DP 29, 1965, 589-600 Psychanalyse et ralit. DP 35, 1971, 655-800 Rflexions sur L'tat amoureux" de Christian David. DP 36, 1972, 307-323 Traces de l'volution DANS Jung thorique de Freud. DP 47, 1983, 1027-1044

Fantasme originaire et surmoi. La phylogense. DP 55, 1991, 1253-1264 Implications techniques de la thorie en psychosomatique. Rev fr Psychosom n 3, 1993, 2132 Variation de la nosographie. propos du trait de caractre. Rev fr Psychosom n 11, 1997, 19-28 (Avec Serge Lebovici et H. van Thiel-Godfrind) La psychopathie chez l'enfant. Psychiatrie de l'enfant 12, 1969, 5-106 [Arbeiten zur Kinderpsychotherapie. Mnchen, Basel 1979] (Et Michel Fain) Eros et Anteros. Rflexions psychanalytiques sur la sexualit. Paris 1971 (Et Michel Fain) La nuit, le jour. Essai psychanalytique sur le mental functioning. Paris 1975 (Et Michel Fain) L'ombre phallique. Dans D. Breen (dir.): L'nigme des sexes.Contemporary Perspectives psychanalytiques sur la fminit et la masculinit. Londres, New York, 1993, 130-144

RFRENCES Ody, Michel: Denise Braunschweig. Paris 2000 Ody, Michel: Ncrologie: Denise Braunschweig-Demay. Bulletin de la SPP n 50, 1998, 195197 Ody, Michel et Laurent Danon-Bioleau: censure de l'amante. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 303F [Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2010-03-01)]

PHOTO: PUF, en 2000 Ody

Elsa Breuer Elsa Breuer est n dans une famille juive hongroise. Elle a tudi la mdecine en Hongrie, avant de s'installer Paris et a subi une analyse didactique avecMarie Bonaparte . En 1936, elle est devenue membre associ de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris. Un de ses analysants tait le philosophe et sociologue Georges Lapassade. En 1952, les Franais de l'Association mdicale accus Elsa Breuer comme Margaret Clark William s devant elle - d'exercice illgal de la mdecine. Elle a perdu le procs, parce qu'elle avait fait l'erreur de traiter les patients de panneaux et de signer les formulaires avec "Dr Breuer", bien que son certificat hongrois n'tait pas reconnu en France. Elsa Breuer a vcu Paris jusqu'en 1962.

RFRENCES Bertin, Clia: La dernire Bonaparte. Paris 1982, 1999 [Marie Bonaparte. Une vie. New York / Londres / San Diego 1982] Gougoulis, Nicolas: La Psychanalyse et l'tat: Aperus historiques QUELQUES. SPP (2007-1207) Hess, Remi: Georges Lapassade, Notre matre, notre ami. En 1924-2008 Georges Lapassade. Crmonie des adieux (2010-03-11)

Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel (1928-2006)

Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel, la fille de parents immigrants en provenance de Russie et de la Pologne, est n Paris. Son pre, Jules Smirgel (ou Smirguel), tait un ingnieur et un peintre. Sa mre tait souvent malade et partiellement remplac par Janine l `admiration tante Anne, un pneumologue. Aprs la guerre, Janine Chasseguet tudi les sciences politiques (diplme en 1952) et de la psychologie la Sorbonne. De 1953 1956, elle a subi la psychanalyse avec Bela Grunberger (1903-2005), son futur mari. Elle a complt sa formation qualifiante en 1958 et est devenu un analyste formateur de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) en 1965. Elle a servi comme prsident de la SPP de 1975 1977 et en tant que vice-prsident de l'IPA de 1983 1989.Elle a obtenu son doctorat en 1982 et en 1982/83, elle a t invite prendre la prsidence Memorial Freud l'Universit de Londres. De 1992 jusqu' sa retraite en 1996, elle tait professeur de psychologie clinique et psychopathologie la Fondation Charles-de-Gaulle-Universitt Lille. La rflexion de Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel a t influenc par Sndor Ferenczi, Bela Grunberger et Melanie Klein . Son travail a port sur la sexualit fminine, la crativit et la perversion, narcissisme et l'Idal du Moi ainsi que l'application de la psychanalyse l'art, la littrature, le cinma et la politique. Dans un de ses premiers articles culpabilit fminine et le complexe d'dipe , elle a critiqu notion Sigmund Freud d'une envie du pnis fminin en affirmant que les filles n'ont pas envie du pnis pour lui-mme, mais comme une rvolte contre la mre toute-puissante. Le dsir de s'approprier le phallus paternel et de dposer la mre est la source de culpabilit femelle pour

Chasseguet-Smirgel. Dans ses essais sur la crativit et la perversion, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel a compar le travail d'un artiste authentique avec le ftichiste "false" objet de un pervers. La crativit d'un artiste implique qu'il surmonte son dsir rgressif pour revenir la perfection du narcissisme primaire en projetant son idal du moi sur les modles paternels. Le pervers, cependant, succombe la maladie de l'idal" et prserve, souvent confirme par sa mre, l'illusion infantile de possder le idalise prgnitale (anal) phallus et donc d'tre gale et mme suprieure son pre. Chasseguet-Smirgel a soulign une polarit structurellement ncessaire d'un monde anale-phalliquedestructrice maternelle de la rgression et de la perversion et un monde paternelle de la structure, du droit et de la crativit. L'intgration de ces deux mondes en maturit dipienne, cependant, ne surtout. La rbellion contre le pre et la loi est marque par des traits de perversion et de rgression - et selon le diagnostic de Chasseguet-Smirgel et Bela Grunberger (sous le pseudonyme de "Andr Stphane") ce fut le cas avec la rvolte tudiante de 1968 et de ses thoriciens. Sensibiliss par le sort de ses propres parents juifs qui sont morts dans l'Holocauste, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel a t particulirement intress par les explications psychanalytiques du national-socialisme. Elle a interprt l'idologie national-socialiste course comme la volont d'expulser les trangers de l'utrus et faire fondre avec la mre toute-puissante reprsente par le groupe. Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel mort d'une leucmie l'ge de 77 ans. (Haut de l'article)

UVRES CHOISIES Notes de confrence en marge de la Rvision du CAS Schreiber. DP 30, 1966, 41-61 (Ed.) Recherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine. Paris 1964 La sexualit [Femme. Nouveaux Vues psychanalytiques. Ann Arbour, 1970; Psychoanalyse der weiblichen Sexualitt. Frankfurt / M. 1974] La culpabilit fminine. En Chasseguet-Smirgel, Recherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine, 1964 culpabilit [Fminin et le complexe d'dipe. En Chasseguet-Smirgel, la sexualit fminine, 1970; Die weiblichen Schuldgefhle. En Chasseguet-Smirgel, Psychoanalyse der weiblichen Sexualitt, 1974] Verser juin psychanalyse de l'art et de la crativit. Paris 1971 [Kunst und schpferische Persnlichkeit. Anwendungen der Psychoanalyse auf den Bereich auertherapeutischen.Mnchen, Wien 1988] L'idal du moi. Essai psychanalytique sur la maladie d'idaliser". Paris 1975 [L'Idal du Moi. Un Essai psychanalytique sur la Maladie de l'Idal. New York 1984; Das Ichideal.Essai Psychoanalytischer ber die "Krankheit der Idealitt". Frankfurt / M. 1987] Le corps chez Sade. Dans J. Guillaumin (d.): Corps, cration. Entre lettres et psychanalyse. Lyon 1981 [Sade. Der Krper und der Mord un Realitt der. Psych 35, 1981, 237-252] La crativit et la perversion. Londres 1984 Perversion [und Kreativitt. Frankfurt / M.1986]

thique et esththique perversion de la. Seyssel 1984 [Die Anatomie der Perversion menschlichen. Stuttgart 1989] La sexualit et de l'esprit. New York, Londres, 1986 L'acting out. QUELQUES Rflexions sur la carence psychique 'laboration d'. DP 51, 1987, 1083-1100 Hamburger zum berlegungen Kongre. Jb Psychoanal 20, 1987, 89-113 Les Deux arbres du jardin. Essais psychanalytiques sur le rle du pre et de la mre DANS LA psych. Paris 1988 [Zwei Bume im Garten. Zur Bedeutung der Vater psychischen-und Mutterbilder. Mnchen, Wien 1988] Essai sur la Perte de l'Activit DANS Symbolique la pense nazie. Dans M. Colin (d.): La criminalit Contre L'Humanit. Ramonville Saint-Agne 1996, 163-174 Das helle Antlitz des Narzimus und seine schattigen Tiefen - Einige Reflexionen. Dans DES Kernberg (ed.): Narzitische Persnlichkeitsstrungen. Stuttgart, New York 1996, 233-247 Le corps miroir du monde Comme. Paris 2003 [Le corps comme miroir du monde. London 2005] [Stphane, Andr (J. Chasseguet-Smirgel et B. Grunberger)] L'univers contestationnaire ous LES NOUVEAUX Chrtiens. Paris 1969 (Et al.) Les chemins de l'Anti-dipe. Paris 1974 [Wege des Anti-Oedipus. Frankfurt / M.ua 1978] (Et Bla Grunberger) Freud ous Reich? Psychanalyse et illusion. Paris 1976 [Freud oder Reich? Psychoanalyse und Illusion. Frankfurt / M. ua 1979; Freud ou Reich? Psychanalyse et Illusion. London 1986]

RFRENCES Baruch, Elaine Hoffman, et Lucienne J. Serrano: Analyser les femmes Les femmes, en France, en Angleterre et aux tats-Unis. New York, Londres 1988 Bourdin, Dominique: Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel. Paris 1999 Bourdin, Dominique: Une brve notice biographique de Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel. J Clin Psychoanal 8, 1999, 301-305 Eickhoff, Friedrich Wilhelm: Nachruf auf Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel. Z Psychoanal Theorie Praxis 21 (2/3), 2006, 147-148 Mor, Angela: berlegungen zur Theorie des Unbewuten bei Chasseguet-Smirgel.Psych 54, 2000, 599-618

Mor, Angela: Psyche und Kosmos zwischen Chaos. Die Theorie psychoanalytische Janine Chasseguet-Smirgels. Eine kritische Rekonstruktion. Gieen 2001 Pragier, Georges: Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel. Le Monde, 14 Mrz 2006 Springer-Kremser, Marianne: Chasseguet-Smirgel, Janine. Dans G. Stumm et al. (Eds): Personenlexikon der Psychotherapie. Wien, New York, 2005, 86-88 Zagermann, Peter: Ich-Ideal, Sublimierung, Narzissmus. Die Theorie des Schpferischen in der Psychoanalyse - diskutiert un Janine Chasseguet-Smirgels Arbeit "Essai Das Ich-Ideal Psychoanalytischer ber die der Krankheit Idealitt.. Darmstadt 1985 Wikipedia franzsisch , englisch , deutsch (2008-03-06) Wikipedia Jules Smirgel (26.10.2010)

PHOTO: Baruch / Serrano 1988, 107

Maryse Choisy (1903-1979)

Le journaliste, psychanalyste et auteur Maryse Choisy est n Saint-Jean-de-Luz en France. Elle a grandi dans le chteau de sa tante, la comtesse Anne de Brmond, qui a associ avec des clbrits comme Oscar Wilde, Gabriele d'Annunzio et Picasso.A la fin de la Premire Guerre mondiale, Maryse et sa tante s'installe Londres, o elle est entre Girton College et a tudi la philosophie et la psychologie.Elle a crit sa thse sur la philosophie Samkhya ( Les Systmes de philosophie Samkhya ). En 1925 (1927?), elle a commenc une analyse avec Sigmund Freud Vienne. Aprs trois sances, elle a rompu le traitement lorsque Freud dduit de son rve qu'elle tait un enfant illgitime - un fait qui a t confirm par sa tante. Elle n'a jamais appris qui taient ses parents et a pris le nom de "Choisy" ("Chosen"). En 1925, elle devient journaliste au magazine L'Intransigeant et occup une place importante dans le monde intellectuel et artistique de Paris. Maryse Choisy a t un pionnier du journalisme d'investigation et de recherches en civil dans une maison close pour son livre sur la

prostitution, Un mois chez les filles , ce qui a provoqu un scandale lors de sa publication. Comme un gauchiste et fministe, elle a lutt pour le droit des femmes de voter. Maryse Choisy a pous le journaliste Maxime Clouzet, le pre de sa fille, Colette, ne en 1932. A la fin des annes 1930, elle a rencontr Teilhard de Chardin et se convertit au catholicisme. Elle a ensuite trouv son chemin de retour la psychanalyse et entra dans l'analyse de Charles Odier, Ren Laforgue (1944) et Maurice Bouvet (1955). Choisy est devenu membre de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris et a consacr ses efforts runir la religion et de la psychanalyse. Le rsultat de sa recherche d'une bndiction pour la psychanalyse de l'glise catholique tait que Pie XII a publi une approbation d'une psychothrapie srieuse tant qu'elle n'a pas de rechercher les causes de sexualit et de violer la confession. En 1946, Maryse Choisy a fond le Centre d' 'etudes des sciences de l'homme - avec des sommits de nombreux tels que Pierre Janet, Ren Laforgue et Teilhard de Chardin - et son orgue de Psych . Elle espre que cette rvision de la psychanalyse et les sciences de l'homme irait l'encontre de l'athisme freudien avec une synthse de la psychanalyse et de la spiritualit. Psych a t inspir par la revue Imago et a tent de trouver un public plus large avec des auteurs connus tels que Laforgue, Franoise Dolto , Juliette Favez-Boutonier et Mannoni Octave. En plus des sujets psychanalytiques, l'examen discut de l'acupuncture sujets, la graphologie, les religions orientales et des vnements culturels. Psych ferm ses portes en 1959 (avec un numro spcial en 1963). Maryse Choisy publi de nombreux livres, des romans, des pomes, des essais et des rapports ainsi que des uvres la psychanalyse vulgarisation.(Haut de l'article)

UVRES CHOISIES Presque ... quasi romaine. Paris 1924 La chirologie. Paris 1927 Un mois chez les filles. Paris 1928 [In den Tiefen Paris von. 1930 Leipzig, un mois parmi les filles. New York, 1960] Un mois chez les hommes. Paris 1929 [Un mois chez les hommes. New York, 1962] L'amour DANS LES prisons. Reportage. Paris 1930 Dames SEULES (1932). Textes de Maryse Choisy with des dessins de Marcel Verts.Prsent par Nicole Albert. Cahier Gay Kitch Camp n 23, 1994 Savoir tre maman ou L'ducation des parents des. Paris 1941 Les Systmes de philosophie Samkhya. Paris 1946 Symboles et mythes. Psych n 8, 1947 + Hommes et Faits de socit (2010-03-18) Yogas et psychanalyse. Genf 1949 Qu'est-ce que la psychanalyse? Paris 1950 Psychanalyse et catholicisme. Paris 1950 Le scandale de l'amour. Paris 1954

Conscience de la fminit. Paris 1954 Problmes sexuels de l'adolescence. Paris 1954 Psychanalyse de la Prostitue. New York 1961 Kunst und Sexualitt. Opladen 1962 Sigmund Freud. Une nouvelle valuation. Londres 1963 L'tre et le silence. Genf 1965 Exercices de yoga. Genf 1968 Mes enfances. Mmoires 1903-1924. Genf 1971 Sur le chemin de Dieu, le diable rencontre d'Abord le. Mmoires 1925-1939. Paris 1977 Mmoire des rendez-vous with Freud (1955). Bloc-notes n 2, 1982 [Mmoires de mes visites avec Freud. Dans MH Ruitenbeek (ed.): Freud comme nous l'avons connu. Detroit 1973

RFRENCES Appignanesi, Lisa et John Forrester: Les femmes de Freud. Londres 1992 Cosnier, Jacqueline: Choisy, Maryse. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 319-321 [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2009-03-09)] Cosnier, Jacqueline: Psych, revue internationale de psychanalyse et des sciences de l'hoimme. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la. Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1371-1372 [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2010-03-18)] Guillemain, Bernard: Maryse Choisy Ou L'Amoureuse sagesse. Paris 1959 Mijolla, Alain de: La psychanalyse en France (1893-1965). Dans l'affaire R. Jaccard: Histoire de la psychanalyse, vol. 2. Paris 1982, 5-118 Ohayon, Annick: Maryse Choisy et Psych - Psychanalyse mondanits et. Topique n 71, 2000, 87-107 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986, 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. Une histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 1925-1985.Chicago 1990]

La figure:. Leonhard Tsuguharu Foujita 1926, Bild-Kunst, voir aussi Blog Julien Champagne 1 + 2

Margaret Clark-Williams (1910-1975) Margaret Clark-Williams est n aux tats-Unis d'Amrique. l'ge de 21 ans, elle se rendit d'abord en France, puis Vienne, o elle a fait ses premiers contacts dans les milieux psychanalytiques en 1931/32. Par la suite elle est revenue avec ses enfants David et Anne aux tats-Unis. Elle a t analyse par l'analyste suisse Raymond de Saussure, qui a pratiqu New York de 1940 1952. En 1945, Margaret Clark-Williams revient en France, o elle a tudi la psychologie Daniel Lagache et a reu sa formation clinique de l'enfant psychiatre Georges Heuyer. Elle a subi une analyse didactique avec Georges Parcheminey, et son analyste responsable tait Jean-Leuba. En 1950, elle est devenue membre associ de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris. Margaret Clark-Williams a travaill comme thrapeute pour enfants au Centre psychopdagogique de Claude-Bernard Paris, quand l'Ordre des mdecins a dpos une plainte contre l'analyste non mdecin, l'accusant d'exercice illgal de la mdecine en raison du fait qu'elle pratiquait la psychanalyse.Marie Bonaparte , qui tait elle-mme une mise analyste sans formation mdicale et Juliette Favez-Boutonier , l'ancien directeur mdical du Centre Claude-Bernard, a appuy la cas de Margaret Clark-Williams. Le dbut du procs en 1951, a fait sensation. Clark-Williams a d'abord t acquitt, mais un second verdict en 1953 l'a dclare coupable -. Une catastrophe pour l'analyse profane Margaret Clark-Williams tait un collgue de longue date d'Andr Berge jusqu' sa retraite en 1973.

RFRENCES Berge, Andr: Ncrologie de Margaret Clark Williams. DP 39 (4), 1975, 669-670 Bertin, Clia: Marie Bonaparte. Une vie. New York / Londres / San Diego 1982 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986, 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. Une histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 1925-1985.Chicago 1990] Schopp, Georges: L'affaire Clark-Williams ou La question de l'analyse laque en France.Rev int hist psychanal 3, 1990, 199-239 Schopp, Georges: Clark-Williams, Margaret. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 331f [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2009-03-09)]

Odette Codet ne Maug (1892-1964) Odette Codet est n Rosny-sous-Bois en France. Elle tait marie Henri Codet le psychanalyste (1889-1939) et avec lui un membre fondateur du premier groupe freudien en France autour de

l'examen psychiatrique volution L' . Elle a complt son doctorat sur le sujet de l'alimentation de bb et a travaill dans les annes 1930 en tant que mdecin l'hpital Bretonneau Paris. Aprs son premier mari est mort dans un accident de voiture, elle a pous l'architecte Pierre Laurent Lucas-Championnire. Odette Codet objet d'une analyse de formation avec Marie Bonaparte et est devenue membre associ de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) en 1934 et un membre part entire 1935. En 1953, elle, avec Marie Bonaparteet Georges Parcheminey, taient des adversaires d'une mdicalisation de la psychanalyse par Sacha Nacht, alors directeur dsign de l'Institut de Psychanalyse nouvelle. En collaboration avec le groupe libral de Daniel Lagache, Jacques Lacan et d'autres, ils ont form une majorit contre Nacht, mais les diffrences avec Lacan taient trop grands. Lors d'une sance dcisive de la SPP, Odette Codet a appel une motion de non-confiance contre Lacan, qui a conduit son licenciement en tant que prsident de la SPP et le retrait de nombreux membres. Odette Codet-mme a t lu prsident de la SPP en 1959, mais en raison de maladie, elle a d se retirer. Dans son article propos de Trois Cas d'anorexie mentale (1939) Odette Codet dcrit le cas de trois jeunes filles anorexiques entre les ges de trois et quinze ans. Elle y souligne le fait que les conflits augmentent en complexit avec l'ge de la jeune fille, et a soulign que l'attitude des parents ont un rle primordial dans la gense et le traitement de ces conflits.

TRAVAUX Etude D'Un rgime alimentaire vari CHEZ L'ENFANT DE Six un des Dix-Huit mois. Thse (MD) Paris 1931 nursie, symptme psychogne. volution Psychiatrique 8 (3), 1936, 27-42 propos de Trois Cas d'anorexie mentale (1939). DP 11 (2), 1939, 253-272; DP 12 (1), 1948, 81-100

RFRENCES Bourgeron, Jean-Pierre: Laurent Lucas-Championnire-Maug, Odette. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 963f [Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2009-03-09)] Mijolla, Alain de: La psychanalyse en France (1893-1965). Dans l'affaire R. Jaccard (dir.): Histoire de la psychanalyse, Bd. 2. Paris 1982, 5-118 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986, 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. Une histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 1925-1985.Chicago 1990]

Myriam David (1917-2004)

Lien vers une photo de Myriam David Myriam David est n dans une famille juive Paris. En 1933, elle a commenc des tudes de mdecine Paris, en mettant l'accent sur la pdiatrie, et obtient son diplme en 1942. La mme anne, elle a fui la perscution nazie dans le sud de la France, o elle a rejoint la Rsistance. Elle a t arrte la fin de 1943 et dport Auschwitz-Birkenau, mais elle a survcu au camp de concentration et revient Paris en 1945. En 1946, Myriam David est all aux tats-Unis de se spcialiser en psychiatrie infantile, d'abord avec Leo Kanner la Johns Hopkins Hospital, puis la Clinique d'orientation juge Baker Boston et le Centre James Jackson Putnam enfants guids par Marian Putnam etRang Beata . En mme temps, elle a reu sa formation psychanalytique l'Institut psychanalytique de Boston. Elle revint Paris en 1950 et, appuy par Jenny Aubry , elle a cr un service de consultation psychothrapeutique l'hpital Enfants Malades. En 1966, elle a cr une institution thrapeutique des placements dans la famille d'accueil Soisy-sur-Seine, qu'elle a dirig jusqu'en 1983. En 1976, elle fonde l'unit pour enfants au sein de la Fondation Rothschild base sur le modle du Centre de l'JJ Putnam enfants. Myriam David, qui elle-mme a perdu sa mre un jeune ge, a t un pionnier de la psychiatrie infantile en France et a t particulirement intress par les consquences d'une sparation prcoce de la mre. Dans les annes 1950 elle a tudi ce sujet dans les centres de soins de l'enfant Parent-de-Rosan et Amyot, ici aux cts de John Bowlby. En 1962, avec son amie, Genevive Appell le psychologue, elle a entrepris une tude long terme des enfants qui avaient t spars de leur mre pendant les trois premiers mois aprs leur naissance. Les chercheurs ont accompagn ces enfants jusqu' la quatrime anne. Myriam David a utilis la notion de comportement vide pour dcrire les bbs dprims, ce qui semblait manquer un monde interne des reprsentations et des fantasmes. En 1973, David Appell et a prsent un rapport sur l'approche pdagogique de succs Emmi Pikler dans Lczy, une maison d'habitation pour les nourrissons et les jeunes enfants abandonns Budapest.

TRAVAUX tude clinique sur la nphrite aigu infectieuse de l'enfant. Paris, Thse (MD) 1942 L'Enfant de 0 2 ans. Vie affective, Problmes familiaux. Toulouse 1956 L'enfant de 2 6 ans. Vie affective, Problmes familiaux. Toulouse 1956 Souvenirs d'un mdecin Auschwitz-Birkenau (avril-septembre 1944). En Christian Bernadac: Les mannequins nus. Paris, 1971, 211-221 Le placement familial. De la pratique la thorie. Paris 1989, 2004 (Dir.), Le bb, les parents siques soignants their. Ramonville Saint-Agne 1997 (Et Genevive Appell) Lczy ous le maternage insolite. Paris 1973 [Lczy. Mtterliche Betreuung ohne Mutter. Mnchen 1995; Lczy. Une approche inhabituelle Mothering.Budapest 2001] (Et Irne Lzine) Soins de la petite enfance en France (1974). Londres 1975

RFRENCES Barraco de Pinto, Marthe: Hommage Myriam David (1917-2004). Dialogue 1 (167), 2005, 121-124 + Cairn.info (2010-03-24) Cuisiniez, Jacqueline: Myriam David et le service social. Le Carnet PSY 1, Nr. 96, 2005, 37 + Cairn.info (31/01/2012) Golse, Bernard: Myriam David, pionnire de la sant mentale de la petite enfance. Le Monde, 06/01/2005 (06/03/2010) Guedeney, Antoine: Myriam David: la pionnire discrte. Devenir 18 (2), 2006, 93-98 +Cairn.info (2010-03-25) Hommage Myriam David. Enfances & Psy 2 (27), 2005, 127-130 + Cairn.info (2008-04-09)

Myriam David, une vie coule la petite enfance. No. Lien social 736 Wikipedia (2008-04-09)

(01-13) 2005

Monique David-Mnard (* 1947)

Le travail de Monique David-Mnard, n Lyon, met l'accent sur la relation entre la philosophie et de la psychanalyse. Elle a complt une matrise en philosophie de Paul Ricur (Universit de Nanterre, 1968), un doctorat en psychopathologie et en psychanalyse avec Pierre Fdida (Universit Paris-VII, 1978) et un doctorat en philosophie avec Jean-Marie Beysade (Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris -III, 1990). Professeur de philosophie Reims, Sceaux et Paris (1969-2007), Monique David-Mnard a reu sa formation psychanalytique l'cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP), dirig par Jacques Lacan, et a t membre de l'EFP de 1979 1980. Entre 1982 et 1994, elle a t membre du Centre de formation et de Recherches psychanalytiques (CFRP); partir de 1994, elle devient membre de la Socit de Psychanalyse Freudienne. Elle a t directrice de la Collge International de Philosophie Paris de 1992 1995, et vice-prsident de 1995 1998. En 1999, elle a t nomme Professeur de Psychopathologie et Psychanalyse l'Universit Denis Diderot, Paris-VII, o elle est galement

responsable du Centre d'tudes du vivant. En outre, elle est membre fondateur de la Socit Internationale de Philosophie et Psychanalyse. centres de Monique David-Mnard intrt principaux sur la manire dont les fantasmes et la sexualit agir activement dans la production du discours philosophique. En utilisant la psychanalyse comme un levier critique, elle met en vidence, par exemple, les points faibles de la notion de l'universel et montre que la ralisation de l'universalit de Kant et d'autres penseurs dpend d'une anthropologie du dsir sexuel masculin. Selon David-Mnard, la logique de l'universel qui implique l'galit des sujets se rfre une srialit des objets quivalents du dsir, qui n'existe pas chez les femmes.

UVRES CHOISIES Verser juin pistmologie de la mtaphore biologique en psychanalyse. La conversion hystrique. Thse (Doctorat) Paris 1978 Lacaniens contre Lacan. Social Text 6, 1982, 86-111 L'hystrique Entre Freud et Lacan. Corps et langage en psychanalyse. Paris 1983 [Hysteria de Freud Lacan. Corps et du langage en psychanalyse. Ithaca, NY 1989] La folie DANS LA raison pure. Kant lecteur de Swedenborg. Paris 1990 Lacan mit Kant? Dans H.-D. Gondek et P. Widmer (eds): Ethik und Psychoanalyse. Vom kategorischen Imperativ zum Gegensatz des Begehrens: Kant und Lacan. Frankfurt / M.1994, 169-191 Les constructions de l'Universel. Psychanalyse, philosophie. Paris 1997 [Konstruktionen des Allgemeinen. Psychanalyse, Philosophie. Wien 1999] Kant et Freud pensent-ILS Dans la mme language? En O. Bloch (d.): Les philosophies de la nature. Paris 2000, 35-38 Kant "Essai sur les maladies de l'esprit et Observations sur le sentiment du beau et du sublime. Hypatie 15, 2000, 82-98 Tout le plaisir intrt Pour Moi. Paris 2000 Les pulsions caractrises pair destins their. Freud s'loigne-t-il du concept de philosophique de Trieb? Revue germanique internationale 18, 2002 L'altrit sexuelle et l'altrit du rel de la pense. Angelaki 8 (2), 2003, 137-150 Was tun mit dem organlosen Krper? Dans E. Alliez et E. von Samsonow (eds): Biographie des organlosen Krpers. Wien 2003 Est-il ncessaire de chercher l'universel dans la diffrence entre les sexes? Les formules de sexation" chez Lacan. En K. Oliver et L. Walsh (eds): Le fminisme contemporain franais. Oxford, New York 2004

Les structures du dsir et le concept de l'universel. Dans C. Howells (ed.): Femmes Philosophes franais. Un lecteur contemporain. Londres, New York 2004 Deleuze et la psychanalyse. L'altercation. Paris 2005 [Deleuze und die Psychoanalyse.Zrich 2009]

RFRENCES Baruch, Hoffmann Elaine, et Lucienne J.Serrano: Analyser les femmes des femmes. New York, Londres 1988 Le Monde.fr, 02/10/2001 (2008-04-09)

PHOTO: Woymel, Paris; dans Baruch / Serrano 1988, 49

Franoise Dolto Marette ne (1908-1988)

Franoise Dolto est considr comme le deuxime chiffre le plus important dans l'histoire de la psychanalyse en France aprs Jacques Lacan. N comme le quatrime de sept enfants dans une famille catholique de la grande bourgeoisie parisienne, elle a grandi dans un milieu sexuellement rpressive caractris par le nationalisme et l'antismitisme. Son pre, Henri Marette, tait un capitaine de gnie et d'artillerie et sa mre, Suzanne Demmler, tait une infirmire qualifie. Une exprience de l'enfance traumatique tait la mort de sa sur ane, le favori de sa mre, qui a fait une dpression la suite, tout en regrettant que sa fille bien-aime moins tait encore en vie. Franoise a pass sa jeunesse dans un climat de deuil et de culpabilit; une nvrose grave tait la consquence. Aprs avoir obtenu un diplme en soins infirmiers, Franoise Marette a commenc, comme son frre cadet Philippe, pour tudier la mdecine en 1932 - avec l'objectif de devenir un mdecin d'ducation ". De 1934 1937, elle a subi une analyse de formation avec Ren Laforgue. Au cours de son

analyse, elle a russi s'manciper de son milieu familier, l'exception de ses convictions catholiques. En 1939, elle est devenue membre part entire de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris (SPP). Trois ans avant, elle a rencontr Jacques Lacan, dont elle partageait les ides sur le rle central du langage et de la structure linguistique de l'inconscient. Aprs la guerre, ils sont devenus des amis proches. Comme un tudiant non-rsident l'unit Georges Heuyer de la neuropsychiatrie infantile l'hpital Vaugirard, Franoise Marette a travaill avec Sophie Morgenstern , qui lui fait dcouvrir la psychanalyse des enfants.Se rfrant Morgenstern approche, elle a expliqu sa technique d'analyse enfants dans sa thse de mdecine sur le sujet de la psychanalyse et de la pdiatrie en 1939. Pour elle, les analystes de l'enfant devrait tre un porte-parole pour les enfants et d'employer la langue de l'enfance dans l'analyse de la pense de l'enfant. La rflexion pdagogique Dolto a t inspir par Clestin Freinet, Alfred Adler et Alexander S. Neill. Un mentor important tait douard Pichon, dont le conseil de l'hpital Trousseau Paris, elle a repris en 1940 et s'est poursuivie jusqu'en 1978. En 1942, elle pouse Boris Dolto (1899-1981), un mdecin russe migr, avec qui elle a eu trois enfants:. Yves-Chrisostome, Grgoire et Catherine En 1953, Franoise Dolto, Lacan et d'autres de quitter le SPP en signe de protestation contre l'embrigadement de la plus forte formation psychanalytique et a fond la Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse. Dix ans plus tard, l'IPA a interdit Franoise Dolto former des analystes, faisant valoir qu'elle influencds ses lves comme un gourou et n'a pas respect les rgles de formation de l'IPA. En consquence, elle et Lacan fonde l'cole Freudienne de Paris en 1964. Lors d'un colloque sur la psychose infantile en 1967, Franoise Dolto a prsent le cas clbre de Dominique, un patient de 14 ans, schizophrne qui elle traite avec succs. Son rapport sur son analyse est un texte classique dans le domaine de l'analyse des enfants. Dolto dvelopp une thorie personnelle axe sur les concepts de l 'image du corps inconscient et les symbole gnratrices de castrations L'image du corps est l'incarnation symbolique inconsciente de l'tre dsirant, avant qu'il ne soit capable de dire je. Il s'agit d'une reprsentation sans paroles refltant les premires expriences relationnelles qui se dveloppent partir des besoins physiques et psychiques. Symbole gnratrices de castrations dire les sparations ncessaires de bien-aims objets partiels et la renonciation la participation symbiotique dans le corps de la mre li fantasmes archaques de toute-puissance pour Dolto l'tat de symbolisation. Par le biais de ces castrations, l'enfant devient un tre social capable de verbaliser, avec une image corporelle inconsciente correspondant son degr de maturit physique. Psychoses, cependant, sont lis une image du corps mutils, ils proviennent de castrations ont chou, savoir fixations ou rgressions sur un tat antrieur de relation d'objet. En 1979, Franoise Dolto a ouvert la premire Maison Verte Paris, o les enfants de la naissance l'ge de trois apprendre faire face des expriences de sparation de manire protge. Le modle cr un prcdent et aujourd'hui il ya Vertes Maisons dans de nombreux pays. Grce ses programmes de radio publis dans L'Enfant Parait when , Franoise Dolto est devenu le psychanalyste franais le plus populaire. Elle est morte l'ge de 79 ans d'une maladie pulmonaire grave. (Haut de l'article)

UVRES CHOISIES Psychanalyse et pdiatrie (1939). Paris 1971 [Psychoanalyse und Kinderheilkunde.Frankfurt / M. 1973]

Le Cas Dominique. Paris 1971 [Der Fall Dominique. Frankfurt / M. 1973; Dominique.Analyse d'un adolescent. New York, 1973] L'veil de l'esprit de l'enfant. Paris 1977 When l'enfant Parait, vol. 1-3. Paris 1977-1979 [Die ersten fnf Jahre. Alltagsprobleme mit Kindern. Weinheim, Basel 1982 + Wenn die Kinder lter werden. Alltagsprobleme dans Schule, Familie und Freizeit. Weinheim, Basel 1984] La Difficult de vivre. Paris 1981 Au jeu du dsir. Paris 1981 [ber das Begehren. Die Anfnge Kommunikation der menschlichen. Stuttgart 1988] Sminaire de psychanalyse d'enfants. Paris 1982 [Praxis der Kinderanalyse. Stuttgart 1985] La sexualit fminine. La libido gnitale et fils destin fminin. Paris 1982 [Weibliche Sexualit. Die Libido und ihr Weibliches Schicksal. Stuttgart 2000] L'image inconsciente du corps. Paris 1984 [Das Bild Unbewusste Krpers des. Weinheim, Berlin 1987] La Cause des Enfants. Paris 1985 [Mein Leben auf der Seite der Kinder. Mnchen 1989] Sminaire de psychanalyse d'enfants (2). Paris 1985 [Fallstudien zur Kinderanalyse.Stuttgart 1989] Enfances. Paris 1986 [Enfances - Erinnerungen un Kindheit filire. Weinheim, Berlin 1987] La Cause des adolescents des. Paris 1988 Tout est langage. Paris 1987 [Alles ist Sprache. Kindern mit Worten helfen. Weinheim, Berlin 1989] Quand les parents se separent ls. Paris 1988 [Scheidung, wie ein Kind sie erlebt.Stuttgart 1990] L'Inconscient et destins. Sminaire de psychanalyse d'enfants (3). Paris 1988 [Das Unbewusste und das Schicksal Kindes des. Stuttgart 1995] L'chec scolaire. Essais sur l'ducation. Paris 1989 Fminin libido. Paris 1989 Autoportrait d'psychanalyste juin. Paris 1989 Psychoanalytikerin [einer Selbstportrt.Weinheim, Berlin 1991] Correspondance 1913-1938. Paris 1991 Les TAPES Majeurs de l'enfance. Articles et confrences (1). Paris 1994 [Kinder machen stark-Die ersten Lebensjahre. Weinheim 1997]

Les chemins de l'ducation. Articles Confrences et (2). Paris 1994 Le sentiment de soi. Aux sources de l'image de corps du. Paris 1997 Parler de la mort. Nizza 1998 Le fminin. Articles et confrences. Paris 1998 Parler de la solitude. Paris 2005 Une vie de correspondances 1938-1988. Paris 2005

RFRENCES Archives Franoise Dolto (2009-07-02) Arte (2009-07-02) Aubry, Jenny, et al:. QUELQUES Pas sur le chemin de Franoise Dolto. Paris 1988 Binet, Eric: Franoise Dolto (1908-1988). Perspectives. La revue trimestrielle d'ducation compare 29 (3), 1999, 445-454 (2010-03-31) Buhmann, Christiane: Kind - Krper - Subjekt. Therapie, Erziehung und Werk im Prvention von Franoise Dolto. Gieen 1997 Halmos, Claude: La plante Dolto. Dans L'enfant et la psychanalyse. Paris 1993 Ledoux, Michel-Henri: Indroduction l'uvre de Franoise Dolto. Paris, Marseille 1990 Roudinesco, Elisabeth et Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [ Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)] Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Jacques Lacan. Esquisse d'une vie, Histoire d'un system de pense. Paris 1993 [Jacques Lacan. Une Esquisse d'une vie et une histoire d'un systme de pense. Oxford 1999] Sauverzac, Jean-Franois de Franoise Dolto. Itinraire d'psychanalyste juin. Paris 1993 Cette Bernard,: Dolto-Marette, Franoise. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par Alain de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 489f [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2009-03-08)]

PHOTO: Association Lire Dolto Aujourd'hui (2008-04-08) voir aussi: Galera de fotos (2008-04-08)

Judith Dupont ne Dormandi (* 1925)

Judith Dupont, la petite-fille de Vilma Kovcs et nice d'Alice Balint , est n Budapest. Sa mre, Olga Szkely-Kovacz, tait un peintre et sculpteur qui a dpeint de nombreux psychanalystes. Son pre, Lszl Dormandi, tait le propritaire de la maison d'dition hongroise Panthon et l'auteur de plusieurs romans. Dans les annes 1920, ses parents, dont les anctres taient juifs alsaciens et espagnol, converti la foi chrtienne. Judith Dormandi a grandi dans la maison de ses grand-pre Frdric Kovcs Budapest, la rsidence de la polyclinique psychanalytique et aussi la maison de l' Balint famille. En 1938, le Dormandis migr Paris, o Judith a tudi la mdecine la fin de la guerre et est diplm en anatomie pathologique en 1955. Un de ses camarades tait Jacques Dupont, dont l'impression maison, elle avait travaill et qu'elle a pous en 1952. De ce mariage une fille et un fils. En 1954, Judith Dupont a commenc son analyse de formation de quatre ans avec Daniel Lagache et est devenu membre de l'Association Psychanalytique de France. Elle a travaill comme analyste d'enfants dans les diffrentes institutions, entre autres, au Centre de Guidance de l'Aisne et le Centre Etienne-Marcel Paris. En outre, elle a cr un cabinet priv o elle a trait les patients adultes. En 1969, elle fonde la revue Le Coq-Hron , o elle continue en tant que co-rdacteur en chef jusqu' aujourd'hui. L'un des principaux thmes de la revue est l'histoire de la psychanalyse, la psychanalyse savoir hongroise. Judith Dupont est une co-traducteur franais des crits de Michael Balint et Sndor Ferenczi et de la correspondance entre Freud et Ferenczi. Elle administre le patrimoine de Ferenczi en France comme l'international et, comme Maria Torok et Nicolas Abraham, elle a favoris la haute apprciation de Ferenczi en France.

