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-Interprtation des Logs-

Mars 2010

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Objectives
Se familiariser avec les diffrentes types de diagraphies
Apprendre a calcul les paramtres ptrophysiques.
Notions sur les diffrents types des outils et leur principe de
fonctionnement.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Objectives de caractrisation de la formation


Hydrocarbon-in-Place =
Area * Hauteur utile * Porosit * Saturation (Hydrocarbon)
Ou:
Area

- Surface des accumulations des hydrocarbures

Hauteur utile

- Hauteur Utile ( Net Pay)


- Effective pores connecter, occuper par les fluides de
rservoir
- Portion de espace occup par des hydrocarbures

Porosit
Saturation

Trois paramtres sont les cls pour valuation de la formation potentielle

Mars 2010

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Terminologie
Claystone

Porous & Permeable Sst

Oil

Net Pay

Claystone

Non-Reservoir
Oil

Non-Reservoir
Oil

Net Pay

Oil

Net Pay

Water

Aquifer

Tight Cemented Sst / Lst


OWC

Net Reservoir

Net Pay

Claystone

Gross Reservoir

Porous & Permeable Sst

Net Reservoir

Net Reservoir
Non-Reservoir

Net Reservoir
Porous & Permeable Sst

Claystone

Net Pay

Mars 2010

<=

Net Reservoir

<=

Gross Reservoir

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La Porosit

La Porosit est le rapport de volume de pore sur le


volume totale de la roche. (pore rempli de fluide)
Unit % or v/v
V

Porosit Totale

pore

Vtotal

VT VS
... %
VS

Pore Interconnect (circulation de fluide)

Matrice / Porosit Primaire

Fluide occupe toutes les pore

Porosit Effective

Pores originales cre durant lenvenimement la


dposition
Inter granulaire, inter-crystalline porosit

Porosit Secondaire

Mars 2010

Pore cre par les mouvements Tectoniques aprs la


dposition.
Fissures et vide due au raction chimique.

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Visualisation Ptrophysique du milieu Poreu

Mars 2010

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La Saturation
Saturation dhuile critique (Soc): cest la saturation a partir laquelle lhuile
commence a se dplace.
Saturation dhuile rsiduelle (Sor): durant le process dinjection deau ou
Gaz lhuile se dplace est reste un volume derrire qui ne se dplace pas on
lappelle saturation dhuile rsiduelle (gnralement Sor>Soc).
Saturation dhuile mobile (Som): cest la fraction de volume de pore
occuper par lhuile mobile donne par.

Som 1 Swi Sor


Swi: saturation deau interstitiel.
Sor: Saturation dhuile rsiduelle.

Mars 2010

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Petrophysical Visualisation of Pore Fluid Distributions

Mars 2010

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PERMEABILITE

Permabilit
Capacit dcoulement dun fluide Units D or mD
Spcifique ou Permabilit Absolue

Ka, Kw

Capacit dcoulement dun seul fluide.

Permabilit Effective
Capacit dcoulement dun fluide a la prsence dun autre fluide.

Permabilit Relative

Kro, Krw

Rapport = Effective / Spcifique Permabilit

Darcy (D)

(1 D = 1000 mD)

1 Darcy est la permabilit qui permit a un fluide de viscosit de 1cp qui se


dplacer avec un dbit de 1cc/sec a travers une section de 1 cm 3 quand la
pression chute de 1 atm/cm.

Mars 2010

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Sonde de Diagraphies (WIRELINE LOG)


Tools designed to measure/acquire:
Borehole diameter and direction
Natural Radioactivity
Acoustic Properties
Rock/Formation Density
Porosity
Electrical Properties
Reservoir Pressure
Bed and sedimentological dips
Images of borehole wall
Pore fluid and formation rock samples

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Types des outils (LOGGING TOOL)

Hole geometry Caliper, Deviation


Radioactivity Gamma Ray, Spectral Gamma
Nuclear Density, PEF (Photo-Electric Factor ), Neutron, Thermal Decay
Acoustic Compressional and Shear Sonic
Electrical Resistivity, Spontaneous Potential
Magnetic Resonance NMR
Electro-Magnetic - EPT
Dipmeter & Imaging Tools Acoustic and Electrical
Sampling Tools Pressure & Fluid Sampling (RFT, RCI)

Mars 2010

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LITHOLOGIE & POROSITE

Mars 2010

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Proprits de la Formation et Mesures diagraphiques

Mars 2010

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Compatibilit des Mesures de logs

Mineralogy/
Lithology

Porosity

Pore Fluids

Texture/ Pore
Geometry

Gamma Ray/
Spectral GR
PEF / U
Density
Neutron
Sonic
Resistivity

Only Density & Neutron are directly compatible measurements

Mars 2010

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Gamma Ray - GR

Les lments radioactive les plus courants : K,


Th, U
Le K est le dominant & plus courant qui
apparatre dans les minraux-argilos
GR est utilise pour dtecter les argiles et
corrlation entre puits et opration.

GR
GAPI

150

CALI
IN

16

BS
IN

16

5850

5900

5950

6000

NB autre minraux radioactive apparatre et


affecte le GR (zircon, mica, glauconite, uranium
salts)

6050

6100

6150

6200

La boue qui contienne du KCl augmenter les


mesures GR

6250

6300

6350

Des valeurs courant de GR Api :


Sst 20 40, Lst 10 30
Dol 10 20, Clyst 80 - 200
Mars 2010

6400

6450

6500

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Spectral Gamma Ray CGR, POTA, THOR, URAN (K, TH, U)

Mesures: Total formation GR (CGR)


plus proportion de K, Th, U

Units: CGR API, K - %, Th, U


ppm

GR est utilise pour identifier les


fentres associer avec K, Th & U, et
leur contribution a la dtermination de
GR

Donne la portion de U ( plus utile pour


identifier les argiles)
Figs. From Log Interpretation Principles/Applications 1989
Schlumberger

Mars 2010

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Spectral Gamma Ray SGR, POTA, THOR, URAN (K, TH, U)

Quantifier et donner le types dargiles


Rapport de Th/U, Th/K, U/K utiliser
pour identifier les minraux argileux

POTA
%
0.1 0

THOR
PPM 20

POTA 0

URAN
PPM 20

THOR

5850

5900

5950

6000

6050

6100

6150

6200

6250

6300

6350

6400

6450

6500

Mars 2010

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Formation Density Log RHOB, ZDEN

Mesure: Densit de Formation


Units: gm/cc
La sonde contient une source radioactive qui
envoi GR a un certain niveau dnergie
Le niveau dnergie est rduit progressivement
durant les passage en face la formation
Un capteur mesure la rduction de niveau GR
entre deux dtecteurs
Une bonne enregistrement est obtenu lors le
contact sonde formation est bon
Si le contact nest pas fait correctement alors
on obtien la densit de Boue.
Une correction automatique de densit (DRHO)
est applique pour compenser le mauvais
contact mais pas pour les condition extrmes.
Voir les chute rapide de densit, trou large et
grande corrections de densit pour identifier
les mouvais donnes

Mars 2010

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Formation Density Log RHOB, ZDEN

Densit log est une mesure


importante pour quantifier la
porosit

POTA
%
0.1 0

THOR
PPM 20

POTA 0

URAN
PPM 20

THOR

5850

5900

Densit est affecter par les


proprits de la matrice et utiliser
avec autre logs pour dterminer le
type de la lithologie

5950

6000

6050

6100

6150

6200

6250

6300

6350

6400

6450

6500

Mars 2010

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Compensated Neutron Porosity NPHI, TNPH, CNC

Masure: la Porosit apparente


formation (Limestone)
Units: pu (units de porosit)

de

la

La sonde contienne des sources radioactive


source qui imite une grande nergie de
neutrons

Le dclin du niveau dnergie est due a la


collusion avec les atomes dhydrognes

Neutron sonde mesure essentiellement le


taux dhydrogne en formation

LHydrogne se trouve premirement dans les


hydrocarbures (CH) et leau (H2O), les deux
se trouve dans les pores

Index dHydrogne effectivement reflets le


volume de pore
Mars 2010

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Compensated Neutron Porosity NPHI, TNPH, CNC

La sonde est calibre dans des conditions


standards ou la roche (limestone) est sature
deau frais (test pit facilities)
Neutron est affect par les caractristiques de
la matrice de la et les hydrocarbures
Dans les formation (limestones) sature deau,
le neutron lit directement la porosit
La correction est ncessaire pour convertir la
neutron porosit au porosit de rservoir
Gaz est un faible indicateur dhydrogne que
leau donc, dans les zone de gaz les logs
indique une faible porosit anormale
La combinaison de Neutron avec log de
densit peut montr la lithologie et la
prsence de gaz

