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Chapter 1

Present Indicative
Usage
To convey what is happening now
To make generalizations or speak about habitual actions
To show what is happening in the very near future
To indicate an action which started in the past and has continued into the present

Formation
-er verbs

-ir verbs

-re verbs

Verb endings
Remove the -er, -ir, or -re endings of the infinitive and add these endings according to the sentences subject
Je

-e

Nous

-ons

Je

-s

Nous

-ssons

Je

-s

Nous

-ons

Tu

-es

Vous

-ez

Tu

-s

Vous

-ssez

Tu

-s

Vous

-ez

Il/Elle/On

-e

Ils/Elles

-ent

Il/Elle/On

-t

Ils/Elles

-ssent

Il/Elle/On

Ils/Elles

-ent

Examples

tudier
Jtudie
Tu tudies
Il/Elle/On tudie
Nous tudions
Vous tudiez
Ils/Elles tudient

Russir
Je russis
Tu russis
Il/Elle/On russit
Nous russissons
Vous russissez
Ils/Elles russissent

Rendre
Je rends
Tu rends
Il/Elle/On rend
Nous rendons
Vous rendez
Ils/Elles rendent

Exceptions
Many -er verbs have spelling changes
for pronunciation consistency.

Verbs whose stem


ends in -g add an e before the
nous form

Ex.
Nous mangeons

Verbs whose stem


ends in -c changes the c to a
in the nous form

Ex.
Nous commenons

Verbs with only one


consonant at the ends of the

Some -ir verbs have irregularities in


their formation

For dormir, partir,


sentir, and sortir, drop the last
three letters of the infinitive and
add regular -ir endings for
singular forms. For plural forms,
drop only the -ir ending and add
-er endings.

Ex. je
dors

Ex.
Nous partons

Verbs couvrir, offrir,

There are no major exceptions to -re


verbs

verb often add a second


consonant for every form but
nous and vous

Ex.
Jappelle

Ex. Il
jette

Some verbs, like


acheter, modeler and prfrer
change the last e in the stem
to for every form but nous
and vous

Ex.
Je prfre

Ex.
Elle achte

ouvrir, and souffrir are


conjugated like -er verbs

Ex. Je
couvre

Ex.
Vous offrez

More irregular verb conjugations


tre

Avoir

Aller

Faire

Je suis

Nous
sommes

Jai

Nous avons

Je vais

Nous allons

Je fais

Nous faisons

Tu es

Vous tes

Tu as

Vous avez

Tu vas

Vous allez

Tu fais

Vous faites

Il/Elle est

Ils/Elles sont

Il/Elle a

Ils/Elles ont

Il/Elle va

Ils/Elles vont

Il/Elle fait

Ils/Elles font

Other uses
To indicate what is happening in the future using aller + an infinitive
To indicate what has just happened in the past using venir de + an infinitive

Payer et Sennuyer
Formation
Payer
All verbs that end with -ayer are
conjugated this way, including payer
The y can be changed to a i before
the verb endings -e, -es, and -ent, but doesnt
have to be
In future and conditional forms, all
conjugations can take i instead of y

Sennuyer
All verbs that end in -uyer are conjugated
this way, including sennuyer
The y must be changed to a i before
the verb endings -e, -es, and -ent
In future and conditional forms, all
conjugations can take i instead of y
Ex. (Cond.) Nous nous

paierions

Ex. (Cond.) Nous

ennuierions

Present
Je paie (paye)

Nous payons

Je mennuie

Nous nous ennuyons

Tu paies (payes)

Vous payez

Tu tennuies

Vous vous ennuyez

Il/elle/on paie (paye)

Ils/Elles paient (payent)

Elle/il/on sennuie

Ils/elles sennuient

Infinitives
Usage
Used when a verb follows another with no conjunction (like que) between them
Used when a verb follows a preposition
Used as a subject of a sentence

Formation
Present Infinitive

Past infinitive
Formation Examples

Infinitives usually end with endings -er, -ir, and -re


although there are exceptions
tudier
Rendre
Rentrer
Sinscrire
The pronoun changes
based on the direct or indirect object

The auxiliary verb avoir or tre is infinitive, and the


action is in past-participle form
Avoir tudi
Avoir rendu
tre rentr(e)(s)
DR./MRS. VANDERTRAMP
verbs take tre as the auxiliary verb, not
avoir
The past participle must
agree with the subject with verbs using
tre
Stre inscrit(e)(s)
Reflexive verbs take tre
as the auxiliary verb, not avoir
The past participle must
agree with the subject with verbs using
tre

Sentence Examples
Je veux suivre un cours
Trans: I want to take a
course
Il travaille dur afin davoir de bonnes
notes

Aprs avoir fini ses tudes, elle est


retourne chez ses parents
Trans: After having
finished her studies, she returned home
to her parents

Trans: He works hard in


order to have good grades
Bosser la dernire minute, ce nest pas
une bonne ide
Trans: Cramming is not a
good idea

LImperatif
Usage
Used to give commands, orders, or to extend invitations
Commands can be softened by using sil te plat or sil vous plat
To be less direct or abrupt, the request can be reformed as a question

Formation
There are three different imperative forms:

Tu

Nous

For commands given


to someone you know well
-er verbs drop the -s
of the tu form
Pronominal verbs
keep the reflexive pronoun
(toi)

For commands in
which the speaker includes
themselves
Trans: lets
(action)
Pronominal verbs
keep the reflexive pronoun
(nous)

Vous
For commands to
more than one person
For commands to
someone you dont know
very well
Pronominal verbs
keep the reflexive pronoun
(vous)

Sentence examples
Rponds!
Ne parle pas!
Rappelle-toi!

Assistons cette
confrence!
Remercions le prof!

Ecoutez!
Taisez-vous!

Irregular formations
Avoir

tre

Savoir

Tu

Aie!

Sois!

Sache!

Nous

Ayons!

Soyons!

Sachons!

Vous

Ayez

Soyez!

Sachez!

Faire causatif
Usage
To indicate that the subject is having something done, and isnt doing it themselves
Ex. she is having her hair cut, he is getting the hedges trimmed

Formation
Formation follows the conjugation of faire + infinitive
Present
Je fais (infinitive)

Nous faisons (infinitive)

Tu fais (infinitive)

Vous faites (infinitive)

Il/elle/on fait (infinitive)

Ils/elles font (infinitive)

Examples:
Le prof fait signer le bulletin par les
parents
Il nous fait beaucoup travailler
Elle ly a fait envoyer
Parfois un lve fait rire toute la
classe.