UVRES CHOISIES (Van den Brouck, Jeanne) Manuel a l'usage des Enfants Qui Ont des parents des difficiles.Paris 1979, 1990 [Handbuch fr Kinder mit Eltern schwierigen. 1981 Stuttgart, 1996] Ce "fou" de Ferenczi. Le Coq-Hron n 104, 1987, 44-52 [Ferenczi folie. Contemp Psychoanal 24, 1988, 250-261 + Sandor Ferenczi Site Web (19.10.2011)]] La relation Freud-Ferenczi la lumire de Leur correspondance. Rev int hist psychanal 2, 1989, 181-200

Entre Freud et Ferenczi: Groddeck. Le Coq-Hron n 123, 1992, 51-56 L'analyse de Freud de Ferenczi comme en tmoigne leur correspondance. IJP 75, 1994, 301320 L'histoire d'une transgression. JAPA 43, 1995, 823-834 L'humour dans la correspondance Freud-Ferenczi. Dans JW Barron (Hg.): Humour et Psych. Perspectives psychanalytiques. Hillsdale, NJ 1999, 161-176 [L'humour DANS LA correspondance Freud-Ferenczi. Dans S. Michaud (Hg.): Correspondances de Freud. Paris 2007, 59-68] La notion de traumatisme according Ferenczi ET SES Effets sur la recherche psychanalytique Further. Le Coq-Hron n 154, 1999, 42 et suivantes + filigrane 9 (1), 2000 [Der Traumabegriff nach und sein Ferenczi Einfluss auf die Forschung sptere psychoanalytische. Psych 5, 1999, 419-431] Prsentation des enjeux Balint. Am J Psychoanal 62 (1), 2002, 1-6 L'exil avant l'exil. Michael et Alice Balint. Topique n 80, 2002, 95-102 L'introduction de Ferenczi de en France. Le Coq-Hron n 180, 2005 (Et Eva Brabant) (d.), La correspondance d'Ernest Jones, Michael Balint. Ramonville SaintAgne 2004

RFRENCES Dupont, Judith: Meine Begegnungen mit der Psychoanalyse. En LM Hermanns (ed.): Psychoanalyse en Selbstdarstellungen, Bd. 5. Frankfurt / M. 2007, 59-105 Roudinesco, Elisabeth et Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004

PHOTO Dupont en 2007, 61

Micheline Enriquez ne Joly (1931-1987) Micheline Enriquez est n Chlons-sur-Marne. Elle a tudi la psychologie Paris de 1950 1954, puis a t nomm un psychologue la clinique de sant mentale de la Facult de mdecine Paris et l'hpital de Versailles.De 1960 1962, elle a enseign les techniques projectives l'Institut de psychologie la Sorbonne. Elle a subi son analyse didactique avec Serge Leclaire de la Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse, et son

analyste responsable tait Piera Aulagnier. Plus tard, elle a eu une seconde analyse avec Serge Viderman. Elle est devenue membre de l'cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP) fonde par Jacques Lacan en 1964. En 1969, elle a quitt l'EFP et a rejoint le Groupe Quatrime, o elle devient prsidente en 1986. De plus, elle a t membre de l'Association Internationale d'Histoire de la Psychanalyse depuis sa fondation en 1985. En 1978, elle a reu le prix Maurice Bouvet en psychanalyse pour trois de ses articles publis dans la revue Topique dans les annes 1970. Dans son livre Aux carrefours de la haine publi en 1984, rdit en 2001 sous le titre La souffrance et la haine , Micheline Enriquez fourni de nouveaux aperus sur la paranoa, le masochisme, et ce qu'elle a appel, aprs le marquis de Sade, que l'apathie. Elle a montr que paranoaques et masochistes rotiser la souffrance et la haine, tandis que ceux qui sont apathiques rejeter touche afin de maintenir une distance d'autrui, ce qui est essentiel pour eux. Micheline Enriquez est dcd l'ge de 56 ans dans un accident d'automobile.

uvres choisies (pour plus d', voir Quatrime groupe ) D'non corps L'Autre. Rflexions sur le masochisme. Topique n 7-8, 1971, 85-118 Fantasmes paranoaques. Diffrence des sexes, homosexualit, loi du Pre. Topique n 13, 1974, 23-58 [fantasmes paranoaques. La diffrence sexuelle, l'homosexualit, le droit du pre. Dans DB Alison et al. (d.): La psychose et Idenity sexuelle. Vers une vision postanalytique du Schreber-Case. Albany 1988] Analyser ous possible l'impossible. Topique n 18, 1977, 49-62 Libres penses. Dans l'affaire R. Barande (ed.): Commentaire l'interprtation Vient au psychanalyste. Paris 1977, 95-104 Du corps de souffrance au corps en souffrance. Topique n 26, 1980, 5-27 Aux carrefours de la haine. Paranoa, masochisme, apathie. Paris 1984 [encruzilhadas Nas faire Odio. Paranoa, masoquismo, Apatia. So Paulo 1999] L'enveloppe de mmoire et trous session. Dans D. Anzieu et al. (Eds): Les enveloppes psychiques. Paris 1987 Le dlire en hritage + Incidence Du dlire parental sur la memoire des descendants.Dans l'affaire R. Kas et al. (Eds): Transmission de la Vie psychique gnrations entrepre. Paris 1993 La souffrance et la haine. Paranoa, masochisme et apathie. Paris 2001 (Avec Thrse Lamperire, Jacques Perse et Pierre-Bernard Schneider) Symptomes hystriques et Personnalit hystrique. Paris 1965 (Et Eugne Enriquez) Le psychanalyste institution fils et. Topique n 6, 1971

RFRENCES Enriquez, Eugne:. Biographie de Micheline Enriquez Quatrime groupe (2008-04-08) Enriquez, Eugne: Enriquez-Joly, Micheline. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 545f [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2009-03-08)]

Solange Falad (1925-2004)

Solange Adelola Falad, l'un des premiers psychanalystes africains, est n au Dahomey (maintenant appel la Rpublique du Bnin). Elle tait la petite-fille de Bhanzin, dernier roi indpendant d'Abomey. En 1933, elle et son frre Max ont t envoys l'cole en France. Solange Falad a tudi la mdecine Paris au dbut des annes 1950 et titulaire d'un doctorat en 1955. Le sujet de sa thse tait le dveloppement psychomoteur des enfants africains du Sngal. La lutte pour l'indpendance des Etats africains, elle a fond la Fdration des tudiants d'Afrique noire francophone (FEANF) en 1950 et fut le premier prsident. En 1952, Solange Falad rencontr Jacques Lacan et devint son disciple et ami intime. Elle a subi sa formation l'analyse avec Lacan en tant que candidat de la Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse (SFP), son analyste responsable tait Franoise Dolto . Un autre enseignant tait important de Jenny Aubry , dont le conseil la Fondation Parent-de-Rosan, elle a assist. Lors de la scission de la SFP en 1964, Falad suivi Lacan dans la nouvellement cre l'cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP), o elle a t membre du le conseil de 1967 1980. Aprs la dissolution de l'EFP et de la mort de Lacan en 1981, elle a t co-fondateur de la seule courte dure Centre d'tudes et de recherches freudiennes (CERF), avant de fonder sa propre cole en 1983, l'cole Freudienne (EF) , qu'elle a dirig jusqu' la fin de sa vie. L'EF est dans la tradition de retour de Lacan Freud. Solange Falad a t actif dans l'Organisation Mondiale de la sant (OMS), elle a fond l'Institut d'ethno-psychopathologie africaine Paris et a t chercheur en anthropologie et de l'ethnologie au Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique. En 2003, des transcriptions de son sminaire qui s'est tenu l'EF en 1991/92 et 1992/93 ont t publis sous les titel Clinique des nvroses . (Haut de l'article)

TRAVAUX Contribution to a study sur le dveloppe-ment de l'enfant d'Afrique noire, le Dveloppement psycho-moteur du jeune Africain originaire du Sngal au cours de sa premire year. Thse (MD) Paris 1955 Le nourrisson africain du Sngal milieu fils DANS socio-culturel. Londres, Bukavu 1959 Femmes de Dakar et agglomration de fils. Dans D. Paulme (d.): Femmes d'Afrique noire. Paris, La Haye 1960, 207-218 [Femmes de Dakar et de la zone urbaine environnante. Dans D. Paulme (d.): Les femmes de l'Afrique tropicale. Berkeley, Londres 1963, 217-229] Rapport sur le functioning de l'Institut d'ethno-psychopathologie africaine. Cahiers d'tudes africaines 16, 1964, IV-4 Sur l'identification d'un analyste l'. Ornicar? N 10, 1977 Une lettre de Solange Falad. Ornicar? N 17/18, 1979 Repres structurels nvroses, des psychoses et des perversions. Paris 1986 Clinique des nvroses. Paris 2003

RFRENCES Delaroche, Patrique: Solange Falad: Clinique des nvroses. Figures de la psychanalyse 1 (11), 2005, 226-232 + Cairn.info (2010-04-14) . Dieng, Amady Aly: Hommage Solange Falad (2005) Kemit civilisation noire (2006-02-02 n'existent plus) Lauth, Marie Lise:. Hommage Solange Falad (2004) cole Freudienne (2008-04-09) Marie, Bernard: Prface de Clinique des nvroses. Paris 2003 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986, 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. Une histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 1925-1985.Chicago 1990]

PHOTO: Psychanalyse Nantes (2010-04-15)

Juliette Favez-Boutonier (1903-1994)

Juliette Boutonier, une fille d'enseignants, est n Grasse dans le sud de la France. Elle a frquent l'cole Grasse et Nice, puis a tudi la philosophie la Sorbonne Paris. En 1926, elle a t l'une des premires femmes prendre l'examen d'Etat de doctorat en philosophie. Elle a enseign dans les coles de Chartre et Dijon, alors qu'il tudiait la mdecine Dijon. En 1935, elle a obtenu un emploi dans la philosophie de l'enseignement Paris et l, elle a rencontr le psychiatre Daniel Lagache et a commenc une analyse avec Ren Laforgue. Elle a reu sa formation en psychopathologie clinique l'Hpital Sainte-Anne Paris avec Georges Heuyer. En 1938, elle a crit sa thse de mdecine sur l'ambivalence, et en 1945, elle s'est qualifie en tant que docteur en philosophie. Son prim thse sur l'anxit - Contribution la psychologie et la mtaphysique de l'angoisse(publi sous le titre L'angoisse ) - a t ralis par Gaston Bachelard. En 1946, Juliette Boutonier a t lu membre de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris (SPP). Cette mme anne, elle a fond avec Georges Mauco le Centre psychopdagogique de Claude-Bernard, une institution pour les enfants ayant des problmes scolaires, o elle tait directrice mdicale en 1946. En 1947, elle a repris la chaire de psychologie de Daniel Lagache l'Universit de Strasbourg. Comme elle s'efforait Lagache pour une synthse de la psychologie et de la psychanalyse. En 1952, elle pousa le psychanalyste Georges Favez (1901-1981). Un an plus tard, ils ont tous deux quitt le PSP pour protester contre la "dictature" de Sacha Nacht et sa mdicalisation de la psychanalyse. En collaboration avec Lagache, Jacques Lacan, Franoise Dolto et d'autres, ils ont fond la Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse (SFP). En tant que prsident de la SFP, Juliette Favez-Boutonier lutt pour la reconnaissance de la SFP par l'IPA, mais finalement particip la cration de l'Association Psychanalytique de France (APF) en 1964, reconnue par l'API en 1965. Juliette Favez En 1955, -Boutonier a t nomm professeur de psychologie la Sorbonne. Son intrt principal est la psychologie clinique. Comme Lagache, elle a reprsent les valeurs d'une tradition hrite de Pierre Janet.En 1959, elle a cr le premier laboratoire de psychologie clinique la Sorbonne, elle a dirig jusqu' sa retraite en 1974. En 1969, elle a contribu la cration du dpartement des Sciences Humaines Cliniques, qui a t ouvert l'Universit de Paris VII. (Haut de l'article)

UVRES CHOISIES L'angoisse. Paris 1945 La notion d'ambivalence. tude critique, valeur smiologique. Thse (MD) Paris 1938; Paris 2004

Les dfaillances de la Volont. Paris 1945 Les dessins des Enfants. Paris 1953 Problmes de psychologie gnrale. Paris 1956 Problmes de psychologie gnrale (suite). Paris 1957 L'homme le fils et le milieu. Paris 1958 La psychologie clinique. Objet, method, probleme. Paris 1959 Questions de psychologie gnrale. Paris 1963 Personnalisation et Luttes des classes de. Paris 1963 La mmoire et l'oubli. Paris 1963 L'imagination. Paris 1963 La Personnalit. Paris 1964 Le langage. Paris 1967 Rflexions sur l'autobiographie d'ONU criminel. Bulletin de Psychologie 49 (432), 1996, 246261 (Et al.) Psychanalyse et sciences de l'homme. Paris 1957

RFRENCES Brun, Danile: Entretien avec Juliette Favez-Boutonier. tudes freudiennes n 36, Janvier 1995 Doz-Schiff, Claire: In memoriam Juliette Favez-Boutonier (1903-1994). Bulletin du Centre de documentation Henri F. Ellenberger 5, 1er trimestre 1994 Golse, Bernard: Favez-Boutonier, Juliette. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 615f [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2009-03-08)] Hommage Juliette Favez-Boutonier. Bulletin de Psychologie 49 (432), 1996 Mijolla, Alain de: La psychanalyse en France (1893-1965). Dans l'affaire R. Jaccard (dir.): Histoire de la psychanalyse, vol. 2. Paris 1982, 5-118 Roudinesco, Elisabeth et Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [ Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)]

PHOTO: AEJCPP (2008-04-09)

Florence Guignard Florence Guignard est n Genve, o elle a tudi la psychologie clinique et a collabor avec Jean Piaget dans un certain nombre de projets de recherche. Elle a reu sa formation psychanalytique avec Raymond de Saussure, Olivier Flournoy et Ren Spitz Genve et avec Serge Lebovici, Ren Diatkine, Michel Fain et Pierre Luquet Paris. Elle et son mari Jean Bgoin (* 1925) appartiennent un petit groupe de kleiniens en France. Un membre de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris, elle s'est engage dans la promotion de la comprhension des thories de Melanie Klein et les penseurs postkleiniens comme Wilfred R. Bion, Herbert Rosenfeld et Donald Meltzer. Florence Guignard vit actuellement Paris en tant que psychanalyste pour les enfants, les adolescents et les adultes. Elle est le chef du comit de rdaction de L'Anne Psychanalytique Internationale . Avec Annie Anzieu , elle a fond l'Association pour la Psychanalyse de l'Enfant (en 1983) et la Socit Europenne for the Psychanalyse de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent (en 1994). L'accent de son travail rside dans le sens de l'identit, de la fminit et de la maternit, la gense des troubles mentaux et les problmes de la technique psychanalytique.

UVRES CHOISIES Activit interprtative psychique et espace. DP 47 (3), 1983, 745-752 Ballade au prconscient. DP 49 (5), 1985, 1391-1400 l'aube du maternel et du fminin. Essai sur two concepts vidents also qu'inconcevables. DP 51 (6), 1987, 1491-1503 De certains concepts psychanalytiques VUs de ma fentre. DP 53 (3), 1989, 911-917 Une mise en place la pense de Mlanie Klein, Wilfred R. Bion, Donald Meltzer.Interview mit Florence Bgoin-Guignard. Vido von Jean Belair. CECOM Europe, Lorquin 1989 OEdipe et la horde primitive. Culpabilit et mentalit de groupe. Psychanalyse DANS la Civilisation n 6, Mai 1992 (2008-04-09) Diffrence des sexes et thories Sexuelles. Dsir et risque de connaitre. DP 57 (Numro spcial), 1993, 1697-1699 Quelles ailettes versez l'analyse d'enfants? Filigrane 2, 1993, 11-28 L'Enfant DANS le psychanalyste. DP 58 (3), 1994, 649-659 Les Piges de la reprsentation DANS l'interprtation psychanalytique. J psychanal enf 15, 1994

Au vif de l'infantile. Rflexions sur la situation analytique la. Lausanne, Paris, 1996 ptre l'objet. Paris 1997 De l'infantile la nvrose infantile. SPP Confrences en ligne , programme 2000-2001 Mtterlich oder weiblich? Der "gewachsene Fels" als Wchter ber das mit der Mutter Inzesttabu. Dans S. Heenen-Wolff (d.): Neues vom Weib. Franzsische Beitrge.Gttingen 2000 Le sexuel statufi. DP 65 (4), 2001, 1325-1336 + Cairn.info (2010-02-19) Rsurgence de l'infantile traumatique DANS psychanalytique La Cure. SPP Confrences en ligne , programme 2001-2002 L'infantile au masculin, au fminin l'infantile. SPP Confrences en ligne , programme 20022003 Le deuil et le dveloppement mental. Dans L. Glocer Fiorini et al. (Eds): Le Freud Deuil et mlancolie. Londres 2007 Le Temps de la maturation psychique chez l'enfant. Confrence Nr. 26, printemps 2008 Envy dans la socit occidentale: aujourd'hui et demain. Dans Ph. Roth et le lemme A. (eds): Envie et gratitude Revisited. Londres 2008 (Et al.) Maternit, fminit. Paris 1987 (Et Thierry Bokanowski) (eds) La mre qui concerne-fille. Paris 2002 (Et Thierry Bokanowski) (eds) Actualit de la pense de Bion. Paris 2007

RFRENCES Psychanalyse DANS la Civilisation n 6, Mai 1992 (2008-04-09)

Dominique Guyomard

Dominique Guyomard a tudi la psychologie et a reu sa formation psychanalytique partir Octave Mannoni et Franoise Dolto . Un motif important dans sa dcision de devenir un analyste tait son exprience d'enfant de ne pas avoir t en mesure d'avoir accs sa grand-mre folle, dont la langue n'a pas de sens pour elle. Dominique Guyomard est devenu membre de l'cole Freudienne de Paris fonde par Jacques Lacan et, plus tard dissous par lui en 1980. Elle a aid mettre en place la fibre de carbone, le Centre de recherche et de formation psychanalytique, qui a t fonde par son mari Patrick Guyomard en 1982, avec Octave et Maud Mannoni . Aujourd'hui, elle est membre de la Socit de Psychanalyse Freudienne. Dominique Guyomard localise sa position thorique entre Lacan d'un ct et Donald W. Winnicott et de Mlanie Klein sur l'autre. En ce qui concerne le dveloppement des femmes, elle souligne que le surmoi fminin est un surmoi maternel et les femmes sont toujours en danger de rester riv la mre pr-dipienne dans le dsir de toute-puissance.

TRAVAUX A propos de Oedipe-roi according to Freud. Revue des psychanalystes, Mars 1982 Questions sur l'espace et le transfert psychanalytique DANS remde juin. Revue Franaise de Psychiatrie, Avril 1984 La filiation et engendrement. Topique, mai 1985 L'enfant adopted. Bloc-notes n 11, 1992 La folie maternelle, non paradoxe? Chez H. David et al:. La folie maternelle ordinaire.Paris 2006 L'effet-mre. Paris 2009 (Et al.) Invention du fminin. Paris 2002

RFRENCES Baruch, Hoffmann Elaine, et Lucienne J. Serrano: les femmes Analyser femme. New York, Londres 1988

PHOTO Baruch / Serrano 1988, 27

Luce Irigaray (* 1930?)

Luce Irigaray, dont les travaux ont eu une influence remarquable sur le mouvement fministe en Europe et aux Etats-Unis, est n Blaton en Belgique. En 1955, elle est diplme en philosophie et lettres l'Universit catholique de Louvain et professeur de franais et d'tudes classiques Charleroi et Bruxelles de 1956 1959. Par la suite, elle s'installe Paris pour tudier la psychologie avec un accent sur la psychopathologie - et la linguistique. A cette poque, elle a particip des sminaires psychanalytiques de Jacques Lacan et devint un disciple de son. Elle a subi une analyse didactique avec Serge Leclaire et est devenu un membre de l'cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP) ralis par Lacan. Elle s'est qualifie en tant que docteur en linguistique en 1968 ( Le langage des dments ) et en psychologie en 1974. Sa thse spculum De l'autre femme( Speculum de l'autre femme ), une dconstruction de la phallo-logocentrisme et de Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan et la philosophie occidentale, a t inspir par Jacques Derrida et lui a valu la reconnaissance en tant que thoricien de premier plan fministe et continental philosophe.L'EFP a toutefois expuls Irigaray et mis fin son poste d'enseignant l'Universit de Vincennes (1970-1974). En 1964, Luce Irigaray a commenc travailler au CNRS, un centre de recherche Paris, o elle est devenue directrice de la recherche en philosophie en 1986. Dans les annes 1980, elle a men des recherches sur la diffrence entre la langue des femmes et le langage des hommes. En 1982, elle a occup la Chaire internationale en philosophie l'Universit Erasmus de Rotterdam, qui a abouti la publication de son livre thique de la diffrence Sexuelle ( Une thique de la diffrence sexuelle ) en 1984. En plus de ses activits d'enseignement et sa pratique psychanalytique priv , elle a t active dans le mouvement fministe, en collaboration avec de nombreux cercles de femmes de diffrents pays et cultures. Dans les annes 1980 et 1990, elle s'est concentre sur la conversion de ses ides thoriques dans la pratique politique. Luce Irigaray critique la logique phallocentrique de l'identit, selon laquelle la fminit est la ngation du sujet masculin - psychanalytique: une cavit de la verge. Irigaray dconstruit cette image en miroir de la diffrence sexuelle et dveloppe la fminit comme indpendant radicalement

autre des logos et de son pouvoir de dfinition, en prenant sans cesse de nouvelles formes entre les concepts et les images. Selon Irigary la jeune fille est "expatri" l'ordre phallique travers le changement d'objet de la mre vers le pre.Ainsi, elle perd la possibilit d'une gnalogie fminine et un dsir fminin. Le seul moyen de sortir d'une femme est la stratgie de la mimesis, ce qui signifie se soumettre aux vues masculins de femmes d'une manire ludique.La rptition des vues infidle rend visible que les femmes sont autre chose que le point de vue exprim. Pour Irigaray les expriences corporelles auto-rotiques de femmes luder les oppositions binaires phallocentriques. Le rsultat est la fluidit et l'ambigut de la langue de la femme. Bien Irigaray d'abord essay d'viter une dfinition de la fminit par l'utilisation consciente des ambiguts, elle a ensuite esquiss formulations essentielles de la fminit. Dans Une thique de la diffrence sexuelle , elle a plaid pour une diffrence non complmentaires sexuelle, en ce qui concerne chacun des sexes dans son ensemble et diffrent d'un autre. Pour atteindre une position de sujet de sexe fminin, les femmes doivent crer leur propre espce par le biais des gnalogies fminines et un positif mre / fille relation. Luce Irigaray va mme jusqu' mettre en jeu l'urgence de la divinit fminine. (Haut de l'article

UVRES CHOISIES Le langage des dments. La Haye de 1973 Speculum De l'autre femme. Paris 1974 [Speculum. Spiegel des Geschlechts Anderen.Frankfurt / M. 1980; Speculum de l'autre femme. Ithaca, NY 1985] Waren, Krper, Sprache. Der ver-rckte Diskurs der Frauen. Berlin 1976 Unbewutes, Frauen, Psychoanalyse. Berlin 1977 Ce sexe Qui n'est Pas un. Paris 1977 [Das Geschlecht, das ist nicht eins. Berlin 1979, Ce sexe qui n'en est pas un. Ithaca, NY 1985] Et ne bouge juin l'Autre Pas sans l'. Paris 1979 [Eine nicht bewegt sich die andere ohne.Freibeuter 2, 1979, 72-78] Le corps--corps AVEC LA mre. Montral 1982 lmentaires passions. Paris 1982 La Croyance same. Paris 1983 L'oubli de l'air chez Heidegger Martin. Paris 1983 thique de la diffrence Sexuelle. Paris 1984 [Ethik der sexuellen Differenz. Frankfurt / M.1991; Une thique de la diffrence sexuelle. Londres 1993; Ithaca, NY 1993] Parler n'est Jamais neutre. Paris 1985 Sexes et parentes. Paris 1987 [Genealogie der Geschlechter. Fribourg 1989; Sexes et Gnalogies. New York, 1993] Le sexe linguiste. Paris 1987

Zur Geschlechterdifferenz. Interviews und Vortrge. Wien 1987 Sexes et des genres A Travers Langues ERP. Elments de communication sexue. Paris 1990 Je, tu, nous - Verser la culture juin diffrence de la. Paris 1990 [Je, tu, nous - Vers une culture de la diffrence. New York, 1993] Gnlogie und Traditionen. Vortrge. Frankfurt / M. 1990 Le lecteur Irigaray. Oxford 1991 Le Temps de la diffrence. Verser pacifique rvolution juin. Paris 1990 [Die Zeit der Differenz. Rvolution Fr eine Friedliche. Frankfurt / M. 1991] J'aime toi - Esquisse d'une histoire DANS Flicit l'. Paris 1992 Culturels et genres interculturels. Paris 1993 Le Souffle des Femmes. Paris 1996 [Der Atem von Frauen. Luce Irigaray prsentiert Credos weibliche. Rsselsheim 1997] tre deux. Paris 1997 [Pour en avoir deux. New York, 2001] Entre Orient et Occident. De la singularit la Communaut. Paris 1999 Die Zeit Atmens des. Rsselsheim 1999 Prires Quotidiennes. Paris 2004 [prires quotidiennes. Newcastle upon Tyne 2005] Luce Irigaray. crits cls. Londres 2004

RFRENCES Baruch, Hoffmann Elaine, et Lucienne J. Serrano: Analyser les femmes des femmes. New York, Londres 1988 Contemporary Literary Criticism. La critique littraire au eNotes (2010-04-22) Deuber-Mankowsky, Astrid: Von neuen und Welten weiblichen Gttern. Zu Luce Irigarays "Ethique de la diffrence sexuelle". En Weiblichkeit in der Moderne. Ed. par J. Conrad et U. Konnertz. Tbingen 1986, 62-74 Hollande, Bridget: Luce Irigaray. A Biography. 1998 (2008-04-08) Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2010-04-21) Rullmann, Marit: Philosophinnen, vol. 2: Von der Romantik bis zur Moderne. Frankfurt / M.1998, 257-226 Sigmund-Wild, Irene: Anerkennung des Ver-rckten. Zu Luce Irigarays Entwurf einer "Ethik der sexuellen Differenz". Marburg 2000

Whitford, Margaret: Luce Irigaray. Philosophie au fminin. Londres 1991 Wikipedia: deutsch , englisch , franzsisch (2008-04-08)

PHOTO: Phnomnologie en ligne (2008-04-08; n'existent plus)

velyne Kestemberg Hassin ne (1918-1989)

velyne Kestemberg est n Constantinople en tant que fille d'un marchand franais et son pouse juive-russe. Peu de temps aprs sa naissance, ses parents s'installent Paris, o velyne Hassin frquent l'cole secondaire avec Juliette Favez-Boutonier que son professeur de philosophie. Elle a obtenu un diplme universitaire en philosophie, avant d'migrer de la France occupe au Mexique en 1942. Au Mexique, elle rencontre Jean Kestemberg (1912-1975), un Juif polonais et espagnol combattant guerre civile, qui ont galement fui les nazis et est vite devenu son mari. En 1945, velyne et Jean Kestemberg rentre en France, o ils ont rejoint le Parti communiste et a pris une formation psychanalytique. Lorsque les dirigeants du parti exigeait que les membres de se dissocier de la thorie freudienne, les Kestembergs ainsi que Serge Lebovici sign un manifeste en 1949, dont la psychanalyse a t condamn une idologie ractionnaire. Plus tard, ils sont revenus sur leur position et ont quitt le parti communiste. velyne Kestemberg objet d'une analyse de formation avec Marc Schlumberger et est devenu un membre de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) en 1953. La mme anne, elle et son mari ont adopt une petite fille, Catherine, qui devint plus tard elle-mme un analyste. Mme si elle n'avait pas de formation mdicale, velyne Kestemberg a t nomm analyste formateur en 1963. Elle a pratiqu en tant qu'analyste de l'enfant au Centre psychopdagogique Claude-Bernard et a travaill en troite collaboration avec Serge Lebovici et Ren Diatkine au Centre Alfred-Binet, un service de psychiatrie pour les enfants et les adolescents fonde en 1956. Elle a t co-fondateur de la Fdration Europenne de Psychanalyse en 1966 et prsident de la SPP de 1971 1973. Aprs la mort de son mari, elle a poursuivi sa tche au Centre de psychanalyse et psychothrapie de du XIIIe pour les patients psychotiques, qu'elle a dirig jusqu'en 1988. L'uvre d'velyne Kestemberg est influence par la psychologie du moi. Elle a intgr des techniques

de thrapie de groupe dans sa pratique analytique et avec Diatkine, Lebovici et d'autres ont cr psychodrame psychanalytique individuel. Dans ses crits, elle se consacre particulirement aux problmes des adolescents, l'anorexie et la psychose froide", savoir des troubles mentaux avec un clivage du moi, mais sans illusions. Le concept de la psychose froide ou non dlirant a t introduit par Jean et velyne Kestemberg et Simone Decobert dans leur livre La faim et le corps , qui traite de l'anorexie mentale, le modle de la psychose froide. Typique de l'anorexie est la ngation du corps rel et son idalisation comme un objet irrel et inaccessible. L'incorporation satisfaisante est remplac par la convoitise de la faim et de la vacuit. Avec la psychose froide de l'ego est imprgn par l'idal du moi, et l'objet externe constitue une projection de l'idal du moi. La seule relation possible est une relation ftichiste l'objet.(Haut de l'article)

UVRES CHOISIES QUELQUES notions sur le psychodrame chez les Enfants, 1 und 2. Le mdecin franais n 9 et 19, 1949 L'Identit et identification chez l'adolescent l'. Thoriques Problmes et techniques. La psychiatrie de l'enfant 5 (2), 1962, 441-522 La relation ftichique l'objet. QUELQUES notations. DP 42 (2), 1978, 195-214 [Die FetischObjektbeziehung. Dans G. Lempa und Troje E. (eds): Psychoanalytische Psychosentherapie im romanischen Sprachraum. Gttingen 2006 Notule sur la crise de l'adolescence. De la dception la Conqute. DP 44, 1980, 523-530 [Une note sur la crise de adolescense. De la dception la conqute. Dans M. PerretCatipovic et F. Ladame (eds): Adolescence et psychanalyse. L'histoire et l'Histoire.London 1998] Le personnage niveaux, sa nature, sa Fonction. Les Cahiers du Centre de psychanalyse et psychothrapie de n 3, 1981, 1-55 "Astrid" ou Homosexualit, identit, adolescence. QUELQUES propositions hypothtiques.Les Cahiers du Centre de psychanalyse et psychothrapie de n 8, 1984, 1-30 QUELQUES note sur la phobie mentale du functioning. DP 50 (5), 1986, 1339-1344 L'adolescence vif. Choix de textes. Paris 1999 La psychose froide. Choix de textes. Paris 2001 (Avec Serge Lebovici et Ren Diatkine): Bilan de Dix ans de pratique de psychodrame analytique chez l'enfant et l'adolescent. Psychiatrie de l'enfant 1 (1), 1958, 63-179 (Avec Jean Kestemberg et Simone Decobert): La faim et le corps. Une tude psychanalytique de l'anorexie mentale. Paris 1972 (Et al.): Autrement vu. Des psychanalystes observent les relations mre-enfant ls. Paris 1981 [Schauplatz Familie. Psychoanalytiker beobachten frhe Mutter-Kind-Beziehungen im Alltag. Stuttgart 1986]

(Et Philippe Jeammet) Le psychodrame psychoanalytique. Paris 1987

RFRENCES Abensour, Liliane: velyne Kestemberg. Paris 1999 Abensour, Liliane: Kestemberg-Hassin, Evelyne. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002) Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 933F [ Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2009-03-09)] Struchen, Maud: Ncrologie: velyne Kestemberg (1918-1989). Psychothrapies 9 (4), 1989

PHOTO: Didier Thimonier, PUF

Julia Kristeva (1941)

Julia Kristeva se prsente comme l'un des premiers partisans franais du post-structuralisme. Ne Sliven en Bulgarie en tant que fille d'un comptable glise, elle a tudi la linguistique l'Universit de Sofia, avant son arrive Paris en 1965. Sous la supervision de Lucien Goldmann elle a complt sa thse de doctorat Le texte du roman en 1968. En 1965, elle rejoint Tel Quel , une revue littraire inspir par Jacques Derrida, et tait un membre dirigeant du comit de rdaction de 1970 1982, l'anne de l'arrt de la revue. En 1967, elle a pous Philippe Sollers (* 1936), le rdacteur en chef de Tel Quel . Dans l'espoir de connecter l'esthtique avant-gardiste avec le mouvement politique rvolutionnaire, le Tel Quel groupe a t en contact avec le Parti communiste et a visit la Chine de Mao en 1974 ( Fig. ). Suite ce voyage Julia Kristeva crit son livre Des chinoises , dans laquelle elle par rapport au rle des femmes dans la culture chinoise et occidentale. Aprs la publication de sa thse d'habilitation La rvolution du langage potique ( Rvolution du langage potique ) en 1974, Julia Kristeva a t professeur de linguistique l'Universit Paris VII. Pendant ce temps, elle suit une formation en psychanalyse, est devenu membre de la Socit

psychanalytique de Paris et a commenc exercer la profession d'analyste en 1979. En dpit de son approche dconstructive elle a une vision freudienne classique. centres de Kristeva travail thorique sur l'tude des systmes sociaux symboliques. Avec l'aide de la psychanalyse et l'auto-rflexion linguistique structurale, elle explore les mcanismes inconscients de structures symboliques, en particulier ceux de la langue. Pour Kristeva le symbolique n'est pas un systme statique mais un processus, qui ne fonctionne que par l'exclusion de quelque chose qu'elle identifie, comme Lacan, avec le fminin.Les exclus sape les structures et chappe une dfinition positive. Julia Kristeva a prsent les ides de base de ses penses complexes dans son travail thorique le plus complet, Rvolution du langage potique , qui lui a donn une rputation internationale. A partir de la posie de Lautramont et Mallarm, ainsi que les thories de Freud et de Lacan, elle esquisse une pense de l'htrognit en crant des concepts tels que la smiotique, intertextualit et sujet-in-process" qui cassent ouvrir la cohrence apparente de l'ordre phallique symbolique structur. Ainsi, elle rend visible la trace de la pr-symbolique - le terrain d'expression corporelle et le dsir - au sein de la symbolique. Selon elle, l'inconscient n'est pas seulement structur comme un langage, comme Lacan postule, mais en plus il contient galement la mmoire de la pr-linguale. Kristeva a appel ce infantile prsymbolique - d'abord indiffrencie, puis accentue par cathexis d'entranement - la smiotique maternelle "chora". Aprs l'entre dans l'ordre symbolique, l'ego reste en outre expose des oprations de la smiotique - une source de psychose, ainsi que de la crativit. textes rcents de Kristeva sont plus concrtes et plus personnelle. Dans l'un de son dernier publications, Genius Femme , une trilogie sur le gnie fminin, fait-elle remarquer en utilisant les exemples de Hannah Arendt, Melanie Kleinet Colette comment ces femmes ont russi surpasser les contraintes sociales, biographiques et biologique et atteint la libert de l'individualit et crativit. (Haut de l'article)

uvres choisies (pour plus d', voir Hlne Volat ) Semeiothik. Recherches Pour Une smanalyse. Paris 1969 [Le dsir dans la langue. Une approche smiotique de la littrature et l'art. Oxford 1980] La rvolution du langage potique. Paris 1974 [Die Revolution der Sprache poetischen.Frankfurt / M. 1978; Rvolution du langage potique. New York, 1984] Des chinoises. Paris 1974 [A propos de femmes chinoises. Londres 1977; Die Chinesin.Die Rolle der Frau en Chine. Frankfurt / M. ua 1982] Polylogue. Paris 1977 Pouvoir de l'horreur. Essai sur l'abjection. Paris 1980 [Pouvoirs de l'horreur. Un essai sur l'abjection. New York 1982; Mchte Grauens des. Ein Versuch ber den Abscheu.Frankfurt / M. 2000] Histoires d'amour. Paris 1983 [Contes de l'amour. New York 1987; Geschichten von der Liebe. Frankfurt / M. 1989] Au commencement etait l'amour. Psychanalyse et foi. Paris 1985 [Au commencement tait l'amour. La psychanalyse et la foi. New York, 1987]

Soleil noir. Dpression et mlancolie. Paris 1987 [Black dim. Dpression et mlancolie.New York 1989, Schwarze Sonne. Dpression und Melancholie. Frankfurt / M. 2007] Etrangers nous-mme. Paris 1988 [Fremde sind wir uns selbst. Frankfurt / M. 1988; trangers nous-mmes. New York, 1991] Le Vieil Homme et les Loups. Paris 1991 Nations sans nationalisme. New York 1993 Les nouvelles maladies de l'me. Paris 1993 [Die neuen Leiden der Seele. Hambourg 1994; Maladies nouvelle de l'me. New York, 1995] Le temps raisonnables. Proust et l'exprience littraire. Paris 1994 Possessions. Paris 1996 Sens et non-sens de la rvolte. Paris 1996 Le portable Kristeva. Ed. par Kelly Oliver. New York 1997 L'avenir d'rvolte juin. Paris 1998 Le gnie fminin. La vie, la folie, les mots, 1: Hannah Ahrendt. Paris 1999; 2: Melanie Klein. Paris 2000; 3: Colette. Paris 2002 [Das Genie weibliche. Das Leben, der Wahn, die Wrter, 1: Hannah Arendt. Berlin, Wien 2001; 2: Melanie Klein. Gieen 2008] [Genius Femme. La vie, la folie, les mots, 1: Hannah Arendt. New York 2001; 2: Melanie Klein.New York 2001; 3: Colette. New York, 2004] Crise de la rserve europenne. New York 2000 Le Plaisir des formes. Paris 2003 La haine et le pardon. Paris 2005 Thrse mon amour. Paris 2008 (Et Catherine Clment) Le fminin sacr et le. Paris 1998 [Das Versprechen. Vom Erwachen der Frauen. Mnchen 2000]

RFRENCES Fletcher, J., et A. Benjamin (dir.): L'abjection, Melancholia et de l'Amour. Le travail de Julia Kristeva. Londres, New York 1990 Julia Kristeva: Seltsame Fremde. Portrt von Franois Caillat. Vido, ARTE 02/12/2005 Julia Kristeva Site Web (2010-04-26)

Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986, 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. Une histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 1925-1985.Chicago 1990] Rullmann, Marit: Philosophinnen, vol. 2: Von der Romantik bis zur Moderne. Frankfurt / M.1998 Schmitz, Bettina: Arbeit un Sprache den Grenzen der. Julia Kristeva. Kngistein-Taunus 1998 Suchsland, Inge: zur Einfhrung Julia Kristeva. Hambourg 1992 Wikipedia (2008-04-08)

PHOTO: Zam (01/02/2012)

Paulette Laforgue Erikson ne Paulette Erikson, la fille d'un pharmacien Colmar en Alsace, tait un professeur avant qu'elle ne commence pratiquer la psychanalyse. Dans les annes 1920, elle a t associe la Socit Thosophique, Strasbourg, o elle a rencontr Ren Laforgue (1894-1962), psychiatre et plus tard, un co-fondateur de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris (SPP). Ils se sont maris en 1922 et s'installe Paris, o Ren Laforgue est entr en analyse avecEugnie Sokolnicka . En 1925, Laforgue Paulette a d subir une hystrectomie et par la suite ne pouvait plus avoir d'enfants. l'instigation de son mari, elle a galement subi une analyse avec Sokolnicka et est devenu un analyste elle-mme. Son superviseur contrle tait Heinz Hartmann. Elle a t membre de la SPP et comme Marie Bonaparte et Anne Berman , elle traduit des textes de Sigmund Freud en franais. En 1938, Paulette et Ren Laforgue spars.

RFRENCES Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 1: 1885-1939. Paris 1982, 1994 [Wien - Paris. Die Geschichte der Psychoanalyse in Frankreich, Bd. 1: 18851939. Weinheim, Berlin 1994] Roudinesco, Elisabeth et Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004

Ruth Lebovici Roos ne (1913-2003)

L'analyste franais Ruth Lebovici est n en Alsace en tant que fille de parents juifs. Elle a d'abord enseign les mathmatiques, quand elle a pous Serge Lebovici (1915-2000) en 1942, qui devint plus tard un psychiatre, psychanalyste et prsident de l'IPA. Leurs filles Marianne et lisabeth sont ns en 1943 et 1953. Protg par la Rsistance, Ruth et Serge Lebovici a survcu l'occupation allemande. Aprs la libration, en 1945, ils devinrent tous deux membres temporaires du Parti communiste franais - ainsi que Jean et velyne Kestemberg . Aprs la fin de la guerre Lebovici Ruth a dcid de suivre une formation de psychanalyste. Elle a subi une analyse didactique avec Marc Schlumberger et tait, comme son mari, accept comme un membre de la Socit psychanalytique de Paris. Particulirement connu est son tude d'un cas de perversion sexuelle transitoire au cours d'un traitement psychanalytique (Perversion Sexuelle transitoire au cours d'psychanalytique treatment non ), qui a t examin par Jacques Lacan dans son sminaire de 1956-1957 sur les relations d'objet.