POTA
%
0.1 0

THOR
PPM 20

POTA 0

URAN
PPM 20

THOR

5850

5900

5950

6000

6050

6100

6150

6200

6250

6300

6350

6400

6450

6500

Mars 2010

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Photo-Electric Factor - PEF

Mesure: Index dAbsorption


Photolectrique
Units: barns/lectron (b/e)
Utiliser avec la Litho-Density Tool
La diffrence en niveau de GR entre
le faible et grande valeur de GR
spectral est une fonction dindex
dabsorption de photolectrique (Pe)
PE est relier directement au nombre
datomique (Z) des lments dans la
formation
fluides de Pore (hydrocarbures & eau)
ont de faible PE index. donc, les
formation mesure indique directement
la lithologie

Mars 2010

Fig. From Litho Density Tool Interpretation 1981 - Schlumberger

PE N * ( Z / A) * b
PE: Photolectrique barns/lectron
N: nombre dAvogadro
Z: Numro atomique ( nombre de proton
dans un noyau atomique)
A: Poids atomique
b : densit apparente qui quivalente a
la vrais densit
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Photo-Electric Factor - PEF

PEF est un indicateur potentiel de


lithologie et utilise dans les crossplots
avec NGT & donnes de densit
Utiliser pour quantifier U (volumetric
photoelectric cross-section) = PE *
Densit
U = PE*b

U est utilise pour la lithologie


PE bon indicateur de Lst & Dol dans les
carbonates
PE peut tre affecter par barite dans la
boue
Sst 1.8, Lst 5.1, Dol 3.1
Barite 2.67

POTA
%
0.1 0

THOR
PPM 20

POTA 0

URAN
PPM 20

THOR

URAN

5850

5900

5950

6000

6050

6100

6150

6200

6250

6300

6350

6400

6450

6500

Mars 2010

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Sonic / Acoustic Logs DT, AC

Mesure: Compression donde a travers


le Temps
Units: us/ft
Sonde transmis un signale acoustique
(Frquence 20 kHz) & mesure le 1er
temps darriver au rcepteurs
Temps darrive est la diffrence entre
les deux rcepteurs
Lutilisation de deux rcepteurs pour
liminer leffet du trou et linclinaison
de loutil (pondage)

Mars 2010

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Sonic / Acoustic Logs DT, AC

Les mesures de DT dpend de la


proportion et proprits acoustique de
chaque composant de la formation
Large DT se trouve entre la matrice et
les fluides de formation
DT est une importante mesure pour
quantifier la porosit
DT est affecte par les proprits de la
matrice, DT est utilis pour la
description lithologie avec des autres
logs
DT est affecte par le passage de
ondes acoustiques ce qui affecte la
porosit distribution et probablement
nest pas affecter par les pores isols
(vuggy pores)

POTA
THOR
% 0.1 0 PPM 20

URAN
POTA 0 PPM 20
0

THOR

URAN

5850

5900

5950

6000

6050

6100

6150

6200

6250

6300

6350

6400

6450

6500

Mars 2010

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Rayon d Investigation & Resolution Vertical


Depth of Investigation & Vertical Resolution
1000

DPT

Vertical Resolution - in

IDPH
IMPH

100

SFL
TDT

DPT

SFL

TDT
CNL

LLD
NGS

SONIC

NGS
LDT

10

LLS

LLD

LLS
FDC

CNL
SONIC

IDPH

IMPH

GST (Capture)

GST (Capture)
FDC

GR

MSFL

LDT

EPT

GR
MSFL

MLL
MINV

EPT
MINV

MNOR
HDT

MNOR
MLL
HDT

0.1
0.1

10

100

1000

Depth of Investigation - in

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Relation entre log mesure et la composition de la formation

Basic Tool Response Equation (Clean Formations)


L = .Lfl + Vma1.Lma1 + Vma2.Lma2 + ..

Where:
L
Vma1

Bulk formation Log response


Volume of matrix component-1

Vma2

Volume of matrix component-2

Lma1

Pore Volume (Porosity)


Log response in pure (100%) matrix component-1

Lma2

Log response in pure (100%) matrix component-2

Lfl
Log response in 100% pore fluid
Basic Porosity Equation (Clean Homogeneous Formations only one matrix
component E.G. Clean sandstone, clean limestone)
= (Lma L) /(Lma Lfl)

Mars 2010

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Porosit Densit relation Clean (formation homogne )


1.0

Bulk Formation Density (b) = Pore Fluid Density


(fl)
when Porosity () = 1.0 (100%)

0.9

Approximate fluid densities:


Fresh Water - 1.0 g/cc,
Salt saturated water - 1.2 g/cc
Oil
- 0.6 - 1.0 g/cc
Gas
- 0.1 - 0.3 g/cc

0.8

Porosity () - v/v

0.7

0.6

Linear relationship between porosity and bulk density:

= (ma - b) / (ma - fl)

DOL
LST

0.5

SST
0.4

0.3
Bulk Formation Density (b) = Matrix Density

0.2

(ma)
when Porosity () = 0.0
Matrix densities:
Quartz (Sandstone) - 2.65 g/cc
Calcite (Limestone) - 2.71 g/cc
Dolomite - 2.87 g/cc

0.1

0.0
3.0

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.0

Bulk Formation Density (b)- g/cc

Mars 2010

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Porosit Neutron relation Clean (formation homogne)


1.0

Formation Neutron Porosity (N) = Pore Fluid


Neutron (Nfl)
when Porosity () = 1.0 (100%)

0.9

Neutron response in pore fluids:


Water - 1.0 v/v
Oil
- 0.9 - 1.0 v/v
Gas - 0.1 - 0.5 v/v

0.8

Porosity () - v/v

0.7

Linear approximation between porosity and neutron


porosity:
= (N - Nma) / (Nfl - Nma)

0.6

0.5

where for:
SST - use Nma = -0.04
LST - use Nma = 0.00
DOL - use Nma = +0.08 (when >0.05)

SST
LST
DOL

0.4

0.3
Neutron Porosity (N) = Neutron Matrix (Nma)

0.2

when Porosity () = 0.0


Neutron Matrix Responses:
Quartz (Sandstone) - -0.015 v/v
Calcite (Limestone) - 0.000 v/v
Dolomite
- 0.025 v/v

0.1

0.0
-0.05

0.05

0.15

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.55

0.65

0.75

0.85

0.95

1.05

Neutron Porosity (N) - v/v

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Porosit Sonic relation Clean (formation homogne)


1.0

0.9

Cp 1.1

Approximate fluid transit times:


Fresh / Saline Water - 189 us/ft

0.8

Cp 1.2

(W) Wyllie Time Average:


Linear relationship between porosity and transit time:
= (DT - DTma) * 1
(DTfl - DTma) Cp
(Cp - Compaction Factor)

0.7

Porosity () - v/v

Cp 1.0

Formation Transit Time (DT) = Pore Fluid Transit Time


(DTfl)
when Porosity () = 1.0 (100%)

Cp 1.3
Cp 1.4
Cp 1.5

0.6

Cp 1.6

(RH) Raymer-Hunt Empirical Relationship:


Non-linear relationship between porosity and transit
time:
= - - [^2+ Dtma - 1]^0.5 where: = Dtma - 1
DT
2*DT fl

0.5

0.4

0.3

DOL RH
LST RH
SST RH
DOL W, Cp=1
LST W, Cp=1
SST W, Cp=1
SST W, Cp=1.1
SST W, Cp=1.2
SST W, Cp=1.3
SST W, Cp=1.4
SST W, Cp=1.5
SST W, Cp=1.6

Formation Transit Time (DT) = Matrix Transit Time


(DTma)

0.2

when Porosity () = 0.0

0.1

Matrix Transit Times:


Quartz (Sandstone) - 55.5 us/ft
Calcite (Limestone) - 47.5 us/ft
Dolomite - 43.5 us/ft

0.0
40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

Sonic Transit Time (Dt) - us/ft

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Porosit trends for clean formations on Neutron & Densit Crossplot

Neutron-Density Crossplot
Interpretation of total porosity in clay free
formations with heterogeneous matrix
composition comprising 1 or more of:
Sst Lst Dol
Valid for:
Calcite or Dolomite Cemented Ssts
Dolomitic Limestones
CLAYS INCREASE
NEUTRON & MAY
CHANGE DENSITY

Quand on a la Neutron porosit


relation avec la densit on peut
dterminer la lithologie.
Argile (CLAYS) peut avoir un
grand impacte sur le crossplot

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Clay Distribution

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Effet des argiles sur les mesures des logs

Log

Critical Clay Attribute

Comment

Gamma Ray
Spectral GR

Radioactive Elements
K, Th, U

Clay increases total GR levels and particularly K & Th


logs. Increases dependent on clay types.