TRAVAUX Perversion Sexuelle transitoire au cours d'psychanalytique treatment un. Bulletin d'Activits de l'Association des psychanalystes de Belgique n 25 (Mars), 1956[transitoire perversion sexuelle dans le cadre d'un traitement psychanalytique. Journal d'tudes lacanienne 2 (1), 2004, 118-140]

RFRENCES Mijolla, Alain de: Lebovici, Serge Charles Sindel. Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Hg. von Alain de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 965-967 [ Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse Internation (2010-05-20) Missonnier, Manuelle:. Hommage Notre amie Ruth Lebovici Le Carnet / Psy n 84, 2003, 27 (2010-05-20) Nobus, Denis: Dessin du trait urinaire: Fantasy et de la technique analytique dans Lebovici traitement d'une perversion transitoire. Journal d'tudes lacanienne 2 (1), 2004, 141-152

Rosine Lefort (1920-2007)

Les Franais l'enfant analyste Rosine Lefort, une fille des Tabouis bien connus Genevive journaliste, a commenc son analyse avec Jacques Lacan en 1950.Dans le mme temps, elle a travaill la Fondation Parent de Rosan de Paris, une institution publique pour la prise en charge temporaire des enfants qui avaient t abandonns par leur mre. Dans le cadre d'un projet de recherche sur l'hospitalisme dirig par Jenny Aubry , Rosine Lefort effectu le traitement de la psychose et de plusieurs enfants autistes, partir de 1951: Nadia, Marie-Franoise, Robert l'enfant loup, et Maryse. Deux de ces cas (Nadia et Robert) ont t prsents par Rosine Lefort au Sminaire de Lacan, et ils sont considrs comme des exemples remarquablement lucides de l'application clinique des concepts lacaniens. Rosine Lefort a travaill en troite collaboration avec son mari, le psychanalyste Robert Lefort ( 2007 ), avec qui elle a publi ses livres.Rapports de cas Rosine Lefort montrent clairement la fonction existentielle du signifiant dans la subjectivation. Selon la terminologie lacanienne, le psychotique est coinc dans une relation sans intermdiaire avec le rel et coup de structures signifiantes, qui se droulent via le signifiant de l'Autre.Pour Lefort l'analyse de l'enfant prverbal est particulirement adapt pour montrer que le sujet, avant de parler , parle dans l'Autre", o il trouve sa place non ngligeable. Rosine Lefort a t membre de l'cole freudienne de la Cause et a particip la fondation du Centre d'tude et de recherche sur l'enfant le discours analytique DANS (Cereda), un rseau international de l'analyse lacanienne enfant.

TRAVAUX (Et Robert Lefort) Autre Naissance de l'. Deux psychanalyses: Nadia (13 mois) et MarieFranoise (30 mois). Paris 1980 [Die Geburt des Anderen. Bericht einer Kinderanalyse aus der Schule Lacan. Stuttgart 1986; naissance de l'Autre. Urbana 1994] (Et Robert Lefort) L'enfant et la jouissance, Suivi de: L'Enfant sans le savoir. Paris 1987 (Et Robert Lefort) Les structures de la psychose. L'enfant au loup et le prsident. Paris 1988 (Et Robert Lefort) Das Reale, das Symbolische, das Imaginre in der Anderen und Dialektik des Objektes des im Laufe der analytischen Kur. arbeitshefte kinderpsychoanalyse Heft 10, Septembre 1989 (Et Robert Lefort) La sexuation de la petite fille. Paris 1994 (Et Robert Lefort) Maryse DEVIENT juin petite fille. Psychanalyse d'Une enfant de 26 mois. Paris 1995 (Et Robert Lefort) La distinction de l'autisme. Paris 2003

RFRENCES Leiser, Eckart: Zum Begriff des Signifikanten in der Praxis psychoanalytischen. Texte 16 (2), 1996, 7-21

Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986, 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. Une histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 1925-1985.Chicago 1990]

PHOTO: Le Champ Freudien

Anne Levallois (1935-2006)

Anne Levallois tait un juriste avant de se tourner vers la psychologie, l'anthropologie et la psychanalyse dans les annes 1960. La mre de trois enfants (son nom de femme marie tait Colot), elle a particip cette poque dans les campagnes d'alphabtisation au Sngal. Elle a commenc tudier la psychologie Dakar, o elle devint un disciple du philosophe Edmond Ortigues et a travaill avec Marie-Ccile Ortigues la clinique psychiatrique de Fann. Aprs son retour Paris, elle a obtenu son diplme en psychologie clinique et une formation d'analyste Serge Leclaire. En collaboration avec Myriam David et d'autres, elle a explor la relation des mres clibataires leur premier enfant, puis a travaill comme psychologue dans une institution Arme du salut pour les mres clibataires. En 1972, elle a tabli une pratique psychanalytique Paris, peu de temps avant, elle a divorc. Anne Levallois tait un analyste lacanien et membre de l'cole Freudienne de Paris (EPF). Au cours de la phase de rsolution de l'EPF, cependant, elle appartenait la critique de Jacques Lacan. En 1980, elle a t un membre fondateur du Collge de psychanalystes, dont elle a t vice-prsident de 1980 1984 et prsident de 1985 1987. De 1983 1985, elle a dirig les revues psychanalystes . Anne Levallois s'est particulirement intress la relation entre la psychanalyse, la biographie et l'histoire. En collaboration avec l'historien Michel Levallois elle a men des recherches sur la vie de son arrire-grand-oncle Urbain Ismayl, fils d'un Franais et d'une femme guyanaise, qui tait un saintsimonien, converti l'islam et est devenu un conseiller de Napolon III.tude Levallois Urbain sur lucid les effets traumatisants des conditions sociales sur la subjectivation. D'autres principaux points de Anne Levallois taient fantasmes tranference et les signifiants de la fminit. Une anthologie de ses textes entre 1974 et 2005 a t publi titre posthume sous le titre Une DANS Psychanalyste l'histoire .

UVRES CHOISIES Biographie, Psychohistorie und Psychoanalyse. Der Stand der Forschung in Frankreich.Chez H. Rckelein (ed.): Biographie Geschichte als. Tbingen 1993 Psychanalyse et histoire. Le rgne phmre de la psychohistoire et l'Avnement de la biographie en France. Dans D. Le Buf et al. (Eds): Construire l'histoire. Paris 1998 Le retour de la biographie historique. L'histoire et la psychanalyse S'y rejoindraientelles?Association internationale des institutions d'histoire syndicale (IALHI) 146, 2002, 127140 L'cole de Lacan. Dans M. al-Bouraux Hartemann et:. Retour Lacan? Paris 1981 Les crits autobiographiques d'Ismayl Urbain. Homme de couleur, saint-simonien, musulman (1812-1884). Paris 2004 Une passion pour la vie. Cliniques mditerranennes n 69, 2004 Dj et moi moi Dans L'exprience psychanalytique DANS ET L'criture autobiographique.Dans J.-F. Chiantaretto et al. (Eds): Autobiographie, journal intime et psychanalyse. Paris 2005 Une psychanalyste DANS L'HISTOIRE. Paris 2007

RFRENCES Dz Lit Littrature algrienne Octobre 2005 (2008-04-08 - n'existent plus) Iogna-Pratt, Dominique: Une psychanalyste DANS L'HISTOIRE - Les lignes en avantpremires. Passion Du Livre (2008-04-08) Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986, 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. Une histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 1925-1985.Chicago 1990] SPF (2008-04-08)

PHOTO Levallois 2007

Maud Mannoni ne van der Spoel (1923-1998)

Maud Mannoni est n Magdalena van der Spoel dans la ville belge de Courtrai. Elle a pass son enfance Colombo, Ceylan, o son pre tait consul gnral des Pays-Bas. Le retour de sa famille en Europe en 1929 a signifi pour la petite fille de la perte de son paradis enfance. Elle a oubli sa langue maternelle est l'anglais et les mots cinghalais de sa nourrice quand elle vivait avec son grandpre qui parle franais, et dans son mal-aims nouvelle rsidence Amsterdam, elle a d apprendre le nerlandais. Ces expriences question centrale en forme de Maud Mannoni:. Faon retrouver la langue perdue de l'enfance Aprs avoir assist une cole de couvent Anvers, Magdalena van der Spoel a tudi la criminologie Bruxelles. Au cours de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, elle a travaill avec des adolescents psychotiques dans une clinique psychiatrique et a dcid de suivre une formation de psychanalyste. Elle a subi une analyse didactique avec Maurice Dugautiez, le fondateur de l'Association des psychanalystes de Belgique (plus tard Socit Belge de Psychanalyse), dont elle est devenue membre en 1948. La mme anne, elle s'installe Paris pour poursuivre sa formation avec l'enfant analyste Franoise Dolto l'hpital Trousseau. En 1948, elle a pous le philosophe et psychanalyste Octave Mannoni (1899-1989), un analysant de Jacques Lacan et un intellectuel de gauche. Durant les annes 1960, Maud Mannoni et son mari se sont engags dans la lutte pour l'indpendance de l'Algrie. En 1950, elle rencontre Jacques Lacan, avec qui elle a eu son deuxime analyse, et est devenu un lacanien. Elle a t membre de la Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse, avant elle a suivi Lacan dans le Paris cole Freudienne de (EFP) en 1964. Lors d'un sjour Londres, elle fait la connaissance avec les concepts de Donald W. Winnicott et de Mlanie Kleinet l'anti-psychiatrie de Ronald D. Laing. Maud Mannoni ne partageait pas radicale Laing anti-institutionnelle attitude, de dvelopper sa propre approche de la explos institution (institution clat), c'est dire une institution ouverte au monde extrieur, mais en restant dans le mme temps un espace protg. Maud Mannoni tait en mesure de raliser ses ides en 1969 par la fondation de l'cole exprimentale de Bonneuil avec Robert Lefort, une rsidence pour les psychotiques, les enfants retards et trouble et les adolescents Bonneuil-sur-Marne. Il tait le seul anti-psychiatrique projet en France inspire du modle britannique. Comme la directrice de cette cole, elle a mis en pratique lacanienne psychanalyse, anti-psychiatriques ides et le concept de Winnicott d'un "environnement favorable". Pour Mannoni l'enfant perturb est un porte-parole de la famille dysfonctionnelle, dont l'histoire est crite par des symptmes de l'enfant et les expressions. Selon elle cette volution pathogne est renforce par des mcanismes d'exclusion sociale. A Bonneuil les enfants ont t invits exprimer leurs craintes, leurs sentiments destructeurs et les fantasmes. Au cur de l'approche thrapeutique

de Mannoni est la culture de la capacit de jouer qui fait la perte supportable. Elle cherche librer l'enfant de l'effet touffant de l'anxit et les dsirs de l'autre - tout d'abord sa mre -. En l'aidant trouver un langage personnel dans l'ordre symbolique En 1982, deux ans aprs la dissolution de l'EFP, Maud Mannoni mis en place, en collaboration avec Octave Mannoni et Patrick Guyomard, le Centre de Formation et de Recherche Psychanalytique (CFRP) Paris. Pendant le processus de dissolution de la fibre de carbone en 1994, Maud Mannoni a fond sa propre association, Espace analytique, qu'elle a dirig jusqu' sa mort soudaine d'une maladie cardiaque. (Haut de l'article)

UVRES CHOISIES L'enfant arrir et sa mre. Paris 1964 [Das Kind zurckgebliebene Mutter und seine.Olten, Fribourg 1972, L'Enfant et sa Mre en arrire. New York 1972; l'enfant arrir et de la Mre. London 1973] L'enfant, sa "maladie" et Les Autres. Paris 1967 [L'enfant, sa maladie et les autres.London 1970] Le psychiatre, le fils de "fou" et la psychanalyse. Paris 1970 [Der Psychiater, sein und die Psychoanalyse patient. Olten, Fribourg 1973] Education impossible. Paris 1973 ["Scheierziehung". Von der zur Antipsychiatrie Antipdagogik. Frankfurt / M. 1976] Un lieu versez vivre. Paris 1976 [Ein Ort zum Leben. Die Kinder von Bonneuil, ihre Eltern und das der quipe "Betreuer". Frankfurt / M. 1978] La thorie Comme fiction. Freud, Groddeck, Winnicott, Lacan. Paris 1979 D'non impossible L'Autre. Paris 1982 Le symptome et le savoir. Paris 1982 Un savoir Qui ne se sale erp. L'exprience analytique. Paris 1985 De la passion de l'tre la "Folie" de savoir. Freud, les Anglo-Saxons et Lacan. Paris 1988 Ce Qui Manque la vrit coule dite tre de. Paris 1988 [Autobiographie] Amour, haine, sparation. Renouer with language perdue de l'enfance. Paris 1991 Sparation [et de la crativit. Retrouvant la langue perdu de l'enfance. New York, 1999] Le Nomme et l'innommable. Le dernier mot de la vie. Paris 1991 LES MOTS ONT weight ONU, ILS SONT bons vivants. Que are devenus Nos enfants fous?Paris 1995 Devenir psychanalyste. Les formations de l'inconscient. Paris 1996 Elles ne savent Pas this qu'elles Disent. Paris 1998

RFRENCES Buhmann, Christiane: Nachruf auf Maud Mannoni. arbeitshefte kinderpsychoanalyse Nr.26, 1998 Erich, Theresia: Mannoni, Maud. Dans G. Stumm et al. (Eds): Personenlexikon der Psychotherapie. Wien, New York, 2005, 306-307 Gaudemar, Antoine de: Maud Mannoni Dans la nuit. La psychanalyste specialist des Enfants est morte dimanche 74 ans. Libration, 17/03/1998 (2010-06-07) Kaufhold, Roland, et Judith Roedel: Bonneuil oder Das Drama des Kindes zurckgebliebenen. Zum Tod der Kinderanalytikerin Maud Mannoni (Ceylan, 22.10.1923 Paris, 15.03.1998). Psychosozial 21 (72), 1998, 121-127 Malet, Nicole Maya: Maud Mannoni. Ramonville Saint-Agne 2000 Morgan, Sian: Examen de Maud Mannoni: Sparation et crativit:. Retrouvant la langue perdue de l'enfance International Journal of Psychotheraphy 6 (1), 2001, 77-82 Roedel, Judith: Das Experiment Heilpdagogische Bonneuil Psychoanalyse und die in Frankreich. Eschborn 1986 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Maud Mannoni, non lacanisme visage humain. Le Monde du 18.3.1998 Sedat, Jacques: Mannoni-Van der Spoel, Maud (Magdalena). Dans Dictionnaire international de psychanalyse la (2002). Ed. par A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1014f [Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2008-04-09)]

PHOTO en Mannoni, De la passion de l'tre, 1988

Joyce McDougall ne Carrington (1920-2011)

Photo: Jacques Sassier ditions Gallimard Joyce McDougall est n Dunedin, Nouvelle-Zlande, l'an des deux filles du marchand Harold Carrington.Son pre tait un No-Zlandais, sa mre Lillian Blackler une Anglaise. Suite son tude de la psychologie Dunedin, Joyce Carrington a travaill comme conseiller d'orientation professionnelle et familiale Dunedin et Auckland. En 1941, elle a pous le pdagogue Jimmy McDougall ( 1996), leur fils Martin est n en 1952, leur fille Rohan trois ans plus tard. En 1950, la famille s'installe en Angleterre. Joyce McDougall a commenc suivre une formation d'analyste d'enfants avec Anna Freud Londres et entra en analyse avec John Pratt. Elle a rencontr Donald W. Winnicott et assist ses cours en psychosexualit femme. Quand son mari a t offert un travail d'ducation auprs de l'Unesco en 1952, la famille s'installe Paris, o Joyce McDougall a poursuivi sa formation la Socit psychanalytique de Paris (SPP). Elle a subi une analyse didactique avec Marc Schlumberger et a t nomm analyste formation et la supervision de la SPP en 1961. En 1969, elle est devenue la secrtaire scientifique de la SPP. Elle a subi une autre analyse de Michel Renard. dbut des annes 1950, elle a rencontr Sidney Stewart (1920-1997), crivain amricain et psychanalyste, qui devient son partenaire seconde vie aprs sa sparation d'avec Jimmy McDougall. Elle a tabli une pratique thrapeutique des enfants et analys, sous la direction de Serge Lebovici, un garon psychotique de neuf et demi ans, dont le cas a dcrit dans son livreDialogue avec Sammy . La pense de Joyce McDougall tait plus de tous influencs par les ides de Donald Winnicott et Jacques Lacan. Thmes principaux crits sont ici: l'homosexualit fminine - pour la premire fois discut par elle dans son tude L'homosexualit chez les femmes , bien que la maladie psychosomatique et les questions d'identit sexuelle et de la crativit. Dans son premier livre Plaidoyer pour une mesure d'anomalie , elle lui suggra de renom rvision de la notion freudienne de la perversion. Compte tenu de Joyce McDougall la division classique dans la nvrose, psychose et perversion est trop rigide pour comprendre les dviations sexuelles, qui sont lis des troubles de la personnalit narcissique. Au lieu de perversion at-elle prfr le terme neosexualities", c'est dire des crations innovantes sexuelles que la tentative d'autogurison. Joyce McDougall tait convaincu que tout comportement sexuel tellement bizarre et trange que cela puisse tre sert la survie psychique. Elle a plaid pour accepter dviant la sexualit et de ne pas l'adapter aux normes de la psychanalyse. Dans l'uvre de Joyce McDougall ralit psychique apparat comme une scne sur laquelle les

drames narcissiques et dipiennes sont joues. Se rfrant Melanie Klein et Piera Aulagnier , elle a conu la mtaphore d'un thtre intrieur en particulier dans ses livres Thtres de l'esprit etThtres de l'Organe d' . Son livre The Many Faces of Eros traite des diverses formes de la sexualit humaine basant sur une bisexualit inne.Pour McDougall homosexualit fminine, par exemple, n'est pas une dviation pathologique, parce dsirs homosexuels d'une fille envers sa mre sont une composante fondamentale du dveloppement de la femme. Seule la mise en forme de ces souhaits est diffrente dans la vie des femmes homosexuelles et htrosexuelles. (Haut de l'article) Joyce McDougall tait un membre du Centre des hautes tudes psychanalytiques et la Socit Freudienne de New York. En plus de ses livres, elle a publi de nombreux articles dans des revues psychanalytiques et anthologies. Elle est morte l'ge de 91 ans Londres.

UVRES CHOISIES Considrations sur la relation d'objet Dans L'homosexualit fminine. Dans J. ChasseguetSmirgel (ed.): Recherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine. Paris 1964, 221-274 [L'homosexualit chez les femmes. Dans J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Femme Sexualit. Nouveaux Vues psychanalytiques. Ann Arbour 1970] Plaidoyer Pour Une Certaine anormalit. Paris 1978 Plaidoyer [pour une mesure de l'anomalie. New York 1980; Pldoyer fr eine gewisse Anomalitt. Frankfurt / M. 1985] Thtres du Je. Paris 1982 [Thtre de l'Esprit. L'illusion et la vrit sur la scne psychanalytique. New York 1985, Londres 1986; Theater der Seele. Mnchen 1988] Identifications, nobesoins et nosexualits. Topique n 39, 1987, 7-28 [Identifizierungen, neuartige Bedrfnisse und Formen der neuartige Sexualitt. Psych 40, 1986, 1007-1029] Thtres du corps. Le psychosoma en psychanalyse. Paris 1989 [Cinmas du corps. Une approche psychanalytique de la maladie psychosomatique. New York 1989; Theater des Krpers. Weinheim 1991] Les nombreux visages d'Eros. Une exploration psychanalytique de la sexualit humaine.New York 1995 [Eros Aux Mille visages et des Nations Unies. La Sexualit Humaine En qute de solutions de. Paris, 1996; Die Couch ist kein Prokrustesbett. Zur Psychoanalse der menschlichen Sexualitt. Stuttgart 1997] Donald Winnicott l'Homme. Rflexions et souvenirs. Londres 2003 (Et Serge Lebovici) Un Cas de psychose infantile. tude psychanalytique. Paris 1960 [Dialogue avec Sammy. Une contribution psychanalytique la comprhension de la psychose enfant. Londres, New York, 1969; Psychose infantile Eine. Fallstudie eines schizophrenen Kindes. Mnchen 1979]

RFRENCES Baruch, Elaine Hoffman, et Lucienne J. Serrano: Analyser les femmes Les femmes, en France, en Angleterre et aux tats-Unis. New York, Londres 1988

Desgroseillers, Ren: galerie de portraits de la psychanalyse franaise (2009-02-26) Diatkine, Gilbert:. Obituary Joyce McDougall (1920-2011) IPA (01/02/2012) Duparc, Franois (dir.): Joyce Aux Mille visages et des Nations Unies. L'oeuvre de Joyce McDougall. Lausanne 2000 Menahem, Ruth: Joyce McDougall. Paris 1997 Porret, Philippe: Joyce McDougall. Une coute lumineuse. Paris 2005 Rohde-Dachser, Christa: Rezension von Joyce McDougall "Die Couch ist kein Prokrustesbett". Psych 12, 1998, 1235-1238

Catherine Millot (* 1944)

L'auteur et psychanalyste lacanien Catherine Millot, n dans le dpartement franais de l'Ain, a pass son enfance et sa jeunesse dans les capitales de l'Europe, o son pre a t accrdit comme ambassadeur. Elle a tudi la philosophie la Sorbonne Paris, avant qu'elle ne commence une analyse avec Jacques Lacan en 1971, qui a dur huit ans. Elle est devenue membre de l'cole freudienne de Paris et plus tard de l'cole freudienne de la Cause (ECF), o elle a subi une analyse de contrle avec Michel Silvestre et une seconde analyse avec Brigitte Lemrer. Elle a quitt l'ECF en 1989. Catherine Millot est devenu dj connu au-del des frontires de la France pour son premier livre de Freud anti-pdagogue , publi en 1979. Elle a dclar que la pdagogie qui s'appuie sur la psychanalyse doit se retrouver dans une impasse, parce que la position d'un analyste de l'enfant n'est pas compatible avec celle d'un pdagogue. Ce dernier ne peut pas reprsenter un miroir neutre, car il a toujours - consciemment ou inconsciemment - une intention ducative. Contrairement la pdagogue, un psychanalyste a pas de certitudes ou de solutions offrir, si ce n'est la ralisation d'un manque indlbile et donc la libration de la fonction du regard de l'Autre. Dans son livre autobiographique, en partieAbmes Ordinaires Millot Catherine montre que le vide et la perte de soi peut devenir une source de paix intrieure et de renouveau. Bien connu des thses Millot sur la transsexualit. Dans son essai sur la transsexualit, Horsexe , elle soutient que la transsexualit de la femme rvle un processus hystrique, tandis que les bases

transsexualit d'un homme sur une identification psychotique avec la femme idale, c'est dire une plnitude inaccessible. D'autres objets de travail Catherine Millot sont les conditions de la cration littraire ainsi que la perversion ou l'homosexualit dans la littrature. A ct de ses livres, elle a publi de nombreux articles dans les revues lacaniensSicilet and Ornicar?. Since 1975 she has been Professor of Psychoanalysis at the University of Paris-VIII.

SELECTED WORKS Freud, anti-pdagogue. Paris 1979 [Freud, Anti-Pdagoge. Berlin, Wien 1982] Horsexe. Essai sur le transsexualisme. Paris 1983 [Horsexe. Essay on Transsexuality. New York 1990] Nobodaddy. L'hystrie dans le sicle. Paris 1988 Die Hysterie an der Grenze. Fragmente No. 34, 1990, 35-40 Not yet virgin. The function of masochism in Joyce. James Joyce Quarterly 1, 1991, 43-46 La vocation de l'crivain. Paris 1991 The real presence. October 58, 1991, 109-137 Das totalitre Phnomen. Zu Hanna Ahrendt. In J. Prasse and C.-D. Rath) (eds): Lacan und das Deutsche. Die Rckkehr der Psychoanalyse ber den Rhein, Freiburg i. Br. 1994, 160-166 Gide, Genet, Mishima. L'intelligence de la perversion. Paris 1997 Ein perverses Talent. In A. Michels et al. (eds): Perversion, vol. 1. Tbingen 1998, 205-212 Abmes ordinaires. Paris 2001 The eroticism of desolation. In T. Dean and C. Lane (eds): Homosexuality & Psychoanalysis. Chicago 2001 La vie parfaite. Jeanne Guyon, Simone Weil, Etty Hillesum. Paris 2006 solitude. Paris 2011

REFERENCES Agacinski, Sylviane: Rezension von Catherine Millot "Abmes ordinaires". Le Monde des Livres, 2001-10-18 (2008-04-09) Baruch, Hoffman Elaine, and Lucienne J. Serrano: Women Analyze Women, in France, England and the United States. New York, London 1988

Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Jacques Lacan. Esquisse d'une vie, histoire d'un systme de pense. Paris 1993 [Jacques Lacan. An Outline of a Life and a History of a System of Thought. Oxford 1999]

PHOTO: Baxter's Gallery; in Baruch/Serrano 1988, 85

Michle Montrelay Link to a photo of Michle Montrelay Michle Montrelay studied philosophy and worked as a graphologist and model before she turned to psychoanalysis. She underwent training analysis with Serge Leclaire and became a member of the Lacanian society cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP) in 1965. The same year she presented her paper on Marguerite Duras' novel Le Ravissement de Lol V. Stein in the Seminar of Jacques Lacan, which was the beginning of her theoretical examination of femininity. In 1970 her most important study Recherches sur la fminit(Inquiry into femininity) appeared in Jacques Derrida's journal Critique. In it, Montrelay takes up the 1920s Freud-Jones controversy about femininity from a structural psychoanalytic perspective and sketches her concept of a precocious "concentric" (circular oral-anal-vaginal) femininity. She shows that the girl, in contrast to the boy, cannot differentiate herself from the body of the mother, because the real of the maternal body remains present in her own body. Thus the symbolic castration i. e. the exclusion of the maternal body as an object of desire, a repression that inaugurates the symbolization, is incomplete in women. The result is a concentric psychic economy, which is, according to Montrelay, characterized by idle representations and plenitude in the real. Instead of a lack, which initiates the economy of wishing and speaking, there is an object in excess and the symbolic order only a faade. The privileged relationship of women to the body however implies also a frightening too great closeness to the objects. The women's access to symbolization depends on the transition into the phallocentric economy by substituting the phallic signifier for the concentric representatives. Thus femininity is repressed and can be symbolized. Michle Montrelay's essays on femininity, published in 1977 under the titleL'ombre et le nom, transcend Lacan's phallocentrism. In 1979 Lacan forbade her to conduct a seminar on male sexuality at his institute at the University of Vincennes, declaring that if women are not entirely governed by the phallic function, they can have nothing to say about it. (Top of the article) After Lacan had dissolved the EFP in 1980, Michle Montrelay no longer belonged to a psychoanalytic association. She is married, has three children and lives in Paris.

SELECTED WORKS Sur "Le ravissement de Lol V. Stein". In Montrelay, L'ombre et le nom, 1977, 7-23

Recherches sur la fminit. Critique 26, 1970, 654-674 [Inquiry into femininity. M/F 1, 1978, 83-101] L'ombre et le nom. Sur la fminit. Paris 1977 Affoles d'ecriture. Sorcires 7, 1977, 43f The story of Louise. In S. Scheiderman (ed.): Returning to Freud. Clinical Psychoanalysis in the School of Lacan. New Haven 1980 L'effet de bande. Confrontation No.3, 1981, 159-167 L'appareillage. Confrontation No. 6, 1981, 33-43 Lieux et gnies. Confrontation No. 1, 1983, 111-126 On folding and unfolding. An example of dream interpretation in analysis. Psychoanalytic Inquiry 4 (2) 1984, 193-219 Der schwarze Kontinent. Fragmente No. 34, 1990, 15-23 Une autre pratique de l'inconscient. Entretien. Rue Descartes No. 25, 1999, 81-96 La porte de l'ombre. Paris 2009 (et al.) Le psychanalyste, le physicien et le rel. Paris 1987 (with Dominique Guyomard, Patrick Guyomard and Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel) Invention du fminin. Paris 2006

REFERENCES David-Mnard, Monique: Lacanians against Lacan. Social Text 6, 1982, 86-111 Lchel, Elfriede: Verschiedenes. Untersuchung zum Umgehen (mit) der Differenz in Theorien zur Geschlechtsidentitt. Thesis (PhD) Bremen 1987 Lchel, Elfriede: Umgehen (mit) der Differenz. Psyche 44, 1990, 826-847 Oedipe le Salon, 8 mars 2010 (2012-02-01) Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Whitworth, Stephen W.: Rethinking the archaic. Montrelay, maskulinity, and the analyst as (m)other. Journal for Lacanian Studies 4 (2), 2006, 325-348

Sophie Morgenstern ne Kabatschnik (1875-1940)

Sophie Morgenstern, one of the pioneering figures of child psychoanalysis in France, was born into a Jewish family in Grodno in Poland. In 1906 she began her medical studies at Zurich and graduated with a thesis on the subject of mineral elements of the thyroid glands (Ueber einige mineralische Bestandteile der Schilddrse) in 1912. She then left Switzerland for Russia and Poland but returned to Zurich in 1915 in order to work as an assistant physician at the psychiatric asylum of Burghlzli under Eugen Bleuler. In 1924 she moved to France, where she became the assistant of Georges Heuyer at his clinic for infantile neuropsychiatry in Paris. She held the position from 1925 until her death in 1940. Sophie Morgenstern underwent training analysis with Eugnie Sokolnicka and became a full member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) in 1929. She was also a member of the group volution psychiatrique. She taught about infantile neuroses at the Institute of Psychoanalysis of the SPP. Her most illustrious student was Franoise Dolto. Like Anna Freud, she believed that children's neurosis had the same structure and the same origins as those of adults. In her 1927 study on a case of a child suffering from psychogenic mutism (Un cas de mutisme psychogne), she described the use of drawings as a new technique for treating children. She stressed that the children's drawings gave the analyst access to their unconscious and psychic conflicts in a similar way as the dreams and free associations of an adult would do - an insight less familiar at her time than nowadays. The symbolic sense of the imaginative creations of the child was the subject of her main work Psychanalyse infantile, dedicated to her daughter Laure and published in 1937. Sophie Morgenstern was already married to Abraham Morgenstern, when she studied at Zurich; he died before her. She never got over the loss of her only daughter Laure, who died during an operation. After the invasion of Poland Sophie Morgenstern had to hear that the Nazis had killed her family in Lvov. When the German troops entered Paris, she committed suicide. (Top of the article)

WORKS Un cas de mutisme psychogne. RFP 1, 1927, 492-504; in J. D. Nasio (ed.): Le silence en psychanalyse. Paris 1987; 2001 La psychanalyse infantile et son rle dans l'hygine mentale. RFP 4, 1930/31, 136-162

Quelques aperus sur l'expression du sentiment de culpabilit dans les rves des enfants. RFP 6, 1933, 155-174 Psychanalyse et ducation. Evol psychiatr 3, 1933, 45-64 [Psychoanalyse und Erziehung.Z psa Pd 11, 1937, 162-180] Les bourreaux domestiques. vol psychiatr 4, 1934, 39-58 La pense magique chez l'enfant. RFP 7, 1934, 98-115 [Das magische Denken beim Kind.Z psa Pd 11, 1937, 102-118] Psychanalyse infantile. Symbolisme et valeur clinique des crations imaginatives chez l'enfant. Paris 1937 ber das Traum- und Phantasieleben des Kindes. Z psa Pd 11, 1937, 181-211 Contribution au problme de l'hystrie chez l'enfant. Evol psychiatr 7, 1937, 3-33 La structure de la personnalit et ses dviations. Paris 1939; 2003 L'oeuvre complte de Sophie Morgenstern, vol. 1-3: Psychanalyse infantile; La structure de la personnalit et ses dviations; Articles et contributions la Revue franaise de psychanalyse. Paris 2003 (and Georges Heuyer) La psychanalyse infantile et son rle dans l'hygine mentale. Paris 1932

REFERENCES Dolto, Franoise: Selbstportrt einer Psychoanalytikerin. Weinheim, Berlin 1991 Fleury, Mireille: Sophie Morgenstern. Elments de sa vie et de son oeuvre. Mmoire Universit Bordeaux-II, 1988 Geissmann, Claudine, and Pierre Geissmann: Histoire de la psychanalyse de l'enfant. Mouvements, ides, perspectives. Paris 1992 [A History of Child Psychoanalysis. London 1998] Jacquemain, Frdrique: Morgenstern-Kabatschnik, Sophie. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1100 [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2008-04-09)] Matrikeledition der Universitt Zrich (2008-04-09) Parcheminey, Georges: Nos morts: Sophie Morgenstern. Evol psychiatr 1, 1947, 12-13 Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)]

Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990]

PHOTO in Elisabeth Roudinesco and Elisabeth Kapnist: Sigmund Freud, l'invention de la psychanalyse. BFC Productions 1997

Marie Moscovici ne Bromberg (*1932)

Marie Moscovici is the daughter of Jewish-Polish parents who immigrated to France shortly before her birth. The family survived the German occupation under a false name. Marie Bromberg studied psychology and philosophy at the Sorbonne attending lectures and seminars of Maurice MerleauPonty, Claude Lvi-Strauss and Jacques Lacan. She was working as a researcher at the CNRS in Paris, when she married Serge Moscovici (*1925), a Romanian-Jewish social psychologist with whom she had two sons. Their eldest son Pierre, later a well-known politician, was born in 1957. In 1965 Marie Moscovici graduated with a thesis about social change and family organisation. She became a member of the Association Psychanalytique de France and was associated with the journals Cahiers de Confrontation and Novelle Revue de Psychanalyse before she founded, together with Jean-Michel Rey, the journalL'crit du temps in 1982. In 1994 she created, in collaboration with Pierre Fdida and Patrick Lacoste, L'Inactuel, a journal for "untimely meditations" on psychoanalysis and cultural subjects, where Marie Moscovici is the editor. The concept of inactuality, understood as the continuance of a past event in the unconscious, is one of the main subjects of Marie Moscovici's writings. Referring to Sigmund Freud's thoughts about murder, war and violence, she explores the inscription of historical events into individual histories and its unconscious transmission from one generation to the next.

SELECTED WORKS Le changement social en milieu rural et le rle des femmes. Revue francaise de sociologie 1 (3), 1960, 314-322

Changement social et organisation familiale. Thesis (PhD) Paris 1965 Mise en pices du pre dans la pense freudienne, imposture ou pas? Confrontation 1, 1979, 19-63 (ed.) Questions de judaisme. Paris 1984 Un meurtre construit par les produits de son oublie. L'Ecrit du temps No. 10, 1985, 387-418 Prface. In Sigmund Freud: L'homme Mose et la religion monothiste. Trois essais. Paris 1986, 15-53 Les paroles restent. L'Inactuel No. 1, 1994 Un fait divers chez Proust. L'Inactuel No. 2, 1994 Il est arriv quelque chose. Approches de l'vnement psychique. Paris 1989 L'ombre de l'objet. Sur l'inactualit de la psychanalyse. Paris 1989 Le meurtre et la langue. Paris 2002 Les analystes ne parlent pas beaucoup du silence. In S. Priac Daoud and D. Platier-Zeitoun: Silences. Paroles de psychanalystes. Ramonville Saint-Agne 2004, 169-177 (et al.) Ecritures de l'autobiographie. Paris 1983 (and Jean-Michel Rey) Oedipe. Paris 1986 (et al.) Figures de la mlancolie. Paris 1987

REFERENCES Mijolla, Alain de: France. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 663-679 [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2009-02-17)] Safran, Serge: Marie Moscovici, une femme de parole. Magazine Littraire No. 350, 1997-0101 (2010-07-27) Wikipedia (2008-04-08)

PHOTO: LeMonde.fr: La Bibliothque du XXIe sicle, 2005-01-08 (2008-04-08)

Gisela Pankow (1914-1998)

Gisela Pankow was born in Dsseldorf and grew up in a liberal anti-fascist family. She studied mathematics and physics (plus geography and philosophy) at the University of Berlin, worked as a private teacher and statistic researcher, before she began in 1943 her medical training in Tbingen. Since 1946 she participated in the constitutional biological research of Ernst Kretschmer, whose assistant she became in 1949 after qualifying as a doctor at the University of Tbingen. In 1950 she went to Paris and continued her research at the Hpital de la Piti and the University of Paris, where she obtained a doctorate in science in 1953. In 1944 Gisela Pankow took up psychoanalytic training in Tbingen, first with Luise Weizscker, then with Kthe Weizscker-Hoss, an anthropologically oriented Jungian - both were members of the German Institute for Psychological and Psychotherapeutic Research - and finally with Ernst Blum in Berne. In France she conducted a number of supervised analyses with Jacques Lacan, Franoise Dolto and Daniel Lagache and became a member of the Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse (SFP). After giving a series of conferences in Australia and spending a year of research and teaching in the United States, Gisela Pankow returned to Paris in 1957. There she introduced a private seminar on Psychothrapie analytique des psychoses in 1958 and broke with the SFP in 1960, although she remained a member of the IPA. She taught at the University Saint-Antoine (1957-1981) and the Sainte Anne Hospital (1981-1992) in Paris as well as at the University of Bonn (1960-1970). Gisela Pankow's main area of interest was the analysis of psychosis. Basing on the Freudian theory and on phenomenology, she developed her conception of an "image of the body", which was inspired by Franoise Dolto's idea of the unconscious body image. According to Pankow the body image serves two symbolic functions: The first ensures the recognition of spatial and formal structure (incorporating a dialectic of inside and outside, and part and whole), the second involves the content and meaning of that structure. Thus the body image is the basis of the ego and its relation to the other. The body image of a psychotic is disturbed. It is radically dissociated in "nuclear psychoses" (schizophrenia) with disturbances of the first function, whereas in "marginal psychoses" (hysterical psychoses), which concern the second function, the body image is only partially affected. The objective of the cure is the restoration of the symbolic structures of the body image through a reintegration of the excluded. For this purpose Gisela Pankow introduced her original technique involving modelling clay as a mediating element. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS

Untersuchungen ber die Schdelbasisknickung beim Menschen. Ein Beitrag zur mehrdimensionalen Behandlung konstitutionsbiologischer Fragen. Thesis (MD) Tbingen 1948 Les rapports mtriques entre la base du crne et la partie suprieure de la face. Thesis (MD) Paris 1953 Structuration dynamique dans la schizophrnie. Contribution une psychothrapie analytique de l'exprience psychotique du monde. Bern 1956 Dynamische Strukturierung in der Psychose. Beitrge zur analytischen Psychotherapie. Bern 1957 [Structuration dynamique dans la psychose. Contribution la psychothrapie analytique. Paris 2010] Die Erarbeitung des Krperbildes als Grundlage der Zeiterfahrung beim Geisteskranken. Jahrbuch fr Psychologie und Psychotherapie 7, 1960, 258-274 Gesprengte Fesseln der Psychose. Aus der Werkstatt einer Psychotherapeutin. Mnchen 1968 [L'homme et sa psychose. Paris 1969] Structure familiale et psychose. Paris 1973 [Familienstruktur und Psychose. Frankfurt/M. 1984] The body image in hysterical psychosis. IJP 55, 1974, 407-414 Rejection and identity. Int Rev Psycho-Anal 7, 1980, 319-332 L'tre-l du schizophrne. Paris 1981 [Schizophrenie und Dasein. Beitrge zur analytischen Psychotherapie der Psychosen. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 1990] Krperbild, bergangsobjekt und Narzimus. Jb Psychoanal 14, 1982, 84-109 (ed.) Ving-cinq annes de psychothrapie analytique des psychoses. Paris 1984 Forms and their structurizing power in psychosis. International Journal of Psychology 20, 1985, 439-448 L'homme et son espace vcu. Analyses littraires. Paris 1986 Der absurde Mensch und sein Raum. Fragmente 23/24, 1987, 47-62 Strukturierende Phantasmen in der Psychose. Jb Psychoanal 21, 1987, 177-204 Prsence de Gisela Pankow. Ed. by M.-L. Lacas et al. Paris 2004 Les dangers du "on-dit" et autres rflexions. Abord analytique de la parole de l'autre. Paris 2006

REFERENCES

Anzieu, Didier: A discussion of the paper by Gisela Pankow on "The body image in hysterical psychosis". IJP 55, 1974, 415-416 Association Internationale des Amis de Gisela Pankow (2012-02-02) Corveleyn, Jozef: Psychosis. Phenomenological and Psychoanalytical Approaches. Leuven 2003 Lacas, Marie-Lise: Gisela Pankow: filiations dans la psychanalyse des psychoses. Topique 3 (76), 2001, 41-48 + Cairn.Info (2010-07-22) Lacas, Marie-Lise: Pankow, Gisela. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1228f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis(2008-04-08)] Seidel, P.: Probleme des Zugangs bei Schizophrenen. Zum Verstndnis des Beitrages von Gisela Pankow. Jb Psychoanal 25, 1990 Troje, Elisabeth: Nachruf auf Gisela Pankow. In G. Lempa and E. Troje (eds): Andere Methoden der Psychosenbehandlung aus psychoanalytischer Sicht. Gttingen 2001, 85- 89

PHOTO: Association Internationale des Amis de Gisela Pankow (2008-04-08)

Catherine Parat The French psychoanalyst Catherine J. Luquet-Parat is a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris. In 1972 she founded, together with Pierre Marty, Michel d'Uzan, Michel Fain, Denise Braunschweig and Christian David, the Institut de Psychosomatique de Paris. One of her analysands was Andr Green, who dedicated his famous study La mre morte to her. Catherine Parat's work centres on female sexuality, the Oedipus complex, the importance of affect, and analytic technique. A collection of her papers was published in 1995 under the title L'affect partag. One of her earlier essays,Le changement d'objet, published in 1964 in the illustrious volumeRecherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine (Female Sexuality), dealt with the girl's change from the maternal to the paternal object. Based on a Kleinian approach, Catherine Parat stated a normal feminine masochistic move at the time of the Oedipus complex. According to Parat, femininity is achieved when the girl adopts actively the passive or receptive aim, thus diverting earlier active sadistic impulses directed toward the father's penis. Best known is Catherine Parat's conception of "basic transference" ("transfert de base"), designating the patient's spontaneous positive cathexis of the person of the analyst. Parat stressed the kinship between such a transference cathexis and Sigmund Freud's narcissistic object-choice.

SELECTED WORKS (for more, see SPP)

La place du mouvement masochique dans l'volution de la femme. RFP 23, 1959, 305-336 La structure obsessionelle. RFP 25, 1961, 309-317 Le changement d'objet. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Recherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine. Paris 1964, 115-127 [The change of object. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Female Sexuality. New Psychoanalytic Views. Ann Arbour 1970] L'organisation oedipienne du stade gnital. RFP 31, 1967, 743-911 A propos de la co-excitation libidinale. RFP 51, 1987, 925-936 Dynamique du sacr. Meyzieu 1988 A propos de la thrapeutique analytique. RFP 55, 1991, 303-324 Avatars du "courant tendre" freudien. RFP 56, 1992, 777-791 L'ordinaire du psychosomaticien. Rev fr psychosom No. 3, 1993, 5-20 Le phallique fminin. RFP 59, 1995, 1239-1257 L'affect partag. Paris 1995 A propos de l'amour et de l'amour de transfert. RFP 60, 1996, 643-662 La rpression chez l'analyste. RFP 65, 2001, 141-143 + Cairn.Info (2010-08-02) L'inconscient et le sacr. Paris 2002

REFERENCES Denis, Paul: transfrentielle (relation -). In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1830f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis(2010-11-04)] Szwec, Grard: Interview mit Catherine Parat. Revue franaise de psychosomatique No. 18, 2000, 123-137

Ginette Raimbault ne Girardey (*1924)

The French psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Ginette Raimbault was born in Algiers. After receiving a M.Sc. from Columbia University in New York, she studied psychology (diploma in 1949) and medicine in Paris and graduated with a thesis on natural birth in 1956. While studying medicine, she trained as a psychoanalyst and underwent analysis with Jacques Lacan. In 1951 she was admitted to the Socit psychanalytique de Paris, after the split in 1953 she changed to the Socit franaise de psychanalyse and finally became a member of the Lacanian cole Freudienne de Paris. Ginette Raimbault took up her psychiatric training withJenny Aubry, with whom she worked together for about twenty years. In 1954 she met Michael Balint, and both she and her husband, the psychoanalyst mile Raimbault (1923-1998), became enthusiastic about Balint's ideas. In 1960 she attended Balint's seminar at the Tavistock Clinic in London and subsequently started, along with her husband, one of the first Balint groups in France. In 1971 she received her licence as a psychiatrist. Since 1961 she worked at the Institut national des sciences et de la recherche mdicale (INSERM) in Paris, where she was Directrice of Research beginning in 1985 until her retirement in 1990. Ginette Raimbault's main area of interest is the psychology of the ill child. She was working with dying children in the nephrology clinic of the Hopital des Enfants-Malades in Paris since 1965 and published several books on themes like mourning, illness and death from the point of view of children and parents. In her book Lorsque l'enfant disparat, for instance, she reported the traumatic experience of well-known personalities of the 19th and 20th century, who had lost their child, and analysed the various phases and forms of mourning work.

SELECTED WORKS L'accouchement naturel. Mise en application pratique la maternit de l'Hpital SaintAntoine. Thesis (MD) Paris 1956 Mdecins d'enfants. Paris 1973 [Arzt - Kind - Eltern. Erfahrungen von Kinderrzten in einer Balint-Gruppe. Frankfurt/M. 1977] L'enfant et la mort. Des enfants parlent de la mort. Problmes de la clinique du deuil. Paris 1975; 1996 [Kinder sprechen vom Tod. Klinische Probleme der Trauer. Frankfurt/M. 1980] Clinique du rel. La psychanalyse et les frontires du mdical. Paris 1982 Lorsque l'enfant disparat. Paris 1996 [Trauernde Eltern. Isadora Duncan, Sigmund Freud, Gustav Mahler, Eric Clapton - Wie sie den Tod eines Kindes erlebten. Berlin 1997]

Curieuse. Un parcours lacanien. Paris 2003 Parlons du deuil. Paris 2004 "Qui ne voit que la grce...". Analyse, aventure et libert. Entrentiens avec Anna FeisselLeibovici. Paris 2005 (and Radmila Zygouris) Corps de souffrance, corps de savoir. Lausanne 1976 (and Caroline Eliacheff) Les indomptables. Figures de l'anorexie. Paris 1989 (and Jenny Aubry) Intermittence de l'autre scansion des ruptures et destin des pulsions. Blocnotes No. 12, 1993 (with Luc Massardier and Patrick Ayoun) Questions d'inceste. Paris 2005

REFERENCES Degoy, Lucien: Jenny Aubry dans le texte. Entretiens avec Ginette Raimbault. L'Humanit, 2003-11-05 Guillerault, Grard: Interview mit Ginette Raimbault. Apertura 6, 1991 INSERM (2010-08-03) Moreau Ricaud, Michelle: Raimbault, mile. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1454 -Les psychanalystes: Ginette Raimbault. Film of Jrme Blumberg and Daniel Friedman. CNRS audiovisuell 1983

PHOTO: Canal-U (2010-08-04)

Blanche Reverchon-Jouve (1879-1974) Blanche Reverchon, born in Paris, studied philosophy and medicine and later specialized in neurology under Joseph Babinski. She practiced as a psychiatrist in Geneva, when she met the poet Pierre Jean Jouve (1887-1976) in 1921. In 1923 they settled in Paris and were married in 1925. At this time Blanche Reverchon-Jouve qualified as a doctor and entered into analysis with Eugnie Sokolnicka. After visiting Sigmund Freud in Vienna, who obviously encouraged her to become an analyst, she continued her psychoanalytic training supervised by Rudolph Loewenstein. Later she went into further analysis with Ren Laforgue. In 1923 Sigmund Freud's essays on sexual theory were published in France, translated by Blanche

Reverchon-Jouve (Trois essais sur la thorie de la sexualit). In 1928 she was accepted as a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris. At the time of the 1953 split, Reverchon-Jouve, although a physician herself, was one of the opponents of the medicalization of psychoanalytic training. Together with Daniel Lagache, Jacques Lacan andFranoise Dolto she left the SPP and became a member of the newly founded Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse. Blanche Reverchon-Jouve introduced her husband to psychoanalysis and supplied him with the clinical material from her psychoanalytic practice, which he transformed to his novels about mad women. His novel Vagadu, for instance, is drawn from his wife's analyses with Sokolnicka and Loewenstein and from the case history of Mademoiselle H., which was also the subject of Blanche and Pierre Jean Jouve's article Moments d'une psychanalyse, published in 1933. Blanche Reverchon-Jouve's analysands were mainly wealthy patients and artists, among them the Belgian author and psychotherapist Henry Bauchau, who depicted her as "Sybille" in his first novel La dechirure.

WORKS Contribution l'tude des contractures parkinsoniennes. Thesis (MD) Paris 1924 (and Pierre Jean Jouve) Moment d'une psychanalyse. NRF 15 (234), 1933, 353-385

REFERENCES la Recherche de Blanche. Site Pierre Jean Jouve (2010-08-05) Bauchau, Henry: La dechirure (1966). Arles 2003 Bauchau, Henry: Sur Pierre Jean Jouve. Sur Blanche Jouve. Acadmie royale de langue et de littrature franaises de Belgique, Brssel 1993 (2.2.2012) Bonhomme, Batrice: Pierre Jean Jouve ou la qute intrieure. Paris 2008 Bourgeron, Jean-Pierre: Reverchon-Jouve, Blanche. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1558 [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2008-04-09)] Louis-Lambert, Jean-Paul: La lecture Blanche. Site Pierre Jean Jouve 2009 (2010-08-05) Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Wikipedia (2010-08-05)

lisabeth Roudinesco (*1944)

lisabeth Roudinesco is best known for her contributions to the history of psychoanalysis. She was born in Paris as the daughter of the psychoanalyst Jenny Aubry and her first husband Alexander Roudinesco. Her father was an immigrated Romanian-Jewish physician, who had converted to Catholicism. When she was a child, her mother sent her into analysis with Franoise Dolto, and at the age of nine she first met Jacques Lacan. She received her secondary education in Paris at Collge Svign and subsequently worked as a teacher in Algeria (1966-1967), before she studied philosophy and literature at the Sorbonne with a minor in linguistics. Her master degree was supervised by Tzvetan Todorov, and her doctoral thesis by Jean Levaillant at the Universit Paris VIII-Vincennes in 1975. lisabeth Roudinesco was admitted to the Lacanian cole freudienne de Paris (EFP) in 1969 and underwent analysis with Octave Mannoni. She was a member of the EPF until Lacan dissolved his school in 1980. During the same time she was a member of the KPF. Roudinesco was affiliated to the editorial board of the journals Action potique (1969-1979) and L'homme (1997-2002). From 1986 to 1996 she wrote articles for the newspaper Libration, and since then for Le Monde. In 1991 she completed her habilitation on tudes d'histoire du freudisme(published in 1994 under the title Gnalogies). Since 1991 she has been the Director of Research in History at the University Paris VII. From 2001 to 2007 she was Director of Studies at the cole Pratique des Hautes tudes. She was elected as Vice President of the Socit internationale d'histoire de la psychiatrie et de la psychanalyse (SIHPP) in 1990, and President in 2007. Some of her most important books are a history of psychoanalysis in France, the biography of Jacques Lacan and a dictionary of psychoanalysis (with Michel Plon). Her historical approach refers to the works of Henry Ellenberger, Georges Canguilhem, and Michel Foucault. lisabeth Roudinesco defends the importance of psychoanalysis against the talk of its "becoming obsolete" and against the hegemony of scientific efficiency criteria. lisabeth Roudinesco, who herself practiced as a psychoanalyst, lives together with Olivier Btourn (*1951), the director of Les ditions du Seuil.(Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Initiation la linguistique gnrale. Paris 1967 Pour une politique de la psychanalyse. Paris 1977 Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 1: 1885-1939. Paris 1982; 1994 [Wien - Paris. Die Geschichte der Psychoanalyse in Frankreich, vol.1: 1885-1939. Weinheim, Berlin 1994]

Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Ren Laforgue und Matthias Gring. Psyche 42, 1988, 1041-1080 Throigne de Mricourt. Une femme mlancholique sous la Rvolution. Paris 1989 [Throigne de Mricourt. A Melancholic Woman during the French Revolution. London 1991] Penser la folie. Essais sur Michel Foucault. Paris 1992 Jacques Lacan. Esquisse d'une vie, histoire d'un systme de pense. Paris 1993 [Jacques Lacan. Bericht ber ein Leben, Geschichte eines Denksystems. Kln 1996; Frankfurt/M. 1999; Jacques Lacan. An Outline of a Life and a History of a System of Thought. Oxford 1999] Gnalogies. Paris 1994 Pourquoi la psychanalyse? Paris 1999 [Wozu Psychoanalyse? Stuttgart 2002; Why Psychoanalysis? New York 2002] L'analyse, l'archive. Paris 2001 La famille en dsordre. Paris 2002 [Die Familie ist tot - Es lebe die Familie. Stuttgart 2008] Le patient, le thrapeute et l'tat. Paris 2004 Philosophes dans la tourmente. Paris 2005 [Philosophy in Turbulent Times. New York 2008] La part obscure de nous-mmes. Paris 2007 [Our Dark Side. A History of Perversion. Cambridge 2009] Retour sur la question juive. Paris 2009 Mais pourquoi tant de haine? Paris 2010 Lacan, envers et contre tout. Paris 2011 (and Michel Plon) Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse. Paris 1997 [Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse. Wien, New York 2004; Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)] (and lisabeth Kapnist) Sigmund Freud, l'invention de la psychanalyse. BFC Productions 1997 (and lisabeth Kapnist) Jacques Lacan, la psychanalyse rinvente. INA, Arte France 2001 (and Jacques Derrida) De quoi demain ... Dialogue. Paris 2001 [For what Tomorrow... A Dialogue. Stanford, Calif 2004; Woraus wird Morgen gemacht sein? Ein Dialog. Stuttgart 2006]

REFERENCES

Chercheurs de notre temps. lisabeth Roudinesco im Gesprch mit Dominique Bollinger. Video (CNDP) Paris 2000 Hlzer, Klaus: Rezension von lisabeth Roudinecso und Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse. Wien, New York 2004. PPFI October 2005 (2008-04-09) Roudinesco, lisabeth: Gnalogies. Paris 1994 Wikipedia french; english (2012-06-18)

PHOTO: Arte (2008-04-08)

Monique Schneider (*1935)

Monique Schneider was born in Mirecourt in Lorraine. She studied philosophy in Nancy and Paris and passed her agrgation de philosophie at the cole Normale Suprieure in 1958. She subsequently taught philosophy at the Lyce Stendhal and the University of Grenoble until 1970, when she was appointed researcher at the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris. In 1980 she graduated under the supervision of Paul Ricoeur, her thesis La rflexion motionnelle explored the connections between affect and the process of learning. At the beginning of her teaching career she suffered from insomnia caused by diabolical phantasmas from her childhood, which led to her first analysis. She trained as a psychoanalyst at the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris during the 1970s. In 1980 she became a member of the Collge de Psychanalystes, an association founded by Lacanians and non-Lacanians. Affiliated with the Lacanian association cole de la Cause Freudienne, she practises psychoanalysis in Paris. In addition she taught philosophy at the University Paris VII. She was Directrice of Research at the CNRS until she became an emerita in 2000. Monique Schneider works at the intersections of psychoanalysis, cultural critique, and philosophy. She has been concerned with questions of trauma, the status of constructions of sexual difference in social discourse and practices of exclusion by psychoanalysis as a patriarchal theory. In her

bookGnalogie du masculin, for instance, she explored the contradictions of masculinity. Patriarchal metaphors reduce masculinity to phallic symbols of verticality by excluding a devaluated feminine, which is associated with uncontrollability. The result of this is a gap between a man's representation of pleasure as a conquest and his experience of it as an absence of mastery. In Le paradigme fminin Monique Schneider showed that Freud in his earlier texts used the feminine topography - an opening into an inner room, where "foreign bodies" can be accepted or excluded - as a paradigm of the psychic apparatus and the repression. This "supplementary room" allows another symbolism of femininity than the devaluating phallic metaphor of the feminine sex as a cavity. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Le fminin expurg. De l'exorcisme la psychanalyse. Paris 1979 La parole et l'inceste. Paris 1980 Freud et le plaisir. Paris 1980 Le temps du conte et le non-temps de l'inconscient. Recherches sur la philosophie et le langage No. 2, 1982 "Pre, ne vois-tu pas...?" Le pre, le matre, le spectre dans l'interpretation des rves. Paris 1985 Le trauma et la filiation paradoxale. Paris 1988 L'approche du trauma. Bloc-notes No. 8, 1988 Der weibliche Blick und die theoretische Schrift. Psyche 43, 1989, 331-338 Les ambiguts de Freud aux prises avec le fantastique. In Colloque de Cerisy: La littrature fantastique, 1991, 221-233 La castration comme trompe-l'il. Cahiers internationaux de symbolisme No. 65-67, 1990 En de du miroir. Bloc-notes No. 11, 1992 La part de l'ombre. Approche d'un trauma fminin. Paris 1992 Don Juan et le procs de la sduction. Paris 1994 L'urgence d'une ngation. Bloc-notes No. 13, 1995 Gnalogie du masculin. Paris 2000 Le trauma et son impact sur le "creux de la mre". In J.-C. Rouchy (ed.): La psychanalyse avec Nicolas Abraham et Maria Torok. Paris 2001 Von Freud zu Ferenczi. Ein verschobener Anfang. Integrative Therapie 29 (3/4), 2003, 320340

Le paradigme fminin. Paris 2003 Genealogy of masculinity. In K. Oliver and L. Walsh (eds): Contemporary French Feminism. Oxford 2004, 128-158 Repudiating the feminine. In C. Howells (ed.): French Women Philosophers. A Comtemporary Reader: Subjectivity, Identity, Alterity. London 2004, 201-217 La cause amoureuse. Freud, Spinoza, Racine. Paris 2008

REFERENCES Baruch, Hoffmann Elaine, and Lucienne J. Serrano: Women Analyse Women. New York, London 1988 Duruz, Nicolas: Laudatio Monique Schneider 2003. Universit de Lausanne 2002 (2008-04-09) Lesn, Sylvie: Review of "Le paradigme fminin". parutions.com 2004-04-05 (2008-04-08) Mortley, Roul: French Philosophers in Conversation. Bond University 1991 (pdf) Watteau, Diane: Sur Le paradigme fminin de Monique Schneider: "Tu ne me verras plus si tu me vois", dit-il. Savoirs et clinique 1 (6), 2005, 241-246 + Cairn.info (2010-08-24) Wikipedia (2010-08-15)

PHOTO: Private archive

Eugnie Sokolnicka ne Kutner (1884-1934)

Eugnie Sokolnicka, born in Warsaw, was the first practicing psychoanalyst in France and a pioneer of child psychoanalysis. She came from a cultivated Jewish family that had fought for the liberation of

Poland. Her mother played such an important role in the 1863 uprising that she was honoured with a state funeral. Eugenia Kutner's father was a banker. Before she was twenty, she came to Paris, where she studied biology at the Sorbonne and attended Pierre Janet's lectures on psychology at the Collge de France. In Paris she met her husband Michal Sokolnicki (1880-1967), a Polish historian, who worked closely with Jzef Pilsudski. She returned with him to Warsaw and was married in 1903. In 1911 Eugenia Sokolnicka started her training in psychiatry at the Burghlzli asylum in Zurich, where she became a pupil of Carl Gustav Jung. After Jung's break with Sigmund Freud she choose the Freudian camp and went to Vienna to have a three months long analysis with Freud in 1914. She attended the sessions of the Wiener Psychoanalytische Vereinigung and became a member in 1916. During this period she separated from her husband. After practicing in Munich, where Felix Bhm underwent analysis with her, in Zurich and Warsaw, she began in 1920 an analysis with Sndor Ferenczi in Budapest, which lasted about a year. According to Ferenczi, Sokolnicka showed feelings of superiority as well as symptoms of paranoia and depressive tendencies accompanied by suicide threats. But Ferenczi also vaunted her capacity as an analyst. Sokolnicka's analysis with Ferenczi was obviously more successful than that with Freud, who did not like her very much. In 1921 she returned to Paris to found the psychoanalytic movement in France as Freud's legitimate representative. Together with Rudolph Loewenstein she trained the first generation of French analysts, among others Ren Laforgue, douard Pichon and Sophie Morgenstern. She gave some lectures at the cole des Hautes tudes Sociales in 1922/23 and was admitted to the Sainte Anne psychiatric hospital by Georges Heuyer. In 1926 she was one of the founders of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris, where she was appointed Vice-President, a post she held for two years. Eugnie Sokolnicka was especially welcomed by the literary milieu of Paris. A circle of authors of the Nouvelle Revue Franaise met at her home each week to discuss psychoanalytic questions with her. Among them was Andr Gide, who had a few analysis sessions with Sokolnicka in 1922 and depicted her as "Doctoresse Sophroniska" in his novel The Counterfeiters. In it he referred to Sokolnicka's famous healing of a childhood obsessional neurosis (1920), which he turned into an abject failure. Eugnie Sokolnicka's patient was a ten-year-old boy, who suffered from a touch phobia and had developed extremely restrictive rituals with which he reduced his mother to a state of slavery. During a six-week analysis Sokolnicka revealed the sexual implication of the boy's symptoms, which disappeared after that. This rapid cure encouraged Sokolnicka to create a minimal analysis, which sees as its end the disappearance of symptoms, while a maximal analysis includes the freeing of the ability to love and the avoidance of repetition. (Top of the article) Although she was regarded as a gifted clinician, Eugnie Sokolnicka lost her position at Sainte Anne in 1923, at the instigation of the new director Henry Claude, who did not accept non-physician analysts. She set up in private practice, but her clientele diminished over the years. In the beginning of the 1930s she played no longer an important role in the French psychoanalytic movement. Poverty, growing depressions, the threat from Nazism in Germany and a sense of rootlessness weighed on her and, in 1934, she took her own life.

WORKS

Analyse einer infantilen Zwangsneurose. IZP 6, 1920, 228-241 [Analysis of an obsessional neurosis in a child. IJP 3, 1920, 306-319; L'analyse d'un cas de nvrose obsessionnelle infantile. Revue de neuro-psychiatrie infantile 16 (5/6), 1968] Quelques problmes de technique psychanalytique. RFP 3, 1929, 1-49 Sur un cas de gurison rapide. RFP 5, 1932, 440 propos de l'article de M. Ren Laforgue. RFP 6, 1933, 361-363

REFERENCES Appignanesi, Lisa, and John Forrester: Freud's Women. London 1992 Duhamel, Pascale: Eugnie Sokolnicka (1884-1934), entre l'oubli et le tragique. Thesis (MD) Bordeaux-II 1988 Freud, Sigmund, and Sndor Ferenczi: The Correspondence, vol. 3: 1920-1933 (4.6.1920). Cambridge, Mass. 2000 Gazeta Lokalna Kutna i Regionu, 2009-12-17, p. 17 (2012-02-02) Geissmann, Claudine, and Pierre Geissmann: A History of Child Psychoanalysis (1992). London 1998 Genealogia Potomkw Sejmu Wielkiego (2012-02-02) Gide, Andr: Les faux-monnayeurs. Paris 1925 [The Counterfeiters. London 1928] Gourvitch, Michel: Eugnie Sokolnicka, pionnier de la psychanalyse et inspiratrice d'Andr Gide. Mdicine de France No. 219, 1971, 17-22 Heenen-Wolff, Susann: Eugnie Sokolnicka (1884-1934). In E. Federn and G. Wittenberger (eds): Aus dem Kreis um Sigmund Freud. Frankfurt/M. 1992, 155-157 May, Ulrike: Freuds Patientenkalender: Siebzehn Analytiker in Analyse bei Freud (19101920). Luzifer-Amor 19 (37), 2006, 43-97 Mijolla, Alain de: Sokolnicka-Kutner, Eugnie. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1692f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2008-04-08)] Mhlleitner, Elke: Biographisches Lexikon der Psychoanalyse. Tbingen 1992 Pichon, Edouard: Eugnie Sokolnicka (14 juin 1884-19 mai 1934). RFP 7, 1934, 589-603(201202-02) Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 1: 1885-1939. Paris 1994

Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)]

PHOTO in Roudinesco 1994

Anne-Lise Stern (*1921)

ditions du Seuil The child analyst Anne-Lise Stern was born in Berlin and grew up in Mannheim. When Hitler came to power, her father Heinrich Stern, a Jewish-German psychiatrist and Marxist, emigrated with his family to France in 1933. Anne-Lise Stern began to study medicine, but in 1944 she was arrested and deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. From there she was sent to Bergen-Belsen, Raguhn and Theresienstadt. She survived the concentration camp and returned to France in 1945. After the end of the war, Anne-Lise Stern studied psychology and trained as a psychoanalyst, initially with Maurice Bouvet, then with Franoise Dolto and finally with Jacques Lacan. She became an adherent of Lacan and member of the cole Freudienne de Paris. For Anne-Lise Stern Lacan's "return to Freud" is the psychoanalysis for the After-Auschwitz. She worked with hospitalised children, first at the Bichat hospital and from 1953 to 1968 at the Hpital des Enfants Malades in Paris, where she cooperated with Jenny Aubry. Inspired by the 1968 student movement she founded the Laboratoire de psychanalyse in Paris in 1969 for the treatment of patients without means, financed with German reparation money. From 1972 to 1978 she was appointed as a psychotherapist in the department for drug addicts led by Claude Olievenstein at the Marmottan hospital. The upsurge of Holocaust negationism in France caused Anne-Lise Stern to establish a seminar in 1979, where actual contemporary documents and its relations to the Holocaust were discussed. Since 1991, the bi-monthly seminar called Camps, histoire, psychanalyse - leur nouage dans l'actualit europenne has taken place at the Maison des Sciences de l'Homme in Paris. In 1994 Stern`s book Le savoir-dport was published, containing besides her main articles from 1963 to 2003 a report of her experiences in the concentration camp.

WORKS Un lapsus de SS. Nouvel Observateur, 3.6.1969 + in Stern, Le savoir-dport, 2004 Passe - du camp chez Lacan. Passe - Vom Lager zu Lacan. In J. Prasse and C.-D. Rath (eds): Lacan und das Deutsche. Die Rckkehr der Psychoanalyse ber den Rhein. Freiburg 1994, 203-216 "Mending" Auschwitz, through psychoanalysis? Strategies. Journal of theory, culture and politics No. 8, 1995/96 La France hospitalire - Drancy avenir. Essaim No. 1, 1998, 139-149 Frher mal ein deutsches Kind...passe du camp chez Lacan. Versuch einer Hinbersetzung. Berliner Brief No. 2, 1999 Point de suture [about "La vie est belle" by R. Benigni]. Carnets de l'Ecole de psychanalyse Sigmund Freud No. 21/22, 1999 Psychanalyste aprs Auschwitz. Essaim No. 4, 1999 Le savoir-dport. Camps, histoire, psychanalyse. Paris 2004; 2007

REFERENCES Broudic, Jean-Yves: Natre aprs. propos du livre: "Le savoir-dport. Camps, Histoire, Psychanalyse", par Anne-Lise Stern. freud-lacan.com 2007 (2008-04-09) Dorland, Michael: Psychoanalysis after Auschwitz? The "Deported Knowledge" of Anne-Lise Stern. Other Voices 2 (3), 2005 (2010-08-30) Fresco, Nadine, and Martine Leibovici: Entendre. Une vie l'uvre. In Anne-Lise Stern: Le savoir-dport. Paris 2004 Millot, Catherine: Prsentation du livre d'Anne-Lise Stern: Le savoir-dport. Essaim Nr. 13, 2004, 179-184 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990]

PHOTO in Stern, Le savoir-dport, 2007

Maria Torok (1925-1998)

Maria Torok's work stands in the tradition of the Hungarian psychoanalyst Sndor Ferenczi. The daughter of a Jewish grand bourgeois family, she was born in Budapest, where she grew up and survived the German occupation during the war. In 1947 she moved to Paris, where she trained and worked as a chemical technical assistant. In the beginning of the 1950s she studied psychology at the Sorbonne, received a bachelor's degree in 1955 and then worked as a psychological counsellor in nursery schools. She went into analysis with Bela Grunberger, who also came from Hungary, and later with Margaret Clark-Williams. In 1956 she became a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) and worked as a child analyst in social-service agencies until 1967. In 1950 she met the Hungarian-Jewish philosopher and analyst Nicolas Abraham (1919-1975), who became her companion. Torok and Abraham developed a phenomenological psychoanalysis and taught it in a seminar they led together from 1959 to 1961 in Paris. Originating in the work of Ferenczi, they conceived their theory of the "crypt" and the "phantom", in order to explain the psychopathogenic potential of unspoken secrets and traumas transmitted to the next generation. Those unbearable experiences are removed from associative links to the rest of psychic life by "preservative repression" and entombed in a "crypt" that functions within the ego as a false unconscious. The children, who unwittingly inherit the secret of their parents by "endocryptic indentification", are haunted by phantoms which cause great disruption in their psychic life. In her well-noticed essay The illness of mourning and the fantasy of the exquisite corpse Maria Torok described the "illness of mourning" as an effect of unspoken "incorporations" with traumatic effects, by which a subject tries to regain a lost or prohibited object through the magic of hallucinatory. In contrast to the introjection that allows a process of mourning, the incorporation blocks the libidinal cathexis of new objects and thus the psychic development. Sympathizing with Jacques Derrida's approach of deconstruction, Maria Torok wrote numerous articles for the journal Confrontation. Like Ferenczi she championed a closer contact with the patient, a position that upset her fellow members of the SPP. She made an important contribution to the critic of Freud's concept of femininity with her early paper The meaning of the "penis envy" in women, where she stressed the symptomatic character of the penis envy: The "false" wish for an idealized penis is a defence against masturbatory fantasies by which the girl appropriates the position of her mother. In 1983 Maria Torok began to collaborate with Nicholas Rand, an American analyst and professor of French literature, whom she married in 1990. She died from leukaemia at the age of 73. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS

Phantasie. Versuch einer begrifflichen Klrung ihrer Struktur und Funktion (1959). Psyche 51, 1997, 33-45 La signification de l'"envie du pnis" chez la femme. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Recherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine. Paris 1964 [The significance of penis envy in women. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Female Sexuality. New Psychoanalytic Views. London 1970] Maladie du deuil et fantasme du cadavre exquis. RFP 32 (4), 1968, 229-251 [The illness of mourning and the fantasy of the exquisite corpse. In Torok/Abraham, The Shell and the Kernel, 1994] L'os de la fin. Confrontation No. 1, 1979 Thortra. Confrontation No. 8, 1982 [Thoretra. Psyche 53, 1999, 211-214] L'occult et l'occultisme. Confrontation No. 1, 1983 La correspondance Ferenczi-Freud. La vie de la lettre dans l'histoire de la psychanalyse. Confrontation No. 12, 1984, 79-99 Restes d'effacement. Confrontation No. 16, 1985 Freud's "uncanny" and the return of the secret. The sandman looks at Sigmund Freud. Speculations, October 26-28, 1990 Lignes et couleurs. Paris 2000 Une vie avec la psychanalyse. Indits et introuvables prsents et annots par Nicholas T. Rand. Paris 2002 (and Nicolas Abraham) Cryptonymie. Le verbier de l'homme aux loups. Paris 1976 [The Wolf Man's Magic Word. A Cryptonymy. Minneapolis 1986] (and Nicolas Abraham) L'corce et le noyau. Paris 1978 [The Shell and the Kernel. Chicago 1994] (and Nicolas Abraham) Rythme: de la philosophie, de la psychanalyse et de la posie. Paris 1985 (and Nicolas Abraham) Das verlorengegangene Objekt-Ich. Anmerkungen zur endokryptischen Identifikation. In PSZ (ed.): Sexualitt. Frankfurt/M. 1986, 61-87 (and Nicholas Rand) Die Geschichte der Psychoanalyse als Erinnerungsspur. In K. Brede (ed.): Was will das Weib in mir. Freiburg 1989, 23-54 (and Nicholas Rand) Questions Freud. Du devenir de la psychanalyse. Paris 1995 [Questions for Freud. The Secret History of Psychoanalysis. Cambridge, Mass. 1997] (and Nicholas Rand) Freuds und Ferenczis Traumaforschung - eine Gegenberstellung. Psyche 53, 1999, 441-456

(and Nicolas Abraham) Die Topik der Realitt. Bemerkungen zu einer Metapsychologie des Geheimnisses. Psyche 55, 2001, 539-544

RFERENCES Association Europenne Nicolas Abraham et Maria Torok (2010-09-13) Bonomi, Carlo: Psychoanalysis, Language and Deconstruction in the Work of Nicolas Abraham and Maria Torok. Interview with Nicholas Rand. Psychoanalysis & History 1 (2), 1998 Dupont, Judith: Der Traumabegriff nach Ferenczi und sein Einflu auf die sptere psychoanalytische Forschung. Psyche 53, 1999, 419-423 Rand, Nicholas T.: Maria Torok (1925-1998), lments biographique. In M. Torok: Une vie avec la psychanalyse. Paris 2002, 257-260 Rouchy, Jean-Claude (ed.): La psychanalyse avec Nicolas Abraham et Maria Torok. Ramonville-Saint-Agne 2001 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Sdat, Jacques: Torok, Maria. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1814f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2008-04-09)] Wikipedia (2010-09-09) Yassa, Maria: Nicolas Abraham and Maria Torok - The inner crypt. Scand Psychoanal Rev 25 (2), 2002, 1-14 + pdf (2010-09-07) Zeul, Mechthild: Maria Torok 1925-1998. Psyche 53, 1999, 215-219

PHOTO in Torok 2002

Nathalie Zaltzman (1933-2009) Link to a photo of Nathalie Zaltzman Nathalie Zaltzman was born in Paris as the only daughter of Russian-Jewish immigrants. Her family survived the Second World War hidden in the south of France. Nathalie's father Abram Zaltzman, who had been a lawyer in St. Petersburg, owned a papeterie in Paris and a large private library. In the course of the 1950s, Nathalie Zaltzman worked for several years as a Russian translator at UNESCO in

Paris, before she began studying psychology at the Sorbonne. In 1963 she married the psychiatrist and analyst Franois Perrier (1922-1990). They divorced in 1968, a year after their son Alexis was born. Nathalie Zaltzman received her psychoanalytic training from the Socit franaise de psychanalyse (SFP). After the dissolution of the SFP in 1964 she became a member of the cole freudienne de Paris (EFP) founded by Jacques Lacan that same year. Her training analyst was Serge Leclaire. In 1970 she left the EFP and joined the Quatrime groupe founded by Piera Aulagnier, Franois Perrier and JeanPaul Valabrega in 1969. Beginning in 1972, Nathalie Zaltzman occupied several positions in the group and was elected President in 1986. From 1974 to 1998 she was an influential member of the editorial committee of the group's journal Topique, where most of her texts were published. Later she was affiliated to the editorial board of the journal Penser/rver created in 2002. Nathalie Zaltzman's articles dating back over a period of twenty years were collected and published in 1998 under the title De la gurison psychanalytique. Her main interest centered on the effects of the psychoanalytic cure and the connection between individual and collective destinies. She renewed Sigmund Freud's notion of "Kulturarbeit" (cultural work) as a basis of psychoanalytic healing. For Zaltzman cultural work means an intrapsychic and trans-individual process that modifies individual development and the evolution of human beings in general. With reference to totalitarian systems, Zaltzman pointed out in La rsistance de l'humain that even under inhuman conditions there is an indestructible rest of humanity, which is guaranteed by the psychic-collective heritage of cultural work. Starting again from the idea of cultural work, Nathalie Zaltzman examined in her book L'esprit du mal the dimensions of evil as an unevolving constant of the human condition and the concept of a "crime against humanity". (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS (for more, see Quatrime groupe) Un mot primitif: la chimre du sexe. Topique No. 20, 1977, 19-40 La pulsion anarchiste. Topique No. 24, 1979, 25-64 L'pisode hypomane en cours d'analyse. Topique No. 39, 1987, 29-48 Hommage Piera Aulagnier. Topique No. 45, 1990, 5 Faire une analyse et gurir: de quoi? Topique, Numro spcial 1993, 73-93 Le normal, la maladie et l'universel humain. RFP 60 (4), 1996, 1123-1135 De la gurison psychanalytique. Paris 1998 (ed.) La rsistance de l'humain. Paris 1999 De surcrot? Le travail de culture? La gurison? L'analyse elle-mme? In A. Green (ed.): Le travail psychanalytique Paris 2003, 211-219 Entre Freud et Dostoevski. La question du mal. In F. Richard and F. Urribarri (eds): Autour de l'oeuvre d'Andr Green. Enjeux pour une psychanalyse contemporaine. Paris 2005, 109-122 L'esprit du mal. Paris 2007

REFERENCES Benhaim, David: Histoire et Kulturarbeit. De Piera Aulagnier Nathalie Zaltzman. Spirale No. 177, 2001 (Mars-Avril) + Rflexions psychanalytiques (2010-06-10) Moreau Ricaud, Michelle: Nathalie Zaltzman (1933-2009) une psychanalyste passionne. Le Coq-Hron No. 196, 2009 (1), 152-153 + Cairn.Info (2010-06-10) Villa, Franois, and Eva Weil: L'Esprit du mal [The Spirit of Evil] by Nathalie Zaltzman, Editions de l'Olivier, Paris 2007. IJP 91, 2010, 667-674 Wikipedia (2010-06-10)

Annie Anzieu Jenny Aubry Piera Aulagnier Marie Balmary (only in German) Laurence Bataille Anne Berman Marie Bonaparte Franoise Boulanger (Canada) Denise Braunschweig Elsa Breuer Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel Maryse Choisy Margaret Clark-Williams Odette Codet Myriam David Monique David-Mnard Annie Anzieu ne Pghaire (*1922?) Link to a photo of Annie Anzieu

Franoise Dolto Judith Dupont Micheline Enriquez Solange Falad Juliette Favez-Boutonier Marcelle Geber (only in German) Florence Guignard Dominique Guyomard Luce Irigaray velyne Kestemberg Julia Kristeva Paulette Laforgue Ruth Lebovici Rosine Lefort Anne Levallois Maud Mannoni

Joyce McDougall Catherine Millot Michle Montrelay Sophie Morgenstern Marie Moscovici Gisela Pankow Catherine Parat Ginette Raimbault Blanche Reverchon-Jouve lisabeth Roudinesco Monique Schneider Eugnie Sokolnicka Anne-Lise Stern Maria Torok Nathalie Zaltzman

Annie Anzieu studied philosophy and psychology (with Daniel Lagache) in Paris after the end of World War II. In 1947 she married her fellow student Didier Anzieu (1923-1999); their daughter Christine was born in 1950, their son Patrick in 1953. Didier Anzieu was the son of Marguerite Anzieu, ne Pantaine, who was hospitalised at Sainte-Anne in 1931 and became known as Jacques Lacan's famous case of "Aime". Didier Anzieu, who had no idea of this connection, began analysis with Lacan in 1949. Annie Anzieu worked as a psychologist and taught philosophy, before she became a logopedist and psychotherapist at the Salptrire hospital in Paris in 1958. Together with Daniel Widlcher she

founded the Department of Psychotherapy for Children at the Salptrire, which she led for many years. She underwent training analysis with Georges Favez and became a member of the Association Psychanalytique de France, founded in 1964. She specialised in child analysis and was a President of the Association pour la psychanalyse de l'enfant. In 1994, with Florence Guignard, she founded the Socit Europenne pour la Psychanalyse de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent (SEPEA), to which she was appointed vice president. Daniel Lagache, Melanie Klein and Donald Winnicott influenced the thinking of Annie Anzieu. In cooperation with Didier Anzieu she developed the concept of the skin ego. In addition to child analysis, she is especially interested in female sexuality. In her book La femme sans qualit (The woman without qualities) she argued that a woman's psyche is influenced by the representations of her body's interior, formed by a sexual cavity. In her opinion femininity does not connote the lack of a penis, but the notions of orifice and passage. Annie Anzieu lives in Paris. Her daughter Christine Anzieu-Premmereur is also a psychoanalyst.

SELECTED WORKS Le psychanalyste dans son fauteuil. In G. Favez et al.: tre psychanalyste. Paris 1976, 148-166 Psychanalyse et langage. Du corps la parole. Paris 1977 La femme sans qualit. Esquisse psychanalytique de la fminit. Paris 1989; 2004 La famille: l'individu-plus-un. Approche psychanalytique et approche systmique. Boucherville, Qubec 1990 Beunruhigende Weiblichkeit. Zum Thema Adoleszenz. Psyche 49, 1995, 886-902 Le travail du psychothrapeute d'enfant. Paris 2003 Hysterie als Erregungshlle. In B. Brosig and U. Gieler (eds.): Die Haut als psychische Hlle. Gieen 2004 Propos sur la fminit. RFP 69 (4), 2005, 1103-1116 Quelques reflexions sur une psychanalyse possible des bbs. La Psychiatrie de l'enfant 50 (2), 2007, 417-422 (with Simone Daymas and Christine Anzieu-Premmereur) Le jeu en psychothrapie de l'enfant. Paris 2000 [Das Spiel in der Kinderpsychotherapie. Tbingen 2006] (with Lose Barbey, Jocelyne Bernard-Nez, and Simone Daymas) Le travail du dessin en psychothrapie de l'enfant. Paris 1996; 2002 (and Christian Grard) (eds) Traumatisme et contre-transfert. Paris 2004

REFERENCES Braconnier, Alain: Entretien avec Annie Anzieu. Le Carnet/Psy No. 91, 2004 (2010-2-5)

Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Jacques Lacan. Esquisse d'une vie, histoire d'un systme de pense. Paris 1993 [Jacques Lacan. An Outline of a Life and a History of a System of Thought. Oxford 1999 Segal, Naomi: Consensuality. Didier Anzieu, Gender and the Sense of Touch. Amsterdam; New York 2009

Jenny Aubry ne Weiss (1903-1987)

Jenny Aubry was a pioneer of child psychoanalysis in France. She was born into an educated uppermiddle-class family in Paris; her mother, Jeanne Javal, was of Jewish origin and her father, the engineer Paul Louis Weiss, was Protestant. Her older sister, Louise Weiss, was a famous suffragette. Urged on by her mother and against the wish of her father, Jenny Weiss studied medicine, neurology and child psychiatry. In 1928 she married Alexandre Roudinesco (1883-1974), a paediatrician who had emigrated from Romania, by whom she had three children. Her daughter Elisabeth Roudinesco also became a psychoanalyst. Jenny Roudinesco interned with the neurologist Clovis Vincent and was an assistant with the child psychiatrist Georges Heuyer from 1935 to 1939. At that time she met the child analyst Sophie Morgenstern. After obtaining the title of a hospital doctor in 1939, she worked as a physician at the Salptrire hospital, the hospice in Brvannes and the Enfants-Malades hospital. During the German occupation she joined the Resistance and, protected by false papers, she used her position to hide Jewish children and to prepare certificates of tuberculosis for young men likely to be sent to forced labour camps. In 1946 Jenny Roudinesco became Chief of Paediatrics at the Ambroise Par hospital, to which the Fondation Parent-de-Rosan was attached. This public welfare warehouse was the home to young children abandoned by their mothers. Confronted with the children's suffering from hospitalism, she became interested in the psychoanalytic concepts of Ren Spitz and John Bowlby. Encouraged by Anna Freud and a study visit in the United States, she finally began psychoanalytic training in 1948. She underwent training analysis with Michel Cnac and Sacha Nacht. One of her supervising analysts was Jacques Lacan, whom she followed into the Socit de Psychanalyse Freudienne (SPF) in

1953 and subsequently into the cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP). In 1952 she divorced Alexander Roudinesco and married Pierre Aubry, a mathematician. (Top of the article) In her book Enfance abandone, published in 1953, Jenny Aubry described her work with hospitalised children and the success of psychoanalysis in the prevention and treatment of psychosis. She engaged in pioneering work by introducing psychoanalysis into the world of non-psychiatric hospitals. While working at the polyclinic on the Boulevard Ney from 1952 onwards, she expanded her activities to the prevention of school problems and developed a sort of group therapy for kindergartens. From 1963 to 1968 Jenny Aubry was Head of the Paediatrics Department at the Hpital des Enfants Malades in Paris, where she established the first psychoanalytic consultation service in France. After her retirement to Aix-en-Provence in 1968, she helped promote Lacanianism in the south of France. After the death of Pierre Aubry in 1972, she returned to Paris, where she served as a training analyst. An anthology of her papers was published in 2003 under the title Psychanalyse des enfants spars. Etudes cliniques 1952-1986.