Density

Bound Water

Change to density dependent on bound water content and


host reservoir properties.

Neutron

Bound Water

Hydrogen in bound water seen by Neutron as porosity.


Neutron porosity generally increases when clay present.

Sonic

Bound Water

Change to sonic dependent on bound water content and


host reservoir properties.

PEF

Clay mineralogy

Notable changes only expected where chlorite, biotite and


glauconite clays present.

Resistivity

Bound Water

Bound water generally conductive. Change to resistivity


dependent on bound water content and host reservoir
properties.

SP

Lack of permeability

Increasing clay mutes SSP response due to drop in


permeability.

Mars 2010

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Logs pour estimer le volume dargiles (clay)

Un seul log techniques

Gamma Ray
Spectral Gamma ray
SP
Rsistivit

Crossplot techniques
Neutron - Densit
Neutron - Sonic

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Volume dargile a partir de Gamma Ray Spectral Gamma Ray (Clay)

Linaire et non- Linaire


modles pour estimer le
volume dargile (Clay)
procdures Normal adopte le
modle Linaire
Peut avoir grande estimation
lors de la prsence des
minraux radioactive non
argilos tel que:

Mica, Zircon, Uranium


Feldspar, Glauconite

Mesure GR peut tre grand


lors lutilisation de boue avec
KCL
si Spectral GR est utilis

utilise GR a partir de Thorium


& Potassium logs pour
volume dargile (CGR, KTH)
Aussi utilise le Potassium et
Thorium logs pour dterminer
probable type dargile (clay)

Mars 2010

1.0
0.9

Linear Model: (X)


VClayGR = (GR GRma)
(GRclay GRma)

0.8

GRclay
GR response in 100%
clay formations

0.7

Clay/ShaleVolum
e(VClayGR) - v/v

0.6
0.5
0.4

a=4

GRma
GR matrix response
in clay free
formations

0.3
0.2

Larimov Non-linear Models:


Pre-Tertiary Formations:
VClayGR = 0.330 * (2^(2.0*X) 1)
Tertiary Formations:
VClayGR = 0.083 * (2^(3.7*X) 1)

Linear Model
Larimov Pre-Tertiary
Larimov Tertiary
Steiber, a=2
Steiber, a=3
Steiber, a=4

a=3
a=2

Steiber Non-linear Models:


VClayGR =
X
a (a 1)*X
where: a ranges 2 - 4

0.1
0.0
0

Gamma Ray - api ------>

IAP-Boumerdes

Clay Indications in GEA Cambrian Reservoirs

Petro-logical donnes

Prdominant minraux argileux are:


Kaolinite: Range 0 24%, moyenne 4.8%
Illite: Range 0 46%, moyenne 3.9%

Spectral GR Data

Mars 2010

Kaolinite riche en thorium avec Th/K rapport >12


Illite riche en Potassium avec Th/K rapport <4
Compare vous rsultats avec la ptrographie car elle indique type
dargile (Clay)

IAP-Boumerdes

Illite

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Potassium v Thorium Content from Spectral Gamma Ray Log

Les Couleurs

Mars 2010

Marron pts ZDA


Jaune Ri
Vert RaU

Ri, Ra -, la grand variation de


potassium est consistante avec la
prsence de l illite, observer dans les
donnes ptrographique

IAP-Boumerdes

Volume du clay a partir des Logs de Rsistivit (Clay)

Mars 2010

) - v/v

1.0
0.9

Low Porosity Model:


VClayRT = (Rclay/RT)^(1/b)

0.8

Swirr Model:
VClayRT = (Rclay*(RTmax-RT)/(RT*(RTmax-Rclay)))^(1/b)

0.7

RTclay
RT response in 100%
clay formations

'b' parameter:
If (Rclay/RT) >= 0.5, b=1
If (Rclay/RT) < 0.5 then
b = (1 - Rclay/RT)
0.5

RT

Le modle suppose que la rsistivit de


formation
est
contrl
par
la
conductivit des argiles.
Le modle est seulement valide dans la
colonne des hydrocarbures ou leau
interstitiel est a la saturation (Swirr)
Un modle sparer pour les rservoir
de faible porosit
Nest pas applicable lors rservoir
deau et ou la porosit varie pour des
autres raisons dexistence dargile
A une application limit, mais peut tre
une alternative pour dterminer Vclay
dans les colonnes ou les minraux
radioactive sont prsent

0.6

Clay/ShaleVolum
e(VClay

Low Por Model


Swirr model

0.5
0.4
RTmax
Maximum RT response
in clay free formations

0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

Resistivity (RT) - ohmm ------>

IAP-Boumerdes

Volume dargile (Shale) a partir de Neutron- Densit Logs

Neutron-Density Crossplot
Interpretation of wet clay volume
in shaly formations
Valid for:
Formations with homogeneous
non-clay matrix
Not valid in reservoirs with gas or
light hydrocarbons where high
hydrocarbon saturations affect
density and neutron logs.

0%
100%
60%
40%
20%

80%

100%
Wet Clay
Point

Mathematical solution:
VclayND =

(N D)
,
(Nclay Dclay)

Where:
N apparent Neutron porosity
D apparent Density porosity
Nclay apparent Neutron porosity in clay
Dclay apparent Density porosity in clay

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

La Slection du Volume Finale dargile (Clay)

Vrification de Clay Volumes


Vrifier contre les donnes ptrographique existe et la descriptions lithologiques
Vrifier Vclays dans les formation propre 0.0 (pas loin de < 0.0), et proche de
1.0 dans claystones (pas loin de > 1.0)

Approche de Vclay Minimal


Identifier un indicateur dargile
Prend le minimum Vclay a partir de ceux qui donne de bonne estimation dargile
avec la profondeur
Donner une solution optimal quand GR et N-D crossplot modles sont utilises:
Dfaut de N-D ou minraux non-argileux radioactive affect GR
Dfaut de GR ou minraux dans les cments affect N-D

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Effective Porosit prendre en compte leau interstitiel

Clays include bound water as a part of their structure. Bound water is considered
non-mobile and not part of the reservoir pore system.
Estimates of porosity from logs will include the clay bound water.
Correcting for clay removes that proportion of the total formation porosity that is
associated with clays and provides an estimate of the potentially effective reservoir
porosity (E).

Clay correction techniques include:

Standard Equations applied using separately defined estimates of total porosity (T). and
clay volume (VClay)

E T VClay *Clay
Where: Clay
Bound water volume (porosity) of the wet clay and is commonly estimated from the
interpreted wet clay density using a standard density-porosity equation. In the calculation the matrix density is
commonly assumed to be the same as quartz (2.65 g/cc), but can be often indicated from core grain density
measurements and may be higher.

Crossplot techniques that provide an simultaneous solution of clay volume and effective
reservoir porosity

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Effective Porosit a partir de Crossplots

Neutron-Density Crossplot
Interpretation of effective porosity
in shaly formations
Valid for:
Formations with homogeneous nonclay matrix
Not valid for:
Reservoirs with gas or light
hydrocarbons where high hydrocarbon
saturations affect density and neutron
logs.
Wet Clay
Point

Mathematical solution:
E = D - (N D) * Dclay
(Nclay Dclay)
Where:
N apparent Neutron porosity
D apparent Density porosity
Nclay apparent Neutron porosity in clay
Dclay apparent Density porosity in clay

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Signification de Distribution dargile (Clay) par rapport a la


Porosit Effective
Neutron-Density Crossplot
Expected trends associated with
different clay distribution models.

Wet Clay
Point

Mars 2010

Key points:
Structural Clays - Effective porosity is
maintained.
Laminated Clays Effective porosity
reduced proportionally with clay volume
Dispersed Clays Severe reduction in
effective porosity with small increase in
clay volume. Maximum clay volume
restricted to total pore volume.

IAP-Boumerdes

Lithologie complexe

Lithologie Complexe Dfinition


Formations qui contienne 3 minraux ou plus dominant. ou bien, type de pores qui
varie indpendamment lun de lautre.

lithologie Complexe ne peut tre interprte avec des conventionne crossplot


techniques. Elle peut tre interprte en utilisant des mthodes mathmatiques
pour rsoudre un les rponse complexe.

Exemple de lithologies:

Dolomie - limestones - clays


Shaly sandstones - varying carbonate autre cements
Shaly sandstones - minraux lourd
Non- clastic /carbonate rservoirs: volcaniques, volcani-clastics,

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Litho-type a partir de Crossplots

M-N Crossplot
Crossplot for lithology identification.
M and N are computed from density,
neutron and sonic values and are
independent of porosity.
M = (DTfl DT) * 0.01
(b fl)
N = (Nfl N)
(b fl)
Where:
DTfl Transit time of pore fluid us/ft
DT Formation Transit time us/ft
b Formation bulk density g/cc
fl Pore fluid density g/cc
Nfl Pore Fluid Neutron Porosity v/v
N Formation Neutron Porosity v/v

From: Schlumberger Log Interpretation Charts - 1995

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Effects of Hydrocarbons on Logs


Log

Critical Attribute

Comment

Gamma Ray
Spectral GR

None

Generally no detectable or quantifiable effect

Density

Low density in gas

Reduces bulk formation density, particularly where high


gas saturations are present next to borehole.

Neutron

Low hydrogen index in


gas

Reduces apparent porosity seen by neutron, particularly


where high gas saturations are present near borehole.
Combined effects of low hydrogen index and excavation
affect.

Sonic

High transit times in gas

Can increase transit times where high gas saturations are


present next to borehole. Otherwise no significant effects.

PEF

Low PE in gas

May reduce formation PE values where high gas


saturations are present next to borehole. Generally no
detectable effect.

Resistivity

Hydrocarbons are nonconductive.

Increases formation resistivity.

SP

Displaces formation
water.

Increasing hydrocarbon content may mute the SSP


deflection in permeable reservoirs.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

SATURATION DEAU

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Saturation & the interpretation of Resistivity Data

Conductivit lectrique cest la mesure de la possibilit dun substance de


conduit un courant lectrique.
Rsistivit est rciproque a la conductivit
Rsistivit = 1000 / Conductivit
Conductivit = 1000 / Rsistivit

Matrix

Rsistivit units ohm-meter/meter (ohmm)


Conductivit units millimhos/meter (mhos)

Les formation ou largile est libre(clay):


Matrice de la roche est non conductible
Hydrocarbure sont non conductible
Eau interstitiel est le seul milieu conductible

Rsistivit de la Formation (Rt) dpendent de

Rsistivit deau de interstitiel (Rw)


Volume de Pore ()
Gomtrie de Pore
Saturation deau (Sw)

Mars 2010

Moveable Hydrocarbon (Shmov)


Residual Hydrocarbon (Shr)
Irreducible water (Swirr)

IAP-Boumerdes

lectrique / Logs de Rsistivit

Mesure: rsistivit lectrique / conductivit de la formation


Units: Rsistivit - ohm-m, Conductivit mmho
Les enregistrements sont prsents en rsistivit
Rsistivit = 1000/Conductivit
Courant lectrique est transmit par leau.
La matrice de la roche et les hydrocarbures ne sont pas conductibles.
Lexistence de leau interstitiel doit tre continue pour assure la conduction
du courant
La conductivit deau dpend de la salinit & la temprature
Conductivit de la formation dpend de la conductivit de leau, la porosit
et la gomtrie des pores.
Les Hydrocarbures rduit la conductivit et rduit aussi la conductivit de
formation.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Log de Rsistivit

La boue dplace le fluide de


rservoir dans la formation, comme
elle cre un film de filtrat face au
parois de puits nomm mudcake.
La sonde de rsistivit est dsign
pour lire la rsistivit avec diffrent
rayon dinvestigation jusqu la zone
vierge
Sonde de Rsistivit existe pour
diffrent systmes de boues:
Laterologs pour les boues salines
(saline WBM)
Induction logs pour les boue non
conductible (Oil / Fresh Water
based)

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Mars 2010

Zone Vierge

Zone de
transition

Zone lave

Symboles Utiliser dans lInterprtation Diagraphique

IAP-Boumerdes

Laterolog Resistivity Tools

Mars 2010

Mesure: profond (LLD) et peu profond (LLS)


La plus part est utilise avec Micro Rsistivit (Rxo)
sonde (MSFL -Micro outil a focalisation sphrique-)
Un courant transmit pour a travers la boue dans la
formation. Le courant est mesure par des
rcepteurs
Des lectrodes additionnel pour augmenter la
rsolution vertical (approx. 2ft)
Besoin de boue sale conductive

IAP-Boumerdes

Induction Logs

Mars 2010

La sonde contienne lectromagntique


transmitteur qui induit le courant dans la
formation autour du fond de puits
Rcepteur mesure le courant de la
formation
Histoire de sonde (6FF40) mesure la
rsistivit profond (ILD) & souvent
utilise avec SN ou SFL rsistivit & SP
Dual Induction tools: mesure profond
(ILD) et moyen (ILM) rsistivit. Peut
etre combine avec la Micro-Rsistivit
(Rxo) sonde (SFLU or MSFL) dans les
boue saline.

IAP-Boumerdes

Resistivity Logging Laterolog or Induction ?

Induction est favorise dans les


formations trs conductrice et boue
relativement non conductrice.

Laterologs est considr plus prcise


mais avec systme de boue convenable.

Labaque
indique
les
dutilisation chaque sonde.

Critre :
Rt < 1 ohmm utilise le Induction
Rt > 100 ohmm utilise le Laterolog
Si non, utilise labaque comme guide

Mars 2010

conditions

IAP-Boumerdes

Modern Array & High Resolution Logs

Array Laterolog Tools


Provide multiple measurements at a range of
depths of investigation
Used for 2D & 3D inversion modelling to
provide measures of true formation resistivity
corrected for invasion and bed boundary
effects
High Resolution Laterologs
Enhanced resolution measurements of
resistivity for use in thin bedded reservoirs
Phasor Induction
Based on Dual Induction-SFL tool
Incorporates shoulder bed & borehole
corrections
Provides enhanced quality ILD, ILM & SFL
measurements
Array Induction
Tool incorporates 8 induction-coil arrays
Generates 5 resistivity logs with 1 ft vertical
resolution & radial investigations from 10 90
Enables 2D imaging of invasion & saturation

Array Induction Tool (AIT)


Schlumberger

Resistivity image showing a saltwater zone has been invaded first by


fresh mud filtrate then by lower resistivity chemical mud. Source: Schlumberger

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Micro-Rsistivity Logs

Le rayon dinvestigation est peut


profond pour lire la resistivite de la
zone lave (Rxo) ou detecte le
mudcake

Bonne verticale resolution et put


detecter le couches fine laminaire.

Exige une boue conductrice

Rxo logs:
MSFL, MCFL, MLL, PROX

Mudcake dtecteurs:
Microlog (ML)

Microlog
Proximity Log (Micro-resistivity)

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Logs de Rsistivit

La rsistivit de Formation est en fonction


de
Salinit de leau de formation & Temp.
Porosit
Gomtrie des Pores
Saturation en Hydrocarbure

POTA THOR
0 %0.1 0PPM
20 0

GR
GAPI

150

URAN
0
POTA 0PPM
20 6

CALI
IN

16

BS
IN

16

THOR
0
6
URAN
0
0

GR

5850

5900

5950

Grande rsistivit :
Eau frais -Fresh water Faible porosit
Faible permabilit
Grande Saturation en Hydrocarbure

6000

6050

6100

6150

6200

Faible rsistivit:
Grande salinit deau
Bonne porosit
Bonne permabilit
Faible ou Zro Saturation en
Hydrocarbure

6250

6300

6350

6400

6450

6500

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Logs de Rsistivit

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Effet de la Porosit & Gomtrie de Pore sur la Rsistivit

Formation Resistivity Factor (FRF)

FRF = Ro / Rw
FRF = a / Phi m
Ou:
Ro
Rw
a
Phi
m

Rsistivit de la formation saturer a 100% deau


Rsistivit deau de saturation - ohmm
constant relie lithologie-texture
(valeur apparent de FRF a 100% porosit)
Porosit de la formation (fraction)
facteur de cmentation relie gomtrie des pores et la tortuosit

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Effet de la Porosit & Gomtrie de Pore sur la Rsistivit


Special Core Analysis Data
Porosity v Formation Resistivity Factor
For determining Cementation Factor 'm' and Constant 'a'
1000

Formation Resistivity Factor (FRF)

'm' = 1.5
'a' = 1.0

'm' = 2.0
'a' = 1.0

'm' = 2.5
'a' = 1.0
Increasing Pore Tortuosity

100

'm' = 2.15
'a' = 0.62

FRF = a / Porm
10
Decreasing Pore Tortuosity
More open pore systems
'm' is gradient
of the line
1

'a' is the value of FRF


when Porosity = 1.0
0
0.01

0.1

Porosity - v/v

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Effet de Saturation dEau sur la Rsistivit

Index de Rsistivit (RI)