WORKS Enfance abandone (1953). Paris 1983 Quelques pas sur le chemin de Franoise Dolto. Paris 1988 Psychanalyse des enfants spars. Etudes cliniques 1952-1986. Paris 2003

REFERENCES Geber, Marcelle: Aubry Weiss, Jenny. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 161f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis(2009-3-9)] Roudinesco, lisabeth: Gnalogies. Paris 1994 Roudinesco, lisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-3-6)]

PHOTO: Elisabeth Roudinesco

Piera Aulagnier ne Spairani (1923-1990)

Piera Aulagnier was born in Milan, the daughter of a sixteen-year-old mother. After spending her first years in Egypt, she grew up with her grandparents in Italy. She studied medicine in Rome and moved to Paris in 1950, where she completed her studies in psychiatry. From 1955 to 1961 she underwent training analysis with Jacques Lacan and became a member of the Socit franaise de psychanalyse. She later underwent a second analysis with Serge Vidermann. In 1964 she followed Lacan into the cole Freudienne de Paris, but left the EFP in 1969 after Lacan had proposed the "pass", a more subjective procedure of nominating a training analyst. The same year she founded, along with her colleagues Franois Perrier and Jean-Paul Valabrega, the Organisation psychanalytique de langue franaise (OPLF), the so-called Quatrime Groupe. In 1967 Piera Aulagnier created, together with Conrad Stein und Jean Clavreul, the review L'Inconscient, and two years later the journal Topique. After separating from her first husband, the businessman Andr Aulagnier, with whom she had her son Claude, Piera Aulagnier married Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997), a philosopher-psychoanalyst of Greek origin, in 1975. They divorced in 1984. Piera Aulagnier specialized in the treatment of psychotics and worked at the Sainte-Anne hospital in Paris, where she read a weekly seminar from 1962 to 1990. Many of her publications were linked with this seminar. Aulagnier's work, which stands in the tradition of Lacan, is considered to be one of the most important French contributions to psychoanalytic theory; however, it is not easy to understand. Her starting point is the communication of the psychotic and the question of the meaning of psychosis. Aulagnier stated that the specific factor underlying psychosis is an insoluble discordance between what the small child experiences and the meaning imposed by the mother's discourse. The system of delusional thinking is the attempt to resolve this contradiction. Based on her clinical experience with psychosis Piera Aulagnier enlarged on the Freudian metapsychology and established a new theorization of the I: The agency called I is constituted by discourse and its task is the production of sense. She developed a number of new conceptions such as the "primal process" (processus originaire), which precedes the primary and secondary processes. All three are processes of psychic "metabolisation": they transform that which is not psychical into something psychical by specific forms of representation. The representational mode is different for each of the three processes: the primal process represented by "pictograms", the primary process represented by unconscious fantasies, and the secondary process represented by verbal announcements. When the primary and secondary processes fail to function normally, the individual regresses to the archaic level of the primal process, which infiltrates the mind and subsequently becomes the source of psychotic thought processes. Piera Aulagnier died of lung cancer at the age of 66.(Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS (for more, see Quatrime Groupe) Remarques sur la structure psychotique. La Psychanalyse 8, 1964, 47-67 Le dsir de savoir dans ses rapports la transgression. L'Inconscient No. 1, 1967, 109-125 Remarques sur la fminit et ses avatars. In P. Aulagnier, J. Clavreul, F. Perrier, G. Rosolato, and J.-P. Valabrega: Le dsir et la perversion. Paris 1967, 53-79 La perversion comme structure. L'Inconscient No. 2, 1967, 11-41 Comment peut-on ne pas tre Persan? L'Inconscient No. 8, 1968, 27-45 Socits de psychanalyse et psychanalystes de socit. Topique No. 1, 1969, 7-46 Le sens perdu (ou le "schizo" et la signification). Topique No. 7/8, 1971, 49-83 La violence de l'interprtation. Du pictogramme l'nonc (1975). Paris 2003 [The Violence of Interpretation. From Pictogram to Statement. Hove, East Sussex 2001] Les destins du plaisir. Alination, amour, passion. Paris 1979 L'apprenti-historien et le matre-sorcier. Du discours identifiant au discours dlirant (1984). Paris 2004 Naissance d'un corps, origine d'une histoire. In Corps et histoire, IVme rencontre psychanalytique d'Aix en Provence. Paris 1985, 99-141 Un interprte en qute de sens (1986). Paris 2001 Sources somatique et discursive de nos reprsentations de la ralit. J psychanal enf No. 3, 1987, 247-271 Voies d'entre dans la psychose. Topique No. 49, 1992, 7-29 Topique No. 74, 2001: Piera Aulagnier. L'esprit du temps

REFERENCES Benheim, David: Piera Aulagnier et le concept de violence primaire. Montral 1995 (2008-49) Bonnel, Jacqueline, and Hlne Troisier: Piera Aulagnier. Paris 1998 Leiser, Eckart: Piera Aulagnier oder der Ursprung des Subjekts im Krper. In ders.: Das Schweigen der Seele. Das Sprechen des Krpers. Psychoanalytische Zugnge zum Krper und dessen Leiden. Gieen 2007 McDougall, Joyce, and Nathalie Zaltzman: Preface to Aulagnier, The Violence of Interpretation, 2001, xvi-xxiv

Mijolla-Mellor, Sophie de: Penser la psychose. Une lecture de l'uvre de Piera Aulagnier. Paris 1998 Mijolla-Mellor, Sophie de: Aulagnier-Spairani, Piera, ex-Castoriadis-Aulagnier. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 164f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2009-03-09)] Mijolla-Mellor, Sophie de: Quatrime Groupe (O.P.L.F.). In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1441-1443 Quatrime Groupe (2010-02-12) Rother de Hornstein, Cristina: Piera Aulagnier. PsicoMundo (2010-03-08) Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)] Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990]

PHOTO: Jacques Sdat

Laurence Bataille (1930-1986)

Laurence Bataille was the only child of the writer Georges Bataille and the Romanian Jewish actress Sylvia Bataille. Her mother separated from Bataille in 1933 and lived starting in 1939 with the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, whom she married in 1953. Laurence grew up close to her stepfather with her half-sister Judith. At the age of sixteen, she became the mistress of the painter Balthus, who made several portraits of her. Laurence Bataille first entered an actress career. After a tour with her theatre company in Algeria in 1954, she was a temporary member of the Communist Party and involved in promoting Algeria's independence. In 1960 she was imprisoned for six weeks for aiding the National Liberation Front, FLN. Familiar with the ideas of Lacan since her youth, Laurence Bataille studied medicine and entered into

training analysis with Conrad Stein in 1963. She became a member of the cole Freudienne de Paris, which was dissolved by Lacan in 1980. After Lacan's death, she joined the Ecole de la Cause Freudienne (ECF) directed by her brother-in-law Jacques-Alain Miller. From 1976 to 1978 she acted as director of the Lacanian journal Ornicar?, where some of her articles and reviews were published. In 1982 she left the ECF, because she disapproved of the fact that Jacques-Alain Miller used Lacan's circular letters posthumously as legal texts. Laurence Bataille, whom Lacan called his loyal Antigone, died of liver cancer in 1986. A year after her death, a small anthology of her essays was published under the title L'ombilic du rve. In her paper of the same title, she described the work of interpretation using as an example a dream which played an important role in her own analysis.

SELECTED WORKS Emma ou la fonction d'un fantasme. Ornicar? No. 8, 1976, 21-31 Dsir de l'analyste et dsir d'tre l'analyste. Ornicar? No. 20/21, 1980, 71-73 Fantasme et interprtation. Ornicar? No. 25, 1982, 75-79 D'une pratique. tudes freudiennes No. 25, 1985 [Von einer Praxis. In Bataille 1988, 75-197] Incidences de l'oeuvre de Lacan sur la pratique de la psychanalyse. Compte rendu des Journes Figuration du Fminin. tudes freudiennes No. 25, 1985 Das Begehren des Analytikers und das Begehren, Analytiker zu sein. Der Wunderblock Nr. 15 (Oktober), 1986 + in Bataille 1988, 11-14 L'ombilic du rve. D'une pratique de la psychanalyse. Paris 1987 [Der Nabel des Traums. Von einer Praxis der Psychoanalyse. Weinheim, Berlin 1988]

REFERENCES Friedmann, Daniel, and Jrme Blumberg: Laurence Bataille (Video). CNRS audiovisuell 1983 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Jacques Lacan. Esquisse d'une vie, histoire d'un systme de pense. Paris 1993 [Jacques Lacan. An Outline of a Life and a History of a System of Thought. Oxford 1999]

PHOTO in Bataille 1988

Anne Berman (1889-1979)

Anne (Annette) Berman, a university-trained pharmacist, worked in the laboratory at the SainteAnne hospital in Paris until 1924. That year she bought a pharmacy and worked there for several years, before entering analysis with Marie Bonaparteand becoming her personal secretary. In 1927 she was accepted as a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) and administered the secretariat of the Institut de Psychanalyse from its inception in 1934. Anne Berman was known as a translator of psychoanalytical works. She translated several of Sigmund Freud's works into French: Neue Folge der Vorlesungen zur Einfhrung in die Psychoanalyse (1936), Der Mann Moses und die monotheistische Religion (1948), Abri der Psychoanalyse (1949) and Freud's and Josef Breuer's Studien ber Hysterie (1956). Anne Berman had a lengthy affair (until 1940) with Adrien Borel (1886-1966), a French psychiatrist and in 1926 co-founder of the SPP, and it was she who introduced him to psychoanalysis.

REFERENCES Bourgeron, Jean-Pierre: Berman, Anne. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 206 [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis(200903-09)] Lebovici, Serge: Anne Berman. RFP 43 (3), 1979, 476 Mespoulhs, Nadine: Borel, Adrien Alphonse Alcide. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 233 [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2010-02-20)] Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004

PHOTO: AEJCPP (2008-04-09)

Marie Bonaparte (1882-1962)

Princess Marie Bonaparte, Sigmund Freud's representative in France, was born in Saint-Cloud, near Paris. She was the great-granddaughter of a brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. Her mother Marie-Flix Blanc, the daughter of the wealthy entrepreneur of the casino in Monte Carlo, died of tuberculosis a few weeks after Marie's birth and bequeathed a vast fortune to her husband, Prince Roland Bonaparte. Marie Bonaparte grew up in the care of nannies and governesses and under the severe regiment of her grandmother. As a little girl she believed that her father, whose love she tried in vain to win, had collaborated with the evil grandmother in murdering her mother out of greed. In addition she felt herself responsible by her birth for her mother's death. From the age of seven onwards, she filled five notebooks with cruel fantasy tales, which served later as a basis of her analysis with Sigmund Freud. Her wish to study medicine remained unfulfilled. Submitting to her family's expectation she married Prince George of Greece and Denmark (1869-1957) in 1907, with whom she had two children, Eugnie and Pierre. She was suffering from melancholia and somatic disorders when she met the French psychoanalyst Ren Laforgue in 1923, who wrote to Freud on her behalf. Her meeting with Freud in 1925 was not only the beginning of an analysis - which lasted with interruptions until 1938 -, but also of a close, lifelong friendship between them. It was Marie Bonaparte who helped Freud and his daughterAnna emigrate from Vienna to London after the "Anschluss" in 1938. Marie Bonaparte went into further analysis with Rudolph Loewenstein and was a co-founder of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) in 1926. She was elected vice president of the SPP in 1934. With her wealth she financed many psychoanalytic institutions, among others the Institut de psychanalyse in Paris and the Revue Franaise de Psychanalyse, and she saved Freud's correspondence with Wilhelm Fliess from destruction. After the German occupation of France in 1940, Marie Bonaparte and her family went into exile in Greece and South Africa. Under her chairmanship the first psychoanalytic study group was founded in Greece after the end of the war. Returning to Paris in 1945, Marie Bonaparte saw herself as the bearer of the Freudian word, and like Anna Freud she opposed the theories of Jacques Lacan andMelanie Klein. She translated Freud's work into French and as a vice president of the IPA she championed lay analysis. The writings of Marie Bonaparte are seen to be not as considerable as her eminent role in the history of French psychoanalytic movement. The subject of one of her finest papers, published in 1927, was the case of Marie-Flicit Lefebvre, who murdered her pregnant daughter-in-law. Bonaparte interpreted this murder as an unconscious death wish against the own mother put into action, and she plead for a therapy of psychologically disturbed criminals. Bonaparte's study on Edgar Allen Poe is considered to be her most important contribution. She interpreted Poe's oevre as an attempt to come to terms with his dead mother who obsessed over

him and rendered him impotent. Her interpretation of Poe implied a self-analysis: the ambivalent attachment to a dead mother was also a childhood trauma of her own and her frigidity a lifelong problem. In 1924, in her article Considrations sur les causes anatomiques de la frigidit chez la femme, she argued that frigidity in women often has an anatomic cause - a too great distance between clitoris and vagina. She stressed that the transition from clitoral fixation to vaginal pleasure could only be reached by a mixture of psychoanalytic treatment and surgical intervention - an operation which she underwent several times without success. In her later essays on female sexuality Marie Bonaparte continued to take a psycho-biological approach. She was the first to observe an active phallic stage in the young girl, in which the clitoris corresponds to the phallus. This phallic activity toward the mother is sandwiched between two stages of passivity, first toward the mother, then toward the father. For Bonaparte libidinal fixation on the "masculine" clitoris corresponds to a basically biological masculine character incorporated in the feminine organism. She saw this bisexual constitution of woman as a main obstacle to the development of normal sexuality. Marie Bonaparte died of leukaemia at the age of eighty. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Guerres militaires et guerres sociales. Mditations. Paris 1920 (pseudonym A. E. Narjani) Considrations sur les causes anatomiques de la frigidit chez la femme. Bruxelles mdicales 27, 1924 Le cas de Mme Lefebvre. RFP 1, 1927, 149-198 [Der Fall Lefebvre. Psychoanalyse einer Mrderin. Imago 15, 1929, 15-62] Du symbolisme des trophes de tte. RFP 1, 1927, 677-732 [ber die Symbolik der Kopftrophen. Imago 14, 1928, 100-141] L' identification d' une fille sa mre morte. RFP 2, 1928, 541-565 [Die Identifizierung einer Tochter mit ihrer toten Mutter. Intern Zschr rztl Psychoanal 15, 1929] De la prophylaxie infantile des nvroses. RFP 4, 1930, 85-111 [Die Sexualitt des Kindes und die Neurosen der Erwachsenen. Z psa Pd 5, 1931, 369-412] Aus der Analyse einer mutterlosen Tochter. Zwei Beispiele zur psychoanalytischen Kasuistik. Wien 1931 Edgar Poe: Sa vie - son oevre. tude psychanalytique, vol. 1 and 2. Paris 1933; 1958 (3 vols) [The Life and Works of Edgar Allan Poe. London 1949] La pense magique chez le primitif. RFP 7, 1934, 3-18 [Das magische Denken bei den Primitiven. Almanach 1935] Passivit, masochisme et fminit. RFP 8, 1935, 208-216 [Passivitt, Masochismus und Weiblichkeit. IZP 21, 1935, 23-29]

Cinq cahiers crits par une petite fille entre sept ans et demi et dix ans et leur commentaires, vol. 1: Paris 1939; vol. 2: London 1948; vol. 3 and 4: London 1951 [Five copy-books written by a little girl between the ages of seven-and-a-half and ten, vols 1-4. London 1950-1953] Mythes de guerre. Paris 1946 De la sexualit de la femme. RFP 13, 1949, 1-52 + 161-227; Paris 1951 [Female Sexuality. London 1953] Monologues devant la vie et la mort. Paris 1951 Introduction la thorie des instincts et prophylaxie infantile des nvroses. Paris 1952 Chronos, Eros, Thanatos. Paris 1952 Psychanalyse et biologie. Paris 1952 Psychanalyse et anthropologie. Paris 1952

REFERENCES Appignanesi, Lisa, and John Forrester: Freud's Women. London 1992 [Die Frauen Sigmund Freuds. Mnchen 1996] Bertin, Clia: La dernire Bonaparte. Paris 1982; 1999 [Marie Bonaparte. A Life. New York/London/San Diego 1982] Marie Bonaparte im Wartezimmer Sigmund Freuds (Filmaufnahme 1937). Sigmund Freud Museum Wien (11.11.2011) Bourgeron, Jean-Pierre: Bonaparte, Marie Lon. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 231f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2009-03-09)] Stephan, Inge: Die Grnderinnen der Psychoanalyse. Stuttgart 1992 -Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Wien - Paris. Die Geschichte der Psychoanalyse in Frankreich, Bd.1: 1885-1939. Weinheim, Berlin 1994 Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)] Stein-Monod, Claude: Marie Bonaparte 1882-1962. The problem of female sexuality. In F. Alexander et al. (ed.): Psychoanalytic Pioneers. New York 1966, 399-414 Thompson, Nellie L.: Marie Bonaparte's theory of female sexuality. Fantasy and biology. American Imago 60, 2003, 343-378 Wikipedia (2010-10-15)

PHOTO in Bertin 1989, 351

Denise Braunschweig (1918-1998)

Denise Braunschweig-Demay was a proponent of the psychoanalytic psychosomatics in France. She studied law, psychology and medicine, before she turned towards psychoanalysis and became a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris. She worked several years in child psychiatry, e. g. at the Centre Georges-Amado in Vitry and, with Serge Lebovici, at the Hpital de jour du 13e arrondissement in Paris. In 1972 she founded, together with Pierre Marty, Catherine Parat, Michel d'Uzan, Michel Fain and Christian David, the Institut de psychosomatique, where she worked until the end of her life. In addition, she was an editorial member of the Revue Franaise de Psychosomatique starting in 1991. Standing in the classic tradition of Sigmund Freud, Denise Braunschweig made an essential contribution to the psychoanalytic theory of female sexuality. Her writings, mostly published along with Michel Fain, focused on subjects like narcissism, fetishism, object change in girls, cathexis of the female sexual organs, and the impact of sexual difference on the relationship to reality. Denise Braunschweig and Michel Fain conceived the notion of "censoring the lover in her" [censure de l'amante], which means that a mother's life as a lover "censors" the erotic feelings aroused by maternal care. Her daydreams about her love life with the father of the child introduce the third party into the mother-child relation. This early state of triangulation is the basis for the infant's future Oedipal organisation.

SELECTED WORKS Le narcissisme. Aspects cliniques. RFP 29, 1965, 589-600 Psychanalyse et ralit. RFP 35, 1971, 655-800 Rflexions sur "L'tat amoureux" de Christian David. RFP 36, 1972, 307-323 Traces de Jung dans l'volution thorique de Freud. RFP 47, 1983, 1027-1044

Fantasme originaire et surmoi. La phylogense. RFP 55, 1991, 1253-1264 Implications techniques de la thorie en psychosomatique. Rev fr psychosom No. 3, 1993, 21-32 Variation de la nosographie. propos du trait de caractre. Rev fr psychosom No. 11, 1997, 19-28 (with Serge Lebovici and H. van Thiel-Godfrind) La psychopathie chez l'enfant. Psychiatrie de l'enfant 12, 1969, 5-106 [Arbeiten zur Kinderpsychotherapie. Mnchen, Basel 1979] (and Michel Fain) Eros et antros. Rflexions psychanalytiques sur la sexualit. Paris 1971 (and Michel Fain) La nuit, le jour. Essai psychanalytique sur le fonctionnement mental. Paris 1975 (and Michel Fain) The phallic shadow. In D. Breen (ed.): The Gender Conundrum. Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Femininity and Masculinity. London; New York 1993, 130-144

REFERENCES Ody, Michel: Denise Braunschweig. Paris 2000 Ody, Michel: Ncrologie: Denise Braunschweig-Demay. Bulletin de la SPP No. 50, 1998, 195197 Ody, Michel, and Laurent Danon-Bioleau: censure de l'amante. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 303f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2010-03-01)]

PHOTO: PUF; in Ody 2000

Elsa Breuer Elsa Breuer was born into a Hungarian Jewish family. She studied medicine in Hungary, before she moved to Paris and underwent training analysis withMarie Bonaparte. In 1936 she became an associate member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris. One of her analysands was the philosopher and sociologist Georges Lapassade. In 1952 the French Medical Association accused Elsa Breuer - like Margaret Clark Williams before her - of unlawfully practicing medicine. She lost the trial, because she had made the mistake of treating panel patients and signing the forms with "Dr. Breuer", although her Hungarian certificate was not recognized in France. Elsa Breuer lived in Paris until 1962.

REFERENCES Bertin, Clia: La dernire Bonaparte. Paris 1982; 1999 [Marie Bonaparte. A Life. New York/London/San Diego 1982] Gougoulis, Nicolas: La Psychanalyse et ltat: quelques aperus historiques. SPP (2007-12-07) Hess, Remi: Georges Lapassade, notre matre, notre ami. In Georges Lapassade 1924-2008. Crmonie des adieux (2010-03-11)

Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel (1928-2006)

Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel, the daughter of immigrant parents from Russia and Poland, was born in Paris. Her father, Jules Smirgel (or Smirguel), was an engineer and a painter. Her mother was frequently ill and partially replaced by Janine`s admired aunt Anne, a pneumologist. Following the war, Janine Chasseguet studied political science (diploma in 1952) and psychology at the Sorbonne. From 1953 to 1956 she underwent psychoanalysis with Bela Grunberger (1903-2005), her future husband. She completed her qualifying training in 1958 and became a training analyst of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) in 1965. She served as president of the SPP from 1975 to 1977 and as a vice president of the IPA from 1983 to 1989. She obtained her doctoral degree in 1982, and in 1982/83 she was invited to take the Freud Memorial Chair at the University of London. From 1992 until her retirement in 1996 she was Professor of Clinical Psychology and Psychopathology at the Charles-de-Gaulle-Universitt in Lille. The thinking of Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel was influenced by Sndor Ferenczi, Bela Grunberger and Melanie Klein. Her work has focused on female sexuality, creativity and perversion, narcissism and the ego ideal as well as the application of psychoanalysis to art, literature, film, and politics. In one of her first papers Feminine guilt and the Oedipus complex she criticised Sigmund Freud's concept of a female penis envy by claiming that girls do not envy the penis for its own sake, but as a revolt against the omnipotent mother. The wish to appropriate the paternal phallus and to depose the mother is the source of female guilt for Chasseguet-Smirgel. In her essays about creativity and perversion, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel compared the authentic

work of an artist with the fetishistic "false" object of a pervert. Creativity of an artist implies that he overcomes his regressive desire to return to the perfection of primary narcissism by projecting his ego ideal on paternal models. The pervert, however, succumbs to the "malady of the ideal" and preserves, often confirmed by his mother, the infantile illusion to own the idealized pregenital (anal) phallus and thus to be equal and even superior to his father. Chasseguet-Smirgel stressed a structurally necessary polarity of an anal-phallic-destructive maternal world of regression and perversion and a paternal world of structure, law and creativity. The integration of these two worlds by Oedipal maturity, however, fails mostly. The rebellion against father and law is marked by traits of perversion and regression - and according to the diagnosis of Chasseguet-Smirgel and Bela Grunberger (under the pseudonym "Andr Stphane") this was the case with the 1968 student revolt and its theorists. Sensitised by the fate of her own Jewish relatives who died in the Holocaust, Janine ChasseguetSmirgel was particularly interested in psychoanalytic explanations of National Socialism. She interpreted the national socialist race ideology as the wish to expel aliens from the womb and to melt with the omnipotent mother represented by the group. Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel died of leukaemia at the age of 77. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Notes de lecture en marge de la rvision du cas Schreiber. RFP 30, 1966, 41-61 (ed.) Recherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine. Paris 1964 [Female Sexuality. New Psychoanalytic Views. Ann Arbour 1970; Psychoanalyse der weiblichen Sexualitt. Frankfurt/M. 1974] La culpabilit feminine. In Chasseguet-Smirgel, Recherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine, 1964 [Feminine guilt and the Oedipus complex. In Chasseguet-Smirgel, Female Sexuality, 1970; Die weiblichen Schuldgefhle. In Chasseguet-Smirgel, Psychoanalyse der weiblichen Sexualitt, 1974] Pour une psychanalyse de l'art et de la crativit. Paris 1971 [Kunst und schpferische Persnlichkeit. Anwendungen der Psychoanalyse auf den auertherapeutischen Bereich. Mnchen, Wien 1988] L'idal du moi. Essai psychanalytique sur la "maladie d'idaliser". Paris 1975 [The Ego Ideal. A Psychoanalytic Essay on the "Malady of the Ideal". New York 1984; Das Ichideal. Psychoanalytischer Essay ber die "Krankheit der Idealitt". Frankfurt/M. 1987] Le corps chez Sade. In J. Guillaumin (ed.): Corps, cration. Entre lettres et psychanalyse. Lyon 1981 [De Sade. Der Krper und der Mord an der Realitt. Psyche 35, 1981, 237-252] Creativity and perversion. London 1984 [Kreativitt und Perversion. Frankfurt/M. 1986] thique et esththique de la perversion. Seyssel 1984 [Die Anatomie der menschlichen Perversion. Stuttgart 1989] Sexuality and Mind. New York, London 1986

L'acting out. Quelques rflexions sur la carence d'laboration psychique. RFP 51, 1987, 10831100 berlegungen zum Hamburger Kongre. Jb Psychoanal 20, 1987, 89-113 Les deux arbres du jardin. Essais psychanalytiques sur le rle du pre et de la mre dans la psych. Paris 1988 [Zwei Bume im Garten. Zur psychischen Bedeutung der Vater- und Mutterbilder. Mnchen, Wien 1988] Essai sur la perte de l'activit symbolique dans la pense nazie. In M. Colin (ed.): La crime contre l'humanit. Ramonville Saint-Agne 1996, 163-174 Das helle Antlitz des Narzimus und seine schattigen Tiefen - Einige Reflexionen. In O. F. Kernberg (ed.): Narzitische Persnlichkeitsstrungen. Stuttgart, New York 1996, 233-247 Le corps comme miroir du monde. Paris 2003 [The Body as Mirror of the World. London 2005] [Stphane, Andr (J. Chasseguet-Smirgel and B. Grunberger)] L'univers contestationnaire ou les nouveaux chrtiens. Paris 1969 (et al.) Les chemins de l'Anti-Oedipe. Paris 1974 [Wege des Anti-dipus. Frankfurt/M. u. a. 1978] (and Bla Grunberger) Freud ou Reich? Psychanalyse et illusion. Paris 1976 [Freud oder Reich? Psychoanalyse und Illusion. Frankfurt/M. u.a. 1979; Freud or Reich? Psychoanalysis and Illusion. London 1986]

REFERENCES Baruch, Hoffman Elaine, and Lucienne J. Serrano: Women Analyze Women, in France, England and the United States. New York, London 1988 Bourdin, Dominique: Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel. Paris 1999 Bourdin, Dominique: A brief biographical sketch of Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel. J Clin Psychoanal 8, 1999, 301-305 Eickhoff, Friedrich Wilhelm: Nachruf auf Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel. Z psychoanal Theorie Praxis 21 (2/3), 2006, 147-148 Mor, Angela: berlegungen zur Theorie des Unbewuten bei Chasseguet-Smirgel. Psyche 54, 2000, 599-618 Mor, Angela: Psyche zwischen Chaos und Kosmos. Die psychoanalytische Theorie Janine Chasseguet-Smirgels. Eine kritische Rekonstruktion. Gieen 2001 Pragier, Georges: Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel. Le Monde, 14 Mrz 2006

Springer-Kremser, Marianne: Chasseguet-Smirgel, Janine. In G. Stumm et al. (eds): Personenlexikon der Psychotherapie. Wien; New York 2005, 86-88 Zagermann, Peter: Ich-Ideal, Sublimierung, Narzissmus. Die Theorie des Schpferischen in der Psychoanalyse - diskutiert an Janine Chasseguet-Smirgels Arbeit "Das Ich-Ideal. Psychoanalytischer Essay ber die Krankheit der Idealitt". Darmstadt 1985 Wikipedia franzsisch; englisch; deutsch (2008-03-06) Wikipedia Jules Smirgel (26.10.2010)

PHOTO: Baruch/Serrano 1988, 107

Maryse Choisy (1903-1979)

The journalist, psychoanalyst and author Maryse Choisy was born in Saint-Jean-de-Luz in France. She grew up in the chteau of her aunt, Comtesse Anne de Brmond, who associated with celebrities like Oscar Wilde, Gabriele d'Annunzio and Picasso. At the end of the First World War, Maryse and her aunt moved to London, where she entered Girton College and studied philosophy and psychology. She wrote her dissertation on Samkhya philosophy (Les systmes de philosophie Samkhya). In 1925 (1927?) she began an analysis with Sigmund Freud in Vienna. After three sessions she broke off the treatment when Freud deduced from her dream that she was an illegitimate child - a fact that was confirmed by her aunt. She never learned who her parents were and assumed the name "Choisy" ("Chosen"). In 1925 she became a journalist with the magazine L'Intransigeant and occupied an important position in the intellectual and art world of Paris. Maryse Choisy was a pioneer of investigative journalism and researched undercover in a brothel for her book about prostitution, Un mois chez les filles, which caused a scandal upon its publication. As a leftist and feminist she fought for the women's right to vote. Maryse Choisy married the journalist Maxime Clouzet, the father of her daughter, Colette, born in 1932. At the end of the 1930s, she met Teilhard de Chardin and converted to Catholicism. She then

found her way back to psychoanalysis and went into analysis with Charles Odier, Ren Laforgue (1944) and Maurice Bouvet (1955). Choisy became a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris and devoted her efforts to bringing together religion and psychoanalysis. The result of her search for a benediction for psychoanalysis from the Catholic Church was that Pius XII issued an approval of a "serious psychotherapy" as long as it did not look for sexual causes and violate the confession. In 1946 Maryse Choisy founded the Centre d'etudes des sciences de l'homme - with numerous luminaries such as Pierre Janet, Ren Laforgue and Teilhard de Chardin - and its organ Psych. She hoped this review of psychoanalysis and the human sciences would counter the Freudian atheism with a synthesis of psychoanalysis and spirituality. Psych was inspired by the journal Imago and attempted to find a larger public with well-known authors such as Laforgue, Franoise Dolto, Juliette Favez-Boutonier and Octave Mannoni. Besides psychoanalytic topics, the review discussed the subjects acupuncture, graphology, eastern religions and cultural events. Psychclosed down in 1959 (with one special issue in 1963). Maryse Choisy published numerous books, novels, poems, essays and reports as well as works popularising psychoanalysis. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Presque quasi roman. Paris 1924 La chirologie. Paris 1927 Un mois chez les filles. Paris 1928 [In den Tiefen von Paris. Leipzig 1930; A Month among the Girls. New York 1960] Un mois chez les hommes. Paris 1929 [A Month among the Men. New York 1962] L'amour dans les prisons. Reportage. Paris 1930 Dames seules (1932). Textes de Maryse Choisy avec des dessins de Marcel Verts. Prsent par Nicole Albert. Cahier Gay Kitch Camp No. 23, 1994 Savoir tre maman ou l'ducation des parents. Paris 1941 Les systmes de philosophie Samkhya. Paris 1946 Symboles et mythes. Psych No. 8, 1947 + Hommes et faits de socit (2010-03-18) Yogas et psychanalyse. Genf 1949 Qu'est-ce que la psychanalyse? Paris 1950 Psychanalyse et catholicisme. Paris 1950 Le scandale de l'amour. Paris 1954 Conscience de la fminit. Paris 1954 Problmes sexuels de l'adolescence. Paris 1954 Psychoanalysis of the Prostitute. New York 1961

Kunst und Sexualitt. Opladen 1962 Sigmund Freud. A New Appraisal. London 1963 L'tre et le silence. Genf 1965 Exercices de yoga. Genf 1968 Mes enfances. Mmoires 1903-1924. Genf 1971 Sur le chemin de Dieu, on rencontre d'abord le diable. Mmoires 1925-1939. Paris 1977 Mmoire des rendez-vous avec Freud (1955). Bloc-notes No. 2, 1982 [Memories of my visits with Freud. In M. H. Ruitenbeek (ed.): Freud as we Knew him. Detroit 1973

REFERENCES Appignanesi, Lisa, and John Forrester: Freud's Women. London 1992 Cosnier, Jacqueline: Choisy, Maryse. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 319-321 [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (200903-09)] Cosnier, Jacqueline: Psych, revue internationale de psychanalyse et des sciences de l'hoimme. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse. Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1371-1372 [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2010-03-18)] Guillemain, Bernard: Maryse Choisy ou l'Amoureuse sagesse. Paris 1959 Mijolla, Alain de: La psychanalyse en France (1893-1965). In R. Jaccard: Histoire de la psychanalyse, vol. 2. Paris 1982, 5-118 Ohayon, Annick: Maryse Choisy et Psych - Psychanalyse et mondanits. Topique No. 71, 2000, 87-107 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990]

FIG.: Leonhard Tsuguharu Foujita 1926, Bild-Kunst; see also Blog Julien Champagne 1+ 2

Margaret Clark-Williams (1910-1975) Margaret Clark-Williams was born in the United States of America. At the age of 21 she went first to France, then to Vienna, where she made her initial contacts in psychoanalytic circles in 1931/32.

Subsequently she returned with her children David and Anne to the United States. She was analysed by the Swiss analyst Raymond de Saussure, who practiced in New York from 1940 to 1952. In 1945 Margaret Clark-Williams came back to France, where she studied psychology with Daniel Lagache and received her clinical training from the child psychiatrist Georges Heuyer. She underwent training analysis with Georges Parcheminey, and her supervising analyst was John Leuba. In 1950 she became an associate member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris. Margaret Clark-Williams was working as a child therapist at the Centre psychopdagogique de Claude-Bernard in Paris, when the Order of Physicians made a complaint against the non-medical analyst, accusing her of illegal practice of medicine due to the fact that she practiced psychoanalysis.Marie Bonaparte, who herself was a "lay analyst" without medical training, and Juliette Favez-Boutonier, the former medical director of the Claude-Bernard Centre, supported the case of Margaret Clark-Williams. The trial beginning in 1951 caused a sensation. Clark-Williams was first acquitted, but a second verdict in 1953 found her guilty - a disaster for lay analysis. Margaret Clark-Williams was a long-standing colleague of Andr Berge until she retired in 1973.

REFERENCES Berge, Andr: Ncrologie de Margaret Clark Williams. RFP 39 (4), 1975, 669-670 Bertin, Clia: Marie Bonaparte. A Life. New York/London/San Diego 1982 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Schopp, Georges: L'affaire Clark-Williams ou la question de l'analyse laque en France. Rev int hist psychanal 3, 1990, 199-239 Schopp, Georges: Clark-Williams, Margaret. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 331f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2009-03-09)]

Odette Codet ne Maug (1892-1964) Odette Codet was born in Rosny-sous-Bois in France. She was married to the psychoanalyst Henri Codet (1889-1939) and with him a founding member of the first Freudian group in France around the review L'volution psychiatrique. She completed her doctorate on the subject of baby diet and worked during the 1930s as a physician at the Bretonneau hospital in Paris. After her first husband died in an automobile accident, she married the architect Pierre Laurent-Lucas-Championnire. Odette Codet underwent training analysis with Marie Bonaparte and became an associate member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) in 1934 and a full member in 1935. In 1953 she, along with Marie Bonaparte and Georges Parcheminey, were opponents of a medicalisation of psychoanalysis by Sacha Nacht, then nominated director of the new Institut de Psychanalyse. Together with the liberal group of Daniel Lagache, Jacques Lacan and others, they formed a majority against Nacht, but the differences with Lacan were too great. During a decisive session of the SPP,

Odette Codet called for a motion of non-confidence against Lacan, which led to his dismissal as President of the SPP and the withdrawal of numerous members. Odette Codet herself was elected President of the SPP in 1959, but due to illness she had to retire. In her article propos de trois cas d'anorexie mentale (1939) Odette Codet described the cases of three anorectic girls between the ages of three and fifteen. In it she highlighted the fact that conflicts increase in complexity with the age of the girl, and stressed that parental attitudes have a primordial role in the genesis and treatment of such conflicts.

WORKS tude d'un rgime alimentaire vari chez l'enfant de six dix-huit mois. Thesis (MD) Paris 1931 nursie, symptme psychogne. L'volution psychiatrique 8 (3), 1936, 27-42 propos de trois cas d'anorexie mentale (1939). RFP 11 (2), 1939, 253-272; RFP 12 (1), 1948, 81-100

REFERENCES Bourgeron, Jean-Pierre: Laurent-Lucas-Championnire-Maug, Odette. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 963f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2009-03-09)] Mijolla, Alain de: La psychanalyse en France (1893-1965). In R. Jaccard (ed.): Histoire de la psychanalyse, Bd. 2. Paris 1982, 5-118 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990]

Myriam David (1917-2004) Link to a photo of Myriam David Myriam David was born into a Jewish family in Paris. In 1933 she began the study of medicine in Paris, with the focus on paediatrics, and graduated in 1942. The same year she fled from Nazi persecution to Southern France, where she joined the Rsistance. She was arrested at the end of 1943 and deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau, but she survived the concentration camp and returned to Paris in 1945. In 1946 Myriam David went to the United States to specialise in child psychiatry, first with Leo Kanner at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, then at the Judge Baker Guidance Clinic in Boston and the James Jackson Putnam Children's Centre guided by Marian Putnamand Beata Rank. Simultaneously she received her psychoanalytic training at the Boston Psychoanalytic Institute. She returned to Paris in 1950 and, supported by Jenny Aubry, she established a psychotherapeutic consultation service at

the Enfants Malades hospital. In 1966 she set up a therapeutic institution of foster family placements in Soisy-sur-Seine, which she directed until 1983. In 1976 she founded a children's unit within the Fondation Rothschild based on the model of the J. J. Putnam Children's Center. Myriam David, who herself lost her mother at an early age, was a pioneer of infant psychiatry in France and was particularly interested in the consequences of an early separation from the mother. In the 1950s she researched this subject in the child care centres Parent-de-Rosan and Amyot, here along with John Bowlby. In 1962, together with her friend, the psychologist Genevive Appell, she undertook a long-term study of children who had been separated from their mothers within the first three months after their birth. The researchers accompanied these children until their fourth year. Myriam David used the notion of "empty behaviour" to describe depressed babies, which seemed to lack an internal world of representations and fantasies. In 1973 David and Appell gave a report on the successful pedagogical approach of Emmi Pikler in Lczy, a residential home for abandoned infants and young children in Budapest.

WORKS tude clinique sur la nphrite aigu infectieuse de l'enfant. Paris, Thesis (MD) 1942 L'enfant de 0 2 ans. Vie affective, problmes familiaux. Toulouse 1956 L'enfant de 2 6 ans. Vie affective, problmes familiaux. Toulouse 1956 Souvenirs d'un mdecin Auschwitz-Birkenau (avril-septembre 1944). In Christian Bernadac: Les mannequins nus. Paris 1971, 211-221 Le placement familial. De la pratique la thorie. Paris 1989; 2004 (ed.) Le bb, ses parents, leurs soignants. Ramonville Saint-Agne 1997 (and Genevive Appell) Lczy ou le maternage insolite. Paris 1973 [Lczy. Mtterliche Betreuung ohne Mutter. Mnchen 1995; Lczy. An Unusual Approach to Mothering. Budapest 2001] (and Irne Lzine) Early Child Care in France (1974). London 1975

REFERENCES Barraco de Pinto, Marthe: Hommage Myriam David (1917-2004). Dialogue 1 (167), 2005, 121-124 + Cairn.info (2010-03-24) Cuisiniez, Jacqueline: Myriam David et le service social. Le Carnet PSY 1, Nr. 96, 2005, 37 + Cairn.info (31.1.2012) Golse, Bernard: Myriam David, pionnire de la sant mentale de la petite enfance. Le Monde, 2005-01-06 (2010-03-06) Gudeney, Antoine: Myriam David: la pionnire discrte. Devenir 18 (2), 2006, 93-98 +Cairn.info (2010-03-25)

Hommage Myriam David. Enfances & Psy 2 (27), 2005, 127-130 + Cairn.info (2008-04-09) Myriam David, une vie pour la petite enfance. Lien social No. 736 (01-13) 2005 Wikipedia (2008-04-09)

Monique David-Mnard (*1947)

The work of Monique David-Mnard, born in Lyon, focuses on the relation between philosophy and psychoanalysis. She completed a master's degree in philosophy with Paul Ricur (Universit de Nanterre, 1968), a doctorate in psychopathology and psychoanalysis with Pierre Fdida (Universit Paris-VII, 1978), and a doctorate in philosophy with Jean-Marie Beysade (Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris-III, 1990). Professor of philosophy in Reims, Sceaux and Paris (1969-2007), Monique David-Mnard received her psychoanalytic training at the cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP) led by Jacques Lacan, and was a member of the EFP from 1979 to 1980. Between 1982 and 1994 she was a member of the Centre de formation et de recherches psychanalytiques (CFRP); starting in 1994 she became a member of the Socit de Psychanalyse Freudienne. She was directrice of the Collge International de Philosophie in Paris from 1992 to 1995, and vice president from 1995 to 1998. In 1999 she was appointed Professor of Psychopathology and Psychoanalysis at the Universit Denis Diderot, Paris-VII, where she is also head of the Centre des tudes du vivant. In addition she is a founding member of the Socit Internationale de Philosophie et Psychoanalyse. Monique David-Mnard's main interest centres on the manner in which fantasies and sexuality operate actively in the production of philosophical discourse. Using psychoanalysis as a critical lever, she highlights, for instance, the weak points in the notion of the universal and shows that the construction of universality in Kant and other thinkers depends on a masculine anthropology of sexual desire. According to David-Mnard, the logic of the universal implying the equality of subjects refers to a seriality of equivalent objects of desire, which does not exist in women.