RI = Rt / Ro
RI = 1 / Sw n
Ou:
Rt
Rsistivit relle -True Resistivity- de la Formation
Ro
Rsistivit de la formation saturer a 100% deau
Sw
Saturation deau (fraction)
n
Saturation exposant

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Effet de Saturation dEau sur la Rsistivit


Special Core Analysis Data
Water Saturation v Resistivity Index
For determining Saturation Exponent 'n'
1000

'n' = 1.5

'n' = 2.0

'n' = 2.5

Resistivity Index

100

RI = 1 / Swn
10

'n' is gradient
of the line
1
0.01

0.1

Brine Saturation - v/v

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Saturation dEau pour les formations propres

Combinaison de la gomtrie des pores et la saturation donne:


FRF
RI

= Ro / Rw
= Rt / Ro

= a / Phi m
= 1 / Sw n

quation dArchie :

a * Rw
Sw m
* Rt
n

Ou :
a
Rw

m
Rt
n

ou bien

Sw n

a * Rw
m * Rt

constant relie lithologie-texture


Rsistivit deau de saturation - ohmm
Porosit de la formation - fraction
Facteur de Cmentation en fonction de gomtrie des pores
Rsistivit de la formation - ohmm
Exposant de Saturation

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Rsistivit de lEau de formation - Rw

Sources de Rw
Analyses d chantillon deau de formation
Connaissance rgionale
Donnes de Logs
Pickett Plot (Rsistivit v Porosit crossplot)
Rwa corrlation
SP

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Rsistivit deau de formation

WATER PROPERTIES
Water Resistivity (Rw)
dependent on:
Salinity (S)
Temperature (T)
Rw decreases as
temperature increases.
Rw decreases as salinity
increases.
Relationship between Rw, S
and T is defined for NaCl
solutions such that any one
parameter can be estimated
from the other two.
NB
A reported Rw
measurement without a
temperature is
meaningless.
Salinity uniquely defines
the water and from it Rw
can be estimated for any
temperature

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Rw a partir des donnes de log Pickett Plott


Pickett Plot
Resistivity v Porosity
For determining Cementation Factor 'm' and product of 'a' * Rw
Iso-saturation lines
Relationship between Resistivity & Porosity
at different saturation levels

1.00

Sw =0.8
Sw =0.6

Sw =0.4

Sw =0.2

Porosity - v/v

'a' * Rw is the value of Rt


when Porosity = 1.0

0.10

Swn = a *Rw
Porm*Rt

Sw =0.1

Increasing
Hydrocarbon
Saturation

Spacing between isosaturation lines is a


function of 'n'

Water Line
Relationship between
Resistivity & Porosity
when Sw = 1.0 (100%)

'm' is gradient
of the line
0.01
0.01

0.10

1.00

10.00

100.00

1000.00

True Resistivity (Rt) - ohmm

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Rw Apparente (Rwa) a partir des logs

Loi dArchie :

Valide dans les argiles sature en eau seul


Besoin de connaissance de , m, a et Rt log

m * Rt
Rwa
a

Loi de rapport

Valide dans les argiles sature en eau seul


Besoin de connaissance de Rmf (rsistivit du filtrat de boue) plus Rt et Rxo logs

Rwa

Mars 2010

Rmf * Rt
Rxo

IAP-Boumerdes

Rw from SP log

SP enregistre la diffrence de potentiel


lectrique dues a des causes
naturelles. Il dpend de la salinit
contraste entre la boue et leau de
formation
.
Si la rsistivit du filtrat est connu on
peut estime Rw a partir de SP
Valide dans :

formations argileuse sature deau (Clay


free)
Bed thicknesses > approx. 20 ft (6 m)

Les compagnies de service donne


abaques pour pouvoir estimer Rw a
partir de SP

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

a and m from logs Pickett Plot


Pickett Plot
Resistivity v Porosity
For determining Cementation Factor 'm' and product of 'a' * Rw
Iso-saturation lines
Relationship between Resistivity & Porosity
at different saturation levels

1.00

Sw =0.8
Sw =0.6

Sw =0.4

Sw =0.2

Porosity - v/v

'a' * Rw is the value of Rt


when Porosity = 1.0

0.10

Swn = a *Rw
Porm*Rt

Sw =0.1

Increasing
Hydrocarbon
Saturation

Spacing between isosaturation lines is a


function of 'n'

Water Line
Relationship between
Resistivity & Porosity
when Sw = 1.0 (100%)

'm' is gradient
of the line
0.01
0.01

0.10

1.00

10.00

100.00

1000.00

True Resistivity (Rt) - ohmm

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Example Pickett Plot

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Saturation - Exponent n

Sources for n

A partir de mesure de SCAL au Lab et


en conditions quivalents de
overburden
Connaissance Rgional des donnes
Standard hypothse dans le domaine
des hydrocarbures

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Paramtres appliquer dans le Domaine

Fm.

SST

0.62

2.15

2.0

SST

0.81

2.00

2.0

LST, DOL

1.00

2.00

2.0

LST, DOL

1.00

Porosity dependent

n=m

Caution:

All published parameter sets are empirically derived and may not be valid in your reservoir.
Where possible check validity of parameters against SCAL or log data (Pickett plot).
Using incorrect saturation parameters may result in incorrect water saturations being computed.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Saturation dans les formations argileuses

Problmes:
principes dArchie suppose que leau interstitiel est le seul milieu conductive.

formations argileuses contiennent:


Clays avec leau interstitiel
leau interstitiel est conductible
Clays ne sont pas soumis au meme contrainte de geometrie de pore comme
leau interstitiel.

Saturation modles pour les formations argileuses(shaly) inclus un autre


composant tien compte de conductivit du clay.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Modles de Saturation pour les Formations argileuses (Shaly)

Modles de Porosit Effective


Calculer en se basant sur la porosit effective du clay
clay Mouille est traite comme un composant additionnel spar pour calculer la
porosit effective.

Modles de Porosit Totale


Calculer en se basant sur le systme pore total
Leau interstitiel dans les Clays est traite comme un composant additionnel de
fluide dans le pore totale du systme.

Relation avec la loi dArchie


Tous les modles sont base sur la loi dArchie
Quand Vclay = zro tous les modles deviennent la loi dArchie.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Saturations in shaly Formations

Common Effective Porosity Models


Simandoux, Modified Simandoux, Indonesia
Conductive Components
Non-conductive
Matrix

Conductive
Wet Clay

Rclay
Vclay

Conductive
Pore Water

Non-conductive
Hydrocarbon

Rw
Sw
Effective Pore Space

Basic Effective Porosity Saturation Model

1 = Vclayc*A + m * Swn
Rt Rclay
a * Rw

Where:
Simandoux Eq.:
c=1, A=1
Mod. Simandoux Eq.: c=1, A=Sw
Indonesia Eq.:
c=(1-Vclay)/2, A=Sw

Rclay interpreted from log measured resistivities in claystone beds

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Saturations in Shaly Formations

Common Total Porosity Saturation Models


Waxman Smits, Dual Water

SwT
Conductive Components

Non-conductive
Matrix

Non-conductive
Dry clay colloid

Conductive Conductive
Bound Water Pore Water

Rw B
Sw B
Vclay

Non-conductive
Hydrocarbon

Rw F
Sw F
Effective Pore Space
Total Pore Space

Basic Dual Water Saturation Model

1=
* SwT
Rt a * Rwe

SwE = (SwT SwB)


(1 SwB)

Where:
RwE Equivalent water resistivity of the mix of
the bound and free pore waters
RwE = (RwB/SwB + RwF/SwF) / (SwT)
and
SwB = Vclay * Tclay / T
SwF = SwT-SwB

Rwb can be interpreted from Pickett plots of Rt v PHIT in zones with maximum clay

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Saturation Models and Clay Distributions

Effective Porosit Modles


Toujours dcrit comme totale argiles modle qui sont approprier dans le cas de
laminaire et structural distribution dargile. Often described as total shale models
they are best suited to laminated and structural clay type distributions

modles dargiles Totale (shale)


Development focussed towards dispersed clay distributions

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Flushed Zone Saturations -zone Lave-

Saturations in flushed zone computed using same saturation equations as


Sw
Parameter differences
Water resistivity is that of the water in the flushed zone (Rmfa)
WBM dominated by mud filtrate, but will include irreducible formation waters
OBM flushed zone water is the same as formation water (Rmfa = Rw)
Formation Resistivity is that of the shallowest reading tool (Rxo)
WBM - micro-resistivity log such as MSFL, MCFL, MLL
OBM indication with shallowest depth of investigation (DOI), usually 1 foot
GEA Baker Hughers logs M2R1 (2 foot resolution, 1 foot DOI)
Pore geometry and clay properties are assumed to be the same as for the Sw
calculation

Expected differences between Sw & Sxo in WBM & OBM


WBM Sxo >= Sw
Mud filtrate water is displacing moveable hydrocarbon & water and increasing overall
water saturations in flushed zone

OBM Sxo<= Sw
Mud filtrate oils are displacing moveable hydrocarbon and water and decreasing the
overall water saturation in the flushed zone

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Validating Computed Sws

Aquifer Sections
Sws should average approximately 100% if there are no indications of
hydrocarbons being present
Note: Sws consistently greater than 100% indicate an incorrect parameter is being
used and that any hydrocarbon saturations computed above the aquifer may be underestimating the hydrocarbon volume

Irreducible Saturation levels


Can be verified against capillary pressure data
Capillary pressure curves indicate Swirr levels, but these will vary with porosity and
permeability. Comparisons should be made between plugs and logged intervals with
similar poro-perm properties

Transitional Saturations
Also verifiable against capillary pressure data
Capillary pressure can be converted to equivalent height in the reservoir and Sw-height
profiles overlaid with log data
Comparisons should be made between plugs and logged intervals with similar poroperm properties.
Ideally the capillary pressure measurements should be derived using reservoir
equivalent fluids

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Capillary Pressure
Oil-brine Capillary Pressure Data
500

175

Pc = 2 T Cos
r

450
150

400

Pc = h (w - h) g

350
300

100

250
75

200

Eq u ivale n t De p th - ft

In c re a sin g H eig h t

Ca pilla ry P re s s ure - ps i

125

h = 2 T Cos
r (w - h) g

150

50

h=

100
25

50

Pc
* T CosRES
(w - h) * T CosLAB

0
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Brine Saturation - v/v

Tube radius
r
Wetting phase fluid

Contact Angle

Pc
T

r
h
w
h
g
RES
LAB

Mars 2010

Capillary Pressure (psi)


interfacial tension between fluids
contact angle
tube radius
height above water level
density of water (g/cc)
density of hydrocarbon (g/cc)
gravitational constant
indicates reservoir fluids
indicates laboratory fluids

IAP-Boumerdes

Saturation-Height Profiles
Poor Quality Reservoir

Height / Capillary Pressure

Height / Capillary Pressure

Good Quality Reservoir

Hydrocarbon Zone

Transition Zone

Hydrocarbon Zone

Transition Zone

Contact

Ht=0

Threshold
height

FWL
Zero Capillary
Pressure

Swirr

0.0

Mars 2010

Water Zone

Water Zone

Sw

Swirr

1.0

0.0

Sw

1.0

IAP-Boumerdes

Saturation Height Profiles

Mercury Injection
capillary pressure curve
Plug K 87 mD
Por 12.8%

Log estimated Sw

Residual hydrocarbon
saturation levels

Irreducible water saturation


levels

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

NET THICKNESS CRITERIA

Net Reservoir, Net Pay

Net Reservoir Interval


Contains moveable
hydrocarbons
Basis for cut-off criteria:
Criteria as for Net
Reservoir
Above field contact/FWL
Hydrocarbon mobility (e.g.
maximum water saturation)

Porous & Permeable Sst

Oil

Net Pay

Claystone
Porous & Permeable Sst

Non-Reservoir
Oil

Net Pay

Claystone

Net Reservoir

Non-Reservoir
Oil

Net Pay

Oil

Net Pay

Aquifer

Tight Cemented Sst / Lst


OWC

Net Reservoir

Net Reservoir
Non-Reservoir

Gross Reservoir

Net Pay

Claystone

Water

Porous & Permeable sufficient


permeability to enable reservoir
fluids to flow
Standard Assumptions:
Gas K > 0.1 mD, Oil K>1
mD
Basis for cut-off criteria:
Reservoir lithology (e.g.
low clay volume)
Storage capacity for fluids
(e.g. porosity)
Flow capacity ( e.g.
permeability, permeability
indicator)

Net Reservoir
Porous & Permeable Sst

Claystone

Net Pay

<=

Net Reservoir

<=

Gross Reservoir

The key net reservoir property is PERMEABILITY

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Sources de Permabilit

Analyse de carotte

mesure directe sur carotte

Well Testing
Indique lintervalle de permabilit a partir de pressure build-up

Log Data
Indirect indicateur de permabilit. Besoin de calibration des mesures de
permabilits.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Core Analysis Permeabilities

Horizontal (Kh) & Vertical (Kv) plugs.


Measurements made with air (Kha,
Kva)
Klinkenberg Corrections applied to
convert to equivalent liquid
permeabilities (KhL, KvL).
Routine measurements made at
laboratory conditions.
Special measurements made at
increasing confining pressures to
assess permeabilities at in-situ
reservoir conditions.
Where available use equivalent liquid
permeabilities corrected to equivalent
in-situ reservoir conditions as
permeability source.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Information Permabilit a partir du Test de formation

Wireline Pressure Testing (RFT, MDT, RCI)


Pressure build-up donne des valeur de permabilit pour diffrents points do
on obtient lintervalle de permabilit.

Production Testing
Analyse de PBU donne une valeur moyenne de permabilit K.
Dans le cas ou pntration partiel, la hauteur utile nest pas vidant a dtermin
PLT peut donn les zone productrice do on dtermine net pay.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Permabilit a partir des Logs

Il nexiste pas de mesure directe de permabilit avec des sondes

Les Logs peut indiquer la prsence de permabilit par:


Identifier le dplacement de fluide dans la formation
Indiquer les proprits du rservoir qui sont associer avec la permabilit

Lestimation de permabilit a partir des logs se fait avec des fonctions de


calibration entre les proprits de rservoir et la permabilit mesure (e.g.
porosit).

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Les Indices des zones permable a partir des logs


Logs qui identifier le dplacement de Fluide
SP
SSP se dveloppe uniquement en prsence de mudcake.
Les Filtrats envahies les formations permable.

Caliper
Peut indiquer la prsence de mudcake quand le rayon de trou < rayon de trpan
(bit size).
Mudcake se dveloppe uniquement quand les filtrats envahies les formations
permable

Microlog
Micro-resistivity tool designer pour dtecter mudcake

Logs de Rsistivit
profile Normale lors de formation de Mudcake (Rdeep>Rshallow>RXO ou
Rdeep<Rshallow<RXO) indique que le filtrat envahie les formations permable.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Direct Indicators of Moved Fluids SP, Resistivity Invasion Profiles

Invasion profile on
resistivities indicates
moved fluids and
presence of permeability

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

les Indices de Permabilit a partir de Logs

Logs indirectly indicating permeability

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Log


Measures free fluid porosity levels which can infer permeability levels.

Gamma Ray or computed Vclay


In shaly reservoirs clay is a primary control on permeability. Low GR or Vclay can
infer probable permeable reservoir.

Density, Neutron, Sonic or computed Porosity


Permeability commonly linked to porosity. High porosity indications can infer
probable permeable reservoir.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Permeability & Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logs

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Permabilit & la Distribution des argiles (Clay)

Clay is often a dominant factor in controlling


permeability (e.g deltaic sequences)
Clay volume therefore is a commonly applied
cut-off in defining net reservoir intervals
Both GR and SP can be indicators of clay volume
and can be used as indirect indicators of
permeable, net reservoir intervals

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Quantifying Permeability

Core Analysis Measurements


Statistical calibrations between K and

Standard Functions
Using and Swirr
From NMR free fluid porosities
J Function Analysis from Capillary Pressure data

Note:
Permeability is a related to pore geometry and rock type
A reservoir may include a range of rock types and pore geometries
Different functions may be required to fully characterise the permeability in a
reservoir
Zone based functions, can applied to a layer based model
Facies/Rock Type based functions require each level in the reservoir to categorised by
facies/rock type

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Permeability-Porosity Functions from Core Data

1 0 0 00

Core Porosity v Permeability - Clastics

Permeability Estimation:
Core Derived Functions

1000

Log(K) = a + *b
Or

C o re P e rm e a b ility m D
10
100

K = 10^(a + *b)
Where:
a, b coefficients defined by
statistical regression

0 .0 1

0 .1

Clastics Core K v Porosity Function


RMA Regression
log(K) = 0.3362808*Porosity - 2.206386

10

15

20

25

30

Core Porosity - %
17 Apr 2003 @ 12:42

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Permeability as a function of Porosity & Swirr

10000.00

Swirr=0.1
Swirr=0.2
Swirr=0.3
Swirr=0.4

1000.00

Swirr=0.5
Swirr=0.6
Swirr=0.7

P erm eab ility K - m D

Swirr=0.8
Swirr=0.9

100.00

Swirr=1

Permeability Estimation:
Timur Equation

10.00

K = 8581 * 4.4
Swirr2

1.00

Where:
- porosity v/v
Swirr irreducible water
saturation v/v

0.10

0.01
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Porosity - v/v

Mars 2010

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

NB
Only valid above transition
zone.