SELECTED WORKS

Pour une pistmologie de la mtaphore biologique en psychanalyse. La conversion hystrique. Thesis (PhD) Paris 1978 Lacanians against Lacan. Social Text 6, 1982, 86-111 L'hystrique entre Freud et Lacan. Corps et langage en psychanalyse. Paris 1983 [Hysteria from Freud to Lacan. Body and Language in Psychoanalysis. Ithaca, N.Y. 1989] La folie dans la raison pure. Kant lecteur de Swedenborg. Paris 1990 Lacan mit Kant? In H.-D. Gondek and P. Widmer (eds): Ethik und Psychoanalyse. Vom kategorischen Imperativ zum Gegensatz des Begehrens: Kant und Lacan. Frankfurt/M. 1994, 169-191 Les constructions de l'universel. Psychanalyse, philosophie. Paris 1997 [Konstruktionen des Allgemeinen. Psychoanalyse, Philosophie. Wien 1999] Kant et Freud pensent-ils dans la mme langue? In O. Bloch (ed.): Philosophies de la nature. Paris 2000, 35-38 Kant's "An Essay on the Maladies of the Mind" and "Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime". Hypatia 15, 2000, 82-98 Tout le plaisir est pour moi. Paris 2000 Les pulsions caractrises par leurs destins. Freud s'loigne-t-il du concept philosophique de Trieb? Revue germanique internationale 18, 2002 Sexual alterity and the alterity of the real for thought. Angelaki 8 (2), 2003, 137-150 Was tun mit dem organlosen Krper? In E. Alliez and E. von Samsonow (eds): Biographie des organlosen Krpers. Wien 2003 Is it necessary to look for the universal in the difference between the sexes? The "formulae of sexation" in Lacan. In K. Oliver and L. Walsh (eds): Contemporary French Feminism. Oxford; New York 2004 The structures of desire and the concept of the universal. In C. Howells (ed.): French Women Philosophers. A Contemporary Reader. London; New York 2004 Deleuze et la psychanalyse. L'altercation. Paris 2005 [Deleuze und die Psychoanalyse. Zrich 2009]

REFERENCES Baruch, Hoffmann Elaine, and Lucienne J.Serrano: Women Analyse Women. New York, London 1988 Le Monde.fr, 2001-10-02 (2008-04-09)

PHOTO: Woymel, Paris; in Baruch/Serrano 1988, 49

Franoise Dolto ne Marette (1908-1988)

Franoise Dolto is considered to be the second most important figure in the history of psychoanalysis in France after Jacques Lacan. Born as the fourth of seven children into a Catholic family of the great Parisian middle class, she grew up in a sexually repressive milieu characterised by nationalism and anti-Semitism. Her father, Henri Marette, was an engineer and artillery captain and her mother, Suzanne Demmler, was a trained nurse. A traumatic childhood experience was the death of her elder sister, the favourite of her mother, who became depressed as a result, regretting that her lessbeloved daughter was still alive. Franoise spent her youth in a climate of grief and guilt; a serious neurosis was the consequence. After completing a nursing diploma, Franoise Marette began, like her younger brother Philippe, to study medicine in 1932 - with the aim to become an "education doctor". From 1934 to 1937, she underwent training analysis with Ren Laforgue. During her analysis she was able to emancipate herself from her familiar background, with the exception of her Catholic beliefs. In 1939 she became a full member of the Socit psychanalytique de Paris (SPP). Three years prior she met Jacques Lacan, whose ideas she shared on the central role of language and the linguistic structure of the unconscious. After the war, they became close friends. As a non-resident student at Georges Heuyer's unit of infant neuropsychiatry at the Vaugirard hospital, Franoise Marette worked together with Sophie Morgenstern, who introduced her to child psychoanalysis. Referring toMorgenstern's approach, she explained her technique of child analysis in her medical thesis on the subject of psychoanalysis and paediatrics in 1939. For her, child analysts should be a spokesperson for children and employ the language of childhood in analysing the child's thoughts. Dolto's educational thinking was inspired by Clestin Freinet, Alfred Adler and Alexander S. Neill. An important mentor was douard Pichon, whose consultancy at the Trousseau hospital in Paris she took over in 1940 and ran until 1978. In 1942 she married Boris Dolto (1899-1981), a Russian migr doctor, with whom she had three children: Yves-Chrisostome, Grgoire and Catherine.

In 1953 Franoise Dolto, Lacan and others quit the SPP in protest against the stronger regimentation of psychoanalytical training and founded the Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse. Ten years later the IPA forbade Franoise Dolto to train analysts, arguing that she influencds her pupils like a guru and did not respect the training rules of the IPA. As a result she and Lacan founded the cole Freudienne de Paris in 1964. At a colloquium on childhood psychosis in 1967, Franoise Dolto presented the famous case of Dominique, a 14-year-old schizophrenic patient whom she successfully treated. Her report on her analysis is a classical text in the field of child analysis. Dolto evolved a personal theory focused on the concepts of the "unconscious body image" and the "symbol-generating castrations" The body image is the unconscious symbolic incarnation of the desiring being, before it is able to say "I". It is a representation without words reflecting the first relational experiences that develop from physical and psychical needs. Symbol-generating castrations mean the necessary separations from beloved partial objects and the renunciation of the symbiotic participation in the mother's body linked with archaic fantasies of omnipotence - for Dolto the condition of symbolization. By means of these castrations, the child becomes a social being able to verbalise, with an unconscious body image corresponding to its physical ripeness. Psychoses, however, are connected with a mutilated body image, they originate in failed castrations, i.e. fixations or regressions on a former state of object relation. In 1979 Dolto opened the first Maison Verte in Paris, where children from birth to age three learn to deal with separation experiences in a protected way. The model set a precedent and today there are Maisons Vertes in many countries. Due to her radio programs published in Lorsque l'enfant parat, Franoise Dolto became the most popular French psychoanalyst. She died at the age of 79 from a serious lung disease. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Psychanalyse et pdiatrie (1939). Paris 1971 [Psychoanalyse und Kinderheilkunde. Frankfurt/M. 1973] Le cas Dominique. Paris 1971 [Der Fall Dominique. Frankfurt/M. 1973; Dominique. Analysis of an Adolescent. New York 1973] L'veil de l'esprit de l'enfant. Paris 1977 Lorsque l'enfant parat, vol. 1-3. Paris 1977-1979 [Die ersten fnf Jahre. Alltagsprobleme mit Kindern. Weinheim, Basel 1982 + Wenn die Kinder lter werden. Alltagsprobleme in Schule, Familie und Freizeit. Weinheim, Basel 1984] La difficult de vivre. Paris 1981 Au jeu du dsir. Paris 1981 [ber das Begehren. Die Anfnge der menschlichen Kommunikation. Stuttgart 1988] Sminaire de psychanalyse d'enfants. Paris 1982 [Praxis der Kinderanalyse. Stuttgart 1985] La sexualit fminine. La libido gnitale et son destin fminin. Paris 1982 [Weibliche Sexualit. Die Libido und ihr weibliches Schicksal. Stuttgart 2000]

L'image inconsciente du corps. Paris 1984 [Das unbewute Bild des Krpers. Weinheim, Berlin 1987] La cause des enfants. Paris 1985 [Mein Leben auf der Seite der Kinder. Mnchen 1989] Sminaire de psychanalyse d'enfants (2). Paris 1985 [Fallstudien zur Kinderanalyse. Stuttgart 1989] Enfances. Paris 1986 [Enfances - Erinnerungen an die Kindheit. Weinheim, Berlin 1987] La cause des adolescents. Paris 1988 Tout est langage. Paris 1987 [Alles ist Sprache. Kindern mit Worten helfen. Weinheim, Berlin 1989] Quand les parents se separent. Paris 1988 [Scheidung, wie ein Kind sie erlebt. Stuttgart 1990] L'inconscient et destins. Sminaire de psychanalyse d'enfants (3). Paris 1988 [Das Unbewute und das Schicksal des Kindes. Stuttgart 1995] L'chec scolaire. Essais sur l'ducation. Paris 1989 Libido fminin. Paris 1989 Autoportrait d'une psychanalyste. Paris 1989 [Selbstportrt einer Psychoanalytikerin. Weinheim, Berlin 1991] Correspondance 1913-1938. Paris 1991 Les tapes majeurs de l'enfance. Articles et confrences (1). Paris 1994 [Kinder stark machenDie ersten Lebensjahre. Weinheim 1997] Les chemins de l'ducation. Articles et confrences (2). Paris 1994 Le sentiment de soi. Aux sources de l'image du corps. Paris 1997 Parler de la mort. Nizza 1998 Le fminin. Articles et confrences. Paris 1998 Parler de la solitude. Paris 2005 Une vie de correspondances 1938-1988. Paris 2005

REFERENCES Archives Franoise Dolto (2009-07-02) Arte (2009-07-02) Aubry, Jenny, et al.: Quelques pas sur le chemin de Franoise Dolto. Paris 1988

Binet, Eric: Franoise Dolto (1908-88). Prospects. The Quarterly Review of Comparative Education 29 (3), 1999, 445-454 (2010-03-31) Buhmann, Christiane: Kind - Krper - Subjekt. Therapie, Erziehung und Prvention im Werk von Franoise Dolto. Gieen 1997 Halmos, Claude: La plante Dolto. In L'enfant et la psychanalyse. Paris 1993 Ledoux, Michel-Henri: Indroduction l'uvre de Franoise Dolto. Paris, Marseille 1990 Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)] Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Jacques Lacan. Esquisse d'une vie, histoire d'un systme de pense. Paris 1993 [Jacques Lacan. An Outline of a Life and a History of a System of Thought. Oxford 1999] Sauverzac, Jean-Franois de: Franoise Dolto. Itinraire d'une psychanalyste. Paris 1993 This, Bernard: Dolto-Marette, Franoise. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by Alain de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 489f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2009-03-08)]

PHOTO: Association Lire Dolto aujourd'hui (2008-04-08) see also: Galera de fotos (2008-04-08)

Judith Dupont ne Dormandi (*1925)

Judith Dupont, the granddaughter of Vilma Kovcs and niece of Alice Balint, was born in Budapest. Her mother, Olga Szkely-Kovcz, was a painter and sculptor who portrayed numerous psychoanalysts. Her father, Lszl Dormandi, was the owner of the Hungarian publishing house Pantheon and the author of several novels. In the mid-1920s, her parents, whose ancestors were

Alsatian and Spanish Jews, converted to the Christian faith. Judith Dormandi grew up in the house of her grandfather Frdric Kovcs in Budapest, the residence of the psychoanalytic polyclinic and also the home of the Balint family. In 1938 the Dormandis emigrated to Paris, where Judith studied medicine after the end of the war and graduated in pathological anatomy in 1955. One of her fellow students was Jacques Dupont, in whose printing house she had worked and whom she married in 1952. The marriage produced a daughter and a son. In 1954 Judith Dupont began a four-year training analysis with Daniel Lagache and became a member of the Association Psychanalytique de France. She worked as a child analyst in different institutions, among others at the Centre de Guidance de l'Aisne and the Centre Etienne-Marcel in Paris. In addition, she established a private practice where she treated adult patients. In 1969 she founded the journal Le Coq-Hron, where she continues as co-editor until today. One of the journal's main themes is the history of psychoanalysis, namely Hungarian psychoanalysis. Judith Dupont is a French co-translator of the writings of Michael Balint and Sndor Ferenczi and of the correspondence between Sigmund Freud and Ferenczi. She administers the heritage of Ferenczi in France as well as internationally and, like Maria Torokand Nicolas Abraham, she has fostered the high appreciation of Ferenczi in France.

SELECTED WORKS (Van den Brouck, Jeanne) Manuel l'usage des enfants qui ont des parents difficiles. Paris 1979; 1990 [Handbuch fr Kinder mit schwierigen Eltern. Stuttgart 1981; 1996] Ce "fou" de Ferenczi. Le Coq-Hron No. 104, 1987, 44-52 [Ferenczi's "madness". Contemp Psychoanal 24, 1988, 250-261 + Sandor Ferenczi Website (19.10.2011)]] La relation Freud-Ferenczi la lumire de leur correspondance. Rev int hist psychanal 2, 1989, 181-200 Entre Freud et Ferenczi: Groddeck. Le Coq-Hron No. 123, 1992, 51-56 Freud's analysis of Ferenczi as revealed by their correspondence. IJP 75, 1994, 301-320 The story of a transgression. JAPA 43, 1995, 823-834 Humor in the Freud-Ferenczi correspondence. In J. W. Barron (Hg.): Humor and Psyche. Psychoanalytic Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ 1999, 161-176 [L'humour dans la correspondance Freud-Ferenczi. In S. Michaud (Hg.): Correspondances de Freud. Paris 2007, 59-68] La notion de trauma selon Ferenczi et ses effets sur la recherche psychanalytique ultrieure. Le Coq-Hron No. 154, 1999, 42ff + filigrane 9 (1), 2000 [Der Traumabegriff nach Ferenczi und sein Einflu auf die sptere psychoanalytische Forschung. Psyche 5, 1999, 419-431] Introduction of the Balint issues. Am J Psychoanal 62 (1), 2002, 1-6 L'exile avant l'exile. Michael et Alice Balint. Topique No. 80, 2002, 95-102 L'introduction de Ferenczi en France. Le Coq-Hron No. 180, 2005 (and Eva Brabant) (eds.) La correspondance Ernest Jones-Michael Balint. Ramonville SaintAgne 2004

REFERENCES Dupont, Judith: Meine Begegnungen mit der Psychoanalyse. In L. M. Hermanns (ed.): Psychoanalyse in Selbstdarstellungen, Bd. 5. Frankfurt/M. 2007, 59-105 Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004

PHOTO in Dupont 2007, 61

Micheline Enriquez ne Joly (1931-1987) Micheline Enriquez was born in Chlons-sur-Marne. She studied psychology in Paris from 1950 to 1954 and subsequently was appointed a psychologist at the mental health clinic of the Facult de mdecine in Paris and at the Versailles Hospital. From 1960 to 1962 she taught projective techniques at the Institute of Psychology at the Sorbonne. She underwent her training analysis with Serge Leclaire of the Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse, and her supervising analyst was Piera Aulagnier. Later she had a second analysis with Serge Viderman. She became a member of the cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP) founded by Jacques Lacan in 1964. In 1969 she left the EFP and joined the Quatrime Groupe, where she became president in 1986. As well, she was a member of the International Association for the History of Psychanalysis since its foundation in 1985. In 1978 she was awarded the Maurice Bouvet Prize in psychoanalysis for three of her articles published in the review Topique during the 1970s. In her book Aux carrefours de la haine published in 1984, re-issued in 2001 under the title La souffrance et la haine, Micheline Enriquez provided new insights into paranoia, masochism, and what she referred to, after the Marquis de Sade, as apathy. She showed that paranoiacs and masochists eroticize suffering and hatred, while those who are apathetic reject affects in order to maintain a distance from others, which is essential for them. Micheline Enriquez died at the age of 56 in an automobile accident.

SELECTED WORKS (for more, see Quatrime groupe) D'un corps l'autre. Rflexions sur le masochisme. Topique No. 7-8, 1971, 85-118 Fantasmes paranoaques. Diffrence des sexes, homosexualit, loi du pre. Topique No. 13, 1974, 23-58 [Paranoiac fantasies. Sexual difference, homosexuality, law of the father. In D. B. Alison et al. (eds): Psychosis and Sexual Idenity. Toward a Post-Analytic View of the SchreberCase. Albany 1988] Analyse possible ou impossible. Topique No. 18, 1977, 49-62

Libres penses. In R. Barande (ed.): Comment l'interpretation vient au psychanalyste. Paris 1977, 95-104 Du corps de souffrance au corps en souffrance. Topique No. 26, 1980, 5-27 Aux carrefours de la haine. Paranoa, masochisme, apathie. Paris 1984 [Nas encruzilhadas do dio. Parania, masoquismo, apatia. So Paulo 1999] L'enveloppe de mmoire et ses trous. In D. Anzieu et al. (eds): Les enveloppes psychiques. Paris 1987 Le dlire en hritage + Incidence du dlire parental sur la mmoire des descendants. In R. Kas et al. (eds): Transmission de la vie psychique entre gnrations. Paris 1993 La souffrance et la haine. Paranoa, masochisme et apathie. Paris 2001 (with Thrse Lamperire, Jacques Perse and Pierre-Bernard Schneider) Symptmes hystriques et personnalit hystrique. Paris 1965 (and Eugne Enriquez) Le psychanalyste et son institution. Topique No. 6, 1971

REFERENCES Enriquez, Eugne: Biographie de Micheline Enriquez. Quatrime groupe (2008-04-08) Enriquez, Eugne: Enriquez-Joly, Micheline. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 545f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2009-03-08)]

Solange Falad (1925-2004)

Solange Adelola Falad, one of the first African psychoanalysts, was born in Dahomey (now called the Republic of Benin). She was a granddaughter of Behanzin, the last independent king of Abomey. In

1933 she and her brother Max were sent to attend school in France. Solange Falad studied medicine in Paris in the beginning of the 1950s and graduated as a doctor in 1955. The subject of her thesis was the psychomotor development of African children from Senegal. Fighting for the independence of the African states, she founded the Fdration des tudiants d'Afrique noire francophone (FEANF) in 1950 and was its first president. In 1952 Solange Falad met Jacques Lacan and became his disciple and intimate friend. She underwent her training analysis with Lacan as a candidate of the Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse (SFP), her supervising analyst was Franoise Dolto. Another important teacher wasJenny Aubry, whose consultancy at the Fondation Parent-de-Rosan she attended. At the split of the SFP in 1964, Falad followed Lacan into the newly established cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP), where she was a member of the board from 1967 to 1980. After the dissolution of the EFP and Lacan's death in 1981, she was a co-founder of the only short-lived Centre d'etudes et de recherches freudiennes (CERF), before founding her own school in 1983, the cole Freudienne (EF), which she directed until the end of her life. The EF stands in the tradition of Lacan's return to Freud. Solange Falad was active in the Organisation mondiale de la sant (OMS), she founded the Institut d'ethno-psychopathologie africaine in Paris and was a researcher in anthropology and ethnology at the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique. In 2003 transcriptions of her seminar held at the EF in 1991/92 and 1992/93 were published under the titel Clinique des nvroses.(Top of the article)

WORKS Contribution une tude sur le dveloppement de l'enfant d'Afrique noire, le dveloppement psycho-moteur du jeune Africain originaire du Sngal au cours de sa premire anne. Thesis (MD) Paris 1955 Le nourrisson africain du Sngal dans son milieu socio-culturel. London, Bukavu 1959 Femmes de Dakar et de son agglomration. In D. Paulme (ed.): Femmes d'Afrique noire. Paris, Den Haag 1960, 207-218 [Women of Dakar and the surrounding urban area. In D. Paulme (ed.): Women of Tropical Africa. Berkeley; London 1963, 217-229] Rapport sur le fonctionnement de l'Institut d'ethno-psychopathologie africaine. Cahiers d'tudes africaines 16, 1964, IV-4 Sur l'identification a l'analyste. Ornicar? No. 10, 1977 Une lettre de Solange Falad. Ornicar? No. 17/18, 1979 Repres structurels des nvroses, psychoses et perversions. Paris 1986 Clinique des nvroses. Paris 2003

REFERENCES Delaroche, Patrique: Solange Falad: Clinique des nvroses. Figures de la psychanalyse 1 (11), 2005, 226-232 + Cairn.info (2010-04-14)

Dieng, Amady Aly: Hommage Solange Falad (2005). kemit black civilisation (2006-02-02 no more existing) Lauth, Marie Lise: Hommage Solange Falad (2004). cole Freudienne (2008-04-09) Mary, Bernard: Preface in Clinique des nvroses. Paris 2003 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990]

PHOTO: Psychanalyse Nantes (2010-04-15)

Juliette Favez-Boutonier (1903-1994)

Juliette Boutonier, a daughter of teachers, was born in Grasse in the south of France. She attended school in Grasse and Nice and subsequently studied philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris. In 1926 she was one of the first women to take the state doctoral exam in philosophy. She taught at schools in Chartre and Dijon, while studying medicine in Dijon. In 1935 she obtained a job in Paris teaching philosophy and there she met the psychiatrist Daniel Lagache and began analysis with Ren Laforgue. She received her training in clinical psychopathology at the Sainte-Anne Hospital in Paris with Georges Heuyer. In 1938 she wrote her medical dissertation on ambivalence, and in 1945 she qualified as a doctor of philosophy. Her award-winning thesis about anxiety - Contribution la psychologie et la mtaphysique de l'angoisse (published under the title L'angoisse) - was directed by Gaston Bachelard. In 1946 Juliette Boutonier was elected a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP). That same year she founded along with Georges Mauco the Centre psychopdagogique de ClaudeBernard, an institution for children with school problems, where she was medical director in 1946. In 1947 she took over the chair of psychology from Daniel Lagache at the University of Strasbourg. Like Lagache she strived for a synthesis of psychology and psychoanalysis. In 1952 she married the psychoanalyst Georges Favez (1901-1981). A year later they both left the SPP in protest against the "dictatorship" of Sacha Nacht and his medicalization of psychoanalysis.

Together with Lagache, Jacques Lacan, Franoise Dolto and others they founded the Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse (SFP). As President of the SFP, Juliette Favez-Boutonier fought for the recognition of the SFP by the IPA, but finally participated in the creation of the Association Psychanalytique de France (APF) in 1964, recognized by the IPA in 1965. In 1955 Juliette Favez-Boutonier was appointed professor of psychology at the Sorbonne. Her main interest was clinical psychology. Like Lagache, she represented the values of a tradition inherited by Pierre Janet. In 1959 she established the first Laboratory of clinical psychology at the Sorbonne, which she led until her retirement in 1974. In 1969 she helped with the creation of the department of Sciences Humaines Cliniques, which was opened at the University of Paris VII. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS L'angoisse. Paris 1945 La notion d'ambivalence. tude critique, valeur smiologique. Thesis (MD) Paris 1938; Paris 2004 Les dfaillances de la volont. Paris 1945 Les dessins des enfants. Paris 1953 Problmes de psychologie gnrale. Paris 1956 Problmes de psychologie gnrale (suite). Paris 1957 L'homme et son milieu. Paris 1958 La psychologie clinique. Objet, mthode, problme. Paris 1959 Questions de psychologie gnrale. Paris 1963 Personnalisation et luttes de classes. Paris 1963 La mmoire et l'oubli. Paris 1963 L'imagination. Paris 1963 La personnalit. Paris 1964 Le langage. Paris 1967 Rflexions sur l'autobiographie d'un criminel. Bulletin de Psychologie 49 (432), 1996, 246-261 (et al.) Psychanalyse et sciences de l'homme. Paris 1957

REFERENCES Brun, Danile: Entretien avec Juliette Favez-Boutonier. tudes freudiennes No. 36, Janvier 1995

Doz-Schiff, Claire: In memoriam Juliette Favez-Boutonier (1903-1994). Bulletin du Centre de documentation Henri F. Ellenberger 5, 1er trimestre 1994 Golse, Bernard: Favez-Boutonier, Juliette. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 615f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis(2009-03-08)] Hommage Juliette Favez-Boutonier. Bulletin de Psychologie 49 (432), 1996 Mijolla, Alain de: La psychanalyse en France (1893-1965). In R. Jaccard (ed.): Histoire de la psychanalyse, vol. 2. Paris 1982, 5-118 Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)]

PHOTO: AEJCPP (2008-04-09)

Florence Guignard Florence Guignard was born in Geneva, where she studied clinical psychology and cooperated with Jean Piaget in a number of research projects. She received her psychoanalytic training with Raymond de Saussure, Olivier Flournoy and Ren Spitz in Geneva and with Serge Lebovici, Ren Diatkine, Michel Fain and Pierre Luquet in Paris. She and her husband Jean Bgoin (*1925) belong to the small group of Kleinians in France. A member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris, she engaged in promoting the understanding of the theories of Melanie Klein and the post-Kleinian thinkers such as Wilfred R. Bion, Herbert Rosenfeld and Donald Meltzer. Florence Guignard currently lives in Paris as a psychoanalyst for children, adolescents and adults. She is the Head of the Editorial Board of L'Anne Psychanalytique Internationale. Along with Annie Anzieu she founded the Association pour la Psychanalyse de l'Enfant (in 1983) and the Socit Europenne pour la Psychanalyse de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent (in 1994). The focus of her work lies in the sense of identity, femininity and maternity, the genesis of mental disturbances and problems of the psychoanalytic technique.

SELECTED WORKS Activit interprtative et espace psychique. RFP 47 (3), 1983, 745-752 Ballade au prconscient. RFP 49 (5), 1985, 1391-1400 l'aube du maternel et du fminin. Essai sur deux concepts aussi vidents qu'inconcevables. RFP 51 (6), 1987, 1491-1503

De certains concepts psychanalytiques vus de ma fentre. RFP 53 (3), 1989, 911-917 Une introduction la pense de Mlanie Klein, Wilfred R. Bion, Donald Meltzer. Interview mit Florence Bgoin-Guignard. Video von Jean Belair. CECOM Europe, Lorquin 1989 OEdipe et la horde primitive. Culpabilit et mentalit de groupe. Psychanalyse dans la Civilisation No. 6, Mai 1992 (2008-04-09) Diffrence des sexes et thories sexuelles. Dsir et danger de connatre. RFP 57 (Numro spcial), 1993, 1697-1699 Quelles fins pour l'analyse d'enfants? Filigrane 2, 1993, 11-28 L'enfant dans le psychanalyste. RFP 58 (3), 1994, 649-659 Les piges de la reprsentation dans l'interprtation psychanalytique. J psychanal enf 15, 1994 Au vif de l'infantile. Reflexions sur la situation analytique. Lausanne, Paris 1996 ptre l'objet. Paris 1997 De l'infantile la nvrose infantile. SPP Confrences en ligne, Programme 2000-2001 Mtterlich oder weiblich? Der "gewachsene Fels" als Wchter ber das Inzesttabu mit der Mutter. In S. Heenen-Wolff (ed.): Neues vom Weib. Franzsische Beitrge. Gttingen 2000 Le sexuel statufi. RFP 65 (4), 2001, 1325-1336 + Cairn.info (2010-02-19) Rsurgence de l'infantile traumatique dans la cure psychanalytique. SPP Confrences en ligne, Programme 2001-2002 L'Infantile au masculin, l'Infantile au fminin. SPP Confrences en ligne, Programme 20022003 Mourning and mental development. In L. Glocer Fiorini et al. (eds): On Freud's "Mourning and Melancholia". London 2007 Le temps de la maturation psychique chez l'enfant. Confrence Nr. 26, printemps 2008 Envy in Western society: today and tomorrow. In P. Roth and A. Lemma (eds): Envy and Gratitude Revisited. London 2008 (et al.) Maternit, fminit. Paris 1987 (and Thierry Bokanowski) (eds) La relation mre-fille. Paris 2002 (and Thierry Bokanowski) (eds) Actualit de la pense de Bion. Paris 2007

REFERENCES

Psychanalyse dans la Civilisation No. 6, Mai 1992 (2008-04-09)

Dominique Guyomard

Dominique Guyomard studied psychology and received her psychoanalytic training from Octave Mannoni andFranoise Dolto. An important motive in her decision of becoming an analyst was her childhood experience of not having been able to get access to her insane grandmother, whose speaking made no sense to her. Dominique Guyomard became a member of the cole Freudienne de Paris founded by Jacques Lacan and later dissolved by him in 1980. She helped to set up the CFRP, the Centre for Psychoanalytic Research and Training, which was founded by her husband Patrick Guyomard in 1982, together with Octave and Maud Mannoni. Today she is a member of the Socit de Psychanalyse Freudienne. Dominique Guyomard locates her theoretical position between Lacan on the one side and Donald W. Winnicott and Melanie Klein on the other. With regard to female development she stresses that the feminine super-ego is a maternal superego and women are always in danger to remain riveted to the pre-Oedipal mother in the desire for omnipotence.

WORKS A propos de Oedipe-roi selon Freud. Revue des Psychanalystes, March 1982 Questions sur l'espace et le transfert dans une cure psychanalytique. Revue de Psychiatrie Franaise, April 1984 Filiation et engendrement. Topique, May 1985 L'enfant adopt. Bloc-notes No. 11, 1992 La folie maternelle, un paradoxe? In H. David et al.: La folie maternelle ordinaire. Paris 2006 L'effet-mre. Paris 2009 (et al.) Invention du fminin. Paris 2002

REFERENCES Baruch, Hoffmann Elaine, and Lucienne J. Serrano: Women Analyse Woman. New York, London 1988

PHOTO in Baruch/Serrano 1988, 27

Luce Irigaray (*1930?)

Luce Irigaray, whose work had a remarkable influence on the feminist movement in Europe and the USA, was born in Blaton in Belgium. In 1955 she graduated in philosophy and arts at the Catholic University of Louvain and taught French and Classics in Charleroi and Brussels from 1956 to 1959. Subsequently she moved to Paris to study psychology - with a focus upon psychopathology - and linguistics. At this time she participated in Jacques Lacan's psychoanalytic seminars and became a disciple of his. She underwent training analysis with Serge Leclaire and became a member of the cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP) directed by Lacan. She qualified as a doctor of linguistics in 1968 (Le langage des dments) and in psychology in 1974. Her thesis Spculum de l'autre femme (Speculum of the Other Woman), a deconstruction of the phallo- and logocentrism of Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Western philosophy, was inspired by Jacques Derrida and earned her recognition as a leading feminist theorist and continental philosopher. The EFP, however, expelled Irigaray and terminated her teaching position at the University of Vincennes (1970-1974). In 1964 Luce Irigaray started working at the CNRS, a research centre in Paris, where she became Director of Research in Philosophy in 1986. In the 1980s she conducted research on the difference between the language of women and the language of men. In 1982 she held the International Chair in Philosophy at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam, which resulted in the publication of her book thique de la diffrence sexuelle (An Ethics of Sexual Difference) in 1984. In addition to her teaching activities and her psychoanalytic private practice, she was active in the feminist movement, working together with numerous circles of women from different countries and cultures. In the 1980s and 1990s she concentrated on the conversion of her theoretical ideas into

political practice. Luce Irigaray critiques the phallocentric logic of identity, according to which femininity is the negation of the male subject - psychoanalytically: a cavity of the penis. Irigaray deconstructs this mirror image of sexual difference and develops "femininity" as the radically other independent of the logos and his power of definition, taking on ever-new forms between the concepts and images. According to Irigary the girl is "expatriated" to the phallic order through the object change from the mother toward the father. Thus she loses the possibility of a female genealogy and a female desire. The only way out for a woman is the strategy of mimesis, which means submitting herself to the masculine views of women in a playful way. The unfaithful repetition of the views makes visible that women are something other than the view expressed. For Irigaray the autoerotic body experiences of women evade the phallocentric binary oppositions. The result is the "fluidity" and ambiguity of woman's language. While Irigaray first tried to avoid a definition of femininity by consciously using ambiguities, she later sketched essential formulations of femininity. InAn Ethics of Sexual Difference she pleaded for a noncomplementary sexual difference, regarding each of the sexes as a whole and different from another. To attain a female subject position, women must create their own species by way of female genealogies and a positive mother/daughter relationship. Luce Irigaray even goes so far as to put into play the urgency of female divinity. (Top of the article

SELECTED WORKS Le langage des dments. The Hague 1973 Speculum de l'autre femme. Paris 1974 [Speculum. Spiegel des anderen Geschlechts. Frankfurt/M. 1980; Speculum of the Other Woman. Ithaca, N.Y. 1985] Waren, Krper, Sprache. Der ver-rckte Diskurs der Frauen. Berlin 1976 Unbewutes, Frauen, Psychoanalyse. Berlin 1977 Ce sexe qui n'est pas un. Paris 1977 [Das Geschlecht, das nicht eins ist. Berlin 1979; This Sex which is Not One. Ithaca, N.Y. 1985] Et l'une ne bouge pas sans l'autre. Paris 1979 [Eine bewegt sich nicht ohne die andere. Freibeuter 2, 1979, 72-78] Le corps--corps avec la mre. Montral 1982 Passions lmentaires. Paris 1982 La croyance mme. Paris 1983 L'oubli de l'air chez Martin Heidegger. Paris 1983 thique de la diffrence sexuelle. Paris 1984 [Ethik der sexuellen Differenz. Frankfurt/M. 1991; An Ethics of Sexual Difference. London 1993; Ithaca, N.Y. 1993] Parler n'est jamais neutre. Paris 1985

Sexes et parents. Paris 1987 [Genealogie der Geschlechter. Freiburg 1989; Sexes and Genealogies. New York 1993] Le sexe linguiste. Paris 1987 Zur Geschlechterdifferenz. Interviews und Vortrge. Wien 1987 Sexes et genres travers les langues. Elments de communication sexue. Paris 1990 Je, tu, nous - Pour une culture de la diffrence. Paris 1990 [Je, tu, nous - Toward a Culture of Difference. New York 1993] Genealogie und Traditionen. Vortrge. Frankfurt/M. 1990 The Irigaray Reader. Oxford 1991 Le temps de la diffrence. Pour une rvolution pacifique. Paris 1990 [Die Zeit der Differenz. Fr eine friedliche Revolution. Frankfurt/M. 1991] J'aime toi - Esquisse d'une flicit dans l'histoire. Paris 1992 Genres culturels et interculturels. Paris 1993 Le souffle des femmes. Paris 1996 [Der Atem von Frauen. Luce Irigaray prsentiert weibliche Credos. Rsselsheim 1997] tre deux. Paris 1997 [To be two. New York 2001] Entre Orient et Occident. De la singularit la communaut. Paris 1999 Die Zeit des Atmens. Rsselsheim 1999 Prires quotidiennes. Paris 2004 [Daily prayers. Newcastle upon Tyne 2005] Luce Irigaray. Key Writings. London 2004

REFERENCES Baruch, Hoffmann Elaine, and Lucienne J. Serrano: Women Analyze Women. New York; London 1988 Contemporary Literary Criticism. Literary Criticism at eNotes (2010-04-22) Deuber-Mankowsky, Astrid: Von neuen Welten und weiblichen Gttern. Zu Luce Irigarays "Ethique de la diffrence sexuelle". In Weiblichkeit in der Moderne. Ed. by J. Conrad and U. Konnertz. Tbingen 1986, 62-74 Holland, Bridget: Luce Irigaray. A Biography. 1998 (2008-04-08) Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2010-04-21)

Rullmann, Marit: Philosophinnen, vol. 2: Von der Romantik bis zur Moderne. Frankfurt/M. 1998, 257-226 Sigmund-Wild, Irene: Anerkennung des Ver-rckten. Zu Luce Irigarays Entwurf einer "Ethik der sexuellen Differenz". Marburg 2000 Whitford, Margaret: Luce Irigaray. Philosophy in the Feminine. London 1991 Wikipedia: deutsch; englisch; franzsisch (2008-04-08)

PHOTO: Phenomenology Online (2008-04-08; no more existing)

velyne Kestemberg ne Hassin (1918-1989)

velyne Kestemberg was born in Constantinople as the daughter of a French merchant and his Jewish-Russian wife. Soon after her birth her parents moved to Paris, where velyne Hassin attended high school with Juliette Favez-Boutonier as her philosophy teacher. She earned a university degree in philosophy, before emigrating from occupied France to Mexico in 1942. In Mexico she met Jean Kestemberg (1912-1975), a Polish Jew and Spanish Civil War combatant, who also fled the Nazis and soon became her husband. In 1945 velyne and Jean Kestemberg returned to France, where they joined the Communist Party and took up psychoanalytic training. When the party leaders required the members to dissociate themselves from the Freudian theory, the Kestembergs as well as Serge Lebovici signed a manifesto in 1949, in which psychoanalysis was condemned to be a reactionary ideology. Later they retracted their position and left the Communist party. velyne Kestemberg underwent training analysis with Marc Schlumberger and became a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) in 1953. The same year she and her husband adopted a little girl, Catherine, who later became herself an analyst. Although she had no medical training, velyne Kestemberg was appointed training analyst in 1963. She practiced as a child analyst at the Centre psychopdagogique Claude-Bernard and worked closely with Serge Lebovici and Ren Diatkine at the Centre Alfred-Binet, a psychiatric department for

children and adolescents founded in 1956. She was a co-founder of the European Federation of Psychoanalysis in 1966 and President of the SPP from 1971 to 1973. After the death of her husband she continued his task at the Centre de psychanalyse et de psychothrapie du XIIIe for psychotic patients, which she directed until 1988. The work of velyne Kestemberg is influenced by the ego psychology. She integrated techniques of group therapy into her analytic practice and together with Diatkine, Lebovici and others created individual psychoanalytic psychodrama. In her writings she devoted herself particularly to the problems of adolescents, the anorexia and the "cold psychosis", i. e. mental disorders with a splitting of the ego but without delusions. The concept of the cold or non-delusional psychosis was introduced by Jean and velyne Kestemberg and Simone Decobert in their book La faim et le corps, which deals with the mental anorexia, the model of the cold psychosis. Typical for the anorexia is the denial of the real body and its idealizing as an unreal and inaccessible object. The satisfactory incorporation is replaced by the lust of hunger and emptiness. With the cold psychosis the ego is pervaded by the ideal ego, and the external object constitutes a projection of the ideal ego. The only possible relation is a fetishistic relation to the object. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Quelques notions sur le psychodrame chez les enfants, 1 und 2. Le mdecin franais No. 9 and 19, 1949 L'identit et l'identification chez l'adolescent. Problmes thoriques et techniques. La psychiatrie de l'enfant 5 (2), 1962, 441-522 La relation ftichique l'objet. Quelques notations. RFP 42 (2), 1978, 195-214 [Die FetischObjektbeziehung. In G. Lempa und E. Troje (eds): Psychoanalytische Psychosentherapie im romanischen Sprachraum. Gttingen 2006 Notule sur la crise de l'adolescence. De la dception la conqute. RFP 44, 1980, 523-530 [A note on the crisis of adolescense. From disappointment to conquest. In M. Perret-Catipovic and F. Ladame (eds): Adolescence and Psychoanalysis. The Story and the History. London 1998] Le personnage tiers, sa nature, sa fonction. Les Cahiers du Centre de psychanalyse et de psychothrapie No. 3, 1981, 1-55 "Astrid" ou Homosexualit, identit, adolescence. Quelques propositions hypothtiques. Les Cahiers du Centre de psychanalyse et de psychothrapie No. 8, 1984, 1-30 Quelques notes sur la "phobie du fonctionnement mental". RFP 50 (5), 1986, 1339-1344 L'adolescence vif. Choix de textes. Paris 1999 La psychose froide. Choix de textes. Paris 2001 (with Serge Lebovici and Ren Diatkine): Bilan de dix ans de pratique de psychodrame analytique chez l'enfant et l'adolescent. Psychiatrie de l'enfant 1 (1), 1958, 63-179

(with Jean Kestemberg and Simone Decobert): La faim et le corps. Une tude psychanalytique de l'anorexie mentale. Paris 1972 (et al.): Autrement vu. Des psychanalystes observent les relations mre-enfant. Paris 1981 [Schauplatz Familie. Psychoanalytiker beobachten frhe Mutter-Kind-Beziehungen im Alltag. Stuttgart 1986] (and Philippe Jeammet) Le psychodrame psychoanalytique. Paris 1987

REFERENCES Abensour, Liliane: velyne Kestemberg. Paris 1999 Abensour, Liliane: Kestemberg-Hassin, Evelyne. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002) Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 933f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2009-03-09)] Struchen, Maud: Ncrologie: velyne Kestemberg (1918-1989). Psychothrapies 9 (4), 1989

PHOTO: Didier Thimonier; PUF

Julia Kristeva (*1941)