IAP-Boumerdes

Rock Typing from Porosity-Permeability

Flow Zone Indicator (FZI) (after


Amaefule 93)

Derivative of Rock Quality Index (RQI)


and normalised porosity

0.0314 *
FZI

K
* (1 E )
E
E

FZI used to define flow units


If FZI can be predicted from log
properties or mapped in a model
Then permeability can be predicted
from FZI

FZI trends overlaid on


core porositypermeability data

E3
K 1014 * FZI *
2

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

La distribution de permabilit

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Pressure Gradient Analysis

Pressure - Depth Plot


8100
Gas column
0.043 psi/ft
0.10 g/cc
8150

True Vertical Depth - ft

Gas-Oil Fluid Interface


Oil column
0.333 psi/ft
0.77 g/cc

8200

Free Water Level


8250
Water column
0.442 psi/ft
1.02 g/cc

8300

8350

8400
3600

3610

3620

3630

3640

3650

3660

3670

3680

3690

3700

Formation Pressure - psia

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Summarising Reservoir Properties

Averaging (Weighted arithmetic mean)


Porosity ()
Thickness (h) weighted
ave
=
(h * )
h

Water Saturation (Sw)


Thickness (h) & Porosity () weighted
Swave
=
(h * * Sw)
(h * )

Permeability (K)
Thickness (h) weighted
Kave
=
(h * K)
h

Equivalent Pore Column Thickness (EPC)


EPC

(h * )

Equivalent Hydrocarbon Column Thickness (EHC)


EHC

Mars 2010

(h * * (1-Sw))

IAP-Boumerdes

Fluid Interfaces
Contacts level above which the hydrocarbon fluid saturations decrease as height increases

Free Water Level level above which hydrocarbon is the continuous free fluid phase, and below
which water is the continuous free phase fluid

Based on pore pressure


FWL is considered to equate to zero capillary pressure
Good Quality Reservoir

Height / Capillary Pressure

Based on physical presence of hydrocarbons

Poor Quality Reservoir

Height / Capillary Pressure

Hydrocarbon Zone

Transition Zone

Transition Zone

Contact

Ht=0

Threshold
height

FWL
Zero Capillary
Pressure

Swirr

0.0

Mars 2010

Hydrocarbon Zone

Water Zone

Water Zone

Sw

Swirr

1.0

0.0

Sw

1.0

IAP-Boumerdes

Issues with Contacts & Free Water Levels

Contacts as observed in wells


Regionally tilted
Dynamic aquifers
Fossil/relict due to structural tilt

Irregular
Threshold height effects
Poor depth control (deviated wells)

Free Water Levels single level expected


Above GWC or OWC in a well
Residual hydrocarbons or non-continuous phase hydrocarbons below main
accumulation

Below GWC or OWC in a well


Threshold height effects

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Identifying Fluid Limits & Contacts - Terminology

Gas or Oil-Down-To ( GDT, ODT)

Deepest net pay


Base perforation of water free test
Gas-Oil Contact

Observed depth above which reservoir contains gas

Positioned at base of observed gas effect on neutron-density logs within a


net reservoir interval
Positioned at identifiable saturation change within homogeneous net
reservoir interval
Gas-oil phase change from pressure data
Gas or Oil-Water Contact

Lowest observed occurrence of moveable gas or oil

Observed depth above which reservoir contains gas or oil

Positioned at base of significant saturation change within a net reservoir


interval
Water-Up-To (WUT)

Highest observed occurrence of 100% water or water only productive reservoir

Shallowest net reservoir below hydrocarbon column


Top perforation of water only test
Base perforation of combined hydrocarbon & water productive test

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Free Water Levels Pressure Analysis

In a single fluid accumulation the pressure at a specific depth should be


equal at any location in the accumulation.
The rate of change in pressure with depth (pressure gradient) is a directly
dependent on the density of the continuous phase fluid in the pore space.
If two fluids with different densities occur in the same accumulation (gaswater, oil-water, gas-oil) the fluid with the lower density will occupy the
higher part of the accumulation. The pressure gradients in each fluid domain
will be different and dependent on their respective densities.
The depth at which two fluid pressure gradients intersect is referred to as
the free-fluid level or interface and marks the position where the continuous
phase fluid in the pore system changes from one fluid to the other.
From definitive fluid pressure gradients we can determine the density of the
pore fluids, and thereby the fluid type, and the free-fluid level.
Across a single hydrocarbon accumulation the free-fluid levels should be
consistent at all locations.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

BASE DES DONNEES

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

ETUDE PETROPHYSIQUEBase des donnes

Faire un inventaire des puits fore dans la zone a tudier

Identifier les logs qui couvre la zone a tudier

Identifier tous les puits carott

Les Intervalles carott.


RCAL & SCAL data
Marge de mesures, nombre dchantillons
Identifier lutilisation des carottes au lab et sa date
Procdure de traitement des carottes

Identifier tous les essais des puits (well tests)

types de Log
Date de lopration
Service compagnie (Logging Contractor)
Proprits de boue utiliser durant lenregistrement
Donnes de temprature de fond
Source data files (contractors final/field files, LAS, LIS or DLIS formats)

Intervalles et dates de teste


Proprits du fluides de rservoir, dbit et proprits
Densits des Hydrocarbure
Proprits de leau de Formation

Objectives de faire un inventaire

Identifier la compatibilit des donnes


Identifier les puits qui sont utilises dans cette tude.
faciliter la gestion des donnes

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Contrle des donnes - log data editing

Identifier & supprimer les donnes qui ne sont pas valide


Lutilisation de non valide donnes nous conduit a des rsultats non reprsentative de la
formation

Vrifier et corriger la profondeur denregistrement / matching des logs


Profondeur matching est indispensable dans la digitalisation des donnes
Software programs process the data on a step-by-step level where each step is the
depth increment of the acquired data (commonly 0.5 feet, 0.1524 m, 0.1 m)
on supposer que les pas enregistrement (depth increment) des log sont
reprsentative du proprits de la formation dans les condition des puits.
Note: dans le cas dune couche fine (thin bedded sand-shale) argilo-grseux sa
hauteur moins de 20 cm , un incrment (un Pas denregistrement) nous montre la
rponse dune couche grseuse et un autre log montre une couche argileuse. Ce qui
affecte la hauteur utile de la roche.

Calibrage avec les caractristiques du puits et lenvironnement de lenregistrements


Tous les log peut tre affecter par les condition du fond de puits, appliquer les correction si
ncessaire.

Calibration Final & normalisation des logs


Mme un bonne calibrage et correction de loutil nassure pas une valide log rponse. Le
jugement finale sera base sur les conditions locale et compatibilit avec les logs des puits
adjacentes.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Identification des donnes invalide

Below first readings

Identify the depth reached by tool(Loggers TD)


From tool diagram note position of
measurement points above tool base
and determine depth of first valid
reading
All data below these first reading depths
are invalid, remove from data sets
Each log measurement may have a
different first reading depth

Inside Casing (Dans le tubage)

Majority of logs do not provide valid


measurements in cased hole
Identify position of last (deepest) casing
shoe (Loggers Casing Depth)
Data acquired above this depth may not
be
representative
of
formation
responses, and be invalid. Remove
from data sets
Sabot du tubage

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Corrlation des profondeurs

Profondeur match procdures:

Match tous les logs avec 1er log de


rfrence (1st run)

Rgle Standard, cest dadopter le 1er


run du GR comme standard profondeur
rfrence

Match avec les peaks et limites de


formation

Match se fait avec les vnements


majors puis les ajustements secondaires

Plus de dtails sur la corrlation des


profondeurs est exig dans les couches
fine.

Mars 2010

150
1 .8 5

D T
U S /F
D S R H O B 2
G /C 3

50

D E P TH
M

2 .8 5

150
1 .8 5

D T
U S /F
R H O B 2
G /C 3

50
2 .8 5

850

IAP-Boumerdes

Correction avec les Condition de trou (Borehole / Environmental Corrections)

Corrections exiger pour toutes les logs pour liminer leffet des condition des puits

Rayon de puits- un grand rayon donne des rsultats loin de parois de puits et relativement augmente la
contribution du proprits de boue dans les enregistrements.
Proprits de Boue spcifique proprits de la boue (e.g. densit, salinit, radioactivit, rsistivit)
Invasion dplacement de fluide de formation par la boue , change les proprits de la formation proche
du fond.
N.B. pas de corrections valable pour :

Sonic Log
Induction logs pour un systme OBM.