Julia Kristeva stands as one of the foremost French proponents of post-structuralism. Born in Sliven in Bulgaria as the daughter of a church accountant, she studied linguistics at the University of Sofia, before she came to Paris in 1965. Under the supervision of Lucien Goldmann she completed her doctoral thesis Le texte du roman in 1968. In 1965 she joined Tel Quel, a literary journal inspired by Jacques Derrida, and was a leading member of the editorial board from 1970 to 1982, the year of the journal's discontinuation. In 1967 she married Philippe Sollers (*1936), the chief editor of Tel Quel. Hoping to connect the aesthetic avantgarde with the revolutionary political movement, the Tel Quel group was in contact with the

Communist Party and visited Mao's China in 1974 (Fig.). Following this trip Julia Kristeva wrote her book Des chinoises, in which she compared the role of women in Chinese and Western culture. After publishing her habilitation thesis La rvolution du langage potique(Revolution in Poetic Language) in 1974, Julia Kristeva was Professor of Linguistics at the University Paris VII. During this time she trained in psychoanalysis, became a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris and began to practice as an analyst in 1979. In spite of her deconstructive approach she takes a classical Freudian view. Kristeva's theoretical work centres on the investigation of the social symbolic systems. With the help of psychoanalysis and self-reflective structural linguistics, she explores the unconscious mechanisms of symbolic structures, especially those of the language. For Kristeva the symbolic is not a static system but a process, which only functions by excluding something that she identifies, like Lacan, with the feminine. The excluded undermines the structures and evades a positive definition. Julia Kristeva presented the basic ideas of her complex thoughts in her most comprehensive theoretical work, Revolution in Poetic Language, which gave her an international reputation. Starting from the poetry of Lautramont and Mallarm as well as the theories of Freud and Lacan, she sketches a thinking of heterogeneity by creating concepts like "the semiotic", "intertextuality" and "subject-in-process" which break open the ostensible coherence of the phallic structured symbolic order. Thus she makes visible the trace of the pre-symbolic - the bodily ground of speech and desire within the symbolic. According to her, the unconscious is not only structured like a language, as Lacan postulated, but in addition it also contains the memory of the pre-lingual. Kristeva called this infantile pre-symbolic first undifferentiated and then accentuated by drive cathexis - the semiotic maternal "chora". After the entry into the symbolic order, the ego remains furthermore exposed to the operations of the semiotic - a source of psychosis as well as of creativity. Kristeva's recent texts are more concrete and more personal. In one of her latest publications, Female Genius, a trilogy on female genius, she points out by using the examples of Hannah Arendt, Melanie Klein and Colette how these women successfully overcame the social, biographical and biological constraints and reached the liberty of individuality and creativity. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS (for more, see Hlne Volat) Semeiothik. Recherches pour une smanalyse. Paris 1969 [Desire in Language. A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. Oxford 1980] La rvolution du langage potique. Paris 1974 [Die Revolution der poetischen Sprache. Frankfurt/M. 1978; Revolution in Poetic Language. New York 1984] Des chinoises. Paris 1974 [About Chinese Women. London 1977; Die Chinesin. Die Rolle der Frau in China. Frankfurt/M. u. a. 1982] Polylogue. Paris 1977 Pouvoir de l'horreur. Essai sur l'abjection. Paris 1980 [Powers of Horror. An Essay on Abjection. New York 1982; Mchte des Grauens. Ein Versuch ber den Abscheu. Frankfurt/M. 2000]

Histoires d'amour. Paris 1983 [Tales of Love. New York 1987; Geschichten von der Liebe. Frankfurt/M. 1989] Au commencement tait l'amour. Psychanalyse et foi. Paris 1985 [In the Beginning Was Love. Psychoanalysis and Faith. New York 1987] Soleil noir. Dpression et mlancolie. Paris 1987 [Black Sun. Depression and Melancholia. New York 1989; Schwarze Sonne. Depression und Melancholie. Frankfurt/M. 2007] Etrangers nous-mme. Paris 1988 [Fremde sind wir uns selbst. Frankfurt/M. 1988; Strangers to Ourselves. New York 1991] Le vieil homme et les loups. Paris 1991 Nations without Nationalism. New York 1993 Les nouvelles maladies de l'me. Paris 1993 [Die neuen Leiden der Seele. Hamburg 1994; New Maladies of the Soul. New York 1995] Le temps sensible. Proust et l'exprience littraire. Paris 1994 Possessions. Paris 1996 Sens et non-sens de la rvolte. Paris 1996 The Portable Kristeva. Ed. by Kelly Oliver. New York 1997 L'avenir d'une rvolte. Paris 1998 Le gnie fminin. La vie, la folie, les mots, 1: Hannah Ahrendt. Paris 1999; 2: Melanie Klein. Paris 2000; 3: Colette. Paris 2002 [Das weibliche Genie. Das Leben, der Wahn, die Wrter, 1: Hannah Arendt. Berlin, Wien 2001; 2: Melanie Klein. Gieen 2008] [Female Genius. Life, Madness, Words, 1: Hannah Arendt. New York 2001; 2: Melanie Klein. New York 2001; 3: Colette. New York 2004] Crisis of the European Subject. New York 2000 Le plaisir des formes. Paris 2003 La haine et le pardon. Paris 2005 Thrse mon amour. Paris 2008 (and Catherine Clment) Le fminin et le sacr. Paris 1998 [Das Versprechen. Vom Erwachen der Frauen. Mnchen 2000]

REFERENCES Fletcher, J., and A. Benjamin (eds): Abjection, Melancholia and Love. The Work of Julia Kristeva. London, New York 1990

Julia Kristeva: Seltsame Fremde. Portrt von Franois Caillat. Video, ARTE 2005-12-02 Julia Kristeva Website (2010-04-26) Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Rullmann, Marit: Philosophinnen, vol. 2: Von der Romantik bis zur Moderne. Frankfurt/M. 1998 Schmitz, Bettina: Arbeit an den Grenzen der Sprache. Julia Kristeva. Kngistein-Taunus 1998 Suchsland, Inge: Julia Kristeva zur Einfhrung. Hamburg 1992 Wikipedia (2008-04-08)

PHOTO: Zam (2012-02-01)

Paulette Laforgue ne Erikson Paulette Erikson, the daughter of a pharmacist in Colmar in Alsace, was a teacher before she began practicing psychoanalysis. In the early 1920s she was associated with the Theosophical Society in Strasbourg, where she met Ren Laforgue (1894-1962), psychiatrist and later a co-founder of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP). They married in 1922 and moved to Paris, where Ren Laforgue entered in analysis with Eugnie Sokolnicka. In 1925 Paulette Laforgue had to undergo a hysterectomy and subsequently could no longer bear children. At the instigation of her husband she also underwent analysis with Sokolnicka and became an analyst herself. Her control supervisor was Heinz Hartmann. She was a member of the SPP and like Marie Bonaparte and Anne Berman she translated Sigmund Freud's texts into French. In 1938 Paulette and Ren Laforgue separated.

REFERENCES Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 1: 1885-1939. Paris 1982; 1994 [Wien - Paris. Die Geschichte der Psychoanalyse in Frankreich, Bd. 1: 1885-1939. Weinheim, Berlin 1994] Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004

Ruth Lebovici ne Roos (1913-2003)

The French analyst Ruth Lebovici was born in Alsace as the daughter of Jewish parents. She first taught mathematics, when she married Serge Lebovici (1915-2000) in 1942, who later became a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and president of the IPA. Their daughters Marianne and lisabeth were born in 1943 and 1953. Protected by the Resistance, Ruth and Serge Lebovici survived the German occupation. After the liberation in 1945 they both became temporary members of the French Communist Party - as well as Jean and velyne Kestemberg. After the end of the war Ruth Lebovici decided to train as a psychoanalyst. She underwent training analysis with Marc Schlumberger and was, like her husband, accepted as a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris. Particularly known is her study about a case of transitory sexual perversion in the course of a psychoanalytic treatment (Perversion sexuelle transitoire au cours d'un traitement psychanalytique), which was discussed by Jacques Lacan in his Seminar of 1956-57 on objectrelations.

WORKS Perversion sexuelle transitoire au cours d'un traitement psychanalytique. Bulletin d'Activits de l'Association des Psychanalystes de Belgique No. 25 (March), 1956[Transitory sexual perversion in the course of a psychoanalytic treatment. Journal for Lacanian Studies 2 (1), 2004, 118-140]

REFERENCES Mijolla, Alain de: Lebovici, Serge Sindel Charles. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Hg. von Alain de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 965-967 [Internation Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2010-05-20) Missonnier, Manuelle: Hommage notre amie Ruth Lebovici. Le Carnet/Psy No. 84, 2003, 27 (2010-05-20) Nobus, Denis: Drawing the urinary trait: Fantasy and analytic technique in Lebovici's 'treatment' of a transitory perversion. Journal for Lacanian Studies 2 (1), 2004, 141-152

Rosine Lefort (1920-2007)

The French child analyst Rosine Lefort, a daughter of the well-known journalist Genevive Tabouis, began her analysis with Jacques Lacan in 1950. At the same time she worked at the Fondation Parent de Rosan in Paris, a public institution for the temporary care of young children who had been abandoned by their mothers. Within the frame of a research project on hospitalism directed by Jenny Aubry, Rosine Lefort conducted the treatment of several psychotic and autistic infants, beginning in 1951: Nadia, Marie-Franoise, Robert the "wolf child", and Maryse. Two of these cases (Nadia and Robert) were presented by Rosine Lefort at Lacan's Seminar, and they are regarded as remarkably lucid examples of the clinical application of Lacanian concepts. Rosine Lefort worked closely together with her husband, the psychoanalyst Robert Lefort (2007), with whom she published her books. Rosine Lefort's case reports show clearly the existential function of the signifier in the subjectivation. According to the Lacanian terminology, the psychotic is stuck in an unmediated relationship with the Real and cut off from meaningful structures, which proceed via the signifier of the Other. For Lefort the analysis of the preverbal infant is particularly suited to show that the subject, before it speaks, "speaks in the Other", where it finds its significant place. Rosine Lefort was a member of the cole de la Cause freudienne and participated in the foundation of the Centre d'tude et de recherche sur l'enfant dans le discours analytique (Cereda), an international net of the Lacanian child analysis.

WORKS (and Robert Lefort) Naissance de l'Autre. Deux psychanalyses: Nadia (13 mois) et MarieFranoise (30 mois). Paris 1980 [Die Geburt des Anderen. Bericht einer Kinderanalyse aus der Lacan-Schule. Stuttgart 1986; Birth of the Other. Urbana 1994] (and Robert Lefort) L'enfant et la jouissance, suivi de: L'enfant sans le savoir. Paris 1987 (and Robert Lefort) Les structures de la psychose. L'enfant au loup et le president. Paris 1988 (and Robert Lefort) Das Reale, das Symbolische, das Imaginre in der Dialektik des Anderen und des Objektes im Laufe der analytischen Kur. arbeitshefte kinderpsychoanalyse Heft 10, September 1989 (and Robert Lefort) La sexuation de la petite fille. Paris 1994 (and Robert Lefort) Maryse devient une petite fille. Psychanalyse d'une enfant de 26 mois. Paris 1995 (and Robert Lefort) La distinction de l'autisme. Paris 2003

REFERENCES Leiser, Eckart: Zum Begriff des Signifikanten in der psychoanalytischen Praxis. Texte 16 (2), 1996, 7-21 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990]

PHOTO: Le Champ Freudien

Anne Levallois (1935-2006)

Anne Levallois was a jurist before she turned to psychology, anthropology and psychoanalysis in the early 1960s. The mother of three children (her married name was Colot), she participated at that time in literacy campaigns in Senegal. She began to study psychology at Dakar, where she became a disciple of the philosopher Edmond Ortigues and worked along with Marie-Ccile Ortigues at the Fann Psychiatric Clinic. After her return to Paris she completed her diploma in clinical psychology and trained as an analyst with Serge Leclaire. Together with Myriam David and others she explored the relation of single mothers to their first child and subsequently worked as a psychologist at a Salvation Army institution for single mothers. In 1972 she established a psychoanalytic practice in Paris, shortly before she divorced. Anne Levallois was a Lacanian analyst and member of the cole Freudienne de Paris (EPF). During the resolution phase of the EPF, however, she belonged to the critics of Jacques Lacan. In 1980 she was a founding member of the Collge de psychanalystes, of which she was Vice President from 1980 to 1984 and President from 1985 to 1987. From 1983 to 1985 she directed the journalPsychanalystes. Anne Levallois was particularly interested in the relation between psychoanalysis, biography and history. Together with the historian Michel Levallois she conducted research into the life of her greatgrand-uncle Ismal Urbain, the son of a Frenchman and a Guyanese woman, who was a SaintSimonist, converted to Islam and became an adviser of Napoleon III. Levallois' study on Urbain elucidated the effects of traumatising social conditions on subjectivation. Further main points of Anne Levallois were tranference phantasies and the signifiers of femininity. An anthology of her texts between 1974 and 2005 was published posthumously under the title Une psychanalyste dans l'histoire.

SELECTED WORKS Biographie, Psychohistorie und Psychoanalyse. Der Stand der Forschung in Frankreich. In H. Rckelein (ed.): Biographie als Geschichte. Tbingen 1993

Psychanalyse et histoire. Le rgne phmre de la psychohistoire et l'avnement de la biographie en France. In D. Le Buf et al. (eds): Construire l'histoire. Paris 1998 Le retour de la biographie historique. L'histoire et la psychanalyse s'y rejoindraient-elles? International Association of Labour History Institutions (IALHI) 146, 2002, 127-140 L'cole de Lacan. In M. Bouraux-Hartemann et al.: Retour Lacan? Paris 1981 Les crits autobiographiques d'Ismayl Urbain. Homme de couleur, saint-simonien, musulman (1812-1884). Paris 2004 Une passion pour la vie. Cliniques mditerranennes No. 69, 2004 Je et moi dans l'exprience psychanalytique et dans l'criture autobiographique. In J.-F. Chiantaretto et al. (eds): Autobiographie, journal intime et psychanalyse. Paris 2005 Une psychanalyste dans l'histoire. Paris 2007

REFERENCES Dz Lit Littrature algrienne Octobre 2005 (2008-04-08 - no more existing) Iogna-Pratt, Dominique: Une psychanalyste dans l'histoire - Les premires lignes. Passion du livre (2008-04-08) Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] SPF (2008-04-08)

PHOTO in Levallois 2007

Maud Mannoni ne van der Spoel (1923-1998)

Maud Mannoni was born Magdalena van der Spoel in the Belgian city of Courtrai. She spent her early childhood in Colombo, Ceylon, where her father was general consul of the Netherlands. The return of her family to Europe in 1929 signified for the little girl the loss of her childhood paradise. She forgot her mother tongue English and the Singhalese words of her nurse when she lived with her French speaking grandfather, and in her unloved new residence in Amsterdam she had to learn Dutch. These experiences shaped Maud Mannoni's central question: how to refind the lost language of childhood. After attending a convent school in Antwerp, Magdalena van der Spoel studied criminology in Brussels. During World War II she worked with psychotic adolescents at a psychiatric clinic and decided to train as a psychoanalyst. She underwent training analysis with Maurice Dugautiez, the founder of the Association des Psychanalystes de Belgique (later the Socit Belge de Psychanalyse), of which she became a member in 1948. The same year she moved to Paris to continue her training with the child analyst Franoise Dolto at the Trousseau hospital. In 1948 she married the philosopher and psychoanalyst Octave Mannoni (1899-1989), an analysand of Jacques Lacan and a left-wing intellectual. During the 1960s Maud Mannoni and her husband engaged themselves in fighting for the independence of Algeria. In 1950 she met Jacques Lacan, with whom she had her second analysis, and became a Lacanian. She was a member of the Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse, before she followed Lacan into the cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP) in 1964. During a stay in London she became acquainted with the concepts of Donald W. Winnicott and Melanie Klein and the anti-psychiatry of Ronald D. Laing. Maud Mannoni did not share Laing's radical anti-institutional attitude, developing her own approach of the "exploded institution" ("institution clat"), i. e. an institution open to the outer world, but staying at the same time a protected space. Maud Mannoni was able to realise her ideas in 1969 by founding the Experimental school of Bonneuil along with Robert Lefort, a residential community for psychotic, retarded and troubled children and adolescents in Bonneuil-sur-Marne. It was the only anti-psychiatric project in France inspired by the British model. As the directrice of this school she put into practice Lacanian psychoanalysis, antipsychiatric ideas and Winnicott's concept of a "supporting environment". For Mannoni the disturbed child is a "spokesperson" for the dysfunctional family, whose history is written in the child's symptoms and expressions. In her view this pathogenic development is reinforced by social exclusion mechanisms. At Bonneuil the children were encouraged to give voice to their fears, destructive feelings and fantasies. Central to Mannoni's therapeutic approach is the cultivation of the capacity to play that makes loss bearable. She seeks to free the child from the suffocating effect of the anxiety and desires of the Other - first of all his mother - by helping him find a personal language in the symbolic order.

In 1982, two years upon the dissolution of the EFP, Maud Mannoni established, together with Octave Mannoni and Patrick Guyomard, the Center for Psychoanalytical Training and Research (CFRP) in Paris. During the dissolution process of the CFRP in 1994, Maud Mannoni founded her own association, space analytique, which she directed until her sudden death from heart disease. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS L'enfant arrir et sa mre. Paris 1964 [Das zurckgebliebene Kind und seine Mutter. Olten, Freiburg 1972; The Backward Child and his Mother. New York 1972; The Retarded Child and the Mother. London 1973] L'enfant, sa "maladie" et les autres. Paris 1967 [The Child, his "Illness," and the Others. London 1970] Le psychiatre, son "fou" et la psychanalyse. Paris 1970 [Der Psychiater, sein Patient und die Psychoanalyse. Olten, Freiburg 1973] Education impossible. Paris 1973 ["Scheierziehung". Von der Antipsychiatrie zur Antipdagogik . Frankfurt/M. 1976] Un lieu pour vivre. Paris 1976 [Ein Ort zum Leben. Die Kinder von Bonneuil, ihre Eltern und das Team der "Betreuer". Frankfurt/M. 1978] La thorie comme fiction. Freud, Groddeck, Winnicott, Lacan. Paris 1979 D'un impossible l'autre. Paris 1982 Le symptome et le savoir. Paris 1982 Un savoir qui ne se sait pas. L'experience analytique. Paris 1985 De la passion de l'tre la "Folie" de savoir. Freud, les Anglo-Saxons et Lacan. Paris 1988 Ce qui manque la vrit pour tre dite. Paris 1988 [Autobiography] Amour, haine, sparation. Renouer avec la langue perdue de l'enfance. Paris 1991 [Separation and Creativity. Refinding the Lost Language of Childhood. New York 1999] Le nomm et l'innommable. Le dernier mot de la vie. Paris 1991 Les mots ont un poids, ils sont vivants. Que sont devenus nos enfants fous? Paris 1995 Devenir psychanalyste. Les formations de l'inconscient. Paris 1996 Elles ne savent pas ce qu'elles disent. Paris 1998

REFERENCES

Buhmann, Christiane: Nachruf auf Maud Mannoni. arbeitshefte kinderpsychoanalyse Nr. 26, 1998 Erich, Theresia: Mannoni, Maud. In G. Stumm et al. (eds): Personenlexikon der Psychotherapie. Wien, New York 2005, 306-307 Gaudemar, Antoine de: Maud Mannoni dans la nuit. La psychanalyste spcialiste des enfants est morte dimanche 74 ans. Libration, 1998-03-17 (2010-06-07) Kaufhold, Roland, and Judith Roedel: Bonneuil oder: Das Drama des zurckgebliebenen Kindes. Zum Tod der Kinderanalytikerin Maud Mannoni (Ceylon, 22.10.1923 - Paris, 15.3.1998). psychosozial 21 (72), 1998, 121-127 Malet, Nicole Maya: Maud Mannoni. Ramonville Saint-Agne 2000 Morgan, Sian: Review of Maud Mannoni: Separation and Creativity: refinding the lost language of childhood. International Journal of Psychotheraphy 6 (1), 2001, 77-82 Roedel, Judith: Das heilpdagogische Experiment Bonneuil und die Psychoanalyse in Frankreich. Eschborn 1986 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Maud Mannoni, un lacanisme visage humain. Le Monde, 18.3.1998 Sdat, Jacques: Mannoni-Van der Spoel, Maud (Magdalena). In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1014f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2008-04-09)]

PHOTO in Mannoni, De la passion de l'tre, 1988

Joyce McDougall ne Carrington (1920-2011)

Photo: Jacques Sassier ditions Gallimard Joyce McDougall was born in Dunedin, New Zealand, the elder of two daughters of the merchant Harold Carrington. Her father was a New Zealander, her mother Lillian Blackler an Englishwoman. Following her study of psychology in Dunedin, Joyce Carrington worked as a vocational and family counsellor in Dunedin and Auckland. In 1941 she married the educationist Jimmy McDougall (1996), their son Martin was born in 1952, their daughter Rohan three years later. In 1950 the family settled in England. Joyce McDougall began to train as a child analyst with Anna Freud in London and entered into analysis with John Pratt. She met Donald W. Winnicott and attended his course in woman's psychosexuality. When her husband was offered an education job with Unesco in 1952, the family moved to Paris, where Joyce McDougall continued her training at the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP). She underwent training analysis with Marc Schlumberger and was appointed training and supervising analyst of the SPP in 1961. In 1969 she became the scientific secretary of the SPP. She underwent another analysis with Michel Renard. In the early 1950s she met Sidney Stewart (1920-1997), an American writer and psychoanalyst, who became her second life partner after her separation from Jimmy McDougall. She established a childtherapeutic practice and analysed, under the supervision of Serge Lebovici, a nine-and-a-half-yearold psychotic boy, whose case she described in her book Dialogue with Sammy. The thinking of Joyce McDougall was most of all influenced by the ideas of Donald Winnicott and Jacques Lacan. Main themes in here writings are: female homosexuality - for the first time discussed by her in her studyHomosexuality in women, as well psychosomatic illness and issues of sexual identity and creativity. In her first book Plea for a Measure of Abnormality she suggested her renowned revision of the Freudian concept of perversion. In Joyce McDougall's view the classical division into neurosis, psychosis and perversion is too rigid to understand sexual deviations, which are linked with narcissistic personality disorders. Instead of "perversion" she prefered the term "neosexualities", i. e. innovative sexual creations as attempts at self-cure. Joyce McDougall was convinced that all sexual behaviour so bizarre and strange as it might be serves for psychic survival. She pleaded to accept "deviant" sexuality and not to adapt it to norms by psychoanalysis. In Joyce McDougall's work psychic reality appears like a stage on which the narcissistic and oedipal dramas are played out. Referring to Melanie Klein andPiera Aulagnier, she conceived the metaphor of an inner theatre particularly in her books Theaters of the Mind and Theaters of the Body. Her book The Many Faces of Eros deals with the varied forms of human sexuality basing on an inborn bisexuality. For McDougall female homosexuality, for instance, is no pathological deviation, because homosexual wishes of a girl toward her mother are a fundamental component of female development. Only the shaping of these wishes is different in the lives of homosexual and heterosexual women. (Top of the article) Joyce McDougall was a member of the Center for Advanced Psychoanalytic Studies and the New York Freudian Society. In addition to her books she published numerous articles in psychoanalytic journals and anthologies. She died at the age of 91 in London.

SELECTED WORKS

Considrations sur la relation d'objet dans l'homosexualit fminine. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Recherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine. Paris 1964, 221-274 [Homosexuality in women. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Female Sexuality. New Psychoanalytic Views. Ann Arbour 1970] Plaidoyer pour une certaine anormalit. Paris 1978 [Plea for a Measure of Abnormality. New York 1980; Pldoyer fr eine gewisse Anomalitt. Frankfurt/M. 1985] Thtres du Je. Paris 1982 [Theaters of the Mind. Illusion and Truth on the Psychoanalytic Stage. New York 1985; London 1986; Theater der Seele. Mnchen 1988] Identifications, nobesoins et nosexualits. Topique No. 39, 1987, 7-28 [Identifizierungen, neuartige Bedrfnisse und neuartige Formen der Sexualitt. Psyche 40, 1986, 1007-1029] Thtres du corps. Le psychosoma en psychanalyse. Paris 1989 [Theaters of the Body. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Psychosomatic Illness. New York 1989; Theater des Krpers. Weinheim 1991] The Many Faces of Eros. A Psychoanalytic Exploration of Human Sexuality. New York 1995 [Eros aux mille et un visages. La sexualit humaine en qute de solutions. Paris 1996; Die Couch ist kein Prokrustesbett. Zur Psychoanalse der menschlichen Sexualitt. Stuttgart 1997] Donald Winnicott the Man. Reflections and Recollections. London 2003 (and Serge Lebovici) Un cas de psychose infantile. tude psychanalytique. Paris 1960 [Dialogue with Sammy. A Psychoanalytic Contribution to the Understanding of Child Psychosis. London; New York 1969; Eine infantile Psychose. Fallstudie eines schizophrenen Kindes. Mnchen 1979]

REFERENCES Baruch, Hoffman Elaine, and Lucienne J. Serrano: Women Analyze Women, in France, England and the United States. New York; London 1988 Desgroseillers, Ren: Galerie de portraits de la psychanalyse franaise (2009-02-26) Diatkine, Gilbert: Obituary Joyce McDougall (19202011). IPA (1.2.2012) Duparc, Franois (ed.): Joyce aux mille et un visages. L'oeuvre de Joyce McDougall. Lausanne 2000 Menahem, Ruth: Joyce McDougall. Paris 1997 Porret, Philippe: Joyce McDougall. Une coute lumineuse. Paris 2005 Rohde-Dachser, Christa: Rezension von Joyce McDougalls "Die Couch ist kein Prokrustesbett". Psyche 12, 1998, 1235-1238

Catherine Millot (*1944)

The author and Lacanian psychoanalyst Catherine Millot, born in the French dpartment of Ain, spent her childhood and youth in the capitals of Europe, where her father was accredited as an ambassador. She studied philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris, before she began an analysis with Jacques Lacan in 1971, which lasted eight years. She became a member of the cole freudienne de Paris and later of the cole de la Cause freudienne (ECF), where she underwent control analysis with Michel Silvestre and a second analysis with Brigitte Lemrer. She left the ECF in 1989. Catherine Millot became already known beyond the borders of France for her first book Freud antipdagogue published in 1979. She stated that pedagogy which bases on psychoanalysis must end up in a blind alley, because the position of a child analyst is not compatible with that of a pedagogue. The latter cannot represent a neutral mirror, for he always has - consciously or unconsciously - an educational intention. Unlike the pedagogue, a psychoanalyst has no certainties or solutions to offer, unless it is the realization of an indelible lack and thus the liberation from depending on the look of the Other. In her partly autobiographical book Abmes ordinaires Catherine Millot shows that emptiness and loss of self can become the source of inner peace and renewal. Well known are Millot's theses on transsexuality. In her essay on transsexuality, Horsexe, she maintains that a woman's transsexuality reveals a hysterical process, while a man's transsexuality bases on a psychotic identification with the ideal woman, i. e. an inaccessible completeness. Further subjects of Catherine Millot's work are the conditions of literary creativity as well as perversion or homosexuality in the literature. Beside her books she published numerous articles in the Lacanian journals Sicilet andOrnicar?. Since 1975 she has been Professor of Psychoanalysis at the University of Paris-VIII.

SELECTED WORKS Freud, anti-pdagogue. Paris 1979 [Freud, Anti-Pdagoge. Berlin, Wien 1982] Horsexe. Essai sur le transsexualisme. Paris 1983 [Horsexe. Essay on Transsexuality. New York 1990] Nobodaddy. L'hystrie dans le sicle. Paris 1988 Die Hysterie an der Grenze. Fragmente No. 34, 1990, 35-40

Not yet virgin. The function of masochism in Joyce. James Joyce Quarterly 1, 1991, 43-46 La vocation de l'crivain. Paris 1991 The real presence. October 58, 1991, 109-137 Das totalitre Phnomen. Zu Hanna Ahrendt. In J. Prasse and C.-D. Rath) (eds): Lacan und das Deutsche. Die Rckkehr der Psychoanalyse ber den Rhein, Freiburg i. Br. 1994, 160-166 Gide, Genet, Mishima. L'intelligence de la perversion. Paris 1997 Ein perverses Talent. In A. Michels et al. (eds): Perversion, vol. 1. Tbingen 1998, 205-212 Abmes ordinaires. Paris 2001 The eroticism of desolation. In T. Dean and C. Lane (eds): Homosexuality & Psychoanalysis. Chicago 2001 La vie parfaite. Jeanne Guyon, Simone Weil, Etty Hillesum. Paris 2006 solitude. Paris 2011

REFERENCES Agacinski, Sylviane: Rezension von Catherine Millot "Abmes ordinaires". Le Monde des Livres, 2001-10-18 (2008-04-09) Baruch, Hoffman Elaine, and Lucienne J. Serrano: Women Analyze Women, in France, England and the United States. New York, London 1988 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Jacques Lacan. Esquisse d'une vie, histoire d'un systme de pense. Paris 1993 [Jacques Lacan. An Outline of a Life and a History of a System of Thought. Oxford 1999]

PHOTO: Baxter's Gallery; in Baruch/Serrano 1988, 85

Michle Montrelay Link to a photo of Michle Montrelay Michle Montrelay studied philosophy and worked as a graphologist and model before she turned to psychoanalysis. She underwent training analysis with Serge Leclaire and became a member of the Lacanian society cole Freudienne de Paris (EFP) in 1965. The same year she presented her paper on Marguerite Duras' novel Le Ravissement de Lol V. Stein in the Seminar of Jacques Lacan, which was

the beginning of her theoretical examination of femininity. In 1970 her most important study Recherches sur la fminit(Inquiry into femininity) appeared in Jacques Derrida's journal Critique. In it, Montrelay takes up the 1920s Freud-Jones controversy about femininity from a structural psychoanalytic perspective and sketches her concept of a precocious "concentric" (circular oral-anal-vaginal) femininity. She shows that the girl, in contrast to the boy, cannot differentiate herself from the body of the mother, because the real of the maternal body remains present in her own body. Thus the symbolic castration i. e. the exclusion of the maternal body as an object of desire, a repression that inaugurates the symbolization, is incomplete in women. The result is a concentric psychic economy, which is, according to Montrelay, characterized by idle representations and plenitude in the real. Instead of a lack, which initiates the economy of wishing and speaking, there is an object in excess and the symbolic order only a faade. The privileged relationship of women to the body however implies also a frightening too great closeness to the objects. The women's access to symbolization depends on the transition into the phallocentric economy by substituting the phallic signifier for the concentric representatives. Thus femininity is repressed and can be symbolized. Michle Montrelay's essays on femininity, published in 1977 under the titleL'ombre et le nom, transcend Lacan's phallocentrism. In 1979 Lacan forbade her to conduct a seminar on male sexuality at his institute at the University of Vincennes, declaring that if women are not entirely governed by the phallic function, they can have nothing to say about it. (Top of the article) After Lacan had dissolved the EFP in 1980, Michle Montrelay no longer belonged to a psychoanalytic association. She is married, has three children and lives in Paris.

SELECTED WORKS Sur "Le ravissement de Lol V. Stein". In Montrelay, L'ombre et le nom, 1977, 7-23 Recherches sur la fminit. Critique 26, 1970, 654-674 [Inquiry into femininity. M/F 1, 1978, 83-101] L'ombre et le nom. Sur la fminit. Paris 1977 Affoles d'ecriture. Sorcires 7, 1977, 43f The story of Louise. In S. Scheiderman (ed.): Returning to Freud. Clinical Psychoanalysis in the School of Lacan. New Haven 1980 L'effet de bande. Confrontation No.3, 1981, 159-167 L'appareillage. Confrontation No. 6, 1981, 33-43 Lieux et gnies. Confrontation No. 1, 1983, 111-126 On folding and unfolding. An example of dream interpretation in analysis. Psychoanalytic Inquiry 4 (2) 1984, 193-219 Der schwarze Kontinent. Fragmente No. 34, 1990, 15-23 Une autre pratique de l'inconscient. Entretien. Rue Descartes No. 25, 1999, 81-96

La porte de l'ombre. Paris 2009 (et al.) Le psychanalyste, le physicien et le rel. Paris 1987 (with Dominique Guyomard, Patrick Guyomard and Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel) Invention du fminin. Paris 2006

REFERENCES David-Mnard, Monique: Lacanians against Lacan. Social Text 6, 1982, 86-111 Lchel, Elfriede: Verschiedenes. Untersuchung zum Umgehen (mit) der Differenz in Theorien zur Geschlechtsidentitt. Thesis (PhD) Bremen 1987 Lchel, Elfriede: Umgehen (mit) der Differenz. Psyche 44, 1990, 826-847 Oedipe le Salon, 8 mars 2010 (2012-02-01) Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Whitworth, Stephen W.: Rethinking the archaic. Montrelay, maskulinity, and the analyst as (m)other. Journal for Lacanian Studies 4 (2), 2006, 325-348

Sophie Morgenstern ne Kabatschnik (1875-1940)

Sophie Morgenstern, one of the pioneering figures of child psychoanalysis in France, was born into a Jewish family in Grodno in Poland. In 1906 she began her medical studies at Zurich and graduated with a thesis on the subject of mineral elements of the thyroid glands (Ueber einige mineralische Bestandteile der Schilddrse) in 1912. She then left Switzerland for Russia and Poland but returned to Zurich in 1915 in order to work as an assistant physician at the psychiatric asylum of Burghlzli under Eugen Bleuler. In 1924 she moved to France, where she became the assistant of Georges Heuyer at his clinic for infantile neuropsychiatry in Paris. She held the position from 1925 until her death in

1940. Sophie Morgenstern underwent training analysis with Eugnie Sokolnicka and became a full member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) in 1929. She was also a member of the group volution psychiatrique. She taught about infantile neuroses at the Institute of Psychoanalysis of the SPP. Her most illustrious student was Franoise Dolto. Like Anna Freud, she believed that children's neurosis had the same structure and the same origins as those of adults. In her 1927 study on a case of a child suffering from psychogenic mutism (Un cas de mutisme psychogne), she described the use of drawings as a new technique for treating children. She stressed that the children's drawings gave the analyst access to their unconscious and psychic conflicts in a similar way as the dreams and free associations of an adult would do - an insight less familiar at her time than nowadays. The symbolic sense of the imaginative creations of the child was the subject of her main work Psychanalyse infantile, dedicated to her daughter Laure and published in 1937. Sophie Morgenstern was already married to Abraham Morgenstern, when she studied at Zurich; he died before her. She never got over the loss of her only daughter Laure, who died during an operation. After the invasion of Poland Sophie Morgenstern had to hear that the Nazis had killed her family in Lvov. When the German troops entered Paris, she committed suicide. (Top of the article)

WORKS Un cas de mutisme psychogne. RFP 1, 1927, 492-504; in J. D. Nasio (ed.): Le silence en psychanalyse. Paris 1987; 2001 La psychanalyse infantile et son rle dans l'hygine mentale. RFP 4, 1930/31, 136-162 Quelques aperus sur l'expression du sentiment de culpabilit dans les rves des enfants. RFP 6, 1933, 155-174 Psychanalyse et ducation. Evol psychiatr 3, 1933, 45-64 [Psychoanalyse und Erziehung.Z psa Pd 11, 1937, 162-180] Les bourreaux domestiques. vol psychiatr 4, 1934, 39-58 La pense magique chez l'enfant. RFP 7, 1934, 98-115 [Das magische Denken beim Kind.Z psa Pd 11, 1937, 102-118] Psychanalyse infantile. Symbolisme et valeur clinique des crations imaginatives chez l'enfant. Paris 1937 ber das Traum- und Phantasieleben des Kindes. Z psa Pd 11, 1937, 181-211 Contribution au problme de l'hystrie chez l'enfant. Evol psychiatr 7, 1937, 3-33 La structure de la personnalit et ses dviations. Paris 1939; 2003 L'oeuvre complte de Sophie Morgenstern, vol. 1-3: Psychanalyse infantile; La structure de la personnalit et ses dviations; Articles et contributions la Revue franaise de psychanalyse. Paris 2003

(and Georges Heuyer) La psychanalyse infantile et son rle dans l'hygine mentale. Paris 1932

REFERENCES Dolto, Franoise: Selbstportrt einer Psychoanalytikerin. Weinheim, Berlin 1991 Fleury, Mireille: Sophie Morgenstern. Elments de sa vie et de son oeuvre. Mmoire Universit Bordeaux-II, 1988 Geissmann, Claudine, and Pierre Geissmann: Histoire de la psychanalyse de l'enfant. Mouvements, ides, perspectives. Paris 1992 [A History of Child Psychoanalysis. London 1998] Jacquemain, Frdrique: Morgenstern-Kabatschnik, Sophie. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1100 [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2008-04-09)] Matrikeledition der Universitt Zrich (2008-04-09) Parcheminey, Georges: Nos morts: Sophie Morgenstern. Evol psychiatr 1, 1947, 12-13 Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)] Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990]

PHOTO in Elisabeth Roudinesco and Elisabeth Kapnist: Sigmund Freud, l'invention de la psychanalyse. BFC Productions 1997

Marie Moscovici ne Bromberg (*1932)

Marie Moscovici is the daughter of Jewish-Polish parents who immigrated to France shortly before her birth. The family survived the German occupation under a false name. Marie Bromberg studied psychology and philosophy at the Sorbonne attending lectures and seminars of Maurice MerleauPonty, Claude Lvi-Strauss and Jacques Lacan. She was working as a researcher at the CNRS in Paris, when she married Serge Moscovici (*1925), a Romanian-Jewish social psychologist with whom she had two sons. Their eldest son Pierre, later a well-known politician, was born in 1957. In 1965 Marie Moscovici graduated with a thesis about social change and family organisation. She became a member of the Association Psychanalytique de France and was associated with the journals Cahiers de Confrontation and Novelle Revue de Psychanalyse before she founded, together with Jean-Michel Rey, the journalL'crit du temps in 1982. In 1994 she created, in collaboration with Pierre Fdida and Patrick Lacoste, L'Inactuel, a journal for "untimely meditations" on psychoanalysis and cultural subjects, where Marie Moscovici is the editor. The concept of inactuality, understood as the continuance of a past event in the unconscious, is one of the main subjects of Marie Moscovici's writings. Referring to Sigmund Freud's thoughts about murder, war and violence, she explores the inscription of historical events into individual histories and its unconscious transmission from one generation to the next.

SELECTED WORKS Le changement social en milieu rural et le rle des femmes. Revue francaise de sociologie 1 (3), 1960, 314-322 Changement social et organisation familiale. Thesis (PhD) Paris 1965 Mise en pices du pre dans la pense freudienne, imposture ou pas? Confrontation 1, 1979, 19-63 (ed.) Questions de judaisme. Paris 1984 Un meurtre construit par les produits de son oublie. L'Ecrit du temps No. 10, 1985, 387-418 Prface. In Sigmund Freud: L'homme Mose et la religion monothiste. Trois essais. Paris 1986, 15-53 Les paroles restent. L'Inactuel No. 1, 1994 Un fait divers chez Proust. L'Inactuel No. 2, 1994 Il est arriv quelque chose. Approches de l'vnement psychique. Paris 1989 L'ombre de l'objet. Sur l'inactualit de la psychanalyse. Paris 1989 Le meurtre et la langue. Paris 2002 Les analystes ne parlent pas beaucoup du silence. In S. Priac Daoud and D. Platier-Zeitoun: Silences. Paroles de psychanalystes. Ramonville Saint-Agne 2004, 169-177 (et al.) Ecritures de l'autobiographie. Paris 1983

(and Jean-Michel Rey) Oedipe. Paris 1986 (et al.) Figures de la mlancolie. Paris 1987

REFERENCES Mijolla, Alain de: France. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 663-679 [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2009-02-17)] Safran, Serge: Marie Moscovici, une femme de parole. Magazine Littraire No. 350, 1997-0101 (2010-07-27) Wikipedia (2008-04-08)

PHOTO: LeMonde.fr: La Bibliothque du XXIe sicle, 2005-01-08 (2008-04-08)

Gisela Pankow (1914-1998)

Gisela Pankow was born in Dsseldorf and grew up in a liberal anti-fascist family. She studied mathematics and physics (plus geography and philosophy) at the University of Berlin, worked as a private teacher and statistic researcher, before she began in 1943 her medical training in Tbingen. Since 1946 she participated in the constitutional biological research of Ernst Kretschmer, whose assistant she became in 1949 after qualifying as a doctor at the University of Tbingen. In 1950 she went to Paris and continued her research at the Hpital de la Piti and the University of Paris, where she obtained a doctorate in science in 1953. In 1944 Gisela Pankow took up psychoanalytic training in Tbingen, first with Luise Weizscker, then with Kthe Weizscker-Hoss, an anthropologically oriented Jungian - both were members of the German Institute for Psychological and Psychotherapeutic Research - and finally with Ernst Blum in Berne. In France she conducted a number of supervised analyses with Jacques Lacan, Franoise

Dolto and Daniel Lagache and became a member of the Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse (SFP). After giving a series of conferences in Australia and spending a year of research and teaching in the United States, Gisela Pankow returned to Paris in 1957. There she introduced a private seminar on Psychothrapie analytique des psychoses in 1958 and broke with the SFP in 1960, although she remained a member of the IPA. She taught at the University Saint-Antoine (1957-1981) and the Sainte Anne Hospital (1981-1992) in Paris as well as at the University of Bonn (1960-1970). Gisela Pankow's main area of interest was the analysis of psychosis. Basing on the Freudian theory and on phenomenology, she developed her conception of an "image of the body", which was inspired by Franoise Dolto's idea of the unconscious body image. According to Pankow the body image serves two symbolic functions: The first ensures the recognition of spatial and formal structure (incorporating a dialectic of inside and outside, and part and whole), the second involves the content and meaning of that structure. Thus the body image is the basis of the ego and its relation to the other. The body image of a psychotic is disturbed. It is radically dissociated in "nuclear psychoses" (schizophrenia) with disturbances of the first function, whereas in "marginal psychoses" (hysterical psychoses), which concern the second function, the body image is only partially affected. The objective of the cure is the restoration of the symbolic structures of the body image through a reintegration of the excluded. For this purpose Gisela Pankow introduced her original technique involving modelling clay as a mediating element. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Untersuchungen ber die Schdelbasisknickung beim Menschen. Ein Beitrag zur mehrdimensionalen Behandlung konstitutionsbiologischer Fragen. Thesis (MD) Tbingen 1948 Les rapports mtriques entre la base du crne et la partie suprieure de la face. Thesis (MD) Paris 1953 Structuration dynamique dans la schizophrnie. Contribution une psychothrapie analytique de l'exprience psychotique du monde. Bern 1956 Dynamische Strukturierung in der Psychose. Beitrge zur analytischen Psychotherapie. Bern 1957 [Structuration dynamique dans la psychose. Contribution la psychothrapie analytique. Paris 2010] Die Erarbeitung des Krperbildes als Grundlage der Zeiterfahrung beim Geisteskranken. Jahrbuch fr Psychologie und Psychotherapie 7, 1960, 258-274 Gesprengte Fesseln der Psychose. Aus der Werkstatt einer Psychotherapeutin. Mnchen 1968 [L'homme et sa psychose. Paris 1969] Structure familiale et psychose. Paris 1973 [Familienstruktur und Psychose. Frankfurt/M. 1984] The body image in hysterical psychosis. IJP 55, 1974, 407-414 Rejection and identity. Int Rev Psycho-Anal 7, 1980, 319-332

L'tre-l du schizophrne. Paris 1981 [Schizophrenie und Dasein. Beitrge zur analytischen Psychotherapie der Psychosen. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 1990] Krperbild, bergangsobjekt und Narzimus. Jb Psychoanal 14, 1982, 84-109 (ed.) Ving-cinq annes de psychothrapie analytique des psychoses. Paris 1984 Forms and their structurizing power in psychosis. International Journal of Psychology 20, 1985, 439-448 L'homme et son espace vcu. Analyses littraires. Paris 1986 Der absurde Mensch und sein Raum. Fragmente 23/24, 1987, 47-62 Strukturierende Phantasmen in der Psychose. Jb Psychoanal 21, 1987, 177-204 Prsence de Gisela Pankow. Ed. by M.-L. Lacas et al. Paris 2004 Les dangers du "on-dit" et autres rflexions. Abord analytique de la parole de l'autre. Paris 2006

REFERENCES Anzieu, Didier: A discussion of the paper by Gisela Pankow on "The body image in hysterical psychosis". IJP 55, 1974, 415-416 Association Internationale des Amis de Gisela Pankow (2012-02-02) Corveleyn, Jozef: Psychosis. Phenomenological and Psychoanalytical Approaches. Leuven 2003 Lacas, Marie-Lise: Gisela Pankow: filiations dans la psychanalyse des psychoses. Topique 3 (76), 2001, 41-48 + Cairn.Info (2010-07-22) Lacas, Marie-Lise: Pankow, Gisela. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1228f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis(2008-04-08)] Seidel, P.: Probleme des Zugangs bei Schizophrenen. Zum Verstndnis des Beitrages von Gisela Pankow. Jb Psychoanal 25, 1990 Troje, Elisabeth: Nachruf auf Gisela Pankow. In G. Lempa and E. Troje (eds): Andere Methoden der Psychosenbehandlung aus psychoanalytischer Sicht. Gttingen 2001, 85- 89

PHOTO: Association Internationale des Amis de Gisela Pankow (2008-04-08)

Catherine Parat The French psychoanalyst Catherine J. Luquet-Parat is a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris. In 1972 she founded, together with Pierre Marty, Michel d'Uzan, Michel Fain, Denise Braunschweig and Christian David, the Institut de Psychosomatique de Paris. One of her analysands was Andr Green, who dedicated his famous study La mre morte to her. Catherine Parat's work centres on female sexuality, the Oedipus complex, the importance of affect, and analytic technique. A collection of her papers was published in 1995 under the title L'affect partag. One of her earlier essays,Le changement d'objet, published in 1964 in the illustrious volumeRecherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine (Female Sexuality), dealt with the girl's change from the maternal to the paternal object. Based on a Kleinian approach, Catherine Parat stated a normal feminine masochistic move at the time of the Oedipus complex. According to Parat, femininity is achieved when the girl adopts actively the passive or receptive aim, thus diverting earlier active sadistic impulses directed toward the father's penis. Best known is Catherine Parat's conception of "basic transference" ("transfert de base"), designating the patient's spontaneous positive cathexis of the person of the analyst. Parat stressed the kinship between such a transference cathexis and Sigmund Freud's narcissistic object-choice.

SELECTED WORKS (for more, see SPP) La place du mouvement masochique dans l'volution de la femme. RFP 23, 1959, 305-336 La structure obsessionelle. RFP 25, 1961, 309-317 Le changement d'objet. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Recherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine. Paris 1964, 115-127 [The change of object. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Female Sexuality. New Psychoanalytic Views. Ann Arbour 1970] L'organisation oedipienne du stade gnital. RFP 31, 1967, 743-911 A propos de la co-excitation libidinale. RFP 51, 1987, 925-936 Dynamique du sacr. Meyzieu 1988 A propos de la thrapeutique analytique. RFP 55, 1991, 303-324 Avatars du "courant tendre" freudien. RFP 56, 1992, 777-791 L'ordinaire du psychosomaticien. Rev fr psychosom No. 3, 1993, 5-20 Le phallique fminin. RFP 59, 1995, 1239-1257 L'affect partag. Paris 1995 A propos de l'amour et de l'amour de transfert. RFP 60, 1996, 643-662 La rpression chez l'analyste. RFP 65, 2001, 141-143 + Cairn.Info (2010-08-02) L'inconscient et le sacr. Paris 2002

REFERENCES Denis, Paul: transfrentielle (relation -). In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1830f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis(2010-11-04)] Szwec, Grard: Interview mit Catherine Parat. Revue franaise de psychosomatique No. 18, 2000, 123-137

Ginette Raimbault ne Girardey (*1924)

The French psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Ginette Raimbault was born in Algiers. After receiving a M.Sc. from Columbia University in New York, she studied psychology (diploma in 1949) and medicine in Paris and graduated with a thesis on natural birth in 1956. While studying medicine, she trained as a psychoanalyst and underwent analysis with Jacques Lacan. In 1951 she was admitted to the Socit psychanalytique de Paris, after the split in 1953 she changed to the Socit franaise de psychanalyse and finally became a member of the Lacanian cole Freudienne de Paris. Ginette Raimbault took up her psychiatric training withJenny Aubry, with whom she worked together for about twenty years. In 1954 she met Michael Balint, and both she and her husband, the psychoanalyst mile Raimbault (1923-1998), became enthusiastic about Balint's ideas. In 1960 she attended Balint's seminar at the Tavistock Clinic in London and subsequently started, along with her husband, one of the first Balint groups in France. In 1971 she received her licence as a psychiatrist. Since 1961 she worked at the Institut national des sciences et de la recherche mdicale (INSERM) in Paris, where she was Directrice of Research beginning in 1985 until her retirement in 1990. Ginette Raimbault's main area of interest is the psychology of the ill child. She was working with dying children in the nephrology clinic of the Hopital des Enfants-Malades in Paris since 1965 and published several books on themes like mourning, illness and death from the point of view of children and parents. In her book Lorsque l'enfant disparat, for instance, she reported the traumatic experience of well-known personalities of the 19th and 20th century, who had lost their child, and analysed the various phases and forms of mourning work.

SELECTED WORKS L'accouchement naturel. Mise en application pratique la maternit de l'Hpital SaintAntoine. Thesis (MD) Paris 1956 Mdecins d'enfants. Paris 1973 [Arzt - Kind - Eltern. Erfahrungen von Kinderrzten in einer Balint-Gruppe. Frankfurt/M. 1977] L'enfant et la mort. Des enfants parlent de la mort. Problmes de la clinique du deuil. Paris 1975; 1996 [Kinder sprechen vom Tod. Klinische Probleme der Trauer. Frankfurt/M. 1980] Clinique du rel. La psychanalyse et les frontires du mdical. Paris 1982 Lorsque l'enfant disparat. Paris 1996 [Trauernde Eltern. Isadora Duncan, Sigmund Freud, Gustav Mahler, Eric Clapton - Wie sie den Tod eines Kindes erlebten. Berlin 1997] Curieuse. Un parcours lacanien. Paris 2003 Parlons du deuil. Paris 2004 "Qui ne voit que la grce...". Analyse, aventure et libert. Entrentiens avec Anna FeisselLeibovici. Paris 2005 (and Radmila Zygouris) Corps de souffrance, corps de savoir. Lausanne 1976 (and Caroline Eliacheff) Les indomptables. Figures de l'anorexie. Paris 1989 (and Jenny Aubry) Intermittence de l'autre scansion des ruptures et destin des pulsions. Blocnotes No. 12, 1993 (with Luc Massardier and Patrick Ayoun) Questions d'inceste. Paris 2005

REFERENCES Degoy, Lucien: Jenny Aubry dans le texte. Entretiens avec Ginette Raimbault. L'Humanit, 2003-11-05 Guillerault, Grard: Interview mit Ginette Raimbault. Apertura 6, 1991 INSERM (2010-08-03) Moreau Ricaud, Michelle: Raimbault, mile. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1454 -Les psychanalystes: Ginette Raimbault. Film of Jrme Blumberg and Daniel Friedman. CNRS audiovisuell 1983

PHOTO: Canal-U (2010-08-04)

Blanche Reverchon-Jouve (1879-1974) Blanche Reverchon, born in Paris, studied philosophy and medicine and later specialized in neurology under Joseph Babinski. She practiced as a psychiatrist in Geneva, when she met the poet Pierre Jean Jouve (1887-1976) in 1921. In 1923 they settled in Paris and were married in 1925. At this time Blanche Reverchon-Jouve qualified as a doctor and entered into analysis with Eugnie Sokolnicka. After visiting Sigmund Freud in Vienna, who obviously encouraged her to become an analyst, she continued her psychoanalytic training supervised by Rudolph Loewenstein. Later she went into further analysis with Ren Laforgue. In 1923 Sigmund Freud's essays on sexual theory were published in France, translated by Blanche Reverchon-Jouve (Trois essais sur la thorie de la sexualit). In 1928 she was accepted as a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris. At the time of the 1953 split, Reverchon-Jouve, although a physician herself, was one of the opponents of the medicalization of psychoanalytic training. Together with Daniel Lagache, Jacques Lacan andFranoise Dolto she left the SPP and became a member of the newly founded Socit Franaise de Psychanalyse. Blanche Reverchon-Jouve introduced her husband to psychoanalysis and supplied him with the clinical material from her psychoanalytic practice, which he transformed to his novels about mad women. His novel Vagadu, for instance, is drawn from his wife's analyses with Sokolnicka and Loewenstein and from the case history of Mademoiselle H., which was also the subject of Blanche and Pierre Jean Jouve's article Moments d'une psychanalyse, published in 1933. Blanche Reverchon-Jouve's analysands were mainly wealthy patients and artists, among them the Belgian author and psychotherapist Henry Bauchau, who depicted her as "Sybille" in his first novel La dechirure.

WORKS Contribution l'tude des contractures parkinsoniennes. Thesis (MD) Paris 1924 (and Pierre Jean Jouve) Moment d'une psychanalyse. NRF 15 (234), 1933, 353-385

REFERENCES la Recherche de Blanche. Site Pierre Jean Jouve (2010-08-05) Bauchau, Henry: La dechirure (1966). Arles 2003 Bauchau, Henry: Sur Pierre Jean Jouve. Sur Blanche Jouve. Acadmie royale de langue et de littrature franaises de Belgique, Brssel 1993 (2.2.2012) Bonhomme, Batrice: Pierre Jean Jouve ou la qute intrieure. Paris 2008

Bourgeron, Jean-Pierre: Reverchon-Jouve, Blanche. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1558 [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2008-04-09)] Louis-Lambert, Jean-Paul: La lecture Blanche. Site Pierre Jean Jouve 2009 (2010-08-05) Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, Bd. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Wikipedia (2010-08-05)

lisabeth Roudinesco (*1944)

lisabeth Roudinesco is best known for her contributions to the history of psychoanalysis. She was born in Paris as the daughter of the psychoanalyst Jenny Aubry and her first husband Alexander Roudinesco. Her father was an immigrated Romanian-Jewish physician, who had converted to Catholicism. When she was a child, her mother sent her into analysis with Franoise Dolto, and at the age of nine she first met Jacques Lacan. She received her secondary education in Paris at Collge Svign and subsequently worked as a teacher in Algeria (1966-1967), before she studied philosophy and literature at the Sorbonne with a minor in linguistics. Her master degree was supervised by Tzvetan Todorov, and her doctoral thesis by Jean Levaillant at the Universit Paris VIII-Vincennes in 1975. lisabeth Roudinesco was admitted to the Lacanian cole freudienne de Paris (EFP) in 1969 and underwent analysis with Octave Mannoni. She was a member of the EPF until Lacan dissolved his school in 1980. During the same time she was a member of the KPF. Roudinesco was affiliated to the editorial board of the journals Action potique (1969-1979) and L'homme (1997-2002). From 1986 to 1996 she wrote articles for the newspaper Libration, and since then for Le Monde. In 1991 she completed her habilitation on tudes d'histoire du freudisme(published in 1994 under the title Gnalogies). Since 1991 she has been the Director of Research in History at the University Paris VII. From 2001 to 2007 she was Director of Studies at the cole Pratique des Hautes tudes. She was elected as Vice President of the Socit internationale d'histoire de la psychiatrie et de la psychanalyse (SIHPP) in 1990, and President in 2007. Some of her most important books are a history of psychoanalysis in France, the biography of

Jacques Lacan and a dictionary of psychoanalysis (with Michel Plon). Her historical approach refers to the works of Henry Ellenberger, Georges Canguilhem, and Michel Foucault. lisabeth Roudinesco defends the importance of psychoanalysis against the talk of its "becoming obsolete" and against the hegemony of scientific efficiency criteria. lisabeth Roudinesco, who herself practiced as a psychoanalyst, lives together with Olivier Btourn (*1951), the director of Les ditions du Seuil.(Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Initiation la linguistique gnrale. Paris 1967 Pour une politique de la psychanalyse. Paris 1977 Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 1: 1885-1939. Paris 1982; 1994 [Wien - Paris. Die Geschichte der Psychoanalyse in Frankreich, vol.1: 1885-1939. Weinheim, Berlin 1994] Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Ren Laforgue und Matthias Gring. Psyche 42, 1988, 1041-1080 Throigne de Mricourt. Une femme mlancholique sous la Rvolution. Paris 1989 [Throigne de Mricourt. A Melancholic Woman during the French Revolution. London 1991] Penser la folie. Essais sur Michel Foucault. Paris 1992 Jacques Lacan. Esquisse d'une vie, histoire d'un systme de pense. Paris 1993 [Jacques Lacan. Bericht ber ein Leben, Geschichte eines Denksystems. Kln 1996; Frankfurt/M. 1999; Jacques Lacan. An Outline of a Life and a History of a System of Thought. Oxford 1999] Gnalogies. Paris 1994 Pourquoi la psychanalyse? Paris 1999 [Wozu Psychoanalyse? Stuttgart 2002; Why Psychoanalysis? New York 2002] L'analyse, l'archive. Paris 2001 La famille en dsordre. Paris 2002 [Die Familie ist tot - Es lebe die Familie. Stuttgart 2008] Le patient, le thrapeute et l'tat. Paris 2004 Philosophes dans la tourmente. Paris 2005 [Philosophy in Turbulent Times. New York 2008] La part obscure de nous-mmes. Paris 2007 [Our Dark Side. A History of Perversion. Cambridge 2009] Retour sur la question juive. Paris 2009 Mais pourquoi tant de haine? Paris 2010 Lacan, envers et contre tout. Paris 2011

(and Michel Plon) Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse. Paris 1997 [Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse. Wien, New York 2004; Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)] (and lisabeth Kapnist) Sigmund Freud, l'invention de la psychanalyse. BFC Productions 1997 (and lisabeth Kapnist) Jacques Lacan, la psychanalyse rinvente. INA, Arte France 2001 (and Jacques Derrida) De quoi demain ... Dialogue. Paris 2001 [For what Tomorrow... A Dialogue. Stanford, Calif 2004; Woraus wird Morgen gemacht sein? Ein Dialog. Stuttgart 2006]

REFERENCES Chercheurs de notre temps. lisabeth Roudinesco im Gesprch mit Dominique Bollinger. Video (CNDP) Paris 2000 Hlzer, Klaus: Rezension von lisabeth Roudinecso und Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse. Wien, New York 2004. PPFI October 2005 (2008-04-09) Roudinesco, lisabeth: Gnalogies. Paris 1994 Wikipedia french; english (2012-06-18)

PHOTO: Arte (2008-04-08)

Monique Schneider (*1935)

Monique Schneider was born in Mirecourt in Lorraine. She studied philosophy in Nancy and Paris and passed her agrgation de philosophie at the cole Normale Suprieure in 1958. She subsequently taught philosophy at the Lyce Stendhal and the University of Grenoble until 1970, when she was appointed researcher at the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris. In 1980

she graduated under the supervision of Paul Ricoeur, her thesis La rflexion motionnelle explored the connections between affect and the process of learning. At the beginning of her teaching career she suffered from insomnia caused by diabolical phantasmas from her childhood, which led to her first analysis. She trained as a psychoanalyst at the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris during the 1970s. In 1980 she became a member of the Collge de Psychanalystes, an association founded by Lacanians and non-Lacanians. Affiliated with the Lacanian association cole de la Cause Freudienne, she practises psychoanalysis in Paris. In addition she taught philosophy at the University Paris VII. She was Directrice of Research at the CNRS until she became an emerita in 2000. Monique Schneider works at the intersections of psychoanalysis, cultural critique, and philosophy. She has been concerned with questions of trauma, the status of constructions of sexual difference in social discourse and practices of exclusion by psychoanalysis as a patriarchal theory. In her bookGnalogie du masculin, for instance, she explored the contradictions of masculinity. Patriarchal metaphors reduce masculinity to phallic symbols of verticality by excluding a devaluated feminine, which is associated with uncontrollability. The result of this is a gap between a man's representation of pleasure as a conquest and his experience of it as an absence of mastery. In Le paradigme fminin Monique Schneider showed that Freud in his earlier texts used the feminine topography - an opening into an inner room, where "foreign bodies" can be accepted or excluded - as a paradigm of the psychic apparatus and the repression. This "supplementary room" allows another symbolism of femininity than the devaluating phallic metaphor of the feminine sex as a cavity. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Le fminin expurg. De l'exorcisme la psychanalyse. Paris 1979 La parole et l'inceste. Paris 1980 Freud et le plaisir. Paris 1980 Le temps du conte et le non-temps de l'inconscient. Recherches sur la philosophie et le langage No. 2, 1982 "Pre, ne vois-tu pas...?" Le pre, le matre, le spectre dans l'interpretation des rves. Paris 1985 Le trauma et la filiation paradoxale. Paris 1988 L'approche du trauma. Bloc-notes No. 8, 1988 Der weibliche Blick und die theoretische Schrift. Psyche 43, 1989, 331-338 Les ambiguts de Freud aux prises avec le fantastique. In Colloque de Cerisy: La littrature fantastique, 1991, 221-233 La castration comme trompe-l'il. Cahiers internationaux de symbolisme No. 65-67, 1990 En de du miroir. Bloc-notes No. 11, 1992

La part de l'ombre. Approche d'un trauma fminin. Paris 1992 Don Juan et le procs de la sduction. Paris 1994 L'urgence d'une ngation. Bloc-notes No. 13, 1995 Gnalogie du masculin. Paris 2000 Le trauma et son impact sur le "creux de la mre". In J.-C. Rouchy (ed.): La psychanalyse avec Nicolas Abraham et Maria Torok. Paris 2001 Von Freud zu Ferenczi. Ein verschobener Anfang. Integrative Therapie 29 (3/4), 2003, 320340 Le paradigme fminin. Paris 2003 Genealogy of masculinity. In K. Oliver and L. Walsh (eds): Contemporary French Feminism. Oxford 2004, 128-158 Repudiating the feminine. In C. Howells (ed.): French Women Philosophers. A Comtemporary Reader: Subjectivity, Identity, Alterity. London 2004, 201-217 La cause amoureuse. Freud, Spinoza, Racine. Paris 2008

REFERENCES Baruch, Hoffmann Elaine, and Lucienne J. Serrano: Women Analyse Women. New York, London 1988 Duruz, Nicolas: Laudatio Monique Schneider 2003. Universit de Lausanne 2002 (2008-04-09) Lesn, Sylvie: Review of "Le paradigme fminin". parutions.com 2004-04-05 (2008-04-08) Mortley, Roul: French Philosophers in Conversation. Bond University 1991 (pdf) Watteau, Diane: Sur Le paradigme fminin de Monique Schneider: "Tu ne me verras plus si tu me vois", dit-il. Savoirs et clinique 1 (6), 2005, 241-246 + Cairn.info (2010-08-24) Wikipedia (2010-08-15)

PHOTO: Private archive

Eugnie Sokolnicka ne Kutner (1884-1934)

Eugnie Sokolnicka, born in Warsaw, was the first practicing psychoanalyst in France and a pioneer of child psychoanalysis. She came from a cultivated Jewish family that had fought for the liberation of Poland. Her mother played such an important role in the 1863 uprising that she was honoured with a state funeral. Eugenia Kutner's father was a banker. Before she was twenty, she came to Paris, where she studied biology at the Sorbonne and attended Pierre Janet's lectures on psychology at the Collge de France. In Paris she met her husband Michal Sokolnicki (1880-1967), a Polish historian, who worked closely with Jzef Pilsudski. She returned with him to Warsaw and was married in 1903. In 1911 Eugenia Sokolnicka started her training in psychiatry at the Burghlzli asylum in Zurich, where she became a pupil of Carl Gustav Jung. After Jung's break with Sigmund Freud she choose the Freudian camp and went to Vienna to have a three months long analysis with Freud in 1914. She attended the sessions of the Wiener Psychoanalytische Vereinigung and became a member in 1916. During this period she separated from her husband. After practicing in Munich, where Felix Bhm underwent analysis with her, in Zurich and Warsaw, she began in 1920 an analysis with Sndor Ferenczi in Budapest, which lasted about a year. According to Ferenczi, Sokolnicka showed feelings of superiority as well as symptoms of paranoia and depressive tendencies accompanied by suicide threats. But Ferenczi also vaunted her capacity as an analyst. Sokolnicka's analysis with Ferenczi was obviously more successful than that with Freud, who did not like her very much. In 1921 she returned to Paris to found the psychoanalytic movement in France as Freud's legitimate representative. Together with Rudolph Loewenstein she trained the first generation of French analysts, among others Ren Laforgue, douard Pichon and Sophie Morgenstern. She gave some lectures at the cole des Hautes tudes Sociales in 1922/23 and was admitted to the Sainte Anne psychiatric hospital by Georges Heuyer. In 1926 she was one of the founders of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris, where she was appointed Vice-President, a post she held for two years. Eugnie Sokolnicka was especially welcomed by the literary milieu of Paris. A circle of authors of the Nouvelle Revue Franaise met at her home each week to discuss psychoanalytic questions with her. Among them was Andr Gide, who had a few analysis sessions with Sokolnicka in 1922 and depicted her as "Doctoresse Sophroniska" in his novel The Counterfeiters. In it he referred to Sokolnicka's famous healing of a childhood obsessional neurosis (1920), which he turned into an abject failure. Eugnie Sokolnicka's patient was a ten-year-old boy, who suffered from a touch phobia and had developed extremely restrictive rituals with which he reduced his mother to a state of slavery. During a six-week analysis Sokolnicka revealed the sexual implication of the boy's symptoms, which disappeared after that. This rapid cure encouraged Sokolnicka to create a minimal analysis, which

sees as its end the disappearance of symptoms, while a maximal analysis includes the freeing of the ability to love and the avoidance of repetition. (Top of the article) Although she was regarded as a gifted clinician, Eugnie Sokolnicka lost her position at Sainte Anne in 1923, at the instigation of the new director Henry Claude, who did not accept non-physician analysts. She set up in private practice, but her clientele diminished over the years. In the beginning of the 1930s she played no longer an important role in the French psychoanalytic movement. Poverty, growing depressions, the threat from Nazism in Germany and a sense of rootlessness weighed on her and, in 1934, she took her own life.

WORKS Analyse einer infantilen Zwangsneurose. IZP 6, 1920, 228-241 [Analysis of an obsessional neurosis in a child. IJP 3, 1920, 306-319; L'analyse d'un cas de nvrose obsessionnelle infantile. Revue de neuro-psychiatrie infantile 16 (5/6), 1968] Quelques problmes de technique psychanalytique. RFP 3, 1929, 1-49 Sur un cas de gurison rapide. RFP 5, 1932, 440 propos de l'article de M. Ren Laforgue. RFP 6, 1933, 361-363

REFERENCES Appignanesi, Lisa, and John Forrester: Freud's Women. London 1992 Duhamel, Pascale: Eugnie Sokolnicka (1884-1934), entre l'oubli et le tragique. Thesis (MD) Bordeaux-II 1988 Freud, Sigmund, and Sndor Ferenczi: The Correspondence, vol. 3: 1920-1933 (4.6.1920). Cambridge, Mass. 2000 Gazeta Lokalna Kutna i Regionu, 2009-12-17, p. 17 (2012-02-02) Geissmann, Claudine, and Pierre Geissmann: A History of Child Psychoanalysis (1992). London 1998 Genealogia Potomkw Sejmu Wielkiego (2012-02-02) Gide, Andr: Les faux-monnayeurs. Paris 1925 [The Counterfeiters. London 1928] Gourvitch, Michel: Eugnie Sokolnicka, pionnier de la psychanalyse et inspiratrice d'Andr Gide. Mdicine de France No. 219, 1971, 17-22 Heenen-Wolff, Susann: Eugnie Sokolnicka (1884-1934). In E. Federn and G. Wittenberger (eds): Aus dem Kreis um Sigmund Freud. Frankfurt/M. 1992, 155-157 May, Ulrike: Freuds Patientenkalender: Siebzehn Analytiker in Analyse bei Freud (19101920). Luzifer-Amor 19 (37), 2006, 43-97

Mijolla, Alain de: Sokolnicka-Kutner, Eugnie. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1692f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2008-04-08)] Mhlleitner, Elke: Biographisches Lexikon der Psychoanalyse. Tbingen 1992 Pichon, Edouard: Eugnie Sokolnicka (14 juin 1884-19 mai 1934). RFP 7, 1934, 589-603(201202-02) Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 1: 1885-1939. Paris 1994 Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Wrterbuch der Psychoanalyse (1997). Wien, New York 2004 [Diccionario de psicoanlisis (2008-03-06)]

PHOTO in Roudinesco 1994

Anne-Lise Stern (*1921)

ditions du Seuil The child analyst Anne-Lise Stern was born in Berlin and grew up in Mannheim. When Hitler came to power, her father Heinrich Stern, a Jewish-German psychiatrist and Marxist, emigrated with his family to France in 1933. Anne-Lise Stern began to study medicine, but in 1944 she was arrested and deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. From there she was sent to Bergen-Belsen, Raguhn and Theresienstadt. She survived the concentration camp and returned to France in 1945. After the end of the war, Anne-Lise Stern studied psychology and trained as a psychoanalyst, initially with Maurice Bouvet, then with Franoise Dolto and finally with Jacques Lacan. She became an adherent of Lacan and member of the cole Freudienne de Paris. For Anne-Lise Stern Lacan's "return to Freud" is the psychoanalysis for the After-Auschwitz. She worked with hospitalised children, first at the Bichat hospital and from 1953 to 1968 at the Hpital des Enfants Malades in Paris, where she cooperated with Jenny Aubry. Inspired by the 1968

student movement she founded the Laboratoire de psychanalyse in Paris in 1969 for the treatment of patients without means, financed with German reparation money. From 1972 to 1978 she was appointed as a psychotherapist in the department for drug addicts led by Claude Olievenstein at the Marmottan hospital. The upsurge of Holocaust negationism in France caused Anne-Lise Stern to establish a seminar in 1979, where actual contemporary documents and its relations to the Holocaust were discussed. Since 1991, the bi-monthly seminar called Camps, histoire, psychanalyse - leur nouage dans l'actualit europenne has taken place at the Maison des Sciences de l'Homme in Paris. In 1994 Stern`s book Le savoir-dport was published, containing besides her main articles from 1963 to 2003 a report of her experiences in the concentration camp.

WORKS Un lapsus de SS. Nouvel Observateur, 3.6.1969 + in Stern, Le savoir-dport, 2004 Passe - du camp chez Lacan. Passe - Vom Lager zu Lacan. In J. Prasse and C.-D. Rath (eds): Lacan und das Deutsche. Die Rckkehr der Psychoanalyse ber den Rhein. Freiburg 1994, 203-216 "Mending" Auschwitz, through psychoanalysis? Strategies. Journal of theory, culture and politics No. 8, 1995/96 La France hospitalire - Drancy avenir. Essaim No. 1, 1998, 139-149 Frher mal ein deutsches Kind...passe du camp chez Lacan. Versuch einer Hinbersetzung. Berliner Brief No. 2, 1999 Point de suture [about "La vie est belle" by R. Benigni]. Carnets de l'Ecole de psychanalyse Sigmund Freud No. 21/22, 1999 Psychanalyste aprs Auschwitz. Essaim No. 4, 1999 Le savoir-dport. Camps, histoire, psychanalyse. Paris 2004; 2007

REFERENCES Broudic, Jean-Yves: Natre aprs. propos du livre: "Le savoir-dport. Camps, Histoire, Psychanalyse", par Anne-Lise Stern. freud-lacan.com 2007 (2008-04-09) Dorland, Michael: Psychoanalysis after Auschwitz? The "Deported Knowledge" of Anne-Lise Stern. Other Voices 2 (3), 2005 (2010-08-30) Fresco, Nadine, and Martine Leibovici: Entendre. Une vie l'uvre. In Anne-Lise Stern: Le savoir-dport. Paris 2004 Millot, Catherine: Prsentation du livre d'Anne-Lise Stern: Le savoir-dport. Essaim Nr. 13, 2004, 179-184

Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990]

PHOTO in Stern, Le savoir-dport, 2007

Maria Torok (1925-1998)

Maria Torok's work stands in the tradition of the Hungarian psychoanalyst Sndor Ferenczi. The daughter of a Jewish grand bourgeois family, she was born in Budapest, where she grew up and survived the German occupation during the war. In 1947 she moved to Paris, where she trained and worked as a chemical technical assistant. In the beginning of the 1950s she studied psychology at the Sorbonne, received a bachelor's degree in 1955 and then worked as a psychological counsellor in nursery schools. She went into analysis with Bela Grunberger, who also came from Hungary, and later with Margaret Clark-Williams. In 1956 she became a member of the Socit Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP) and worked as a child analyst in social-service agencies until 1967. In 1950 she met the Hungarian-Jewish philosopher and analyst Nicolas Abraham (1919-1975), who became her companion. Torok and Abraham developed a phenomenological psychoanalysis and taught it in a seminar they led together from 1959 to 1961 in Paris. Originating in the work of Ferenczi, they conceived their theory of the "crypt" and the "phantom", in order to explain the psychopathogenic potential of unspoken secrets and traumas transmitted to the next generation. Those unbearable experiences are removed from associative links to the rest of psychic life by "preservative repression" and entombed in a "crypt" that functions within the ego as a false unconscious. The children, who unwittingly inherit the secret of their parents by "endocryptic indentification", are haunted by phantoms which cause great disruption in their psychic life. In her well-noticed essay The illness of mourning and the fantasy of the exquisite corpse Maria Torok described the "illness of mourning" as an effect of unspoken "incorporations" with traumatic effects, by which a subject tries to regain a lost or prohibited object through the magic of hallucinatory. In contrast to the introjection that allows a process of mourning, the incorporation blocks the libidinal cathexis of new objects and thus the psychic development.

Sympathizing with Jacques Derrida's approach of deconstruction, Maria Torok wrote numerous articles for the journal Confrontation. Like Ferenczi she championed a closer contact with the patient, a position that upset her fellow members of the SPP. She made an important contribution to the critic of Freud's concept of femininity with her early paper The meaning of the "penis envy" in women, where she stressed the symptomatic character of the penis envy: The "false" wish for an idealized penis is a defence against masturbatory fantasies by which the girl appropriates the position of her mother. In 1983 Maria Torok began to collaborate with Nicholas Rand, an American analyst and professor of French literature, whom she married in 1990. She died from leukaemia at the age of 73. (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS Phantasie. Versuch einer begrifflichen Klrung ihrer Struktur und Funktion (1959). Psyche 51, 1997, 33-45 La signification de l'"envie du pnis" chez la femme. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Recherches psychanalytiques nouvelles sur la sexualit fminine. Paris 1964 [The significance of penis envy in women. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.): Female Sexuality. New Psychoanalytic Views. London 1970] Maladie du deuil et fantasme du cadavre exquis. RFP 32 (4), 1968, 229-251 [The illness of mourning and the fantasy of the exquisite corpse. In Torok/Abraham, The Shell and the Kernel, 1994] L'os de la fin. Confrontation No. 1, 1979 Thortra. Confrontation No. 8, 1982 [Thoretra. Psyche 53, 1999, 211-214] L'occult et l'occultisme. Confrontation No. 1, 1983 La correspondance Ferenczi-Freud. La vie de la lettre dans l'histoire de la psychanalyse. Confrontation No. 12, 1984, 79-99 Restes d'effacement. Confrontation No. 16, 1985 Freud's "uncanny" and the return of the secret. The sandman looks at Sigmund Freud. Speculations, October 26-28, 1990 Lignes et couleurs. Paris 2000 Une vie avec la psychanalyse. Indits et introuvables prsents et annots par Nicholas T. Rand. Paris 2002 (and Nicolas Abraham) Cryptonymie. Le verbier de l'homme aux loups. Paris 1976 [The Wolf Man's Magic Word. A Cryptonymy. Minneapolis 1986] (and Nicolas Abraham) L'corce et le noyau. Paris 1978 [The Shell and the Kernel. Chicago 1994]

(and Nicolas Abraham) Rythme: de la philosophie, de la psychanalyse et de la posie. Paris 1985 (and Nicolas Abraham) Das verlorengegangene Objekt-Ich. Anmerkungen zur endokryptischen Identifikation. In PSZ (ed.): Sexualitt. Frankfurt/M. 1986, 61-87 (and Nicholas Rand) Die Geschichte der Psychoanalyse als Erinnerungsspur. In K. Brede (ed.): Was will das Weib in mir. Freiburg 1989, 23-54 (and Nicholas Rand) Questions Freud. Du devenir de la psychanalyse. Paris 1995 [Questions for Freud. The Secret History of Psychoanalysis. Cambridge, Mass. 1997] (and Nicholas Rand) Freuds und Ferenczis Traumaforschung - eine Gegenberstellung. Psyche 53, 1999, 441-456 (and Nicolas Abraham) Die Topik der Realitt. Bemerkungen zu einer Metapsychologie des Geheimnisses. Psyche 55, 2001, 539-544

RFERENCES Association Europenne Nicolas Abraham et Maria Torok (2010-09-13) Bonomi, Carlo: Psychoanalysis, Language and Deconstruction in the Work of Nicolas Abraham and Maria Torok. Interview with Nicholas Rand. Psychoanalysis & History 1 (2), 1998 Dupont, Judith: Der Traumabegriff nach Ferenczi und sein Einflu auf die sptere psychoanalytische Forschung. Psyche 53, 1999, 419-423 Rand, Nicholas T.: Maria Torok (1925-1998), lments biographique. In M. Torok: Une vie avec la psychanalyse. Paris 2002, 257-260 Rouchy, Jean-Claude (ed.): La psychanalyse avec Nicolas Abraham et Maria Torok. Ramonville-Saint-Agne 2001 Roudinesco, Elisabeth: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, vol. 2: 1925-1985. Paris 1986; 1994 [Jacques Lacan & Co. A History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925-1985. Chicago 1990] Sdat, Jacques: Torok, Maria. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1814f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2008-04-09)] Wikipedia (2010-09-09) Yassa, Maria: Nicolas Abraham and Maria Torok - The inner crypt. Scand Psychoanal Rev 25 (2), 2002, 1-14 + pdf (2010-09-07) Zeul, Mechthild: Maria Torok 1925-1998. Psyche 53, 1999, 215-219

PHOTO in Torok 2002

Nathalie Zaltzman (1933-2009) Link to a photo of Nathalie Zaltzman Nathalie Zaltzman was born in Paris as the only daughter of Russian-Jewish immigrants. Her family survived the Second World War hidden in the south of France. Nathalie's father Abram Zaltzman, who had been a lawyer in St. Petersburg, owned a papeterie in Paris and a large private library. In the course of the 1950s, Nathalie Zaltzman worked for several years as a Russian translator at UNESCO in Paris, before she began studying psychology at the Sorbonne. In 1963 she married the psychiatrist and analyst Franois Perrier (1922-1990). They divorced in 1968, a year after their son Alexis was born. Nathalie Zaltzman received her psychoanalytic training from the Socit franaise de psychanalyse (SFP). After the dissolution of the SFP in 1964 she became a member of the cole freudienne de Paris (EFP) founded by Jacques Lacan that same year. Her training analyst was Serge Leclaire. In 1970 she left the EFP and joined the Quatrime groupe founded by Piera Aulagnier, Franois Perrier and JeanPaul Valabrega in 1969. Beginning in 1972, Nathalie Zaltzman occupied several positions in the group and was elected President in 1986. From 1974 to 1998 she was an influential member of the editorial committee of the group's journal Topique, where most of her texts were published. Later she was affiliated to the editorial board of the journal Penser/rver created in 2002. Nathalie Zaltzman's articles dating back over a period of twenty years were collected and published in 1998 under the title De la gurison psychanalytique. Her main interest centered on the effects of the psychoanalytic cure and the connection between individual and collective destinies. She renewed Sigmund Freud's notion of "Kulturarbeit" (cultural work) as a basis of psychoanalytic healing. For Zaltzman cultural work means an intrapsychic and trans-individual process that modifies individual development and the evolution of human beings in general. With reference to totalitarian systems, Zaltzman pointed out in La rsistance de l'humain that even under inhuman conditions there is an indestructible rest of humanity, which is guaranteed by the psychic-collective heritage of cultural work. Starting again from the idea of cultural work, Nathalie Zaltzman examined in her book L'esprit du mal the dimensions of evil as an unevolving constant of the human condition and the concept of a "crime against humanity". (Top of the article)

SELECTED WORKS (for more, see Quatrime groupe) Un mot primitif: la chimre du sexe. Topique No. 20, 1977, 19-40 La pulsion anarchiste. Topique No. 24, 1979, 25-64 L'pisode hypomane en cours d'analyse. Topique No. 39, 1987, 29-48 Hommage Piera Aulagnier. Topique No. 45, 1990, 5 Faire une analyse et gurir: de quoi? Topique, Numro spcial 1993, 73-93

Le normal, la maladie et l'universel humain. RFP 60 (4), 1996, 1123-1135 De la gurison psychanalytique. Paris 1998 (ed.) La rsistance de l'humain. Paris 1999 De surcrot? Le travail de culture? La gurison? L'analyse elle-mme? In A. Green (ed.): Le travail psychanalytique Paris 2003, 211-219 Entre Freud et Dostoevski. La question du mal. In F. Richard and F. Urribarri (eds): Autour de l'oeuvre d'Andr Green. Enjeux pour une psychanalyse contemporaine. Paris 2005, 109-122 L'esprit du mal. Paris 2007

REFERENCES Benhaim, David: Histoire et Kulturarbeit. De Piera Aulagnier Nathalie Zaltzman. Spirale No. 177, 2001 (Mars-Avril) + Rflexions psychanalytiques (2010-06-10) Moreau Ricaud, Michelle: Nathalie Zaltzman (1933-2009) une psychanalyste passionne. Le Coq-Hron No. 196, 2009 (1), 152-153 + Cairn.Info (2010-06-10) Villa, Franois, and Eva Weil: L'Esprit du mal [The Spirit of Evil] by Nathalie Zaltzman, Editions de l'Olivier, Paris 2007. IJP 91, 2010, 667-674 Wikipedia (2010-06-10)

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