Quelque correction sont faite durant le temps dacquisition. Elle doit tre reporter sur lr Log
headers.

E.G. Corrections du rayon de puit et la salinit du boue sont souvent appliquer au neutron porosits

Log

Corrections

Gamma Ray

Hole size, mud weight

Density

Hole size, mud weight

Neutron

Hole size, mudcake thickness, mud salinity, mud weight,


temperature, pressure, formation salinity, tool stand-off

Deep/shallow resistivity

Hole size, mud resistivity

Micro-resistivity

Mudcake resistivity & thickness

SP

Bed thickness

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Borehole / Environmental Corrections

Corrections are based on logging


contractors published charts or
algorithms
Corrections will differ slightly between
the different contractors
Corrections typically correct logs to
standard borehole conditions
The standard borehole conditions may
differ between contractors

E.G. Reeves Wireline: correction chart for Gamma Ray

Mars 2010

E.G. Schlumberger: correction nomograph for CNL Neutron Log

IAP-Boumerdes

Application des Corrections dans IP

Environmental corrections
under Calculations options

Schlumberger
Baker Atlas
Halliburton
Anadrill
Baker Hughes Inteq
Sperry Sun
Weatherford/Reeves

Neutron corrections panel in IP

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Sourcing data for borehole corrections


Observation, dtails de
salinit de boue,
corrections appliquer sur
le logs

Dates de Log, type de


boue & proprits dtails

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Sourcing data for borehole corrections

Rsum des caractristiques des


quipements indiquant le types /sries de
sonde

CN processing indique que la correction de la salinit de


boue est 134,163 ppm appliquer au neutron porosit

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Vrification de Calibrage

Confidence in the log measurements can be assessed by some simple


checks
Examination of pre- and post-survey calibration checks, plus consistency of
repeat sections
Sonic readings in casing: Sonic log usually recorded for a short interval inside
casing string and specifically check readings. In casing sonic should read 57
us/ft the transit time of steel
Readings in Type Formations: Such lithologies are usually evaporites (halite,
anhydrite), homogeneous in mineralogy with no significant porosity. Logs should
reflect the known properties of the mineral. Tight (zero porosity) limestones and
dolomites can also be used.
Type Formations: Local stratigraphic sections may include some regional unit
that has characteristic and regionally consistent properties.
Comparisons with data from adjacent wells may provide another check on
data

These checks should be made after any borehole/environmental corrections


have been made

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

vrification de Calibrage avec les types lithologies


100

60

URAN
POTA 0 PPM 20 6

CALI
IN
BS
IN

0
0

THOR 6
URAN 0

2.95 140

16

-0.75

DRHO
G/CC

0.25

16

0.45

NPHI
v/v

-0.15

PEF
B/E

20

GR

DT
US/F

54

40

Mean = 71.491
Standard Deviation = 6.547
Median = 68.746
Mode = 68.294
Variance = 42.863

48
42
36

50

30
24
18

5850

5900

5950

12

Halite

6
0
100

95

90

85

80

75
DT

70

65

60

55

50

WELL: AAK-5
ZONE: 5822.000 - 6022.000 (FT)
10 Feb 2003 @ 21:50

6000

Sonic - Frequency histogram from Halite bed

6050

6100
20

100

18

6150

6250

6300

6350

Mean = 2.084
Standard Deviation = 0.122
Median = 2.037
Mode = 2.027
Variance = 0.015

14
12

50

10
8

Cumulative Fre quency

16

6200
Percentage

1.95

RHOB
G/CC

150

DEPTH
FT

Cumulative Frequency

GR
GAPI

Percentage

POTA
THOR
0
% 0.1 0 PPM 20 0

6
4
2

6400

6450

6500

Mars 2010

2.05

2.1

2.15

2.2

2.25
RHOB

2.3

2.35

2.4

2.45

2.5

WELL: AAK-5
ZONE: 5822.000 - 6022.000 (FT)
10 Feb 2003 @ 21:52

Density - Frequency histogram from Halite bed

IAP-Boumerdes

Calibration / Normalisation Corrections

If only one calibration reference check is available (casing signal, single evaporite
mineral) then a simple bulk shift to the data values can be applied. The corrected data
should then reflect the appropriate expected value for the calibration reference.

LNorm L CCorr
Where:
LNorm
= Normalised log response
L = Measured log response
CCorr
= Calibration correction

Ideally two calibration references should be identified reflecting low and high values
within the general data ranges. A two point calibration adjustment can be applied such
that the corrected data reflects the appropriate expected values at both calibration
references.

LCP 2 LCP1
LNorm L LP 2 *
LCP 2
LP 2 LP1

Where:
LCP1
= Required log response at calibration point-1 (CP1)
LP1
= Measured log response at CP1
LCP2
= Required log response at calibration point-2 (CP2)
LP2
= Measured log response at CP2

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Limitations de correction

Correction avec les abaques et la normalisation ne rsoudre pas les


problmes de donnes
Les anomalies ou mauvaises donnes peut apparatre durant linspection des
donnes
Large zone envahie mauvaise outil contact (Densit, Rxo) peut lire juste la
rponse de la boue
mauvaise consolidation ou extrme formations fracturer les enregistrements
base sur la conductivit/signaux (sonic, rsistivit) peut affecter par perdre le
signale. Causes drop-offs in readings including cycle skips on sonic.

Utilise autres logs tel que le courbe de correction du caliper et densit pour
connatre le potentiel des donnes.
Set flag curve to zero where log is reliable and -1 where log unreliable.
Use flag curve later to merge in results from other log sources where preferred log
is considered unreliable.

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Profondeur Match Carotte - logs

Objectives

To enable direct calibration for logs


To enable a good visual comparison to
be made with log derived properties

Issues relating to core data

Integrity of core depths, dependent on


core handling procedures at wellsite
and in laboratory

Accuracy of depth measurements when


core broken or fragmented
Potential for core pieces getting out of
sequence or incorrectly orientated/
inverted

Issues relating to log data

Integrity of wireline log depths

Mars 2010

Application of cable stretch corrections


Differential sticking causing erratic
movements of logging tools

IAP-Boumerdes

Depth Matching Core data to logs

Standard procedures are to match core data to log depths


Objectives of core log matching

Block shifts / Variable Shifts ?

Block shifts assumes high integrity in core and log depth registration
Variable shifting recognises limitations and inaccuracies in core and/or log depth registration

Procedures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

To establish core measured properties at the log equivalent depths


To enable direct quantitative analysis of log and core measurements

Ensure well file is setup with a depth increment fine enough to accommodate the core data (required in IP)
Depth match from top of core downwards
Do not use interpolate/extrapolate options in depth shifting, this changes the values, core values are to
preserved exactly in the depth shifting process
Where possible depth match blocks of core using breaks in core data to define block boundaries
If a an acceptable match cannot be achieved with block shifts, use variable shifts. Ideally make more
frequent numbers of smaller variable shifts rather than one large variable shift

Tips:

If available use core gamma ray to provide an indication of the direction and magnitude of core shifts
Do detailed depth matching based on overlays of core porosity and log density (or other porosity sensitive
log, such as sonic)
Create a continuous core porosity log by interpolating porosities across gaps between core plugs (IP has a
Fill Gap facility for doing this, however limit the interval across which gaps are filled to approximately 1m.
This ensures genuine gaps in core coverage are identifiable and can be used to define core blocks)
Overlay data on compatible scales such that core porosities should lie close to log curve
E.G. If density log is scaled 1.95 to 2.95 g/cc (standard scaling), plot core porosities on scale of 42 to -18%
if reservoir is a sandstone. Use 45 to -15% if reservoir is limestone

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes

Evaluation stages
KEY EVALUATION STAGES

OPTIONS USED IN IP

1.

DATA LOADING
a. Wireline Log Data
b. Routine core analysis data
c. Subsea depth reference

1.

Input/Output
a. Load data LAS Load
b. Load data ASCII Load
c. Calculation
User Formula (vertical well)
True Vertical Depth (deviated well)

2.

DATA QC CORRECTIONS
a. Depth matching
b. Identifying valid data intervals
c. Environmental Corrections

2.

Edit View Calculation


a. Edit Interactive Depth Shift
b. View Log Plot
c. Calculation Environmental Corrections

3.

TOPS & ZONE INPUT

3.

Well Manage Zones / Tops

4.

EVALUATION OF RESERVOIR PROPERTIES


a. Clay Volume
b. Porosity & Water Saturation
c. SUMMARISING RESULTS

4.

Interpretation
a. Clay Volume
b. Porosity & Water Saturation
c. Cut off and Summation

5.

PRESENTING RESULTS

5.

View - Logplot

Mars 2010

IAP-Boumerdes